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Sample records for 15-year cohort study

  1. Adherence to antipsychotic medication among homeless adults in Vancouver, Canada: a 15-year retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Moniruzzaman, A.; Fazel, S.; Procyshyn, R.; Somers, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of adherence to antipsychotic prescription medication in a well-defined homeless cohort over a 15-year period. We hypothesized that adherence would be well below the recommended threshold for clinical effectiveness (80 %), and that it would be strongly associated with modifiable risk factors in the social environment in which homeless people live. Method Linked baseline data (including comprehensive population-level administrative prescription records) were examined in a subpopulation of participants from two pragmatic-randomized trials that investigated Housing First for homeless and mentally ill adults. Adherence to antipsychotic medication was operationalized using the medication possession ratio. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate effect sizes between socio-demographic, homelessness-related and illness factors, and medication possession ratio. Results Among the 290 participants who met inclusion criteria for the current analysis, adherence to antipsychotic prescription was significantly associated with: history of psychiatric hospitalization; receipt of primary medical services; long-acting injectable antipsychotic formulations; and duration of homelessness. Mean medication possession ratio in the pre-randomization period was 0.41. Socio-demographic characteristics previously correlated with antipsychotic non-adherence were not significantly related to medication possession ratio. Conclusions This is the first study to quantify the very low level of adherence to antipsychotic medication among homeless people over an extended observation period of 15 years. Each of the four factors found to be significantly associated with adherence presents opportunities for intervention. Strategies to end homelessness for this population may represent the greatest opportunity to improve adherence to antipsychotic medication. PMID:27338740

  2. The persistence of adolescent binge drinking into adulthood: findings from a 15-year prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Degenhardt, Louisa; O'Loughlin, Christina; Swift, Wendy; Romaniuk, Helena; Carlin, John; Coffey, Carolyn; Hall, Wayne; Patton, George

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence of binge drinking in adolescence and its persistence into adulthood in an Australian cohort. Design 15-year prospective cohort study. Setting Victoria, Australia. Participants 1943 adolescents were recruited from secondary schools at age 14–15 years. Primary outcome measures Levels of past-week ‘binge’ drinking (5+ standard drinks on a day, each 10 g alcohol) and ‘heavy binge’ drinking (20+ standard drinks on a day for males, 11+ for females) were assessed during six adolescent waves, and across three adult waves up to age 29 years. Results Half of the males (52%) and a third of the females (34%) reported past-week adolescent binge drinking. 90% of male and 70% of female adolescent-onset binge drinkers continued to binge in young adulthood; 70% of males and 48% of females who were not adolescent-onset binge drinkers reported young adult binge drinking. Past-week heavy bingeing was less common in adolescence than adulthood. Overall, 35% of the sample (95% CI 33% to 38%) reported past-week binge drinking in adolescence and young adulthood and one-third (33%; 30% to 35%) first reported binge drinking in young adulthood; only 7% of the sample (6–8%) had binge drinking in adolescence but not young adulthood. ‘Heavy binge’ drinking occurred in adolescence and young adulthood for 9% (8% to 10%); 8% (7% to 10%) reported it in adolescence but no longer in young adulthood; and 24% (22% to 26%) began ‘heavy binge’ drinking in young adulthood. Among adolescent binge drinkers (n=821), young adult binge and heavy binge drinking were predicted by being male, adolescent antisocial behaviour and adverse consequences of drinking in adolescence. Conclusions Binge alcohol use is common and persistent among young Australians. Efforts to prevent the onset of binge drinking during adolescence may substantially reduce harmful patterns of alcohol use in young adulthood. PMID:23959750

  3. Adherence to antipsychotic medication among homeless adults in Vancouver, Canada: a 15-year retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rezansoff, Stefanie N; Moniruzzaman, A; Fazel, S; Procyshyn, R; Somers, J M

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of adherence to antipsychotic prescription medication in a well-defined homeless cohort over a 15-year period. We hypothesized that adherence would be well below the recommended threshold for clinical effectiveness (80 %), and that it would be strongly associated with modifiable risk factors in the social environment in which homeless people live. Linked baseline data (including comprehensive population-level administrative prescription records) were examined in a subpopulation of participants from two pragmatic-randomized trials that investigated Housing First for homeless and mentally ill adults. Adherence to antipsychotic medication was operationalized using the medication possession ratio. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate effect sizes between socio-demographic, homelessness-related and illness factors, and medication possession ratio. Among the 290 participants who met inclusion criteria for the current analysis, adherence to antipsychotic prescription was significantly associated with: history of psychiatric hospitalization; receipt of primary medical services; long-acting injectable antipsychotic formulations; and duration of homelessness. Mean medication possession ratio in the pre-randomization period was 0.41. Socio-demographic characteristics previously correlated with antipsychotic non-adherence were not significantly related to medication possession ratio. This is the first study to quantify the very low level of adherence to antipsychotic medication among homeless people over an extended observation period of 15 years. Each of the four factors found to be significantly associated with adherence presents opportunities for intervention. Strategies to end homelessness for this population may represent the greatest opportunity to improve adherence to antipsychotic medication.

  4. Cohort mortality study of 57,000 painters and other union members: a 15 year update

    PubMed Central

    Steenland, K.; Palu, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study mortality patterns in the largest existing cohort of painters. METHODS: 15 years of follow up were added to a study of 42,170 painters and 14,316 non-painters based on union records. There were 23,458 deaths, compared with 5313 in the earlier follow up. RESULTS: Comparisons with the United States population showed significantly increased rates in painters for lung cancer (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 1.23, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.17 to 1.29), bladder cancer (SMR 1.23, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.43), liver cancer (SMR 1.25, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.50), and stomach cancer (SMR 1.39, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.59). However, in direct comparisons with non-painters only the excesses for lung cancer (SRR 1.23, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.35, increasing to 1.32, 95% CI 16 to 1.93 with 20 years latency) and bladder cancer (SRR 1.77, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.77) were confirmed. Some confounding by smoking may affect these two outcomes, particularly with external referents. Cirrhosis of the liver was increased for both painters and non-painters (SMRs 1.21, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.35, and 1.26, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.51, respectively), possibly indicating high alcohol consumption. Suicide (SMR 1.21, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.38) and homicide (SMR 1.36, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.75) were increased for painters but not for non-painters; neuropsychiatric diseases have been associated with painters in earlier studies. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest modest occupational risks for lung and bladder cancer; these results are consistent with existing publications. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified painting as an occupation definitely associated with cancer.   PMID:10472305

  5. Injuries to Professional and Amateur Kickboxing Contestants: A 15-Year Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lystad, Reidar P

    2015-11-01

    Kickboxing is a group of full-contact combat sports that allows both kicking and punching from a standing position. Despite its popularity, there is a scarcity of published data elucidating the injury epidemiology in kickboxing. To determine the injury incidence, describe the injury pattern, and identify potential risk factors for injury in kickboxing. Descriptive epidemiology study. Data describing fight outcomes and injuries sustained during professional and amateur kickboxing contests over a 15-year period were obtained from the official records of the Nevada Athletic Commission, United States. Injury incidence rates and rate ratios were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs) and per 1000 minutes of exposure. The injury pattern was described using frequencies and proportions of injuries by anatomic region and type of injury. In addition, Poisson mixed-effects generalized linear modeling was used to examine the multivariate relationships between injury incidence rates and potential risk factors. The sample consisted of 481 unique fighters competing across 57 events, 976 AEs, 9562 minutes of exposure, and 380 injuries. The mean ± SD age of the fighters was 29.0 ± 5.3 years (range, 15-48 years). The overall injury incidence rates were 390.1 injuries (95% CI, 351.9-431.4) per 1000 AEs and 39.7 injuries (95% CI, 35.8-43.9) per 1000 minutes of exposure. The most commonly injured anatomic regions were the head (57.8%) and lower extremity (26.1%), while the most common types of injury were laceration (70.6%) and fracture (20.6%). Professional fighters were 2.5 times more likely to get injured compared with amateurs (rate ratio, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.39-4.55), while defeated fighters were 3.5 times more likely to get injured compared with winners (rate ratio, 3.48; 95% CI, 2.73-4.44). Injuries are frequent and often significant in kickboxing, and better injury surveillance is strongly recommended. The scarcity of good

  6. Predictive value of visceral adiposity index for type 2 diabetes mellitus: A 15-year prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; He, S; He, J; Wang, S; Liu, K; Chen, X

    2015-05-01

    The emerging term "visceral adiposity index (VAI)" was reported to be closely correlated with glycemic disturbances and diabetes risk. However, whether VAI could predict future type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is unknown. Here, we aimed to assess the predictive value of VAI for DM in a Chinese population via a prospective cohort study. This prospective cohort study was conducted based on a 15-year follow-up in a general Chinese population from an urban community. In all, 711 subjects underwent a health examination in 1992, and in 2007 the same examination was repeated. Twenty-four subjects were excluded from the analysis because DM was diagnosed at baseline. Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), VAI, and cardiovascular risk factors were collected at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs) for DM incidence were estimated applying Cox proportional hazards models. Paired homogeneity tests were used to explore whether there was a statistical difference between the HRs of VAI and the other two indicators. In all, 74 individuals developed DM during a follow-up of 15 years. The risk of future DM increased with increasing levels of VAI. After adjusting for confounders, for each SD increment in natural logarithm-transformed VAI, BMI, and WC the HRs were 1.538 (95 % CI: 1.225-1.930), 1.639 (95 % CI: 1.289-2.084) and 1.858 (95 % CI: 1.458-2.369), respectively. However, paired homogeneity tests showed no statistical difference among the HRs. VAI could independently predict DM in the Chinese study population, although the predictive power was not higher than that of simple anthropometric measures (BMI and WC). Our study does not support the clinical application of VAI; however, more studies based on different ethnic groups still need to be performed.

  7. Serum Albumin and Cerebro-cardiovascular Mortality During a 15-year Study in a Community-based Cohort in Tanushimaru, a Cohort of the Seven Countries Study.

