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Sample records for 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase expression

  1. The ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevented colitis-associated carcinogenesis through blocking dissociation of β-catenin complex, inhibiting COX-2 through repressing NF-κB, and inducing 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Min; Jeong, Migyeung; Park, Jong-Min; Kim, Mi-Young; Go, Eun-Jin; Cha, Ji Young; Kim, Kyung Jo; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2016-09-27

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that diets containing an increased ratio of ω-6 : ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are a risk factor for colon cancer and might affect tumorigenesis. Therefore, dietary ω-3 PUFA administration may be a preventive strategy against colon cancer. Until now, the exact molecular mechanisms and required dietary doses of ω-3 PUFAs for cancer prevention were unknown. In this study, we explored the anti-tumorigenic mechanisms of ω-3 PUFAs against a colitis-associated cancer (CAC) model. Through in vitro cell models involving docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) administration, down-regulation of survivin and Bcl-2, and up-regulation of Bax, accompanied by blockage of β-catenin complex dissociation, the main mechanisms responsible for DHA-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells were determined. Results included significant reduction in azoxymethane-initiated, dextran sodium sulfate-promoted CACs, as well as significant preservation of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) and significant inhibition of Cyclooxyganase-2 (COX-2) and Prostaglandin E2(P < 0.01). Additional mechanisms and significant induction of apoptosis in both tumor and non-tumor tissues were also noted in fat-1 transgenic (TG) mice. The lipid profiles of colon tissues measured in all specimens revealed that intake greater than 3 g ω-3 PUFA/60 kg of body weight showed tissue levels similar to those seen in fat-1 TG mice, preventing cancer. Our study concluded that COX-2 inhibition, 15-PGDH preservation, apoptosis induction, and blockage of β-catenin complex dissociation contributed to the anti-tumorigenesis effect of ω-3 PUFAs, and an intake higher than 3g ω-3 PUFAs/60 kg of body weight can assist in CAC prevention.

  2. The ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids prevented colitis-associated carcinogenesis through blocking dissociation of β-catenin complex, inhibiting COX-2 through repressing NF-κB, and inducing 15-prostaglandin dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Han, Young-Min; Jeong, Migyeung; Park, Jong-Min; Kim, Mi-Young; Go, Eun-Jin; Cha, Ji Young; Kim, Kyung Jo; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that diets containing an increased ratio of ω-6 : ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are a risk factor for colon cancer and might affect tumorigenesis. Therefore, dietary ω-3 PUFA administration may be a preventive strategy against colon cancer. Until now, the exact molecular mechanisms and required dietary doses of ω-3 PUFAs for cancer prevention were unknown. In this study, we explored the anti-tumorigenic mechanisms of ω-3 PUFAs against a colitis-associated cancer (CAC) model. Through in vitro cell models involving docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) administration, down-regulation of survivin and Bcl-2, and up-regulation of Bax, accompanied by blockage of β-catenin complex dissociation, the main mechanisms responsible for DHA-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells were determined. Results included significant reduction in azoxymethane-initiated, dextran sodium sulfate-promoted CACs, as well as significant preservation of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) and significant inhibition of Cyclooxyganase-2 (COX-2) and Prostaglandin E2(P < 0.01). Additional mechanisms and significant induction of apoptosis in both tumor and non-tumor tissues were also noted in fat-1 transgenic (TG) mice. The lipid profiles of colon tissues measured in all specimens revealed that intake greater than 3 g ω-3 PUFA/60 kg of body weight showed tissue levels similar to those seen in fat-1 TG mice, preventing cancer. Our study concluded that COX-2 inhibition, 15-PGDH preservation, apoptosis induction, and blockage of β-catenin complex dissociation contributed to the anti-tumorigenesis effect of ω-3 PUFAs, and an intake higher than 3g ω-3 PUFAs/60 kg of body weight can assist in CAC prevention. PMID:27566583

  3. Buformin suppresses the expression of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Yano, Akiko; Kubota, Masafumi; Iguchi, Kazuhiro; Usui, Shigeyuki; Hirano, Kazuyuki

    2006-05-01

    The biguanides metformin and buformin, which are clinically used for diabetes mellitus, are known to improve resistance to insulin in patients. Biguanides were reported to cause lactic acidosis as a side effect. Since the mechanism of the side effect still remains obscure, we have examined genes whose expression changes by treating HepG2 cells with buformin in order to elucidate the mechanisms of the side effect. A subtraction cDNA library was constructed by the method of suppressive subtractive hybridization and the screening of the library was performed with cDNA probes prepared from HepG2 cells treated with or without buformin for 12 h. The expression of the gene and the protein obtained by the screening was monitored by real-time RT-PCR with specific primers and Western blotting with specific antibody. The amounts of ATP and NAD+ were determined with luciferase and alcohol dehydrogenase, respectively. We found that expression of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD) gene was suppressed by treating HepG2 cells with 0.25 mM buformin for 12 h as a result of the library screening. The decrease in the expression depended on the treatment period. The amount of GAPD protein also decreased simultaneously with the suppression of the gene expression by the treatment with buformin. The amount of ATP and NAD+ in the HepG2 cells treated with buformin decreased to 10 and 20% of the control, respectively. These observations imply that the biguanide causes deactivation of the glycolytic pathway and subsequently the accumulation of pyruvate and NADH and a decrease in NAD+. Therefore, the reaction equilibrium catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase leans towards lactate production and this may result in lactic acidosis.

  4. Expression, purification, and characterization of formaldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wangluo; Chen, Shuai; Liao, Yuanping; Wang, Dingli; Ding, Jianfeng; Wang, Yingming; Ran, Xiaoyuan; Lu, Daru; Zhu, Huaxing

    2013-12-01

    As a member of zinc-containing medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase family, formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH) can oxidize toxic formaldehyde to less active formate with NAD(+) as a cofactor and exists in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Most FDHs are well known to be glutathione-dependent in the catalysis of formaldehyde oxidation, but the enzyme from Pseudomonas putida is an exception, which is independent of glutathione. To identify novel glutathione-independent FDHs from other bacterial strains and facilitate the corresponding structural and enzymatic studies, high-level soluble expression and efficient purification of these enzymes need to be achieved. Here, we present molecular cloning, expression, and purification of the FDH from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is a Gram-negative pathogenic bacterium causing opportunistic human infection. The FDH of P. aeruginosa shows high sequence identity (87.97%) with that of P. putida. Our results indicated that coexpression with molecular chaperones GroES, GroEL, and Tig has significantly attenuated inclusion body formation and improved the solubility of the recombinant FDH in Escherichiacoli cells. A purification protocol including three chromatographic steps was also established to isolate the recombinant FDH to homogeneity with a yield of ∼3.2 mg from 1L of cell culture. The recombinant P. aeruginosa FDH was properly folded and biologically functional, as demonstrated by the mass spectrometric, crystallographic, and enzymatic characterizations of the purified proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Expression of lactate dehydrogenase C correlates with poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hua, Yibo; Liang, Chao; Zhu, Jundong; Miao, Chenkui; Yu, Yajie; Xu, Aimin; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Pu; Li, Shuang; Bao, Meiling; Yang, Jie; Qin, Chao; Wang, Zengjun

    2017-03-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase C is an isoenzyme of lactate dehydrogenase and a member of the cancer-testis antigens family. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression and functional role of lactate dehydrogenase C and its basic mechanisms in renal cell carcinoma. First, a total of 133 cases of renal cell carcinoma samples were analysed in a tissue microarray, and Kaplan-Meier survival curve analyses were performed to investigate the correlation between lactate dehydrogenase C expression and renal cell carcinoma progression. Lactate dehydrogenase C protein levels and messenger RNA levels were significantly upregulated in renal cell carcinoma tissues, and the patients with positive lactate dehydrogenase C expression had a shorter progression-free survival, indicating the oncogenic role of lactate dehydrogenase C in renal cell carcinoma. In addition, further cytological experiments demonstrated that lactate dehydrogenase C could prompt renal cell carcinoma cells to produce lactate, and increase metastatic and invasive potential of renal cell carcinoma cells. Furthermore, lactate dehydrogenase C could induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression. In summary, these findings showed lactate dehydrogenase C was associated with poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma and played a pivotal role in the migration and invasion of renal cell carcinoma cells. Lactate dehydrogenase C may act as a novel biomarker for renal cell carcinoma progression and a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma.

  6. Over-Expression, Purification and Crystallization of Human Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Y. S.; Ciszak, Ewa; Patel, Mulchand

    2000-01-01

    Dehydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3; dihydrolipoan-tide:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.8.1.4) is a common catalytic component found in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, and branched-chain cc-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. E3 is also a component (referred to as L protein) of the glycine cleavage system in bacterial metabolism (2). Active E3 forms a homodimer with four distinctive subdomain structures (FAD binding, NAD+ binding, central and interface domains) with non-covalently but tightly bound FAD in the holoenzyme. Deduced amino acids from cloned full-length human E3 gene showed a total of 509 amino acids with a leader sequence (N-terminal 35 amino acids) that is excised (mature form) during transportation of expressed E3 into mitochondria membrane. So far, three-dimensional structure of human E3 has not been reported. Our effort to achieve the elucidation of the X-ray crystal structure of human E3 will be presented. Recombinant pPROEX-1 expression vector (from GIBCO BRL Life Technologies) having the human E3 gene without leader sequence was constructed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and subsequent ligation, and cloned in E.coli XL1-Blue by transformation. Since pPROEX-1 vector has an internal His-tag (six histidine peptide) located at the upstream region of a multicloning site, one-step affinity purification of E3 using nickelnitriloacetic acid (Ni-NTA) agarose resin, which has a strong affinity to His-tag, was feasible. Also a seven-amino-acid spacer peptide and a recombinant tobacco etch virus protease recognition site (seven amino acids peptide) found between His-tag and first amino acid of expressed E3 facilitated the cleavage of His-tag from E3 after the affinity purification. By IPTG induction, ca. 15 mg of human E3 (mature form) was obtained from 1L LB culture with overnight incubation at 25C. Over 98% of purity of E3 from one-step Ni-NTA agarose affinity purification was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. For

  7. Over-Expression, Purification and Crystallization of Human Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Y. S.; Ciszak, Ewa; Patel, Mulchand

    2000-01-01

    Dehydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3; dihydrolipoan-tide:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.8.1.4) is a common catalytic component found in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, and branched-chain cc-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. E3 is also a component (referred to as L protein) of the glycine cleavage system in bacterial metabolism (2). Active E3 forms a homodimer with four distinctive subdomain structures (FAD binding, NAD+ binding, central and interface domains) with non-covalently but tightly bound FAD in the holoenzyme. Deduced amino acids from cloned full-length human E3 gene showed a total of 509 amino acids with a leader sequence (N-terminal 35 amino acids) that is excised (mature form) during transportation of expressed E3 into mitochondria membrane. So far, three-dimensional structure of human E3 has not been reported. Our effort to achieve the elucidation of the X-ray crystal structure of human E3 will be presented. Recombinant pPROEX-1 expression vector (from GIBCO BRL Life Technologies) having the human E3 gene without leader sequence was constructed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and subsequent ligation, and cloned in E.coli XL1-Blue by transformation. Since pPROEX-1 vector has an internal His-tag (six histidine peptide) located at the upstream region of a multicloning site, one-step affinity purification of E3 using nickelnitriloacetic acid (Ni-NTA) agarose resin, which has a strong affinity to His-tag, was feasible. Also a seven-amino-acid spacer peptide and a recombinant tobacco etch virus protease recognition site (seven amino acids peptide) found between His-tag and first amino acid of expressed E3 facilitated the cleavage of His-tag from E3 after the affinity purification. By IPTG induction, ca. 15 mg of human E3 (mature form) was obtained from 1L LB culture with overnight incubation at 25C. Over 98% of purity of E3 from one-step Ni-NTA agarose affinity purification was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. For

  8. The expression of succinate dehydrogenase in breast phyllodes tumor.

    PubMed

    Choi, Junjeong; Kim, Do Hee; Jung, WooHee; Koo, Ja Seung

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the expression of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)A, SDHB, and HIF-1α in phyllodes tumors and the association with clinic-pathologic factors. Using tissue microarray (TMA) for 206 phyllodes tumor cases, we performed immunohistochemical stains for SDHA, SDHB, and HIF-1α and analyzed their expression in regard to clinicopathologic parameters of each case. The cases were comprised of 156 benign, 34 borderline, and 16 malignant phyllodes tumors. The expression of stromal SDHA and epithelial- and stromal- SDHB increased as the tumor progressed from benign to malignant (P⟨0.001). There were five stromal SDHA-negative cases and 31 stromal SDHB-negative cases. SDHB negativity was associated with a lower histologic grade (P=0.054) and lower stromal atypia (P=0.048). Univariate analysis revealed that a shorter disease free survival (DFS) was associated with stromal SDHB high-positivity (P=0.013) and a shorter overall survival (OS) was associated with high-positivity of stromal SDHA and SDHB (P⟨0.001 and P⟨0.001, respectively). The multivariate Cox analysis with the variables stromal cellularity, stromal atypia, stromal mitosis, stromal overgrowth, tumor margin, stromal SDHA expression, and stromal SDHB expression revealed that stromal overgrowth was associated with a shorter DFS (hazard ratio: 24.78, 95% CI: 3.126-196.5, P=0.002) and a shorter OS (hazard ratio: 176.7, 95% CI: 8.466-3691, P=0.001). In conclusion, Tumor grade is positively correlated with SDHA and SDHB expression in the tumor stroma in phyllodes tumors of the breast. This result may be attributed to the increased metabolic demand in high grade tumors.

  9. Increased IMP dehydrogenase gene expression in solid tumor tissues and tumor cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Collart, F.R.; Chubb, C.B.; Mirkin, B.L.; Huberman, E.

    1992-07-10

    IMP dehydrogenase, a regulatory enzyme of guanine nucleotide biosynthesis, may play a role in cell proliferation and malignancy. To assess this possibility, we examined IMP dehydrogenase expression in a series of human solid tumor tissues and tumor cell lines in comparison with their normal counterparts. Increased IMP dehydrogenase gene expression was observed in brain tumors relative to normal brain tissue and in sarcoma cells relative to normal fibroblasts. Similarly, in several B- and T-lymphoid leukemia cell lines, elevated levels of IMP dehydrogenase mRNA and cellular enzyme were observed in comparison with the levels in peripheral blood lymphocytes. These results are consistent with an association between increased IMP dehydrogenase expression and either enhanced cell proliferation or malignant transformation.

  10. Not only students can express alcohol dehydrogenase: goldfish can too!

    PubMed

    Chamberland, Valérie; Rioux, Pierre

    2010-12-01

    This article describes a novel approach to study the metabolic regulation of the respiratory system in vertebrates that suits physiology lessons for undergraduate students. It consists of an experimental demonstration of the goldfish's (Carassius auratus) adaptations to anoxia. The goldfish is one of the few vertebrates showing strong enzymatic plasticity for the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which allows it to survive long periods of severe anoxia. Therefore, we propose two simple laboratory exercises in which students are first asked to characterize the distribution of ADH isozymes in the goldfish by performing cellulose acetate electrophoresis. The second part of this laboratory lesson is the determination of liver glycogen. To further student comprehension, an interspecies comparative component is integrated, in which the same subjects are studied in an anoxia-sensitive species, the brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis). ADH in goldfish is restricted to skeletal muscles, where it catalyzes alcoholic fermentation, permitting ethanol excretion through the gills and therefore preventing lactate acidosis caused by sustained glycolysis during anoxia. Electrophoresis also reveals the occurrence of a liver isozyme in the brook charr, which ADH catalyzes in the opposite pathway, allowing the usual ethanol degradation. As for the liver glycogen assay, it shows largely superior content in the goldfish liver compared with the brook charr, providing goldfish with a sustained energy supply during anoxia. The results of this laboratory exercise clearly demonstrate several physiological strategies developed by goldfish to cope with such a crucial environmental challenge as oxygen depletion.

  11. ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASES EXPRESSION DURING POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT: LIVER VS. LUNG

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aldehydes are highly reactive molecules present in the environment, and can be produced during biotransformation of xenobiotics. Although the lung can be a major target for aldehyde toxicity, development of aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), which detoxify aldehydes, in lung has be...

  12. ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASES EXPRESSION DURING POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT: LIVER VS. LUNG

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aldehydes are highly reactive molecules present in the environment, and can be produced during biotransformation of xenobiotics. Although the lung can be a major target for aldehyde toxicity, development of aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), which detoxify aldehydes, in lung has be...

  13. Sequences and expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase genes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Rae, J L; Cutfield, J F; Lamont, I L

    1997-01-01

    A mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, OT2100, which appeared to be defective in the production of the fluorescent yellow-green siderophore pyoverdine had been isolated previously following transposon mutagenesis (T. R. Merriman and I. L. Lamont, Gene 126:17-23, 1993). DNA from either side of the transposon insertion site was cloned, and the sequence was determined. The mutated gene had strong identity with the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2) components of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) from other bacterial species. Enzyme assays revealed that the mutant was defective in the E2 subunit of PDH, preventing assembly of a functional complex. PDH activity in OT2100 cell extracts was restored when extract from an E1 mutant was added. On the basis of this evidence, OT2100 was identified as an aceB or E2 mutant. A second gene, aceA, which is likely to encode the E1 component of PDH, was identified upstream from aceB. Transcriptional analysis revealed that aceA and aceB are expressed as a 5-kb polycistronic transcript from a promoter upstream of aceA. An intergenic region of 146 bp was located between aceA and aceB, and a 2-kb aceB transcript that originated from a promoter in the intergenic region was identified. DNA fragments upstream of aceA and aceB were shown to have promoter activities in P. aeruginosa, although only the aceA promoter was active in Escherichia coli. It is likely that the apparent pyoverdine-deficient phenotype of mutant OT2100 is a consequence of acidification of the growth medium due to accumulation of pyruvic acid in the absence of functional PDH. PMID:9171401

  14. Heterogeneous expression of protein and mRNA in pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Wexler, I D; Kerr, D S; Ho, L; Lusk, M M; Pepin, R A; Javed, A A; Mole, J E; Jesse, B W; Thekkumkara, T J; Pons, G

    1988-01-01

    Deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase [pyruvate:lipoamide 2-oxidoreductase (decarboxylating and acceptor-acetylating), EC 1.2.4.1], the first component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, is associated with lactic acidosis and central nervous system dysfunction. Using both specific antibodies to pyruvate dehydrogenase and cDNAs coding for its two alpha and beta subunits, we characterized pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency in 11 patients. Three different patterns were found on immunologic and RNA blot analyses. (i) Seven patients had immunologically detectable crossreactive material for the alpha and beta proteins of pyruvate dehydrogenase. (ii) Two patients had no detectable crossreactive protein for either the alpha or beta subunit but had normal amounts of mRNA for both alpha and beta subunits. (iii) The remaining two patients also had no detectable crossreactive protein but had diminished amounts of mRNA for the alpha subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase only. These results indicate that loss of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity may be associated with either absent or catalytically inactive proteins, and in those cases in which this enzyme is absent, mRNA for one of the subunits may also be missing. When mRNA for one of the subunits is lacking, both protein subunits are absent, suggesting that a mutation affecting the expression of one of the subunit proteins causes the remaining uncomplexed subunit to be unstable. The results show that several different mutations account for the molecular heterogeneity of pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency. Images PMID:3140238

  15. Potato tuber cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase genes: Biochemical properties, activity, and expression during tuber dormancy progression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The enzymatic and biochemical properties of the proteins encoded by five potato cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX)-like genes functionally expressed in yeast and the effects of tuber dormancy progression on StCKX expression and cytokinin metabolism were examined in meristems isolated from field-g...

  16. Expression and activity of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases in melanoma cells and in melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Amann, Philipp M; Hofmann, Claudia; Freudenberger, Muriel; Holland-Cunz, Stefan; Eichmüller, Stefan B; Bazhin, Alexandr V

    2012-03-01

    Disturbances in vitamin A metabolism are an important attribute of some cancer cells. Most evidence point that these disturbances lead to decreasing of the retinoic acid concentration in tumor cells. Up to now, in benign and malignant skin cells the features of vitamin A metabolism with its participating enzymes are not entirely understood. Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) are involved in the retinol metabolism, oxidizing retinol, and retinal in retinoic acid or reducing retinal in retinol. In this work we investigated the expression and enzymatic activity of alcohol and ALDH in melanoma cells compared to their benign counterparts. We demonstrated that melanoma cell lines and melanocytes despite similar pattern of the enzyme expression, show different general ALDH activity. Retinal, the substrate of ALDH, could stimulate the ALDH activity through up-regulation of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 1 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 6. Furthermore, we found that retinoids regulate alcohol dehydrogenase activity, probably via effects on alcohol dehydrogenase expression at the post-transcriptional level. We suggest that melanoma cells in contrast to melanocytes should favor the retinal reduction over its oxidation. The decreasing cellular amount of the precursor molecules of retinoic acid could result in a changed gene regulation in melanoma cells. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Reduced aldehyde dehydrogenase expression in preeclamptic decidual mesenchymal stem/stromal cells is restored by aldehyde dehydrogenase agonists

    PubMed Central

    Kusuma, Gina D.; Abumaree, Mohamed H.; Perkins, Anthony V.; Brennecke, Shaun P.; Kalionis, Bill

    2017-01-01

    High resistance to oxidative stress is a common feature of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) and is associated with higher cell survival and ability to respond to oxidative damage. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity is a candidate “universal” marker for stem cells. ALDH expression was significantly lower in decidual MSC (DMSC) isolated from preeclamptic (PE) patients. ALDH gene knockdown by siRNA transfection was performed to create a cell culture model of the reduced ALDH expression detected in PE-DMSC. We showed that ALDH activity in DMSC is associated with resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced toxicity. Our data provide evidence that ALDH expression in DMSC is required for cellular resistance to oxidative stress. Furthermore, candidate ALDH activators were screened and two of the compounds were effective in upregulating ALDH expression. This study provides a proof-of-principle that the restoration of ALDH activity in diseased MSC is a rational basis for a therapeutic strategy to improve MSC resistance to cytotoxic damage. PMID:28205523

  18. Tandem orientation of duplicated xanthine dehydrogenase genes from Arabidopsis thaliana: differential gene expression and enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Hesberg, Christine; Hänsch, Robert; Mendel, Ralf R; Bittner, Florian

    2004-04-02

    Xanthine dehydrogenase from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana was analyzed on molecular and biochemical levels. Whereas most other organisms appear to own only one gene for xanthine dehydrogenase A. thaliana possesses two genes in tandem orientation spaced by 704 base pairs. The cDNAs as well as the proteins AtXDH1 and AtXDH2 share an overall identity of 93% and show high homologies to xanthine dehydrogenases from other organisms. Whereas AtXDH2 mRNA is expressed constitutively, alterations of AtXDH1 transcript levels were observed at various stresses like drought, salinity, cold, and natural senescence, but also after abscisic acid treatment. Transcript alteration did not mandatorily result in changes of xanthine dehydrogenase activities. Whereas salt treatment had no effect on xanthine dehydrogenase activities, cold stress caused a decrease, but desiccation and senescence caused a strong increase of activities in leaves. Because AtXDH1 presumably is the more important isoenzyme in A. thaliana it was expressed in Pichia pastoris, purified, and used for biochemical studies. AtXDH1 protein is a homodimer of about 300 kDa consisting of identical subunits of 150 kDa. Like xanthine dehydrogenases from other organisms AtXDH1 uses hypoxanthine and xanthine as main substrates and is strongly inhibited by allopurinol. AtXDH1 could be activated by the purified molybdenum cofactor sulfurase ABA3 that converts inactive desulfo-into active sulfoenzymes. Finally it was found that AtXDH1 is a strict dehydrogenase and not an oxidase, but is able to produce superoxide radicals indicating that besides purine catabolism it might also be involved in response to various stresses that require reactive oxygen species.

  19. Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase expression by the farnesoid X receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Savkur, Rajesh S.; Bramlett, Kelli S.; Michael, Laura F.; Burris, Thomas P. . E-mail: burris_thomas_p@lilly.com

    2005-04-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) functions as an important junction in intermediary metabolism by influencing the utilization of fat versus carbohydrate as a source of fuel. Activation of PDC is achieved by phosphatases, whereas, inactivation is catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs). The expression of PDK4 is highly regulated by the glucocorticoid and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. We demonstrate that the farnesoid X receptor (FXR; NR1H4), which regulates a variety of genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism, also regulates the expression of PDK4. Treatment of rat hepatoma cells as well as human primary hepatocytes with FXR agonists stimulates the expression of PDK4 to levels comparable to those obtained with glucocorticoids. In addition, treatment of mice with an FXR agonist significantly increased hepatic PDK4 expression, while concomitantly decreasing plasma triglyceride levels. Thus, activation of FXR may suppress glycolysis and enhance oxidation of fatty acids via inactivation of the PDC by increasing PDK4 expression.

  20. EXPRESSION OF THE SPERMATOGENIC CELL-SPECIFIC GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE (GAPDS) IN RAT TESTIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spermatogenic cell-specific variant of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) has been cloned from a rat testis cDNA library and its pattern of expression determined. A 1417 nucleotide cDNA has been found to encode an enzyme with substantial homology to mouse GAPDS...

  1. Expression of Cellobiose Dehydrogenase from Neurospora crassa in Pichia pastoris and its purification and characterization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A gene encoding cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) from Neurospora crassa strain FGSC 2489 has been cloned and expressed in the heterologous host Pichia pastoris, under the control of the AOX1 methanol inducible promoter. Recombinant CDH without the native signal sequence and fused with a his6-tag (rNC-...

  2. EXPRESSION OF THE SPERMATOGENIC CELL-SPECIFIC GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE (GAPDS) IN RAT TESTIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The spermatogenic cell-specific variant of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDS) has been cloned from a rat testis cDNA library and its pattern of expression determined. A 1417 nucleotide cDNA has been found to encode an enzyme with substantial homology to mouse GAPDS...

  3. Monoterpene metabolism. Cloning, expression, and characterization of (-)-isopiperitenol/(-)-carveol dehydrogenase of peppermint and spearmint.

    PubMed

    Ringer, Kerry L; Davis, Edward M; Croteau, Rodney

    2005-03-01

    The essential oils of peppermint (Mentha x piperita) and spearmint (Mentha spicata) are distinguished by the oxygenation position on the p-menthane ring of the constitutive monoterpenes that is conferred by two regiospecific cytochrome P450 limonene-3- and limonene-6-hydroxylases. Following hydroxylation of limonene, an apparently similar dehydrogenase oxidizes (-)-trans-isopiperitenol to (-)-isopiperitenone in peppermint and (-)-trans-carveol to (-)-carvone in spearmint. Random sequencing of a peppermint oil gland secretory cell cDNA library revealed a large number of clones that specified redox-type enzymes, including dehydrogenases. Full-length dehydrogenase clones were screened by functional expression in Escherichia coli using a recently developed in situ assay. A single full-length acquisition encoding (-)-trans-isopiperitenol dehydrogenase (ISPD) was isolated. The (-)-ISPD cDNA has an open reading frame of 795 bp that encodes a 265-residue enzyme with a calculated molecular mass of 27,191. Nondegenerate primers were designed based on the (-)-trans-ISPD cDNA sequence and employed to screen a spearmint oil gland secretory cell cDNA library from which a 5'-truncated cDNA encoding the spearmint homolog, (-)-trans-carveol-dehydrogenase, was isolated. Reverse transcription-PCR amplification and RACE were used to acquire the remaining 5'-sequence from RNA isolated from oil gland secretory cells of spearmint leaf. The full-length spearmint dehydrogenase shares >99% amino acid identity with its peppermint homolog and both dehydrogenases are capable of utilizing (-)-trans-isopiperitenol and (-)-trans-carveol. These isopiperitenol/carveol dehydrogenases are members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily and are related to other plant short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases involved in secondary metabolism (lignan biosynthesis), stress responses, and phytosteroid biosynthesis, but they are quite dissimilar (approximately 13% identity) to the monoterpene

  4. Isolation and Expression of Lactate Dehydrogenase Genes from Rhizopus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Skory, Christopher D.

    2000-01-01

    Rhizopus oryzae is used for industrial production of lactic acid, yet little is known about the genetics of this fungus. In this study I cloned two genes, ldhA and ldhB, which code for NAD+-dependent l-lactate dehydrogenases (LDH) (EC 1.1.1.27), from a lactic acid-producing strain of R. oryzae. These genes are similar to each other and exhibit more than 90% nucleotide sequence identity and they contain no introns. This is the first description of ldh genes in a fungus, and sequence comparisons revealed that these genes are distinct from previously isolated prokaryotic and eukaryotic ldh genes. Protein sequencing of the LDH isolated from R. oryzae during lactic acid production confirmed that ldhA codes for a 36-kDa protein that converts pyruvate to lactate. Production of LdhA was greatest when glucose was the carbon source, followed by xylose and trehalose; all of these sugars could be fermented to lactic acid. Transcripts from ldhB were not detected when R. oryzae was grown on any of these sugars but were present when R. oryzae was grown on glycerol, ethanol, and lactate. I hypothesize that ldhB encodes a second NAD+-dependent LDH that is capable of converting l-lactate to pyruvate and is produced by cultures grown on these nonfermentable substrates. Both ldhA and ldhB restored fermentative growth to Escherichia coli (ldhA pfl) mutants so that they grew anaerobically and produced lactic acid. PMID:10831409

  5. Expression of Aeromonas caviae ST pyruvate dehydrogenase complex components mediate tellurite resistance in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Miguel E.; Molina, Roberto C.; Diaz, Waldo A.; Pradenas, Gonzalo A.; Vasquez, Claudio C.

    2009-02-27

    Potassium tellurite (K{sub 2}TeO{sub 3}) is harmful to most organisms and specific mechanisms explaining its toxicity are not well known to date. We previously reported that the lpdA gene product of the tellurite-resistant environmental isolate Aeromonas caviae ST is involved in the reduction of tellurite to elemental tellurium. In this work, we show that expression of A. caviae ST aceE, aceF, and lpdA genes, encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoamide transacetylase, and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, respectively, results in tellurite resistance and decreased levels of tellurite-induced superoxide in Escherichia coli. In addition to oxidative damage resulting from tellurite exposure, a metabolic disorder would be simultaneously established in which the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex would represent an intracellular tellurite target. These results allow us to widen our vision regarding the molecular mechanisms involved in bacterial tellurite resistance by correlating tellurite toxicity and key enzymes of aerobic metabolism.

  6. Expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yi; Liu, Yi-Yi; Zhao, Xiao-Kun

    2013-07-01

    To study the expression of ALDH1 in colon cancer and its clinical significance. The expression of ALDH1 was examined in 98 surgical specimens of primary colonic carcinoma and 15 normal colon tissues with immunohistochemistry method. The correlations of the expression with clinicopathological parameters and prognosis of colon cancer were analyzed. The positive rate of expression of ALDH1 was 76.5% (75/98) in the cancer tissues and 13.3% (2/15) in normal colon tissues. There were an obvious statistical difference (P<0.05) between the two groups. The ALDH1 expression was significantly correlated with the histological grade, TNM stages and lymph node metastasis in colon cancer (P<0.05). It was also related with patients' survival time, those with positive expressions had a poor prognosis (P<0.05). The results suggeste that the overexpression of ALDH1 plays important roles in proliferation and progression in colon cancer, the ALDH1 may be a valuable marker to predict the biological behavior and trend of metastasis of colon cancer. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Restricted feeding modulates the daily variations of liver glutamate dehydrogenase activity, expression, and histological location.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Martínez, Olivia; Méndez, Isabel; Turrubiate, Isaías; Valente-Godínez, Héctor; Pérez-Mendoza, Moisés; García-Tejada, Paola; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio

    2017-05-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase is an important enzyme in the hepatic regulation of nitrogen and energy metabolism. It catalyzes one of the most relevant anaplerotic reactions. Although its relevance in liver homeostasis has been widely described, its daily pattern and responsiveness to restricted feeding protocols has not been studied. We explored the daily variations of liver glutamate dehydrogenase transcription, protein, activity, and histochemical and subcellular location in a protocol of daytime food synchronization in rats. Restricted feeding involved food access for 2 h each day for three weeks. Control groups included food ad libitum as well as acute fasting (21 h fasting) and refeeding (22 h fasting followed by 2 h of food access). Glutamate dehydrogenase mRNA, protein, activity, and histological location were measured every 3 h by qPCR, Western blot, spectrophotometry, and immunohistochemistry, respectively, to generate 24-h profiles. Restricted feeding promoted higher levels of mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase protein and activity, as well as a loss of 24-h rhythmicity, in comparison to ad libitum conditions. The rhythmicity of glutamate dehydrogenase activity detected in serum was changed. The data demonstrated that daytime restricted feeding enhanced glutamate dehydrogenase protein and activity levels in liver mitochondria, changed the rhythmicity of its mRNA and serum activity, but without effect in its expression in hepatocytes surrounding central and portal veins. These results could be related to the adaptation in nitrogen and energy metabolism that occurs in the liver during restricted feeding and the concomitant expression of the food entrainable oscillator. Impact statement For the first time, we are reporting the changes in daily rhythmicity of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) mRNA, protein and activity that occur in the liver during the expression of the food entrained oscillator (FEO). These results are part of the metabolic adaptations

  8. Expression in Escherichia coli of active human alcohol dehydrogenase lacking N-terminal acetylation.

    PubMed

    Höög, J O; Weis, M; Zeppezauer, M; Jörnvall, H; von Bahr-Lindström, H

    1987-12-01

    Human alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, beta beta isozyme of class I) was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified to homogeneity, and characterized regarding N-terminal processing. The expression system was obtained by ligation of a cDNA fragment corresponding to the beta-subunit of human liver alcohol dehydrogenase into the vector pKK 223-3 containing the tac promoter. The enzyme, detected by Western-blot analysis and ethanol oxidizing activity, constituted up to 3% of the total amount of protein. Recombinant ADH was separated from E. coli ADH by ion-exchange chromatography and the isolated enzyme was essentially pure as judged by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and sequence analysis. The N-terminal sequence was identical to that of the authentic beta-subunit except that the N-terminus was non-acetylated, indicating a correct removal of the initiator methionine, but lack of further processing.

  9. Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoform 4 (PDK4) gene expression by glucocorticoids and insulin.

    PubMed

    Connaughton, Sara; Chowdhury, Farhana; Attia, Ramy R; Song, Shulan; Zhang, Yi; Elam, Marshall B; Cook, George A; Park, Edwards A

    2010-02-05

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA in mitochondria and is a key regulatory enzyme in the oxidation of glucose to acetyl-CoA. Phosphorylation of PDC by the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK) inhibits its activity. The expression of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) gene is increased in fasting and other conditions associated with the switch from the utilization of glucose to fatty acids as an energy source. Transcription of the PDK4 gene is elevated by glucocorticoids and inhibited by insulin. In this study, we have investigated the factors involved in the regulation of the PDK4 gene by these hormones. Glucocorticoids stimulate PDK4 through two glucocorticoid receptor (GR) binding sites located more than 6000 base pairs upstream of the transcriptional start site. Insulin inhibits the glucocorticoid induction in part by causing dissociation of the GR from the promoter. Previously, we found that the estrogen related receptor alpha (ERRalpha) stimulates the expression of PDK4. Here, we determined that one of the ERRalpha binding sites contributes to the insulin inhibition of PDK4. A binding site for the forkhead transcription factor (FoxO1) is adjacent to the ERRalpha binding sites. FoxO1 participates in the glucocorticoid induction of PDK4 and the regulation of this gene by insulin. Our data demonstrate that glucocorticoids and insulin each modulate PDK4 gene expression through complex hormone response units that contain multiple factors.

  10. Ethanol production by the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus by expression of bacterial bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Keller, Matthew W; Lipscomb, Gina L; Nguyen, Diep M; Crowley, Alexander T; Schut, Gerrit J; Scott, Israel; Kelly, Robert M; Adams, Michael W W

    2017-02-14

    Ethanol is an important target for the renewable production of liquid transportation fuels. It can be produced biologically from pyruvate, via pyruvate decarboxylase, or from acetyl-CoA, by alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE). Thermophilic bacteria utilize AdhE, which is a bifunctional enzyme that contains both acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Many of these organisms also contain a separate alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) that generates ethanol from acetaldehyde, although the role of AdhA in ethanol production is typically not clear. As acetyl-CoA is a key central metabolite that can be generated from a wide range of substrates, AdhE can serve as a single gene fuel module to produce ethanol through primary metabolic pathways. The focus here is on the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows by fermenting sugar to acetate, CO2 and H2 . Previously, by the heterologous expression of adhA from a thermophilic bacterium, P. furiosus was shown to produce ethanol by a novel mechanism from acetate, mediated by AdhA and the native enzyme aldehyde oxidoreductase (AOR). In this study, the AOR gene was deleted from P. furiosus to evaluate ethanol production directly from acetyl-CoA by heterologous expression of the adhE gene from eight thermophilic bacteria. Only AdhEs from two Thermoanaerobacter strains showed significant activity in cell-free extracts of recombinant P. furiosus and supported ethanol production in vivo. In the AOR deletion background, the highest amount of ethanol (estimated 61% theoretical yield) was produced when adhE and adhA from Thermoanaerobacter were co-expressed.

  11. Characterization of a novel flooding stress-responsive alcohol dehydrogenase expressed in soybean roots.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Deschamps, Thibaut; Thibaut, Deschamps; Hiraga, Susumu; Kato, Mikio; Chiba, Mitsuru; Hashiguchi, Akiko; Tougou, Makoto; Shimamura, Satoshi; Yasue, Hiroshi

    2011-10-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) is the key enzyme in alcohol fermentation. We analyzed Adh expression in order to clarify the role of Adh of soybeans (Glycine max) to flooding stress. Proteome analysis confirmed that expression of Adh is significantly upregulated in 4-day-old soybean seedlings subjected to 2 days of flooding. Southern hybridization analysis and soybean genome database search revealed that soybean has at least 6 Adh genes. The GmAdh2 gene that responded to flooding was isolated from soybean cultivar Enrei. Adh2 expression was markedly increased 6 h after flooding and decreased 24 h after floodwater drainage. In situ hybridization and Western blot indicated that flooding strongly induces Adh2 expression in RNA and protein levels in the root apical meristem. Osmotic, cold, or drought stress did not induce expression of Adh2. These results indicate that Adh2 is a flooding-response specific soybean gene expressed in root tissue.

  12. XoxF Is Required for Expression of Methanol Dehydrogenase in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Skovran, Elizabeth; Palmer, Alexander D.; Rountree, Austin M.; Good, Nathan M.; Lidstrom, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    In Gram-negative methylotrophic bacteria, the first step in methylotrophic growth is the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde in the periplasm by methanol dehydrogenase. In most organisms studied to date, this enzyme consists of the MxaF and MxaI proteins, which make up the large and small subunits of this heterotetrameric enzyme. The Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 genome contains two homologs of MxaF, XoxF1 and XoxF2, which are ∼50% identical to MxaF and ∼90% identical to each other. It was previously reported that xoxF is not required for methanol growth in M. extorquens AM1, but here we show that when both xoxF homologs are absent, strains are unable to grow in methanol medium and lack methanol dehydrogenase activity. We demonstrate that these defects result from the loss of gene expression from the mxa promoter and suggest that XoxF is part of a complex regulatory cascade involving the 2-component systems MxcQE and MxbDM, which are required for the expression of the methanol dehydrogenase genes. PMID:21873495

  13. Expression, Purification, Crystallization And Preliminary X-Ray Studies of Histamine Dehydrogenase From Nocardioides Simplex

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, T.M.; Hirakawa, H.; Mure, M.; Scott, E.E.; Limburg, J.

    2009-05-21

    Histamine dehydrogenase (HADH) from Nocardioides simplex catalyzes the oxidative deamination of histamine to produce imidazole acetaldehyde and an ammonium ion. HADH is functionally related to trimethylamine dehydrogenase (TMADH), but HADH has strict substrate specificity towards histamine. HADH is a homodimer, with each 76 kDa subunit containing two redox cofactors: a [4Fe-4S] cluster and an unusual covalently bound flavin mononucleotide, 6-S-cysteinyl-FMN. In order to understand the substrate specificity of HADH, it was sought to determine its structure by X-ray crystallography. This enzyme has been expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli and successfully crystallized in two forms. Diffraction data were collected to 2.7 {angstrom} resolution at the SSRL synchrotron with 99.7% completeness. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 101.14, b = 107.03, c = 153.35 {angstrom}.

  14. 11-Beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 expression in white adipose tissue is strongly correlated with adiposity.

    PubMed

    Milagro, Fermin I; Campión, Javier; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2007-04-01

    Glucocorticoid action within the cells is regulated by the levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression and two enzymes, 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1), which converts inactive to active glucocorticoids, and 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11betaHSD2), which regulates the access of active glucocorticoids to the receptor by converting cortisol/corticosterone to the glucocorticoid-inactive form cortisone/dehydrocorticosterone. Male Wistar rats developed obesity by being fed a high-fat diet for 56 days, and GR, 11betaHSD1 and 11betaHSD2 gene expression were compared with control-diet fed animals. Gene expression analysis of 11betaHSD1, 11betaHSD2 and GR were performed by RT-PCR in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissue. High-fat fed animals overexpressed 11betaHSD2 in subcutaneous but not in retroperitoneal fat. Interestingly, mRNA levels strongly correlated in both tissues with different parameters related to obesity, such as body weight, adiposity and insulin resistance, suggesting that this gene is a reliable marker of adiposity in this rat model of obesity. Thus, 11betaHSD2 is expressed in adipose tissue by both adipocytes and stromal-vascular cells, which suggests that this enzyme may play an important role in preventing fat accumulation in adipose tissue.

  15. Correct developmental expression of a cloned alcohol dehydrogenase gene transduced into the Drosophila germ line.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, D A; Posakony, J W; Maniatis, T

    1983-08-01

    We have used P-element-mediated transformation to introduce a cloned Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene into the germ line of ADH null flies. Six independent transformants expressing ADH were identified by their acquired resistance to ethanol. Each transformant carries a single copy of the cloned Adh gene in a different chromosomal location. Four of the six transformant lines exhibit normal Adh expression by the following criteria: quantitative levels of ADH enzyme activity in larvae and adults; qualitative tissue specificity; the size of stable Adh mRNA; and the characteristic developmental switch in utilization of two different Adh promoters. The remaining two transformants express ADH enzyme activity with the correct tissue specificity, but at a lower level than wild type. These results demonstrate that an 11.8 kb chromosomal fragment containing the Adh gene includes the cis-acting sequences necessary for its correct developmental expression, and that a variety of chromosomal sites permit proper Adh gene function.

  16. Expression and Characterization of a Novel 1,3-Propanediol Dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xianghui; Yun, Junhua; Qi, Yilin; Zhang, Huanhuan; Wang, Fei; Guo, Qi; Cao, Zheng

    2016-07-01

    1,3-Propanediol dehydrogenase (PDOR) is important in the biosynthesis of 1,3-propanediol. In the present study, the dhaT gene encoding PDOR was cloned from Lactobacillus brevis 6239 and expressed in Escherichia coli for the first time. Sequence analysis revealed that PDOR containing two Fe(2+)-binding motifs and a cofactor motif belongs to the type III alcohol dehydrogenase. The purified recombinant PDOR exhibited a single band of 42 kDa according to SDS-PAGE. Optimal temperatures and pH values of this dehydrogenase are 37 °C, 7.5 for reduction and 25 °C, 9.5 for oxidation, respectively. We found that PDOR was more stable in acid buffer than in alkaline condition, and 60 % of its relative activity still remained after a 2-h incubation at 37 °C. The activity of PDOR can be enhanced in the presence of Mn(2+) or Fe(2+) iron and inhibited by EDTA or PMSF by different degrees. The K m and V max of this dehydrogenase are 1.25 mM, 64.02 μM min(-1) mg(-1) for propionaldehyde and 2.26 mM, 35.05 μM min(-1) mg(-1) for 1,3-PD, respectively. Substrate specificity analysis showed that PDOR has a broad range of substrate specificities. The modeling superposition indicated that the structural differences may account for the diversity of PDORs' properties. Thus, our PDOR is a potential candidate for facilitating the 1,3-PD biosynthesis.

  17. Gene expression profiles of prostate cancer stem cells isolated by aldehyde dehydrogenase activity assay.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Sachiyo; Hirohashi, Yoshihiko; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Akari; Masumori, Naoya; Tsukamoto, Taiji; Sato, Noriyuki

    2012-07-01

    Prostate cancer cells include a small population of cancer stem-like/cancer initiating cells, which have roles in cancer initiation and progression. Recently aldehyde dehydrogenase activity was used to isolate stem cells of various cancer and normal cells. We evaluated the aldehyde dehydrogenase activity of the human prostate cancer cell line 22Rv1 (ATCC®) with the ALDEFLUOR® assay and determined its potency as prostate cancer stem-like/cancer initiating cells. The human prostate cancer cell line 22Rv1 was labeled with ALDEFLUOR reagent and analyzed by flow cytometry. ALDH1(high) and ALDH1(low) cells were isolated and tumorigenicity was evaluated by xenograft transplantation into NOD/SCID mice. Tumor sphere forming ability was evaluated by culturing in a floating condition. Invasion capability was evaluated by the Matrigel™ invasion assay. Gene expression profiling was assessed by microarrays and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. ALDH1(high) cells were detected in 6.8% of 22Rv1 cells, which showed significantly higher tumorigenicity than ALDH1(low) cells in NOD/SCID mice (p < 0.05). Gene expression profiling revealed higher expression of the stem cell related genes PROM1 and NKX3-1 in ALDH1(high) cells than in ALDH1(low) cells. ALDH1(high) cells also showed higher invasive capability and sphere forming capability than ALDH1(low) cells. Results indicate that cancer stem-like/cancer initiating cells are enriched in the ALDH1(high) population of the prostate cancer cell line 22Rv1. This approach may provide a breakthrough to further clarify prostate cancer stem-like/cancer initiating cells. To our knowledge this is the first report of cancer stem-like/cancer initiating cells of 22Rv1 using the aldehyde dehydrogenase activity assay. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cloning, characterization and functional expression of Taenia solium 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Aceves-Ramos, A; de la Torre, P; Hinojosa, L; Ponce, A; García-Villegas, R; Laclette, J P; Bobes, R J; Romano, M C

    2014-07-01

    The 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSD) are key enzymes involved in the formation (reduction) and inactivation (oxidation) of sex steroids. Several types have been found in vertebrates including fish, as well as in invertebrates like Caenorhabditis elegans, Ciona intestinalis and Haliotis diversicolor supertexta. To date limited information is available about this enzyme in parasites. We showed previously that Taenia solium cysticerci are able to synthesize sex steroid hormones in vitro when precursors are provided in the culture medium. Here, we identified a T. solium 17β-HSD through in silico blast searches in the T. solium genome database. This coding sequence was amplified by RT-PCR and cloned into the pcDNA 3.1(+) expression vector. The full length cDNA contains 957bp, corresponding to an open reading frame coding for 319 aa. The highest identity (84%) at the protein level was found with the Echinococcus multilocularis 17β-HSD although significant similarities were also found with other invertebrate and vertebrate 17β-HSD sequences. The T. solium Tsol-17βHSD belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) protein superfamily. HEK293T cells transiently transfected with Tsol17β-HSD induced expression of Tsol17β-HSD that transformed 3H-androstenedione into testosterone. In contrast, 3H-estrone was not significantly transformed into estradiol. In conclusion, T. solium cysticerci express a 17β-HSD that catalyzes the androgen reduction. The enzyme belongs to the short chain dehydrogenases/reductase family and shares motifs and activity with the type 3 enzyme of some other species.

  19. 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase expression in a murine virus-induced myeloproliferative syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marcovistz, R; Le Bousse-Kerdiles, M C; Maillere, B; Smadja-Joffe, F; Poirrier, V; Jasmin, C

    1991-11-01

    The myeloproliferative sarcoma virus (MPSV) infection in DBA/2 mice leads to important quantitative and qualitative changes in their hemopoiesis. These findings suggest a disturbance in the production and action of a certain hemopoietic factor similar to IL3. Here, we show that the level of the 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20 alpha-SDH) expression, which can be induced by IL3, is dramatically increased in spleen and thymus of MPSV-infected mice. Our results suggest that quantification of 20 alpha-SDH activity can be used to indicate abnormal production of a growth factor similar to IL3 in hemopoietic system diseases.

  20. Arabidopsis alcohol dehydrogenase expression in both shoots and roots is conditioned by root growth environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, H. J.; Ferl, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the Arabidopsis Adh (alcohol dehydrogenase) gene is constitutively expressed at low levels in the roots of young plants grown on agar media, and that the expression level is greatly induced by anoxic or hypoxic stresses. We questioned whether the agar medium itself created an anaerobic environment for the roots upon their growing into the gel. beta-Glucuronidase (GUS) expression driven by the Adh promoter was examined by growing transgenic Arabidopsis plants in different growing systems. Whereas roots grown on horizontal-positioned plates showed high Adh/GUS expression levels, roots from vertical-positioned plates had no Adh/GUS expression. Additional results indicate that growth on vertical plates closely mimics the Adh/GUS expression observed for soil-grown seedlings, and that growth on horizontal plates results in induction of high Adh/GUS expression that is consistent with hypoxic or anoxic conditions within the agar of the root zone. Adh/GUS expression in the shoot apex is also highly induced by root penetration of the agar medium. This induction of Adh/GUS in shoot apex and roots is due, at least in part, to mechanisms involving Ca2+ signal transduction.

  1. Genomic organization and expression of the human fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (FALDH)

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, G.R.; Markova, N.G.; Compton, J.G.

    1997-01-15

    Mutations in the fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) gene cause Sjoegren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) - a disease characterized by mental retardation, spasticity, and congenital ichthyosis. To facilitate mutation analysis in SLS and to study the pathogenesis of FALDH deficiency, we have determined the structural organization and characterized expression of the FALDH (proposed designation ALDH10) gene. The gene consists of 10 exons spanning about 30.5 kb. A TATA-less promoter is associated with the major transcription initiation site found to be 258 hp upstream of the ATG codon. The G4C-rich sequences surrounding the transcription initiation site encompassed regulatory elements that interacted with proteins in HeLa nuclear extracts and were able to promote transcription in vitro. FALDH is widely expressed as three transcripts of 2, 3.8, and 4.0 kb, which originate from multiple polyadenylation signals in the 3{prime} UTR. An alternatively spliced mRNA was detected that contains an extra exon and encodes an enzyme that is likely to have altered membrane-binding properties. The FALDH gene lies only 50-85 kb from ALDH3, an aldehyde dehydrogenase gene that has homologous sequence and intron/exon structure. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Expression of Lactate Dehydrogenase in Aspergillus niger for L-Lactic Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Khyati K.; Punekar, Narayan S.

    2015-01-01

    Different engineered organisms have been used to produce L-lactate. Poor yields of lactate at low pH and expensive downstream processing remain as bottlenecks. Aspergillus niger is a prolific citrate producer and a remarkably acid tolerant fungus. Neither a functional lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from nor lactate production by A. niger is reported. Its genome was also investigated for the presence of a functional ldh. The endogenous A. niger citrate synthase promoter relevant to A. niger acidogenic metabolism was employed to drive constitutive expression of mouse lactate dehydrogenase (mldhA). An appraisal of different branches of the A. niger pyruvate node guided the choice of mldhA for heterologous expression. A high copy number transformant C12 strain, displaying highest LDH specific activity, was analyzed under different growth conditions. The C12 strain produced 7.7 g/l of extracellular L-lactate from 60 g/l of glucose, in non-neutralizing minimal media. Significantly, lactate and citrate accumulated under two different growth conditions. Already an established acidogenic platform, A. niger now promises to be a valuable host for lactate production. PMID:26683313

  3. Expression of Lactate Dehydrogenase in Aspergillus niger for L-Lactic Acid Production.

    PubMed

    Dave, Khyati K; Punekar, Narayan S

    2015-01-01

    Different engineered organisms have been used to produce L-lactate. Poor yields of lactate at low pH and expensive downstream processing remain as bottlenecks. Aspergillus niger is a prolific citrate producer and a remarkably acid tolerant fungus. Neither a functional lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from nor lactate production by A. niger is reported. Its genome was also investigated for the presence of a functional ldh. The endogenous A. niger citrate synthase promoter relevant to A. niger acidogenic metabolism was employed to drive constitutive expression of mouse lactate dehydrogenase (mldhA). An appraisal of different branches of the A. niger pyruvate node guided the choice of mldhA for heterologous expression. A high copy number transformant C12 strain, displaying highest LDH specific activity, was analyzed under different growth conditions. The C12 strain produced 7.7 g/l of extracellular L-lactate from 60 g/l of glucose, in non-neutralizing minimal media. Significantly, lactate and citrate accumulated under two different growth conditions. Already an established acidogenic platform, A. niger now promises to be a valuable host for lactate production.

  4. Microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer and association with thymidylate synthase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase expression

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Microsatellite instability (MSI) refers to mutations in short motifs of tandemly repeated nucleotides resulting from replication errors and deficient mismatch repair (MMR). Colorectal cancer with MSI has characteristic biology and chemosensitivity, however the molecular basis remains unclarified. The association of MSI and MMR status with outcome and with thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) expression in colorectal cancer were evaluated. Methods MSI in five reference loci, MMR enzymes (hMSH2, hMSH6, hMLH1 and hPMS2), thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) expression were assessed in paraffin embedded tumor specimens, and associated with outcome in 340 consecutive patients completely resected for colorectal cancer stages II-IV and subsequently receiving adjuvant 5-fluorouracil therapy. Results MSI was found in 43 (13.8%) tumors. Absence of repair protein expression was assessed in 52 (17.0%) tumors, which had primarily lost hMLH1 in 39 (12.7%), hMSH2 in 5 (1.6%), and hMSH6 in 8 (2.6%) tumors. In multivariate analysis MSI (instable) compared to MSS (stable) tumors were significantly associated with lower risk of recurrence (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.2–0.7; P = 0.0007) and death (HR = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2–0.9; P = 0.02) independently of the TS and DPD expressions. A direct relationship between MSI and TS intensity (P = 0.001) was found, while there was no significant association with DPD intensity (P = 0.1). Conclusion The favourable outcome of MSI colorectal carcinomas is ascribed mainly to the tumor biology and to a lesser extent to antitumor response to 5-fluorouracil therapy. There is no evidence that differential TS or DPD expression may account for these outcome characteristics. PMID:19154585

  5. Heterologous expression of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (ZrGPD1) and glycerol dehydrogenase gene (ZrGCY1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yasuo; Tsuchimoto, Syoko; Tamai, Youichi

    2004-01-01

    We examined the effects of heterologous expression of the open reading frames (ORF) of two genes on salt tolerance and glycerol production in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain deficient in glycerol synthesis (gpd1Deltagpd2Delta). When the ORF of the Zygosaccharomyces rouxii glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (ZrGPD1) was expressed under the control of the GAL10 promoter, salt tolerance and glycerol production increased; when the ORF of the glycerol dehydrogenase gene (ZrGCY1) was expressed under the control of the GAL1 promoter, no such changes were observed. Zrgcy1p had a weak effect on glycerol production. These results suggest that Zrgpd1p is the primary enzyme involved in Z. rouxii glycerol production, following a mechanism similar to that of S. cerevisiae (Gpd1p). When the ORFs of the S. cerevisiae glycerol 3-phosphatase gene (GPP2) and ZrGPD1 were simultaneously expressed, glycerol production increased, compared with that in yeast expressing only ZrGPD1.

  6. Enantioselective bioconversion using Escherichia coli cells expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae reductase and Bacillus subtilis glucose dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Joo; Jung, Jihye; Choi, Hyejeong; Uhm, Ki-Nam; Kim, Hyung Kwoun

    2010-09-01

    Ethyl (R, S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate (ECHB) is a useful chiral building block for the synthesis of L-carnitine and hypercholesterolemia drugs. The yeast reductase, YOL151W (GenBank locus tag), exhibits an enantioselective reduction activity, converting ethyl-4-chlorooxobutanoate (ECOB) exclusively into (R)-ECHB. YOL151W was generated in Escherichia coli cells and purified via Ni- NTA and desalting column chromatography. It evidenced an optimum temperature of 45 degrees C and an optimum pH of 6.5-7.5. Bacillus subtilis glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) was also expressed in Escherichia coli, and was used for the recycling of NADPH, required for the reduction reaction. Thereafter, Escherichia coli cells co-expressing YOL151W and GDH were constructed. After permeablization treatment, the Escherichia coli whole cells were utilized for ECHB synthesis. Through the use of this system, the 30 mM ECOB substrate could be converted to (R)-ECHB.

  7. Daily Variations in the Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Isoforms Expression in Triatoma infestans Flight Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Stroppa, María M.; Carriazo, Carlota S.; Gerez de Burgos, Nelia M.; Garcia, Beatríz A.

    2014-01-01

    Triatoma infestans, the main vector of Chagas disease, is a blood-sucking insect. Flight dispersal of adults is the most important mechanism for reinfestation of houses after insecticide spraying. Flight muscles have two glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) isoforms: GPDH-1 is involved in flight metabolism and GPDH-2 provides lipid precursors. In this study, we explored the profile of GPDH expression in females and males adult flight muscles under light/dark cycle, constant light, and constant dark conditions. Under constant dark conditions, GPDH-1 flight muscles of T. infestans showed a rhythmic pattern of transcription synchronous with a rhythmic profile of activity suggesting regulation by the endogenous circadian clock. Otherwise, the GPDH-2 expression analysis showed no regulation by the endogenous clock, but showed that an external factor, such as the dark/light period, was necessary for synchronization of GPDH-2 transcription and activity. PMID:24914000

  8. Functional expression of Phanerochaete chrysosporium cellobiose dehydrogenase flavin domain in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Desriani; Ferri, Stefano; Sode, Koji

    2010-06-01

    Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH; EC 1.1.99.18) is an extracellular glycosylated protein composed of two distinct domains, a C-terminal catalytic flavin domain and an N-terminal cytochrome-b-type heme domain, which transfers electrons from the flavin domain to external electron acceptors. The soluble flavin domain of the Phanerochaete chrysosporium CDH was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme showed dye-mediated CDH activity higher than that of the complete CDH, composed of flavin domain and heme domain, prepared using Pichia pastoris as the host microorganism. The ability to conveniently express the recombinant CDH flavin domain in E. coli provides great opportunities for the molecular engineering of the catalytic properties of CDH.

  9. The human L-threonine 3-dehydrogenase gene is an expressed pseudogene

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Alasdair J

    2002-01-01

    Background L-threonine is an indispensable amino acid. One of the major L-threonine degradation pathways is the conversion of L-threonine via 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate to glycine. L-threonine dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.103) is the first enzyme in the pathway and catalyses the reaction: L-threonine + NAD+ = 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate + NADH. The murine and porcine L-threonine dehydrogenase genes (TDH) have been identified previously, but the human gene has not been identified. Results The human TDH gene is located at 8p23-22 and has 8 exons spanning 10 kb that would have been expected to encode a 369 residue ORF. However, 2 cDNA TDH transcripts encode truncated proteins of 157 and 230 residues. These truncated proteins are the result of 3 mutations within the gene. There is a SNP, A to G, present in the genomic DNA sequence of some individuals which results in the loss of the acceptor splice site preceding exon 4. The acceptor splice site preceding exon 6 was lost in all 23 individuals genotyped and there is an in-frame stop codon in exon 6 (CGA to TGA) resulting in arginine-214 being replaced by a stop codon. These truncated proteins would be non-functional since they have lost part of the NAD+ binding motif and the COOH terminal domain that is thought to be involved in binding L-threonine. TDH mRNA was present in all tissues examined. Conclusions The human L-threonine 3-dehydrogenase gene is an expressed pseudogene having lost the splice acceptor site preceding exon 6 and codon arginine-214 (CGA) is mutated to a stop codon (TGA). PMID:12361482

  10. Gene cloning, expression, and characterization of a novel acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Issatchenkia terricola strain XJ-2.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhengying; Zhang, Chong; Lu, Fengxia; Bie, Xiaomei; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2012-03-01

    Acetaldehyde is a known mutagen and carcinogen. Active aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) represents an important mechanism for acetaldehyde detoxification. A yeast strain XJ-2 isolated from grape samples was found to produce acetaldehyde dehydrogenase with a high activity of 2.28 U/mg and identified as Issatchenkia terricola. The enzyme activity was validated by oxidizing acetaldehyde to acetate with NAD(+) as coenzyme based on the headspace gas chromatography analysis. A novel acetaldehyde dehydrogenase gene (ist-ALD) was cloned by combining SiteFinding-PCR and self-formed adaptor PCR. The ist-ALD gene comprised an open reading frame of 1,578 bp and encoded a protein of 525 amino acids. The predicted protein of ist-ALD showed the highest identity (73%) to ALDH from Pichia angusta. The ist-ALD gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the gene product (ist-ALDH) presented a productivity of 442.3 U/mL cells. The purified ist-ALDH was a homotetramer of 232 kDa consisting of 57 kDa-subunit according to the SDS-PAGE and native PAGE analysis. Ist-ALDH exhibited the optimal activity at pH 9.0 and 40°C, respectively. The activity of ist-ALDH was enhanced by K(+), NH4(+), dithiothreitol, and 2-mercaptoethanol but strongly inhibited by Ag(+), Hg(2+), Cu(2+), and phenylmethyl sulfonylfluoride. In the presence of NAD(+), ist-ALDH could oxidize many aliphatic, aromatic, and heterocyclic aldehydes, preferably acetaldehyde. Kinetic study revealed that ist-ALDH had a k (cat) value of 27.71/s and a k (cat)/K (m) value of 26.80 × 10(3)/(mol s) on acetaldehyde, demonstrating ist-ALDH, a catalytically active enzyme by comparing with other ALDHs. These studies indicated that ist-ALDH was a potential enzymatic product for acetaldehyde detoxification.

  11. Expression of a gene encoding mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase in rice increases under submerged conditions.

    PubMed

    Nakazono, M; Tsuji, H; Li, Y; Saisho, D; Arimura, S; Tsutsumi, N; Hirai, A

    2000-10-01

    It is known that alcoholic fermentation is important for survival of plants under anaerobic conditions. Acetaldehyde, one of the intermediates of alcoholic fermentation, is not only reduced by alcohol dehydrogenase but also can be oxidized by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). To determine whether ALDH plays a role in anaerobic metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Nipponbare), we characterized a cDNA clone encoding mitochondrial ALDH from rice (Aldh2a). Analysis of sub-cellular localization of ALDH2a protein using green fluorescent protein and an in vitro ALDH assay using protein extracts from Escherichia coli cells that overexpressed ALDH2a indicated that ALDH2a functions in the oxidation of acetaldehyde in mitochondria. A Southern-blot analysis indicated that mitochondrial ALDH is encoded by at least two genes in rice. We found that the Aldh2a mRNA was present at high levels in leaves of dark-grown seedlings, mature leaf sheaths, and panicles. It is interesting that expression of the rice Aldh2a gene, unlike the expression of the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Aldh2a gene, was induced in rice seedlings by submergence. Experiments with ruthenium red, which is a blocker of Ca(2+) fluxes in rice as well as maize (Zea mays), suggest that the induction of expression of Adh1 and Pdc1 by low oxygen stress is regulated by elevation of the cytosolic Ca(2+) level. However, the induction of Aldh2a gene expression may not be controlled by the cytosolic Ca(2+) level elevation. A possible involvement of ALDH2a in the submergence tolerance of rice is discussed.

  12. Cloning, expression, functional validation and modeling of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase isolated from xylem of Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Brijesh; Pandey, Veda Prakash; Dwivedi, Upendra Nath

    2011-10-01

    A cDNA encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), catalyzing conversion of cinnamyl aldehydes to corresponding cinnamyl alcohols, was cloned from secondary xylem of Leucaena leucocephala. The cloned cDNA was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS cells. Temperature and Zn(2+) ion played crucial role in expression and activity of enzyme, such that, at 18°C and at 2 mM Zn(2+) the CAD was maximally expressed as active enzyme in soluble fraction. The expressed protein was purified 14.78-folds to homogeneity on Ni-NTA agarose column with specific activity of 346 nkat/mg protein. The purified enzyme exhibited lowest Km with cinnamyl alcohol (12.2 μM) followed by coniferyl (18.1 μM) and sinapyl alcohol (23.8 μM). Enzyme exhibited high substrate inhibition with cinnamyl (beyond 20 μM) and coniferyl (beyond 100 μM) alcohols. The in silico analysis of CAD protein exhibited four characteristic consensus sequences, GHEXXGXXXXXGXXV; C(100), C(103), C(106), C(114); GXGXXG and C(47), S(49), H(69), L(95), C(163), I(300) involved in catalytic Zn(2+) binding, structural Zn(2+) binding, NADP(+) binding and substrate binding, respectively. Tertiary structure, generated using Modeller 9v5, exhibited a trilobed structure with bulged out structural Zn(2+) binding domain. The catalytic Zn(2+) binding, substrate binding and NADP(+) binding domains formed a pocket protected by two major lobes. The enzyme catalysis, sequence homology and 3-D model, all supported that the cloned CAD belongs to alcohol dehydrogenase family of plants.

  13. Expression, purification and crystallization of Trypanosoma cruzi dihydroorotate dehydrogenase complexed with orotate

    SciTech Connect

    Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Takashima, Eizo; Osanai, Arihiro; Shimizu, Hironari; Nara, Takeshi; Aoki, Takashi; Harada, Shigeharu; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2005-10-01

    The Trypanosoma cruzi dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, a key enzyme in pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis and redox homeostasis, was crystallized in complex with its first reaction product, orotate. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHOD) catalyzes the oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate, the fourth step and the only redox reaction in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine. DHOD from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcDHOD) has been expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Crystals of the TcDHOD–orotate complex were grown at 277 K by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique using polyethylene glycol 3350 as a precipitant. The crystals diffract to better than 1.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation (λ = 0.900 Å). X-ray diffraction data were collected at 100 K and processed to 1.9 Å resolution with 98.2% completeness and an overall R{sub merge} of 7.8%. The TcDHOD crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.87, b = 71.89, c = 123.27 Å. The presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit (2 × 34 kDa) gives a crystal volume per protein weight (V{sub M}) of 2.2 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 44%.

  14. Expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoforms in canine adrenal glands treated with trilostane.

    PubMed

    Teshima, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Kumagai, Takayuki; Kurano, Mai; Koyama, Hidekazu

    2014-06-01

    Trilostane, a competitive inhibitor of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, is often used to treat canine hyperadrenocorticism. In some species, trilostane has been shown to have additional effects on steroid biosynthesis, and it has been postulated that trilostane might have effects on 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) in dogs. To investigate the effect of trilostane on 11β-HSD in canine adrenal glands, healthy Beagle dogs were treated with trilostane for 8 weeks. Trilostane treatment resulted in a significant decrease of the cortisol/cortisone ratio in the serum. The adrenal gland mRNA and protein expression levels of 11β-HSD type 1 and 11β-HSD type 2 were significantly higher and significantly lower respectively in dogs treated with trilostane compared to those in control healthy Beagle dogs. These findings suggest that trilostane may have an effect on 11β-HSD activity in canine adrenal glands. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Potato tuber cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase genes: biochemical properties, activity, and expression during tuber dormancy progression.

    PubMed

    Suttle, Jeffrey C; Huckle, Linda L; Lu, Shunwen; Knauber, Donna C

    2014-03-15

    The enzymatic and biochemical properties of the proteins encoded by five potato cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase (CKX)-like genes functionally expressed in yeast and the effects of tuber dormancy progression on StCKX expression and cytokinin metabolism were examined in lateral buds isolated from field-grown tubers. All five putative StCKX genes encoded proteins with in vitro CKX activity. All five enzymes were maximally active at neutral to slightly alkaline pH with 2,6-dichloro-indophenol as the electron acceptor. In silico analyses indicated that four proteins were likely secreted. Substrate dependence of two of the most active enzymes varied; one exhibiting greater activity with isopentenyl-type cytokinins while the other was maximally active with cis-zeatin as a substrate. [(3)H]-isopentenyl-adenosine was readily metabolized by excised tuber buds to adenine/adenosine demonstrating that CKX was active in planta. There was no change in apparent in planta CKX activity during either natural or chemically forced dormancy progression. Similarly although expression of individual StCKX genes varied modestly during tuber dormancy, there was no clear correlation between StCKX gene expression and tuber dormancy status. Thus although CKX gene expression and enzyme activity are present in potato tuber buds throughout dormancy, they do not appear to play a significant role in the regulation of cytokinin content during tuber dormancy progression.

  16. Roles of histamine on the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Jiang, Yang; Ikeda, Jun-Ichiro; Tian, Tian; Sato, Atsushi; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Morii, Eiichi

    2014-10-01

    Cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are a limited number of cells that are essential for maintenance, recurrence, and metastasis of tumors. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) has been recognized as a marker of CICs. We previously reported that ALDH1-high cases of uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma showed poor prognosis, and that ALDH1 high population was more tumorigenic, invasive, and resistant to apoptosis than ALDH1 low population. Histamine plays a critical role in cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Here, we examined the effect of histamine on ALDH1 expression in endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line. The addition of histamine increased ALDH1 high population, which was consistent with the result that histamine enhanced the invasive ability and the resistance to anticancer drug. Among 4 types of histamine receptors, histamine H1 and H2 receptor (H1R and H2R) were expressed in endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line. The addition of H1R agonist but not H2R agonist increased ALDH1. The antagonist H1R but not H2R inhibited the effect of histamine on ALDH1 expression. These results indicated that histamine increased the expression of ALDH1 via H1R but not H2R. These findings may provide the evidence for exploring a new strategy to suppress CICs by inhibiting ALDH1 expression with histamine.

  17. Testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase is expressed in somatic tissues of plateau pikas☆

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Duowei; Wei, Lian; Wei, Dengbang; Rao, Xinfeng; Qi, Xinzhang; Wang, Xiaojun; Ma, Benyuan

    2013-01-01

    LDH-C4 is a lactate dehydrogenase that catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate with lactate. In mammals the, Ldh-c gene was originally thought to be expressed only in testis and spermatozoa. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae), belonging to the genus Ochotona of the Ochotonidea family, is a hypoxia tolerant mammal living at 3000–5000 m above sea levelon the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We found that the expression pattern of six LDH isoenzymes in the somatic tissues of female and male plateau pikas to be the same as those in testis and sperm, suggesting that LDH-C4 was expressed in somatic tissues of plateau pika. Here we report the detection of LDHC in the somatic tissues of plateau pika using RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Our results indicate that Ldh-c mRNA is transcribed in the heart, liver, lung, kidney, brain, skeletal muscle and testis. In somatic tissues LDHC was translated in the cytoplasm, while in testis it was expressed in both cytoplasm and mitochondria. The third band from cathode to anode in LDH isoenzymes was identified as LDH-C4. The finding that Ldh-c is expressed in both somatic tissues and testis of plateau pika provides important implications for more in-depth research into the Ldh-c function in mammals. PMID:23772382

  18. Testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase is expressed in somatic tissues of plateau pikas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Duowei; Wei, Lian; Wei, Dengbang; Rao, Xinfeng; Qi, Xinzhang; Wang, Xiaojun; Ma, Benyuan

    2013-01-01

    LDH-C4 is a lactate dehydrogenase that catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate with lactate. In mammals the, Ldh-c gene was originally thought to be expressed only in testis and spermatozoa. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae), belonging to the genus Ochotona of the Ochotonidea family, is a hypoxia tolerant mammal living at 3000-5000 m above sea levelon the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We found that the expression pattern of six LDH isoenzymes in the somatic tissues of female and male plateau pikas to be the same as those in testis and sperm, suggesting that LDH-C4 was expressed in somatic tissues of plateau pika. Here we report the detection of LDHC in the somatic tissues of plateau pika using RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Our results indicate that Ldh-c mRNA is transcribed in the heart, liver, lung, kidney, brain, skeletal muscle and testis. In somatic tissues LDHC was translated in the cytoplasm, while in testis it was expressed in both cytoplasm and mitochondria. The third band from cathode to anode in LDH isoenzymes was identified as LDH-C4. The finding that Ldh-c is expressed in both somatic tissues and testis of plateau pika provides important implications for more in-depth research into the Ldh-c function in mammals.

  19. Cerium Regulates Expression of Alternative Methanol Dehydrogenases in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b

    PubMed Central

    Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad; Kalidass, Bhagyalakshmi; Bandow, Nathan; Turpin, Erick A.; DiSpirito, Alan A.

    2015-01-01

    Methanotrophs have multiple methane monooxygenases that are well known to be regulated by copper, i.e., a “copper switch.” At low copper/biomass ratios the soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) is expressed while expression and activity of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) increases with increasing availability of copper. In many methanotrophs there are also multiple methanol dehydrogenases (MeDHs), one based on Mxa and another based on Xox. Mxa-MeDH is known to have calcium in its active site, while Xox-MeDHs have been shown to have rare earth elements in their active site. We show here that the expression levels of Mxa-MeDH and Xox-MeDH in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b significantly decreased and increased, respectively, when grown in the presence of cerium but the absence of copper compared to the absence of both metals. Expression of sMMO and pMMO was not affected. In the presence of copper, the effect of cerium on gene expression was less significant, i.e., expression of Mxa-MeDH in the presence of copper and cerium was slightly lower than in the presence of copper alone, but Xox-MeDH was again found to increase significantly. As expected, the addition of copper caused sMMO and pMMO expression levels to significantly decrease and increase, respectively, but the simultaneous addition of cerium had no discernible effect on MMO expression. As a result, it appears Mxa-MeDH can be uncoupled from methane oxidation by sMMO in M. trichosporium OB3b but not from pMMO. PMID:26296730

  20. In vitro expression of Candida albicans alcohol dehydrogenase genes involved in acetaldehyde metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bakri, M M; Rich, A M; Cannon, R D; Holmes, A R

    2015-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for oral cancer, possibly via its conversion to acetaldehyde, a known carcinogen. The oral commensal yeast Candida albicans may be one of the agents responsible for this conversion intra-orally. The alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) family of enzymes are involved in acetaldehyde metabolism in yeast but, for C. albicans it is not known which family member is responsible for the conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde. In this study we determined the expression of mRNAs from three C. albicans Adh genes (CaADH1, CaADH2 and CaCDH3) for cells grown in different culture media at different growth phases by Northern blot analysis and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. CaADH1 was constitutively expressed under all growth conditions but there was differential expression of CaADH2. CaADH3 expression was not detected. To investigate whether CaAdh1p or CaAdh2p can contribute to alcohol catabolism in C. albicans, each gene from the reference strain C. albicans SC5314 was expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell extracts from an CaAdh1p-expressing S. cerevisiae recombinant, but not an CaAdh2p-expressing recombinant, or an empty vector control strain, possessed ethanol-utilizing Adh activity above endogenous S. cerevisiae activity. Furthermore, expression of C. albicans Adh1p in a recombinant S. cerevisiae strain in which the endogenous ScADH2 gene (known to convert ethanol to acetaldehyde in this yeast) had been deleted, conferred an NAD-dependent ethanol-utilizing, and so acetaldehyde-producing, Adh activity. We conclude that CaAdh1p is the enzyme responsible for ethanol use under in vitro growth conditions, and may contribute to the intra-oral production of acetaldehyde.

