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Sample records for 15-foot low-speed wind

  1. NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot low-speed wind tunnel user manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, Ronald H.

    1993-01-01

    This manual describes the 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel at the Lewis Research Center and provides information for users who wish to conduct experiments in this atmospheric facility. Tunnel variables such as pressures, temperatures, available tests section area, and Mach number ranges (0.05 to 0.20) are discussed. In addition, general support systems such as air systems, hydraulic system, hydrogen system, laser system, flow visualization system, and model support systems are described. Instrumentation and data processing and acquisition systems are also discussed.

  2. The Acoustic Environment of the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David B.

    2015-01-01

    The 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel is an acoustic testing facility with a long history of aircraft propulsion noise research. Due to interest in renovating the facility to support future testing of advanced quiet engine designs, a study was conducted to document the background noise level in the facility and investigate the sources of contaminating noise. The anechoic quality of the facility was also investigated using an interrupted noise method. The present report discusses these aspects of the noise environment in this facility.

  3. 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel Acoustic Improvements Expanded Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David

    2016-01-01

    The 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (9x15 LSWT) at NASA Glenn Research Center was built in 1969 in the return leg of the 8- by 6-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (8x6 SWT). The 8x6 SWT was completed in 1949 and acoustically treated to mitigate community noise issues in 1950. This treatment included the addition of a large muffler downstream of the 8x6 SWT test section and diffuser. The 9x15 LSWT was designed for performance testing of V/STOL aircraft models, but with the addition of the current acoustic treatment in 1986 the tunnel been used principally for acoustic and performance testing of aircraft propulsion systems. The present document describes an anticipated acoustic upgrade to be completed in 2017.

  4. Acoustical evaluation of the NASA Lewis 9 by 15 foot low speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Woodward, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    The test section of the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel was acoustically treated to allow the measurement of acoustic sources located within the tunnel test section under simulated free field conditions. The treatment was designed for high sound absorption at frequencies above 250 Hz and to withstand tunnel airflow velocities up to 0.2 Mach. Evaluation tests with no tunnel airflow were conducted in the test section to assess the performance of the installed treatment. This performance would not be significantly affected by low speed airflow. Time delay spectrometry tests showed that interference ripples in the incident signal resulting from reflections occurring within the test section average from 1.7 dB to 3.2 dB wide over a 500 to 5150 Hz frequency range. Late reflections, from upstream and downstream of the test section, were found to be insignificant at the microphone measuring points. For acoustic sources with low directivity characteristics, decay with distance measurements in the test section showed that incident free field behavior can be measured on average with an accuracy of +/- 1.5 dB or better at source frequencies from 400 Hz to 10 kHz. The free field variations are typically much smaller with an omnidirectional source.

  5. Turbofan Noise Studied in Unique Model Research Program in NASA Glenn's 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive aeroacoustic research program called the Source Diagnostic Test was recently concluded in NASA Glenn Research Center's 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel. The testing involved representatives from Glenn, NASA Langley Research Center, GE Aircraft Engines, and the Boeing Company. The technical objectives of this research were to identify the different source mechanisms of noise in a modern, high-bypass turbofan aircraft engine through scale-model testing and to make detailed acoustic and aerodynamic measurements to more fully understand the physics of how turbofan noise is generated.

  6. Hardwall acoustical characteristics and measurement capabilities of the NASA Lewis 9 x 15 foot low speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rentz, P. E.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental evaluations of the acoustical characteristics and source sound power and directionality measurement capabilities of the NASA Lewis 9 x 15 foot low speed wind tunnel in the untreated or hardwall configuration were performed. The results indicate that source sound power estimates can be made using only settling chamber sound pressure measurements. The accuracy of these estimates, expressed as one standard deviation, can be improved from + or - 4 db to + or - 1 db if sound pressure measurements in the preparation room and diffuser are also used and source directivity information is utilized. A simple procedure is presented. Acceptably accurate measurements of source direct field acoustic radiation were found to be limited by the test section reverberant characteristics to 3.0 feet for omni-directional and highly directional sources. Wind-on noise measurements in the test section, settling chamber and preparation room were found to depend on the sixth power of tunnel velocity. The levels were compared with various analytic models. Results are presented and discussed.

  7. Pratt & Whitney Two Dimensional HSR Nozzle Test in the NASA Lewis 9- By 15- Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel: Aerodynamic Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolter, John D.; Jones, Christopher W.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses a test that was conducted jointly by Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Engines and NASA Lewis Research Center. The test was conducted in NASA's 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (9x15 LSWT). The test setup, methods, and aerodynamic results of this test are discussed. Acoustical results are discussed in a separate paper by J. Bridges and J. Marino.

  8. Background noise levels measured in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot low-speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Dittmar, James H.; Hall, David G.; Kee-Bowling, Bonnie

    1994-01-01

    The acoustic capability of the NASA Lewis 9 by 15 Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel has been significantly improved by reducing the background noise levels measured by in-flow microphones. This was accomplished by incorporating streamlined microphone holders having a profile developed by researchers at the NASA Ames Research Center. These new holders were fabricated for fixed mounting on the tunnel wall and for an axially traversing microphone probe which was mounted to the tunnel floor. Measured in-flow noise levels in the tunnel test section were reduced by about 10 dB with the new microphone holders compared with those measured with the older, less refined microphone holders. Wake interference patterns between fixed wall microphones were measured and resulted in preferred placement patterns for these microphones to minimize these effects. Acoustic data from a model turbofan operating in the tunnel test section showed that results for the fixed and translating microphones were equivalent for common azimuthal angles, suggesting that the translating microphone probe, with its significantly greater angular resolution, is preferred for sideline noise measurements. Fixed microphones can provide a local check on the traversing microphone data quality, and record acoustic performance at other azimuthal angles.

  9. Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing Capability Upgraded in NASA Glenn's 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, David E.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center supports short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) tests in its 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (9 x 15 LSWT). As part of a facility capability upgrade, a dynamic actuation system (DAS) was fabricated to enhance the STOVL testing capabilities. The DAS serves as the mechanical interface between the 9 x 15 LSWT test section structure and the STOVL model to be tested. It provides vertical and horizontal translation of the model in the test section and maintains the model attitude (pitch, yaw, and roll) during translation. It also integrates a piping system to supply the model with exhaust and hot air to simulate the inlet suction and nozzle exhausts, respectively. Hot gas ingestion studies have been performed with the facility ground plane installed. The DAS provides vertical (ascent and descent) translation speeds of up to 48 in./s and horizontal translation speeds of up to 12 in./s. Model pitch variations of +/- 7, roll variations of +/- 5, and yaw variations of 0 to 180 deg can be accommodated and are maintained within 0.25 deg throughout the translation profile. The hot air supply, generated by the facility heaters and regulated by control valves, provides three separate temperature zones to the model for STOVL and hot gas ingestion testing. Channels along the supertube provide instrumentation paths from the model to the facility data system for data collection purposes. The DAS is supported by the 9 x 15 LSWT test section ceiling structure. A carriage that rides on two linear rails provides for horizontal translation of the system along the test section longitudinal axis. A vertical translation assembly, consisting of a cage and supertube, is secured to the carriage. The supertube traverses vertically through the cage on a set of linear rails. Both translation axes are hydraulically actuated and provide position and velocity profile control. The lower flange on the supertube serves as the model interface to the DAS. The

  10. Flow quality studies of the NASA Lewis Research Center 8- by 6-foot supersonic/9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrington, E. A.; Pickett, Mark T.

    1992-01-01

    A series of studies were conducted to determine the existing flow quality in the NASA Lewis 8 by 6 Foot Supersonic/9 by 15 Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel. The information gathered from these studies was used to determine the types and designs of flow manipulators which can be installed to improve overall tunnel flow quality and efficiency. Such manipulators include honeycomb flow straighteners, turbulence reduction screens, corner turning vanes, and acoustic treatments. The types of measurements, instrumentation, and results obtained from experiments conducted at several locations throughout the tunnel loop are described.

  11. Flow quality studies of the NASA Lewis Research Center 8- by 6-foot supersonic/9- by 15-foot low speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrington, E. Allen; Pickett, Mark T.

    1992-01-01

    A series of studies were conducted to determine the existing flow quality in the NASA Lewis 8 by 6 Foot Supersonic/9 by 15 Foot Low speed Wind Tunnel. The information gathered from these studies was used to determine the types and designs of flow manipulators which can be installed to improve overall tunnel flow quality and efficiency. Such manipulators include honeycomb flow straighteners, turbulence reduction screens, corner turning vanes, and acoustic treatments. The types of measurements, instrumentation, and results obtained from experiments conducted at several locations throughout the tunnel loop are described.

  12. Comparison between design and installed acoustic characteristics of NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot low-speed wind tunnel acoustic treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Woodward, Richard P.

    1990-01-01

    The test section of the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel was acoustically treated to allow the measurement of sound under simulated free-field conditions. The treatment was designed for high sound absorption at frequencies above 250 Hz and for withstanding the environmental conditions in the test section. In order to achieve the design requirements, a fibrous, bulk-absorber material was packed into removable panel sections. Each section was divided into two equal-depth layers packed with material to different bulk densities. The lower density was next to the facing of the treatment. The facing consisted of a perforated plate and screening material layered together. Sample tests for normal-incidence acoustic absorption were also conducted in an impedance tube to provide data to aid in the treatment design. Tests with no airflow, involving the measurement of the absorptive properties of the treatment installed in the 9- by 15-foot wind tunnel test section, combined the use of time-delay spectrometry with a previously established free-field measurement method. This new application of time-delay spectrometry enabled these free-field measurements to be made in nonanechoic conditions. The results showed that the installed acoustic treatment had absorption coefficients greater than 0.95 over the frequency range 250 Hz to 4 kHz. The measurements in the wind tunnel were in good agreement with both the analytical prediction and the impedance tube test data.

  13. Softwall acoustical characteristics and measurement capabilities of the NASA Lewis 9x15 foot low speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rentz, P. E.

    1976-01-01

    Acoustical characteristics and source directionality measurement capabilities of the wind tunnel in the softwall configuration were evaluated, using aerodynamically clean microphone supports. The radius of measurement was limited by the size of the test section, instead of the 3.0 foot (1 m) limitation of the hardwall test section. The wind-on noise level in the test section was reduced 10 dB. Reflections from the microphone support boom, after absorptive covering, induced measurement errors in the lower frequency bands. Reflections from the diffuser back wall were shown to be significant. Tunnel noise coming up the diffuser was postulated as being responsible, at least partially, for the wind-on noise in the test section and settling chamber. The near field characteristics of finite-sized sources and the theoretical response of a porous strip sensor in the presence of wind are presented.

  14. Noise measurements from an ejector suppressor nozzle in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot low speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krejsa, Eugene A.; Cooper, Beth A.; Hall, David G.; Khavaran, Abbas

    1990-01-01

    Acoustic results are presented of a cooperative nozzle test program between NASA and Pratt and Whitney, conducted in the NASA-Lewis 9 x 15 ft Anechoic Wind Tunnel. The nozzle tested was the P and W Hypermix Nozzle concept, a 2-D lobed mixer nozzle followed by a short ejector section made to promote rapid mixing of the induced ejector nozzle flow. Acoustic and aerodynamic measurements were made to determine the amount of ejector pumping, degree of mixing, and noise reduction achieved. A series of tests were run to verify the acoustic quality of this tunnel. The results indicated that the tunnel test section is reasonably anechoic but that background noise can limit the amount of suppression observed from suppressor nozzles. Also, a possible internal noise was observed in the air supply system. The P and W ejector suppressor nozzle demonstrated the potential of this concept to significantly reduce jet noise. Significant reduction in low frequency noise was achieved by increasing the peak jet noise frequency. This was accomplished by breaking the jet into segments with smaller dimensions than those of the baseline nozzle. Variations in ejector parameters had little effect on the noise for the geometries and the range of temperatures and pressure ratios tested.

  15. Hot gas ingestion testing of an advanced STOVL concept in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot low speed wind tunnel with flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, Albert L.; Flood, Joseph D.; Strock, Thomas W.; Amuedo, Kurt C.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced Short Takeoff/Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft capable of operating from remote sites, damaged runways, and small air capable ships are being pursued for deployment around the turn of the century. To achieve this goal, it is important that the technologies critical to this unique class of aircraft be developed. Recognizing this need, NASA Lewis Research Center, McDonnell Douglas Aircraft, and DARPA defined a cooperative program for testing in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) to establish a database for hot gas ingestion, one of the technologies critical to STOVL. Results from a test program are presented along with a discussion of the facility modifications allowing this type of testing at model scale. These modifications to the tunnel include a novel ground plane, an elaborate model support which included 4 degrees of freedom, heated high pressure air for nozzle flow, a suction system exhaust for inlet flow, and tunnel sidewall modifications. Several flow visualization techniques were employed including water mist in the nozzle flows and tufts on the ground plane. Headwind (free-stream) velocity was varied from 8 to 23 knots.

  16. Hot gas ingestion test results of a two-poster vectored thrust concept with flow visualization in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot low speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, Albert L.; Neiner, George; Bencic, Timothy J.; Flood, Joseph D.; Amuedo, Kurt C.

    1990-01-01

    A 9.2 percent scale STOVL hot gas ingestion model was tested in the NASA Lewis 9 x 15-foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. Flow visualization from the Phase 1 test program, which evaluated the hot ingestion phenomena and control techniques, is covered. The Phase 2 test program evaluated the hot gas ingestion phenomena at higher temperatures and used a laser sheet to investigate the flow field. Hot gas ingestion levels were measured for the several forward nozzle splay configurations and with flow control/life improvement devices (LIDs) which reduced the hot gas ingestion. The test was conducted at full scale nozzle pressure ratios and inlet Mach numbers. Results are presented over a range of nozzle pressure ratios at a 10 kn headwind velocity. The Phase 2 program was conducted at exhaust nozzle temperatures up to 1460 R and utilized a sheet laser system for flow visualization of the model flow field in and out of ground effects. The results reported are for nozzle exhaust temperatures up to 1160 R and contain the compressor face pressure and temperature distortions, the total pressure recovery, the inlet temperature rise, and the environmental effects of the hot gas. The environmental effects include the ground plane contours, the model airframe heating, and the location of the ground flow separation.

  17. Acoustic Performance of the GEAE UPS Research Fan in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Hughes, Christopher E.

    2012-01-01

    A model advanced turbofan was acoustically tested in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel in 1994. The Universal Propulsion Simulator fan was designed and manufactured by General Electric Aircraft Engines, and included an active core, as well as bypass, flow paths. The fan was tested with several rotors featuring unswept, forward-swept and aft-swept designs of both metal and composite construction. Sideline acoustic data were taken with both hard and acoustically treated walls in the flow passages. The fan was tested within an airflow at a Mach number of 0.20, which is representative of aircraft takeoff/approach conditions. All rotors showed similar aerodynamic performance. However, the composite rotors typically showed higher noise levels than did corresponding metal rotors. Aft and forward rotor sweep showed at most modest reductions of transonic multiple pure tone levels. However, rotor sweep often introduced increased rotor-stator interaction tone levels. Broadband noise was typically higher for the composite rotors and also for the aft-swept metal rotor. Transonic MPT generation was reduced with increasing fan axis angle of attack (AOA); however, higher downstream noise levels did increase with AOA resulting in higher overall Effective Perceived Noise Level.

  18. Hot gas ingestion testing of an advanced STOVL concept in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel with flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, Albert L.; Flood, Joseph D.; Strock, Thomas W.; Amuedo, Kurt C.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced Short Takeoff/Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft capable of operating from remote sites, damaged runways, and small air capable ships are being pursued for deployment around the turn of the century. To achieve this goal, it is important that the technologies critical to this unique class of aircraft be developed. Recognizing this need, NASA Lewis Research Center, McDonnell Douglas Aircraft, and DARPA defined a cooperative program for testing in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) to establish a database for hot gas ingestion, one of the technologies critical to STOVL. Results from a test program are presented along with a discussion of the facility modifications allowing this type of testing at modal scale. These modifications to the tunnel include a novel ground plane, an elaborate model support which included 4 degrees of freedom, heated high pressure air for nozzle flow, a suction system exhaust for inlet flow, and tunnel sidewall modifications. Several flow visualization techniques were employed including water mist in the nozzle flows and tufts on the ground plane. Headwind (free-stream) velocity was varied from 8 to 23 knots.

  19. Hot gas ingestion test results of a two-poster vectored thrust concept with flow visualization in the NASA Lewis 9- x 15-foot low speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, Albert L.; Neiner, George; Bencic, Timothy J.; Flood, Joseph D.; Amuedo, Kurt C.; Strock, Thomas W.

    1990-01-01

    A 9.2 percent scale Short Takeoff and Vertical Landing (STOVL) hot gas ingestion model was designed and built by McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MCAIR) and tested in the Lewis Research Center 9 x 15 foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT). Hot gas ingestion, the entrainment of heated engine exhaust into the inlet flow field, is a key development issure for advanced short takeoff and vertical landing aircraft. Flow visualization from the Phase 1 test program, which evaluated the hot ingestion phenomena and control techniques, is covered. The Phase 2 test program evaluated the hot gas ingestion phenomena at higher temperatures and used a laser sheet to investigate the flow field. Hot gas ingestion levels were measured for the several forward nozzle splay configurations and with flow control/life improvement devices (LIDs) which reduced the hot gas ingestion. The model support system had four degrees of freedom - pitch, roll, yaw, and vertical height variation. The model support system also provided heated high-pressure air for nozzle flow and a suction system exhaust for inlet flow. The test was conducted at full scale nozzle pressure ratios and inlet Mach numbers. Test and data analysis results from Phase 2 and flow visualization from both Phase 1 and 2 are documented. A description of the model and facility modifications is also provided. Headwind velocity was varied from 10 to 23 kn. Results are presented over a range of nozzle pressure ratios at a 10 kn headwind velocity. The Phase 2 program was conducted at exhaust nozzle temperatures up to 1460 R and utilized a sheet laser system for flow visualization of the model flow field in and out of ground effects. The results reported are for nozzle exhaust temperatures up to 1160 R. These results will contain the compressor face pressure and temperature distortions, the total pressure recovery, the inlet temperature rise, and the environmental effects of the hot gas. The environmental effects include the ground plane contours

  20. Laser Velocimetry In Low-Speed Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orloff, Kenneth L.; Snyder, Philip K.; Reinath, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    Design and performance of three-dimensional and two-dimensional backscatter laser velocimeter, both used in low-speed wind tunnels, described in report together with historical overview of development of laser velocimetry (LV). Provides measurements of airflow in wind-tunnel tests without perturbing effects of probes and probe-supporting structures. Applicable in such related fields as ventilation engineering and possibly in detection of wing vortexes from large aircraft at airports.

  1. Low Speed PSP Testing in Production Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James; Mehta, Rabi; Schairer, Ed; Hand, Larry; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The brightness signal from a pressure-sensitive paint varies inversely with absolute pressure. Consequently high signal-to-noise ratios are required to resolve aerodynamic pressure fields at low speeds, where the pressure variation around an object might only be a few percent of the mean pressure. This requirement is unavoidable, and implies that care must be taken to minimize noise sources present in the measurement. This paper discusses and compares the main noise sources in low speed PSP testing using the "classical" intensity-based single-luminophore technique. These are: temperature variation, model deformation, and lamp drift/paint degradation. Minimization of these error sources from the point of view of operation in production wind tunnels is discussed, with some examples from recent tests in NASA Ames facilities.

  2. Contraction design for small low-speed wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James H.; Mehta, Rabindra D.

    1988-01-01

    An iterative design procedure was developed for two- or three-dimensional contractions installed on small, low-speed wind tunnels. The procedure consists of first computing the potential flow field and hence the pressure distributions along the walls of a contraction of given size and shape using a three-dimensional numerical panel method. The pressure or velocity distributions are then fed into two-dimensional boundary layer codes to predict the behavior of the boundary layers along the walls. For small, low-speed contractions it is shown that the assumption of a laminar boundary layer originating from stagnation conditions at the contraction entry and remaining laminar throughout passage through the successful designs if justified. This hypothesis was confirmed by comparing the predicted boundary layer data at the contraction exit with measured data in existing wind tunnels. The measured boundary layer momentum thicknesses at the exit of four existing contractions, two of which were 3-D, were found to lie within 10 percent of the predicted values, with the predicted values generally lower. From the contraction wall shapes investigated, the one based on a fifth-order polynomial was selected for installation on a newly designed mixing layer wind tunnel.

  3. Contraction design for small low-speed wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James H.; Mehta, Rabindra D.

    1988-01-01

    An iterative design procedure was developed for 2- or 3-dimensional contractions installed on small, low speed wind tunnels. The procedure consists of first computing the potential flow field and hence the pressure distributions along the walls of a contraction of given size and shape using a 3-dimensional numerical panel method. The pressure or velocity distributions are then fed into 2-dimensional boundary layer codes to predict the behavior of the boundary layers along the walls. For small, low speed contractions, it is shown that the assumption of a laminar boundary layer originating from stagnation conditions at the contraction entry and remaining laminar throughout passage through the successful designs is justified. This hypothesis was confirmed by comparing the predicted boundary layer data at the contraction exit with measured data in existing wind tunnels. The measured boundary layer momentum thicknesses at the exit of four existing contractions, two of which were 3-D, were found to lie within 10 percent of the predicted values, with the predicted values generally lower. From the contraction wall shapes investigated, the one based on a 5th order polynomial was selected for newly designed mixing wind tunnel installation.

  4. Efficient Low-Speed Flight in a Wind Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Michael A.

    1996-01-01

    A new software tool was needed for flight planning of a high altitude, low speed unmanned aerial vehicle which would be flying in winds close to the actual airspeed of the vehicle. An energy modeled NLP (non-linear programming) formulation was used to obtain results for a variety of missions and wind profiles. The energy constraint derived included terms due to the wind field and the performance index was a weighted combination of the amount of fuel used and the final time. With no emphasis on time and with no winds the vehicle was found to fly at maximum lift to drag velocity, V(sub md). When flying in tail winds the velocity was less than V(sub md), while flying in head winds the velocity was higher than V(sub md). A family of solutions was found with varying times of flight and varying fuel amounts consumed which will aid the operator in choosing a flight plan depending on a desired landing time. At certain parts of the flight, the turning terms in the energy constraint equation were found to be significant. An analysis of a simpler vertical plane cruise optimal control problem was used to explain some of the characteristics of the vertical plane NLP results.

  5. 15-Foot Spin Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1934-01-01

    Constructing the forms for the foundation of the 15-Foot Spin Tunnel. Charles Zimmerman was given the assignment to design and build a larger spin tunnel that would supplant the 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel. Authorization to build the tunnel using funds from the Federal Public Works Administration (PWA) came in June 1933. Construction started in late winter 1934 and the tunnel was operational in April 1935. The initial construction costs were $64,000. The first step was to pour the foundation for the tunnel and the housing which would encase the wind tunnel.

  6. Low-speed wind tunnel performance of high-speed counterrotation propellers at angle-of-attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Gazzaniga, John A.

    1989-01-01

    The low-speed aerodynamic performance characteristics of two advanced counterrotation pusher-propeller configurations with cruise design Mach numbers of 0.72 were investigated in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. The tests were conducted at Mach number 0.20, which is representative of the aircraft take/off/landing flight regime. The investigation determined the effect of nonuniform inflow on the propeller performance characteristics for several blade angle settings and a range of rotational speeds. The inflow was varied by yawing the propeller mode to angle-of-attack by as much as plus or minus 16 degrees and by installing on the counterrotation propeller test rig near the propeller rotors a model simulator of an aircraft engine support pylon and fuselage. The results of the investigation indicated that the low-speed performance of the counterrotation propeller configurations near the take-off target operating points were reasonable and were fairly insensitive to changes in model angle-of-attack without the aircraft pylon/fuselage simulators installed on the propeller test rig. When the aircraft pylon/fuselage simulators were installed, small changes in propeller performance were seen at zero angle-of-attack, but fairly large changes in total power coefficient and very large changes of aft-to-forward-rotor torque ratio were produced when the propeller model was taken to angle-of-attack. The propeller net efficiency, though, was fairly insensitive to any changes in the propeller flowfield conditions near the take-off target operating points.

  7. Low-speed wind tunnel performance of high-speed counterrotation propellers at angle-of-attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Gazzaniga, John A.

    1989-01-01

    The low-speed aerodynamic performance characteristics of two advanced counterrotation pusher-propeller configurations with cruise design Mach numbers of 0.72 were investigated in the NASA Lewis 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. The tests were conducted at Mach number 0.20, which is representative of the aircraft take-off/landing flight regime. The investigation determined the effect of nonuniform inflow on the propeller performance characteristics for several blade angle settings and a range of rotational speeds. The inflow was varied by yawing the propeller model to angle-of-attack by as much as plus or minus 16 degrees and by installing on the counterrotation propeller test rig near the propeller rotors a model simulator of an aircraft engine support pylon and fuselage. The results of the investigation indicated that the low-speed performance of the counterrotation propeller configurations near the take-off target operating points were reasonable and were fairly insensitive to changes in model angle-of-attack without the aircraft pylon/fuselage simulators installed on the propeller test rig. When the aircraft pylon/fuselage simulators were installed, small changes in propeller performance were seen at zero angle-of-attack, but fairly large changes in total power coefficient and very large changes of aft-to-forward-rotor torque ratio were produced when the propeller model was taken to angle-of-attack. The propeller net efficiency, though, was fairly insensitive to any changes in the propeller flowfield conditions near the take-off target operating points.

  8. Evaluation of spray drift using low speed wind tunnel measurements and dispersion modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the EPA’s proposed Test Plan for the validation testing of pesticide spray drift reduction technologies (DRTs) for row and field crops, focusing on the evaluation of ground application systems using the low-speed wind tunnel protocols and processing the dat...

  9. Evaluation of the EPA Drift Reduction Technology (DRT) low-speed wind tunnel protocol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The EPA’s proposed Drift Reduction Technology low-speed wind tunnel evaluation protocol was tested across a series of modified ASAE reference nozzles. Both droplet size and deposition and flux volume measurements were made downwind from the nozzles operating in the tunnel at airspeeds of 1 and 2.5 ...

  10. Initial Investigation of the Acoustics of a Counter-Rotating Open Rotor Model with Historical Baseline Blades in a Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, David M.

    2012-01-01

    A counter-rotating open rotor scale model was tested in the NASA Glenn Research Center 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT). This model used a historical baseline blade set with which modern blade designs will be compared against on an acoustic and aerodynamic performance basis. Different blade pitch angles simulating approach and takeoff conditions were tested, along with angle-of-attack configurations. A configuration was also tested in order to determine the acoustic effects of a pylon. The shaft speed was varied for each configuration in order to get data over a range of operability. The freestream Mach number was also varied for some configurations. Sideline acoustic data were taken for each of these test configurations.

  11. Elimination of temperature stratification in a low-speed open-return wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimbala, J. M.; Park, W. J.

    1989-06-01

    It is noted that temperature stratification can be a significant source of error during hot-wire measurements in low-speed, open-return wind tunnels that operate in an enclosed room. The stratification is suggested to be eliminated by resort to a thorough mixing of the air just upstream of the wind-tunnel inlet. Since the facility is equipped with adequate turbulence management, mixing can be accomplished without reduction of flow quality.

  12. Slotted-wall research with disk and parachute models in a low-speed wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Macha, J.M.; Buffington, R.J.; Henfling, J.L. ); Every, D. Van; Harris, J.L. )

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation of slotted-wall blockage interference has been conducted using disk and parachute models in a low speed wind tunnel. Test section open area ratio, model geometric blockage ratio, and model location along the length of the test section were systematically varied. Resulting drag coefficients were compared to each other and to interference-free measurements obtained in a much larger wind tunnel where the geometric blockage ratio was less than 0.0025. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  13. Laser velocimetry in the low-speed wind tunnels at Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orloff, K. L.; Snyder, P. K.; Reinath, M. S.

    1984-01-01

    The historical development of laser velocimetry and its application to low-speed (less than 100 m/sec) aerodynamic flows in the subsonic wind tunnels at Ames Research Center is reviewed. A fully three dimensional velocimeter for the Ames 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel is described, and its capabilities are presented through sample data from a recent experiment. Finally, a long-range (2.6 to 10 m) velocimeter that is designed to be installed within the test section of the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel is described and sample data are presented.

  14. Self streamlining wind tunnel: Further low speed testing and final design studies for the transonic facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, S. W. D.

    1978-01-01

    Work was continued with the low speed self streamlining wind tunnel (SSWT) using the NACA 0012-64 airfoil in an effort to explain the discrepancies between the NASA Langley low turbulence pressure tunnel (LTPT) and SSWT results obtained with the airfoil stalled. Conventional wind tunnel corrections were applied to straight wall SSWT airfoil data, to illustrate the inadequacy of standard correction techniques in circumstances of high blockage. Also one SSWT test was re-run at different air speeds to investigate the effects of such changes (perhaps through changes in Reynold's number and freestream turbulence levels) on airfoil data and wall contours. Mechanical design analyses for the transonic self-streamlining wind tunnel (TSWT) were completed by the application of theoretical airfoil flow field data to the elastic beam and streamline analysis. The control system for the transonic facility, which will eventually allow on-line computer operation of the wind tunnel, was outlined.

  15. Self streamlining wind tunnel: Further low speed testing and final design studies for the transonic facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, S. W. D.

    1977-01-01

    Work has continued with the low speed self streamlining wind tunnel (SSWT) using the NACA 0012-64 airfoil in an effort to explain the discrepancies between the NASA Langley low turbulence pressure tunnel (LTPT) and SSWT results obtained with the airfoil stalled. Conventional wind tunnel corrections were applied to straight wall SSWT airfoil data, to illustrate the inadequacy of standard correction techniques in circumstances of high blockage. Also one SSWT test was re-run at different air speeds to investigate the effects of such changes on airfoil data and wall contours. Mechanical design analyses for the transonic self streamlining wind tunnel (TSWT) were completed by the application of theoretical airfoil flow field data to the elastic beam and streamline analysis. The control system for the transonic facility is outlined.

  16. F-15 SMTD low speed jet effects wind tunnel test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, William B.

    1988-01-01

    Key results from low speed wind tunnel testing of the F-15 STOL and Maneuver Technology Demonstrator (SMDT) with thrust reversers are presented. Longitudinally, the largest induced increments in the stability and control occur at landing gear height. These generally reflect an induced lift loss and a nose-up pitching moment, and vary with sideslip. Directional stability is reduced at landing gear height with full reverse thrust. Nonlinearities in the horizontal tail effectiveness are found in free air and at landing gear height.

  17. Infrared thermography for detection of laminar-turbulent transition in low-speed wind tunnel testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Liselle A.; Borgoltz, Aurelien; Devenport, William

    2016-05-01

    This work presents the details of a system for experimentally identifying laminar-to-turbulent transition using infrared thermography applied to large, metal models in low-speed wind tunnel tests. Key elements of the transition detection system include infrared cameras with sensitivity in the 7.5- to 14.0-µm spectral range and a thin, insulating coat for the model. The fidelity of the system was validated through experiments on two wind-turbine blade airfoil sections tested at Reynolds numbers between Re = 1.5 × 106 and 3 × 106. Results compare well with measurements from surface pressure distributions and stethoscope observations. However, the infrared-based system provides data over a much broader range of conditions and locations on the model. This paper chronicles the design, implementation and validation of the infrared transition detection system, a subject which has not been widely detailed in the literature to date.

  18. Aeroacoustic response of coaxial wall-mounted Helmholtz resonators in a low-speed wind tunnel.

    PubMed

    Slaton, William V; Nishikawa, Asami

    2015-01-01

    The aeroacoustic response of coaxial wall-mounted Helmholtz resonators with different neck geometries in a low-speed wind tunnel has been investigated. Experimental test results of this system reveal a strong aeroacoustic response over a Strouhal number range of 0.25 to 0.1 for both increasing and decreasing the flow rate in the wind tunnel. Aeroacoustic response in the low-amplitude range O(10(-3)) < Vac/Vflow < O(10(-1)) has been successfully modeled by describing-function analysis. This analysis, coupled with a turbulent flow velocity distribution model, gives reasonable values for the location in the flow of the undulating stream velocity that drives vortex shedding at the resonator mouth. Having an estimate for the stream velocity that drives the flow-excited resonance is crucial when employing the describing-function analysis to predict aeroacoustic response of resonators. PMID:25618056

  19. An experimental study of several wind tunnel wall configurations using two V/STOL model configurations. [low speed wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binion, T. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in the low speed wind tunnel using two V/STOL models, a jet-flap and a jet-in-fuselage configuration, to search for a wind tunnel wall configuration to minimize wall interference on V/STOL models. Data were also obtained on the jet-flap model with a uniform slotted wall configuration to provide comparisons between theoretical and experimental wall interference. A test section configuration was found which provided some data in reasonable agreement with interference-free results over a wide range of momentum coefficients.

  20. Wind-tunnel results for a modified 17-percent-thick low-speed airfoil section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, R. J.; Beasley, W. D.

    1981-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests were conducted in the Langley low-turbulence pressure tunnel to evaluate the effects on performance of modifying a 17-percent-thick low-speed airfoil. The airfoil contour was altered to reduce the pitching-moment coefficient by increasing the forward loading and to increase the climb lift-drag ratio by decreasing the aft upper surface pressure gradient. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.07 to 0.32, a chord Reynolds number range 1.0 x 10 to the 6th power to 12.0 x 10 to the 6th power, and an angle-of-attack range from about -10 deg to 20 deg.

  1. Low-speed wind-tunnel results for symmetrical NASA LS(1)-0013 airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, James C.; Mcghee, Robert J.; Barnwell, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    A wind-tunnel test has been conducted in the Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel to evaluate the performance of a symmetrical NASA LS(1)-0013 airfoil which is a 13-percent-thick, low-speed airfoil. The airfoil contour was obtained from the thickness distribution of a 13-percent-thick, high-performance airfoil developed for general aviation airplanes. The tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.10 tp 0.37 over a Reynolds number range from about 0.6 to 12.0 X 10 to the 6th power. The angle of attack varied from about -8 to 20 degrees. The results indicate that the aerodynamic characteristics of the present airfoil are similar to, but slightly better than, those of the NACA 0012 airfoil.

  2. Binocular videogrammetric system for three-dimensional measurement in low-speed wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ye; Gu, Yonggang; Zhai, Chao

    2014-11-01

    In order to avoid the defects of contact measurement, such as limited range, complex constructing and disability of 3-D parameter acquisition, we built a binocular videogrammetric system for measuring 3-D geometry parameters of wind tunnel test models, for instance, displacement, rotation angle and vibration, in low-speed wind tunnel. The system is based on the principles of close-range digital photogrammetry. As a non-contact system, it acquires parameters without interference in the experiments, and it has adjustable range and simple structure. It is worth mentioning that this is a Realtime measurement system, so that it can greatly compress the experiment period, furthermore, it is also able to provide some specific experiments with parameters for online adjustment. In this system, images are acquired through two industrial digital cameras and a PCI-E image acquisition card, and they are processed in a PC. The two cameras are triggered by signals come from a function signal generator, so that images of different cameras will have good temporal synchronization to ensure the accuracy of 3-D reconstruction. A two-step stereo calibration technique using planar pattern developed by Zhengyou Zhang is used to calibrate these cameras. Results of wind tunnel test indicate that the system can provide displacement accuracy better than 0.1% and rotation angle accuracy better than 0.1 degree, besides, the vibration frequency accuracy is superior to 0.1Hz in the low-frequency range.

  3. Low-speed wind tunnel test results of the Canard Rotor/Wing concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, Steven M.; Thompson, Thomas L.; Rutherford, John W.; Swanson, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    The Canard Rotor/Wing (CRW), a high-speed rotorcraft concept, was tested at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center's 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel in Mountain View, California. The 1/5-scale model was tested to identify certain low-speed, fixed-wing, aerodynamic characteristics of the configuration and investigate the effectiveness of two empennages, an H-Tail and a T-Tail. The paper addresses the principal test objectives and the results achieved in the wind tunnel test. These are summarized as: i) drag build-up and differences between the H-Tail and T-Tail configuration, ii) longitudinal stability of the H-Tail and T-Tail configurations in the conversion and cruise modes, iii) control derivatives for the canard and elevator in the conversion and cruise modes, iv) aerodynamic characteristics of varying the rotor/wing azimuth position, and v) canard and tail lift/trim capability for conversion conditions.

  4. Low-speed wind tunnel tests of two waverider configuration models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegg, Robert J.; Hahne, David E.; Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    A definitive measurement of the low-speed flight characteristics of waverider-based aircraft is required to augment the overall design database for this important class of vehicles which have great potential for efficient high-speed flight. Two separate waverider-derived vehicles were tested; one in the 14- by 22-Foot Tunnel and the other in the 12-Foot Low-Speed Tunnel at Langley Research Center. These tests provided measurements of moments and forces about all three axes, control effectiveness, flow field characteristics and the effects of configuration changes. This paper will summarize the results of these tunnels and show the subsonic aerodynamic characteristics of the two configurations.

  5. Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Tests of Two Waverider Configuration Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegg, Robert J.; Hahne, David E.; Cockrell,Charles E., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    A definitive measurement of the low-speed flight characteristics of waverider-based aircraft is required to augment the overall design database for this important class of vehicles which have great potential for efficient high-speed flight. Two separate waverider-derived vehicles were tested; one in the 14- by 22-Foot Tunnel and the other in the 12-Foot Low Speed Tunnel at Langley Research Center. These tests provided measurements of moments and forces about all three axes, control effectiveness, flow field characteristics and the effects of configuration changes. The results of these tunnel tests are summarized and the subsonic aerodynamic characteristics of the two configurations are shown.

  6. Slotted-wall research with disk and parachute models in the DSMA low-speed wind tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Van Every, D.; Harris, J.L. )

    1990-06-01

    A test program investigated the effects of wall open area ratio (OAR) and model axial position on the measured drag of disk and parachute models in a low-speed wind tunnel. The data and discussion presented in this report provide new insight into the nature of slotted-wall interference for bluff bodies in steady flow and give the first quantitative information on nonsteady wall interference and airflow response during the inflation of a parachute. The report concludes that a fixed OAR of between 5% and 15% should eliminate wall interference during inflation and greatly reduce steady-flow interference for geometric blockages up to 15%. Preliminary arguments suggest that an optimum OAR may be found that alleviates wall interference for large models at low speeds while providing for acceptable testing of smaller models in the transonic speed range. 10 refs., 36 figs., 14 tabs.

  7. Low-speed wind tunnel investigation of an advanced supersonic cruise arrow-wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.; Smith, P. M.; Parlett, L. P.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of possible means for improving the low speed aerodynamic characteristics of advanced supersonic cruise arrow wing configurations and to extend the existing data base of such configurations has been made. Principle configuration variables included wing-leading and trailing-edge flap deflection, fuselage nose strakes, and engine exhaust nozzle deflection. Results showed that deflecting the wing leading edge apex flaps downward provided improved longitudinal stability but resulted in reduced directional stability. The model exhibited relatively low values of directional stability over the operational angle of attack range and experienced large asymmetric yawing moments at high angles of attack. The use of nose strakes was found to be effective in increasing the directional stability and eliminating the asymmetric yawing moment.

  8. Tests of models equipped with TPS in low speed ONERA F1 pressurized wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leynaert, J.

    1992-09-01

    The particular conditions of tests of models equipped with a turbofan powered simulator (TPS) at high Reynolds numbers in a pressurized wind tunnel are presented. The high-pressure air supply system of the wind tunnel, the equipment of the balance with the high-pressure traversing flow and its calibration, and the thrust calibration method of the TPS and its verification in the wind tunnel are described.

  9. Self streamlining wind tunnel: Low speed testing and transonic test section design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, S. W. D.; Goodyer, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    Comprehensive aerodynamic data on an airfoil section were obtained through a wide range of angles of attack, both stalled and unstalled. Data were gathered using a self streamlining wind tunnel and were compared to results obtained on the same section in a conventional wind tunnel. The reduction of wall interference through streamline was demonstrated.

  10. A wind-tunnel investigation of parameters affecting helicopter directional control at low speeds in ground effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, W. T., Jr.; Young, W. H., Jr.; Mantay, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to measure the performance of several helicopter tail-rotor/fin configurations with regard to directional control problems encountered at low speeds in ground effect. Tests were conducted at wind azimuths of 0 deg to 360 deg in increments of 30 deg and 60 deg and at wind speeds from 0 to 35 knots. The results indicate that at certain combinations of wind speed and wind azimuth, large increases in adverse fin force require correspondingly large increases in the tail-rotor thrust, collective pitch, and power required to maintain yaw trim. Changing the tail-rotor direction of rotation to top blade aft for either a pusher tail rotor (tail-rotor wake blowing away from fin) or a tractor tail rotor (tail-rotor wake blowing against fin) will alleviate this problem. For a pusher tail rotor at 180 deg wind azimuth, increases in the fin/tail-rotor gap were not found to have any significant influence on the overall vehicle directional control capability. Changing the tail rotor to a higher position was found to improve tail-rotor performance for a fin-off configuration at a wind azimuth of 180 deg. A V-tail configuration with a pusher tail rotor with top blade aft direction of rotation was found to be the best configuration with regard to overall directional control capability.

  11. Experimental investigation of the separated flow past slender bodies in the RAE 5 metre low-speed pressurised wind tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiddes, S. P.; Lean, D. E.; Moir, I. R. M.

    1991-03-01

    Tests carried out on a cone cylinder model in the 5 m low speed wind tunnel provided examples of the pressure distribution near the nose in conditions where significant values of side force occur, showing how this is dependent on roll angle of the nominally axially symmetric body. At values of roll where the side force is at its maximum, comparison of the measured pressure distribution with that predicted theoretically , using an inviscid mathematical model of the separated flow past a slender cone, shows that the major features of the flow are identified reasonably well by the inviscid model and that the development of the side force at least in its major features can be described without the need for appeal to any additional viscous interaction. Further work, however, was necessary to identify the mechanisms giving rise to intermediate values of side force.

  12. Investigation of Model Wake Blockage Effects at High Angles of Attack in Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyu, Lih-Shyng; Chuang, Shu-Hao

    To improve the fidelity of measured aerodynamic characteristics at high angle of attack for modern jet fighters, this paper examines the model wake blockage effect. The wake blockage effect in a 2.2×3.1 m low-speed wind tunnel is investigated by analyzing drag and wall pressure measurements. Circular flat plates of different sizes are used to simulate a test model at high angles of attack. The present analysis results in simple formulas for corrections of model wake blockage effect. To verify the present correction formula, the NASA TP-1803 model is force-tested in the tunnel. The corrected test data agree well with the NASA TP-1803 data.

  13. A low-speed wind tunnel study of vortex interaction control techniques on a chine-forebody/delta-wing configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Dhanvada M.; Bhat, M. K.

    1992-01-01

    A low speed wind tunnel evaluation was conducted of passive and active techniques proposed as a means to impede the interaction of forebody chine and delta wing vortices, when such interaction leads to undesirable aerodynamic characteristics particularly in the post stall regime. The passive method was based on physically disconnecting the chine/wing junction; the active technique employed deflection of inboard leading edge flaps. In either case, the intent was to forcibly shed the chine vortices before they encountered the downwash of wing vortices. Flow visualizations, wing pressures, and six component force/moment measurements confirmed the benefits of forced vortex de-coupling at post stall angles of attack and in sideslip, viz., alleviation of post stall zero beta asymmetry, lateral instability and twin tail buffet, with insignificant loss of maximum lift.

  14. Vertical air circulation in a low-speed lateral flow wind turbine with rotary blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheboxarov, Vik. V.; Cheboxarov, Val. V.

    2008-01-01

    The model of a large-scale lateral flow wind turbine with rotary blades is presented and the conditions of numerical aerodynamic investigation of this turbine are described. The results of numerical experiments show that air flowing past the turbine exhibits a considerable vertical (axial) circulation, which increases the power coefficient of the turbine. In the inner space of the turbine, two stable vortices are formed through which retarded streams partly leave the turbine upon flowing past the windward side, to be replaced by faster streams from adjacent layers of air.

  15. Integral method of wall interference correction in low-speed wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Changhai

    1987-01-01

    The analytical solution of Poisson's equation, derived form the definition of vortex, was applied to the calculation of interference velocities due to the presence of wind tunnel walls. This approach, called the Integral Method, allows an accurate evaluation of wall interference for separated or more complicated flows without the need for considering any features of the model. All the information necessary for obtaining the wall correction is contained in wall pressure measurements. The correction is not sensitive to normal data-scatter, and the computations are fast enough for on-line data processing.

  16. Evaluation of the buoyancy drag on automobile models in low speed wind tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokry, Miroslav

    Of the several sources of inaccuracy in interpreting wind tunnel data for automobile models, the most prominent is the blockage interference. Streamwise variation of the wall induced pressure gives, in addition, rise to buoyancy drag. Buoyancy drag is analyzed in closed, 3/4 open, and slotted wind tunnels. The disturbance velocity potential is represented by a simple layer distribution. A numerical solution is obtained by a first-order panel method, approximating the surface by an assembly of flat panels, with a piecewise constant source density. The increment of the pressure coefficient due to wall interference considers only the contributions of the wall panels. Examples of the calculated buoyancy drag are given for the generic car model of the Motor Industry Research Association. Judged by the magnitude of the buoyancy drag, experiments at high blockage ratios would be highly distorted if performed in a closed-wall test section. However, with 30 percent open area ratio slotted walls, the buoyancy drag is reduced to about the same magnitude as that for test sections with low blockage ratios.

  17. Enabling Advanced Wind-Tunnel Research Methods Using the NASA Langley 12-Foot Low Speed Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busan, Ronald C.; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Croom, Mark A.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Grafton, Sue B.; O-Neal, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Design of Experiment (DOE) testing methods were used to gather wind tunnel data characterizing the aerodynamic and propulsion forces and moments acting on a complex vehicle configuration with 10 motor-driven propellers, 9 control surfaces, a tilt wing, and a tilt tail. This paper describes the potential benefits and practical implications of using DOE methods for wind tunnel testing - with an emphasis on describing how it can affect model hardware, facility hardware, and software for control and data acquisition. With up to 23 independent variables (19 model and 2 tunnel) for some vehicle configurations, this recent test also provides an excellent example of using DOE methods to assess critical coupling effects in a reasonable timeframe for complex vehicle configurations. Results for an exploratory test using conventional angle of attack sweeps to assess aerodynamic hysteresis is summarized, and DOE results are presented for an exploratory test used to set the data sampling time for the overall test. DOE results are also shown for one production test characterizing normal force in the Cruise mode for the vehicle.

  18. The design of a low-speed wind tunnel for studying the flow field of insects' flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hong-yan; Zhang, Peng-fei; Ma, Yun; Ning, Jian-guo

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, low-speed smoke wind tunnel has been designed and fabricated for the insects' flow field visualization. The test section and the contraction section of the tunnel are optimized and determined as to size by the method of computational fluid dynamics. And fairing devices are equipped in different sections to reduce the turbulence intensity and increase the flow uniformity in the experimental sections. For the smoke visualization of small insects, the smokeemitting equipment has been specially designed and carefully debugged. Composed of wind tunnel, light source and high-speed camera, experimental platform for visualization and filming of insect flight flow field has been established. Besides, the feasible and stable method for insect fixing has been designed. With the smoke wind tunnel, flow filed visualization experiment for the honeybee's flapping was conducted and smoke flow filed in the experiment was recorded and analyzed. Near-filed and far-filed vortex structure when the honeybee fly can be recorded clearly. The experimental results indicate that the experimental platform is appropriate for flow filed study on insects flapping.

  19. Analysis of a Split-Plot Experimental Design Applied to a Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    A procedure to analyze a split-plot experimental design featuring two input factors, two levels of randomization, and two error structures in a low-speed wind tunnel investigation of a small-scale model of a fighter airplane configuration is described in this report. Standard commercially-available statistical software was used to analyze the test results obtained in a randomization-restricted environment often encountered in wind tunnel testing. The input factors were differential horizontal stabilizer incidence and the angle of attack. The response variables were the aerodynamic coefficients of lift, drag, and pitching moment. Using split-plot terminology, the whole plot, or difficult-to-change, factor was the differential horizontal stabilizer incidence, and the subplot, or easy-to-change, factor was the angle of attack. The whole plot and subplot factors were both tested at three levels. Degrees of freedom for the whole plot error were provided by replication in the form of three blocks, or replicates, which were intended to simulate three consecutive days of wind tunnel facility operation. The analysis was conducted in three stages, which yielded the estimated mean squares, multiple regression function coefficients, and corresponding tests of significance for all individual terms at the whole plot and subplot levels for the three aerodynamic response variables. The estimated regression functions included main effects and two-factor interaction for the lift coefficient, main effects, two-factor interaction, and quadratic effects for the drag coefficient, and only main effects for the pitching moment coefficient.

  20. Wind tunnel results of the low-speed NLF(1)-0414F airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murri, Daniel G.; Mcghee, Robert J.; Jordan, Frank L., Jr.; Davis, Patrick J.; Viken, Jeffrey K.

    1987-01-01

    The large performance gains predicted for the Natural Laminar Flow (NLF)(1)-0414F airfoil were demonstrated in two-dimensional airfoil tests and in wind tunnel tests conducted with a full scale modified Cessna 210. The performance gains result from maintaining extensive areas of natural laminar flow, and were verified by flight tests conducted with the modified Cessna. The lift, stability, and control characteristics of the Cessna were found to be essentially unchanged when boundary layer transition was fixed near the wing leading edge. These characteristics are very desirable from a safety and certification view where premature boundary layer transition (due to insect contamination, etc.) must be considered. The leading edge modifications were found to enhance the roll damping of the Cessna at the stall, and were therefore considered effective in improving the stall/departure resistance. Also, the modifications were found to be responsible for only minor performance penalties.

  1. Model-Scale Aerodynamic Performance Testing of Proposed Modifications to the NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Earl R., Jr.; Coston, Calvin W., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Tests were performed on a 1/20th-scale model of the Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel to determine the performance effects of insertion of acoustic baffles in the tunnel inlet, replacement of the existing collector with a new collector design in the open jet test section, and addition of flow splitters to the acoustic baffle section downstream of the test section. As expected, the inlet baffles caused a reduction in facility performance. About half of the performance loss was recovered by addition the flow splitters to the downstream baffles. All collectors tested reduced facility performance. However, test chamber recirculation flow was reduced by the new collector designs and shielding of some of the microphones was reduced owing to the smaller size of the new collector. Overall performance loss in the facility is expected to be a 5 percent top flow speed reduction, but the facility will meet OSHA limits for external noise levels and recirculation in the test section will be reduced.

  2. Cryogenic wind tunnel activities at the University of Southampton. [flow visusalization technique for low speed wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodyer, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    The characteristics and behavior of a 0.3m transonic cryogenic wind tunnel are discussed. The wide band of usable Reynolds numbers is analyzed along with a flow visualization technique using propane. The combination of magnetic suspension with the cryogenic wind tunnel is described. An outline of the circuit showing the locations of the magnet system and the features of the tunnel are presented.

  3. Results of a low-speed wind tunnel test of the MDC 2.2M supersonic cruise aircraft configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yip, L. P.; Parlett, L. P.; Roensch, R. L.; Felix, J. E.; Welge, H. R.

    1980-01-01

    Results of a low speed test conducted in the Full Scale Tunnel at NASA Langley using an advanced supersonic cruise vehicle configuration are presented. These tests used a 10 percent scale model of a configuration that had demonstrated high aerodynamic performance at Mach 2.2 during a previous test program. The low speed model has leading and trailing edge flaps designed to improve low speed lift to drag ratios at high lift and includes devices for longitudinal and lateral/directional control. The results obtained during the low speed test program have shown that full span leading edge flaps are required for maximum performance. The amount of deflection of the leading edge flap must increase with C sub L to obtain the maximum benefit. Over 80 percent of full leading edge suction was obtained up to lift off C sub L's of 0.65. A mild pitch up occurred at about 6 deg angle of attack with and without the leading edge flap deflected. The pitch up is controllable with the horizontal tail. Spoilers were found to be preferable to spoiler/deflectors at low speeds. The vertical tail maintained effectiveness up to the highest angle of attack tested but the tail on directional stability deteriorated at high angles of attack. Lateral control was adequate for landing at 72 m/sec in a 15.4 m/sec crosswind.

  4. Construction of Foundation for 15-Foot Spin Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1934-01-01

    Completed foundation for the outer housing for the 15-Foot Spin Tunnel. Charles Zimmerman was given the assignment to design and build a larger spin tunnel that would supplant the 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel. Authorization to build the tunnel using funds from the Federal Public Works Administration (PWA) came in June 1933. Construction started in late winter 1934 and the tunnel was operational in April 1935. The initial construction costs were $64,000.

  5. Low speed wind tunnel flow field results for JT8D refan engines on the Boeing 727-200

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easterbrook, W. G.; Roberts, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    Low speed flow angularity results are presented showing flow direction at the nacelle locations on the Boeing 727-200. Flow angle probes (yawheads) were used for measurements at side and center inlet positions on the aft fuselage. A range of flap settings were tested with flap angles of 0 deg, 15 deg, and 40 deg selected for investigation.

  6. Low-speed wind-tunnel tests of a large scale blended arrow advanced supersonic transport model having variable cycle engines and vectoring exhaust nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parlett, L. P.; Shivers, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    A low-speed wind-tunnel investigation was conducted in a full-scale tunnel to determine the performance and static stability and control characteristics of a large-scale model of a blended-arrow advanced supersonic transport configuration incorporating variable-cycle engines and vectoring exhaust nozzles. Configuration variables tested included: (1) engine mode (cruise or low-speed), (2) engine exit nozzle deflection, (3) leading-edge flap geometry, and (4) trailing-edge flap deflection. Test variables included values of C sub micron from 0 to 0.38, values of angle of attack from -10 degrees to 30 degrees, values of angle of sideslip, from -5 degrees to 5 degrees, and values of Reynolds number, from 3.5 million to 6.8 million.

  7. Test data report, low speed wind tunnel tests of a full scale lift/cruise-fan inlet, with engine, at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shain, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    A low speed wind tunnel test of a fixed lip inlet with engine, was performed. The inlet was close coupled to a Hamilton Standard 1.4 meter, variable pitch fan driven by a lycoming T55-L-11A engine. Tests were conducted with various combinations of inlet angle of attack freestream velocities, and fan airflows. Data were recorded to define the inlet airflow separation boundaries, performance characteristics, and fan blade stresses. The test model, installation, instrumentation, test, data reduction and final data are described.

  8. Investigation of space shuttle orbiter subsonic stability and control characteristics and determination of control surface hinge moments in the Rockwell International low speed wind tunnel (OA37)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on a string-mounted 0.030 scale representation of the 140A/B space shuttle orbiter in the 7.75- by 11-foot low speed wind tunnel. The primary test objectives were to establish basic longitudinal and lateral directional stability and control characteristics for the basic configuration plus control surface hinge moments. Aerodynamic force and moment data were measured in the body axis system by an internally mounted, six-component strain gage balance. Additional configurations investigated were sealed rudder hingeline gaps, sealed elevon gaps and compartmentized speedbrakes.