    PubMed

    Umeki, Yoko; Adachi, Hisashi; Enomoto, Mika; Fukami, Ako; Nakamura, Sachiko; Nohara, Yume; Nakao, Erika; Sakaue, Akiko; Tsuru, Tomoko; Morikawa, Nagisa; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro

    Objective There is little long-term data on the association between the serum albumin levels and mortality in community-based populations. We aimed to determine whether the serum albumin level is an independent risk factor for all-cause and cause-specific death in a community-based cohort study in Japan. Methods In 1999, we performed a periodic epidemiological survey over a 15-year period in a population of 1,905 healthy subjects (783 males, 1,122 females) who were older than 40 years of age and who resided in Tanushimaru, a rural community, in Japan. Over the course of the study, we periodically examined the blood chemistry of the study subjects, including their serum albumin levels. Their baseline serum albumin levels were categorized into quartiles. Results The baseline albumin levels were significantly associated with age (inversely), body mass index (BMI), diastolic blood pressure, lipid profiles [high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) and triglycerides] and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). After adjusting for confounders, a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis demonstrated that a low serum albumin level was an independent predictor of all-cause death [hazard ratio (HR): 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.24-0.65], cancer death (HR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.18-0.99), death from infection (HR: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.06-0.73) and cerebro-cardiovascular death (HR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.06-0.63). The HRs for all-cause and cerebro-cardiovascular death in the highest quartile vs. the lowest quartile of albumin after adjusting for confounders were 0.59 (95%CI:0.39-0.88) and 0.15 (95%CI: 0.03-0.66), respectively. Conclusion The serum albumin level was thus found to be a predictor of all-cause and cerebro-cardiovascular death in a general population.

  8. Serum Albumin and Cerebro-cardiovascular Mortality During a 15-year Study in a Community-based Cohort in Tanushimaru, a Cohort of the Seven Countries Study

    PubMed Central

    Umeki, Yoko; Adachi, Hisashi; Enomoto, Mika; Fukami, Ako; Nakamura, Sachiko; Nohara, Yume; Nakao, Erika; Sakaue, Akiko; Tsuru, Tomoko; Morikawa, Nagisa; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is little long-term data on the association between the serum albumin levels and mortality in community-based populations. We aimed to determine whether the serum albumin level is an independent risk factor for all-cause and cause-specific death in a community-based cohort study in Japan. Methods In 1999, we performed a periodic epidemiological survey over a 15-year period in a population of 1,905 healthy subjects (783 males, 1,122 females) who were older than 40 years of age and who resided in Tanushimaru, a rural community, in Japan. Over the course of the study, we periodically examined the blood chemistry of the study subjects, including their serum albumin levels. Their baseline serum albumin levels were categorized into quartiles. Results The baseline albumin levels were significantly associated with age (inversely), body mass index (BMI), diastolic blood pressure, lipid profiles [high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-c) and triglycerides] and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). After adjusting for confounders, a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis demonstrated that a low serum albumin level was an independent predictor of all-cause death [hazard ratio (HR): 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.24-0.65], cancer death (HR: 0.43, 95% CI: 0.18-0.99), death from infection (HR: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.06-0.73) and cerebro-cardiovascular death (HR: 0.19, 95% CI: 0.06-0.63). The HRs for all-cause and cerebro-cardiovascular death in the highest quartile vs. the lowest quartile of albumin after adjusting for confounders were 0.59 (95%CI:0.39-0.88) and 0.15 (95%CI: 0.03-0.66), respectively. Conclusion The serum albumin level was thus found to be a predictor of all-cause and cerebro-cardiovascular death in a general population. PMID:27746426

  9. Colectomy Rates for Ulcerative Colitis Differ between Ethnic Groups: Results from a 15-Year Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Askari, Alan; Arebi, Naila

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Previous epidemiological studies suggest a higher rate of pancolonic disease in South Asians (SA) compared with White Europeans (WE). The aim of the study was to compare colectomy rates for ulcerative colitis (UC) in SA to those of WE. Methods. Patients with UC were identified from a national administrative dataset (Hospital Episode Statistics, HES) between 1997 and 2012 according to ICD-10 diagnosis code K51 for UC. The colectomy rate for each ethnic group was calculated as the proportion of patients who underwent colectomy from the total UC cases for that group. Results. Of 212,430 UC cases, 73,318 (35.3%) were coded for ethnicity. There was no significant difference in the colectomy rate between SA and WE (6.93% versus 6.90%). Indians had a significantly higher colectomy rate than WE (9.8% versus 6.9%, p < 0.001). Indian patients were 21% more likely to require colectomy for UC compared with WE group (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.04–1.42, and p = 0.001). Conclusions. Given the limitations in coding, the colectomy rate in this cohort was higher in Indians compared to WE. A prospectively recruited ethnic cohort study will decipher whether this reflects a more aggressive phenotype or is due to other confounding factors. PMID:28074174

  10. Depression and the risk of cancer: a 15-year follow-up study of the GAZEL cohort.

    PubMed

    Lemogne, Cédric; Consoli, Silla M; Melchior, Maria; Nabi, Hermann; Coeuret-Pellicer, Mireille; Limosin, Frédéric; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2013-12-15

    Depression has long been hypothesized to be associated with cancer incidence. However, there is evidence for a positive publication bias in this field. In the present study, we examined the association between various measures of depression and cancer incidence at several sites. A total of 14,203 members of the French GAZEL (Gaz et Electricité) cohort (10,506 men, 3,697 women) were followed up for diagnoses of primary cancers from January 1, 1994, to December 31, 2009. All medically certified sickness absences for depression recorded between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 1993, were compiled. Depressive symptoms were self-reported in 1993, 1996, and 1999 with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. During a mean follow-up period of 15.2 years, 1,119 participants received a cancer diagnosis, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer and in situ neoplasms. Considering 6 cancer sites (prostate, breast, colorectal, smoking-related, lymphoid and hematopoietic tissues, other sites) and 4 measures of depression, we found 1 positive association and 1 negative association. Overall, there was no compelling evidence for an association between depression and cancer incidence. Such null results should be considered when addressing concerns of cancer patients and their relatives about the role of depression in cancer onset.

  11. Trends in added sugar intake and food sources in a cohort of older Australians: 15 years of follow-up from the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Moshtaghian, H; Louie, J C Y; Charlton, K E; Probst, Y C; Gopinath, B; Mitchell, P; Flood, V M

    2017-06-01

    The trend of added sugar (AS) intake has not been investigated in the Australian population, including in older adults. The present study aimed to assess trends and food sources of AS intake among a cohort of older Australians during 15 years of follow-up. Dietary data from participants of the Blue Mountains Eye Study (1264 men and 1614 women), aged ≥49 years at baseline, were collected. Dietary intakes were assessed at 5-yearly intervals (1992-94 to 2007-09) using a 145-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). AS content of FFQ food items was estimated using a stepwise systematic method. Trends for AS intake between baseline and the three follow-up periods were assessed using linear mixed modelling. In men, the mean (SEM) percentage of energy provided by AS intake (EAS%) declined from 10.4% (0.1%) at baseline to 9.4% (0.2%) at 15-year follow-up (Ptrend = 0.028). Women's mean (SEM) EAS% intake at baseline and 15-year follow-up was 9.2% (0.1%) and 8.8% (0.2%), respectively (Ptrend = 0.550). EAS% intake of men was significantly higher than that of women for 10 years (P < 0.05). Sugar products (table sugar, syrup, jam and honey) were the major sources of AS at all-time points and contributed to more than 40% and 35% of AS intake in men and women, respectively. Intake of sugar products decreased in men during follow-up (Ptrend < 0.001). An overall downward trend was observed in AS intake in both genders, however, was only significant for men during 15 years of follow-up. Table sugar and sugar-containing spreads represent the major source of AS in this cohort of older Australians. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  12. Medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding: A 15-year nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chueh-Ling; Wu, Cheng-Kun; Shi, Hon-Yi; Tai, Wei-Chen; Liang, Chih-Ming; Yang, Shih-Cheng; Wu, Keng-Liang; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Chuah, Seng-Kee

    2016-07-01

    Acute variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis is related to high mortality and medical expenses. The purpose of present studies was to analyze the medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding among patients with cirrhosis and potential influencing clinical factors.A total of 151,863 patients with cirrhosis with International Classification of Diseases-9 codes 456.0 and 456.20 were analyzed from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2010. Time intervals were divided into three phases for analysis as T1 (1996-2000), T2 (2001-2005), and T3 (2006-2010). The endpoints were prevalence, length of hospital stay, medical expenses, and mortality rate.Our results showed that more patients were <65 years (75.6%) and of male sex (78.5%). Patients were mostly from teaching hospitals (90.8%) with high hospital volume (50.9%) and high doctor service load (51.1%). The prevalence of acute esophageal variceal bleeding and mean length of hospital stay decreased over the years (P < 0.001), but the overall medical expenses increased (P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed that older age, female sex, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) score >1, patients from teaching hospitals, and medium to high or very high patient numbers were independent factors for longer hospital stay and higher medical expenses. Aged patients, female sex, increased CCI score, and low doctor service volume were independent factors for both in-hospital and 5-year mortality. Patients from teaching hospitals and medium to high or very high service volume hospitals were independent factors for in-hospital mortality, but not 5-year mortality.Medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding increased despite the decreased prevalence rate and length of hospital stay in Taiwan. Aged patients, female sex, patients with increased CCI score from teaching hospitals, and medium to high or very high patient numbers were

  13. Comparative effectiveness of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors versus angiotensin II receptor blockers for major renal outcomes in patients with diabetes: A 15-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hon-Yen; Peng, Chiao-Ling; Chen, Pei-Chun; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Chang, Chee-Jen; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Peng, Yu-Sen; Tu, Yu-Kang; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Chien, Kuo-Liong

    2017-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are considered to have similar renoprotective effects; so far there has been no consensus about their priorities. This study aimed to compare ACEIs and ARBs for major renal outcomes and survival in a 15-year cohort of adults with diabetes. This study utilized Taiwan's medical and pharmacy claims data in the Longitudinal Cohort of Diabetes Patients. The primary outcome was long-term dialysis, and secondary outcomes were hospitalization for acute kidney injury, hospitalization for hyperkalemia, all-cause death, cardiovascular death, and non-cardiovascular death. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for outcomes comparing ACEIs with ARBs. We conducted subgroup analyses and interaction tests among patients with different age and comorbid diseases. A total of 34,043 patients received ACEIs and 23,772 patients received ARBs. No differences were found for primary or secondary outcomes in the main analyses. ACEIs showed significantly lower hazard than ARBs for long-term dialysis among patients with cardiovascular disease (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66-0.97, interaction P = 0.003) or chronic kidney disease (0.81, 0.71-0.93, interaction P = 0.001). Our analyses show similar effects of ACEIs and ARBs in patients with diabetes. However, ACEIs might provide additional renoprotective effects among patients who have cardiovascular disease or chronic kidney disease.