  1. Cerium regulates expression of alternative methanol dehydrogenases in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b.

    PubMed

    Farhan Ul Haque, Muhammad; Kalidass, Bhagyalakshmi; Bandow, Nathan; Turpin, Erick A; DiSpirito, Alan A; Semrau, Jeremy D

    2015-11-01

    Methanotrophs have multiple methane monooxygenases that are well known to be regulated by copper, i.e., a "copper switch." At low copper/biomass ratios the soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) is expressed while expression and activity of the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) increases with increasing availability of copper. In many methanotrophs there are also multiple methanol dehydrogenases (MeDHs), one based on Mxa and another based on Xox. Mxa-MeDH is known to have calcium in its active site, while Xox-MeDHs have been shown to have rare earth elements in their active site. We show here that the expression levels of Mxa-MeDH and Xox-MeDH in Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b significantly decreased and increased, respectively, when grown in the presence of cerium but the absence of copper compared to the absence of both metals. Expression of sMMO and pMMO was not affected. In the presence of copper, the effect of cerium on gene expression was less significant, i.e., expression of Mxa-MeDH in the presence of copper and cerium was slightly lower than in the presence of copper alone, but Xox-MeDH was again found to increase significantly. As expected, the addition of copper caused sMMO and pMMO expression levels to significantly decrease and increase, respectively, but the simultaneous addition of cerium had no discernible effect on MMO expression. As a result, it appears Mxa-MeDH can be uncoupled from methane oxidation by sMMO in M. trichosporium OB3b but not from pMMO.

  2. LDHk, an unusual oxygen-sensitive lactate dehydrogenase expressed in human cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, G R; Kovacik, W P

    1981-01-01

    An unusual isozyme of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; L-lactate:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27), LDHk, has been described in cells transformed by the Kirsten murine sarcoma virus (KiMSV). This isozyme appears to contain one or more subunits encoded by the transforming gene of KiMSV and is readily distinguished from other isozymes of LDH. Specifically, it is more basic than other LDH isozymes, has an apparent subunit structure of (35,000)4(22,000)1, is essentially inactive if assayed under a normal atmosphere, and is strongly inhibited by GTP and various related compounds. We have examined human cancer and normal tissue controls for expression of an activity like LDHk. In 11 out of 16 human carcinomas, LDHk activity was increased 10- to 500-fold over the level seen in adjoining nontumor tissue. In contrast, other LDH isozymes were increased by only 2- to 5-fold. Images PMID:6942426

  3. Experimental cancer therapy using restoration of NAD+ -linked 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase expression.

    PubMed

    Kaliberova, Lyudmila N; Kusmartsev, Sergei A; Krendelchtchikova, Valentina; Stockard, Cecil R; Grizzle, William E; Buchsbaum, Donald J; Kaliberov, Sergey A

    2009-11-01

    Preclinical and clinical evidence shows that cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2)-mediated prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) overexpression plays an important role in tumor growth, metastasis, and immunosuppression. It has been shown that expression of NAD(+)-linked 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH), a key enzyme responsible for PGE(2) inactivation, is suppressed in the majority of cancers, including breast and colon carcinoma. We have developed adenoviral vectors (Ad) encoding the 15-PGDH gene under control of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1/flt-1; Adflt-PGDH) and the Cox-2 (Adcox-PGDH) promoters. The purpose of this study was to investigate cytotoxicity in vitro and therapeutic efficacy in vivo of 15-PGDH-mediated cancer therapy. The levels of PGE(2) and VEGF expression were correlated with PGE(2) receptor and Cox-2 and flt-1 expression in cancer cells. The in vitro study showed that Ad-mediated 15-PGDH expression significantly decreased proliferation and migration of cancer cells. Animal breast and colon tumor therapy studies showed that 15-PGDH gene therapy produced a significant delay in 2LMP and LS174T tumor growth. Combined therapy using 15-PGDH and anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab) significantly increased inhibition of growth of LS174T tumor xenografts in comparison with agents alone. These results suggest that 15-PGDH-mediated regulation of PGE(2) catabolism in the tumor microenvironment represents a novel approach for therapy of human breast and colon cancer.

  4. Expression of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase is enhanced in Leishmania spp naturally resistant to nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Rios, M C; Silva, W R T; Azevedo, A F; Santos, P L; Teixeira, S A; Muscará, M N; Thomazzi, S M; Almeida, R P; Fernandes, R P M; Scher, R

    2015-06-29

    Leishmania spp are the causative agents of a spectrum of diseases termed leishmaniasis that affect mammals, including humans and dogs. Although reactive nitrogen species are employed in the control of parasitism by the immune system, it is known that Leishmania can withstand this oxidative stress. As the mechanism by which these species are resistant to nitric oxide (NO) is poorly understood, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania chagasi promastigotes showing natural resistance to NO. GAPDH transcript levels were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification, and GAPDH activity (assessed by levels of NADH oxidation) was measured by spectrophotometry. The level of nitration in total protein was assessed by immunoblotting. The results demonstrated an increase in GAPDH expression in resistant isolates of both species compared to susceptible isolates. The increase in GAPDH expression led to an increase in the activity of GAPDH in L. amazonensis human isolates resistant to NO. The pattern of protein nitration did not differ between sensitive and resistant isolates. Our results suggest that changes in expression of GAPDH may be responsible, at least in part, to natural resistance to NO found in human and canine Leishmania spp.

  5. Expression and Cellular Localization of 15-Hydroxy-Prostaglandin-Dehydrogenase in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Solà-Villà, David; Dilmé, Jaime-Félix; Rodríguez, Cristina; Soto, Begoña; Vila, Luis; Escudero, José-Román; Martínez-González, José; Camacho, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    PGE2 has been implicated in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) associated hypervascularization. PGE2-metabolism involves 15-hydroxyprostaglandin-dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) the expression of which in AAA is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the expression and cell distribution of 15-PGDH in AAA. Here, we show that 15-PGDH mRNA levels were significantly higher in aorta samples from patients undergoing AAA repair than in those from healthy multiorgan donors. Consequently, the ratio of metabolized PGE2 secreted by aortic samples was significantly higher in AAA. AAA production of total PGE2 and PGE2 metabolites correlated positively with PGI2 production, while the percentage of metabolized PGE2 correlated negatively with the total amount of PGE2 and with PGI2. Transcript levels of 15-PGDH were statistically associated with leukocyte markers but did not correlate with microvascular endothelial cell markers. Immunohistochemistry revealed 15-PGDH in the areas of leukocyte infiltration in AAA samples, mainly associated with CD45-positive cells, but not in normal aorta samples. We provide new data concerning 15-PGDH expression in human AAA, showing that 15-PGDH is upregulated in AAA and mainly expressed in infiltrating leukocytes. Our data suggest that microvasculature was not involved in PGE2 catabolism, reinforcing the potential role of microvasculature derived PGE2 in AAA-associated hypervascularization. PMID:26287481

  6. Molecular study of ovine glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene expression in respect to different energy intake.

    PubMed

    Laliotis, George P; Vitsa, Alkistis; Bizelis, Iosif; Charismiadou, Maria A; Rogdakis, Emmanuel

    2010-06-01

    Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) plays an important role in a ruminant's metabolism catalyzing the first committed reaction in the pentose phosphate pathway as it provides necessary compounds of NADPH for the synthesis of fatty acids. The cloning of ovine (Ovis aries) G6PD gene revealed the presence of two cDNA transcripts (oG6PD(A) and oG6PD(B)), with oG6PD(B) being a product of alternative splicing and with no similarity to any other previously reported G6PD transcript. Here, we attempt to study the effect of energy balance in ovine G6PD transcript expression, trying simultaneously to find out any potential physiological role of the oG6PD(B) transcript. Changes of energy balance that lead to synergistic changes in the expression of both transcripts, but in opposite directions and not in a proportional way. Negative energy balance favours the presence of the oG6PD(B) transcript leading to a significant increase of its expression, compared to oG6PD(A) expression (P<0.05). In contrast, positive energy balance leads to a significant increase of oG6PD(A) compared to oG6PD(B) expression (P<0.05). In either condition oG6PD(B) expression is unchanged. Regression analysis showed that there is an energy balance threshold where the expression of both transcripts shows no change. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 3A1 expression by the human keratocyte and its repair phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Pei, Ying; Reins, Rose Y; McDermott, Alison M

    2006-11-01

    Transparency is essential for normal corneal function. Recent studies suggest that corneal cells express high levels of so-called corneal crystallins, such as aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and transketolase (TKT) that contribute to maintaining cellular transparency. Stromal injury leads to the appearance of repair phenotype keratocytes, the corneal fibroblast and myofibroblast. Previous studies on keratocytes from species such as bovine and rabbit indicate that the transformation from the normal to repair phenotype is accompanied by a loss of corneal crystallin expression, which may be associated with loss of cellular transparency. Here we investigated if a similar loss occurs with human keratocyte repair phenotypes. Human corneal epithelial cells were collected by scraping and keratocytes were isolated by collagenase digestion from cadaveric corneas. The cells were either processed immediately (freshly isolated keratocytes) or were cultured in the presence of 10% fetal bovine serum or transforming growth factor-beta to induce transformation to the corneal fibroblast and myofibroblast phenotypes, respectively. RT-PCR, western blotting and immunolabeling were used to detect mRNA and protein expression of ALDH isozymes and TKT. ALDH enzyme activity was also quantitated and immunolabeling was performed to determine the expression of ALDH3A1 in human corneal tissue sections from normal and diseased corneas. Human corneal keratocytes isolated from three donors expressed ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1 mRNA, and one donor also expressed ALDH2 and TKT. Corneal epithelial cells expressed ALDH1A1, ALDH2, ALDH3A1 and TKT. Compared to normal keratocytes, corneal fibroblast expression of ALDH3A1 mRNA was reduced by 27% (n=5). ALDH3A1 protein expression as detected by western blotting was markedly reduced in passage zero fibroblasts and undetectable in higher passages (n=3). TKT protein expression was reduced in fibroblasts compared to keratocytes (n=2). ALDH3A1 enzyme activity was not

  8. Changing flux of xylose metabolites by altering expression of xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Treesearch

    Yong-Su Jin; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2003-01-01

    We changed the fluxes of xylose metabolites in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae by manipulating expression of Pichia stipitis genes(XYL1 and XYL2) coding for xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH), respectively. XYL1 copy number was kept constant by integrating it into the chromosome. Copy numbers of XYL2 were varied either by integrating XYL2 into...

  9. Decreased expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase A1 predicts an unfavorable prognosis in ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yaqing; Huang, Ruixia; Li, Xiaoli; Li, Xiaoran; Yu, Dandan; Zhang, Mingzhi; Wen, Jianguo; Goscinski, Mariusz Adam; Trope, Claes G; Nesland, Jahn M; Suo, Zhenhe

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase A1 (PDHA1) serves as a gate-keeper enzyme link between glycolysis and the mitochondrial citric acid cycle. The inhibition of PDHA1 in cancer cells can result in an increased Warburg effect and a more aggressive phenotype in cancer cells. This study was conducted to investigate the expression of PDHA1 in ovarian cancer and the correlation between PDHA1 expression and the prognosis of patients. The PDHA1 protein expression in 3 ovarian cancer cell lines (OVCAR-3, SKOV-3 and ES-2) and 248 surgically removed ovarian carcinoma samples was immunocytochemically examined. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the correlations between PDHA1 expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of the patients as well as the predictive value of PDHA1. The results showed the presence of variable expression of PDHA1 in the three ovarian cancer cell lines. Of the 248 ovarian cancer tissue specimens, 45 cases (18.1%) were negative in tumor cells for PDHA1, 162 cases (65.3%) displayed a low expression level, and 41 cases (16.5%) had a relatively high PDHA1 staining. The expression of PDHA1 was associated with the histological subtype (P=0.004) and FIGO stage (P=0.002). The median OS time in the PDHA1 negative group, low expression group and high expression group were 0.939 years, 1.443 years and 9.900 years, respectively. The median PFS time in the above three groups were 0.287 years, 0.586 years and 9.900 years, respectively. Furthermore, the high expression of PDHA1 in ovarian carcinoma cells was significantly associated with better OS and PFS by statistical analyses. Multivariate analyses showed that PDHA1 expression was also an independent prognostic factor for higher OS in ovarian cancer patients (HR=0.705, 95% CI 0.541-0.918, P=0.01). Our study indicated that the decreased expression of PDHA1 might be an independent prognostic factor in unfavorable outcomes. PMID:27725912

  10. Monoterpene Metabolism. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of (−)-Isopiperitenol/(−)-Carveol Dehydrogenase of Peppermint and Spearmint1

    PubMed Central

    Ringer, Kerry L.; Davis, Edward M.; Croteau, Rodney

    2005-01-01

    The essential oils of peppermint (Mentha x piperita) and spearmint (Mentha spicata) are distinguished by the oxygenation position on the p-menthane ring of the constitutive monoterpenes that is conferred by two regiospecific cytochrome P450 limonene-3- and limonene-6-hydroxylases. Following hydroxylation of limonene, an apparently similar dehydrogenase oxidizes (−)-trans-isopiperitenol to (−)-isopiperitenone in peppermint and (−)-trans-carveol to (−)-carvone in spearmint. Random sequencing of a peppermint oil gland secretory cell cDNA library revealed a large number of clones that specified redox-type enzymes, including dehydrogenases. Full-length dehydrogenase clones were screened by functional expression in Escherichia coli using a recently developed in situ assay. A single full-length acquisition encoding (−)-trans-isopiperitenol dehydrogenase (ISPD) was isolated. The (−)-ISPD cDNA has an open reading frame of 795 bp that encodes a 265-residue enzyme with a calculated molecular mass of 27,191. Nondegenerate primers were designed based on the (−)-trans-ISPD cDNA sequence and employed to screen a spearmint oil gland secretory cell cDNA library from which a 5′-truncated cDNA encoding the spearmint homolog, (−)-trans-carveol-dehydrogenase, was isolated. Reverse transcription-PCR amplification and RACE were used to acquire the remaining 5′-sequence from RNA isolated from oil gland secretory cells of spearmint leaf. The full-length spearmint dehydrogenase shares >99% amino acid identity with its peppermint homolog and both dehydrogenases are capable of utilizing (−)-trans-isopiperitenol and (−)-trans-carveol. These isopiperitenol/carveol dehydrogenases are members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily and are related to other plant short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases involved in secondary metabolism (lignan biosynthesis), stress responses, and phytosteroid biosynthesis, but they are quite dissimilar (approximately 13

  11. The Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene Family in Melon (Cucumis melo L.): Bioinformatic Analysis and Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yazhong; Zhang, Chong; Liu, Wei; Tang, Yufan; Qi, Hongyan; Chen, Hao; Cao, Songxiao

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH), encoded by multigene family in plants, play a critical role in plant growth, development, adaptation, fruit ripening and aroma production. Thirteen ADH genes were identified in melon genome, including 12 ADHs and one formaldehyde dehydrogenease (FDH), designated CmADH1-12 and CmFDH1, in which CmADH1 and CmADH2 have been isolated in Cantaloupe. ADH genes shared a lower identity with each other at the protein level and had different intron-exon structure at nucleotide level. No typical signal peptides were found in all CmADHs, and CmADH proteins might locate in the cytoplasm. The phylogenetic tree revealed that 13 ADH genes were divided into three groups respectively, namely long-, medium-, and short-chain ADH subfamily, and CmADH1,3-11, which belongs to the medium-chain ADH subfamily, fell into six medium-chain ADH subgroups. CmADH12 may belong to the long-chain ADH subfamily, while CmFDH1 may be a Class III ADH and serve as an ancestral ADH in melon. Expression profiling revealed that CmADH1, CmADH2, CmADH10 and CmFDH1 were moderately or strongly expressed in different vegetative tissues and fruit at medium and late developmental stages, while CmADH8 and CmADH12 were highly expressed in fruit after 20 days. CmADH3 showed preferential expression in young tissues. CmADH4 only had slight expression in root. Promoter analysis revealed several motifs of CmADH genes involved in the gene expression modulated by various hormones, and the response pattern of CmADH genes to ABA, IAA and ethylene were different. These CmADHs were divided into ethylene-sensitive and –insensitive groups, and the functions of CmADHs were discussed. PMID:27242871

  12. Gene expression of type 2 17 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in scalp hairs of hirsute women.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Isabel O; Lhullier, Cintia; Brum, Ilma S; Spritzer, Poli Mara

    2003-09-01

    Androgens are the main hormonal regulators of human hair growth and they are related to clinical conditions such as hirsutism. The aim of this study was to analyze the gene expression of androgen receptor (AR) and type 2 17 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17 beta-HSD) in keratinocytes of plucked scalp hairs from hirsute patients and normal subjects. We studied 58 women with hirsutism (31 with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), 27 with idiopathic hirsutism (IH)); 15 control women; and 10 control men. Hirsutism was assessed by a modified Ferriman-Gallwey method. Hormonal status was assessed between days 2 and 10 of the menstrual cycle or on any day when the patients were amenorrheic. AR and type 2 17 beta-HSD mRNA levels were estimated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). AR expression was similar in all groups. Type 2 17 beta-HSD gene expression in untreated hirsute patients was lower (2.1+/-0.10) than in normal women (3.1+/-0.17), and similar to men (1.8+/-0.22). Comparing hirsute patients, type 2 17 beta-HSD expression was higher in treated PCOS (3.0+/-0.34 versus 2.2+/-0.13) and IH patients (2.5+/-0.19 versus 2.0+/-0.15); hirsutism score was lower (P=0.003, PCOS; P=0.003, IH); and SHBG levels were higher (P=0.001, PCOS; P=0.024, IH) in treated patients. The free androgen index was lower in treated women (P=0.024 for the IH group). In conclusion, the lower expression of type 2 17 beta-HSD mRNA in scalp hairs of untreated hirsute patients suggests androgen metabolism disturbances with predominance of more potent androgens, as occurs in men. The enzyme's higher gene expression in treated hirsute patients could be an indirect evidence of restored enzyme activity and intracellular androgen metabolism.

  13. Aldehyde dehydrogenase expression in Metaphire posthuma as a bioindicator to monitor heavy metal pollution in soil.

    PubMed

    Panday, Raju; Bhatt, Padam Shekhar; Bhattarai, Tribikram; Shakya, Kumudini; Sreerama, Lakshmaiah

    2016-11-21

    Soil contamination and associated pollution plays a detrimental role in soil flora and fauna. Soil is processed and remodeled by subterranean earthworms, accordingly are referred to as soil chemical engineers. These worms, besides processing carbon and nitrogen, serve as minors for processing metals. In heavy metal contaminated soils, they accumulate heavy metals, which in turn cause altered gene expression, including aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes. This study explores the possibility of ALDH expression in earthworms as a novel biomarker for the heavy metal contamination of soil. Earthworms cultured in contaminated soils accumulated significantly higher levels of Pb and Cd. Similarly, significantly higher levels of ALDH enzyme activities were observed in earthworms cultured in soils contaminated with Pb and Cd. The ALDH activity was found to be highest in worms cultured in 5 ppm heavy metal contaminated soils. Although, ALDH activities decreased as the heavy metal concentration in soil increased, they were significantly higher when compared to control worms cultured in uncontaminated soils. The accumulation of heavy metal in earthworms measured after 28 days decreased as the heavy metal concentration in soil increased. Levels of ALDH expression correlated with total Pb and Cd concentration in the earthworm tissue. This study showed that the ALDH activity in earthworms could potentially be used as a biomarker to show heavy metal pollution in soil.

  14. Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase expression during physiological cardiac hypertrophy induced by pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rosas-Rodríguez, Jesús Alfredo; Soñanez-Organis, José Guadalupe; Godoy-Lugo, José Arquimides; Espinoza-Salazar, Juan Alberto; López-Jacobo, Cesar Jeravy; Stephens-Camacho, Norma Aurora; González-Ochoa, Guadalupe

    2017-08-26

    Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (betaine aldehyde: NAD(P)(+) oxidoreductase, (E.C. 1.2.1.8; BADH) catalyze the irreversible oxidation of betaine aldehyde (BA) to glycine betaine (GB) and is essential for polyamine catabolism, γ-aminobutyric acid synthesis, and carnitine biosynthesis. GB is an important osmolyte that regulates the homocysteine levels, contributing to a vascular risk factor reduction. In this sense, distinct investigations describe the physiological roles of GB, but there is a lack of information about the GB novo synthesis process and regulation during cardiac hypertrophy induced by pregnancy. In this work, the BADH mRNA expression, protein level, and activity were quantified in the left ventricle before, during, and after pregnancy. The mRNA expression, protein content and enzyme activity along with GB content of BADH increased 2.41, 1.95 and 1.65-fold respectively during late pregnancy compared to not pregnancy, and returned to basal levels at postpartum. Besides, the GB levels increased 1.53-fold during pregnancy and remain at postpartum. Our results demonstrate that physiological cardiac hypertrophy induced BADH mRNA expression and activity along with GB production, suggesting that BADH participates in the adaptation process of physiological cardiac hypertrophy during pregnancy, according to the described GB role in cellular osmoregulation, osmoprotection and reduction of vascular risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Tumour budding and the expression of cancer stem cell marker aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei-Ren; Gao, Fei; Li, Si-Yi; Yao, Kai-Tai

    2012-12-01

    To detect the prognostic significance of tumour budding and its expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Tumour budding was investigated in 105 patients with NPC by immunohistochemistry for pan-cytokeratin (AE1/AE3). The intensity of budding correlated strongly with T classification (P=0.008), lymphatic invasion (P<0.001), vascular invasion (P=0.029), lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001), and clinical stage (P=0.010). Univariate analysis revealed that patients with high budding grade had poorer survival than those with low grade (P=0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that tumour budding was an independent predictor of survival (P=0.001). Furthermore, budding cells showed high-level expression of the cancer stem cell (CSC) marker ALDH1. Budding cells with high-level ALDH1 expression contributed to several aggressive behaviours and poor survival (P=0.000).   We describe, for the first time, the presence of tumour budding and its correlation with aggressive tumour behaviour and poor patient survival in NPC. The degree of tumour budding could be a valuable predictive factor in NPC. In addition, we show, also for the first time, that budding cells in NPC might possess the invasive and metastatic properties of CSCs. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  16. Testis-specific expression of a functional retroposon encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Hendriksen, P.J.M. |; Hoogerbrugge, J.W.; Baarends, W.M.

    1997-05-01

    The X-chromosomal gene glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6pd) is known to be expressed in most cell types of mammalian species. In the mouse, we have detected a novel gene, designated G6pd-2, encoding a G6PD isoenzyme. G6pd-2 does not contain introns and appears to represent a retroposed gene. This gene is uniquely transcribed in postmeiotic spermatogenic cells in which the X-encoded G6pd gene is not transcribed. Expression of the G6pd-2 sequence in a bacterial system showed that the encoded product is an active enzyme. Zymogramic analysis demonstrated that recombinant G6PD-2, but not recombinant G6PD-1 (the X-chromosome-encoded G6PD), formed tetramers under reducing conditions. Under the same conditions, G6PD tetramers were also found in extracts of spermatids and spermatozoa, indicating the presence of G6pd-2-encoded isoenzyme in these cell types. G6pd-2 is one of the very few known expressed retroposons encoding a functional protein, and the presence of this gene is probably related to X chromosome inactivation during spermatogenesis. 62 refs., 7 figs.

  17. The NADP+-linked glutamate dehydrogenase from Trypanosoma cruzi: sequence, genomic organization and expression.

    PubMed Central

    Barderi, P; Campetella, O; Frasch, A C; Santomé, J A; Hellman, U; Pettersson, U; Cazzulo, J J

    1998-01-01

    NADP-linked glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP+-GluDH, EC 1.4.1.4) has been purified to homogeneity from epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi by an improved procedure, and the amino acid sequences of 11 internal peptides obtained by digestion with trypsin, endopeptidase Lys-C, endopeptidase Arg-C or CNBr have been obtained. Using oligonucleotide primers synthesized according to the amino acid sequence of the N-terminus of the mature enzyme and to the nucleotide sequence of a clone corresponding to the C-terminus, obtained by immunological screening of an expression library, two complete open reading frames (TcGluDH1 and TcGluDH2) were isolated and sequenced. The sequences obtained are most similar to that of the NADP+-GluDH of Escherichia coli (70-72% identity), and less similar (50-56%) to those of lower eukaryotes. Using TcGluDH1 as a probe, evidence for the presence of several genes and developmental regulation of the expression of NADP+-GluDH in different parasite stages was obtained. TcGluDH1 encodes an enzymically active protein, since its expression in E. coli resulted in the production of a GluDH activity with kinetic parameters similar to those of the natural enzyme. PMID:9480915

  18. Heterologous expression of the Bacillus subtilis (natto) alanine dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wei; Huo, Guicheng; Chen, Junliang; Liu, Fei; Yin, Jingyuan; Yang, Lijie; Ma, Xiaolong

    2010-05-30

    The major objective of the present study is to change the alanine production of Lactic acid bacteria by expression of Bacillus subtilis (natto) alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH), the gene that is not present in Lactic acid. B. subtilis AlaDH gene (ald) was cloned into a pGEX6p-1 and expressed in E. coli JM109. Its enzyme activity was 48.3U/mg at 30 degrees C and 45.2U/mg at 42 degrees C. This ald gene was then cloned into a vector pNZ8148 to generate a vector pNZ8148/ald. The same ald gene was placed downstream of the ldh promoter from Streptococcus thermophilus to generate pNZ273/ldhp/ald. The pNZ8148/ald and pNZ273/ldhp/ald were introduced separately in Lactococcus lactis NZ9000. As a result of over-expressed ald, the production of alanine detected by HPLC in L. lactis NZ9000 carrying pNZ273/ldhp/ald reached 52mug/ml, an approximately 26-fold increase compared to the parent strain L. lactis NZ9000, but not in L. lactis NZ9000 carrying pNZ8148/ald. This study would help strain improvement to be used in dairy fermentation for developing healthy yogurts with sweet taste or other fermented dairy foods. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Regulation of IMP dehydrogenase gene expression by its end products, guanine nucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Glesne, D A; Collart, F R; Huberman, E

    1991-01-01

    To study the regulation of IMP dehydrogenase (IMPDH), the rate-limiting enzyme of guanine nucleotide biosynthesis, we examined the effects of nucleosides, nucleotides, nucleotide analogs, or the IMPDH inhibitor mycophenolic acid (MPA) on the steady-state levels of IMPDH mRNA. The results indicated that IMPDH gene expression is regulated inversely by the intracellular level of guanine ribonucleotides. We have shown that treatment with guanosine increased the level of cellular guanine ribonucleotides and subsequently reduced IMPDH steady-state mRNA levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Conversely, MPA treatment diminished the level of guanine ribonucleotides and increased IMPDH mRNA levels. Both of these effects on the steady-state level of IMPDH mRNA could be negated by cotreatment with guanosine and MPA. The down regulation of IMPDH gene expression by guanosine or its up regulation by MPA was not due to major changes in transcriptional initiation and elongation or mRNA stability in the cytoplasm but rather was due to alterations in the levels of the IMPDH mRNA in the nucleus. These results suggest that IMPDH gene expression is regulated by a posttranscriptional, nuclear event in response to fluctuations in the intracellular level of guanine ribonucleotides. Images PMID:1717828

  20. Characterization of Cardiac-Resident Progenitor Cells Expressing High Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Roehrich, Marc-Estienne; Spicher, Albert; Milano, Giuseppina; Vassalli, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    High aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity has been associated with stem and progenitor cells in various tissues. Human cord blood and bone marrow ALDH-bright (ALDHbr) cells have displayed angiogenic activity in preclinical studies and have been shown to be safe in clinical trials in patients with ischemic cardiovascular disease. The presence of ALDHbr cells in the heart has not been evaluated so far. We have characterized ALDHbr cells isolated from mouse hearts. One percent of nonmyocytic cells from neonatal and adult hearts were ALDHbr. ALDHvery-br cells were more frequent in neonatal hearts than adult. ALDHbr cells were more frequent in atria than ventricles. Expression of ALDH1A1 isozyme transcripts was highest in ALDHvery-br cells, intermediate in ALDHbr cells, and lowest in ALDHdim cells. ALDH1A2 expression was highest in ALDHvery-br cells, intermediate in ALDHdim cells, and lowest in ALDHbr cells. ALDH1A3 and ALDH2 expression was detectable in ALDHvery-br and ALDHbr cells, unlike ALDHdim cells, albeit at lower levels compared with ALDH1A1 and ALDH1A2. Freshly isolated ALDHbr cells were enriched for cells expressing stem cell antigen-1, CD34, CD90, CD44, and CD106. ALDHbr cells, unlike ALDHdim cells, could be grown in culture for more than 40 passages. They expressed sarcomeric α-actinin and could be differentiated along multiple mesenchymal lineages. However, the proportion of ALDHbr cells declined with cell passage. In conclusion, the cardiac-derived ALDHbr population is enriched for progenitor cells that exhibit mesenchymal progenitor-like characteristics and can be expanded in culture. The regenerative potential of cardiac-derived ALDHbr cells remains to be evaluated. PMID:23484127

  1. Cellular prion protein directly interacts with and enhances lactate dehydrogenase expression under hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Ramljak, Sanja; Schmitz, Matthias; Zafar, Saima; Wrede, Arne; Schenkel, Sara; Asif, Abdul R; Carimalo, Julie; Doeppner, Thorsten R; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J; Weise, Jens; Zerr, Inga

    2015-09-01

    Although a physiological function of the cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) is still not fully clarified, a PrP(c)-mediated neuroprotection against hypoxic/ischemic insult is intriguing. After ischemic stroke prion protein knockout mice (Prnp(0/0)) display significantly greater lesions as compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Earlier reports suggested an interaction between the glycolytic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and PrP(c). Since hypoxic environment enhances LDH expression levels and compels neurons to rely on lactate as an additional oxidative substrate for energy metabolism, we examined possible differences in LDH protein expression in WT and Prnp(0/0) knockout models under normoxic/hypoxic conditions in vitro and in vivo, as well as in a HEK293 cell line. While no differences are observed under normoxic conditions, LDH expression is markedly increased after 60-min and 90-min of hypoxia in WT vs. Prnp(0/0) primary cortical neurons with concurrent less hypoxia-induced damage in the former group. Likewise, cerebral ischemia significantly increases LDH levels in WT vs. Prnp(0/0) mice with accompanying smaller lesions in the WT group. HEK293 cells overexpressing PrP(c) show significantly higher LDH expression/activity following 90-min of hypoxia as compared to control cells. Moreover, a cytoplasmic co-localization of LDH and PrP(c) was recorded under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Interestingly, an expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1, responsible for cellular lactate uptake, increases with PrP(c)-overexpression under normoxic conditions. Our data suggest LDH as a direct PrP(c) interactor with possible physiological relevance under low oxygen conditions.

  2. Expression of root glutamate dehydrogenase genes in tobacco plants subjected to boron deprivation.

    PubMed

    Beato, Víctor M; Teresa Navarro-Gochicoa, M; Rexach, Jesús; Begoña Herrera-Rodríguez, M; Camacho-Cristóbal, Juan J; Kempa, Stefan; Weckwerth, Wolfram; González-Fontes, Agustín

    2011-11-01

    Recently it has been reported that boron (B) deficiency increases the expression of Nicotiana tabacum asparagine synthetase (AS) gene in roots, and that AS might play a main role as a detoxifying mechanism to convert ammonium into asparagine. Interestingly, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) genes, Ntgdh-NAD;A1 and Ntgdh-NAD;B2, were up-regulated when tobacco roots were subjected to B deprivation for 8 and 24 h. In addition, aminating and deaminating GDH (EC 1.4.1.2) activities were higher in B-deficient than in B-sufficient plants after 24 h of B deficiency. Ammonium concentrations were kept sufficiently low and with similar values in B-deficient roots when compared to control. Glucose and fructose contents decreased after 24 h of B deprivation. This drop in hexoses, which was corroborated by metabolomic analysis, correlated with higher GDH gene expression. Furthermore, metabolomic profiling showed that concentrations of several organic acids, phenolics, and amino acids increased after 24 h of B deficiency. Our results suggest that GDH enzyme plays an important role in metabolic acclimation of tobacco roots to B deprivation. A putative model to explain these results is proposed and discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Heterologous expression of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus cellobiose dehydrogenase in Pichia pastoris and involvement in saccharification processes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is an extracellular hemoflavoenzyme produced by lignocellulose-degrading fungi including Pycnoporus cinnabarinus. We investigated the cellulolytic system of P. cinnabarinus, focusing on the involvement of CDH in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. Results First, P. cinnabarinus growth conditions were optimized for CDH production. Following growth under cellulolytic conditions, the main components secreted were cellulases, xylanases and CDH. To investigate the contribution of P. cinnabarinus secretome in saccharification processes, the Trichoderma reesei enzymatic cocktail was supplemented with the P. cinnabarinus secretome. A significant enhancement of the degradation of wheat straw was observed with (i) the production of a large amount of gluconic acid, (ii) increased hemicellulose degradation, and (iii) increased overall degradation of the lignocellulosic material. P. cinnabarinus CDH was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris to obtain large amounts of pure enzyme. In a bioreactor, the recombinant CDH (rCDH) expression level reached 7800 U/L. rCDH exhibited values of biochemical parameters similar to those of the natural enzyme, and was able to bind cellulose despite the absence of a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). Following supplementation of purified rCDH to T. reesei enzymatic cocktail, formation of gluconic acid and increased hemicellulose degradation were observed, thus confirming the previous results observed with P. cinnabarinus secretome. Conclusions We demonstrate that CDH offers an attractive tool for saccharification process enhancement due to gluconic acid production from raw lignocellulosic material. PMID:22204630

  4. Heterologous expression of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus cellobiose dehydrogenase in Pichia pastoris and involvement in saccharification processes.

    PubMed

    Bey, Mathieu; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Poidevin, Laetitia; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude

    2011-12-28

    Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is an extracellular hemoflavoenzyme produced by lignocellulose-degrading fungi including Pycnoporus cinnabarinus. We investigated the cellulolytic system of P. cinnabarinus, focusing on the involvement of CDH in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. First, P. cinnabarinus growth conditions were optimized for CDH production. Following growth under cellulolytic conditions, the main components secreted were cellulases, xylanases and CDH. To investigate the contribution of P. cinnabarinus secretome in saccharification processes, the Trichoderma reesei enzymatic cocktail was supplemented with the P. cinnabarinus secretome. A significant enhancement of the degradation of wheat straw was observed with (i) the production of a large amount of gluconic acid, (ii) increased hemicellulose degradation, and (iii) increased overall degradation of the lignocellulosic material. P. cinnabarinus CDH was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris to obtain large amounts of pure enzyme. In a bioreactor, the recombinant CDH (rCDH) expression level reached 7800 U/L. rCDH exhibited values of biochemical parameters similar to those of the natural enzyme, and was able to bind cellulose despite the absence of a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). Following supplementation of purified rCDH to T. reesei enzymatic cocktail, formation of gluconic acid and increased hemicellulose degradation were observed, thus confirming the previous results observed with P. cinnabarinus secretome. We demonstrate that CDH offers an attractive tool for saccharification process enhancement due to gluconic acid production from raw lignocellulosic material.

  5. Organ-specific expression of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) subunits in yellow lupine.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Teresa; Dabert, Mirosława; Nowak, Witold

    2011-07-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, EC 1.4.2-4) is present in yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus cv. Juno) in many isoforms. The number and banding pattern of isoenzymes varies with respect to plant organ and developmental stage. To better understand the complex nature of GDH regulation in plants, the levels of GDH transcripts, enzyme activity and isoenzyme patterns in germinating seeds and roots of yellow lupine were examined. The analysis of GDH cDNA sequences in lupine revealed three mRNA types, of which two encoded the β-GDH subunit and one encoded the α-GDH subunit (corresponding to the GDH1(GDH3) and GDH2 genes, respectively). The relative expression of GDH1 and GDH2 genes was analyzed in various lupine organs by using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results indicate that different mRNA types were differently regulated depending on organ type. Although both genes appeared to be ubiquitously expressed in all lupine tissues, the GDH1 transcripts evidently predominated over those of GDH2. Immunochemical analyses confirmed that, during embryo development, varied expression of two GDH subunits takes place. The α-GDH subunit (43kDa) predominated in the early stages of germinating seeds, while the β-GDH subunit (44kDa) was the only GDH polypeptide present in lupine roots. These results firmly support the hypothesis that isoenzyme variability of GDH in yellow lupine is associated with the varied expression of α and β subunits into the complexes of hexameric GDH forms. The presence of several isogenes of GDH in yellow lupine may explain the high number (over 20) of its molecular forms in germinating lupine.

  6. Expression patterns of members of the isocitrate dehydrogenase gene family in murine inner ear.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y-R; Kim, K-H; Lee, S; Oh, S-K; Park, J-W; Lee, K-Y; Baek, J-I; Kim, U-K

    2017-09-19

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is characterized by an age-dependent decline of auditory function characterized by with loss of sensory hair cells, spiral ganglion neurons, and stria vascularis (SV) cells in the cochlea of the inner ear. Aging and age-related diseases result from accumulated oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by mitochondria. The isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) family includes three enzymes in human cells: IDH1, IDH2, and IDH3. Although all three enzymes catalyze the same enzymatic reaction, that is, oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to produce α-ketoglutarate, each IDH enzyme has unique features. We identified and characterized IDH expression in the cochlea and vestibule of the murine inner ear. We examined the mRNA expression levels of Idh family members in the cochlea and vestibule using reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and detected expression of IDH family members in both tissues. We also used immunohistochemistry to localize IDH family members within the cochlea and vestibule of the adult mouse inner ear. IDH1 was detected throughout the cochlea. IDH2 was expressed specifically in the hair cells, spiral ganglion, and stria vascularis. IDH3α was found in the cell bodies of neurons of the spiral ganglion, the stria vascularis, and in types II, IV, and V cells of the spiral ligament in a pattern that resembled the location of the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase ion channel. We postulate that the IDH family participates in transporting K(+) ions in the cochlea. In the vestibule, all IDH family members were detected in both hair cells and the vestibular ganglion. We hypothesize that IDH1, IDH2, and IDH3 function to protect proteins in the inner ear from oxidative stress during K(+) recycling.

  7. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene Superfamily in Populus: Organization and Expression Divergence between Paralogous Gene Pairs.

    PubMed

    Tian, Feng-Xia; Zang, Jian-Lei; Wang, Tan; Xie, Yu-Li; Zhang, Jin; Hu, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) constitute a superfamily of NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the irreversible oxidation of a wide range of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding nontoxic carboxylic acids. ALDHs have been studied in many organisms from bacteria to mammals; however, no systematic analyses incorporating genome organization, gene structure, expression profiles, and cis-acting elements have been conducted in the model tree species Populus trichocarpa thus far. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily was performed. A total of 26 Populus ALDH genes were found to be distributed across 12 chromosomes. Genomic organization analysis indicated that purifying selection may have played a pivotal role in the retention and maintenance of PtALDH gene families. The exon-intron organizations of PtALDHs were highly conserved within the same family, suggesting that the members of the same family also may have conserved functionalities. Microarray data and qRT-PCR analysis indicated that most PtALDHs had distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. The specificity of cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of the PtALDHs and the divergence of expression patterns between nine paralogous PtALDH gene pairs suggested that gene duplications may have freed the duplicate genes from the functional constraints. The expression levels of some ALDHs were up- or down-regulated by various abiotic stresses, implying that the products of these genes may be involved in the adaptation of Populus to abiotic stresses. Overall, the data obtained from our investigation contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily and provide insights into the function and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants.

  8. Cloning and mRNA Expression of NADH Dehydrogenase during Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus Development and Pesticide Response

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    NADH dehydrogenase, the largest of the respiratory complexes, is the first enzyme of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. We have cloned and sequenced cDNA of NADH dehydrogenase gene from Ochlerotatus (Ochlerotatus) taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) adult (GeneBank Accession number: FJ458415). The ...

  9. The Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene Family in Melon (Cucumis melo L.): Bioinformatic Analysis and Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yazhong; Zhang, Chong; Liu, Wei; Qi, Hongyan; Chen, Hao; Cao, Songxiao

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) is a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis. However, little was known about CADs in melon. Five CAD-like genes were identified in the genome of melons, namely CmCAD1 to CmCAD5. The signal peptides analysis and CAD proteins prediction showed no typical signal peptides were found in all CmCADs and CmCAD proteins may locate in the cytoplasm. Multiple alignments implied that some motifs may be responsible for the high specificity of these CAD proteins, and may be one of the key residues in the catalytic mechanism. The phylogenetic tree revealed seven groups of CAD and melon CAD genes fell into four main groups. CmCAD1 and CmCAD2 belonged to the bona fide CAD group, in which these CAD genes, as representative from angiosperms, were involved in lignin synthesis. Other CmCADs were distributed in group II, V and VII, respectively. Semi-quantitative PCR and real time qPCR revealed differential expression of CmCADs, and CmCAD5 was expressed in different vegetative tissues except mature leaves, with the highest expression in flower, while CmCAD2 and CmCAD5 were strongly expressed in flesh during development. Promoter analysis revealed several motifs of CAD genes involved in the gene expression modulated by various hormones. Treatment of abscisic acid (ABA) elevated the expression of CmCADs in flesh, whereas the transcript levels of CmCAD1 and CmCAD5 were induced by auxin (IAA); Ethylene induced the expression of CmCADs, while 1-MCP repressed the effect, apart from CmCAD4. Taken together, these data suggested that CmCAD4 may be a pseudogene and that all other CmCADs may be involved in the lignin biosynthesis induced by both abiotic and biotic stresses and in tissue-specific developmental lignification through a CAD genes family network, and CmCAD2 may be the main CAD enzymes for lignification of melon flesh and CmCAD5 may also function in flower development. PMID:25019207

  10. Changes in aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 expression during neoadjuvant chemotherapy predict outcome in locally advanced breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for locally advanced breast cancer can improve operability and local disease control, there is a lack of reliable biomarkers that predict response to chemotherapy or long-term survival. Since expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1) is associated with the stem-like properties of self-renewal and innate chemoresistance in breast cancer, we asked whether expression in serial tumor samples treated with NAC could identify women more likely to benefit from this therapy. Methods Women with locally advanced breast cancer were randomly assigned to receive four cycles of anthracycline-based chemotherapy, followed by four cycles of taxane therapy (Arm A), or the same regimen in reverse order (Arm B). Tumor specimens were collected at baseline, after four cycles, and then at surgical resection. ALDH1 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry and correlated with tumor response using Fisher’s exact test while Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival. Results A hundred and nineteen women were enrolled into the study. Fifty seven (48%) were randomized to Arm A and 62 (52%) to Arm B. Most of the women (90%) had ductal carcinoma and 10% had lobular carcinoma. Of these, 26 (22%) achieved a pathological complete response (pCR) after NAC. There was no correlation between baseline ALDH1 expression and tumor grade, stage, hormone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status and Ki67 index. ALDH1 negativity at baseline was significantly associated with pCR (P = 0.004). The presence of ALDH1(+) cells in the residual tumor cells in non-responding women was strongly predictive of worse overall survival (P = 0.024). Moreover, serial analysis of specimens from non-responders showed a marked increase in tumor-specific ALDH1 expression (P = 0.028). Overall, there was no survival difference according to the chemotherapy sequence. However, poorly responding tumours from women receiving

  11. The cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene family in melon (Cucumis melo L.): bioinformatic analysis and expression patterns.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yazhong; Zhang, Chong; Liu, Wei; Qi, Hongyan; Chen, Hao; Cao, Songxiao

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) is a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis. However, little was known about CADs in melon. Five CAD-like genes were identified in the genome of melons, namely CmCAD1 to CmCAD5. The signal peptides analysis and CAD proteins prediction showed no typical signal peptides were found in all CmCADs and CmCAD proteins may locate in the cytoplasm. Multiple alignments implied that some motifs may be responsible for the high specificity of these CAD proteins, and may be one of the key residues in the catalytic mechanism. The phylogenetic tree revealed seven groups of CAD and melon CAD genes fell into four main groups. CmCAD1 and CmCAD2 belonged to the bona fide CAD group, in which these CAD genes, as representative from angiosperms, were involved in lignin synthesis. Other CmCADs were distributed in group II, V and VII, respectively. Semi-quantitative PCR and real time qPCR revealed differential expression of CmCADs, and CmCAD5 was expressed in different vegetative tissues except mature leaves, with the highest expression in flower, while CmCAD2 and CmCAD5 were strongly expressed in flesh during development. Promoter analysis revealed several motifs of CAD genes involved in the gene expression modulated by various hormones. Treatment of abscisic acid (ABA) elevated the expression of CmCADs in flesh, whereas the transcript levels of CmCAD1 and CmCAD5 were induced by auxin (IAA); Ethylene induced the expression of CmCADs, while 1-MCP repressed the effect, apart from CmCAD4. Taken together, these data suggested that CmCAD4 may be a pseudogene and that all other CmCADs may be involved in the lignin biosynthesis induced by both abiotic and biotic stresses and in tissue-specific developmental lignification through a CAD genes family network, and CmCAD2 may be the main CAD enzymes for lignification of melon flesh and CmCAD5 may also function in flower development.

  12. Human GLUD2 glutamate dehydrogenase is expressed in neural and testicular supporting cells.

    PubMed

    Spanaki, Cleanthe; Zaganas, Ioannis; Kleopa, Kleopas A; Plaitakis, Andreas

    2010-05-28

    Mammalian glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is an allosterically regulated enzyme that is expressed widely. Its activity is potently inhibited by GTP and thought to be controlled by the need of the cell for ATP. In addition to this housekeeping human (h) GDH1, humans have acquired (via a duplication event) a highly homologous isoenzyme (hGDH2) that is resistant to GTP. Although transcripts of GLUD2, the gene encoding hGDH2, have been detected in human neural and testicular tissues, data on the endogenous protein are lacking. Here, we developed an antibody specific for hGDH2 and used it to study human tissues. Western blot analyses revealed, to our surprise, that endogenous hGDH2 is more densely expressed in testis than in brain. At the subcellular level, hGDH2 localized to mitochondria. Study of testicular tissue using immunocytochemical and immunofluorescence methods revealed that the Sertoli cells were strongly labeled by our anti-hGDH2 antibody. In human cerebral cortex, a robust labeling of astrocytes was detected, with neurons showing faint hGDH2 immunoreactivity. Astrocytes and Sertoli cells are known to support neurons and germ cells, respectively, providing them with lactate that largely derives from the tricarboxylic acid cycle via conversion of glutamate to alpha-ketoglutarate (GDH reaction). As hGDH2 is not subject to GTP control, the enzyme is able to metabolize glutamate even when the tricarboxylic acid cycle generates GTP amounts sufficient to inactivate the housekeeping hGDH1 protein. Hence, the selective expression of hGDH2 by astrocytes and Sertoli cells may provide a significant biological advantage by facilitating metabolic recycling processes essential to the supportive role of these cells.

  13. Lactate dehydrogenase expression at the onset of altered loading in rat soleus muscle.

    PubMed

    Washington, Tyrone A; Reecy, James M; Thompson, Raymond W; Lowe, Larry L; McClung, Joseph M; Carson, James A

    2004-10-01

    Both functional overload and hindlimb disuse induce significant energy-dependent remodeling of skeletal muscle. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), an important enzyme involved in anaerobic glycolysis, catalyzes the interconversion of lactate and pyruvate critical for meeting rapid high-energy demands. The purpose of this study was to determine rat soleus LDH-A and -B isoform expression, mRNA abundance, and enzymatic activity at the onset of increased or decreased loading in the rat soleus muscle. The soleus muscles from male Sprague-Dawley rats were functionally overloaded for up to 3 days by a modified synergist ablation or subjected to disuse by hindlimb suspension for 3 days. LDH mRNA concentration was determined by Northern blotting, LDH protein isoenzyme composition was determined by zymogram analysis, and LDH enzymatic activity was determined spectrophotometrically. LDH-A mRNA abundance increased by 372%, and LDH-B mRNA abundance decreased by 43 and 31% after 24 h and 3 days of functional overload, respectively, compared with that in control rats. LDH protein expression demonstrated a shift by decreasing LDH-B isoforms and increasing LDH-A isoforms. LDH-B activity decreased 80% after 3 days of functional overload. Additionally, LDH-A activity increased by 234% following 3 days of hindlimb suspension. However, neither LDH-A or LDH-B mRNA abundance was affected following 3 days of hindlimb suspension. In summary, the onset of altered loading induced a differential expression of LDH-A and -B in the rat soleus muscle, favoring rapid energy production. Long-term altered loading is associated with myofiber conversion; however, the rapid changes in LDH at the onset of altered loading may be involved in other physiological processes.

  14. Identification of Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Sequence and Expression Profiles in Tree Shrew (Tupaia belangeri)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Yingjun; Smith, Wanli W.; Leng, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) diverged from the primate order (Primates) and are classified as Scandentia, a separate taxonomic group of mammals. The tree shrew has been suggested to use an animal model to study human disease but the genomic sequences of tree shrew is largely unidentified. Here we identified the full-length cDNA sequence of a housekeeping gene, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH), in tree shrew. We further constructed a phylogenetic family tree base on GAPDH molecules of various organisms and compared GAPDH sequences with human and other small experimental animals. These study revealed that tree shrew was closer to human than mouse, rat, rabbit and guinea pig. The Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR and western blot analysis further demonstrated that GAPDH expressed in various tissues in tree shrew as a general conservative housekeeping proteins as in human. Our findings provide the novel genetic knowledge of the tree shrew and strong evidences that tree shrew can be an experimental model system to study human disorders. PMID:24887411

  15. Enhanced expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in human cells sustaining oxidative stress.

    PubMed Central

    Ursini, M V; Parrella, A; Rosa, G; Salzano, S; Martini, G

    1997-01-01

    Recent reports have demonstrated that glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity in mammalian cells is necessary in order to ensure cell survival when damage is produced by reactive oxygen intermediates. In this paper we demonstrate that oxidative stress, caused by agents acting at different steps in the biochemical pathway controlling the intracellular redox status, determines the increase in G6PD-specific activity in human cell lines of different tissue origins. The intracellular level of G6PD-specific mRNA also increases, with kinetics compatible with the induction of new enzyme synthesis. We carried out experiments in which cells were exposed to oxidative stress in the presence of inhibitors of protein or RNA synthesis. These demonstrated that increased G6PD expression is mainly due to an increased rate of transcription, with a minor but significant contribution of regulatory mechanisms acting at post-transcriptional levels. These results provide new information on the defence systems that eukaryotic cells possess in order to prevent damage caused by potentially harmful oxygen derivatives. PMID:9169615

  16. Two mitochondrial alcohol dehydrogenase activities of Kluyveromyces lactis are differently expressed during respiration and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Saliola, M; Falcone, C

    1995-12-20

    The lactose-utilizing yeast Kluyveromyces lactis is an essentially aerobic organism in which both respiration and fermentation can coexist depending on the sugar concentration. Despite a low fermentative capacity as compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, four structural genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities are present in this yeast. Two of these activities, namely K1ADH III and K1ADH IV, are located within mitochondria and their presence is dependent on the carbon sources in the medium. In this paper we demonstrate by transcription and activity analysis that KlADH3 is expressed in the presence of low glucose concentrations and in the presence of respiratory carbon sources other than ethanol. Indeed ethanol acts as a strong repressor of this gene. On the other hand, KlADH4 is induced by the presence of ethanol and not by other respiratory carbon sources. We also demonstrate that the presence of KLADH III and KLADH IV in K. lactis cells is dependent on glucose concentration, glucose uptake and the amount of ethanol produced. As a consequence, these activities can be used as markers for the onset of respiratory and fermentative metabolism in this yeast.

  17. Selective n-butanol production by Clostridium sp. MTButOH1365 during continuous synthesis gas fermentation due to expression of synthetic thiolase, 3-hydroxy butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, crotonase, butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, butyraldehyde dehydrogenase, and NAD-dependent butanol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Berzin, Vel; Tyurin, Michael; Kiriukhin, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Acetogen Clostridum sp. MT1962 produced 287 mM acetate (p < 0.005) and 293 mM ethanol (p < 0.005) fermenting synthesis gas blend 60% CO and 40% H₂ in single-stage continuous fermentation. This strain was metabolically engineered to the biocatalyst Clostridium sp. MTButOH1365. The engineered biocatalyst lost production of ethanol and acetate while initiated the production of 297 mM of n-butanol (p < 0.005). The metabolic engineering comprised Cre-lox66/lox71-based elimination of phosphotransacetylase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase along with integration to chromosome synthetic thiolase, 3-hydroxy butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, crotonase, butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, butyraldehyde dehydrogenase, and NAD-dependent butanol dehydrogenase. This is the first report on elimination of acetate and ethanol production genes and expression of synthetic gene cluster encoding n-butanol biosynthesis pathway in acetogen biocatalyst for selective fuel n-butanol production with no antibiotic support for the introduced genes.

  18. Diversity in expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in females.

    PubMed

    Abdulrazzaq, Y M; Micallef, R; Qureshi, M; Dawodu, A; Ahmed, I; Khidr, A; Bastaki, S M; Al-Khayat, A; Bayoumi, R A

    1999-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), to describe the different mutations in the population, to determine its prevalence, and to study inheritance patterns in families of G6PD-deficient individuals. All infants born at Tawam Hospital, Al-Ain, UAE from January 1994 to September 1996 were screened at birth for their G6PD status. In addition, those attending well-baby clinics during the period were also screened for the disorder. Families of 40 known G6PD-deficient individuals, selected randomly from the records of three hospitals in the country, were assessed for G6PD deficiency. Where appropriate, this was followed by definition of G6PD mutations. Of 8198 infants, 746 (9.1%), comprising 15% of males and 5% of females tested, were found to be G6PD deficient. A total of 27 families were further assessed: of these, all but one family had the nt563 Mediterranean mutation. In one family, two individuals had the nt202 African mutation. The high manifestation of G6PD deficiency in women may be due to the preferential expression of the G6PD-deficient gene and X-inactivation of the normal gene, and/or to the presence of an 'enhancer' gene that makes the expression of the G6PD deficiency more likely. The high level of consanguinity which, theoretically, should result in a high proportion of homozygotes and consequently a higher proportion of females with the deficiency, was not found to be a significant factor.

  19. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPRESSION OF ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE IN RAT: A COMPARISON OF LIVER AND LUNG DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolism is one of the major determinants for age-related susceptibility changes to chemicals. Aldehydes are highly reactive molecules present in the environment and can be produced during biotransformation of xenobiotics. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) are important in aldehyd...

  20. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPRESSION OF ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE IN RAT: A COMPARISON OF LIVER AND LUNG DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolism is one of the major determinants for age-related susceptibility changes to chemicals. Aldehydes are highly reactive molecules present in the environment and can be produced during biotransformation of xenobiotics. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) are important in aldehyd...

  1. Molecular cloning, co-expression, and characterization of glycerol dehydratase and 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase from Citrobacter freundii.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xianghui; Deng, Wenying; Wang, Fei; Guo, Qi; Chen, Huayou; Wang, Liang; He, Xiang; Huang, Ribo

    2013-06-01

    1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PD), an important material for chemical industry, is biologically synthesized by glycerol dehydratase (GDHt) and 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase (PDOR). In present study, the dhaBCE and dhaT genes encoding glycerol dehydratase and 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase respectively were cloned from Citrobacter freundii and co-expressed in E. coli. Sequence analysis revealed that the cloned genes were 85 and 77 % identical to corresponding gene of C. freundii DSM 30040 (GenBank No. U09771), respectively. The over-expressed recombinant enzymes were purified by nickel-chelate chromatography combined with gel filtration, and recombinant GDHt and PDOR were characterized by activity assay, kinetic analysis, pH, and temperature optimization. This research may form a basis for the future work on biological synthesis of 1,3-PD.

  2. Characterization of a whole-cell catalyst co-expressing glycerol dehydrogenase and glucose dehydrogenase and its application in the synthesis of L-glyceraldehyde.

    PubMed

    Richter, Nina; Neumann, Markus; Liese, Andreas; Wohlgemuth, Roland; Weckbecker, Andrea; Eggert, Thorsten; Hummel, Werner

    2010-07-01

    A whole-cell catalyst using Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) as a host, co-expressing glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH) from Gluconobacter oxydans and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) from Bacillus subtilis for cofactor regeneration, has been successfully constructed and used for the reduction of aliphatic aldehydes, such as hexanal or glyceraldehyde to the corresponding alcohols. This catalyst was characterized in terms of growth conditions, temperature and pH dependency, and regarding the influence of external cofactor and permeabilization. In the case of external cofactor addition we found a 4.6-fold increase in reaction rate caused by the addition of 1 mM NADP(+). Due to the fact that pH and temperature are also factors which may affect the reaction rate, their effect on the whole-cell catalyst was studied as well. Comparative studies between the whole-cell catalyst and the cell-free system were investigated. Furthermore, the successful application of the whole-cell catalyst in repetitive batch conversions could be demonstrated in the present study. Since the GlyDH was recently characterized and successfully applied in the kinetic resolution of racemic glyceraldehyde, we were now able to transfer and establish the process to a whole-cell system, which facilitated the access to L-glyceraldehyde in high enantioselectivity at 54% conversion. All in all, the whole-cell catalyst shows several advantages over the cell-free system like a higher thermal, a similar operational stability and the ability to recycle the catalyst without any loss-of-activity. The results obtained making the described whole-cell catalyst an improved catalyst for a more efficient production of enantiopure L-glyceraldehyde.

  3. Expression of NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase in Enterobacter aerogenes and its involvement in anaerobic metabolism and H2 production.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuan; Zhao, Hongxin; Zhang, Chong; Lai, Qiheng; Wu, Xi; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2009-10-01

    An expression system for NAD(+)-dependent formate dehydrogenase gene (fdh1), from Candida boidinii, was constructed and cloned into Enterobacter aerogenes IAM1183. With the fdh1 expression, the total H(2) yield was attributed to a decrease in activity of the lactate pathway and an increase of the formate pathway flux due to the NADH regeneration. Analysis of the redox state balance and ethanol-to-acetate ratio in the fdhl-expressed strain showed that increased reducing power arose from the reconstruction of NADH regeneration pathway from formate thereby contributing to the improved H(2) production.

  4. Expression and characterization of Pantoea CO dehydrogenase to utilize CO-containing industrial waste gas for expanding the versatility of CO dehydrogenase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eun Sil; Min, Kyoungseon; Kim, Geun-Joong; Kwon, Inchan; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2017-03-01

    Although aerobic CO dehydrogenases (CODHs) might be applicable in various fields, their practical applications have been hampered by low activity and no heterologous expression. We, for the first time, could functionally express recombinant PsCODH in E. coli and obtained a highly concentrated recombinant enzyme using an easy and convenient method. Its electron acceptor spectra, optimum conditions (pH 6.5 and 30 °C), and kinetic parameters (kcat of 12.97 s-1, Km of 0.065 mM, and specific activity of 0.86 Umg-1) were examined. Blast furnace gas (BFG) containing 20% CO, which is a waste gas from the steel-making process, was tested as a substrate for PsCODH. Even with BFG, the recombinant PsCODH retained 88.2% and 108.4% activity compared with those of pure CO and 20% CO, respectively. The results provide not only a promising strategy to utilize CO-containing industrial waste gases as cheap, abundant, and renewable resources but also significant information for further studies about cascade reactions producing value-added chemicals via CO2 as an intermediate produced by a CODH-based CO-utilization system, which would ultimately expand the versatility of CODH.

  5. Expression and characterization of Pantoea CO dehydrogenase to utilize CO-containing industrial waste gas for expanding the versatility of CO dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Sil; Min, Kyoungseon; Kim, Geun-Joong; Kwon, Inchan; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2017-03-14

    Although aerobic CO dehydrogenases (CODHs) might be applicable in various fields, their practical applications have been hampered by low activity and no heterologous expression. We, for the first time, could functionally express recombinant PsCODH in E. coli and obtained a highly concentrated recombinant enzyme using an easy and convenient method. Its electron acceptor spectra, optimum conditions (pH 6.5 and 30 °C), and kinetic parameters (kcat of 12.97 s(-1), Km of 0.065 mM, and specific activity of 0.86 Umg(-1)) were examined. Blast furnace gas (BFG) containing 20% CO, which is a waste gas from the steel-making process, was tested as a substrate for PsCODH. Even with BFG, the recombinant PsCODH retained 88.2% and 108.4% activity compared with those of pure CO and 20% CO, respectively. The results provide not only a promising strategy to utilize CO-containing industrial waste gases as cheap, abundant, and renewable resources but also significant information for further studies about cascade reactions producing value-added chemicals via CO2 as an intermediate produced by a CODH-based CO-utilization system, which would ultimately expand the versatility of CODH.

  6. Expression and characterization of Pantoea CO dehydrogenase to utilize CO-containing industrial waste gas for expanding the versatility of CO dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun Sil; Min, Kyoungseon; Kim, Geun-Joong; Kwon, Inchan; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2017-01-01

    Although aerobic CO dehydrogenases (CODHs) might be applicable in various fields, their practical applications have been hampered by low activity and no heterologous expression. We, for the first time, could functionally express recombinant PsCODH in E. coli and obtained a highly concentrated recombinant enzyme using an easy and convenient method. Its electron acceptor spectra, optimum conditions (pH 6.5 and 30 °C), and kinetic parameters (kcat of 12.97 s−1, Km of 0.065 mM, and specific activity of 0.86 Umg−1) were examined. Blast furnace gas (BFG) containing 20% CO, which is a waste gas from the steel-making process, was tested as a substrate for PsCODH. Even with BFG, the recombinant PsCODH retained 88.2% and 108.4% activity compared with those of pure CO and 20% CO, respectively. The results provide not only a promising strategy to utilize CO-containing industrial waste gases as cheap, abundant, and renewable resources but also significant information for further studies about cascade reactions producing value-added chemicals via CO2 as an intermediate produced by a CODH-based CO-utilization system, which would ultimately expand the versatility of CODH. PMID:28290544

  7. Cloning and expression of an NADP(+)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase gene of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Shen, P S; Descoteaux, S; Pohl, J; Bailey, G; Samuelson, J

    1992-11-01

    Ethanol is the major metabolic product of glucose fermentation by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica under the anaerobic conditions found in the lumen of the colon. Here an internal peptide sequence determined from a major 39-kDa amoeba protein isolated by isoelectric focusing followed by SDS/PAGE was used to clone the gene for the E. histolytica NADP(+)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (EhADH1; EC 1.1.1.2). The EhADH1 clone had an open reading frame that was 360 amino acids long and encoded a protein of approximately 39 kDa (calculated size). EhADH1 showed a 62% amino acid identity with the tetrameric NADP(+)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase of Thermoanaerobium brockii. In contrast, EhADH1 showed a 15% amino acid identity with the closest human alcohol dehydrogenase. EhADH1 contained 18 of the 22 amino acids conserved in other alcohol dehydrogenases, including glycines involved in binding NAD(P)+ as well as histidine and cysteine residues involved in binding the catalytic zinc ion. Like the T. brockii alcohol dehydrogenase, EhADH1 lacked a 23-amino acid stretch present in other alcohol dehydrogenases that includes four cysteines that bind a second noncatalytic zinc ion. An EhADH1-glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein showed the expected NADP(+)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase and NADPH-dependent acetaldehyde reductase activities. The enzymatic activities of the EhADH1 fusion protein were inhibited by pyrazole and 4-methylpyrazole.

  8. Alcohol dehydrogenases from Kluyveromyces marxianus: heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and biochemical characterization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Kluyveromyces marxianus has recently become a species of interest for ethanol production since it can produce ethanol at high temperature and on a wide variety of substrates. However, the reason why this yeast can produce ethanol at high temperature is largely unknown. Results The ethanol fermentation capability of K. marxianus GX-UN120 at 40°С was found to be the same as that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 34°С. Zymogram analysis showed that alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (KmAdh1) was largely induced during ethanol production, KmAdh4 was constitutively expressed at a lower level and KmAdh2 and KmAdh3 were almost undetectable. The genes encoding the four alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) were cloned from strain GX-UN120. Each KmADH was expressed in Escherichia coli and each recombinant protein was digested with enterokinase to remove the fusion protein. The optimum pH of the purified recombinant KmAdh1 was 8.0 and that of KmAdh2, KmAdh3 and KmAdh4 was 7.0. The optimum temperatures of KmAdh1, KmAdh2, KmAdh3 and KmAdh4 were 50, 45, 55 and 45°C, respectively. The Km values of the recombinant KmAdh1 and KmAdh2 were 4.0 and 1.2 mM for acetaldehyde and 39.7 and 49.5 mM for ethanol, respectively. The Vmax values of the recombinant KmAdh1 and KmAdh2 were 114.9 and 21.6 μmol min-1 mg-1 for acetaldehyde and 57.5 and 1.8 μmol min-1 mg-1 for ethanol, respectively. KmAdh3 and KmAdh4 catalyze the oxidation reaction of ethanol to acetaldehyde but not the reduction reaction of acetaldehyde to ethanol, and the K m values of the recombinant KmAdh3 and KmAdh4 were 26.0 and 17.0 mM for ethanol, respectively. The Vmax values of the recombinant KmAdh3 and KmAdh4 were 12.8 and 56.2 μmol min-1 mg-1 for ethanol, respectively. Conclusion These data in this study collectively indicate that KmAdh1 is the primary ADH responsible for the production of ethanol from the reduction of acetaldehyde in K. marxianus. The relatively high optimum temperature of KmAdh1 may partially

  9. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) expression is negatively regulated by certain microRNAs in human lung tissues.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Takeshi; Date, Yuko; Nishibatake, Yu; Takane, Hiroshi; Fukuoka, Yasushi; Taniguchi, Yuuji; Burioka, Naoto; Shimizu, Eiji; Nakamura, Hiroshige; Otsubo, Kenji; Ieiri, Ichiro

    2012-07-01

    Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is important to the antitumor effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). DPD gene (DPYD) expression in tumors is correlated with sensitivity to 5-FU. Because the 5-FU accumulated in cancer cells is also rapidly converted into inactivated metabolites through catabolic pathways mediated by DPD, high DPD activity in cancer cells is an important determinant of the response to 5-FU. DPD activity is highly variable and reduced activity causes a high risk of 5-FU toxicity. Genetic variation in DPYD has been proposed as the main factor responsible for the variation in DPD activity. However, only a small proportion of the activity of DPD can be explained by DPYD mutations. In this study, we found that DPYD is a target of the following microRNAs (miRNA): miR-27a, miR-27b, miR-134, and miR-582-5p. In luciferase assays with HepG2 cells, the overexpression of these miRNAs was associated with significantly decreased reporter activity in a plasmid containing the 3'-UTR of DYPD mRNA. The level of DPD protein in MIAPaca-2 cells was also significantly decreased by the overexpression of these four miRNAs. The results suggest that miR-27a, miR-27b, miR-134, and miR-582-5p post-transcriptionally regulate DPD protein expression. The levels of miRNAs in normal lung tissue and lung tumors were compared; miR-27b and miR-134 levels were significantly lower in the tumors than normal tissue (3.64 ± 4.02 versus 9.75 ± 6.58 and 0.64 ± 0.75 versus 1.48 ± 1.39). DPD protein levels were significantly higher in the tumors. Thus, the decreased expression of miR-27b would be responsible for the high levels of DPD protein. This study is the first to show that miRNAs regulate the DPD protein, and provides new insight into 5-FU-based chemotherapy.

  10. The tissue-specific expression and developmental regulation of two nuclear genes encoding rat mitochondrial proteins. Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Kelly, D P; Gordon, J I; Alpers, R; Strauss, A W

    1989-11-15

    To study the regulation of nuclear genes which encode mitochondrial enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism, absolute levels of mRNA encoding rat medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) and rat mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) were determined in developing and adult male rat tissues. MCAD mRNA is expressed in a variety of adult male tissues with highest steady state levels in heart, adrenal, and skeletal muscle and lowest levels in brain, lung, and testes. In comparison, steady state levels of mMDH mRNA in adult male rat tissues were similar to those of MCAD mRNA in heart, small intestine, adrenal, and skeletal muscle but markedly different in brain, stomach, and testes. Thus, the steady-state levels of MCAD and mMDH mRNA are highest in adult tissues with high energy requirements. Dot blot analysis of RNA prepared from late fetal, suckling, and weaning rat heart, liver, and brain demonstrated the presence of MCAD and mMDH mRNA during the fetal period in all three tissues. Both MCAD and mMDH mRNA levels increased 2-2.5-fold at birth followed by a decline during the first postnatal week in heart and liver. The patterns of accumulation of these mRNAs in heart and liver during the weaning and early adult periods were also similar, although the absolute levels were significantly different. Brain MCAD mRNA levels were consistently low (less than 0.1 pg/micrograms total cellular RNA) throughout the developmental stages. However, brain mMDH mRNA levels exhibited a marked increase during the weaning period, reaching a peak concentration which is higher than the level of mMDH mRNA in heart and liver at any point during development. These results indicate that the level of expression of the nuclear genes encoding MCAD and mMDH is tissue-specific and developmentally regulated. The patterns of MCAD and mMDH mRNA accumulation parallel the changes in energy metabolism which occur during development and among adult tissues.

  11. Regulated Expression of Three Alcohol Dehydrogenase Genes in Barley Aleurone Layers 1

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Andrew D.; Jacobsen, John V.; Zwar, John A.

    1984-01-01

    Three genes specify alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.1.; ADH) enzymes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (Adh 1, Adh 2, and Adh 3). Their polypeptide products (ADH 1, ADH 2, ADH 3) dimerize to give a total of six ADH isozymes which can be resolved by native gel electrophoresis and stained for enzyme activity. Under fully aerobic conditions, aleurone layers of cv Himalaya had a high titer of a single isozyme, the homodimer containing ADH 1 monomers. This isozyme was accumulated by the aleurone tissue during the later part of seed development, and survived seed drying and rehydration. The five other possible ADH isozymes were induced by O2 deficit. The staining of these five isozymes on electrophoretic gels increased progressively in intensity as O2 levels were reduced below 5%, and were most intense at 0% O2. In vivo35S labeling and specific immunoprecipitation of ADH peptides, followed by isoelectric focusing of the ADH peptides in the presence of 8 molar urea (urea-IEF) demonstrated the following. (a) Aleurone layers incubated in air synthesized ADH 1 and a trace of ADH 2; immature layers from developing seeds behaved similarly. (b) At 5% O2, synthesis of ADH 2 increased and ADH 3 appeared. (c) At 2% and 0% O2, the synthesis of all three ADH peptides increased markedly. Cell-free translation of RNA isolated from aleurone layers, followed by immunoprecipitation and urea-IEF of in vitro synthesized ADH peptides, showed that levels of mRNA for all three ADH peptides rose sharply during 1 day of O2 deprivation. Northern hybridizations with a maize Adh 2 cDNA clone established that the clone hybridized with barley mRNA comparable in size to maize Adh 2 mRNA, and that the level of this barley mRNA increased 15- to 20-fold after 1 day at 5% or 2% O2, and about 100-fold after 1 day at 0% O2. We conclude that in aleurone layers, expression of the three barley Adh genes is maximal in the absence of O2, that regulation of mRNA level is likely to be a major controlling factor, and

  12. Expression, purification and characterization of human glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) allosteric regulatory mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Jie; Hsu, Betty Y L; MacMullen, Courtney M; Poncz, Mortimer; Smith, Thomas J; Stanley, Charles A

    2002-01-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyses the reversible oxidative deamination of l-glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate in the mitochondrial matrix. In mammals, this enzyme is highly regulated by allosteric effectors. The major allosteric activator and inhibitor are ADP and GTP, respectively; allosteric activation by leucine may play an important role in amino acid-stimulated insulin secretion. The physiological significance of this regulation has been highlighted by the identification of children with an unusual hyperinsulinism/hyperammonaemia syndrome associated with dominant mutations in GDH that cause a loss in GTP inhibition. In order to determine the effects of these mutations on the function of the human GDH homohexamer, we studied the expression, purification and characterization of two of these regulatory mutations (H454Y, which affects the putative GTP-binding site, and S448P, which affects the antenna region) and a mutation designed to alter the putative binding site for ADP (R463A). The sensitivity to GTP inhibition was impaired markedly in the purified H454Y (ED(50), 210 microM) and S448P (ED(50), 3.1 microM) human GDH mutants compared with the wild-type human GDH (ED(50), 42 nM) or GDH isolated from heterozygous patient cells (ED(50), 290 and 280 nM, respectively). Sensitivity to ADP or leucine stimulation was unaffected by these mutations, confirming that they interfere specifically with the inhibitory GTP-binding site. Conversely, the R463A mutation completely eliminated ADP activation of human GDH, but had little effect on either GTP inhibition or leucine activation. The effects of these three mutations on ATP regulation indicated that this nucleotide inhibits human GDH through binding of its triphosphate tail to the GTP site and, at higher concentrations, activates the enzyme through binding of the nucleotide to the ADP site. These data confirm the assignment of the GTP and ADP allosteric regulatory sites on GDH based on X-ray crystallography and provide

  13. The E1 beta-subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase is surface-expressed in Lactobacillus plantarum and binds fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Vastano, Valeria; Salzillo, Marzia; Siciliano, Rosa A; Muscariello, Lidia; Sacco, Margherita; Marasco, Rosangela

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is among the species with a probiotic activity. Adhesion of probiotic bacteria to host tissues is an important principle for strain selection, because it represents a crucial step in the colonization process of either pathogens or commensals. Most bacterial adhesins are proteins, and a major target for them is fibronectin, an extracellular matrix glycoprotein. In this study we demonstrate that PDHB, a component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, is a factor contributing to fibronectin-binding in L. plantarum LM3. By means of fibronectin overlay immunoblotting assay, we identified a L. plantarum LM3 surface protein with apparent molecular mass of 35 kDa. Mass spectrometric analysis shows that this protein is the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 beta-subunit (PDHB). The corresponding pdhB gene is located in a 4-gene cluster encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase. In LM3-B1, carrying a null mutation in pdhB, the 35 kDa adhesin was not anymore detectable by immunoblotting assay. Nevertheless, the pdhB null mutation did not abolish pdhA, pdhC, and pdhD transcription in LM3-B1. By adhesion assays, we show that LM3-B1 cells bind to immobilized fibronectin less efficiently than wild type cells. Moreover, we show that pdhB expression is negatively regulated by the CcpA protein and is induced by bile.

  14. Cloning and expression of the gene encoding catalytic subunit of thermostable glucose dehydrogenase from Burkholderia cepacia in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Inose, Ken; Fujikawa, Masako; Yamazaki, Tomohiko; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Sode, Koji

    2003-02-21

    We have cloned a 1620-nucleotide gene encoding the catalytic subunit (alpha subunit) of a thermostable glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) from Burkholderia cepacia. The FAD binding motif was found in the N-terminal region of the alpha subunit. The deduced primary structure of the alpha subunit showed about 48% identity to the catalytic subunits of sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) from Gluconobacter oxydans and 2-keto-D-gluconate dehydrogenases (2KGDH) from Erwinia herbicola and Pantoea citrea. The alpha subunit of B. cepacia was expressed in Escherichia coli in its active water-soluble form, showing maximum dye-mediated GDH activity at 70 degrees C, retaining high thermal stability. A putative open reading frame (ORF) of 507 nucleotides was also found upstream of the alpha subunit encoding an 18-kDa peptide, designated as gamma subunit. The deduced primary structure of gamma subunit showed about 30% identity to the small subunits of the SDH from G. oxydans and 2KGDHs from E. herbicola and P. citrea.