  9. Low-speed wind tunnel study of longitudinal stability and usable-lift improvement of a cranked wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Dhanvada M.

    1987-01-01

    An exploratory low-speed investigation of a 70 deg/46 deg cranked-wing planform was undertaken to evaluate two vortex-control concepts aimed at alleviating a severe pitch up which limits the usable lift well below the C(sub L,max) of the basic wing. One concept was a strake-like extension introduced across the wing crank, whose vortex helps to stabilize the outer-wing flow and alleviate tip stall. The other was a lower-surface cavity flap employed to trap a vortex just beneath the inboard leading edge, resulting in reduced vortex lift over the inner-wing panel. Each of these concepts was shown to eliminate the high-alpha pitch up, potentially raising the maximum usable lift of the cranked wing practically to its C(sub L,max) value.

  10. Low-speed wind tunnel investigation of the stability and control characteristics of a series of flying wings with sweep angles of 60 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moul, Thomas M.; Fears, Scott P.; Ross, Holly M.; Foster, John V.

    1995-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted in the Langley 12-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel to study the low-speed stability and control characteristics of a series of four flying wings over an extended range of angle of attack (-8 deg to 48 deg). Because of the current emphasis on reducing the radar cross section of new military aircraft, the planform of each wing was composed of lines swept at a relatively high angle of 60 deg, and all the trailing-edge lines were aligned with one of the two leading edges. Three arrow planforms with different aspect ratios and one diamond planform were tested. The models incorporated leading-edge flaps for improved pitching-moment characteristics and lateral stability and had three sets of trailing-edge flaps that were deflected differentially for roll control, symmetrically for pitch control, and in a split fashion for yaw control. Top bodies of three widths and twin vertical tails of various sizes and locations were also tested on each model. A large aerodynamic database was compiled that could be used to evaluate some of the trade-offs involved in the design of a configuration with a reduced radar cross section and good flight dynamic characteristics.

  11. Wind-tunnel investigation of the powered low-speed longitudinal aerodynamics of the Vectored-Engine-Over (VEO) wing fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, J. W.; Whitten, P. D.; Stumpfl, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation incorporating both static and wind-on testing was conducted in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel to determine the effects of vectored thrust along with spanwise blowing on the low-speed aerodynamics of an advanced fighter configuration. Data were obtained over a large range of thrust coefficients corresponding to takeoff and landing thrust settings for many nozzle configurations. The complete set of static thrust data and the complete set of longitudinal aerodynamic data obtained in the investigation are presented. These data are intended for reference purposes and, therefore, are presented without analysis or comment. The analysis of the thrust-induced effects found in the investigation are not discussed.

  12. Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Tests of a Pilotless Aircraft Having Horizontal and Vertical Wings and Cruciform Tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastrocola, N; Assadourian, A

    1947-01-01

    Low-speed tests of a pilotless aircraft were conducted in the Langley propeller-research tunnel to provide information for the estimation of the longitudinal stability and. control, to measure the aileron effectiveness, and to calibrate the radome and the Machmeter pitot-static orifices. It was found that the model possessed a stEb.le variation of elevator angle required for trim throughout the speed range at the design angle of attack. A comparison of the airplane with and without JATO units and with an alternate rocket booster showed that a large loss in longitudinal stability and control resulting from the addition of the rocket booster to the aircraft was sufficient to make the rocket-booster assembly unsatisfactory as an alternate for the JATO units. Reversal of the aileron effectiveness was evident at positive deflections of the vertical wing flap indicating that the roll-stabilization system would produce roiling moments in a tight right turn contrary to its design purpose. Vertical-wing-flap deflections caused large errors in the static-pressure reading obtained by the original static-tube installation. A practical installation point on the fuselage was located which should yield reliable measurement of the free-stream static pressure.

  13. Low Speed Technology for Small Turbine Development Reaction Injection Molded 7.5 Meter Wind Turbine Blade

    SciTech Connect

    David M. Wright; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2007-07-31

    An optimized small turbine blade (7.5m radius) was designed and a partial section molded with the RIM (reaction-injection molded polymer) process for mass production. The intended market is for generic three-bladed wind turbines, 100 kilowatts or less, for grid-assist end users with rural and semi-rural sites, such as the farm/ranch market, having low to moderate IEC Class 3-4 wind regimes. This blade will have substantial performance improvements over, and be cheaper than, present-day 7.5m blades. This is made possible by the injection-molding process, which yields high repeatability, accurate geometry and weights, and low cost in production quantities. No wind turbine blade in the 7.5m or greater size has used this process. The blade design chosen uses a RIM skin bonded to a braided infused carbon fiber/epoxy spar. This approach is attractive to present users of wind turbine blades in the 5-10m sizes. These include rebladeing California wind farms, refurbishing used turbines for the Midwest farm market, and other manufacturers introducing new turbines in this size range.

  14. Full-scale S-76 rotor performance and loads at low speeds in the NASA Ames 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. Vol. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinoda, Patrick M.

    1996-01-01

    A full-scale helicopter rotor test was conducted in the NASA Ames 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel with a four-bladed S-76 rotor system. Rotor performance and loads data were obtained over a wide range of rotor shaft angles-of-attack and thrust conditions at tunnel speeds ranging from 0 to 100 kt. The primary objectives of this test were (1) to acquire forward flight rotor performance and loads data for comparison with analytical results; (2) to acquire S-76 forward flight rotor performance data in the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel to compare with existing full-scale 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel test data that were acquired in 1977; (3) to evaluate the acoustic capability of the 80- by 120- Foot Wind Tunnel for acquiring blade vortex interaction (BVI) noise in the low speed range and compare BVI noise with in-flight test data; and (4) to evaluate the capability of the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel test section as a hover facility. The secondary objectives were (1) to evaluate rotor inflow and wake effects (variations in tunnel speed, shaft angle, and thrust condition) on wind tunnel test section wall and floor pressures; (2) to establish the criteria for the definition of flow breakdown (condition where wall corrections are no longer valid) for this size rotor and wind tunnel cross-sectional area; and (3) to evaluate the wide-field shadowgraph technique for visualizing full-scale rotor wakes. This data base of rotor performance and loads can be used for analytical and experimental comparison studies for full-scale, four-bladed, fully articulated rotor systems. Rotor performance and structural loads data are presented in this report.

  15. Low speed wind tunnel test of a propulsive wing/canard concept in the STOL configuration. Volume 2: Test data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, V. R.

    1987-01-01

    A propulsive wind/canard model was tested at STOL operating conditions in the NASA Langley Research Center 4 x 7 meter wind tunnel. Longitudinal and lateral/directional aerodynamic characteristics were measured for various flap deflections, angles of attack and sideslip, and blowing coefficients. Testing was conducted for several model heights to determine ground proximity effects on the aerodynamic characteristics. Flow field surveys of local flow angles and velocities were performed behind both the canard and the wing. This is volume 2 of a 2 volume report. All of the test data in three appendices are presented. Appendix A presented tabulated six component force and moment data, Appendix B presents tabulated wing pressure coefficients, and Appendix C presents the flow field data.

  16. A low speed wind tunnel investigation of Reynolds number effects on a 60-deg swept wing configuration with leading and trailing edge flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Dhanvada M.; Hoffler, Keith D.

    1988-01-01

    A low-speed wind tunnel test was performed to investigate Reynolds number effects on the aerodynamic characteristics of a supersonic cruise wing concept model with a 60-deg swept wing incorporating leading-edge and trailing-edge flap deflections. The Reynolds number ranged from 0.3 to 1.6 x 10 to the 6th, and corresponding Mach numbers from .05 to 0.3. The objective was to define a threshold Reynolds number above which the flap aerodynamics basically remained unchanged, and also to generate a data base useful for validating theoretical predictions for the Reynolds number effects on flap performance. This report documents the test procedures used and the basic data acquired in the investigation.

  17. Results of investigations on a 0.0405 scale model PRR version of the NR-SSV orbiter in the North American Aeronautical Laboratory low speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kingsland, R. B.; Vaughn, J. E.; Singellton, R.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted in a low speed wind tunnel on a scale model space shuttle vehicle (SSV) orbiter. The purpose of the test was to investigate the longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of the space shuttle orbiter. Emphasis was placed on model component, wing-glove, and wing-body fairing effects, as well as elevon, aileron, and rudder control effectiveness. Angles of attack from - 5 deg to + 30 deg and angles of sideslip of - 5 deg, 0 deg, and + 5 deg were tested. Static pressures were recorded on base, fuselage, and wing surfaces. Tufts and talc-kerosene flow visualization techniques were also utilized. The aerodynamic force balance results are presented in plotted and tabular form.

  18. NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel: Background Noise and Flow Survey Results Prior to FY05 Construction of Facilities Modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Earl R., Jr.; Henderson, Brenda S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel is a premier facility for model-scale testing of jet noise reduction concepts at realistic flow conditions. However, flow inside the open jet test section is less than optimum. A Construction of Facilities project, scheduled for FY 05, will replace the flow collector with a new design intended to reduce recirculation in the open jet test section. The reduction of recirculation will reduce background noise levels measured by a microphone array impinged by the recirculation flow and will improve flow characteristics in the open jet tunnel flow. In order to assess the degree to which this modification is successful, background noise levels and tunnel flow are documented, in order to establish a baseline, in this report.

  19. Low-speed Wind-Tunnel Study of Reaction Control-jet Effectiveness for Hover and Transition of a STOVL Fighter Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, Donald R.; Shah, Gautam H.; Kuhn, Richard E.

    1989-01-01

    A brief wind-tunnel study was conducted in the Langley 12-Foot Low-Speed Tunnel to determine reaction control-jet effectiveness and some associated aerodynamic characteristics of a 15 percent scale model of the General Dynamics E-7A STOVL fighter/attack aircraft concept applicable to hover and transition flight. Tests were made with the model at various attitude angles in the tunnel test section and at various tunnel airspeeds for a range of control-jet nozzle pressure ratios. Eight reaction control-jets were tested individually. Four jets were at the design baseline locations providing roll, pitch, and yaw control. Comparisons of measured data with values calculated using empirical methods were made where possible.

  20. Low-Speed Dynamic Wind Tunnel Test Analysis of a Generic 53 Degree Swept UCAV Configuration With Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.; Huber, Kerstin C.; Rohlf, Detlef; Loser, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Several static and dynamic forced-motion wind tunnel tests have been conducted on a generic unmanned combat air vehicle (UCAV) configuration with a 53deg swept leading edge. These tests are part of an international research effort to assess and advance the state-of-art of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to predict the static and dynamic stability and control characteristics for this type of configuration. This paper describes the dynamic forced motion data collected from two different models of this UCAV configuration as well as analysis of the control surface deflections on the dynamic forces and moments.

  1. An Auto-Tuning PI Control System for an Open-Circuit Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Designed for Greenhouse Technology.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Karlos; Valera, Diego L; Torres, José A; López, Alejandro; Molina-Aiz, Francisco D

    2015-01-01

    Wind tunnels are a key experimental tool for the analysis of airflow parameters in many fields of application. Despite their great potential impact on agricultural research, few contributions have dealt with the development of automatic control systems for wind tunnels in the field of greenhouse technology. The objective of this paper is to present an automatic control system that provides precision and speed of measurement, as well as efficient data processing in low-speed wind tunnel experiments for greenhouse engineering applications. The system is based on an algorithm that identifies the system model and calculates the optimum PI controller. The validation of the system was performed on a cellulose evaporative cooling pad and on insect-proof screens to assess its response to perturbations. The control system provided an accuracy of <0.06 m·s(-1) for airflow speed and <0.50 Pa for pressure drop, thus permitting the reproducibility and standardization of the tests. The proposed control system also incorporates a fully-integrated software unit that manages the tests in terms of airflow speed and pressure drop set points. PMID:26274962

  2. An Auto-Tuning PI Control System for an Open-Circuit Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Designed for Greenhouse Technology

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Karlos; Valera, Diego L.; Torres, José A.; López, Alejandro; Molina-Aiz, Francisco D.

    2015-01-01

    Wind tunnels are a key experimental tool for the analysis of airflow parameters in many fields of application. Despite their great potential impact on agricultural research, few contributions have dealt with the development of automatic control systems for wind tunnels in the field of greenhouse technology. The objective of this paper is to present an automatic control system that provides precision and speed of measurement, as well as efficient data processing in low-speed wind tunnel experiments for greenhouse engineering applications. The system is based on an algorithm that identifies the system model and calculates the optimum PI controller. The validation of the system was performed on a cellulose evaporative cooling pad and on insect-proof screens to assess its response to perturbations. The control system provided an accuracy of <0.06 m·s−1 for airflow speed and <0.50 Pa for pressure drop, thus permitting the reproducibility and standardization of the tests. The proposed control system also incorporates a fully-integrated software unit that manages the tests in terms of airflow speed and pressure drop set points. PMID:26274962

  3. Low-speed wind-tunnel investigation of a large-scale VTOL lift-fan transport model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aoyagi, K.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the NASA-Ames 40 by 80 Foot Wind Tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a large scale, VTOL, lift fan, jet transport model. The model had two lift fans at the forward portion of the fuselage, a lift fan at each wing tip, and two lift/cruise fans at the aft portion of the fuselage. All fans were driven by tip turbines using T-58 gas generators. Results were obtained for several lift fan, exit vane deflections and lift/cruise fan thrust deflections are zero sideslip. Three component longitudinal data are presented at several fan tip speed ratios. A limited amount of six component data were obtained with asymmetric vane settings. All of the data were obtained without a horizontal tail. Downwash angles at a typical tail location are also presented.

  4. Low-speed wind-tunnel investigation of a porous forebody and nose strakes for yaw control of a multirole fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fears, Scott P.

    1995-01-01

    Low-speed wind-tunnel tests were conducted in the Langley 12-Foot Low-Speed Tunnel on a model of the Boeing Multirole Fighter (BMRF) aircraft. This single-seat, single-engine configuration was intended to be an F-16 replacement that would incorporate many of the design goals and advanced technologies of the F-22. Its mission requirements included supersonic cruise without afterburner, reduced observability, and the ability to attack both air-to-air and air-to-ground targets. So that it would be effective in all phases of air combat, the ability to maneuver at angles of attack up to and beyond maximum lift was also desired. Traditional aerodynamic yaw controls, such as rudders, are typically ineffective at these higher angles of attack because they are usually located in the wake from the wings and fuselage. For this reason, this study focused on investigating forebody-mounted controls that produces yawing moments by modifying the strong vortex flowfield being shed from the forebody at high angles of attack. Two forebody strakes were tested that varied in planform and chordwise location. Various patterns of porosity in the forebody skin were also tested that differed in their radial coverage and chordwise location. The tests were performed at a dynamic pressure of 4 lb/ft(exp 2) over an angle-of-attack range of -4 deg to 72 deg and a sideslip range of -10 deg to 10 deg. Static force data, static pressures on the surface of the forebody, and videotapes of flow-visualization using laser-illuminated smoke were obtained.

  5. Stability and control characteristics for the inner mold line configuration of the space shuttle orbiter (OA110). [tested in the low speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, T.; Rogge, R.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on a sting mounted 0.0405-scale representation of the -140A/B inner mold line (IML) space shuttle orbiter in 7.75 x 11 foot low speed wind tunnel, during the time period from 18 March 1974 to 20 March 1974. The primary test objectives were to establish basic longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control characteristics for the IML orbiter. Additional configurations investigated were sealed elevon hingeline gaps, sealed rudder split line and hingeline gaps, larger radius leading edge on the vertical tail, and sealed speedbrake base. Aerodynamic force and moment data for the orbiter were measured in the body-axis system by an internally mounted, six-component strain gage balance. The model was sting mounted with the center of rotation located at approximately the wing trailing edge. The nominal angle of attack range was from -4 to +30 degrees. Yaw polars were recorded over a nominal yaw angle range from -14 to +14 degrees at constant angles of attack of 0, + or - 5, 10, 15 and 20 degrees.

  6. Investigation of space shuttle orbiter subsonic stability and control characteristics in the NAAL low speed wind tunnel (0A62b), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennell, R.; Hughes, T.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on a sting-mounted 0.0405 scale representation of the 140A/B space shuttle orbiter in a 7.75 ft by 11 ft low speed wind tunnel during the time period from November 14, 1973, to December 6, 1973, with the primary test objectives being to establish basic longitudinal stability characteristics in and out of ground effect, as well as lateral-directional stability characteristics in free air. Two dual podded nacelle configurations were also tested, one with three dual podded nacelles on the lower wing surface, and the other with a single dual nacelle on the lower centerline with dual nacelle pylons mounted above each wing. Stability and control characteristics were investigated at nominal elevon, rudder, aileron, and body flap deflections. Pressure bugs were used to determine pressures on the vertical tail at spanwise stations, and aerodynamic force and moment data were measured in the stability axis system by an internally mounted, six component strain gage balance.

  7. Preliminary Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Some Aspects of the Aerodynamic Problems Associated with Missiles Carried Externally in Positions Near Airplane Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, William J., Jr.; Silvers, H. Norman; King, Thomas J., Jr.

    1954-01-01

    A low-speed wind-tunnel investigation has been made of some aspects of the aerodynamic problems associated with the use of air-to-air missiles when carried externally on aircraft. Measurements of the forces and moments on a missile model for a range of positions under the mid-semispan location of a 45deg sweptback wing indicated longitudinal and lateral forces with regard to both carriage and release of the missiles. Surveys of the characteristics of the flow field in the region likely to be traversed by the missiles showed abrupt gradients in both flow angularity and in local dynamic pressure. Through the use of aerodynamic data on the isolated missile and the measured flow-field characteristics, the longitudinal forces and moments acting on the missile while in the presence of the wing-fuselage combination could be estimated with fair accuracy. Although the lateral forces and moments predicted were qualitatively correct, there existed some large discrepancies in absolute magnitude.

  8. Pretest Report for the Full Span Propulsive Wing/Canard Model Test in the NASA Langley 4 x 7 Meter Low Speed Wind Tunnel Second Series Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, V. R.

    1986-01-01

    A full span propulsive wing/canard model is to be tested in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 4 x 7 meter low speed wind tunnel. These tests are a continuation of the tests conducted in Feb. 1984, NASA test No.290, and are being conducted under NASA Contract NAS1-17171. The purpose of these tests is to obtain extensive lateral-directional data with a revised fuselage concept. The wings, canards, and vertical tail of this second test series model are the same as tested in the previous test period. The fuselage and internal flow path have been modified to better reflect an external configuration suitable for a fighter airplane. Internal ducting and structure were changed as required to provide test efficiency and blowing control. The model fuselage tested during the 1984 tests was fabricated with flat sides to provide multiple wing and canard placement variations. The locations of the wing and canard are important variables in configuration development. With the establishment of the desired relative placement of the lifting surfaces, a typically shaped fuselage has been fabricated for these tests. This report provides the information necessary for the second series tests of the propulsive wing/canard model. The discussion in this report is limited to that affected by the model changes and to the second series test program. The pretest report information for test 290 which is valid for the second series test was published in Rockwell report NR 83H-79. This report is presented as Appendix 1 and the modified fuselage stress report is presented as Appendix 2 to this pretest report.

  9. Low-speed wind-tunnel investigation of the flight dynamic characteristics of an advanced turboprop business/commuter aircraft configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, Paul L., Jr.; Turner, Steven G.; Owens, D. Bruce

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the low-speed flight dynamic behavior of a representative advanced turboprop business/commuter aircraft concept. Free-flight tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center's 30- by 60-Foot Tunnel. In support of the free-flight tests, conventional static, dynamic, and free-to-roll oscillation tests were performed. Tests were intended to explore normal operating and post stall flight conditions, and conditions simulating the loss of power in one engine.

  10. Large-Scale Wind-Tunnel Tests and Evaluation of the Low-Speed Performance of a 35 deg Sweptback Wing Jet Transport Model Equipped with a Blowing Boundary-Layer-Control Flap and Leading-Edge Slat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, David H.; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi

    1960-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the effect of trailing-edge flaps with blowing-type boundary-layer control and leading-edge slats on the low-speed performance of a large-scale jet transport model with four engines and a 35 deg. sweptback wing of aspect ratio 7. Two spanwise extents and several deflections of the trailing-edge flap were tested. Results were obtained with a normal leading-edge and with full-span leading-edge slats. Three-component longitudinal force and moment data and boundary-layer-control flow requirements are presented. The test results are analyzed in terms of possible improvements in low-speed performance. The effect on performance of the source of boundary-layer-control air flow is considered in the analysis.

  11. Wind-tunnel investigation to determine the low speed yawing stability derivatives of a twin jet fighter model at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.; Newsom, W. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the low-speed yawing stability derivatives of a twin-jet fighter airplane model at high angles of attack. Tests were performed in a low-speed tunnel utilizing variable-curvature walls to simulate pure yawing motion. The results of the study showed that at angles of attack below the stall the yawing derivatives were essentially independent of the yawing velocity and sideslip angle. However, at angles of attack above the stall some nonlinear variations were present and the derivatives were strongly dependent upon sideslip angle. The results also showed that the rolling moment due to yawing was primarily due to the wing-fuselage combination, and that at angles of attack below the stall both the vertical and horizontal tails produced significant contributions to the damping in yaw. Additionally, the tests showed that the use of the forced-oscillation data to represent the yawing stability derivatives is questionable, at high angles of attack, due to large effects arising from the acceleration in sideslip derivatives.

  12. Low-speed wind-tunnel investigation of a large scale advanced arrow-wing supersonic transport configuration with engines mounted above wing for upper-surface blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivers, J. P.; Mclemore, H. C.; Coe, P. L., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Tests have been conducted in a full scale tunnel to determine the low speed aerodynamic characteristics of a large scale advanced arrow wing supersonic transport configuration with engines mounted above the wing for upper surface blowing. Tests were made over an angle of attack range of -10 deg to 32 deg, sideslip angles of + or - 5 deg, and a Reynolds number range of 3,530,000 to 7,330,000. Configuration variables included trailing edge flap deflection, engine jet nozzle angle, engine thrust coefficient, engine out operation, and asymmetrical trailing edge boundary layer control for providing roll trim. Downwash measurements at the tail were obtained for different thrust coefficients, tail heights, and at two fuselage stations.

  13. Low-speed wind-tunnel study of the high-angle-of-attack stability and control characteristics of a cranked-arrow-wing fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grafton, S. B.

    1984-01-01

    The low-speed, high-angle-of-attack stability and control characteristics of a fighter configuration incorporating a cranked arrow wing were investigated in the Langley 30- by 60-foot tunnel as part of a NASA/General Dynamics cooperative research program to investigate the application of advanced wing designs to combat aircraft. Tests were conducted on a baseline configuration and on several modified configurations. The results show that the baseline configuration exhibited a high level of maximum lift but displayed undesirable longitudinal and lateral-directional stability characteristics at high angles of attack. Various wing modifications were made which improved the longitudinal and lateral-directional stability characteristics of the configuration at high angles of attack. However, most of the modifications were detrimental to maximum lift.

  14. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Low-Speed Characteristics of a 1/8-Scale Model of the Republic XP-91 Airplane with a Vee and a Conventional Tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiberg, James A.; Anderson, Warren E.

    1947-01-01

    Low-speed wind-tunnel tests of a l/8 scale model of the Republic XP-91 airplane were made to determine its low-speed characteristics and the relative merits of a vee and a conventional tail on the model. The results of the tests showed that for the same amount of longitudinal and directional stability the conventional tail gave less roll due to sideslip than did the vee tail. The directional stability of the model was considered inadequate for both the vee and conventional tails; however, increasing the area and aspect ratio of the conventional vertical tail provided adequate directional stability. It was possible with negative wing dihedral and open main landing gear doors to reduce the excessive roll due to sideslip for the landing configuration (flaps and gear down) to a more reasonable value commensurate with the aileron power. The use of variable wing incidence to adjust the longitudinal balance was sufficiently effective to reduce the predicted up-elevator required for landing by approximately 5 deg.

  15. Low-speed wind tunnel tests of a 50.8-centimeter (20-in.) 1.15-pressure-ratio fan engine model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesoky, H. L.; Abbott, J. M.; Albers, J. A.; Dietrich, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    At a typical STOL aircraft takeoff and landing velocity, wind tunnel aerodynamic and acoustic measurements demonstrated that an inlet lip-area contraction ratio of 1.35 was superior to a ratio of 1.26 at high incidence angles. A 17 percent reduction in net thrust and an increase of 9 decibels in sound pressure level at the blade passing frequency resulted from inlet flow separation at an incidence angle of 50 deg with the 1.26-contraction-ratio inlet. Reverse-thrust forces obtained with blade rotation through the feathered angle were 1.8 times larger than with blade rotation through the flat angle. Reverse-thrust force was reduced from 30 to 50 percent and sound pressure level increased from 3 to 7 decibels at the blade passing frequency between the wind-tunnel-off condition and a typical STOL aircraft landing velocity.

  16. NASA low speed centrifugal compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, Michael D.

    1990-01-01

    The flow characteristics of a low speed centrifugal compressor were examined at NASA Lewis Research Center to improve understanding of the flow in centrifugal compressors, to provide models of various flow phenomena, and to acquire benchmark data for three dimensional viscous flow code validation. The paper describes the objectives, test facilities' instrumentation, and experiment preliminary comparisons.

  17. A low speed wind tunnel test of a 0.050 scale model of shuttle orbiter (model 089B) to investigate the longitudinal and lateral directional effects of canard and tail configurational modifications in the LTV LSWT (MA14)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambliss, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    A low speed wind tunnel test was conducted to determine the effects of 6 canard configurations on the 0.050 scale model of shuttle orbiter 089B. In addition, two horizontal tail configurations were tested at two positions on the model as were two wing configurations. Since this test was restricted to 103 runs, only a limited number of permutations of the configurational changes could be tested. The testing was done in the 15 by 20 foot section of the LSWT and consisted of pitch polars, one yawed polar and several yaw runs. The pitch polars encompassed an alpha range from 0 to 28 deg; the yawed polar was run at beta = +2 degrees and the yaw runs covered a beta range from -6 to +6 deg at angles-of-attack of 0, 4, 10, 16, and 20 deg.

  18. Test data report: Low speed wind tunnel tests of a full scale, fixed geometry inlet, with engine, at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shain, W. M.

    1976-01-01

    A full scale inlet test was to be done in the NASA-ARC 40' X 80' WT to demonstrate satisfactory inlet performance at high angles of attack. The inlet was designed to match a Hamilton-Standard 55 inch, variable pitch fan, driven by a Lycoming T55-L-11A gas generator. The test was installed in the wind tunnel on two separate occasions, but mechanical failures in the fan drive gear box early in each period terminated testing. A detailed description is included of the Model, installation, instrumentation and data reduction procedures.

  19. Exploratory low-speed wind-tunnel study of concepts designed to improve aircraft stability and control at high angles of attack. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation of concepts to improve the high angle-of-attack stability and control characteristics of a high performance aircraft was conducted. The effect of vertical tail geometry on stability and the effectiveness of several conventional and unusual control concepts was determined. These results were obtained over a large angle-of-attack range. Vertical tail location, cant angle and leading edge sweep could influence both longitudinal and lateral-directional stability. The control concepts tested were found to be effective and to provide control into the post stall angle-of-attack region.

  20. Low speed wind tunnel test of a propulsive wing/canard concept in the STOL configuration. Volume 1: Test description and discussion of results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, V. R.

    1987-01-01

    A propulsive wing/canard model was tested at STOL operating conditions in the NASA Langley Research Center 4 x 7 meter wind tunnel. Longitudinal and lateral/directional aerodynamic characteristics were measured for various flap deflections, angles of attack and sideslip, and blowing coefficients. Testing was conducted for several model heights to determine ground proximity effects on the aerodynamic characteristics. Flow field surveys of local flow angles and velocities were performed behind both the canard and the wing. This is volume 1 of a 2 volume report. The model, instrumentation, and test procedures are described. An analysis of the data is included.

  1. Low speed testing of the inlets designed for a tamden-fan V/STOL nacelle. [conducted in the Lewis 10 by 10 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. C.; Ybarra, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    An approximately 0.25 scale model of a tandem fan nacelle, designed for a subsonic V/STOL aircraft, was tested in a Lewis wind tunnel. Model variables included long and short aft inlet cowls and the addition of exterior strakes to the short inlet cowl. Inlet pressure recoveries and distortion were measured at pitch angles to 40 deg and at combinations of pitch and yaw to 30 deg. Airspeeds covered a range to 135 knots (69 m/sec). The short aft inlet with added strakes had the best aerodynamic performance and is considered suitable for the intended V/STOL application.

  2. Additional Testing of the DHC-6 Twin Otter Tailplane Iced Airfoil Section in the Ohio State University 7x10 Low Speed Wind Tunnel. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregorek, Gerald; Dresse, John J.; LaNoe, Karine; Ratvasky, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The need for fundamental research in Ice Contaminated Tailplane Stall (ICTS) was established through three international conferences sponsored by the FAA. A joint NASA/FAA Tailplane Icing Program was formed in 1994 with the Ohio State University playing a critical role for wind tunnel and analytical research. Two entries of a full-scale 2-dimensional tailplane airfoil model of a DHC-6 Twin Otter were made in The Ohio State University 7x10 ft wind tunnel. This report describes the second test entry that examined additional ice shapes and roughness, as well as airfoil section differences. The addition data obtained in this test fortified the original database of aerodynamic coefficients that permit a detailed analysis of flight test results with an OSU-developed analytical program. The testing encompassed a full range of angles of attack and elevator deflections at flight Reynolds number conditions. Aerodynamic coefficients, C(L), C(M), and C(He), were obtained by integrating static pressure coefficient, C(P), values obtained from surface taps. Comparisons of clean and iced airfoil results show a significant decrease in the tailplane aeroperformance (decreased C(Lmax), decreased stall angle, increased C(He)) for all ice shapes with the grit having the lease affect and the LEWICE shape having the greatest affect. All results were consistent with observed tailplane stall phenomena and constitute an effective set of data for comprehensive analysis of ICTS.

  3. Experimental Study of Slat Noise from 30P30N Three-Element High-Lift Airfoil in JAXA Hard-Wall Low-Speed Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Nakakita, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuomi; Ura, Hiroki; Ito, Yasushi; Choudhari, Meelan M.

    2014-01-01

    Aeroacoustic measurements associated with noise radiation from the leading edge slat of the canonical, unswept 30P30N three-element high-lift airfoil configuration have been obtained in a 2 m x 2 m hard-wall wind tunnel at the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Performed as part of a collaborative effort on airframe noise between JAXA and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the model geometry and majority of instrumentation details are identical to a NASA model with the exception of a larger span. For an angle of attack up to 10 degrees, the mean surface Cp distributions agree well with free-air computational fluid dynamics predictions corresponding to a corrected angle of attack. After employing suitable acoustic treatment for the brackets and end-wall effects, an approximately 2D noise source map is obtained from microphone array measurements, thus supporting the feasibility of generating a measurement database that can be used for comparison with free-air numerical simulations. Both surface pressure spectra obtained via KuliteTM transducers and the acoustic spectra derived from microphone array measurements display a mixture of a broad band component and narrow-band peaks (NBPs), both of which are most intense at the lower angles of attack and become progressively weaker as the angle of attack is increased. The NBPs exhibit a substantially higher spanwise coherence in comparison to the broadband portion of the spectrum and, hence, confirm the trends observed in previous numerical simulations. Somewhat surprisingly, measurements show that the presence of trip dots between the stagnation point and slat cusp enhances the NBP levels rather than mitigating them as found in a previous experiment.

  4. Low-speed wind tunnel investigation of the static stability and control characteristics of an advanced turboprop configuration with the propellers placed over the tail. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Graham Scott

    1990-01-01

    An exploratory wind tunnel investigation was performed in the 30 x 60 foot wind tunnel to determine the low speed static stability and control characteristics into the deep stall regime of an advanced turboprop aircraft with the propellers located over the horizontal tail. By this arrangement, the horizontal tail could potentially provide acoustic shielding to reduce the high community noise caused by the propeller blades. The current configuration was a generic turboprop model equipped with 1 foot diameter single rotating eight bladed propellers that were designed for efficient cruise operation at a Mach number of 0.8. The data presented is static force data. The effects of power on the configuration characteristics were generally favorable. An arrangement with the propellers rotating with the outboard blades moving down was found to have significantly higher installed thrust than an arrangement with the propellers rotating with the inboard blades moving down. The primary unfavorable effect was a large pitch trim change which occurred with power, but the trim change could be minimized with a proper configuration design.

  5. Future experimental needs in low-speed aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Lawrence E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a review of future experimental needs in low-speed aerodynamic research. Emphasis is on fixed wind aircraft and the review uses the anticipated technical needs of subsonic transport aircraft and supersonic transport aircraft to establish and prioritize future low-speed experimental needs and directions. These technical needs, combined with a continuing improvement in computational capability, suggest changes in the experimental capabilities and adjustments in the use of existing capabilities. Three factors emerge that will have a major influence on the future directions for low-speed aerodynamic research: a recognition of the significance of three-dimensional high-lift aerodynamics, the increasing importance of aeroacoustics, and additional emphasis on the importance of propulsion/airframe integration. These analyses are combined with a review of the status of experimental capabilities in low-speed aerodynamic research to suggest future directions in the development and utilization of advanced instrumentation, test techniques, and test capabilities.

  6. Space Shuttle Orbiter Crew Hatch Jettison Test using a 0.0405-scale model (16-0) in the Texas A/M low speed wind tunnel (OA362). Space Shuttle aerothermodynamic data report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    This report contains post-test information for the Space Shuttle Orbiter Crew Hatch Jettison Test OA362 which was conducted in the Texas A&M Low Speed Wind Tunnel from 6/15/87 to 6/22/87. The test objective was to verify that the crew hatch, once jettisoned, would clear the orbiter under various simulated flight conditions. Several model hatches were used with the 0.0405-scale orbiter (Model 16-0). The model's angle of attack was set at 10, 15, and 20 degrees while the sideslip had values of minus 5, 0, and plus 5 degrees. The full scale Qbars that were simulated were 105, 128, 160, and 210 psf. In the hatch jettison mechanism itself, the plunger pressure was varied to achieve horizontal velocities of 3, 5, 7, and 20.1 feet per second model scale, and the plunger location was varied to achieve a variety of rotational velocities. The orbiter model was subjected to 122 runs with 13 different hatches. Of these, 60 were good runs.

  7. Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Blowing Boundary-Layer Control on Leading- and Trailing-Edge Flaps of a Large-Scale, Low-Aspect-Ratio, 45 Swept-wing Airplane Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, Ralph L.

    1959-01-01

    Blowing boundary-layer control was applied to the leading- and trailing-edge flaps of a 45 deg sweptback-wing complete model in a full-scale low-speed wind-tunnel study. The principal purpose of the study was to determine the effects of leading-edge flap deflection and boundary-layer control on maximum lift and longitudinal stability. Leading-edge flap deflection alone was sufficient to maintain static longitudinal stability without trailing-edge flaps. However, leading-edge flap blowing was required to maintain longitudinal stability by delaying leading-edge flow separation when trailing-edge flaps were deflected either with or without blowing. Partial-span leading-edge flaps deflected 60 deg with moderate blowing gave the major increase in maximum lift, although higher deflection and additional blowing gave some further increase. Inboard of 0.4 semispan leading-edge flap deflection could be reduced to 40 deg and/or blowing could be omitted with only small loss in maximum lift. Trailing-edge flap lift increments were increased by boundary-layer control for deflections greater than 45 deg. Maximum lift was not increased with deflected trailing-edge flaps with blowing.

  8. Low-speed wind-tunnel tests of a 1/10-scale model of an advanced arrow-wing supersonic cruise configuration designed for cruise at Mach 2.2. [Langley Full Scale Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yip, L. P.

    1979-01-01

    The low-speed longitudinal and lateral-directional characteristics of a scale model of an advanced arrow-wing supersonic cruise configuration were investigated in tests conducted at a Reynolds number of 4.19 x 10 to the 6th power based on the mean aerodynamic chord, with an angle of attack range from - 6 deg to 23 deg and sideslip angle range from -15 deg to 20 deg. The effects of segmented leading-edge flaps, slotted trailing-edge flaps, horizontal and vertical tails, and ailerons and spoilers were determined. Extensive pressure data and flow visualization pictures with non-intrusive fluorescent mini-tufts were obtained.

  9. Low Speed Control for Automatic Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iceland, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Amplifier module allows rotating positioner of automatic welding machine to operate at speeds below normal range. Low speeds are precisely regulated by a servomechanism as are normal-range speeds. Addition of module to standard welding machine makes it unnecessary to purchase new equipment for low-speed welding.

  10. Helicopter low-speed yaw control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John C. (Inventor); Kelley, Henry L. (Inventor); Crowell, Cynthia A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A system for improving yaw control at low speeds consists of one strake placed on the upper portion of the fuselage facing the retreating rotor blade and another strake placed on the lower portion of the fuselage facing the advancing rotor blade. These strakes spoil the airflow on the helicopter tail boom during hover, low speed flight, and right or left sidewards flight so that less side thrust is required from the tail rotor.

  11. Low speed inducers for cryogenic upper stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Briefing charts are presented, which were used in an oral presentation of the results and recommendations for the design and analysis of low speed hydrogen and oxygen inducers and their drive systems applicable to the space tug. A discussion of the design of the 15K and RL-10 inducers is included.

  12. Wind-Tunnel Investigation at Low Speed of the Rolling Stability Derivatives of a 1/9-Scale Powered Model of the Convair XFY-1 Vertically Rising Airplane, TED No. NACA DE 373

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queijo, M. J.; Wolhart, Walter D.; Fletcher, H. S.

    1953-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted in the Langley stability tunnel at low speed to determine the rolling stability derivatives of a 1/9-scale powered model of the Convair XFY-1 vertically rising airplane. Effects of thrust coefficient were investigated for the complete model and for certain components of the model. Effects of control deflections and of propeller blade angle were investigated for the complete model. Most of the tests were made through an angle-of-attack range from about -4deg to 29deg, and the thrust coefficient range was from 0 to 0.7. In order to expedite distribution of these data, no analysis of the data has been prepared for this paper.

  13. Wind-Tunnel Investigation at Low Speed of the Effects of Chordwise Wing Fences and Horizontal-Tail Position on the Static Longitudinal Stability Characteristics of an Airplane Model with a 35 Degree Sweptback Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Queijo, M J; Jaquet, Byron M; Wolhart, Walter D

    1954-01-01

    Low-speed tests of a model with a wing swept back 35 degrees at the 0.33-chord line and a horizontal tail located well above the extended wing-chord plane indicated static longitudinal instability at moderate angles of attack for all configurations tested. An investigation therefore was made to determine whether the longitudinal stability could be improved by the use of chordwise wing fences, by lowering the horizontal tail, or by a combination of both. The results of the investigation showed that the longitudinal stability characteristics of the model with slats retracted could be improved at moderate angles of attack by placing chordwise wing fences at a spanwise station of about 73 percent of the wing semispan from the plane of symmetry provided the nose of the fence extended slightly beyond or around the wing leading edge.

  14. Low-speed wind-tunnel tests of a one-tenth-scale model of a blended-arrow advanced supersonic transport. [conducted in Langley full-scale tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemore, H. C.; Parett, L. P.

    1975-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Langley full scale tunnel to determine the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/10 scale model of a blended-arrow advanced supersonic transport. Tests were made for the clean configuration and a high-lift configuration with several combinations of leading- and trailing-edge flaps deflected for providing improved lift and longitudinal stability in the landing and takeoff modes. The tests were conducted for a range of angles of attack from about -6 deg to 30 deg, sideslip angles from -5 deg to 10 deg, and for Reynolds numbers from 6.78 x 1,000,000 to 13.85 x 1,000,000 corresponding to test velocities of 41 knots to 85 knots, respectively.

  15. Comparison of several methods for estimating low speed stability derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, H. S.

    1971-01-01

    Methods presented in five different publications have been used to estimate the low-speed stability derivatives of two unpowered airplane configurations. One configuration had unswept lifting surfaces, the other configuration was the D-558-II swept-wing research airplane. The results of the computations were compared with each other, with existing wind-tunnel data, and with flight-test data for the D-558-II configuration to assess the relative merits of the methods for estimating derivatives. The results of the study indicated that, in general, for low subsonic speeds, no one text appeared consistently better for estimating all derivatives.

  16. Blended-Wing-Body Low-Speed Flight Dynamics: Summary of Ground Tests and Sample Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.

    2009-01-01

    A series of low-speed wind tunnel tests of a Blended-Wing-Body tri-jet configuration to evaluate the low-speed static and dynamic stability and control characteristics over the full envelope of angle of attack and sideslip are summarized. These data were collected for use in simulation studies of the edge-of-the-envelope and potential out-of-control flight characteristics. Some selected results with lessons learned are presented.

  17. Investigation of low-speed turbulent separated flow around airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadcock, Alan J.

    1987-01-01

    Described is a low-speed wind tunnel experiment to measure the flowfield around a two-dimensional airfoil operating close to maximum lift. Boundary layer separation occurs on the upper surface at x/c=0.85. A three-component laser velocimeter, coupled with a computer-controlled data acquisition system, was used to obtain three orthogonal mean velocity components and three components of the Reynolds stress tensor in both the boundary layer and wake of the airfoil. Pressure distributions on the airfoil, skin friction distribution on the upper surface of the airfoil, and integral properties of the airfoil boudary layer are also documented. In addition to these near-field flow properties, static pressure distributions, both upstream and downstream from the airfoil and on the walls of the wind tunnel, are also presented.

  18. Results of the Low Speed Aeroelastic Buffet Test with a 0.046-scale Model (747-ax1322-d-3/orbiter 8-0) of the 747 Cam/orbiter in the University of Washington Wind Tunnel (CS 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillins, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    A series of wind tunnel studies designed to assess the potential buffet problems resulting from orbiter wake characteristics with its tailcone removed are presented to provide design loads and acceleration environments, and to develop data on buffet sensitivity to various aerodynamic configurations and flight parameters. Data are intended to support subsequent analyses of structural fatigue life, crew efficiency, and equipment vibrations.

  19. Solid Inflammability Boundary at Low Speed (SIBAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, James S.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Bedir, Hasan; Shih, Hsin-Yi; Greenberg, Paul S.; Pettegrew, Richard D.; Piltch, Nancy; Frate, David

    1997-01-01

    This research program is concerned with the effect of low speed flow on the spreading and extinction processes of flames over solid fuels. We are particularly interested in the flammability boundary and the near-limit flame behavior in a microgravity environment. Primary attention is given to flame propagation in concurrent flow - the more hazardous situation from the point of view of fire safety. Both theoretical modeling and experimental research are in progress. This project passed the Science Concept Review (SCR) in 1996. As a result, the experiment continues on the flight definition path, and is currently scheduled to be performed in the Space Station Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF).

  20. Solid Inflammability Boundary at Low Speed (SIBAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    T'ien, James S.; Ferkul, Paul; Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Shih, Hsin-Yi; Bedir, Hasan; Greenberg, Paul S.; Pettegrew, Richard D.; Piltch, Nancy; Frate, David

    1999-01-01

    This research program is concerned with the effect of low-speed, concurrent flow on the spreading and extinction processes of flames over solid fuels. The primary objective is to verify the theoretically predicted extinction boundary, using oxygen percentage and flow velocity as coordinates. In particular, we are interested in the low-speed quenching limits and the existence of the critical oxygen flammability limit. Detailed flame spread characteristics, including flame spread rate, flame size, and flame structure are sought. Since the predicted flame behavior depends on the inclusion of flame and surface radiation, the measured results will also be used to assess the importance of radiative heat transfer by direct comparison to a comprehensive numerical model. This project passed the Science Concept Review (SCR) in 1996. As a result, the experiment continues on the flight definition path, and is currently scheduled to be performed in the Space Station Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR). We present an overview of recent and ongoing work, including selected experimental and theoretical topics.

  1. UH-60 Black Hawk Disturbance Rejection Study for Hover/Low Speed Handling Qualities Criteria and Turbulence Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labows, Steven J.; Blanken, Chris L.; Tischler, Mark B.

    1999-01-01

    This paper will discuss the airborne flight test of the Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter in turbulent conditions to determine disturbance rejection criteria and develop a low speed wind/turbulence model for helicopter simulation.

  2. Low-speed longitudinal orbiter qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, B. G.

    1985-01-01

    The shuttle program took on the challenge of providing a manual landing capability for an operational vehicle returning from orbit. Some complex challenges were encountered in developing the longitudinal flying qualities required to land the orbiter manually in an operational environment. Approach and landing test flights indicated a tendency for pilot-induced oscillation near landing. Changes in the operational procedures reduced the difficulty of the landing task, and an adaptive stick filter was incorporated to reduce the severity of any pilot-induced oscillatory motions. Fixed-base, movingbase, and in-flight simulations were used for the evaluations, and in general, flight simulation was the only reliable means of assessing the low-speed longitudinal flying qualities problems. Overall, the orbiter control system and operational procedures have produced a good capability to routinely perform precise landings with a large, unpowered vehicle with a low lift-to-drag ratio.

  3. Low speed airfoil design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, R.; Somers, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    A low speed airfoil design and analysis program was developed which contains several unique features. In the design mode, the velocity distribution is not specified for one but many different angles of attack. Several iteration options are included which allow the trailing edge angle to be specified while other parameters are iterated. For airfoil analysis, a panel method is available which uses third-order panels having parabolic vorticity distributions. The flow condition is satisfied at the end points of the panels. Both sharp and blunt trailing edges can be analyzed. The integral boundary layer method with its laminar separation bubble analog, empirical transition criterion, and precise turbulent boundary layer equations compares very favorably with other methods, both integral and finite difference. Comparisons with experiment for several airfoils over a very wide Reynolds number range are discussed. Applications to high lift airfoil design are also demonstrated.

  4. A low speed wind tunnel test of the 0.050 scale NASA-JSC shuttle orbiter 089B to determine the longitudinal and lateral directional effects of control surface modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldenbuttel, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests to determine the longitudinal and lateral-directional effects of control surface modifications on the space shuttle orbiter aerodynamic characteristics are discussed. A total of 103 data runs were made which consisted of pitch runs through a range of zero to 28 degrees at a zero yaw angle and yaw runs from minus 6 to plus 6 degrees at various fixed pitch angles. At each data point, data from an internal strain gage balance was sampled with the digital data system. Also recorded were the model angles of pitch and yaw and the test section static pressure. Results are presented in the form of tabulated aerodynamic coefficient data about the model reference center.

  5. An Investigation of the Low-speed Stability and Control Characteristics of Swept-forward and Swept-back Wing in the Ames 40- by 80-foot Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormack, Gerald M; Stevens, Victor I , Jr

    1947-01-01

    An investigation has been made at large scale of the characteristics of highly swept wings. Data were obtained at several angles of sideslip on wings having angles of sweep of plus or minus 45 degrees, plus or minus 30 degrees, and 0 degrees. The airfoil sections of the wings varied from approximately NACA 0015 at the root to NACA 23009 at the tip. Each wing was investigated with flaps under flection, partial-span split flaps deflected 60 degrees, full-span split flaps defected 60 degrees and split-flap-type ailerons deflected plus or minus 15 degrees. Values of maximum lift were obtained at Reynolds numbers raging from 5.7 to 9.2 times 10 to the 6th power. In this report the summarized results are compared with the predictions made by use of the simplified theory for the effect of sweep and with existing small-scale data. The basic wind-tunnel results from which these summary data were taken are included in an appendix. The primary problems accompanying the use of weep as revealed by this investigation are the loss in maximum lift, the high effective dihedral, and the sharp reduction in lateral-control effectiveness. In general, simple theory enables good predictions to be made of the gross effects of sweep but further refinements are necessary to obtain the accuracy required for design purposes. In cases where comparisons can be made, the indications are that, as sweep increases, scale effects diminish and large-scale results approach small-scale results.

  6. Wind tunnel tests of a zero length, slotted-lip engine air inlet for a fixed nacelle V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woollett, R. R.; Beck, W. E., Jr.; Glasgow, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    Zero length, slotted lip inlet performance and associated fan blade stresses were determined during model tests using a 20 inch diameter fan simulator in the NASA-LeRC 9 by 15 foot low speed wind tunnel. The model configuration variables consisted of inlet contraction ratio, slot width, circumferential extent of slot fillers, and length of a constant area section between the inlet throat and fan face. The inlet performance was dependent on slot gap width and relatively independent of inlet throat/fan face spacer length and slot flow blockage created by 90 degree slot fillers. Optimum performance was obtained at a slot gap width of 0.36 inch. The zero length, slotted lip inlet satisfied all critical low speed inlet operating requirements for fixed horizontal nacelles subsonic V/STOL aircraft.

  7. Low speed vehicle passenger ejection restraint effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Seluga, Kristopher J; Ojalvo, Irving U; Obert, Richard M

    2005-07-01

    Current golf carts and LSV's (Low Speed Vehicles) produce a significant number of passenger ejections during sharp turns. These LSV's do not typically possess seatbelts, but do provide outboard bench seat hip restraints that also serve as handholds. However, many current restraint designs appear incapable of preventing passenger ejections due to their low height and inefficient handhold position. Alternative handhold and hip restraint designs may improve passenger safety. Accordingly, this paper examines minimum size requirements for hip restraints to prevent passenger ejection during sharp turns and evaluates the effectiveness of a handhold mounted at the center of the bench seat. In this study, a simulation of a turning cart supplies the dynamic input to a biomechanical model of an adult male seated in a golf cart. Various restraint combinations are considered, both with and without the central handhold, to determine the likelihood of passenger ejection. It is shown that only the largest restraint geometries prevent passenger ejection. Adequate hip restraints should be much larger than current designs and a central handhold should be provided. In this way, golf cart and LSV manufacturers could reduce passenger ejections and improve fleet safety by incorporating recommendations provided herein. PMID:15893288

  8. High loading, low speed fan study, 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, M. J.; Burdsall, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    A low speed, low noise, single stage fan was designed and tested. Design pressure ratio was 1.5 at a rotor tip speed of 1000 ft/sec. No inlet guide vane was used, the rotor stator was spaced and the number of rotor and stator airfoils was selected for low noise. Tests were conducted with uniform and distorted inlet flows. Stall margin of the initial design was too low for practical application. Airfoil slots and boundary layer and endwall devices did not improve stall margin sufficiently. A redesigned stator with reduced loadings increased stall margin, giving a fan efficiency of 0.883, 15% stall margin, and a 1.474 pressure radio at a specific flow of 41.7 lb/sec sq ft. Casing treatment over rotor tips improved stall margin with distorted inlet flow; vortex generators did not. Blade passing frequency noise increased with rotor relative Mach number. No supersonic fan noise was measured below 105% of design speed. Slotting airfoils, casing treatments, and a reduction of the ratio (number-stators/number-rotors) from (2n + 16) to (2n + 2) had no significant effects on noise.

  9. Low-speed Aerodynamic Investigations of a Hybrid Wing Body Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.; Gatlin, Gregory M.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Carter, Melissa B.

    2014-01-01

    Two low-speed static wind tunnel tests and a water tunnel static and dynamic forced-motion test have been conducted on a hybrid wing-body (HWB) twinjet configuration. These tests, in addition to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, have provided a comprehensive dataset of the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of this nonproprietary configuration. In addition to force and moment measurements, the tests included surface pressures, flow visualization, and off-body particle image velocimetry measurements. This paper will summarize the results of these tests and highlight the data that is available for code comparison or additional analysis.

  10. Low-speed cruise aerodynamics of the stopped rotor/disk rotorcraft concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Stephen M.; Stroub, Robert H.

    1992-01-01

    A low-speed wind tunnel test was completed in support of ongoing conceptual design studies of the Stopped Rotor/Disk rotorcraft concept. A one-fifth scale model was tested in the NASA Ames Low-Speed 7- by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel #1 to evaluate the low-speed cruise performance. The primary test objective was to compare performance characteristics for three possible conceptual designs of the Stopped Rotor/Disk cruise configuration: the large hub fairing (disk) alone, the disk/extended blades configuration, and the disk/conventional wing configuration. Results showed that the disk/extended blades configuration was the most efficient in low-speed cruise. Other test objecives included making parametric changes by varying the geometry of the disk and by varying the extended blade incidence angles. Studies were also conducted to examine the aerodynamic interaction between the disk and a conventional wing. An examination was made into the effects of the disk on static longitudinal stability. The wake generated by the disk impinged on a T-tail of the model and thus degraded longitudinal stability. Alternative tail geometries are required in order to improve the concept's static stability.

  11. Trailing vortices from low speed flyers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldman, Rye; Kudo, Jun; Breuer, Kenneth

    2009-11-01

    The structure and strength of the vortex wake behind a airplane or animal flying with a fixed or flapping wing contains valuable information about the aerodynamic load history. However, the amount of vorticity measured in the trailing vortex is not always in agreement with the known lift generated, and the behavior of these vortices at relatively low Reynolds numbers is also not well-understood. We present the results from a series of wind tunnel PIV experiments conducted behind a low-aspect ratio rectangular wing at a chord-Reynolds numbers of 30,000. In addition to wake PIV measurements measured in the cross-stream (Trefftz) plane, we measure the lift and drag directly using a six-axis force-torque transducer. We discuss how vortex size, shape, strength and position vary in time and downstream location, as well as the challenges associated with the use of PIV wake measurements to accurate determine aerodynamic forces.

  12. Effects of vortex flaps on the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of an arrow wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yip, L. P.; Murri, D. G.

    1981-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Langley 12-foot low-speed wind-tunnel to determine the longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic effects of plain and tabbed vortex flaps on a flat-plate, highly swept arrow-wing model. Flow-visualization studies were made using a helium-bubble technique. Static forces and moments were measured over an angle-of-attack range from 0 deg to 50deg for sideslip angles of 0 deg and + or - 4 deg.

  13. A study of a VTOL thrusting ejector in low speed flight, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, V. R.

    1981-01-01

    Low speed aerodynamic characteristics of a thrust augmenter wing suitable for vertical operation were investigated. Wind tunnel test results on the ejector and a similar configuration with a blown flap are analyzed. The configurations represented a VTOL concept at conditions of thrust deflections required for low forward speed flight. The model tested had an unswept untapered wing. Specific data included normal longitudinal forces and monents, surface pressures, ejector exit surveys, and flow field surveys behind the wing.