  14. Social Networks and Memory over 15 Years of Followup in a Cohort of Older Australians: Results from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Lynne C.; Anstey, Kaarin J.; Walker, Ruth B.; Luszcz, Mary A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose was to examine the relationship between different types of social networks and memory over 15 years of followup in a large cohort of older Australians who were cognitively intact at study baseline. Our specific aims were to investigate whether social networks were associated with memory, determine if different types of social networks had different relationships with memory, and examine if changes in memory over time differed according to types of social networks. We used five waves of data from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing, and followed 706 participants with an average age of 78.6 years (SD 5.7) at baseline. The relationships between five types of social networks and changes in memory were assessed. The results suggested a gradient of effect; participants in the upper tertile of friends or overall social networks had better memory scores than those in the mid tertile, who in turn had better memory scores than participants in the lower tertile. There was evidence of a linear, but not quadratic, effect of time on memory, and an interaction between friends' social networks and time was apparent. Findings are discussed with respect to mechanisms that might explain the observed relationships between social networks and memory. PMID:22988510

  15. The Relation between Occupational Sitting and Mental, Cardiometabolic, and Musculoskeletal Health over a Period of 15 Years – The Doetinchem Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Picavet, H. Susan J.; Pas, L. Willemijn; van Oostrom, Sandra H.; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Proper, Karin I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sedentary behaviors are reported to impose health risks. Since occupational exposure is a major proportion of total sedentary time, we studied the association between occupational sitting and a number of health problems. Methods From the longitudinal Doetinchem Cohort Study, we selected those working at baseline with complete data (n = 1,509). Participants were examined four times at 5 year-intervals between 1993 and 2012. We characterized occupational sitting as follows: 1) stable sitters and stable non sitters over a 15-year period, based on job characteristics and (2) having a job with a low, moderate or high amount of sitting, based on tertiles of self-reported number of hours per week of occupational sitting, measured at wave 5. Linear and logistic regression models were used. Outcomes were self-reported mental health, low-back or upper extremity pain, and objectively measured cardiometabolic health (overweight, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia). Results Compared to stable non sitters, a lower risk of chronic upper extremity pain was observed for stable sitters (OR 0.75, 95% CI: 0.57; 1.00) as well as for those in the two upper tertiles for hours of occupational sitting (>4 hr/wk) (OR 0.65; 95%CI 0.50–0.86). For the other health outcomes studied, no significant associations were found with occupational sitting. Conclusion Our findings do not support the hypothesis that occupational sitting is associated with health problems. The finding that occupational sitting is associated with less upper extremity pain might be due to the association of occupational sitting with less physical load. PMID:26752695

  16. The Relation between Occupational Sitting and Mental, Cardiometabolic, and Musculoskeletal Health over a Period of 15 Years--The Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Picavet, H Susan J; Pas, L Willemijn; van Oostrom, Sandra H; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Verschuren, W M Monique; Proper, Karin I

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviors are reported to impose health risks. Since occupational exposure is a major proportion of total sedentary time, we studied the association between occupational sitting and a number of health problems. From the longitudinal Doetinchem Cohort Study, we selected those working at baseline with complete data (n = 1,509). Participants were examined four times at 5 year-intervals between 1993 and 2012. We characterized occupational sitting as follows: 1) stable sitters and stable non sitters over a 15-year period, based on job characteristics and (2) having a job with a low, moderate or high amount of sitting, based on tertiles of self-reported number of hours per week of occupational sitting, measured at wave 5. Linear and logistic regression models were used. Outcomes were self-reported mental health, low-back or upper extremity pain, and objectively measured cardiometabolic health (overweight, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia). Compared to stable non sitters, a lower risk of chronic upper extremity pain was observed for stable sitters (OR 0.75, 95% CI: 0.57; 1.00) as well as for those in the two upper tertiles for hours of occupational sitting (>4 hr/wk) (OR 0.65; 95%CI 0.50-0.86). For the other health outcomes studied, no significant associations were found with occupational sitting. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that occupational sitting is associated with health problems. The finding that occupational sitting is associated with less upper extremity pain might be due to the association of occupational sitting with less physical load.

  17. [Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection and risk of cervical cancer or precancerous lesions in 15 years follow up: a prospective cohort study].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q; Hu, S Y; Feng, R M; Dong, L; Chen, F; Zhang, X; Pan, Q J; Ma, J F; Shi, S D; Zhao, F H; Qiao, Y L

    2016-10-23

    Objective: To evaluate the 15 years changing trends of prevalence of high risk HPV (HR-HPV) infection and the risks of cervical cancer and precancerous lesions (CIN2+ ) among a Chinese rural population. Methods: The screening cohort with 1 997 women aged 35 to 45 years old was built in 1999 in Xiangyuan County, Shanxi province (SPOCCS-I) and followed up by cytology and HR-HPV testing in the years of 2005, 2010, and 2014. The changes of HR-HPV prevalence and the risks of cervical precancerous lesions with CIN2+ as the endpoints were analyzed during the past 15 years. Results: The detection rates of HPV infection and CIN2+ were 15.7%-22.3% and 1.1%-4.3% for the baseline visit and the other 3 follow-ups, respectively. The cumulative risk of CIN2+ in HR-HPV positive women at baseline was significantly higher than HR-HPV negative women (P<0.01) during the 15-year follow-up. The risk of CIN2+ in the four-times HPV positive group was 40.0%, while the group with four-times negative HPV results was 0.6% (Adjusted RR = 55.0, 95% CI: 11.3 to 268.4). Conclusions: The prevalence of HR-HPV infection and CIN2+ lesions were high in Xiangyuan county during the 15 years. HR-HPV positivity elevated the risk of CIN2+ compared to women whose HR-HPV test was negative. The risks of CIN2+ incidence in 6 years were low among women with negative HR-HPV test. The risk of CIN2+ increased with the numbers of HPV infection events. The screening interval could be extended to 5-6 years.

  18. Long-Lasting Obesity Predicts Poor Work Ability at Midlife: A 15-Year Follow-Up of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Nevanperä, Nina; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Seitsamo, Jorma; Remes, Jouko; Auvinen, Juha; Hopsu, Leila; Husman, Päivi; Karppinen, Jaro; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Laitinen, Jaana

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effect of adulthood obesity on work ability in early midlife during a 15-year follow-up. The study population included men and women (n = 5470), born in northern Finland in 1966. Participants evaluated their current perceived work ability compared with their lifetime best at the age of 46. Participants' weight and height were measured at 31 years and self-reported at 46 years, and body mass indexes were calculated. Obesity at both ages, and developing obesity between the ages of 31 and 46 increased the relative risk of poor work ability at 46 years among sexes, and among those in both low and high physically strenuous work. Long-term obesity and developing obesity in mid-adulthood increase the risk of poor work ability. Thus, the promotion of healthy behaviors by policies, healthcare services, and at workplaces is important.

  19. Symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder but not panic disorder at age 15 years increase the risk of depression at 18 years in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort study.

    PubMed

    Davies, S J C; Pearson, R M; Stapinski, L; Bould, H; Christmas, D M; Button, K S; Skapinakis, P; Lewis, G; Evans, J

    2016-01-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder (PD) differ in their biology and co-morbidities. We hypothesized that GAD but not PD symptoms at the age of 15 years are associated with depression diagnosis at 18 years. Using longitudinal data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort we examined relationships of GAD and PD symptoms (measured by the Development and Well-Being Assessment) at 15 years with depression at 18 years (by the Clinical Interview Schedule - Revised) using logistic regression. We excluded adolescents already depressed at 15 years and adjusted for social class, maternal education, birth order, gender, alcohol intake and smoking. We repeated these analyses following multiple imputation for missing data. In the sample with complete data (n = 2835), high and moderate GAD symptoms in adolescents not depressed at 15 years were associated with increased risk of depression at 18 years both in unadjusted analyses and adjusting for PD symptoms at 15 years and the above potential confounders. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for depression at 18 years in adolescents with high relative to low GAD scores was 5.2 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0-9.1, overall p < 0.0001]. There were no associations between PD symptoms and depression at 18 years in any model (high relative to low PD scores, adjusted OR = 1.3, 95% CI 0.3-4.8, overall p = 0.737). Missing data imputation strengthened the relationship of GAD symptoms with depression (high relative to low GAD scores, OR = 6.2, 95% CI 3.9-9.9) but those for PD became weaker. Symptoms of GAD but not PD at 15 years are associated with depression at 18 years. Clinicians should be aware that adolescents with GAD symptoms may develop depression.

  20. Number of teeth, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen and cardiovascular mortality: a 15-year follow-up study in a Finnish cohort.