  15. Highly selective anti-Prelog synthesis of optically active aryl alcohols by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Nie, Yao; Mu, Xiao Qing; Zhang, Rongzhen; Xu, Yan

    2016-07-03

    Biocatalytic asymmetric synthesis has been widely used for preparation of optically active chiral alcohols as the important intermediates and precursors of active pharmaceutical ingredients. However, the available whole-cell system involving anti-Prelog specific alcohol dehydrogenase is yet limited. A recombinant Escherichia coli system expressing anti-Prelog stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase from Candida parapsilosis was established as a whole-cell system for catalyzing asymmetric reduction of aryl ketones to anti-Prelog configured alcohols. Using 2-hydroxyacetophenone as the substrate, reaction factors including pH, cell status, and substrate concentration had obvious impacts on the outcome of whole-cell biocatalysis, and xylose was found to be an available auxiliary substrate for intracellular cofactor regeneration, by which (S)-1-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol was achieved with an optical purity of 97%e.e. and yield of 89% under the substrate concentration of 5 g/L. Additionally, the feasibility of the recombinant cells toward different aryl ketones was investigated, and most of the corresponding chiral alcohol products were obtained with an optical purity over 95%e.e. Therefore, the whole-cell system involving recombinant stereospecific alcohol dehydrogenase was constructed as an efficient biocatalyst for highly enantioselective anti-Prelog synthesis of optically active aryl alcohols and would be promising in the pharmaceutical industry.

  16. L-lactic acid production from D-xylose with Candida sonorensis expressing a heterologous lactate dehydrogenase encoding gene.

    PubMed

    Koivuranta, Kari T; Ilmén, Marja; Wiebe, Marilyn G; Ruohonen, Laura; Suominen, Pirkko; Penttilä, Merja

    2014-08-08

    Bioplastics, like polylactic acid (PLA), are renewable alternatives for petroleum-based plastics. Lactic acid, the monomer of PLA, has traditionally been produced biotechnologically with bacteria. With genetic engineering, yeast have the potential to replace bacteria in biotechnological lactic acid production, with the benefits of being acid tolerant and having simple nutritional requirements. Lactate dehydrogenase genes have been introduced to various yeast to demonstrate this potential. Importantly, an industrial lactic acid producing process utilising yeast has already been implemented. Utilisation of D-xylose in addition to D-glucose in production of biochemicals such as lactic acid by microbial fermentation would be beneficial, as it would allow lignocellulosic raw materials to be utilised in the production processes. The yeast Candida sonorensis, which naturally metabolises D-xylose, was genetically modified to produce L-lactic acid from D-xylose by integrating the gene encoding L-lactic acid dehydrogenase (ldhL) from Lactobacillus helveticus into its genome. In microaerobic, CaCO3-buffered conditions a C. sonorensis ldhL transformant having two copies of the ldhL gene produced 31 g l-1 lactic acid from 50 g l-1 D-xylose free of ethanol.Anaerobic production of lactic acid from D-xylose was assessed after introducing an alternative pathway of D-xylose metabolism, i.e. by adding a xylose isomerase encoded by XYLA from Piromyces sp. alone or together with the xylulokinase encoding gene XKS1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strains were further modified by deletion of the endogenous xylose reductase encoding gene, alone or together with the xylitol dehydrogenase encoding gene. Strains of C. sonorensis expressing xylose isomerase produced L-lactic acid from D-xylose in anaerobic conditions. The highest anaerobic L-lactic acid production (8.5 g l-1) was observed in strains in which both the xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase encoding genes had been

  17. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of a gene coding for a secondary alcohol dehydrogenase from Candida parapsilosis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, H; Kawada, N; Matsuyama, A; Kobayashi, Y

    1999-06-01

    A gene encoding a stereo-specific secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (CpSADH) that catalyzed the oxidation of (S)-1,3-BDO to 4-hydroxy-2-butanone was cloned from Candida parapsilosis. This CpSADH-gene consisted of 1,009 nucleotides coding for a protein with M(r) 35,964. A recombinant Escherichia coli JM109 strain harboring the expression plasmid, pKK-CPA1, produced (R)-1,3-BDO (93.5% ee., 94.7% yield) from the racemate without any additive to regenerate NAD+ from NADH.

  18. Impaired expression of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and PPARgamma coactivator-1 in skeletal muscle of ZDF rats: restoration by troglitazone.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mireia; Salla, Joel; Planavila, Anna; Cabrero, Agatha; Michalik, Liliane; Wahli, Walter; Laguna, Juan C; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes has been related to a decrease of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content. In this study, we show increased expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) and its target genes involved in fatty acid metabolism in skeletal muscle of Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) (fa/fa) rats. In contrast, the mRNA levels of genes involved in glucose transport and utilization (GLUT4 and phosphofructokinase) were decreased, whereas the expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK-4), which suppresses glucose oxidation, was increased. The shift from glucose to fatty acids as the source of energy in skeletal muscle of ZDF rats was accompanied by a reduction of subunit 1 of complex I (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1, ND1) and subunit II of complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase II, COII), two genes of the electronic transport chain encoded by mtDNA. The transcript levels of PPARgamma Coactivator 1 (PGC-1) showed a significant reduction. Treatment with troglitazone (30 mg/kg/day) for 15 days reduced insulin values and reversed the increase in PDK-4 mRNA levels, suggesting improved insulin sensitivity. In addition, troglitazone treatment restored ND1 and PGC-1 expression in skeletal muscle. These results suggest that troglitazone may avoid mitochondrial metabolic derangement during the development of diabetes mellitus 2 in skeletal muscle.

  19. Cloning and Expression of a Xylitol-4-Dehydrogenase Gene from Pantoea ananatis

    PubMed Central

    Aarnikunnas, J. S.; Pihlajaniemi, A.; Palva, A.; Leisola, M.; Nyyssölä, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Pantoea ananatis ATCC 43072 mutant strain is capable of growing with xylitol as the sole carbon source. The xylitol-4-dehydrogenase (XDH) catalyzing the oxidation of xylitol to l-xylulose was isolated from the cell extract of this strain. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified protein was determined, and an oligonucleotide deduced from this peptide sequence was used to isolate the xylitol-4-dehydrogenase gene (xdh) from a P. ananatis gene library. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 795 bp, encoding the xylitol-4-dehydrogenase, followed by a 5′ region of another open reading frame encoding an unknown protein. Results from a Northern analysis of total RNA isolated from P. ananatis ATCC 43072 suggested that xdh is transcribed as part of a polycistronic mRNA. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis of the transcript confirmed the operon structure and suggested that xdh was the first gene of the operon. Homology searches revealed that the predicted amino acid sequence of the P. ananatis XDH shared significant identity (38 to 51%) with members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family. The P. ananatis xdh gene was successfully overexpressed in Escherichia coli, XDH was purified to homogeneity, and some of its enzymatic properties were determined. The enzyme had a preference for NAD+ as the cosubstrate, and in contrast to previous reports, the enzyme also showed a side activity for the d-form of xylulose. Xylitol was converted to l-xylulose with a high yield (>80%) by the resting recombinant cells, and the l-xylulose was secreted into the medium. No evidence of d-xylulose being synthesized by the recombinant cells was found. PMID:16391066

  20. Tungsten and molybdenum regulation of formate dehydrogenase expression in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Sofia M; Pimentel, Catarina; Valente, Filipa M A; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina; Pereira, Inês A C

    2011-06-01

    Formate is an important energy substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria in natural environments, and both molybdenum- and tungsten-containing formate dehydrogenases have been reported in these organisms. In this work, we studied the effect of both metals on the levels of the three formate dehydrogenases encoded in the genome of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, with lactate, formate, or hydrogen as electron donors. Using Western blot analysis, quantitative real-time PCR, activity-stained gels, and protein purification, we show that a metal-dependent regulatory mechanism is present, resulting in the dimeric FdhAB protein being the main enzyme present in cells grown in the presence of tungsten and the trimeric FdhABC₃ protein being the main enzyme in cells grown in the presence of molybdenum. The putatively membrane-associated formate dehydrogenase is detected only at low levels after growth with tungsten. Purification of the three enzymes and metal analysis shows that FdhABC₃ specifically incorporates Mo, whereas FdhAB can incorporate both metals. The FdhAB enzyme has a much higher catalytic efficiency than the other two. Since sulfate reducers are likely to experience high sulfide concentrations that may result in low Mo bioavailability, the ability to use W is likely to constitute a selective advantage.

  1. Tungsten and Molybdenum Regulation of Formate Dehydrogenase Expression in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough ▿

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Sofia M.; Pimentel, Catarina; Valente, Filipa M. A.; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina; Pereira, Inês A. C.

    2011-01-01

    Formate is an important energy substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria in natural environments, and both molybdenum- and tungsten-containing formate dehydrogenases have been reported in these organisms. In this work, we studied the effect of both metals on the levels of the three formate dehydrogenases encoded in the genome of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, with lactate, formate, or hydrogen as electron donors. Using Western blot analysis, quantitative real-time PCR, activity-stained gels, and protein purification, we show that a metal-dependent regulatory mechanism is present, resulting in the dimeric FdhAB protein being the main enzyme present in cells grown in the presence of tungsten and the trimeric FdhABC3 protein being the main enzyme in cells grown in the presence of molybdenum. The putatively membrane-associated formate dehydrogenase is detected only at low levels after growth with tungsten. Purification of the three enzymes and metal analysis shows that FdhABC3 specifically incorporates Mo, whereas FdhAB can incorporate both metals. The FdhAB enzyme has a much higher catalytic efficiency than the other two. Since sulfate reducers are likely to experience high sulfide concentrations that may result in low Mo bioavailability, the ability to use W is likely to constitute a selective advantage. PMID:21498650

  2. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex: mRNA and protein expression patterns of E1α subunit genes in human spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Ana; Silva, Maria João; Graça, Inês; Silva, Joaquina; Sá, Rosália; Sousa, Mário; Barros, Alberto; Tavares de Almeida, Isabel; Rivera, Isabel

    2012-09-10

    During spermatogenesis, germ cells undergo a complex process of cell differentiation and morphological restructuring, which depends on the coordinated expression of different genes. Some vital examples are those involved in cell energy metabolism, namely the genes encoding the E1α subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex: the somatic PDHA1 (X-linked) and the testis-specific PDHA2 (autosomal). There are no data related to the study at the RNA and protein levels of PDHA genes during human spermatogenesis. The present study aimed to describe the mRNA and protein expression patterns of the human PDHA genes during spermatogenesis. Expression profiles of the PDHA1 and PDHA2 genes were characterized using different human tissues and cells. Diploid and haploid germ cells fractions were obtained from testis tissues. The mRNA profiles were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR, whereas the protein profiles were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, western blotting and two-dimensional electrophoresis. Expression of the PDHA1 gene was found in all somatic cells, whereas expression of PDHA2 gene was restricted to germ cells. The switch from X-linked to autosomic gene expression occurred in spermatocytes. Data suggest the activation of PDHA2 gene expression is most probably a mechanism to ensure the continued expression of the protein, thus allowing germ cell viability and functionality.

  3. FoxO1 regulates myocardial glucose oxidation rates via transcriptional control of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 expression.

    PubMed

    Gopal, Keshav; Saleme, Bruno; Al Batran, Rami; Aburasayn, Hanin; Eshreif, Amina; Ho, Kim L; Ma, Wayne K; Almutairi, Malak; Eaton, Farah; Gandhi, Manoj; Park, Edwards A; Sutendra, Gopinath; Ussher, John R

    2017-09-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is the rate-limiting enzyme for glucose oxidation and a critical regulator of metabolic flexibility during the fasting to feeding transition. PDH is regulated via both PDH kinases (PDHK) and PDH phosphatases, which phosphorylate/inactivate and dephosphorylate/activate PDH, respectively. Our goal was to determine whether the transcription factor forkhead box O1 (FoxO1) regulates PDH activity and glucose oxidation in the heart via increasing the expression of Pdk4, the gene encoding PDHK4. To address this question, we differentiated H9c2 myoblasts into cardiac myocytes and modulated FoxO1 activity, after which Pdk4/PDHK4 expression and PDH phosphorylation/activity were assessed. We assessed binding of FoxO1 to the Pdk4 promoter in cardiac myocytes in conjunction with measuring the role of FoxO1 on glucose oxidation in the isolated working heart. Both pharmacological (1 µM AS1842856) and genetic (siRNA mediated) inhibition of FoxO1 decreased Pdk4/PDHK4 expression and subsequent PDH phosphorylation in H9c2 cardiac myocytes, whereas 10 µM dexamethasone-induced Pdk4/PDHK4 expression was abolished via pretreatment with 1 µM AS1842856. Furthermore, transfection of H9c2 cardiac myocytes with a vector expressing FoxO1 increased luciferase activity driven by a Pdk4 promoter construct containing the FoxO1 DNA-binding element region, but not in a Pdk4 promoter construct lacking this region. Finally, AS1842856 treatment in fasted mice enhanced glucose oxidation rates during aerobic isolated working heart perfusions. Taken together, FoxO1 directly regulates Pdk4 transcription in the heart, thereby controlling PDH activity and subsequent glucose oxidation rates.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Although studies have shown an association between FoxO1 activity and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 expression, our study demonstrated that pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 is a direct transcriptional target of FoxO1 (but not FoxO3/FoxO4) in the heart. Furthermore, we report

  4. Transgenic expression of glucose dehydrogenase in Azotobacter vinelandii enhances mineral phosphate solubilization and growth of sorghum seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Sashidhar, Burla; Podile, Appa Rao

    2009-01-01

    Summary The enzyme quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyses the oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid by direct oxidation in the periplasmic space of several Gram‐negative bacteria. Acidification of the external environment with the release of gluconic acid contributes to the solubilization of the inorganic phosphate by biofertilizer strains of the phosphate‐solubilizing bacteria. Glucose dehydrogenase (gcd) gene from Escherichia coli, and Azotobacter‐specific glutamine synthetase (glnA) and phosphate transport system (pts) promoters were isolated using sequence‐specific primers in a PCR‐based approach. Escherichia coli gcd, cloned under the control of glnA and pts promoters, was mobilized into Azotobacter vinelandii AvOP and expressed. Sorghum seeds were bacterized with the transgenic azotobacters and raised in earthen pots in green house. The transgenic azotobacters, expressing E. coli gcd, showed improved biofertilizer potential in terms of mineral phosphate solubilization and plant growth‐promoting activity with a small reduction in nitrogen fixation ability. PMID:21255283

  5. Transcription analysis of pyranose dehydrogenase from the basidiomycete Agaricus bisporus and characterization of the recombinantly expressed enzyme.

    PubMed

    Gonaus, Christoph; Kittl, Roman; Sygmund, Christoph; Haltrich, Dietmar; Peterbauer, Clemens

    2016-03-01

    Agaricus bisporus is a litter degrading basidiomycete commonly found in humic-rich environments. It is used as model organism and cultivated in large scale for food industry. Due to its ecological niche it produces a variety of enzymes for detoxification and degradation of humified plant litter. One of these, pyranose dehydrogenase, is thought to play a role in detoxification and lignocellulose degradation. It is a member of the glucose-methanol-choline family of flavin-dependent enzymes and oxidizes a wide range of sugars with concomitant reduction of electron acceptors like quinones. In this work, transcription of pdh in A. bisporus was investigated with real-time PCR revealing influence of the carbon source on pdh expression levels. The gene was isolated and heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris. Characterization of the recombinant enzyme showed a higher affinity towards disaccharides compared to other tested pyranose dehydrogenases from related Agariceae. Homology modeling and sequence alignments indicated that two loops of high sequence variability at substrate access site could play an important role in modulating these substrate specificities.

  6. Expression of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases and their putative homologues during Arabidopsis thaliana growth and development: lessons for database annotations?

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Kim, Kye-Won; Cho, Man-Ho; Franceschi, Vincent R; Davin, Laurence B; Lewis, Norman G

    2007-07-01

    A major goal currently in Arabidopsis research is determination of the (biochemical) function of each of its approximately 27,000 genes. To date, however, 12% of its genes actually have known biochemical roles. In this study, we considered it instructive to identify the gene expression patterns of nine (so-called AtCAD1-9) of 17 genes originally annotated by The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR) as cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, EC 1.1.1.195) homologues [see Costa, M.A., Collins, R.E., Anterola, A.M., Cochrane, F.C., Davin, L.B., Lewis N.G., 2003. An in silico assessment of gene function and organization of the phenylpropanoid pathway metabolic networks in Arabidopsis thaliana and limitations thereof. Phytochemistry 64, 1097-1112.]. In agreement with our biochemical studies in vitro [Kim, S.-J., Kim, M.-R., Bedgar, D.L., Moinuddin, S.G.A., Cardenas, C.L., Davin, L.B., Kang, C.-H., Lewis, N.G., 2004. Functional reclassification of the putative cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase multigene family in Arabidopsis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101, 1455-1460.], and analysis of a double mutant [Sibout, R., Eudes, A., Mouille, G., Pollet, B., Lapierre, C., Jouanin, L., Séguin A., 2005. Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase-C and -D are the primary genes involved in lignin biosynthesis in the floral stem of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 17, 2059-2076.], both AtCAD5 (At4g34230) and AtCAD4 (At3g19450) were found to have expression patterns consistent with development/formation of different forms of the lignified vascular apparatus, e.g. lignifying stem tissues, bases of trichomes, hydathodes, abscission zones of siliques, etc. Expression was also observed in various non-lignifying zones (e.g. root caps) indicative of, perhaps, a role in plant defense. In addition, expression patterns of the four CAD-like homologues were investigated, i.e. AtCAD2 (At2g21730), AtCAD3 (At2g21890), AtCAD7 (At4g37980) and AtCAD8 (At4g37990), each of which previously had been demonstrated to have low CAD

  7. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD) or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects. PMID:27652270

  8. [Cloning of the glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of porphyromonas gingivalis and its expression in E. coli].

    PubMed

    Li, Ang; Xu, Hong-Yan; Shi, Jian-Feng; Zhu, Chun-Hui; Rao, Guo-Zhou; Gou, Jian-Zhong

    2011-04-01

    To clone the glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and to induce its fusion expression in E. coli. GAPDH was obtained by PCR and was inserted into cloning vector pMD-18-T to construct clone recon. Double enzymes digest the recon pMD18-T-GAPDH and the prokaryotic expression vector pET-32a and then connect to get the expressing recon pET-32a-GAPDH. The recombinant expression plasmid which had been confirmed by enzymes digestion was transformed to E. coli competent cells BL21 and induced the expression of GAPDH with isopropyl beta-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) of different density. DNA sequencing showed that the fragment was 99.802% the same to the sequence published in NCBI. Under the best density, IPTG could be highly expressed. The GAPDH had been successfully cloned and expressed in E. coli which gets ready for the following experiment to study the immunity of GAPDH and the homologues antibody preparation.

  9. Differential expression of subunits of 20β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase during gametogenesis in rainbow trout (Oncorhychus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Vazirzadeh, Arya; Guiguen, Yann

    2017-09-01

    The patterns of expression of two subunits of 20β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20β-HSD), key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis and activation of steroid hormones, were examined in rainbow trout by using a combination of quantitative real-time PCR and in-situ hybridization. The expression of targeted genes was examined in mRNA extracted from different tissues at different gonadal stages in male and female trout. Both subunits of 20β-HSD were found to be widely distributed in tissues. The highest expression of 20β-HSD A was found in intestine followed by skin, stomach, liver and gills, whereas, the highest expression of 20β-HSD B was observed in stomach followed by head kidney, ovary - at late vitellogenesis stage- and trunk kidney. In ovarian tissue 20β-HSD A was highly expressed in mature oocytes, and the highest expression of 20β-HSD B was in ovary at late vitellogenesis stage. There were no differences in the level of expression of either subunit among groups of rainbow trout at different stages of maturational competence. In male fish, 20β-HSD A was highly expressed in testis stage I in contrast to 20β-HSD B which was highly expressed in testis stage VIII. In situ- hybridization results showed that the 20β-HSD gene was highly expressed in gastrointestinal organs, while only slightly expressed in the gonadal tissue of fish at stage 62day-post-fertilization (dpf). Overall, the results confirm the ubiquitous presence of 20β-HSD among tissues in rainbow trout with relatively minor fluctuations in expression associated with reproductive cycles which collectively suggests a wider metabolic role of these enzymes than just an association with the synthesis of control hormones for reproduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Expression Pattern of Two Paralogs Encoding Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenases in Arabidopsis. Isolation and Characterization of the Corresponding Mutants1

    PubMed Central

    Sibout, Richard; Eudes, Aymerick; Pollet, Brigitte; Goujon, Thomas; Mila, Isabelle; Granier, Fabienne; Séguin, Armand; Lapierre, Catherine; Jouanin, Lise

    2003-01-01

    Studying Arabidopsis mutants of the phenylpropanoid pathway has unraveled several biosynthetic steps of monolignol synthesis. Most of the genes leading to monolignol synthesis have been characterized recently in this herbaceous plant, except those encoding cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD). We have used the complete sequencing of the Arabidopsis genome to highlight a new view of the complete CAD gene family. Among nine AtCAD genes, we have identified the two distinct paralogs AtCAD-C and AtCAD-D, which share 75% identity and are likely to be involved in lignin biosynthesis in other plants. Northern, semiquantitative restriction fragment-length polymorphism-reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and western analysis revealed that AtCAD-C and AtCAD-D mRNA and protein ratios were organ dependent. Promoter activities of both genes are high in fibers and in xylem bundles. However, AtCAD-C displayed a larger range of sites of expression than AtCAD-D. Arabidopsis null mutants (Atcad-D and Atcad-C) corresponding to both genes were isolated. CAD activities were drastically reduced in both mutants, with a higher impact on sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity (6% and 38% of residual sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activities for Atcad-D and Atcad-C, respectively). Only Atcad-D showed a slight reduction in Klason lignin content and displayed modifications of lignin structure with a significant reduced proportion of conventional S lignin units in both stems and roots, together with the incorporation of sinapaldehyde structures ether linked at Cβ. These results argue for a substantial role of AtCAD-D in lignification, and more specifically in the biosynthesis of sinapyl alcohol, the precursor of S lignin units. PMID:12805615

  11. Expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes in human osteosarcoma: potential role in pathogenesis and as targets for treatments.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pushpa; Hardy, Rowan; Sumathi, Vaiyapuri; Bartle, Gillian; Kindblom, Lars-Gunnar; Grimer, Robert; Bujalska, Iwona; Stewart, Paul M; Rabbitt, Elizabeth; Gittoes, Neil J L; Cooper, Mark S

    2012-08-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is a primary malignant tumour of bone occurring predominantly in children and young adults. Despite chemotherapy, relapse is common and mortality remains high. Non-transformed osteoblasts are highly sensitive to glucocorticoids, which reduce proliferation and induce apoptosis. Previously, we observed that OS cells, but not normal osteoblasts, express 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2). This enzyme inactivates cortisol (active) to cortisone (inactive) and expression of 11β-HSD2 renders OS cells resistant to glucocorticoids. By contrast, the related enzyme 11β-HSD1 converts cortisone to cortisol and reduces OS cell proliferation in vitro. Some synthetic glucocorticoids (e.g. dehydrodexamethasone (DHD), inactive counterpart of dexamethasone (DEX)) have been reported to be activated by 11β-HSD2. We therefore investigated expression and enzymatic activity of 11β-HSD isozymes in human OS tissue, determined whether 11β-HSD expression has prognostic value in the response to therapy, and evaluated the potential use of synthetic glucocorticoids to selectively target OS cells. OS samples expressed both 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2. 11β-HSD1 expression in pretreatment biopsy specimens positively correlated with primary tumour size. Expression and activity of 11β-HSD1 in post-treatment biopsies were unrelated to the degree of tumour necrosis following chemotherapy. However, high 11β-HSD2 expression in post-treatment biopsies correlated with a poor response to therapy. OS cells that expressed 11β-HSD2 inactivated endogenous glucocorticoids; but these cells were also able to generate DEX from DHD. These results suggest that OS treatment response is related to 11β-HSD2 enzyme expression. Furthermore, OS cells expressing this enzyme could be targeted by treatment with synthetic glucocorticoids that are selectively reactivated by the enzyme.

  12. Class-Specific Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Promote 11-Beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 Expression in JEG-3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Togher, Katie L.; Kenny, Louise C.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to maternal cortisol plays a crucial role in fetal organogenesis. However, fetal overexposure to cortisol has been linked to a range of short- and long-term adverse outcomes. Normally, this is prevented by the expression of an enzyme in the placenta called 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) which converts active cortisol to its inactive metabolite cortisone. Placental 11β-HSD2 is known to be reduced in a number of adverse pregnancy complications, possibly through an epigenetic mechanism. As a result, a number of pan-HDAC inhibitors have been examined for their ability to promote 11β-HSD2 expression. However, it is not known if the effects of pan-HDAC inhibition are a general phenomenon or if the effects are dependent upon a specific class of HDACs. Here, we examined the ability of pan- and class-specific HDAC inhibitors to regulate 11β-HSD2 expression in JEG3 cells. We find that pan-, class I, or class IIa HDAC inhibition promoted 11β-HSD2 expression and prevented cortisol or interleukin-1β-induced decrease in its expression. These results demonstrate that targeting a specific class of HDACs can promote 11β-HSD2 expression in JEG3 cells. This adds to the growing body of evidence suggesting that HDACs may be crucial in maintaining normal fetal development. PMID:28321257

  13. Reduced expression of 15-hydroxy prostaglandin dehydrogenase in chorion during labor is associated with decreased PRB and increased PRA and GR expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; He, Ping; Sun, Qianqian; Liu, Jie; Gao, Lu; You, Xingji; Gu, Hang; Ni, Xin

    2013-05-01

    The chorion laeve controls the levels of active prostaglandins within the uterus by NAD-dependent 15-hydroxy prostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH). The expression of PGDH in chorion is modulated by glucocorticoids and progesterone. In this study, we investigated glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and progesterone receptor A and B (PRA and PRB) in the regulation of PGDH expression in chorion, and we determined whether reduced PGDH expression in chorion during labor is associated with the changes in GR and PR expression by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Dexamethasone (DEX) inhibited PGDH expression whereas progesterone stimulated PGDH expression in chorionic trophoblasts. DEX suppressed PGDH expression in GR overexpression and PR knockdown cells. The inhibitory effect of DEX did not occur in GR knockdown cells. Progesterone inhibited PGDH in GR overexpression and PR knockdown cells and it stimulated PGDH in PRB overexpression cells whereas it suppressed PGDH in PRA overexpression cells. Knockdown of c-Jun resulted in a loss of progesterone- and DEX-induced effects. PGDH was down-regulated in chorion tissues during labor. PRB was decreased whereas PRA and GR were increased in chorion during labor. Glucocorticoids inhibit PGDH expression via GR in chorionic trophoblasts. Progesterone enhances PGDH expression through PRB, whereas it inhibits PGDH expression via GR and PRA. Decreased PGDH expression is associated with increased GR and PRA, although decreased PRB, in chorion during labor. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Oxidation of alcohols and reduction of aldehydes derived from methyl- and dimethylpyrenes by cDNA-expressed human alcohol dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Kollock, Ronny; Frank, Heinz; Seidel, Albrecht; Meinl, Walter; Glatt, Hansruedi

    2008-03-12

    Some methylated pyrenes can form DNA adducts in rat tissues after benzylic hydroxylation and sulpho conjugation. However, oxidation of the intermediate alcohols to carboxylic acids is an important competing pathway leading to detoxification. We previously showed that co-administration of ethanol or 4-methylpyrazole strongly enhances DNA adduct formation by 1-hydroxymethylpyrene, indicating an involvement of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) in the detoxification. This mechanism may be involved in the observed synergism of smoking and alcohol consumption in certain human cancers. In a preceding study, cDNA-expressed human ADH2 efficiently oxidised 1-, 2- and 4-hydroxymethylpyrene; these reactions were inhibited in the presence of ethanol or 4-methylpyrazole. Here we report that ADH1C, ADH3 and ADH4 also show substantial activity towards these substrates and two further congeners, 1-hydroxymethyl-6-methylpyrene and 1-hydroxymethyl-8-methylpyrene. All four ADH forms also catalysed the reverse reaction, implying that the aldehydes have to be sequestered by other enzymes, such as aldehyde dehydrogenases, for final detoxification. ADH1C and ADH4 activities towards hydroxymethylpyrenes were more strongly inhibited in the presence of ethanol and 4-methylpyrazole than those of ADH2. ADH3 was only inhibited at very high concentrations of the modulators. In conclusions, several human ADHs are capable of detoxifying benzylic alcohols of alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. However, some competing substrates and inhibitors may affect all these redundant detoxification systems, although to various extents.

  15. Cloning and heterologous expression of two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Tomofumi; Ichinose, Hirofumi; Wariishi, Hiroyuki

    2010-04-09

    We identified two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenase proteins (PcALDH1 and PcALDH2) from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Both PcALDHs were translationally up-regulated in response to exogenous addition of vanillin, one of the key aromatic compounds in the pathway of lignin degradation by basidiomycetes. To clarify the catalytic functions of PcALDHs, we isolated full-length cDNAs encoding these proteins and heterologously expressed the recombinant enzymes using a pET/Escherichia coli system. The open reading frames of both PcALDH1 and PcALDH2 consisted of 1503 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequences of both proteins showed high homologies with aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from other organisms and contained ten conserved domains of ALDHs. Moreover, a novel glycine-rich motif 'GxGxxxG' was located at the NAD{sup +}-binding site. The recombinant PcALDHs catalyzed dehydrogenation reactions of several aryl-aldehyde compounds, including vanillin, to their corresponding aromatic acids. These results strongly suggested that PcALDHs metabolize aryl-aldehyde compounds generated during fungal degradation of lignin and various aromatic xenobiotics.

  16. Alcohol dehydrogenase expression as a biomarker of denitrification activity in activated sludge using methanol and glycerol as electron donors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huijie; Nuruzzaman, Farhan; Ravindhar, Janani; Chandran, Kartik

    2011-11-01

    Carbon sources such as methanol and glycerol are used for enhancing denitrification at wastewater treatment plants, which are required to meet increasingly stringent effluent nitrogen limits. Consequently, dosing strategies for these compounds could benefit from the development and application of molecular activity biomarkers to infer and distinguish between methanol- or glycerol-based denitrification in activated sludge. In this study, the applicability of genes coding for methanol dehydrogenase (mdh2 and mxaF) and glycerol dehydrogenase (dhaD) as potential biomarkers of denitrification activity using these specific substrates was explored and confirmed using a two-pronged approach. First, during short-term spikes of activated sludge biomass with glycerol, the ability of dhaD mRNA concentrations to closely track nitrate depletion profiles was demonstrated. Second, a high-degree of correlation of the mRNA concentrations of mdh2, mxaF and dhaD with methanol- and glycerol-based denitrification kinetics during long-term bioreactor operation using these substrates was also shown. Based on these results, expression of mdh2, mxaF and dhaD genes are promising biomarkers of in situ denitrification activity on methanol and glycerol, respectively, in mixed-culture engineered wastewater treatment processes. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Engineering a hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase to improve its soluble expression for the asymmetric reduction of cortisone to 11β-hydrocortisone.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dalong; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Liying; Zhao, Chunxia; Dong, Wenyue; Zhao, Qing; Wu, Qiaqing; Zhu, Dunming

    2014-11-01

    11β-Hydrocortisone (11β-HC) is an important anti-inflammatory drug and intermediate for the synthesis of other steroids. One of the methods for the synthesis of 11β-HC is the asymmetric reduction of cortisone catalyzed by a highly regioselective and stereoselective 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSDH). However, this process has been prohibited by the poor soluble expression of the membrane-anchoring protein 11β-HSDH in prokaryotes. To overcome this obstacle, a mutant III-1G1 (Phe80Leu/Thr105Ser/Ala260Thr/Tyr274Stop) truncated at position 274 with improved yield of soluble protein was stepwise obtained from the 11β-HSDH from guinea pig by random mutagenesis combining with structural complementation assay and C-terminal truncating library screening. The improved 11β-HSDH mutant and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) from Bacillus subtilis were coexpressed in Escherichia coli. The resulting whole-cell biocatalyst catalyzed the reduction of cortisone to 11β-HC with 98 % conversion in 20 h, laying foundation for the development of an asymmetric reduction process for the production of 11β-HC.

  18. Taraxerone enhances alcohol oxidation via increases of alcohol dehyderogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activities and gene expressions.

    PubMed

    Sung, Chang-Keun; Kim, Seung-Mi; Oh, Chang-Jin; Yang, Sun-A; Han, Byung-Hee; Mo, Eun-Kyoung

    2012-07-01

    The present study, taraxerone (d-friedoolean-14-en-3-one) was isolated from Sedum sarmentosum with purity 96.383%, and its enhancing effects on alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activities were determined: EC(50) values were 512.42 ± 3.12 and 500.16 ± 3.23 μM for ADH and ALDH, respectively. In order to obtain more information on taraxerone related with the alcohol metabolism, 40% ethanol (5 mL/kg body weight) with 0.5-1mM of taraxerone were administered to mice. The plasma alcohol and acetaldehyde concentrations of taraxerone-treated groups were significantly lowered than those of the control group (p<0.01): approximately 20-67% and 7-57% lowered for plasma alcohol and acetaldehyde, respectively. Compare to the control group, the ADH and ALDH expressions in the liver tissues were abruptly increased in the taraxerone-treated groups after ethanol exposure. In addition, taraxerone prevented catalase, superoxide dismutase, and reduced glutathione concentrations from the decrease induced by ethanol administration with the concentration dependent manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Regulation of branched-chain amino acid catabolism: nutritional and hormonal regulation of activity and expression of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Y; Obayashi, M; Murakami, T; Harris, R A

    2001-09-01

    Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase is responsible for the inactivation and phosphorylation of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, the enzyme that catalyses the committed step of branched-chain amino acid catabolism. The activity of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex is inversely correlated with kinase activity, suggesting that the relative activity of the kinase is the primary regulator of the activity of the complex. It has been shown that kinase activity and expression are affected by nutritional states imposed by low-protein diet feeding, starvation, diabetes, and exercise. Evidence has also been presented that certain hormones, particularly insulin, glucocorticoid, thyroid hormone and female sex hormones, affect the activity and expression of the kinase. The findings indicate that nutritional and hormonal control of the activity and expression of branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase kinase provides an important means of control of the activity of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, with inactivation serving to conserve branched-chain amino acids for protein synthesis in some situations and activation serving to provide carbon for gluconeogenesis in others.

  20. [Tumoral dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase expression and efficacy of 5-fluorouracil plus leucovorin plus UFT therapy in patients with colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hideyuki; Ohsawa, Tomonori; Nakada, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Masaru; Inokuma, Shigehisa; Shirakawa, Kazuo; Yamada, Hirofumi; Hashimoto, Daijo

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between tumoral expression of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), the rate limiting enzyme of the degradation pathway 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and the efficacy of 5-FU based chemotherapy for colorectal cancer. Twenty-eight colorectal cancer patients who had underwent noncurative resection (n = 16) or had developed recurrence (n = 12) were enrolled. All patients were given 5-FU plus leucovorin intravenously and UFT (1 M Tegafur, 4 M Uracil) perorally. The expression levels of the DPD in the primary lesions were determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Group A (n = 10) consisted of one patient with complete response, 4 with partial response, and 5 with no change (time to disease progression (TTP) > = 90 days). Group B (n = 18) consisted of 14 patients with progressive disease and 4 with NC (time to progression, < 90 days). The tumoral DPD levels did not differ between the groups (p = 0.58). There were no effective cases (n = 6) whose tumoral DPD levels were equal to or more than 83.2 U/mg protein (high DPD expression). There were marked overlaps in the DPD levels between the two groups whose DPD levels were less than 83.0 U/mg protein (moderate or low expression). These results suggest that high expression of tumoral DPD would be predictive to failure of fluoropyrimidine-based treatment. However, it is unlikely to set the optimal cutoff value for predicting the efficacy of this type of chemotherapy.

  1. Genome-Wide Analysis of Sorbitol Dehydrogenase (SDH) Genes and Their Differential Expression in Two Sand Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) Fruits.

    PubMed

    Dai, Meisong; Shi, Zebin; Xu, Changjie

    2015-06-09

    Through RNA-seq of a mixed fruit sample, fourteen expressed sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) genes have been identified from sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai). Comparative phylogenetic analysis of these PpySDHs with those from other plants supported the closest relationship of sand pear with Chinese white pear (P. bretschneideri). The expression levels varied greatly among members, and the strongest six (PpySDH2, PpySDH4, PpySDH8, PpySDH12, PpySDH13 and PpySDH14) accounted for 96% of total transcript abundance of PpySDHs. Tissue-specific expression of these six members was observed in nine tissues or organs of sand pear, with the greatest abundance found in functional leaf petioles, followed by the flesh of young fruit. Expression patterns of these six PpySDH genes during fruit development were analyzed in two sand pear cultivars, "Cuiguan" and "Cuiyu". Overall, expression of PpySDHs peaked twice, first at the fruitlet stage and again at or near harvest. The transcript abundance of PpySDHs was higher in "Cuiguan" than in "Cuiyu", accompanied by a higher content of sugars and higher ratio of fructose to sorbitol maintained in the former cultivar at harvest. In conclusion, it was suggested that multiple members of the SDH gene family are possibly involved in sand pear fruit development and sugar accumulation and may affect both the sugar amount and sugar composition.

  2. The Regulatory Network Controlling Ethanol-Induced Expression of Alcohol Dehydrogenase in the Endophyte Azoarcus sp. Strain BH72.

    PubMed

    Krause, Andrea; Julich, Henrike; Mankar, Manasee; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    The habitat of the nitrogen-fixing endophyte Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 is grass roots grown under waterlogged conditions that produce, under these conditions, ethanol. Strain BH72 is well equipped to metabolize ethanol, with eight alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs), of which ExaA2 and ExaA3 are the most relevant ones. exaA2 and exaA3 cluster and are surrounded by genes encoding two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) termed ExaS-ExaR and ElmS-GacA. Functional genomic analyses revealed that i) expression of the corresponding genes was induced by ethanol, ii) the genes were also expressed in the rhizoplane or even inside of rice roots, iii) both TCSs were indispensable for growth on ethanol, and iv) they were important for competitiveness during rice root colonization. Both TCSs form a hierarchically organized ethanol-responsive signal transduction cascade with ExaS-ExaR as the highest level, essential for effective expression of the ethanol oxidation system based on ExaA2. Transcript and expression levels of exaA3 increased in tcs deletion mutants, suggesting no direct influence of both TCSs on its ethanol-induced expression. In conclusion, this underscores the importance of ethanol for the endophytic lifestyle of Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 and indicates a tight regulation of the ethanol oxidation system during root colonization.

  3. Glucocorticoid response elements and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in the regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Mladinov, Domagoj; Pietrusz, Jennifer L.; Usa, Kristie; Liang, Mingyu

    2009-01-01

    Aims Hypertensive and other effects of excess glucocorticoids might be in part mediated by the suppression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression. We studied the transcriptional and biochemical mechanisms that mediate or modulate the suppression of eNOS expression by glucocorticoids. Methods and results We found that a mere three-fold increase in the concentration of the natural glucocorticoid cortisol (from 30 to 100 nmol/L) significantly decreased the expression level of eNOS in human endothelial cells. Deletion analysis of the eNOS promoter indicated that the segment within −119 bp upstream from the transcription start site was significantly involved in the effect of cortisol. Site-directed mutagenesis and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated the presence of a suppressive glucocorticoid response element (GRE) at −111 to −105 bp. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSD) catalyse the interconversion of active and inactive glucocorticoids. The suppression of 11β-HSD2 using small interfering RNA markedly exacerbated the inhibition of eNOS by cortisol. The suppression of 11β-HSD1 abolished the inhibition of eNOS expression by cortisol. Conclusion We identified the first GRE in the eNOS promoter region and demonstrated that endogenous 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 play significant and distinct roles in modulating the effect of glucocorticoids on eNOS expression. PMID:18716005

  4. Genome-Wide Analysis of Sorbitol Dehydrogenase (SDH) Genes and Their Differential Expression in Two Sand Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Meisong; Shi, Zebin; Xu, Changjie

    2015-01-01

    Through RNA-seq of a mixed fruit sample, fourteen expressed sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) genes have been identified from sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai). Comparative phylogenetic analysis of these PpySDHs with those from other plants supported the closest relationship of sand pear with Chinese white pear (P. bretschneideri). The expression levels varied greatly among members, and the strongest six (PpySDH2, PpySDH4, PpySDH8, PpySDH12, PpySDH13 and PpySDH14) accounted for 96% of total transcript abundance of PpySDHs. Tissue-specific expression of these six members was observed in nine tissues or organs of sand pear, with the greatest abundance found in functional leaf petioles, followed by the flesh of young fruit. Expression patterns of these six PpySDH genes during fruit development were analyzed in two sand pear cultivars, “Cuiguan” and “Cuiyu”. Overall, expression of PpySDHs peaked twice, first at the fruitlet stage and again at or near harvest. The transcript abundance of PpySDHs was higher in “Cuiguan” than in “Cuiyu”, accompanied by a higher content of sugars and higher ratio of fructose to sorbitol maintained in the former cultivar at harvest. In conclusion, it was suggested that multiple members of the SDH gene family are possibly involved in sand pear fruit development and sugar accumulation and may affect both the sugar amount and sugar composition. PMID:26068235

  5. Isoform expression in the multiple soluble malate dehydrogenase of Hoplias malabaricus (Erythrinidae, Characiformes).

    PubMed

    Aquino-Silva, M R; Schwantes, M L; Schwantes, A R

    2003-02-01

    Kinetic properties and thermal stabilities of Hoplias malabaricus liver and skeletal muscle unfractionated malate dehydrogenase (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37) and its isolated isoforms were analyzed to further study the possible sMDH-A* locus duplication evolved from a recent tandem duplication. Both A (A1 and A2) and B isoforms had similar optima pH (7.5-8.0). While Hoplias A isoform could not be characterized as thermostable, B could as thermolabile. A isoforms differed from B isoform in having higher Km values for oxaloacetate. The possibly duplicated A2 isoform showed higher substrate affinity than the A1. Hoplias duplicated A isoforms may influence the direction of carbon flow between glycolisis and gluconeogenesis.

  6. Expression, purification, crystallization, and preliminary X-Ray analysis of the human UDP-glucose dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jae Wan; Robinson, Robert Charles; Lee, Han Sam; Lee, Jae Il; Heo, Yong Seok; Kim, Hyun Tae; Lee, Hyun Ju; Cho, Sung Woo; Choe, Han

    2006-01-01

    UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGDH) catalyzes the synthesis of UDP-glucuronic acid from UDP-glucose resulting in the formation of proteoglycans that are involved in promoting normal cellular growth and migration. Overproduction of proteoglycans has been implicated in the progression of certain epithelial cancers. Here, human UGDH (hUGDH) was purified and crystallized from a solution of 0.2 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M Na cacodylate, pH 6.5, and 21% PEG 8000. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.8 A. The crystal belongs to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with unit-cell parameters a = 173.25, b = 191.16, c = 225.94 A, and alpha = beta = gamma = 90.0 degrees. Based on preliminary analysis of the diffraction data, we propose that the biological unit of hUGDH is a tetramer.

  7. Co-expression of two heterologous lactate dehydrogenases genes in Kluyveromyces marxianus for l-lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Won; In, Jung Hoon; Park, Joon-Bum; Shin, Jonghyeok; Park, Jin Hwan; Sung, Bong Hyun; Sohn, Jung-Hoon; Seo, Jin-Ho; Park, Jin-Byoung; Kim, Soo Rin; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk

    2017-01-10

    Lactic acid (LA) is a versatile compound used in the food, pharmaceutical, textile, leather, and chemical industries. Biological production of LA is possible by yeast strains expressing a bacterial gene encoding l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Kluyveromyces marxianus is an emerging non-conventional yeast with various phenotypes of industrial interest. However, it has not been extensively studied for LA production. In this study, K. marxianus was engineered to express and co-express various heterologous LDH enzymes that were reported to have different pH optimums. Specifically, three LDH enzymes originating from Staphylococcus epidermidis (SeLDH; optimal at pH 5.6), Lactobacillus acidophilus (LaLDH; optimal at pH 5.3), and Bos taurus (BtLDH; optimal at pH 9.8) were functionally expressed individually and in combination in K. marxianus, and the resulting strains were compared in terms of LA production. A strain co-expressing SeLDH and LaLDH (KM5 La+SeLDH) produced 16.0g/L LA, whereas the strains expressing those enzymes individually produced only 8.4 and 6.8g/L, respectively. This co-expressing strain produced 24.0g/L LA with a yield of 0.48g/g glucose in the presence of CaCO3. Our results suggest that co-expression of LDH enzymes with different pH optimums provides sufficient LDH activity under dynamic intracellular pH conditions, leading to enhanced production of LA compared to individual expression of the LDH enzymes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Three distinct quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenases are expressed when Pseudomonas putida is grown on different alcohols.

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, H; Fujii, A; Matsushita, K; Shinagawa, E; Ameyama, M; Adachi, O

    1995-01-01

    A bacterial strain that can utilize several kinds of alcohols as its sole carbon and energy sources was isolated from soil and tentatively identified as Pseudomonas putida HK5. Three distinct dye-linked alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs), each of which contained the prosthetic group pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), were formed in the soluble fractions of this strain grown on different alcohols. ADH I was formed most abundantly in the cells grown on ethanol and was similar to the quinoprotein ADH reported for P. putida (H. Görisch and M. Rupp, Antonie Leeuwenhoek 56:35-45, 1989) except for its isoelectric point. The other two ADHs, ADH IIB and ADH IIG, were formed separately in the cells grown on 1-butanol and 1,2-propanediol, respectively. Both of these enzymes contained heme c in addition to PQQ and functioned as quinohemoprotein dehydrogenases. Potassium ferricyanide was an available electron acceptor for ADHs IIB and IIG but not for ADH I. The molecular weights were estimated to be 69,000 for ADH IIB and 72,000 for ADH IIG, and both enzymes were shown to be monomers. Antibodies raised against each of the purified ADHs could distinguish the ADHs from one another. Immunoblot analysis showed that ADH I was detected in cells grown on each alcohol tested, but ethanol was the most effective inducer. ADH IIB was formed in the cells grown on alcohols of medium chain length and also on 1,3-butanediol. Induction of ADH IIG was restricted to 1,2-propanediol or glycerol, of which the former alcohol was more effective. These results from immunoblot analysis correlated well with the substrate specificities of the respective enzymes. Thus, three distinct quinoprotein ADHs were shown to be synthesized by a single bacterium under different growth conditions. PMID:7730276

  9. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Paul R.; Evans, Daniel; Greenwood, Jacqueline A.; Moody, Peter C. E.

    2008-08-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase A has been cloned, expressed and purified. Apoprotein crystals have been grown which diffracted to 1.75 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2{sub 1}; holo crystals were grown in the presence of NADP, diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution and belonged to space group P3{sub 2}. The classical glycolytic pathway contains an NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, with NADP-dependent forms reserved for photosynthetic organisms and archaea. Here, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Helicobacter pylori is reported; crystals of the protein were grown both in the presence and the absence of NADP.

  10. Over-expression of PsGPD, a mushroom glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, enhances salt tolerance in rice plants.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung-Il; Lim, Hye-Min; Siddiqui, Zamin Shaheed; Park, Sung-Han; Kim, A-Ram; Kwon, Taek-Ryoun; Lee, Seong-Kon; Park, Soo-Chul; Jeong, Mi-Jeong; Lee, Gang-Seob

    2014-08-01

    Transgenic potatoes expressing glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD), isolated from the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju, had increased tolerance to salt stress (Jeong et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 278:192-196, 2000). To examine the physiological mechanisms enhancing salt tolerance in GPD-transgenic rice plants, the salt tolerance of five GPD transgenic rice lines (T1-T5) derived from Dongjin rice cultivar were evaluated in a fixed 150 mM saline environment in comparison to two known wild-type rice cultivars, Dongjin (salt sensitive) and Pokali (salt tolerant). Transgenic lines, T2, T3, and T5, had a substantial increase in biomass and relative water content compared to Dongjin. Stomatal conductance and osmotic potential were higher in the GPD transgenic lines and were similar to those in Pokali. The results are discussed based on the comparative physiological response of GPD transgenic lines with those of the salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant rice cultivars.

  11. Expression of a heat-stable NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase in Caldicellulosiruptor bescii results in furan aldehyde detoxification.

    PubMed

    Chung, Daehwan; Verbeke, Tobin J; Cross, Karissa L; Westpheling, Janet; Elkins, James G

    2015-01-01

    Compounds such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) are generated through the dehydration of xylose and glucose, respectively, during dilute-acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass and are also potent microbial growth and fermentation inhibitors. The enzymatic reduction of these furan aldehydes to their corresponding, and less toxic, alcohols is an engineering approach that has been successfully implemented in both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ethanologenic Escherichia coli, but has not yet been investigated in thermophiles relevant to biofuel production through consolidated bioprocessing (CBP). Developing CBP-relevant biocatalysts that are either naturally resistant to such inhibitors, or are amenable to engineered resistance, is therefore, an important component in making biofuels production from lignocellulosic biomass feasible. A butanol dehydrogenase encoding gene from Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus 39E (Teth39_1597), previously shown to have furfural and 5-HMF reducing capabilities, was cloned into a suicide plasmid, pDCW171 and transformed into a lactate dehydrogenase mutant of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii. Integration of the gene into the C. bescii chromosome was verified via PCR amplification and stable expression was observed up to 75°C. Heterologous expression of the NADPH-dependent BdhA enzyme conferred increased resistance of the engineered strain to both furfural and 5-HMF relative to the wild-type and parental strains. Further, when challenged with 15 mM concentrations of either furan aldehyde, the ability to eliminate furfural or 5-HMF from the culture medium was significantly improved in the engineered strain. A genetically engineered strain of C. bescii (JWCB044) has been constructed that shows both an improved tolerance to furan aldehydes and an improved ability to eliminate furfural and 5-HMF from the culture medium. The work presented here represents the first example of engineering furan aldehyde resistance into a CBP

  12. Characterization of the highly active fragment of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene promoter for recombinant protein expression in Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Yin, Chaomin; Zheng, Liesheng; Zhu, Jihong; Chen, Liguo; Ma, Aimin

    2015-03-01

    Developing efficient native promoters is important for improving recombinant protein expression by fungal genetic engineering. The promoter region of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene in Pleurotus ostreatus (Pogpd) was isolated and optimized by upstream truncation. The activities of these promoters with different lengths were further confirmed by fluorescence, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. A truncated Pogpd-P2 fragment (795 bp) drove enhanced green fluorescence protein (egfp) gene expression in P. ostreatus much more efficiently than full-length Pogpd-P1. Further truncating Pogpd-P2 to 603, 403 and 231 bp reduced the eGFP expression significantly. However, the 403-bp fragment between -356 bp and the start codon was the minimal but sufficient promoter element for eGFP expression. Compact native promoters for genetic engineering of P. ostreatus were successfully developed and validated in this study. This will broaden the preexisting repertoire of fungal promoters for biotechnology application. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Engineering acetyl coenzyme A supply: functional expression of a bacterial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the cytosol of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Barbara U; van Rossum, Harmen M; Luttik, Marijke A H; Akeroyd, Michiel; Benjamin, Kirsten R; Wu, Liang; de Vries, Simon; Daran, Jean-Marc; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2014-10-21

    The energetic (ATP) cost of biochemical pathways critically determines the maximum yield of metabolites of vital or commercial relevance. Cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is a key precursor for biosynthesis in eukaryotes and for many industrially relevant product pathways that have been introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, such as isoprenoids or lipids. In this yeast, synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA via acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) involves hydrolysis of ATP to AMP and pyrophosphate. Here, we demonstrate that expression and assembly in the yeast cytosol of an ATP-independent pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) from Enterococcus faecalis can fully replace the ACS-dependent pathway for cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis. In vivo activity of E. faecalis PDH required simultaneous expression of E. faecalis genes encoding its E1α, E1β, E2, and E3 subunits, as well as genes involved in lipoylation of E2, and addition of lipoate to growth media. A strain lacking ACS that expressed these E. faecalis genes grew at near-wild-type rates on glucose synthetic medium supplemented with lipoate, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. A physiological comparison of the engineered strain and an isogenic Acs(+) reference strain showed small differences in biomass yields and metabolic fluxes. Cellular fractionation and gel filtration studies revealed that the E. faecalis PDH subunits were assembled in the yeast cytosol, with a subunit ratio and enzyme activity similar to values reported for PDH purified from E. faecalis. This study indicates that cytosolic expression and assembly of PDH in eukaryotic industrial microorganisms is a promising option for minimizing the energy costs of precursor supply in acetyl-CoA-dependent product pathways. Importance: Genetically engineered microorganisms are intensively investigated and applied for production of biofuels and chemicals from renewable sugars. To make such processes economically and environmentally sustainable, the energy

  14. Cloning, sequencing and expression of the Schwanniomyces occidentalis NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed

    De Zoysa, P A; Connerton, I F; Watson, D C; Johnston, J R

    1991-08-01

    The cloned NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) genes of Aspergillus nidulans (gdhA) and Neurospora crassa (am) have been shown to hybridize under reduced stringency conditions to genomic sequences of the yeast Schwanniomyces occidentalis. Using 5' and 3' gene-specific probes, a unique 5.1 kb BclI restriction fragment that encompasses the entire Schwanniomyces sequence has been identified. A recombinant clone bearing the unique BclI fragment has been isolated from a pool of enriched clones in the yeast/E. coli shuttle vector pWH5 by colony hybridization. The identity of the plasmid clone was confirmed by functional complementation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gdh-1 mutation. The nucleotide sequence of the Schw. occidentalis GDH gene, which consists of 1380 nucleotides in a continuous reading frame of 459 amino acids, has been determined. The predicted amino acid sequence shows considerable homology with GDH proteins from other fungi and significant homology with all other available GDH sequences.

  15. Expression and characterization of a cytosolic glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase isoform from barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots.

    PubMed

    Castiglia, Daniela; Cardi, Manuela; Landi, Simone; Cafasso, Donata; Esposito, Sergio

    2015-08-01

    In plant cells, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH-EC 1.1.1.49) regulates the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP), a metabolic route involved in the production of NADPH for various biosynthetic processes and stress response. In this study, we report the overexpression of a cytosolic G6PDH isoform from barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots in bacteria, and the biochemical characterization of the purified recombinant enzyme (HvCy-G6PDH). A full-length cDNA coding for a cytosolic isoform of G6PDH was isolated, and the sequence was cloned into pET3d vector; the protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified by anion exchange and affinity chromatography. The kinetic properties were calculated: the recombinant HvCy-G6PDH showed KMs and KINADPH comparable to those observed for the enzyme purified from barley roots; moreover, the analysis of NADPH inhibition suggested a competitive mechanism. Therefore, this enzyme could be utilised for the structural and regulatory characterization of this isoform in higher plants.

  16. Plant Formate Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    John Markwell

    2005-01-10

    The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

  17. Expression of 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase in Human Chorion Is Associated with Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Isoform Expression in Term Labor.

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Li, Yuan; Ding, Xiaoying; Sun, Qianqian; Huang, Ying; Gu, Hang; Ni, Xin

    2015-07-01

    Chorionic NAD-dependent 15-hydroxy prostaglandin dehydrogenase (PGDH) plays a pivotal role in controlling the amount of prostaglandins in the uterus. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are implicated to be involved in parturition. In this study, we investigated whether PPARs are involved in control of PGDH expression in chorion. The chorionic tissues were collected from the following groups of the women with singleton pregnancy: term no labor (TNL), term labor (TL) and preterm labor (PTL). Chorionic trophoblasts were isolated and cultured in vitro. Immunocytochemistry analysis showed that PPARα, PPARβ, and PPARγ were localized to trophoblasts in chorion. The protein levels of PGDH, PPARβ, and PPARγ were localized to trophoblasts in chorion. The protein levels of PPARα, PPARβ, and PPARγ were reduced in TL tissues compared to that of TNL group. PPARα, PPARβ, and PPARγ expression correlated to PGDH in TNL tissues, whereas only PPARγ expression correlated to PGDH in TL chorion tissues. PGDH expression was decreased in PTL tissues compared with TL group, whereas the expression of PPARs was not significantly different between TL and PTL groups. The agonists of three PPARs dose-dependently stimulated PGDH activity, mRNA, and protein expression in cultured chorionic cells. PPARs did not affect the stability of PGDH mRNA but stimulated the transcriptional activity of HPGD gene. Our results suggest that PPARs play pivotal roles in maintenance of PGDH expression in chorion during human pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization and expression of NAD(H)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase genes in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Turano, F J; Thakkar, S S; Fang, T; Weisemann, J M

    1997-04-01

    Two distinct cDNA clones encoding NAD(H)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD[H]-GDH) in Arabidopsis thaliana were identified and sequenced. The genes corresponding to these cDNA clones were designated GDH1 and GDH2. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences suggest that both gene products contain putative mitochondrial transit polypeptides and NAD(H)- and alpha-ketoglutarate-binding domains. Subcellular fractionation confirmed the mitochondrial location of the NAD(H)-GDH isoenzymes. In addition, a putative EF-hand loop, shown to be associated with Ca2+ binding, was identified in the GDH2 gene product but not in the GDH1 gene product. GDH1 encodes a 43.0-kD polypeptide, designated alpha, and GDH2 encodes a 42.5-kD polypeptide, designated beta. The two subunits combine in different ratios to form seven NAD(H)-GDH isoenzymes. The slowest-migrating isoenzyme in a native gel, GDH1, is a homohexamer composed of alpha subunits, and the fastest-migrating isoenzyme, GDH7, is a homohexamer composed of beta subunits. GDH isoenzymes 2 through 6 are heterohexamers composed of different ratios of alpha and beta subunits. NAD(H)-GDH isoenzyme patterns varied among different plant organs and in leaves of plants irrigated with different nitrogen sources or subjected to darkness for 4 d. Conversely, there were little or no measurable changes in isoenzyme patterns in roots of plants treated with different nitrogen sources. In most instances, changes in isoenzyme patterns were correlated with relative differences in the level of alpha and beta subunits. Likewise, the relative difference in the level of alpha or beta subunits was correlated with changes in the level of GDH1 or GDH2 transcript detected in each sample, suggesting that NAD(H)-GDH activity is controlled at least in part at the transcriptional level.

  19. The metabolic activation of abacavir by human liver cytosol and expressed human alcohol dehydrogenase isozymes.

    PubMed

    Walsh, John S; Reese, Melinda J; Thurmond, Linda M

    2002-11-10

    Abacavir (ZIAGEN) is a reverse transcriptase inhibitor marketed for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. A small percentage of patients experience a hypersensitivity reaction indicating immune system involvement and bioactivation. A major route of metabolism for abacavir is oxidation of a primary betagamma unsaturated alcohol to a carboxylic acid via an aldehyde intermediate. This process was shown to be mediated in vitro by human cytosol and NAD, and subsequently the alphaalpha and gamma2gamma2 human isoforms of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). The alphaalpha isoform effected two sequential oxidation steps to form the acid metabolite and two isomers, qualitatively reflective of in vitro cytosolic profiles. The gamma2gamma2 isozyme generated primarily an isomer of abacavir, which was minor in the alphaalpha profiles. The aldehyde intermediate could be trapped in incubations with both isozymes as an oxime derivative. These metabolites can be rationalized as arising via the aldehyde which undergoes isomerization and further oxidation by the alphaalpha enzyme or reduction by the gamma2gamma2 isozyme. Non-extractable abacavir protein residues were generated in cytosol, and with alphaalpha and gamma2gamma2 incubations in the presence of human serum albumin (HSA). Metabolism and residue formation were blocked by the ADH inhibitor 4-methyl pyrazole (4-MP). The residues generated by the alphaalpha and gamma2gamma2 incubations were analyzed by SDS-PAGE with immunochemical detection. The binding of rabbit anti-abacavir antibody to abacavir-HSA was shown to be dependent on metabolism (i.e. NAD-dependent and 4-MP sensitive). The mechanism of covalent binding remains to be established, but significantly less abacavir-protein residue was detected with an analog of abacavir in which the double bond was removed, suggestive of a double bond migration and 1,4 addition process.

  20. Improved phosphorus acquisition by tobacco through transgenic expression of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase from Penicillium oxalicum.

    PubMed

    Lü, Jun; Gao, Xiaorong; Dong, Zhimin; Yi, Jun; An, Lijia

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for plant growth and development, but is generally unavailable and inaccessible in soil, since applied P is mostly fixed to aluminium (Al) and ferrum (Fe) in acidic soils and to calcium (Ca) in alkaline soils. Increased organic acid excretion is thought to be one mechanism by which plants use to enhance P uptake. In this study, we overexpressed a mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH) gene from the mycorrhizal fungi Penicillium oxalicum in tobacco. The MDH activity of transgenic lines was significantly increased compared to that of wild type. Malate content in root exudation of transgenic lines induced in response to P deficiency was 1.3- to 2.9-fold greater than that of wild type under the same condition. Among the transgenic lines that were selected for analysis, one line (M1) showed the highest level of MDH activity and malate exudate. M1 showed a significant increase in growth over wild type, with 149.0, 128.5, and 127.9% increases in biomass, when grown in Al-phosphate, Fe-phosphate, and Ca-phosphate media, respectively. M1 also had better P uptake compared to wild type, with total P content increased by 287.3, 243.5, and 223.4% when grown in Al-phosphate, Fe-phosphate, and Ca-phosphate media, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first study on improving the ability of a plant to utilize P from Al-phosphate, Fe-phosphate, and Ca-phosphate by manipulating the organic acid metabolism of the plant through genetic engineering.

  1. Regulation of cell growth and apoptosis through lactate dehydrogenase C over-expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Tuo; Zhang, Cunchao; Jing, Yu; Jiang, Cheng; Li, Zhenhua; Wang, Shengyu; Ma, Kai; Zhang, Dapeng; Hou, Sheng; Dai, Jianxin; Kou, Geng; Wang, Hao

    2016-06-01

    Lactate has long been credited as a by-product, which jeopardizes cell growth and productivity when accumulated over a certain concentration during the manufacturing process of therapeutic recombinant proteins by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. A number of efforts to decrease the lactate concentration have been developed; however, the accumulation of lactate is still a critical issue by the late stage of fed-batch culture. Therefore, a lactate-tolerant cell line was developed through over-expression of lactate dehydrogenase C (LDH-C). In fed-batch culture, sodium lactate or sodium pyruvate was supplemented into the culture medium to simulate the environment of lactate accumulation, and LDH-C over-expression increased the highest viable cell density by over 30 and 50 %, respectively, on day 5, meanwhile the viability was also improved significantly since day 5 compared with that of the control. The percentages of cells suffering early and late apoptosis decreased by 3.2 to 12.5 and 2.0 to 4.3 %, respectively, from day 6 onwards in the fed-batch culture when 40 mM sodium pyruvate was added compared to the control. The results were confirmed by mitochondrial membrane potential assay. In addition, the expression of cleaved caspases 3 and 7 decreased in cells over-expressing LDH-C, suggesting the mitochondrial pathway was involved in the LDH-C regulated anti-apoptosis. In conclusion, a novel cell line with higher lactate tolerance, lowered lactate production, and alleviated apoptosis response was developed by over-expression of LDH-C, which may potentially represent an efficient and labor-saving approach in generating recombinant proteins.

  2. Molecular alterations and expression of succinate dehydrogenase complex in wild-type KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    PubMed

    Celestino, Ricardo; Lima, Jorge; Faustino, Alexandra; Vinagre, João; Máximo, Valdemar; Gouveia, António; Soares, Paula; Lopes, José Manuel

    2013-05-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, disclosing somatic KIT, PDGFRA and BRAF mutations. Loss of function of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex is an alternative molecular mechanism in GISTs, namely in carriers of germline mutations of the SDH complex that develop Carney-Stratakis dyad characterized by multifocal GISTs and multicentric paragangliomas (PGLs). We studied a series of 25 apparently sporadic primary wild-type (WT) KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF GISTs occurring in patients without personal or familial history of PGLs, re-evaluated clinicopathological features and analyzed molecular alterations and immunohistochemistry expression of SDH complex. As control, we used a series of well characterized 49 KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF-mutated GISTs. SDHB expression was absent in 20% and SDHB germline mutations were detected in 12% of WT GISTs. Germline SDHB mutations were significantly associated to younger age at diagnosis. A significant reduction in SDHB expression in WT GISTs was found when compared with KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF-mutated GISTs. No significant differences were found when comparing DOG-1 and c-KIT expression in WT, SDHB-mutated and KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF-mutated GISTs. Our results confirm the occurrence of germline SDH genes mutations in isolated, apparently sporadic WT GISTs. WT KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF GISTs without SDHB or SDHA/SDHB expression may correspond to Carney-Stratakis dyad or Carney triad. Most importantly, the possibility of PGLs (Carney-Stratakis dyad) and/or pulmonary chondroma (Carney triad) should be addressed in these patients and their kindred.

  3. Molecular alterations and expression of succinate dehydrogenase complex in wild-type KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Celestino, Ricardo; Lima, Jorge; Faustino, Alexandra; Vinagre, João; Máximo, Valdemar; Gouveia, António; Soares, Paula; Manuel Lopes, José

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, disclosing somatic KIT, PDGFRA and BRAF mutations. Loss of function of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex is an alternative molecular mechanism in GISTs, namely in carriers of germline mutations of the SDH complex that develop Carney–Stratakis dyad characterized by multifocal GISTs and multicentric paragangliomas (PGLs). We studied a series of 25 apparently sporadic primary wild-type (WT) KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF GISTs occurring in patients without personal or familial history of PGLs, re-evaluated clinicopathological features and analyzed molecular alterations and immunohistochemistry expression of SDH complex. As control, we used a series of well characterized 49 KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF-mutated GISTs. SDHB expression was absent in 20% and SDHB germline mutations were detected in 12% of WT GISTs. Germline SDHB mutations were significantly associated to younger age at diagnosis. A significant reduction in SDHB expression in WT GISTs was found when compared with KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF-mutated GISTs. No significant differences were found when comparing DOG-1 and c-KIT expression in WT, SDHB-mutated and KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF-mutated GISTs. Our results confirm the occurrence of germline SDH genes mutations in isolated, apparently sporadic WT GISTs. WT KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF GISTs without SDHB or SDHA/SDHB expression may correspond to Carney–Stratakis dyad or Carney triad. Most importantly, the possibility of PGLs (Carney–Stratakis dyad) and/or pulmonary chondroma (Carney triad) should be addressed in these patients and their kindred. PMID:22948025

  4. Expression levels of chaperones influence biotransformation activity of recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Micrococcus luteus alcohol dehydrogenase and Pseudomonas putida Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Baek, A-Hyong; Jeon, Eun-Yeong; Lee, Sun-Mee; Park, Jin-Byung

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrated for the first time that the archaeal chaperones (i.e., γ-prefoldin and thermosome) can stabilize enzyme activity in vivo. Ricinoleic acid biotransformation activity of recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Micrococcus luteus alcohol dehydrogenase and the Pseudomonas putida KT2440 Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase improved significantly with co-expression of γ-prefoldin or recombinant themosome originating from the deep-sea hyperthermophile archaea Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. Furthermore, the degree of enhanced activity was dependent on the expression levels of the chaperones. For example, whole-cell biotransformation activity was highest at 12 µmol/g dry cells/min when γ-prefoldin expression level was approximately 46% of the theoretical maximum. This value was approximately two-fold greater than that in E. coli, where the γ-prefoldin expression level was zero or set to the theoretical maximum. Therefore, it was assumed that the expression levels of chaperones must be optimized to achieve maximum biotransformation activity in whole-cell biocatalysts. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Manipulating cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) expression in flax affects fibre composition and properties.

    PubMed

    Preisner, Marta; Kulma, Anna; Zebrowski, Jacek; Dymińska, Lucyna; Hanuza, Jerzy; Arendt, Malgorzata; Starzycki, Michal; Szopa, Jan

    2014-02-20

    In recent decades cultivation of flax and its application have dramatically decreased. One of the reasons for this is unpredictable quality and properties of flax fibre, because they depend on environmental factors, retting duration and growing conditions. These factors have contribution to the fibre composition, which consists of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and pectin. By far, it is largely established that in flax, lignin reduces an accessibility of enzymes either to pectin, hemicelluloses or cellulose (during retting or in biofuel synthesis and paper production).Therefore, in this study we evaluated composition and properties of flax fibre from plants with silenced CAD (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase) gene, which is key in the lignin biosynthesis. There is evidence that CAD is a useful tool to improve lignin digestibility and/or to lower the lignin levels in plants. Two studied lines responded differentially to the introduced modification due to the efficiency of the CAD silencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that flax CAD belongs to the "bona-fide" CAD family. CAD down-regulation had an effect in the reduced lignin amount in the flax fibre cell wall and as FT-IR results suggests, disturbed lignin composition and structure. Moreover introduced modification activated a compensatory mechanism which was manifested in the accumulation of cellulose and/or pectin. These changes had putative correlation with observed improved fiber's tensile strength. Moreover, CAD down-regulation did not disturb at all or has only slight effect on flax plants' development in vivo, however, the resistance against flax major pathogen Fusarium oxysporum decreased slightly. The modification positively affected fibre possessing; it resulted in more uniform retting. The major finding of our paper is that the modification targeted directly to block lignin synthesis caused not only reduced lignin level in fibre, but also affected amount and organization of cellulose and pectin

  6. Manipulating cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) expression in flax affects fibre composition and properties

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent decades cultivation of flax and its application have dramatically decreased. One of the reasons for this is unpredictable quality and properties of flax fibre, because they depend on environmental factors, retting duration and growing conditions. These factors have contribution to the fibre composition, which consists of cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin and pectin. By far, it is largely established that in flax, lignin reduces an accessibility of enzymes either to pectin, hemicelluloses or cellulose (during retting or in biofuel synthesis and paper production). Therefore, in this study we evaluated composition and properties of flax fibre from plants with silenced CAD (cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase) gene, which is key in the lignin biosynthesis. There is evidence that CAD is a useful tool to improve lignin digestibility and/or to lower the lignin levels in plants. Results Two studied lines responded differentially to the introduced modification due to the efficiency of the CAD silencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that flax CAD belongs to the “bona-fide” CAD family. CAD down-regulation had an effect in the reduced lignin amount in the flax fibre cell wall and as FT-IR results suggests, disturbed lignin composition and structure. Moreover introduced modification activated a compensatory mechanism which was manifested in the accumulation of cellulose and/or pectin. These changes had putative correlation with observed improved fiber’s tensile strength. Moreover, CAD down-regulation did not disturb at all or has only slight effect on flax plants’ development in vivo, however, the resistance against flax major pathogen Fusarium oxysporum decreased slightly. The modification positively affected fibre possessing; it resulted in more uniform retting. Conclusion The major finding of our paper is that the modification targeted directly to block lignin synthesis caused not only reduced lignin level in fibre, but also affected amount and

  7. The expression of a recombinant glycolate dehydrogenase polyprotein in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plastids strongly enhances photosynthesis and tuber yield.

    PubMed

    Nölke, Greta; Houdelet, Marcel; Kreuzaler, Fritz; Peterhänsel, Christoph; Schillberg, Stefan

    2014-08-01

    We have increased the productivity and yield of potato (Solanum tuberosum) by developing a novel method to enhance photosynthetic carbon fixation based on expression of a polyprotein (DEFp) comprising all three subunits (D, E and F) of Escherichia coli glycolate dehydrogenase (GlcDH). The engineered polyprotein retained the functionality of the native GlcDH complex when expressed in E. coli and was able to complement mutants deficient for the D, E and F subunits. Transgenic plants accumulated DEFp in the plastids, and the recombinant protein was active in planta, reducing photorespiration and improving CO2 uptake with a significant impact on carbon metabolism. Transgenic lines with the highest DEFp levels and GlcDH activity produced significantly higher levels of glucose (5.8-fold), fructose (3.8-fold), sucrose (1.6-fold) and transitory starch (threefold), resulting in a substantial increase in shoot and leaf biomass. The higher carbohydrate levels produced in potato leaves were utilized by the sink capacity of the tubers, increasing the tuber yield by 2.3-fold. This novel approach therefore has the potential to increase the biomass and yield of diverse crops. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Feeding hydroalcoholic extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca) enhances testicular gene expression of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in rats.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Y; Kawate, N; Inaba, T; Morii, H; Takahashi, K; Tamada, H

    2017-03-06

    Although feeding diets containing the extract powder of Lepidium meyenii (maca), a plant growing in Peru's Central Andes, increases serum testosterone concentration associated with enhanced ability of testosterone production by Leydig cells in male rats, changes in testicular steroidogenesis-related factors by the maca treatment are not known. This study examined the effects of maca on testicular gene expressions for luteinizing hormone receptor, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and steroidogenic enzymes. Eight-week-old male rats were given the diets with or without (control) the maca extract powder (2%) for 6 weeks, and mRNA levels were determined by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that the testicular mRNA level of HSD3B1 (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; 3β-HSD) increased by the treatment, whereas the levels of the other factors examined did not change. These results suggest that increased expression of 3β-HSD gene may be involved in the enhanced steroidogenic ability by the maca treatment in rat testes.

  9. Expression of the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene in barley in response to osmotic stress and abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Ishitani, M; Nakamura, T; Han, S Y; Takabe, T

    1995-01-01

    When subjected to salt stress or drought, some vascular plants such as barley respond with an increased accumulation of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (betaine), being the last step of betaine synthesis catalyzed by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). We report here cloning and characterization of BADH cDNA from barley, a monocot, and the expression pattern of a BADH transcript. An open reading frame of 1515 bp encoded a protein which showed high homology to BADH enzymes present in other plants (spinach and sugar-beet) and in Escherichia coli. Transgenic tobacco plants harboring the clone expressed high levels of both BADH protein and its enzymatic activity. Northern blot analyses indicated that BADH mRNA levels increased almost 8-fold and 2-fold, respectively, in leaves and roots of barley plants grown in high-salt conditions, and that these levels decreased upon release of the stress, whereas they did not decrease under continuous salt stress. BADH transcripts also accumulate in response to water stress or drought, indicating a common response of the plant to osmotic changes that affect its water status. The addition of abscisic acid (ABA) to plants during growth also increased the levels of BADH transcripts dramatically, although the response was delayed when compared to that found for salt-stressed plants. Removal of plant roots before transferring the plants to high-salt conditions reduced only slightly the accumulation of BADH transcripts in the leaves.