  14. HPOTP low-speed flexible rotor balancing, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giordano, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1985-01-01

    A method was developed that shows promise in overcoming many balancing limitations. This method establishes one or more windows for low speed, out-of-housing balancing of flexible rotors. These windows are regions of speed and support flexibility where two conditions are simultaneously fulfilled. First, the rotor system behaves flexibly; therefore, there is separation among balance planes. Second, the response due to balance weights is large enough to reliably measure. The analytic formulation of the low-speed flexible rotor balancing method is described. The results of proof-of-principle tests conducted under the program are presented. Based on this effort, it is concluded that low speed flexible rotor balancing is a viable technology. In particular, the method can be used to balance a rotor bearing system at low speed which results in smooth operation above more than one bending critical speed. Furthermore, this balancing methodology is applicable to SSME turbopump rotors.

  15. Control of an ultrasonic transducer to realize low speed driven.

    PubMed

    Zhangfan; Chen, Weishan; Liu, Junkao; Zhao, Xuetao

    2006-12-22

    This paper deals with the control of a transducer to realize low speed. A new PWM control is proposed to fit the transducer. By this control method, the transducer is directly excited by pulses whose width can be modulated. The noise induced by conventional PWM control is eliminated and the motor works more steadily and more quietly. Instead of the general method of decreasing vibrating amplitude of ultrasonic motor to realize low speed, in this paper, two fast contrary elliptical vibrations of the transducer's two Langevin vibrators are excited to restrain skip-slip influence on ultrasonic motor's low speed performance and the driven is realized by the difference of the two vibrators' vibrating amplitudes. Experiments had been carried out by driving an aerostatic guide and fuzzy control is applied. The controlled speed reached 0.1 mm/s. PMID:16793079

  16. Low-Noise Potential of Advanced Fan Stage Stator Vane Designs Verified in NASA Lewis Wind Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.

    1999-01-01

    With the advent of new, more stringent noise regulations in the next century, aircraft engine manufacturers are investigating new technologies to make the current generation of aircraft engines as well as the next generation of advanced engines quieter without sacrificing operating performance. A current NASA initiative called the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Program has set as a goal a 6-EPNdB (effective perceived noise) reduction in aircraft engine noise relative to 1992 technology levels by the year 2000. As part of this noise program, and in cooperation with the Allison Engine Company, an advanced, low-noise, high-bypass-ratio fan stage design and several advanced technology stator vane designs were recently tested in NASA Lewis Research Center's 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel (an anechoic facility). The project was called the NASA/Allison Low Noise Fan.

  17. Solid Inflammability Boundary At Low-Speed (SIBAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    T'ien, J.; Sacksteder, K.; Ferkul, P.; Pettegrew, R.; Street, K.; Kumar, A.; Tolejko, K.; Kleinhenz, J.; Piltch, N.

    2003-01-01

    This research program is concerned with the effect of low-speed flow on the spreading and extinction processes over solid fuels. The project has passed the Science Concept Review and the experiment is currently scheduled to be performed in the ISS Combustion Integrated Rack. We present an overview of recent and ongoing experimental and theoretical efforts.

  18. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 13 percent thick medium speed airfoil designed for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, R. J.; Beasley, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the low speed, two dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of a 13percent thick medium speed airfoil designed for general aviation applications. The results were compared with data for the 13 percent thick low speed airfoil. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.10 to 0.32, a chord Reynolds number range from 2.0 x 10 to the 6th power to 12.0 x 10 to the 6th power, and an angle of attack frange from about -8 deg to 10 deg. The objective of retaining good high-lift low speed characteristics for an airfoil designed to have good medium speed cruise performance was achieved.

  19. Overview of Low-Speed Aerodynamic Tests on a 5.75% Scale Blended-Wing-Body Twin Jet Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicroy, Dan D.; Dickey, Eric; Princen, Norman; Beyar, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project sponsored a series of computational and experimental investigations of the propulsion and airframe integration issues associated with Hybrid-Wing-Body (HWB) or Blended-Wing-Body (BWB) configurations. NASA collaborated with Boeing Research and Technology (BR&T) to conduct this research on a new twin-engine Boeing BWB transport configuration. The experimental investigations involved a series of wind tunnel tests with a 5.75-percent scale model conducted in two low-speed wind tunnels. This testing focused on the basic aerodynamics of the configuration and selection of the leading edge Krueger slat position for takeoff and landing. This paper reviews the results and analysis of these low-speed wind tunnel tests.

  20. V/STOL tilt rotor study. Volume 6: Hover, low speed and conversion tests of a tilt rotor aeroelastic model (Model 300)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, R. L.; Sambell, K. W.; Neal, G. T.

    1973-01-01

    Stability and control tests of a scale model of a tilt rotor research aircraft were conducted. The characteristics of the model for hover, low speed, and conversion flight were analyzed. Hover tests were conducted in a rotor whirl cage. Helicopter and conversion tests were conducted in a low speed wind tunnel. Data obtained from the tests are presented as tables and graphs. Diagrams and illustrations of the test equipment are provided.

  1. Artist rendering of dust grains colliding at low speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Clues to the formation of planets and planetary rings -- like Saturn's dazzling ring system -- may be found by studying how dust grains interact as they collide at low speeds. To study the question of low-speed dust collisions, NASA sponsored the COLLisions Into Dust Experiment (COLLIDE) at the University of Colorado. It was designed to spring-launch marble-size projectiles into trays of powder similar to space or lunar dust. COLLIDE-1 (1998) discovered that collisions below a certain energy threshold eject no material. COLLIDE-2 was designed to identify where the threshold is. In COLLIDE-2, scientists nudged small projectiles into dust beds and recorded how the dust splashed outward (video frame at top; artist's rendering at bottom). The slowest impactor ejected no material and stuck in the target. The faster impactors produced ejecta; some rebounded while others stuck in the target.

  2. Gpu Implementation of Preconditioning Method for Low-Speed Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiale; Chen, Hongquan

    2016-06-01

    An improved preconditioning method for low-Mach-number flows is implemented on a GPU platform. The improved preconditioning method employs the fluctuation of the fluid variables to weaken the influence of accuracy caused by the truncation error. The GPU parallel computing platform is implemented to accelerate the calculations. Both details concerning the improved preconditioning method and the GPU implementation technology are described in this paper. Then a set of typical low-speed flow cases are simulated for both validation and performance analysis of the resulting GPU solver. Numerical results show that dozens of times speedup relative to a serial CPU implementation can be achieved using a single GPU desktop platform, which demonstrates that the GPU desktop can serve as a cost-effective parallel computing platform to accelerate CFD simulations for low-Speed flows substantially.

  3. Effects of thickness on the aerodynamic characteristics of an initial low-speed family of airfoils for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, R. J.; Beasley, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the effects of airfoil thickness-ratio on the low speed aerodynamic characteristics of an initial family of airfoils. The results were compared with theoretical predictions obtained from a subsonic viscous method. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.10 to 0.28. Chord Reynolds numbers varied from about 2.0 x 1 million to 9.0 x 1 million.

  4. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 13-percent-thick airfoil section designed for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, R. J.; Beasley, W. D.; Somers, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests were conducted to determine the low-speed section characteristics of a 13 percent-thick airfoil designed for general aviation applications. The results were compared with NACA 12 percent-thick sections and with the 17 percent-thick NASA airfoil. The tests were conducted ovar a Mach number range from 0.10 to 0.35. Chord Reynolds numbers varied from about 2,000,000 to 9,000,000.

  5. Low-speed pressure measurements using a luminescent coating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Owen Clayton

    In this work, the history of the development of the Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) technique in both the United States and Russia is first discussed in detail. A review of the various PSP tests conducted to date is given. A thorough discussion of the physics and chemistry of luminescent coatings is provided. The processes of converting intensity signals in digital data values are described; image processing procedures used to remove noise sources and convert intensity data into pressure measurements are reviewed. A general uncertainty analysis of the technique is then conducted. A baseline series of low-speed tests at M < 0.2 were conducted using unswept and swept NACA 0012 airfoils. The results of these tests are reviewed. Significant sources of noise were found: experimental processes were modified to reduce these noise components. These process improvements led to results that are unmatched in the literature: RMS Cp errors ranged from 0.21 at M = 0.03 (10 m/s) to 0.03 at M = 0.15 (50 m/s). Analyses were also conducted to identify optimized calibration techniques using pressure taps. A detailed uncertainty analysis is presented using both analytical and Monte Carlo simulation methods. This analysis confirms the observed measurement errors are reasonable, and that if using the in-situ technique, very good accuracies are indeed realizable at low speeds. Utilizing improved testing techniques, several other experiments at M < 0.2 were conducted to demonstrate the utility and capability of luminescent coatings in the Low-Speed regime, including a NACA 63-215 Mod B main element with a half-span Fowler flap, the deck of a Navy amphibious helicopter landing ship model, and a NASCAR racing model at various drafting orientations.

  6. NASA Low-speed Axial Compressor for Fundamental Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserbauer, Charles A.; Weaver, Harold F.; Senyitko, Richard G.

    1995-01-01

    A low-speed multistage axial compressor built by the NASA Lewis Research Center is described. The purpose of this compressor is to increase the understanding of the complex flow phenomena within multistage axial compressors and to obtain detailed data from a multistage compressor environment for use in developing and verifying models for computational fluid dynamic code assessment. The compressor has extensive pressure instrumentation in both stationary and rotating frames of reference, and has provisions for flow visualization and laser velocimetry. The compressor will accommodate rotational speeds to 1050 rpm and is rated at a pressure ratio of 1.042.

  7. Rotorcraft low-speed download drag definition and its reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    Download drag for rotorcraft in hover and low-speed flight is a burden which significantly affects useful load, fuel, and payload. Reduction of the burden will enhance these aspects of rotorcraft and complement the forthcoming improvements in isolated rotor performance. Analyses and experimental data are available, though fragmentary, regarding gross drag, thrust recovery, and other characteristics which can be utilized to define interim rotorcraft design changes to reduce the burden. Eventually the experimental data and a comprehensive combination of rotor, rotor-wake, and potential-flow analyses can evolve to reduce the burden to an absolute minimum.

  8. Solid Inflammability Boundary at Low-Speed (SIBAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    T'ien, James; Ferkul, Paul; Sacksteder, Kurt; Shih, Hsin-Yi; Kumar, Amit; Kleinhenz, Julie; Bedir, Hasan; Pettegrew, Richard; Piltch, Nancy; Frate, David

    2001-01-01

    This research program is concerned with the effect of low-speed, concurrent flow on the spreading and extinction processes of flames over solid fuels. The primary objective is to verify the theoretically predicted extinction boundary, using oxygen percentage and flow velocity as coordinates. Of particular interest are the low-speed quenching limits and the existence of the critical oxygen flammability limit. Detailed flame spread characteristics, including flame spread rate, flame size, and flame structure are sought. Since the predicted flame behavior depends on the inclusion of flame and surface radiation, the measured results will also be used to assess the importance of radiative heat transfer by direct comparison to a comprehensive numerical model. The solid fuel used in this experiment is a custom-made fabric consisting of a 1:1 blend of cotton and fiberglass. This choice was made following an extensive search to yield a material with favorable properties, namely, rollability, non-cracking behavior during combustion, strength after combustion, and flammability in a range of oxygen limits permissible within the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) on the International Space Station. At the present time, an effort is being made to characterize both the radiative properties of the fuel and the flame spreading behavior in normal gravity at reduced pressure. These will provide a basis for comparison with the microgravity results as well as aid in bracketing the anticipated flammability boundary for the flight experiment. An overview of recent work, with emphasis on theoretical results, is presented.

  9. Modelling Violent Reaction Following Low Speed Impact on Confined Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, John; Jones, Andrew; Hughes, Christopher; Reaugh, John

    2011-06-01

    To ensure the safe storage and deployment of explosives it is important to understand the mechanisms that give rise to ignition and reaction growth in low speed impacts. The LLNL High Explosive Response to Mechanical Stimulus (HERMES) material model, integrated in LS-DYNA, has been developed to model the progress of the reaction after such an impact. The low speed impact characteristics of an HMX based formulation have been determined in the AWE Steven Test. Axisymmetric simulations have been performed to determine the characteristics of the model. The sensitivity study included looking at the influence of friction, material strength and confinement. By comparing the experimental and calculated results, the key parameters which determine the response in this configuration have been determined. The model qualitatively predicts the point of ignition within the vehicle. Future refinements are discussed. JER's activity was performed under the auspices of the US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and partially funded by the Joint US DoD/DOE Munitions Technology Development Program.

  10. An aerodynamic analysis computer program and design notes for low speed wing flap systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, H. W.; Walkley, K. B.

    1983-01-01

    The expanded capabilities for analysis and design of low speed flap systems afforded by recent modifications of an existing computer program is described. The program provides for the simultaneous analysis of up to 25 pairs of leading-edge and trailing-edge flap deflection schedules. Among other new features of the program are a revised attainable thrust estimation method to provide more accurate predictions for low Mach numbers, and a choice of three options for estimation of leading-edge separation vortex flow effects. Comparison of program results with low speed experimental data for an arrow wing supersonic cruise configuration with leading-edge and trailing-edge flaps showed good agreement over most of the range of flap deflections. Other force data comparisons and an independent study of airfoil and wing pressure distributions indicated that wind-tunnel measurements of the aerodynamic performance of twisted and cambered wings and wings with leading-edge flaps can be very sensitive to Reynolds number effects.

  11. Math modeling for helicopter simulation of low speed, low altitude and steeply descending flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, P. F.; Robinson, C.; Shaw, J.; White, F.

    1982-01-01

    A math model was formulated to represent some of the aerodynamic effects of low speed, low altitude, and steeply descending flight. The formulation is intended to be consistent with the single rotor real time simulation model at NASA Ames Research Center. The effect of low speed, low altitude flight on main rotor downwash was obtained by assuming a uniform plus first harmonic inflow model and then by using wind tunnel data in the form of hub loads to solve for the inflow coefficients. The result was a set of tables for steady and first harmonic inflow coefficients as functions of ground proximity, angle of attack, and airspeed. The aerodynamics associated with steep descending flight in the vortex ring state were modeled by replacing the steady induced downwash derived from momentum theory with an experimentally derived value and by including a thrust fluctuations effect due to vortex shedding. Tables of the induced downwash and the magnitude of the thrust fluctuations were created as functions of angle of attack and airspeed.

  12. Summary of low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of upper-surface-blown jet-flap configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelps, A. E., III; Johnson, J. L., Jr.; Margason, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of recent wind tunnel investigations to provide fundamental information on the upper surface blown (USB) jet flap concept demonstrated that the USB concept provides good high-lift performance. It is shown that the low speed performance is dependent upon the jet turning angle and turning efficiency and on the use of proper leading and trailing edge treatment to prevent premature flow separation. The best means of achieving good turning performance in any particular USB application must be determined from overall operational considerations in which high speed performance, structures and noise, as well as low speed performance, are evaluated. The large diving moments generated at high lift coefficients can be trimmed satisfactorily with a large, conventional horizontal tail; a high tail position is best from longitudinal stability considerations. Large rolling and yawing moments are introduced with the loss of an engine, but these moments can be trimmed satisfactorily through the use of asymmetrical boundary layer control and through the use of spoiler and rudder deflection as needed.

  13. A Low-speed Investigation of an Annular Transonic Air Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, Mark R; Rinkoski, Donald W

    1952-01-01

    Low-speed wind-tunnel tests were conducted as preliminary steps in the study of fuselage-air-inlet arrangements believed suitable for use at transonic speeds. The forward part of the model consisted of an NACA 1-85-050 cowling located at the base of the long protruding fuselage nose designed to maintain substream surface velocities everywhere ahead of the entrance and thereby to avoid or minimize adverse boundary-layer-shock interaction effects up to low supersonic speeds. Pressure-recovery and surface-pressure measurements are presented for the model with three fuselage nose shapes for ranges of angle of attack and inlet-velocity ratio useful for high-speed flight

  14. Low speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 17 percent thick airfoil section designed for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, R. J.; Beasley, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests have been conducted to determine the low-speed two-dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of a 17-percent-thick airfoil designed for general aviation applications (GA(W)-1). The results were compared with predictions based on a theoretical method for calculating the viscous flow about the airfoil. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.10 to 0.28. Reynolds numbers based on airfoil chord varied from 2.0 million to 20.0 million. Maximum section lift coefficients greater than 2.0 were obtained and section lift-drag ratio at a lift coefficient of 1.0 (climb condition) varied from about 65 to 85 as the Reynolds number increased from about 2.0 million to 6.0 million.

  15. Low Speed Carbon Deposition Process for Hermetic Optical Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    ABRAMCZYK,JAROSLAW; ARTHUR,SARA E. TALLANT,DAVID R.; HIKANSSON,ADAM S.; LINDHOLM,ERIC A.; LO,JIE

    1999-09-29

    For optical fibers used in adverse environments, a carbon coating is frequently deposited on the fiber surface to prevent water and hydrogen ingression that lead respectively to strength degradation through fatigue and hydrogen-induced attenuation. The deposition of a hermetic carbon coating onto an optical fiber during the draw process holds a particular challenge when thermally-cured specialty coatings are subsequently applied because of the slower drawing rate. In this paper, we report on our efforts to improve the low-speed carbon deposition process by altering the composition and concentration of hydrocarbon precursor gases. The resulting carbon layers have been analyzed for electrical resistance, Raman spectra, coating thickness, and surface roughness, then compared to strength data and dynamic fatigue behavior.

  16. Handling Qualities of Large Rotorcraft in Hover and Low Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malpica, Carlos; Theodore, Colin R.; Lawrence , Ben; Blanken, Chris L.

    2015-01-01

    According to a number of system studies, large capacity advanced rotorcraft with a capability of high cruise speeds (approx.350 mph) as well as vertical and/or short take-off and landing (V/STOL) flight could alleviate anticipated air transportation capacity issues by making use of non-primary runways, taxiways, and aprons. These advanced aircraft pose a number of design challenges, as well as unknown issues in the flight control and handling qualities domains. A series of piloted simulation experiments have been conducted on the NASA Ames Research Center Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) in recent years to systematically investigate the fundamental flight control and handling qualities issues associated with the characteristics of large rotorcraft, including tiltrotors, in hover and low-speed maneuvering.

  17. A translational velocity command system for VTOL low speed flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrick, V. K.

    1982-01-01

    A translational velocity flight controller, suitable for very low speed maneuvering, is described and its application to a large class of VTOL aircraft from jet lift to propeller driven types is analyzed. Estimates for the more critical lateral axis lead to the conclusion that the controller would provide a jet lift (high disk loading) VTOL aircraft with satisfactory "hands off" station keeping in operational conditions more stringent than any specified in current or projected requirements. It also seems likely that ducted fan or propeller driven (low disk loading) VTOL aircraft would have acceptable hovering handling qualities even in high turbulence, although in these conditions pilot intervention to maintain satisfactory station keeping would probably be required for landing in restricted areas.

  18. A Measurement of the holographic minimum observable beam branching ratio in the Fermilab 15-foot bubble chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Aderholz, M.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Akbari, H.; Allport, P.P.; Badyal, S.K.; Ballagh, H.C.; Barth, M.; Baton, J.P.; Bingham, H.H.; Bjelkhagen, H.; Brucker, E.B.; Burnstein, R.A.; Campbell, J.R.; Cence, R.J.; Chatterjee, T.K.; Clayton, E.F.; Corrigan, G.; Coutures, C.; DeProspo, D.; Devanand,; De Wolf, E.A.; /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Brussels U., IIHE /CERN /Punjab U. /Fermilab /Hawaii U. /Imperial Coll., London /IIT, Chicago /Jammu U. /Munich, Max Planck Inst. /Oxford U. /Rutgers U., Piscataway /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /Stevens Tech. /Tufts U.

    1997-01-01

    Holography has been used successfully in combination with conventional optics for the first time in a large cryogenic bubble chamber, the 15-Foot Bubble Chamber at Fermilab, during a physics run. The innovative system combined the reference beam with the object beam, illuminating a conical volume of {approx} 1.4 m{sup 3}. Bubble tracks from neutrino interactions with a width of {approx} 120 {micro}m have been recorded with good contrast. The ratio of intensities of the object light to the reference light striking the film is called the Beam Branching Ratio. We obtained in our experiment an exceedingly small minimum-observable ratio of (0.54 {+-} 0.21) x 10{sup -7}. The technology has the potential for a wide range of applications.

  19. A Numerical Investigation into Low-Speed Impact Cratering Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Stephen; Richardson, D. C.; Michel, P.

    2012-10-01

    Impact craters are the geological features most commonly observed on the surface of solid Solar System bodies. Crater shapes and features are crucial sources of information regarding past and present surface environments, and can provide indirect information about the internal structures of these bodies. In this study, we consider the effects of low-speed impacts into granular material. Studies of low-speed impact events are suitable for understanding the cratering process leading, for instance, to secondary craters. In addition, upcoming asteroid sample return missions will employ surface sampling strategies that use impacts into the surface by a projectile. An understanding of the process can lead to better sampling strategies. We use our implementation of the Soft-Sphere Discrete Element Method (SSDEM) (Schwartz et al. 2012, Granular Matter 14, 363-380) into the parallel N-body code PKDGRAV (cf. Richardson et al. 2011, Icarus 212, 427-437) to model the impact cratering process into granular material. We consider the effects of boundary conditions on the ejecta velocity profile and discuss how results relate to the Maxwell Z-Model during the crater growth phase. Cratering simulations are compared to those of Wada et al. 2006 (Icarus 180, 528-545) and to impact experiments performed in conjunction with Hayabusa 2. This work is supported in part by grants from the National Science Foundation under grant number AST1009579 and from the Office of Space Science of NASA under grant number NNX08AM39G. Part of this study resulted from discussions with the International Team (#202) sponsored by ISSI in Bern (Switzerland). Some simulations were performed on the YORP cluster administered by the Center for Theory and Computation of the Department of Astronomy at the University of Maryland in College Park and on the SIGGAM computer cluster hosted by the Côte d'Azur Observatory in Nice (France).

  20. Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient methods for low speed flow calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajmani, Kumud; Ng, Wing-Fai; Liou, Meng-Sing

    1993-01-01

    An investigation is conducted into the viability of using a generalized Conjugate Gradient-like method as an iterative solver to obtain steady-state solutions of very low-speed fluid flow problems. Low-speed flow at Mach 0.1 over a backward-facing step is chosen as a representative test problem. The unsteady form of the two dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes equations are integrated in time using discrete time-steps. The Navier-Stokes equations are cast in an implicit, upwind finite-volume, flux split formulation. The new iterative solver is used to solve a linear system of equations at each step of the time-integration. Preconditioning techniques are used with the new solver to enhance the stability and the convergence rate of the solver and are found to be critical to the overall success of the solver. A study of various preconditioners reveals that a preconditioner based on the lower-upper (L-U)-successive symmetric over-relaxation iterative scheme is more efficient than a preconditioner based on incomplete L-U factorizations of the iteration matrix. The performance of the new preconditioned solver is compared with a conventional line Gauss-Seidel relaxation (LGSR) solver. Overall speed-up factors of 28 (in terms of global time-steps required to converge to a steady-state solution) and 20 (in terms of total CPU time on one processor of a CRAY-YMP) are found in favor of the new preconditioned solver, when compared with the LGSR solver.

  1. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 17-percent-thick medium speed airfoil designed for general aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcghee, R. J.; Beaseley, W. D.

    1980-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the low speed two dimensional aerodynamic characteristics of a 17 percent thick medium speed airfoil (MS(1)-0317) designed for general aviation applications. The results were compared with data for the 17 percent thick low speed airfoil (LS(1)-0417) and the 13 percent thick medium speed airfoil (MS(1)-0313). Theoretical predictions of the drag rise characteristics of this airfoil are also provided. The tests were conducted in the Langley low turbulence pressure tunnel over a Mach number range from 0.10 to 0.32, a chord Reynolds number range from 2 million to 12 million, and an angle of attack range from about -8 to 20 deg.

  2. Low-Speed Active Flow Control Laboratory Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis E.; Bright, Michelle M.

    2005-01-01

    The future of aviation propulsion systems is increasingly focused on the application of control technologies to significantly enhance the performance of a new generation of air vehicles. Active flow control refers to a set of technologies that manipulate the flow of air and combustion gases deep within the confines of an engine to dynamically alter its performance during flight. By employing active flow control, designers can create engines that are significantly lighter, are more fuel efficient, and produce lower emissions. In addition, the operating range of an engine can be extended, yielding safer transportation systems. The realization of these future propulsion systems requires the collaborative development of many base technologies to achieve intelligent, embedded control at the engine locations where it will be most effective. NASA Glenn Research Center s Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch has developed a state-of-the-art low-speed Active Flow Control Laboratory in which emerging technologies can be integrated and explored in a flexible, low-cost environment. The facility allows the most promising developments to be prescreened and optimized before being tested on higher fidelity platforms, thereby reducing the cost of experimentation and improving research effectiveness.

  3. Braking hazards of golf cars and low speed vehicles.

    PubMed

    Seluga, K J; Ojalvo, I U

    2006-11-01

    Research and analysis of braking issues for golf cars and other low speed vehicles (LSVs) are reported in this study. It is shown that many such vehicles only provide braking for their rear wheels, which can lead to a driver losing control during travel on typical steep downgrades. The braking performance of a golf car equipped with brakes on two or four wheels was analyzed to determine the effects of two and four wheel brake designs on braking efficiency and vehicle yaw stability. Besides reducing braking efficiency, it is demonstrated that installing brakes on only the rear wheels can lead to directional instability (fishtailing) and rollover when the rear wheels are braked until skidding occurs. The nonexistence of golf course standards and the inadequacy of golf car and LSV standards are noted and a connection between this and the comparatively high level of accidents with such vehicles is inferred. Based on these results, it is advisable to install brakes on all four wheels of golf cars and LSVs. In addition, new safety standards should be considered to reduce the occurrence of golf car accidents on steep downhill slopes. PMID:16806027

  4. Low-speed shredder and waste shreddability tests

    SciTech Connect

    Darnell, G.R.; Aldrich, W.C.

    1983-04-01

    Most waste drums and large crates in the nuclear industry are or will be opened by hand, in gloveboxes, or with manipulators. The Transuranic Waste Treatment Facility (TWTF), which was being designed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), was no exception. The TWTF's manipulator concept required 4 to 6 hours to open and route a crate or drum for further processing; a costly operation. An alternative method was sought. Four of the relatively new low-speed shredders were tested on simulated transuranic waste packaged in 55-gal drums and 4- x 4- x 4-ft boxes. Three of the shredders were capable of shredding these containers and their contents in 1 to 15 minutes. Two were able to shred typical TWTF waste to acceptable particle size. The test waste included concrete, 1/4-in. steel plate (carbon and stainless), 1-in. rebar, rock, glass, plastic, paper, cloth, wood, steel cable, chain, etc. The two shredders were able to shred drums even with unshreddable items inside; the unshreddable items lay on top for later recovery by a manipulator while the other waste was being shredded.

  5. Low-speed flowfield characterization by infrared measurements of surface temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gartenberg, E.; Roberts, A. S., Jr.; Mcree, G. J.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental program was aimed at identifying areas in low speed aerodynamic research where infrared imaging systems can make significant contributions. Implementing a new technique, a long electrically heated wire was placed across a laminar jet. By measuring the temperature distribution along the wire with the IR imaging camera, the flow behavior was identified. Furthermore, using Nusselt number correlations, the velocity distribution could be deduced. The same approach was used to survey wakes behind cylinders in a wind-tunnel. This method is suited to investigate flows with position dependent velocities, e.g., boundary layers, confined flows, jets, wakes, and shear layers. It was found that the IR imaging camera cannot accurately track high gradient temperature fields. A correlation procedure was devised to account for this limitation. Other wind-tunnel experiments included tracking the development of the laminar boundary layer over a warmed flat plate by measuring the chordwise temperature distribution. This technique was applied also to the flow downstream from a rearward facing step. Finally, the IR imaging system was used to study boundary layer behavior over an airfoil at angles of attack from zero up to separation. The results were confirmed with tufts observable both visually and with the IR imaging camera.

  6. Verification of performance results for a low-speed 15 percent elliptical circulation control airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodman, L. C.; Wood, N. J.

    1986-01-01

    Low-speed wind tunnel tests performed by the Naval Ship Research and Development Center (NSRDC) on a circulation control airfoil model was repeated by the Joint Institute for Aerodynamics and Acoustics in an attempt to reproduce the performance results. The model used was a 15% ellipse with interchangeable trailing edges. Surface pressure measurements were taken to obtain lift and pitching moment coefficients as functions of jet blowing momentum, and the momentum deficit in the wake was measured and used to calculate the drag coefficient. The effects of spanwise slot height variation and of leading edge blowing on performance were also investigated. The performance results showed that of the three slot heights tested, a slot height/chord ratio of 0.0022 produced the most lift coefficient for a given blowing rate. Lift obtained in the current test ranged from 2 to 35% lower than the NSRDC test. However, the two data sets compared reasonably well considering wind tunnel and wall blowing scheme differences. The spanwise lift distribution showed less change in lift due to a variation in slot height than expected. The leading edge blowing results demonstrated that although lift initially decreased, a positive lift increment was possible at higher leading edge blowing rates.

  7. Vortex Ring Extremization for Low Speed Maneuvering of Underwater Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohseni, Kamran

    2004-11-01

    Most attempts in underwater locomotion have been focused on propeller thrust generation or recently on flapping locomotion. However, new developments in autonomous and tethered underwater vehicles motivated closer look at the biomimetics of sea animals. To this end, Cephalopoda and jelly fish utilize pulsatile jets and vortex formation for locomotion. To avoid further complications with background flows, we focus on the formation of the leading vortex ring rather than a train of vortices. It is shown that a pinched-off vortex ring characterizes the extremum impulse accumulated by the leading vortex ring in vortex formation process. An appropriate scaling for vortex ring impulse is found and the limiting values of the non-dimensionalized impulses are established. An estimate for the non-dimensional impulses is provided by equating their values from the slug model with their values from a vortex in the Norbury family of vortices. For a vortex ring generator with constant kinetic energy and circulation generation rate, the pinched-off vortex ring has a maximum impulse of I_nd^E ≈ 11 normalized by the circulation and energy. On the other hand, for a vortex ring generator with constant rate of circulation generation at a constant translational velocity, a pinched-off vortex ring produces a minimum impulse of I_nd^Γ ≈ 0.12 normalized by the circulation and translational velocity. Direct numerical simulations of vortex ring formation and vortex ring pinch-off process are performed and the estimated values of the non-dimensionalized impulses are confirmed. These ideas are employed in designing a vortex jet generator for low speed maneuvering of underwater robots. The presented vortex generators are simple and low cost, they consume little valuable payload space, and they have no moving external parts. Experimental data are presented in support of the optimal formation number of 4 for maximum thrust generation.

  8. Fast PSP measurements of wall-pressure fluctuation in low-speed flows: improvements using proper orthogonal decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Di; Wang, Shaofei; Liu, Yingzheng

    2016-04-01

    Fast pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) is very useful in flow diagnostics due to its fast response and high spatial resolution, but its applications in low-speed flows are usually challenging due to limitations of paint's pressure sensitivity and the capability of high-speed imagers. The poor signal-to-noise ratio in low-speed cases makes it very difficult to extract useful information from the PSP data. In this study, unsteady PSP measurements were made on a flat plate behind a cylinder in a low-speed wind tunnel (flow speed from 10 to 17 m/s). Pressure fluctuations (Δ P) on the plate caused by vortex-plate interaction were recorded continuously by fast PSP (using a high-speed camera) and a microphone array. Power spectrum of pressure fluctuations and phase-averaged Δ P obtained from PSP and microphone were compared, showing good agreement in general. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) was used to reduce noise in PSP data and extract the dominant pressure features. The PSP results reconstructed from selected POD modes were then compared to the pressure data obtained simultaneously with microphone sensors. Based on the comparison of both instantaneous Δ P and root-mean-square of Δ P, it was confirmed that POD analysis could effectively remove noise while preserving the instantaneous pressure information with good fidelity, especially for flows with strong periodicity. This technique extends the application range of fast PSP and can be a powerful tool for fundamental fluid mechanics research at low speed.

  9. MSTB 2 x 6-Inch Low Speed Tunnel Turbulence Generator Grid/Honeycomb PIV Measurements and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackshire, James L.

    1997-01-01

    An assessment of the turbulence levels present in the Measurement Science and Technology (MSTB) branch's 2 x 6-inch low speed wind tunnel was made using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), and a turbulence generator consisting of a grid/honeycomb structure. Approximately 3000 digital PIV images were captured and analyzed covering an approximate 2 x 6-inch area along the centerline of the tunnel just beyond the turbulence generator system. Custom software for analysis and acquisition was developed for semi-automated digital PIV image acquisition and analysis. Comparisons between previously obtained LTA and LV turbulence measurements taken in the tunnel are presented.

  10. Low speed aerodynamic characteristics of a vectored thrust V/STOL transport with two lift/cruise fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renselaer, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted to obtain power on low speed characteristics of a twin fan vectored thrust V/STOL transport aircraft. Longitudinal, as well as some lateral directional data, were analyzed. Hover, STOL, and conventional flight modes were investigated. Determination of STOL characteristics, hover characteristics, roll control effectiveness and aircraft attitude were evaluated. The study also included various means to improve the lifting capability of the aircraft such as by application of fuselage strakes, exhaust vanes capable of shifting the thrust vector aft, and external flap blowing for STOL performance.

  11. Space shuttle vehicle ferry configuration afterbody fairing effects on 140A/B orbiter aerodynamic characteristics using an .0405 scale model orbiter (43-0) in the Rockwell International 7.75 x 11 ft low speed wind tunnel (OA123)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennell, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    The primary test objectives were to define ferry configuration afterbody fairing effects on orbiter stability and control characteristics and to substantiate wind tunnel results. Parametric variations consisted entirely of testing different afterbody fairing contours in an effort to improve both the orbiter drag levels and lateral-directional control characteristics. The three afterbody contours that were tested consisted of the Boeing TC3 beavertail, the new Rockwell-Boeing TC4 fairing, and a modification of an existing short bumblebee fairing redesignated TC6.

  12. 40 CFR 205.54-1 - Low speed sound emission test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Low speed sound emission test procedures. 205.54-1 Section 205.54-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.54-1 Low speed sound emission test...

  13. 40 CFR 205.54-1 - Low speed sound emission test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Low speed sound emission test procedures. 205.54-1 Section 205.54-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.54-1 Low speed sound emission test...

  14. Low Speed and High Speed Correlation of SMART Active Flap Rotor Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kottapalli, Sesi B. R.

    2010-01-01

    Measured, open loop and closed loop data from the SMART rotor test in the NASA Ames 40- by 80- Foot Wind Tunnel are compared with CAMRAD II calculations. One open loop high-speed case and four closed loop cases are considered. The closed loop cases include three high-speed cases and one low-speed case. Two of these high-speed cases include a 2 deg flap deflection at 5P case and a test maximum-airspeed case. This study follows a recent, open loop correlation effort that used a simple correction factor for the airfoil pitching moment Mach number. Compared to the earlier effort, the current open loop study considers more fundamental corrections based on advancing blade aerodynamic conditions. The airfoil tables themselves have been studied. Selected modifications to the HH-06 section flap airfoil pitching moment table are implemented. For the closed loop condition, the effect of the flap actuator is modeled by increased flap hinge stiffness. Overall, the open loop correlation is reasonable, thus confirming the basic correctness of the current semi-empirical modifications; the closed loop correlation is also reasonable considering that the current flap model is a first generation model. Detailed correlation results are given in the paper.

  15. Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar-Flow Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Trong

    2013-01-01

    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft s swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First AIAA CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop. It was found that the Star-CCM+ CFD code can produce results that are within the scattering of other CFD codes considered at the workshop. In particular, the Star-CCM+ CFD code was able to predict wing stall for the AIAA wing-body geometry to within 1 degree of angle of attack as compared to benchmark wind-tunnel test data. Current results show that the addition of the laminar-flow wing glove causes the gloved wing to stall much earlier than the unmodified wing. Furthermore, the gloved wing has a different stall characteristic than the clean wing, with no sharp lift drop-off at stall for the gloved wing.

  16. Analysis of Low Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar Flow Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Trong T.

    2014-01-01

    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft's swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop. It was found that the Star-CCM+ CFD code can produce results that are within the scattering of other CFD codes considered at the workshop. In particular, the Star-CCM+ CFD code was able to predict wing stall for the AIAA wing-body geometry to within 1 degree of angle of attack as compared to benchmark wind-tunnel test data. Current results show that the addition of the laminar-flow wing glove causes the gloved wing to stall much earlier than the unmodified wing. Furthermore, the gloved wing has a different stall characteristic than the clean wing, with no sharp lift drop-off at stall for the gloved wing.

  17. Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar-Flow Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Trong T.

    2014-01-01

    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft's swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop. It was found that the Star-CCM+ CFD code can produce results that are within the scattering of other CFD codes considered at the workshop. In particular, the Star-CCM+ CFD code was able to predict wing stall for the AIAA wing-body geometry to within 1 degree of angle of attack as compared to benchmark wind-tunnel test data. Current results show that the addition of the laminar-flow wing glove causes the gloved wing to stall much earlier than the unmodified wing. Furthermore, the gloved wing has a different stall characteristic than the clean wing, with no sharp lift drop-off at stall for the gloved wing.

  18. A swept wing panel in a low speed flexible walled test section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodyer, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    The testing of two-dimensional airfoil sections in adaptive wall tunnels is relatively widespread and has become routine at all speeds up to transonic. In contrast, the experience with the three-dimensional testing of swept panels in adaptive wall test sections is very limited, except for some activity in the 1940's at NPL, London. The current interest in testing swept wing panels led to the work covered by this report, which describes the design of an adaptive-wall swept-wing test section for a low speed wind tunnel and gives test results for a wing panel swept at 40 deg. The test section has rigid flat sidewalls supporting the panel, and features flexible top and bottom wall with ribs swept at the same angle as the wing. When streamlined, the walls form waves swept at the same angle as the wing. The C sub L (-) curve for the swept wing, determined from its pressure distributions taken with the walls streamlined, compare well with reference data which was taken on the same model, unswept, in a test section deep enough to avoid wall interference.

  19. Measurement and analysis of radiated sound from a low speed fan with a large tip gap.

    PubMed

    Bilka, M J; Anthoine, J; Schram, C

    2014-05-01

    The wake flow field and radiated sound from a low speed axial fan is studied experimentally. The fan geometry uses controlled diffusion blades and is designed with a low aspect ratio (0.9). The fan is installed with a large tip gap, approximately 10% of the blade span. The radiated sound field is analyzed using a known trailing edge noise formulation. First, the model is compared to an experiment of a single airfoil in a wind tunnel to assess the predictive capabilities. Second, measurements of the fan are made at two different blade loading conditions. Hot wire measurements are made in the near wake of the fan to assess the extent of the tip leakage flow for each condition. The radiated sound fields are compared with the trailing edge noise theory. Use is made of the wake measurements as an input to a surface pressure model. When the fan is operated with the optimal blade loading, the influence of the tip leakage flow is found to be of secondary acoustic impact. When the fan is operated at a high loading condition for the blades, a more significant leakage flow develops and is found to be responsible for the dominant radiated sound. PMID:24815243

  20. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Low-Speed Characteristics of a 1/8-Scale Model of the Republic XP-91 Airplane with a Vee and a Conventional Tail. Addendum - Characteristics with a Revised Conventional Tail and Drooped Wing Tips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiberg, James A.; Anderson, Warren E.

    1958-01-01

    Additional wind-tunnel tests were made of a 1/8-scale model of the Republic XP-91 airplane to determine its characteristics with various modifications. The modifications included a revised conventional tail, revised rocket arrangement, drooped wing tips, and revised landing gear and doors. Tests were also made to determine the effectiveness of the control surfaces of the model with the conventional tail and the effect of changing wing incidence and tail length. The revised rocket arrangement provided a considerable increase in the static directional stability contributed by the vee tail at small angles of yaw. The conventional tail provided a greater static directional stability than the vee tail without increasing the rolling moment due to sideslip. The rolling moment die to sideslip was considerable reduced by either drooped wing tips or open main landing-gear doors. The reduction in rolling moment due to sideslip resulting from the drooped tips was less with the landing-gear doors open than with the doors closed. A change in wing incidence from 0 degrees to 6 degrees reduced the elevator angle required for balance by approximately 6 degrees.

  1. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 14-percent-thick NASA phase 2 supercritical airfoil designed for a lift coefficient of 0.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. D.; Mcghee, R. J.; Allison, D. O.

    1980-01-01

    The low speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 14 percent thick supercritical airfoil are documented. The wind tunnel test was conducted in the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel. The effects of varying chord Reynolds number from 2,000,000 to 18,000,000 at a Mach number of 0.15 and the effects of varying Mach number from 0.10 to 0.32 at a Reynolds number of 6,000,000 are included.

  2. Effect of twist and camber on the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a powered close-coupled wing-canard configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, J. W., Jr.; Thomas, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    A series of wind-tunnel tests were conducted in a V/STOL tunnel to determine the low-speed longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a powered close-coupled wing/canard fighter configuration. The data was obtained for a high angle-of-attack maneuvering configuration and a takeoff and landing configuration. The data presented in tabulated form are intended for reference purposes.

  3. Pressure estimation for a low-speed detonation wave in pressed TEN

    SciTech Connect

    Martynyuk, V.F.; Sulimov, A.A.; Sukoyan, M.K.; Obmenin, A.V.

    1988-05-01

    This paper examined the dynamic deformation in steel shells with stationary low-speed detonation propagating in pressed TEN. Shell expansion was recorded with a ZhLV-2 triggered photographic system with the shell seen against a bright screen. The pressure pattern behind the front was shown to be stationary by the constant mode of shell expansion. Pressure in the stationary low-speed detonation was estimated from the photographic data. An expression was derived for calculating the estimated pressure from an equation for radial expansion of the shell. A dynamic deformation pattern was found which was used to calculate the explosive burnup in stationary low-speed detonation waves.

  4. Low Speed Aerodynamics of the X-38 CRV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komerath, N. M.; Funk, R.; Ames, R. G.; Mahalingam, R.; Matos, C.

    1998-01-01

    This project was performed in support of the engineering development of the NASA X-38 Crew Return Vehicle (CRV)system. Wind tunnel experiments were used to visualize various aerodynamic phenomena encountered by the CRV during the final stages of descent and landing. Scale models of the CRV were used to visualize vortex structures above and below the vehicle, and in its wake, and to quantify their trajectories. The effect of flaperon deflection on these structures was studied. The structure and dynamics of the CRV's wake during the drag parachute deployment stage were measured. Regions of high vorticity were identified using surveys conducted in several planes using a vortex meter. Periodic shedding of the vortex sheets from the sides of the CRV was observed using laser sheet videography as the CRV reached high angles of attack during the quasi-steady pitch-up prior to parafoil deployment. Using spectral analysis of hot-film anemometer data, the Strouhal number of these wake fluctuations was found to be 0.14 based on the model span. Phenomena encountered in flight test during parafoil operation were captured in scale-model tests, and a video photogrammetry technique was implemented to obtain parafoil surface shapes during flight in the tunnel. Forces on the parafoil were resolved using tension gages on individual lines. The temporal evolution of the phenomenon of leading edge collapse was captured. Laser velocimetry was used to demonstrate measurement of the porosity of the parafoil surface. From these measurements, several physical explanations have been developed for phenomena observed at various stages of the X-38 development program. Quantitative measurement capabilities have also been demonstrated for continued refinement of the aerodynamic technologies employed in the X-38 project. Detailed results from these studies are given in an AIAA Paper, two slide presentations, and other material which are given on a Web-based archival resource. This is the Digital

  5. Low-speed longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a flat-plate planform model of an advanced fighter configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrath, Brian E.; Neuhart, Dan H.; Gatlin, Gregory M.; Oneil, Pat

    1994-01-01

    A flat-plate wind tunnel model of an advanced fighter configuration was tested in the NASA LaRC Subsonic Basic Research Tunnel and the 16- by 24-inch Water Tunnel. The test objectives were to obtain and evaluate the low-speed longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a candidate configuration for the integration of several new innovative wing designs. The flat plate test allowed for the initial evaluation of the candidate planform and was designated as the baseline planform for the innovative wing design study. Low-speed longitudinal aerodynamic data were obtained over a range of freestream dynamic pressures from 7.5 psf to 30 psf (M = 0.07 to M = 0.14) and angles-of-attack from 0 to 40 deg. The aerodynamic data are presented in coefficient form for the lift, induced drag, and pitching moment. Flow-visualization results obtained were photographs of the flow pattern over the flat plate model in the water tunnel for angles-of-attack from 10 to 40 deg. The force and moment coefficients and the flow-visualization photographs showed the linear and nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics due to attached flow and vortical flow over the flat plate model. Comparison between experiment and linear theory showed good agreement for the lift and induced drag; however, the agreement was poor for the pitching moment.

  6. Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar-Flow Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Trong

    2013-01-01

    This is the presentation related to the paper of the same name describing Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of low speed stall aerodynamics of a swept wing with a laminar flow wing glove.

  7. Servo control system for friction drive with ultra-low speed and high accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shihai; Zhang, Zhenchao

    2008-07-01

    Due to its high accuracy and good performance at low speed, friction drive is widely used in turntable and large astronomical telescopes such as LAMOST and Keck. Especially, friction drives are implemented on the axes of azimuth, altitude and field rotation in LAMOST telescope. This paper describes the study on servo control system for friction drive with ultra-low speed and high accuracy. The principle, constitution, control algorithm and realization of servo system based on friction drive are analyzed and explored.

  8. Science and Technology of Low Speed and Motorless Flight, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, P. W. (Compiler)

    1979-01-01

    The proceedings of the Third International Symposium on the Science and Technology of Low Speed and Motorless Flight are reported. Twenty-eight papers were presented in the areas of low speed aerodynamics, new materials applications and structural concepts, advanced flight instrumentation, sailplane optimal flight techniques, and self launching and ultralight glider technology. These papers are included in the document along with another paper, which was not presented, on proposed definitions for various categories of sailplanes and gliders.

  9. Effect of passive flow-control devices on turbulent low-speed base flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidari-Miandoab, Farid

    Some configurations of blunt trailing-edge airfoils are known to have a lower pressure drag compared to sharp trailing-edge airfoils. However, this advantage in addition to the structural advantage of a thick trailing-edge airfoil is offset by its high base drag. At subsonic velocities, this is attributed to the low-pressure base flow dominated by a Karman vortex street. In the limiting case, the steady separated flow over a rearward-facing step is attained if the periodically shed vortices from a blunt trailing-edge are suppressed by the addition of a base spiltter-plate. Experimental studies in the Old Dominion University Low-Speed Closed-Circuit Wind Tunnel were conducted to examine the effect of several passive flow-control devices such as Wheeler doublets and wishbone vortex generators, longitudinal surface grooves, base cavities, and serrations on the characteristics of two- and three-dimensional base flows. Flow over flat-plate airfoil and rearward-facing step models was studied in the turbulent incompressible subsonic flow regime. Models with trailing-edge and step-sweep angles of 0, 30, and 45 degrees with respect to the crossflow direction were considered. Constant-temperature hot-wire anemometry, infrared surface thermography, and pitot-static probes were used to conduct flow measurements. The parameters measured included vortex shedding frequency, convective heat-transfer rates, base pressure, and flow reattachment distance. Surveys of mean velocity profiles in the wake were also conducted. Results have shown that most of the flow control devices tested increased the base pressure of the 2-D and 3-D flat-plate airfoils. Use of longitudinal surface grooves resulted in shorter flow reattachment distances and higher convective heat transfer rates downstream of the 2-D rearward-facing steps.

  10. Structural analysis of low-speed composite propfan blades for the LRCSW wind tunnel model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    The Naval Weapons Center at China Lake, CA, is currently in the process of evaluating propulsion systems for the Long Range Conventional Standoff Weapons (LRCSW). At present, the Advanced Counter-Rotating Propfan system is being considered. The methodologies are documented which were used to structurally analyze the 0.55 scale CM1 composite propfan blades for the LRCSW with COBSTRAN and MSC/NASTRAN. Significant results are also reported.

  11. A cm scale electret-based electrostatic wind turbine for low-speed energy harvesting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, M.; Boisseau, S.; Gasnier, P.; Willemin, J.; Geisler, M.; Reboud, J. L.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a small-scale airflow energy harvester built on an axial turbine architecture and exploiting an electret-based electrostatic converter. When the airflow velocity is high enough, the windmill starts rotating and creates a periodic relative motion between a stator and a rotor which induces variations of capacitance. These ones are directly converted into electricity thanks to the use of Teflon electrets charged at -1400 V which polarize the variable capacitors. We focus our study on a 4-blade axial turbine with a diameter of D = 40 mm, a depth of W = 10 mm, for a total volume of 12.6 cm3. This windmill has been tested with various blade angles and different types of electrostatic converters and output powers up to 90 μW at 1.5 m s-1 (7.5 μW cm-3) and 1.8 mW at 10 m s-1 (111 μW cm-3) have been obtained so far. The coefficient of power reaches C p = 5.8% and among the small-scale airflow energy harvesters previously reported, this one has the lowest cut-in speed (1.5 m s-1).

  12. The integration of a mesh reflector to a 15-foot box truss structure. Task 3: Box truss analysis and technology development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachtell, E. E.; Thiemet, W. F.; Morosow, G.

    1987-01-01

    To demonstrate the design and integration of a reflective mesh surface to a deployable truss structure, a mesh reflector was installed on a 15 foot box truss cube. The specific features demonstrated include: (1) sewing seams in reflective mesh; (2) mesh stretching to desired preload; (3) installation of surface tie cords; (4) installation of reflective surface on truss; (5) setting of reflective surface; (6) verification of surface shape/accuracy; (7) storage and deployment; (8) repeatability of reflector surface; and (9) comparison of surface with predicted shape using analytical methods developed under a previous task.

  13. In-flight flow visualization with pressure measurements at low speeds on the NASA F-18 high alpha research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delfrate, John H.; Fisher, David F.; Zuniga, Fanny A.

    1990-01-01

    In-flight results from surface and off-surface flow visualizations and from extensive pressure distributions document the vortical flow on the leading edge extensions (LEX) and forebody of the NASA F-18 high alpha research vehicle for low speeds and angles of attack up to 50 degs. Surface flow visualization data, obtained using the emitted fluid technique, were used to define separation lines and laminar separation bubbles. Off-surface flow visualization data, obtained by smoke injection, were used to document both the path of the vortex cores and the location of vortex core breakdown. The location of vortex core breakdown correlated well with the loss of suction pressure on the LEX and with the flow visualization results from ground facilities. Surface flow separation lines on the LEX and forebody corresponded well with the end of pressure recovery under the vortical flows. Correlation of the pressures with wind tunnel results show fair to good correlation.

  14. In-flight flow visualization and pressure measurements at low speeds on the NASA F-18 high alpha research vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delfrate, John H.; Fisher, David F.; Zuniga, Fanny A.

    1991-01-01

    Inflight results from surface and off surface flow visualizations and from extensive pressure distributions document the vortical flow on the leading edge extensions (LEXs) and forebody of the NASA F-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV) for low speeds and angles of attack up to 50 deg. Surface flow visualization data, obtained using the emitted fluid technique, were used to define separation lines and laminar separation bubbles (LSB). Off surface flow visualization data, obtained by smoke injection, were used to document both the path of the vortex cores and the location of vortex core breakdown. The location of vortex core breakdown correlated well with the loss of suction pressure on the LEX and with the flow visualization results from ground facilities. Surface flow separation lines on the LEX and forebody corresponded well with the end of pressure recovery under the vortical flows. Correlation of the pressures with wind tunnel results show fair to good correlation.

  15. Measurements of the tip-gap turbulent flow structure in a low-speed compressor cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Genglin

    This dissertation presents results from a thorough study of the tip-gap turbulent flow structure in a low-speed linear compressor cascade wind tunnel at Virginia Tech that includes a moving belt system to simulate the relative motion between the tip and the casing. The endwall pressure measurements and the surface oil flow visualizations were made on a stationary endwall to obtain the flow features and to determine the measurement profiles of interest. A custom-made miniature 3-orthogonal-velocity-component fiber-optic laser-Doppler velocimetry (LDV) system was used to measure all three components of velocity within a 50 mum spherical measurement volume within the gap between the endwall and the blade tip, mainly for the stationary wall with 1.65% and 3.30% tip gaps as well as some initial experiments for the moving wall. Since all of the vorticity in a flow originates from the surfaces under the action of strong pressure gradient, it was very important to measure the nearest-wall flow on the endwall and around the blade tip. The surface skin friction velocity was measured by using viscous sublayer velocity profiles, which verified the presence of an intense lateral shear layer that was observed from surface oil flow visualizations. All second- and third-order turbulence quantities were measured to provide detailed data for any parallel CFD efforts. The most complete data sets were acquired for 1.65% and 3.30% tip gap/chord ratios in a low-speed linear compressor cascade. This study found that tip gap flows are complex pressure-driven, unsteady three-dimensional turbulent flows. The crossflow velocity normal to the blade chord is nearly uniform in the and tip-gap and changes substantially from the pressure to suction side. The crossflow velocity relies on the local tip pressure loading that is different from the mid-span pressure loading because of tip leakage vortex influence. The tip gap flow is highly skewed three-dimensional flow throughout the full gap

  16. A new hydrodynamic prediction of the peak heat flux from horizontal cylinders in low speed upflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, E. K.; Eichhorn, R.

    1988-01-01

    Flow-boiling data have been obtained for horizontal cylinders in saturated acetone, isopropanol, and water, yielding heat flux vs. wall superheat boiling curves for the organic liquids. A region of low speed upflow is identified in which long cylindrical bubbles break off from the wake with regular frequency. The Strouhal number of bubble breakoff is a function only of the Froude number in any liquid, and the effective wake thickness in all liquids is a function of the density ratio and the Froude number. A low speed flow boiling burnout prediction procedure is presented which yields accurate results in widely dissimilar liquids.

  17. Study of the model of dynamic balance in low-speed based on Labview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rui; Wan, Zhou; Jing, Zhongguo; Xiong, Xin

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we use two algorithms which include least square fitting and correlation method to test high-speed rotor balancing at low-speed, and this is a new means of dynamic balance test. For low-speed test system of balancing, based on the hardware circuit, we use the algorithms supplied by virtual instrument to analyze the fundamental frequency information of the vibration, and ultimately we come up a testing method with a combination of hardware and software. Obtained data on rotating machinery's repair and maintenance is very useful.

  18. A computer program for the design and analysis of low-speed airfoils, supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, R.; Somers, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Three new options were incorporated into an existing computer program for the design and analysis of low speed airfoils. These options permit the analysis of airfoils having variable chord (variable geometry), a boundary layer displacement iteration, and the analysis of the effect of single roughness elements. All three options are described in detail and are included in the FORTRAN IV computer program.

  19. Application of numerical optimization to the design of low speed airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, R. M.; Vanderplaats, G. N.

    1975-01-01

    A practical procedure for the optimum design of low-speed airfoils is demonstrated. The procedure uses an optimization program based on the method of feasible directions coupled with an aerodynamic analysis program that uses a relaxation solution of the inviscid, full potential equation. Results are presented for airfoils designed to have small adverse pressure gradients, high maximum lift, and low pitching moment.