    PubMed

    Janket, Sok-Ja; Baird, Alison E; Jones, Judith A; Jackson, Elizabeth A; Surakka, Markku; Tao, Wen; Meurman, Jukka H; Van Dyke, Thomas E

    2014-02-01

    To test whether the number of teeth, an inverse proxy for composite oral infection scores is associated with better survival. The Kuopio Oral Health and Heart study initiated a case-control study in 1995-1996 consisting of 256 consecutive coronary artery disease patients and 250 age and gender-matched controls. We appended the mortality data and formulated a longitudinal study. By May 31st, 2011, 124 mortalities had occurred and 80 of which were of cardiovascular origin. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed the association of the teeth group (Teethgrp) - consisting of 10 teeth - with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality after 15.8 years of median follow-up. In multivariate models, with the edentulous state as reference, one level increase in Teethgrp was associated with significantly increased survival from cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality with a Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.73, p-value = 0.02 but not with all-cause mortality (HR = 0.87, p = 0.13). The findings were not mediated by C-reactive protein (CRP) levels ≥3 mg/L or by median fibrinogen levels, but were mediated by CRP levels >5 mg/L. Each increment of 10 teeth from the edentulous state was associated with a 27% improved CVD survival, independent of low-grade systemic inflammation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Number of teeth, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen and cardiovascular mortality: A 15-year follow-up study in a Finnish cohort

    PubMed Central

    Janket, Sok-Ja; Baird, Alison E.; Jones, Judith A.; Jackson, Elizabeth A.; Surraka, Markku; Tao, Wen; Meurman, Jukka H.; Van Dyke, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Aim(s) To test whether the number of teeth, an inverse proxy for composite oral infection scores is associated with better survival. Materials and Methods The Kuopio Oral Health and Heart study initiated a case-control study in 1995–1996 consisting of 256 consecutive coronary artery disease patients and 250 age and gender matched controls. We appended the mortality data and formulated a longitudinal study. By May 31st, 2011, 124 mortalities had occurred and 80 of which were of cardiovascular origin. Using Cox proportional hazards models, we assessed the association of the teeth group (Teethgrp) – consisting of 10 teeth – with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality after 15.8 years of median follow-up. Results In multivariate models, with the edentulous state as reference, one level increase in Teethgrp was associated with significantly increased survival from cardiovascular (CVD) mortality with a Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.73, P-value = 0.02 but not with all-cause mortality (HR= 0.87, p=0.13). The findings were not mediated by CRP levels ≥ 3 mg/L or by median fibrinogen levels but were mediated by CRP levels > 5 mg/L. Conclusion Each increment of 10 teeth from the edentulous state was associated with a 27% improved CVD survival, independent of low-grade systemic inflammation. PMID:24354534

  2. Impact of diabetes, high triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol on risk for ischemic cardiovascular disease varies by LDL cholesterol level: a 15-year follow-up of the Chinese Multi-provincial Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Wei; Wang, Miao; Sun, Jiayi; Liu, Jun; Li, Yan; Qi, Yue; Wu, Zhaosu; Zhao, Dong

    2012-05-01

    A large proportion of ischemic cardiovascular disease occur in people without hypercholesterolemia. We aimed to investigate whether risk factors other than low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) have different impacts on cardiovascular risk in people with low verses high LDL-C levels. A total of 30,378 participants (35-64 years) were followed for 15 years in the Chinese Multi-provincial Cohort Study. Associations of coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic stroke with risk factors other than LDL-C were assessed in participants with low (<130 mg/dL) and high (≥130 mg/dL) LDL-C levels. During the follow-up, 65.5% of CHD and 70.2% of ischemic stroke events occurred in participants with low LDL-C. High triglycerides predicted CHD (HR=1.74, 95% CI 1.25-2.42, P=0.001), and low HDL-C predicted ischemic stroke (HR=1.54, 95% CI 1.18-2.03, P=0.002) only in participants with low LDL-C. Diabetes predicted CHD in participants with high LDL-C (HR=2.38, 95% CI 1.31-4.34, P=0.005), but not in those with low LDL-C. Older age, male, hypertension, central obesity, and smoking had similar effects on the risk in both groups. Triglycerides and low HDL-C should be addressed in the management of dyslipidemia in people with low LDL-C. When LDL-C is high, tighter management of glycemia and LDL-C is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A prospective study of neurocognitive changes 15 years after chronic inhalant abuse.

    PubMed

    Cairney, Sheree; O' Connor, Nicole; Dingwall, Kylie M; Maruff, Paul; Shafiq-Antonacci, Ruxanna; Currie, Jon; Currie, Bart J

    2013-06-01

    In a previous study, neurological and cognitive deficits reflecting central nervous system (CNS) disruption from chronic inhalant abuse showed substantial recovery after 2 years' abstinence. Functional recovery was progressive, with recovery rates dependent on the degree of impairment prior to abstinence, and severity and duration of initial abuse. Persistent deficits occurred in those with previous 'lead encephalopathy' from leaded petrol abuse. The current study examined recovery in the same cohort 15 years after baseline. Prospective cohort design. Two remote Aboriginal communities in Arnhem Land, Australia. Using baseline group classifications, 27 healthy controls, 60 ex-chronic inhalant abusers and an additional 17 with previous lead encephalopathy were assessed. Standard neurological, ocular-motor and cognitive functions and blood lead levels. Chronic (non-encephalopathic) inhalant abusers showed elevated blood lead levels and abnormal scores on most tasks at baseline. At 2 years' abstinence, blood lead was reduced but remained elevated and most scores had normalized. By 15 years, blood lead and all performance scores were equivalent to healthy controls for this group (P > 0.05). The encephalopathic group was more severely impaired on all scores at baseline and showed little improvement, if any, across all tests after both 2 and 15 years' abstinence. Blood lead for this group declined, and was not significantly different to controls after 15 years. Some inhalant abusers experience severe and persistent neurological deficits, suggesting irrecoverable damage attributable to lead encephalopathy. In the absence of this encephalopathy long-term abstinence from inhalants may allow recovery of normal brain function. © 2013 The Authors, Addiction © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Utilization of self-medication and prescription drugs among 15-year-old children from the German GINIplus birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Italia, Salvatore; Brand, Helmut; Heinrich, Joachim; Berdel, Dietrich; von Berg, Andrea; Wolfenstetter, Silke Britta

    2015-11-01

    The objective was to analyse paediatric drug utilization in relation to self-medication, prescription drugs, and the most reported therapeutic drug categories. Data were collected for 3013 children on their utilization of drugs (4-week prevalence) from a German birth cohort study (GINIplus, 15-year follow-up) using a self-administered questionnaire. The drugs were grouped into over-the-counter drugs and prescription drugs, and were classified according to the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification system. Predictors were analysed using a logistic regression model with four independent variables (gender, study area, maternal education, and parental income). Some 69% of the reported 2489 drugs were over-the-counter drugs, and 31% were prescription drugs. The 4-week prevalence for using any type of drug was 41.0%. Drug categories with high prevalence rates of use were antiinflammatory drugs (10.3%), analgesics (7.1%), and antiallergics (5.0%). Factors associated with higher use of over-the-counter drugs were female gender (OR = 1.56, p < 0.0001) and higher maternal education (OR = 1.60, p = 0.0021; university degree vs. secondary high school). Maternal education was correlated with the use of prescribed or self-medicated antiallergics (positive association) and contraceptives (negative association). The use of antibiotics, methylphenidate, and drugs for thyroid therapy was associated with lower parental income. The use of over-the-counter drugs in 15-year-old children from the GINIplus birth cohort is very common and is predicted by socioeconomic factors such as maternal education. This has to be considered by health care managers when deciding about the exclusion of over-the-counter drugs (normally used for self-medication) from reimbursement or the deregulation of drug sales. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Investigating Sexual Abuse: Findings of a 15-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…

  6. Investigating Sexual Abuse: Findings of a 15-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…

  7. Predicting 15 year chronic bronchitis mortality in the Whitehall Study.

    PubMed Central

    Ebi-Kryston, K L

    1989-01-01

    Fifteen year chronic bronchitis mortality was investigated among 17,717 male civil servants aged 40-64 years participating in the Whitehall Study. Associations were assessed between mortality and Medical Research Council standardised questions about chronic phlegm production and breathlessness, and a measure of lung function. Low FEV1 was the most powerful single predictor of mortality; controlling for age, smoking habits and employment grade, the relative hazards ratio (RHR) was 20. Using mortality rates standardised for age and smoking, the proportion of mortality in the total population statistically attributable to low FEV1 (population excess fraction) was 57%. Breathlessness while walking on the level was the best predictor among the questions and combinations of questions; the relative hazards ratio was 12 and the population excess fraction, 39%. A Medical Research Council definition of chronic bronchitis including chronic phlegm production and breathlessness was also strongly associated with chronic bronchitis mortality (RHR = 13); however, the population excess fraction was only 20%. This definition identified only 30% of the 64 deaths, and added almost nothing to prediction by FEV1 alone. The results suggest that although the combination of chronic phlegm production and chronic airflow limitation is strongly associated with mortality from chronic bronchitis, the presence of chronic phlegm production alone is not associated with mortality. PMID:2592906

  8. Mortality According to CD4 Count at Start of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-infected Patients Followed for up to 15 Years After Start of Treatment: Collaborative Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    May, Margaret T; Vehreschild, Jorg-Janne; Trickey, Adam; Obel, Niels; Reiss, Peter; Bonnet, Fabrice; Mary-Krause, Murielle; Samji, Hasina; Cavassini, Matthias; Gill, Michael John; Shepherd, Leah C; Crane, Heidi M; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Burkholder, Greer A; Johnson, Margaret M; Sobrino-Vegas, Paz; Domingo, Pere; Zangerle, Robert; Justice, Amy C; Sterling, Timothy R; Miró, José M; Sterne, Jonathan A C; Boulle, Andrew; Stephan, Christoph; Miro, Jose M; Cavassini, Matthias; Chêne, Geneviève; Costagliola, Dominique; Dabis, François; Monforte, Antonella D'Arminio; Del Amo, Julia; Van Sighem, Ard; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Gill, John; Guest, Jodie; Haerry, David Hans-Ulrich; Hogg, Robert; Justice, Amy; Shepherd, Leah; Obel, Neils; Crane, Heidi; Smith, Colette; Reiss, Peter; Saag, Michael; Sterling, Tim; Teira, Ramon; Williams, Matthew; Zangerle, Robert; Sterne, Jonathan; May, Margaret; Ingle, Suzanne; Trickey, Adam