  10. Cloning, expression, purification and characterization of his-tagged human glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase: a simplified method for protein yield.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Terrón-Hernández, Jessica; de la Mora-de la Mora, Ignacio; García-Torres, Itzhel; López-Velázquez, Gabriel; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Oria-Hernández, Jesús

    2013-10-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) catalyzes the first step of the pentose phosphate pathway. In erythrocytes, the functionality of the pathway is crucial to protect these cells against oxidative damage. G6PD deficiency is the most frequent enzymopathy in humans with a global prevalence of 4.9 %. The clinical picture is characterized by chronic or acute hemolysis in response to oxidative stress, which is related to the low cellular activity of G6PD in red blood cells. The disease is heterogeneous at genetic level with around 160 mutations described, mostly point mutations causing single amino acid substitutions. The biochemical studies aimed to describe the detrimental effects of mutations on the functional and structural properties of human G6PD are indispensable to understand the molecular physiopathology of this disease. Therefore, reliable systems for efficient expression and purification of the protein are highly desirable. In this work, human G6PD was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography in a single chromatographic step. The structural and functional characterization indicates that His-tagged G6PD resembles previous preparations of recombinant G6PD. In contrast with previous protein yield systems, our method is based on commonly available resources and fully accessible laboratory equipment; therefore, it can be readily implemented.

  11. PCR-based amplification and heterologous expression of Pseudomonas alcohol dehydrogenase genes from the soil metagenome for biocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Nobuya; Isotani, Kentaro; Makino, Yoshihide; Kato, Masaki; Kitayama, Kouta; Ishimota, Tuyoshi

    2014-02-05

    The amplification of useful genes from metagenomes offers great biotechnological potential. We employed this approach to isolate alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) genes from Pseudomonas to aid in the synthesis of optically pure alcohols from various ketones. A PCR primer combination synthesized by reference to the adh sequences of known Pseudomonas genes was used to amplify full-length adh genes directly from 17 samples of DNA extracted from soil. Three such adh preparations were used to construct Escherichia coli plasmid libraries. Of the approximately 2800 colonies obtained, 240 putative adh-positive clones were identified by colony-PCR. Next, 23 functional adh genes named using the descriptors HBadh and HPadh were analyzed. The adh genes obtained via this metagenomic approach varied in their DNA and amino acid sequences. Expression of the gene products in E. coli indicated varying substrate specificity. Two representative genes, HBadh-1 and HPadh-24, expressed in E. coli and Pseudomonas putida, respectively, were purified and characterized in detail. The enzyme products of these genes were confirmed to be useful for producing anti-Prelog chiral alcohols. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Codon-Optimized NADH Oxidase Gene Expression and Gene Fusion with Glycerol Dehydrogenase for Bienzyme System with Cofactor Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qiang; Wang, Shizhen

    2015-01-01

    NADH oxidases (NOXs) play an important role in maintaining balance of NAD+/NADH by catalyzing cofactors regeneration. The expression of nox gene from Lactobacillus brevis in Escherichia coli BL21 (BL21 (DE3)) was studied. Two strategies, the high AT-content in the region adjacent to the initiation codon and codon usage of the whole gene sequence consistent with the host, obtained the NOX activity of 59.9 U/mg and 73.3 U/mg (crude enzyme), with enhanced expression level of 2.0 and 2.5-folds, respectively. Purified NOX activity was 213.8 U/mg. Gene fusion of glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) and NOX formed bifuctional multi-enzymes for bioconversion of glycerol coupled with coenzyme regeneration. Kinetic parameters of the GDH-NOX for each substrate, glycerol and NADH, were calculated as Vmax(Glycerol) 20 μM/min, Km(Glycerol) 19.4 mM, Vmax (NADH) 12.5 μM/min and Km (NADH) 51.3 μM, respectively, which indicated the potential application of GDH-NOX for quick glycerol analysis and dioxyacetone biosynthesis. PMID:26115038

  13. Expression of protein engineered NADP+-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase increases ethanol production from xylose in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Matsushika, Akinori; Watanabe, Seiya; Kodaki, Tsutomu; Makino, Keisuke; Inoue, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Katsuji; Takimura, Osamu; Sawayama, Shigeki

    2008-11-01

    A recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain transformed with xylose reductase (XR) and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) genes from Pichia stipitis has the ability to convert xylose to ethanol together with the unfavorable excretion of xylitol, which may be due to cofactor imbalance between NADPH-preferring XR and NAD(+)-dependent XDH. To reduce xylitol formation, we have already generated several XDH mutants with a reversal of coenzyme specificity toward NADP(+). In this study, we constructed a set of recombinant S. cerevisiae strains with xylose-fermenting ability, including protein-engineered NADP(+)-dependent XDH-expressing strains. The most positive effect on xylose-to-ethanol fermentation was found by using a strain named MA-N5, constructed by chromosomal integration of the gene for NADP(+)-dependent XDH along with XR and endogenous xylulokinase genes. The MA-N5 strain had an increase in ethanol production and decrease in xylitol excretion compared with the reference strain expressing wild-type XDH when fermenting not only xylose but also mixed sugars containing glucose and xylose. Furthermore, the MA-N5 strain produced ethanol with a high yield of 0.49 g of ethanol/g of total consumed sugars in the nonsulfuric acid hydrolysate of wood chips. The results demonstrate that glucose and xylose present in the lignocellulosic hydrolysate can be efficiently fermented by this redox-engineered strain.

  14. Expression of Cathepsins B, D, and G in Isocitrate Dehydrogenase-Wildtype Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Koh, Sabrina P; Wickremesekera, Agadha C; Brasch, Helen D; Marsh, Reginald; Tan, Swee T; Itinteang, Tinte

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the expression of cathepsins B, D, and G, in relation to the cancer stem cell (CSC) subpopulations, we have previously characterized within isocitrate dehydogenase (IDH)-wildtype glioblastoma (IDHWGB). 3,3-Diaminobezidine (DAB) immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for cathepsins B, D, and G, was performed on 4μm-thick formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded IDHWGB samples obtained from six patients. Two representative DHWGB samples from the original cohort of patients were selected for immunofluorescent (IF) IHC staining, to identify the localization of the cathepsins in relation to the CSC subpopulations. NanoString gene expression analysis and colorimetric in situ hybridization (CISH) were conducted to investigate the transcriptional activation of genes encoding for cathepsins B, D, and G. Data obtained from cell counting of DAB IHC-stained slides and from NanoString analysis were subjected to statistical analyses to determine significance. Cathepsin B and cathepsin D were detected in IDHWGB by DAB IHC staining. IF IHC staining demonstrated the expression of both cathepsin B and cathepsin D by the OCT4(+) and SALL4(+) CSC subpopulations. NanoString gene analysis and CISH confirmed the abundant transcript expression of these cathepsins. The transcriptional and translational expressions of cathepsin G were minimal and were confined to cells within the microvasculature. This study demonstrated the expression of cathepsin B and cathepsin D but not cathepsin G within the CSC subpopulations of IDHWGB at both the transcriptional and translational level. Cathepsin G was expressed at low levels and was not localized to the CSC population of IDHWGB. The novel finding of cathepsin B and cathepsin D in IDHWGB suggests the presence of bypass loops for the renin-angiotensin system, which may facilitate the production of angiotensin peptides. Elucidating the precise role of these cathepsins may lead to better understanding and more effective treatment of this aggressive

  15. Lactate Dehydrogenase 5 Expression in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Is Associated with the Induced Hypoxia Regulated Protein and Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhujun; Xu, Xiaofeng; Hu, Hongfeng; Zhao, Xinmin; Gao, Xiang; Guo, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH-5) is one of the major isoenzymes catalyzing the biochemical process of pyruvate to lactate. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of serum LDH-5 and test whether this enzyme is regulated by tumor hypoxia and represents a prognostic marker in patients with Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). In this study, LDH-5 levels were detected using agarose gel electrophoresis in NHL patients (n = 266) and non-NHL controls including benign lymphadenectasis (n = 30) and healthy cohorts (n = 233). We also explored the expression of LDH-5 and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1α in NHL and benign controls by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. Moreover, the role of LDH-5 in the progression of NHL was assessed by multivariate Cox analyses and Kaplan-Meier survival estimates. Serum concentrations of LDH-5 were significantly higher in NHL patients (9.3%) than in benign patients and healthy controls (7.5% and 7.2%, respectively, P<0.01). Application of LDH-5 detection increased the sensitivity of NHL detection, identifying 53.4% of NHL patients as positive, compared with the measurement of total LDH levels (36.5% sensitivity). LDH-5 concentrations increased with clinical stage, extra-nodal site involvement, and WHO performance status of patients with NHL. Exposure to a hypoxic environment induced the expression of LDH-5 and its overexpression correlated with HIF1α cytoplasmic accumulation in NHL cells. In multivariate analyses, LDH-5 was an independent marker for progression-free survival in patients with NHL (P<0.001). Overall, the expression of LDH-5 was elevated in NHL, showing an association with tumor hypoxia and unfavorable prognosis. Thus, LDH-5 emerges as a promising prognostic predictor for NHL patients. PMID:24086384

  16. Engineering Acetyl Coenzyme A Supply: Functional Expression of a Bacterial Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex in the Cytosol of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kozak, Barbara U.; van Rossum, Harmen M.; Luttik, Marijke A. H.; Akeroyd, Michiel; Benjamin, Kirsten R.; Wu, Liang; de Vries, Simon; Daran, Jean-Marc; Pronk, Jack T.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The energetic (ATP) cost of biochemical pathways critically determines the maximum yield of metabolites of vital or commercial relevance. Cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) is a key precursor for biosynthesis in eukaryotes and for many industrially relevant product pathways that have been introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae, such as isoprenoids or lipids. In this yeast, synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA via acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) involves hydrolysis of ATP to AMP and pyrophosphate. Here, we demonstrate that expression and assembly in the yeast cytosol of an ATP-independent pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) from Enterococcus faecalis can fully replace the ACS-dependent pathway for cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthesis. In vivo activity of E. faecalis PDH required simultaneous expression of E. faecalis genes encoding its E1α, E1β, E2, and E3 subunits, as well as genes involved in lipoylation of E2, and addition of lipoate to growth media. A strain lacking ACS that expressed these E. faecalis genes grew at near-wild-type rates on glucose synthetic medium supplemented with lipoate, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. A physiological comparison of the engineered strain and an isogenic Acs+ reference strain showed small differences in biomass yields and metabolic fluxes. Cellular fractionation and gel filtration studies revealed that the E. faecalis PDH subunits were assembled in the yeast cytosol, with a subunit ratio and enzyme activity similar to values reported for PDH purified from E. faecalis. This study indicates that cytosolic expression and assembly of PDH in eukaryotic industrial microorganisms is a promising option for minimizing the energy costs of precursor supply in acetyl-CoA-dependent product pathways. PMID:25336454

  17. Energy balance-dependent regulation of ovine glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase protein isoform expression

    PubMed Central

    Triantaphyllopoulos, Kostas A; Laliotis, George P; Bizelis, Iosif A

    2014-01-01

    G6PDH is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway and one of the principal source of NADPH, a major cellular reductant. Importantly, in ruminant's metabolism the aforementioned NADPH provided, is utilized for de novo fatty acid synthesis. Previous work of cloning the ovine (Ovis aries) og6pdh gene has revealed the presence of two cDNA transcripts (og6pda and og6pdb), og6pdb being a product of alternative splicing not similar to any other previously reported.1 In the current study the effect of energy balance in the ovine G6PDH protein expression was investigated, shedding light on the biochemical features and potential physiological role of the oG6PDB isoform. Changes in energy balance leads to protein expression changes in both transcripts, to the opposite direction and not in a proportional way. Negative energy balance was not in favor of the presence of any particular isoform, while both protein expression levels were not significantly different (P > 0.05). In contrast, at the transition point from negative to positive and on the positive energy balance, there is a significant increase of oG6PDA compared with oG6PDB protein expression (P < 0.001). Both oG6PDH protein isoforms changed significantly toward the positive energy balance. oG6PDA is escalating, while oG6PDB is falling, under the same stimulus (positive energy balance alteration). This change is also positively associated with increasing levels in enzyme activity, 4 weeks post-weaning in ewes’ adipose tissue. Furthermore, regression analysis clearly demonstrated the linear correlation of both proteins in response to the WPW, while energy balance, enzyme activity, and oG6PDA relative protein expression follow the same escalating trend; in contrast, oG6PDB relative protein expression falls in time, similar to both transcripts accumulation pattern, as reported previously.2 PMID:24575366

  18. Energy balance-dependent regulation of ovine glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase protein isoform expression.

    PubMed

    Triantaphyllopoulos, Kostas A; Laliotis, George P; Bizelis, Iosif A

    2014-01-01

    G6PDH is the rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway and one of the principal source of NADPH, a major cellular reductant. Importantly, in ruminant's metabolism the aforementioned NADPH provided, is utilized for de novo fatty acid synthesis. Previous work of cloning the ovine (Ovis aries) og6pdh gene has revealed the presence of two cDNA transcripts (og6pda and og6pdb), og6pdb being a product of alternative splicing not similar to any other previously reported.(1) In the current study the effect of energy balance in the ovine G6PDH protein expression was investigated, shedding light on the biochemical features and potential physiological role of the oG6PDB isoform. Changes in energy balance leads to protein expression changes in both transcripts, to the opposite direction and not in a proportional way. Negative energy balance was not in favor of the presence of any particular isoform, while both protein expression levels were not significantly different (P > 0.05). In contrast, at the transition point from negative to positive and on the positive energy balance, there is a significant increase of oG6PDA compared with oG6PDB protein expression (P < 0.001). Both oG6PDH protein isoforms changed significantly toward the positive energy balance. oG6PDA is escalating, while oG6PDB is falling, under the same stimulus (positive energy balance alteration). This change is also positively associated with increasing levels in enzyme activity, 4 weeks post-weaning in ewes' adipose tissue. Furthermore, regression analysis clearly demonstrated the linear correlation of both proteins in response to the WPW, while energy balance, enzyme activity, and oG6PDA relative protein expression follow the same escalating trend; in contrast, oG6PDB relative protein expression falls in time, similar to both transcripts accumulation pattern, as reported previously.(2.)

  19. Characterization and Expression of Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Response to Acute Salinity Stress in the Chinese Mitten Crab, Eriocheir sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yueru; Li, Erchao; Yu, Na; Wang, Xiaodan; Cai, Chunfang; Tang, Boping; Chen, Liqiao; Van Wormhoudt, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Background Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a key enzyme for the synthesis and catabolism of glutamic acid, proline and alanine, which are important osmolytes in aquatic animals. However, the response of GDH gene expression to salinity alterations has not yet been determined in macro-crustacean species. Methodology/Principal Findings GDH cDNA was isolated from Eriocheir sinensis. Then, GDH gene expression was analyzed in different tissues from normal crabs and the muscle of crabs following transfer from freshwater (control) directly to water with salinities of 16‰ and 30‰, respectively. Full-length GDH cDNA is 2,349 bp, consisting of a 76 bp 5′- untranslated region, a 1,695 bp open reading frame encoding 564 amino acids and a 578 bp 3′- untranslated region. E. sinensis GDH showed 64–90% identity with protein sequences of mammalian and crustacean species. Muscle was the dominant expression source among all tissues tested. Compared with the control, GDH expression significantly increased at 6 h in crabs transferred to 16‰ and 30‰ salinity, and GDH expression peaked at 48 h and 12 h, respectively, with levels approximately 7.9 and 8.5 fold higher than the control. The free amino acid (FAA) changes in muscle, under acute salinity stress (16‰ and 30‰ salinities), correlated with GDH expression levels. Total FAA content in the muscle, which was based on specific changes in arginine, proline, glycine, alanine, taurine, serine and glutamic acid, tended to increase in crabs following transfer to salt water. Among these, arginine, proline and alanine increased significantly during salinity acclimation and accounted for the highest proportion of total FAA. Conclusions E. sinensis GDH is a conserved protein that serves important functions in controlling osmoregulation. We observed that higher GDH expression after ambient salinity increase led to higher FAA metabolism, especially the synthesis of glutamic acid, which increased the synthesis of proline and

  20. Impact of probiotic-supplemented diet on the expression level of lactate dehydrogenase in the leukocytes of rabbits.

    PubMed

    Ghoneim, Magdy A E; Moselhy, Said S

    2014-04-01

    Probiotics are known as living, nonpathogenic microorganisms that colonize the intestine and provide benefit to the host. The present study aims to measure one important energy metabolism-related enzyme activity in blood of rabbits fed on probiotics of recommended concentration. In addition, it also aims for the evaluation of the expression level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. Two groups of rabbits are used: control group receiving normal standardized diet and the other probiotic-supplemented group receiving the same diet containing probiotic, namely, Mega acidophilus (200 million cfu/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks. The obtained results revealed that the rabbits supplemented with probiotics showed a significant decrease in the levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) when compared with control group. Risk factors detected by measuring TC/HDL-c and LDL-c/HDL-c ratios showed statistically significant decrease in probiotic-supplemented rabbits when compared with control group. In addition, blood glucose and total LDH activity were elevated in probiotic-supplemented rabbits when compared with control group. RT-PCR products of LDH-M gene produced two specific amplicons. One amplicon has the expected size of 243 bp from all samples of rabbits as revealed by GelPro software. The level of LDH-M expression was found to be increased in the probiotic-supplemented group. However, unexpected amplicons are produced at 586 bp in all the samples, which may be a dimeric form of the amplified region. It was concluded that this probiotic blend is beneficiary for the metabolic reactions of lipids in the body. Moreover, LDH expression level can be considered as a biomarker for the effect of probiotic and hence monitoring the metabolic changes as reflected from its administration.

  1. Feeding dried chicory root to pigs decrease androstenone accumulation in fat by increasing hepatic 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase expression.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Martin Krøyer; Brunius, Carl; Zamaratskaia, Galia; Ekstrand, Bo

    2012-05-01

    The present study investigated the in vivo effect of chicory root on testicular steroid concentrations and androstenone metabolizing enzymes in entire male pigs. Furthermore, the effect on skatole and indole concentrations in plasma and adipose tissue was investigated. The pigs were divided into two groups; one receiving experimental feed containing 10% dried chicory root for 16 days before slaughter, the control group was fed a standard diet. Plasma, adipose and liver tissue samples were collected at slaughter. Plasma was analyzed for the concentration of testosterone, estradiol, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), skatole and indole. Adipose tissue was analyzed for the concentration of androstenone, skatole and indole, while the liver tissue was analyzed for mRNA and protein expressions of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), sulfotransferase 2A1 and heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70). The results showed that the androstenone concentrations in the adipose tissue of chicory fed pigs were significantly (p<0.05) lower and indole concentrations were higher (p<0.05) compared to control fed pigs. Moreover the chicory root fed pigs had increased mRNA and protein expression of 3β-HSD and decreased HSP70 expression (p<0.05). Testosterone and IGF-1 concentrations in plasma as well as skatole concentrations in adipose tissue were not altered by dietary intake of chicory root. It is concluded that chicory root in the diet reduces the concentration of androstenone in adipose tissue via induction of 3β-HSD, and that these changes were not due to increased cellular stress.

  2. Development of a plasmid-based expression system in Clostridium thermocellum and its use to screen heterologous expression of bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenases (adhEs)

    DOE PAGES

    Hon, Shuen; Lanahan, Anthony; Tian, Liang; ...

    2016-04-22

    Clostridium thermocellum is a promising candidate for ethanol production from cellulosic biomass, but requires metabolic engineering to improve ethanol yield. A key gene in the ethanol production pathway is the bifunctional aldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenase, adhE. To explore the effects of overexpressing wild-type, mutant, and exogenous adhEs, we developed a new expression plasmid, pDGO144, that exhibited improved transformation efficiency and better gene expression than its predecessor, pDGO-66. This new expression plasmid will allow for many other metabolic engineering and basic research efforts in C. thermocellum. As proof of concept, we used this plasmid to express 12 different adhE genes (bothmore » wild type and mutant) from several organisms. Ethanol production varied between clones immediately after transformation, but tended to converge to a single value after several rounds of serial transfer. The previously described mutant C. thermocellum D494G adhE gave the best ethanol production, which is consistent with previously published results.« less

  3. Improved production of 2,3-butanediol in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by over-expression of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Taowei; Rao, Zhiming; Zhang, Xian; Xu, Meijuan; Xu, Zhenghong; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-01-01

    Previously, a safe strain, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B10-127 was identified as an excellent candidate for industrial-scale microbial fermentation of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD). However, B. amyloliquefaciens fermentation yields large quantities of acetoin, lactate and succinate as by-products, and the 2,3-BD yield remains prohibitively low for commercial production. In the 2,3-butanediol metabolic pathway, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the conversion of 3-phosphate glyceraldehyde to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate, with concomitant reduction of NAD(+) to NADH. In the same pathway, 2,3-BD dehydrogenase (BDH) catalyzes the conversion of acetoin to 2,3-BD with concomitant oxidation of NADH to NAD(+). In this study, to improve 2,3-BD production, we first over-produced NAD(+)-dependent GAPDH and NADH-dependent BDH in B. amyloliquefaciens. Excess GAPDH reduced the fermentation time, increased the 2,3-BD yield by 12.7%, and decreased the acetoin titer by 44.3%. However, the process also enhanced lactate and succinate production. Excess BDH increased the 2,3-BD yield by 16.6% while decreasing acetoin, lactate and succinate production, but prolonged the fermentation time. When BDH and GAPDH were co-overproduced in B. amyloliquefaciens, the fermentation time was reduced. Furthermore, in the NADH-dependent pathways, the molar yield of 2,3-BD was increased by 22.7%, while those of acetoin, lactate and succinate were reduced by 80.8%, 33.3% and 39.5%, relative to the parent strain. In fed-batch fermentations, the 2,3-BD concentration was maximized at 132.9 g/l after 45 h, with a productivity of 2.95 g/l·h. Co-overexpression of bdh and gapA genes proved an effective method for enhancing 2,3-BD production and inhibiting the accumulation of unwanted by-products (acetoin, lactate and succinate). To our knowledge, we have attained the highest 2,3-BD fermentation yield thus far reported for safe microorganisms.

  4. Improved Production of 2,3-Butanediol in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens by Over-Expression of Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and 2,3-butanediol Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Taowei; Rao, Zhiming; Zhang, Xian; Xu, Meijuan; Xu, Zhenghong; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-01-01

    Background Previously, a safe strain, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B10-127 was identified as an excellent candidate for industrial-scale microbial fermentation of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD). However, B. amyloliquefaciens fermentation yields large quantities of acetoin, lactate and succinate as by-products, and the 2,3-BD yield remains prohibitively low for commercial production. Methodology/Principal Findings In the 2,3-butanediol metabolic pathway, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) catalyzes the conversion of 3-phosphate glyceraldehyde to 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate, with concomitant reduction of NAD+ to NADH. In the same pathway, 2,3-BD dehydrogenase (BDH) catalyzes the conversion of acetoin to 2,3-BD with concomitant oxidation of NADH to NAD+. In this study, to improve 2,3-BD production, we first over-produced NAD+-dependent GAPDH and NADH-dependent BDH in B. amyloliquefaciens. Excess GAPDH reduced the fermentation time, increased the 2,3-BD yield by 12.7%, and decreased the acetoin titer by 44.3%. However, the process also enhanced lactate and succinate production. Excess BDH increased the 2,3-BD yield by 16.6% while decreasing acetoin, lactate and succinate production, but prolonged the fermentation time. When BDH and GAPDH were co-overproduced in B. amyloliquefaciens, the fermentation time was reduced. Furthermore, in the NADH-dependent pathways, the molar yield of 2,3-BD was increased by 22.7%, while those of acetoin, lactate and succinate were reduced by 80.8%, 33.3% and 39.5%, relative to the parent strain. In fed-batch fermentations, the 2,3-BD concentration was maximized at 132.9 g/l after 45 h, with a productivity of 2.95 g/l·h. Conclusions/Significance Co-overexpression of bdh and gapA genes proved an effective method for enhancing 2,3-BD production and inhibiting the accumulation of unwanted by-products (acetoin, lactate and succinate). To our knowledge, we have attained the highest 2,3-BD fermentation yield thus far reported for safe

  5. Deficient expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 is consistent with increased sensitivity of Gorlin syndrome patients to radiation carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Aaron T.; Magnaldo, Thierry; Sontag, Ryan L.; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Sadler, Natalie C.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Gache, Yannick; Weber, Thomas J.

    2013-11-27

    Human phenotypes that are highly susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis have been identified. Sensitive phenotypes often display robust regulation of molecular features that modify biological response, which can facilitate identification of relevant pathways/networks. Here we interrogate primary dermal fibroblasts isolated from Gorlin syndrome patients (GDFs), who display a pronounced tumorigenic response to radiation, in comparison to normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). Our approach exploits newly developed thiol-reactive probes with a flexible click chemistry functional group to define changes in protein thiol profiles in live cell studies, which minimizes artifacts associated with cell lysis. We observe qualitative differences in protein thiol profiles by SDS-PAGE analysis when detection by iodoacetamide vs maleimide probe chemistries are compared, and pretreatment of cells with hydrogen peroxide eliminates detection of the majority of SDS-PAGE bands. Redox probes revealed deficient expression of an apparent 55 kDa protein thiol in GDFs from independent donors, compared with NHDFs. Proteomics tentatively identified this protein as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), a key enzyme regulating retinoic acid synthesis, and this deficiency was confirmed by Western blot. Redox probes revealed additional protein thiol differences between GDFs and NHDFs, including radiation responsive annexin family members. Our results indicate a multifactorial basis for the unusual sensitivity of Gorlin syndrome to radiation carcinogenesis, and the pathways identified have plausible implications for radiation health effects.

  6. Deficient expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 is consistent with increased sensitivity of Gorlin syndrome patients to radiation carcinogenesis

    DOE PAGES

    Wright, Aaron T.; Magnaldo, Thierry; Sontag, Ryan L.; ...

    2013-11-27

    Human phenotypes that are highly susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis have been identified. Sensitive phenotypes often display robust regulation of molecular features that modify biological response, which can facilitate identification of relevant pathways/networks. Here we interrogate primary dermal fibroblasts isolated from Gorlin syndrome patients (GDFs), who display a pronounced tumorigenic response to radiation, in comparison to normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). Our approach exploits newly developed thiol-reactive probes with a flexible click chemistry functional group to define changes in protein thiol profiles in live cell studies, which minimizes artifacts associated with cell lysis. We observe qualitative differences in protein thiol profilesmore » by SDS-PAGE analysis when detection by iodoacetamide vs maleimide probe chemistries are compared, and pretreatment of cells with hydrogen peroxide eliminates detection of the majority of SDS-PAGE bands. Redox probes revealed deficient expression of an apparent 55 kDa protein thiol in GDFs from independent donors, compared with NHDFs. Proteomics tentatively identified this protein as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), a key enzyme regulating retinoic acid synthesis, and this deficiency was confirmed by Western blot. Redox probes revealed additional protein thiol differences between GDFs and NHDFs, including radiation responsive annexin family members. Our results indicate a multifactorial basis for the unusual sensitivity of Gorlin syndrome to radiation carcinogenesis, and the pathways identified have plausible implications for radiation health effects.« less

  7. Targeted therapy for a subset of acute myeloid leukemias that lack expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1.

    PubMed

    Gasparetto, Maura; Pei, Shanshan; Minhajuddin, Mohammad; Khan, Nabilah; Pollyea, Daniel A; Myers, Jason R; Ashton, John M; Becker, Michael W; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Humphries, Keith R; Jordan, Craig T; Smith, Clayton A

    2017-03-09

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) activity is high in hematopoietic stem cells and functions in part to protect stem cells from reactive aldehydes and other toxic compounds. In contrast, we found that ~25% of all acute myeloid leukemias expressed low or undetectable levels of ALDH1A1 and that this ALDH1A1- subset of leukemias correlates with good prognosis cytogenetics. ALDH1A1- cell lines as well as primary leukemia cells were found to be sensitive to treatment with compounds that directly and indirectly generate toxic ALDH substrates including 4-hydroxynonenal and the clinically relevant compounds arsenic trioxide and 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide. In contrast, normal hematopoietic stem cells were relatively resistant to these compounds. Using a murine xenotransplant model to emulate a clinical treatment strategy, established ALDH1A1- leukemias were also sensitive to in vivo treatment with cyclophosphamide combined with arsenic trioxide. These results demonstrate that targeting ALDH1A1- leukemic cells with toxic ALDH1A1 substrates such as arsenic and cyclophosphamide may be a novel targeted therapeutic strategy for this subset of acute myeloid leukemias.

  8. Analysis of xanthine dehydrogenase mRNA levels in mutants affecting the expression of the rosy locus.

    PubMed Central

    Covington, M; Fleenor, D; Devlin, R B

    1984-01-01

    Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) mRNA levels were measured in a number of mutants and natural variants affecting XDH gene expression. Two variants, ry+4 and ry+10, contain cis-acting elements which map to a region flanking the 5' end of the XDH gene. Ry+4, which has 2-3 times more XDH protein than a wild type strain, has 3.2 times more XDH mRNA. Ry+10 has 50% of the wild type XDH level and 54% of the wild type XDH mRNA level. Three rosy mutants which map within the structural gene were also examined. Two of these had little if any XDH mRNA, but the third mutant had 1.3 times more XDH mRNA than wild type flies. Another mutant, ry2 , which contains no XDH protein and has a 9KB transposable element inserted into the XDH gene, has normal levels of XDH mRNA transcripts which are also the same size as those found in the wild type strain. Changes in XDH mRNA levels were measured during Drosophila development and found to parallel changes in the amount of XDH protein. In addition, there were no large changes in the size of XDH mRNA during development. Images PMID:6588363

  9. Rapid purification of the over-expressed membrane 3 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the presence of detergents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ming; Breton, Rock; Azzi, Arezki; Lin, Sheng-Xiang

    1996-10-01

    Three-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase / Δ 5-Δ 4 isomerase catalyses a key step in the transformation of all 5-prognen-3β-ol and 5-androsten-3β-ol steroids into the corresponding Δ 4-3-keto-steroids. Human type I 3β-HSD can be found in the subcellular fractions of mitochondria and microsome. A 1.5 kbp cDNA encoding human type I 3β-HSD was inserted into the transfer vector pBlueBac to form plasmid pBB / 3β-HSD. The recombinant baculovirus was obtained by co-transfection of wild type AcNPV genomic DNA and PBB / 3β-HSD in Sf9 cells, then used to infect Sf9 cells to over-express human 3β-HSD protein. The 3β-HSD sample was purified to homogeneity by a rapid procedure, consisting of an anion-exchange and an adsorbance chromatographies, based on FPLC and some detergents application. The whole process was successful with a purification rate of 90 fold and a high recovery (70%). The kinetic study showed a Vmax of 500 nmol/min · mg and a Km of 2.8 μM, being much more active than those reported.

  10. Component co-expression and purification of recombinant human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from baculovirus infected SF9 cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Guofeng; Oza, Khyati; Myers, Linda; Holbert, Marc A; Sweitzer, Sharon

    2014-05-01

    The mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a multi-component mitochondrial enzyme that plays a key role in the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA connecting glycolysis to the citric acid cycle. Recent studies indicate that targeting the regulation of PDC enzymatic activity might offer therapeutic opportunities by inhibiting cancer cell metabolism. To facilitate drug discovery in this area, a well defined PDC sample is needed. Here, we report a new method of producing functional, recombinant, high quality human PDC complex. All five components were co-expressed in the cytoplasm of baculovirus-infected SF9 cells by deletion of the mitochondrial localization signal sequences of all the components and E1a was FLAG-tagged to facilitate purification. The protein FLAG tagged E1a complex was purified using FLAG-M2 affinity resin, followed by Superdex 200 sizing chromatography. The E2 and E3BP components were then Lipoylated using an enzyme based in vitro process. The resulting PDC is over 90% pure and homogenous. This non-phosphorylated, lipoylated human PDC was demonstrated to produce a robust detection window when used to develop an enzyme coupled assay of PDHK.

  11. Expression of a betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene in rice, a glycinebetaine nonaccumulator, and possible localization of its protein in peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Yokota, S; Muramoto, Y; Tsutsui, K; Oguri, Y; Fukui, K; Takabe, T

    1997-05-01

    Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) catalyzes the last step in the plant biosynthetic pathway that leads to glycinebetaine. Rice plants (Oryza sativa L.), albeit considered a typical non-glycinebetaine accumulating species, have been found to express this enzyme at low levels. This observation evokes an interest in phylogenic evolution of the enzyme in the plant kingdom. It is reported here that rice plants possess the ability to take up exogenously added betaine aldehyde through the roots and convert it to glycinebetaine, resulting in an enhanced salt-tolerance of the plants. A gene encoding a putative BADH from the rice genome was also cloned and sequenced. The gene was found to contain 14 introns, and the overall nucleotide sequence of the coding region is c. 78% identical to that of the barley BADH cDNA. Cloning of a partial BADH cDNA from rice was accomplished by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The nucleotide sequence of the cloned fragment was found to be identical to the corresponding exon regions of the rice genomic BADH gene. The deduced amino acid sequences of rice and barley BADH both contain a C-terminal tripeptide SKL, a signal known to target preproteins to microbodies. This localization was confirmed by an immuno-gold labeling study of transgenic tobacco harboring barley cDNA, which showed BADH protein inside peroxisomes. Northern blot analysis revealed that the level of BADH mRNA is salt-inducible.

  12. Deficient Expression of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1A1 is Consistent With Increased Sensitivity of Gorlin Syndrome Patients to Radiation Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aaron T.; Magnaldo, Thierry; Sontag, Ryan L.; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Sadler, Natalie C.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Gache, Yannick; Weber, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Human phenotypes that are highly susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis have been identified. Sensitive phenotypes often display robust regulation of molecular features that modify biological response, which can facilitate identification of the pathways/networks that contribute to pathophysiological outcomes. Here we interrogate primary dermal fibroblasts isolated from Gorlin syndrome patients (GDFs), who display a pronounced inducible tumorigenic response to radiation, in comparison to normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). Our approach exploits newly developed thiol reactive probes to define changes in protein thiol profiles in live cell studies, which minimizes artifacts associated with cell lysis. Redox probes revealed deficient expression of an apparent 55 kDa protein thiol in GDFs from independent Gorlin syndrome patients, compared with NHDFs. Proteomics tentatively identified this protein as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), a key enzyme regulating retinoic acid synthesis, and ALDH1A1 protein deficiency in GDFs was confirmed by Western blot. A number of additional protein thiol differences in GDFs were identified, including radiation responsive annexin family members and lamin A/C. Collectively, candidates identified in our study have plausible implications for radiation health effects and cancer susceptibility. PMID:24285572

  13. Chronic cold stress in mice induces a regulatory phenotype in macrophages: correlation with increased 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase expression.

    PubMed

    Sesti-Costa, R; Ignacchiti, M D C; Chedraoui-Silva, S; Marchi, L F; Mantovani, B

    2012-01-01

    Susceptibility to infections, autoimmune disorders and tumor progression is strongly influenced by the activity of the endocrine and nervous systems in response to a stressful stimulus. When the adaptive system is switched on and off efficiently, the body is able to recover from the stress imposed. However, when the system is activated repeatedly or the activity is sustained, as during chronic or excessive stress, an allostatic load is generated, which can lead to disease over long periods of time. We investigated the effects of chronic cold stress in BALB/c mice (4°C/4 h daily for 7 days) on functions of macrophages. We found that chronic cold stress induced a regulatory phenotype in macrophages, characterized by diminished phagocytic ability, decreased TNF-α and IL-6 and increased IL-10 production. In addition, resting macrophages from mice exposed to cold stress stimulated spleen cells to produce regulatory cytokines, and an immunosuppressive state that impaired stressed mice to control Trypanosoma cruzi proliferation. These regulatory effects correlated with an increase in macrophage expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, an enzyme that converts inactive glucocorticoid into its active form. As stress is a common aspect of modern life and plays a role in the etiology of many diseases, the results of this study are important for improving knowledge regarding the neuro-immune-endocrine interactions that occur during stress and to highlight the role of macrophages in the immunosuppression induced by chronic stress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Deficient expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 is consistent with increased sensitivity of Gorlin syndrome patients to radiation carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wright, Aaron T; Magnaldo, Thierry; Sontag, Ryan L; Anderson, Lindsey N; Sadler, Natalie C; Piehowski, Paul D; Gache, Yannick; Weber, Thomas J

    2015-06-01

    Human phenotypes that are highly susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis have been identified. Sensitive phenotypes often display robust regulation of molecular features that modify biological response, which can facilitate identification of the pathways/networks that contribute to pathophysiological outcomes. Here we interrogate primary dermal fibroblasts isolated from Gorlin syndrome patients (GDFs), who display a pronounced inducible tumorigenic response to radiation, in comparison to normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). Our approach exploits newly developed thiol reactive probes to define changes in protein thiol profiles in live cell studies, which minimizes artifacts associated with cell lysis. Redox probes revealed deficient expression of an apparent 55 kDa protein thiol in GDFs from independent Gorlin syndrome patients, compared with NHDFs. Proteomics tentatively identified this protein as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), a key enzyme regulating retinoic acid synthesis, and ALDH1A1 protein deficiency in GDFs was confirmed by Western blot. A number of additional protein thiol differences in GDFs were identified, including radiation responsive annexin family members and lamin A/C. Collectively, candidates identified in our study have plausible implications for radiation health effects and cancer susceptibility.

  15. Cloning, expression and characterization of glycerol dehydrogenase involved in 2,3-butanediol formation in Serratia marcescens H30.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liaoyuan; Xu, Quanming; Peng, Xiaoqian; Xu, Boheng; Wu, Yuehao; Yang, Yulong; Sun, Shujing; Hu, Kaihui; Shen, Yaling

    2014-09-01

    The meso-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (meso-BDH) from S. marcescens H30 is responsible for converting acetoin into 2,3-butanediol during sugar fermentation. Inactivation of the meso-BDH encoded by budC gene does not completely abolish 2,3-butanediol production, which suggests that another similar enzyme involved in 2,3-butanediol formation exists in S. marcescens H30. In the present study, a glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) encoded by gldA gene from S. marcescens H30 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), purified and characterized for its properties. In vitro conversion indicated that the purified GDH could catalyze the interconversion of (3S)-acetoin/meso-2,3-butanediol and (3R)-acetoin/(2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol. (2S,3S)-2,3-Butanediol was not a substrate for the GDH at all. Kinetic parameters of the GDH enzyme showed lower K m value and higher catalytic efficiency for (3S/3R)-acetoin in comparison to those for (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol and meso-2,3-butanediol, implying its physiological role in favor of 2,3-butanediol formation. Maximum activity for reduction of (3S/3R)-acetoin and oxidations of meso-2,3-butanediol and glycerol was observed at pH 8.0, while it was pH 7.0 for diacetyl reduction. The enzyme exhibited relative high thermotolerance with optimum temperature of 60 °C in the oxidation-reduction reactions. Over 60 % of maximum activity was retained at 70 °C. Additionally, the GDH activity was significantly enhanced for meso-2,3-BD oxidation in the presence of Fe(2+) and for (3S/3R)-acetoin reduction in the presence of Mn(2+), while several cations inhibited its activity, particularly Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) for (3S/3R)-acetoin reduction. The properties provided potential application for single configuration production of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol .

  16. Increased Expression of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 Reduces Renal Cell Apoptosis During Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury After Hypothermic Machine Perfusion.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Zibiao; Hu, Qianchao; Fu, Zhen; Wang, Ren; Xiong, Yan; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Zhongzhong; Wang, Yanfeng; Ye, Qifa

    2016-06-01

    Hypothermic machine perfusion (MP) can reduce graft's injury after kidney transplantation; however, the mechanism has not been elucidated. In the past decade, many studies showed that aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a protease which can inhibit cell apoptosis. Therefore, this study aims to explore whether ALDH2 takes part in reducing organ damage after MP. Eighteen healthy male New Zealand rabbits (12 weeks old, weight 3.0 ± 0.3 kg) were randomly divided into three groups: normal group, MP group, and cold storage (CS) group (n = 6). The left kidney of rabbits underwent warm ischemia for 35 min through clamping the left renal pedicle and then reperfusion for 1 h. Left kidneys were preserved by MP or CS (4°C for 4 h) in vivo followed by the right nephrectomy and 24-h reperfusion, and then the specimens and blood were collected. Finally, concentration of urine creatinine (Cr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and 4-HNE were tested. Renal apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining, and the expression of ALDH2, cleaved-caspase 3, bcl-2/ bax, MAPK in renal tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry or Western blot; 24 h after surgery, the concentration of Cr in MP group was 355 ± 71μmol/L, in CS group was 511 ± 44 μmol/L (P < 0.05), while the BUN was 15.02 ± 2.34 mmol/L in MP group, 22.64 ± 3.58 mmol/L in CS group (P < 0.05). The rate of apoptosis and expression of cleaved caspase-3, p-P38, p-ERK, and p-JNK in MP group was significantly lower than that in CS group (P < 0.05), while expression of ALDH2 and bcl-2/bax in MP group was significantly higher than that in CS group (P < 0.05); expression of cleaved caspase-3 in both MP and CS group significantly increased as compared with that in normal group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, increased expression of ALDH2 can reduce the renal cell apoptosis through inhibiting MAPK pathway during ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) after hypothermic MP.

  17. 11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in human pregnancy and reduced expression in intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Shams, M; Kilby, M D; Somerset, D A; Howie, A J; Gupta, A; Wood, P J; Afnan, M; Stewart, P M

    1998-04-01

    The type 2 isoform of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD2), which inactivates cortisol (F) to cortisone (E), has been suggested to play a role in the ontogeny of the fetal pituitary-adrenal axis and also protect the developing fetus from the deleterious effects of circulating maternal glucocorticoids. The abundance of 11beta-HSD2 in the placenta and other fetal tissues was inferred from the F/E ratio in 17 term deliveries in both umbilical arterial (1.73 +/- 0.24, mean +/- SE) and umbilical venous blood (1.16 +/- 0.14) compared with adult peripheral venous blood (7.76 +/- 0.57, n = 70). Using sensitive assays for 11beta-HSD2 and an in-house human 11beta-HSD2 antibody, the expression and activity of this enzyme in fresh frozen human placenta increased progressively from first (8-12 weeks, n = 16) and second (13-20 weeks, n = 9) to third trimester (term) pregnancies (39-40 weeks, n = 50). Placental 11beta-HSD2 activity was significantly reduced in deliveries complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) [25-36 weeks, n = 12, activity 380 pmol/mg/h median (225-671; 95% confidence interval)], compared with the term deliveries [888 (725-1362)] and with appropriately grown pre-term deliveries [27-36 weeks, n = 14, activity 810 (585-1269)], P < 0.05. In human pregnancy placental 11beta-HSD2 activity increases markedly in the third trimester of pregnancy at a time when maternal circulating levels of glucocorticoid are rising. The finding of attenuated placental 11beta-HSD2 activity in IUGR suggests that glucocorticoids may, in part, contribute to impaired fetal growth and that this is closely controlled in normal gestation through placental 11beta-HSD2 expression.

  18. Heterologous expression of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene from Ammopiptanthus nanus confers high salt and heat tolerance to Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao-Qiang; Wang, Ying-Ge; Yong, Tai-Ming; She, Yue-Hui; Fu, Feng-Ling; Li, Wan-Chen

    2014-10-01

    Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) catalyzes the synthesis of glycine betaine, a regulator of osmosis, and therefore BADH is considered to play a significant role in response of plants to abiotic stresses. Here, based on the conserved residues of the deduced amino acid sequences of the homologous BADH genes, we cloned the AnBADH gene from the xerophytic leguminous plant Ammopiptanthus nanus by using reverse transcription PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA is 1,868 bp long without intron, and contains an open reading frame of 1512 bp, and 3'- and 5'-untranslated regions of 294 and 62 bp. It encodes a 54.71 kDa protein of 503 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence shares high homology, conserved amino acid residues and sequence motifs crucial for the function with the BADHs in other leguminous species. The sequence of the open reading frame was used to construct a prokaryotic expression vector pET32a-AnBADH, and transform Escherichia coli. The transformants expressed the heterologous AnBADH gene under the induction of isopropyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside, and demonstrated significant enhancement of salt and heat tolerance under the stress conditions of 700 mmol L(-1) NaCl and 55°C high temperature. This result suggests that the AnBADH gene might play a crucial role in adaption of A. nanus to the abiotic stresses, and have the potential to be applied to transgenic operations of commercially important crops for improvement of abiotic tolerance.

  19. Cadmium reduces 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 activity and expression in human placental trophoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kaiping; Julan, Laura; Rubio, Fran; Sharma, Anju; Guan, Haiyan

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium, a common environmental pollutant and a major constituent of tobacco smoke, has been identified as a new class of endocrine disruptors with a wide range of detrimental effects on mammalian reproduction. During human pregnancy, maternal cadmium exposure, via the environment and/or cigarette smoking, leads to fetal growth restriction (FGR), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Although a substantial amount of evidence suggests that cadmium may affect fetal growth indirectly via the placenta, the molecular targets remain to be identified. Given that reduced placental 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11 beta-HSD2, encoded by HSD11B2 gene) is causally linked to FGR, the present study was undertaken to examine the hypothesis that cadmium induces FGR in part by targeting placental HSD11B2. Using cultured human trophoblast cells as a model system, we showed that cadmium exposure resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in 11 beta-HSD2 activity, such that an 80% reduction was observed after 24-h treatment at 1 microM. It also led to a similar decrease in levels of 11 beta-HSD2 protein and mRNA, suggesting that cadmium reduced 11 beta-HSD2 expression. Furthermore, cadmium diminished HSD11B2 promoter activity, indicative of repression of HSD11B2 gene transcription. In addition, the effect of cadmium was highly specific, in that other divalent metals (Zn(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+)) as well as nicotine and cotinine (a major metabolite of nicotine) did not alter 11 beta-HSD2 activity. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that cadmium reduces human placental 11 beta-HSD2 expression and activity by suppressing HSD11B2 gene transcription. Thus the present study identifies placental 11 beta-HSD2 as a novel molecular target of cadmium. It also reveals a molecular mechanism by which this endocrine disruptor may affect human placental function and, consequently, fetal growth and development.

  20. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Paul R.; Mohammad, Shabaz; Melrose, Helen J.; Moody, Peter C. E.

    2008-08-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase B from H. pylori has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized in the presence of NAD. Crystals of GAPDHB diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution and belonged to space group P6{sub 5}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 166.1, c = 253.1 Å. Helicobacter pylori is a dangerous human pathogen that resides in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about its metabolism and with the onset of antibiotic resistance new treatments are required. In this study, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of an NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from H. pylori are reported.

  1. Widening Spectrum of Cellular and Subcellular Expression of Human GLUD1 and GLUD2 Glutamate Dehydrogenases Suggests Novel Functions.

    PubMed

    Spanaki, Cleanthe; Kotzamani, Dimitra; Plaitakis, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian glutamate dehydrogenase1 (GDH1) (E.C. 1.4.1.3) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and ammonia while reducing NAD+ and/or NADP+ to NADH and/or NADPH. It links amino acid with carbohydrate metabolism, contributing to Krebs cycle anaplerosis, energy production, ammonia handling and redox homeostasis. Although GDH1 was one of the first major metabolic enzymes to be studied decades ago, its role in cell biology is still incompletely understood. There is however growing interest in a novel GDH2 isoenzyme that emerged via duplication in primates and underwent rapid evolutionary selection concomitant with prefrontal human cortex expansion. Also, the anaplerotic function of GDH1 and GDH2 is currently under sharp focus as this relates to the biology of glial tumors and other neoplasias. Here we used antibodies specific for human GDH1 (hGDH1) and human GDH2 (hGDH2) to study the expression of these isoenzymes in human tissues. Results revealed that both hGDH1 and hGDH2 are expressed in human brain, kidney, testis and steroidogenic organs. However, distinct hGDH1 and hGDH2 expression patterns emerged. Thus, while the Sertoli cells of human testis were strongly positive for hGDH2, they were negative for hGDH1. Conversely, hGDH1 showed very high levels of expression in human liver, but hepatocytes were virtually devoid of hGDH2. In human adrenals, both hGDHs were densely expressed in steroid-producing cells, with hGDH2 expression pattern matching that of the cholesterol side chain cleavage system involved in steroid synthesis. Similarly in human ovaries and placenta, both hGDH1 and hGDH2 were densely expressed in estrogen producing cells. In addition, hGDH1, being a housekeeping enzyme, was also expressed in cells that lack endocrine function. Regarding human brain, study of cortical sections using immunofluorescence (IF) with confocal microscopy revealed that hGDH1 and hGDH2 were both expressed

  2. Regulation of adenine nucleotide translocase and glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase expression by thyroid hormones in different rat tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Dümmler, K; Müller, S; Seitz, H J

    1996-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (T3)-dependent gene expression of the adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) and the FAD-linked glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH) was investigated in several rat tissues. Both proteins provide an important link between cytosolic and mitochondrial metabolic pathways and seem to be involved in the stimulation of mitochondrial oxygen consumption in response to T3. Here we show that two ANT isoforms are expressed in rat, the muscle-specific ANT1 form and the ubiquitous ANT2 form. The expression of ANT1 mRNA is not sensitive to T3 whereas the amount of ANT2 mRNA is increased 7-9-fold in liver and heart within 12-48 h after T3 application. Little or no effect of T3 on ANT2 mRNA was observed in kidney and brain. The mRNA changes are paralleled by an increase in ANT protein, thus explaining the accelerated ADP/ATP exchange observed in mitochondria isolated from hyperthyroid rats. The key role of ANT2 in the control of hyperthyroid metabolism is evident because the expression of the mersalyl-sensitive phosphate carrier and the mitochondrial creatine kinase mRNA, which are functionally linked to ANT, did not respond to T3. Similarly to the ADP/ATP exchange, the transfer of cytosolic NADH to the respiratory chain via the glycerophosphate shuttle is very sensitive to T3. Recently we demonstrated the 10-15-fold induction of mGPDH mRNA in rat liver after administration of T3 [Müller and Seitz (1994) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91, 10581-10585]. Here we show that, in contrast with ANT2, the time course of induction is fast (4-6 h). Furthermore, mGPDH mRNA is induced 6-fold by T3 in heart and 4-fold in kidney. From these results we conclude that the T3-mediated transcriptional induction leading to increased activity of ANT2 and mGPDH contributes considerably to the increase in mitochondrial oxygen consumption in rat tissues. PMID:8760382

  3. Isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (idh) gene expression in relation to patulin production by Penicillium expansum under different temperature and atmosphere.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, N; Vlaemynck, G; Van Pamel, E; Van Weyenberg, S; Herman, L; Devlieghere, F; De Meulenaer, B; Van Coillie, E

    2016-03-02

    Penicillium expansum growth and patulin production occur mainly at post-harvest stage during the long-term storage of apples. Low temperature in combination with reduced oxygen concentrations is commonly applied as a control strategy to extend apple shelf life and supply the market throughout the year. Our in vitro study investigated the effect of temperature and atmosphere on expression of the idh gene in relation to the patulin production by P. expansum. The idh gene encodes the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase enzyme, a key enzyme in the patulin biosynthesis pathway. First, a reverse transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) method was optimized to measure accurately the P. expansum idh mRNA levels relative to the mRNA levels of three reference genes (18S, β-tubulin, calmodulin), taking into account important parameters such as PCR inhibition and multiple reference gene stability. Subsequently, two P. expansum field isolates and one reference strain were grown on apple puree agar medium (APAM) under three conditions of temperature and atmosphere: 20 °C - air, 4 °C - air and 4 °C - controlled atmosphere (CA; 3% O2). When P. expansum strains reached a 0.5 and 2.0 cm colony diameter, idh expression and patulin concentrations were determined by means of the developed RT-qPCR and an HPLC-UV method, respectively. The in vitro study showed a clear reduction in patulin production and down-regulation of the idh gene expression when P. expansum was grown under 4 °C - CA. The results suggest that stress (low temperature and oxygen level) caused a delay of the fungal metabolism rather than a complete inhibition of toxin biosynthesis. A good correlation was found between the idh expression and patulin production, corroborating that temperature and atmosphere affected patulin production by acting at the transcriptional level of the idh gene. Finally, a reliable RT-qPCR can be considered as an alternative tool to investigate the effect of control strategies on the toxin formation in

  4. A novel flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) containing d-lactate dehydrogenase from the thermoacidophilic crenarchaeota Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7: purification, characterization and expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Satomura, Takenori; Kawakami, Ryushi; Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2008-07-01

    Dye-linked D-lactate dehydrogenase activity was found in the crude extract of a continental thermoacidophilic crenarchaeota, Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7, and was purified 375-fold through four sequential chromatography steps. With a molecular mass of about 93 kDa, this enzyme was a homodimer comprised of identical subunits with molecular masses of about 48 kDa. The enzyme retained its full activity after incubation at 80 degrees C for 10 min and after incubation at pHs ranging from 6.5 to 10.0 for 30 min at 50 degrees C. The preferred substrate for this enzyme was D-lactate, with 2,6-dichloroindophenol serving as the electron acceptor. Using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the enzyme's prosthetic group was determined to be flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD). Its N-terminal amino acid sequence was MLEGIEYSQGEEREDFVGFKIKPKI. Using that sequence and previously reported genome information, the gene encoding the enzyme (ST0649) was identified. It was subsequently cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and found to encode a polypeptide of 440 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 49,715. The amino acid sequence of this dye-linked D-lactate dehydrogenase showed higher homology (39% identity) with that of a glycolate oxidase subunit homologue from Archaeoglobus fulgidus, but less similarity (32% identity) to D-lactate dehydrogenase from A. fulgidus. Taken together, our findings indicate that the dye-linked D-lactate dehydrogenase from S. tokodaii is a novel type of FAD containing D-lactate dehydrogenase.

  5. Production of L-lactic acid by the yeast Candida sonorensis expressing heterologous bacterial and fungal lactate dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Ilmén, Marja; Koivuranta, Kari; Ruohonen, Laura; Rajgarhia, Vineet; Suominen, Pirkko; Penttilä, Merja

    2013-05-25

    Polylactic acid is a renewable raw material that is increasingly used in the manufacture of bioplastics, which offers a more sustainable alternative to materials derived from fossil resources. Both lactic acid bacteria and genetically engineered yeast have been implemented in commercial scale in biotechnological production of lactic acid. In the present work, genes encoding L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Lactobacillus helveticus, Bacillus megaterium and Rhizopus oryzae were expressed in a new host organism, the non-conventional yeast Candida sonorensis, with or without the competing ethanol fermentation pathway. Each LDH strain produced substantial amounts of lactate, but the properties of the heterologous LDH affected the distribution of carbon between lactate and by-products significantly, which was reflected in extra-and intracellular metabolite concentrations. Under neutralizing conditions C. sonorensis expressing L. helveticus LDH accumulated lactate up to 92 g/l at a yield of 0.94 g/g glucose, free of ethanol, in minimal medium containing 5 g/l dry cell weight. In rich medium with a final pH of 3.8, 49 g/l lactate was produced. The fermentation pathway was modified in some of the strains studied by deleting either one or both of the pyruvate decarboxylase encoding genes, PDC1 and PDC2. The deletion of both PDC genes together abolished ethanol production and did not result in significantly reduced growth characteristic to Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted of PDC1 and PDC5. We developed an organism without previous record of genetic engineering to produce L-lactic acid to a high concentration, introducing a novel host for the production of an industrially important metabolite, and opening the way for exploiting C. sonorensis in additional biotechnological applications. Comparison of metabolite production, growth, and enzyme activities in a representative set of transformed strains expressing different LDH genes in the presence and absence of a functional

  6. Production of l-lactic acid by the yeast Candida sonorensis expressing heterologous bacterial and fungal lactate dehydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Polylactic acid is a renewable raw material that is increasingly used in the manufacture of bioplastics, which offers a more sustainable alternative to materials derived from fossil resources. Both lactic acid bacteria and genetically engineered yeast have been implemented in commercial scale in biotechnological production of lactic acid. In the present work, genes encoding l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of Lactobacillus helveticus, Bacillus megaterium and Rhizopus oryzae were expressed in a new host organism, the non-conventional yeast Candida sonorensis, with or without the competing ethanol fermentation pathway. Results Each LDH strain produced substantial amounts of lactate, but the properties of the heterologous LDH affected the distribution of carbon between lactate and by-products significantly, which was reflected in extra-and intracellular metabolite concentrations. Under neutralizing conditions C. sonorensis expressing L. helveticus LDH accumulated lactate up to 92 g/l at a yield of 0.94 g/g glucose, free of ethanol, in minimal medium containing 5 g/l dry cell weight. In rich medium with a final pH of 3.8, 49 g/l lactate was produced. The fermentation pathway was modified in some of the strains studied by deleting either one or both of the pyruvate decarboxylase encoding genes, PDC1 and PDC2. The deletion of both PDC genes together abolished ethanol production and did not result in significantly reduced growth characteristic to Saccharomyces cerevisiae deleted of PDC1 and PDC5. Conclusions We developed an organism without previous record of genetic engineering to produce L-lactic acid to a high concentration, introducing a novel host for the production of an industrially important metabolite, and opening the way for exploiting C. sonorensis in additional biotechnological applications. Comparison of metabolite production, growth, and enzyme activities in a representative set of transformed strains expressing different LDH genes in the

  7. Biliary epithelial expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in primary biliary cirrhosis: an immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Nakanuma, Y; Tsuneyama, K; Kono, N; Hoso, M; Van de Water, J; Gershwin, M E

    1995-01-01

    It has been reported recently that there is a unique distribution of the E2 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2) on biliary epithelial cells in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) but not primary sclerosing cholangitis. This distribution has been demonstrated using a mouse monoclonal antibody, coined C355.1. The epitope recognized by C355.1 is near the lipoic acid binding site of PDC-E2. C355.1 inhibits PDC-E2 activity in vitro and, unlike a panel of other monoclonal antibodies against different regions of PDC-E2, appears to bind not only to mitochondria but also to a unique antigen expressed predominantly on the luminal side of biliary epithelial cells in PBC. We have extended these observations by studying the subcellular reactivity of C355.1 using postembedding immunoelectron microscopy on the intrahepatic small bile ducts of PBC livers, extrahepatic biliary obstruction (EBO) livers, and normal livers. We report that the reactivity of C355.1 can be classified into two categories. The first category is characterized by small foci of reaction products that were randomly dispersed in cytoplasm, particularly in supranuclear areas; the ultrastructural characterization of these foci was impossible to define but was similar in PBC and EBO. However, of particular interest was the second category of reactivity, which was characterized by deposition of reaction products around the biliary lumen, including microvilli and adjacent subluminal ectoplasm and secretory substances in the biliary lumen. This staining pattern was frequent in PBC livers, only occasionally evident in EBO livers, and not found in normal livers. These data further define and highlight the unique subcellular distribution of PDC-E2 around the biliary lumen in PBC livers and suggest that this abnormality is related to the pathogenesis of bile duct lesions.

  8. Expression of mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase and α-keto-acid dehydrogenase in rat brain: implications for neurotransmitter metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Jeffrey T.; Sweatt, Andrew J.; Hutson, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    In the brain, metabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine, is regulated in part by protein synthesis requirements. Excess BCAAs are catabolized or excreted. The first step in BCAA catabolism is catalyzed by the branched chain aminotransferase (BCAT) isozymes, mitochondrial BCATm and cytosolic BCATc. A product of this reaction, glutamate, is the major excitatory neurotransmitter and precursor of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The BCATs are thought to participate in a α-keto-acid nitrogen shuttle that provides nitrogen for synthesis of glutamate from α-ketoglutarate. The branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKDC) catalyzes the second, irreversible step in BCAA metabolism, which is oxidative decarboxylation of the branched-chain α-keto acid (BCKA) products of the BCAT reaction. Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) results from genetic defects in BCKDC, which leads to accumulation of toxic levels of BCAAs and BCKAs that result in brain swelling. Immunolocalization of BCATm and BCKDC in rats revealed that BCATm is present in astrocytes in white matter and in neuropil, while BCKDC is expressed only in neurons. BCATm appears uniformly distributed in astrocyte cell bodies throughout the brain. The segregation of BCATm to astrocytes and BCKDC to neurons provides further support for the existence of a BCAA-dependent glial-neuronal nitrogen shuttle since the data show that BCKAs produced by glial BCATm must be exported to neurons. Additionally, the neuronal localization of BCKDC suggests that MSUD is a neuronal defect involving insufficient oxidation of BCKAs, with secondary effects extending beyond the neuron. PMID:22654736

  9. Thermal adaptation of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenases of eastern Pacific barracuda (Sphyraena spp): the role of differential isoenzyme expression

    PubMed

    Lin; Somero

    1995-01-01

    Kinetic properties, electrophoretic patterns and thermal stabilities of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenases (cMDHs) were compared in Eastern Pacific barracuda (Sphyraena spp) from different latitudes. All tissues of the tropical species S. ensis contained only a single, thermostable form of cMDH. Subtropical (S. lucasana) as well as north (S. argentea) and south (S. idiastes) temperate barracuda contained both thermostable and thermolabile cMDHs, the pattern characteristic of most teleosts. Kinetic studies using unfractioned cMDHs showed that the apparent Michaelis­Menten constant (Km) of cofactor (NADH) increased with temperature, but at the physiological temperatures of the four species, Km of NADH was conserved within a narrow range (20­23 µmol l-1). Thermostable and thermolabile cMDHs were chromatographically separated and compared. Thermolabile cMDHs had higher Km values for NADH at all measurement temperatures than did thermostable cMDHs. Thermolabile cMDHs isolated from congeneric barracuda exhibited similar kinetic properties (Km versus temperature, optimal pH, optimal substrate and cofactor concentrations). Thermostable cMDHs, likewise, were similar among the barracuda. Conservation of Km in the differently thermally adapted barracudas is, therefore, apparently due to adjustments in the ratio of expression of the thermostable and thermolabile isoforms, rather than to temperature-adaptive differences among orthologous homologues, as is commonly found for enzymes encoded by a single gene locus. The effects of temperature on the Km of NADH for isolated thermostable and thermolabile cMDHs of a eurythermal goby, Gillichthys mirabilis, however, were consistent with adaptive change in orthologous homologues of cMDH. The selective basis for the absence of thermolabile cMDH in warm-adapted ectotherms, mammals and birds is discussed.

  10. Luteal expression of cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase genes in late pregnant rats: effect of luteinizing hormone and RU486.

    PubMed

    Stocco, C O; Chedrese, J; Deis, R P

    2001-10-01

    A decrease in serum progesterone at the end of pregnancy is essential for the induction of parturition in rats. We have previously demonstrated that LH participates in this process through: 1) inhibiting 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) activity and 2) stimulating progesterone catabolism by inducing 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alpha-HSD) activity. The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of LH and progesterone on the luteal expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage (P450(scc)), 3beta-HSD, and 20alpha-HSD genes. Gene expression was analyzed by Northern blot analysis 24 and 48 h after administration of LH or vehicle on Day 19 of pregnancy. StAR and 3beta-HSD mRNA levels were lower in LH-treated rats than in rats administered with vehicle at both time points studied. P450(scc) mRNA levels were unaffected by LH. The 20alpha-HSD mRNA levels were not different between LH and control rats 24 h after treatment; however, greater expression of 20alpha-HSD, with respect to controls, was observed in LH-treated rats 48 h after treatment. Luteal progesterone content dropped in LH-treated rats at both time points studied, whereas serum progesterone decreased after 48 h only. In a second set of experiments, the anti-progesterone RU486 was injected intrabursally on Day 20 of pregnancy. RU486 had no effect on 3beta-HSD or P450(scc) expression but increased 20alpha-HSD mRNA levels after 8 h treatment. In conclusion, the luteolytic effect of LH is mediated by a drop in StAR and 3beta-HSD expression without effect on P450(scc) expression. We also provide the first in vivo evidence indicating that a decrease in luteal progesterone content may be an essential step toward the induction of 20alpha-HSD expression at the end of pregnancy in rats.

  11. Species-specific differences in tissue-specific expression of alcohol dehydrogenase are under the control of complex cis-acting loci: Evidence from Drosophila hybrids

    SciTech Connect

    Ranganayakulu, G.; Reddy, A.R. ); Kirkpatrick, R.B.; Martin, P.F. )

    1991-12-01

    Differences in the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase in the hindgut and testis of adult Drosophila virilis, D. texana, D. novamexicana and D. borealis flies were observed. These heritable differences do not arise due to chromosomal rearrangements, since the polytene chromosome banding patterns did not reveal any such gross chromosomal rearrangements near the Adh locus in any of the tested species. Analysis of the interspecific hybrids revealed that these differences are controlled by complex cis-acting genetic loci. Further, the cis-acting locus controlling the expression of ADH in testis was found to be separable by crossing-over.

  12. Gene cloning and expression of Leifsonia alcohol dehydrogenase (LSADH) involved in asymmetric hydrogen-transfer bioreduction to produce (R)-form chiral alcohols.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kousuke; Makino, Yoshihide; Dairi, Tohru; Itoh, Nobuya

    2006-02-01

    The gene encoding Leifsonia alcohol dehydrogenase (LSADH), a useful biocatalyst for producing (R)-chiral alcohols, was cloned from the genomic DNA of Leifsonia sp. S749. The gene contained an opening reading frame consisting of 756 nucleotides corresponding to 251 amino acid residues. The subunit molecular weight was calculated to be 24,999, which was consistent with that determined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme was expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli cells and purified to homogeneity by three column chromatographies. The predicted amino acid sequence displayed 30-50% homology to known short chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductases (SDRs); moreover, the NADH-binding site and the three catalytic residues in SDRs were conserved. The recombinant E. coli cells which overexpressed lsadh produced (R)-form chiral alcohols from ketones using 2-propanol as a hydrogen donor with the highest level of productivity ever reported and enantiomeric excess (e.e.).

  13. Expression of the Vibrio cholerae gene encoding aldehyde dehydrogenase is under control of ToxR, the cholera toxin transcriptional activator.

    PubMed Central

    Parsot, C; Mekalanos, J J

    1991-01-01

    The toxR gene of Vibrio cholerae encodes a transcriptional activator required for the expression of the cholera toxin genes (ctxAB) and more than 15 other genes encoding secreted or membrane proteins. The latter group includes virulence genes involved in the biogenesis of the TCP pilus, the accessory colonization factor, and such ToxR-activated genes as tagA, mutations in which cause no detectable virulence defect in the suckling mouse model. To analyze the regulation of expression and the structure of tagA, we have cloned and sequenced about 2 kb of DNA upstream from a tagA::TnphoA fusion. While the portion of the tagA gene product examined presented no extensive similarity to any known protein, the amino acid sequence deduced from an open reading frame (designated aldA) located upstream from and in opposite orientation to tagA was highly similar to the sequences of eukaryotic aldehyde dehydrogenases. An assay of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in extracts of a wild-type V. cholerae strainand an aldA mutant confirmed that aldA encodes an aldehyde dehydrogenase. Expression of the aldA gene was studied together with that of tagA in both V. cholerae and Escherichia coli. The expression of both tagA and aldA was environmentally regulated and dependent on a functional toxR gene in V. cholerae, but neither promoter was activated by ToxR in E. coli, suggesting that expression of tagA and aldA requires an additional transcriptional activator besides ToxR. The aldA gene is the first example of a gene encoding a cytoplasmic protein that is under the control of ToxR, and this suggests that metabolic enzymes may constitute novel members of virulence regulons in bacteria. Images PMID:1902210

  14. Cloning and high-level expression of the glutathione-independent formaldehyde dehydrogenase gene from Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, K; Takahashi, M; Yoshimoto, T; Tsuru, D

    1994-01-01

    A DNA fragment of 485 bp was specifically amplified by PCR with primers based on the N-terminal sequence of the purified formaldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.46) from Pseudomonas putida and on that of a cyanogen bromide-derived peptide. With this product as a probe, a gene coding for formaldehyde dehydrogenase (fdhA) in P. putida chromosomal DNA was cloned in Escherichia coli DH5 alpha. Sequencing analysis revealed that the fdhA gene contained 1,197-bp open reading frame, encoding a protein composed of 399 amino acid residues whose calculated molecular weight was 42,082. The transformant of E. coli DH5 alpha harboring the hybrid plasmid, pFDHK3DN71, showed about 50-fold-higher formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity than P. putida. The predicted amino acid sequence contained several features characteristic of the zinc-containing medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) family. Most of the glycine residues strictly conserved within the family, including a Gly-Xaa-Gly-Xaa-Xaa-Gly pattern in the coenzyme binding domain, were well conserved in this enzyme. Regions around both the catalytic and the structural zinc atoms were also conserved. Analyses of structural and enzymatic characteristics indicated that P. putida FDH belongs to the medium-chain ADH family, with mixed properties of mammalian class I and III ADHs. Images PMID:8169197

  15. Neuroprotective effect of liquiritin as an antioxidant via an increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase expression on B65 neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Yoshihiko; Kobe, Aya; Kuriya, Megumi; Hiroki, Yoko; Yahagi, Tadahiro; Sakakibara, Iwao; Matsuzaki, Keiichi; Amano, Taku

    2017-09-29

    Glycyrrhiza (the roots and rhizomes of licorice) has been used worldwide as both an herbal nutraceutical and herbal medicine. In addition, it is well known that Glycyrrhiza contains various compounds with biological effects, such as anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, anti-tumor and neuroprotective effects. Among the various compounds in Glycyrrhiza, the active compounds that show biological activity are thought to include glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhetinic acid, glabridin, licochalcones and liquiritin. In the present study, we investigated the biological effects of three of these compounds (glycyrrhizin, liquiritin and isoliquiritin) on B65 neuroblastoma cells derived from serotonergic neurons. Among these three compounds, only liquiritin enhanced the proliferation of B65 neuroblastoma cells. In contrast, both glycyrrhizin and isoliquiritin, particularly at high concentrations had cytotoxic effects. Cells were treated with various cytotoxic agents and liquiritin could ameliorate the cytotoxicity induced by menadione sodium bisulfate in a dose-dependent manner. We also examined the effect of liquiritin on cell survival by evaluating the expression levels of phospho-p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase, cyclin-related proteins and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, which produces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Under treatment with liquiritin, the protein expression level of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase increased in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the protein expression level of cyclin-related proteins did not change at all under treatment with liquiritin. These results suggest that liquiritin, which is contained in Glycyrrhiza, may enhance cell survival by increasing the protein expression level of glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Expansion of Umbilical Cord Blood Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Expressing Cells Generates Myeloid Progenitor Cells that Stimulate Limb Revascularization.

    PubMed

    Putman, David M; Cooper, Tyler T; Sherman, Stephen E; Seneviratne, Ayesh K; Hewitt, Mark; Bell, Gillian I; Hess, David A

    2017-07-01

    Uncompromised by chronic disease-related comorbidities, human umbilical cord blood (UCB) progenitor cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH(hi) cells) stimulate blood vessel regeneration after intra-muscular transplantation. However, implementation of cellular therapies using UCB ALDH(hi) cells for critical limb ischemia, the most severe form of severe peripheral artery disease, is limited by the rarity (<0.5%) of these cells. Our goal was to generate a clinically-translatable, allogeneic cell population for vessel regenerative therapies, via ex vivo expansion of UCB ALDH(hi) cells without loss of pro-angiogenic potency. Purified UCB ALDH(hi) cells were expanded >18-fold over 6-days under serum-free conditions. Consistent with the concept that ALDH-activity is decreased as progenitor cells differentiate, only 15.1% ± 1.3% of progeny maintained high ALDH-activity after culture. However, compared to fresh UCB cells, expansion increased the total number of ALDH(hi) cells (2.7-fold), CD34(+) /CD133(+) cells (2.8-fold), and hematopoietic colony forming cells (7.7-fold). Remarkably, injection of expanded progeny accelerated recovery of perfusion and improved limb usage in immunodeficient mice with femoral artery ligation-induced limb ischemia. At 7 or 28 days post-transplantation, mice transplanted with expanded ALDH(hi) cells showed augmented endothelial cell proliferation and increased capillary density compared to controls. Expanded cells maintained pro-angiogenic mRNA expression and secreted angiogenesis-associated growth factors, chemokines, and matrix modifying proteins. Coculture with expanded cells augmented human microvascular endothelial cell survival and tubule formation under serum-starved, growth factor-reduced conditions. Expanded UCB-derived ALDH(hi) cells represent an alternative to autologous bone marrow as an accessible source of pro-angiogenic hematopoietic progenitor cells for the refinement of vascular regeneration

  17. Expression of the murine retinol dehydrogenase 10 (Rdh10) gene correlates with many sites of retinoid signalling during embryogenesis and organ differentiation.

    PubMed

    Cammas, Laura; Romand, Raymond; Fraulob, Valérie; Mura, Carole; Dollé, Pascal

    2007-10-01

    Retinoic acid acts as a signalling molecule regulating many developmental events in vertebrates. As this molecule directly influences gene expression by activating nuclear receptors, its patterns of synthesis have to be tightly regulated, and it is well established that at least three retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDHs) are involved in such tissue-specific synthesis. Whereas embryos from oviparous species can obtain retinaldehyde by metabolizing carotenoids stored in the yolk, placental embryos rely on retinol transferred from the maternal circulation. Here, we show that the gene encoding one of the murine retinol dehydrogenases, Rdh10, is expressed according to complex profiles both during early embryogenesis and organ differentiation. Many of its expression sites correlate with regions of active retinoid signalling and Raldh gene expression, especially with Raldh2 in the early presomitic and somitic mesoderm, retrocardiac and posterior branchial arch region, or later in the pleural mesothelium and kidney cortical region. Rdh10 also shows cell-type and/or regional specificity during development of the palate, teeth, and olfactory system. During limb bud development, it may participate in retinoic acid production in proximal/posterior cells, and eventually in interdigital mesenchyme. These data implicate the retinol to retinaldehyde conversion as the first step in the tissue-specific regulation of retinoic acid synthesis, at least in mammalian embryos.

  18. Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid formed by proline dehydrogenase from the Bacillus subtilis ssp. natto expressed in Escherichia coli as a precursor for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tzou-Chi; Huang, Yi-Wen; Hung, Hui-Ju; Ho, Chi-Tang; Wu, Mei-Li

    2007-06-27

    Proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) catalyzes the biosynthesis of Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid (P5C). The Bacillus subtilis subsp. natto gene for the proline dehydrogenase (BnPRODH) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the clone revealed an open-reading frame that encodes 302 amino acid polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 34.5 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed sequence similarity to bacterial PRODH and PutA of E. coli. The BnPRODH gene was cloned into pET21b and was expressed at a high level in E. coli BL21(DE3). The expressed protein was purified by using nickel ion affinity column chromatography to homogeneity before characterization. The purified recombinant BnPRODH was used to produce P5C. Model system composed of P5C and methylglyoxal was set up to study the formation of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. Our data showed that P5C, derived from the conversion of l-proline by the purified recombinant PRODH, might react directly with methylglyoxal to form 2-AP. P5C/methylglyoxal pathway represents the first report of a biological mechanism by which 2-AP may be synthesized in vitro by PRODH.