  20. Approximate relations and charts for low-speed stability derivatives of swept wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, Thomas A; Queijo, M J

    1948-01-01

    Contains derivations, based on a simplified theory, of approximate relations for low-speed stability derivatives of swept wings. Method accounts for the effects and, in most cases, taper ratio. Charts, based on the derived relations, are presented for the stability derivatives of untapered swept wings. Calculated values of the derivatives are compared with experimental results.

  1. Low speed hybrid generalized predictive control of a gasoline-propelled car.

    PubMed

    Romero, M; de Madrid, A P; Mañoso, C; Milanés, V

    2015-07-01

    Low-speed driving in traffic jams causes significant pollution and wasted time for commuters. Additionally, from the passengers׳ standpoint, this is an uncomfortable, stressful and tedious scene that is suitable to be automated. The highly nonlinear dynamics of car engines at low-speed turn its automation in a complex problem that still remains as unsolved. Considering the hybrid nature of the vehicle longitudinal control at low-speed, constantly switching between throttle and brake pedal actions, hybrid control is a good candidate to solve this problem. This work presents the analytical formulation of a hybrid predictive controller for automated low-speed driving. It takes advantage of valuable characteristics supplied by predictive control strategies both for compensating un-modeled dynamics and for keeping passengers security and comfort analytically by means of the treatment of constraints. The proposed controller was implemented in a gas-propelled vehicle to experimentally validate the adopted solution. To this end, different scenarios were analyzed varying road layouts and vehicle speeds within a private test track. The production vehicle is a commercial Citroën C3 Pluriel which has been modified to automatically act over its throttle and brake pedals. PMID:25634584

  2. 40 CFR 205.54-1 - Low speed sound emission test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Low speed sound emission test procedures. 205.54-1 Section 205.54-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks §...

  3. Compilation of Test Data on 111 Free-Spinning Airplane Models Tested in the Langley 15-Foot and 20-Foot Free-Spinning Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malvestuto, Frank S.; Gale, Lawrence J.; Wood, John H.

    1947-01-01

    A compilation of free-spinning-airplane model data on the spin and recovery characteristics of 111 airplanes is presented. These data were previously published in separate memorandum reports and were obtained from free-spinning tests in the Langley 15-foot and the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnels. The model test data presented include the steady-spin and recovery characteristics of each model for various combinations of aileron and elevator deflections and for various loadings and dimensional configurations. Dimensional data, mass data, and a three-view drawing of the corresponding free-spinning tunnel model are also presented for each airplane. The data presented should be of value to designers and should facilitate the design of airplanes incorporating satisfactory spin-recovery characteristics.

  4. An Application of CFD to Guide Forced Boundary-Layer Transition for Low-Speed Tests of a Hybrid Wing-Body Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, James M.; Deere, Karen A.; Childs, Robert E.; Stremel, Paul M.; Long, Kurtis R.

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid transition trip-dot sizing and placement test technique was developed in support of recent experimental research on a hybrid wing-body configuration under study for the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project. The approach combines traditional methods with Computational Fluid Dynamics. The application had three-dimensional boundary layers that were simulated with either fully turbulent or transitional flow models using established Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes methods. Trip strip effectiveness was verified experimentally using infrared thermography during a low-speed wind tunnel test. Although the work was performed on one specific configuration, the process was based on fundamental flow physics and could be applicable to other configurations.

  5. Comparison of field and wind tunnel Darrieus wind turbine data

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldahl, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    A 2-m-dia Darrieus Vertical Axis Wind Turbine with NACA-0012 blades was extensively tested in the Vought Corporation Low Speed Wind Tunnel. This same turbine was installed in the field at the Sandia National Laboratories Wind Turbine Test Site and operated to determine if field data corresponded to data obtained in the wind tunnel. It is believed that the accuracy of the wind tunnel test data was verified and thus the credibility of that data base was further established.

  6. A learning-based autonomous driver: emulate human driver's intelligence in low-speed car following

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Junqing; Dolan, John M.; Litkouhi, Bakhtiar

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, an offline learning mechanism based on the genetic algorithm is proposed for autonomous vehicles to emulate human driver behaviors. The autonomous driving ability is implemented based on a Prediction- and Cost function-Based algorithm (PCB). PCB is designed to emulate a human driver's decision process, which is modeled as traffic scenario prediction and evaluation. This paper focuses on using a learning algorithm to optimize PCB with very limited training data, so that PCB can have the ability to predict and evaluate traffic scenarios similarly to human drivers. 80 seconds of human driving data was collected in low-speed (< 30miles/h) car-following scenarios. In the low-speed car-following tests, PCB was able to perform more human-like carfollowing after learning. A more general 120 kilometer-long simulation showed that PCB performs robustly even in scenarios that are not part of the training set.

  7. Computer simulations and experimental study on crash box of automobile in low speed collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanjie; Ding, Lin; Yan, Shengyuan; Yang, Yongsheng

    2008-11-01

    Based on the problems of energy-absorbing components in the automobile low speed collision process, according to crash box frontal crash test in low speed as the example, the simulation analysis of crash box impact process was carried out by Hyper Mesh and LS-DYNA. Each parameter on the influence modeling was analyzed by mathematics analytical solution and test comparison, which guaranteed that the model was accurate. Combination of experiment and simulation result had determined the weakness part of crash box structure crashworthiness aspect, and improvement method of crash box crashworthiness was discussed. Through numerical simulation of the impact process of automobile crash box, the obtained analysis result was used to optimize the design of crash box. It was helpful to improve the vehicles structure and decrease the collision accident loss at most. And it was also provided a useful method for the further research on the automobile collision.

  8. 78 FR 16358 - Safety Advisory 2013-02; Low-Speed, Wheel-Climb Derailments of Passenger Equipment With “Stiff...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Safety Advisory 2013-02; Low-Speed, Wheel-Climb Derailments of Passenger... railroads and other industry members about low-speed, wheel-climb derailments of certain passenger equipment... in low-speed operating environments. To avoid similar low-speed, wheel-climb derailments, this...

  9. Active Closed-Loop Stator Vane Flow Control Demonstrated in a Low-Speed Multistage Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bright, Michelle M.; Culley, Dennis E.; Strazisar, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    Closed-loop flow control was successfully demonstrated on the surface of stator vanes in NASA Glenn Research Center's Low-Speed Axial Compressor (LSAC) facility. This facility provides a flow field that accurately duplicates the aerodynamics of modern highly loaded compressors. Closed-loop active flow control uses sensors and actuators embedded within engine components to dynamically alter the internal flow path during off-nominal operation in order to optimize engine performance and maintain stable operation.

  10. Hysteresis zone or locus - Aerodynamic of bulbous based bodies at low speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Covert, E. E.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental data are presented which seem to suggest that a well-defined hysteresis locus on bulbous based bodies at low speeds does not exist. Instead, if the experiment is repeated several times, the entire hysteresis region seems to fill with data rather than trace out a specific hysteresis locus. Data obtained on an oscillating model even at low reduced frequencies may be well defined but when applied to arbitrary motion lead to less accurate results than desired.

  11. Application of dual-blade stator to low-speed ratio performance improvement of torque converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guangqiang; Wang, Lijun

    2016-03-01

    With application of the lock-up clutch in the torque converter (TC), fuel economy is not much determined by its high-speed ratio transmission efficiency. As a benefit, more researches are focused on its low-speed ratio performance so as to improve vehicle gradeability and launching acceleration performance. According to the results of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, hydrodynamic loss inside the stator cascade accounts for 42% of the total energy loss at stalling speed ratio. It is found that upstream flow with large impingement angle results in boundary layer separation at the leading edge, which aggregates hydrodynamic loss and decreases circular flow rate dramatically at low-speed ratio. In this paper, a dual-blade stator is proposed to suppress the boundary layer separation, which is parameterized by using the non-uniform rational B spline (NURBS) method. The mean camber line and blade profile curve are expressed by a three control points quadratic open NURBS and a cubic closed one respectively. The key design parameters included the slot width and suction side shape of the primary blade are analyzed. The most effective slot width is found to be between 4% and 8% chord length, and the boundary layer separation can be suppressed completely by decreasing distribution of momentum moment at the primary blade and adding it to the leading edge of the secondary blade. As a result, circular flow rate and impeller torque capacity is increased by 17.9% and 9.6% respectively at stalling speed ratio, meanwhile, low-speed ratio efficiency is also improved. Maximum efficiency at high-speed ratio decreases by 0.5%, which can be ignored as the work of lock-up clutch. This research focuses on using the dual-blade stator to optimize low-speed ratio performance of the TC, which is benefit to vehicle power performance.

  12. Research on the low speed stability control technology of fly-cutting machine for KDP crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dongsheng; Ji, Fang; Chen, Hua

    2014-08-01

    In the paper, The problem about stability in low speed of the air bearing stage driven by a linear motor was investigated to satisfy the ultra-precision fly-cutting of KDP crystals. First of all, the modal of the servo system with the permanent magnet synchronous linear motor was analyzed. In the system of the low speed linear motor driver, the main interferences came from cutting force f Load , the friction of chain and cable f n , the ripple thrust f ripp , and motor friction f fric . Secondly, the factors about low speed stability were analyzed: the key to improve the system's stability is to control the interference forces; Another important issue is to develop an advanced control strategy. Thirdly, some optimization experiments about low speed stability were developed as follows: the influence of feedback element, the influence of Power converter, speed optimization of damping feed-forward control, speed optimization of Spindle vibration, speed optimization based on disturbance observer. Finally the experimental results: the lowest speed of the stage can reach 0.2 mm/min; the error of the speed is less than 0.06mm/min when running between 1mm/min and 10 mm/min. The cutting experiment of KDP with the size of 330mm × 330mm × 10mm, was proceeded on the Fly-cutting machine by the feeding velocity of 1mm/min. The results about the surface roughness show that the value of Rq is 3.3nm and the value of Ra is 2.6nm.

  13. Wind machine

    SciTech Connect

    Gaston, E. E.

    1985-01-15

    To generate power from wind economically, a feathering vane is pivotally mounted perpendicular to a tail vane and shifts the orientation of a sprocket assembly controlled by the tail vane in response to wind velocity. The sprocket assembly changes the orientation of blades which orbit about and rotate the main power shaft so that, as wind velocity changes, the blade orientations are shifted in a compensating direction under the control of the tail vane. A lever shifts the position of the blades to positions that balance wind power and brake the rotation for maintenance purposes. The speed-control mechanism includes a damper to avoid being excessively affected by wind gusts. The main shaft is connected through a speed increaser which has less mass at the high-speed end than the low-speed end to an induction generator when used for cogeneration, the field of the induction generator being excited by the cogeneration frequency.

  14. Evaluating the role of low-speed centrifugation towards transfecting human peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, M; Ratho, R; Chawla, Y; Singh, M P

    2014-01-01

    The conventional method of transfection of suspension cells by chemical has proven to be very difficult. We present a new transfection protocol, wherein, low-speed centrifugation of cell culture plates immediately after adding the lipid: DNA complex significantly enhances the transfection efficiency. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were transfected with BLOCK-iT™ Fluorescent Oligo (scrambled siRNA) and lipofectamine complex using conventional and low-speed centrifugation modified transfection protocols. The efficiency of transfection was determined using flowcytometer and cell viability was checked using MTT assay. Incorporation of low-speed centrifugation significantly enhances the transfection efficiency of BLOCK-iT™ in the suspension culture of PBMCs as compared to conventional transfection method (99.8% vs 28.3%; P < 0.0001), even at a low concentration of 40 picomoles without affecting the cell viability. Centrifugation enhanced transfection (CET) technique is simple, time-saving and novel application without compromising the cell viability in the context of recently popular RNA interference in suspension cultures of PBMCs. This undemanding modification might be applicable to a wide variety of cell lines and solve crucial problem of researchers working with RNA interference in suspension cultures. PMID:24713904

  15. Acoustic emission-based condition monitoring methods: Review and application for low speed slew bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caesarendra, Wahyu; Kosasih, Buyung; Tieu, Anh Kiet; Zhu, Hongtao; Moodie, Craig A. S.; Zhu, Qiang

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents an acoustic emission-based method for the condition monitoring of low speed reversible slew bearings. Several acoustic emission (AE) hit parameters as the monitoring parameters for the detection of impending failure of slew bearings are reviewed first. The review focuses on: (1) the application of AE in typical rolling element bearings running at different speed classifications, i.e. high speed (>600 rpm), low speed (10-600 rpm) and very low speed (<10 rpm); (2) the commonly used AE hit parameters in rolling element bearings and (3) AE signal processing, feature extraction and pattern recognition methods. In the experiment, impending failure of the slew bearing was detected by the AE hit parameters after the new bearing had run continuously for approximately 15 months. The slew bearing was then dismantled and the evidence of the early defect was analysed. Based on the result, we propose a feature extraction method of the AE waveform signal using the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) algorithm and demonstrate that the LLE feature can detect the sign of failure earlier than the AE hit parameters with improved prediction of the progressive trend of the defect.

  16. A new direct torque control strategy with improved system performance in the low-speed region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Chengzhi; Wu, Yingnan; Zhang, Hui

    2006-11-01

    Based on the theoretic analysis of performance of the induction motor (IM), the increment of electromagnetic torque of IM is analyzed in detail. this paper explains the reason why the IM performance in the low speed region is poor under conventional direct torque control (DTC). Then one new control strategy of IM is proposed on the basis of classical direct torque control (DTC). The scheme is replacing the single voltage space vector with high frequency voltage pulse when IM runs in the low speed region. By control voltage pulse, a fuzzy neural network direct torque control system based on TMS320F240 is made. The high frequency voltage purls make system's impedance improve obviously. It can effectively reduce the influence of stator resistance in flux linkage. Then, we can avoid facing the tradition stator resistance examining problem. Through duty ratio control technique in high frequency voltage pulse, this scheme can effectively reduce the torque ripple in low speed and static function of the system is improved greatly. The results of the experiment verified the feasibility of the proposed strategy.

  17. The effect of low-speed drilling without irrigation on heat generation: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In this study we evaluated heat generation during the low-speed drilling procedure without irrigation. Materials and Methods Ten artificial bone blocks that were similar to human D1 bone were used in this study. The baseline temperature was 37.0℃. We drilled into 5 artificial bone blocks 60 times at the speed of 50 rpm without irrigation. As a control group, we drilled into an additional 5 artificial bone blocks 60 times at the speed of 1,500 rpm with irrigation. The temperature changes during diameter 2 mm drilling were measured using thermocouples. Results The mean maximum temperatures during drilling were 40.9℃ in the test group and 39.7℃ in the control group. Even though a statistically significant difference existed between the two groups, the low-speed drilling did not produce overheating. Conclusion These findings suggest that low-speed drilling without irrigation may not lead to overheating during drilling. PMID:26904489

  18. Prediction of effects of wing contour modifications on low-speed maximum lift and transonic performance for the EA-6B aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Dennis O.; Waggoner, E. G.

    1990-01-01

    Computational predictions of the effects of wing contour modifications on maximum lift and transonic performance were made and verified against low speed and transonic wind tunnel data. This effort was part of a program to improve the maneuvering capability of the EA-6B electronics countermeasures aircraft, which evolved from the A-6 attack aircraft. The predictions were based on results from three computer codes which all include viscous effects: MCARF, a 2-D subsonic panel code; TAWFIVE, a transonic full potential code; and WBPPW, a transonic small disturbance potential flow code. The modifications were previously designed with the aid of these and other codes. The wing modifications consists of contour changes to the leading edge slats and trailing edge flaps and were designed for increased maximum lift with minimum effect on transonic performance. The prediction of the effects of the modifications are presented, with emphasis on verification through comparisons with wind tunnel data from the National Transonic Facility. Attention is focused on increments in low speed maximum lift and increments in transonic lift, pitching moment, and drag resulting from the contour modifications.

  19. 78 FR 29808 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2012 Lita GLE-6 Low-Speed Vehicles...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). How to Read Comments submitted to the Docket: You may read the comments received... Nonconforming 2012 Lita GLE-6 Low-Speed Vehicles Are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic... 2012 Lita GLE-6 low-speed vehicles (LSV) that were not originally manufactured to comply with...

  20. Numerical dissipation control in high order shock-capturing schemes for LES of low speed flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, D. V.; Yee, H. C.; Wray, A. A.; Sjögreen, B.; Kritsuk, A. G.

    2016-02-01

    The Yee & Sjögreen adaptive numerical dissipation control in high order scheme (High Order Filter Methods for Wide Range of Compressible Flow Speeds, ICOSAHOM 09, 2009) is further improved for DNS and LES of shock-free turbulence and low speed turbulence with shocklets. There are vastly different requirements in the minimization of numerical dissipation for accurate turbulence simulations of different compressible flow types and flow speeds. Traditionally, the method of choice for shock-free turbulence and low speed turbulence are by spectral, high order central or high order compact schemes with high order linear filters. With a proper control of a local flow sensor, appropriate amount of numerical dissipation in high order shock-capturing schemes can have spectral-like accuracy for compressible low speed turbulent flows. The development of the method includes an adaptive flow sensor with automatic selection on the amount of numerical dissipation needed at each flow location for more accurate DNS and LES simulations with less tuning of parameters for flows with a wide range of flow speed regime during the time-accurate evolution, e.g., time varying random forcing. An automatic selection of the different flow sensors catered to the different flow types is constructed. A Mach curve and high-frequency oscillation indicators are used to reduce the tuning of parameters in controlling the amount of shock-capturing numerical dissipation to be employed for shock-free turbulence, low speed turbulence and turbulence with strong shocks. In Kotov et al. (High Order Numerical Methods for LES of Turbulent Flows with Shocks, ICCFD8, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, July 14-18, 2014) the LES of a turbulent flow with a strong shock by the Yee & Sjögreen scheme indicated a good agreement with the filtered DNS data. A work in progress for the application of the adaptive flow sensor for compressible turbulence with time-varying random forcing is forthcoming. The present study examines the

  1. A Low Speed Maneuvering Technology for Docking of Unmanned Underwater Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohseni, K.

    2006-12-01

    Reliable docking mechanisms are essential for operation of AUV networks in harsh environment such as under ice in polar region. Hydrodynamic design of AUVs are often driven on a few competing fronts: (i) Rapid and efficient deployment to the work-zone and (ii) low speed maneuvering during the docking procedure and for operations at the work-zone. Rapid deployment necessitates a streamlined body of revolution (eg. Torpedo- shape design) for fast cruising with minimal energy. However, since the trajectory of this type of vehicles is adjusted using control surfaces, the magnitude of the available control force is proportional to the vehicle's speed. Consequently, these vehicles are difficult to maneuver at low speeds and in tight spaces. Therefore, they are particularly difficult to dock. Such vehicles also cannot opportunistically enter a precise loitering or hovering mode. As a result much current effort is devoted to the development of docking mechanisms, but this is just a solution for the symptoms, and does not really address the problem of the vehicle's actual maneuvering capabilities. On the other hand, low speed maneuvering and better control are often achieved by the so-called box-design where the low drag body-of-revolution design is sacrificed by adding multiple thrusters at different locations and directions. In this case, precise maneuvering can be achieved at the cost of increased drag and the need for an alternate technique to transport the vehicle from the offshore base or an escort ship to the work-zone. In an effort to resolve this trade-off, we have recently proposed to use compact synthetic jets for low speed maneuvering or locomotion of small unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs). Inspired by the propulsion of cephalopod, we have designed and implemented compact vortex generators for low speed maneuvering, station keeping, and docking of small underwater vehicles. Design, fabrication, thrust optimization, and implementation of such compact actuators

  2. A simulation investigation of scout/attack helicopter directional control requirements for hover and low-speed tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bivens, Courtland C.; Guercio, Joseph G.

    1987-01-01

    A piloted simulator experiment was conducted to investigate directional axis handling qualities requirements for low speed and hover tasks performed by a Scout/Attack helicopter. Included were the directional characteristics of various candidate light helicopter family configurations. Also, the experiment focused on conventional single main/tail rotor configurations of the OH-58 series aircraft, where the first-order yaw-axis dynamic effects that contributed to the loss of tail rotor control were modeled. Five pilots flew 22 configurations under various wind conditions. Cooper-Harper handling quality ratings were used as the primary measure of merit of each configuration. The results of the experiment indicate that rotorcraft configurations with high directional gust sensitivity require greater minimum yaw damping to maintain satisfactory handling qualities during nap-of-the-Earth flying tasks. It was also determined that both yaw damping and control response are critical handling qualities parameters in performing the air-to-air target acquisition and tracking task. Finally, the lack of substantial yaw damping and larger values of gust sensitivity increased the possibility of loss of directional control at low airspeeds for the single main/tail rotor configurations.

  3. NASA Now: Engineering Design: Wind Tunnel Testing

    NASA Video Gallery

    Dr. Norman W. Schaeffler, a NASA aerospace research engineer, describes how wind tunnels work and how aircraft designers use them to understand aerodynamic forces at low speeds. Learn the advantage...

  4. Applying the Aramid Joined v-belt high torque, low speed oil field pumping units

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, D.; Watson, J.

    1982-11-01

    This paper discusses the successful application of Aramid fiber-reinforced Torque Team Plus Joined Vbelts to low speed; (8-20 rpm) high torque, up to (320,000 in-lb); 100% belt driven oil field pumping units. Also discussed is a comparison in operating efficiency over gear or chain units, reduced initial expense, and lower overall maintenance effort. The Aramid reinforced Joined V-belts were applied to a double reduction drive (68-142:1 ratio) eliminating gear or chain reducers. Pumping units range in size from 57,000 in-lb to 320,000 in-lb.

  5. A study of acoustic resonance in a low-speed multistage compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, T.R.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements are presented of a resonant acoustic phenomenon occurring in a low-speed multistage compressor. The results show that this phenomenon shares many characteristics with acoustic resonance as measured in high-speed compressors. These similarities include a rotating pressure field, several acoustic frequencies corresponding to different circumferential modes, step changes in frequency as the flow rate is increased, and acoustic frequencies that are independent of flow coefficient, shaft speed, and the axial length of the compression system. The paper includes measurements of the helical structure of the rotating pressure field and of the variation in amplitude of the acoustic signal over a stator exit plane.

  6. Sensorless Vector Control of IPMSM with DC Link Current Measurement at Low Speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Hisao; Nakagawa, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Takayuki

    This paper presents a method of estimating pole position of interior permanent magnet synchronous motors, IPMSMs. The proposed method estimates the pole position at low speeds and standstill by measuring only the DC link current of the inverter. The pole position is estimated by using the saliency of the IPMSMs. In order to detect the saliency, the three phase triangular carrier waves are used. The DC link current is measured at tops and bottoms of the carrier waves. Experimentation is performed to confirm the validity of the proposed method.

  7. Experimental and computational results from a large low-speed centrifugal impeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, M. D.; Chriss, R. M.; Wood, J. R.; Strazisar, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental and computational investigation of the NASA Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor (LSCC) flow field has been conducted using laser anemometry and Dawes' 3D viscous code. The experimental configuration consists of a backswept impeller followed by a vaneless diffuser. Measurements of the three-dimensional velocity field were acquired at several measurement planes through the compressor. The measurements describe both the throughflow and secondary velocity field along each measurement plane and in several cases provide details of the flow within the blade boundary layers. The experimental and computational results provide a clear understanding of the development of the throughflow momentum wake which is characteristic of centrifugal compressors.

  8. Experimental and computational results from a large low-speed centrifugal impeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, M. D.; Chriss, R. M.; Wood, J. R.; Strazisar, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    An experimental and computational investigation of the NASA Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor (LSCC) flow field was conducted using laser anemometry and Dawes' 3D viscous code. The experimental configuration consists of a back-swept impeller followed by a vaneless diffuser. Measurements of the three-dimensional velocity field were acquired at several measurement planes through the compressor. The measurements describe both the throughflow and secondary velocity field along each measurement plane and, in several cases, provide details of the flow within the blade boundary layers. The experimental and computational results provide a clear understanding of the development of the throughflow momentum wake which is characteristic of centrifugal compressors.

  9. Study on Tire-attached Energy Harvester for Low-speed Actual Vehicle Driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Zheng, R.; Kaizuka, T.; Su, D.; Nakano, K.

    2015-12-01

    This study reports a tire-attached energy harvester, in which a cantilever beam pasted piezoelectric film and magnets with the same polarity are fabricated as a bistable vibrating system, for low-speed actual-vehicle driving. As the wheel rotates, the energy harvester is subjected to the noise produced from the interaction between the paved road and the rotating tire, and tangentially gravitational force as a periodic input can be applied to achieve the occurrence of stochastic resonance. Stochastic resonance can significantly stimulate the response of the bistable vibrating system, and therefore enhance the energy harvesting efficiency.

  10. PIV Measurements in the 14 x 22 Low Speed Tunnel: Recommendations for Future Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Ralph D.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; McGinley, Catherine B.; Paschal, Keith B.; Neuhart, Dan H.

    2003-01-01

    During the period from February 4 to March 21, 2003 stereo digital particle imaging velocimetry measurements were made on a generic high lift model, the Trap Wing, as part of the High Lift Flow Physics Experiment. These measurements were the first PIV measurements made in the NASA, Langley Research Center 14 x 22 Foot Low Speed Tunnel, and several problems were encountered and solved in the acquisition of the data. It is the purpose of this paper to document the solutions to these problems and to make recommendations for further improvements to the tunnel/setup in order to facilitate future measurements of this type.

  11. Longitudinal afterbody grooves and shoulder radiusing for low-speed bluff body drag reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, F. G.; Quass, B. F.; Weinstein, L. M.; Bushnell, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    A new low-speed drag reduction approach is proposed which employs longitudinal surface V-shaped grooves cutting through the afterbody shoulder region. The test Reynolds number range was from 20,000 to 200,000 based on undisturbed free-stream flow and a body diameter of 6.08 cm. The V-grooves are shown to be most effective in reducing drag when the afterbody shoulder radius is zero. Reductions in drag of up to 33% have been measured for this condition. For large shoulder radius, the grooves are only effective at the lower Reynolds numbers of the test.

  12. Flight characteristics of a manned, low-speed, controlled deep stall vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    A successful manned, low speed, controlled deep stall flight research program was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility. Piloting techniques were established that enabled the pilot to attain and stabilize on an angle of attack in the 30 deg to 72 deg range. A flight determined aerodynamic data base was established for angles of attack as high as 72 deg. Poor lateral directional flying qualities were encountered at angles of attack above 60 deg. Insight into the high angle of attack lateral directional dynamics was gained through a basic root locus analysis.

  13. Flight characteristics of a manned, low-speed, controlled deep stall vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    A successful manned, low-speed, controlled deep stall flight research program was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility. Piloting techniques were established that enabled the pilot to attain and stabilize on an angle of attack in the 30 to 72 deg range. A flight-determined aerodynamic data base was established for angles of attack as high as 72 deg. Poor lateral-directional flying qualities were encountered at angles of attack above 60 deg. Insight into the high angle-of-attack, lateral-directional dynamics was gained through a basic root-locus analysis.

  14. Ultrawideband monocycle pulse generation based on polarization modulator and low speed electrical NRZ signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guodan; Zhang, Qiufang; Wang, Quan

    2015-07-01

    A novel ultrawideband (UWB) monocycle pulse generation system by modulating a polarization modulator (PolM) with a low speed electrical nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) signal is proposed, which significantly reduce the bandwidth requirement of the driving signal. At each bit transition of the input NRZ signal, two polarity-reversed Gaussian pulses are generated. By properly setting the delay between these two Gaussian pulses, an optical UWB monocycle pulse can be generated. Biphase modulation (BPM) can be realized by electrically switching the polarization direction at the output of PolM, if an electrically tunable arbitrary wave plate (AWP) is employed.

  15. Aerodynamics of the Viggen 37 aircraft. Part 1: General characteristics at low speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karling, K.

    1986-01-01

    A description of the aerodynamics of the Viggen 37 and its performances, especially at low speeds is presented. The aerodynamic requirements for the design of the Viggen 37 aircraft are given, including the basic design, performance requirement, and aerodynamic characteristics, static and dynamic load test results and flight test results. The Viggen 37 aircraft is designed to be used for air attack, surveillance, pursuit, and training applications. It is shown that this aircraft is suitable for short runways, and has good maneuvering, acceleration, and climbing characteristics. The design objectives for this aircraft were met by utilizing the effect produced by the interference between two triangular wings, positioned in tandem.

  16. Status of The General Atomics Low Speed Urban Maglev Technology Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Gurol, S; Baldi, R; Bever, D; Post, R

    2004-06-16

    This paper presents the status of General Atomics Urban Maglev Program. The development provides an innovative approach for low speed transportation suitable for very challenging urban environments. Permanent magnets arranged in a 'Halbach' array configuration produce a relatively stiff magnetic suspension operating with an air gap of 25 mm. The project has progressed from design and prototype hardware testing, to the construction of a 120-meter full-scale test track, located in San Diego, California. Dynamic testing of the levitation, propulsion and guidance systems is being performed.

  17. Turbulent shear spectra and local isotropy in the low-speed boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandborn, Virgil A; Braun, Willis H

    1956-01-01

    From measurements of turbulent shear spectra together with previously reported longitudinal turbulent energy spectra, the concept of local isotropy in a low-speed boundary layer was examined. Results of these measurements and measurements of the time derivatives of turbulent velocities in the x- and y- directions for various frequency bands showed no evidence of local isotropy in the boundary layer. Several methods (based on isotropy) of evaluating the turbulent dissipation term failed to give consistent answers, further emphasizing a lack of local isotropy.

  18. An analytical model for highly seperated flow on airfoils at low speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zunnalt, G. W.; Naik, S. N.

    1977-01-01

    A computer program was developed to solve the low speed flow around airfoils with highly separated flow. A new flow model included all of the major physical features in the separated region. Flow visualization tests also were made which gave substantiation to the validity of the model. The computation involves the matching of the potential flow, boundary layer and flows in the separated regions. Head's entrainment theory was used for boundary layer calculations and Korst's jet mixing analysis was used in the separated regions. A free stagnation point aft of the airfoil and a standing vortex in the separated region were modelled and computed.

  19. A study of spike and modal stall phenomena in a low-speed axial compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, T.R.; Day, I.J.

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents a study of stall inception mechanisms in a low-speed axial compressor. Previous work has identified two common flow breakdown sequences, the first associated with a short length-scale disturbance known as a spike, and the second with a longer length-scale disturbance known as a modal oscillation. In this paper the physical differences between these two mechanisms are illustrated with detailed measurements. Experimental results are also presented that relate the occurrence of the two stalling mechanisms to the operating conditions of the compressor. It is shown that the stability criteria for the two disturbances are different: Long length-scale disturbances are related to a two-dimensional instability of the whole compression system, while short length-scale disturbances indicate a three-dimensional breakdown of the flow-field associated with high rotor incidence angles. Based on the experimental measurements, a simple model is proposed that explains the type of stall inception pattern observed in a particular compressor. Measurements from a single-stage low-speed compressor and from a multistage high-speed compressor are presented in support of the model.

  20. Estimation of Rotor Position in a 3-Phase SRM at Standstill and Low Speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsuzaki, Akitomo; Bamba, Tatsunori; Miki, Ichiro

    Switched reluctance motors (SRMs) are widely employed as industrial drives because they are inexpensive, simple, and sturdy, further, they deliver a robust and reliable performance. SRMs are controlled with a rotor position sensor attached to the motor shaft. Normally, encoders, resolvers, or Hall sensors are used as position sensors. The use of these sensors, however, increases the size and cost of the machine and degrades its performance. Therefore, to overcome these difficulties, several sensorless drive techniques have been reported. In this paper, a method for estimating the position of a rotor in an SRM; this method is based on calculation of the space vector of phase inductance at standstill and low speeds. The position at standstill is obtained simply without making use of the magnetic characteristics of the motor or any additional hardware. Assuming the inductance waveform to be a sine wave, the position of rotor at standstill is obtained from the phase inductance vectors of all phases. At low speeds, position estimation is carried out by applying a DC link voltage to the unenergized phases. The validity of the proposed method is experimentally verified.

  1. Unsteady Velocity Measurements in the NASA Research Low Speed Axial Compressor: Smooth Wall Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, Jan

    2007-01-01

    The report is a collection of experimental unsteady data acquired in the first stage of the NASA Low Speed Axial Compressor in configuration with smooth (solid) wall treatment over the first rotor. The aim of the report is to present a reliable experimental data base that can be used for analysis of the compressor flow behavior, and hopefully help with further improvements of compressor CFD codes. All data analysis is strictly restricted to verification of reliability of the experimental data reported. The report is divided into six main sections. First two sections cover the low speed axial compressor, the basic instrumentation, and the in-house developed methodology of unsteady velocity measurements using a thermo-anemometric split-fiber probe. The next two sections contain experimental data presented as averaged radial distributions for three compressor operation conditions, including the distribution of the total temperature rise over the first rotor, and ensemble averages of unsteady flow data based on a rotor blade passage period. Ensemble averages based on the rotor revolution period, and spectral analysis of unsteady flow parameters are presented in the last two sections. The report is completed with two appendices where performance and dynamic response of thermo-anemometric probes is discussed.

  2. Low-speed investigation of the maneuver capability of supersonic fighter wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hom, K. W.; Morris, O. A.; Hahne, D. E.

    1983-01-01

    A low-speed investigation of wings suitable for supersonic fighter application was undertaken to understand the flow regions developed by these wings through flow visualization and to evaluate areas in which low-speed testing could provide information for extrapolation to higher Mach numbers and Reynolds numbers. This study involved cranked wings of highly-swept inboard panels and outboard panel of various sweeps with leading- and trailing-edge devices. Both theoretical and experimental results with flow visualization are presented. Flow visualization results show that a mixed flow condition (vortex flow on the highly-swept inboard section and attached flow on the cranked outboard section) is possible for wings with low sweep (20 deg) outboard cranked sections. Lift and drag measurements on the planar (no flap deflection) wings show good agreement with theoretical results for leading-edge vortex flow. There is little or no change in planar wing performance at maneuver conditions due to outboard sweep effects. Results also show that for cambered wings (flap deflected) only small improvements in performance over flat wings were obtained at high-lift maneuver conditions.

  3. Low speed aerodynamic characteristics of a lifting-body hypersonic research aircraft configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penland, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the low-speed longitudinal, lateral, and directional stability characteristics of a lifting-body hypersonic research airplane concept was conducted in a low-speed tunnel with a 12-foot (3.66-meter) octagonal test section at the Langley Research Center. The model was tested with two sets of horizontal and vertical tip controls having different planform areas, a center vertical tail and two sets of canard controls having trapezoidal and delta planforms, and retracted and deployed engine modules and canopy. This investigation was conducted at a dynamic pressure of 239.4 Pa (5 psf) (Mach number of 0.06) and a Reynolds number of 2 million based on the fuselage length. The tests were conducted through an angle-of-attack range of 0 deg to 30 deg and through horizontal-tail deflections of 10 deg to minus 30 deg. The complete configuration exhibited excessive positive static longitudinal stability about the design center-of-gravity location. However, the configuration was unstable laterally at low angles of attack and unstable directionally throughout the angle-of-attack range. Longitudinal control was insufficient to trim at usable angles of attack. Experiments showed that a rearward shift of the center of gravity and the use of a center-located vertical tail would result in a stable and controllable vehicle.

  4. Coupling of Low Speed Fan Stator Vane Unsteady Pressures to Duct Modes: Measured versus Predicted

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Heidelberg, Laurence J.; Envia, Edmane

    1999-01-01

    Uniform-flow annular-duct Green's functions are the essential elements of the classical acoustic analogy approach to the problem of computing the noise generated by rotor-stator interaction inside the fan duct. This paper investigates the accuracy of this class of Green's functions for predicting the duct noise levels when measured stator vane unsteady surface pressures are used as input to the theoretical formulation. The accuracy of the method is evaluated by comparing the predicted and measured acoustic power levels for the NASA 48 inch low speed Active Noise Control Fan. The unsteady surface pressures are measured,by an array of microphones imbedded in the suction and pressure sides of a single vane, while the duct mode levels are measured using a rotating rake system installed in the inlet and exhaust sections of the fan duct. The predicted levels are computed using properly weighted integrals of measured surface pressure distribution. The data-theory comparisons are generally quite good particularly when the mode cut-off criterion is carefully interpreted. This suggests that, at least for low speed fans, the uniform-flow annular-duct Green's function theory can be reliably used for prediction of duct mode levels if the cascade surface pressure distribution is accurately known.

  5. The Effect of a Low-Speed Automatic Brake System Estimated From Real Life Data

    PubMed Central

    Isaksson-Hellman, Irene; Lindman, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    A substantial part of all traffic accidents involving passenger cars are rear-end collisions and most of them occur at low speed. Auto Brake is a feature that has been launched in several passenger car models during the last few years. City Safety is a technology designed to help the driver mitigate, and in certain situations avoid, rear-end collisions at low speed by automatically braking the vehicle. Studies have been presented that predict promising benefits from these kinds of systems, but few attempts have been made to show the actual effect of Auto Brake. In this study, the effect of City Safety, a standard feature on the Volvo XC60 model, is calculated based on insurance claims data from cars in real traffic crashes in Sweden. The estimated claim frequency of rear-end frontal collisions measured in claims per 1,000 insured vehicle years was 23% lower for the City Safety equipped XC60 model than for other Volvo models without the system. PMID:23169133

  6. A simple and reliable sensor for accurate measurement of angular speed for low speed rotating machinery.

    PubMed

    Kuosheng, Jiang; Guanghua, Xu; Tangfei, Tao; Lin, Liang; Yi, Wang; Sicong, Zhang; Ailing, Luo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the theory and implementation of a novel sensor system for measuring the angular speed (AS) of a shaft rotating at a very low speed range, nearly zero speed. The sensor system consists mainly of an eccentric sleeve rotating with the shaft on which the angular speed to be measured, and an eddy current displacement sensor to obtain the profile of the sleeve for AS calculation. When the shaft rotates at constant speed the profile will be a pure sinusoidal trace. However, the profile will be a phase modulated signal when the shaft speed is varied. By applying a demodulating procedure, the AS can be obtained in a straightforward manner. The sensor system was validated experimentally based on a gearbox test rig and the result shows that the AS obtained are consistent with that obtained by a conventional encoder. However, the new sensor gives very smooth and stable traces of the AS, demonstrating its higher accuracy and reliability in obtaining the AS of the low speed operations with speed-up and down transients. In addition, the experiment also shows that it is easy and cost-effective to be realised in different applications such as condition monitoring and process control. PMID:24517806

  7. A simple and reliable sensor for accurate measurement of angular speed for low speed rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuosheng, Jiang; Guanghua, Xu; Tangfei, Tao; Lin, Liang; Yi, Wang; Sicong, Zhang; Ailing, Luo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the theory and implementation of a novel sensor system for measuring the angular speed (AS) of a shaft rotating at a very low speed range, nearly zero speed. The sensor system consists mainly of an eccentric sleeve rotating with the shaft on which the angular speed to be measured, and an eddy current displacement sensor to obtain the profile of the sleeve for AS calculation. When the shaft rotates at constant speed the profile will be a pure sinusoidal trace. However, the profile will be a phase modulated signal when the shaft speed is varied. By applying a demodulating procedure, the AS can be obtained in a straightforward manner. The sensor system was validated experimentally based on a gearbox test rig and the result shows that the AS obtained are consistent with that obtained by a conventional encoder. However, the new sensor gives very smooth and stable traces of the AS, demonstrating its higher accuracy and reliability in obtaining the AS of the low speed operations with speed-up and down transients. In addition, the experiment also shows that it is easy and cost-effective to be realised in different applications such as condition monitoring and process control.

  8. [Long-term results of low-speed irrigated radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial flutter].

    PubMed

    Ardashev, V N; Ardashev, A V; Novichkov, S A; Konev, A V; Voloshko, S V; Shavarov, A A

    2007-01-01

    The authors studied long-term results of low-speed (10 ml/min) irrigated radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) of the lower isthmus (LI) in patients with typical atrial flutter (AF). This treatment was based upon combined use of local and indirect criteria of the block of isthmus conduction. The influence of RFA LI on quality of life (QL), echocardiographic parameters and cardiac rhythm variability (CRV) was studied. Low-speed irrigated RFA LI, based upon combined use of local and indirect criteria for verification of complete bidirectional blockade in this area, is an effective and safe method of treatment of patients with different variants of clinical course of typical AF which makes it possible to significantly improve QL characteristics and central hemodynamic parameters, and normalize CVR parameters as well. Self-organization of chaos, which realizes according to RR interval time rows, in patients with typical AF after RFA LI may be considered an additional criterion of the effectiveness of this operative intervention and a prognostic sign that predicts maintenance of sinus rhythm in this category of patients. PMID:17601035

  9. The ultra-low speed research on friction drive of large telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Fujia; Wang, Daxing

    2006-06-01

    No periodical error and free of backlash are the main advantages of friction drive. So friction drive is applied in many ultra-low speed systems in the past years. With the trend that the aperture of optical telescope becomes bigger and bigger, there are some reports about friction drive employed to drive the telescopes. However friction drive also brings up challenge to control system because the inherent nonlinear characteristics of friction drive. This report describes the study on the friction drive finished in an experiment arranged by LAMOST project. It comprises three main parts. First, it introduces the experiment apparatus and presents a friction nonlinear curve to indicate the nonlinear characteristics of friction drive. Subsequently, this report illuminates the negative result that influenced by the nonlinear characteristic. Secondly, this report use nonlinear PID control algorithm to control friction drive. It achieves ultra-low speed and high precision position control. The ultra-low velocity is 0.2"/S and error is 0.032"(RMS). This report also lists some factors that influence the precision of speed. Lastly, this report gives the analysis fluctuating speed of friction drive and applies acceleration feedback to diminish this fluctuating.

  10. A Survey of Reynolds Number and Wing Geometry Effects on Lift Characteristics in the Low Speed Stall Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polhamus, Edward C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of the effects of Reynolds number on the low- speed lift characteristics of wings encountering separated flows at their leading and side edges, with emphasis on the region near the stall. The influence of leading-edge profile and Reynolds number on the stall characteristics of two- dimensional airfoils are reviewed first to provide a basis for evaluating three- dimensional effects associated with various wing planforms. This is followed by examples of the effects of Reynolds number and geometry on the lift characteristics near the stall for a series of three-dimensional wings typical of those suitable for high-speed aircraft and missiles. Included are examples of the effects of wing geometry on the onset and spanwise progression of turbulent reseparation near the leading edge and illustrations of the degree to which simplified theoretical approaches can be useful in defining the influence of the various geometric parameters. Also illustrated is the manner in which the Reynolds number and wing geometry parameters influence whether the turbulent reseparation near the leading edge results in a sudden loss of lift, as in the two-dimensional case, or the formation of a leading-edge vortex with Rs increase in lift followed by a gentle stall as in the highly swept wing case. Particular emphasis is placed on the strong influence of 'induced camber' on the development of turbulent reseparation. R is believed that the examples selected for this report may be useful in evaluating viscous flow solutions by the new computational methods based on the Navier-Stokes equations as well as defining fruitful research areas for the high-Reynolds-number wind tunnels.

  11. An experimental investigation of ground effect on a quad tilt rotor in hover and low speed forward flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Anand

    The performance of a Quad Tilt Rotor (QTR) in helicopter mode was experimentally studied in ground effect (IGE) and out of ground effect (OGE). A 0.03 geometrically scaled fuselage/wing model of the QTR was tested in hover and very low speed forward flight. Fixed-pitch propellers were used to model the rotors. In order to avoid the boundary layer problems associated with wind tunnel testing of rotorcraft IGE, a unique moving setup was developed for testing in forward flight. The effect of ground proximity was tested by varying the height of the model above the ground. Download on the airframe; thrust, torque and rpm of the rotors, and pressures along the centerline of the bottom of the fuselage were measured. The downwash distributions of the rotors were measured and found to compare well with V-22 rotor measurements. Tuft flow visualization was used to identify the physical processes causing changes in the download and pressure measurements. An uncertainty analysis was performed on the measured quantities to determine the 95% confidence levels. A strong download (9% of the rotor thrust) was observed in hover, OGE. The download reduced substantially IGE and become an upload (9% of the rotor thrust), when the wheels of the QTR were on the ground. The upload IGE was found to be caused by the entrapment of the rotor wakes under the fuselage. The upload was observed to persist in forward flight IGE, but reduced slightly at certain low skew angles. The measured downloads, coupled with power measurements, indicate that for a given power, the available vehicle thrust greatly increases IGE. Therefore, the QTR displays a potential for significant increase in payload carrying capacity by operating IGE.

  12. Effect of Aspect Ratio on the Low-Speed Lateral Control Characteristics of Untapered Low-Aspect-Ratio Wings Equipped with Flap and with Retractable Ailerons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischel, Jack; Naeseth, Rodger L; Hagerman, John R; O'Hare, William M

    1952-01-01

    A low-speed wind-tunnel investigation was made to determine the lateral control characteristics of a series of untapered low-aspect-ratio wings. Sealed flap ailerons of various spans and spanwise locations were investigated on unswept wings of aspect ratios 1.13, 1.13, 4.13, and 6.13; and various projections of 0.60-semispan retractable ailerons were investigated on the unsweptback wings of aspect ratios 1.13, 2.13, and 4.13 and on a 45 degree sweptback wing. The retractable ailerons investigated on the unswept wings spanned the outboard stations of each wing; whereas the plain and stepped retractable ailerons investigated on the sweptback wing were located at various spanwise stations. Design charts based on experimental results are presented for estimating the flap aileron effectiveness for low-aspect-ratio, untapered, unswept.

  13. Piloted-simulation study of effects of vortex flaps on low-speed handling qualities of a Delta-wing airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Jay M.; Brown, Philip W.; Wunschel, Alfred J.

    1987-01-01

    A piloted-simulation study was conducted to investigate the effects of vortex flaps on low-speed handling qualities of a delta-wing airplane. The simulation math model was developed from wind tunnel tests of a 0.15 scale model of the F-106B airplane. Pilot evaluations were conducted using a six-degree-of-freedom motion base simulator. The results of the investigation showed that the reduced static longitudinal stability caused by the vortex flaps significantly degraded handling qualities in the approach-to-landing task. Acceptable handling qualities could be achieved by limiting the aft center-of-gravity location, consequently reducing the operational envelope of the airplane. Further improvement were possible by modifying the flight control force-feel system to reduce pitch-control sensitivity.

  14. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a model having a 42 deg swept low wing with a supercritical airfoil, double-slotted flaps, and a T-tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournier, P. G.; Sleeman, W. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A low speed wind tunnel test was conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to determine the static longitudinal and lateral stability characteristics of a general research model which simulated an advance configuration for a commercial transport airplane with a T tail. The model had a 42 deg swept, aspect ratio 6.78 wing with a supercritical airfoil and a high lift system which consisted of a leading edge slat and a double slotted flap. Various slat and flap deflection combinations represented clean, take off, and landing configurations. Effects on the longitudinal and lateral aerodynamic characteristics were determined for two flow through, simulated engine nacelles located on the sides of the fuselage near the rear of the model.

  15. A direct inverse technique for low speed high lift airfoil flowfield analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, L. A.

    1981-01-01

    A direct inverse method is presented for computing the flow about low speed airfoils under high lift massive separation conditions. On the lower surface the flowfield is determined using an iterative inviscid relaxation technique coupled to a laminar turbulent momentum integral boundary layer scheme direct boundary conditions. On the upper surface, the flowfield is also computed directly with viscous interaction up to the separation point, with the separation point and separated pressure level determined as part of the solution. Downstream of separation, inverse boundary conditions are utilized; and the flowfield and displacement surface are calculated. Typical results and comparisons with experimental data for GA(W)-2 and NACA 4412 airfoils are presented, including pressure distributions, lift, and drag coefficients versus angle of attack.

  16. Foam-Metal Liner Attenuation of Low-Speed Fan Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel R.; Jones, Michael G.

    2008-01-01

    A foam-metal liner for attenuation of fan noise was developed for and tested on a low speed fan. This type of liner represents a significant advance over traditional liners due to the possibility for placement in close proximity to the rotor. An advantage of placing treatment in this region is the modification of the acoustic near field, thereby inhibiting noise generation mechanisms. This can result in higher attenuation levels than can be achieved by liners located in the nacelle inlet. In addition, foam-metal liners could potentially replace the fan rub-strip and containment components, ultimately reducing engine components and thus weight, which can result in a systematic increase in noise reduction and engine performance. Foam-metal liners have the potential to reduce fan noise by 4 dB based on this study.

  17. Low-Speed Fan Noise Attenuation from a Foam-Metal Liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Jones, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    A foam-metal liner for attenuation of fan noise was developed for and tested on a low-speed fan. This type of liner represents a significant advance over traditional liners, due to the possibility of placement in close proximity to the rotor. An advantage of placing treatment in this region is that the acoustic near field is modified, thereby inhibiting the noise-generation mechanism. This can result in higher attenuation levels than could be achieved by liners located in the nacelle inlet. In addition, foam-metal liners could potentially replace the fan rub strip and containment components, ultimately reducing engine components and thus weight, which can result in a systematic increase in noise reduction and engine performance. Foam-metal liners have the potential to reduce fan noise by 4 dB based on this study.

  18. Effectiveness of low speed autonomous emergency braking in real-world rear-end crashes.

    PubMed

    Fildes, B; Keall, M; Bos, N; Lie, A; Page, Y; Pastor, C; Pennisi, L; Rizzi, M; Thomas, P; Tingvall, C

    2015-08-01

    This study set out to evaluate the effectiveness of low speed autonomous emergency braking (AEB) technology in current model passenger vehicles, based on real-world crash experience. The validating vehicle safety through meta-analysis (VVSMA) group comprising a collaboration of government, industry consumer organisations and researchers, pooled data from a number of countries using a standard analysis format and the established MUND approach. Induced exposure methods were adopted to control for any extraneous effects. The findings showed a 38 percent overall reduction in rear-end crashes for vehicles fitted with AEB compared to a comparison sample of similar vehicles. There was no statistical evidence of any difference in effect between urban (≤60 km/h) and rural (>60 km/h) speed zones. Areas requiring further research were identified and widespread fitment through the vehicle fleet is recommended. PMID:25935427

  19. Experimental and computational investigation of the NASA Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, M. D.; Chriss, R. M.; Wood, J. R.; Strazisar, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental and computational investigation of the NASA Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor (LSCC) flow field has been conducted using laser anemometry and Dawes' 3D viscous code. The experimental configuration consists of a backswept impeller followed by a vaneless diffuser. Measurements of the three-dimensional velocity field were acquired at several measurement planes through the compressor. The measurements describe both the throughflow and secondary velocity field along each measurement plane. In several cases the measurements provide details of the flow within the blade boundary layers. Insight into the complex flow physics within centrifugal compressors is provided by the computational analysis, and assessment of the CFD predictions is provided by comparison with the measurements. Five-hole probe and hot-wire surveys at the inlet and exit to the rotor as well as surface flow visualization along the impeller blade surfaces provide independent confirmation of the laser measurement technique.

  20. Effects of curvature and rotation on turbulence in the NASA low-speed centrifugal compressor impeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Joan G.; Moore, John

    1992-01-01

    The flow in the NASA Low-Speed Impeller is affected by both curvature and rotation. The flow curves due to the following: (1) geometric curvature, e.g. the curvature of the hub and shroud profiles in the meridional plane and the curvature of the backswept impeller blades; and (2) secondary flow vortices, e.g. the tip leakage vortex. Changes in the turbulence and effective turbulent viscosity in the impeller are investigated. The effects of these changes on three-dimensional flow development are discussed. Two predictions of the flow in the impeller, one with, and one without modification to the turbulent viscosity due to rotation and curvature, are compared. Some experimental and theoretical background for the modified mixing length model of turbulent viscosity will also be presented.

  1. The Implications of Handling Qualities in Civil Helicopter Accidents Involving Hover and Low Speed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Daniel C.; Delamer, Kevin J.

    2005-01-01

    Because of increasing accident rates in Army helicopters in hover and low speed flight, a study was made in 1999 of accidents which could be attributed to inadequate stability augmentation. A study of civil helicopter accidents from 1993-2004 was then undertaken to pursue the issue of poor handling qualities in helicopters which, in almost all cases, had no stability augmentation. The vast majority of the mishaps studied occurred during daylight in visual meteorological condition, reducing the impact of degraded visual environments (DVE) on the results. Based on the Cooper-Harper Rating Scale, the handling qualities of many of the helicopters studied could be described as having from "very objectionable" to "major" deficiencies. These costly deficiencies have resulted in unnecessary loss of life, injury, and high dollar damage. Low cost and lightweight augmentation systems for helicopters have been developed in the past and are still being investigated. They offer the potential for significant reductions in the accident rate.

  2. A Comparison of Interactional Aerodynamics Methods for a Helicopter in Low Speed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, John D.; Letnikov, Victor; Bavykina, Irena; Chaffin, Mark S.

    1998-01-01

    Recent advances in computing subsonic flow have been applied to helicopter configurations with various degrees of success. This paper is a comparison of two specific methods applied to a particularly challenging regime of helicopter flight, very low speeds, where the interaction of the rotor wake and the fuselage are most significant. Comparisons are made between different methods of predicting the interactional aerodynamics associated with a simple generic helicopter configuration. These comparisons are made using fuselage pressure data from a Mach-scaled powered model helicopter with a rotor diameter of approximately 3 meters. The data shown are for an advance ratio of 0.05 with a thrust coefficient of 0.0066. The results of this comparison show that in this type of complex flow both analytical techniques have regions where they are more accurate in matching the experimental data.

  3. Application of Synthetic Jets to Reduce Stator Flow Separation in a Low Speed Axial Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braunscheidel, Edward P.; Culley, Dennis E.; Zaman, Khairul B.M.Q.

    2008-01-01

    Flow control using synthetic jet injection has been applied in a low speed axial compressor. The synthetic jets were applied from the suction surface of a stator vane via a span-wise row of slots pitched in the streamwise direction. Actuation was provided externally from acoustic drivers coupled to the vane tip via flexible tubing. The acoustic resonance characteristics of the system, and the resultant jet velocities were obtained. The effects on the separated flow field for various jet velocities and frequencies were explored. Total pressure loss reductions across the vane passage were measured. The effect of synthetic jet injection was shown to be comparable to that of pulsatory injection with mass addition for stator vanes which had separated flow. While only a weak dependence of the beneficial effect was noted based on the excitation frequency, a strong dependence on the amplitude was observed at all frequencies.