    2016-06-15

    CD4 count at start of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is strongly associated with short-term survival, but its association with longer-term survival is less well characterized. We estimated mortality rates (MRs) by time since start of ART (<0.5, 0.5-0.9, 1-2.9, 3-4.9, 5-9.9, and ≥10 years) among patients from 18 European and North American cohorts who started ART during 1996-2001. Piecewise exponential models stratified by cohort were used to estimate crude and adjusted (for sex, age, transmission risk, period of starting ART [1996-1997, 1998-1999, 2000-2001], and AIDS and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA at baseline) mortality rate ratios (MRRs) by CD4 count at start of ART (0-49, 50-99, 100-199, 200-349, 350-499, ≥500 cells/µL) overall and separately according to time since start of ART. A total of 6344 of 37 496 patients died during 359 219 years of follow-up. The MR per 1000 person-years was 32.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 30.2-35.5) during the first 6 months, declining to 16.0 (95% CI, 15.4-16.8) during 5-9.9 years and 14.2 (95% CI, 13.3-15.1) after 10 years' duration of ART. During the first year of ART, there was a strong inverse association of CD4 count at start of ART with mortality. This diminished over the next 4 years. The adjusted MRR per CD4 group was 0.97 (95% CI, .94-1.00; P = .054) and 1.02 (95% CI, .98-1.07; P = .32) among patients followed for 5-9.9 and ≥10 years, respectively. After surviving 5 years of ART, the mortality of patients who started ART with low baseline CD4 count converged with mortality of patients with intermediate and high baseline CD4 counts. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  9. Mortality According to CD4 Count at Start of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-infected Patients Followed for up to 15 Years After Start of Treatment: Collaborative Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    May, Margaret T.; Vehreschild, Jorg-Janne; Trickey, Adam; Obel, Niels; Reiss, Peter; Bonnet, Fabrice; Mary-Krause, Murielle; Samji, Hasina; Cavassini, Matthias; Gill, Michael John; Shepherd, Leah C.; Crane, Heidi M.; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Burkholder, Greer A.; Johnson, Margaret M.; Sobrino-Vegas, Paz; Domingo, Pere; Zangerle, Robert; Justice, Amy C.; Sterling, Timothy R.; Miró, José M.; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. CD4 count at start of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is strongly associated with short-term survival, but its association with longer-term survival is less well characterized. Methods. We estimated mortality rates (MRs) by time since start of ART (<0.5, 0.5–0.9, 1–2.9, 3–4.9, 5–9.9, and ≥10 years) among patients from 18 European and North American cohorts who started ART during 1996–2001. Piecewise exponential models stratified by cohort were used to estimate crude and adjusted (for sex, age, transmission risk, period of starting ART [1996–1997, 1998–1999, 2000–2001], and AIDS and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA at baseline) mortality rate ratios (MRRs) by CD4 count at start of ART (0–49, 50–99, 100–199, 200–349, 350–499, ≥500 cells/µL) overall and separately according to time since start of ART. Results. A total of 6344 of 37 496 patients died during 359 219 years of follow-up. The MR per 1000 person-years was 32.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 30.2–35.5) during the first 6 months, declining to 16.0 (95% CI, 15.4–16.8) during 5–9.9 years and 14.2 (95% CI, 13.3–15.1) after 10 years’ duration of ART. During the first year of ART, there was a strong inverse association of CD4 count at start of ART with mortality. This diminished over the next 4 years. The adjusted MRR per CD4 group was 0.97 (95% CI, .94–1.00; P = .054) and 1.02 (95% CI, .98–1.07; P = .32) among patients followed for 5–9.9 and ≥10 years, respectively. Conclusions. After surviving 5 years of ART, the mortality of patients who started ART with low baseline CD4 count converged with mortality of patients with intermediate and high baseline CD4 counts. PMID:27025828

  10. Should Women Younger Than 40 Years of Age With Invasive Breast Cancer Have a Mastectomy?: 15-Year Outcomes in a Population-Based Cohort

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Jeffrey Q.; Truong, Pauline T.; Olivotto, Ivo A.; Olson, Robert; Coulombe, Genevieve; Keyes, Mira; Weir, Lorna; Gelmon, Karen; Bernstein, Vanessa; Woods, Ryan; Speers, Caroline; Tyldesley, Scott

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Optimal local management for young women with early-stage breast cancer remains controversial. This study examined 15-year outcomes among women younger than 40 years treated with breast-conserving surgery plus whole-breast radiation therapy (BCT) compared with those treated with modified radical mastectomy (MRM). Methods and Materials: Women aged 20 to 39 years with early-stage breast cancer diagnosed between 1989 and 2003 were identified in a population-based database. Primary outcomes of breast cancer–specific survival (BCSS), overall survival (OS) and secondary outcomes of local relapse–free survival (LRFS), locoregional relapse–free survival (LRRFS), and distant relapse–free survival (DRFS) were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods and compared between BCT and MRM cohorts using log-rank tests. A planned subgroup analysis was performed on patients considered “ideal” for BCT (ie, T1N0, negative margins and no extensive ductal carcinoma in situ) and in whom local therapy may have the largest impact on survival because of low systemic risk. Results: 965 patients were identified; 616 had BCT and 349 had MRM. The median follow-up time was 14.4 years (range, 8.4-23.3 years). Overall, 15-year rates of BCSS (76.0% vs 74.1%, P=.62), OS (74.2% vs 73.0%, P=.75), LRFS (85.4% vs 86.5%, P=.95), LRRFS (82.2% vs 81.6%, P=.61), and DRFS (74.4% vs 71.6%, P=.40) were similar between the BCT and MRM cohorts. In the “ideal” for BCT subgroup, there were 219 BCT and 67 MRM patients with a median follow-up time of 15.5 years. The 15-year BCSS (86.1% vs 82.9%, P=.57), OS (82.6% vs 82.9%, P=.89), LRFS (86.2% vs 84.2%, P=.50), LRRFS (83.1% vs 78.3%, P=.24), and DRFS (84.8% vs 79.1%, P=.17) were similar in the BCT and MRM cohorts. Conclusions: This population-based analysis with long-term follow-up confirmed that women younger than 40 years treated with BCT had similar 15-year outcomes compared with MRM. Young age alone is not a contraindication to BCT.

  11. The Asset-Burden Paradox of Giftedness: A 15-Year Phenomenological, Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2012-01-01

    A 15-year phenomenological case study of an exceptional female from age 15 through 30 was focused on exploring the subjective experience of development during adolescence and young adulthood, with attention to how giftedness and context interacted. The main focus became her response to trauma, which was revealed early in the study. Data, including…

  12. A longitudinal comparison of drug use among 10-year-old children and 15-year-old adolescents from the German GINIplus and LISAplus birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Italia, Salvatore; Brüske, Irene; Heinrich, Joachim; Berdel, Dietrich; von Berg, Andrea; Lehmann, Irina; Standl, Marie; Wolfenstetter, Silke B

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare longitudinal data on drug utilization between 10-year-old children and 15-year-old adolescents and to analyse the association of drug use at the age of 15 years with drug use at the age of 10 years. Based on the German GINIplus (German infant study on the Influence of Nutrition Intervention plus environmental and genetic influences on allergy development) and LISAplus (Influence of lifestyle factors on the immune system and allergies in East and West Germany plus the influence of traffic emissions and genetics) birth cohorts, data on drug utilization (past 4 weeks) were collected using a self-administered questionnaire for 3642 children (10-year follow-up) and 4677 adolescents (15-year follow-up). The drugs were classified by therapeutic categories (conventional drugs, homeopathic drugs, etc.) and by codes according to the anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) classification system. Associations of adolescents' drug use with gender, study area, maternal education, parental income, presence of chronic conditions, and prior drug use at the age of 10 years were analysed using a logistic regression model. The 4-week prevalence rates of overall drug use were similar for adolescents (41.1%) and children (42.3%). However, adolescents used noticeably more anti-inflammatory drugs, analgesics, and systemic antihistamines. Exactly 3194 children/adolescents participated in both follow-ups. Adolescents' use of anti-inflammatory drugs was predicted (OR = 3.37) by use of anti-inflammatory drugs as a child. In summary, the strongest predictor of adolescents' use of specific therapeutic categories or ATC groups was the previous use of the same therapeutic drug category or ATC group as a 10-year-old child. Despite similar prevalence rates of overall drug utilization among both age groups, there is a noticeable difference concerning the use of drugs from specific ATC groups. Drug use as a child may partly determine what they use as an

  13. Saligna eucalyptus growth in a 15-year old spacing study in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    Gerald A. Walters

    1980-01-01

    A spacing study was started in 1961 to test the effects of four different spacings on the growth and development of saligna eucalyptus (Eucalyptus saligna Smith) trees in Hawaii. Spacings tested were 8 by 8 feet (2.4 m), 10 by 10 feet (3.0 m), 12 by 12 feet (3.7 m), and 14 by 14 feet (4.3 m). Plot trees were measured at ages 1, 2,5, 10, and 15 years...

  14. The Incidence and Progression of Age-Related Macular Degeneration over 15 Years: The Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Joachim, Nichole; Mitchell, Paul; Burlutsky, George; Kifley, Annette; Wang, Jie Jin

    2015-12-01

    To assess the 15-year incidence and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in an older Australian population. Population-based cohort study. Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES) participants (n = 3654) aged 49+ years were examined during 1992-1994. Of these, 2334 (75.8% of survivors) were reexamined after 5 years (1997-1999), 1952 (76.7% of survivors) after 10 years (2002-2004), and 1149 (56.1% of survivors) after 15 years (2007-2010). Color retinal photographs were taken, and comprehensive questionnaires were administered at each visit and DNA was genotyped. Retinal photographic grading was performed by the same graders following the Wisconsin AMD grading protocol. Side-by-side comparisons were used to confirm newly developed AMD lesions. Incidence was estimated using Kaplan-Meier estimates. Associations of AMD incidence with age, sex, smoking status, presence of the complement factor H (CFH)-rs1061170 and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2)-rs10490924 polymorphisms, and fish consumption were analyzed using discrete logistic regression models. Generalized estimation equation models were used to assess the risk of incident late AMD associated with baseline AMD lesion characteristics. The 15-year incidence and progression of AMD, and associated factors. The 15-year incidence was 22.7% for early AMD and 6.8% for late AMD. After adjusting for competing risks, early and late AMD incidence were 15.1% and 4.1%, respectively. Age was strongly associated with early and late AMD incidence (both P < 0.0001). After age standardization to the Beaver Dam Eye Study (BDES) population, early and late AMD incidence in the BMES were 13.1% and 3.3%, respectively. Female sex and the presence of both risk alleles of CFH-rs1061170 or ARMS2-rs10490924 were independently associated with early AMD incidence, whereas current smoking and presence of ≥1 risk allele of CFH-rs1061170 or ARMS2-rs10490924 were associated with late AMD incidence. Fish consumption was

  15. The impact of job satisfaction on the risk of disability pension. A 15-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Labriola, Merete; Feveile, Helene; Christensen, Karl Bang; Bültmann, Ute; Lund, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    To identify the impact of job satisfaction on the risk of disability pension. A total of 8,338 employees were sampled from the total working population in Denmark. They were interviewed regarding age, gender, job satisfaction and health behaviour. Interview data were merged with national register data on granted disability pension for up to 15 years after baseline data collection. The study found a statistically significant association between low job satisfaction and disability pension for women when adjusted for age, smoking status and BMI. Based on the results, investing in giving workers a satisfying work environment could be a low-cost way of improving employee health and prolonging labour market participation.