  19. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing mammalian steroid hydroxylase CYP7B: Ayr1p and Fox2p display 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Vico, Pedro; Cauet, Gilles; Rose, Ken; Lathe, Richard; Degryse, Eric

    2002-07-01

    We have engineered recombinant yeast to perform stereospecific hydroxylation of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). This mammalian pro-hormone promotes brain and immune function; hydroxylation at the 7alpha position by P450 CYP7B is the major pathway of metabolic activation. We have sought to activate DHEA via yeast expression of rat CYP7B enzyme. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to metabolize DHEA by 3beta-acetylation; this was abolished by mutation at atf2. DHEA was also toxic, blocking tryptophan (trp) uptake: prototrophic strains were DHEA-resistant. In TRP(+) atf2 strains DHEA was then converted to androstene-3beta,17beta-diol (A/enediol) by an endogenous 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17betaHSD). Seven yeast polypeptides similar to human 17betaHSDs were identified: when expressed in yeast, only AYR1 (1-acyl dihydroxyacetone phosphate reductase) increased A/enediol accumulation, while the hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase Fox2p, highly homologous to human 17betaHSD4, oxidized A/enediol to DHEA. The presence of endogenous yeast enzymes metabolizing steroids may relate to fungal pathogenesis. Disruption of AYR1 eliminated reductive 17betaHSD activity, and expression of CYP7B on the combination background (atf2, ayr1, TRP(+)) permitted efficient (>98%) bioconversion of DHEA to 7alpha-hydroxyDHEA, a product of potential medical utility. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 6 reduces inhibitory effect of furan derivatives on cell growth and ethanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Eon; Koo, Hyun Min; Park, Young Kyoung; Park, Sung Min; Park, Jae Chan; Lee, Oh-Kyu; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2011-05-01

    Yeast dehydrogenases and reductases were overexpressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae D452-2 to detoxify 2-furaldehyde (furfural) and 5-hydroxymethyl furaldehyde (HMF), two potent toxic chemicals present in acid-hydrolyzed cellulosic biomass, and hence improve cell growth and ethanol production. Among those enzymes, aldehyde dehydrogenase 6 (ALD6) played the dual roles of direct oxidation of furan derivatives and supply of NADPH cofactor to their reduction reactions. Batch fermentation of S. cerevisiae D452-2/pH-ALD6 in the presence of 2g/L furfural and 0.5 g/L HMF resulted in 20-30% increases in specific growth rate, ethanol concentration and ethanol productivity, compared with those of the wild type strain. It was proposed that overexpression of ALD6 could recover the yeast cell metabolism and hence increase ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass containing furan-derived inhibitors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. In situ nucleic acid hybridization of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 in primary biliary cirrhosis: pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 messenger RNA is expressed in hepatocytes but not in biliary epithelium.

    PubMed

    Harada, K; Van de Water, J; Leung, P S; Coppel, R L; Nakanuma, Y; Gershwin, M E

    1997-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase-E2, or a cross-reactive molecule, has been shown by a variety of immunohistochemical methods to be present in increased amounts in biliary epithelial cells (BEC) in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). In this study, to further understand the nature of the immunoreactive molecule in BEC, we examined the expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2 (PDC-E2) messenger RNA (mRNA) and PDC-E2 protein in sections of livers from patients and controls to help identify the molecule found in BEC. We performed in situ hybridization using an antisense probe against the major epitope of PDC-E2. The data were very striking and suggested that there was no increased production of PDC-E2 in BEC. For example, in livers from patients with PBC, PDC-E2 mRNA was found in periportal hepatocytes in 16 of 17 cases (94%). In contrast, interlobular bile ducts and septal bile ducts had detectable levels of PDC-E2 mRNA in only 1 of 17 (6%) and 3 of 8 (38%) cases, respectively. Interestingly, proliferating bile ductules contained detectable levels of mRNA in 12 of 15 cases (80%). In control liver, periportal hepatocytes were positive in 15 of 17 cases (88%). Interlobular bile ducts, septal bile ducts, and proliferating bile ductules expressed mRNA signals in 4 of 17 (24%), 2 of 10 (20%), and 14 of 16 (88%), respectively. When formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections were examined by immunohistochemical staining with anti-PDC-E2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) C355.1, the interlobular bile ducts showed typical aberrant apical staining in all 10 PBC cases, but 0 of 9 liver controls. Periportal hepatocytes, proliferating bile ductules and infiltrating mononuclear cells stained with C355.1 but in a characteristic mitochondrial staining pattern. The presence of a PDC-E2-like molecule recognized by C355.1 is not reflected by the expression levels of PDC-E2 mRNA in the BEC of patients with PBC.

  2. Efficient production of acetoin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by disruption of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase and expression of NADH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sang-Jeong; Kim, Sujin; Hahn, Ji-Sook

    2016-06-09

    Acetoin is widely used in food and cosmetic industry as taste and fragrance enhancer. For acetoin production in this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae JHY605 was used as a host strain, where the production of ethanol and glycerol was largely eliminated by deleting five alcohol dehydrogenase genes (ADH1, ADH2, ADH3, ADH4, and ADH5) and two glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes (GPD1 and GPD2). To improve acetoin production, acetoin biosynthetic genes from Bacillus subtilis encoding α-acetolactate synthase (AlsS) and α-acetolactate decarboxylase (AlsD) were overexpressed, and BDH1 encoding butanediol dehydrogenase, which converts acetoin to 2,3-butanediol, was deleted. Furthermore, by NAD(+) regeneration through overexpression of water-forming NADH oxidase (NoxE) from Lactococcus lactis, the cofactor imbalance generated during the acetoin production from glucose was successfully relieved. As a result, in fed-batch fermentation, the engineered strain JHY617-SDN produced 100.1 g/L acetoin with a yield of 0.44 g/g glucose.

  3. Efficient production of acetoin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by disruption of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase and expression of NADH oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sang-Jeong; Kim, Sujin; Hahn, Ji-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Acetoin is widely used in food and cosmetic industry as taste and fragrance enhancer. For acetoin production in this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae JHY605 was used as a host strain, where the production of ethanol and glycerol was largely eliminated by deleting five alcohol dehydrogenase genes (ADH1, ADH2, ADH3, ADH4, and ADH5) and two glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes (GPD1 and GPD2). To improve acetoin production, acetoin biosynthetic genes from Bacillus subtilis encoding α-acetolactate synthase (AlsS) and α-acetolactate decarboxylase (AlsD) were overexpressed, and BDH1 encoding butanediol dehydrogenase, which converts acetoin to 2,3-butanediol, was deleted. Furthermore, by NAD+ regeneration through overexpression of water-forming NADH oxidase (NoxE) from Lactococcus lactis, the cofactor imbalance generated during the acetoin production from glucose was successfully relieved. As a result, in fed-batch fermentation, the engineered strain JHY617-SDN produced 100.1 g/L acetoin with a yield of 0.44 g/g glucose. PMID:27279026

  4. Prognostic significance of thymidylate synthase, thymidine phosphorylase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase expression in biliary tract cancer patients receiving adjuvant 5-fluorouracil-based chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    KIM, KWAN WOO; KWON, HYUK-CHAN; KIM, SUNG-HYUN; OH, SUNG YONG; LEE, SUEE; LEE, JI HYUN; ROH, MYUNG HWAN; KIM, MIN CHAN; KIM, KI HAN; KIM, YOUNG HOON; ROH, YOUNG HOON; JEONG, JIN SOOK; KIM, HYO-JIN

    2013-01-01

    Biliary tract cancer (BTC) is a relatively uncommon type of cancer, accounting for ∼4% of the malignant neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to determine whether the expression of thymidylate synthase (TS), thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) predict clinical outcome in BTC patients treated with adjuvant 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. TS and TP expression were found to be significantly correlated with cancer location (P=0.044 and 0.031, respectively). The multivariate analysis revealed that age [hazard ratio (HR)=2.157, P=0.008], stage (HR=2.234, P<0.001), resection margin status (HR=2.748, P=0.004) and TP expression (HR=2.014, P=0.039) were independently associated with overall survival (OS). PMID:24649282

  5. Seasonal freeze resistance of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) is generated by differential expression of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and antifreeze protein genes.

    PubMed

    Liebscher, Ryan S; Richards, Robert C; Lewis, Johanne M; Short, Connie E; Muise, Denise M; Driedzic, William R; Ewart, K Vanya

    2006-01-01

    In winter, rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) accumulate glycerol and produce an antifreeze protein (AFP), which both contribute to freeze resistance. The role of differential gene expression in the seasonal pattern of these adaptations was investigated. First, cDNAs encoding smelt and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and smelt glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were cloned so that all sequences required for expression analysis would be available. Using quantitative PCR, expression of beta actin in rainbow smelt liver was compared with that of GAPDH in order to determine its validity as a reference gene. Then, levels of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), PEPCK, and AFP relative to beta actin were measured in smelt liver over a fall-winter-spring interval. Levels of GPDH mRNA increased in the fall just before plasma glycerol accumulation, implying a driving role in glycerol synthesis. GPDH mRNA levels then declined during winter, well in advance of serum glycerol, suggesting the possibility of GPDH enzyme or glycerol conservation in smelt during the winter months. PEPCK mRNA levels rose in parallel with serum glycerol in the fall, consistent with an increasing requirement for amino acids as metabolic precursors, remained elevated for much of the winter, and then declined in advance of the decline in plasma glycerol. AFP mRNA was elevated at the onset of fall sampling in October and remained elevated until April, implying separate regulation from GPDH and PEPCK. Thus, winter freezing point depression in smelt appears to result from a seasonal cycle of GPDH gene expression, with an ensuing increase in the expression of PEPCK, and a similar but independent cycle of AFP gene expression.

  6. Cloning and Expression of ntnD, Encoding a Novel NAD(P)+-Independent 4-Nitrobenzyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas sp. Strain TW3

    PubMed Central

    James, Keith D.; Hughes, Michelle A.; Williams, Peter A.

    2000-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain TW3 is able to metabolize 4-nitrotoluene to 4-nitrobenzoate and toluene to benzoate aerobically via a route analogous to the upper pathway of the TOL plasmids. We report the cloning and characterization of a benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene (ntnD) which encodes the enzyme for the catabolism of 4-nitrobenzyl alcohol and benzyl alcohol to 4-nitrobenzaldehyde and benzaldehyde, respectively. The gene is located downstream of the previously reported ntn gene cluster. NtnD bears no similarity to the analogous TOL plasmid XylB (benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase) protein either in its biochemistry, being NAD(P)+ independent and requiring assay via dye-linked electron transfer, or in its deduced amino acid sequence. It does, however, have significant similarity in its amino acid sequence to other NAD(P)+-independent alcohol dehydrogenases and contains signature patterns characteristic of type III flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent alcohol oxidases. Reverse transcription-PCR demonstrated that ntnD is transcribed during growth on 4-nitrotoluene, although apparently not as part of the same transcript as the other ntn genes. The substrate specificity of the enzyme expressed from the cloned and overexpressed gene was similar to the activity expressed from strain TW3 grown on 4-nitrotoluene, providing evidence that ntnD is the previously unidentified gene in the pathway of 4-nitrotoluene catabolism. Examination of the 14.8-kb region around the ntn genes suggests that one or more recombination events have been involved in the formation of their current organization. PMID:10809692

  7. Functional characterization and expression analysis of rice δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase provide new insight into the regulation of proline and arginine catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Forlani, Giuseppe; Bertazzini, Michele; Zarattini, Marco; Funck, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    While intracellular proline accumulation in response to various stress conditions has been investigated in great detail, the biochemistry and physiological relevance of proline degradation in plants is much less understood. Moreover, the second and last step in proline catabolism, the oxidation of δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid (P5C) to glutamate, is shared with arginine catabolism. Little information is available to date concerning the regulatory mechanisms coordinating these two pathways. Expression of the gene coding for P5C dehydrogenase was analyzed in rice by real-time PCR either following the exogenous supply of amino acids of the glutamate family, or under hyperosmotic stress conditions. The rice enzyme was heterologously expressed in E. coli, and the affinity-purified protein was thoroughly characterized with respect to structural and functional properties. A tetrameric oligomerization state was observed in size exclusion chromatography, which suggests a structure of the plant enzyme different from that shown for the bacterial P5C dehydrogenases structurally characterized to date. Kinetic analysis accounted for a preferential use of NAD+ as the electron acceptor. Cations were found to modulate enzyme activity, whereas anion effects were negligible. Several metal ions were inhibitory in the micromolar range. Interestingly, arginine also inhibited the enzyme at higher concentrations, with a mechanism of uncompetitive type with respect to P5C. This implies that millimolar levels of arginine would increase the affinity of P5C dehydrogenase toward its specific substrate. Results are discussed in view of the involvement of the enzyme in either proline or arginine catabolism. PMID:26300893

  8. Cloning, expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the short-chain dehydrogenase enzymes WbmF, WbmG and WbmH from Bordetella bronchiseptica

    SciTech Connect

    Harmer, Nicholas J.; King, Jerry D.; Palmer, Colin M.; Preston, Andrew; Maskell, Duncan J.; Blundell, Tom L.

    2007-08-01

    The expression, purification, and crystallisation of the short-chain dehydrogenases WbmF, WbmG and WbmH from B. bronchiseptica are described. Native diffraction data to 1.5, 2.0, and 2.2 Å were obtained for the three proteins, together with complexes with nucleotides. The short-chain dehydrogenase enzymes WbmF, WbmG and WbmH from Bordetella bronchiseptica were cloned into Escherichia coli expression vectors, overexpressed and purified to homogeneity. Crystals of all three wild-type enzymes were obtained using vapour-diffusion crystallization with high-molecular-weight PEGs as a primary precipitant at alkaline pH. Some of the crystallization conditions permitted the soaking of crystals with cofactors and nucleotides or nucleotide sugars, which are possible substrate compounds, and further conditions provided co-complexes of two of the proteins with these compounds. The crystals diffracted to resolutions of between 1.50 and 2.40 Å at synchrotron X-ray sources. The synchrotron data obtained were sufficient to determine eight structures of the three enzymes in complex with a variety of cofactors and substrate molecules.

  9. Dehydroepiandrosterone affects the expression of multiple genes in rat liver including 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1: a cDNA array analysis.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shi; Ripp, Sharon L; Prough, Russell A; Geoghegan, Thomas E

    2003-03-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a C-19 adrenal steroid precursor to the gonadal steroids. In humans, circulating levels of DHEA, as its sulfated conjugate, are high at puberty and throughout early adulthood but decline with age. Dietary supplementation to maintain high levels of DHEA purportedly has beneficial effects on cognitive memory, the immune system, and fat and carbohydrate metabolism. In rodents, DHEA is a peroxisome proliferator that induces genes for the classical peroxisomal and microsomal enzymes associated with this response. These effects are mediated through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha). However, DHEA can affect the expression of genes independently of PPAR alpha, including the gene for the major inducible drug and xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 3A23. To elucidate the biochemistry associated with DHEA treatment, we employed a cDNA gene expression array using liver RNA from rats treated with DHEA or the classic peroxisome proliferator nafenopin. Principal components analysis identified 30 to 35 genes whose expression was affected by DHEA and/or nafenopin. Some were genes previously identified as PPAR-responsive genes. Changes in expression of several affected genes were verified by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. These included aquaporin 3, which was induced by DHEA and to a lesser extent nafenopin, nuclear tyrosine phosphatase, which was induced by both agents, and 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, which was decreased by treatment with DHEA in a dose-dependent fashion. Regulation of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 expression is important since the enzyme is believed to amplify local glucocorticoid signaling, and its repression may cause some of the metabolic effects associated with DHEA.

  10. Cloning, functional expression and characterization of a bifunctional 3-hydroxybutanal dehydrogenase /reductase involved in acetone metabolism by Desulfococcus biacutus.

    PubMed

    Frey, Jasmin; Rusche, Hendrik; Schink, Bernhard; Schleheck, David

    2016-11-25

    The strictly anaerobic, sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfococcus biacutus can utilize acetone as sole carbon and energy source for growth. Whereas in aerobic and nitrate-reducing bacteria acetone is activated by carboxylation with CO2 to acetoacetate, D. biacutus involves CO as a cosubstrate for acetone activation through a different, so far unknown pathway. Proteomic studies indicated that, among others, a predicted medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (MDR) superfamily, zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (locus tag DebiaDRAFT_04514) is specifically and highly produced during growth with acetone. The MDR gene DebiaDRAFT_04514 was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli. The purified recombinant protein required zinc as cofactor, and accepted NADH/NAD(+) but not NADPH/NADP(+) as electron donor/acceptor. The pH optimum was at pH 8, and the temperature optimum at 45 °C. Highest specific activities were observed for reduction of C3 - C5-aldehydes with NADH, such as propanal to propanol (380 ± 15 mU mg(-1) protein), butanal to butanol (300 ± 24 mU mg(-1)), and 3-hydroxybutanal to 1,3-butanediol (248 ± 60 mU mg(-1)), however, the enzyme also oxidized 3-hydroxybutanal with NAD(+) to acetoacetaldehyde (83 ± 18 mU mg(-1)). The enzyme might play a key role in acetone degradation by D. biacutus, for example as a bifunctional 3-hydroxybutanal dehydrogenase/reductase. Its recombinant production may represent an important step in the elucidation of the complete degradation pathway.

  11. Hemizygous Expression of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase in Erythrocytes of Heterozygotes for the Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Nyhan, William L.; Bakay, Bohdan; Connor, James D.; Marks, James F.; Keele, Doman K.

    1970-01-01

    In women heterozygous for hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl trasferase deficiency, the activity of this enzyme in the erythrocyte is usually normal. In a key kindred two such obligate heterozygotes were also heterozygous for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase types A and B. The AB genotype was confirmed in one by assay of skin fibroblasts. Erythrocytes were exclusively of type B. These observations suggest the clonal origin of the hematopoietic system in these women from a primordial cell line with a single active X chromosome. Images PMID:5263751

  12. Cloning, expression and characterization of an aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium strain BKM-F-1767

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is among the small group of fungi that can degrade lignin to carbon dioxide while leaving the crystalline cellulose untouched. The efficient lignin oxidation system of this fungus requires cyclic redox reactions involving the reduction of aryl-aldehydes to the corresponding alcohols by aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase. However, the biochemical properties of this enzyme have not been extensively studied. These are of most interest for the design of metabolic engineering/synthetic biology strategies in the field of biotechnological applications of this enzyme. Results We report here the cloning of an aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase cDNA from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, its expression in Escherichia coli and the biochemical characterization of the encoded GST and His6 tagged protein. The purified recombinant enzyme showed optimal activity at 37°C and at pH 6.4 for the reduction of aryl- and linear aldehydes with NADPH as coenzyme. NADH could also be the electron donor, while having a higher Km (220 μM) compared to that of NADPH (39 μM). The purified recombinant enzyme was found to be active in the reduction of more than 20 different aryl- and linear aldehydes showing highest specificity for mono- and dimethoxylated Benzaldehyde at positions 3, 4, 3,4 and 3,5. The enzyme was also capable of oxidizing aryl-alcohols with NADP + at 30°C and an optimum pH of 10.3 but with 15 to 100-fold lower catalytic efficiency than for the reduction reaction. Conclusions In this work, we have characterized the biochemical properties of an aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. We show that this enzyme functions in the reductive sense under physiological conditions and that it displays relatively large substrate specificity with highest activity towards the natural compound Veratraldehyde. PMID:22742413

  13. Cloning, expression and characterization of an aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium strain BKM-F-1767.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong-Dong; François, Jean Marie; de Billerbeck, Gustavo M

    2012-06-28

    The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium is among the small group of fungi that can degrade lignin to carbon dioxide while leaving the crystalline cellulose untouched. The efficient lignin oxidation system of this fungus requires cyclic redox reactions involving the reduction of aryl-aldehydes to the corresponding alcohols by aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase. However, the biochemical properties of this enzyme have not been extensively studied. These are of most interest for the design of metabolic engineering/synthetic biology strategies in the field of biotechnological applications of this enzyme. We report here the cloning of an aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase cDNA from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium, its expression in Escherichia coli and the biochemical characterization of the encoded GST and His6 tagged protein. The purified recombinant enzyme showed optimal activity at 37°C and at pH 6.4 for the reduction of aryl- and linear aldehydes with NADPH as coenzyme. NADH could also be the electron donor, while having a higher Km (220 μM) compared to that of NADPH (39 μM). The purified recombinant enzyme was found to be active in the reduction of more than 20 different aryl- and linear aldehydes showing highest specificity for mono- and dimethoxylated Benzaldehyde at positions 3, 4, 3,4 and 3,5. The enzyme was also capable of oxidizing aryl-alcohols with NADP(+) at 30°C and an optimum pH of 10.3 but with 15 to 100-fold lower catalytic efficiency than for the reduction reaction. In this work, we have characterized the biochemical properties of an aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. We show that this enzyme functions in the reductive sense under physiological conditions and that it displays relatively large substrate specificity with highest activity towards the natural compound Veratraldehyde.

  14. Abiotic Stress Generates ROS That Signal Expression of Anionic Glutamate Dehydrogenases to Form Glutamate for Proline Synthesis in Tobacco and Grapevine[W

    PubMed Central

    Skopelitis, Damianos S.; Paranychianakis, Nikolaos V.; Paschalidis, Konstantinos A.; Pliakonis, Eleni D.; Delis, Ioannis D.; Yakoumakis, Dimitris I.; Kouvarakis, Antonios; Papadakis, Anastasia K.; Stephanou, Euripides G.; Roubelakis-Angelakis, Kalliopi A.

    2006-01-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) may be a stress-responsive enzyme, as GDH exhibits considerable thermal stability, and de novo synthesis of the α-GDH subunit is induced by exogenous ammonium and senescence. NaCl treatment induces reactive oxygen species (ROS), intracellular ammonia, expression of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi) gdh-NAD;A1 encoding the α-subunit of GDH, increase in immunoreactive α-polypeptide, assembly of the anionic isoenzymes, and in vitro GDH aminating activity in tissues from hypergeous plant organs. In vivo aminating GDH activity was confirmed by gas chromatorgraphy–mass spectrometry monitoring of 15N-Glu, 15N-Gln, and 15N-Pro in the presence of methionine sulfoximine and amino oxyacetic acid, inhibitors of Gln synthetase and transaminases, respectively. Along with upregulation of α-GDH by NaCl, isocitrate dehydrogenase genes, which provide 2-oxoglutarate, are also induced. Treatment with menadione also elicits a severalfold increase in ROS and immunoreactive α-polypeptide and GDH activity. This suggests that ROS participate in the signaling pathway for GDH expression and protease activation, which contribute to intracellular hyperammonia. Ammonium ions also mimic the effects of salinity in induction of gdh-NAD;A1 expression. These results, confirmed in tobacco and grape (Vitis vinifera cv Sultanina) tissues, support the hypothesis that the salinity-generated ROS signal induces α-GDH subunit expression, and the anionic iso-GDHs assimilate ammonia, acting as antistress enzymes in ammonia detoxification and production of Glu for Pro synthesis. PMID:17041150

  15. Immunocytochemical expression of 3beta- and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in bitch ovaries exposed to low doses of zearalenone.

    PubMed

    Gajecka, M; Otrocka-Domagała, I

    2013-01-01

    Companion animals, including bitches, are exposed to intoxication with zearalenone (ZEN) present in feed, and the above may lead to reproductive disorders which are pften noted in veterinary practice. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of long-term and low-dose ZEN intoxication on the immunoexpression (optical density) of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) in the ovaries of pre-pubertal bitches. The experiment involved 30 clinically healthy, immature Beagle bitches aged approximately 70 days with initial average body weight of 8 kg. The animals were randomly divided into two experimental groups (EI and EII) and a control group (C; n = 10 in all groups). Group EI was administered 50 microg ZEN/kg BW per os over a period of 42 days, group EII received 75 microg ZEN/kg BW per os for 42 days, and group C was administered placebo per os over a period of 42 days. Weighed amounts of the analyzed mycotoxin were administered every morning in gel capsules before feeding. The animals were subjected to ovariohysterectomy at the end of the experiment. Immunocytochemical analyses were performed to localize 3beta-HSD and 17beta-HSD enzymes and determine their optical density. The results revealed that changes in the immunoexpression of the above enzymes were inversely proportional to the applied dose of ZEN substrate.

  16. The Impact of the Expression Level of Intratumoral Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase on Chemotherapy Sensitivity and Survival of Patients in Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cong; Liu, Hongpeng; Ma, Bin; Song, Yongxi; Gao, Peng; Xu, Yingying; Yu, Dehao

    2017-01-01

    The potential impact that the intratumoral expression level of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) has on chemotherapy sensitivity and long-term survival for gastric cancer (GC) patients remains controversial; therefore, this study seeks to clarify this issue. Our meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager (RevMan) 5.3 software. In vitro drug sensitivity tests, correlation coefficients between sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and expression levels of intratumoral DPD were used as effective indexes to analyse. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were used as endpoints for patient outcome, and hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were noted as measures of effect. There were 15 eligible studies including 1805 patients for the final analysis. The analysis revealed a statistically significant difference between the expression level of intratumoral DPD activity, DPD mRNA levels, and sensitivity to 5-FU in GC patients, with high expression levels of intratumoral DPD resulting in low sensitivity to 5-FU. However, no matter what therapeutic regimens were used, there was no significant difference for patient outcomes between high and low DPD expression groups, either in OS or in PFS. In conclusion, high levels of intratumoral DPD expression have a negative impact on sensitivity to 5-FU in GC patients, but no prognostic value for long-term survival was uncovered. PMID:28255193

  17. Stereoselective synthesis of (R)-phenylephrine using recombinant Escherichia coli cells expressing a novel short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase gene from Serratia marcescens BCRC 10948.

    PubMed

    Peng, Guan-Jhih; Kuan, Yi-Chia; Chou, Hsiao-Yi; Fu, Tze-Kai; Lin, Jia-Shin; Hsu, Wen-Hwei; Yang, Ming-Te

    2014-01-20

    (R)-Phenylephrine [(R)-PE] is an α1-adrenergic receptor agonist and is widely used as a nasal decongestant to treat the common cold without the side effects of other ephedrine adrenergic drugs. We identified a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SM_SDR) from Serratia marcescens BCRC 10948 that was able to convert 1-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(methylamino) ethanone (HPMAE) into (R)-PE. The SM_SDR used NADPH and NADH as cofactors with specific activities of 17.35±0.71 and 5.57±0.07mU/mg protein, respectively, at 30°C and pH 7.0, thereby indicating that this enzyme could be categorized as an NADPH-preferring short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase. Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) expressing SM_SDR could convert HPMAE into (R)-PE with more than 99% enantiomeric excess. The productivity and conversion yield were 0.57mmolPE/lh and 51.06%, respectively, using 10mM HPMAE. Fructose was the most effective carbon source for the conversion of HPMAE to (R)-PE.

  18. Piper betel leaves induces wound healing activity via proliferation of fibroblasts and reducing 11β hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase-1 expression in diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, Nur Amalina; Elmy, Azree; Yuen, Lee Chee; Sani, Nurul Zaidah; Das, Srijit; Suhaimi, Farihah; Yusof, Rafizul; Yusoff, Nurul Huda; Thent, Zar Chi

    Increased oxidative stress and stress enzyme 11β hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase-1 (11β HSD-1) served as the major contributing factors for delayed wound healing in diabetes mellitus (DM). Piper betel (PB) leaves are reported to possess anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-microbial properties. The objective was to investigate the effectiveness of topical application of PB leaves extract on oxidative stress and 11β hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase-1 (11β HSD-1) expression in diabetic wounds. A total 64 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly chosen. The experimental rats received a single intramuscular injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg). Four full thickness (6 mm) wounds were created on the dorsum of each rat. The animals were equally divided (n = 8) into four groups based on the days of treatment (i.e. days 3 and 7): Control (Ctrl), diabetic untreated (DM-Ctrl), diabetic treated with 1% silver nitrate cream (DM-SN) and diabetic treated with 50 mg/kg of P. betel leaves extract (DM-PB). The rats were sacrificed on day 3 and 7 of post wound creations. Following day 7 wound creation, topical application of PB extract showed significant increase in hydroxyproline content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) level and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level, 11β-HSD-1 enzyme expression in the diabetic wounds compared to untreated diabetic wounds. The results were supported by the observations based on histological and ultrastructural features of the wound tissue applied with PB extract. PB leaves extract improved the delayed wound healing in diabetes mellitus by decreasing the oxidative stress markers and 11β HSD-1 expression. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Expression of a heat-stable NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus 39E in Clostridium thermocellum 1313 results in increased hydroxymethylfurfural resistance

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Sun -Ki; Groom, Joseph; Chung, Daehwan; ...

    2017-03-15

    Resistance to deconstruction is a major limitation to the use of lignocellulosic biomass as a substrate for the production of fuels and chemicals. Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), the use of microbes for the simultaneous hydrolysis of lignocellulose into soluble sugars and fermentation of the resulting sugars to products of interest, is a potential solution to this obstacle. The pretreatment of plant biomass, however, releases compounds that are inhibitory to the growth of microbes used for CBP. Heterologous expression of the Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus 39E bdhA gene, that encodes an alcohol dehydrogenase, in Clostridium thermocellum significantly increased resistance to furan derivatives at concentrationsmore » found in acid-pretreated biomass. The mechanism of detoxification of hydroxymethylfurfural was shown to be primarily reduction using NADPH as the cofactor. In addition, we report the construction of new expression vectors for homologous and heterologous expression in C. thermocellum. These vectors use regulatory signals from both C. bescii (the S-layer promoter) and C. thermocellum (the enolase promoter) shown to efficiently drive expression of the BdhA enzyme. Toxic compounds present in lignocellulose hydrolysates that inhibit cell growth and product formation are obstacles to the commercialization of fuels and chemicals from biomass. Lastly, expression of genes that reduce the effect of these inhibitors, such as furan derivatives, will serve to enable commercial processes using plant biomass for the production of fuels and chemicals.« less

  20. Liver choline dehydrogenase and kidney betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase expression are not affected by methionine or choline intake in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Slow, Sandy; Garrow, Timothy A

    2006-09-01

    Choline dehydrogenase (CHDH) and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) are 2 enzymes involved in choline oxidation. BHMT is expressed at high levels in rat liver and its expression is regulated by dietary Met and choline. BHMT is also found in rat kidney, albeit in substantially lower amounts, but it is not known whether kidney BHMT expression is regulated by dietary Met or choline. Similarly, CHDH activity is highest in the liver and kidney, but the regulation of its expression by diet has not been thoroughly investigated. Sprague Dawley rats ( approximately 50 g) were fed, for 9 d in 2 x 3 factorial design (n = 8), an l-amino acid-defined diet varying in l-Met (0.125, 0.3, or 0.8%) and choline (0 or 25 mmol/kg diet). Liver and kidney BHMT and CHDH were assessed using enzymatic, Western blot, and real-time PCR analyses. Liver samples were also fixed for histological analysis. Liver BHMT activity was 1.3-fold higher in rats fed the Met deficient diet containing choline, which was reflected in corresponding increases in mRNA content and immunodetectable protein. Independent of dietary choline, supplemental Met increased hepatic BHMT activity approximately 30%. Kidney BHMT and liver CHDH expression were refractory to these diets. Some degree of fatty liver developed in all rats fed a choline-devoid diet, indicating that supplemental Met cannot completely compensate for the lack of dietary choline in growing rats.

  1. Expression of the succinate dehydrogenase genes (sdhCAB) from the facultatively anaerobic paenibacillus macerans during aerobic growth

    PubMed

    Schirawski; Hankeln; Unden

    1998-10-01

    Paenibacillus (formerly Bacillus) macerans is capable of succinate oxidation under oxic conditions and fumarate reduction under anoxic conditions. The reactions are catalyzed by different enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase (Sdh) and fumarate reductase (Frd). The genes encoding Sdh (sdhCAB) were analyzed. The gene products of sdhA and sdhB were similar to the subunits of known Sdh and Frd enzymes. The hydrophobic subunit SdhC showed close sequence similarity to the class of Sdh/Frd enzymes containing diheme cytochrome b. From the sdhCAB gene cluster two transcripts were produced, one comprising sdhCAB, the other sdhAB. The transcripts were found only during aerobic growth, and the amount was directly proportional to Sdh activity, but inversely proportional to Frd activity.

  2. THE EFECTS OF ESTRADIOL ON 17β-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE TYPE IV AND ANDROGEN RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN THE DEVELOPING ZEBRA FINCH SONG SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, J. Bayley; Dzubur, Eldin; Wade, Juli; Tomaszycki, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in zebra finches suggests that genes and hormones may act together to masculinize the brain. This study tested the effects of exogenous estradiol (E2) on 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase type IV (HSD17B4) and the co-localization of HSD17B4 and androgen receptor (AR) mRNA. We asked three primary questions: First, how does post-hatching E2 treatment affect HSD17B4 mRNA expression in males and females? Second, is this gene expressed in the same cells as AR, and, third, if so does E2 modulate co-expression? Female finches implanted with 50μg of E2 on the third day post-hatching showed a significant increase in the density of cells expressing HSD17B4 and AR in HVC at day 25. Co-localization of AR cells that also expressed HSD17B4 was high across groups (>81%). We found significant sex differences in co-localization in both the HVC and Area X of control animals, with males showing a higher percentage of cells expressing AR mRNA that also expressed HSD17B4 in comparison to females. However, although E2 treatments significantly increased the number of cells expressing HSD17B4 mRNA and AR mRNA in the HVC of females, the percentage of HSD17B4 cells co-expressing AR was reduced in HVC and Area X in E2-treated animals. These results lend support to the hypothesis that genes and hormones may act in concert to modulate the sexually differentiation of the zebra finch song system. Further, the data suggest that a single hormonal mechanism cannot mimic the complex development of male singing behavior and associated song nuclei. PMID:21665192

  3. Expression of the human isoform of glutamate dehydrogenase, hGDH2, augments TCA cycle capacity and oxidative metabolism of glutamate during glucose deprivation in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Jakob D; Lykke, Kasper; Bryk, Jaroslaw; Stridh, Malin H; Zaganas, Ioannis; Skytt, Dorte M; Schousboe, Arne; Bak, Lasse K; Enard, Wolfgang; Pääbo, Svante; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2017-03-01

    A key enzyme in brain glutamate homeostasis is glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) which links carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism mediating glutamate degradation to CO2 and expanding tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle capacity with intermediates, i.e. anaplerosis. Humans express two GDH isoforms, GDH1 and 2, whereas most other mammals express only GDH1. hGDH1 is widely expressed in human brain while hGDH2 is confined to astrocytes. The two isoforms display different enzymatic properties and the nature of these supports that hGDH2 expression in astrocytes potentially increases glutamate oxidation and supports the TCA cycle during energy-demanding processes such as high intensity glutamatergic signaling. However, little is known about how expression of hGDH2 affects the handling of glutamate and TCA cycle metabolism in astrocytes. Therefore, we cultured astrocytes from cerebral cortical tissue of hGDH2-expressing transgenic mice. We measured glutamate uptake and metabolism using [(3) H]glutamate, while the effect on metabolic pathways of glutamate and glucose was evaluated by use of (13) C and (14) C substrates and analysis by mass spectrometry and determination of radioactively labeled metabolites including CO2 , respectively. We conclude that hGDH2 expression increases capacity for uptake and oxidative metabolism of glutamate, particularly during increased workload and aglycemia. Additionally, hGDH2 expression increased utilization of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) during aglycemia and caused a general decrease in oxidative glucose metabolism. We speculate, that expression of hGDH2 allows astrocytes to spare glucose and utilize BCAAs during substrate shortages. These findings support the proposed role of hGDH2 in astrocytes as an important fail-safe during situations of intense glutamatergic activity. GLIA 2017;65:474-488.

  4. Pro-inflammatory Macrophages Sustain Pyruvate Oxidation through Pyruvate Dehydrogenase for the Synthesis of Itaconate and to Enable Cytokine Expression.

    PubMed

    Meiser, Johannes; Krämer, Lisa; Sapcariu, Sean C; Battello, Nadia; Ghelfi, Jenny; D'Herouel, Aymeric Fouquier; Skupin, Alexander; Hiller, Karsten

    2016-02-19

    Upon stimulation with Th1 cytokines or bacterial lipopolysaccharides, resting macrophages shift their phenotype toward a pro-inflammatory state as part of the innate immune response. LPS-activated macrophages undergo profound metabolic changes to adapt to these new physiological requirements. One key step to mediate this metabolic adaptation is the stabilization of HIF1α, which leads to increased glycolysis and lactate release, as well as decreased oxygen consumption. HIF1 abundance can result in the induction of the gene encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) via phosphorylation. Therefore, it has been speculated that pyruvate oxidation through PDH is decreased in pro-inflammatory macrophages. However, to answer this open question, an in-depth analysis of this metabolic branching point was so far lacking. In this work, we applied stable isotope-assisted metabolomics techniques and demonstrate that pyruvate oxidation is maintained in mature pro-inflammatory macrophages. Glucose-derived pyruvate is oxidized via PDH to generate citrate in the mitochondria. Citrate is used for the synthesis of the antimicrobial metabolite itaconate and for lipogenesis. An increased demand for these metabolites decreases citrate oxidation through the tricarboxylic acid cycle, whereas increased glutamine uptake serves to replenish the TCA cycle. Furthermore, we found that the PDH flux is maintained by unchanged PDK1 abundance, despite the presence of HIF1. By pharmacological intervention, we demonstrate that the PDH flux is an important node for M(LPS) macrophage activation. Therefore, PDH represents a metabolic intervention point that might become a research target for translational medicine to treat chronic inflammatory diseases.

  5. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of budC Gene Encoding meso-2,3-Butanediol Dehydrogenase from Bacillus licheniformis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guo-Chao; Bian, Ya-Qian; Han, Rui-Zhi; Dong, Jin-Jun; Ni, Ye

    2016-02-01

    The budC gene encoding a meso-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (BlBDH) from Bacillus licheniformis was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Sequence analysis reveals that this BlBDH belongs to short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. In the presence of NADH, BlBDH catalyzes the reduction of diacetyl to (3S)-acetoin (97.3% ee), and further to (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol (97.3% ee and 96.5% de). Similar to other meso-2,3-BDHs, it shows oxidative activity to racemic 2,3-butanediol whereas no activity toward racemic acetoin in the presence of NAD(+). For diacetyl reduction and 2,3-butanediol oxidation, the pH optimum of BlBDH is 5.0 and 10.0, respectively. Unusually, it shows relatively high activity over a wide pH range from 5.0 to 8.0 for racemic acetoin reduction. BlBDH shows lower K m and higher catalytic efficiency toward racemic acetoin (K m = 0.47 mM, k cat /K m = 432 s(-1)·mM(-1)) when compared with 2,3-butanediol (K m = 7.25 mM, k cat /K m = 81.5 s(-1)·mM(-1)), indicating its physiological role in favor of reducing racemic acetoin into 2,3-butanediol. The enzymatic characterization of BlBDH provides evidence for the directed engineering of B. licheniformis for producing enantiopure 2,3-butanediol.

  6. Pro-inflammatory Macrophages Sustain Pyruvate Oxidation through Pyruvate Dehydrogenase for the Synthesis of Itaconate and to Enable Cytokine Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Meiser, Johannes; Krämer, Lisa; Sapcariu, Sean C.; Battello, Nadia; Ghelfi, Jenny; D'Herouel, Aymeric Fouquier; Skupin, Alexander; Hiller, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Upon stimulation with Th1 cytokines or bacterial lipopolysaccharides, resting macrophages shift their phenotype toward a pro-inflammatory state as part of the innate immune response. LPS-activated macrophages undergo profound metabolic changes to adapt to these new physiological requirements. One key step to mediate this metabolic adaptation is the stabilization of HIF1α, which leads to increased glycolysis and lactate release, as well as decreased oxygen consumption. HIF1 abundance can result in the induction of the gene encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) via phosphorylation. Therefore, it has been speculated that pyruvate oxidation through PDH is decreased in pro-inflammatory macrophages. However, to answer this open question, an in-depth analysis of this metabolic branching point was so far lacking. In this work, we applied stable isotope-assisted metabolomics techniques and demonstrate that pyruvate oxidation is maintained in mature pro-inflammatory macrophages. Glucose-derived pyruvate is oxidized via PDH to generate citrate in the mitochondria. Citrate is used for the synthesis of the antimicrobial metabolite itaconate and for lipogenesis. An increased demand for these metabolites decreases citrate oxidation through the tricarboxylic acid cycle, whereas increased glutamine uptake serves to replenish the TCA cycle. Furthermore, we found that the PDH flux is maintained by unchanged PDK1 abundance, despite the presence of HIF1. By pharmacological intervention, we demonstrate that the PDH flux is an important node for M(LPS) macrophage activation. Therefore, PDH represents a metabolic intervention point that might become a research target for translational medicine to treat chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26679997

  7. Expression profiles of cortisol-inactivating enzyme, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2, in human epidermal tumors and its role in keratinocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Terao, Mika; Itoi, Saori; Murota, Hiroyuki; Katayama, Ichiro

    2013-02-01

    The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) catalyzes the interconversion between hormonally active cortisol and inactive cortisone within cells. There are two isozymes: 11β-HSD1 activates cortisol from cortisone and 11β-HSD2 inactivates cortisol to cortisone. 11β-HSD1 was recently discovered in skin, and we subsequently found that the enzyme negatively regulates keratinocyte proliferation. We verified 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 expression in benign and malignant skin tumors and investigated the role of 11β-HSD in skin tumor pathogenesis. Randomly selected formalin-fixed sections of skin lesions of seborrheic keratosis (SK), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) were stained with 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 antibodies, and 11β-HSD expression was also evaluated in murine epidermis in which hyperproliferation was induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13 acetate (TPA). We observed that 11β-HSD1 expression was decreased in all SK, SCC, and BCC lesions compared with unaffected skin. Conversely, 11β-HSD2 expression was increased in SK and BCC but not in SCC. Overexpression of 11β-HSD2 in keratinocytes increased cell proliferation. In the murine model, 11β-HSD1 expression was decreased in TPA-treated hyperproliferative skin. Our findings suggest that 11β-HSD1 expression is decreased in keratinocyte proliferative conditions, and 11β-HSD2 expression is increased in basal cell proliferating conditions, such as BCC and SK. Assessing 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 expression could be a useful tool for diagnosing and characterizing skin tumors.

  8. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of UgdG, an UDP-glucose dehydrogenase from Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Joana; Granja, Ana Teresa; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Fialho, Arsénio; Frazão, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Gellan gum, a commercial gelling agent produced by Sphingomonas elodea ATCC 31461, is a high-value microbial exopolysaccharide. UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (UGD; EC 1.1.1.22) is responsible for the NAD-dependent twofold oxidation of UDP-glucose to UDP-glucuronic acid, one of the key components for gellan biosynthesis. S. elodea ATCC 31461 UGD, termed UgdG, was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized in native and SeMet-derivatized forms in hexagonal and tetragonal space groups, respectively; the crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.40 and 3.40 A resolution, respectively. Experimental phases were obtained for the tetragonal SeMet-derivatized crystal form by a single-wavelength anomalous dispersion experiment. This structure was successfully used as a molecular-replacement probe for the hexagonal crystal form of the native protein.

  9. A post-weaning fish oil dietary intervention reverses adverse metabolic outcomes and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression in postnatal overfed rats.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yanyan; Yang, Fan; Zhou, Nan; Sha, Lijun; Zhou, Shanshan; Wang, Junle; Li, Xiaonan

    2016-11-01

    Early life is considered a critical period for determining long-term metabolic health. Postnatal over-nutrition may alter glucocorticoid (GC) metabolism and increase the risk of developing obesity and metabolic disorders in adulthood. Our aim was to assess the effects of the dose and timing of a fish oil diet on obesity and the expression of GC-activated enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD1) in postnatal overfed rats. Litter sizes were adjusted to three (small litter (SL)) or ten (normal litter) rats on postnatal day 3 to induce overfeeding or normal feeding. The SL rats were divided into three groups after weaning: high-dose fish oil (HFO), low-dose fish oil (LFO) and standard-diet groups. After 10 weeks, the HFO diet reduced body weight gain (16 %, P0·05). In conclusion, the post-weaning HFO diet could reverse adverse outcomes and decrease tissue GC activity in postnatal overfed rats.

  10. The Expression of Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Associated Cell Cycle (GACC) Genes Correlates with Cancer Stage and Poor Survival in Patients with Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dunrui; Moothart, Daniel R.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Qian, Xiaolan

    2013-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is often used as a stable housekeeping marker for constant gene expression. However, the transcriptional levels of GAPDH may be highly up-regulated in some cancers, including non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Using a publically available microarray database, we identified a group of genes whose expression levels in some cancers are highly correlated with GAPDH up-regulation. The majority of the identified genes are cell cycle-dependent (GAPDH Associated Cell Cycle, or GACC). The up-regulation pattern of GAPDH positively associated genes in NSCLC is similar to that observed in cultured fibroblasts grown under conditions that induce anti-senescence. Data analysis demonstrated that up-regulated GAPDH levels are correlated with aberrant gene expression related to both glycolysis and gluconeogenesis pathways. Down-regulation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1) in gluconeogenesis in conjunction with up-regulation of most glycolytic genes is closely related to high expression of GAPDH in the tumors. The data presented demonstrate that up-regulation of GAPDH positively associated genes is proportional to the malignant stage of various tumors and is associated with an unfavourable prognosis. Thus, this work suggests that GACC genes represent a potential new signature for cancer stage identification and disease prognosis. PMID:23620736

  11. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production triggered by prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) regulates lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expression/activity in TM4 Sertoli cells.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Soledad P; Windschüttl, Stefanie; Matzkin, María E; Rey-Ares, Verónica; Terradas, Claudio; Ponzio, Roberto; Puigdomenech, Elisa; Levalle, Oscar; Calandra, Ricardo S; Mayerhofer, Artur; Frungieri, Mónica B

    2016-10-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulate testicular function in health and disease. We previously described a prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) system in Sertoli cells. Now, we found that PGD2 increases ROS and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generation in murine TM4 Sertoli cells, and also induces antioxidant enzymes expression suggesting that defense systems are triggered as an adaptive stress mechanism that guarantees cell survival. ROS and specially H2O2 may act as second messengers regulating signal transduction pathways and gene expression. We describe a stimulatory effect of PGD2 on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) expression via DP1/DP2 receptors, which is prevented by the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine and the PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor LY 294002. PGD2 also enhances Akt and CREB/ATF-1 phosphorylation. Our results provide evidence for a role of PGD2 in the regulation of the oxidant/antioxidant status in Sertoli cells and, more importantly, in the modulation of LDH expression which takes place through ROS generation and the Akt-CREB/ATF-1 pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Divergent effects of retinoic acids on the expression of ERalpha and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in endometrial carcinoma cells (RL 95-2).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Li, Hui; Xiao, Zhi-Jie; Piao, Yun-Shang

    2002-02-01

    The effects of E2 are dependent on ERs and local E2 concentration in target cells. Modulation of intracellular E2 concentration involves the action of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17HSD) type 2, the enzyme converting E2 to estrone. In the present study, the influence of RAs on the growth of endometrial cancer cell line RL 95-2 as well as the expression of ERs and 17HSD type 2 have been investigated. It was found that RAs repress the growth of RL 95-2 cells, which express all subtypes of RXR and RAR, as examined by RT-PCR. Also, quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that both ERalpha and ERbeta are present in RL 95-2 cells, and Western blot assay further revealed that ERalpha expression was decreased by all trans-RA treatment. In contrast, RAs induced 17HSD type 2 mRNA expression in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. This stimulatory effect was also detected at the level of in vivo oxidative 17HSD activity in cultured cells. On the other hand, the abundance of 17HSD type 2 mRNA was not altered by RAs in cultured normal epithelial cells isolated from human early- and late-secretory endometrium. The data indicate that RAs have an inhibitory effect on the growth of RL 95-2 cells and a cross-talk with the estrogen pathway in estrogen-responsive endometrial cancer cells.

  13. Increased inosine 5{prime}-monophosphate dehydrogenase gene expression in replicating cells: A response to growth factors, not to changes in cell cycle parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Tsutani, Hiroshi; Collart, F.R.; Glesne, D.A.; Huberman, E. |

    1997-07-01

    The authors have analyzed levels of inosine 5{prime}-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH; E.C. 1.1.1.205) type II mRNA levels in a human melanoma cell line, SK-MEL-131, and a Chinese hamster ovary cell line synchronously progressing through the cell cycle following treatment with aphidicolin. Following release from the aphidicolin block at the G{sub 1}-S phase boundary, the type II IMPDH gene was found to be constitutively expressed at a similar level during all stages of the cell cycle. To analyze growth regulation, as opposed to cell cycle regulation, stable SK-MEL-131 transfectants that express a type II IMPDH-promoted heterologous construct were assayed following deprivation of serum growth factors and after restimulation with fresh serum. Serum deprivation resulted in down-regulation of both steady state type II IMPDH mRNA levels and promoter activity, while restimulation with serum resulted in up-regulation of these parameters. These findings support the conclusion that the increase in IMPDH type II gene expression in replicating cells is mainly due to growth factor regulation rather than changes in cell cycle parameters and that this regulation is mediated primarily by a transcriptional mechanism. The increased level of IMPDH expression and activity found in many tumors may therefore also be due to a transcriptionally mediated response to growth factors.

  14. Increased Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β and Hexose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Expression in Adipose Tissue May Contribute to Glucocorticoid-Induced Mouse Visceral Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chaoying; Yang, Huabing; Wang, Ying; Dong, Yunzhou; Yu, Fei; Wu, Yong; Wang, Wei; Ume, Adaku; Lutfy, Kabirullah; Friedman, Theodore C.; Tian, Shiliu; Liu, Yanjun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Increased adiposity in visceral depots is a crucial feature associated with glucocorticoid (GC) excess. The action of GCs in target tissue is regulated by GC receptor (GR) and 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11ß-HSD1) coupled with hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6pdh). Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) is known to be a crucial mediator of ligand-dependent gene transcription. We hypothesized that the major effects of corticosteroids on adipose fat accumulation are in part medicated by changes in GSK3β and H6pdh. METHODS We characterized the alterations of GSK3β and GC metabolic enzymes, and determined the impact of GR antagonist mifepristone on obesity-related genes and the expression of H6pdh and 11ß-HSD1 in adipose tissue of mice exposed to excess GC as well as in in vitro studies using 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with GCs. RESULTS Corticosterone (CORT) exposure increased abdominal fat mass and induced expression of lipid synthase ACC and ACL with activation of GSK3β phosphorylation in abdominal adipose tissue of C57BL/6J mice. Increased pSer9 GSK3β was correlated with induction of H6pdh and 11ß-HSD1. Additionally, mifepristone treatment reversed the production of H6pdh and attenuated CORT-mediated production of 11ß-HSD1 and lipogenic gene expression with reduction of pSer9 GSK3β, thereby leading to improvement of phenotype of adiposity within adipose tissue in mice treated with excess GCs. Suppression of pSer9 GSK3β by mifepristone was accompanied by activation of pThr308 Akt and blockade of CORT-induced adipogenic transcriptor C/EBPα and PPARγ. In addition, mifepristone also attenuated CORT-mediated activation of IRE1α/XBP1. Additionally, reduction of H6pdh by shRNA showed comparable effects to mifepristone on attenuating CORT-induced expression of GC metabolic enzymes and improved lipid accumulation in vitro in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CONCLUSION These findings suggest that elevated adipose GSK3β and H6pdh expression contribute

  15. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis of d-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus jensenii

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangwoo; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The thermostable d-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus jensenii (Lj d-LDH) is a key enzyme for the production of the d-form of lactic acid from pyruvate concomitant with the oxidation of NADH to NAD+. The polymers of lactic acid are used as biodegradable bioplastics. The Lj d-LDH protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of 28%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 400, 100 mM Tris–HCl pH 9, 200 mM magnesium sulfate at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 2.1 Å. The crystal belonged to space group P3121, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 90.5, c = 157.8 Å. With two molecules per asymmetric unit, the crystal volume per unit protein weight (V M) is 2.58 Å3 Da−1, which corresponds to a solvent content of approximately 52.3%. The structure was solved by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion using a selenomethionine derivative. PMID:25084378

  16. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase protein and mRNA are both differentially expressed in adult chickens but not chick embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Milner, R J; Brow, M D; Cleveland, D W; Shinnick, T M; Sutcliffe, J G

    1983-01-01

    We have determined the 679 nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone which, by hybridization-translation experiments, corresponds to a 36K chick brain protein. Our studies provide a partial amino acid sequence for this protein, identifying it as chicken glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Antisera raised against purified chicken GAPDH reacted with a 36K protein present in chick brain extracts and estimated to be the fourth most prevalent protein, as determined by either Coomassie Blue staining or by in vitro translation of chick brain mRNA. The amounts of GAPDH mRNA in chick brain, liver and muscle and adult chicken brain are similar, whereas the relative amount of adult chicken muscle GPDH mRNA is greatly elevated and that of adult liver lowered. The GAPDH protein levels showed a similar variation between tissues, suggesting that the levels of GAPDH protein are largely regulated by the amount of available GAPDH mRNA. The chicken GAPDH clone does not hybridize to rat mRNA, even though GAPDH is one of the most evolutionarily conserved proteins, indicating that selection pressures are heavier at the primary protein sequence level than at the nucleic acid sequence level for this gene, a situation contrasting to that of the tubulins. Images PMID:6687938

  17. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis of D-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus jensenii.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangwoo; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2014-08-01

    The thermostable D-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus jensenii (LjD-LDH) is a key enzyme for the production of the D-form of lactic acid from pyruvate concomitant with the oxidation of NADH to NAD(+). The polymers of lactic acid are used as biodegradable bioplastics. The LjD-LDH protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of 28%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 400, 100 mM Tris-HCl pH 9, 200 mM magnesium sulfate at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 2.1 Å. The crystal belonged to space group P3121, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 90.5, c = 157.8 Å. With two molecules per asymmetric unit, the crystal volume per unit protein weight (VM) is 2.58 Å(3) Da(-1), which corresponds to a solvent content of approximately 52.3%. The structure was solved by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion using a selenomethionine derivative.

  18. [Inheritance and phenotype expression of functional and null alleles of aromatic alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) in diploid wheats].

    PubMed

    Konovalov, A A; Shundrina, I K; Karpova, E V; Nefedov, A A; Goncharov, N P

    2014-11-01

    Functional F and null 0 alleles of the CAD1 (Aadh1) gene, which controls the biosynthesis of aromatic alcohol dehydrogenase, were studied in hybrids of the diploid wheat T. monococcum L. and Triticum sinskajae A.Filat. et Kurk. The gene CAD1 is located in chromosome 5A and is linked with the awnless gene awnS (La) with a recombination frequency of about 32%. Plants with genotypes FF, F0, and 00 were significantly different in the height and mechanical strength of the stalk (culm). The elastic limit of the culm tissues of plants FF was considerably higher than in 00 plants. F0 heterozygotes had intermediate values. The thickness of the wall of the sclerenchyma was thinner in plants with genotype 00. The chemical structure of lignin of plants with the functional CAD allele contained units of a phloroglucinol series missing in the mutant plants. The CAD genotypes had no effect on the relative content of cellulose and lignin in stalks ofdiploid wheat and insignificantly influenced the ratio of H :G : S units in the lignin structure, as well as some components of extractives.

  19. 17Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1 and Type 2: association between mRNA expression and activity in cell lines.

    PubMed

    Day, Joanna M; Tutill, Helena J; Newman, Simon P; Purohit, Atul; Lawrence, Harshani R; Vicker, Nigel; Potter, Barry V L; Reed, Michael J

    2006-03-27

    17Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17beta-HSDs) are a family of enzymes that regulate steroid availability within a tissue by catalysing the interconversion of active and inactive forms. Type 1 is up-regulated in many breast tumours, and is responsible for the reduction of oestrone to active oestradiol which stimulates cell proliferation within the tumour. Type 2 oxidises many active steroids to their inactive forms, including oestradiol to oestrone. In this study, we have compared the mRNA expression and enzyme activities of Type 1 and Type 2 in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, T47D, JEG3 and 293-EBNA cell lines. Also studied were two cell lines stably expressing transfected Type 1 cDNA. RT-PCR indicated that little Type 1 mRNA is expressed in two of the breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, and in 293-EBNA cells, but that expression is much higher in the T47D breast cancer cell line, and in the choriocarcinoma cell line, JEG3. However, a higher level of expression of Type 1 is seen in the transfected cell lines MCF-7.8H and 293-EBNA[His617beta-HSD1]. Activity assays show that there is high association between mRNA expression and enzyme activity. Assays indicate that, with the exception of MDA-MB-231 cells, Type 2 activity is low in these lines. The study of the basal activities of these enzymes will be used in future studies investigating the regulation of the enzymes by endogenous and exogenous factors. An understanding of their regulation in both healthy and malignant tissues may lead to future therapeutic intervention at the regulatory level.

  20. Engineering Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz for Enhanced Oil and Seed Yields by Combining Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase1 and Glycerol-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Expression.

    PubMed

    Chhikara, Sudesh; Abdullah, Hesham M; Akbari, Parisa; Schnell, Danny; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2017-10-04

    Plant seed oils based liquid transportation fuels (i.e., biodiesel and green diesel) have tremendous potential as environmentally, economically and technologically feasible alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels. Due to their nutritional and industrial importance, one of the major objectives is to increase the seed yield and oil production of oilseed crops via biotechnological approaches. Camelina sativa, an emerging oilseed crop, has been proposed as an ideal crop for biodiesel and bioproducts applications. Further increase in seed oil yield by increasing the flux of carbon from increased photosynthesis into triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis will make this crop more profitable. To increase the oil yield, we engineered Camelina by co-expressing the Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (DGAT1) and a yeast cytosolic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1) genes under the control of seed-specific promoters. Plants co-expressing DGAT1 and GPD1 exhibited up to 13% higher seed oil content and up to 52% increase in seed mass compared to wild type plants. Further, DGAT1 and GDP1 co-expressing lines showed significantly higher seed and oil yields on a dry-weight basis than the wild type controls or plants expressing DGAT1 and GPD1 alone. The oil harvest index (g oil per g total dry matter) for DGTA1 and GPD1 co-expressing lines was almost two-folds higher as compared to wild type and the lines expressing DGAT1 and GPD1 alone. Therefore, combining the overexpression of TAG biosynthetic genes, DGAT1 and GPD1, appears to be a positive strategy to achieve a synergistic effect on the flux through the TAG synthesis pathway, and thereby further increase the oil yield. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Mediastinal adipose tissue expresses a pathogenic profile of 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1, glucocorticoid receptor, and CD68 in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Atalar, Fatmahan; Gormez, Selcuk; Caynak, Baris; Akan, Gokce; Tanriverdi, Gamze; Bilgic-Gazioglu, Sema; Gunay, Demet; Duran, Cihan; Akpinar, Belhhan; Ozbek, Ugur; Buyukdevrim, Ahmet Sevim; Yazıcı, Zeliha

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac visceral fat is accepted to be a new marker for cardiometabolic risk due to its association with increased cardiovascular risk factors. This study aimed to compare the expression of 11 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSD)-1, glucocorticoid receptor (GCR), and CD68 in mediastinal and subcutaneous adipose tissues (MAT, and SAT, respectively) and to assess their possible relationships with the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Expression of 11β-HSD-1, GCR, and CD68 mRNA levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in MAT and SAT tissues of 37 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting due to CAD (CAD group) and 19 non-CAD patients (controls) undergoing heart valve surgery. 11β-HSD-1 in MAT and SAT and GCR expression in MAT and SAT were found to be significantly increased in CAD group when compared with controls (P<.05, respectively). In CAD group, 11β-HSD-1 mRNA levels were found to be significantly higher in MAT compared to SAT (P<.05). CD68 mRNA levels were significantly higher in MAT of CAD group compared to controls (P<.05). Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated the presence of CD68+ cells and increased 11β-HSD-1 expression in MAT of CAD group compared to SAT. The present study demonstrate that the mediastinal fat exhibits a pathogenic mRNA profile of 11β-HSD-1, GCR, and CD68. The identification of 11β-HSD-1 expression within the mediastinal fat, along with increased GCR expressions and the presence of CD68+ cells highlight that MAT potentially contributes to the pathogenesis of CAD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lignin and lignans in plant defence: insight from expression profiling of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase genes during development and following fungal infection in Populus.

    PubMed

    Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka; Barakat, Abdelali; Lakomy, Piotr; Smoliński, Dariusz J; Zadworny, Marcin

    2014-12-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyses the final step in the biosynthesis of monolignol, the main component of lignin. Lignins, deposited in the secondary cell wall, play a role in plant defence against pathogens. We re-analysed the phylogeny of CAD/CAD-like genes using sequences from recently sequenced genomes, and analysed the temporal and spatial expression profiles of CAD/CAD-like genes in Populus trichocarpa healthy and infected plants. Three fungal pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum, and Cytospora sp.), varying in lifestyle and pathogenicity, were used for plant infection. Phylogenetic analyses showed that CAD/CAD-like genes were distributed in classes represented by all members from angiosperm lineages including basal angiosperms and Selaginella. The analysed genes showed different expression profiles during development and demonstrated that three genes were involved in primary xylem maturation while five may function in secondary xylem formation. Expression analysis following inoculation with fungal pathogens, showed that five genes were induced in either stem or leaves. These results add further evidence that CAD/CAD-like genes have evolved specialised functions in plant development and defence against various pest and pathogens. Two genes (PoptrCAD11 and PoptrCAD15), which were induced under various stresses, could be treated as universal markers of plant defence using lignification or lignan biosynthesis.

  3. Adipocyte pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 expression is associated with augmented PPARγ upregulation in early-life programming of later obesity

    PubMed Central

    Holness, Mark J.; Zariwala, Gulrez; Walker, Celia G.; Sugden, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    We studied adipocytes from 8-week-old control rat offspring (CON) or rat offspring subjected to maternal low (8%) protein (MLP) feeding during pregnancy/lactation, a procedure predisposing to obesity. Acute exposure to isoproterenol or adenosine enhanced PDK4 and PPARγ mRNA gene expression in CON and MLP adipocytes. Enhanced adipocyte Pdk4 expression correlated with increased PPARγ expression. Higher levels of PDK4 and PPARγ were observed in MLP adipocytes. SCD1 is a PPARγ target. Isoproterenol enhanced adipocyte PDK4 and SCD1 gene expression in parallel. This could reflect augmented PPARγ expression together with enhanced lipolytic stimulation to supply endogenous PPARγ ligands, allowing enhanced adipocyte PDK4 and SCD1 expression via PPARγ activation. In contrast, the effect of adenosine to increase PDK4 expression is independent of stimulation of lipolysis and, as SCD1 expression was unaffected by adenosine, unlikely to reflect PPARγ activation. Increased adipocyte expression of both PDK4 and SCD1 in the MLP model could participate as components of a “thrifty” phenotype, favouring the development of obesity. PMID:23650578

  4. Delta 5-3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta HSD) from Digitalis lanata. Heterologous expression and characterisation of the recombinant enzyme.

    PubMed

    Herl, Vanessa; Frankenstein, Jördis; Meitinger, Nadine; Müller-Uri, Frieder; Kreis, Wolfgang

    2007-06-01

    During the biosynthesis of cardiac glycosides, Delta (5)-3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta HSD, EC 1.1.1.51) converts pregnenolone (5-pregnen-3beta-ol-20-one) to isoprogesterone (5-pregnene-3,20-dione). A 3 beta HSD gene was isolated from leaves of Digitalis lanata. It consisted of 870 nucleotides containing a 90 nucleotide long intron. A full-length cDNA clone that encodes 3 beta HSD was isolated by RT-PCR from the same source. A SPH I /KPN I 3 beta HSD cDNA was cloned into the pQE30 vector and then transferred into E. COLI strain M15[pREP4]. 3 beta HSD cDNA was functionally expressed as a His-tagged fusion protein (pQ3 beta HSD) composed of 273 amino acids (calculated molecular mass 28,561 Da). pQ3 beta HSD was purified by metal chelate affinity chromatography on Ni-NTA. Pregnenolone and other 3beta-hydroxypregnanes but not cholesterol were 3beta-oxidised by pQ3 beta HSD when NAD was used as the co-substrate. Testosterone (4-androsten-17beta-ol-3-one) was converted to 4-androstene-3,17-dione indicating that the pQ3 beta HSD has also 17beta-dehydrogenase activity. pQ3 beta HSD was able to reduce 3-keto steroids to their corresponding 3beta-hydroxy derivatives when NADH was used as the co-substrate. For comparison, 3 beta HSD genes were isolated and sequenced from another 6 species of the genus DIGITALIS. Gene structure and the deduced 3 beta HSD proteins share a high degree of similarity.

  5. Mutations of key hydrophobic surface residues of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 increase solubility and monodispersity in a bacterial expression system

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Alexander J; Walker, Elizabeth A; White, Scott A; Dafforn, Timothy R; Stewart, Paul M; Ride, Jonathan P

    2009-01-01

    11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is a key enzyme in the conversion of cortisone to the functional glucocorticoid hormone cortisol. This activation has been implicated in several human disorders, notably the metabolic syndrome where 11β-HSD1 has been identified as a novel target for potential therapeutic drugs. Recent crystal structures have revealed the presence of a pronounced hydrophobic surface patch lying on two helices at the C-terminus. The physiological significance of this region has been attributed to facilitating substrate access by allowing interactions with the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Here, we report that single mutations that alter the hydrophobicity of this patch (I275E, L266E, F278E, and L279E in the human enzyme and I275E, Y266E, F278E, and L279E in the guinea pig enzyme) result in greatly increased yields of soluble protein on expression in E. coli. Kinetic analyses of both reductase and dehydrogenase reactions indicate that the F278E mutant has unaltered Km values for steroids and an unaltered or increased kcat. Analytical ultracentrifugation shows that this mutation also decreases aggregation of both the human and guinea pig enzymes, resulting in greater monodispersity. One of the mutants (guinea pig F278E) has proven easy to crystallize and has been shown to have a virtually identical structure to that previously reported for the wild-type enzyme. The human F278E enzyme is shown to be a suitable background for analyzing the effects of naturally occurring mutations (R137C, K187N) on enzyme activity and stability. Hence, the F278E mutants should be useful for many future biochemical and biophysical studies of the enzyme. PMID:19507261

  6. In Vivo Validation of In Silico Predicted Metabolic Engineering Strategies in Yeast: Disruption of α-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase and Expression of ATP-Citrate Lyase for Terpenoid Production

    PubMed Central

    Gruchattka, Evamaria; Kayser, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Background Engineering of the central carbon metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to redirect metabolic flux towards cytosolic acetyl-CoA has become a central topic in yeast biotechnology. A cell factory with increased flux into acetyl-CoA can be used for heterologous production of terpenoids for pharmaceuticals, biofuels, fragrances, or other acetyl-CoA derived compounds. In a previous study, we identified promising metabolic engineering targets in S. cerevisiae using an in silico stoichiometric metabolic network analysis. Here, we validate selected in silico strategies in vivo. Results Patchoulol was produced by yeast via a heterologous patchoulol synthase of Pogostemon cablin. To increase the metabolic flux from acetyl-CoA towards patchoulol, a truncated HMG-CoA reductase was overexpressed and farnesyl diphosphate synthase was fused with patchoulol synthase. The highest increase in production could be achieved by modifying the carbon source; sesquiterpenoid titer increased from glucose to ethanol by a factor of 8.4. Two strategies predicted in silico were chosen for validation in this work. Disruption of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase gene (KGD1) was predicted to redirect the metabolic flux via the pyruvate dehydrogenase bypass towards acetyl-CoA. The metabolic flux was redirected as predicted, however, the effect was dependent on cultivation conditions and the flux was interrupted at the level of acetate. High amounts of acetate were produced. As an alternative pathway to synthesize cytosolic acetyl-CoA, ATP-citrate lyase was expressed as a polycistronic construct, however, in vivo performance of the enzyme needs to be optimized to increase terpenoid production. Conclusions Stoichiometric metabolic network analysis can be used successfully as a metabolic prediction tool. However, this study highlights that kinetics, regulation and cultivation conditions may interfere, resulting in poor in vivo performance. Main sites of regulation need to be released and

  7. In Vivo Validation of In Silico Predicted Metabolic Engineering Strategies in Yeast: Disruption of α-Ketoglutarate Dehydrogenase and Expression of ATP-Citrate Lyase for Terpenoid Production.

    PubMed

    Gruchattka, Evamaria; Kayser, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Engineering of the central carbon metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to redirect metabolic flux towards cytosolic acetyl-CoA has become a central topic in yeast biotechnology. A cell factory with increased flux into acetyl-CoA can be used for heterologous production of terpenoids for pharmaceuticals, biofuels, fragrances, or other acetyl-CoA derived compounds. In a previous study, we identified promising metabolic engineering targets in S. cerevisiae using an in silico stoichiometric metabolic network analysis. Here, we validate selected in silico strategies in vivo. Patchoulol was produced by yeast via a heterologous patchoulol synthase of Pogostemon cablin. To increase the metabolic flux from acetyl-CoA towards patchoulol, a truncated HMG-CoA reductase was overexpressed and farnesyl diphosphate synthase was fused with patchoulol synthase. The highest increase in production could be achieved by modifying the carbon source; sesquiterpenoid titer increased from glucose to ethanol by a factor of 8.4. Two strategies predicted in silico were chosen for validation in this work. Disruption of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase gene (KGD1) was predicted to redirect the metabolic flux via the pyruvate dehydrogenase bypass towards acetyl-CoA. The metabolic flux was redirected as predicted, however, the effect was dependent on cultivation conditions and the flux was interrupted at the level of acetate. High amounts of acetate were produced. As an alternative pathway to synthesize cytosolic acetyl-CoA, ATP-citrate lyase was expressed as a polycistronic construct, however, in vivo performance of the enzyme needs to be optimized to increase terpenoid production. Stoichiometric metabolic network analysis can be used successfully as a metabolic prediction tool. However, this study highlights that kinetics, regulation and cultivation conditions may interfere, resulting in poor in vivo performance. Main sites of regulation need to be released and improved enzymes are essential to

  8. Kinetic characterization of recombinant Bacillus coagulans FDP-activated l-lactate dehydrogenase expressed in Escherichia coli and its substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ting; Xu, Yanbing; Sun, Xiucheng; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Ouyang, Jia

    2014-03-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a homofermentative, acid-tolerant and thermophilic sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, which is capable of producing high yields of optically pure lactic acid. The l-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase (l-LDH) from B. coagulans is considered as an ideal biocatalyst for industrial production. In this study, the gene ldhL encoding a thermostable l-LDH was amplified from B. coagulans NL01 genomic DNA and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant enzyme was partially purified and its enzymatic properties were characterized. Sequence analysis demonstrated that the l-LDH was a fructose 1,6-diphosphate-activated NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (l-nLDH). Its molecular weight was approximately 34-36kDa. The Km and Vmax values of the purified l-nLDH for pyruvate were 1.91±0.28mM and 2613.57±6.43μmol(minmg)(-1), respectively. The biochemical properties of l-nLDH showed that the specific activity were up to 2323.29U/mg with optimum temperature of 55°C and pH of 6.5 in the pyruvate reduction and 351.01U/mg with temperature of 55°C and pH of 11.5 in the lactate oxidation. The enzyme also showed some activity in the absence of FDP, with a pH optimum of 4.0. Compared to other lactic acid bacterial l-nLDHs, the enzyme was found to be relatively stable at 50°C. Ca(2+), Ba(2+), Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) ions had activated effects on the enzyme activity, and the enzyme was greatly inhibited by Ni(2+) ion. Besides these, l-nLDH showed the higher specificity towards pyruvate esters, such as methyl pyruvate and ethyl pyruvate.

  9. Improved Tolerance to Various Abiotic Stresses in Transgenic Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Expressing Spinach Betaine Aldehyde Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Weijuan; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Abiotic stresses are critical delimiters for the increased productivity and cultivation expansion of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), a root crop with worldwide importance. The increased production of glycine betaine (GB) improves plant tolerance to various abiotic stresses without strong phenotypic changes, providing a feasible approach to improve stable yield production under unfavorable conditions. The gene encoding betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) is involved in the biosynthesis of GB in plants, and the accumulation of GB by the heterologous overexpression of BADH improves abiotic stress tolerance in plants. This study is to improve sweet potato, a GB accumulator, resistant to multiple abiotic stresses by promoted GB biosynthesis. A chloroplastic BADH gene from Spinacia oleracea (SoBADH) was introduced into the sweet potato cultivar Sushu-2 via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The overexpression of SoBADH in the transgenic sweet potato improved tolerance to various abiotic stresses, including salt, oxidative stress, and low temperature. The increased BADH activity and GB accumulation in the transgenic plant lines under normal and multiple environmental stresses resulted in increased protection against cell damage through the maintenance of cell membrane integrity, stronger photosynthetic activity, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and induction or activation of ROS scavenging by the increased activity of free radical-scavenging enzymes. The increased proline accumulation and systemic upregulation of many ROS-scavenging genes in stress-treated transgenic plants also indicated that GB accumulation might stimulate the ROS-scavenging system and proline biosynthesis via an integrative mechanism. This study demonstrates that the enhancement of GB biosynthesis in sweet potato is an effective and feasible approach to improve its tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses without causing phenotypic defects. This strategy for trait improvement in

  10. Umbilical cord blood-derived aldehyde dehydrogenase-expressing progenitor cells promote recovery from acute ischemic injury.

    PubMed

    Putman, David M; Liu, Kevin Y; Broughton, Heather C; Bell, Gillian I; Hess, David A

    2012-10-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) represents a readily available source of hematopoietic and endothelial precursors at early ontogeny. Understanding the proangiogenic functions of these somatic progenitor subtypes after transplantation is integral to the development of improved cell-based therapies to treat ischemic diseases. We used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to purify a rare (<0.5%) population of UCB cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH(hi) ) activity, a conserved stem/progenitor cell function. ALDH(hi) cells were depleted of mature monocytes and T- and B-lymphocytes and were enriched for early myeloid (CD33) and stem cell-associated (CD34, CD133, and CD117) phenotypes. Although these cells were primarily hematopoietic in origin, UCB ALDH(hi) cells demonstrated a proangiogenic transcription profile and were highly enriched for both multipotent myeloid and endothelial colony-forming cells in vitro. Coculture of ALDH(hi) cells in hanging transwells promoted the survival of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) under growth factor-free and serum-free conditions. On growth factor depleted matrigel, ALDH(hi) cells significantly increased tube-like cord formation by HUVEC. After induction of acute unilateral hind limb ischemia by femoral artery ligation, transplantation of ALDH(hi) cells significantly enhanced the recovery of perfusion in ischemic limbs. Despite transient engraftment in the ischemic hind limb, early recruitment of ALDH(hi) cells into ischemic muscle tissue correlated with increased murine von Willebrand factor blood vessel and CD31+ capillary densities. Thus, UCB ALDH(hi) cells represent a readily available population of proangiogenic progenitors that promote vascular regeneration. This work provides preclinical justification for the development of therapeutic strategies to treat ischemic diseases using UCB-derived ALDH(hi) mixed progenitor cells. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  11. Impact of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency on sickle cell anaemia expression in infancy and early childhood: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Benkerrou, Malika; Alberti, Corinne; Couque, Nathalie; Haouari, Zinedine; Ba, Aissatou; Missud, Florence; Boizeau, Priscilla; Holvoet, Laurent; Ithier, Ghislaine; Elion, Jacques; Baruchel, André; Ducrocq, Rolande

    2013-12-01

    In patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA), concomitant glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is usually described as having no effect and only occasionally as increasing severity. We analysed sequential clinical and biological data for the first 42 months of life in SCA patients diagnosed by neonatal screening, including 27 G6PD-deficient patients, who were matched on sex, age and parents' geographic origin to 81 randomly selected patients with normal G6PD activity. In the G6PD-deficient group, steady-state haemoglobin was lower (-6·2 g/l, 95% confidence interval (CI), [-10·1; -2·3]) and reticulocyte count higher (247 × 10(9) /l, 95%CI, [97; 397]). The acute anaemic event rate was 3 times higher in the G6PD-deficient group (P < 10(-3) ). A higher proportion of G6PD-deficient patients required blood transfusion (20/27 [74%] vs. 37/81 [46%], P < 10(-3) ), for acute anaemic events, and also vaso-occlusive and infectious events. No significant between-group differences were found regarding the rates of vaso-occlusive, infectious, or cerebrovascular events. G6PD deficiency in babies with SCA worsens anaemia and increases blood transfusion requirements in the first years of life. These effects decrease after 2 years of age, presumably as the decline in fetal haemoglobin levels leads to increased sickle cell haemolysis and younger red blood cells with higher G6PD activity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase types 1 and 2 in postnatal development of rat testis: gene expression, localization and regulation by luteinizing hormone and androgens.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong-Yu; Chen, Xin-Xin; Lin, Han; Fei, Ai-Li; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2014-01-01

    11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) and type 2 (11β-HSD2) are expressed in rat testis, where they regulate the local concentrations of glucocorticoids. Here, we investigated the expression and localization of 11β-HSD in rat testis during postnatal development, and the regulation of these genes by luteinizing hormone (LH) and androgens. mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively, in testes collected from rats at postnatal day (PND) 7, 14, 21, 35, and 90, and from rats treated with LH, 7α-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT) and testosterone at PND 21 and PND 90. Immunohistochemical staining was used to identify the localization of the 11β-HSD in rat testis at PND 7, 14, and 90. We found that 11β-HSD1 expression was restricted to the interstitial areas, and that its levels increased during rat testis development. In contrast, whereas 11β-HSD2 was expressed in both the interstitial areas and seminiferous tubules at PND 7, it was present only in the interstitial areas at PND 90, and its levels declined during testicular development. Moreover, 11β-HSD1 mRNA was induced by LH in both the PND 21 and 90 testes and by MENT at PND 21, whereas 11β-HSD2 mRNA was induced by testosterone and MENT in the PND 21 testis and by LH in the PND 90 testis. In conclusion, our study indicates that the 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 genes have distinct patterns of spatiotemporal expression and hormonal regulation during postnatal development of the rat testis.