  4. Low-speed longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of the X-31 configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel W.; Gatlin, Gregory M.; Paulson, John W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a 19 pct. scale model of the X-31 configuration was completed in the Langley 14 x 22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel. This study was performed to determine the static low speed aerodynamic characteristics of the basic configuration over a large range of angle of attack and sideslip and to study the effects of strakes, leading-edge extensions (wing-body strakes), nose booms, speed-brake deployment, and inlet configurations. The ultimate purpose was to optimize the configuration for high angle of attack and maneuvering-flight conditions. The model was tested at angles of attack from -5 to 67 deg and at sideslip angles from -16 to 16 deg for speeds up to 190 knots (dynamic pressure of 120 psf).

  5. Analysis of Nonplanar Wing-tip-mounted Lifting Surfaces on Low-speed Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandam, C. P.; Roskam, J.

    1983-01-01

    Nonplanar wing tip mounted lifting surfaces reduce lift induced drag substantially. Winglets, which are small, nearly vertical, winglike surfaces, are an example of these devices. To achieve reduction in lift induced drag, winglets produce significant side forces. Consequently, these surfaces can seriously affect airplane lateral directional aerodynamic characteristics. Therefore, the effects of nonplanar wing tip mounted surfaces on the lateral directional stability and control of low speed general aviation airplanes were studied. The study consists of a theoretical and an experimental, in flight investigation. The experimental investigation involves flight tests of winglets on an agricultural airplane. Results of these tests demonstrate the significant influence of winglets on airplane lateral directional aerodynamic characteristics. It is shown that good correlations exist between experimental data and theoretically predicted results. In addition, a lifting surface method was used to perform a parametric study of the effects of various winglet parameters on lateral directional stability derivatives of general aviation type wings.

  6. The application of the SAUNA CFD system to high and low speed vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Nicholas E.; Peace, Andrew J.; Shaw, Jonathon A.

    1994-04-01

    The SAUNA grid generation and flow simulation system is applied to a variety of vehicles flows. The basic features and problems associated with predicting high speed external flows are discussed and contrasted with those associated with typical internal flows. Particular attention is paid in the discussion to turbulence modelling requirements. General descriptions of the grid generation philosophy adopted within the SAUNA system (structured, unstructured, hybrid) and the flow solution methodology are given. It is explained how the compressible flow algorithm may be modified to enable efficient calculation of low speed flows, thus extending the range of application of the SAUNA system to include conventional ground and sea vehicles. The grid generation capabilities of SAUNA are illustrated by showing examples of grids generated around configurations of a complete aircraft, a submarine and an automobile. The flow simulations are evaluated by comparison with experiment for several external high speed flows and a lower speed internal flow.

  7. Impact characteristics of a vehicle population in low speed front to rear collisions.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Naoya; Simms, Ciaran K; Wood, Denis P

    2015-06-01

    Rear impact collisions are mostly low severity, but carry a very high societal cost due to reported symptoms of whiplash and related soft tissue injuries. Given the difficulty in physiological measurement of damage in whiplash patients, there is a significant need to assess rear impact severity on the basis of vehicle damage. This paper presents fundamental impact equations on the basis of an equivalent single vehicle to rigid barrier collision in order to predict relationships between impact speed, maximum dynamic crush, mean and peak acceleration, time to common velocity and vehicle stiffness. These are then applied in regression analysis of published staged low speed rear impact tests. The equivalent mean and peak accelerations are linear functions of the collision closing speed, while the time to common velocity is independent of the collision closing speed. Furthermore, the time to common velocity can be used as a surrogate measure of the normalized vehicle stiffness, which provides opportunity for future accident reconstruction. PMID:25795922

  8. Low-speed impacts between rubble piles modeled as collections of polyhedra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korycansky, D. G.; Asphaug, Erik

    2006-04-01

    We present results of modeling rubble piles as collections of polyhedra. The use of polyhedra allows more realistic (irregular) shapes and interactions (e.g. collisions), particularly for objects of different sizes. Rotational degrees of freedom are included in the modeling, which may be important components of the motion. We solved the equations of rigid-body dynamics, including frictional/inelastic collisions, for collections of up to several hundred elements. As a demonstration of the methods and to compare with previous work by other researchers, we simulated low-speed collisions between km-scale bodies with the same general parameters as those simulated by Leinhardt et al. [Leinhardt, Z.M., Richardson, D.C., Quinn, T., 2000. Icarus 146, 133-151]. High-speed collisions appropriate to present-day asteroid encounters require additional treatment of shock effects and fragmentation and are the subject of future work; here we study regimes appropriate to planetesimal accretion and re-accretion in the aftermath of catastrophic events. Collisions between equal-mass objects at low speeds ( <10 cms) were simulated for both head-on and off-center collisions between rubble piles made of a power-law mass spectrum of sub-elements. Very low-speed head-on collisions produce single objects from the coalescence of the impactors. For slightly higher speeds, extensive disruption occurs, but re-accretion produces a single object with most of the total mass. For increasingly higher speeds, the re-accreted object has smaller mass, finally resulting in complete catastrophic disruption with all sub-elements on escape trajectories and only small amounts of mass in re-accreted bodies. Off-center collisions at moderately low speeds produce two re-accreted objects of approximately equal mass, separating at greater than escape speed. At high speed, complete disruption occurs as with the high-speed head-on collisions. Head-on collisions at low to moderate speeds result in objects of mostly

  9. Multigrid Solution of the Navier-Stokes Equations at Low Speeds with Large Temperature Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sockol, Peter M.

    2002-01-01

    Multigrid methods for the Navier-Stokes equations at low speeds and large temperature variations are investigated. The compressible equations with time-derivative preconditioning and preconditioned flux-difference splitting of the inviscid terms are used. Three implicit smoothers have been incorporated into a common multigrid procedure. Both full coarsening and semi-coarsening with directional fine-grid defect correction have been studied. The resulting methods have been tested on four 2D laminar problems over a range of Reynolds numbers on both uniform and highly stretched grids. Two of the three methods show efficient and robust performance over the entire range of conditions. In addition none of the methods have any difficulty with the large temperature variations.

  10. Discrete unified gas kinetic scheme for all Knudsen number flows: low-speed isothermal case.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhaoli; Xu, Kun; Wang, Ruijie

    2013-09-01

    Based on the Boltzmann-BGK (Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook) equation, in this paper a discrete unified gas kinetic scheme (DUGKS) is developed for low-speed isothermal flows. The DUGKS is a finite-volume scheme with the discretization of particle velocity space. After the introduction of two auxiliary distribution functions with the inclusion of collision effect, the DUGKS becomes a fully explicit scheme for the update of distribution function. Furthermore, the scheme is an asymptotic preserving method, where the time step is only determined by the Courant-Friedricks-Lewy condition in the continuum limit. Numerical results demonstrate that accurate solutions in both continuum and rarefied flow regimes can be obtained from the current DUGKS. The comparison between the DUGKS and the well-defined lattice Boltzmann equation method (D2Q9) is presented as well. PMID:24125383

  11. Ground effects on the low-speed aerodynamics of a powered, generic hypersonic configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, Gregory M.

    1990-01-01

    A study was undertaken in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-foot subsonic tunnel to determine the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a powered, generic, hypersonic configuration in ground effect. The model was a simplified configuration consisting of a triangular wedge forebody, a rectangular mid-section which housed the flow through, an ejector type propulsion simulation system, and a rectangular wedge afterbody. Additional model components included a delta wing, a rectangular wedge forebody, inlet fences, exhaust flow deflectors, and afterbody fences. Aerodynamic force and moment data were obtaind over an angle of attack range from -4 to 18 degrees while model height above the tunnel floor was varied from 1/4 inch to 6 feet. Variations in freestream dynamic pressure, from 10 psf to 80 psf, and engine ejector pressure yielded a range of thrust coefficients from 0 to 0.8.

  12. Pigeons produce aerodynamic torques through changes in wing trajectory during low speed aerial turns.

    PubMed

    Ros, Ivo G; Badger, Marc A; Pierson, Alyssa N; Bassman, Lori C; Biewener, Andrew A

    2015-02-01

    The complexity of low speed maneuvering flight is apparent from the combination of two critical aspects of this behavior: high power and precise control. To understand how such control is achieved, we examined the underlying kinematics and resulting aerodynamic mechanisms of low speed turning flight in the pigeon (Columba livia). Three birds were trained to perform 90 deg level turns in a stereotypical fashion and detailed three-dimensional (3D) kinematics were recorded at high speeds. Applying the angular momentum principle, we used mechanical modeling based on time-varying 3D inertia properties of individual sections of the pigeon's body to separate angular accelerations of the torso based on aerodynamics from those based on inertial effects. Directly measured angular accelerations of the torso were predicted by aerodynamic torques, justifying inferences of aerodynamic torque generation based on inside wing versus outside wing kinematics. Surprisingly, contralateral asymmetries in wing speed did not appear to underlie the 90 deg aerial turns, nor did contralateral differences in wing area, angle of attack, wingbeat amplitude or timing. Instead, torso angular accelerations into the turn were associated with the outside wing sweeping more anteriorly compared with a more laterally directed inside wing. In addition to moving through a relatively more retracted path, the inside wing was also more strongly pronated about its long axis compared with the outside wing, offsetting any difference in aerodynamic angle of attack that might arise from the observed asymmetry in wing trajectories. Therefore, to generate roll and pitch torques into the turn, pigeons simply reorient their wing trajectories toward the desired flight direction. As a result, by acting above the center of mass, the net aerodynamic force produced by the wings is directed inward, generating the necessary torques for turning. PMID:25452503

  13. Preconditioned conjugate-gradient methods for low-speed flow calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajmani, Kumud; Ng, Wing-Fai; Liou, Meng-Sing

    1993-01-01

    An investigation is conducted into the viability of using a generalized Conjugate Gradient-like method as an iterative solver to obtain steady-state solutions of very low-speed fluid flow problems. Low-speed flow at Mach 0.1 over a backward-facing step is chosen as a representative test problem. The unsteady form of the two dimensional, compressible Navier-Stokes equations is integrated in time using discrete time-steps. The Navier-Stokes equations are cast in an implicit, upwind finite-volume, flux split formulation. The new iterative solver is used to solve a linear system of equations at each step of the time-integration. Preconditioning techniques are used with the new solver to enhance the stability and convergence rate of the solver and are found to be critical to the overall success of the solver. A study of various preconditioners reveals that a preconditioner based on the Lower-Upper Successive Symmetric Over-Relaxation iterative scheme is more efficient than a preconditioner based on Incomplete L-U factorizations of the iteration matrix. The performance of the new preconditioned solver is compared with a conventional Line Gauss-Seidel Relaxation (LGSR) solver. Overall speed-up factors of 28 (in terms of global time-steps required to converge to a steady-state solution) and 20 (in terms of total CPU time on one processor of a CRAY-YMP) are found in favor of the new preconditioned solver, when compared with the LGSR solver.

  14. Chebyshev collocation spectral lattice Boltzmann method for simulation of low-speed flows.

    PubMed

    Hejranfar, Kazem; Hajihassanpour, Mahya

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the Chebyshev collocation spectral lattice Boltzmann method (CCSLBM) is developed and assessed for the computation of low-speed flows. Both steady and unsteady flows are considered here. The discrete Boltzmann equation with the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook approximation based on the pressure distribution function is considered and the space discretization is performed by the Chebyshev collocation spectral method to achieve a highly accurate flow solver. To provide accurate unsteady solutions, the time integration of the temporal term in the lattice Boltzmann equation is made by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme. To achieve numerical stability and accuracy, physical boundary conditions based on the spectral solution of the governing equations implemented on the boundaries are used. An iterative procedure is applied to provide consistent initial conditions for the distribution function and the pressure field for the simulation of unsteady flows. The main advantage of using the CCSLBM over other high-order accurate lattice Boltzmann method (LBM)-based flow solvers is the decay of the error at exponential rather than at polynomial rates. Note also that the CCSLBM applied does not need any numerical dissipation or filtering for the solution to be stable, leading to highly accurate solutions. Three two-dimensional (2D) test cases are simulated herein that are a regularized cavity, the Taylor vortex problem, and doubly periodic shear layers. The results obtained for these test cases are thoroughly compared with the analytical and available numerical results and show excellent agreement. The computational efficiency of the proposed solution methodology based on the CCSLBM is also examined by comparison with those of the standard streaming-collision (classical) LBM and two finite-difference LBM solvers. The study indicates that the CCSLBM provides more accurate and efficient solutions than these LBM solvers in terms of CPU and memory usage and an exponential

  15. Study of the post-derailment safety measures on low-speed derailment tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lirong; Wang, Kaiyun; Lin, Jianhui; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Zaigang; Song, Xinwu; Du, Gaofeng

    2016-07-01

    Prevention of train from derailment is the most important issue for the railway system. Keeping derailed vehicle close to the track centreline is beneficial to minimise the severe consequences associated with derailments. In this paper, the post-derailment safety measures are studied based on low-speed derailment tests. Post-derailment devices can prevent deviation of the train from the rail by catching the rail, and they are mounted under the axle box. Considering the different structures of vehicles, both trailer and motor vehicles are equipped with the safety device and then separately used in low-speed derailment tests. In derailment tests, two kinds of track, namely the CRTS-I slab ballastless track and the CRTS-II bi-block sleeper ballastless track, are adopted to investigate the effect of the track types on the derailment. In addition, the derailment speed and the weight of the derailed vehicle are also taken into account in derailment tests. The test results indicate that the post-derailment movement of the vehicle includes running and bounce. Reducing the derailment speed and increasing the weight of the head of the train are helpful to reduce the possibility for derailments. For the CRTS-I slab ballastless track, the safety device can prevent trailer vehicles from deviating from the track centreline. The gearbox plays an important role in controlling the lateral displacement of motor vehicle after a derailment while the safety device contributes less to keep derailed motor vehicles on the track centreline. The lateral distance between the safety device and rails should be larger than 181.5 mm for protecting the fasteners system. And for the CRTS-II bi-block sleeper ballastless track, it helps to decrease the post-derailment distance due to the longitudinal impacts with sleepers. It can also restrict the lateral movement of derailed vehicle due to the high shoulders. The results suggest that, CRTS-II bi-block sleeper ballastless track should be widely used

  16. Flame spreading over a thin solid in low-speed concurrent flow- Drop tower experimental results and comparison with theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grayson, G. D.; Sacksteder, K. R.; Ferkul, P. V.; T'Ien, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    Flame spread over thin paper samples in low-speed concurrent flow is experimentally investigated in a 5.18 s drop tower. In the experiment, the oxygen molar percentage is varied from 30% down to the flame extinction limits and the forced flow velocity from 5.29 cm/s down to the quenching limits. Motion pictures are taken to observe flame shape, color, size, and spread rates. These quantities are compared with a theoretical model describing concurrent flame spread over thin solids in low-speed flows. The paper also discusses the similarity and difference between concurrent-flow and opposed-flow flame spread in microgravity and between low-speed and high-speed concurrent-flow flame spread. Finally the limitations of using a drop tower for flame spread research is assessed.

  17. Low-Speed Flight Dynamic Tests and Analysis of the Orion Crew Module Drogue Parachute System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E.; Fremaux, C. Michael

    2008-01-01

    A test of a dynamically scaled model of the NASA Orion Crew Module (CM) with drogue parachutes was conducted in the NASA-Langley 20-Foot Vertical Spin Tunnel. The primary test objective was to assess the ability of the Orion Crew Module drogue parachute system to adequately stabilize the CM and reduce angular rates at low subsonic Mach numbers. Two attachment locations were tested: the current design nominal and an alternate. Experimental results indicated that the alternate attachment location showed a somewhat greater tendency to attenuate initial roll rate and reduce roll rate oscillations than the nominal location. Comparison of the experimental data to a Program To Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST II) simulation of the experiment yielded results for the nominal attachment point that indicate differences between the low-speed pitch and yaw damping derivatives in the aerodynamic database and the physical model. Comparisons for the alternate attachment location indicate that riser twist plays a significant role in determining roll rate attenuation characteristics. Reevaluating the impact of the alternate attachment points using a simulation modified to account for these results showed significantly reduced roll rate attenuation tendencies when compared to the original simulation. Based on this modified simulation the alternate attachment point does not appear to offer a significant increase in allowable roll rate over the nominal configuration.

  18. Calibration of a γ- Re θ transition model and its application in low-speed flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, YunTao; Zhang, YuLun; Meng, DeHong; Wang, GunXue; Li, Song

    2014-12-01

    The prediction of laminar-turbulent transition in boundary layer is very important for obtaining accurate aerodynamic characteristics with computational fluid dynamic (CFD) tools, because laminar-turbulent transition is directly related to complex flow phenomena in boundary layer and separated flow in space. Unfortunately, the transition effect isn't included in today's major CFD tools because of non-local calculations in transition modeling. In this paper, Menter's γ- Re θ transition model is calibrated and incorporated into a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) code — Trisonic Platform (TRIP) developed in China Aerodynamic Research and Development Center (CARDC). Based on the experimental data of flat plate from the literature, the empirical correlations involved in the transition model are modified and calibrated numerically. Numerical simulation for low-speed flow of Trapezoidal Wing (Trap Wing) is performed and compared with the corresponding experimental data. It is indicated that the γ- Re θ transition model can accurately predict the location of separation-induced transition and natural transition in the flow region with moderate pressure gradient. The transition model effectively imporves the simulation accuracy of the boundary layer and aerodynamic characteristics.

  19. Investigation to advance prediction techniques of the low-speed aerodynamics of V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maskew, B.; Strash, D.; Nathman, J.; Dvorak, F. A.

    1985-01-01

    A computer program, VSAERO, has been applied to a number of V/STOL configurations with a view to advancing prediction techniques for the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics. The program couples a low-order panel method with surface streamline calculation and integral boundary layer procedures. The panel method--which uses piecewise constant source and doublet panels-includes an iterative procedure for wake shape and models boundary layer displacement effect using the source transpiration technique. Certain improvements to a basic vortex tube jet model were installed in the code prior to evaluation. Very promising results were obtained for surface pressures near a jet issuing at 90 deg from a flat plate. A solid core model was used in the initial part of the jet with a simple entrainment model. Preliminary representation of the downstream separation zone significantly improve the correlation. The program accurately predicted the pressure distribution inside the inlet on the Grumman 698-411 design at a range of flight conditions. Furthermore, coupled viscous/potential flow calculations gave very close correlation with experimentally determined operational boundaries dictated by the onset of separation inside the inlet. Experimentally observed degradation of these operational boundaries between nacelle-alone tests and tests on the full configuration were also indicated by the calculation. Application of the program to the General Dynamics STOL fighter design were equally encouraging. Very close agreement was observed between experiment and calculation for the effects of power on pressure distribution, lift and lift curve slope.

  20. Effect of low-speed impact damage and damage location on behavior of composite panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jegley, Dawn C.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of low speed impact damage on the compression and tension strength of thin and moderately thick composite specimens was investigated. Impact speed ranged from 50 to 550 ft./sec., with corresponding impact energies from 0.25 to 30.7 ft. x lb. Impact locations were near the center of the specimen or near a lateral unloaded edge. In this study, thin specimens with only 90 degree and + or - 45 degree plies that were impacted away from the unloaded edge suffered less reduction in load carrying capability because of impact damage than of the same specimens impacted near the unloaded edge. Failure loads of thicker compression loaded specimens with a similar stacking sequence were independent of impact location. Failure loads of thin tension loaded specimens with 0 degree plies was independent of impact location, whereas failure loads of thicker compression loaded specimens with 0 degree plies were dependent upon impact location. A finite element analysis indicated that high axial strains occurred near the unloaded edges of the postbuckled panels. Thus, impacts near the unloaded edge would significantly affect the behavior of the postbuckled panel.

  1. Experimental and computational investigation of the NASA low-speed centrifugal compressor flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, Michael D.; Chriss, Randall M.; Wood, Jerry R.; Strazisar, Anthony J.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental and computational investigation of the NASA Lewis Research Center's low-speed centrifugal compressor (LSCC) flow field was conducted using laser anemometry and Dawes' three-dimensional viscous code. The experimental configuration consisted of a backswept impeller followed by a vaneless diffuser. Measurements of the three-dimensional velocity field were acquired at several measurement planes through the compressor. The measurements describe both the throughflow and secondary velocity field along each measurement plane. In several cases the measurements provide details of the flow within the blade boundary layers. Insight into the complex flow physics within centrifugal compressors is provided by the computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD), and assessment of the CFD predictions is provided by comparison with the measurements. Five-hole probe and hot-wire surveys at the inlet and exit to the impeller as well as surface flow visualization along the impeller blade surfaces provided independent confirmation of the laser measurement technique. The results clearly document the development of the throughflow velocity wake that is characteristic of unshrouded centrifugal compressors.

  2. Risk Factors Associated with Injury and Mortality from Paediatric Low Speed Vehicle Incidents: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Paul Anthikkat, Anne; Page, Andrew; Barker, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study reviews modifiable risk factors associated with fatal and nonfatal injury from low-speed vehicle runover (LSVRO) incidents involving children aged 0–15 years. Data Sources. Electronic searches for child pedestrian and driveway injuries from the peer-reviewed literature and transport-related websites from 1955 to 2012. Study Selection. 41 studies met the study inclusion criteria. Data Extraction. A systematic narrative summary was conducted that included study design, methodology, risk factors, and other study variables. Results. The most commonly reported risk factors for LSVRO incidents included age under 5 years, male gender, and reversing vehicles. The majority of reported incidents involved residential driveways, but several studies identified other traffic and nontraffic locations. Low socioeconomic status and rental accommodation were also associated with LSVRO injury. Vehicles were most commonly driven by a family member, predominantly a parent. Conclusion. There are a number of modifiable vehicular, environmental, and behavioural factors associated with LSVRO injuries in young children that have been identified in the literature to date. Strategies relating to vehicle design (devices for increased rearward visibility and crash avoidance systems), housing design (physical separation of driveway and play areas), and behaviour (driver behaviour, supervision of young children) are discussed. PMID:23781251

  3. Analysis of a New Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle Engine Concept at Low Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yungster, S.; Trefny, C. J.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of the Independent Ramjet Stream (IRS) cycle is presented. The IRS cycle is a variation of the conventional ejector-Ramjet, and is used at low speed in a rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) propulsion system. In this new cycle, complete mixing between the rocket and ramjet streams is not required, and a single rocket chamber can be used without a long mixing duct. Furthermore, this concept allows flexibility in controlling the thermal choke process. The resulting propulsion system is intended to be simpler, more robust, and lighter than an ejector-ramjet. The performance characteristics of the IRS cycle are analyzed for a new single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) launch vehicle concept, known as "Trailblazer." The study is based on a quasi-one-dimensional model of the rocket and air streams at speeds ranging from lift-off to Mach 3. The numerical formulation is described in detail. A performance comparison between the IRS and ejector-ramjet cycles is also presented.

  4. Impact force of a low speed water droplet colliding on a solid surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingyin; Zhang, Bin; Guo, Penghua; Lv, Qian

    2014-12-01

    The impact forces of the low-speed water droplet colliding on a light and tiny aluminum plate were measured by using a highly sensitive piezoelectric force transducer. The one-degree freedom vibration model was employed to analyze the oscillation of the measured force signals, and the plate vibration was confirmed as the cause through elaborately designed experiments. The force data were obtained by using the low-pass Finite Impulse Response filter and was verified to be reliable. The effects of impact velocity and diameter of droplets on the impact force evolutions and peak forces were investigated. The results revealed that the impact process of a liquid droplet is quite different from that of a solid ball in the frequency spectrum and in the power function of the peak force. The droplet impact is closer to a plastic impact, while the other behaves more nearly an elastic impact. The influence of droplet size on erosion is dependent on the impact time duration, which increases with droplet diameter. On the other hand, the impact pressure is the main cause of the material erosion when impact velocity is taken as the influence factor.

  5. Risk factors associated with injury and mortality from paediatric low speed vehicle incidents: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Paul Anthikkat, Anne; Page, Andrew; Barker, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study reviews modifiable risk factors associated with fatal and nonfatal injury from low-speed vehicle runover (LSVRO) incidents involving children aged 0-15 years. Data Sources. Electronic searches for child pedestrian and driveway injuries from the peer-reviewed literature and transport-related websites from 1955 to 2012. Study Selection. 41 studies met the study inclusion criteria. Data Extraction. A systematic narrative summary was conducted that included study design, methodology, risk factors, and other study variables. Results. The most commonly reported risk factors for LSVRO incidents included age under 5 years, male gender, and reversing vehicles. The majority of reported incidents involved residential driveways, but several studies identified other traffic and nontraffic locations. Low socioeconomic status and rental accommodation were also associated with LSVRO injury. Vehicles were most commonly driven by a family member, predominantly a parent. Conclusion. There are a number of modifiable vehicular, environmental, and behavioural factors associated with LSVRO injuries in young children that have been identified in the literature to date. Strategies relating to vehicle design (devices for increased rearward visibility and crash avoidance systems), housing design (physical separation of driveway and play areas), and behaviour (driver behaviour, supervision of young children) are discussed. PMID:23781251

  6. Adaptive gridding strategies for Free-Lagrangian calculations of low speed flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritts, Martin J.

    1988-01-01

    Free-Lagrangian methods have been employed in two-dimensional simulations of the long-term evolution of fluid instabilities for low speed flows. For example, calculations of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability have proceeded through the inversion and mixing of two fluid layers and simulations of droplet deformations have continued well beyond droplet shattering. The freedom to choose grid connections permits several important benefits for these calculations. 1. Mass conservation is enforced for all individual fluid elements. 2. Vertex movement is always Lagrangian. 3. Grid adjustments can be made automatically, with no user intervention. 4. Grid connections may be selected to ensure accuracy in the difference equations. 5. Adaptive gridding schemes are local, adding and deleting vertices as dictated by local accuracy estimators. 6. Any geometric configuration may be easily gridded, for any vertex distribution on the boundaries or in the interior of the fluids. This paper will review some two-dimensional results, with the emphasis on the adaptive gridding algorithms and the accuracy of the resultant difference templates for the mathematical operators. The relation of the triangular mesh to the Voronoi mesh will be explored, particularly for the case when they are dual meshes. Three-dimensional algorithms for adaptive gridding will be presented which are exact analogues to the two-dimensional case. Gridding efficiencies will be discussed for several schemes.

  7. Semi-Empirical Prediction of Aircraft Low-Speed Aerodynamic Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Erik D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper lays out a comprehensive methodology for computing a low-speed, high-lift polar, without requiring additional details about the aircraft design beyond what is typically available at the conceptual design stage. Introducing low-order, physics-based aerodynamic analyses allows the methodology to be more applicable to unconventional aircraft concepts than traditional, fully-empirical methods. The methodology uses empirical relationships for flap lift effectiveness, chord extension, drag-coefficient increment and maximum lift coefficient of various types of flap systems as a function of flap deflection, and combines these increments with the characteristics of the unflapped airfoils. Once the aerodynamic characteristics of the flapped sections are known, a vortex-lattice analysis calculates the three-dimensional lift, drag and moment coefficients of the whole aircraft configuration. This paper details the results of two validation cases: a supercritical airfoil model with several types of flaps; and a 12-foot, full-span aircraft model with slats and double-slotted flaps.

  8. Low-speed Investigation of a Semisubmerged Air Scoop with and Without Boundary-layer Suction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierpont, P Kenneth; Howell, Robert R

    1951-01-01

    A preliminary low-speed investigation has been made of an air scoop submerged one-half the inlet height in a depression on the surface of a simulated fuselage. Boundary-layer suction was used on the steep approach ramp to improve the internal flow. A 6-degree-included-angle diffuser with an area ratio of 1.9:1 was located behind the inlet in the model. Most of the tests were conducted with an initial turbulent boundary layer believed to approximate that which would occur on the forward part of a fuselage. A few tests were made with a boundary layer about 2.5 times the thickness of the original boundary layer to determine the effect of moving the inlet further rearward on the fuselage. The effects of suction-slot location and slot width were determined and a few tests with area suction were made. The maximum quantity of suction flow was about 15 percent of the inlet flow at an inlet-velocity ratio of 0.6.

  9. Low-speed longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics through poststall for 21 novel planform shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, Gregory M.; Mcgrath, Brian E.

    1995-01-01

    To identify planform characteristics which have promise for a highly maneuverable vehicle, an investigation was conducted in the Langley Subsonic Basic Research Tunnel to determine the low-speed longitudinal aerodynamics of 21 planform geometries. Concepts studied included twin bodies, double wings, cutout wings, and serrated forebodies. The planform models tested were all 1/4-in.-thick flat plates with beveled edges on the lower surface to ensure uniform flow separation at angle of attack. A 1.0-in.-diameter cylindrical metric body with a hemispherical nose was used to house the six-component strain gauge balance for each configuration. Aerodynamic force and moment data were obtained across an angle-of-attack range of 0 to 70 deg with zero sideslip at a free-stream dynamic pressure of 30 psf. Surface flow visualization studies were also conducted on selected configurations using fluorescent minitufts. Results from the investigation indicate that a cutout wing planform can improve lift characteristics; however, cutout size, shape, and position and wing leading-edge sweep will all influence the effectiveness of the cutout configuration. Tests of serrated forebodies identified this concept as an extremely effective means of improving configuration lift characteristics; increases of up to 25 percent in the value of maximum lift coefficient were obtained.

  10. Testing of Lightweight Fuel Cell Vehicles System at Low Speeds with Energy Efficiency Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustaffa, Muhammad Rizuwan B.; Mohamed, Wan Ahmad Najmi B. Wan

    2013-12-01

    A fuel cell vehicle power train mini test bench was developed which consists of a 1 kW open cathode hydrogen fuel cell, electric motor, wheel, gearing system, DC/DC converter and vehicle control system (VCS). Energy efficiency identification and energy flow evaluation is a useful tool in identifying a detail performance of each component and sub-systems in a fuel cell vehicle system configuration. Three artificial traction loads was simulated at 30 kg, 40 kg and 50 kg force on a single wheel drive configuration. The wheel speed range reported here covers from idle to 16 km/h (low speed range) as a preliminary input in the research work frame. The test result shows that the system efficiency is 84.5 percent when the energy flow is considered from the fuel cell to the wheel and 279 watts of electrical power was produced by the fuel cell during that time. Dynamic system responses was also identified as the load increases beyond the motor traction capabilities where the losses at the converter and motor controller increased significantly as it tries to meet the motor traction power demands. This work is currently being further expanded within the work frame of developing a road-worthy fuel cell vehicle.

  11. Vortex/Body Interaction and Sound Generation in Low-Speed Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Hsiao C.

    1998-01-01

    The problem of sound generation by vortices interacting with an arbitrary body in a low-speed flow has been investigated by the method of matched asymptotic expansions. For the purpose of this report, it is convenient to divide the problem into three parts. In the first part the mechanism of the vortex/body interaction, which is essentially the inner solution in the inner region, is examined. The trajectories for a system of vortices rotating about their centroid are found to undergo enormous changes after interaction; from this, some interesting properties emerged. In the second part, the problem is formulated, the outer solution is found, matching is implemented, and solutions for acoustic pressure are obtained. In the third part, Fourier integrals are evaluated and predicated results presented. An examination of these results reveals the following: (a) the background noise can be either augmented or attenuated by a body after interaction, (b) sound generated by vortex/body interaction obeys a scaling factor, (C) sound intensity can be reduced substantially by positioning the vortex system in the "favorable" side of the body instead of the "unfavorable" side, and (d) acoustic radiation from vortex/bluff-body interaction is less than that from vortex/airfoil interaction under most circumstances.

  12. Numerical Simulation of Combustion and Extinction of a Solid Cylinder in Low-Speed Cross Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, J. S.; Yang, Chin Tien

    1998-01-01

    The combustion and extinction behavior of a diffusion flame around a solid fuel cylinder (PMMA) in low-speed forced flow in zero gravity was studied numerically using a quasi-steady gas phase model. This model includes two-dimensional continuity, full Navier Stokes' momentum, energy, and species equations with a one-step overall chemical reaction and second-order finite-rate Arrhenius kinetics. Surface radiation and Arrhenius pyrolysis kinetics are included on the solid fuel surface description and a parameter Phi, representing the percentage of gas-phase conductive heat flux going into the solid, is introduced into the interfacial energy balance boundary condition to complete the description for the quasi-steady gas-phase system. The model was solved numerically using a body-fitted coordinate transformation and the SIMPLE algorithm. The effects of varying freestream velocity and Phi were studied. These parameters have a significant effect on the flame structure and extinction limits. Two flame modes were identified: envelope flame and wake flame. Two kinds of flammability limits were found: quenching at low-flow speeds due to radiative loss and blow-off at high flow speeds due to insufficient gas residence time. A flammability map was constructed showing the existence of maximum Phi above which the solid is not flammable at any freestream velocity.

  13. Low-speed, high-lift aerodynamic characteristics of slender, hypersonic accelerator-type configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, Gregory M.

    1989-01-01

    Two investigations were conducted in the Langley 14 by 22 Foot Subsonic Tunnel to determine the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a generic hypersonic accelerator-type configuration. The model was a delta wing configuration incorporating a conical forebody, a simulated wrap-around engine package, and a truncated conical aftbody. Six-component force and moment data were obtained over a range of attack from -4 to 30 degrees and for a sideslip range of + or - 20 degrees. In addition to tests of the basic configuration, component build-up tests were conducted; and the effects of power, forebody nose geometry, canard surfaces, fuselage strakes, and engines on the lower surface alone were also determined. Control power available from deflections of wing flaps and aftbody flaps was also investigated and found to be significantly increased during power-on conditions. Large yawing moments resulted from asymmetric flow fields exhibited by the forebody as revealed by both surface pressure data and flow visualization. Increasing nose bluntness reduced the yawing-moment asymmetry, and the addition of a canard eliminated the yawing-moment asymmetry.

  14. Effects of probe support on the stall characteristics of a low-speed axial compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hongwei; Li, Shaohui; Wei, Wei

    2016-02-01

    In order to investigate the effects of probe support on the stall characteristics of micro compressors, an experiment was carried out on a large-scale low-speed research compressor according to the principle of geometric similarity. A cylindrical probe support intruding to 50% blade span was mounted at 50% chord upstream from the rotor blade leading edge. The static pressure rise characteristic of the compressor is measured, with and without the probe support respectively. The dynamic compressor behavior from pre-stall to full stall was also measured. The results indicate that the stability margin of the compressor is lowered after installing the probe support. The stall inception is aroused by modal wave disturbances. The disturbances developed into two stall cells smoothly before installing the probe support, while the disturbances first developed into a single stall cell then splitting into two stall cells after installing the probe support. The presence of probe support lowers the initial intensity of the rotating stall of the compressor, while it doesn't alter the intensity of the rotation stall after the compressor enters into full stall.

  15. Sub-harmonic broadband humps and tip noise in low-speed ring fans.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Stéphane; Sanjose, Marlène

    2016-01-01

    A joint experimental and numerical study has been achieved on a low-speed axial ring fan in clean inflow. Experimental evidence shows large periodic broadband humps at lower frequencies than the blade passing frequencies and harmonics even at design conditions. These sub-harmonic humps are also found to be sensitive to the fan process and consequently to its tip geometry. Softer fans yield more intense humps more shifted to lower frequencies with respect to the fan harmonics. Unsteady turbulent flow simulations of this ring fan mounted on a test plenum have been achieved by four different methods that have been validated by comparing with overall performances and detailed hot-wire velocity measurements in the wake. Noise predictions are either obtained directly or are obtained through Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings' analogy, and compared with narrowband and third-octave power spectra. All unsteady simulations correctly capture the low flow rates, the coherent vortex dynamics in the tip clearance and consequently the noise radiation dominated by the tip noise in the low- to mid-frequency range. Yet, only the scale-adaptive simulation and the lattice Boltzmann method simulations which can describe most of the turbulent structures accurately provide the proper spectral shape and levels, and consequently the overall sound power level. PMID:26827010

  16. Improvement of low speed induction generator performances and reducing the power of excitation and voltage control system

    SciTech Connect

    Budisan, N.; Hentea, T.; Mahil, S.; Madescu, G.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present the results of our investigations concerning the utilization of induction generators at very low speed. It is shown that, by proper design, it is possible to obtain high efficiency and high power factor values. The optimized induction generators require lower reactive power resulting in lower size and price of the excitation control system. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Laboratory Scale Prototype of a Low-Speed Electrodynamic Levitation System Based on a Halbach Magnet Array

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iniguez, J.; Raposo, V.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the behaviour of a small-scale model of a magnetic levitation system based on the Inductrack concept. Drag and lift forces acting on our prototype, moving above a continuous copper track, are studied analytically following a simple low-speed approach. The experimental results are in good agreement with the theoretical…

  18. Experimental and analytical investigations to improve low-speed performance and stability and control characteristics of supersonic cruise fighter vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, A. B.

    1977-01-01

    Small- and large-scale models of supersonic cruise fighter vehicles were used to determine the effectiveness of airframe/propulsion integration concepts for improved low-speed performance and stability and control characteristics. Computer programs were used for engine/airframe sizing studies to yield optimum vehicle performance.

  19. Low-Speed Fingerprint Image Capture System User`s Guide, June 1, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Whitus, B.R.; Goddard, J.S.; Jatko, W.B.; Manges, W.W.; Treece, D.A.

    1993-06-01

    The Low-Speed Fingerprint Image Capture System (LS-FICS) uses a Sun workstation controlling a Lenzar ElectroOptics Opacity 1000 imaging system to digitize fingerprint card images to support the Federal Bureau of Investigation`s (FBI`s) Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) program. The system also supports the operations performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory- (ORNL-) developed Image Transmission Network (ITN) prototype card scanning system. The input to the system is a single FBI fingerprint card of the agreed-upon standard format and a user-specified identification number. The output is a file formatted to be compatible with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) draft standard for fingerprint data exchange dated June 10, 1992. These NIST compatible files contain the required print and text images. The LS-FICS is designed to provide the FBI with the capability of scanning fingerprint cards into a digital format. The FBI will replicate the system to generate a data base of test images. The Host Workstation contains the image data paths and the compression algorithm. A local area network interface, disk storage, and tape drive are used for the image storage and retrieval, and the Lenzar Opacity 1000 scanner is used to acquire the image. The scanner is capable of resolving 500 pixels/in. in both x and y directions. The print images are maintained in full 8-bit gray scale and compressed with an FBI-approved wavelet-based compression algorithm. The text fields are downsampled to 250 pixels/in. and 2-bit gray scale. The text images are then compressed using a lossless Huffman coding scheme. The text fields retrieved from the output files are easily interpreted when displayed on the screen. Detailed procedures are provided for system calibration and operation. Software tools are provided to verify proper system operation.

  20. Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Seamless Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Trong T.

    2016-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a Gulfstream G-III airplane (Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Savannah, Georgia) swept wing modified with an experimental seamless, compliant flap called the Adaptive Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE) flap. The stall characteristics of the modified ACTE wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified, clean wing at the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 feet above mean sea level, in free air as well as in ground effect. A polyhedral finite-volume unstructured full Navier-Stokes CFD code, STAR-CCM (registered trademark) plus (CD-adapco [Computational Dynamics Limited, United Kingdom, and Analysis & Design Application Co., United States]), was used. Steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes CFD simulations were conducted for a clean wing and the ACTE wings at various ACTE deflection angles in free air (-2 degrees, 15 degrees, and 30 degrees) as well as in ground effect (15 degrees and 30 degrees). Solution sensitivities to grid densities were examined. In free air, the ACTE wings are predicted to stall at lower angles of attack than the clean wing. In ground effect, all wings are predicted to stall at lower angles of attack than the corresponding wings in free air. Even though the lift curves are higher in ground effect than in free air, the maximum lift coefficients for all wings are lower in ground effect. Finally, the lift increase due to ground effect for the ACTE wing is predicted to be less than the clean wing.

  1. Pigeons steer like helicopters and generate down- and upstroke lift during low speed turns

    PubMed Central

    Ros, Ivo G.; Bassman, Lori C.; Badger, Marc A.; Pierson, Alyssa N.; Biewener, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    Turning is crucial for animals, particularly during predator–prey interactions and to avoid obstacles. For flying animals, turning consists of changes in (i) flight trajectory, or path of travel, and (ii) body orientation, or 3D angular position. Changes in flight trajectory can only be achieved by modulating aerodynamic forces relative to gravity. How birds coordinate aerodynamic force production relative to changes in body orientation during turns is key to understanding the control strategies used in avian maneuvering flight. We hypothesized that pigeons produce aerodynamic forces in a uniform direction relative to their bodies, requiring changes in body orientation to redirect those forces to turn. Using detailed 3D kinematics and body mass distributions, we examined net aerodynamic forces and body orientations in slowly flying pigeons (Columba livia) executing level 90° turns. The net aerodynamic force averaged over the downstroke was maintained in a fixed direction relative to the body throughout the turn, even though the body orientation of the birds varied substantially. Early in the turn, changes in body orientation primarily redirected the downstroke aerodynamic force, affecting the bird’s flight trajectory. Subsequently, the pigeon mainly reacquired the body orientation used in forward flight without affecting its flight trajectory. Surprisingly, the pigeon’s upstroke generated aerodynamic forces that were approximately 50% of those generated during the downstroke, nearly matching the relative upstroke forces produced by hummingbirds. Thus, pigeons achieve low speed turns much like helicopters, by using whole-body rotations to alter the direction of aerodynamic force production to change their flight trajectory. PMID:22123982

  2. An Investigation of Large Tilt-Rotor Hover and Low Speed Handling Qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malpica, Carlos A.; Decker, William A.; Theodore, Colin R.; Lindsey, James E.; Lawrence, Ben; Blanken, Chris L.

    2011-01-01

    A piloted simulation experiment conducted on the NASA-Ames Vertical Motion Simulator evaluated the hover and low speed handling qualities of a large tilt-rotor concept, with particular emphasis on longitudinal and lateral position control. Ten experimental test pilots evaluated different combinations of Attitude Command-Attitude Hold (ACAH) and Translational Rate Command (TRC) response types, nacelle conversion actuator authority limits and inceptor choices. Pilots performed evaluations in revised versions of the ADS-33 Hover, Lateral Reposition and Depart/Abort MTEs and moderate turbulence conditions. Level 2 handling qualities ratings were primarily recorded using ACAH response type in all three of the evaluation maneuvers. The baseline TRC conferred Level 1 handling qualities in the Hover MTE, but there was a tendency to enter into a PIO associated with nacelle actuator rate limiting when employing large, aggressive control inputs. Interestingly, increasing rate limits also led to a reduction in the handling qualities ratings. This led to the identification of a nacelle rate to rotor longitudinal flapping coupling effect that induced undesired, pitching motions proportional to the allowable amount of nacelle rate. A modification that counteracted this effect significantly improved the handling qualities. Evaluation of the different response type variants showed that inclusion of TRC response could provide Level 1 handling qualities in the Lateral Reposition maneuver by reducing coupled pitch and heave off axis responses that otherwise manifest with ACAH. Finally, evaluations in the Depart/Abort maneuver showed that uncertainty about commanded nacelle position and ensuing aircraft response, when manually controlling the nacelle, demanded high levels of attention from the pilot. Additional requirements to maintain pitch attitude within 5 deg compounded the necessary workload.

  3. Preliminary Design of the Low Speed Propulsion Air Intake of the LAPCAT-MR2 Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerts, C.; Steelant, J.; Hendrick, P.

    2011-08-01

    A supersonic air intake has been designed for the low speed propulsion system of the LAPCAT-MR2 aircraft. Development has been based on the XB-70 aircraft air intake which achieves extremely high performances over a wide operation range through the combined use of variable geometry and porous wall suction for boundary layer control. Design of the LAPCAT-MR2 intake has been operated through CFD simulations using DLR TAU-Code (perfect gas model - Menter SST turbulence model). First, a new boundary condition has been validated into the DLR TAU-Code (perfect gas model) for porous wall suction modelling. Standard test cases have shown surprisingly good agreement with both theoretical predictions and experimental results. Based upon this validation, XB-70 air intake performances have been assessed through CFD simulations over the subsonic, transonic and supersonic operation regions and compared to available flight data. A new simulation strategy was deployed avoiding numerical instabilities when initiating the flow in both transonic and supersonic operation modes. First, the flow must be initiated with a far field Mach number higher than the target flight Mach number. Additionally, the inlet backpressure may only be increased to its target value once the oblique shock pattern downstream the intake compression ramps is converged. Simulations using that strategy have shown excellent agreement with in-flight measurements for both total pressure recovery ratio and variable geometry schedule prediction. The demarcation between stable and unstable operation could be well reproduced. Finally, a modified version of the XB-70 air intake has been integrated in the elliptical intake on the LAPCAT vehicle. Operation of this intake in the LAPCAT-MR2 environment is under evaluation using the same simulation strategy as the one developed for the XB-70. Performances are assessed at several key operation points to assess viability of this design. This information will allow in a next

  4. Occupant kinematics in low-speed frontal sled tests: Human volunteers, Hybrid III ATD, and PMHS.

    PubMed

    Beeman, Stephanie M; Kemper, Andrew R; Madigan, Michael L; Franck, Christopher T; Loftus, Stephen C

    2012-07-01

    A total of 34 dynamic matched frontal sled tests were performed, 17 low (2.5g, Δv=4.8kph) and 17 medium (5.0g, Δv=9.7kph), with five male human volunteers of approximately 50th percentile height and weight, a Hybrid III 50th percentile male ATD, and three male PMHS. Each volunteer was exposed to two impulses at each severity, one relaxed and one braced prior to the impulse. A total of four tests were performed at each severity with the ATD and one trial was performed at each severity with each PMHS. A Vicon motion analysis system, 12 MX-T20 2 megapixel cameras, was used to quantify subject 3D kinematics (±1mm) (1kHz). Excursions of select anatomical regions were normalized to their respective initial positions and compared by test condition and between subject types. The forward excursions of the select anatomical regions generally increased with increasing severity. The forward excursions of relaxed human volunteers were significantly larger than those of the ATD for nearly every region at both severities. The forward excursions of the upper body regions of the braced volunteers were generally significantly smaller than those of the ATD at both severities. Forward excursions of the relaxed human volunteers and PMHSs were fairly similar except the head CG response at both severities and the right knee and C7 at the medium severity. The forward excursions of the upper body of the PMHS were generally significantly larger than those of the braced volunteers at both severities. Forward excursions of the PMHSs exceeded those of the ATD for all regions at both severities with significant differences within the upper body regions. Overall human volunteers, ATD, and PMHSs do not have identical biomechanical responses in low-speed frontal sled tests but all contribute valuable data that can be used to refine and validate computational models and ATDs used to assess injury risk in automotive collisions. PMID:22342960

  5. Drive System Enhancement in the NASA Lewis Research Center Supersonic Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becks, Edward A.

    1998-01-01

    An overview of NASA Lewis' Aeropropulsion Wind Tunnel Productivity Improvements was presented at the 19th AIAA Advanced Measurement & Ground Testing Technology Conference. Since that time Lewis has implemented subsonic operation in their 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel as had been proven viable in the 8- by 6 and 9- by 15-Foot Wind Tunnel Complex and discussed at the aforementioned conference. In addition, two more years of data have been gathered to help quantify the true productivity increases in these facilities attributable to the drive system and operational improvements. This paper was invited for presentation at the 20th Advanced Measurement and Ground Testing Conference to discuss and quantify the productivity improvements in the 10- by 10 SWT since the implementation of less than full complement motor operation. An update on the increased productivity at the 8- by 6 and 9- by 15-Foot facility due to drive system enhancements will also be presented.

  6. Direct-Drive Contactless Wind Generator with Concentrated Winding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, N.; Pugachov, V.; Orlova, S.

    2012-01-01

    A clear trend has emerged in the field of wind power industry concerning the creation of low-, medium-, and even high-power direct-drive wind turbines without the use of gearboxes. Such generators are usually multipolar and mostly excited from permanent magnets. In the low-speed performance, multipolarity means a higher specific torque and reliability as well as lower operating costs, which in the case of high-speed generators is hindered by gearboxes. Multipolarity with a high specific torque can be achieved mainly through the use of permanent magnets of high-energy materials (such as NdFeB) and through design solutions for the armature winding. The authors compare two most common types of wind generator's armature windings: the distributed one, which contains a coil embracing several teeth, and the concentrated armature winding - with one coil for one stator tooth. The comparison (along with the experience in developing the wind turbines) shows that the con-centrated winding version has a number of advantages, the main of them being the multipolarity. This means that the generator with a concentrated winding can be more acceptable for the direct-drive wind turbines, is easier to make and simpler to operate. Another very important advantage of concentrated windings shown in this work is that they allow achievement of a higher specific electromagnetic torque, which means smaller size and weight of such a generator in the low-speed version.

  7. Control of low-speed turbulent separated flow over a backward-facing ramp. Ph.D. Thesis - Old Dominion Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, John C.

    1992-01-01

    The relative performance and flow phenomena associated with several devices for controlling turbulent separated flow were investigated at low speeds. Relative performance of the devices was examined for flow over a curved, backward-facing ramp in a wind tunnel, and the flow phenomena were examined in a water tunnel using dye-flow visualization. Surface static pressure measurements and oil-flow visualization results from the wind tunnel tests indicated that transverse grooves, longitudinal grooves, submerged vortex generators, vortex generator jets (VGJ's), Viets' fluidic flappers, elongated arches at positive angle of attack, and large-eddy breakup devices (LEBU's) at positive angle of attack placed near the baseline separation location reduce flow separation and increase pressure recovery. Spanwise cylinders reduce flow separation but decrease pressure recovery downstream. Riblets, passive porous surfaces, swept grooves, Helmholtz resonators, and arches and LEBU's with angle of attack less than or = 0 degrees had no significant effect in reducing the extent of the separation region. Wall-cooling computations indicated that separation delay on a partially-cooled ramp is nearly the same as on a fully-cooled ramp, while minimizing the frictional drag increase associated with the wall cooling process. Dry-flow visualization tests in the water tunnel indicated that wishbone vortex generators in the forward orientation shed horseshoe vortices; wishbone vortex generators oriented in the reverse direction and doublet vortex generators shed streamwise counterrotating vortices; a spanewise cylinder located near the wall and LEBU's at angle of attack = -10 degrees produced eddies or transverse vortices which rotated with the same sign as the mean vorticity in a turbulent boundary layer; and the most effective VGJ's produced streamwise co-rotating vortices. Comparative wind-tunnel test results indicated that transferring momentum from the outer region of a turbulent boundary

  8. Dynamometer test results from the Colorado University low-speed, permanent magnet electric generator

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, E.F.; Carlin, P.W.; Muljadi, E.B.; Fingersh, L.J.

    1995-09-01

    Under an NREL subcontract the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department of the University of Colorado has designed a 20 kilowatt, twelve pole, permanent magnet, electric generator which can supply 150% of rated power over a speed range from 60 to 120 RPM. The generator was fabricated and assembled by the Denver electric motor manufacturer, Unique Mobility. The generator is being tested on the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) dynamometer. This dynamometer provides generator speeds from 0 to 150 RPM. Static and steadystate electrical and mechanical generator parameters will be given as well as voltage and efficiency vs speed curves, and winding temperature rise. Preliminary dynamometer results for the complete variable speed electrical system including the AC-DC-AC power electronics will be presented. Also, these results will be examined for factors which must be considered if the prototype design is to be scaled up to a 300 kilowatt size.

  9. Experimental Investigation of the Low-Speed Aerodynamic Characteristics of a 5.8-Percent Scale Hybrid Wing Body Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, Gregory M.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Carter, Melissa B.

    2012-01-01

    A low-speed experimental investigation has been conducted on a 5.8-percent scale Hybrid Wing Body configuration in the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. This Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration was designed with specific intention to support the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project goals of reduced noise, emissions, and fuel burn. This HWB configuration incorporates twin, podded nacelles mounted on the vehicle upper surface between twin vertical tails. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics were assessed through the acquisition of force and moment, surface pressure, and flow visualization data. Longitudinal and lateral-directional characteristics were investigated on this multi-component model. The effects of a drooped leading edge, longitudinal flow-through nacelle location, vertical tail shape and position, elevon deflection, and rudder deflection have been studied. The basic configuration aerodynamics, as well as the effects of these configuration variations, are presented in this paper.

  10. Development of the seeding system used for laser velocimeter surveys of the NASA Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserbauer, Charles A.; Hathaway, Michael D.

    1993-01-01

    An atomizer-based system for distributing high-volume rates of seed material was developed to support laser velocimeter investigations of the NASA Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor flow field. The seeding system and the major concerns that were addressed during its development are described. Of primary importance were that the seed material be dispersed as single particles and that the liquid carrier used be completely evaporated before entering the compressor.

  11. A summary and analysis of the low-speed longitudinal characteristics of swept wings at high Reynolds number

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furlong, G Chester; Mchugh, James G

    1957-01-01

    An analysis of the longitudinal characteristics of swept wings which is based on available large-scale low-speed data and supplemented with low-scale data when feasible is presented. The emphasis has been placed on the differentiation of the characteristics by a differentiation between the basic flow phenomenon involved. Insofar as possible all large-scale data available as of August 15, 1951 have been summarized in tabular form for ready reference.

  12. Concurrent Flame Growth, Spread and Extinction over Composite Fabric Samples in Low Speed Purely Forced Flow in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Xiaoyang; T'ien, James S.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    As a part of the NASA BASS and BASS-II experimental projects aboard the International Space Station, flame growth, spread and extinction over a composite cotton-fiberglass fabric blend (referred to as the SIBAL fabric) were studied in low-speed concurrent forced flows. The tests were conducted in a small flow duct within the Microgravity Science Glovebox. The fuel samples measured 1.2 and 2.2 cm wide and 10 cm long. Ambient oxygen was varied from 21% down to 16% and flow speed from 40 cm/s down to 1 cm/s. A small flame resulted at low flow, enabling us to observe the entire history of flame development including ignition, flame growth, steady spread (in some cases) and decay at the end of the sample. In addition, by decreasing flow velocity during some of the tests, low-speed flame quenching extinction limits were found as a function of oxygen percentage. The quenching speeds were found to be between 1 and 5 cm/s with higher speed in lower oxygen atmosphere. The shape of the quenching boundary supports the prediction by earlier theoretical models. These long duration microgravity experiments provide a rare opportunity for solid fuel combustion since microgravity time in ground-based facilities is generally not sufficient. This is the first time that a low-speed quenching boundary in concurrent spread is determined in a clean and unambiguous manner.