  16. A 15-year randomized controlled study of a reduced shrinkage stress resin composite.

    PubMed

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Lindberg, Anders

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled study was to evaluate the long term effectiveness of a reduced shrinkage stress resin composite in Class II restorations. The material was compared intra-individually with a microhybrid resin composite. Each of 50 patients with at least one pair of two similar sized Class II cavities participated (22 female, 28 male, mean age 43 years, range 18-64). Each participant received in each pair, in a randomized way, one Class II restoration performed with a reduced shrinkage stress resin composite (InTen-S) and the other restoration with a microhybrid resin composite restoration (Point 4). Both restorations were placed with an etch-and-rinse bonding system and an oblique layering technique. A total of 106 restorations, 33 premolar and 73 molars, were placed. The restorations were evaluated blindly each year using modified USPHS criteria. The overall performance of the experimental restorations was tested after intra-individual comparison using the Friedmańs two-way analysis of variance test. The hypothesis was rejected at the 5% level. At 15 years, 91 restorations were evaluated. The drop out frequency was 15 restorations (5 male, 3 female participants; 2 premolar and 13 molar restorations). Except for 2 participants, who reported slight symptoms during a few weeks after placement, no post-operative sensitivity was observed at the recalls. The overall success rate at 15 years was 77%. Twenty-one non acceptable restorations were observed during the 15 years follow up, 10 InTen-S (21.7%) and 11 Point 4 (24.4%) restorations (p>0.05). Annual failure rates for the resin composites were 1.5% and 1.6%, respectively. The main reasons for failure were secondary caries (8) and resin composite fracture (7). The differences between premolar vs. molar restorations and between restorations in male vs. female participants were not significant. Significant differences were observed between 2-surface vs. 3-surface restorations. During the 15-year

  17. The Changing Profile of Helicobacter pylori Antibiotic Resistance in Singapore: A 15-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Ang, Tiing Leong; Fock, Kwong Ming; Ang, Daphne; Kwek, Andrew Boon Eu; Teo, Eng Kiong; Dhamodaran, Subbiah

    2016-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an important cause of H. pylori treatment failure. This study aimed to examine the change in H. pylori antibiotic resistance profile in Singapore over the course of 15 years. The study period was from 2000 to 2014. Gastric mucosal biopsies obtained from H. pylori-positive patients were cultured. Antibiotic susceptibility to metronidazole, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, tetracycline, and amoxicillin was tested. The change in resistance rates over time was analyzed. A total of 708 H. pylori isolates were cultured. There was a significant increase in resistance rates for metronidazole (2000-2002: 24.8%; 2012-2014: 48.2%; p < .001), clarithromycin (2000-2002: 7.9%; 2012-2014: 17.1%; p = .022), and levofloxacin (2000-2002: 5%; 2012-2014: 14.7%; p = .007). The resistance rates for tetracycline (2000-2002: 5%; 2012-2014: 7.6%) and amoxicillin (2000-2002: 3%; 2012-2014: 4.4%) remained stable. Increase in dual (2000-2002: 6.9%; 2012-2014: 9.4%; p = .479) and triple antibiotic resistance rates (2000-2002: 0; 2012-2014: 7.6%; p < .001) were observed. Overall, the most common dual and triple resistance patterns were metronidazole/clarithromycin (4.4%) and metronidazole/clarithromycin/levofloxacin (1.8%), respectively. Over 15 years, H. pylori resistance rates to metronidazole, clarithromycin and levofloxacin had increased. There was increased resistance to multiple antibiotics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Emergence of Acquired HIV-1 Drug Resistance Almost Stopped in Switzerland: A 15-Year Prospective Cohort Analysis.

    PubMed

    Scherrer, Alexandra U; von Wyl, Viktor; Yang, Wan-Lin; Kouyos, Roger D; Böni, Jürg; Yerly, Sabine; Klimkait, Thomas; Aubert, Vincent; Cavassini, Matthias; Battegay, Manuel; Furrer, Hansjakob; Calmy, Alexandra; Vernazza, Pietro; Bernasconi, Enos; Günthard, Huldrych F; Aubert, V; Battegay, M; Bernasconi, E; Böni, J; Braun, D L; Bucher, H C; Burton-Jeangros, C; Calmy, A; Cavassini, M; Dollenmaier, G; Egger, M; Elzi, L; Fehr, J; Fellay, J; Furrer, H; Fux, C A; Gorgievski, M; Günthard, H; Haerry, D; Hasse, B; Hirsch, H H; Hoffmann, M; Hösli, I; Kahlert, C; Kaiser, L; Keiser, O; Klimkait, T; Kouyos, R; Kovari, H; Ledergerber, B; Martinetti, G; Martinez de Tejada, B; Marzolini, C; Metzner, K; Müller, N; Nadal, D; Nicca, D; Pantaleo, G; Rauch, A; Regenass, S; Rudin, C; Schöni-Affolter, F; Schmid, P; Speck, R; Stöckle, M; Tarr, P; Trkola, A; Vernazza, P; Weber, R; Yerly, S

    2016-05-15

    Drug resistance is a major barrier to successful antiretroviral treatment (ART). Therefore, it is important to monitor time trends at a population level. We included 11 084 ART-experienced patients from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) between 1999 and 2013. The SHCS is highly representative and includes 72% of patients receiving ART in Switzerland. Drug resistance was defined as the presence of ≥1 major mutation in a genotypic resistance test. To estimate the prevalence of drug resistance, data for patients with no resistance test was imputed based on the patient's risk of harboring drug-resistant viruses. The emergence of new drug resistance mutations declined dramatically from 401 to 23 patients between 1999 and 2013. The upper estimated prevalence limit of drug resistance among ART-experienced patients decreased from 57.0% in 1999 to 37.1% in 2013. The prevalence of 3-class resistance decreased from 9.0% to 4.4% and was always <0.4% for patients who initiated ART after 2006. Most patients actively participating in the SHCS in 2013 with drug-resistant viruses initiated ART before 1999 (59.8%). Nevertheless, in 2013, 94.5% of patients who initiated ART before 1999 had good remaining treatment options based on Stanford algorithm. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 drug resistance among ART-experienced patients in Switzerland is a well-controlled relic from the era before combination ART. Emergence of drug resistance can be virtually stopped with new potent therapies and close monitoring. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Treatment outcome of dental implants in the esthetic zone: a 12- to 15-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Misje, Kjetil; Bjørnland, Tore; Saxegaard, Erik; Jensen, Janicke L

    2013-01-01

    In the mid-nineties, 27 patients received 31 implant-supported crowns in the anterior maxillary region, and 12 to 15 years later, 18 patients (67%) with 22 implants (67%) participated in a retrospective study evaluating implant survival, bone loss, prosthetic complications, patient satisfaction, and patient and professional evaluation of esthetics. One implant was lost because of implant fracture after 10 years. Mean marginal bone loss was 1.53 mm (standard error ± 0.17 mm). In 6 patients, 6 crowns were replaced and 1 repaired. In 3 patients, 3 crowns had minor unrepaired porcelain fractures. Implant survival was 95.5%, and, despite the high frequency of prosthetic complications, patients were generally very satisfied with the long-term treatment outcome.

  20. A 15-Year Time-series Study of Tooth Extraction in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Maria Aparecida Goncalves de Melo; Lino, Patrícia Azevedo; dos Santos, Thiago Rezende; Vasconcelos, Mara; Lucas, Simone Dutra; de Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tooth loss is considered to be a public health problem. Time-series studies that assess the influence of social conditions and access to health services on tooth loss are scarce. This study aimed to examine the time-series of permanent tooth extraction in Brazil between 1998 and 2012 and to compare these series in municipalities with different Human Development Index (HDI) scores and with different access to distinct primary and secondary care. The time-series study was performed between 1998 and 2012, using data from the Brazilian National Health Information System. Time-series study was performed between 1998 and 2012. Two annual rates of tooth extraction were calculated and evaluated separately according to 3 parameters: the HDI, the presence of a Dental Specialty Center, and coverage by Oral Health Teams. The time-series was analyzed using a linear regression model. An overall decrease in the tooth-loss tendencies during this period was observed, particularly in the tooth-extraction rate during primary care procedures. In the municipalities with an HDI that was lower than the median, the average tooth-loss rates were higher than in the municipalities with a higher HDI. The municipalities with lower rates of Oral Health Team coverage also showed lower extraction rates than the municipalities with higher coverage rates. In general, Brazil has shown a decrease in the trend to extract permanent teeth during these 15 years. Increased human development and access to dental services have influenced tooth-extraction rates. PMID:26632688

  1. A 15-Year Time-series Study of Tooth Extraction in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Maria Aparecida Goncalves de Melo; Lino, Patrícia Azevedo; Santos, Thiago Rezende Dos; Vasconcelos, Mara; Lucas, Simone Dutra; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de

    2015-11-01

    Tooth loss is considered to be a public health problem. Time-series studies that assess the influence of social conditions and access to health services on tooth loss are scarce.This study aimed to examine the time-series of permanent tooth extraction in Brazil between 1998 and 2012 and to compare these series in municipalities with different Human Development Index (HDI) scores and with different access to distinct primary and secondary care.The time-series study was performed between 1998 and 2012, using data from the Brazilian National Health Information System. Time-series study was performed between 1998 and 2012. Two annual rates of tooth extraction were calculated and evaluated separately according to 3 parameters: the HDI, the presence of a Dental Specialty Center, and coverage by Oral Health Teams. The time-series was analyzed using a linear regression model.An overall decrease in the tooth-loss tendencies during this period was observed, particularly in the tooth-extraction rate during primary care procedures. In the municipalities with an HDI that was lower than the median, the average tooth-loss rates were higher than in the municipalities with a higher HDI. The municipalities with lower rates of Oral Health Team coverage also showed lower extraction rates than the municipalities with higher coverage rates.In general, Brazil has shown a decrease in the trend to extract permanent teeth during these 15 years. Increased human development and access to dental services have influenced tooth-extraction rates.

  2. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity: National study of 11- to 15-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O; Due, P; Holstein, B E

    2016-10-01

    More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical inactivity. The Danish sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2006 included 6269 schoolchildren in three age groups: 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from a random sample of 80 schools. The students answered the internationally standardized HBSC questionnaire. The applied definition leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1.67-3.41). Exposure to bullying did not explain the association between social class and physical inactivity. The association between social class and physical inactivity was more pronounced among participants also exposed to bullying. In conclusion, there was a significantly increased odds ratio for physical inactivity among students from lower social classes and for students exposed to bullying. There was a combined effect of low social class and bullying on physical inactivity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Accidental poisoning in childhood: five year urban population study with 15 year analysis of fatality.