  13. Caenorhabditis elegans expressing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae NADH alternative dehydrogenase Ndi1p, as a tool to identify new genes involved in complex I related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cossard, Raynald; Esposito, Michela; Sellem, Carole H.; Pitayu, Laras; Vasnier, Christelle; Delahodde, Agnès; Dassa, Emmanuel P.

    2015-01-01

    Isolated complex I deficiencies are one of the most commonly observed biochemical features in patients suffering from mitochondrial disorders. In the majority of these clinical cases the molecular bases of the diseases remain unknown suggesting the involvement of unidentified factors that are critical for complex I function. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae NDI1 gene, encoding the mitochondrial internal NADH dehydrogenase was previously shown to complement a complex I deficient strain in Caenorhabditis elegans with notable improvements in reproduction and whole organism respiration. These features indicate that Ndi1p can functionally integrate the respiratory chain, allowing complex I deficiency complementation. Taking into account the Ndi1p ability to bypass complex I, we evaluate the possibility to extend the range of defects/mutations causing complex I deficiencies that can be alleviated by NDI1 expression. We report here that NDI1 expressing animals unexpectedly exhibit a slightly shortened lifespan, a reduction in the progeny, and a depletion of the mitochondrial genome. However, Ndi1p is expressed and targeted to the mitochondria as a functional protein that confers rotenone resistance to those animals without affecting their respiration rate and ATP content. We show that the severe embryonic lethality level caused by the RNAi knockdowns of complex I structural subunit encoding genes (e.g., NDUFV1, NDUFS1, NDUFS6, NDUFS8, or GRIM-19 human orthologs) in wild type animals is significantly reduced in the Ndi1p expressing worm. All together these results open up the perspective to identify new genes involved in complex I function, assembly, or regulation by screening an RNAi library of genes leading to embryonic lethality that should be rescued by NDI1 expression. PMID:26124772

  14. Expression of P450 aromatase and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 at fetal-maternal interface during tubal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Qin, Li; Xiao, Zhi-Jie; Wang, Yan-Ling; Herva, Riitta; Leng, Jin-Hua; Lang, Jing-He; Isomaa, Veli; Piao, Yun-Shang

    2003-12-01

    Steroidogenesis in the placenta has been studied widely, but little is known about steroid metabolism in ectopic pregnancy. Previous studies have indicated that trophoblast invasion and placentation in the uterus and the fallopian tube may be controlled by similar mechanisms. As far as 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) production is concerned, it has been well demonstrated that its biosynthesis in the placenta involves the action of P450 aromatase (P450arom) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17HSD1). The purpose of this study was to characterize the expression pattern of P450arom and 17HSD1 at the fetal-maternal interface, particularly in various trophoblast cells, in tubal pregnancy. Using in situ hybridization, P450arom mRNA was localized in syncytiotrophoblast (ST) cells, which are mainly responsible for hormone production during pregnancy, whereas no signal was detected in villous cytotrophoblast (VCT), column CT and extravillous CT (EVCT) cells. Immunohistochemical assays revealed that 17HSD1 is present in ST cells, a large portion of EVCT cells and 20% of column CT cells. On the other hand, no expression of 17HSD1 was detected in VCT cells. In addition, 17HSD1 was found in epithelial cells of the fallopian tube. Interestingly, the expression level of 17HSD1 in fallopian tube epithelium during tubal pregnancy was significantly higher than that during normal cycle. Our data provide the first evidence that normal and tubal pregnancies possess identical expression of P450arom and 17HSD1 in ST cells and therefore, similar E(2) production in the placenta. Further, the association of 17HSD1 with EVCT cells indicates that 17HSD1 perhaps play a role in trophoblast invasion. Finally, increased expression of 17HSD1 in epithelial cells of fallopian tube may lead to a local E(2) supply sufficient for the maintenance of tubal pregnancy.

  15. Molecular characterization and organ-specific expression of the gene that encodes betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in response to osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Gaytán, María F; Hernández-Palomares, Magally L E; Soñanez-Organis, José G; Muhlia-Almazán, Adriana; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo; Stephens-Camacho, Norma A; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa M; Rosas-Rodríguez, Jesús A

    2015-11-01

    Crustaceans overcome osmotic disturbances by regulating their intracellular concentration of ions and osmolytes. Glycine betaine (GB), an osmolyte accumulated in response to hyperosmotic stress, is synthesized by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH EC 1.2.1.8) through the oxidation of betaine aldehyde. A partial BADH cDNA sequence from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was obtained and its organ-specific expression during osmotic stress (low and high salinity) was evaluated. The partial BADH cDNA sequence (LvBADH) is 1103bp long and encodes an open reading frame for 217 protein residues. The amino acid sequence of LvBADH is related to that of other BADHs, TMABA-DH and ALDH9 from invertebrate and vertebrate homologues, and includes the essential domains of their function and regulation. LvBADH activity and mRNA expression were detected in the gills, hepatopancreas and muscle with the highest levels in the hepatopancreas. LvBADH mRNA expression increased 2-3-fold in the hepatopancreas and gills after 7days of osmotic variation (25 and 40ppt). In contrast, LvBADH mRNA expression in muscle decreased 4-fold and 15-fold after 7days at low and high salinity, respectively. The results indicate that LvBADH is ubiquitously expressed, but its levels are organ-specific and regulated by osmotic stress, and that LvBADH is involved in the cellular response of crustaceans to variations in environmental salinity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Aberrant expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A (ALDH1A) subfamily genes in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is a common feature of T-lineage tumours.

    PubMed

    Longville, Brooke A C; Anderson, Denise; Welch, Mathew D; Kees, Ursula R; Greene, Wayne K

    2015-01-01

    The class 1A aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1A) subfamily of genes encode enzymes that function at the apex of the retinoic acid (RA) signalling pathway. We detected aberrant expression of ALDH1A genes, particularly ALDH1A2, in a majority (72%) of primary paediatric T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) specimens. ALDH1A expression was almost exclusive to T-lineage, but not B-lineage, ALL. To determine whether ALDH1A expression may have relevance to T-ALL cell growth and survival, the effect of inhibiting ALDH1A function was measured on a panel of human ALL cell lines. This revealed that T-ALL proliferation had a higher sensitivity to modulation of ALDH1A activity and RA signalling as compared to ALL cell lines of B-lineage. Consistent with these findings, the genes most highly correlated with ALDH1A2 expression were involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Evidence that such genes may be targets of regulation via RA signalling initiated by ALDH1A activity was provided by the TNFRSF10B gene, encoding the apoptotic death receptor TNFRSF10B (also termed TRAIL-R2), which negatively correlated with ALDH1A2 and showed elevated transcription following treatment of T-ALL cell lines with the ALDH1A inhibitor citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal). These data indicate that ALDH1A expression is a common event in T-ALL and supports a role for these enzymes in the pathobiology of this disease.

  17. Expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and glucocorticoid receptors in reproductive tissue of male horses at different stages of sexual maturity.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Luna, C V; Budik, S; Helmreich, M; Walter, I; Aurich, C

    2013-04-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) as mediators of the stress response may affect Leydig cell function by inhibiting either luteinizing hormone receptor expression or testosterone biosynthesis. The isozymes 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD) 1 and 11βHSD2 control the intracellular cortisol levels. Little is known about the effects of stress on fertility in the equine. The objective of the present study was to determine the presence and cellular localization of glucocorticoid receptors (GCR) and glucocorticoid-metabolizing enzymes (11βHSD1 and 11βHSD2) in equine epididymal and testicular tissue with special regard to sexual maturation. Testicular and epididymal tissue was collected from 21 healthy stallions, and four age groups were designed: pre-pubertal, young, mature and older horses. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) were used. Pre-pubertal horses showed higher testicular gene expression of 11βHSD1, 11βHSD2 and GCR than horses of all other groups (p < 0.05). A positive intranuclear immunoreaction for GCR was seen in epithelial cells of caput, corpus and cauda epididymidis and in Leydig cells. Significant differences (p < 0.05) between age groups occurred. The number of Leydig cells staining positive for GCR was highest in immature stallions (p < 0.05). The enzyme 11βHSD1 was localized in epithelial cells of the caput and corpus epididymidis and in Leydig cells. As determined by enzyme assay, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependant dehydrogenase (oxidation) activity was not detected in testicular tissue from immature stallions but in all other age groups (n = 3 per group). Results of this study suggest a contribution of GCs to maturation of male reproductive tissue in horses. In mature stallions, expression of 11βHSD enzymes and the oxidative 11βHSD activity in Leydig cells and epididymal basal and principal cells suggest a protective role on these tissues contributing to physiological intracellular

  18. Late gestation increase in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 expression in human fetal membranes: a novel intrauterine source of cortisol.

    PubMed

    Alfaidy, Nadia; Li, Wei; MacIntosh, Tracy; Yang, Kaiping; Challis, John

    2003-10-01

    Late human gestation is associated with an increase in the concentration of cortisol (F) in the fetal circulation and amniotic fluid. It had been assumed that most of the F measured in the amniotic fluid came from the fetal adrenal gland. However, local production of F can also occur in human intrauterine tissues from inactive cortisone under the influence of the enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) type 1. Recent studies have shown that 11beta-HSD 1 activity is up-regulated by prostaglandins (PG) E2 and F2alpha, hormones that are produced in the fetal membranes (FM) at term. In the present study, we hypothesized that 11beta-HSD 1 expression would increase in FM during pregnancy and at labor, creating the potential for local increase in F production at term. We examined 11beta-HSD 1 expression in placenta and FM obtained during normal pregnancy from nonlaboring women [26-28 wk (n = 3); 29-30 wk (n = 3); 32-33 wk (n = 3); 35-36 wk (n = 3)] and from uncomplicated term pregnancies after elective cesarean section (n = 6). 11beta-HSD 1 expression was also examined in amnion and chorionic tissues in relation to term labor (n = 12). Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were used to examine 11beta-HSD 1 localization and expression. 11beta-HSD 1 activity was also measured in microsomal fractions prepared from whole fetal membranes. At term, immunoreactive 11beta-HSD 1 expression was localized predominantly to the chorion trophoblast cells, attached decidua, and amnion epithelial cells. 11beta-HSD 1 expression in FM increased with gestational age and reflected increased enzyme reductase activity. No change in 11beta-HSD 1 expression was found in placental tissue from the same patients. There was a significant increase in 11beta-HSD 1 expression in amnion but not in chorion with the onset of labor. We suggest that increases in 11beta-HSD 1 expression/activity by intrauterine membranes during late gestation may result in increased potential for a

  19. Over-expression of Arabidopsis thaliana SFD1/GLY1, the gene encoding plastid localized glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, increases plastidic lipid content in transgenic rice plants

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Adnan; Singh, Subaran; Banday, Zeeshan Zahoor; Nandi, Ashis Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Lipids are the major constituents of all membranous structures in plants. Plants possess two pathways for lipid biosynthesis: the prokaryotic pathway (i.e., plastidic pathway) and the eukaryotic pathway (i.e., endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) pathway). Whereas some plants synthesize galactolipids from diacylglycerol assembled in the plastid, others, including rice, derive their galactolipids from diacylglycerols assembled by the eukaryotic pathway. Arabidopsis thaliana glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pDH), coded by SUPPRESSOR OF FATTY ACID DESATURASE 1 (SFD1; alias GLY1) gene, catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate (G3p), the backbone of many membrane lipids. Here SFD1 was introduced to rice as a transgene. Arabidopsis SFD1 localizes in rice plastids and its over-expression increases plastidic membrane lipid content in transgenic rice plants without any major impact on ER lipids. The results suggest that over-expression of plastidic G3pDH enhances biosynthesis of plastid-localized lipids in rice. Lipid composition in the transgenic plants is consistent with increased phosphatidylglycerol synthesis in the plastid and increased galactolipid synthesis from diacylglycerol produced via the ER pathway. The transgenic plants show a higher photosynthetic assimilation rate, suggesting a possible application of this finding in crop improvement. PMID:26747130

  20. Identification and mRNA expression of two 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase genes in the marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis following exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Qing; Ji, Yinglu; Zhang, Qian; Wu, Huifeng; Xie, Jia; Zhao, Jianmin

    2014-05-01

    17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSDs) are multifunctional enzymes involved in the metabolism of steroids, fatty acids, retinoids and bile acid. In this study, two novel types of 17β-HSDs (named as MgHsd17b10 and MgHsd17b12) were cloned from Mytilus galloprovincialis by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. Sequence analysis showed that MgHsd17b10 and MgHsd17b12 encoded a polypeptide of 259 and 325 amino acids, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that MgHsd17b10 and MgHsd17b12 were evolutionarily clustered with other invertebrate 17β-HSD type 10 and 17β-HSD type 12 homologues. The MgHsd17b10 and MgHsd17b12 transcripts could be detected in all examined tissues with higher expression levels in digestive glands and gonad. After exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (Bisphenol A or 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether), the expression of MgHsd17b10 and MgHsd17b12 transcripts was both down-regulated in digestive glands. These findings suggest that MgHsd17b10 and MgHsd17b12 perhaps play an important role in the endocrine regulation of M. galloprovincialis.

  1. Efficient expression of codon-adapted human acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 cDNA with 6xHis tag in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhao, YuFeng; Lei, MingKe; Wu, YuanXin; Zhang, ZiSheng; Wang, CunWen

    2009-10-01

    Human mitochondrial acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) catalyzes the oxidation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid. Therefore, ALDH2 has therapeutic potential in detoxification of acetaldehyde. Furthermore, ALDH2 catalyzes nitroglycerin to nitrate and 1, 2-glyceryldinitrate during therapy for angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Large quantities of ALDH2 will be needed for potential clinical practice. In this study, Pichia pastoris was used as a platform for expression of human ALDH2. Based on the ALDH2*1 cDNA sequence, we designed ALDH2 cDNA by choosing the P. pastoris preferred codons and by decreasing the G + C content level. The sequence was synthesized using the overlap extension PCR method. The cDNA and 6xHis tags were subcloned into the plasmid pPIC9K. The recombinant protein was expressed in P. pastoris GS115 and purified using Ni(2+)-Sepharose affinity chromatography. The amount of secreted protein in the culture was 80 mg/L in shake-flask cultivation and 260 mg/L in high-density bioreactor fermentation. Secreted ALDH2 was easily purified from the culture supernatant by using Ni(2+)-Sepharose affinity chromatography. After purification of the fermentation supernatant, the enzyme had a specific activity of 1.2 U/mg protein. The yield was about 16 mg/L in a shake flask culture of P. pastoris GS115 which contained the original human ALDH2*1 cDNA.

  2. Expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A1 and high mobility group box 1 in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in association with survival time

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xu; Coordes, Annekatrin; Kaufmann, Andreas M.; Albers, Andreas E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the development of novel multimodal treatment combinations in advanced oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), outcomes remain poor. The identification of specifically validated biomarkers is required to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms, to evaluate treatment efficiency and to develop novel therapeutic targets. The present study, therefore, examined the presence of aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A1 (ALDH1A1) and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) expression in primary OSCC and analyzed the impact on survival time. In 59 patients with OSCC, the expression of ALDH1A1, p16 and HMGB1, and their clinicopathological data were analyzed. HMGB1 positivity was significantly increased in patients with T1-2 stage disease compared with T3-4 stage disease (P<0.001), whereas ALDH1A1 positivity was not. ALDH1A1+ tumors showed significantly lower differentiation than ALDH1A1− tumors (P=0.018). Multivariate analysis showed that ALDH1A1 positivity (P=0.041) and nodal status (N2-3) (P=0.036) predicted a poor prognosis. In this patient cohort, ALDH1A1 and nodal status were identified as independent predictors of a shorter overall survival time. The study results, therefore, provide evidence of the prognostic value of ALDH1A1 as a marker for cancer stem cells and nodal status in OSCC patients. PMID:27900016

  3. Expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A1 and high mobility group box 1 in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in association with survival time.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xu; Coordes, Annekatrin; Kaufmann, Andreas M; Albers, Andreas E

    2016-11-01

    Despite the development of novel multimodal treatment combinations in advanced oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), outcomes remain poor. The identification of specifically validated biomarkers is required to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms, to evaluate treatment efficiency and to develop novel therapeutic targets. The present study, therefore, examined the presence of aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A1 (ALDH1A1) and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) expression in primary OSCC and analyzed the impact on survival time. In 59 patients with OSCC, the expression of ALDH1A1, p16 and HMGB1, and their clinicopathological data were analyzed. HMGB1 positivity was significantly increased in patients with T1-2 stage disease compared with T3-4 stage disease (P<0.001), whereas ALDH1A1 positivity was not. ALDH1A1(+) tumors showed significantly lower differentiation than ALDH1A1(-) tumors (P=0.018). Multivariate analysis showed that ALDH1A1 positivity (P=0.041) and nodal status (N2-3) (P=0.036) predicted a poor prognosis. In this patient cohort, ALDH1A1 and nodal status were identified as independent predictors of a shorter overall survival time. The study results, therefore, provide evidence of the prognostic value of ALDH1A1 as a marker for cancer stem cells and nodal status in OSCC patients.

  4. Enhancement of 1,3-propanediol production by expression of pyruvate decarboxylase and aldehyde dehydrogenase from Zymomonas mobilis in the acetolactate-synthase-deficient mutant of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Mok; Hong, Won-Kyung; Heo, Sun-Yeon; Park, Jang Min; Jung, You Ree; Oh, Baek-Rock; Joe, Min-Ho; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Chul Ho

    2014-08-01

    The acetolactate synthase (als)-deficient mutant of Klebsiella pneumoniae fails to produce 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) or 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD), and is defective in glycerol metabolism. In an effort to recover production of the industrially valuable 1,3-PD, we introduced the Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase (pdc) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (aldB) genes into the als-deficient mutant to activate the conversion of pyruvate to ethanol. Heterologous expression of pdc and aldB efficiently recovered glycerol metabolism in the 2,3-BD synthesis-defective mutant, enhancing the production of 1,3-PD by preventing the accumulation of pyruvate. Production of 1,3-PD in the pdc- and aldB-expressing als-deficient mutant was further enhanced by increasing the aeration rate. This system uses metabolic engineering to produce 1,3-PD while minimizing the generation of 2,3-BD, offering a breakthrough for the industrial production of 1,3-PD from crude glycerol.

  5. The Cloning and Mapping of ADR6, a Gene Required for Sporulation and for Expression of the Alcohol Dehydrogenase II Isozyme from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Aileen K. W.; Young, Elton T.

    1987-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase II (ADH2) gene of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is not transcribed during growth on fermentable carbon sources such as glucose. Growth of yeast cells in a medium containing only nonfermentable carbon sources leads to a marked increase or derepression of ADH2 expression. The recessive mutation, adr6-1, leads to an inability to fully derepress ADH2 expression and to an inability to sporulate. The ADR6 gene product appears to act directly or indirectly on ADH2 sequences 3' to or including the presumptive TATAA box. The upstream activating sequence (UAS) located 5' to the TATAA box is not required for the Adr6- phenotype. Here, we describe the isolation of a recombinant plasmid containing the wild-type ADR6 gene. ADR6 codes for a 4.4-kb RNA which is present during growth both on glucose and on nonfermentable carbon sources. Disruption of the ADR6 transcription unit led to viable cells with decreased ADHII activity and an inability to sporulate. This indicates that both phenotypes result from mutations within a single gene and that the adr6-1 allele was representative of mutations at this locus. The ADR6 gene mapped to the left arm of chromosome XVI at a site 18 centimorgans from the centromere. PMID:3040523

  6. Effects of Molybdate and Tungstate on Expression Levels and Biochemical Characteristics of Formate Dehydrogenases Produced by Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Cristiano S.; Valette, Odile; González, Pablo J.; Brondino, Carlos D.; Moura, José J. G.; Moura, Isabel; Dolla, Alain; Rivas, Maria G.

    2011-01-01

    Formate dehydrogenases (FDHs) are enzymes that catalyze the formate oxidation to carbon dioxide and that contain either Mo or W in a mononuclear form in the active site. In the present work, the influence of Mo and W salts on the production of FDH by Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491 was studied. Two different FDHs, one containing W (W-FDH) and a second incorporating either Mo or W (Mo/W-FDH), were purified. Both enzymes were isolated from cells grown in a medium supplemented with 1 μM molybdate, whereas only the W-FDH was purified from cells cultured in medium supplemented with 10 μM tungstate. We demonstrated that the genes encoding the Mo/W-FDH are strongly downregulated by W and slightly upregulated by Mo. Metal effects on the expression level of the genes encoding the W-FDH were less significant. Furthermore, the expression levels of the genes encoding proteins involved in molybdate and tungstate transport are downregulated under the experimental conditions evaluated in this work. The molecular and biochemical properties of these enzymes and the selective incorporation of either Mo or W are discussed. PMID:21478344

  7. Over-expression of Arabidopsis thaliana SFD1/GLY1, the gene encoding plastid localized glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, increases plastidic lipid content in transgenic rice plants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijayata; Singh, Praveen Kumar; Siddiqui, Adnan; Singh, Subaran; Banday, Zeeshan Zahoor; Nandi, Ashis Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Lipids are the major constituents of all membranous structures in plants. Plants possess two pathways for lipid biosynthesis: the prokaryotic pathway (i.e., plastidic pathway) and the eukaryotic pathway (i.e., endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) pathway). Whereas some plants synthesize galactolipids from diacylglycerol assembled in the plastid, others, including rice, derive their galactolipids from diacylglycerols assembled by the eukaryotic pathway. Arabidopsis thaliana glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pDH), coded by SUPPRESSOR OF FATTY ACID DESATURASE 1 (SFD1; alias GLY1) gene, catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate (G3p), the backbone of many membrane lipids. Here SFD1 was introduced to rice as a transgene. Arabidopsis SFD1 localizes in rice plastids and its over-expression increases plastidic membrane lipid content in transgenic rice plants without any major impact on ER lipids. The results suggest that over-expression of plastidic G3pDH enhances biosynthesis of plastid-localized lipids in rice. Lipid composition in the transgenic plants is consistent with increased phosphatidylglycerol synthesis in the plastid and increased galactolipid synthesis from diacylglycerol produced via the ER pathway. The transgenic plants show a higher photosynthetic assimilation rate, suggesting a possible application of this finding in crop improvement.

  8. Bioconversion of phenylpyruvate to phenyllactate: gene cloning, expression, and enzymatic characterization of D- and L1-lactate dehydrogenases from Lactobacillus plantarum SK002.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jianghua; Mu, Wanmeng; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo

    2010-09-01

    Two DNA fragments containing the entire coding sequences of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; ldhL1 and ldhD), whose enzymes have high activity for bioconversion of phenylpyruvate (PPA) to phenyllactate (PLA), were amplified from Lactobacillus plantarum SK002 using PCR. Sequencing showed open reading frames of 963 bp (ldhL1) and 999 bp (ldhD) encoding putative proteins of 320 and 332 amino acid residues, respectively. The LDH genes were cloned into an expression vector pET-22b(+) and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The purified recombinant L1-LDH and D-LDH had approximate (SDS-PAGE) molecular weights of 35 and 40 kDa, respectively. L1-LDH and D-LDH had PPA bioconversion specific activities of 71.06 and 215.84 U/mg with K (m) values of 3.96 and 5.4 mM, respectively. The rL1-LDH and rD-LDH showed maximum enzyme activity at 30 and 40 degrees C while both had optimum activity at pH 6.0. L1-LDH exhibited a higher pH and temperature stability than D-LDH. The results show that the his-tagged L. plantarum SK002 D- and L1-LDHs are efficient catalysts for bioconversion of PPA to PLA.

  9. Expression and regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoforms in the developing rat heart and in adulthood: role of thyroid hormone status and lipid supply.

    PubMed Central

    Sugden, M C; Langdown, M L; Harris, R A; Holness, M J

    2000-01-01

    Activation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex (PDHC) promotes glucose disposal, whereas inactivation conserves glucose. The PDH kinases (PDHKs) regulate glucose oxidation through inhibitory phosphorylation of PDHC. The adult rat heart contains three PDHK isoforms PDHK1, PDHK2 and PDHK4. Using Western-blot analysis, with specific antibodies raised against individual recombinant PDHK1, PDHK2 and PDHK4, the present study investigated PDHK isoform expression in the developing rat heart and adulthood. We identified clear differences in the patterns of protein expression of each of these PDHK isoforms during the first 3 weeks of post-natal development, with most marked up-regulation of isoforms PDHK1 and PDHK4. Distinctions between the three cardiac PDHK isoforms were also demonstrated with respect to post-neonatal maturational up-regulation; with greatest up-regulation of PDHK1 and least up-regulation of PDHK4 from the post-neonatal period until maturity. The study also examined the role of thyroid hormone status and lipid supply on PDHK isoform expression. We observed marked selective increases in the amount of PDHK4 protein present relative to total cardiac protein in both hyperthyroidism and high-fat feeding. Overall, our data identify PDHK isoform PDHK1 as being of more potential regulatory importance for glucose oxidation in the adult compared with the neonatal heart, and cardiac PDHK4 as a PDHK isoform whose expression is specifically responsive to changes in lipid supply, suggesting that its up-regulation during early post-natal life may be the perinatal switch to use fatty acids as the energy source. We also identify regulation of pyruvate sensitivity of cardiac PDHK as a physiological variable, a change in which requires factors in addition to a change in lipid supply. PMID:11104680

  10. Insulin, CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Proteins and Lactate Regulate the Human 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 Gene Expression in Colon Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Alikhani-Koupaei, Rasoul; Ignatova, Irena D.; Guettinger, Andreas; Frey, Felix J.; Frey, Brigitte M.

    2014-01-01

    11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11beta-HSD) modulate mineralocorticoid receptor transactivation by glucocorticoids and regulate access to the glucocorticoid receptor. The isozyme 11beta-HSD2 is selectively expressed in mineralocorticoid target tissues and its activity is reduced in various disease states with abnormal sodium retention and hypertension, including the apparent mineralocorticoid excess. As 50% of patients with essential hypertension are insulin resistant and hyperinsulinemic, we hypothesized that insulin downregulates the 11beta-HSD2 activity. In the present study we show that insulin reduced the 11beta-HSD2 activity in cancer colon cell lines (HCT116, SW620 and HT-29) at the transcriptional level, in a time and dose dependent manner. The downregulation was reversible and required new protein synthesis. Pathway analysis using mRNA profiling revealed that insulin treatment modified the expression of the transcription factor family C/EBPs (CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins) but also of glycolysis related enzymes. Western blot and real time PCR confirmed an upregulation of C/EBP beta isoforms (LAP and LIP) with a more pronounced increase in the inhibitory isoform LIP. EMSA and reporter gene assays demonstrated the role of C/EBP beta isoforms in HSD11B2 gene expression regulation. In addition, secretion of lactate, a byproduct of glycolysis, was shown to mediate insulin-dependent HSD11B2 downregulation. In summary, we demonstrate that insulin downregulates HSD11B2 through increased LIP expression and augmented lactate secretion. Such mechanisms are of interest and potential significance for sodium reabsorption in the colon. PMID:25133511

  11. Expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1, member A3 in glycogen trophoblast cells of the murine placenta.

    PubMed

    Outhwaite, J E; Natale, B V; Natale, D R C; Simmons, D G

    2015-03-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) signaling is a well known regulator of trophoblast differentiation and placental development, and maternal decidual cells are recognized as the source of much of this RA. We explored possible trophoblast-derived sources of RA by examining the expression of RA synthesis enzymes in the developing mouse placenta, as well as addressed potential sites of RA action by examining the ontogeny of gene expression for other RA metabolizing and receptor genes. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of endogenous RA production on trophoblast differentiation. Placental tissues were examined by in situ hybridization and assayed for RARE-LacZ transgene activity to locate sites of RAR signaling. Trophoblast stem cell cultures were differentiated in the presence of ALDH1 inhibitors (DEAB and citral), and expression of labyrinth (Syna, Ctsq) and junctional zone (Tpbpa, Prl7b1, Prl7a2) marker genes were analyzed by qRT-PCR. We show Aldh1a3 is strongly expressed in a subset of ectoplacental cone cells and in glycogen trophoblast cells of the definitive murine placenta. Most trophoblast subtypes of the placenta express RA receptor combinations that would enable them to respond to RA signaling. Furthermore, expression of junctional zone markers decrease in differentiating trophoblast cultures when endogenous ALDH1 enzymes are inhibited. Aldh1a3 is a novel marker for glycogen trophoblast cells and their precursors and may play a role in the differentiation of junctional zone cell types via production of a local source of RA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lactate dehydrogenase test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003471.htm Lactate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a protein that helps produce energy ...

  13. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a protein that ...

  14. Diabetes and Insulin Injection Modalities: Effects on Hepatic and Hippocampal Expression of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 in Juvenile Diabetic Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Rougeon, Véronica; Moisan, Marie-Pierre; Barthe, Nicole; Beauvieux, Marie-Christine; Helbling, Jean-Christophe; Pallet, Véronique; Marissal-Arvy, Nathalie; Barat, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is often encountered in diabetes, leading to several clinical complications. Our recent results showing an elevated tetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocorticosterone ratio in morning urine of diabetic children compared to that of controls suggest an increased nocturnal activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in the former. We hypothesized that these observations could be explained by a reduced inhibition of hepatic 11β-HSD1 activity by exogenous insulin owing to its subcutaneous (SC) administration and absence of first hepatic passage. Additionally, we hypothesized that hippocampal 11β-HSD1 activity might also be impaired by diabetes. We therefore measured HPA axis activity and 11β-HSD1 expression and activity in liver and hippocampus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic juvenile rats treated with SC or intraperitoneal (IP) insulin. Plasma corticosterone levels were elevated in untreated diabetic rats during the resting phase and restored by both types of insulin treatment. The mRNA expression and activity of 11β-HSD1 were increased in the untreated diabetic group in liver. Although diabetes was controlled equally whatever the route of insulin administration, liver 11β-HSD1 gene expression and activity was decreased only in the IP group, suggesting that a first hepatic pass is needed for 11β-HSD1 hepatic inhibition. In hippocampus, 11β-HSD1 activity was elevated in the untreated diabetic group but restored by both types of insulin treatment. Thus, these data extend our findings in diabetic children by showing impairment of hippocampal 11β-HSD1 in diabetes and by demonstrating that IP is preferable to SC insulin administration to restore 11β-HSD1 activity in liver.

  15. Glutamate dehydrogenase and Na+-K+ ATPase expression and growth response of Litopenaeus vannamei to different salinities and dietary protein levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Erchao; Arena, Leticia; Lizama, Gabriel; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Cuzon, Gerard; Rosas, Carlos; Chen, Liqiao; van Wormhoudt, Alain

    2011-03-01

    Improvement in the osmoregulation capacity via nutritional supplies is vitally important in shrimp aquaculture. The effects of dietary protein levels on the osmoregulation capacity of the Pacific white shrimp ( L. vannamei) were investigated. This involved an examination of growth performance, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and Na+-K+ ATPase mRNA expression,, and GDH activity in muscles and gills. Three experimental diets were formulated, containing 25%, 40%, and 50% dietary protein, and fed to the shrimp at a salinity of 25. After 20 days, no significant difference was observed in weight gain, though GDH and Na+-K+ ATPase gene expression and GDH activity increased with higher dietary protein levels. Subsequently, shrimp fed diets with 25% and 50% dietary protein were transferred into tanks with salinities of 38 and 5, respectively, and sampled at weeks 1 and 2. Shrimp fed with 40% protein at 25 in salinity (optimal conditions) were used as a control. Regardless of the salinities, shrimp fed with 50% dietary protein had significantly higher growth performance than other diets; no significant differences were found in comparison with the control. Shrimp fed with 25% dietary protein and maintained at salinities of 38 and 5 had significantly lower weight gain values after 2 weeks. Ambient salinity change also stimulated the hepatosomatic index, which increased in the first week and then recovered to a relatively normal level, as in the control, after 2 weeks. These findings indicate that in white shrimp, the specific protein nutrient and energy demands related to ambient salinity change are associated with protein metabolism. Increased dietary protein level could improve the osmoregulation capacity of L. vannamei with more energy resources allocated to GDH activity and expression.

  16. Over-expression of different aldehyde dehydrogenase genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confers tolerance to abiotic stress and protects plants against lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kotchoni, Simeon O; Kuhns, Christine; Ditzer, Andrea; Kirch, Hans-Hubert; Bartels, Dorothea

    2006-06-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) play a major role in the detoxification processes of aldehydes generated in plants when exposed to abiotic stress. In previous studies, we have shown that the Arabidopsis thaliana ALDH3I1 gene is transcriptionally activated by abiotic stress, and over-expression of the ALDH3I1 gene confers stress tolerance in transgenic plants. The A. thaliana genome contains 14 ALDH genes expressed in different sub-cellular compartments and are presumably involved in different reactions. The purpose of this study was to compare the potential of a cytoplasmic and a chloroplastic stress-inducible ALDH in conferring stress tolerance under different conditions. We demonstrated that constitutive or stress-inducible expression of both the chloroplastic ALDH3I1 and the cytoplasmic ALDH7B4 confers tolerance to osmotic and oxidative stress. Stress tolerance in transgenic plants is accompanied by a reduction of H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) derived from cellular lipid peroxidation. Involvement of ALDHs in stress tolerance was corroborated by the analysis of ALDH3I1 and ALDH7B4 T-DNA knockout (KO) mutants. Both mutant lines exhibited higher sensitivity to dehydration and salt than wild-type (WT) plants. The results indicate that ALDH3I1 and ALDH7B4 not only function as aldehyde-detoxifying enzymes, but also as efficient reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers and lipid peroxidation-inhibiting enzymes. The potential of ALDHs to interfere with H2O2 was also shown for recombinant bacterial proteins.

  17. Efficient androst-1,4-diene-3,17-dione production by co-expressing 3-ketosteroid-Δ(1) -dehydrogenase and catalase in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Shao, M; Sha, Z; Zhang, X; Rao, Z; Xu, M; Yang, T; Xu, Z; Yang, S

    2017-01-01

    3-ketosteroid-Δ(1) -dehydrogenase (KSDD), a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent enzyme involved in sterol metabolism, specifically catalyses the conversion of androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (AD) to androst-1,4-diene-3,17-dione (ADD). However, the low KSDD activity and the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) generated during the biotransformation of AD to ADD with FAD regeneration hinder its application on AD conversion. The aim of this work was to improve KSDD activity and eliminate the toxic effects of the generated H2 O2 to enhance ADD production. The ksdd gene obtained from Mycobacterium neoaurum JC-12 was codon-optimized to increase its expression level in Bacillus subtilis, and the KSDD activity reached 12·3 U mg(-1) , which was sevenfold of that of codon-unoptimized gene. To improve AD conversion, catalase was co-expressed with KSDD in B. subtilis 168/pMA5-ksdd(opt) -katA to eliminate the toxic effects of H2 O2 generated during AD conversion. Finally, under optimized bioconversion conditions, fed-batch strategy was carried out and the ADD yield improved to 8·76 g l(-1) . This work demonstrates the potential to improve enzyme activity by codon-optimization and eliminate the toxic effects of H2 O2 by co-expressing catalase. This study showed the highest ADD productivity ever reported and provides a promising strain for efficient ADD production in the pharmaceutical industry. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. A Calcium-Deficient Diet in Rat Dams during Gestation and Nursing Affects Hepatic 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 Expression in the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Takaya, Junji; Yamanouchi, Sohsaku; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2014-01-01

    Background Prenatal malnutrition can affect the phenotype of offspring by changing epigenetic regulation of specific genes. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that calcium (Ca) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance syndrome. We hypothesized that pregnant female rats fed a Ca-deficient diet would have offspring with altered hepatic glucocorticoid-related gene expression and that lactation would modify these alterations. Methodology We determined the effects of Ca deficiency during pregnancy and/or lactation on hepatic 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (Hsd11b1) expression in offspring. Female Wistar rats consumed either a Ca-deficient (D: 0.008% Ca) or control (C: 0.90% Ca) diet ad libitum from 3 weeks preconception to 21 days postparturition. On postnatal day 1, pups were cross-fostered to the same or opposite dams and divided into the following four groups: CC, DD, CD, and DC (first letter: original mother's diet; second letter: nursing mother's diet). All offspring were fed a control diet beginning at weaning (day 21) and were killed on day 200±7. Serum insulin and adipokines in offspring were measured using ELISA kits. Principal Findings In males, mean levels of insulin, glucose, and Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) were higher in the DD and DC groups than in the CC group. We found no difference in HOMA-IR between the CC and CD groups in either males or females. Expression of Hsd11b1 was lower in male DD rats than in CC rats. Hsd11b1 expression in male offspring nursed by cross-fostered dams was higher than that in those nursed by dams fed the same diet; CC vs. CD and DD vs. DC. In females, Hsd11b1 expression in DC rats was higher than that in CC rats. Conclusions These findings indicated that maternal Ca restriction during pregnancy and/or lactation alters postnatal growth, Hsd11b1 expression, and insulin resistance in a sex-specific manner. PMID:24427280

  19. NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase activity in nonstarter lactic acid bacteria: effects of temperature, pH and NaCl on enzyme activity and expression.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, M; Calasso, M; Di Cagno, R; Siragusa, S; Minervini, F; Gobbetti, M

    2010-11-01

    To screen the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity of nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) and to determine the effects of temperature, pH and NaCl values used for cheese ripening on enzyme activity and expression of GDH gene. A subcellular fractionation protocol and specific enzyme assays were used. The effect of temperature, pH and NaCl on enzyme activity was evaluated. The expression of GDH gene was monitored by real-time PCR. One selected strain was also used as adjunct starter for cheese making to evaluate the catabolism of free amino acids and the production of volatile organic compounds (VOC) during cheese ripening. The cytoplasm fraction of all strains showed in vitro NADP-dependent GDH activity. NADP-GDH activity was markedly strain dependent and varied according to the interactions between temperature, pH and NaCl. Lactobacillus plantarum DPPMA49 showed the highest NADP-GDH activity under temperature, pH and NaCl values found during cheese ripening. RT-PCR analysis revealed that GDH expression of Lact. plantarum DPPMA49 was down-expressed by low temperature (<13°C) and over-expressed by NaCl (1·87-5·62%). According to NADP-GDH activity, the highest level of VOC (alcohols, aldehydes, miscellaneous and carboxylic acids) was found in cheeses made with DPPMA49. The results of this study may be considered as an example of the influence of temperature, pH and NaCl on enzyme activity and expression of functional genes, such as GDH, in cheese-related bacteria. It focuses on the phenotypic and molecular characterization of the NADP-GDH in lactobacilli under cheese-ripening conditions. The findings of this study contribute to the knowledge about enzymes involved in the catabolism of amino acids, to be used as an important selection trait for cheese strains. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Cloning, expression, and biochemical characterization of a novel NADP(+)-dependent 7α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from Clostridium difficile and its application for the oxidation of bile acids.

    PubMed

    Bakonyi, Daniel; Hummel, Werner

    2017-04-01

    A gene encoding a novel 7α-specific NADP(+)-dependent hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from Clostridium difficile was cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was purified using an N-terminal hexa-his-tag and biochemically characterized. The optimum temperature is at 60°C, but the enzyme is inactivated at this temperature with a half-life time of 5min. Contrary to other known 7α-HSDHs, for example from Clostridium sardiniense or E. coli, the enzyme from C. difficile does not display a substrate inhibition. In order to demonstrate the applicability of this enzyme, a small-scale biotransformation of the bile acid chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) into 7-ketolithocholic acid (7-KLCA) was carried out with simultaneous regeneration of NADP(+) using an NADPH oxidase that resulted in a complete conversion (<99%). Furthermore, by a structure-based site-directed mutagenesis, cofactor specificity of the 7α-HSDH from Clostridium difficile was altered to accept NAD(H). This mutant was biochemically characterized and compared to the wild-type.

  1. Molecular mimicry in primary biliary cirrhosis. Evidence for biliary epithelial expression of a molecule cross-reactive with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Water, J; Turchany, J; Leung, P S; Lake, J; Munoz, S; Surh, C D; Coppel, R; Ansari, A; Nakanuma, Y; Gershwin, M E

    1993-01-01

    Sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) react with enzymes of the 2-oxo dehydrogenase pathways, particularly PDC-E2. These enzymes are present in all nucleated cells, yet autoimmune damage is confined to biliary epithelial cells. Using a panel of eight mouse monoclonal antibodies and a human combinatorial antibody specific for PDC-E2, we examined by indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy sections of liver from patients with PBC, progressive sclerosing cholangitis, and hepatocarcinoma. The monoclonal antibodies gave typical mitochondrial immunofluorescence on biliary epithelium and on hepatocytes from patients with either PBC, progressive sclerosing cholangitis, or hepatocarcinoma. However, one of eight mouse monoclonal antibodies (C355.1) and the human combinatorial antibody reacted with great intensity and specificity with the luminal region of biliary epithelial cells from patients with PBC. Simultaneous examination of these sections with an antiisotype reagent for human IgA revealed high IgA staining in the luminal region of biliary epithelial cells in patients with PBC. IgG and IgA antibodies to PDC-E2 were detected in the bile of patients with PBC but not normal controls. We believe that this data may be interpreted as indicating that a molecule cross-reactive with PDC-E2 is expressed at high levels in the luminal region of biliary epithelial cells in PBC. Images PMID:8514873

  2. Molecular mimicry in primary biliary cirrhosis. Evidence for biliary epithelial expression of a molecule cross-reactive with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-E2.

    PubMed

    Van de Water, J; Turchany, J; Leung, P S; Lake, J; Munoz, S; Surh, C D; Coppel, R; Ansari, A; Nakanuma, Y; Gershwin, M E

    1993-06-01

    Sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) react with enzymes of the 2-oxo dehydrogenase pathways, particularly PDC-E2. These enzymes are present in all nucleated cells, yet autoimmune damage is confined to biliary epithelial cells. Using a panel of eight mouse monoclonal antibodies and a human combinatorial antibody specific for PDC-E2, we examined by indirect immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy sections of liver from patients with PBC, progressive sclerosing cholangitis, and hepatocarcinoma. The monoclonal antibodies gave typical mitochondrial immunofluorescence on biliary epithelium and on hepatocytes from patients with either PBC, progressive sclerosing cholangitis, or hepatocarcinoma. However, one of eight mouse monoclonal antibodies (C355.1) and the human combinatorial antibody reacted with great intensity and specificity with the luminal region of biliary epithelial cells from patients with PBC. Simultaneous examination of these sections with an antiisotype reagent for human IgA revealed high IgA staining in the luminal region of biliary epithelial cells in patients with PBC. IgG and IgA antibodies to PDC-E2 were detected in the bile of patients with PBC but not normal controls. We believe that this data may be interpreted as indicating that a molecule cross-reactive with PDC-E2 is expressed at high levels in the luminal region of biliary epithelial cells in PBC.

  3. Three highly similar formate dehydrogenase genes located in the vicinity of the B4 resistance gene cluster are differentially expressed under biotic and abiotic stresses in Phaseolus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    David, Perrine; des Francs-Small, Catherine Colas; Sévignac, Mireille; Thareau, Vincent; Macadré, Catherine; Langin, Thierry; Geffroy, Valérie

    2010-06-01

    In higher plants, formate dehydrogenase (FDH, EC1.2.1.2.) catalyzes the NAD-linked oxidation of formate to CO(2), and FDH transcript accumulation has been reported after various abiotic stresses. By sequencing a Phaseolus vulgaris BAC clone encompassing a CC-NBS-LRR gene rich region of the B4 resistance gene cluster, we identified three FDH-encoding genes. FDH is present as a single copy gene in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, and public database searches confirm that FDH is a low copy gene in plant genomes, since only 33 FDH homologs were identified from 27 plant species. Three independent prediction programs (Predotar, TargetP and Mitoprot) used on this large subset of 33 plant FDHs, revealed that mitochondrial localization of FDH might be the rule in higher plants. A phylogenetic analysis suggests a scenario of local FDH gene duplication in an ancestor of the Phaseoleae followed by another more recent duplication event after bean/soybean divergence. The expression levels of two common bean FDH genes under different treatments were investigated by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. FDH genes are differentially up-regulated after biotic and abiotic stresses (infection with the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and dark treatment, respectively). The present study provides the first report of FDH transcript accumulation after biotic stress, suggesting the involvement of FDH in the pathogen resistance process.

  4. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of L-lactate dehydrogenase and its H171C mutant from Bacillus subtilis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Gao, Xiaoli

    2012-08-31

    L-Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an important enzyme involved in the last step of glycolysis that catalyzes the reversible conversion of pyruvate to L-lactate with the simultaneous oxidation of NADH to NAD{sup +}. In this study, wild-type LDH from Bacillus subtilis (BsLDH-WT) and the H171C mutant (BsLDH-H171C) were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to near-homogeneity. BsLDH-WT was crystallized in the presence of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) and NAD{sup +} and the crystal diffracted to 2.38 {angstrom} resolution. The crystal belonged to space group P3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 171.04, c = 96.27 {angstrom}. BsLDH-H171C was also crystallized as the apoenzyme and in complex with NAD{sup +}, and data sets were collected to 2.20 and 2.49 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Both BsLDH-H171C crystals belonged to space group P3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 133.41, c = 99.34 {angstrom} and a = b = 133.43, c = 99.09 {angstrom}, respectively. Tetramers were observed in the asymmetric units of all three crystals.

  5. Cloning and expression in E. coli of an organic solvent-tolerant and alkali-resistant glucose 1-dehydrogenase from Lysinibacillus sphaericus G10.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hai-Tao; Du, Yi-Qing; Liu, Dan-Feng; Li, Ze-Li; Chen, Xue-Jiao; Zhao, Yu-Hua

    2011-01-01

    The gene gdh encoding an organic solvent-tolerant and alkaline-resistant NAD(P)-dependent glucose 1-dehydrogenase (LsGDH) was cloned from Lysinibacillus sphaericus G10 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant LsGDH exhibited maximum activity at pH 9.5 and 50 °C. LsGDH displayed high stability at a wide pH ranging from 6.5 to 10.0 and was stable after incubation at 30 °C for 1 week in 25 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 6.5) in the absence or presence of NaCl. The activity of LsGDH was enhanced by Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg2+, and EDTA at pH 8.0. LsGDH exhibited high tolerance to 60% DMSO, 30% acetone, 30% methanol, 30% ethanol, 10% n-propanol, 30% isopropanol, 60% n-hexanol and 30% n-hexane. The relationship between stability and chain length of the alcohols fit a Gaussian distribution model (R2≥0.94), and demonstrated lowest enzyme stability in C4-alcohol. The results suggested that LsGDH was potentially useful for coenzyme regeneration in organic solvents or under alkaline conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Misconceptions regarding basic thermodynamics and enzyme kinetics have led to erroneous conclusions regarding the metabolic importance of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme expression.

    PubMed

    Bak, Lasse K; Schousboe, Arne

    2017-02-02

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate involving the coenzyme NAD(+) . Part of the foundation for the proposed shuttling of lactate from astrocytes to neurons during brain activation is the differential distribution of LDH isoenzymes between the two cell types. In this short review, we outline the basic kinetic properties of the LDH isoenzymes expressed in neurons and astrocytes, and argue that the distribution of LDH isoenzymes does not in any way govern directional flow of lactate between the two cellular compartments. The two main points are as follows. First, in line with the general concept of chemical catalysis, enzymes do not influence the thermodynamic equilibrium of a chemical reaction but merely the speed at which equilibrium is obtained. Thus, differential distribution of LDH isoenzymes with different kinetic parameters does not predict which cells are producing and which are consuming lactate. Second, the thermodynamic equilibrium of the reaction is toward the reduced substrate (i.e., lactate), which is reflected in the concentrations measured in brain tissue, suggesting that the reaction is at near-equilibrium at steady state. To conclude, the cellular distribution of LDH isoenzymes is of little if any consequence in determining any directional flow of lactate between neurons and astrocytes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Nucleotide sequence of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase mRNA and its expression in enzyme-deficient human tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D.P.; Kim, J.J.; Billadello, J.J.; Hainline, B.E.; Chu, T.W.; Strauss, A.W.

    1987-06-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase is one of three similar enzymes that catalyze the initial step of fatty acid ..beta..-oxidation. Definition of the primary structure of MCAD and the tissue distribution of its mRNA is of biochemical and clinical importance because of the recent recognition of inherited MCAD deficiency in humans. The MCAD mRNA nucleotide sequence was determined from two overlapping cDNA clones isolated from human liver and placental cDNA libraries, respectively. The MCAD mRNA includes a 1263-base-pair coding region and a 738-base-pair 3'-nontranslated region. A partial amino acid sequence (137 residues) determined on peptides derived from MCAD purified from porcine liver confirmed the identity of the cDNA clone. Comparison of the amino acid sequence predicted from the human MCAD cDNA with the partial protein sequence of the porcine MCAD revealed a high degree (88%) of interspecies sequence identity. RNA blot analysis shows that MCAD mRNA is expressed in a variety of rat (2.2 kilobases) and human (2.4 kilobases) tissues. Blot hybridization of RNA prepared from cultured skin fibroblasts from a patient with MCAD deficiency disclosed that mRNA was present and of similar size of MCAD mRNA derived from control fibroblasts. The isolation and characterization of MCAD cDNA is an important step in the definition of the defect underlying its metabolic consequences.

  8. The interaction of the Arabidopsis response regulator ARR18 with bZIP63 mediates the regulation of PROLINE DEHYDROGENASE expression.

    PubMed

    Veerabagu, Manikandan; Kirchler, Tobias; Elgass, Kirstin; Stadelhofer, Bettina; Stahl, Mark; Harter, Klaus; Mira-Rodado, Virtudes; Chaban, Christina

    2014-10-01

    As the first and rate-limiting enzyme of proline degradation, PROLINE DEHYDROGENASE1 (PDH1) is tightly regulated during plant stress responses, including induction under hypoosmolarity and repression under water deficit. The plant receptor histidine kinases AHKs, elements of the two-component system (TCS) in Arabidopsis thaliana, are proposed to function in water stress responses by regulating different stress-responsive genes. However, little information is available concerning AHK phosphorelay-mediated downstream signaling. Here we show that the Arabidopsis type-B response regulator 18 (ARR18) functions as a positive osmotic stress response regulator in Arabidopsis seeds and affects the activity of the PDH1 promoter, known to be controlled by C-group bZIP transcription factors. Moreover, direct physical interaction of ARR18 with bZIP63 was identified and shown to be dependent on phosphorylation of the conserved aspartate residue in the ARR18 receiver domain. We further show that bZIP63 itself functions as a negative regulator of seed germination upon osmotic stress. Using reporter gene assays in protoplasts, we demonstrated that ARR18 interaction negatively interferes with the transcriptional activity of bZIP63 on the PDH1 promoter. Our findings provide new insight into the function of ARR18 and bZIP63 as antagonistic regulators of gene expression in Arabidopsis.

  9. A Redox-Mediated Modulation of Stem Bolting in Transgenic Nicotiana sylvestris Differentially Expressing the External Mitochondrial NADPH Dehydrogenase1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yun-Jun; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Wallström, Sabá V.; Lager, Ida; Michalecka, Agnieszka M.; Norberg, Fredrik E.B.; Widell, Susanne; Fredlund, Kenneth M.; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Rasmusson, Allan G.

    2009-01-01

    Cytosolic NADPH can be directly oxidized by a calcium-dependent NADPH dehydrogenase, NDB1, present in the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, little is known regarding the impact of modified cytosolic NADPH reduction levels on growth and metabolism. Nicotiana sylvestris plants overexpressing potato (Solanum tuberosum) NDB1 displayed early bolting, whereas sense suppression of the same gene led to delayed bolting, with consequential changes in flowering time. The phenotype was dependent on light irradiance but not linked to any change in biomass accumulation. Whereas the leaf NADPH/NADP+ ratio was unaffected, the stem NADPH/NADP+ ratio was altered following the genetic modification and strongly correlated with the bolting phenotype. Metabolic profiling of the stem showed that the NADP(H) change affected relatively few, albeit central, metabolites, including 2-oxoglutarate, glutamate, ascorbate, sugars, and hexose-phosphates. Consistent with the phenotype, the modified NDB1 level also affected the expression of putative floral meristem identity genes of the SQUAMOSA and LEAFY types. Further evidence for involvement of the NADPH redox in stem development was seen in the distinct decrease in the stem apex NADPH/NADP+ ratio during bolting. Additionally, the potato NDB1 protein was specifically detected in mitochondria, and a survey of its abundance in major organs revealed that the highest levels are found in green stems. These results thus strongly suggest that NDB1 in the mitochondrial electron transport chain can, by modifying cell redox levels, specifically affect developmental processes. PMID:19429607

  10. Expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic studies of NahF, a salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida G7 involved in naphthalene degradation

    PubMed Central

    Coitinho, Juliana Barbosa; Costa, Débora Maria Abrantes; Guimarães, Samuel Leite; de Góes, Alfredo Miranda; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida G7 is one of the most studied naphthalene-degrading species. The nah operon in P. putida, which is present on the 83 kb metabolic plasmid NAH7, codes for enzymes involved in the conversion of naphthalene to salicylate. The enzyme NahF (salicylaldehyde dehydrogenase) catalyzes the last reaction in this pathway. The nahF gene was subcloned into the pET28a(TEV) vector and the recombinant protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli Arctic Express at 285 K. The soluble protein was purified by affinity chromatography followed by gel filtration. Crystals of recombinant NahF (6×His-NahF) were obtained at 291 K and diffracted to 2.42 Å resolution. They belonged to the hexagonal space group P6422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 169.47, c = 157.94 Å. The asymmetric unit contained a monomer and a crystallographic twofold axis generated the dimeric biological unit. PMID:22232182

  11. Evaluation of TS-1 based treatment and expression of thymidylate synthase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase on oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Obara, Seiji; Yamamoto, Kazumi; Hosogai, Nao; Yoshimura, Yasuro

    2005-03-01

    Seventeen oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients underwent chemotherapy with TS-1 (8 males and 9 females, mean age; 75.1 years, range; 47-102 years). TS-1 permitted five cases of oral chemotherapy on an outpatient basis and 8 cases in elder patients over 80-years of age. Excepting five patients who underwent TS-1 therapy as post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy, the therapeutic efficacy of TS-1 in 12 patients with or without irradiation, surgery or chemotherapy resulted in 3 cases of complete response (CR), 6 cases of partial response (PR), 3 cases of stable disease (SD), with no progressive disease (PD) cases (overall response rate; 75%). SCC samples obtained from biopsy were immunohistochemically stained with anti-TS and DPD polyclonal antibody. Although the statistical significance was not clear, the expression of TS and DPD for CR cases was lower than that for SD cases. TS-1 therapy improved quality of life (QOL) especially in elder patients with oral SCC, and our immunohistochemical results suggested the predictive possibilities of TS and DPD expression in response to TS-1.

  12. Organelle-specific expression of subunit ND5 of human complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) alters cation homeostasis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Wojtek; Gemperli, Anja C; Cvetesic, Nevena; Steuber, Julia

    2010-09-01

    The ND5 component of the respiratory complex I is a large, hydrophobic subunit encoded by the mitochondrial genome. Its bacterial homologue, the NDH-1 subunit NuoL, acts as a cation transporter in the absence of other NDH-1 subunits. Mutations in human ND5 are frequently observed in neurodegenerative diseases. Wild type and mutant variants of ND5 fused to GFP or a FLAG peptide were targeted to the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) or the inner mitochondrial membrane of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which lacks an endogenous complex I. The localization of ND5 fusion proteins was confirmed by microscopic analyses of S. cerevisiae cells, followed by cellular fractionation and immunostaining. The impact of the expression of ND5 fusion proteins on the growth of S. cerevisiae in the presence and absence of added salts was studied. ER-resident ND5 conferred Li(+) sensitivity to S. cerevisiae, which was lost when the E145V variant of ND5 was expressed. All variants of ND5 tested led to increased resistance of S. cerevisiae at high external concentrations of Na(+) or K(+). The data seem to indicate that ND5 influences the salt homeostasis of S. cerevisiae independent of other complex I subunits, and paves the way for functional studies of mutations found in mitochondrially encoded complex I genes.

  13. Molecular characterization of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.

    PubMed Central

    Gillooly, D J; Robertson, A G; Fewson, C A

    1998-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of xylB and xylC from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, the genes encoding benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II, were determined. The complete nucleotide sequence indicates that these two genes form part of an operon and this was supported by heterologous expression and physiological studies. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II is a 51654 Da protein with 484 amino acids per subunit and it is typical of other prokaryotic and eukaryotic aldehyde dehydrogenases. Benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase has a subunit Mr of 38923 consisting of 370 amino acids, it stereospecifically transfers the proR hydride of NADH, and it is a member of the family of zinc-dependent long-chain alcohol dehydrogenases. The enzyme appears to be more similar to animal and higher-plant alcohol dehydrogenases than it is to most other microbial alcohol dehydrogenases. Residue His-51 of zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases is thought to be necessary as a general base for catalysis in this category of alcohol dehydrogenases. However, this residue was found to be replaced in benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase from A. calcoaceticus by an isoleucine, and the introduction of a histidine residue in this position did not alter the kinetic coefficients, pH optimum or substrate specificity of the enzyme. Other workers have shown that His-51 is also absent from the TOL-plasmid-encoded benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase of Pseudomonas putida and so these two closely related enzymes presumably have a catalytic mechanism that differs from that of the archetypal zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases. PMID:9494109

  14. Expression of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in ovarian and uterine tissue during diestrus and open cervix cystic endometrial hyperplasia-pyometra in the bitch.

    PubMed

    Gultiken, Nilgun; Yarim, Murat; Yarim, Gul Fatma; Gacar, Ayhan; Mason, James Ian

    2016-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare the expression of 3β-hydroxystreroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in the uterus and ovary of healthy dogs and those with cystic endometrial hyperplasia and/or pyometra complex (CEH-pyometra). Eighteen female dogs were included in the study. Eleven bitches with open cervix CEH-pyometra were included in the CEH-pyometra group and seven diestrus bitches in the control group. For immunostaining a rabbit polyclonal, one raised against recombinant human type 2 (adrenal/gonadal) 3β-HSD was used. Progesterone (P4) concentrations were not statistically different between the groups. Strongly stained large interstitial cell groups in the ovarian medulla were observed particularly in CEH-pyometra group although these cells in the control group were weakly or moderately stained and existed singly or paired. The expressions of 3β-HSD in luminal epithelium (42.40 ± 22.40% vs. 18.42 ± 13.15%, P < 0.05) and glandular epithelium (32.80 ± 27.05% vs. 2.94 ± 7.79%, P < 0.01) of endometrium were significantly higher in CEH-pyometra group than those in the control group. The expression of 3β-HSD in CL was higher (29.38 ± 9.58% vs. 22.94 ± 4.97%) in CEH-pyometra group than that of control group although the differences were not significant (P > 0.05). Similarly, the significant increase in the expression of 3β-HSD in ovarian interstitial cells (33.86 ± 29.44 vs. 1.13 ± 2.97, P < 0.05) was found in CEH-pyometra group compared to the control group. The study revealed that 3β-HSD expression in the endometrium of canine CEH-pyometra was significantly high.

  15. Improved NADPH Regeneration for Fungal Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase by Co-Expressing Bacterial Glucose Dehydrogenase in Resting-Cell Biotransformation of Recombinant Yeast.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hyunwoo; Durairaj, Pradeepraj; Lee, Dowoo; Ahsan, Md Murshidul; Yun, Hyungdon

    2016-12-28

    Fungal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes catalyze versatile monooxygenase reactions and play a major role in fungal adaptations owing to their essential roles in the production avoid metabolites critical for pathogenesis, detoxification of xenobiotics, and exploitation avoid substrates. Although fungal CYP-dependent biotransformation for the selective oxidation avoid organic compounds in yeast system is advantageous, it often suffers from a shortage avoid intracellular NADPH. In this study, we aimed to investigate the use of bacterial glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) for the intracellular electron regeneration of fungal CYP monooxygenase in a yeast reconstituted system. The benzoate hydroxylase FoCYP53A19 and its homologous redox partner FoCPR from Fusarium oxysporum were co-expressed with the BsGDH from Bacillus subtilis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for heterologous expression and biotransformations. We attempted to optimize several bottlenecks concerning the efficiency of fungal CYP-mediated whole-cell-biotransformation to enhance the conversion. The catalytic performance of the intracellular NADPH regeneration system facilitated the hydroxylation of benzoic acid to 4-hydroxybenzoic acid with high conversion in the resting-cell reaction. The FoCYP53A19+FoCPR+BsGDH reconstituted system produced 0.47 mM 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (94% conversion) in the resting-cell biotransformations performed in 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) containing 0.5 mM benzoic acid and 0.25% glucose for 24 h at 30°C. The "coupled-enzyme" system can certainly improve the overall performance of NADPH-dependent whole-cell biotransformations in a yeast system.

  16. Elevated glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase expression in the cervical cancer cases is associated with the cancerigenic event of high-risk human papillomaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Tao; Li, Ya-Shan; Chen, Bo; Chang, Ye-Fei; Liu, Guang-Cai; Hong, Ying; Chen, Hong-Lan

    2015-01-01

    The most important etiologic agent in the pathogenesis of cervical cancers (CCs) is human papillomavirus (HPV), while the mechanisms underlying are still not well known. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is reported to elevate in various tumor cells. However, no available references elucidated the correlation between the levels of G6PD and HPV-infected CC until now. In the present study, we explored the possible role of G6PD in the pathology of CC induced by HPV infection. Totally 48 patients with HPV + CC and another 63 healthy women enrolled in the clinical were employed in the present study. Overall, prevalence of cervical infection with high-risk-HPV (HR-HPV) type examined was HPV-16, followed by HPV-18. The expressions of G6PD in CC samples were also detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC), qRT-PCR, and Western blot. Regression analysis showed elevated G6PD level was positively correlated with the CC development in 30–40 aged patients with HR-HPV-16/18 infection. The HPV16 + Siha, HPV18 + Hela, and HPV-C33A cell lines were employed and transfected with G6PD deficient vectors developed in vitro. MTT and flow cytometry were also employed to determine the survival and apoptosis of CC cells after G6PD expressional inhibition. Our data revealed that G6PD down-regulation induced poor proliferation and more apoptosis of HPV18 + Hela cells, when compared with that of HPV16 + Siha and HPV-C33A cells. These findings suggest that G6PD expressions in the HR-HPV + human CC tissues and cell lines play an important role in tumor growth and proliferation. PMID:25616277

  17. Effect of ginger root on cyclooxygenase-1 and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase expression in colonic mucosa of humans at normal and increased risk of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yan; Turgeon, D. Kim; Wright, Benjamin D.; Sidahmed, Elkhansa; Ruffin, Mack T.; Brenner, Dean E.; Sen, Ananda; Zick, Suzanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Elevated tissue levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), produced by cyclooxygenase (COX) are an early event in colorectal cancer (CRC). Data suggest the efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAIDs) drugs, which inhibit COX activity, as cancer preventives; however, side effects of NSAIDs indicate unacceptable limitations. Ginger has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activities with significant CRC preventive potential. We investigated if consumption of 2.0 g ginger daily regulated the level of two key enzymes, which control PGE2 production, COX-1 and NAD+- dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH). Methods Thirty participants at normal and twenty participants at increased risk of CRC were randomized and given 2.0 g/day ginger or placebo for 28 days. Flexible sigmoidoscopy was used to obtain colon biopsies at baseline and end of the study. Tissue level of COX-1 and 15-PGDH were assessed using Western Blotting. Results After ginger consumption participants at increased risk of CRC, had significantly reduced colonic COX-1 protein level (23.8%± 41) compared to the placebo group (18.9%± 52; p=0.03). Protein levels of 15-PGDH in the colon were unchanged. In normal risk for CRC participants, neither protein levels of COX-1 nor 15-PGDH in the colon were altered by ginger consumption. Conclusion Ginger significantly lowered COX-1 protein expression in increased risk participants, but not in normal risk participants at normal for CRC. Ginger did not alter 15-PGDH protein expression in either increased or normal risk participants. Further investigation, in larger studies with a longer ginger intervention is needed to examine the ability of ginger to impact tissue level of prostaglandin. PMID:23222413

  18. Effect of ginger root on cyclooxygenase-1 and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase expression in colonic mucosa of humans at normal and increased risk for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Turgeon, Danielle K; Wright, Benjamin D; Sidahmed, Elkhansa; Ruffin, Mack T; Brenner, Dean E; Sen, Ananda; Zick, Suzanna M

    2013-09-01

    Elevated tissue levels of prostaglandin E2, produced by cyclooxygenase (COX), are an early event in colorectal cancer (CRC). Data suggest the efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as cancer preventives, in the inhibition of COX activity; however, side effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory pose unacceptable limitations. Ginger has been reported to have anti-inflammatory activities with significant CRC preventive potential. We investigated whether consumption of 2.0 g ginger daily regulated the level of two key enzymes that control prostaglandin E2 production, COX-1 and NAD(+)-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH). Thirty participants at normal and 20 participants at increased risk for CRC were randomized and given 2.0 g/day ginger or placebo for 28 days. Flexible sigmoidoscopy was used to obtain colon biopsies at baseline and the end of the study. Tissue levels of COX-1 and 15-PGDH were assessed using western blotting. After ginger consumption, participants at increased risk for CRC had a significantly reduced colonic COX-1 protein level (23.8±41%) compared with the placebo group (18.9±52%; P=0.03). Protein levels of 15-PGDH in the colon were unchanged. In participants who were at normal risk for CRC, neither protein levels of COX-1 nor 15-PGDH in the colon were altered by ginger consumption. Ginger significantly lowered COX-1 protein expression in participants at increased risk for CRC but not in those at normal risk for CRC. Ginger did not alter 15-PGDH protein expression in either increased or normal-risk participants. Further investigation, in larger studies with a longer ginger intervention, is needed to examine the ability of ginger to impact tissue levels of prostaglandin.

  19. Molecular cloning, nucleotide sequencing, and expression of genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenases from the thermophile Thermoanaerobacter brockii and the mesophile Clostridium beijerinckii.

    PubMed

    Peretz, M; Bogin, O; Tel-Or, S; Cohen, A; Li, G; Chen, J S; Burstein, Y

    1997-08-01

    Proteins play a pivotal role in thermophily. Comparing the molecular properties of homologous proteins from thermophilic and mesophilic bacteria is important for understanding the mechanisms of microbial adaptation to extreme environments. The thermophile Thermoanaerobacter (Thermoanaerobium) brockii and the mesophile Clostridium beijerinckii contain an NADP(H)-linked, zinc-containing secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (TBADH and CBADH) showing a similarly broad substrate range. The structural genes encoding the TBADH and the CBADH were cloned, sequenced, and highly expressed in Escherichia coli. The coding sequences of the TB adh and the CB adh genes are, respectively, 1056 and 1053 nucleotides long. The TB adh gene encoded an amino acid sequence identical to that of the purified TBADH. Alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences of the TB and CB adh genes showed a 76% identity and a 86% similarity, and the two genes had a similar preference for codons with A or T in the third position. Multiple sequence alignment of ADHs from different sources revealed that two (Cys-46 and His-67) of the three ligands for the catalytic Zn atom of the horse-liver ADH are preserved in TBADH and CBADH. Both the TBADH and CBADH were homotetramers. The substrate specificities and thermostabilities of the TBADH and CBADH expressed inE. coli were identical to those of the enzymes isolated from T. brockii and C. beijerinckii, respectively. A comparison of the amino acid composition of the two ADHs suggests that the presence of eight additional proline residues in TBADH than in CBADH and the exchange of hydrophilic and large hydrophobic residues in CBADH for the small hydrophobic amino acids Pro, Ala, and Val in TBADH might contribute to the higher thermostability of the T. brockii enzyme.

  20. Ovarian expression of inhibin-subunits, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, and cytochrome P450 aromatase during the estrous cycle and pregnancy of shiba goats (Capra hircus).

    PubMed

    Kandiel, Mohamed M M; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    The cellular localization of the inhibin subunits (α, β(A), and β (B)), steroidogenic enzymes (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD) and cytochrome P450 aromatase (P450arom) were evaluated in the ovaries of cyclic (n=6) and pregnant (n=2) Shiba goats (Capra Hircus). The immunointensity of inhibin α and β(A) subunits showed an increase in the granulosa cells (GC) of developing follicles. Inhibin β(B) subunit and P450arom showed high expression in GC of antral follicles. 3βHSD immunoreactivity was uniform in preantral and antral follicles. In follicular phase and late pregnancy, there was a strong expression of inhibin α subunit in GC of antral follicles. Although in mid pregnancy, antral follicles GC showed moderate immunostaining of inhibin β subunits, the immunoreactivity of inhibin β(A) and β(B) subunits was high during the follicular and luteal stages, respectively. While, immunoreactivity of GC to P450arom was moderate during all studied stages, and 3βHSD immunoreactivity was plentiful in antral follicles during the luteal phase. The immunoreactivity to inhibin α subunit and P450arom was abundant during mid pregnancy in the luteal tissues. Immunoreaction to inhibin β subunits was faint-to-moderate in cyclic and pregnancy corpora lutea. Immunoexpression of 3βHSD was maximal in late pregnancy corpora lutea. The present results suggest that, in goats, the GC of antral follicles are the main source of dimeric inhibins and that corpora lutea may partially participate in the secretion of inhibin. Changes in ovarian hormonal levels might depend on the synthesizing capacity of hormones in the follicles and corpora lutea to regulate the goat's reproductive stages.

  1. Expression, purification, enzymatic characterization and crystallization of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Naegleria gruberi, the first one from phylum Percolozoa.

    PubMed

    Machado, Agnes Thiane Pereira; Silva, Marcio; Iulek, Jorge

    2016-11-01

    Naegleria gruberi had its genome sequenced by Fritz-Laylin and collaborators in 2010. It is not pathogenic, but has characteristics similar to those of Naegleria fowleri, opportunistic pathogen that can cause fatal encephalitis in humans. N. gruberi genome has contributed to a better understanding of the primitive eukaryotic metabolism and revealed the complexity of several metabolic pathways. In this paper we describe the expression, purification, enzyme characterization and crystallization of N. gruberi GAPDH, the first one for an organism belonging to phylum Percolozoa. The results indicated that 10 mM, 8.0 and 25 °C are the optimum arsenate concentration, pH and temperature, respectively. The enzyme presents allosteric positive cooperativity for substrates NAD(+) and G3P as indicated by the Hill coefficients. The phylogenetic proximity between N. fowleri and N. gruberi suggests that contributions from the study of the latter might provide information to assist the search for treatments of Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis, especially, in this work, taking into account that GAPDH is identified as a therapeutic target.

  2. [The expression of the sperm-specific lactate dehydrogenase gene Ldh-c in plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) cardiac muscle and its effect on the anaerobic glycolysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Wei, Lian; Wang, Yang; Xu, Li-Na; Wei, Lin-Na; Wei, Deng-Bang

    2015-06-25

    The plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) has a strong adaptability to hypoxic plateau environment. We found that the sperm-specific lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C4) gene Ldh-c expressed in plateau pika cardiac muscle. In order to shed light on the effect of LDH-C4 on the anaerobic glycolysis in plateau pika cardiac muscle, 20 pikas were randomly divided into the inhibitor group and the control group, and the sample size of each group was 10. The pikas of inhibitor group were injected with 1 mL 1 mol/L N-isopropyl oxamate, a specific LDH-C4 inhibitor, in biceps femoris muscle of hind legs, each leg with 500 μL. The pikas of control group were injected with the same volume of normal saline (0.9% NaCl). The mRNA and protein expression levels of Ldh-c gene in plateau pika cardiac muscle were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot. The activities of LDH, and the contents of lactate (LD) and ATP in cardiac muscle were compared between the inhibitor group and the control group. The results showed that 1) the expression levels of Ldh-c mRNA and protein were 0.47 ± 0.06 and 0.68 ± 0.08, respectively; 2) 30 min after injection of 1 mL 1 mol/L N-isopropyl oxamate in biceps femoris muscle, the concentration of N-isopropyl oxamate in blood was 0.08 mmol/L; 3) in cardiac muscle of the inhibitor group and the control group, the LDH activities were (6.18 ± 0.48) U/mg and (9.08 ± 0.58) U/mg, the contents of LD were (0.21 ± 0.03) mmol/g and (0.26 ± 0.04) mmol/g, and the contents of ATP were (4.40 ± 0.69) nmol/mg and (6.18 ± 0.73) nmol/mg (P < 0.01); 5) the inhibition rates of N-isopropyl oxamate to LDH, LD and ATP were 31.98%, 20.90% and 28.70%, respectively. The results suggest that Ldh-c expresses in cardiac muscle of plateau pika, and the pika cardiac muscle may get at least 28% ATP for its activities by LDH-C4 catalyzed anaerobic glycolysis, which reduces the dependence on oxygen and enhances the adaptation to the hypoxic environments.

  3. Altered expression of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase in tumor-infiltrated CD11b myeloid cells: a mechanism for immune evasion in cancer.