  13. Human subject rear passenger symptom response to frontal car-to-car low-speed crash tests

    PubMed Central

    Croft, Arthur C.; Eldridge, T. Randall

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether healthy adult volunteers report symptoms following exposure to low-speed frontal crashes at low velocities. Methods Nineteen medically screened, healthy, informed, and willing volunteers (17 men, 2 women; mean age, 37 years) were exposed to low-speed frontal crashes. All volunteers were seated in the rear seat position of the bullet vehicle. Closing velocities ranged from 4.1 to 8.3 mph (mean, 6.7 mph). For the bullet vehicle, the delta V ranged from 1.4 to 3.9 mph with a mean of 2.8 mph. Results Eighty-eight percent of volunteers attributed symptoms of discomfort to their crash exposure. All reported symptoms were transient, and none required medical treatment. The mean duration was 1 day. Conclusions Even at relatively low speeds, there is no lower threshold below which it can be reasonably assumed that healthy and prepared volunteer rear seat passengers will not sustain some level of minor injury in a frontal collision. Although the reported mean delta V for injured persons in real-world frontal crashes has been reported to be as high as 8.1 mph, this does not offer any insight into the minimum threshold for such injuries among all at-risk vehicle occupants. PMID:22014902

  14. Accuracy of the non-relativistic approximation to relativistic probability densities for a low-speed weak-gravity system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shiuan-Ni; Lan, Boon Leong

    2015-11-01

    The Newtonian and general-relativistic position and velocity probability densities, which are calculated from the same initial Gaussian ensemble of trajectories using the same system parameters, are compared for a low-speed weak-gravity bouncing ball system. The Newtonian approximation to the general-relativistic probability densities does not always break down rapidly if the trajectories in the ensembles are chaotic -- the rapid breakdown occurs only if the initial position and velocity standard deviations are sufficiently small. This result is in contrast to the previously studied single-trajectory case where the Newtonian approximation to a general-relativistic trajectory will always break down rapidly if the two trajectories are chaotic. Similar rapid breakdown of the Newtonian approximation to the general-relativistic probability densities should also occur for other low-speed weak-gravity chaotic systems since it is due to sensitivity to the small difference between the two dynamical theories at low speed and weak gravity. For the bouncing ball system, the breakdown of the Newtonian approximation is transient because the Newtonian and general-relativistic probability densities eventually converge to invariant densities which are close in agreement.

  15. Effects of fuselage forebody geometry on low-speed lateral-directional characteristics of twin-tail fighter model at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, P. C.; Gilbert, W. P.

    1979-01-01

    Low-speed, static wind-tunnel tests were conducted to explore the effects of fighter fuselage forebody geometry on lateral-directional characteristics at high angles of attack and to provide data for general design procedures. Effects of eight different forebody configurations and several add-on devices (e.g., nose strakes, boundary-layer trip wires, and nose booms) were investigated. Tests showed that forebody design features such as fineness ratio, cross-sectional shape, and add-on devices can have a significant influence on both lateral-directional and longitudinal aerodynamic stability. Several of the forebodies produced both lateral-directional symmetry and strong favorable changes in lateral-directional stability. However, the same results also indicated that such forebody designs can produce significant reductions in longitudinal stability near maximum lift and can significantly change the influence of other configuration variables. The addition of devices to highly tailored forebody designs also can significantly degrade the stability improvements provided by the clean forebody.

  16. Effects of leading-edge devices on the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a highly-swept arrow-wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, S. J.; Nicks, O. W.; Imbrie, P. K.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Texas A&M University 7 by 10 foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel to provide a direct comparison of the effect of several leading edge devices on the aerodynamic performance of a highly swept wing configuration. Analysis of the data indicates that for the configuration with undeflected leading edges, vortex separation first occurs on the outboard wing panel for angles of attack of approximately 2, and wing apex vorticies become apparent for alpha or = 4 deg. However, the occurrence of the leading edge vortex flow may be postponed with leading edge devices. Of the devices considered, the most promising were a simple leading edge deflection of 30 deg and a leading edge slat system. The trailing edge flap effectiveness was found to be essentially the same for the configuration employing either of these more promising leading edge devices. Analysis of the lateral directional data showed that for all of the concepts considered, deflecting leading edge downward in an attempt to postpone leading edge vortex flows, has the favorable effect of reducing the effective dihedral.

  17. M2-F1 in flight during low-speed car tow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The M2-F1 shown in flight during a low-speed car tow runs across the lakebed. Such tests allowed about two minutes to test the vehicle's handling in flight. NASA Flight Research Center (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center) personnel conducted as many as 8 to 14 ground-tow flights in a single day either to test the vehicle in preparation for air tows or to train pilots to fly the vehicle before they undertook air tows. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30

  18. Low speed tests of a fixed geometry inlet for a tilt nacelle V/STOL airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syberg, J.; Koncsek, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Test data were obtained with a 1/4 scale cold flow model of the inlet at freestream velocities from 0 to 77 m/s (150 knots) and angles of attack from 45 deg to 120 deg. A large scale model was tested with a high bypass ratio turbofan in the NASA/ARC wind tunnel. A fixed geometry inlet is a viable concept for a tilt nacelle V/STOL application. Comparison of data obtained with the two models indicates that flow separation at high angles of attack and low airflow rates is strongly sensitive to Reynolds number and that the large scale model has a significantly improved range of separation-free operation.

  19. Low-speed power effects on advanced fighter configurations with two-dimensional deflected thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, J. W., Jr.; Thomas, J. L.; Yip, L. P.

    1977-01-01

    Wind-tunnel studies at the Langley Research Center have shown that significant increases in maximum lift coefficient and stability and decreases in drag due to lift are obtained when two-dimensional vectored thrust is used in conjuction with a close-coupled canard. The configuration tested was somewhat above the theoretical minimum drag due to lift because of the sharp leading edge on the biconvex airfoil used on the wing and canard. An effort to design a new configuration which will approach the minimum drag due to lift while maintaining high-lift configurations was completed. The resulting model will incorporate a realistic planform, airfoil section, and twist for a transonic maneuvering configuration.

  20. Aerodynamic investigations into various low speed L/D improvement devices on the 140A/B space shuttle orbiter configuration in the Rockwell International low speed wind tunnel (OA86)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennell, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted to investigate various base drag reduction techniques in an attempt to improve Orbiter lift-to-drag ratios and to calculate sting interference effects on the Orbiter aerodynamic characteristics. Test conditions and facilites, and model dimensional data are presented along with the data reduction guidelines and data set/run number collation used for the studies. Aerodynamic force and moment data and the results of stability and control tests are also given.

  1. Low speed test of the aft inlet designed for a tandem fan V/STOL nacelle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoades, W. W.; Ybarra, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    An approximately .25 scale model of a Tandem Fan nacelle designed for a Type A V/STOL aircraft configuration was tested in a 10-by-10 foot wind tunnel. A 12 inch, tip driven, turbofan simulator was used to provide the suction source for the aft fan inlet. The front fan inlet was faired over for this test entry. Model variables consisted of a long aft inlet cowl, a short aft inlet cowl, a shaft simulator, blow-in door passages and diffuser vortex generators. Inlet pressure recovery, distortion, inlet angle of attack separation limits were evaluated at tunnel velocities from 0 to 240 knots, angles of attack from -10 to 40 degrees and inlet flow rates representative of throat Mach numbers of 0.1 to 0.6. High inlet performance and stable operation was verified at all design forward speed and angle of attack conditions. The short aft inlet configuration provided exceptionally high pressure recovery except at the highest combination of angle of attack and forward speed. The flow quality at the fan face was somewhat degraded by the addition of blow-in door passages to the long aft inlet configuration due to the pressure disturbances generated by the flow entering the diffuser through the auxiliary air passages.

  2. Experimental studies of flow separation of the GA(W)-2 airfoil at low speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seetharam, H. C.; Rodgers, E. J.; Wentz, W. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests have been conducted on a NASA GA(W)-2 airfoil section at Reynolds number of 2.2 x 10(exp 6) and Mach number of 0.13. Detailed measurements of flow fields associated with turbulent boundary layers have been obtained at angles of attack of 10.3, 14.4, and 18.3 deg. Pre- and post-separated velocity and pressure survey results over the airfoil and in the associated wake are presented. Extensive force, pressure, tuft survey, hot-film survey, local skin friction, and boundary layer data are also included. Pressure distributions and separation point locations show good agreement with theory for the two lower angles of attack. Boundary layer displacement thickness, momentum thickness, and shape factor agree well with theory up to the point of separation. There is considerable disparity between extent of flow reversal in the wake as measured by pressure and hot-film probes. The difference is attributed to the intermittent nature of the flow reversal.

  3. Experimental Studies of Flow Separation of the NACA 2412 Airfoil at Low Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seetharam, H. C.; Rodgers, E. J.; Wentz, W. H., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests have been conducted on an NACA 2412 airfoil section at Reynolds number of 2.2 x 10(exp 6) and Mach number of 0.13. Detailed measurements of flow fields associated with turbulent boundary layers have been obtained at angles of attack of 12.4 degrees, 14.4 degrees, and 16.4 degrees. Pre- and post-separated velocity and pressure survey results over the airfoil and in the associated wake are presented. Extensive force, pressure, tuft survey, hot-film survey, local skin friction, and boundary layer data are also included. Pressure distributions and separation point locations show good agreement with theory for the two layer angles of attack. Boundary layer displacement thickness, momentum thickness, and shape factor agree well with theory up to the point of separation. There is considerable disparity between extent of flow reversal in the wake as measured by pressure and hot-film probes. The difference is attributed to the intermittent nature of the flow reversal.

  4. Visualization of Rotor Tip Secondary Flows with Blade Tip Air Discharge and Suction in a Low-speed Turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofskey, Milton G; Allen, Hubert W

    1956-01-01

    Smoke was used to visualize outer-wall secondary flows in a low-speed turbine utilizing rotor tip air discharge and suction. Photographs as well as visual observations of the effect of tip air discharge and suction were made by independently varying the direction and quantity of the tip air discharge and suction, and varying tip clearance, and main-stream air speed. In addition, the cross-sectional area of the hollow blade discharge opening was varied for the case of tip air discharge.

  5. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 13.1-percent-thick, high-lift airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivier, K. R.; Ormsbee, A. I.; Awker, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Low speed sectional characteristics of a high lift airfoil are studied and a comparison is made of those characteristics with the predictions of the theoretical methods used in the airfoil's design. The 13.1 percent-thick, UI-1720 airfoil was found to achieve the predicted maximum lift coefficient of nearly 2.0. No upper-surface, flow separation was found below the stall angle of attack of 16 degrees; it appeared that stall was due to an abrupt leading edge flow separation.

  6. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 13.1-percent-thick, high-lift airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivier, K. R.; Ormsbee, A. I.; Awker, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental study of the low-speed, sectional characteristics of a high-lift airfoil, and comparison of these characteristics with the predictions of the theoretical methods used in the airfoil's design. The 13.1% thick UI-1720 airfoil was found to achieve the predicted maximum lift coefficient of nearly 2.0. No upper-surface flow separation was found below the stall angle of attack of 16 deg; it appeared that stall was due to an abrupt leading-edge flow separation.

  7. Low-Speed Stability-and-Control and Ground-Effects Measurements on the Industry Reference High Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemmerly, Guy T.; Campbell, Bryan A.; Banks, Daniel W.; Yaros, Steven F.

    1999-01-01

    As a part of a national effort to develop an economically feasible High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), a single configuration has been accepted as the testing baseline by the organizations working in the High Speed Research (HSR) program. The configuration is based on a design developed by the Boeing Company and is referred to as the Reference H (Ref H). The data contained in this report are low-speed stability-and-control and ground-effect measurements obtained on a 0.06 scale model of the Ref H in a subsonic tunnel.

  8. Evaluation of low-speed diesel exhaust valve burning rate statistics from ten years service experience with 80 cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Dragsted, J.; Lindhardt, P.

    1984-02-01

    Although judgement of exhaust valve seat burning rates are continuously made for maintenance effort planning with any valved engine installation no information of documentary character on the subject has to the author's knowledge ever entered the published literature. The basic reason is that uniformity of observation conditions are hard to combine with a number of observations sufficient to conclude on probability of exhaust valve seat burning - in low-speed 2-stroke engines due to low number of cylinders per ship - and in 4-stroke medium-speed engines due to uncertainty with regard to actual valve exposure profiles as multi-cylindered ships will normally have variable pitch propellers.

  9. Preliminary wind tunnel tests on the pedal wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinayagalingam, T.

    1980-06-01

    High solidity-low speed wind turbines are relatively simple to construct and can be used advantageously in many developing countries for such direct applications as water pumping. Established designs in this class, such as the Savonius and the American multiblade rotors, have the disadvantage that their moving surfaces require a rigid construction, thereby rendering large units uneconomical. In this respect, the pedal wind turbine recently reported by the author and which incorporates sail type rotors offers a number of advantages. This note reports preliminary results from a series of wind tunnel tests which were carried out to assess the aerodynamic torque and power characteristics of the turbine.

  10. Wind Tunnel Aerodynamic Tests of Six Airfoils for Use on Small Wind Turbines; Period of Performance: October 31, 2002--January 31, 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, M. S.; McGranahan, B. D.

    2004-10-01

    Wind Tunnel Aerodynamic Tests of Six Airfoils for Use on Small Wind Turbinesrepresents the fourth installment in a series of volumes documenting the ongoing work of th University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Low-Speed Airfoil Tests Program. This particular volume deals with airfoils that are candidates for use on small wind turbines, which operate at low Reynolds numbers.

  11. NASA low-speed centrifugal compressor for 3-D viscous code assessment and fundamental flow physics research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, M. D.; Wood, J. R.; Wasserbauer, C. A.

    1991-01-01

    A low speed centrifugal compressor facility recently built by the NASA Lewis Research Center is described. The purpose of this facility is to obtain detailed flow field measurements for computational fluid dynamic code assessment and flow physics modeling in support of Army and NASA efforts to advance small gas turbine engine technology. The facility is heavily instrumented with pressure and temperature probes, both in the stationary and rotating frames of reference, and has provisions for flow visualization and laser velocimetry. The facility will accommodate rotational speeds to 2400 rpm and is rated at pressures to 1.25 atm. The initial compressor stage being tested is geometrically and dynamically representative of modern high-performance centrifugal compressor stages with the exception of Mach number levels. Preliminary experimental investigations of inlet and exit flow uniformly and measurement repeatability are presented. These results demonstrate the high quality of the data which may be expected from this facility. The significance of synergism between computational fluid dynamic analysis and experimentation throughout the development of the low speed centrifugal compressor facility is demonstrated.

  12. A practical signal processing approach for condition monitoring of low speed machinery using Peak-Hold-Down-Sample algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Tian Ran; Kim, Eric; Tan, Andy C. C.

    2013-04-01

    A simple and effective down-sample algorithm, Peak-Hold-Down-Sample (PHDS) algorithm is developed in this paper to enable a rapid and efficient data transfer in remote condition monitoring applications. The algorithm is particularly useful for high frequency Condition Monitoring (CM) techniques, and for low speed machine applications since the combination of the high sampling frequency and low rotating speed will generally lead to large unwieldy data size. The effectiveness of the algorithm was evaluated and tested on four sets of data in the study. One set of the data was extracted from the condition monitoring signal of a practical industry application. Another set of data was acquired from a low speed machine test rig in the laboratory. The other two sets of data were computer simulated bearing defect signals having either a single or multiple bearing defects. The results disclose that the PHDS algorithm can substantially reduce the size of data while preserving the critical bearing defect information for all the data sets used in this work even when a large down-sample ratio was used (i.e., 500 times down-sampled). In contrast, the down-sample process using the existing normal down-sample technique in signal processing eliminates the useful and critical information such as bearing defect frequencies in a signal when the same down-sample ratio was employed. Noise and artificial frequency components were also induced by the normal down-sample technique, thus limits its usefulness for machine condition monitoring applications.

  13. Study and Application of Acoustic Emission Testing in Fault Diagnosis of Low-Speed Heavy-Duty Gears

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lixin; Zai, Fenlou; Su, Shanbin; Wang, Huaqing; Chen, Peng; Liu, Limei

    2011-01-01

    Most present studies on the acoustic emission signals of rotating machinery are experiment-oriented, while few of them involve on-spot applications. In this study, a method of redundant second generation wavelet transform based on the principle of interpolated subdivision was developed. With this method, subdivision was not needed during the decomposition. The lengths of approximation signals and detail signals were the same as those of original ones, so the data volume was twice that of original signals; besides, the data redundancy characteristic also guaranteed the excellent analysis effect of the method. The analysis of the acoustic emission data from the faults of on-spot low-speed heavy-duty gears validated the redundant second generation wavelet transform in the processing and denoising of acoustic emission signals. Furthermore, the analysis illustrated that the acoustic emission testing could be used in the fault diagnosis of on-spot low-speed heavy-duty gears and could be a significant supplement to vibration testing diagnosis. PMID:22346592

  14. Evaluation of the Low-Speed Stability and Control Characteristics of a Mach 5.5 Waverider Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E.

    1997-01-01

    Static force and moment tests of a 0.062-scale model of a hypersonic vehicle study concept known as the LOFLYTE(TM) configuration were conducted in the Langley 12-Foot Low-Speed Tunnel. These tests looked primarily at the low-speed static stability and control characteristics of this configuration. Data were obtained over an angle-of-attack range of -5 deg. to 22 deg. at sideslip angles that ranged between -10 deg. and 10 deg. The tiperons were sized to provide enough pitch control to trim the vehicle up to alpha = 16 deg. with no more than 10 deg. of surface deflection and data obtained in this test showed that 10 deg. of tiperon deflection was nearly sufficient to trim the configuration up to the desired angle of attack. Because of the pitching-moment characteristics of the LOFLYTE(TM) configuration, there is a reasonably high level of unpowered trimmed lift at nominal takeoff and approach to landing that should allow for acceptable takeoff and landing speeds for this vehicle. Initial evaluation of the directional stability characteristics of this configuration showed a significant instability between alpha = 10 deg. and about alpha = 18 deg. This test determined that the cause of this instability was the interaction of the wing leading-edge vortex with the vertical tails. Moving the vertical tails either inboard or outboard from the baseline location eliminated this unfavorable interaction.

  15. Effects of wing position and fuselage size on the low-speed static rolling stability characteristics of a delta-wing model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Alex; Thomas, David T , Jr

    1955-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine the effects of wing position and fuselage size on the low-speed static and rolling stability characteristics of airplane models having a triangular wing and vertical tail surfaces. (author)

  16. The aerodynamic effect of fillet radius in a low speed compressor cascade. Thesis - Von Karman Inst. for Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curlett, Brian P.

    1991-01-01

    The aerodynamic effects of fillet size in a low speed compressor cascade were experimentally studied. Two blade profiles were used during the experiment, namely a controlled diffusion blade and a double circular arc blade. Cascades were tested with three fillet radii and two boundary layer thicknesses over a large range of incidence angles. The cascade performance was determined by extensive downstream flow measurements using a two head, 5 hole pressure probe. Results differ significantly between the two types of blades tested. As fillet radius increases secondary flows and total pressure losses were found to increase for the controlled diffusion blades; whereas, for the double circular arc blades the losses decrease, particularly at high incidence angles.

  17. Laser Anemometer Measurements of the Three-Dimensional Rotor Flow Field in the NASA Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, Michael D.; Chriss, Randall M.; Strazisar, Anthony J.; Wood, Jerry R.

    1995-01-01

    A laser anemometer system was used to provide detailed surveys of the three-dimensional velocity field within the NASA low-speed centrifugal impeller operating with a vaneless diffuser. Both laser anemometer and aerodynamic performance data were acquired at the design flow rate and at a lower flow rate. Floor path coordinates, detailed blade geometry, and pneumatic probe survey results are presented in tabular form. The laser anemometer data are presented in the form of pitchwise distributions of axial, radial, and relative tangential velocity on blade-to-blade stream surfaces at 5-percent-of-span increments, starting at 95-percent-of-span from the hub. The laser anemometer data are also presented as contour and wire-frame plots of throughflow velocity and vector plots of secondary velocities at all measurement stations through the impeller.

  18. A prediction of 3-D viscous flow and performance of the NASA low-speed centrifugal compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, John; Moore, Joan G.

    1989-01-01

    A prediction of the 3-D turbulent flow in the NASA Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor Impeller has been made. The calculation was made for the compressor design conditions with the specified uniform tip clearance gap. The predicted performance is significantly worse than that predicted in the NASA design study. This is explained by the high tip leakage flow in the present calculation and by the different model adopted for tip leakage flow mixing. The calculation gives an accumulation for high losses in the shroud/pressure-side quadrant near the exit of the impeller. It also predicts a region of meridional backflow near the shroud wall. Both of these flow features should be extensive enough in the NASA impeller to allow detailed flow measurements, leading to improved flow modelling. Recommendations are made for future flow studies in the NASA impeller.

  19. A prediction of 3-D viscous flow and performance of the NASA Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, John; Moore, Joan G.

    1990-01-01

    A prediction of the three-dimensional turbulent flow in the NASA Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor Impeller has been made. The calculation was made for the compressor design conditions with the specified uniform tip clearance gap. The predicted performance is significantly worse than that predicted in the NASA design study. This is explained by the high tip leakage flow in the present calculation and by the different model adopted for tip leakage flow mixing. The calculation gives an accumulation of high losses in the shroud/pressure-side quadrant near the exit of the impeller. It also predicts a region of meridional backflow near the shroud wall. Both of these flow features should be extensive enough in the NASA impeller to allow detailed flow measurements, leading to improved flow modeling. Recommendations are made for future flow studies in the NASA impeller.

  20. The design and analysis of simple low speed flap systems with the aid of linearized theory computer programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Harry W.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose here is to show how two linearized theory computer programs in combination may be used for the design of low speed wing flap systems capable of high levels of aerodynamic efficiency. A fundamental premise of the study is that high levels of aerodynamic performance for flap systems can be achieved only if the flow about the wing remains predominantly attached. Based on this premise, a wing design program is used to provide idealized attached flow camber surfaces from which candidate flap systems may be derived, and, in a following step, a wing evaluation program is used to provide estimates of the aerodynamic performance of the candidate systems. Design strategies and techniques that may be employed are illustrated through a series of examples. Applicability of the numerical methods to the analysis of a representative flap system (although not a system designed by the process described here) is demonstrated in a comparison with experimental data.

  1. Low-speed stability and control characteristics of a transport model with aft-fuselage-mounted advanced turboprops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applin, Z. T.; Coe, P. L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A limited experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel to explore the effects of aft-fuselage-mounted advanced turboprop installations on the low-speed stability and control characteristics of a representative transport aircraft in a landing configuration. In general, the experimental results indicate that the longitudinal and lateral-directional stability characteristics for the aft-fuselage-mounted single-rotation tractor and counter-rotation pusher propeller configurations tested during this investigation are acceptable aerodynamically. For the single-rotation tractor configuration, the propeller-induced aerodynamics are significantly influenced by the interaction of the propeller slipstream with the pylon and nacelle. The stability characteristics for the counter-rotation pusher configuration are strongly influenced by propeller normal forces. The longitudinal and directional control effectiveness, engine-out characteristics, and ground effects are also presented. In addition, a tabulated presentation of all aerodynamic data presented in this report is included as an appendix.

  2. Implicit STEALTH - a special version of STEALTH for low-speed fluid-flow analysis: implicit hydrodynamics versions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, M.W.

    1982-05-01

    STEALTH is a family of computer codes that solve the equations of motion for a general continuum. These codes can be used to calculate a variety of dynamic physical processes associated with nuclear reaction design and analysis as well as other physical processes in which the dynamic behavior of a continuum is involved. The versions of STEALTH described in this volume were designed for the calculation of problems involving low-speed fluid flow. They employ an implicit finite difference technique to solve the one- and two-dimensional equations of motion, written for an arbitrary coordinate system, for both incompressible and compressible fluids. The solution technique involves an iterative solution of the implicit, Lagrangian, finite difference equations followed by a separate calculation of the convection terms resulting from the use of an arbitrarily-moving coordinate system.

  3. Development of the Seeding System Used for Laser Velocimeter Surveys of the NASA Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor Flow Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserbauer, C. A.; Hathaway, M. D.

    1994-01-01

    Consideration is given to an atomizer-based system for distributing high-volume rates of polystyrene latex (PSL) seed material developed to support laser velocimeter investigations of the NASA Low-Speed Compressor flow field. Complete evaporation of the liquid carrier before the flow entering the compressor was of primary concern for the seeder system design. It is argued that the seed nozzle should incorporate a needle valve that can mechanically dislodge accumulated PSL seed material when the nozzle is turned off. Water is less expensive as the liquid carrier and should be used whenever adequate residence times are available to ensure complete evaporation. PSL agglomerates over time and needs to be mixed or blended before use. Arrangement of the spray nozzles needs to be adjustable to provide maximum seeding at the laser probe volume.

  4. A simulation study of the low-speed characteristics of a light twin with an engine-out

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, E. C.; Moul, T. M.; Brown, P. W.

    1983-01-01

    Potential safety advantages provided by the two engines on a light twin aircraft are not realized in practice as evidenced by recent engine-failure accident statistics. These statistics showed twice the fatality rate from engine failure for twins as for single-engine aircraft. The statistics showed also that one-half of the fatal engine-out accidents involved a stall. An improvement of the low-speed engine-out characteristics is, therefore, needed. An investigation of the engine-out characteristics of light twin-engine aircraft is currently being conducted as part of the comprehensive stall/spin program for general aviation aircraft. The present study is concerned with the first phase of this program. The primary objective of this study is to advance the understanding of the basic flight dynamics and piloting problems for an engine-out condition. An all-digital computer system was used in the conducted simulation study.

  5. Application of the largest Lyapunov exponent algorithm for feature extraction in low speed slew bearing condition monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caesarendra, Wahyu; Kosasih, Buyung; Tieu, Anh Kiet; Moodie, Craig A. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new application of the largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE) algorithm for feature extraction method in low speed slew bearing condition monitoring. The LLE algorithm is employed to measure the degree of non-linearity of the vibration signal which is not easily monitored by existing methods. The method is able to detect changes in the condition of the bearing and demonstrates better tracking of the progressive deterioration of the bearing during the 139 measurement days than comparable methods such as the time domain feature methods based on root mean square (RMS), skewness and kurtosis extraction from the raw vibration signal and also better than extracting similar features from selected intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) of the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) result. The application of the method is demonstrated with laboratory slew bearing vibration data and industrial bearing data from a coal bridge reclaimer used in a local steel mill.

  6. A wind tunnel application of large-field focusing schlieren

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponton, Michael K.; Seiner, John M.; Mitchell, L. K.; Manning, James C.; Jansen, Bernard J.; Lagen, Nicholas T.

    1992-01-01

    A large-field focusing schlieren apparatus was installed in the NASA Lewis Research Center 9 by 15 foot wind tunnel in an attempt to determine the density gradient flow field of a free jet issuing from a supersonic nozzle configuration. The nozzle exit geometry was designed to reduce acoustic emissions from the jet by enhancing plume mixing. Thus, the flow exhibited a complex three-dimensional structure which warranted utilizing the sharp focusing capability of this type of schlieren method. Design considerations concerning tunnel limitations, high-speed photography, and video tape recording are presented in the paper.

  7. Low-speed impact simulations into regolith in support of asteroid sampling mechanism design I: Comparison with 1-g experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Stephen R.; Michel, Patrick; Richardson, Derek C.; Yano, Hajime

    2014-11-01

    This study is carried out in the framework of sample-return missions to asteroids that use a low-speed projectile as the primary component of its sampling mechanism (e.g., JAXA's Hayabusa and Hayabusa2 missions). We perform numerical simulations of such impacts into granular materials using different projectile shapes under Earth's gravity. We then compare the amounts of ejected mass obtained in our simulations against what was found in experiments that used similar setups, which allows us to validate our numerical approach. We then investigate the sensitivity of various parameters involved in the contacts between grains on the amount of mass that is ejected. For the targets, we consider 2 different monodisperse grain-diameter sizes: 5 mm and 3 mm. The impact speed of the projectile is 11 m s-1, and is directed downward, perpendicular to the surface of the targets. Using an implementation of the soft-sphere discrete element method (SSDEM) in the N-body gravity tree code pkdgrav, previously validated in the context of low-speed impacts into sintered glass bead agglomerates, we find a noticeable dependence of the amount of ejected mass on the projectile shape. As found in experiments, in the case of the larger target grain size (5 mm), a conically shaped projectile ejects a greater amount of mass than do projectiles of other shapes, including disks and spheres. We then find that numerically the results are sensitive to the normal coefficient of restitution of the grains, especially for impacts into targets comprising smaller grains (3 mm). We also find that static friction plays a more important role for impacts into targets comprising the larger grains. As a preliminary demonstration, one of these considered setups is simulated in a microgravity environment. As expected, a reduction in gravity increases both the amount of ejected mass and the timescale of the impact process. A dedicated quantitative study in microgravity is the subject of future work. We also plan

  8. Experimental and computational results from the NASA Lewis low-speed centrifugal impeller at design and part-flow conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chriss, R.M.; Wood, J.R.; Hathaway, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Low-Speed Centrifugal Compressor (LSCC) has been investigated with laser anemometry and computational analysis at two flow conditions: the design condition as well as a lower mass flow condition. Previously reported experimental and computational results at the design condition are in the literature (Hathaway et al., 1993). In that paper extensive analysis showed that inducer blade boundary layers are centrifuged outward and entrained into the tip clearance flow and hence contribute significantly to the throughflow wake. In this report results are presented for a lower mass flow condition along with further results from the design case. The data set contained herein consists of three-dimensional laser velocimeter results upstream, inside, and downstream of the impeller. In many locations data have been obtained in the blade and endwall boundary layers. The data are presented in the form of throughflow velocity contours as well as secondary flow vectors. The results reported herein illustrate the effects of flow rate on the development of the throughflow momentum wake as well as on the secondary flow. The computational results presented confirm the ability of modern computational tools to model the complex flow in a subsonic centrifugal compressor accurately. However, the blade tip shape and tip clearance must be known in order to properly simulate the flow physics. In addition, the ability to predict changes in the throughflow wake, which is largely fed by the tip clearance flow, as the impeller is throttled should give designers much better confidence in using computational tools to improve impeller performance.

  9. Measurement and analysis of instantaneous torque and angular velocity variations of a low speed two stroke diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez Espadafor, Francisco J.; A. Becerra Villanueva, José; Palomo Guerrero, Daniel; Torres García, Miguel; Carvajal Trujillo, Elisa; Fernández Vacas, Francisco

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an investigation into the potential of using direct measurement of engine torque for diagnostic purposes in large engines - in this case applied to power generation. The procedures for measuring and analyzing the instantaneous torque, the angular displacement on the generator output end and the angular displacement on its free end for a ten-cylinder, low speed two stroke diesel engine are presented. Angular speed oscillations are frequently used for combustion engine diagnostics although they cannot be used to measure engine power directly. In addition, and for engines with huge inertia generators such as those used in power plants, speed oscillations are very low and this reduces the signal to noise ratio and makes the evaluation of the instantaneous angular speed very noisy. In the work described here, torque and angular displacement measurements carried out at the same point and with the same engine conditions are compared and the superior performance of torque is demonstrated. Harmonic analysis of instantaneous torque allowed the identification of the dynamic characteristics of the power train of the diesel group and clearly suggests that this signal can be used as a diagnostic tool for excitation, combustion malfunctions, or for the mechanical characteristics of the system and crankshaft stiffness. The torque distortion introduced by the generator due to the discontinuity imposed by the pole pairs is also observed in the torque signal, suggesting that the torque signal can be used to identify generator malfunction.

  10. a Study on the Mechanism of OCCUPANT'S Cervical Injury by Low Speed Rear-End Collision of Automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Wonhak; Kim, Yongchul; Choi, Hyeonki

    Neck injury in rear-end car collisions is an increasing concern in the field of traffic safety. This injury commonly occurs at rear-end impact, however the injury mechanisms for whiplash remain a mystery. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively analyze the head and neck kinematics during the low-speed rear-end impact of automobiles. It is important to produce data that is related as closely as possible to the in vivo situation. So, we performed a sled test which simulated rear-end impacts with a velocity of 0.6 m/s with five normal healthy male subjects. 3-D motion analysis system was used to document motion data of two situations. When we compare the values of angular velocity and acceleration of head and neck, the peak magnitudes of inclined seated posture were smaller than those of upright seated posture. The result of this study is expected to provide insight that will aid in determining the mechanism of whiplash which is crucial to the identification of possible injury mechanisms.

  11. Performance improvement of direct torque control system for induction motor in low-speed operation using wavelet network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hua; Liao, Wei; Wang, Yuguo; Shen, Songhua

    2006-11-01

    To improve the low-speed dynamic performance of induction motor in direct torque control (DTC), a novel method of stator resistance identification based on wavelet network (WN) is presented and the determination of wavelet network structure is discussed. The inputs of the WN are the current error and the change in the current error and the output of the WN is the stator resistance error. The improved least squares algorithm (LSA) is used to fulfill the network structure and parameter identification. By the use of wavelet transform that accurately localizes the characteristics of a signal both in the time and frequency domains, the occurring instants of the stator resistance change can be identified by the multi-scale representation of the signal. Once the instants are detected, the accurate stator flux vector and electromagnetic torque are acquired by the parameter estimator, which makes the DTC applicable in the low region, optimizing the inverter control strategy. By detailed comparison between the wavelet and the typical backward-propagation (BP) neural network, the simulation results show that the proposed method can efficiently reduce the torque ripple and current ripple, superior to the BP neural network.

  12. Modeling spatial trajectories in dynamics testing using basis splines: application to tracking human volunteers in low-speed frontal impacts.

    PubMed

    Samuels, Marina A; Reed, Matthew P; Arbogast, Kristy B; Seacrist, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Designing motor vehicle safety systems requires knowledge of whole body kinematics during dynamic loading for occupants of varying size and age, often obtained from sled tests with postmortem human subjects and human volunteers. Recently, we reported pediatric and adult responses in low-speed (<4 g) automotive-like impacts, noting reductions in maximum excursion with increasing age. Since the time-based trajectory shape is also relevant for restraint design, this study quantified the time-series trajectories using basis splines and developed a statistical model for predicting trajectories as a function of body dimension or age. Previously collected trajectories of the head, spine, and pelvis were modeled using cubic basis splines with eight control points. A principal component analysis was conducted on the control points and related to erect seated height using a linear regression model. The resulting statistical model quantified how trajectories became shorter and flatter with increasing body size, corresponding to the validation data-set. Trajectories were then predicted for erect seated heights corresponding to pediatric and adult anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs), thus generating performance criteria for the ATDs based on human response. This statistical model can be used to predict trajectories for a subject of specified anthropometry and utilized in subject-specific computational models of occupant response. PMID:26428257

  13. Launch, Low-Speed, and Landing Characteristics Determined from the First Flight of the North American X-15 Research Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finch, Thomas W.; Matranga, Gene J.

    1959-01-01

    The first flight of the North American X-15 research airplane was made on June 8, 1959. This was accomplished after completion of a series of captive flights with the X-15 attached to the B-52 carrier airplane to demonstrate the aerodynamic and systems compatibility of the X-15//B-52 combination and the X-15 subsystem operation. This flight was planned as a glide flight so that the pilot need not be concerned with the propulsion system. Discussions of the launch, low-speed maneuvering, and landing characteristics are presented, and the results are compared with predictions from preflight studies. The launch characteristics were generally satisfactory, and the X-15 vertical tail adequately cleared the B-52 wing cutout. The actual landing pattern and landing characteristics compared favorably with predictions, and the recommended landing technique of lowering the flaps and landing gear at a low altitude appears to be a satisfactory method of landing the X-15 airplane. There was a quantitative correlation between flight-measured and predicted lift-drag-ratio characteristics in the clean configuration and a qualitative correlation in the landing configuration. A longitudinal-controllability problem, which became severe in the landing configuration, was evident throughout the flight and, apparently, was aggravated by the sensitivity of the side-located control stick. In the low-to-moderate angle-of-attack range covered, the longitudinal and directional stability were indicated to be adequate.

  14. Simulator study of the low-speed handling qualities of a supersonic cruise arrow-wing transport configuration during approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, W. D.; Nguyen, L. T.; Neubauer, M. J., Jr.; Smith, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    A fixed-based simulator study was conducted to determine the low-speed flight characteristics of an advanced supersonic cruise transport having an arrow wing, a horizontal tail, and four dry turbojets with variable geometry turbines. The primary piloting task was the approach and landing. The statically unstable (longitudinally) subject configuration has unacceptable low-speed handling qualities with no augmentation. Therefore, a hardened stability augmentation system is required to achieve acceptable handling qualities, should the normal operational stability and control augmentation system fail. In order to achieve satisfactory handling qualities, considerable augmentation was required.

  15. Low speed maneuvering flight of the rose-breasted cockatoo (Eolophus roseicapillus). II. Inertial and aerodynamic reorientation.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, T L; Usherwood, J R; Biewener, A A

    2007-06-01

    The reconfigurable, flapping wings of birds allow for both inertial and aerodynamic modes of reorientation. We found evidence that both these modes play important roles in the low speed turning flight of the rose-breasted cockatoo Eolophus roseicapillus. Using three-dimensional kinematics recorded from six cockatoos making a 90 degrees turn in a flight corridor, we developed predictions of inertial and aerodynamic reorientation from estimates of wing moments of inertia and flapping arcs, and a blade-element aerodynamic model. The blade-element model successfully predicted weight support (predicted was 88+/-17% of observed, N=6) and centripetal force (predicted was 79+/-29% of observed, N=6) for the maneuvering cockatoos and provided a reasonable estimate of mechanical power. The estimated torque from the model was a significant predictor of roll acceleration (r(2)=0.55, P<0.00001), but greatly overestimated roll magnitude when applied with no roll damping. Non-dimensional roll damping coefficients of approximately -1.5, 2-6 times greater than those typical of airplane flight dynamics (approximately -0.45), were required to bring our estimates of reorientation due to aerodynamic torque back into conjunction with the measured changes in orientation. Our estimates of inertial reorientation were statistically significant predictors of the measured reorientation within wingbeats (r(2) from 0.2 to 0.37, P<0.0005). Components of both our inertial reorientation and aerodynamic torque estimates correlated, significantly, with asymmetries in the activation profile of four flight muscles: the pectoralis, supracoracoideus, biceps brachii and extensor metacarpi radialis (r(2) from 0.27 to 0.45, P<0.005). Thus, avian flight maneuvers rely on production of asymmetries throughout the flight apparatus rather than in a specific set of control or turning muscles. PMID:17515417

  16. Prediction, Postdiction, and Perceptual Length Contraction: A Bayesian Low-Speed Prior Captures the Cutaneous Rabbit and Related Illusions

    PubMed Central

    Goldreich, Daniel; Tong, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Illusions provide a window into the brain’s perceptual strategies. In certain illusions, an ostensibly task-irrelevant variable influences perception. For example, in touch as in audition and vision, the perceived distance between successive punctate stimuli reflects not only the actual distance but curiously the inter-stimulus time. Stimuli presented at different positions in rapid succession are drawn perceptually toward one another. This effect manifests in several illusions, among them the startling cutaneous rabbit, in which taps delivered to as few as two skin positions appear to hop progressively from one position to the next, landing in the process on intervening areas that were never stimulated. Here we provide an accessible step-by-step exposition of a Bayesian perceptual model that replicates the rabbit and related illusions. The Bayesian observer optimally joins uncertain estimates of spatial location with the expectation that stimuli tend to move slowly. We speculate that this expectation – a Bayesian prior – represents the statistics of naturally occurring stimuli, learned by humans through sensory experience. In its simplest form, the model contains a single free parameter, tau: a time constant for space perception. We show that the Bayesian observer incorporates both pre- and post-dictive inference. Directed spatial attention affects the prediction-postdiction balance, shifting the model’s percept toward the attended location, as observed experimentally in humans. Applying the model to the perception of multi-tap sequences, we show that the low-speed prior fits perception better than an alternative, low-acceleration prior. We discuss the applicability of our model to related tactile, visual, and auditory illusions. To facilitate future model-driven experimental studies, we present a convenient freeware computer program that implements the Bayesian observer; we invite investigators to use this program to create their own testable predictions

  17. Effects of Sweep Angle on the Boundary-Layer Stability Characteristics of an Untapered Wing at Low Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boltz, Frederick W.; Kenyon, George C.; Allen, Clyde Q.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Ames 12-Foot Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel to determine the effects of sweep on the boundary-layer stability characteristics of an untapered variable-sweep wing having an NACA 64(2)A015 section normal to the leading edge. Pressure distribution and transition were measured on the wing at low speeds at sweep angles of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 deg. and at angles of attack from -3 to 3 deg. The investigation also included flow-visualization studies on the surface at sweep angles from 0 to 50 deg. and total pressure surveys in the boundary layer at a sweep angle of 30 deg. for angles of attack from -12 to 0 deg. It was found that sweep caused premature transition on the wing under certain conditions. This effect resulted from the formation of vortices in the boundary layer when a critical combination of sweep angle, pressure gradient, and stream Reynolds number was attained. A useful parameter in indicating the combined effect of these flow variables on vortex formation and on beginning transition is the crossflow Reynolds number. The critical values of crossflow Reynolds number for vortex formation found in this investigation range from about 135 to 190 and are in good agreement with those reported in previous investigations. The values of crossflow Reynolds number for beginning transitions were found to be between 190 and 260. For each condition (i.e., development of vortices and initiation of transition at a given location) the lower values in the specified ranges were obtained with a light coating of flow-visualization material on the surface. A method is presented for the rapid computation of crossflow Reynolds number on any swept surface for which the pressure distribution is known. From calculations based on this method, it was found that the maximum values of crossflow Reynolds number are attained under conditions of a strong pressure gradient and at a sweep angle of about 50 deg. Due to the primary dependence on pressure

  18. Analysis and Test Correlation of Proof of Concept Box for Blended Wing Body-Low Speed Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spellman, Regina L.

    2003-01-01

    The Low Speed Vehicle (LSV) is a 14.2% scale remotely piloted vehicle of the revolutionary Blended Wing Body concept. The design of the LSV includes an all composite airframe. Due to internal manufacturing capability restrictions, room temperature layups were necessary. An extensive materials testing and manufacturing process development effort was underwent to establish a process that would achieve the high modulus/low weight properties required to meet the design requirements. The analysis process involved a loads development effort that incorporated aero loads to determine internal forces that could be applied to a traditional FEM of the vehicle and to conduct detailed component analyses. A new tool, Hypersizer, was added to the design process to address various composite failure modes and to optimize the skin panel thickness of the upper and lower skins for the vehicle. The analysis required an iterative approach as material properties were continually changing. As a part of the material characterization effort, test articles, including a proof of concept wing box and a full-scale wing, were fabricated. The proof of concept box was fabricated based on very preliminary material studies and tested in bending, torsion, and shear. The box was then tested to failure under shear. The proof of concept box was also analyzed using Nastran and Hypersizer. The results of both analyses were scaled to determine the predicted failure load. The test results were compared to both the Nastran and Hypersizer analytical predictions. The actual failure occurred at 899 lbs. The failure was predicted at 1167 lbs based on the Nastran analysis. The Hypersizer analysis predicted a lower failure load of 960 lbs. The Nastran analysis alone was not sufficient to predict the failure load because it does not identify local composite failure modes. This analysis has traditionally been done using closed form solutions. Although Hypersizer is typically used as an optimizer for the design

  19. Space shuttle: MSFC booster (B-005) low speed static stability and landing investigation, high speed grit study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heim, D. E.; Ramsey, P. E.

    1970-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel investigation on the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) booster configuration of the space shuttle system is discussed. Tests were conducted in the MSFC 14" x 14" trisonic wind tunnel. Parameters investigated include; (1) a landing study at Mach number of .3 with the booster at three discrete heights above a ground plane (maximum height above ground plane was six inches) and: (2) a static stability study at subsonic Mach numbers, which included eleven deflections of 0, 10, 20 and 30 degrees with canard deflections of 0, 5, 10 and 15 degrees. Both a trapezoidial and a delta shaped canard were investigated at the above conditions; a grit size study was made over the entire Mach range from .3 to 5.0.

  20. Investigation at Low Speeds of the Effect of Aspect Ratio and Sweep on Rolling Stability Derivatives of Untapered Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Alex; Fisher, Lewis R

    1950-01-01

    A low-scale wind-tunnel investigation was conducted in rolling flow to determine the effects of aspect ratio and sweep (when varied independently) on the rolling stability derivatives for a series of untapered wings. The rolling-flow equipment of the Langley stability tunnel was used for the tests. The data of the investigation have been used to develop a method of accounting for the effects of the drag on the yawing moment due to rolling throughout the lift range.

  1. Design of the Wind Eagle Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J. Sr.

    1995-09-01

    The Wind Eagle Turbine has many design features that contribute to a simple, lightweight, low cost and rugged wind machine. It is a down wind, two bladed, rigid hub, free yaw and free pitch machine with full span blade pitch control. Most of the wind community are unaware of the advantages that are inherent in the Wind Eagle concept. It is the intent of this oral presentation to point out and discuss the features of this design so there is a better understanding of this very cost effective machine. Some parts of the Wind Eagle Turbine to be covered include: main spar, spar and blade connection, fiberglass blade, yaw bearing, tower, low speed shaft and shut down.

  2. Low speed wind tunnel test of ground proximity and deck edge effects on a lift cruise fan V/STOL configuration, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, V. R.

    1979-01-01

    The characteristics were determined of a lift cruise fan V/STOL multi-mission configuration in the near proximity to the edge of a small flat surface representation of a ship deck. Tests were conducted at both static and forward speed test conditions. The model (0.12 scale) tested was a four fan configuration with modifications to represent a three fan configuration. Analysis of data showed that the deck edge effects were in general less critical in terms of differences from free air than a full deck (in ground effect) configuration. The one exception to this was when the aft edge of the deck was located under the center of gravity. This condition, representative of an approach from the rear, showed a significant lift loss. Induced moments were generally small compared to the single axis control power requirements, but will likely add to the pilot work load.

  3. Low speed wind tunnel investigation of span load alteration, forward-located spoilers, and splines as trailing-vortex-hazard alleviation devices on a transport aircraft model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croom, D. R.; Dunham, R. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The effectiveness of a forward-located spoiler, a spline, and span load alteration due to a flap configuration change as trailing-vortex-hazard alleviation methods was investigated. For the transport aircraft model in the normal approach configuration, the results indicate that either a forward-located spoiler or a spline is effective in reducing the trailing-vortex hazard. The results also indicate that large changes in span loading, due to retraction of the outboard flap, may be an effective method of reducing the trailing-vortex hazard.

  4. Results of investigations on a 0.0405 scale model ATP version of the NR-SSV orbiter in the North American Aeronautical Laboratory low speed wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennell, R.; Vaughn, J. E.; Singellton, R.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted on a scale model space shuttle vehicle (SSV) orbiter. The purpose of the test was to investigate the longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics. Emphasis was placed on model component, wing-glove, and wing-body fairing effects, as well as elevon, aileron, and rudder control effectiveness. Angles of attack from - 5 deg to + 30 deg and angles of sideslip from - 5 deg to + 10 deg were tested. Static pressures were recorded on base, fuselage, and wing surfaces. Tufts and talc-kerosene flow visualization techniques were also utilized. The aerodynamic force balance results are presented in plotted and tabular form.

  5. Wind-tunnel investigation at low speeds of a model of the Kestrel (XV-6A) vectored-trust V/STOL airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margason, R. J.; Vogler, R. D.; Winston, M. M.

    1972-01-01

    Longitudinal and lateral stability data were obtained with the model out of and in ground effect over a moving ground plane for a range of model angles of attack and sideslip at various thrust coefficients. These data were taken primarily at thrust coefficients which simulate transition speeds on the airplane between hover and 200 knots. Some data, however, represent the effect of thrust deflection at speeds up to 350 knots. Also presented are the effects of control-surface deflections and interference between the jets and free stream.

  6. Low-Speed Wind-Tunnel Test of an Unpowered High-Speed Stoppable Rotor Concept in Fixed-Wing Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, Michael B.; Sung, Daniel Y.; Stroub, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the M85, a High Speed Rotor Concept, was conducted at the NASA Langley 14 x 22 foot Subsonic Tunnel, assisted by NASA-Ames. An unpowered 1/5 scale model of the XH-59A helicopter fuselage with a large circular hub fairing, two rotor blades, and a shaft fairing was used as a baseline configuration. The M85 is a rotor wing hybrid aircraft design, and the model was tested with the rotor blade in the fixed wing mode. Assessments were made of the aerodynamic characteristics of various model rotor configurations. Variation in configurations were produced by changing the rotor blade sweep angle and the blade chord length. The most favorable M85 configuration tested included wide chord blades at 0 deg sweep, and it attained a system lift to drag ratio of 8.4.

  7. Applicability of linearized-theory attached-flow methods to design and analysis of flap systems at low speeds for thin swept wings with sharp leading edges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Harry W.; Darden, Christine M.

    1987-01-01

    Low-speed experimental force and data on a series of thin swept wings with sharp leading edges and leading and trailing-edge flaps are compared with predictions made using a linearized-theory method which includes estimates of vortex forces. These comparisons were made to assess the effectiveness of linearized-theory methods for use in the design and analysis of flap systems in subsonic flow. Results demonstrate that linearized-theory, attached-flow methods (with approximate representation of vortex forces) can form the basis of a rational system for flap design and analysis. Even attached-flow methods that do not take vortex forces into account can be used for the selection of optimized flap-system geometry, but design-point performance levels tend to be underestimated unless vortex forces are included. Illustrative examples of the use of these methods in the design of efficient low-speed flap systems are included.

  8. Design of the low-speed NLF(1)-0414F and the high-speed HSNLF(1)-0213 airfoils with high-lift systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viken, Jeffrey K.; Watson-Viken, Sally A.; Pfenninger, Werner; Morgan, Harry L., Jr.; Campbell, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    The design and testing of Natural Laminar Flow (NLF) airfoils is examined. The NLF airfoil was designed for low speed, having a low profile drag at high chord Reynolds numbers. The success of the low speed NLF airfoil sparked interest in a high speed NLF airfoil applied to a single engine business jet with an unswept wing. Work was also conducted on the two dimensional flap design. The airfoil was decambered by removing the aft loading, however, high design Mach numbers are possible by increasing the aft loading and reducing the camber overall on the airfoil. This approach would also allow for flatter acceleration regions which are more stabilizing for cross flow disturbances. Sweep could then be used to increase the design Mach number to a higher value also. There would be some degradation of high lift by decambering the airfoil overall, and this aspect would have to be considered in a final design.

  9. Application of an aerodynamic analysis method including attainable thrust estimates to low speed leading-edge flap design for supersonic cruise vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, H. W.

    1982-01-01

    A study of low speed leading-edge flap design for supersonic cruise vehicle was conducted. Wings with flaps were analyzed with the aid of a newly developed subsonic wing program which provides estimates of attainable leading-edge thrust. Results indicate that the thrust actually attainable can have a significant influence on the design and that the resultant flaps can be smaller and simpler than those resulting from more conventional approaches.

  10. Differences in glance behavior between drivers using a rearview camera, parking sensor system, both technologies, or no technology during low-speed parking maneuvers.

    PubMed

    Kidd, David G; McCartt, Anne T

    2016-02-01

    This study characterized the use of various fields of view during low-speed parking maneuvers by drivers with a rearview camera, a sensor system, a camera and sensor system combined, or neither technology. Participants performed four different low-speed parking maneuvers five times. Glances to different fields of view the second time through the four maneuvers were coded along with the glance locations at the onset of the audible warning from the sensor system and immediately after the warning for participants in the sensor and camera-plus-sensor conditions. Overall, the results suggest that information from cameras and/or sensor systems is used in place of mirrors and shoulder glances. Participants with a camera, sensor system, or both technologies looked over their shoulders significantly less than participants without technology. Participants with cameras (camera and camera-plus-sensor conditions) used their mirrors significantly less compared with participants without cameras (no-technology and sensor conditions). Participants in the camera-plus-sensor condition looked at the center console/camera display for a smaller percentage of the time during the low-speed maneuvers than participants in the camera condition and glanced more frequently to the center console/camera display immediately after the warning from the sensor system compared with the frequency of glances to this location at warning onset. Although this increase was not statistically significant, the pattern suggests that participants in the camera-plus-sensor condition may have used the warning as a cue to look at the camera display. The observed differences in glance behavior between study groups were illustrated by relating it to the visibility of a 12-15-month-old child-size object. These findings provide evidence that drivers adapt their glance behavior during low-speed parking maneuvers following extended use of rearview cameras and parking sensors, and suggest that other technologies which

  11. High-speed extra-intracranial bypass combined with an assisting low-speed anastomosis: surgical technique and a clinical example.

    PubMed

    Byval'tsev, V A; Belykh, E G; Kikuta, K; Sorokovikov, V A; Grigor'ev, E G

    2015-01-01

    Described herein is the technique of performing assisting low-speed and high-speed extra-intracranial bypass, followed by a clinical case report concerning successful application of this technique in trapping of a giant aneurysm of the cavernous portion of the internal carotid artery in a female patient after endured transitory ischaemic attack during the test with temporary balloon-mediated occlusion of the internal carotid artery. PMID:26673311

  12. Incidence of paediatric fatal and non-fatal low speed vehicle run over events in Queensland, Australia: eleven year analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of fatal and non-fatal Low Speed Vehicle Run Over (LSVRO) events among children aged 0–15 years in Queensland, Australia, at a population level. Methods Fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events that occurred in children resident in Queensland over eleven calendar years (1999-2009) were identified using ICD codes, text description, word searches and medical notes clarification, obtained from five health related data bases across the continuum of care (pre-hospital to fatality). Data were manually linked. Population data provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics were used to calculate crude incidence rates for fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events. Results There were 1611 LSVROs between 1999–2009 (IR = 16.87/100,000/annum). Incidence of non-fatal events (IR = 16.60/100,000/annum) was 61.5 times higher than fatal events (IR = 0.27/100,000/annum). LSVRO events were more common in boys (IR = 20.97/100,000/annum) than girls (IR = 12.55/100,000/annum), and among younger children aged 0–4 years (IR = 21.45/100000/annum; 39% or all events) than older children (5–9 years: IR = 16.47/100,000/annum; 10–15 years IR = 13.59/100,000/annum). A total of 896 (56.8%) children were admitted to hospital for 24 hours of more following an LSVRO event (IR = 9.38/100,000/annum). Total LSVROs increased from 1999 (IR = 14.79/100,000) to 2009 (IR = 18.56/100,000), but not significantly. Over the 11 year period, there was a slight (non –significant) increase in fatalities (IR = 0.37-0.42/100,000/annum); a significant decrease in admissions (IR = 12.39–5.36/100,000/annum), and significant increase in non-admissions (IR = 2.02-12.77/100,000/annum). Trends over time differed by age, gender and severity. Conclusion This is the most comprehensive, population-based epidemiological study on fatal and non-fatal LSVRO events to date. Results from this study indicate

  13. A permanent-magnet generator for wind power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Soederlund, L.; Eriksson, J.T.; Salonen, J.; Vihriaelae, H.; Peraelae, R.

    1996-07-01

    In order to achieve a gearless construction of the wind energy conversion system (WECS) a low-speed, i.e., multipole, generator is required. This paper examines an axial-field permanent-magnet synchronous wind power generator (PMWG) mainly from the magnetic viewpoint. Both mechanical and electromagnetic designs are described as well as some primary test results concerning the model generators having nominal power of 5 and 10 kW.