    PubMed Central

    Pearn, J; Nixon, J; Ansford, A; Corcoran, A

    1984-01-01

    Patterns of accidental poisoning in children are changing dramatically. A five year population study (1977-81) was undertaken in urban children from Brisbane (population 1 000 000). A total of 2098 children were poisoned during this period with only one fatality, which represents a dramatic reduction in mortality. Over the past 15 years (1968-82) 13 children have died from accidental poisoning from this population, and two were murdered with drugs. A study of secular trends has indicated that peak incidence occurred in 1979, and the rate has been falling progressively since. The current age corrected rate of poisoning is 393 per 100 000 children per year (0-5 year olds). The rank order of poisons, drugs, and chemicals causing hospital admission and death is: petroleum distillates 13%; antihistamines 9%; benzodiazepines 9%; bleach and detergents 7%; and aspirin 6%. The ratio of fatalities to ingestions requiring hospital admission was calculated to give an index of a practical danger of noxious agents to which children are currently exposed and the rank order is: cardiotoxic drugs, one fatality to 25 ingestions; tricyclic antidepressants, one to 44; sympathomimetic drugs, one to 54; caustic soda, one to 68; aspirin, one fatality to 350 ingestions. Accidental poisoning of children leading to death has been reduced because patterns of drug prescriptions have changed, packaging of dangerous drugs has been made safer, and substances such as kerosene have been coloured blue. PMID:6140065

  4. Gout in a 15-year-old boy with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Joint pain is a common complaint in pediatrics and is most often attributed to overuse or injury. In the face of persistent, severe, or recurrent symptoms, the differential typically expands to include bony or structural causes versus rheumatologic conditions. Rarely, a child has two distinct causes for joint pain. In this case, an obese 15-year-old male was diagnosed with gout, a disease common in adults but virtually ignored in the field of pediatrics. The presence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) complicated and delayed the consideration of this second diagnosis. Indeed, the absence of gout from this patient’s differential diagnosis resulted in a greater than two-year delay in receiving treatment. The patients’ BMI was 47.4, and he was also mis-diagnosed with osteochondritis dissecans and underwent medical treatment for JIA, assorted imaging studies, and multiple surgical procedures before the key history of increased pain with red meat ingestion, noticed by the patient, and a subsequent elevated uric acid confirmed his ultimate diagnosis. With the increased prevalence of obesity in the adolescent population, the diagnosis of gout should be an important consideration in the differential diagnosis for an arthritic joint in an overweight patient, regardless of age. PMID:24393408

  5. Gout in a 15-year-old boy with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a case study.

    PubMed

    Morris, Hallie; Grant, Kristen; Khanna, Geetika; White, Andrew J

    2014-01-06

    Joint pain is a common complaint in pediatrics and is most often attributed to overuse or injury. In the face of persistent, severe, or recurrent symptoms, the differential typically expands to include bony or structural causes versus rheumatologic conditions. Rarely, a child has two distinct causes for joint pain. In this case, an obese 15-year-old male was diagnosed with gout, a disease common in adults but virtually ignored in the field of pediatrics. The presence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) complicated and delayed the consideration of this second diagnosis. Indeed, the absence of gout from this patient's differential diagnosis resulted in a greater than two-year delay in receiving treatment. The patients' BMI was 47.4, and he was also mis-diagnosed with osteochondritis dissecans and underwent medical treatment for JIA, assorted imaging studies, and multiple surgical procedures before the key history of increased pain with red meat ingestion, noticed by the patient, and a subsequent elevated uric acid confirmed his ultimate diagnosis. With the increased prevalence of obesity in the adolescent population, the diagnosis of gout should be an important consideration in the differential diagnosis for an arthritic joint in an overweight patient, regardless of age.

  6. Adherence to osteoporosis medicines in Estonia-a comprehensive 15-year retrospective prescriptions database study.

    PubMed

    Laius, Ott; Pisarev, Heti; Maasalu, Katre; Kõks, Sulev; Märtson, Aare

    2017-12-01

    Some patients do not take medicines as they are supposed to. Our research showed that in Estonia, one fifth of patients did not start treatment with osteoporosis medicines and only 20% used the medicines for at least 3 years as they should. This induces unnecessary costs to the healthcare system. Medication non-adherence is the number one reason for not obtaining the expected clinical effect of medicines. With osteoporosis treatment, it has been shown that both implementation of treatment and persistence influence the risk of fractures significantly. Long-term adherence to medication in Estonia is to be determined with this study. A 15-year retrospective study was carried out in order to establish initiation, implementation, and persistence of Estonian patients. All new users of osteoporosis medicines were analyzed for all prescriptions they received during the study period. Sufficient adherence to treatment was defined as a patient being dispensed 80% or more prescribed doses for at least 1 year. The study period was from 2001 to 2015. Patients (24,652) were included in the study. Of the patients, 93.7% (n = 23,091) were women and 6.3% (n = 1564) were men. Eighteen percent (4636) were dispensed only one prescription. Of the patients, 44.2% included in the study had medication possession ratio (MPR) ≥80% over follow-up period; 8922 (36.2%) who were prescribed from 2001 to 2015 persisted for 1 year with MPR ≥80% and 19.8% persisted for 3 years. Forty percent of expenditure on osteoporosis medication was made for treatment courses with insufficient adherence. There is room for improvement in Estonia with medication adherence relating to all three aspects that determine adherence-initiation, implementation, and persistence. This means further efforts are to be made to educate patients and healthcare professionals on realizing the importance of good adherence.

  7. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and 15-Year Cognitive Decline: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Lutsey, Pamela L.; Bengtson, Lindsay G.S.; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Shahar, Eyal; Mosley, Thomas H.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Wruck, Lisa M.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Alonso, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Prospective data evaluating abnormal sleep quality and quantity with cognitive decline are limited because most studies used subjective data and/or had short follow-up. We hypothesized that, over 15 y of follow-up, participants with objectively measured obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and other indices of poor sleep quantity and quality would experience greater decline in cognitive functioning than participants with normal sleep patterns. Methods: ARIC participants (n = 966; mean age 61 y, 55% women) with in-home polysomnography (1996–1998) and repeated cognitive testing were followed for 15 y. Three cognitive tests (Delayed Word Recall, Word Fluency, and Digit Symbol Substitution) were administered at two time points (1996–1998 and 2011–2013). Ten additional cognitive tests were administered at the 2011–2013 neurocognitive examination. OSA was modeled using established clinical OSA severity categories. Multivariable linear regression was used to explore associations of OSA and other sleep indices with change in cognitive tests between the two assessments. Results: A median of 14.9 y (max: 17.3) passed between the two cognitive assessments. OSA category and additional indices of sleep (other measures of hypoxemia and disordered breathing, sleep fragmentation, sleep duration) were not associated with change in any cognitive test. Analyses of OSA severity categories and 10 cognitive tests administered only in 2011–2013 also showed little evidence of an association. Conclusions: Overall, abnormal sleep quality and quantity at midlife was not related to cognitive decline and later-life cognition. The effect of adverse sleep quality and quantity on cognitive decline among the elderly remains to be determined. Citation: Lutsey PL, Bengtson LG, Punjabi NM, Shahar E, Mosley TH, Gottesman RF, Wruck LM, MacLehose RF, Alonso A. Obstructive sleep apnea and 15-year cognitive decline: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. SLEEP 2016

  8. Medico-legal analysis of legal complaints in bariatric surgery: a 15-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Tuchtan, Lucile; Kassir, Radwan; Sastre, Bernard; Gouillat, Christian; Piercecchi-Marti, Marie-Dominique; Bartoli, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Bariatric surgery for severe obesity has become an effective and accepted treatment for sustained weight loss. The aim of our study was to analyze the complications and issues raised by the experts on which jury or judges' decisions were made for the different types of bariatric surgery. University Hospital, France. We have carried out a retrospective study of 59 expert review dossiers over a period of 15 years (1999-2014) on the different types of bariatric surgery (laparoscopic adjustable gastric band [LAGB], sleeve gastrectomy [SG], Roux-en-Y gastric bypass [RYGB], vertical banded gastroplasty [VBG], and gastric plication [GP]). Of the cases, 81% were women and the average age was 39 years old (range 19 to 68 years). Among the procedures giving rise to the complaints, 40% were for LAGB, 28% for RYGB, and 23% for SG. The most common initial complications were perforations (30%), fistulae (27%), bowel obstruction (14%), vascular injuries (9.5%), and infections (peritonitis, pleurisy, abscesses, and so forth) (8%). Revision surgery was required in 78% of patients, and perioperative complications accounted for 28.5% of dossiers. The experts concluded that fault had occurred in 40% of case. Negligence arising from an error deemed to be an act of negligence was found in 30% of cases, 67% of which were because of delayed diagnosis. Major long-term complications accounted for 8% of dossiers and minor long-term complications for 22%. Forty-seven percent of patients completely recovered. Delayed diagnosis was the main error established by the experts. Surgeons should remain vigilant postoperatively after every bariatric surgical procedure. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Indian Plate Kinematics studies by GPS GEODESY using 15 years of continuous GPS/GNSS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    EC, M.; Narayana Babu, R. N.

    2011-12-01

    Indian plate kinematics is continuously monitored using GNSS geodesy. 15 years of GPS/GNSS data from 1995 to 2010 from the Hyderabad IGS GPS Permanent Station (HYDE) have been processed using Bernese 5.0 in the global network solution in ITRF 2005 reference frame along with the data from other 11 IGS stations. A new global network was chosen spreading the geographical and azimuthal coverage, which almost includes all the plates surrounding India. The baseline lengths from Hyderabad to other chosen sites and the rate of changes were also estimated. Indian Plate motion was estimated to be at the rate of 37 ± 0.2 mm/yr towards NNE direction with respect to Eurasian Plate. Despite many large earthquakes in and around India, reorganization of the macro and micro plates and interaction between the plate pairs and its boundaries, the rate of on-going Indian plate motion remains to be the same. The angular velocity of Indian plate motion with respect to Eurasian plate and Indo-Eurasia plate pair have also been estimated. The global network solution has resulted in the estimation of the pole of the angular velocity vector of India with respect to Eurasia to be about a pole of rotation at 29.44 ± 1.2deg N, 13.2 ± 7.3 deg E with an angular velocity of 0.356 ± 0.035 deg Myr-1. Our estimated result of Indian plate motion mostly conforms to the REVEL-2000 Plate motion model but differs considerably from NUVEL-1A and other earlier studies. This departure could be attributed to the difference in geologic and geodetic estimations. The longer time span of GNSS data from the central part of India yields more accurate estimations since the analysis is in the global network solution, which doesn't take into account the plate-interior site velocities.