    PubMed

    Eruslanov, Evgeniy; Kaliberov, Sergei; Daurkin, Irina; Kaliberova, Lyudmila; Buchsbaum, Donald; Vieweg, Johannes; Kusmartsev, Sergei

    2009-06-15

    Many cancers are known to produce high amounts of PGE(2), which is involved in both tumor progression and tumor-induced immune dysfunction. The key enzyme responsible for the biological inactivation of PGE(2) in tissue is NAD(+)-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH). It is well established that cancer cells frequently show down-regulated expression of 15-PGDH, which plays a major role in catabolism of the PGE(2). Here we demonstrate that tumor-infiltrated CD11b cells are also deficient for the 15-PGDH gene. Targeted adenovirus-mediated delivery of 15-PGDH gene resulted in substantial inhibition of tumor growth in mice with implanted CT-26 colon carcinomas. PGDH-mediated antitumor effect was associated with attenuated tumor-induced immune suppression and substantially reduced secretion of immunosuppressive mediators and cytokines such as PGE(2), IL-10, IL-13, and IL-6 by intratumoral CD11b cells. We show also that introduction of 15-PGDH gene in tumor tissue is sufficient to redirect the differentiation of intratumoral CD11b cells from immunosuppressive M2-oriented F4/80(+) tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) into M1-oriented CD11c(+) MHC class II-positive myeloid APCs. Notably, the administration of the 15-PGDH gene alone demonstrated a significant therapeutic effect promoting tumor eradication and long-term survival in 70% of mice with preestablished tumors. Surviving mice acquired antitumor T cell-mediated immune response. This study for the first time demonstrates an important role of the 15-PGDH in regulation of local antitumor immune response and highlights the potential to be implemented to enhance the efficacy of cancer therapy and immunotherapy.

  4. Host cell and expression engineering for development of an E. coli ketoreductase catalyst: enhancement of formate dehydrogenase activity for regeneration of NADH.

    PubMed

    Mädje, Katharina; Schmölzer, Katharina; Nidetzky, Bernd; Kratzer, Regina

    2012-01-11

    Enzymatic NADH or NADPH-dependent reduction is a widely applied approach for the synthesis of optically active organic compounds. The overall biocatalytic conversion usually involves in situ regeneration of the expensive NAD(P)H. Oxidation of formate to carbon dioxide, catalyzed by formate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.2; FDH), presents an almost ideal process solution for coenzyme regeneration that has been well established for NADH. Because isolated FDH is relatively unstable under a range of process conditions, whole cells often constitute the preferred form of the biocatalyst, combining the advantage of enzyme protection in the cellular environment with ease of enzyme production. However, the most prominent FDH used in biotransformations, the enzyme from the yeast Candida boidinii, is usually expressed in limiting amounts of activity in the prime host for whole cell biocatalysis, Escherichia coli. We therefore performed expression engineering with the aim of enhancing FDH activity in an E. coli ketoreductase catalyst. The benefit resulting from improved NADH regeneration capacity is demonstrated in two transformations of technological relevance: xylose conversion into xylitol, and synthesis of (S)-1-(2-chlorophenyl)ethanol from o-chloroacetophenone. As compared to individual expression of C. boidinii FDH in E. coli BL21 (DE3) that gave an intracellular enzyme activity of 400 units/g(CDW), co-expression of the FDH with the ketoreductase (Candida tenuis xylose reductase; XR) resulted in a substantial decline in FDH activity. The remaining FDH activity of only 85 U/g(CDW) was strongly limiting the overall catalytic activity of the whole cell system. Combined effects from increase in FDH gene copy number, supply of rare tRNAs in a Rosetta strain of E. coli, dampened expression of the ketoreductase, and induction at low temperature (18°C) brought up the FDH activity threefold to a level of 250 U/g(CDW) while reducing the XR activity by just 19% (1140 U/g(CDW)). The E

  5. Expression analyses of insulin-like peptide 3, RXFP2, LH receptor, and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in testes of normal and cryptorchid dogs.

    PubMed

    Hannan, M A; Kawate, N; Kubo, Y; Pathirana, I N; Büllesbach, E E; Hatoya, S; Inaba, T; Takahashi, M; Tamada, H

    2015-10-15

    Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) plays a key role in testicular descent in rodents, whereas in domestic animals, many aspects of the roles of INSL3 in reproductive organs after puberty are still unknown. This study was undertaken to (1) determine the quantitative changes of gene expression of testicular INSL3, its receptor (RXFP2), LH receptor, and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase during and after puberty in normal male dogs; (2) compare the expressions of these substances in normal and cryptorchid dogs; and (3) localize the cells expressing INSL3 in normal and retained canine testes. Testes were obtained from small-breed normal male dogs (n = 56) and cryptorchid dogs (n = 22). Normal scrotal testes from the normal dogs (normal testes), retained testes from both the unilateral and bilateral cryptorchid dogs (retained testes), and scrotal testes of the unilateral cryptorchid dogs (cryptorchid scrotal testes) were used. We measured the concentrations of these testicular messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and an enzyme immunoassay was used for measuring INSL3 peptide. Immunohistochemistry for INSL3 peptide was done in paraformaldehyde-fixed frozen testicular tissue. In the normal dogs, total amount of INSL3 mRNA per testis tended to decrease (P = 0.05) from pubertal (6-12 months) to postpubertal (1-5 years) and decreased (P < 0.01) to middle age (5-10 years), but total amount of INSL3 peptide per testis did not change among age groups. Concentrations of INSL3 mRNA were higher (P < 0.01) in retained testes than those in the normal testes and cryptorchid scrotal testes, and similar differences were observed for INSL3 peptide. Reversely, total amounts of INSL3 mRNA and peptide per retained testis were lower (P < 0.01) than those per normal testis because of smaller weight of retained testes. Concentrations and total amount of RXFP2 mRNA in the retained testes were almost nil and lower (P < 0.01) than those in

  6. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha upregulates 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression by CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-beta in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Irena D; Kostadinova, Radina M; Goldring, Christopher E; Nawrocki, Andrea R; Frey, Felix J; Frey, Brigitte M

    2009-02-01

    The enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) catalyzes the conversion of inactive to active glucocorticoids. 11beta-HSD1 plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of obesity and controls glucocorticoid actions in inflammation. Several studies have demonstrated that TNF-alpha increases 11beta-HSD1 mRNA and activity in various cell models. Here, we demonstrate that mRNA and activity of 11beta-HSD1 is increased in liver tissue from transgenic mice overexpressing TNF-alpha, indicating that this effect also occurs in vivo. To dissect the molecular mechanism of this increase, we investigated basal and TNF-alpha-induced transcription of the 11beta-HSD1 gene (HSD11B1) in HepG2 cells. We found that TNF-alpha acts via p38 MAPK pathway. Transient transfections with variable lengths of human HSD11B1 promoter revealed highest activity with or without TNF-alpha in the proximal promoter region (-180 to +74). Cotransfection with human CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha) and C/EBPbeta-LAP expression vectors activated the HSD11B1 promoter with the strongest effect within the same region. Gel shift and RNA interference assays revealed the involvement of mainly C/EBPalpha, but also C/EBPbeta, in basal and only of C/EBPbeta in the TNF-alpha-induced HSD11B1 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay confirmed in vivo the increased abundance of C/EBPbeta on the proximal HSD11B1 promoter upon TNF-alpha treatment. In conclusion, C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta control basal transcription, and TNF-alpha upregulates 11beta-HSD1, most likely by p38 MAPK-mediated increased binding of C/EBPbeta to the human HSD11B1 promoter. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing involvement of p38 MAPK in the TNF-alpha-mediated 11beta-HSD1 regulation, and that TNF-alpha stimulates enzyme activity in vivo.

  7. Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Resistance Are Associated With Increased Adipose 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Expression and Elevated Hepatic 5α-Reductase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, Jeremy W.; Finney, Joanne; Gay, Christopher; Hughes, Beverly A.; Hughes, Susan V.; Stewart, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The precise molecular mechanisms contributing to the development of insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and type 2 diabetes are largely unknown. Altered endogenous glucocorticoid metabolism, including 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), which generates active cortisol from cortisone, and 5α-reductase (5αR), which inactivates cortisol, has been implicated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—A total of 101 obese patients (mean age 48 ± 7 years, BMI 34.4 ± 4.3 kg/m2, 66 women, 35 men) underwent 75-g oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT), body composition analysis (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), assessment of glucocorticoid metabolism (24-h urine steroid metabolite analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry), and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue biopsies. RESULTS—A total of 22.7% of women had IGT compared with 34.2% of men. Two women and five men were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. In women, adipose 11β-HSD1 expression was increased in patients with IGT and correlated with glucose levels across the OGTT (R = 0.44, P < 0.001) but was independent of fat mass. Total glucocorticoid secretion was higher in men with and without IGT (normal 13,743 ± 863 vs. 7,453 ± 469 μg/24 h, P < 0.001; IGT 16,871 ± 2,113 vs. 10,133 ± 1,488 μg/24 h, P < 0.05), and in women, it was higher in those with IGT (7,453 ± 469 vs. 10,133 ± 1,488 μg/24 h, P < 0.001). In both sexes, 5αR activity correlated with fasting insulin (men R = 0.53, P = 0.003; women R = 0.33, P = 0.02), insulin secretion across an OGTT (men R = 0.46, P = 0.01; women R = 0.40, P = 0.004), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (men R = 0.52, P = 0.004; women R = 0.33, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS—Increased adipose 11β-HSD1 expression in women may contribute to glucose intolerance. Enhanced 5αR activity in both sexes is associated with insulin resistance but not body composition. Augmented glucocorticoid inactivation may serve as a

  8. Tryptophan tryptophylquinone cofactor biogenesis in the aromatic amine dehydrogenase of Alcaligenes faecalis. Cofactor assembly and catalytic properties of recombinant enzyme expressed in Paracoccus denitrificans.

    PubMed

    Hothi, Parvinder; Khadra, Khalid Abu; Combe, Jonathan P; Leys, David; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2005-11-01

    The heterologous expression of tryptophan trytophylquinone (TTQ)-dependent aromatic amine dehydrogenase (AADH) has been achieved in Paracoccus denitrificans. The aauBEDA genes and orf-2 from the aromatic amine utilization (aau) gene cluster of Alcaligenes faecalis were placed under the regulatory control of the mauF promoter from P. denitrificans and introduced into P. denitrificans using a broad-host-range vector. The physical, spectroscopic and kinetic properties of the recombinant AADH were indistinguishable from those of the native enzyme isolated from A. faecalis. TTQ biogenesis in recombinant AADH is functional despite the lack of analogues in the cloned aau gene cluster for mauF, mauG, mauL, mauM and mauN that are found in the methylamine utilization (mau) gene cluster of a number of methylotrophic organisms. Steady-state reaction profiles for recombinant AADH as a function of substrate concentration differed between 'fast' (tryptamine) and 'slow' (benzylamine) substrates, owing to a lack of inhibition by benzylamine at high substrate concentrations. A deflated and temperature-dependent kinetic isotope effect indicated that C-H/C-D bond breakage is only partially rate-limiting in steady-state reactions with benzylamine. Stopped-flow studies of the reductive half-reaction of recombinant AADH with benzylamine demonstrated that the KIE is elevated over the value observed in steady-state turnover and is independent of temperature, consistent with (a) previously reported studies with native AADH and (b) breakage of the substrate C-H bond by quantum mechanical tunnelling. The limiting rate constant (k(lim)) for TTQ reduction is controlled by a single ionization with pK(a) value of 6.0, with maximum activity realized in the alkaline region. Two kinetically influential ionizations were identified in plots of k(lim)/K(d) of pK(a) values 7.1 and 9.3, again with the maximum value realized in the alkaline region. The potential origin of these kinetically influential

  9. Increasing seed oil content in oil-seed rape (Brassica napus L.) by over-expression of a yeast glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase under the control of a seed-specific promoter.

    PubMed

    Vigeolas, Helene; Waldeck, Peter; Zank, Thorsten; Geigenberger, Peter

    2007-05-01

    Previous attempts to manipulate oil synthesis in plants have mainly concentrated on the genes involved in the biosynthesis and use of fatty acids, neglecting the possible role of glycerol-3-phosphate supply on the rate of triacylglycerol synthesis. In this study, a yeast gene coding for cytosolic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd1) was expressed in transgenic oil-seed rape under the control of the seed-specific napin promoter. It was found that a twofold increase in glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity led to a three- to fourfold increase in the level of glycerol-3-phosphate in developing seeds, resulting in a 40% increase in the final lipid content of the seed, with the protein content remaining substantially unchanged. This was accompanied by a decrease in the glycolytic intermediate dihydroxyacetone phosphate, the direct precursor of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The levels of sucrose and various metabolites in the pathway from sucrose to fatty acids remained unaltered. The results show that glycerol-3-phosphate supply co-limits oil accumulation in developing seeds. This has important implications for strategies that aim to increase the overall level of oil in commercial oil-seed crops for use as a renewable alternative to petrol.

  10. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for L-tyrosine production by expression of genes coding for the chorismate mutase domain of the native chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydratase and a cyclohexadienyl dehydrogenase from Zymomonas mobilis.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Béjar, María I; Lara, Alvaro R; López, Hezraí; Hernández-Chávez, Georgina; Martinez, Alfredo; Ramírez, Octavio T; Bolívar, Francisco; Gosset, Guillermo

    2008-05-01

    The expression of the feedback inhibition-insensitive enzyme cyclohexadienyl dehydrogenase (TyrC) from Zymomonas mobilis and the chorismate mutase domain from native chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydratase (PheA(CM)) from Escherichia coli was compared to the expression of native feedback inhibition-sensitive chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydrogenase (CM-TyrA(p)) with regard to the capacity to produce l-tyrosine in E. coli strains modified to increase the carbon flow to chorismate. Shake flask experiments showed that TyrC increased the yield of l-tyrosine from glucose (Y(l-Tyr/Glc)) by 6.8-fold compared to the yield obtained with CM-TyrA(p). In bioreactor experiments, a strain expressing both TyrC and PheA(CM) produced 3 g/liter of l-tyrosine with a Y(l-Tyr/Glc) of 66 mg/g. These values are 46 and 48% higher than the values for a strain expressing only TyrC. The results show that the feedback inhibition-insensitive enzymes can be employed for strain development as part of a metabolic engineering strategy for l-tyrosine production.

  11. Metabolic Engineering of Escherichia coli for l-Tyrosine Production by Expression of Genes Coding for the Chorismate Mutase Domain of the Native Chorismate Mutase-Prephenate Dehydratase and a Cyclohexadienyl Dehydrogenase from Zymomonas mobilis▿

    PubMed Central

    Chávez-Béjar, María I.; Lara, Alvaro R.; López, Hezraí; Hernández-Chávez, Georgina; Martinez, Alfredo; Ramírez, Octavio T.; Bolívar, Francisco; Gosset, Guillermo

    2008-01-01

    The expression of the feedback inhibition-insensitive enzyme cyclohexadienyl dehydrogenase (TyrC) from Zymomonas mobilis and the chorismate mutase domain from native chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydratase (PheACM) from Escherichia coli was compared to the expression of native feedback inhibition-sensitive chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydrogenase (CM-TyrAp) with regard to the capacity to produce l-tyrosine in E. coli strains modified to increase the carbon flow to chorismate. Shake flask experiments showed that TyrC increased the yield of l-tyrosine from glucose (Yl-Tyr/Glc) by 6.8-fold compared to the yield obtained with CM-TyrAp. In bioreactor experiments, a strain expressing both TyrC and PheACM produced 3 g/liter of l-tyrosine with a Yl-Tyr/Glc of 66 mg/g. These values are 46 and 48% higher than the values for a strain expressing only TyrC. The results show that the feedback inhibition-insensitive enzymes can be employed for strain development as part of a metabolic engineering strategy for l-tyrosine production. PMID:18344329

  12. Malate dehydrogenase from the mesophile Chlorobium vibrioforme and from the mild thermophile Chlorobium tepidum: molecular cloning, construction of a hybrid, and expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Naterstad, K; Lauvrak, V; Sirevåg, R

    1996-12-01

    The genes (mdh) encoding malate dehydrogenase (MDH) from the mesophile Chlorobium vibrioforme and the moderate thermophile C. tepidum were cloned and sequenced, and the complete amino acid sequences were deduced. When the region upstream of mdh was analyzed, a sequence with high homology to an operon encoding ribosomal proteins from Escherichia coli was found. Each mdh gene consists of a 930-bp open reading frame and encodes 310 amino acid residues, corresponding to a subunit weight of 33,200 Da for the dimeric enzyme. The amino acid sequence identity of the two MDHs is 86%. Homology searches using the primary structures of the two MDHs revealed significant sequence similarity to lactate dehydrogenases. A hybrid mdh was constructed from the 3' part of mdh from C. tepidum and the 5' part of mdh from C. vibrioforme. The thermostabilities of the hybrid enzyme and of MDH from C. vibrioforme and C. tepidum were compared.

  13. Expression in Escherichia coli of a sub-gene encoding the lipoyl and peripheral subunit-binding domains of the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed

    Hipps, D S; Perham, R N

    1992-05-01

    A sub-gene encoding the N-terminal 170 residues of the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase chain of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Bacillus stearothermophilus was over-expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed polypeptide consists of the lipoyl domain, inter-domain linker and peripheral subunit-binding domain; these were found to have folded into their native functional conformations as judged by reductive acetylation of the lipoyl domain, limited proteolysis of the linker region and ability to bind the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase dimer. The di-domain was largely (80%) unlipoylated; a small proportion (4%) was correctly modified with lipoic acid and the remainder (16%) was aberrantly modified with octanoic acid. A polyclonal antiserum was raised that recognized both the di-domain and the individual component domains. The 400 MHz 1H-n.m.r. spectrum of the di-domain showed resonances corresponding to those seen in spectra of the lipoyl domain, plus others characteristic of amino acid residues in the flexible linker region. Further, as yet unidentified, resonances are likely to be derived from the peripheral subunit-binding domain. The existence and independent folding of the peripheral subunit-binding domain is thus confirmed and its purification in large-scale amounts for detailed structural analysis is now possible.

  14. Expression in Escherichia coli of a sub-gene encoding the lipoyl and peripheral subunit-binding domains of the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Bacillus stearothermophilus.

    PubMed Central

    Hipps, D S; Perham, R N

    1992-01-01

    A sub-gene encoding the N-terminal 170 residues of the dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase chain of the pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex of Bacillus stearothermophilus was over-expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed polypeptide consists of the lipoyl domain, inter-domain linker and peripheral subunit-binding domain; these were found to have folded into their native functional conformations as judged by reductive acetylation of the lipoyl domain, limited proteolysis of the linker region and ability to bind the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase dimer. The di-domain was largely (80%) unlipoylated; a small proportion (4%) was correctly modified with lipoic acid and the remainder (16%) was aberrantly modified with octanoic acid. A polyclonal antiserum was raised that recognized both the di-domain and the individual component domains. The 400 MHz 1H-n.m.r. spectrum of the di-domain showed resonances corresponding to those seen in spectra of the lipoyl domain, plus others characteristic of amino acid residues in the flexible linker region. Further, as yet unidentified, resonances are likely to be derived from the peripheral subunit-binding domain. The existence and independent folding of the peripheral subunit-binding domain is thus confirmed and its purification in large-scale amounts for detailed structural analysis is now possible. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1590756

  15. GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE-S, A SPERM-SPECIFIC GLYCOLYTIC ENZYME, IS REQUIRED FOR SPERM MOTILITY AND MALE FERTILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    While glycolysis is highly conserved, it is remarkable that several novel isozymes in this central metabolic pathway are found in mammalian sperm. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-S (GAPDS) is the product of a mouse gene expressed only during spermatogenesis and, like it...

  16. GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE-S, A SPERM-SPECIFIC GLYCOLYTIC ENZYME, IS REQUIRED FOR SPERM MOTILITY AND MALE FERTILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    While glycolysis is highly conserved, it is remarkable that several novel isozymes in this central metabolic pathway are found in mammalian sperm. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-S (GAPDS) is the product of a mouse gene expressed only during spermatogenesis and, like it...

  17. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from the human pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi in complex with substrate

    PubMed Central

    Ortíz, Cecilia; Larrieux, Nicole; Medeiros, Andrea; Botti, Horacio; Comini, Marcelo; Buschiazzo, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    An N-terminally truncated version of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Trypanosoma cruzi lacking the first 37 residues was crystallized both in its apo form and in a binary complex with glucose 6-­phosphate. The crystals both belonged to space group P21 and diffracted to 2.85 and 3.35 Å resolution, respectively. Self-rotation function maps were consistent with point group 222. The structure was solved by molecular replacement, confirming a tetrameric quaternary structure. PMID:22102256

  18. Extranuclear expression of the bacterial xylose isomerase (xylA) and the UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (hasB) genes in yeast with Kluyveromyces lactis linear killer plasmids as vectors.

    PubMed

    Schründer, J; Gunge, N; Meinhardt, F

    1996-11-01

    On the basis of the linear killer plasmid pGKL1 from Kluyveromyces lactis, two new linear hybrid plasmids were constructed. One of these, pRSC126, carried the xylA gene from Streptomyces rubiginosus encoding the xylose isomerase. The other linear hybrid molecule, pRSC128, carried the hasB gene of Streptococcus pyogenes encoding the UDP glucose dehydrogenase. Construction was performed in a way that the putative cytoplasmic promoter element of ORF5 of pGKL2 was fused to the coding region of the heterologous genes. After transformation, in vivo recombination led to the establishment of linear hybrid vectors. Though efficiency of expression was low when compared with bacterial systems, cytoplasmic expression of both genes was clearly demonstrated.

  19. (R,R)-Butane-2,3-diol dehydrogenase from Bacillus clausii DSM 8716(T): Cloning and expression of the bdhA-gene, and initial characterization of enzyme.

    PubMed

    Muschallik, Lukas; Molinnus, Denise; Bongaerts, Johannes; Pohl, Martina; Wagner, Torsten; Schöning, Michael J; Siegert, Petra; Selmer, Thorsten

    2017-09-20

    The gene encoding a putative (R,R)-butane-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (bdhA) from Bacillus clausii DSM 8716(T) was isolated, sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli. The amino acid sequence of the encoded protein is only distantly related to previously studied enzymes (identity 33-43%) and exhibited some uncharted peculiarities. An N-terminally StrepII-tagged enzyme variant was purified and initially characterized. The isolated enzyme catalyzed the (R)-specific oxidation of (R,R)- and meso-butane-2,3-diol to (R)- and (S)-acetoin with specific activities of 12U/mg and 23U/mg, respectively. Likewise, racemic acetoin was reduced with a specific activity of up to 115U/mg yielding a mixture of (R,R)- and meso-butane-2,3-diol, while the enzyme reduced butane-2,3-dione (Vmax 74U/mg) solely to (R,R)-butane-2,3-diol via (R)-acetoin. For these reactions only activity with the co-substrates NADH/NAD(+) was observed. The enzyme accepted a selection of vicinal diketones, α-hydroxy ketones and vicinal diols as alternative substrates. Although the physiological function of the enzyme in B. clausii remains elusive, the data presented herein clearly demonstrates that the encoded enzyme is a genuine (R,R)-butane-2,3-diol dehydrogenase with potential for applications in biocatalysis and sensor development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Sorbitol dehydrogenase: structure, function and ligand design.

    PubMed

    El-Kabbani, O; Darmanin, C; Chung, R P-T

    2004-02-01

    Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), a member of the medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase protein family and the second enzyme of the polyol pathway of glucose metabolism, converts sorbitol to fructose strictly using NAD(+) as coenzyme. SDH is expressed almost ubiquitously in all mammalian tissues. The enzyme has attracted considerable interest due to its implication in the development of diabetic complications and thus its tertiary structure may facilitate the development of drugs for the treatment of diabetes sufferers. Modelling studies suggest that SDH is structurally homologous to mammalian alcohol dehydrogenase with respect to conserved zinc binding motif and a hydrophobic substrate-binding pocket. Recently, the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of a mammalian SDH was solved, and it was found that while the overall 3-D structures of SDH and alcohol dehydrogenase are similar, the zinc coordination in the active sites of the two enzymes is different. The available structural and biochemical information of SDH are currently being utilized in a structure-based approach to develop drugs for the treatment or prevention of the complications of diabetes. This review provides an overview of the recent advances in the structure, function and drug development fields of sorbitol dehydrogenase.

  1. Use of induction promoters to regulate hyaluronan synthase and UDP-glucose-6-dehydrogenase of Streptococcus zooepidemicus expression in Lactococcus lactis: a case study of the regulation mechanism of hyaluronic acid polymer.

    PubMed

    Sheng, J Z; Ling, P X; Zhu, X Q; Guo, X P; Zhang, T M; He, Y L; Wang, F S

    2009-07-01

    To determine the effects of the ratios of hyaluronan synthase expression level to precursor sugar UDP-GlcA biosynthesis ability on the molecular weight (MW) of hyaluronic acid (HA) in recombinant Lactococcus lactis. The genes szHasA (hyaluronan synthase gene) and szHasB (UDP-glucose-6-dehydrogenase gene) of Streptococcus zooepidemicus were introduced into L. lactis under the control of nisA promoter and lacA promoter respectively, resulting in a dual-plasmid controlled expression system. The effects of the ratios of hyaluronan synthase expression level to the precursor sugar UDP-GlcA biosynthesis ability under different induction concentration collocations with nisin and lactose on the MW of HA in recombinant L. lactis were determined. The results showed that the final weight-average molecular weight () of HA correlated with the relative ratios of HasA (hyaluronan synthase) expression level to the concentration of UDP-GlcA. Regulating the relative ratios of HasA expression level to the precursor sugar biosynthesis ability was an efficient method to control the size of HA. This study put forward a guide to establish an efficacious way to control the size of HA in fermentation.

  2. Prostate cancer cells metabolize d-lactate inside mitochondria via a D-lactate dehydrogenase which is more active and highly expressed than in normal cells.

    PubMed

    de Bari, Lidia; Moro, Loredana; Passarella, Salvatore

    2013-03-01

    Although D-lactate metabolism has been shown to occur in a variety of mitochondria, the metabolic fate of D-lactate in cancer cells has never been investigated, as it is believed to be exported to the extracellular phase. We show that mitochondria from both cancer (PC-3) and normal (PNT1A) prostate cells can metabolize D-lactate in an energy competent manner. This is due to the mitochondrial D-lactate dehydrogenase, a membrane flavoprotein, the activity and protein level of which are higher in PC-3 than in PNT1A cells, as detected by both kinetic and immunological analysis. D-Lactate can enter prostate mitochondria and cause the export of newly synthesized malate in a carrier-mediated manner, with the rate of malate efflux from mitochondria twofold higher in cancer. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Isolation of human umbilical cord blood aldehyde dehydrogenase-expressing progenitor cells that modulate vascular regenerative functions in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Putman, David M; Hess, David A

    2013-01-01

    This unit describes the isolation and application of human umbilical cord blood progenitor cells to modulate vascular regenerative functions using in vitro co-culture systems and in vivo transplantation models. Using aldehyde dehydrogenase as a marker of stem cell function, blood-derived progenitors can be efficiently purified form human umbilical cord blood using flow cytometry. We describe in vitro approaches to measure cell-mediated effects on the survival, proliferation, and tube-forming function of endothelial cells using growth-rate assays and Matrigel tube-forming assays. Additionally, we provide a detailed protocol for inducing acute unilateral hindlimb ischemia in immune-deficient mice to assess progenitor cell-modulated effects on vascular regeneration by tracking the recovery of blood flow using noninvasive laser Doppler perfusion imaging. Collectively, we present combined in vitro and in vivo transplantation strategies for the pre-clinical assessment of human progenitor cell-based therapies to treat ischemic disease.

  4. Heterologous Expression of the Clostridium carboxidivorans CO Dehydrogenase Alone or Together with the Acetyl Coenzyme A Synthase Enables both Reduction of CO2 and Oxidation of CO by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Ellinor D; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T

    2017-08-15

    With recent advances in synthetic biology, CO2 could be utilized as a carbon feedstock by native or engineered organisms, assuming the availability of electrons. Two key enzymes used in autotrophic CO2 fixation are the CO dehydrogenase (CODH) and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthase (ACS), which form a bifunctional heterotetrameric complex. The CODH/ACS complex can reversibly catalyze CO2 to CO, effectively enabling a biological water-gas shift reaction at ambient temperatures and pressures. The CODH/ACS complex is part of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway (WLP) used by acetogens to fix CO2, and it has been well characterized in native hosts. So far, only a few recombinant CODH/ACS complexes have been expressed in heterologous hosts, none of which demonstrated in vivo CO2 reduction. Here, functional expression of the Clostridium carboxidivorans CODH/ACS complex is demonstrated in the solventogen Clostridium acetobutylicum, which was engineered to express CODH alone or together with the ACS. Both strains exhibited CO2 reduction and CO oxidation activities. The CODH reactions were interrogated using isotopic labeling, thus verifying that CO was a direct product of CO2 reduction, and vice versa. CODH apparently uses a native C. acetobutylicum ferredoxin as an electron carrier for CO2 reduction. Heterologous CODH activity depended on actively growing cells and required the addition of nickel, which is inserted into CODH without the need to express the native Ni insertase protein. Increasing CO concentrations in the gas phase inhibited CODH activity and altered the metabolite profile of the CODH-expressing cells. This work provides the foundation for engineering a complete and functional WLP in nonnative host organisms.IMPORTANCE Functional expression of CO dehydrogenase (CODH) from Clostridium carboxidivorans was demonstrated in C. acetobutylicum, which is natively incapable of CO2 fixation. The expression of CODH, alone or together with the C. carboxidivorans acetyl

  5. Multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase causing excessive acetaldehyde production from ethanol by oral streptococci.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Sylvia I; Jin, Ling; Gasparovich, Stephen R; Tao, Lin

    2013-07-01

    Ethanol consumption and poor oral hygiene are risk factors for oral and oesophageal cancers. Although oral streptococci have been found to produce excessive acetaldehyde from ethanol, little is known about the mechanism by which this carcinogen is produced. By screening 52 strains of diverse oral streptococcal species, we identified Streptococcus gordonii V2016 that produced the most acetaldehyde from ethanol. We then constructed gene deletion mutants in this strain and analysed them for alcohol and acetaldehyde dehydrogenases by zymograms. The results showed that S. gordonii V2016 expressed three primary alcohol dehydrogenases, AdhA, AdhB and AdhE, which all oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, but their preferred substrates were 1-propanol, 1-butanol and ethanol, respectively. Two additional dehydrogenases, S-AdhA and TdhA, were identified with specificities to the secondary alcohol 2-propanol and threonine, respectively, but not to ethanol. S. gordonii V2016 did not show a detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase even though its adhE gene encodes a putative bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Mutants with adhE deletion showed greater tolerance to ethanol in comparison with the wild-type and mutant with adhA or adhB deletion, indicating that AdhE is the major alcohol dehydrogenase in S. gordonii. Analysis of 19 additional strains of S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. oralis, S. salivarius and S. sanguinis showed expressions of up to three alcohol dehydrogenases, but none showed detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, except one strain that showed a novel ALDH. Therefore, expression of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase may contribute to excessive production of acetaldehyde from ethanol by certain oral streptococci.

  6. Human adrenal cells that express both 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD3B2) and cytochrome b5 (CYB5A) contribute to adrenal androstenedione production

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Xing, Yewei; Hui, Xiao-Gang; Kurotaki, Yumi; Ono, Katsuhiko; Cohen, Tony; Sasano, Hironobu; Rainey, William E

    2014-01-01

    Androstenedione is one of several weak androgens produced in the human adrenal gland. 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD3B2) and cytochrome b5 (CYB5A) are both required for androstenedione production. However, previous studies demonstrated the expression of HSD3B2 within the zona glomerulosa (ZG) and fasciculata (ZF) but low levels in the zona reticularis. In contrast, CYB5A expression increases in the zona reticularis (ZR) in human adrenal glands. Although their colocalization has been reported in gonadal theca and Leydig cells this has not been studied in the human adrenal. Therefore, we immonolocalized HSD3B2 and CYB5A in normal human adrenal glands and first demonstrated their co-expression in the cortical cells located at the border between the ZF and ZR in normal human adrenal. Results of in vitro studies using the human adrenal H295R cells treated with the HSD3B2 inhibitor, trilostane, also demonstrated a markedly decreased androstenedione production. Decreasing CYB5A mRNA using its corresponding siRNA also resulted in significant inhibition of androstenedione production in the H295R cells. These findings together indicate that there are a group of cells co-expressing HSD3B2 and CYB5A with hybrid features of both ZF and ZR in human adrenal cortex, and these hybrid cortical cells may play an important role in androstenedione production in human adrenal gland. PMID:21185375

  7. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis of the (S)-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase PaaH1 from Ralstonia eutropha H16

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jieun; Kim, Kyung-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The (S)-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase PaaH1 from Ralstonia eutropha (RePaaH1) is an enzyme used in the biosynthesis of n-butanol from acetyl-CoA by the reduction of acetoacetyl-CoA to (S)-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA. The RePaaH1 protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of 1.4 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M sodium cacodylate pH 6.0, 0.2 M sodium chloride at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 2.6 Å on a synchrotron beamline. The crystal belonged to space group P3221, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 135.4, c = 97.2 Å. With three molecules per asymmetric unit, the crystal volume per unit protein weight (V M) is 2.68 Å3 Da−1, which corresponds to a solvent content of approximately 54.1%. The structure was solved by the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion method and refinement of the structure is in progress. PMID:25005097

  8. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus agalactiae NEM316

    PubMed Central

    Nagarajan, Revathi; Ponnuraj, Karthe

    2014-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is an essential enzyme involved in glycolysis. Despite lacking the secretory signal sequence, this cytosolic enzyme has been found localized at the surface of several bacteria and fungi. As a surface protein, GAPDH exhibits various adhesive functions, thereby facilitating colonization and invasion of host tissues. Streptococcus agalactiae, also known as group B streptococcus (GBS), binds onto the host using its surface adhesins and causes sepsis and pneumonia in neonates. GAPDH is one of the surface adhesins of GBS binding to human plasminogen and is a virulent factor associated with host colonization. Although the surface-associated GAPDH has been shown to bind to a variety of host extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules in various bacteria, the molecular mechanism underlying their interaction is not fully understood. To investigate this, structural studies on GAPDH of S. agalactiae were initiated. The gapC gene of S. agalactiae NEM316 encoding GAPDH protein was cloned into pET-28a vector, overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells and purified to homogeneity. The purified protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The GAPDH crystals obtained in two different crystallization conditions diffracted to 2.8 and 2.6 Å resolution, belonging to two different space groups P21 and P212121, respectively. The structure was solved by molecular replacement and structure refinement is now in progress. PMID:25005093

  9. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Luzzatto, Lucio; Nannelli, Caterina; Notaro, Rosario

    2016-04-01

    G6PD is a housekeeping gene expressed in all cells. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is part of the pentose phosphate pathway, and its main physiologic role is to provide NADPH. G6PD deficiency, one of the commonest inherited enzyme abnormalities in humans, arises through one of many possible mutations, most of which reduce the stability of the enzyme and its level as red cells age. G6PD-deficient persons are mostly asymptomatic, but they can develop severe jaundice during the neonatal period and acute hemolytic anemia when they ingest fava beans or when they are exposed to certain infections or drugs. G6PD deficiency is a global health issue.

  10. Identification and characterization of the LysR-type transcriptional regulator HsdR for steroid-inducible expression of the 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/carbonyl reductase gene in Comamonas testosteroni.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wenjie; Xiong, Guangming; Maser, Edmund

    2012-02-01

    3α-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/carbonyl reductase (3α-HSD/CR) from Comamonas testosteroni is a key enzyme in steroid degradation in soil and water. 3α-HSD/CR gene (hsdA) expression can be induced by steroids like testosterone and progesterone. Previously, we have shown that the induction of hsdA expression by steroids is a derepression where steroidal inducers bind to two repressors, RepA and RepB, thereby preventing the blocking of hsdA transcription and translation, respectively (G. Xiong and E. Maser, J. Biol. Chem. 276:9961-9970, 2001; G. Xiong, H. J. Martin, and E. Maser, J. Biol. Chem. 278:47400-47407, 2003). In the present study, a new LysR-type transcriptional factor, HsdR, for 3α-HSD/CR expression in C. testosteroni has been identified. The hsdR gene is located 2.58 kb downstream from hsdA on the C. testosteroni ATCC 11996 chromosome with an orientation opposite that of hsdA. The hsdR gene was cloned and recombinant HsdR protein was produced, as was anti-HsdR polyclonal antibodies. While heterologous transformation systems revealed that HsdR activates the expression of the hsdA gene, electrophoresis mobility shift assays showed that HsdR specifically binds to the hsdA promoter region. Interestingly, the activity of HsdR is dependent on decreased repression by RepA. Furthermore, in vitro binding assays indicated that HsdR can come into contact with RNA polymerase. As expected, an hsdR knockout mutant expressed low levels of 3α-HSD/CR compared to that of wild-type C. testosteroni after testosterone induction. In conclusion, HsdR is a positive transcription factor for the hsdA gene and promotes the induction of 3α-HSD/CR expression in C. testosteroni.

  11. Effect of adiponectin on the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, P450 side chain cleavage enzyme and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene expression, progesterone and androstenedione production by the porcine uterus during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Smolinska, N; Dobrzyn, K; Kiezun, M; Szeszko, K; Maleszka, A; Kaminski, T

    2016-06-01

    Adiponectin and its receptors are expressed in the human and porcine uterus and this endocrine system has important role in the regulation of reproductive processes. The expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B1) were observed in the human and porcine uterus during the oestrous cycle and pregnancy. The de novo synthesis of steroids in the uterus might be a crucial factor for effective implantation and maintenance of pregnancy. We hypothesized that adiponectin modulates the expression of key enzymes in the synthesis of the steroids: StAR, P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) and HSD3B1, as well as progesterone (P4) and androstenedione (A4) secretion by the porcine uterus. Endometrial and myometrial explants harvested from gilts (n = 5) on days 10 to 11, 12 to 13, 15 to 16 and 27 to 28 of pregnancy and on days 10 to 11 of the oestrous cycle were cultured in vitro in the presence of adiponectin (1, 10 μg/ml), adiponectin with insulin (10 ng/ml) and insulin alone (10 ng/ml). Gene expression was examined by real-time PCR, and the secretion of the steroids was determined by radioimmunoassay. The content of StAR, CYP11A1 and HSD3B1 mRNAs and the secretion of P4 and A4 was modulated by adiponectin in endometrial and myometrial tissue explants during early pregnancy and the oestrous cycle. In this action adiponectin interacted with insulin. Insulin itself also regulated the steroidogenic activity of the porcine uterus. ere we reported, for the first time, the expression of CYP11A1 genes in the porcine endometrium and myometrium. Our novel findings indicate that adiponectin affects basal and insulin-stimulated expression of key steroidogenic genes and production of steroid hormones by the porcine uterus during maternal recognition of pregnancy and implantation.

  12. Gene Expression Profiling of NF1-Associated and Sporadic Pilocytic Astrocytoma Identifies Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Family, Member L1 (ALDH1L1) as an Underexpressed Candidate Biomarker in Aggressive Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Fausto J.; Giannini, Caterina; Asmann, Yan W.; Sharma, Mukesh K.; Perry, Arie; Tibbetts, Kathleen M.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Anant, Shrikant; Jenkins, Sarah; Eberhart, Charles G.; Sarkaria, Jann N.; Gutmann, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are WHO grade I gliomas; they most often affect children and young adults and occur in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). To identify genes that are differentially expressed in sporadic (S-PA) versus NF-1-associated PAs (NF1-PAs) and those that might reflect differences in clinical behavior, we performed gene expression profiling using Affymetrix U133 Plus2.0 GeneChip arrays in 36 S-PAs and 11 NF1-PAs. Thirteen genes were over-expressed and another 13 genes were under-expressed in NF1-associated PAs relative to S-PAs. Immunohistochemical studies performed on 103 tumors, representing 2 independently generated tissue microarrays, confirmed the differential expression of CUGBP2 (p = 0.0014), RANBP9 (p = 0.0075), ITGAV1 (p = 0.0001), and INFGR1 (p = 0.024) proteins. One of the underexpressed genes, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member L1 (ALDH1L1), was also reduced in clinically aggressive compared to typical PAs (p = 0.01) and in PAs with increased cellularity and necrosis. Furthermore, in an additional independent set of tumors, weak to absent ALDH1L1 expression was found in 13/18 (72%) clinically aggressive PAs, in 8/9 (89%) PAs with pilomyxoid features, in 7/10 (70%) PAs with anaplastic transformation and in 16/21 (76%) diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas of various grades. In summary, we have identified a molecular signature that distinguishes NF1-PA from S-PA, and found that ALDH1L1 underexpression is associated with aggressive histology and/or biological behavior. PMID:19018242

  13. Expression of 3beta-HSD and P5betaR, genes respectively coding for Delta5-3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and progesterone 5beta-reductase, in leaves and cell cultures of Digitalis lanata EHRH.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Mona; de Padua, Rodrigo Maia; Herl, Vanessa; Müller-Uri, Frieder; Kreis, Wolfgang

    2010-06-01

    Plants of the genus Digitalis produce 5 beta-cardenolides that are used in the therapy of cardiac insufficiency in humans. 3 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD) and progesterone 5 beta-reductase (P5 betaR) are both supposed to be important enzymes in the biosynthesis of these natural products. Activity and gene expression were demonstrated for both enzymes in cardenolide-accumulating leaves of Digitalis lanata but also in cardenolide-free permanent cell suspension cultures initiated from D. lanata leaf tissue. Enzyme activities were determined and quantified by HPLC and GC-MS methods. Expression of the respective genes, namely AY585867.1 (P5betaR gene) and DQ466890.1 (3beta-HSD gene), was made evident by real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. We demonstrate for the first time that the P5betaR gene, encoding an enzyme described as a key enzyme in cardenolide biosynthesis, is also expressed in cardenolide-free tissues of cardenolide-containing plants.

  14. Expression pattern, ethanol-metabolizing activities, and cellular localization of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases in human large bowel: association of the functional polymorphisms of ADH and ALDH genes with hemorrhoids and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chien-Ping; Jao, Shu-Wen; Lee, Shiao-Pieng; Chen, Pei-Chi; Chung, Chia-Chi; Lee, Shou-Lun; Nieh, Shin; Yin, Shih-Jiun

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) are principal enzymes responsible for metabolism of ethanol. Functional polymorphisms of ADH1B, ADH1C, and ALDH2 genes occur among racial populations. The goal of this study was to systematically determine the functional expressions and cellular localization of ADHs and ALDHs in human rectal mucosa, the lesions of adenocarcinoma and hemorrhoid, and the genetic association of allelic variations of ADH and ALDH with large bowel disorders. Twenty-one surgical specimens of rectal adenocarcinoma and the adjacent normal mucosa, including 16 paired tissues of rectal tumor, normal mucosae of rectum and sigmoid colon from the same individuals, and 18 surgical mixed hemorrhoid specimens and leukocyte DNA samples from 103 colorectal cancer patients, 67 hemorrhoid patients, and 545 control subjects recruited in previous study, were investigated. The isozyme/allozyme expression patterns of ADH and ALDH were identified by isoelectric focusing and the activities were assayed spectrophotometrically. The protein contents of ADH/ALDH isozymes were determined by immunoblotting using the corresponding purified class-specific antibodies; the cellular activity and protein localizations were detected by immunohistochemistry and histochemistry, respectively. Genotypes of ADH1B, ADH1C, and ALDH2 were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms. At 33mM ethanol, pH 7.5, the activity of ADH1C*1/1 phenotypes exhibited 87% higher than that of the ADH1C*1/*2 phenotypes in normal rectal mucosa. The activity of ALDH2-active phenotypes of rectal mucosa was 33% greater than ALDH2-inactive phenotypes at 200μM acetaldehyde. The protein contents in normal rectal mucosa were in the following order: ADH1>ALDH2>ADH3≈ALDH1A1, whereas those of ADH2, ADH4, and ALDH3A1 were fairly low. Both activity and content of ADH1 were significantly decreased in rectal tumors, whereas the ALDH activity remained

  15. Identification, sequence analysis, and expression of a Corynebacterium glutamicum gene cluster encoding the three glycolytic enzymes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, and triosephosphate isomerase.

    PubMed Central

    Eikmanns, B J

    1992-01-01

    To investigate a possible chromosomal clustering of glycolytic enzyme genes in Corynebacterium glutamicum, a 6.4-kb DNA fragment located 5' adjacent to the structural phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCx) gene ppc was isolated. Sequence analysis of the ppc-proximal part of this fragment identified a cluster of three glycolytic genes, namely, the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene gap, the 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) gene pgk, and the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene tpi. The four genes are organized in the order gap-pgk-tpi-ppc and are separated by 215 bp (gap and pgk), 78 bp (pgk and tpi), and 185 bp (tpi and ppc). The predicted gene product of gap consists of 336 amino acids (M(r) of 36,204), that of pgk consists of 403 amino acids (M(r) of 42,654), and that of tpi consists of 259 amino acids (M(r) of 27,198). The amino acid sequences of the three enzymes show up to 62% (GAPDH), 48% (PGK), and 44% (TPI) identity in comparison with respective enzymes from other organisms. The gap, pgk, tpi, and ppc genes were cloned into the C. glutamicum-Escherichia coli shuttle vector pEK0 and introduced into C. glutamicum. Relative to the wild type, the recombinant strains showed up to 20-fold-higher specific activities of the respective enzymes. On the basis of codon usage analysis of gap, pgk, tpi, and previously sequenced genes from C. glutamicum, a codon preference profile for this organism which differs significantly from those of E. coli and Bacillus subtilis is presented. Images PMID:1400158

  16. Transgenic Expression of Glud1 (Glutamate Dehydrogenase 1) in Neurons: In Vivo Model of Enhanced Glutamate Release, Altered Synaptic Plasticity, and Selective Neuronal Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Xiaodong; Pal, Ranu; Hascup, Kevin N.; Wang, Yongfu; Wang, Wen-Tung; Xu, Wenhao; Hui, Dongwei; Agbas, Abdulbaki; Wang, Xinkun; Michaelis, Mary L.; Choi, In-Young; Belousov, Andrei B.; Gerhardt, Greg A.; Michaelis, Elias K.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of lifelong, moderate excess release of glutamate (Glu) in the CNS have not been previously characterized. We created a transgenic (Tg) mouse model of lifelong excess synaptic Glu release in the CNS by introducing the gene for glutamate dehydrogenase 1 (Glud1) under the control of the neuron-specific enolase promoter. Glud1 is, potentially, an important enzyme in the pathway of Glu synthesis in nerve terminals. Increased levels of GLUD protein and activity in CNS neurons of hemizygous Tg mice were associated with increases in the in vivo release of Glu after neuronal depolarization in striatum and in the frequency and amplitude of miniature EPSCs in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Despite overexpression of Glud1 in all neurons of the CNS, the Tg mice suffered neuronal losses in select brain regions (e.g., the CA1 but not the CA3 region). In vulnerable regions, Tg mice had decreases in MAP2A labeling of dendrites and in synaptophysin labeling of presynaptic terminals; the decreases in neuronal numbers and dendrite and presynaptic terminal labeling increased with advancing age. In addition, the Tg mice exhibited decreases in long-term potentiation of synaptic activity and in spine density in dendrites of CA1 neurons. Behaviorally, the Tg mice were significantly more resistant than wild-type mice to induction and duration of anesthesia produced by anesthetics that suppress Glu neurotransmission. The Glud1 mouse might be a useful model for the effects of lifelong excess synaptic Glu release on CNS neurons and for age-associated neurodegenerative processes. PMID:19890003

  17. Association of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Expression and Activity with Estrogen Receptor β in Adipose Tissue from Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    McInnes, Kerry J; Andersson, Therése C; Šimonytė, Kotryna; Söderström, Ingegerd; Mattsson, Cecilia; Seckl, Jonathan R; Olsson, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    Objective 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) regenerates active cortisol from inert cortisone in adipose tissue. Elevated adipose tissue 11βHSD1 activity is observed in obese humans and rodents where it is linked to obesity and its metabolic consequences. Menopause is also associated with increased abdominal fat accumulation suggesting that estrogen is also important in adipose tissue metabolism. The purpose of this current study was to establish whether estrogen signalling through estrogen receptors-α and -β (ERα and ERβ) can influence 11βHSD1 in premenopausal and postmenopausal adipose tissue. Methods 19 premenopausal (aged 26±5, BMI 23.6±1.6) and 23 postmenopausal healthy women (aged 63±4, BMI 23.4±1.9) were studied. Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies and fasting venous blood samples were taken. Body composition was measured by bio-electrical impedance analysis. Human SGBS adipocyte cells were treated with ERα and ERβ-specific agonists for 24h. Basic anthropometric data, Serum 17β-estradiol and progesterone concentrations, ERα and ERβ mRNA levels and 11βHSD1 mRNA, protein and activity levels were assessed. Results ERβ and 11βHSD1, but not ERα mRNA was significantly increased in adipose tissue from postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal women. ERβ had a significant positive correlation with the mRNA level of 11βHSD1 in adipose tissue from pre- and postmenopausal women. This association between ERβ and 11βHSD1 was greatest in adipose tissue from postmenopausal women. In human SGBS adipocytes, diarylpropiolnitrile (DPN), a selective ERβ agonist increased 11βHSD1 mRNA, protein and activity levels. Conclusions We conclude that in adipose tissue, ERβ-mediated estrogen-signalling can upregulate 11βHSD1 and that this may be of particular importance in postmenopausal women. PMID:23190557

  18. Plastidial Expression of Type II NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase Increases the Reducing State of Plastoquinones and Hydrogen Photoproduction Rate by the Indirect Pathway in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1.

    PubMed

    Baltz, Anthony; Dang, Kieu-Van; Beyly, Audrey; Auroy, Pascaline; Richaud, Pierre; Cournac, Laurent; Peltier, Gilles

    2014-07-01

    Biological conversion of solar energy into hydrogen is naturally realized by some microalgae species due to a coupling between the photosynthetic electron transport chain and a plastidial hydrogenase. While promising for the production of clean and sustainable hydrogen, this process requires improvement to be economically viable. Two pathways, called direct and indirect photoproduction, lead to sustained hydrogen production in sulfur-deprived Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultures. The indirect pathway allows an efficient time-based separation of O2 and H2 production, thus overcoming the O2 sensitivity of the hydrogenase, but its activity is low. With the aim of identifying the limiting step of hydrogen production, we succeeded in overexpressing the plastidial type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDA2). We report that transplastomic strains overexpressing NDA2 show an increased activity of nonphotochemical reduction of plastoquinones (PQs). While hydrogen production by the direct pathway, involving the linear electron flow from photosystem II to photosystem I, was not affected by NDA2 overexpression, the rate of hydrogen production by the indirect pathway was increased in conditions, such as nutrient limitation, where soluble electron donors are not limiting. An increased intracellular starch was observed in response to nutrient deprivation in strains overexpressing NDA2. It is concluded that activity of the indirect pathway is limited by the nonphotochemical reduction of PQs, either by the pool size of soluble electron donors or by the PQ-reducing activity of NDA2 in nutrient-limited conditions. We discuss these data in relation to limitations and biotechnological improvement of hydrogen photoproduction in microalgae.

  19. Regulation of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and sulphotransferase 2A1 gene expression in primary porcine hepatocytes by selected sex-steroids and plant secondary metabolites from chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and wormwood (Artemisia sp.).

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Martin Krøyer; Ekstrand, Bo

    2014-02-15

    In pigs the endogenously produced compound androstenone is metabolised in the liver in two steps by 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) and sulphotransferase 2A1 (SULT2A1). The present study investigated the effect of selected sex-steroids (0.01-1 μM androstenone, testosterone and estradiol), skatole (1-100 μM) and secondary plant metabolites (1-100 μM) on the expression of 3β-HSD and SULT2A1 mRNA. Additionally the effect of a global methanolic extract of dried chicory root was investigated and compared to previous obtained in vivo effects. Primary hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of piglets (crossbreed: Landrace×Yorkshire and Duroc) and cultured for 24h before treatment for an additionally 24h. RNA was isolated from the hepatocytes and specific gene expression determined by RT-PCR using TaqMan probes. The investigated sex-steroids had no effect on the mRNA expression of 3β-HSD and SULT2A1, while skatole decreased the content of SULT2A1 30% compared to control. Of the investigated secondary plant metabolites artemisinin and scoparone (found in Artemisia sp.) lowered the content of SULT2A1 by 20 and 30% compared to control, respectively. Moreover, we tested three secondary plant metabolites (lactucin, esculetin and esculin) found in chicory root. Lactucin increased the mRNA content of both 3β-HSD and SULT2A1 by 200% compared to control. An extract of chicory root was shown to decrease the expression of both 3β-HSD and SULT2A1. It is concluded that the gene expression of enzymes with importance for androstenone metabolism is regulated by secondary plant metabolites in a complex manner.

  20. Redox engineering by ectopic expression of glutamate dehydrogenase genes links NADPH availability and NADH oxidation with cold growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ballester-Tomás, Lidia; Randez-Gil, Francisca; Pérez-Torrado, Roberto; Prieto, Jose Antonio

    2015-07-09

    Cold stress reduces microbial growth and metabolism being relevant in industrial processes like wine making and brewing. Knowledge on the cold transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggests the need of a proper redox balance. Nevertheless, there are no direct evidence of the links between NAD(P) levels and cold growth and how engineering of enzymatic reactions requiring NAD(P) may be used to modify the performance of industrial strains at low temperature. Recombinant strains of S. cerevisiae modified for increased NADPH- and NADH-dependent Gdh1 and Gdh2 activity were tested for growth at low temperature. A high-copy number of the GDH2-encoded glutamate dehydrogenase gene stimulated growth at 15°C, while overexpression of GDH1 had detrimental effects, a difference likely caused by cofactor preferences. Indeed, neither the Trp(-) character of the tested strains, which could affect the synthesis of NAD(P), nor changes in oxidative stress susceptibility by overexpression of GDH1 and GDH2 account for the observed phenotypes. However, increased or reduced NADPH availability by knock-out or overexpression of GRE3, the NADPH-dependent aldose reductase gene, eliminated or exacerbated the cold-growth defect observed in YEpGDH1 cells. We also demonstrated that decreased capacity of glycerol production impairs growth at 15 but not at 30°C and that 15°C-grown baker's yeast cells display higher fermentative capacity than those cultivated at 30°C. Thus, increasing NADH oxidation by overexpression of GDH2 would help to avoid perturbations in the redox metabolism induced by a higher fermentative/oxidative balance at low temperature. Finally, it is shown that overexpression of GDH2 increases notably the cold growth in the wine yeast strain QA23 in both standard growth medium and synthetic grape must. Redox constraints limit the growth of S. cerevisiae at temperatures below the optimal. An adequate supply of NAD(P) precursors as well as a proper level of reducing

  1. Single mutation in Shine-Dalgarno-like sequence present in the amino terminal of lactate dehydrogenase of Plasmodium effects the production of an eukaryotic protein expressed in a prokaryotic system.

    PubMed

    Cicek, Mustafa; Mutlu, Ozal; Erdemir, Aysegul; Ozkan, Ebru; Saricay, Yunus; Turgut-Balik, Dilek

    2013-06-01

    One of the most important step in structure-based drug design studies is obtaining the protein in active form after cloning the target gene. In one of our previous study, it was determined that an internal Shine-Dalgarno-like sequence present just before the third methionine at N-terminus of wild type lactate dehydrogenase enzyme of Plasmodium falciparum prevent the translation of full length protein. Inspection of the same region in P. vivax LDH, which was overproduced as an active enzyme, indicated that the codon preference in the same region was slightly different than the codon preference of wild type PfLDH. In this study, 5'-GGAGGC-3' sequence of P. vivax that codes for two glycine residues just before the third methionine was exchanged to 5'-GGAGGA-3', by mimicking P. falciparum LDH, to prove the possible effects of having an internal SD-like sequence when expressing an eukaryotic protein in a prokaryotic system. Exchange was made by site-directed mutagenesis. Results indicated that having two glycine residues with an internal SD-like sequence (GGAGGA) just before the third methionine abolishes the enzyme activity due to the preference of the prokaryotic system used for the expression. This study emphasizes the awareness of use of a prokaryotic system to overproduce an eukaryotic protein.

  2. Proteomics and gene expression analyses of mitochondria from squalene-treated apoE-deficient mice identify short-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase changes associated with fatty liver amelioration.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Torres, Adela; Barceló-Batllori, Sílvia; Fernández-Vizarra, Erika; Navarro, María A; Arnal, Carmen; Guillén, Natalia; Acín, Sergio; Osada, Jesús

    2012-05-17

    Squalene, a hydrocarbon involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, is an abundant component in virgin olive oil. Previous studies showed that its administration decreased atherosclerosis and steatosis in male apoE knock-out mice. To study the effect of squalene on mitochondrial proteins in fatty liver, 1 g/kg/day of this isoprenoid was administered to those mice. After 10 weeks, hepatic fat was assessed and protein extracts from mitochondria enriched fractions from control and squalene-treated animals were analyzed by 2D-DIGE. Spots exhibiting significant differences were identified by MS analysis. Squalene administration modified the expression of eighteen proteins involved in different metabolic processes, 12 associated with hepatic fat content. Methionine adenosyltransferase I alpha (Mat1a) and short-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (Acads) showed significant increased and decreased transcripts, respectively, consistent with their protein changes. These mRNAs were also studied in wild-type mice receiving squalene, where Mat1a was found increased and Acads decreased. However, this mRNA was significantly increased in the absence of apolipoprotein E. These results suggest that squalene action may be executed through a complex regulation of mitochondrial protein expression, including changes in Mat1a and Acads levels. Indeed, Mat1a is a target of squalene administration while Acads reflects the anti-steatotic properties of squalene. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibition of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type II Suppresses Lung Carcinogenesis by Blocking Tumor COX-2 Expression as Well as the ERK and mTOR Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shilin; Yao, Bing; Zhang, Bixiang; Chen, Xiaoping; Pozzi, Ambra; Zhang, Ming-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is by far the leading cause of cancer death. Early diagnosis and prevention remain the best approach to reduce the overall morbidity and mortality. Experimental and clinical evidence have shown that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) contributes to lung tumorigenesis. COX-2 inhibitors suppress the development and progression of lung cancer. However, increased cardiovascular risks of COX-2 inhibitors limit their use in chemoprevention of lung cancers. Glucocorticoids are endogenous and potent COX-2 inhibitors, and their local actions are down-regulated by 11β–hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II (11ßHSD2)-mediated metabolism. We found that 11βHSD2 expression was increased in human lung cancers and experimental lung tumors. Inhibition of 11βHSD2 activity enhanced glucocorticoid-mediated COX-2 inhibition in human lung carcinoma cells. Furthermore, 11βHSD2 inhibition suppressed lung tumor growth and invasion in association with increased tissue active glucocorticoid levels, decreased COX-2 expression, inhibition of ERK and mTOR signaling pathways, increased tumor endoplasmic reticulum stress as well as increased lifespan. Therefore, 11βHSD2 inhibition represents a novel approach for lung cancer chemoprevention and therapy by increasing tumor glucocorticoid activity, which in turn selectively blocks local COX-2 activity and/or inhibits the ERK and mTOR signaling pathways. PMID:26011146

  4. Expression of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (hsd3b), star and ad4bp/sf-1 during gonadal development in medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Masatoshi; Fukasawa, Motoaki; Tanaka, Satomi; Shimamori, Kazusuke; Suzuki, Aya; Matsuda, Masaru; Kobayashi, Tohru; Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Shibata, Naoki

    2012-04-01

    In most vertebrates, sex steroids play a critical role in gonadal development, maturation of germ cells, and development of secondary sexual characteristics. Sex steroids are synthesized in steroid-producing cells (SPCs) in the testis known as Leydig cells, as well as in thecal and granulosa cells in the ovary. In SPCs, cholesterol is sequentially catalyzed by a set of steroidogenic factors and enzymes in order to produce sex steroids. Therefore, integrated expression of the genes involved in steroidogenesis is critical for the proper production of sex steroids. In the present study, regulatory mechanisms of steroidogenic factors and enzymes were examined. We focused on hsd3b, star and ad4bp/sf-1 as well as the description of temporal and spatial expression of these genes during gonadal development in medaka (Oryzias latipes). During testicular development, hsd3b, star and ad4bp/sf-1 were co-expressed in the interstitial somatic cells subsequent to the formation of the seminiferous tubule precursor, suggesting that ad4bp/sf-1 regulated the transcription of both hsd3b and star. During ovarian development, the expression pattern of hsd3b coincided with that of cyp11a1, but not with that of aromatase. Although ad4bp/sf-1 was mainly expressed in presumptive follicular cells, it was also detected in hsd3b positive interstitial cells in the developing ovary. Contrary to our expectations, the onset of star expression occurred during a later stage of ovarian development than the expression of other steroidogenic enzymes. Thus, the regulation mechanism of star transcription appears to differ from that of the other steroidogenic enzymes in the developing ovary, but not in the developing testis.

  5. POLYOL DEHYDROGENASES OF AZOTOBACTER AGILIS

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Leon; Marr, Allen G.

    1961-01-01

    Marcus, Leon (University of California, Davis), and Allen G. Marr. Polyol dehydrogenases of Azotobacter agilis. J. Bacteriol. 82:224–232. 1961.—Two soluble diphosphopyridine-linked polyol dehydrogenases are formed by Azotobacter agilis (A. vinelandii). The first, d-mannitol dehydrogenase is induced by d-mannitol and all of the pentitols except l-arabitol. Ribitol is an excellent inducer of mannitol dehydrogenase although it is not metabolized, nor does the enzyme act upon it. This allows study of the gratuitous induction of mannitol dehydrogenase. Of the polyols tested, mannitol dehydrogenase oxidizes d-mannitol, d-arabitol, d-rhamnitol, and perseitol, demonstrating its requirement for substrates bearing the d-manno configuration. The corresponding 2-ketoses, d-fructose, d-xylulose, and presumably d-rhamnulose, and perseulose are reduced. The second enzyme, l-iditol dehydrogenase is induced only by polyols containing the d-xylo configuration, i.e., sorbitol and xylitol. l-Iditol dehydrogenase oxidizes d-xylo polyols seven times faster than it does d-ribo polyols. Substrates oxidized include l-iditol, sorbitol, xylitol, and ribitol. The corresponding 2-ketoses, l-sorbose, d-fructose, d-xylulose, and d-ribulose, are reduced. The two polyol dehydrogenases have been separated and purified by chromatography on a modified cellulose ion exchanger. PMID:13766585

  6. Cyanobacterial NADPH dehydrogenase complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Teruo; Mi, Hualing

    2007-07-01

    Cyanobacteria possess functionally distinct multiple NADPH dehydrogenase (NDH-1) complexes that are essential to CO2 uptake, photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration. The unique nature of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes is the presence of subunits involved in CO2 uptake. Other than CO2 uptake, chloroplastic NDH-1 complex has similar role as cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes in photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration (chlororespiration). In this mini-review we focus on the structure and function of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes and their phylogeny. The function of chloroplastic NDH-1 complex and characteristics of plants defective in NDH-1 are also described forcomparison.

  7. Role of glucocorticoid receptor and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha in the feed-forward induction of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression by cortisol in human amnion fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Guo, Chunming; Zhu, Ping; Li, Wenjiao; Myatt, Leslie; Sun, Kang

    2007-11-01

    The amount of cortisol available to its receptors is increased by the pre-receptor enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) which converts cortisone to cortisol. We examined the molecular mechanisms of the feedback effect of cortisol on 11beta-HSD1 mRNA expression in human amnion fibroblasts. Our data showed that cortisol-induced 11beta-HSD1 mRNA expression dose dependently in amnion fibroblasts, which could be completely blocked both by the mRNA transcription inhibitor 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole riboside and by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist RU486, and partially blocked by global inhibition of CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) with transfection of C/EBP-specific dominant-negative expression CMV500 plasmid (AC/EBP) into the cells. Likewise, the induction of the promoter activity by cortisol could also be completely blocked by RU486 and partially by AC/EBP transfection. Progressive 5' deletion of the 11beta-HSD1promoter located the region responsible for cortisol's induction within -204 bp upstream to the transcription start site. Specific nucleotide mutations of the putative glucocorticoid responsive element or CCAAT in this promoter region attenuated the induction by cortisol. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that GR and C/EBPalpha but not C/EBPbeta could bind this promoter region upon cortisol stimulation of amnion fibroblasts. In conclusion, we demonstrated that GR and C/EBPalpha were involved in cortisol-induced 11beta-HSD1 mRNA expression via binding to 11beta-HSD1 promoter in amnion fibroblasts, which may cast a feed-forward production of cortisol in the fetal membranes at the end of gestation.

  8. Effects of antioxidant supplementation on mRNA expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, β-actin and 18S rRNA in the anterior capsule of the lens in cataract patients.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Rijo; Hayashi, Shimmin; Arai, Kiyomi; Chikuda, Makoto; Obara, Yositaka

    2012-03-01

    This was a preliminary study of the effects of antioxidant supplementation on the peroxidation status of the lens by investigating mRNA expression of anti-oxidative enzymes in the lens. The mRNA expression levels of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), β-actin (β-ACT) and 18S rRNA (18S) were measured in this study because they are common reference genes for measuring mRNA levels by means of a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in various tissues. Thirteen patients with binocular cataracts of the same grade were included in the study after giving informed consent. A piece of the anterior capsule, along with a sample of lenticular epithelial cells (LECs), was collected as a pre-intake sample during cataract surgery. Ocuvite + Lutein(®), an antioxidant supplement, was administered orally beginning the day after surgery. Six weeks later, a piece of the anterior capsule along with a sample of LECs, was collected as a post-intake sample during cataract surgery of the opposite eye. RNA was purified from the homogenized samples, and cDNA was reverse transcribed to measure mRNA levels. The expression levels of G6PDH, 18S and β-ACT were measured using RT-PCR. The expression levels of G6PDH and 18S were significantly higher in the post-intake samples than they were in the pre-intake samples. Significant positive correlations between the expression levels of G6PDH and 18S were observed in both the pre- and post-intake samples. Following gender-specific analyses, the expression levels of G6PDH and 18S in the post-intake samples were found to be significantly higher among the female patients. A significant positive correlation between the expression levels of G6PDH and 18S was observed in the post-intake samples from the male patients. There were no significant changes in the gene expression levels of β-ACT after supplementation among male or female patients. β-ACT has been verified for use as a reference gene for measuring the

  9. Analysis of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase expression in the corpus luteum of the buffalo cow: effect of prostaglandin F2-alpha treatment on circulating 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone levels

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During female reproductive cycles, a rapid fall in circulating progesterone (P4) levels is one of the earliest events that occur during induced luteolysis in mammals. In rodents, it is well recognized that during luteolysis, P4 is catabolized to its inactive metabolite, 20alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (20alpha-OHP) by the action of 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20alpha-HSD) enzyme and involves transcription factor, Nur77. Studies have been carried out to examine expression of 20alpha-HSD and its activity in the corpus luteum (CL) of buffalo cow. Methods The expression of 20alpha-HSD across different bovine tissues along with CL was examined by qPCR analysis. Circulating P4 levels were monitored before and during PGF2alpha treatment. Expression of 20alpha-HSD and Nur77 mRNA was determined in CL at different time points post PGF2alpha treatment in buffalo cows. The chromatographic separation of P4 and its metabolite, 20alpha-OHP, in rat and buffalo cow serum samples were performed on reverse phase HPLC system. To further support the findings, 20alpha-HSD enzyme activity was quantitated in cytosolic fraction of CL of both rat and buffalo cow. Results Circulating P4 concentration declined rapidly in response to PGF2alpha treatment. HPLC analysis of serum samples did not reveal changes in circulating 20alpha-OHP levels in buffalo cows but serum from pseudo pregnant rats receiving PGF2alpha treatment showed an increased 20alpha-OHP level at 24 h post treatment with accompanying decrease in P4 concentration. qPCR expression of 20alpha-HSD in CL from control and PGF2alpha-treated buffalo cows showed higher expression at 3 and 18 h post treatment, but its specific activity was not altered at different time points post PGF2alpha treatment. The Nur77 expression increased several fold 3 h post PGF2alpha treatment similar to the increased expression observed in the PGF2alpha-treated pseudo pregnant rats which perhaps suggest initiation of activation of

  10. Regulation of 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta 5-delta 4 isomerase expression and activity in the hypophysectomized rat ovary: Interactions between the stimulatory effect of human chorionic gonadotropin and the luteolytic effect of prolactin

    SciTech Connect

    Martel, C.; Labrie, C.; Dupont, E.; Couet, J.; Trudel, C.; Rheaume, E.; Simard, J.; Luu-The, V.; Pelletier, G.; Labrie, F. )

    1990-12-01

    The enzyme 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta 5-delta 4 isomerase (3 beta-HSD) catalyzes an obligatory step in the conversion of pregnenolone and other 5-ene-3 beta-hydroxysteroids into progesterone as well as precursors of all androgens and estrogens in the ovary. Since 3 beta-HSD is likely to be an important target for regulation by pituitary hormones, we have studied the effect of chronic treatment with LH (hCG), FSH, and PRL on ovarian 3 beta-HSD expression and activity in hypophysectomized adult female rats. Human CG (hCG) (10 IU, twice a day (bid)), ovine FSH (0.5 microgram, bid), and ovine PRL (1 mg, bid) were administered, singly or in combination, for a period of 10 days starting 15 days after hypophysectomy. In hypophysectomized rats, PRL exerted a potent inhibitory effect on all the parameters studied. In fact, PRL caused a 81% decrease in ovarian 3 beta-HSD mRNA content accompanied by a similar decrease in 3 beta-HSD activity and protein levels. In addition, ovarian weight decreased by 40% whereas serum progesterone fell dramatically from 1.92 nmol/liter to undetectable levels after treatment with PRL. Whereas hCG alone had only slight stimulatory effects on 3 beta-HSD mRNA, protein content and activity levels, treatment with the gonadotropin partially or completely reversed the potent inhibitory effects of oPRL on all the parameters measured. FSH, on the other hand, had no significant effect on 3 beta-HSD expression and activity. In situ hybridization experiments using the 35S-labeled rat ovary 3 beta-HSD cDNA probe show that the inhibitory effect of PRL is exerted primarily on luteal cell 3 beta-HSD expression and activity. On the other hand, it can be seen that hCG stimulates 3 beta-HSD mRNA accumulation in interstitial cells.

  11. Recurrent 12q13-15 chromosomal aberrations, high frequency of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutations, and absence of high mobility group AT-hook 2 expression in periosteal chondromas.

    PubMed

    Panagopoulos, Ioannis; Gorunova, Ludmila; Taksdal, Ingeborg; Bjerkehagen, Bodil; Heim, Sverre

    2015-07-01

    Periosteal chondroma is a benign cartilage tumor that accounts for <2% of chondromas. In the present study, four cases of periosteal chondromas were cytogenetically investigated and studied for the expression of high-mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2), mutations in codons 132 of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)1 and 172 of IDH2; mutations -C228T and -C250T in the promoter region of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT); and for methylation in the promoter regions of O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) and cellular retinol binding protein 1 (CRBP1). Chromosome aberrations of 12q13-15 were found in two out of the four tumors, while two had a normal karyotype. Two periosteal chondromas carried the mutation IDH1R132C (CGT>TGT), and two carried the mutation IDH1R132L (CGT>CTT). However, none of the four tumors had methylated MGMT and CRBP1 promoters or mutations at codon 172 of IDH2. In addition, -C228T and -C250T mutations were not present in the promoter region of TERT, nor was HMGA2 demonstrated to be expressed. The present study indicated that in periosteal chondromas, the involvement of 12q13-15 in structural rearrangements may be recurrent but that HMGA2 is not expressed. Additionally, the periosteal chondromas investigated in the study carried a heterozygous IDH1R132 mutation, the MGMT and CRBP1 promoters were not methylated, and -C228T and -C250T mutations in the promoter region of TERT were absent.

  12. First Crystal Structure of l-Lysine 6-Dehydrogenase as an NAD-dependent Amine Dehydrogenase*

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, Kazunari; Fukuda, Junya; Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2010-01-01

    A gene encoding an l-lysine dehydrogenase was identified in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii. The gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and its product was purified and characterized. The expressed enzyme is the most thermostable l-lysine dehydrogenase yet described, with a half-life of 180 min at 100 °C. The product of the enzyme's catalytic activity is Δ1-piperideine-6-carboxylate, which makes this enzyme an l-lysine 6-dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.18) that catalyzes the reductive deamination of the ϵ- amino group and a type of NAD-dependent amine dehydrogenase. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was determined using the mercury-based multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion method at a resolution of 2.44 Å in the presence of NAD and sulfate ion. The asymmetric unit consisted of two subunits, and a crystallographic 2-fold axis generated the functional dimer. Each monomer consisted of a Rossmann fold domain and a C-terminal catalytic domain, and the fold of the catalytic domain showed similarity to that of saccharopine reductase. Notably, the structures of subunits A and B differed significantly. In subunit A, the active site contained a sulfate ion that was not seen in subunit B. Consequently, subunit A adopted a closed conformation, whereas subunit B adopted an open one. In each subunit, one NAD molecule was bound to the active site in an anti-conformation, indicating that the enzyme makes use of pro-R-specific hydride transfer between the two hydrides at C-4 of NADH (type A specificity). This is the first description of the three-dimensional structure of l-lysine 6-dehydrogenase as an NAD-dependent amine dehydrogenase. PMID:20056607

  13. LACTIC DEHYDROGENASES OF PSEUDOMONAS NATRIEGENS.

    PubMed

    WALKER, H; EAGON, R G

    1964-07-01

    Walker, Hazel (University of Georgia, Athens), and R. G. Eagon. Lactic dehydrogenases of Pseudomonas natriegens. J. Bacteriol. 88:25-30. 1964.-Lactic dehydrogenases specific for d- and l-lactate were demonstrated in Pseudomonas natriegens. The l-lactic dehydrogenase showed considerable heat stability, and 40% of the activity remained in extracts after heating at 60 C for 10 min. An essential thiol group for enzyme activity was noted. The results of these experiments were consistent with the view that lactate was dehydrogenated initially by a flavin cofactor and that electrons were transported through a complete terminal oxidase system to oxygen. The intracellular site of these lactic dehydrogenases was shown to be the cell membrane. It was suggested that the main physiological role of these lactic dehydrogenases is that of lactate utilization.

  14. LACTIC DEHYDROGENASES OF PSEUDOMONAS NATRIEGENS

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Hazel; Eagon, R. G.