  14. Advanced prediction technique for the low speed aerodynamics of V/STOL aircraft. Volume 2: User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beatty, T. D.; Worthey, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    A computerized prediction method known as the Vought V/STOL Aircraft Propulsive Effects computer program (VAPE) for propulsive induced forces and moments in transition and Short TakeOff and Landing (STOL) flight is improved and evaluated. The VAPE program is capable of evaluating: (1) effects of relative wind about an aircraft, (2) effects of propulsive lift jet entrainment, vorticity and flow blockage, (3) effects of engine inlet flow on the aircraft flow field, (4) engine inlet forces and moments including inlet separation, (5) ground effects in the STOL region of flight, and (6) viscous effects on lifting surfaces.

  15. Wind tunnel tests of high-lift systems for advanced transports using high-aspect-ratio supercritical wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, J. B.; Oliver, W. R.; Spacht, L. A.

    1982-01-01

    The wind tunnel testing of an advanced technology high lift system for a wide body and a narrow body transport incorporating high aspect ratio supercritical wings is described. This testing has added to the very limited low speed high Reynolds number data base for this class or aircraft. The experimental results include the effects on low speed aerodynamic characteristics of various leading and trailing edge devices, nacelles and pylons, ailerons, and spoilers, and the effects of Mach and Reynolds numbers.

  16. Effect of an Auxiliary Belly Fuel Tank on the Low-Speed Static Stability Characteristics of a 1/5-Scale Model of the Grumman XF8F-1 Airplane, TED No. NACA 2384

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Charles B.

    1946-01-01

    In.order to determine the aerodynamic effects of an auxiliary belly fuel tank on the Grumman F8F-1 airplane, a wind-tunnel investigation was made on a l/5 - scale model of the Grumman XF8F-1 airplane. Pitch and yaw tests were made with the model in the cruising and landing configurations for windmilling and take-off power conditions. Tuft studies and static-pressure measurements were also made to determine the flow characteristics in the region of the fuel tank. It was found that, at low speed, the auxiliary fuel tank test conditions, especially with power on in the landing configuration at high lift coefficients. The static directional stability was decreased for most test conditions, but the addition of a fairing between the fuselage and fuel tank improved the directional stability slightly in the power-on clean condition. The effective dihedral and lateral force were increased for most of the conditions tested. The tuft studies and pressure measurements indicated that the removal of the away braces would improve the.flow characteristics considerably in the region of the fuel tank end might also decrease the buffeting of the belly tank at high speeds.

  17. Summary of information on low-speed lateral-directional derivatives due to rate of change of sideslip beta prime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.; Graham, A. B.; Chambers, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    The results presented show that the magnitudes of the aerodynamic stability derivatives due to rate of change of sideslip become quite large at high angles of attack for swept- and delta-wing configurations, and that such derivatives have large effects on the calculated dynamic stability of these configurations at high angles of attack. The wind-tunnel test techniques used to measure the beta prime derivatives and various approaches used to predict them are discussed. Both the conventional oscillating-airfoil theory and the lag-of-the-sidewash theory are shown to be inadequate for predicting the vertical-tail contribution to the acceleration-in-sideslip derivative; a flow-field-lag theory, which is discussed, appears to give qualitative agreement with experimental data for a current twin-jet fighter configuration.

  18. Historical Overview and Recent Improvements at the NASA Glenn Research Center 8x6 9x15 Wind Tunnel Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dussling, Joseph John

    2015-01-01

    A brief history of the 8x6 Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) and 9x15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) at NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio is presented along with current capabilities and plans for future upgrades within the facility.

  19. Background Acoustics Levels in the 9x15 Wind Tunnel and Linear Array Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David

    2011-01-01

    The background noise level in the 9x15 foot wind tunnel at NASA Glenn has been documented, and the results compare favorably with historical measurements. A study of recessed microphone mounting techniques was also conducted, and a recessed cavity with a micronic wire mesh screen reduces hydrodynamic noise by around 10 dB. A three-microphone signal processing technique can provide additional benefit, rejecting up to 15 dB of noise contamination at some frequencies. The screen and cavity system offers considerable benefit to test efficiency, although there are additional calibration requirements.

  20. The cryogenic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Based on theoretical studies and experience with a low speed cryogenic tunnel and with a 1/3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel, the cryogenic wind tunnel concept was shown to offer many advantages with respect to the attainment of full scale Reynolds number at reasonable levels of dynamic pressure in a ground based facility. The unique modes of operation available in a pressurized cryogenic tunnel make possible for the first time the separation of Mach number, Reynolds number, and aeroelastic effects. By reducing the drive-power requirements to a level where a conventional fan drive system may be used, the cryogenic concept makes possible a tunnel with high productivity and run times sufficiently long to allow for all types of tests at reduced capital costs and, for equal amounts of testing, reduced total energy consumption in comparison with other tunnel concepts.

  1. Cross-B convection of artificially created, negative-ion clouds and plasma depressions - Low-speed flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernhardt, Paul A.

    1988-01-01

    A negative-ion, positive-ion plasma produced by the release of an electron attachment chemical into the F region becomes electrically polarized by collisions with neutrals moving across magnetic field lines. The resulting electric field causes E x B drift of the two ion species and the residual electrons. The cross-field flow of the modified ionosphere is computed using a two-dimensional numerical simulation which includes electron attachment and mutual neutralization chemistry, self-consistent electric fields, and three-species plasma transport. The velocity of the plasma is initially in the direction of the neutral wind because the negative-ion cloud is a Pedersen conductivity enhancement. As the positive and negative ions react, the Pedersen conductivity becomes depressed below the ambient value and the velocity of the plasma reverses direction. A plasma hole remains after the positive and negative ions have mutually neutralized. The E x B gradient drift instability produces irregularities on the upwind edge of the hole.

  2. Experimental investigation of the sources of propeller noise due to the ingestion of turbulence at low speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharpf, D. F.; Mueller, T. J.

    1995-02-01

    Noise radiation from a four bladed, 10 in. diameter propeller operating in air at a rotational speed of 3000 RPM and a freestream velocity of 33 ft/s was experimentally analyzed using hot-wire and microphone measurements in an anechoic wind tunnel. Turbulence levels from 0.2 to 5.5% at the propeller location were generated by square-mesh grids upstream of the propeller. Autobicoherence measurements behind the blade trailing edges near the hub and tip showed regions of high phase-coherence between the blade-passage harmonics and the broadband frequencies. Inflow turbulence reduced this coherence. By relating the fluctuation velocities in the propeller wake to the unsteady blade forces, the primary regions of tonal noise generation have been identified as the hub and tip regions, while the midspan has been identified as a region responsible for broadband noise generation. These measurements were complimented by cross-spectra between the propeller wake-flow and the measured sound. The effect of turbulence on the radiated noise level showed an overall increase of 2 dB in the broadband levels for every 1% increase in turbulence. This effect varied for different frequency bands in the acoustic spectrum.

  3. Kinematic Comparison of the Hybrid III and Q-Series Pediatric ATDs to Pediatric Volunteers in Low-Speed Frontal Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Seacrist, Thomas; Mathews, Emily A.; Samuels, Marina; García-España, J. Felipe; Longhitano, Douglas; St. Lawrence, Schuyler; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Maltese, Matthew R.; Arbogast, Kristy B.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the rigid pediatric ATD spine may not adequately represent the relatively mobile, multi-segmented spine of the child and thus may lead to important differences in the head trajectory of the ATD relative to a human. Recently we compared the responses of size-matched child volunteers to the Hybrid III 6-year-old ATD in low-speed frontal sled tests, illustrating differences in head, spinal, and pelvic kinematics as well as seating environment reaction loads. This paper expands this line of work to include comparisons between size-matched restrained child volunteers to the Hybrid III 10-year-old and the Q-series 6 and 10-year-old ATDs tested in the same low speed frontal environment. A 3-D near-infrared video target tracking system quantified the position of markers on the ATDs and volunteers(head top, nasion, external auditory meatus, C4, T1, and pelvis). Angular velocity of the head, seat belt forces, and reaction loads on the seat pan and foot rest were also measured. The Hybrid III 6 and Q6 exhibited significantly greater belt reaction loads compared to the pediatric volunteers, which exhibited greater seat pan shear. Compared to children, the Hybrid III 6 exhibited increased head rotation and similar head top and pelvic excursion, whereas the Q6 exhibited reductions in all three metrics. The Hybrid III 10 and Q10 ATDs exhibited reaction loads similar to the volunteers; however, excursions and head rotation were significantly reduced compared to volunteers. All pediatric ATDs exhibited significant reductions in C4 and T1excursions compared to the volunteers, likely due to the rigidity of the ATD thoracic spine. These analyses provide insight into aspects of ATD biofidelity in low-speed crash environments and illustrate differences in responses of the Hybrid III and Q-series pediatric ATDs. PMID:23169138

  4. Evaluation of the hybrid III and Q-series pediatric ATD upper neck loads as compared to pediatric volunteers in low-speed frontal crashes.

    PubMed

    Seacrist, Thomas; Mathews, Emily A; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Maltese, Matthew R; Arbogast, Kristy B

    2013-11-01

    Debate exists in the automotive community regarding the validity of the pediatric ATD neck response and corresponding neck loads. Previous research has shown that the pediatric ATDs exhibit hyper-flexion and chin-to-chest contact resulting in overestimations of neck loads and neck injury criteria. Our previous work comparing the kinematics of the Hybrid III and Q-series 6 and 10-year-old ATDs to pediatric volunteers in low-speed frontal sled tests revealed decreased ATD cervical and thoracic spine excursions. These kinematic differences may contribute to the overestimation of upper neck loads by the ATD. The current study compared upper neck loads of the Hybrid III and Q-series 6 and 10-year-old ATDs against size-matched male pediatric volunteers in low-speed frontal sled tests. A 3-D near-infrared target tracking system quantified the position of markers on the ATD and pediatric volunteers (head top, nasion, bilateral external auditory meatus). Shear force (F x ), axial force (F z ), bending moment (M y ), and head angular acceleration ([Formula: see text]) were calculated about the upper neck using standard equations of motion. In general, the ATDs underestimated axial force and overestimated bending moment compared to the human volunteers. The Hybrid III 6, Q6, and Q10 exhibited reduced head angular acceleration and modest increases in upper neck shear compared to the pediatric volunteers. The reduction in axial force and bending moment has important implications for neck injury predictions as both are used when calculating N ij . These analyses provide insight into the biofidelity of the pediatric ATD upper neck loads in low-speed crash environments. PMID:23780472

  5. Kinematic Comparison of the Hybrid III and Q-Series Pediatric ATDs to Pediatric Volunteers in Low-Speed Frontal Crashes.

    PubMed

    Seacrist, Thomas; Samuels, Marina; García-España, J Felipe; Arbogast, Kristy B; Mathews, Emily A; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Maltese, Matthew R; Longhitano, Douglas; St Lawrence, Schuyler

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the rigid pediatric ATD spine may not adequately represent the relatively mobile, multi-segmented spine of the child and thus may lead to important differences in the head trajectory of the ATD relative to a human. Recently we compared the responses of size-matched child volunteers to the Hybrid III 6-year-old ATD in low-speed frontal sled tests, illustrating differences in head, spinal, and pelvic kinematics as well as seating environment reaction loads. This paper expands this line of work to include comparisons between size-matched restrained child volunteers to the Hybrid III 10-year-old and the Q-series 6 and 10-year-old ATDs tested in the same low speed frontal environment. A 3-D near-infrared video target tracking system quantified the position of markers on the ATDs and volunteers(head top, nasion, external auditory meatus, C4, T1, and pelvis). Angular velocity of the head, seat belt forces, and reaction loads on the seat pan and foot rest were also measured. The Hybrid III 6 and Q6 exhibited significantly greater belt reaction loads compared to the pediatric volunteers, which exhibited greater seat pan shear. Compared to children, the Hybrid III 6 exhibited increased head rotation and similar head top and pelvic excursion, whereas the Q6 exhibited reductions in all three metrics. The Hybrid III 10 and Q10 ATDs exhibited reaction loads similar to the volunteers; however, excursions and head rotation were significantly reduced compared to volunteers. All pediatric ATDs exhibited significant reductions in C4 and T1excursions compared to the volunteers, likely due to the rigidity of the ATD thoracic spine. These analyses provide insight into aspects of ATD biofidelity in low-speed crash environments and illustrate differences in responses of the Hybrid III and Q-series pediatric ATDs. PMID:23169138

  6. Shear layer structure of a low speed jet. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report, 28 Jun. 1974 - 31 Dec. 1975; [measurements of field pressure and turbulent velocity functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    A series of measurements of near field pressures and turbulent velocity fluctuations were made in a low speed jet with a Reynolds number near 50,000 in order to investigate more quantitatively the character and behavior of the large scale structures and their interactions with each other. The near field measurements were modelled according to the vortex pairing hypothesis to deduce the distribution of pairings along the jet axis and the variances about the mean locations. The hodograph plane description of turbulence was explored in some detail, and a complex correlation quantity was synthesized which has useful properties for turbulence in the presence of mean shear.

  7. Flutter parametric studies of cantilevered twin-engine-transport type wing with and without winglet. Volume 1: Low-speed investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, K. G.; Nagaraja, K. S.

    1984-01-01

    Flutter characteristics of a cantilevered high aspect ratio wing with winglet were investigated. The configuration represented a current technology, twin-engine airplane. A low-speed and high-speed model were used to evaluate compressibility effects through transonic Mach numbers and a wide range of mass-density ratios. Four flutter mechanisms were obtained in test, as well as analysis from various combinations of configuration parameters. The coupling between wing tip vertical and chordwise motions was shown to have significant effect under some conditions. It is concluded that for the flutter model configurations studied, the winglet related flutter was amenable to the conventional flutter analysis techniques.

  8. Position-and Velocity- Sensorless Control of Cylindrical Brushless DC Motors Driven by Sinusoidal Current at Low Speed Using Eddy Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, Hiroshi; Tomita, Mutuwo; Chen, Zhiqian; Satoh, Mitsuhiko; Doki, Shinji; Okuma, Shigeru

    This paper proposes to paste non-magnetic materials on the rotor surface of a cylindrical brushless DC motor and to use the model including the extended e.m.f. for sensorless control. In the proposed method, the inductance changes depending on the rotor position because of eddy currents, which flow on the non-magnetic material at high frequency. The rotor position can be estimated at standstill and at low speeds. The simulation results show that the proposed method is very useful.

  9. A comparison of typical national gas turbine establishment and NACA axial-flow compressor blade sections in cascade at low speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felix, A Richard; Emery, James C

    1953-01-01

    Comparative cascade tests of the NGTE (National Gas Turbine Establishment of Great Britain) 10C4/30C50 and NACA 65-(12)10 axial flow compressor blade sections were conducted in a 5-inch low-speed cascade tunnel at the Langley Laboratory at air-inlet angles of 30 degrees, 45 degrees, and 60 degrees and a solidity of 1.0 by using the porous-wall technique. These NACA data for the NGTE 10C4/30C50 section were also compared with data from NGTE design charts for the same section. British and NACA incompressible cascade force-analysis equations are included.

  10. Evaluating the Acoustic Effect of Over-the-Rotor Foam-Metal Liner Installed on a Low Speed Fan Using Virtual Rotating Microphone Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Dougherty, Robert P.; Walker, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    An in-duct beamforming technique for imaging rotating broadband fan sources has been used to evaluate the acoustic characteristics of a Foam-Metal Liner installed over-the-rotor of a low-speed fan. The NASA Glenn Research Center s Advanced Noise Control Fan was used as a test bed. A duct wall-mounted phased array consisting of several rings of microphones was employed. The data are mathematically resampled in the fan rotating reference frame and subsequently used in a conventional beamforming technique. The steering vectors for the beamforming technique are derived from annular duct modes, so that effects of reflections from the duct walls are reduced.

  11. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 42 deg swept high-wing model having a double-slotted flap system and a supercritical airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournier, P. G.; Goodson, K. W.

    1974-01-01

    A low-speed investigation was conducted over an angle-of-attack range from about -4 deg to 20 deg in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to determine the effects of a double-slotted flap, high-lift system on the aerodynamic characteristics of a 42 deg swept high-wing model having a supercritical airfoil. The wing had an aspect ratio of 6.78 and a taper ratio of 0.36; the double-slotted flap consisted of a 35-percent-chord flap with a 15-percent-chord vane. The model was tested with a 15-percent-chord leading-edge slat.

  12. Effects of upper-surface blowing and thrust vectoring on low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale supersonic transport model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.; Mclemore, H. C.; Shivers, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel to determine the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a large-scale arrow-wing supersonic transport configured with engines mounted above the wing for upper surface blowing, and conventional lower surface engines with provisions for thrust vectoring. A limited number of tests were conducted for the upper surface engine configuration in the high lift condition for beta = 10 in order to evaluate lateral directional characteristics, and with the right engine inoperative to evaluate the engine out condition.

  13. High-attitude low-speed static aerodynamic characteristics of an F-4D fighter airplane model with leading edge slats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monfort, J. C.; Whitcomb, W. M.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of two-position leading edge slats on the low speed aerodynamic characteristics of a swept wing twin-jet supersonic fighter airplane model at high angle of attack and various Reynolds numbers. The investigation was performed at a Mach number of 0.20 over a range of angle of attack from 19 deg to 90 deg and angles of slideslip from -10 deg to 30 deg and Reynolds numbers from 1.97 to 13.12 million per meter.

  14. Summary of low-speed longitudinal aerodynamics of two powered close-coupled wing-canard fighter configurations. [conducted in Langley C/STOL tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, J. W., Jr.; Thomas, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    Investigations of the low speed longitudinal characteristics of two powered close coupled wing-canard fighter configurations are discussed. Data obtained at angles of attack from -2 deg to 42 deg, Mach numbers from 0.12 to 0.20, nozzle and flap deflections from 0 deg to 40 deg, and thrust coefficients from 0 to 2.0, to represent both high angle of attack subsonic maneuvering characteristics and conventional takeoff and landing characteristics are examined. Data obtained with the nozzles deflected either 60 deg or 90 deg and the flaps deflected 60 deg to represent vertical or short takeoff and landing characteristics are discussed.

  15. Evaporation-Driven Deposition of WO₃ Thin Films from Organic-Additive-Free Aqueous Solutions by Low-Speed Dip Coating and Their Photoelectrochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Hiroaki; Igarashi, Seishirou; Kozuka, Hiromitsu

    2016-04-01

    We prepared tungsten trioxide (WO3) photoelectrode films from organic-additive-free aqueous solutions by a low-speed dip-coating technique. The evaporation-driven deposition of the solutes occurred at the meniscus during low-speed dip coating, resulting in the formation of coating layer on the substrate. Homogeneous WO3 precursor films were obtained from (NH4)10W12O41·5H2O aqueous solutions and found to be crystallized to monoclinic WO3 films by the heat treatment at 400-700 °C. All the films showed a photoanodic response irrespective of the heat treatment temperature, where a good photoelectrochemical stability was observed for those heated over 500 °C. The highest photoanodic performance was observed for the WO3 film heated at 700 °C, where the IPCE (incident photon-to-current efficiency) was 36.2% and 4.6% at 300 and 400 nm, respectively. PMID:27010979

  16. An Airbreathing Launch Vehicle Design with Turbine-Based Low-Speed Propulsion and Dual Mode Scramjet High-Speed Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, P. L.; Bouchard, K. A.; Vause, R. F.; Pinckney, S. Z.; Ferlemann, S. M.; Leonard, C. P.; Taylor, L. W., III; Robinson, J. S.; Martin, J. G.; Petley, D. H.

    1999-01-01

    Airbreathing launch vehicles continue to be a subject of great interest in the space access community. In particular, horizontal takeoff and horizontal landing vehicles are attractive with their airplane-like benefits and flexibility for future space launch requirements. The most promising of these concepts involve airframe integrated propulsion systems, in which the external undersurface of the vehicle forms part of the propulsion flowpath. Combining of airframe and engine functions in this manner involves all of the design disciplines interacting at once. Design and optimization of these configurations is a most difficult activity, requiring a multi-discipline process to analytically resolve the numerous interactions among the design variables. This paper describes the design and optimization of one configuration in this vehicle class, a lifting body with turbine-based low-speed propulsion. The integration of propulsion and airframe, both from an aero-propulsive and mechanical perspective are addressed. This paper primarily focuses on the design details of the preferred configuration and the analyses performed to assess its performance. The integration of both low-speed and high-speed propulsion is covered. Structural and mechanical designs are described along with materials and technologies used. Propellant and systems packaging are shown and the mission-sized vehicle weights are disclosed.

  17. Method and device for optimizing the air-fuel mixture burn rate of internal combustion engines during low speed, light and heavy load operating conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Burandt, C.O.

    1990-10-09

    This patent describes a method for optimizing low speed light load and low speed heavy load operating conditions in an internal combustion engine. The engine has a camshaft, a crankshaft, at least one intake valve and at least one piston, and is capable of providing for small valve events, and the engine providing for earlier than normal intake valve closings the method comprises: sensing the load demand on the engine, regulating the phasing of the operation of the camshaft of the engine with the operation of the crankshaft of the engine in response to the sensed load demand by advancing the operation of camshaft relative to the operation of the crankshaft when a heavy load demand is sensed and by retarding the operation of the camshaft relative to the operation of the crankshaft when alight load demand is sensed, and sensing detonation in the engine and regulating the phasing operation of the camshaft relative to the operation of the crankshaft by advancing the operation of the camshaft relative to the crankshaft when detonation is sensed.

  18. Introduction to cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodyer, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    The background to the evolution of the cryogenic wind tunnel is outlined, with particular reference to the late 60's/early 70's when efforts were begun to re-equip with larger wind tunnels. The problems of providing full scale Reynolds numbers in transonic testing were proving particularly intractible, when the notion of satisfying the needs with the cryogenic tunnel was proposed, and then adopted. The principles and advantages of the cryogenic tunnel are outlined, along with guidance on the coolant needs when this is liquid nitrogen, and with a note on energy recovery. Operational features of the tunnels are introduced with reference to a small low speed tunnel. Finally the outstanding contributions are highlighted of the 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT) at NASA Langley Research Center, and its personnel, to the furtherance of knowledge and confidence in the concept.

  19. Wind Turbine Wake-Redirection Control at the Fishermen's Atlantic City Windfarm: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Churchfield, M.; Fleming, P.; Bulder, B.; White, S.

    2015-05-06

    In this paper, we will present our work towards designing a control strategy to mitigate wind turbine wake effects by redirecting the wakes, specifically applied to the Fishermen’s Atlantic City Windfarm (FACW), proposed for deployment off the shore of Atlantic City, New Jersey. As wind turbines extract energy from the air, they create low-speed wakes that extend behind them. Full wake recovery Full wake recovery to the undisturbed wind speed takes a significant distance. In a wind energy plant the wakes of upstream turbines may travel downstream to the next row of turbines, effectively subjecting them to lower wind speeds, meaning these waked turbines will produce less power.

  20. The steady-state flow quality in a model of a non-return wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mort, K. W.; Eckert, W. T.; Kelly, M. W.

    1972-01-01

    The structural cost of non-return wind tunnels is significantly less than that of the more conventional closed-circuit wind tunnels. However, because of the effects of external winds, the flow quality of non-return wind tunnels is an area of concern at the low test speeds required for V/STOL testing. The flow quality required at these low speeds is discussed and alternatives to the traditional manner of specifying the flow quality requirements in terms of dynamic pressure and angularity are suggested. The development of a non-return wind tunnel configuration which has good flow quality at low as well as at high test speeds is described.

  1. Numerical Study of the High-Speed Leg of a Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayani, Sudheer; Sellers, William L., III; Brynildsen, Scott E.; Everhart, Joel L.

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the numerical study of the high-speed leg of the NASA Langley 14 by 22-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel. The high-speed leg consists of the Settling Chamber, Contraction, Test Section, and First Diffuser. Results are shown comparing two different exit boundary conditions and two different methods of determining the surface geometry.

  2. A low speed two-dimensional study of flow separation on the GA(W)-1 airfoil with 30-percent chord Fowler flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seetharam, H. C.; Wentz, W. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of flow fields with low speed turbulent boundary layers were made for the GA(W)-1 airfoil with a 0.30 c Fowler flap deflected 40 deg at angles of attack of 2.7 deg, 7.7 deg, and 12.8 deg, at a Reynolds number of 2.2 million, and a Mach number of 0.13. Details of velocity and pressure fields associated with the airfoil flap combination are presented for cases of narrow, optimum and wide slot gaps. Extensive flow field turbulence surveys were also conducted employing hot-film anemometry. For the optimum gap setting, the boundaries of the regions of flow reversal within the wake were determined by this technique for two angles of attack. Local skin friction distributions for the basic airfoil and the airfoil with flap (optimum gap) were obtained using the razor blade technique.

  3. Low-Speed Yawed-Rolling Characteristics of a Pair of 56-Inch-Diameter, 32-Ply-Rating, Type 7 Aircraft Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Wilbur E.; Horne, Walter B.

    1959-01-01

    The low-speed (up to 4 miles per hour) yawed-rolling characteristics of two 56 x 16 32-ply-rating, type 7 aircraft tires under straight-yawed rolling were determined over a range of inflation pressures and yaw angles for a vertical load approximately equal to 75 percent of the rated vertical load. The quantities measured or determined included cornering force, drag force self-alining torque, pneumatic caster vertical tire deflection, yaw angle, and relaxation length. During straight-yawed rolling the normal force generally increased with increasing yaw angle within the test range. The self-alining torque increased to a maximum value and then decreased with increasing angle of yaw. The pneumatic caster tended to decrease with increasing yaw angle.

  4. A review of technologies applicable to low-speed flight of high-performance aircraft investigated in the Langley 14- x 22-foot subsonic tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, John W., Jr.; Quinto, P. Frank; Banks, Daniel W.; Kemmerly, Guy T.; Gatlin, Gregory M.

    1988-01-01

    An extensive research program has been underway at the NASA Langley Research Center to define and develop the technologies required for low-speed flight of high-performance aircraft. This 10-year program has placed emphasis on both short takeoff and landing (STOL) and short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) operations rather than on regular up and away flight. A series of NASA in-house as well as joint projects have studied various technologies including high lift, vectored thrust, thrust-induced lift, reversed thrust, an alternate method of providing trim and control, and ground effects. These technologies have been investigated on a number of configurations ranging from industry designs for advanced fighter aircraft to generic wing-canard research models. Test conditions have ranged from hover (or static) through transition to wing-borne flight at angles of attack from -5 to 40 deg at representative thrust coefficients.

  5. Performance Improvement of Induction Motor Speed Sensor-Less Vector Control System Using an Adaptive Observer with an Estimated Flux Feedback in Low Speed Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, Tetsuya; Kato, Yousuke; Kurita, Kazuya; Hayashi, Yoichi

    Because of various errors caused by dead time, temperature variation of resistance and so on, the speed estimation error is inevitable in the speed sensor-less vector control methods of the induction motor. Especially, the speed control loop becomes unstable at near zero frequency. In order to solve these problems, this paper proposes a novel design of an adaptive observer for the speed estimation. Adding a feedback loop of the error between the estimated and reference fluxes, the sensitivity of the current error signals for the speed estimation and the primary resistance identification are improved. The proposed system is analyzed and the appropriate feedback gains are derived. The experimental results showed good performance in low speed range.

  6. Low-Speed Aerodynamic Data for an 0.18-Scale Model of an F-16XL with Various Leading-Edge Modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, Daniel E.

    1999-01-01

    Using the F-16XL as a test-bed, two strategies for improving the low-speed flying characteristics that had minimal impact on high-speed performance were evaluated. In addition to the basic F-16XL configuration several modifications to the baseline configuration were tested in the Langley 30- X 60-Foot Tunnel: 1) the notched area at the wing leading edge and fuselage juncture was removed resulting in a continuous 70 deg leading-edge sweep on the inboard portion of the wing; 2) an integral attached-flow leading-edge flap concept was added to the continuous leading edge; and 3) a deployable vortex flap concept was added to the continuous leading edge. The purpose of this report is simply to document the test configurations, test conditions, and data obtained in this investigation for future reference and analysis. No analysis is presented herein and the data only appear in tabulated format.

  7. Observations of micro-turbulence in the solar wind near the sun with interplanetary scintillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, Y.; Misawa, H.; Kojima, M.; Mori, H.; Tanaka, T.; Takaba, H.; Kondo, T.; Tokumaru, M.; Manoharan, P. K.

    1995-01-01

    Velocity and density turbulence of solar wind were inferred from interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations at 2.3 GHz and 8.5 GHz using a single-antenna. The observations were made during September and October in 1992 - 1994. They covered the distance range between 5 and 76 solar radii (Rs). We applied the spectrum fitting method to obtain a velocity, an axial ratio, an inner scale and a power-law spectrum index. We examined the difference of the turbulence properties near the Sun between low-speed solar wind and high-speed solar wind. Both of solar winds showed acceleration at the distance range of 10 - 30 Rs. The radial dependence of anisotropy and spectrum index did not have significant difference between low-speed and high-speed solar winds. Near the sun, the radial dependence of the inner scale showed the separation from the linear relation as reported by previous works. We found that the inner scale of high-speed solar wind is larger than that of low-speed wind.

  8. Wind-tunnel investigation of the OMAC canard configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingram, W. C.; Yip, L. P.; Cook, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests were conducted on a 0.175-scale model of the OMAC Laser 300 canard configuration in the NASA Langley 12-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel to determine its low-speed high angel-of-attack aerodynamic characteristics. The Laser 300 is a general aviation turboprop pusher aircraft utilizing a canard configuration. The design incorporates a low forward wing and a high main wing with a leading-edge droop installed on the outboard panel and tip fins mounted on the wing tips. The model was tested over a range of -6 to 50-deg angle-of-attack and 20 to -20 deg sideslip. Static force and moment data were measured, and the longitudinal and lateral-directional characteristics were determined.

  9. Solar Wind Stream Interaction Regions without Sector Boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M.; Liewer, P. C.; Goldstein, B. E.; Zhou., X.; Steinberg, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    During periods of high solar activity when there are many sources of solar wind on the solar disk, a spacecraft occasionally encounters consecutive solar wind streams with the same magnetic polarity. The low-speed wind in the region of interaction between the two streams exhibits many of the same features as, but has some differences from, the low-speed wind that includes crossings of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) where the direction of the heliospheric magnetic field reverses. The non-HCS slow wind exhibits many of the same small-scale structures usually associated with the slow wind around the HCS; these include discontinuous stream interfaces and other discontinuities, magnetic holes, and low-entropy structures. These entropy holes do not appear to have the same origin as the plasma sheets observed near the HCS, however. The helium abundances and heavy ion charge states in the non-HCS regions are not significantly different from those in HCS-associated regions. Some of the dynamical properties of the non-HCS regions differ from those found near the HCS; the regions between leading and trailing stream interfaces have a shorter duration or scale size, greater minimum speed, and lower peak and average densities. No correlation could be found between the non-HCS slow wind and visible coronal streamers.

  10. Wind turbine rotor

    SciTech Connect

    Baskin, J. M.; Miller, G. E.; Wiesner, W.

    1985-12-10

    A fixed pitch wind turbine rotor is teeter mounted onto a low speed input shaft which is connected to the input of a step-up transmission. The output of the transmission is connected to a rotary pole amplitude modulated induction machine which is operable as a generator at a plurality of discreet speeds of rotation and is also operable as a startup motor for the rotor. A switch responsive to the rotational speed of the wind turbine rotor switches the generator from one speed of operation to the other. The rotor hub and the inner body portions of two blades which extend radially outwardly in opposite directions from the hub, are constructed from steel. The outer end portions of the blade are constructed from a lighter material, such as wood, and are both thinner and narrower than the remainder of the rotor. The outer end section of each blade includes a main body portion and a trailing edge portion which is hinge-connected to the main body portion. Each blade includes a centrifugal force operated positioning means which normally holds the drag brake section in a retracted position, but operates in response to a predetermined magnitude of centrifugal force to move the drag brake section into its deployed position. Each blade has an airfoil cross section and each blade has a plus twist inner portion adjacent the hub changing to first a zero twist and then a minus twist as it extends radially outwardly from the hub.

  11. Solar wind velocity distribution on the heliospheric current sheet during Carrington rotations 1787-1795

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, B.; Prabhakaran Nayar, S. R.

    1995-08-01

    The solar wind velocity distribution in the heliosphere is best represented using a v-map, where velocity contours are plotted in heliographic latitude-longitude coordinates. It has already been established that low-speed regions of the solar wind on the source surface correspond to the maximum bright regions of the K-corona and the neutral line of the coronal magnetic field. In this analysis, v-maps on the source surface for Carrington rotations (CRs) 1787-1795, during 1987, have been prepared using the interplanetary scintillation measurements at Research Institute of Atmospherics (RIA), Nagoya Univ., Japan. These v-maps were then used to study the time evolution of the low-speed (leq450 km s-1) belt of the solar wind and to deduce the distribution of solar wind velocity on the heliospheric current sheet. The low-speed belt of the solar wind on the source surface was found to change from one CR to the next, implying a time evolution. Instead of a slow and systematic evolution, the pattern of distribution of solar wind changed dramatically at one particular solar rotation (CR 1792) and the distributions for the succeeding rotations were similar to this pattern. The low-speed region, in most cases, was found to be close to the solar equator and almost parallel to it. However, during some solar rotations, they were found to be organised in certain longitudes, leaving regions with longitudinal width greater than 30° free of low-speed solar wind, i.e. these regions were occupied by solar wind with velocities greater than 450 km s-1. It is also noted from this study that the low-speed belt, in general, followed the neutral line of the coronal magnetic field, except in certain cases. The solar wind velocity on the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) varied in the range 300-585 km s-1 during the period of study, and the pattern of velocity distribution varied from rotation to rotation.

  12. Low-speed flow hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Cerutti, J.H.; Kothe, D.B.; Mosso, S.J.

    1997-08-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was the inception and development of a new casting simulation tool that is founded in modern, high-order numerical algorithms, accurate physical models, and advanced computational science constructs needed to execute efficiently on parallel architectures. This project has therefore led to the development and application of a new simulation tool (known as Telluride) for the modeling of casting processes used in the manufacture of metal alloy components needed for various Department of Energy (DOE) and Defense Programs (DP) projects. As a result of the efforts undertaken in this project, Telluride can now model key foundry processes in the DOE/DP and in industry. Successes realized over the course of this project have secured funding for further Telluride development by the DOE Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI) Program.

  13. Videometric Applications in Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Radeztsky, R. H.; Liu, Tian-Shu

    1997-01-01

    Videometric measurements in wind tunnels can be very challenging due to the limited optical access, model dynamics, optical path variability during testing, large range of temperature and pressure, hostile environment, and the requirements for high productivity and large amounts of data on a daily basis. Other complications for wind tunnel testing include the model support mechanism and stringent surface finish requirements for the models in order to maintain aerodynamic fidelity. For these reasons nontraditional photogrammetric techniques and procedures sometimes must be employed. In this paper several such applications are discussed for wind tunnels which include test conditions with Mach number from low speed to hypersonic, pressures from less than an atmosphere to nearly seven atmospheres, and temperatures from cryogenic to above room temperature. Several of the wind tunnel facilities are continuous flow while one is a short duration blowdown facility. Videometric techniques and calibration procedures developed to measure angle of attack, the change in wing twist and bending induced by aerodynamic load, and the effects of varying model injection rates are described. Some advantages and disadvantages of these techniques are given and comparisons are made with non-optical and more traditional video photogrammetric techniques.

  14. Static Longitudinal and Lateral Stability Characteristics at Low Speed of 45 Degree Sweptback-midwing Models Having Wings with an Aspect Ratio of 2, 4, or 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, David F , Jr; Wolhart, Walter D

    1957-01-01

    Results are presented of tests conducted in the Langley stability tunnel to determine the effects of various components and combinations of components on the static longitudinal and lateral stability characteristics at low speed of a series of 45 degree sweptback-midwing-airplane configurations having wings with an aspect ratio of 2, 4, or 6. The tests were made at a dynamic pressure of 24.9 pounds per square foot which corresponds to a Mach number of 0.13 and Reynolds numbers of 1.00 x 10(exp 6), 0.71 x 10 (exp 6), and 0.58 x 10 (exp 6) based on the respective wing mean aerodynamic chords. The angle-of-attack range covered was from -4 degrees to 32 degrees and the sideslip angles used for the lateral-derivative tests were 5 degrees and -5 degrees. An increasing loss in tail contribution to directional stability both with increasing wing aspect ratio and increasing angle of attack was found to be a principal cause of all the complete models becoming directionally unstable in the high angle-of-attack range.

  15. Prevalence of De Novo Aortic Valve Insufficiency in Patients After HeartWare VAD Implantation with an Intermittent Low-Speed Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Diyar; Westenfeld, Ralf; Maxhera, Bujar; Keymel, Stefanie; Sherif, Ahmed; Sadat, Najla; Petrov, GeorGI; Albert, Alexander; Lichtenberg, Artur

    2016-01-01

    De novo aortic valve insufficiency (AI) is a frequent occurrence in patients supported with left ventricular assist device (LVAD). The European version of the HeartWare LVAD has intermittent low-speed software (lavare cycle) to facilitate intermittent aortic valve opening. We examined aortic valve opening status and prevalence of AI in patients supported with HeartWare LVAD and activated lavare cycle. HeartWare LVAD patients were prospectively monitored using serial echocardiograms at different time points after the LVAD implantation. Inclusion criteria were patients with no > mild AI and/or no aortic valve surgery at the time of LVAD implantation and at least 60 days of support. Three of 37 patients had aortic valve surgery and were excluded from the analysis. A total of 34 patients with mean age of 57 ± 12 years met the inclusion criteria. After median support duration of 408 days (77-1250 days), eight patients had trace/mild AI (24%) and one patient developed moderate AI (3%). An average pump flow, speed, and mean arterial pressure of 4.4 ± 0.6 L/min, 2,585 ± 147 rpm, and 88 ± 11 mmHg were documented, respectively. Aortic valve opening was persistently seen in 22 patients (65%). Aortic valve opening is frequent, and the development of > mild AI seems to be rare in patients supported with HeartWare LVAD. PMID:27195744

  16. Passive control of laminar separation bubble with spanwise groove on a low-speed highly loaded low-pressure turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hualing; Qiao, Weiyang; Xu, Kaifu

    2009-09-01

    LES (Large-Eddy Simulation) computations were preformed to investigate the mechanisms of a kind of spanwise groove for the passive control of laminar separation bubble on the suction surface of a low-speed highly loaded low-pressure turbine blade at Re = 50,000 (Reynolds number, based on inlet velocity and axial chord length). Compared with the smooth suction surface, the numerical results indicate that: (1) the groove is effective to shorten and thin the separation bubble, which contributes the flow loss reduction on the groove surface, by thinning the boundary layer behind the groove and promoting earlier transition inception in the separation bubble; (2) upstream movement of the transition inception location on the grooved surface is suggested being the result of the lower frequency at which the highest amplification rate of instability waves occurs, and the larger initial amplitude of the disturbance at the most unstable frequency before transition; and (3) the viscous instability mode is promoted on the grooved surface, due to the thinning of the boundary layer behind the groove.

  17. Low-Speed Longitudinal Stability Characteristics of a 1/6-Scale Model of the Republic XF-84H Airplane with the Propeller Operating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleeman, William C.; Byrnes, Andrew L.

    1953-01-01

    A low-speed investigation was made of a 1/6-scale model of the Republic XF-84H airplane. The model had a single tractor propeller and a 40deg swept wing of aspect ratio 3.45. This investigation was undertaken to provide information on the effects of propeller operation on longitudinal stability characteristics for the XF -84H airplane and to provide an indication of slipstream effects that might be encountered on similar swept-wing configurations. Effects of propeller operation were generally destabilizing for all conditions investigated; however, the over-all stability characteristics with power on were greatly dependent on the power-off characteristics. With flaps and slats retracted, longitudinal instability was present at moderate angles of attack both with the propeller off and with power on. The longitudinal stability with flaps and slats deflected, which was satisfactory without power, was decreased by propeller operation, but no marked pitch-up tendency was indicated. Significant improvement in the power-on stability with flaps retracted was achieved by use of either a wing fence at 75 percent semispan, a leading-edge chord-extension from 65 to 94 percent semispan, or a raised horizontal tail located 65 percent semispan above the thrust line.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Effects of Moderate Sideslip on the Flow Fields near a 45 Degree Swept-wing-fuselage Combination at Low Speed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, William J , Jr; King, Thomas J , Jr

    1957-01-01

    The flow fields near a 45 degree swept-wing-fuselage combination at moderate angles of sideslip (plus-or-minus 8 degrees), as determined experimentally at low speed, are presented as variations with chordwise distance for various spanwise and vertical locations and angles of attack. The results indicated that for positions close to the fuselage (on and near the plane of symmetry) changes in the angle of sideslip caused large changes in the flow-field characteristics and particularly in the local angles of sideslip, which in some cases were nearly double the static angle of sideslip. In general, the effects of changing the angle of sideslip on the flow-field characteristics for all of the outboard underwing locations were qualitatively similar, although conditions at the more inboard and outboard locations were somewhat more severe for lifting conditions than at the one-half semispan location. The chordwise gradients in the flow parameters for the underwing locations were more severe than for the fuselage locations although the effect of changing the angle of sideslip was less severe, in that the incremental changes in the local angles of sideslip were approximately equal to the static angle of sideslip. Flow conditions near the wing tip were found to be critically dependent on vertical location, with the largest sideslip-induced variations occurring at the nearest vertical locations. The results also indicated that for the outboard underwing locations the wing was the predominant factor in disturbing the field of flow for the conditions investigated.

  19. Determination of pulsed-source cloud size/rise information using high-speed, low-speed, and digitized-video photography techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magiawala, Kiran R.; Schatzle, Paul R.; Petach, Michael B.; Figueroa, Miguel A.; Peabody, Alden S., II

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses a laboratory method based on generating a buoyant thermal cloud through explosively bursting an aluminum foil by a rapid electric discharge procedure. The required electric energy is stored in a bank of capacitors and is discharged into the foil through a trigger circuit on external command. The aluminum first vaporizes and becomes an aluminum gas plasma at high temperature (approximately 8000 K) which then mixes with the surrounding air and ignites. The cloud containing these hot combustion products rises up in an unstratified anechoic environment. As the cloud rises, it entrains the air from the surroundings due to turbulent mixing and it grows. To characterize this cloud rise, three different types of photographic techniques are used. They are: high-speed photography (6000 fps), low-speed photography (200 fps), and video photography (30 fps). These techniques cover various time scales in foil firing schedule beginning from early time (up to 10 msec) to late time (up to 4 secs). Images obtained by video photography technique have been processed into a digital format. In digitizing the video tape data, an optical video disk player/recorder was used together with pc-based frame grabber hardware. A simple software routine was developed to obtain cloud size/rise data based on an edge detection technique.

  20. Wind Simulation

    2008-12-31

    The Software consists of a spreadsheet written in Microsoft Excel that provides an hourly simulation of a wind energy system, which includes a calculation of wind turbine output as a power-curve fit of wind speed.

  1. Preferred solar wind emitting longitudes on the sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosling, J. T.; Asbridge, J. R.; Bame, S. J.; Feldman, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    During the 11 1/2-year period from July 1964 through December 1975, high- and low-speed solar wind flows originated from preferred solar longitudes. The preferred longitude effect was most pronounced from 1970 onward but was also evident in the years preceding 1970. The most pronounced modulation in average solar wind speed with longitude (approximately 20%) was obtained when it was assumed that the synodic rotation period of the sun is 27.025 days. Some deep internal structure in the sun must ultimately be responsible for these long-lived longitudinal effects, which appear to rotate rigidly with the sun.

  2. Low-Speed Aerodynamic and Hydrodynamic Characteristics of a Proposed Supersonic Multijet Water-Based Hydro-Ski Aircraft with Upward-Rotating Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petynia, William W.; Croom, Delwin R.; Davenport, Edwin E.

    1958-01-01

    The low-speed aerodynamic and hydrodynamic characteristics of a proposed multijet water-based aircraft configuration for supersonic operation have been investigated. The design features include upward-rotating engines, body indentation, a single hydro-ski, and a wing with an aspect ratio of 3.0, a taper ratio of 0.143, 36.90 sweepback of the quarter-chord line, and NACA 65AO04 airfoil sections. For the aerodynamic investigation, with the flaps retracted, the model was longitudinally and directionally stable up to the stall. The all-movable horizontal tail was capable of trimming the model up to a lift coefficient of approximately 0.87. All flap configurations investigated had a tendency to become longitudinally unstable at stall. The effectiveness of the all-movable horizontal tail increased with increasing lift coefficient for all flap configurations investigated; however, with the large static margin of the configuration with the center of gravity at 0.25 mean aerodynamic chord, the all-movable horizontal tail was not powerful enough to trim all the various flapped configurations investigated throughout the angle-of-attack range. For the hydrodynamic investigation, longitudinal stability during take-offs and landings was satisfactory. Decreasing the area of the hydro-ski 60 percent increased the maximum resistance and emergence speed 40 and 70 percent, respectively. Without the jet exhaust, the resistance was reduced by simulating the vertical-lift component of the forward engines rotated upward. However, the jet exhaust of the forward engines increased the maximum resistance approximately 60 percent. The engine inlets and horizontal tail were free from spray for all loads investigated and for both hydro-ski sizes.

  3. Erosion: Wind

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wind erosion refers to the detachment, transport and deposition of sediment by wind. It is a dynamic, physical process where loose, dry, bare soils are transported by strong winds. Wind erosion is a soil degrading process that affects over 500 million ha of land worldwide and creates between 500 an...

  4. Meteorology (Wind)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-09-25

    Wind speed at 50 m (m/s) The average and percent difference minimum and ... are given.   Percent of time for ranges of wind speed at 50 m (percent) Percentage [frequency] of time that wind ... be adjusted to heights from 10 to 300 meters using the Gipe power law. Wind speeds may be adjusted for different terrain by selecting from ...

  5. National Wind Tunnel Complex (NWTC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The National Wind Tunnel Complex (NWTC) Final Report summarizes the work carried out by a unique Government/Industry partnership during the period of June 1994 through May 1996. The objective of this partnership was to plan, design, build and activate 'world class' wind tunnel facilities for the development of future-generation commercial and military aircraft. The basis of this effort was a set of performance goals defined by the National Facilities Study (NFS) Task Group on Aeronautical Research and Development Facilities which established two critical measures of improved wind tunnel performance; namely, higher Reynolds number capability and greater productivity. Initial activities focused upon two high-performance tunnels (low-speed and transonic). This effort was later descoped to a single multipurpose tunnel. Beginning in June 1994, the NWTC Project Office defined specific performance requirements, planned site evaluation activities, performed a series of technical/cost trade studies, and completed preliminary engineering to support a proposed conceptual design. Due to budget uncertainties within the Federal government, the NWTC project office was directed to conduct an orderly closure following the Systems Design Review in March 1996. This report provides a top-level status of the project at that time. Additional details of all work performed have been archived and are available for future reference.

  6. A comparison of Wortmann airfoil computer-generated lift and drag polars with flight and wind tunnel results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, A. H.; Sim, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    Computations of drag polars for a low-speed Wortmann sailplane airfoil are compared with both wind tunnel and flight test results. Excellent correlation was shown to exist between computations and flight results except when separated flow regimes were encountered. Smoothness of the input coordinates to the PROFILE computer program was found to be essential to obtain accurate comparisons of drag polars or transition location to either the flight or wind tunnel flight results.

  7. Test/QA plan for the validation of the verification protocol for low speed pesticide spray drift reduction technologies for row and field crops

    EPA Science Inventory

    This test/QA plan for evaluation the generic test protocol for high speed wind tunnel, representing aerial application, pesticide spray drift reduction technologies (DRT) for row and field crops is in conformance with EPA Requirements for Quality Assurance Project Plans (EPA QA/R...

  8. Atmospheric Probe Model: Construction and Wind Tunnel Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Jerald M.

    1998-01-01

    The material contained in this document represents a summary of the results of a low speed wind tunnel test program to determine the performance of an atmospheric probe at low speed. The probe configuration tested consists of a 2/3 scale model constructed from a combination of hard maple wood and aluminum stock. The model design includes approximately 130 surface static pressure taps. Additional hardware incorporated in the baseline model provides a mechanism for simulating external and internal trailing edge split flaps for probe flow control. Test matrix parameters include probe side slip angle, external/internal split flap deflection angle, and trip strip applications. Test output database includes surface pressure distributions on both inner and outer annular wings and probe center line velocity distributions from forward probe to aft probe locations.

  9. Current wind tunnel capability and planned improvements at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowditch, D. N.

    1986-01-01

    As the propulsion and power generation center of NASA, Lewis has designed its wind tunnels for propulsion research. Therefore, the 8 by 6 Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel and the 10 by 10 Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel provide the capability to test operating propulsion systems from Mach 0.4 to 3.5. The 9 by 15 Foot Wind Tunnel can investigate propulsion installation problems at the lower takeoff and landing speeds and provides an excellent anechoic environment to measure propeller and fan noise. The Lewis Central Air System provides steady air supplies to 450 psi, and exhaust to 3 in. of mercury absolute, which are available to the wind tunnels for simulation of jets and engine induced flows. The Lewis Icing Research Tunnel is the largest in the free world that can produce icing conditions throughout the year. Rehabilitation of the Altitude Wind Tunnel at Lewis would allow testing of propulsion systems in the upper left hand corner which would be a unique capability. Also, in a mothballed state at Lewis, the Hypersonic Tunnel Facility could provide the best simulation of nonvitiated Mach 5-7 test conditions available. Studies are currently being made of the Lewis facilities to identify enhancements of their research potential for the 1990's and beyond.

  10. Solar wind stream structure at large heliocentric distances Pioneer observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazis, P. R.

    1987-01-01

    Time profiles and histograms of plasma data from Pioneers 10 and 11 are examined for the period between 1975 and 1983. During this time, Pioneer 10 traveled between a heliocentric distance of 8.7 and 30.4 AU. The velocity structure of the solar wind at these heliocentric distances is found to have one of two distinct forms: approximately 70 percent of the time the solar wind has a nearly flat velocity profile. Occasionally, this flat velocity profile is accompanied by quasi-periodic variations in density and in thermal speed consistent with the concept that the 'corotating interaction regions' which are produced by the interaction of high- and low-speed streams at intermediate heliocentric distances are replaced by 'pressure regions' in the outer heliosphere. The remaining 30 percent of the time the solar wind is marked by large (50-200 km/s) long-term (30-120 days) shifts in the average solar wind velocity.

  11. Proposal and Development of Radial Air-gap Coreless Generator Suitable for Small Wind Turbine using in Urban Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Yasuda, Yoh; Ohmoto, Shingo; Hara, Takehisa

    Independent distributed generations using small wind turbines are widely spread as increasing of wind power generation. Installation of small wind turbines in densely-populated urban area is not only useful from the viewpoint of digging up wind power source in weak-wind area but also for enlightenment of renewable energy due to closing power supplies to consumptions. From the point of view, the authors proposed “urban wind power generation" using collective system with a number of small vertical wind turbines and have developed a suitable generator for low-speed vertical wind turbines such as Savonius windmill. Standardized on a coreless generator, the proposed generator is designed to let direction of magnetic fluxes radial in order to install the magnets and coils on the outer end of the generator. The change of magnet composition and flux direction gives realization of maximized speed of flux change and output voltage in the limited space. With above composition, the power of the proposed one is independent on the diameter. In this report, we describe evaluated fundamental performance of a prototype of the proposed generator. As the result of the experiments, the maximum output power of 283W was obtained. The obtained starting torque is enough small to begin to rotate at weak wind condition of no more than 1m/s. Therefore, it is clear that the proposed “radial” coreless generator is suitable for self-starting and producing high power at low speed wind.

  12. The self streamlining wind tunnel. [wind tunnel walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodyer, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    A two dimensional test section in a low speed wind tunnel capable of producing flow conditions free from wall interference is presented. Flexible top and bottom walls, and rigid sidewalls from which models were mounted spanning the tunnel are shown. All walls were unperforated, and the flexible walls were positioned by screw jacks. To eliminate wall interference, the wind tunnel itself supplied the information required in the streamlining process, when run with the model present. Measurements taken at the flexible walls were used by the tunnels computer check wall contours. Suitable adjustments based on streamlining criteria were then suggested by the computer. The streamlining criterion adopted when generating infinite flowfield conditions was a matching of static pressures in the test section at a wall with pressures computed for an imaginary inviscid flowfield passing over the outside of the same wall. Aerodynamic data taken on a cylindrical model operating under high blockage conditions are presented to illustrate the operation of the tunnel in its various modes.

  13. Investigation of Unsteady Tip Clearance Flow in a Low-Speed One and Half Stage Axial Compressor with LES And PIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hah, Chunill; Hathaway, Michael; Katz, Joseph; Tan, David

    2015-01-01

    The primary focus of this paper is to investigate how a rotor's unsteady tip clearance flow structure changes in a low speed one and half stage axial compressor when the rotor tip gap size is increased from 0.5 mm (0.49% of rotor tip blade chord, 2% of blade span) to 2.4 mm (2.34% chord, 4% span) at the design condition are investigated. The changes in unsteady tip clearance flow with the 0.62 % tip gap as the flow rate is reduced to near stall condition are also investigated. A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is applied to calculate the unsteady flow field at these three flow conditions. Detailed Stereoscopic PIV (SPIV) measurements of the current flow fields were also performed at the Johns Hopkins University in a refractive index-matched test facility which renders the compressor blades and casing optically transparent. With this setup, the unsteady velocity field in the entire flow domain, including the flow inside the tip gap, can be measured. Unsteady tip clearance flow fields from LES are compared with the PIV measurements and both LES and PIV results are used to study changes in tip clearance flow structures. The current study shows that the tip clearance vortex is not a single structure as traditionally perceived. The tip clearance vortex is formed by multiple interlaced vorticities. Therefore, the tip clearance vortex is inherently unsteady. The multiple interlaced vortices never roll up to form a single structure. When phased-averaged, the tip clearance vortex appears as a single structure. When flow rate is reduced with the same tip gap, the tip clearance vortex rolls further upstream and the tip clearance vortex moves further radially inward and away from the suction side of the blade. When the tip gap size is increased at the design flow condition, the overall tip clearance vortex becomes stronger and it stays closer to the blade suction side and the vortex core extends all the way to the exit of the blade passage. Measured and calculated unsteady flow

  14. Exploratory wind-tunnel investigation of the stability and control characteristics of advanced general aviation configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yip, L. P.; King, P. M.; Muchmore, C. B.; Davis, P.

    1986-01-01

    Results of low-speed wind-tunnel investigations are presented for two general aviation configurations: the AVTEK canard configuration and the DeVore conventional configuration. Cooperative research programs were undertaken by industry and NASA to jointly conduct tests in the NASA Langley 12-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel to explore stability and control characteristics of each configuration. A 1/5-scale AVTEK model and a 1/6-scale DeVore model were tested over an angle-of-attack range of up to 45 deg and an angle-of-sideslip range of up to 20 deg. Results from the AVTEK test are presented with an emphasis on the effects of configuration on the stall and poststall characteristics. Results from the DeVore test are presented with emphasis on the effects of wing leading-edge droop design on spin resistance characteristics.