    1964-01-01

    Walker, Hazel (University of Georgia, Athens), and R. G. Eagon. Lactic dehydrogenases of Pseudomonas natriegens. J. Bacteriol. 88:25–30. 1964.—Lactic dehydrogenases specific for d- and l-lactate were demonstrated in Pseudomonas natriegens. The l-lactic dehydrogenase showed considerable heat stability, and 40% of the activity remained in extracts after heating at 60 C for 10 min. An essential thiol group for enzyme activity was noted. The results of these experiments were consistent with the view that lactate was dehydrogenated initially by a flavin cofactor and that electrons were transported through a complete terminal oxidase system to oxygen. The intracellular site of these lactic dehydrogenases was shown to be the cell membrane. It was suggested that the main physiological role of these lactic dehydrogenases is that of lactate utilization. Images PMID:14197895

  15. Efficient (3R)-acetoin production from meso-2,3-butanediol using a new whole-cell biocatalyst with co-expression of meso-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, NADH oxidase and Vitreoscilla hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zewang; Zhao, Xihua; He, Yuanzhi; Yang, Tianxing; Gao, Huifang; Li, Ganxi; Chen, Feixue; Sun, Meijing; Lee, Jung-Kul; Zhang, Liaoyuan

    2016-10-06

    Acetoin (AC) is a volatile platform compound with various potential industrial applications. AC contains two stereoisomeric forms: (3S)-AC and (3R)-AC. Optically pure AC is important potential intermediate and widely used as a precursor to synthesize novel optically materials. In this study, chiral (3R)-AC production from meso-2,3-butanediol (meso-2,3-BD) was obtained using recombinant Escherichia coli cells co-expressing meso-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (meso-2,3-BDH), NADH oxidase (NOX) and hemoglobin protein (VHB) from Serratia sp. T241, Lactobacillus brevis and Vitreoscilla, respectively. The new biocatalyst of E. coli/pET-mbdh-nox-vgb was developed and the bioconversion conditions were optimized. Under the optimal conditions, 86.74 g/L of (3R)-AC with the productivity of 3.61 g/L/h and the stereoisomeric purity of 97.89 % was achieved from 93.73 g/L meso-2,3-BD using the whole-cell biocatalyst. The yield and productivity were new recorders for (3R)-AC production. The results exhibited industrial potential for (3R)-AC production via the whole-cell biocatalysis.

  16. Expression of 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and the effects of LH, FSH and prolactin on oestrone and 17?-oestradiol secretion in the endometrium of pigs during early pregnancy and the oestrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowicz, B; Kotwica, G; Zglejc, K; Waszkiewicz, E; Franczak, A

    2016-03-07

    The endometrium of pregnant and cyclic pigs is a source of oestrone (E1) and 17β-oestradiol (E2). However, the roles of LH, FSH and prolactin (PRL) as regulators of endometrial steroidogenesis, and the presence of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) in the porcine endometrium, remain unknown. Therefore, in the present study we examined 17β-HSD expression and the effects of LH, FSH and PRL on E1 and E2 release in vitro in endometrial explants harvested from gravid pigs on Days 10-11 (embryo migration within the uterus), 12-13 (maternal recognition of pregnancy) and 15-16 (beginning of implantation) and compared them with results obtained in non-gravid pigs. The results show that: (1) endometrial 17β-HSD activity was decreased on Days 15-16 in pregnant and cyclic pigs compared with the preceding days; (2) LH, FSH and PRL increased endometrial E1 secretion on Days 10-11 and 15-16 of pregnancy and on Days 12-13 and 15-16 of the oestrous cycle; and (3) LH, FSH and PRL increased endometrial E2 secretion on Days 15-16 of pregnancy and during the days studied in the oestrous cycle. In conclusion, data suggest that LH, FSH and PRL affect endometrial secretion of estrogens in pigs.

  17. High performance enzyme fuel cells using a genetically expressed FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase α-subunit of Burkholderia cepacia immobilized in a carbon nanotube electrode for low glucose conditions.

    PubMed

    Fapyane, Deby; Lee, Soo-Jin; Kang, Seo-Hee; Lim, Du-Hyun; Cho, Kwon-Koo; Nam, Tae-hyun; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon; Kim, Seon-Won; Chang, In Seop

    2013-06-28

    FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (FAD-GDH) of Burkholderia cepacia was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified in order to use it as an anode catalyst for enzyme fuel cells. The purified enzyme has a low Km value (high affinity) towards glucose, which is 463.8 μM, up to 2-fold exponential range lower compared to glucose oxidase. The heterogeneous electron transfer coefficient (Ks) of FAD-GDH-menadione on a glassy carbon electrode was 10.73 s(-1), which is 3-fold higher than that of GOX-menadione, 3.68 s(-1). FAD-GDH was able to maintain its native glucose affinity during immobilization in the carbon nanotube and operation of enzyme fuel cells. FAD-GDH-menadione showed 3-fold higher power density, 799.4 ± 51.44 μW cm(-2), than the GOX-menadione system, 308.03 ± 17.93 μW cm(-2), under low glucose concentration, 5 mM, which is the concentration in normal physiological fluid.

  18. Differential sensitivity of male and female mouse embryos to oxidative induced heat-stress is mediated by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase gene expression.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Crespo, M; Ramírez, M A; Fernández-González, R; Rizos, D; Lonergan, P; Pintado, B; Gutiérrez-Adán, A

    2005-12-01

    During the preimplantation period, in vitro cultured males have a higher metabolic rate, different gene expression, and grow faster than females. It has been suggested that under some stress conditions male embryos are more vulnerable than females; however, the biological fragility of male embryos is little understood. Since many forms of stress result in the overproduction of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), we addressed the hypothesis that the connection between female advantage during early developmental stages and heat stress involves ROS and differential gene expression of G6PD, an X-linked gene related to oxidative stress. We have found that after compaction, female heat-stressed embryos have less relative amounts of H2O2 than males, and female embryos survive better than males under in vivo or in vitro heat stress situations. In addition, in vitro produced female embryos grow slower than male embryos, have differential mRNA transcription of G6PD and also of some genes situated on autosomal-chromosomes (Sox, Bax, and Oct-4). Moreover, by inhibiting G6PD, all differences generated by oxidative stress between male and female embryos disappear. For the first time, we provide an experimental demonstration of a mechanism that explains why following exposure to heat stress-induced ROS, female preimplantation embryos are more resistant than males.

  19. Gene Cloning and mRNA Expression of Glutamate Dehydrogenase in the Liver, Brain, and Intestine of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus (Zuiew), Exposed to Freshwater, Terrestrial Conditions, Environmental Ammonia, or Salinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tok, Chia Y.; Chew, Shit F.; Ip, Yuen K.

    2011-01-01

    The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, is an obligatory air-breathing teleost which can undergo long period of emersion, has high environmental and tissue ammonia tolerance, and can survive in brackish water. We obtained a cDNA sequence of glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), which consisted of a 133-bp 5′ UTR, a complete coding sequence region spanning 1629 bp and a 3′ UTR of approximately 717 bp, from the liver, intestine, and brain of M. albus. The translated Gdh amino acid sequence had 542 residues, and it formed a monophyletic clade with Bostrychus sinensis Gdh1a, Tetraodon nigroviridis Gdh1a, Chaenocephalus aceratus Gdh1a, Salmo salar Gdh1a1 and Gdh1a2, and O. mykiss Gdh1a. One day of exposure to terrestrial conditions or 75 mmol l−1 NH4Cl, but not to water at salinity 20, resulted in a significant increase in mRNA expression of gdh1a and Gdh amination activity in the liver of M. albus. However, exposure to brackish water, but not to terrestrial conditions or 75 mmol l−1 NH4Cl, led to a significant increase in the mRNA expression of gdh1a and Gdh amination activity in the intestine. By contrast, all the three experimental conditions had no significant effects on the mRNA expression of gdh1a in the brain of M. albus, despite a significant decrease in the Gdh amination activity in the brain of fish exposed to 75 mmol l−1 NH4Cl for 6 days. Our results indicate for the first time that the mRNA expression of gdh1a was differentially up-regulated in the liver and intestine of M. albus in response to ammonia toxicity and salinity stress, respectively. The increases in mRNA expression of gdh1a and Gdh amination activity would probably lead to an increase in glutamate production in support of increased glutamine synthesis for the purpose of ammonia detoxification or cell volume regulation under these two different environmental conditions. PMID:22319499

  20. 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 induces expression of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase through Elk-1 activation in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Rim; Lee, Ha-Na; Lim, Kyu; Surh, Young-Joon; Na, Hye-Kyung

    2014-10-01

    Overproduction of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been reported to be implicated in carcinogenesis. The intracellular level of PGE2 is maintained not only by its biosynthesis, but also by inactivation/degradation. 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) is the key enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of oncogenic PGE2 to a biologically inactive keto metabolite. In the present study, we demonstrate that 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15 d-PGJ2), one of the terminal products of cyclooxygenase-2, updregulates the expression and the activity of 15-PGDH in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. By using deletion constructs of the 15-PGDH promoter, we have found that E-twenty six (Ets) is the most essential determinant for 15-PGDH induction. 15 d-PGJ2 induced phosphorylation of Elk-1, one of Ets transcription factor family members, in the nucleus. Knockdown of Elk-1 abolished the ability of 15 d-PGJ2 to upregulate 15-PGDH expression. Furthermore, 15 d-PGJ2-mediated activation of Elk-1 was found to be dependent on activation of extracellular-signal related kinase (ERK) 1/2. Treatment of U0126, a pharmacological inhibitor of MEK1/2-ERK, abolished phosphorylation and DNA binding of Elk-1 as well as 15-PGDH induction in 15 d-PGJ2-treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, 15 d-PGJ2 generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), which contribute to the expression of 15-PGDH as well as phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Elk-1. 15 d-PGJ2 inhibited the migration of MDA-MB-231 cells, which was attenuated by transient transfection with 15-PGDH siRNA. Taken together, these findings suggest that 15 d-PGJ2 induces the expression of 15-PGDH through ROS-mediated activation of ERK1/2 and subsequently Elk-1 in the MDA-MB-231 cells, which may contribute to tumor suppressive activity of this cyclopentenone prostaglandin.

  1. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  2. Effects of iodonium-class flavin dehydrogenase inhibitors on growth, reactive oxygen production, cell cycle progression, NADPH oxidase 1 levels, and gene expression in human colon cancer cells and xenografts.

    PubMed

    Doroshow, James H; Gaur, Shikha; Markel, Susan; Lu, Jiamo; van Balgooy, Josephus; Synold, Timothy W; Xi, Bixin; Wu, Xiwei; Juhasz, Agnes

    2013-04-01

    Iodonium-class flavoprotein dehydrogenase inhibitors have been demonstrated to possess antiproliferative potential and to inhibit reactive oxygen production in human tumor cells, although the mechanism(s) that explains the relationship between altered cell growth and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) remains an area of active investigation. Because of the ability of these compounds to inhibit the activity of flavoprotein-containing epithelial NADPH oxidases, we chose to examine the effects of several iodonium-class flavoprotein inhibitors on human colon cancer cell lines that express high, functional levels of a single such oxidase (NADPH oxidase 1, or Nox1). We found that diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), di-2-thienyliodonium (DTI), and iodonium diphenyl inhibited the growth of Caco2, HT-29, and LS-174T colon cancer cells at concentrations (10-250nM for DPI, 0.5-2.5μM for DTI, and 155nM to 10μM for iodonium diphenyl) substantially lower than needed for DU145 human prostate cancer cells, which do not possess functional NADPH oxidase activity. Drug treatment was associated with decreased H2O2 production and diminished intracellular ROS levels, lasting up to 24h, after short-term (1-h) exposure to the iodonium analogs. Decreased tumor cell proliferation was caused, in part, by a profound block in cell cycle progression at the G1/S interface in both LS-174T and HT-29 cells exposed to either DPI or DTI; and the G1 block was produced, for LS-174T cells, by upregulation of p27 and a drug concentration-related decrease in the expression of cyclins D1, A, and E that was partially prevented by exogenous H2O2. Not only did DPI and DTI decrease intracellular ROS, they both also significantly decreased the mRNA expression levels of Nox1, potentially contributing to the prolonged reduction in tumor cell reactive oxygen levels. We also found that DPI and DTI significantly decreased the growth of both HT-29 and LS-174T human tumor xenografts, at dose levels that produced

  3. Efficient Whole-Cell Biocatalyst for Acetoin Production with NAD+ Regeneration System through Homologous Co-Expression of 2,3-Butanediol Dehydrogenase and NADH Oxidase in Engineered Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Zhiming; Zhao, Xiaojing; Zhang, Rongzhen; Yang, Taowei; Xu, Zhenghong; Yang, Shangtian

    2014-01-01

    Acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone), an extensively-used food spice and bio-based platform chemical, is usually produced by chemical synthesis methods. With increasingly requirement of food security and environmental protection, bio-fermentation of acetoin by microorganisms has a great promising market. However, through metabolic engineering strategies, the mixed acid-butanediol fermentation metabolizes a certain portion of substrate to the by-products of organic acids such as lactic acid and acetic acid, which causes energy cost and increases the difficulty of product purification in downstream processes. In this work, due to the high efficiency of enzymatic reaction and excellent selectivity, a strategy for efficiently converting 2,3-butandiol to acetoin using whole-cell biocatalyst by engineered Bacillus subtilis is proposed. In this process, NAD+ plays a significant role on 2,3-butanediol and acetoin distribution, so the NADH oxidase and 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase both from B. subtilis are co-expressed in B. subtilis 168 to construct an NAD+ regeneration system, which forces dramatic decrease of the intracellular NADH concentration (1.6 fold) and NADH/NAD+ ratio (2.2 fold). By optimization of the enzymatic reaction and applying repeated batch conversion, the whole-cell biocatalyst efficiently produced 91.8 g/L acetoin with a productivity of 2.30 g/(L·h), which was the highest record ever reported by biocatalysis. This work indicated that manipulation of the intracellular cofactor levels was more effective than the strategy of enhancing enzyme activity, and the bioprocess for NAD+ regeneration may also be a useful way for improving the productivity of NAD+-dependent chemistry-based products. PMID:25036158

  4. Equating salivary lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) with LDH-5 expression in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma: An insight into metabolic reprogramming of cancer cell as a predictor of aggressive phenotype.

    PubMed

    Saluja, Tajindra Singh; Spadigam, Anita; Dhupar, Anita; Syed, Shaheen

    2016-04-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the sixth most common human malignancy. According to World Health Organization, oral cancer has been reported to have the highest morbidity and mortality and a survival rate of approximately 50 % at 5 years from diagnosis. This is attributed to the subjectivity in TNM staging and histological grading which may result in less than optimum treatment outcomes including tumour recurrence. One of the hallmarks of cancer is aerobic glycolysis also known as the Warburg effect. This glycolytic phenotype (hypoxic state) not only confers immortality to cancer cells, but also correlates with the belligerent behaviour of various malignancies and is reflected as an increase in the expression of lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH-5), the main isoform of LDH catalysing the conversion of pyruvate to lactate during glycolysis. The diagnostic role of salivary LDH in assessing the metabolic phenotype of oral cancer has not been studied. Since salivary LDH is mainly sourced from oral epithelial cells, any pathological changes in the epithelium should reflect diagnostically in saliva. Thus in our current research, we made an attempt to ascertain the biological behaviour and aggressiveness of OSCC by appraising its metabolic phenotype as indirectly reflected in salivary LDH activity. We found that salivary LDH can be used to assess the aggressiveness of different histological grades of OSCC. For the first time, an evidence of differing metabolic behaviour in similar histologic tumour grade is presented. Taken together, our study examines the inclusion of salivary LDH as potential diagnostic parameter and therapeutic index in OSCC.

  5. Efficient whole-cell biocatalyst for acetoin production with NAD+ regeneration system through homologous co-expression of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase and NADH oxidase in engineered Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Bao, Teng; Zhang, Xian; Rao, Zhiming; Zhao, Xiaojing; Zhang, Rongzhen; Yang, Taowei; Xu, Zhenghong; Yang, Shangtian

    2014-01-01

    Acetoin (3-hydroxy-2-butanone), an extensively-used food spice and bio-based platform chemical, is usually produced by chemical synthesis methods. With increasingly requirement of food security and environmental protection, bio-fermentation of acetoin by microorganisms has a great promising market. However, through metabolic engineering strategies, the mixed acid-butanediol fermentation metabolizes a certain portion of substrate to the by-products of organic acids such as lactic acid and acetic acid, which causes energy cost and increases the difficulty of product purification in downstream processes. In this work, due to the high efficiency of enzymatic reaction and excellent selectivity, a strategy for efficiently converting 2,3-butandiol to acetoin using whole-cell biocatalyst by engineered Bacillus subtilis is proposed. In this process, NAD+ plays a significant role on 2,3-butanediol and acetoin distribution, so the NADH oxidase and 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase both from B. subtilis are co-expressed in B. subtilis 168 to construct an NAD+ regeneration system, which forces dramatic decrease of the intracellular NADH concentration (1.6 fold) and NADH/NAD+ ratio (2.2 fold). By optimization of the enzymatic reaction and applying repeated batch conversion, the whole-cell biocatalyst efficiently produced 91.8 g/L acetoin with a productivity of 2.30 g/(L·h), which was the highest record ever reported by biocatalysis. This work indicated that manipulation of the intracellular cofactor levels was more effective than the strategy of enhancing enzyme activity, and the bioprocess for NAD+ regeneration may also be a useful way for improving the productivity of NAD+-dependent chemistry-based products.

  6. Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium organophilum

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, H. J.; Hanson, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium organophilum, a facultative methane-oxidizing bacterium, has been purified to homogeneity as indicated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. It has several properties in common with the alcohol dehydrogenases from other methylotrophic bacteria. The active enzyme is a dimeric protein, both subunits having molecular weights of about 62,000. The enzyme exhibits broad substrate specificity for primary alcohols and catalyzes the two-step oxidation of methanol to formate. The apparent Michaelis constants of the enzyme are 2.9 × 10−5 M for methanol and 8.2 × 10−5 M for formaldehyde. Activity of the purified enzyme is dependent on phenazine methosulfate. Certain characteristics of this enzyme distinguish it from the other alcohol dehydrogenases of other methylotrophic bacteria. Ammonia is not required for, but stimulates the activity of newly purified enzyme. An absolute dependence on ammonia develops after storage of the purified enzyme. Activity is not inhibited by phosphate. The fluorescence spectrum of the enzyme indicates that it and the cofactor associated with it may be chemically different from the alcohol dehydrogenases from other methylotrophic bacteria. The alcohol dehydrogenases of Hyphomicrobium WC-65, Pseudomonas methanica, Methylosinus trichosporium, and several facultative methylotrophs are serologically related to the enzyme purified in this study. The enzymes of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila and of organisms of the Methylococcus group did not cross-react with the antiserum prepared against the alcohol dehydrogenase of M. organophilum. Images PMID:80974

  7. Hydrogenases and formate dehydrogenases of Syntrophobacter fumaroxidans.

    PubMed

    de Bok, F A M; Roze, E H A; Stams, A J M

    2002-08-01

    The syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacterium Syntrophobacter fumaroxidans possesses two distinct formate dehydrogenases and at least three distinct hydrogenases. All of these reductases are either loosely membrane-associated or soluble proteins and at least one of the hydrogenases is located in the periplasm. These enzymes were expressed on all growth substrates tested, though the levels of each enzyme showed large variations. These findings suggest that both H2 and formate are involved in the central metabolism of the organism, and that both these compounds may serve as interspecies electron carriers during syntrophic growth on propionate.

  8. Stringency of substrate specificity of Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenase.

    SciTech Connect

    Boernke, W. E.; Millard, C. S.; Stevens, P. W.; Kakar, S. N.; Stevens, F. J.; Donnelly, M. I.; Nebraska Wesleyan Univ.

    1995-09-10

    Malate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase are members of the structurally and functionally homologous family of 2-ketoacid dehydrogenases. Both enzymes display high specificity for their respective keto substrates, oxaloacetate and pyruvate. Closer analysis of their specificity, however, reveals that the specificity of malate dehydrogenase is much stricter and less malleable than that of lactate dehydrogenase. Site-specific mutagenesis of the two enzymes in an attempt to reverse their specificity has met with contrary results. Conversion of a specific active-site glutamine to arginine in lactate dehydrogenase from Bacillus stearothermophilus generated an enzyme that displayed activity toward oxaloacetate equal to that of the native enzyme toward pyruvate (H. M. Wilks et al. (1988) Science 242, 1541-1544). We have constructed a series of mutants in the mobile, active site loop of the Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenase that incorporate the complementary change, conversion of arginine 81 to glutamine, to evaluate the role of charge distribution and conformational flexibility within this loop in defining the substrate specificity of these enzymes. Mutants incorporating the change R81Q all had reversed specificity, displaying much higher activity toward pyruvate than to the natural substrate, oxaloacetate. In contrast to the mutated lactate dehydrogenase, these reversed-specificity mutants were much less active than the native enzyme. Secondary mutations within the loop of the E. coli enzyme (A80N, A80P, A80P/M85E/D86T) had either no or only moderately beneficial effects on the activity of the mutant enzyme toward pyruvate. The mutation A80P, which can be expected to reduce the overall flexibility of the loop, modestly improved activity toward pyruvate. The possible physiological relevance of the stringent specificity of malate dehydrogenase was investigated. In normal strains of E. coli, fermentative metabolism was not affected by expression of the mutant

  9. Wiring of PQQ-dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Laurinavicius, Valdas; Razumiene, Julija; Ramanavicius, Arunas; Ryabov, Alexander D

    2004-12-15

    The performance of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and two types of PQQ-glucose dehydrogenases in solution and when immobilized on the carbon paste electrodes modified with ferrocene derivatives is investigated. The immobilization of ADH consisting of PQQ and four hemes improves its stability up to 10 times. Both PQQ and heme moieties are involved in the electron transport from substrate to electrode. The ferrocene derivatives improve the electron transport 10-fold. Membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase from Gluconobacter sp. 33, intracellular soluble glucose dehydrogenase from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus L.M.D. 79.41 (s-GDH), and the membrane-bound enzyme (m-GDH) from Erwinia sp. 34-1 were purified and investigated. Soluble and membrane-bound PQQ-glucose dehydrogenases display different behavior during the immobilization on the modified carbon electrodes. The immobilization of s-GDH leads to a decrease in both stability and substrate specificity of the enzyme. This suggests that PQQ dissociates from the enzyme active center and operates as a free-diffusing mediator. The rate-limiting step of the process is likely the loading of PQQ onto the apo-enzyme. The immobilization of m-GDH leads to its substantial stabilization and improves the substrate specificity. The nature of m-GDH binding to the electrode surface is presumably similar to the binding to the cell membrane through its anchor-subunit. The enzyme operates as an enzyme and mediator complex.

  10. Michael hydratase alcohol dehydrogenase or just alcohol dehydrogenase?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Michael hydratase – alcohol dehydrogenase (MhyADH) from Alicycliphilus denitrificans was previously identified as a bi-functional enzyme performing a hydration of α,β-unsaturated ketones and subsequent oxidation of the formed alcohols. The investigations of the bi-functionality were based on a spectrophotometric assay and an activity staining in a native gel of the dehydrogenase. New insights in the recently discovered organocatalytic Michael addition of water led to the conclusion that the previously performed experiments to identify MhyADH as a bi-functional enzyme and their results need to be reconsidered and the reliability of the methodology used needs to be critically evaluated. PMID:24949265

  11. Structure of glycerol dehydrogenase from Serratia.

    PubMed

    Musille, Paul; Ortlund, Eric

    2014-02-01

    The 1.90 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of glycerol dehydrogenase derived from contaminating bacteria present during routine Escherichia coli protein expression is presented. This off-target enzyme showed intrinsic affinity for Ni(2+)-Sepharose, migrated at the expected molecular mass for the target protein during gel filtration and was crystallized before it was realised that contamination had occurred. In this study, it is shown that liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) can efficiently identify the protein composition of crystals in a crystallization experiment as part of a structure-determination pipeline for an unknown protein. The high-resolution X-ray data enabled sequencing directly from the electron-density maps, allowing the source of contamination to be placed within the Serratia genus. Incorporating additional protein-identity checks, such as tandem LC-MS/MS, earlier in the protein expression, purification and crystallization workflow may have prevented the unintentional structure determination of this metabolic enzyme, which represents the first enterobacterial glycerol dehydrogenase reported to date.

  12. High-fat diet enhanced retinal dehydrogenase activity, but suppressed retinol dehydrogenase activity in liver of rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mian; Liu, Can; Hu, Meng-yue; Zhang, Ji; Xu, Ping; Li, Feng; Zhong, Ze-yu; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiao-dong

    2015-04-01

    Evidence has shown that hyperlipidemia is associated with retinoid dyshomeostasis. In liver, retinol is mainly oxidized to retinal by retinol dehydrogenases (RDHs) and alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs), further converted to retinoic acid by retinal dehydrogenases (RALDHs). The aim of this study was to investigate whether high-fat diet (HFD) induced hyperlipidemia affected activity and expression of hepatic ADHs/RDHs and RALDHs in rats. Results showed that retinol levels in liver, kidney and adipose tissue of HFD rats were significantly increased, while plasma retinol and hepatic retinal levels were markedly decreased. HFD rats exhibited significantly downregulated hepatic ADHs/RDHs activity and Adh1, Rdh10 and Dhrs9 expression. Oppositely, hepatic RALDHs activity and Raldh1 expression were upregulated in HFD rats. In HepG2 cells, treatment of HFD rat serum inhibited ADHs/RDHs activity and induced RALDHs activity. Among the tested abnormally altered components in HFD rat serum, cholesterol reduced ADHs/RDHs activity and RDH10 expression, while induced RALDHs activity and RALDH1 expression in HepG2 cells. Contrary to the effect of cholesterol, cholesterol-lowering agent pravastatin upregulated ADHs/RDHs activity and RDH10 expression, while suppressed RALDHs activity and RALDH1 expression. In conclusion, hyperlipidemia oppositely altered activity and expression of hepatic ADHs/RDHs and RALDHs, which is partially due to the elevated cholesterol levels. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular cloning and tissue distribution of mammalian L-threonine 3-dehydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Alasdair J

    2002-01-01

    Background In mammals, L-threonine is an indispensable amino acid. The conversion of L-threonine to glycine occurs through a two-step biochemical pathway involving the enzymes L-threonine 3-dehydrogenase and 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase. The L-threonine 3-dehydrogenase enzyme has been purified and characterised, but the L-threonine 3-dehydrogenase gene has not previously been identified in mammals. Results Transcripts for L-threonine 3-dehydrogenase from both the mouse and pig are reported. The ORFs of both L-threonine dehydrogenase cDNAs encode proteins of 373 residues (41.5 kDa) and they share 80% identity. The mouse gene is located on chromosome 14, band C. The amino-terminal regions of these proteins have characteristics of a mitochondrial targeting sequence and are related to the UDP-galactose 4-epimerases, with both enzyme families having an amino-terminal NAD+ binding domain. That these cDNAs encode threonine dehydrogenases was shown, previously, by tiling 13 tryptic peptide sequences, obtained from purified L-threonine dehydrogenase isolated from porcine liver mitochondria, on to the pig ORF. These eukaryotic L-threonine dehydrogenases also have significant similarity with the prokaryote L-threonine dehydrogenase amino-terminus peptide sequence of the bacterium, Clostridium sticklandii. In murine tissues, the expression of both L-threonine dehydrogenase and 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase mRNAs were highest in the liver and were also present in brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, skeletal muscle, spleen and testis. Conclusions The first cloning of transcripts for L-threonine dehydrogenase from eukaryotic organisms are reported. However, they do not have any significant sequence homology to the well-characterised Escherichia coli L-threonine dehydrogenase. PMID:12097150

  14. Rearrangement of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase protein–protein interactions by the MDM2 ligand nutlin‐3

    PubMed Central

    Way, Luke; Faktor, Jakub; Dvorakova, Petra; Nicholson, Judith; Vojtesek, Borek; Graham, Duncan; Ball, Kathryn L.

    2016-01-01

    Drugs targeting MDM2's hydrophobic pocket activate p53. However, these agents act allosterically and have agonist effects on MDM2's protein interaction landscape. Dominant p53‐independent MDM2‐drug responsive‐binding proteins have not been stratified. We used as a variable the differential expression of MDM2 protein as a function of cell density to identify Nutlin‐3 responsive MDM2‐binding proteins that are perturbed independent of cell density using SWATH‐MS. Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, the E3 subunit of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, was one of two Nutlin‐3 perturbed proteins identified fours hour posttreatment at two cell densities. Immunoblotting confirmed that dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase was induced by Nutlin‐3. Depletion of MDM2 using siRNA also elevated dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase in Nutlin‐3 treated cells. Mitotracker confirmed that Nutlin‐3 inhibits mitochondrial activity. Enrichment of mitochondria using TOM22+ immunobeads and TMT labeling defined key changes in the mitochondrial proteome after Nutlin‐3 treatment. Proximity ligation identified rearrangements of cellular protein–protein complexes in situ. In response to Nutlin‐3, a reduction of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase/dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase protein complexes highlighted a disruption of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. This coincides with an increase in MDM2/dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase complexes in the nucleus that was further enhanced by the nuclear export inhibitor Leptomycin B. The data suggest one therapeutic impact of MDM2 drugs might be on the early perturbation of specific protein–protein interactions within the mitochondria. This methodology forms a blueprint for biomarker discovery that can identify rearrangements of MDM2 protein–protein complexes in drug‐treated cells. PMID:27273042

  15. Increased salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in non-reticular oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Mansourian, Arash; Shanbehzadeh, Najmeh; Kia, Seyed Javad; Moosavi, Mahdieh-Sadat

    2017-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a potentially malignant disorder. One of the malignant transformation markers is cancer stem cells. One of the proposed marker for the detection of cancer stem cells's in head and neck cancer is aldehyde dehydrogenase. Recently it is shown that aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression in tissue samples is associated with oral lichen planus malignant transformation. This study evaluates salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in oral lichen planus. Thirty patients and 30 age and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. Oral lichen planus was diagnosed based on the modified World Health Organization criteria. Subjects in the case group were divided into reticular and non-reticular forms. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected at 10-12 AM. Saliva concentrations of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 were measured by ELISA. The differences between aldehyde dehydrogenase levels in the oral lichen planus group compared with the control group were not significant but aldehyde dehydrogenase in non-reticular oral lichen planus was significantly higher than that of the reticular form. This is a cross-sectional study, thus longitudinal studies in oral lichen planus may present similar or different results. The mechanism of malignant transformation in oral lichen planus is not defined. Previous analyses revealed that the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression is significantly correlated with increased risk of transformation. This finding is consistent with our results because in the erosive and ulcerative forms of oral lichen planus, which have an increased risk of transformation, salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 was overexpressed. A higher salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase level in non-reticular oral lichen planus can be a defensive mechanism against higher oxidative stress in these groups. Aldehyde dehydrogenase may be one of the malignant transformation markers in oral lichen planus. Further studies are needed for introducing aldehyde dehydrogenase as a prognostic

  16. Cloning and sequencing of the alcohol dehydrogenase II gene from Zymomonas mobilis

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Conway, Tyrrell

    1992-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase II gene from Zymomonas mobilis has been cloned and sequenced. This gene can be expressed at high levels in other organisms to produce acetaldehyde or to convert acetaldehyde to ethanol.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: lactate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... dehydrogenase-B pieces (subunits) of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. This enzyme is found throughout the body and is important ... cells. There are five different forms of this enzyme, each made up of four protein subunits. Various ...

  18. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Revisited

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Jerome T.; Henderson, Alfred R.

    1984-01-01

    Hemolytic diseases associated with drugs have been recognized since antiquity. Many of these anemias have been associated with oxidizing agents and deficiencies in the intraerythrocytic enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. This paper outlines the discovery, prevalence, and variants of this enzyme. Methods of diagnosis of associated anemias are offered. PMID:6502728

  19. Effect of fermented sea tangle on the alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jae-Young; Jeong, Jae-Jun; Yang, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Bae-Jin; Cho, Young-Su

    2011-08-01

    Sea tangle, a kind of brown seaweed, was fermented with Lactobacillus brevis BJ-20. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in fermented sea tangle (FST) was 5.56% (w/w) and GABA in total free amino acid of FST was 49.5%. The effect of FST on the enzyme activities and mRNA protein expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) involved in alcohol metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. Yeast was cultured in YPD medium supplemented with different concentrations of FST powder [0, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.0% (w/v)] for 18 h. FST had no cytotoxic effect on the yeast growth. The highest activities and protein expressions of ADH and ALDH from the cell-free extracts of S. cerevisiae were evident with the 0.4% and 0.8% (w/v) FST-supplemented concentrations, respectively. The highest concentrations of GABA as well as minerals (Zn, Ca, and Mg) were found in the cell-free extracts of S. cerevisiae cultured in medium supplemented with 0.4% (w/v) FST. The levels of GABA, Zn, Ca, and Mg in S. cerevisiae were strongly correlated with the enzyme activities of ADH and ALDH in yeast. These results indicate that FST can enhance the enzyme activities and protein expression of ADH and ALDH in S. cerevisiae.

  20. Molecular cloning of gluconobacter oxydans DSM 2003 xylitol dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, H Mir Mohammad; Ahmadi, R; Aghaabdollahian, S; Mofid, M R; Ghaemi, Y; Abedi, D

    2011-01-01

    Due to the widespread applications of xylitol dehydrogenase, an enzyme used for the production of xylitol, the present study was designed for the cloning of xylitol dehydrogenase gene from Glcunobacter oxydans DSM 2003. After extraction of genomic DNA from this bacterium, xylitol dehydrogenase gene was replicated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplified product was entered into pTZ57R cloning vector by T/A cloning method and transformation was performed by heat shocking of the E. coli XL1-blue competent cells. Following plasmid preparation, the cloned gene was digested out and ligated into the expression vector pET-22b(+). Electrophoresis of PCR product showed a 789 bp band. Recombinant plasmid (rpTZ57R) was then constructed. This plasmid was double digested with XhoI and EcoRI resulting in 800 bp and 2900 bp bands. The obtained insert was ligated into pET-22b(+) vector and its orientation was confirmed with XhoI and BamHI restriction enzymes. In conclusion, in the present study the recombinant expression vector containing xylitol dehydrogenase gene has been constructed and can be used for the production of this enzyme in high quantities.

  1. Molecular characterization of an aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase gene from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824.

    PubMed Central

    Nair, R V; Bennett, G N; Papoutsakis, E T

    1994-01-01

    A gene (aad) coding for an aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AAD) was identified immediately upstream of the previously cloned ctfA (J. W. Cary, D. J. Petersen, E. T. Papoutsakis, and G. N. Bennett, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:1576-1583, 1990) of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 and sequenced. The 2,619-bp aad codes for a 96,517-Da protein. Primer extension analysis identified two transcriptional start sites 83 and 243 bp upstream of the aad start codon. The N-terminal section of AAD shows homology to aldehyde dehydrogenases of bacterial, fungal, mammalian, and plant origin, while the C-terminal section shows homology to alcohol dehydrogenases of bacterial (which includes three clostridial alcohol dehydrogenases) and yeast origin. AAD exhibits considerable amino acid homology (56% identity) over its entire sequence to the trifunctional protein encoded by adhE from Escherichia coli. Expression of aad from a plasmid in C. acetobutylicum showed that AAD, which appears as a approximately 96-kDa band in denaturing protein gels, provides elevated activities of NADH-dependent butanol dehydrogenase, NAD-dependent acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and butyraldehyde dehydrogenase, and a small increase in NADH-dependent ethanol dehydrogenase. A 957-bp open reading frame that could potentially encode a 36,704-Da protein was identified upstream of aad. Images PMID:8300540

  2. Identification and overexpression of a bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase responsible for ethanol production in Thermoanaerobacter mathranii.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shuo; Mikkelsen, Marie Just

    2010-01-01

    Thermoanaerobacter mathranii contains four genes, adhA, adhB, bdhA and adhE, predicted to code for alcohol dehydrogenases involved in ethanol metabolism. These alcohol dehydrogenases were characterized as NADP(H)-dependent primary alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA), secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhB), butanol dehydrogenase (BdhA) and NAD(H)-dependent bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE), respectively. Here we observed that AdhE is an important enzyme responsible for ethanol production in T. mathranii based on the constructed adh knockout strains. An adhE knockout strain fails to produce ethanol as a fermentation product, while other adh knockout strains showed no significant difference from the wild type. Further analysis revealed that the ΔadhE strain was defective in aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, but still maintained alcohol dehydrogenase activity. This showed that AdhE is the major aldehyde dehydrogenase in the cell and functions predominantly in the acetyl-CoA reduction to acetaldehyde in the ethanol formation pathway. Finally, AdhE was conditionally expressed from a xylose-induced promoter in a recombinant strain (BG1E1) with a concomitant deletion of a lactate dehydrogenase. Overexpressions of AdhE in strain BG1E1 with xylose as a substrate facilitate the production of ethanol at an increased yield. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Control of glycolytic flux in Zymomonas mobilis by glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Snoep, J.L. |; Arfman, N.; Yomano, L.P.; Ingram, L.O.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Conway, T.

    1996-07-20

    Alycolytic genes in Zymomonas mobilis are highly expressed and constitute half of the cytoplasmic protein. The first four genes (glf, zwf, edd, glk) in this pathway form an operon encoding a glucose permease, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6-P dehydrogenase), 6-phosphogluconate dehydratase, and glucokinase, respectively. Each gene was overexpressed from a tac promoter to investigate the control of glycolysis during the early stages of batch fermentation when flux (qCO{sub 2}) is highest. Almost half of flux control appears to reside with G6-P dehydrogenase (C{sub G6-P dehydrogenase}{sup J} = 0.4). Although Z. mobilis exhibits one of the highest rates of glycolysis known, recombinants with elevated G6-P dehydrogenase had a 10% to 13% higher glycolytic flux than the native organism. A small increase in flux was also observed for recombinants expressing glf. Results obtained did not allow a critical evaluation of glucokinase and this enzyme may also represent an important control point. 6-Phosphogluconate dehydratase appears to be saturating at native levels. With constructs containing the full operon, growth rate and flux were both reduced, complicating interpretations. However, results obtained were also consistent with G6-P dehydrogenase as a primary site of control. Flux was 17% higher in operon constructs which exhibited a 17% increase in G6-P dehydrogenase specific activity, relative to the average of other operon constructs which contain a frameshift mutation in zwf.

  4. Creation of a thermostable NADP⁺-dependent D-amino acid dehydrogenase from Ureibacillus thermosphaericus strain A1 meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Akita, Hironaga; Doi, Katsumi; Kawarabayasi, Yutaka; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2012-09-01

    A thermostable, NADP(+)-dependent D: -amino acid dehydrogenase (DAADH) was created from the meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase of Ureibacillus thermosphaericus strain A1 by introducing five point mutations into amino acid residues located in the active site. The recombinant protein, expressed in Escherichia coli, was purified to homogeneity using a two-step separation procedure and then characterized. In the presence of NADP(+), the protein catalyzed the oxidative deamination of several D: -amino acids, including D: -cyclohexylalanine, D: -isoleucine and D: -2-aminooctanoate, but not meso-diaminopimelate, confirming the creation of a NADP(+)-dependent DAADH. For the reverse reaction, the corresponding 2-oxo acids were aminated in the presence of NADPH and ammonia. In addition, the D: -amino acid dehydrogenase showed no loss of activity at 65 °C, indicating the mutant enzyme was more thermostable than its parental meso-diaminopimelate dehydrogenase.

  5. Inhibition effects of furfural on alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Modig, Tobias; Lidén, Gunnar; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2002-01-01

    The kinetics of furfural inhibition of the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 1.1.1.1), aldehyde dehydrogenase (AlDH; EC 1.2.1.5) and the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex were studied in vitro. At a concentration of less than 2 mM furfural was found to decrease the activity of both PDH and AlDH by more than 90%, whereas the ADH activity decreased by less than 20% at the same concentration. Furfural inhibition of ADH and AlDH activities could be described well by a competitive inhibition model, whereas the inhibition of PDH was best described as non-competitive. The estimated K(m) value of AlDH for furfural was found to be about 5 microM, which was lower than that for acetaldehyde (10 microM). For ADH, however, the estimated K(m) value for furfural (1.2 mM) was higher than that for acetaldehyde (0.4 mM). The inhibition of the three enzymes by 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was also measured. The inhibition caused by HMF of ADH was very similar to that caused by furfural. However, HMF did not inhibit either AlDH or PDH as severely as furfural. The inhibition effects on the three enzymes could well explain previously reported in vivo effects caused by furfural and HMF on the overall metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting a critical role of these enzymes in the observed inhibition. PMID:11964178

  6. Succinate dehydrogenase-deficient GISTs are characterized by IGF1R overexpression.

    PubMed

    Chou, Angela; Chen, Jason; Clarkson, Adele; Samra, Jaswinder S; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick J; Hugh, Thomas J; Gill, Anthony J

    2012-09-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase-deficient gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) demonstrate unique pathological and clinical features, including the absence of activating mutations of KIT and PDGFRA, and primary resistance to imatinib. They arise exclusively in the stomach and account for 5-7.5% of all adult stomach GISTs and the great majority of these tumors in childhood. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) overexpression has been associated with wild-type and pediatric GISTs. We propose that IGF1R overexpression is a feature of succinate dehydrogenase-deficient GISTs as a group. We assessed succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit B (SDHB) and IGF1R expression by immunohistochemistry in eight known succinate dehydrogenase-deficient GISTs, three GISTs arising in the setting of neurofibromatosis type 1 syndrome and 40 unselected GISTs. Selected KIT and PDGFRA exons were amplified and sequenced from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples. All eight succinate dehydrogenase-deficient tumors were wild-type for KIT and PDGFRA, succinate dehydrogenase B negative and demonstrated IGF1R overexpression. The three neurofibromatosis-related tumors were succinate dehydrogenase B positive and IGF1R negative. Of the 40 unselected upper GISTs, five were wild-type for KIT and PDGFRA in the selected exons. Two of the wild-type GISTs were succinate dehydrogenase B negative and showed IGF1R overexpression and three were succinate dehydrogenase B positive and IGF1R negative. We conclude that IGF1R overexpression is a feature of succinate dehydrogenase deficient GIST as a group, rather than pediatric or wild-type GIST per se. Therefore, IGF1R inhibition represents a potential rational therapeutic approach in this recently recognized subgroup of GIST.

  7. Mammalian class IV alcohol dehydrogenase (stomach alcohol dehydrogenase): structure, origin, and correlation with enzymology.

    PubMed Central

    Parés, X; Cederlund, E; Moreno, A; Hjelmqvist, L; Farrés, J; Jörnvall, H

    1994-01-01

    The structure of a mammalian class IV alcohol dehydrogenase has been determined by peptide analysis of the protein isolated from rat stomach. The structure indicates that the enzyme constitutes a separate alcohol dehydrogenase class, in agreement with the distinct enzymatic properties; the class IV enzyme is somewhat closer to class I (the "classical" liver alcohol dehydrogenase; approximately 68% residue identities) than to the other classes (II, III, and V; approximately 60% residue identities), suggesting that class IV might have originated through duplication of an early vertebrate class I gene. The activity of the class IV protein toward ethanol is even higher than that of the classical liver enzyme. Both Km and kcat values are high, the latter being the highest of any class characterized so far. Structurally, these properties are correlated with replacements at the active site, affecting both substrate and coenzyme binding. In particular, Ala-294 (instead of valine) results in increased space in the middle section of the substrate cleft, Gly-47 (instead of a basic residue) results in decreased charge interactions with the coenzyme pyrophosphate, and Tyr-363 (instead of a basic residue) may also affect coenzyme binding. In combination, these exchanges are compatible with a promotion of the off dissociation and an increased turnover rate. In contrast, residues at the inner part of the substrate cleft are bulky, accounting for low activity toward secondary alcohols and cyclohexanol. Exchanges at positions 259-261 involve minor shifts in glycine residues at a reverse turn in the coenzyme-binding fold. Clearly, class IV is distinct in structure, ethanol turnover, stomach expression, and possible emergence from class I. PMID:8127901

  8. Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase Rdhe2 Is a Novel Retinol Dehydrogenase Essential for Frog Embryonic Development*

    PubMed Central

    Belyaeva, Olga V.; Lee, Seung-Ah; Adams, Mark K.; Chang, Chenbei; Kedishvili, Natalia Y.

    2012-01-01

    The enzymes responsible for the rate-limiting step in retinoic acid biosynthesis, the oxidation of retinol to retinaldehyde, during embryogenesis and in adulthood have not been fully defined. Here, we report that a novel member of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily, frog sdr16c5, acts as a highly active retinol dehydrogenase (rdhe2) that promotes retinoic acid biosynthesis when expressed in mammalian cells. In vivo assays of rdhe2 function show that overexpression of rdhe2 in frog embryos leads to posteriorization and induction of defects resembling those caused by retinoic acid toxicity. Conversely, antisense morpholino-mediated knockdown of endogenous rdhe2 results in phenotypes consistent with retinoic acid deficiency, such as defects in anterior neural tube closure, microcephaly with small eye formation, disruption of somitogenesis, and curved body axis with bent tail. Higher doses of morpholino induce embryonic lethality. Analyses of retinoic acid levels using either endogenous retinoic acid-sensitive gene hoxd4 or retinoic acid reporter cell line both show that the levels of retinoic acid are significantly decreased in rdhe2 morphants. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that Xenopus rdhe2 functions as a retinol dehydrogenase essential for frog embryonic development in vivo. Importantly, the retinol oxidizing activity of frog rdhe2 is conserved in its mouse homologs, suggesting that rdhe2-related enzymes may represent the previously unrecognized physiologically relevant retinol dehydrogenases that contribute to retinoic acid biosynthesis in higher vertebrates. PMID:22291023

  9. Crystal structure of quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Pseudogluconobacter saccharoketogenes. A versatile dehydrogenase oxidizing alcohols and carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Rozeboom, Henriëtte J; Yu, Shukun; Mikkelsen, Rene; Nikolaev, Igor; Mulder, Harm J; Dijkstra, Bauke W

    2015-12-01

    The quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (PQQ-ADH, E.C. 1.1.5.2) from the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudogluconobacter saccharoketogenes IFO 14464 oxidizes primary alcohols (e.g. ethanol, butanol), secondary alcohols (monosaccharides), as well as aldehydes, polysaccharides, and cyclodextrins. The recombinant protein, expressed in Pichia pastoris, was crystallized, and three-dimensional (3D) structures of the native form, with PQQ and a Ca(2+) ion, and of the enzyme in complex with a Zn(2+) ion and a bound substrate mimic were determined at 1.72 Å and 1.84 Å resolution, respectively. PQQ-ADH displays an eight-bladed β-propeller fold, characteristic of Type I quinone-dependent methanol dehydrogenases. However, three of the four ligands of the Ca(2+) ion differ from those of related dehydrogenases and they come from different parts of the polypeptide chain. These differences result in a more open, easily accessible active site, which explains why PQQ-ADH can oxidize a broad range of substrates. The bound substrate mimic suggests Asp333 as the catalytic base. Remarkably, no vicinal disulfide bridge is present near the PQQ, which in other PQQ-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases has been proposed to be necessary for electron transfer. Instead an associated cytochrome c can approach the PQQ for direct electron transfer. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  10. Gene silencing in phlebotomine sand flies: Xanthine dehydrogenase knock down by dsRNA microinjections.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Mauricio R; Alexander, Bruce; Bates, Paul A; Dillon, Rod J

    2008-06-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis are vectors of medically important visceral leishmaniasis in South America. Blood-fed adult females digest large amounts of protein, and xanthine dehydrogenase is thought to be a key enzyme involved in protein catabolism through the production of urate. Large amounts of heme are also released during digestion with potentially damaging consequences, as heme can generate oxygen radicals that damage lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. However, urate is an antioxidant that may prevent such oxidative damage produced by heme. We investigated xanthine dehydrogenase by developing the RNAi technique for sand flies and used this technique to knock down the Lu. longipalpis xanthine dehydrogenase gene to evaluate its role in survival of adult females after blood feeding. The gene sequence of Lu. longipalpis xanthine dehydrogenase is described together with expression in different life cycle stages and RNAi knock down. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR of xanthine dehydrogenase expression showed a significant increase in expression after bloodmeal ingestion. Microinjection of dsRNA via the thorax of 1-day-old adult female sand flies resulted in approximately 40% reduction of xanthine dehydrogenase gene expression in comparison to flies injected with a control dsRNA. A significant reduction of urate in the whole body and excretions of Lu. longipalpis was observed after dsRNA xanthine dehydrogenase microinjection and feeding 96h later on rabbit blood. Sand flies injected with XDH dsRNA also exhibit significantly reduced life span in comparison with the mock-injected group when fed on sucrose or when rabbit blood fed, showing that urate could be indeed an important free radical scavenger in Lu. longipalpis. The demonstration of xanthine dehydrogenase knock down by dsRNA microinjection, low mortality of microinjected insects and the successful bloodfeeding of injected insects demonstrated the utility of RNAi as a tool for functional analysis of genes in phlebotomine

  11. Overproduction and substrate specificity of 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase from Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    PubMed

    Matsunami, H; Kawaguchi, H; Inagaki, K; Eguchi, T; Kakinuma, K; Tanaka, H

    1998-02-01

    We constructed an overexpression system in Escherichia coli of the leuB gene coding for 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase in Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. E. coli harboring the plasmid we constructed, pKK leuB1, produced 17-fold the enzyme protein of the expression system previously used for purification. The substrate specificity of the enzyme was analyzed with synthetic (2R, 3S)-3-alkylmalates. The 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans had broad specificity toward the alkylmalates.

  12. Characterization of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 3

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Caroline E.; Brocklehurst, Keith; Pickersgill, Richard W.; Warren, Martin J.

    2005-01-01

    RALDH3 (retinal dehydrogenase 3) was characterized by kinetic and binding studies, protein engineering, homology modelling, ligand docking and electrostatic-potential calculations. The major recognition determinant of an RALDH3 substrate was shown to be an eight-carbon chain bonded to the aldehyde group whose kinetic influence (kcat/Km at pH 8.5) decreases when shortened or lengthened. Surprisingly, the β-ionone ring of all-trans-retinal is not a major recognition site. The dissociation constants (Kd) of the complexes of RALDH3 with octanal, NAD+ and NADH were determined by intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. The similarity of the Kd values for the complexes with NAD+ and with octanal suggests a random kinetic mechanism for RALDH3, in contrast with the ordered sequential mechanism often associated with aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes. Inhibition of RALDH3 by tri-iodothyronine binding in competition with NAD+, predicted by the modelling, was established kinetically and by immunoprecipitation. Mechanistic implications of the kinetically influential ionizations with macroscopic pKa values of 5.0 and 7.5 revealed by the pH-dependence of kcat are discussed. Analogies with data for non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus mutans, together with the present modelled structure of the thioacyl RALDH3, suggest (a) that kcat characterizes deacylation of this intermediate for specific substrates and (b) the assignment of the pKa of the major ionization (approximating to 7.5) to the perturbed carboxy group of Glu280 whose conjugate base is envisaged as supplying general base catalysis to attack of a water molecule. The macroscopic pKa of the minor ionization (5.0) is considered to approximate to that of the carboxy group of Glu488. PMID:16241904

  13. Cellobiose dehydrogenase in cellulose degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, L.; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Samejima, Masahiro

    1996-10-01

    Cellobiose dehydrogenase is produced by a variety of fungi. Although it was already discovered during the 70`s, it`s role in cellulose and lignin degradation is yet ambiguous. The enzyme contains both heme and FAD as prosthetic groups, and seems to have a domain specifically designed to bind the enzyme to cellulose. It`s affinity to amorphous cellulose is higher than to crystalline cellulose. We will report on the binding behavior of the enzyme, its usefulness in elucidation of cellulose structures and also, possibilities for applications such as its use in measuring individual and synergistic mechanisms for cellulose degradation by endo- and exo-glucanases.

  14. Decrease in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase is related to skin pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Nakama, Mitsuo; Murakami, Yuhko; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakata, Satoru

    2012-03-01

    Skin pigmentation is caused by various physical and chemical factors. It might also be influenced by changes in the physiological function of skin with aging. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase is an enzyme related to the mitochondrial electron transport system and plays a key role in cellular energy production. It has been reported that the functional decrease in this system causes Parkinson's disease. Another study reports that the amount of NADH dehydrogenase in heart and skeletal muscle decreases with aging. A similar decrease in the skin would probably affect its physiological function. However, no reports have examined the age-related change in levels of NADH dehydrogenase in human skin. In this study, we investigated this change and its effect on skin pigmentation using cultured human epidermal keratinocytes. The mRNA expression of NDUFA1, NDUFB7, and NDUFS2, subunits of NADH dehydrogenase, and its activity were significantly decreased in late passage keratinocytes compared to early passage cells. Conversely, the mRNA expression of melanocyte-stimulating cytokines, interleukin-1 alpha and endothelin 1, was increased in late passage cells. On the other hand, the inhibition of NADH dehydrogenase upregulated the mRNA expression of melanocyte-stimulating cytokines. Moreover, the level of NDUFB7 mRNA was lower in pigmented than in nonpigmented regions of skin in vivo. These results suggest the decrease in NADH dehydrogenase with aging to be involved in skin pigmentation.

  15. Mutation of Arg-115 of human class III alcohol dehydrogenase: a binding site required for formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity and fatty acid activation.

    PubMed Central

    Engeland, K; Höög, J O; Holmquist, B; Estonius, M; Jörnvall, H; Vallee, B L

    1993-01-01

    The origin of the fatty acid activation and formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity that distinguishes human class III alcohol dehydrogenase (alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) from all other alcohol dehydrogenases has been examined by site-directed mutagenesis of its Arg-115 residue. The Ala- and Asp-115 mutant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography and ion-exchange HPLC. The activities of the recombinant native and mutant enzymes toward ethanol are essentially identical, but mutagenesis greatly decreases the kcat/Km values for glutathione-dependent formaldehyde oxidation. The catalytic efficiency for the Asp variant is < 0.1% that of the unmutated enzyme, due to both a higher Km and a lower kcat value. As with the native enzyme, neither mutant can oxidize methanol, be saturated by ethanol, or be inhibited by 4-methylpyrazole; i.e., they retain these class III characteristics. In contrast, however, their activation by fatty acids, another characteristic unique to class III alcohol dehydrogenase, is markedly attenuated. The Ala mutant is activated only slightly, but the Asp mutant is not activated at all. The results strongly indicate that Arg-115 in class III alcohol dehydrogenase is a component of the binding site for activating fatty acids and is critical for the binding of S-hydroxymethylglutathione in glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity. PMID:8460164

  16. Functional Analysis of a Mosquito Short Chain Dehydrogenase Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Mayoral, Jaime G.; Leonard, Kate T.; Defelipe, Lucas A.; Turjansksi, Adrian G.; Nouzova, Marcela; Noriegal, Fernando G.

    2013-01-01

    The short chain dehydrogenases (SDR) constitute one the oldest and largest families of enzymes with over 46,000 members in sequence databases. About 25% of all known dehydrogenases belong to the SDR family. SDR enzymes have critical roles in lipid, amino acid, carbohydrate, hormone and xenobiotic metabolism as well as in redox sensor mechanisms. This family is present in archaea, bacteria, and eukaryota, emphasizing their versatility and fundamental importance for metabolic processes. We identified a cluster of eight SDRs in the mosquito Aedes aegypti (AaSDRs). Members of the cluster differ in tissue specificity and developmental expression. Heterologous expression produced recombinant proteins that had diverse substrate specificities, but distinct from the conventional insect alcohol (ethanol) dehydrogenases. They are all NADP+-dependent and they have S-enantioselectivity and preference for secondary alcohols with 8–15 carbons. Homology modeling was used to build the structure of AaSDR1 and two additional cluster members. The computational study helped explain the selectivity towards the (10S)-isomers as well as the reduced activity of AaSDR4 and AaSDR9 for longer isoprenoid substrates. Similar clusters of SDRs are present in other species of insects, suggesting similar selection mechanisms causing duplication and diversification of this family of enzymes. PMID:23238893

  17. An efficient ribitol-specific dehydrogenase from Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranjitha; Singh, Raushan; Kim, In-Won; Sigdel, Sujan; Kalia, Vipin C; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2015-05-01

    An NAD(+)-dependent ribitol dehydrogenase from Enterobacter aerogenes KCTC 2190 (EaRDH) was cloned and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. The complete 729-bp gene was amplified, cloned, expressed, and subsequently purified in an active soluble form using nickel affinity chromatography. The enzyme had an optimal pH and temperature of 11.0 and 45°C, respectively. Among various polyols, EaRDH exhibited activity only toward ribitol, with Km, Vmax, and kcat/Km values of 10.3mM, 185Umg(-1), and 30.9s(-1)mM(-1), respectively. The enzyme showed strong preference for NAD(+) and displayed no detectable activity with NADP(+). Homology modeling and sequence analysis of EaRDH, along with its biochemical properties, confirmed that EaRDH belongs to the family of NAD(+)-dependent ribitol dehydrogenases, a member of short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SCOR) family. EaRDH showed the highest activity and unique substrate specificity among all known RDHs. Homology modeling and docking analysis shed light on the molecular basis of its unusually high activity and substrate specificity.

  18. Regulation of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Johnston, S J; Ridge, S A; Cassidy, J; McLeod, H L

    1999-09-01

    Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is responsible for degradation of the pyrimidines uracil and thymine and the inactivation of the chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil. DPD activity is highly variable in cancer populations, and this variation may influence the antitumor efficacy of 5-fluorouracil. However, little is known about the regulation of DPD mRNA expression in any tissues. Using a reverse transcription competitive PCR assay, we quantified DPD mRNA levels in 10 matched colorectal tumors and adjacent normal mucosae and 7 colorectal liver metastases and adjacent normal livers. Lower levels of DPD mRNA expression were observed in colorectal tumor compared with adjacent normal colon mucosa (median, 0.01 versus 0.37 amole/microg total RNA, P = 0.02). DPD mRNA expression was also lower in metastases than adjacent normal liver tissue (median, 0.11 versus 1.17 amole/microg total RNA, P = 0.001). DPD mRNA expression was higher in normal liver than normal colonic mucosa (median, 1.17 versus 0.37 amole/microg total RNA, P = 0.02). A significant relationship was observed between DPD mRNA and catalytic activity (r(s) = 0.66, P<0.001). The tumor:normal ratio for DPD mRNA, protein, and activity was relatively stable in liver (0.25, 0.55, and 0.51, respectively) but varied considerably in colon (0.085, 0.9, and 1.25, respectively), consistent with enhanced translation of DPD transcript in primary colorectal tumor. This suggests that DPD can be regulated at the levels of both transcription and translation.

  19. Cephalopod alcohol dehydrogenase: purification and enzymatic characterization.

    PubMed

    Rosario Fernández, M; Jörnvall, H; Moreno, A; Kaiser, R; Parés, X

    1993-08-16

    Octopus, squid and cuttle-fish organs were examined for alcohol dehydrogenase activity. Only one form was detectable, with properties typical of mammalian class III alcohol dehydrogenase. The corresponding protein was purified from octopus and enzymatically characterized. Ion-exchange and affinity chromatography produced a pure protein in excellent yield (73%) after 1600-fold purification. Enzymatic parameters with several substrates were similar to those for the human class III alcohol dehydrogenase, demonstrating a largely conserved function of the enzyme through wide lines of divergence covering vertebrates, cephalopods and bacteria. The results establish the universal occurrence of class III alcohol dehydrogenase and its strictly conserved functional properties in separate living forms. The absence of other alcohol dehydrogenases in cephalopods is compatible with the emergence of the ethanol-active class I type at a later stage, in lineages leading to vertebrates.

  20. [The PQQ-dehydrogenases. A novel example of bacterial quinoproteins].

    PubMed

    Flores-Encarnación, Marcos; Sánchez-Cuevas, Mariano; Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Felipe

    2004-01-01

    The word "quinoprotein" describes four groups of different enzymes which have cofactors containing o-quinones. Pyrrolo-quinoline quinone (PQQ) is not covalently attached. PQQ is the cofactor of several quinoprotein bacterial dehydrogenases including glucose dehydrogenase (G-DH), alcohol dehydrogenase (A-DH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (AL-DH). These dehydrogenases are located in the periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria. This report summarises the structural properties of quinoprotein dehydrogenases, such as the biological functions and biotechnological aspects more important.

  1. Isolation and nucleotide sequence of the methanol dehydrogenase structural gene from Paracoccus denitrificans.

    PubMed Central

    Harms, N; de Vries, G E; Maurer, K; Hoogendijk, J; Stouthamer, A H

    1987-01-01

    A genomic clone bank of Paracoccus denitrificans DNA has been constructed in the expression vector set pEX1, pEX2, and pEX3. Screening of this clone bank with antibodies raised against P. denitrificans methanol dehydrogenase resulted in the isolation of a clone, pNH3, that synthesized methanol dehydrogenase cross-reactive proteins. The nucleotide sequence of the P. denitrificans DNA fragment inserted in this clone has been determined and shown to contain the full methanol dehydrogenase structural gene. DNA cross-hybridization was found with DNA fragments which have been reported to contain the methanol dehydrogenase structural genes from Methylobacterium sp. strain AM1 and Methylobacterium organophilum. Images PMID:3114231

  2. Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs) in bacteria: a bioinformatic perspective.

    PubMed

    Kisiela, Michael; Skarka, Adam; Ebert, Bettina; Maser, Edmund

    2012-03-01

    Steroidal compounds including cholesterol, bile acids and steroid hormones play a central role in various physiological processes such as cell signaling, growth, reproduction, and energy homeostasis. Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (HSDs), which belong to the superfamily of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) or aldo-keto reductases (AKR), are important enzymes involved in the steroid hormone metabolism. HSDs function as an enzymatic switch that controls the access of receptor-active steroids to nuclear hormone receptors and thereby mediate a fine-tuning of the steroid response. The aim of this study was the identification of classified functional HSDs and the bioinformatic annotation of these proteins in all complete sequenced bacterial genomes followed by a phylogenetic analysis. For the bioinformatic annotation we constructed specific hidden Markov models in an iterative approach to provide a reliable identification for the specific catalytic groups of HSDs. Here, we show a detailed phylogenetic analysis of 3α-, 7α-, 12α-HSDs and two further functional related enzymes (3-ketosteroid-Δ(1)-dehydrogenase, 3-ketosteroid-Δ(4)(5α)-dehydrogenase) from the superfamily of SDRs. For some bacteria that have been previously reported to posses a specific HSD activity, we could annotate the corresponding HSD protein. The dominating phyla that were identified to express HSDs were that of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Moreover, some evolutionarily more ancient microorganisms (e.g., Cyanobacteria and Euryachaeota) were found as well. A large number of HSD-expressing bacteria constitute the normal human gastro-intestinal flora. Another group of bacteria were originally isolated from natural habitats like seawater, soil, marine and permafrost sediments. These bacteria include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-degrading species such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia and Rhodococcus. In conclusion, HSDs are found in a wide variety of microorganisms including

  3. Evidence for distinct dehydrogenase and isomerase sites within a single 3. beta. -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/5-ene-4-ene isomerase protein

    SciTech Connect

    Luu-The, V.; Takahashi, Masakazu; de Launoit, Y.; Dumont, M.; Lachance, Y.; Labrie, F. )

    1991-09-10

    Complementary DNA encoding human 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/5-ene-4-ene isomerase (3-{beta}-HSD) has been expressed in transfected GH{sub 4}C{sub 1} with use of the cytomegalovirus promoter. The activity of the expressed protein clearly shows that both dehydrogenase and isomerase enzymatic activities are present within a single protein. However, such findings do not indicate whether the two activities reside within one or two closely related catalytic sites. With use of ({sup 3}H)-5-androstenedione, the intermediate compound in dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) transformation into 4-androstenedione by 3{beta}-HSD, the present study shows that 4MA (N,N-diethyl-4-methyl-3-oxo-4-aza-5{alpha}-androstane-17{beta}-carboxamide) and its analogues of 5-androstenedione to 4-androstenedione with an approximately 1,000-fold higher K{sub i} value. The present results thus strongly suggest that dehydrogenase and isomerase activities are present at separate sites on the 3-{beta}-HSD protein. Such data suggest that the irreversible step in the transformation of DHEA to 4-androstenedione is due to a separate site possessing isomerase activity that converts the 5-ene-3-keto to a much more stable 4-ene-3-keto configuration.

  4. Benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. Substrate specificities and inhibition studies.

    PubMed Central

    MacKintosh, R W; Fewson, C A

    1988-01-01

    The apparent Km and maximum velocity values of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus were determined for a range of alcohols and aldehydes and the corresponding turnover numbers and specificity constants were calculated. Benzyl alcohol was the most effective alcohol substrate for benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase. Perillyl alcohol was the second most effective substrate, and was the only non-aromatic alcohol oxidized. The other substrates of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase were all aromatic in nature, with para-substituted derivatives of benzyl alcohol being better substrates than other derivatives. Coniferyl alcohol and cinnamyl alcohol were also substrates. Benzaldehyde was much the most effective substrate for benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II. Benzaldehydes with a single small substituent group in the meta or para position were better substrates than any other benzaldehyde derivatives. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II could also oxidize the aliphatic aldehydes hexan-1-al and octan-1-al, although poorly. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II was substrate-inhibited by benzaldehyde when the assay concentration exceeded approx. 10 microM. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II, but not benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase, exhibited esterase activity with 4-nitrophenyl acetate as substrate. Both benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II were inhibited by the thiol-blocking reagents iodoacetate, iodoacetamide, 4-chloromercuribenzoate and N-ethylmaleimide. Benzyl alcohol or benzaldehyde respectively protected against these inhibitions. NAD+ also gave some protection. Neither benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase nor benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II was inhibited by the metal-ion-chelating agents EDTA, 2,2'-bipyridyl, pyrazole or 2-phenanthroline. Neither enzyme was inhibited by a range of plausible metabolic inhibitors such as mandelate, phenylglyoxylate, benzoate, succinate, acetyl-CoA, ATP or ADP. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II was

  5. Opine dehydrogenases in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Harcet, Matija; Perina, Drago; Pleše, Bruna

    2013-10-01

    It is well known today that opine production anaerobic pathways are analogs to the classical glycolytic pathway (lactate production pathway). These pathways, catalyzed by a group of enzymes called opine dehydrogenases (OpDHs), ensure continuous flux of glycolysis and a constant supply of ATP by maintaining the NADH/NAD(+) ratio during exercise and hypoxia, thus regulating the cytosolic redox balance in glycolysis under anoxia. OpDHs are distributed in a wide range of marine invertebrate phyla, including sponges (Porifera). Phylogenetic analyses supported with enzymatic assays strongly indicate that sponge OpDHs constitute an enzyme class unrelated to other OpDHs. Therefore, OpDHs in marine invertebrates are divided into two groups, a mollusk/annelid type and a sponge type, which belongs to the OCD/mu-crystallin family.

  6. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of...

  10. X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and autosomal 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) polymorphisms in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    VandeBerg, J.L.; Aivaliotis, M.J.; Samollow, P.B. )

    1992-12-01

    Electrophoretic polymorphisms of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) were examined in captive colonies of five subspecies of baboons (Papio hamadryas). Phenotype frequencies and family data verified the X-linked inheritance of the G6PD polymorphism. Insufficient family data were available to confirm autosomal inheritance of the 6PGD polymorphism, but the electrophoretic patterns of variant types (putative heterozygotes) suggested the codominant expression of alleles at an autosomal locus. Implications of the G6PD polymorphism are discussed with regard to its utility as a marker system for research on X-chromosome inactivation during baboon development and for studies of clonal cell proliferation and/or cell selection during the development of atherosclerotic lesions in the baboon model. 61 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  11. Change in ATP-binding cassette B1/19, glutamine synthetase and alcohol dehydrogenase gene expression during root elongation in Betula pendula Roth and Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn in response to leachate and leonardite humic substances.

    PubMed

    Tahiri, Abdelghani; Delporte, Fabienne; Muhovski, Yordan; Ongena, Marc; Thonart, Philippe; Druart, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Humic substances (HS) are complex and heterogeneous compounds of humified organic matter resulting from the chemical and microbiological decomposition of organic residues. HS have a positive effect on plant growth and development by improving soil structure and fertility. They have long been recognized as plant growth-promoting substances, particularly with regard to influencing nutrient uptake, root growth and architecture. The biochemical and molecular mechanisms through which HS influence plant physiology are not well understood. This study evaluated the bioactivity of landfill leachate and leonardite HS on alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn) and birch (Betula pendula Roth) during root elongation in vitro. Changes in root development were studied in relation to auxin, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms, as well as to the stress adaptive response. The cDNA fragments of putative genes encoding two ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (ABCB1 and ABCB19) belonging to the B subfamily of plant ABC auxin transporters were cloned and sequenced. Molecular data indicate that HS and their humic acid (HA) fractions induce root growth by influencing polar auxin transport (PAT), as illustrated by the modulation of the ABCB transporter transcript levels (ABCB1 and ABCB19). There were also changes in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and glutamine synthetase (GS) gene transcript levels in response to HS exposure. These findings confirmed that humic matter affects plant growth and development through various metabolic pathways, including hormonal, carbon and nitrogen metabolisms and stress response or signalization.

  12. Asparagusate dehydrogenases and lipoyl dehydrogenase from asparagus mitochondria. Physical, chemical, and enzymatic properties.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, H; Egami, F

    1976-06-25

    Asparagusate dehydrogenases I and II and lipoyl dehydrogenase have been obtained in homogeneous state from asparagus mitochondria. They are flavin enzymes with 1 mol of FAD/mol of protein. Asparagusate dehydrogenases I and II and lipoyl dehydrogenase have s20,w of 6.22 S, 6.39 S, and 5.91 S, respectively, and molecular weights of 111,000, 110,000, and 95,000 (sedimentation equilibrium) or 112,000, 112,000, and 92,000 (gel filtration). They are slightly acidic proteins with isoelectric points of 6.75, 5.75, and 6.80. Both asparagusate dehydrogenases catalyzed the reaction Asg(SH)2 + NAD+ equilibrium AsgS2 + NADH + H+ and exhibit lipoyl dehydrogenase and diaphorase activities. Lipoyl dehydrogenase is specific for lipoate and has no asparagusate dehydrogenase activity. NADP cannot replace NAD in any case. Optimum pH for substrate reduction of the three enzymes are near 5.9. Asparagusate dehydrogenases I and II have Km values of 21.5 mM and 20.0 mM for asparagusate and 3.0 mM and 3.3 mM for lipoate, respectively. Lipoyl dehydrogenase activity of asparagusate dehydrogenases is enhanced by NAD and surfactants such as lecithin and Tween 80, but asparagusate dehydrogenase activity is not enhanced. Asparagusate dehydrogenases are strongly inhibited by mercuric ion, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, and N-ethylmaleimide. Amino acid composition of the three enzymes is presented and discussed.

  13. Malic dehydrogenase locus of Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Williams, T J; Smith-Sonneborn, J

    1980-04-01

    A search was undertaken for naturally occurring genetic markers for use in clonal aging studies of Paramecium tetraurelia. Clonal age is defined as the number of cell divisions since the last sexual process. Autogamy (self-fertilization) is a sexual process which can occur in aging lines, resulting in homozygosity and initiation of the next generation. Such "illicit" autogamies must be detected and eliminated from the aged clone. With codominant alleles, heterozygous aging lines can be established which will express a phenotype distinguishable from that of either parental type and autogamy can then be monitored by the appearance of either segregant homozygous phenotype. However, very few codominant alleles are available in this species. Electrophoretic mobilities of malic dehydrogenase (MDH) were assayed in 11 stocks of Paramecium tetraurelia by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Nine stocks showed a single-banded "stock 51" type, while stock 174 and stock 29 each exhibited unique mobility. Crosses between stock 51 and the deviant stocks revealed distinct three-banded patterns indicative of heterozygosity of the F1 generation. In the autogamous F2 generation, 1:1 segregation of the parental types were recovered. The pattern of inheritance is consistent with codominant alleles and Mendelian inheritance. These naturally occurring biochemical markers are stable with increasing clonal age and are therefore useful genetic markers for studies of cellular aging.

  14. Characterization of two β-decarboxylating dehydrogenases from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kento; Nakanishi, Fumika; Tomita, Takeo; Akiyama, Nagisa; Lassak, Kerstin; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Nishiyama, Makoto

    2016-11-01

    Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, a hyperthermoacidophilic archaeon, possesses two β-decarboxylating dehydrogenase genes, saci_0600 and saci_2375, in its genome, which suggests that it uses these enzymes for three similar reactions in lysine biosynthesis through 2-aminoadipate, leucine biosynthesis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. To elucidate their roles, these two genes were expressed in Escherichia coli in the present study and their gene products were characterized. Saci_0600 recognized 3-isopropylmalate as a substrate, but exhibited slight and no activity for homoisocitrate and isocitrate, respectively. Saci_2375 exhibited distinct and similar activities for isocitrate and homoisocitrate, but no detectable activity for 3-isopropylmalate. These results suggest that Saci_0600 is a 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase for leucine biosynthesis and Saci_2375 is a dual function enzyme serving as isocitrate-homoisocitrate dehydrogenase. The crystal structure of Saci_0600 was determined as a closed-form complex that binds 3-isopropylmalate and Mg(2+), thereby revealing the structural basis for the extreme thermostability and novel-type recognition of the 3-isopropyl moiety of the substrate.

  15. Plastidial Expression of Type II NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase Increases the Reducing State of Plastoquinones and Hydrogen Photoproduction Rate by the Indirect Pathway in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Baltz, Anthony; Dang, Kieu-Van; Beyly, Audrey; Auroy, Pascaline; Richaud, Pierre; Cournac, Laurent; Peltier, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Biological conversion of solar energy into hydrogen is naturally realized by some microalgae species due to a coupling between the photosynthetic electron transport chain and a plastidial hydrogenase. While promising for the production of clean and sustainable hydrogen, this process requires improvement to be economically viable. Two pathways, called direct and indirect photoproduction, lead to sustained hydrogen production in sulfur-deprived Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultures. The indirect pathway allows an efficient time-based separation of O2 and H2 production, thus overcoming the O2 sensitivity of the hydrogenase, but its activity is low. With the aim of identifying the limiting step of hydrogen production, we succeeded in overexpressing the plastidial type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDA2). We report that transplastomic strains overexpressing NDA2 show an increased activity of nonphotochemical reduction of plastoquinones (PQs). While hydrogen production by the direct pathway, involving the linear electron flow from photosystem II to photosystem I, was not affected by NDA2 overexpression, the rate of hydrogen production by the indirect pathway was increased in conditions, such as nutrient limitation, where soluble electron donors are not limiting. An increased intracellular starch was observed in response to nutrient deprivation in strains overexpressing NDA2. It is concluded that activity of the indirect pathway is limited by the nonphotochemical reduction of PQs, either by the pool size of soluble electron donors or by the PQ-reducing activity of NDA2 in nutrient-limited conditions. We discuss these data in relation to limitations and biotechnological improvement of hydrogen photoproduction in microalgae. PMID:24820024

  16. Human alcohol dehydrogenase: structural differences between the beta and gamma subunits suggest parallel duplications in isoenzyme evolution and predominant expression of separate gene descendants in livers of different mammals.

    PubMed Central

    Bühler, R; Hempel, J; Kaiser, R; von Wartburg, J P; Vallee, B L; Jörnvall, H

    1984-01-01

    Human alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) occurs in multiple forms, which exhibit distinct electrophoretic mobilities and enzymatic properties. The homogeneous isoenzymes beta 1 beta 1 and gamma 1 gamma 1 were isolated from livers of Caucasians with "typical" ADH phenotype by double ternary complex affinity chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. The differences between the beta 1 and gamma 1 subunits were determined by structural analysis of all tryptic peptides from the carboxymethylated proteins. The human beta 1 and gamma 1 chains differ at 21 of the 373 positions (5.6%). Ten tryptic peptides account for the differences. All residue substitut