  15. Investigation of the Influence of Fuselage and Tail Surfaces on Low-speed Static Stability and Rolling Characteristics of a Swept-wing Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, John D; Lichtenstein, Jacob H; Jaquet, Byron M

    1952-01-01

    Results are presented of a wind-tunnel investigation to determine influence of the fuselage and tail on static stability and rotary derivatives in roll of a model having 45 degrees sweptback wing and tail surfaces. The wing alone and the model without the horizontal tail showed marginal longitudinal stability near maximum lift. The longitudinal stability of the complete model was satisfactory. The vertical tail produced larger increments of rate of change of lateral-force and yawing-moment coefficients with wing-tip helix angle than the fuselage or the horizontal tail.

  16. Advancing Test Capabilities at NASA Wind Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James

    2015-01-01

    NASA maintains twelve major wind tunnels at three field centers capable of providing flows at 0.1 M 10 and unit Reynolds numbers up to 45106m. The maintenance and enhancement of these facilities is handled through a unified management structure under NASAs Aeronautics and Evaluation and Test Capability (AETC) project. The AETC facilities are; the 11x11 transonic and 9x7 supersonic wind tunnels at NASA Ames; the 10x10 and 8x6 supersonic wind tunnels, 9x15 low speed tunnel, Icing Research Tunnel, and Propulsion Simulator Laboratory, all at NASA Glenn; and the National Transonic Facility, Transonic Dynamics Tunnel, LAL aerothermodynamics laboratory, 8 High Temperature Tunnel, and 14x22 low speed tunnel, all at NASA Langley. This presentation describes the primary AETC facilities and their current capabilities, as well as improvements which are planned over the next five years. These improvements fall into three categories. The first are operations and maintenance improvements designed to increase the efficiency and reliability of the wind tunnels. These include new (possibly composite) fan blades at several facilities, new temperature control systems, and new and much more capable facility data systems. The second category of improvements are facility capability advancements. These include significant improvements to optical access in wind tunnel test sections at Ames, improvements to test section acoustics at Glenn and Langley, the development of a Supercooled Large Droplet capability for icing research, and the development of an icing capability for large engine testing. The final category of improvements consists of test technology enhancements which provide value across multiple facilities. These include projects to increase balance accuracy, provide NIST-traceable calibration characterization for wind tunnels, and to advance optical instruments for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) validation. Taken as a whole, these individual projects provide significant

  17. Boundary-Layer Transition Detection in Cryogenic Wind Tunnel Using Fluorescent Paints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, John

    1999-01-01

    Luminescent molecular probes imbedded in a polymer binder form a temperature or pressure paint. On excitation by light of the proper wavelength, the luminescence, which is quenched either thermally or by oxygen, is detected by a camera or photodetector. From the detected luminescent intensity, temperature and pressure can be determined. The basic photophysics, calibration, accuracy and time response of a luminescent paints is described followed by applications in low speed, transonic, supersonic and cryogenic wind tunnels and in rotating machinery.

  18. Hovering and Low-Speed Performance and Control Characteristics of the Kaman Helicopter Rotor System as Determined on the Langley Helicopter Tower. TED No. NACA DE 205

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Paul J.; Paulnock, Russell S.

    1949-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted with the Langley helicopter tower to obtain basic performance and control characteristics of the Raman rotor system. Blade-pitch control is obtained in this configuration by utilizing an auxiliary flap to twist the blades. Rotor thrust and power required were measured for the hovering condition and over a range of wind velocities from 0 to 30 miles per hour. The control characteristics and the transient response of the rotor to various control movements were also measured. The hovering-performance data are presented as a survey of the wake velocities and the variation of torque coefficient with thrust coefficient. The power required for the test rotor to hover at a thrust of 1350 pounds and a rotor speed of 240 rpm is approximately 6.5 percent greater than that estimated for a conventional rotor of the same diameter and solidity. It is believed that most of this difference is caused by th e flap servomechanism. The reduction in total power required for sustentation of the single-rotor configuration tested at various wind velocities and at the normal operating rotor thrust was found to be similar to the theoretical and experimental results for ro tors with conventionally actuated pitch. The control effectiveness was determined as a function of rotor speed. Sufficient control was available to give a thrust range of 0 to 1500 pounds and a rotor tilt of plus or minus 7 degrees. The time lag between flap motion and blade-pitch response is approximately 0.02 to 0.03 second. The response of the rotor following the blade-pitch response is similar to that of a rotor with conventionally actuated pitch changes. The over-all characteristics of the rotor investigated indicate that satisfactory performance and control characteristics were obtained.

  19. Wind tunnel tests of four flexible wing ultralight gliders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormiston, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    The aerodynamic lift, drag, and pitching moment characteristics of four full scale, flexible wing, ultralight gliders were measured in the settling chamber of a low speed wind tunnel. The gliders were tested over a wide range of angle of attack and at two different velocities. Particular attention was devoted to the lift and pitching moment behavior at low and negative angles of attack because of the potential loss of longitudinal stability of flexible wing gliders in this regime. The test results were used to estimate the performance and longitudinal control characteristics of the gliders.

  20. A comparison of computer-generated lift and drag polars for a Wortmann airfoil to flight and wind tunnel results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, A. H.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Computations of drag polars for a low-speed Wortmann sailplane airfoil are compared to both wind tunnel and flight results. Excellent correlation is shown to exist between computations and flight results except when separated flow regimes were encountered. Wind tunnel transition locations are shown to agree with computed predictions. Smoothness of the input coordinates to the PROFILE airfoil analysis computer program was found to be essential to obtain accurate comparisons of drag polars or transition location to either the flight or wind tunnel results.

  1. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a 1/8-scale X-29A airplane model at high angles of attack and sideslip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, R. D.; Ricket, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    A 1/8-scale model of the X-29A airplane was tested in the Ames 12-Foot Pressure Wind Tunnel at a Mach number of 0.20 and Reynolds numbers of 0.13 x 10 to the 6th power to 2.00 x 10 to the 6th power based on a fuselage forebody depth of 0.4 ft, For the test series presented herein, the angle of attack ranged from 40 deg. to 90 deg. and the angle of sideslip ranged from -10 deg. to 30 deg. for the erect attitude. Tests with the model inverted covered angles of attack from -40 deg. to -90 deg. and angles of sideslip from -30 deg. to 10 deg. Data were obtained for the basic design and for several forebody strakes. An alternate forebody design was also tested. The results provided information for selection of forebody strakes for compensation of Reynolds number effect on the 1/25-scale free-spinning model tested in the Langley Spin Tunnel.

  2. Experimental and Numerical Optimization of a High-Lift System to Improve Low-Speed Performance, Stability, and Control of an Arrow-Wing Supersonic Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahne, David E.; Glaab, Louis J.

    1999-01-01

    An investigation was performed to evaluate leading-and trailing-edge flap deflections for optimal aerodynamic performance of a High-Speed Civil Transport concept during takeoff and approach-to-landing conditions. The configuration used for this study was designed by the Douglas Aircraft Company during the 1970's. A 0.1-scale model of this configuration was tested in the Langley 30- by 60-Foot Tunnel with both the original leading-edge flap system and a new leading-edge flap system, which was designed with modem computational flow analysis and optimization tools. Leading-and trailing-edge flap deflections were generated for the original and modified leading-edge flap systems with the computational flow analysis and optimization tools. Although wind tunnel data indicated improvements in aerodynamic performance for the analytically derived flap deflections for both leading-edge flap systems, perturbations of the analytically derived leading-edge flap deflections yielded significant additional improvements in aerodynamic performance. In addition to the aerodynamic performance optimization testing, stability and control data were also obtained. An evaluation of the crosswind landing capability of the aircraft configuration revealed that insufficient lateral control existed as a result of high levels of lateral stability. Deflection of the leading-and trailing-edge flaps improved the crosswind landing capability of the vehicle considerably; however, additional improvements are required.

  3. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a wing-canard configuration with underwing spanwise blowing on the trailing-edge flap system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Daniel W.; Paulson, John W., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation of the effects of spanwise blowing applied to the lower surface of a trailing-edge flap system on a wing-canard configuration has been conducted in the Langley 4- by 7-Meter Tunnel. The investigation studied spanwise-blowing angles of 30 deg., 45 deg., and 60 deg. measured from a perpendicular to the body center-line. The test conditions covered a range of free-stream dynamic pressures up to 50 psf for thrust coefficients up to 2.1 over a range of angles of attack from -2 deg. to 26 deg. Model height above the wind tunnel floor was varied from a height-to-span ratio of 1.70 down to 0.20 (a representative wheel touchdown height). The results indicate that blowing angles of 30 deg. and 45 deg. increase the induced-lift increment produced by spanwise blowing on the lower surface of a trailing-edge flap system. Increasing the blowing angle to 60 deg., in general, produces little further improvement.

  4. The Beginner's Guide to Wind Tunnels with TunnelSim and TunnelSys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Thomas J.; Galica, Carol A.; Vila, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    The Beginner's Guide to Wind Tunnels is a Web-based, on-line textbook that explains and demonstrates the history, physics, and mathematics involved with wind tunnels and wind tunnel testing. The Web site contains several interactive computer programs to demonstrate scientific principles. TunnelSim is an interactive, educational computer program that demonstrates basic wind tunnel design and operation. TunnelSim is a Java (Sun Microsystems Inc.) applet that solves the continuity and Bernoulli equations to determine the velocity and pressure throughout a tunnel design. TunnelSys is a group of Java applications that mimic wind tunnel testing techniques. Using TunnelSys, a team of students designs, tests, and post-processes the data for a virtual, low speed, and aircraft wing.

  5. Effect of leading-edge contour and vertical-tail configuration on the low-speed stability characteristics of a supersonic transport model having a highly-swept arrow wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, V. E.

    1978-01-01

    A low-speed investigation was made on a highly-swept arrow-wing model to determine the effect of wing leading-edge contour and vertical-tail configuration on the aerodynamic characteristics in pitch and sideslip. The investigation was made with the trailing-edge flaps deflected over a range of angles of attack from 8 deg to 32 deg. The tests were made at a Mach number of 0.13, which corresponds to a Reynolds number of about 3,000,000 based on the wing reference chord.

  6. Wind Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Dr. Jack Cermak, Director of Fluid Dynamics and Diffusion Laboratory, developed the first wind tunnel to simulate the changing temperatures, directions and velocities of natural winds. In this work, Cermak benefited from NASA technology related to what is known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL).

  7. Low-speed wind-tunnel investigation of forward-located spoilers and trailing splines as trailing-vortex hazard-alleviation devices on an aspect-ratio-8 wing model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croom, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley V/STOL tunnel in order to determine, by the trailing-wing sensor technique, the effectiveness of either a forward-mounted spoiler or a tip-mounted spline as trailing-vortex attenuation devices on an unswept aspect-ratio-8 wing model. The trailing-wing rolling-moment data taken in the tunnel diffuser section show good agreement with the data taken in the tunnel test section. This agreement indicates that reasonable results may be obtained in the Langley V/STOL tunnel in experimental investigations of the trailing-vortex hazard at relatively great distances behind aircraft models.

  8. Wind energy.

    PubMed

    Leithead, W E

    2007-04-15

    From its rebirth in the early 1980s, the rate of development of wind energy has been dramatic. Today, other than hydropower, it is the most important of the renewable sources of power. The UK Government and the EU Commission have adopted targets for renewable energy generation of 10 and 12% of consumption, respectively. Much of this, by necessity, must be met by wind energy. The US Department of Energy has set a goal of 6% of electricity supply from wind energy by 2020. For this potential to be fully realized, several aspects, related to public acceptance, and technical issues, related to the expected increase in penetration on the electricity network and the current drive towards larger wind turbines, need to be resolved. Nevertheless, these challenges will be met and wind energy will, very likely, become increasingly important over the next two decades. An overview of the technology is presented. PMID:17272245

  9. Wind tunnel force and pressure tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, W. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Force and surface pressure distributions were measured for a 13% medium speed (NASA MS(1)-0313) airfoil fitted with 20% aileron, 25% slotted flap and 10% slot lip spoiler. All tests were conducted in the Walter Beech Memorial Wind Tunnel at a Reynolds number of 2.2 million and a Mach number of 0.13. Results include lift, drag, pitching moments, control surface normal force and hinge moments, and surface pressure distributions. The basic airfoil exhibits low speed characteristics similar to the GA(W)-2 airfoil. Incremental aileron and spoiler performance are quite comparable to that obtained on the GA(W)-2 airfoil. Slotted flap performance on this section is reduced compared to the GA(W)-2, resulting in a highest c sub l max of 3.00 compared to 3.35 for the GA(W)-2.

  10. NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Hybrid Wing Body Flow-Through Nacelle Wind Tunnel CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuh, Michael J.; Garcia, Jospeh A.; Carter, Melissa B.; Deere, Karen A.; Stremel, Paul M.; Tompkins, Daniel M.

    2016-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests of a 5.75% scale model of the Boeing Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 14'x22' and NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) 40'x80' low speed wind tunnels as part of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the flow-through nacelle (FTN) configuration of this model were performed before and after the testing. This paper presents a summary of the experimental and CFD results for the model in the cruise and landing configurations.

  11. NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Hybrid Wing Body Flow-Through Nacelle Wind Tunnel CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuh, Michael J.; Garcia, Joseph A.; Carter, Melissa B.; Deere, Karen A.; Tompkins, Daniel M.; Stremel, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests of a 5.75 scale model of the Boeing Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) configuration were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 14x22 and NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) 40x80 low speed wind tunnels as part of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of the flow-through nacelle (FTN) configuration of this model were performed before and after the testing. This paper presents a summary of the experimental and CFD results for the model in the cruise and landing configurations.

  12. Hot-film system for transition detection in cryogenic wind tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles B.; Carraway, Debra L.; Stainback, P. Calvin; Fancher, M. F.

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that the determination of the location of boundary-layer transition is necessary for the correct interpretation of aerodynamic data in transonic wind tunnels. In the late 1970s the Douglas Aircraft Company developed a vapor deposition hot-film system for transition detection in cryogenic wind tunnels. Tests of the hot-films in a low-speed tunnel demonstrated the ability to obtain on-line transition data with an enhanced simultaneous hot-film data acquisition system. The equipment design and specifications are described.

  13. A Transverse Flux High-Temperature Superconducting Generator Topology for Large Direct Drive Wind Turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keysan, Ozan; Mueller, Markus A.

    The cost and mass of an offshore wind turbine power-train can be reduced by using high-temperature superconducting generators, but for a successful commercial design the superconducting generator should be as reliable as its alternatives. In this paper, we present a novel transverse flux superconducting generator topology which is suitable for low-speed, high-torque applications. The generator is designed with a stationary superconducting field winding and a variable reluctance claw pole motor for simplified mechanical structure and maximum reliability. 3D FEA simulation results of a 70 kW prototype is presented.

  14. The Interference Effects of a Body on the Spanwise Load Distributions of Two 45 Degree Sweptback Wings of Aspect Ratio 8.02 from Low-Speed Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martina, Albert P.

    1956-01-01

    Tests of two wing-body combinations have been conducted in the Langley 19-foot pressure tunnel at a Reynolds number of 4 x 10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.19 to determine the effects of the bodies on the wing span load distributions. The wings had 45 degrees sweepback of the quarter-chord line, aspect ratio 8.02, taper ratio 0.45, and incorporated 12-percent-thick airfoil sections streamwise. One wing was untwisted and uncambered whereas the second wing incorporated both twist and camber. Identical bodies of revolution, of 10:1 fineness ratio, having diameter-to-span ratios of 0.10, were mounted in mid-high-wing arrangements. The effects of wind incidence, wing fences, and flap deflection were determined for the plane uncambered wing. The addition of the body to the plane wing increased the exposed wing loading at a given lift coefficient as much as 10 percent with the body at 0 degrees incidence and 4 percent at 4 degrees incidence. The bending-moment coefficients at the wing-body juncture were increased about 2 percent with the body at 0 degrees incidence, whereas the increases were as much as 10 percent with the body at 4 degrees incidence. The spanwise load distributions due to the body on the plane wing as calculated by using a swept-wing method employing 19 spanwise lifting elements and control points generally showed satisfactory agreement with experiment. The spanwise load distributions due to body on the flapped plane wing and on the twisted and cambered wing were dissimilar to those obtained on the plane wing. Neither of the methods of calculation which were employed yielded distributions that agreed consistently with experiment for either the flapped plane wing or the twisted and cambered wing.

  15. Results of design studies and wind tunnel tests of an advanced high lift system for an Energy Efficient Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The development of an advanced technology high lift system for an energy efficient transport incorporating a high aspect ratio supercritical wing is described. This development is based on the results of trade studies to select the high lift system, analysis techniques utilized to design the high lift system, and results of a wind tunnel test program. The program included the first experimental low speed, high Reynolds number wind tunnel test for this class of aircraft. The experimental results include the effects on low speed aerodynamic characteristics of various leading and trailing edge devices, nacelles and pylons, aileron, spoilers, and Mach and Reynolds numbers. Results are discussed and compared with the experimental data and the various aerodynamic characteristics are estimated.

  16. Stellar Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owocki, Stan

    A "stellar wind" is the continuous, supersonic outflow of matter from the surface layers of a star. Our sun has a solar wind, driven by the gas-pressure expansion of the hot (T > 106 K) solar corona. It can be studied through direct in situ measurement by interplanetary spacecraft; but analogous coronal winds in more distant solar-type stars are so tenuous and transparent that that they are difficult to detect directly. Many more luminous stars have winds that are dense enough to be opaque at certain wavelengths of the star's radiation, making it possible to study their wind outflows remotely through careful interpretation of the observed stellar spectra. Red giant stars show slow, dense winds that may be driven by the pressure from magnetohydrodyanmic waves. As stars with initial mass up to 8 M ⊙ evolve toward the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB), a combination of stellar pulsations and radiative scattering off dust can culminate in "superwinds" that strip away the entire stellar envelope, leaving behind a hot white dwarf stellar core with less than the Chandrasekhar mass of ˜ ​​ 1. 4M ⊙. The winds of hot, luminous, massive stars are driven by line-scattering of stellar radiation, but such massive stars can also exhibit superwind episodes, either as Red Supergiants or Luminous Blue Variable stars. The combined wind and superwind mass loss can strip the star's hydrogen envelope, leaving behind a Wolf-Rayet star composed of the products of earlier nuclear burning via the CNO cycle. In addition to such direct effects on a star's own evolution, stellar winds can be a substantial source of mass, momentum, and energy to the interstellar medium, blowing open large cavities or "bubbles" in this ISM, seeding it with nuclear processed material, and even helping trigger the formation of new stars, and influencing their eventual fate as white dwarves or core-collapse supernovae. This chapter reviews the properties of such stellar winds, with an emphasis on the various

  17. Acoustic measurements from a rotor blade-vortex interaction noise experiment in the German-Dutch Wind Tunnel (DNW)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Ruth M.; Splettstoesser, W. R.; Elliott, J. W.; Schultz, K.-J.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic data are presented from a 40 percent scale model of the 4-bladed BO-105 helicopter main rotor, measured in the large European aeroacoustic wind tunnel, the DNW. Rotor blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise data in the low speed flight range were acquired using a traversing in-flow microphone array. The experimental apparatus, testing procedures, calibration results, and experimental objectives are fully described. A large representative set of averaged acoustic signals is presented.

  18. Filament winding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibley, A. M.

    The major aspects of filament winding are discussed, emphasizing basic reinforcement and matrix materials, winding procedures, process controls, and cured composite properties. Fiberglass (E-glass and S-glass strengths are 500,000 and 665,000 psi respectively) and polyester resins are the principal reinforcement constituent materials. Graphite and aramid reinforcements are being used more frequently, primarily for the more critical pressure vessels. Matrix systems are most commonly based on epoxy as it has superior mechanical properties, fatigue behavior, and heat resistance as compard with polyesters. A fiberglass overwrap of PVC pipe is an anticipated development in on-site winding and combination winding, and the compression molding of filament wound lay-ups will be investigated. The fabrication of weight-sensitive structural components may be achieved by using such moldings.

  19. 78 FR 29364 - Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ...-005, QF07-257-004] Exelon Corporation, Exelon Wind 1, LLC, Exelon Wind 2, LLC, Exelon Wind 3, LLC, Exelon Wind 4, LLC, Exelon Wind 5, LLC, Exelon Wind 6, LLC, Exelon Wind 7, LLC, Exelon Wind 8, LLC, Exelon Wind 9, LLC, Exelon Wind 10, LLC, Exelon Wind 11, LLC, High Plains Wind Power, LLC v. Xcel...

  20. Experimental study of flow around scaled wind turbine arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez Alarcon, Ramiro; Balakumar, B. J.; Shu, Fangjun

    2012-11-01

    An array of scaled model wind turbines, designed using blade element momentum theory, were investigated in a low-speed wind tunnel under uniform laminar inflow conditions. To investigate the influence of neighbor wind turbines, a 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to measure the flow field in the wake of the turbines. It is found that flow in the wake of the turbine is axisymmetric about the turbine axis, and is not dependent on the blades orientation. A detailed dataset containing wake structure variations including velocity deficit and Reynolds stresses was obtained and compared with previously obtained data corresponding to a single wind turbine. The power extracted by a single wind turbine under the influence of the array was obtained from the velocity deficit observed at the wake and compared with the power obtained from torque sensor measurements. The complete investigation is compared with previously obtained data corresponding to a single wind turbine. Supported by Los Alamos National Laboratory's LDRD program through Grant # 20100040DR.

  1. Reconfigurable flight control for high angle of attack fighter aircraft, with wind tunnel study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Bilal Ahmed

    In this work we studied Reconfigurable Flight Control Systems to achieve acceptable performance of a fighter aircraft, even in the event of wing damage to the aircraft at low speeds and high angle of attack, which is typical of many combat maneuvers. Equations of motion for the damaged aircraft were derived, which helped in building simulators. A new methodology combining experimental and numerical aerodynamic prediction was proposed and implemented. For this a wind-tunnel study of a similar configuration was carried out to study the aerodynamics at low speeds and high angle of attack. A baseline control system for undamaged aircraft was developed, and finally a reconfigurable flight control scheme was implemented to keep the aircraft flyable even after the damage.

  2. Wake characteristics of a tower for the DOE-NASA MOD-1 wind turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savino, J. M.; Wagner, L. H.; Nash, M.

    1978-01-01

    A 1/40th scale model of a tower concept designed for a MOD-1 wind power turbine was tested in a low speed wind tunnel. Wake wind speed profiles were measured, and from these were determined local values of wake minimum velocity ratio, average velocity ratio, and width over a range of tower elevations and wind approach angles. Comparison with results from two other all tubular models (MOD-0 and eight leg designs) tested earlier in the same tunnel indicated that wake width and flow blockage at the rotor plane of rotation were slightly larger for the MOD-1 tower than for the other two models. The differences in wake characteristics were attributed to differences in tower geometry and member dimensions.

  3. Wake characteristics of an eight-leg tower for a MOD-0 type wind turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savino, J. M.; Wagner, L. H.; Sinclair, D.

    1977-01-01

    Low speed wind tunnel tests were conducted to determine the flow characteristics of the wake downwind of a 1/25th scale, all tubular eight leg tower concept suitable for application to the DOE-NASA MOD-0 wind power turbine. Measurements were made of wind speed profiles, and from these were determined the wake local minimum velocity, average velocity, and width for several wind approach angles. These data are presented herein along with tower shadow photographs and comparisons with data from an earlier lattice type, four leg tower model constructed of tubular members. Values of average wake velocity defect ratio and average ratio of wake width to blade radius for the eight leg model were estimated to be around 0.17 and 0.30, respectively, at the plane of the rotor blade. These characteristics suggest that the tower wake of the eight leg concept is slightly less than that of the four leg design.

  4. Winding Schemes for Wide Constant Power Range of Double Stator Transverse Flux Machine

    SciTech Connect

    Husain, Tausif; Hassan, Iftekhar; Sozer, Yilmaz; Husain, Iqbal; Muljadi, Eduard

    2015-05-01

    Different ring winding schemes for double sided transverse flux machines are investigated in this paper for wide speed operation. The windings under investigation are based on two inverters used in parallel. At higher power applications this arrangement improves the drive efficiency. The new winding structure through manipulation of the end connection splits individual sets into two and connects the partitioned turns from individual stator sets in series. This configuration offers the flexibility of torque profiling and a greater flux weakening region. At low speeds and low torque only one winding set is capable of providing the required torque thus providing greater fault tolerance. At higher speeds one set is dedicated to torque production and the other for flux control. The proposed method improves the machine efficiency and allows better flux weakening which is desirable for traction applications.

  5. Galactic Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, Sylvain

    Galactic winds have become arguably one of the hottest topics in extragalactic astronomy. This enthusiasm for galactic winds is due in part to the detection of winds in many, if not most, high-redshift galaxies. Galactic winds have also been invoked by theorists to (1) suppress the number of visible dwarf galaxies and avoid the "cooling catastrophe" at high redshift that results in the overproduction of massive luminous galaxies, (2) remove material with low specific angular momentum early on and help enlarge gas disks in CDM + baryons simulations, (3) reduce the dark mass concentrations in galaxies, (4) explain the mass-metallicity relation of galaxies from selective loss of metal-enriched gas from smaller galaxies, (5) enrich and "preheat" the ICM, (6) enrich the IGM without disturbing the Lyαforest significantly, and (7) inhibit cooling flows in galaxy clusters with active cD galaxies. The present paper highlights a few key aspects of galactic winds taken from a recent ARAA review by Veilleux, Cecil, &Bland-Hawthorn (2005; herafter VCBH). Readers interested in a more detailed discussion of this topic are encouraged to refer to the original ARAA article.

  6. Experimental Determination of the Effect of Horizontal-Tail Size, Tail Length, and Vertical Location on Low-Speed Static Longitudinal Stability and Damping Pitch of a Model Having 45 Degree Sweptback Wing and Tail Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtenstein, Jacob H

    1952-01-01

    Report presents the results of an investigation conducted in the Langley stability tunnel to determine the effects of horizontal tails of various sizes and at various tail lengths (when loaded on the fuselage center line) and also the effects of vertical location of the horizontal tail relative to the wing on the low-speed static longitudinal stability and on the steady-state rotary damping in pitch for a complete-model configuration. The wing and tail surfaces had the quarter-chord lines swept back 45 degrees and had aspect ratios of 4. The results of the investigation showed that, in agreement with analytical considerations, the contribution of the horizontal tail to static longitudinal stability was related directly to the tail size and length; whereas, its contribution to damping in pitch was related directly to tail size and the square of tail length.

  7. Effects of wing height on low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a model having a 42 deg swept wing, a supercritical airfoil, double-slotted flaps, and a low tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournier, P. G.; Sleeman, W. C., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    A low speed investigation was conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to determine the static longitudinal lateral stability characteristics of a general research model with the wing in a high position and a low position on the fuselage. The model had a wing with a quarter chord sweep of 42 deg, an aspect ratio of 6.78, a supercritical airfoil, and a high lift system which consisted of a leading edge slat and a double slotted flap. Various slat and flap deflections represented clean, take off, and landing configurations. A 45 deg swept horizontal tail located slightly below the fuselage center line was investigated with both the low and high wing configurations.

  8. Wind Generators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  9. Wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  10. The origin of the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axford, W. I.; McKenzie, J. F.

    1995-01-01

    The high speed solar wind, which is associated with coronal holes and unipolar interplanetary magnetic field, has now been observed in situ beyond 0.3 a.u. and at latitudes up to 80 degrees. Its important characteristics are that it is remarkably steady in terms of flow properties and composition and that the ions, especially minor species, are favored in terms of heating and acceleration. We have proposed that the high speed wind, with its associated coronal holes, forms the basic mode of solar wind flow. In contrast, the low speed wind is inherently non-stationary, filamentary and not in equilibrium with conditions at the coronal base. It is presumably the result of continual reconfigurations of the force-free magnetic field in the low-latitude closed corona which allow trapped plasma to drain away along transiently open flux tubes. Observations of high speed solar wind close to its source are hampered by the essential heterogeneity of the corona, even at sunspot minimum. In particular it is difficult to determine more than limits to the density, temperature and wave amplitude near the coronal base as a result of contamination from fore- and back-ground plasma. We interpret the observations as indicating that the high speed solar wind originates in the chromospheric network, covering only about 1% of the surface of the sun, where the magnetic field is complex and not unipolar. As a result of small-scale reconnection events in this 'furnace', Alfven waves are generated with a flat spectrum covering the approximate range 10 kHz to 10 Hz. The plasma is likely to be produced as a result of downwards thermal conduction and possibly photoionization at the top of the low density chromospheric interface to the furnace, thus controlling the mass flux in the wind. The immediate source of free (magnetic) energy is in the form of granule-sized loops which are continually carried into the network from the sides. The resulting wave spectrum is such that energy can be

  11. Wind tunnel investigation on wind turbine wakes and wind farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iungo, G. V.; Coëffé, J.; Porté-Agel, F.

    2012-04-01

    The interaction between atmospheric boundary layer and wind farms leads to flow modifications, which need to be deeply characterized in order to relate them to wind farm performance. The wake flow produced from a wind farm is the result of a strong interaction between multiple turbine wakes, so that the wind farm configuration turns out to be one of the dominant features to enhance power production. For the present work a wind tunnel investigation was carried out with hot-wire anemometry and velocity measurements performed with multi-hole pressure probes. The tested wind farms consist of miniature three-bladed wind turbine models. Preliminarily, the wake flow generated from a single wind turbine is surveyed, which is characterized by a strong velocity defect lying in proximity of the wind turbine hub height. The wake gradually recovers by moving downstream; the characteristics of the incoming boundary layer and wind turbulence intensity can strongly affect the wake recovery, and thus performance of following wind turbines. An increased turbulence level is typically detected downstream of each wind turbine for heights comparable to the wind turbine blade top-tip. These wake flow fluctuations produce increased fatigue loads on the following wind turbines within a wind farm, which could represent a significant hazard for real wind turbines. Dynamics of vorticity structures present in wind turbine wakes are also investigated; particular attention is paid to the downstream evolution of the tip helicoidal vortices and to oscillations of the hub vortex. The effect of wind farm layout on power production is deeply investigated. Particular emphasis is placed on studying how the flow adjusts as it moves inside the wind farm and can affect the power production. Aligned and staggered wind farm configurations are analysed, also with varying separation distances in the streamwise and spanwise directions. The present experimental results are being used to test and guide the

  12. Wind energy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  13. Wind Variability of B Supergiants. No. 2; The Two-component Stellar Wind of gamma Arae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinja, R. K.; Massa, D.; Fullerton, A. W.; Howarth, I. D.; Pontefract, M.

    1996-01-01

    The stellar wind of the rapidly rotating early-B supergiant, gamma Ara, is studied using time series, high-resolution IUE spectroscopy secured over approx. 6 days in 1993 March. Results are presented based on an analysis of several line species, including N(N), C(IV), Si(IV), Si(III), C(II), and Al(III). The wind of this star is grossly structured, with evidence for latitude-dependent mass loss which reflects the role of rapid rotation. Independent, co-existing time variable features are identified at low-velocity (redward of approx. -750 km/s) and at higher-speeds extending to approx. -1500 km/s. The interface between these structures is 'defined' by the appearance of a discrete absorption component which is extremely sharp (in velocity space). The central velocity of this 'Super DAC' changes only gradually, over several days, between approx. -400 and -750 km/s in most of the ions. However, its location is shifted redward by almost 400 km/s in Al(III) and C(II), indicating that the physical structure giving rise to this feature has a substantial velocity and ionization jump. Constraints on the relative ionization properties of the wind structures are discussed, together with results based on SEI line-profile-fitting methods. The overall wind activity in gamma Ara exhibits a clear ion dependence, such that low-speed features are promoted in low-ionization species, including Al(III), C(II), and Si(III). We also highlight that - in contrast to most OB stars - there are substantial differences in the epoch-to-epoch time-averaged wind profiles of gamma Ara. We interpret the results in terms of a two-component wind model for gamma Ara, with an equatorially compressed low ionization region, and a high speed, higher-ionization polar outflow. This picture is discussed in the context of the predicted bi-stability mechanism for line-driven winds in rapidly rotating early-B type stars, and the formation of compressed wind regions in rapidly rotating hot stars. The apparent

  14. The application of cryogenics to high Reynolds number testing in wind tunnels. II - Development and application of the cryogenic wind tunnel concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilgore, R. A.; Dress, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The development and application of the cryogenic wind tunnel concept at the Langley Research Center are described. Particular attention is given to the low-speed cryogenic tunnel and the pilot transonic cryogenic tunnel. The major conclusions with respect to the operation and performance of the pilot transonic cryogenic tunnel after almost 4000 h of operation at cryogenic temperatures are that: (1) purging, cooldown, and warm-up times are acceptable and can be predicted with good accuracy, and that (2) the quantity of liquid nitrogen required for cooldown and running can be predicted with good accuracy. The U.S. National Transonic Facility is described in detail.

  15. Computation of Low Speed Cavity Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blech, Richard A. (Technical Monitor); Loh, Ching Y.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last five years, the Aircraft Icing Project of the NASA Aviation Safety Program has developed a number of in-flight icing education and training aids to support increased awareness for pilots of the hazards associated with atmospheric icing conditions. Through the development of this work, a number of new instructional design approaches and media delivery methods have been introduced to enhance the learning experience, expand user interactivity and participation, and, hopefully, increase the learner retention rates. The goal of using these multimedia techniques is to increase the effectiveness of the training materials. This paper will describe the multimedia technology that has been introduced and give examples of how it was used.

  16. Low speed propellers: Impact of advanced technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keiter, I. D.

    1980-01-01

    Sensitivity studies performed to evaluate the potential of several advanced technological elements on propeller performance, noise, weight, and cost for general aviation aircraft are discussed. Studies indicate that the application of advanced technologies to general aviation propellers can reduce fuel consumption in future aircraft an average of ten percent, meeting current regulatory noise limits. Through the use of composite blade construction, up to 25 percent propeller weight reduction can be achieved. This weight reduction in addition to seven percent propeller efficiency improvements through application of advanced technologies result in four percent reduction in direct operating costs, ten percent reduction in aircraft acquisition cost, and seven percent lower gross weight for general aviation aircraft.

  17. Mod-2 wind turbine field operations experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    The three-machine, 7.5 MW Goodnoe Hills located near Goldendale, Washington and is now in a research/experimental operations phase that offers a unique opportunity to study the effects of single and multiple wind turbines interacting with each other, the power grid; and the environment. Following a brief description of the turbine and project history, this paper addresses major problem areas and research and development test results. Field operations, both routine and nonroutine, are discussed. Routine operation to date has produced over 13,379,000 KWh of electrical energy during 11,064 hr of rotation. Nonroutine operation includes suspended activities caused by a crack in the low speed shaft that necessitated a redesign and reinstallation of this assembly on all three turbines. With the world's largest cluster back in full operation, two of the turbines will be operated over the next years to determine their value as energy producer. The third unit will be used primarily for conducting research tests requiring configuration changes to better understand the wind turbine technology. Technical areas summarized pertain to system performance and enhancements. Specific research tests relating to acoustics, TV interference, and wake effects conclude the paper.

  18. Luminescent Paints Used for Rotating Temperature and Pressure Measurements on Scale-Model High-Bypass-Ratio Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bencic, Timothy J.

    1998-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is a leader in the application of temperature- and pressuresensitive paints (TSP and PSP) in rotating environments. Tests were recently completed on several scale model, high-bypass-ratio turbofans in Lewis' 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. Two of the test objectives were to determine the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the fan designs. Using TSP and PSP, researchers successfully achieved fullfield aerodynamic loading profiles. The visualized loading profiles may help researchers identify factors contributing to the fans' performance and to the acoustic characteristics associated with the flow physics on the surface of the blades.

  19. Aero-acoustic experimental verification of optimum configuration of variable-pitch fans for 40 x 80 foot subsonic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lown, H.

    1977-01-01

    The aerodynamic and acoustic performance of two drive fan configurations (low-speed and high-speed variable pitch design) for a 40 x 80 foot wind tunnel were monitored. A 1/7-scale model was utilized. The necessary aero-acoustic data reduction computer program logic was supplied. Test results were evaluated, and the optimum configuration to be employed in the 40 foot full scale fan was recommended.

  20. A Cross-Validation Approach to Approximate Basis Function Selection of the Stall Flutter Response of a Rectangular Wing in a Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kukreja, Sunil L.; Vio, Gareth A.; Andrianne, Thomas; azak, Norizham Abudl; Dimitriadis, Grigorios

    2012-01-01

    The stall flutter response of a rectangular wing in a low speed wind tunnel is modelled using a nonlinear difference equation description. Static and dynamic tests are used to select a suitable model structure and basis function. Bifurcation criteria such as the Hopf condition and vibration amplitude variation with airspeed were used to ensure the model was representative of experimentally measured stall flutter phenomena. Dynamic test data were used to estimate model parameters and estimate an approximate basis function.

  1. Investigation of Unsteady Flow Field in a Low-Speed One and a Half Stage Axial Compressor. Part 2; Effects of Tip Gap Size On the Tip Clearance Flow Structure at Near Stall Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hah, Chunill; Hathaway, Michael; Katz, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The primary focus of this paper is to investigate the effect of rotor tip gap size on how the rotor unsteady tip clearance flow structure changes in a low speed one and half stage axial compressor at near stall operation (for example, where maximum pressure rise is obtained). A Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is applied to calculate the unsteady flow field at this flow condition with both a small and a large tip gaps. The numerically obtained flow fields at the small clearance matches fairly well with the available initial measurements obtained at the Johns Hopkins University with 3-D unsteady PIV in an index-matched test facility which renders the compressor blades and casing optically transparent. With this setup, the unsteady velocity field in the entire flow domain, including the flow inside the tip gap, can be measured. The numerical results are also compared with previously published measurements in a low speed single stage compressor (Maerz et al. [2002]). The current study shows that, with the smaller rotor tip gap, the tip clearance vortex moves to the leading edge plane at near stall operating condition, creating a nearly circumferentially aligned vortex that persists around the entire rotor. On the other hand, with a large tip gap, the clearance vortex stays inside the blade passage at near stall operation. With the large tip gap, flow instability and related large pressure fluctuation at the leading edge are observed in this one and a half stage compressor. Detailed examination of the unsteady flow structure in this compressor stage reveals that the flow instability is due to shed vortices near the leading edge, and not due to a three-dimensional separation vortex originating from the suction side of the blade, which is commonly referred to during a spike-type stall inception. The entire tip clearance flow is highly unsteady. Many vortex structures in the tip clearance flow, including the sheet vortex system near the casing, interact with each other. The

  2. 77 FR 29633 - Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC, Alta Wind XIII, LLC, Alta Wind XIV, LLC, Alta Wind XV, LLC, Alta Windpower... Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207, Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta...

  3. A numerical study of the effects of wind tunnel wall proximity on an airfoil model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potsdam, Mark; Roberts, Leonard

    1990-01-01

    A procedure was developed for modeling wind tunnel flows using computational fluid dynamics. Using this method, a numerical study was undertaken to explore the effects of solid wind tunnel wall proximity and Reynolds number on a two-dimensional airfoil model at low speed. Wind tunnel walls are located at varying wind tunnel height to airfoil chord ratios and the results are compared with freestream flow in the absence of wind tunnel walls. Discrepancies between the constrained and unconstrained flows can be attributed to the presence of the walls. Results are for a Mach Number of 0.25 at angles of attack through stall. A typical wind tunnel Reynolds number of 1,200,000 and full-scale flight Reynolds number of 6,000,000 were investigated. At this low Mach number, wind tunnel wall corrections to Mach number and angle of attack are supported. Reynolds number effects are seen to be a consideration in wind tunnel testing and wall interference correction methods. An unstructured grid Navier-Stokes code is used with a Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model. The numerical method is described since unstructured flow solvers present several difficulties and fundamental differences from structured grid codes, especially in the area of turbulence modeling and grid generation.

  4. Wind Technologies & Evolving Opportunities (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, R.

    2014-07-01

    This presentation covers opportunities for wind technology; wind energy market trends; an overview of the National Wind Technology Center near Boulder, Colorado; wind energy price and cost trends; wind turbine technology improvements; and wind resource characterization improvements.

  5. Investigation of the Low-Speed Stability and Control Characteristics of a 1/10-Scale Model of the Convair YF-102 Airplane in the Langley Free-Flight Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Joseph L., Jr.; Boisseau, Peter C.

    1953-01-01

    An investigation of the low-speed, power-off stability and control characteristics of a 1/10-scale model of the Convair YF-102 airplane has been made in the Langley free-flight tunnel. The model was flown over a lift-coefficient range from 0.5 to the stall in its basic configuration and with several modifications involving leading-edge slats and increases in vertical-tail size. Only relatively low-altitude conditions were simulated and no attempt was made to determine the effect of freeing the controls. The longitudinal stability characteristics of the model were considered satisfactory for all conditions investigated. The lateral stability characteristics were considered satisfactory for the basic configuration over the speed range investigated except near the stall, where large values of static directional instability caused the model to be directionally divergent. The addition of leading-edge slats or an 8-percent increase in vertical-tail area increased the angle of attack at which the model became directionally divergent. The use of leading-edge slats in combination with a 40-percent increase in vertical-tail size eliminated the directional divergence and produced satisfactory stability characteristics through the stall. The longitudinal and lateral control characteristics were generally satisfactory. Although the adverse sideslip characteristics for the model were considered satisfactory over the angle-of-attack range, analysis indicates that the adverse sideslip characteristics of the airplane may be objectionable at high angles of attack.

  6. Low speed aerodynamic characteristics of a transport model having 42.33 deg swept low wing with supercritical airfoil, double-slotted flaps, and T-tail or low tail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournier, P. G.

    1975-01-01

    A low-speed investigation was conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel over an angle-of-attack range of approximately 4 deg to 24 deg to determine the static longitudinal stability characteristics and high lift performance of a general research model which represented an advanced subsonic transport configuration. The model had a 42.33 deg swept, aspect ratio 7.05 wing with a supercritical airfoil and high lift system consisting of a leading edge device (slat or Kruger flap) and a double-slotted flap. The flaps were deflected for take off and landing configurations and were not deflected for tests of the clean configuration. The model was tested with the horizontal tail in either a T tail or low tail position. The effects of various arrangements of flowthrough nacelles which represent a three engine configuration (two large wing-mounted nacelles and a vertical tail mounted nacelle) and a four engine configuration (four smaller wing-mounted nacelles) were determined.

  7. Low-speed aerodynamic performance of an aspect-ratio-10 supercritical-wing transport model equipped with a full-span slat and part-span and full-span double-slotted flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, H. L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 4 by 7 Meter Tunnel to determine the static longitudinal and lateral directional aerodynamic characteristics of an advanced aspect ratio 10 supercritical wing transport model equipped with a full span leading edge slat as well as part span and full span trailing edge flaps. This wide body transport model was also equipped with spoiler and aileron roll control surfaces, flow through nacelles, landing gear, and movable horizontal tails. Six basic wing configurations were tested: (1) cruise (slats and flaps nested), (2) climb (slats deflected and flaps nested), (3) part span flap, (4) full span flap, (5) full span flap with low speed ailerons, and (6) full span flap with high speed ailerons. Each of the four flapped wing configurations was tested with leading edge slat and trailing edge flaps deflected to settings representative of both take off and landing conditions. Tests were conducted at free stream conditions corresponding to Reynolds number of 0.97 to 1.63 x 10 to the 6th power and corresponding Mach numbers of 0.12 to 0.20, through an angle of attack range of 4 to 24, and a sideslip angle range of -10 deg to 5 deg. The part and full span wing configurations were also tested in ground proximity.

  8. Preliminary Evaluation of the Low-Speed Stability and Control Characteristics of the McDonnell XP-85 Airplane from Tests of an Unballasted 1/5-Scale Model in the Langley Free-Flight Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, John W.; Johnson, Joseph L.

    1947-01-01

    At the request of the Air Material Command, Army Air Forces an investigation of the low-speed, power-off stability and control characteristics of the McDonnell XP-85 airplane is being conducted in the Langley free-flight tunnel. The XP-85 airplane is a jet propelled, parasite fighter with a 34 deg sweepback at the wing quarter chord. It was designed to be carried in a bomb bay of the B-36 air plane. The first portion of the investigation consists of a preliminary evaluation of the stability and control characteristics of the airplane from force and fight tests of an unballasted 1/5-scale model. The second portion of the investigation consists of test of a properly balasted 1/10-scale model which will include a study of the stability of the Xp-85 when attached to the trapeze for retraction into the B-36 bomb bay. The results of the preliminary test with the 1/5-scale model are presented herein. This portion fo the investigation included tests of the model with various center fin arrangements. Both the design nose flap and a stall control vane were investigated.

  9. Low-Speed Investigation of the Effects of Frequency and Amplitude of Oscillation in Sideslip on the Lateral Stability Derivatives of a 60 deg Delta Wing, a 45 deg Sweptback Wing and an Unswept Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtenstein, Jacob H.; Williams, James L.

    1961-01-01

    A low-speed investigation has been conducted in the Langley stability tunnel to study the effects of frequency and amplitude of sideslipping motion on the lateral stability derivatives of a 60 deg. delta wing, a 45 deg. sweptback wing, and an unswept wing. The investigation was made for values of the reduced-frequency parameter of 0.066 and 0.218 and for a range of amplitudes from +/- 2 to +/- 6 deg. The results of the investigation indicated that increasing the frequency of the oscillation generally produced an appreciable change in magnitude of the lateral oscillatory stability derivatives in the higher angle-of-attack range. This effect was greatest for the 60 deg. delta wing and smallest for the unswept wing and generally resulted in a more linear variation of these derivatives with angle of attack. For the relatively high frequency at which the amplitude was varied, there appeared to be little effect on the measured derivatives as a result of the change in amplitude of the oscillation.

  10. Investigation in the Langley Free-Flight Tunnel of the Low-Speed Stability and Control Characteristics of a 1/10-Scale Model Simulating the Convair F-102A Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boisseau, Peter C.

    1955-01-01

    An investigation of the low-speed, power-off stability and control characteristics of a 1/10-scale model simulating the Convair F-102A airplane has been made in the Langley free-flight tunnel. The model in its basic configuration and with two modifications involving leading- edge slats and an increase in vertical-tail size was flown through a lift-coefficient range from 0.7 to the stall. Only relatively low-altitude conditions were simulated. The longitudinal stability characteristics of the model were considered satisfactory for all conditions investigated. The lateral stability characteristics were considered satisfactory for the basic configuration over the lift-coefficient range investigated, except near the stall, where large values of static directional instability caused the model to be directionally divergent. An 80-percent increase in vertical-tail area increased the angle of attack at which the model became directionally divergent. The longitudinal and lateral control characteristics were generally satisfactory. Although the adverse sideslip characteristics for the model were considered acceptable over the angle-of-attack range, analysis indicates that the adverse sideslip characteristics of the airplane may be objectionable at high angles of attack.

  11. Design techniques for developing a computerized instrumentation test plan. [for wind tunnel test data acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, S. Kay; Forsyth, Theodore J.; Maynard, Everett E.

    1987-01-01

    The development of a computerized instrumentation test plan (ITP) for the NASA/Ames Research Center National Full Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) is discussed. The objective of the ITP program was to aid the instrumentation engineer in documenting the configuration and calibration of data acquisition systems for a given test at any of four low speed wind tunnel facilities (Outdoor Aerodynamic Research Facility, 7 x 10, 40 x 80, and 80 x 120) at the NFAC. It is noted that automation of the ITP has decreased errors, engineering hours, and setup time while adding a higher level of consistency and traceability.

  12. Tip aerodynamics from wind tunnel test of semi-span wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanaken, Johannes M.; Stroub, Robert H.

    1986-01-01

    Presented are the results of a low-speed wind tunnel test on a 5.33-aspect-ratio, semi-span wing with 30- and 35 deg swept tapered tips. The test results include aerodynamic data for the tip itself and for the entire wing including the tip. The metric tip extended inboard 1.58 wing chord lengths. The aerodynamic drag data show the strong influence of tip incidence angle on tip drag for various lift levels. Pitching-moment characteristics show the effect of a moment center at 0.13 c and 0.25 c.

  13. Numerical Study of the High-Speed Leg of a Wind Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayani, Sudheer; Sellers, William L, III; Brynildsen, Scott E.; Everhart, Joel L.

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes a numerical study of the high-speed leg of the NASA Langley 14 x 22-ft Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. The high-speed leg consists of the settling chamber, contraction, test section, and first diffuser. Results are shown comparing two different sources of surface geometry, and two different unstructured grid solvers for the flow characteristics. Numerical simulations of the flow on the tunnel centerline, boundary layer profiles on the floor, and wall static pressures have been compared with experiment. Flow angularities along the test section length have also been determined.

  14. Collection and analysis of wind data for the evaluation of Wildland-Urban Interface Fire Dynamics Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espina, Chad Edward Obedoza

    speed and direction from the sound waves, initially emitted by the SoDAR to the atmosphere, that are reflected by the air flow above the unit. Wind data has been compared to the SoDAR unit with data from instruments installed on a meteorological tower operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) located in northern California. Two more SoDARs are currently in Texas where initially they were deployed 400 meters apart of each other at an airfield. Also in the same airfield, the wind instrument of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) SuperBat was tested and compared to the SoDARs. Lastly, a self-contained wind instrument (Wind Dart) on a UAV that was developed by the University of Colorado was tested. The instrument was used while attached to the UAV Spectra. A static test was also done in San Diego State University's low speed wind tunnel. The wind data comparison from the SoDAR and meteorological tower in Lodi, California showed close tracking to each other both in wind speed and direction. The comparison of the wind data gathered by the two SoDARs in Texas also showed close tracking to each other. As for the Wind Dart, the data gathered from the instrument and UAV Spectra are not conclusive enough to validate the abilities of the Wind Dart. The experimental procedure in testing the Wind Dart on a moving platform must be further developed. Before the aerial test of the Wind Dart, it was first tested at San Diego State University's low speed tunnel. The detected wind speed by the Wind Dart closely matches the prescribed wind speed of the wind tunnel. The data between the UAV SuperBat and SoDARs showed close tracking. Data collected by the Rancho Bernardo wind instruments shows cyclical wind patterns in the neighborhood. Initial evaluation of select WFDS simulations show data that mimics data gathered from the field.

  15. Wind Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 17 September 2003

    Bright wind streaks are present in the lee of craters and other obstacles in this image, located in Sinus Sabaeus, near the Martian equator. These streaks indicate that the local winds blow from the northeast (upper right in the image). The brightness of the streaks indicates that either bright material has been deposited in the lee of the craters, or that the surface has eroded preferentially in the lee of craters, exposing an underlying bright material. Because the streaks are bright regardless of the surrounding surface brightness, the first hypothesis most likely. The streaks probably all represent deposits of the same bright material that settled out of the atmosphere in the wind shelter provided by topographic peaks.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -6.3, Longitude 14.1 East (345.9 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the

  16. Temporal characteristics of POD modes from wind farm LES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhulst, Claire; Meneveau, Charles

    2014-11-01

    Large eddy simulations of a fully developed wind farm in the turbulent atmospheric boundary layer have been analyzed using 3D Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD). In this study we consider the temporal variations of the POD modes and their relationship to unsteadiness in the wind turbine power production. We find that the streamwise-constant counter-rotating roller modes vary on time-scales much longer that the mean advection time from turbine to turbine. The structure of these roller modes and their long-time variations are consistent with meandering of high- and low-speed streaks in the turbulent flow within the wind farm. Another class of POD modes--one with significant streamwise-variation--is found to correspond to advection of velocity perturbations in the streamwise direction. Temporal variations of the shear-type modes are found to strongly correlate with power production of the wind farm as a whole. Overall, the long-time power production is well captured by reconstructions using fewer than 50 POD modes (<1% of the total), but variations faster than the inter-turbine advection time are only captured by higher-order, less energetic modes. This work was supported by NSF Grant 1243482 (the WINDINSPIRE project).

  17. Wind turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Traudt, R.F.

    1986-12-30

    This patent describes a wind turbine device having a main rotatable driven shaft, elongated blades operatively mounted on the main shaft for unitary rotation with the main shaft. The blade extends substantially radially away from the main shaft and is adapted to fold downwind under naturally occurring forces and simultaneously feather in direct response to the folding movement. A means associated with the blades is included for increasing the rate of fold relative to the rate of feather as the speed of rotation increases.

  18. Wind Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 July 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    Windstreaks are features caused by the interaction of wind and topographic landforms. The raised rims and bowls of impact craters causes a complex interaction such that the wind vortex in the lee of the crater can both scour away the surface dust and deposit it back in the center of the lee. If you look closely, you will see evidence of this in a darker 'rim' enclosing a brighter interior.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 6.9, Longitude 69.4 East (290.6 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon

  19. An extended structure-function model and its application to the analysis of solar wind intermittency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, C.-Y.; Marsch, E.; Rosenbauer, H.

    1995-01-01

    An extended structure-function model is developed by including the new effect in the p-model of Meneveau and Sreenivasan (1987a), i.e., that the averaged energy cascade rate changes with scale, a situation which has been found to prevail in non-fully-developed turbulence in the inner solar wind. This model is useful for the small-scale fluctuations in the inner heliosphere, where the turbulence is not fully developed and cannot be explained quantitatively by any of the previous intermittency turbulence models. With two model parameters, the intrinsic index of the energy spectrum, alpha and the fragmentation fraction p, the model can fit, for the first time, all the observed scaling exponents of the structure functions, which are calculated for time lags ranging from 81 seconds to 0.7 hours from the Helios solar wind data. From the cases we studied we can establish for p neither a clear radial evolution trend, nor a solar-wind-speed, or stream-structure dependence, or a systematic anisotropy for both the flow velocity and magnetic field component fluctuations. Generally, p has values between 0. 7 and 0.8. However, in some cases in low-speed wind p has somewhat higher values for the magnetic components, especially for the radial component. In high-speed wind, the inferred intrinsic spectral indices (alpha) of the velocity and magnetic field components are about equal, while the experimental spectral indices derived from the observed power spectra differ. The magnetic index is somewhat larger than the index of the velocity spectrum. For magnetic fluctuations in both high- and low-speed winds, the intrinsic exponent alpha has values which are near 1.5, while the observed spectral exponent has much higher values.

  20. Careers in Wind Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liming, Drew; Hamilton, James

    2011-01-01

    As a common form of renewable energy, wind power is generating more than just electricity. It is increasingly generating jobs for workers in many different occupations. Many workers are employed on wind farms: areas where groups of wind turbines produce electricity from wind power. Wind farms are frequently located in the midwestern, western, and…