  10. MHC studies in nonmodel vertebrates: what have we learned about natural selection in 15 years?

    PubMed

    Bernatchez, L; Landry, C

    2003-05-01

    Elucidating how natural selection promotes local adaptation in interaction with migration, genetic drift and mutation is a central aim of evolutionary biology. While several conceptual and practical limitations are still restraining our ability to study these processes at the DNA level, genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) offer several assets that make them unique candidates for this purpose. Yet, it is unclear what general conclusions can be drawn after 15 years of empirical research that documented MHC diversity in the wild. The general objective of this review is to complement earlier literature syntheses on this topic by focusing on MHC studies other than humans and mice. This review first revealed a strong taxonomic bias, whereby many more studies of MHC diversity in natural populations have dealt with mammals than all other vertebrate classes combined. Secondly, it confirmed that positive selection has a determinant role in shaping patterns of nucleotide diversity in MHC genes in all vertebrates studied. Yet, future tests of positive selection would greatly benefit from making better use of the increasing number of models potentially offering more statistical rigour and higher resolution in detecting the effect and form of selection. Thirdly, studies that compared patterns of MHC diversity within and among natural populations with neutral expectations have reported higher population differentiation at MHC than expected either under neutrality or simple models of balancing selection. Fourthly, several studies showed that MHC-dependent mate preference and kin recognition may provide selective factors maintaining polymorphism in wild outbred populations. However, they also showed that such reproductive mechanisms are complex and context-based. Fifthly, several studies provided evidence that MHC may significantly influence fitness, either by affecting reproductive success or progeny survival to pathogens infections. Overall, the evidence is

  11. Removable dental prostheses and cardiovascular survival: a 15-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Janket, S J; Surakka, M; Jones, J A; Lam, A; Schnell, R A; Rose, L M; Walls, A W G; Meurman, J H

    2013-08-01

    In previous studies, increasing number of teeth predicted better survival and the acute needs for dental treatment predicted mortality. We sought to investigate whether restored dentitions by various removable dental prostheses impact cardiovascular (CVD) longevity. Kuopio Oral Health and Heart study was initiated as a cross-sectional investigation with 256 subjects with diagnosed coronary artery disease [CAD] and 250 age- and sex-matched controls without CAD in 1995-1996. The mean age of both groups was 61, 30% were females. We appended mortality follow-up records to the baseline data and formulated this 15-year follow-up study. We examined the relationship between various types of dental prostheses and cardiovascular mortality by proportional hazard regression analyses. We also explored their correlation to oral and systemic inflammatory markers such as asymptotic dental score and C-reactive protein. In a model adjusted for age, sex and smoking, groups having only natural teeth (NT), removable partial denture(s) [PD] and NT, a PD and a full denture [FD], and FD/FD or FD/NT demonstrated the following hazard ratios for mortality (95% confidence interval). NT both arches: 1.00 [reference]; PD and NT: 0.75 [0.22-2.56]; PD and FD: 1.99 [1.05-3.81]; and FD opposed by FD or NT: 1.71 [0.93-3.13], respectively [p for trend=0.05]. Although statistically not significant, those with PD and NT with mean a number of teeth [Nteeth] of 15.4 had better survival compared with those who had all NT [Nteeth=22.5]; while those who had FD and PD [Nteeth=6.5] had shorter longevity than those with FD/FD or FD/NT [Nteeth=3.5]. Although not all subgroups of dental prostheses reached significant relationship with CVD mortality, our study suggests that not only the number [quantity] of remaining teeth but their maintenance [quality] removing potential inflammatory foci, such as pericoronitis or retained root tips, may positively impact on cardiovascular survival. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier

  12. [Study on clozapine treatment at the Charles Perrens Hospital in Bordeaux, 15 years after its marketing].

    PubMed

    Mercier, C; Bret, P; Bret, M-C; Queuille, E

    2009-09-01

    The international consensus conferences concerning schizophrenia and the authorization to market (French AMM) reserve this molecule for the treatment of resistant schizophrenia. Resistant schizophrenia, as defined by the marketing authorisation, corresponds to the absence of improvement in a patient's state despite two successive treatments with antipsychotics, or at least an atypical drug at an adequate dose for a sufficient length of time. Our investigation compares hospital practices to the marketing authorisation and guidelines regarding resistant schizophrenia. All clozapine prescriptions delivered by the pharmacists at the Charles Perrens Hospital were recorded during the month of February 2007. General information concerning the patient and his or her treatment were collected, based on different support teams set up in the hospital. First, the hospital administrative program was used to manage the patients. Then, the treatment establishment form, filled out by psychiatrists before the beginning of the treatment, listed all previous treatments given to the patient and indicated any inefficacy or intolerances to prior treatments. Then, a program monitored the delivery of this molecule and finally, prescriptions were recorded to describe present treatment. Our study consisted of 61 patients, mostly male subjects averaging 40 years of age, single, who had been under psychiatric care for about 15 years, and were, for the most part, professionally inactive. Clozapine was prescribed for schizophrenic (90%) and for bipolar patients (10%). Clozapine was also often prescribed for patients whose illness had not improved with prior treatments. The average dose was of 489 mg/day for patients considered stable, i.e., those for whom clozapine was prescribed with efficacy observed for a sufficiently long time. It was associated in 88% of all cases with another psychotropic: anxiolytic (68% of cases), normothymic (26% of cases), antidepressant (16%) and antipsychotic (42

  13. Modelling Survival and Mortality Risk to 15 Years of Age for a National Cohort of Children with Serious Congenital Heart Defects Diagnosed in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Rachel L.; Bull, Catherine; Wren, Christopher; Wade, Angela; Goldstein, Harvey; Dezateux, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Background Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are a significant cause of death in infancy. Although contemporary management ensures that 80% of affected children reach adulthood, post-infant mortality and factors associated with death during childhood are not well-characterised. Using data from a UK-wide multicentre birth cohort of children with serious CHDs, we observed survival and investigated independent predictors of mortality up to age 15 years. Methods Data were extracted retrospectively from hospital records and death certificates of 3,897 children (57% boys) in a prospectively identified cohort, born 1992–1995 with CHDs requiring intervention or resulting in death before age one year. A discrete-time survival model accounted for time-varying predictors; hazards ratios were estimated for mortality. Incomplete data were addressed through multilevel multiple imputation. Findings By age 15 years, 932 children had died; 144 died without any procedure. Survival to one year was 79.8% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 78.5, 81.1%) and to 15 years was 71.7% (63.9, 73.4%), with variation by cardiac diagnosis. Importantly, 20% of cohort deaths occurred after age one year. Models using imputed data (including all children from birth) demonstrated higher mortality risk as independently associated with cardiac diagnosis, female sex, preterm birth, having additional cardiac defects or non-cardiac malformations. In models excluding children who had no procedure, additional predictors of higher mortality were younger age at first procedure, lower weight or height, longer cardiopulmonary bypass or circulatory arrest duration, and peri-procedural complications; non-cardiac malformations were no longer significant. Interpretation We confirm the high mortality risk associated with CHDs in the first year of life and demonstrate an important persisting risk of death throughout childhood. Late mortality may be underestimated by procedure-based audit focusing on shorter-term surgical

  14. Surgical management of breast cancer in China: A 15-year single-center retrospective study of 18,502 patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Nai-Si; Liu, Meng-Ying; Chen, Jia-Jian; Yang, Ben-Long; Xue, Jing-Yan; Quan, Chen-Lian; Mo, Miao; Liu, Guang-Yu; Shen, Zhen-Zhou; Shao, Zhi-Min; Wu, Jiong

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to review the surgical trends in breast cancer treatment in China over the past 15 years and to explore the possible factors related to the choice of surgical modality.The medical records of 18,502 patients with unilateral early stage breast cancer who underwent surgery from January 1999 to December 2013 at our institute were retrospectively reviewed. The utilization of different surgical modalities and the associated clinicopathological factors were analyzed. Furthermore, the prognostic role of surgical modality was also evaluated.The median patient age was 50.0 years. According to the pTNM staging system, 12.5% of the patients were classified as stage 0; 30.2% as stage I; 40.0% as stage II; and 17.3% as stage III. In total, 9.3% of the patients could not be staged. Overall, 67.1% of the breast cancer cases were estrogen receptor (ER) positive. The pattern of breast cancer surgery has changed tremendously over the past 15 years (P < 0.001). The pattern of mastectomy has shifted from radical mastectomy to modified radical mastectomy and simple mastectomy + sentinel lymph node biopsy. A total of 81.7% of the patients underwent mastectomy without immediate reconstruction, 15.2% underwent breast-conserving surgery (BCS), and 3.7% received immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy. Age, TNM staging, and pathological characteristics greatly affected the choice of surgical modality. The 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates for the mastectomy, BCS, and reconstruction groups were 87.6%, 93.2%, and 91.7%, respectively (P < 0.001); the RFS rate was likely affected by distant recurrence instead of loco-regional recurrence. We also identified improved RFS over time, stratified by surgical modality and tumor stage. Multivariate Cox-regression analysis revealed that time of treatment, tumor stage, tumor grade, LVI status, and ER status were independent prognostic factors for RFS in our cohort, whereas surgical modality was not

  15. Herpes zoster as a risk factor for osteoporosis: A 15-year nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chieh-Hsin; Chai, Chee-Yin; Tung, Yi-Ching; Lu, Ying-Yi; Su, Yu-Feng; Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Tzou, Rong-Dar; Lin, Chih-Lung

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of osteoporosis in patients with herpes zoster (HZ) infection using a nationwide population-based dataset. The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was used to compare data between 11,088 patients aged 20 to 49 years diagnosed with HZ during 1996 to 2010 and a control group of 11,088 patients without HZ. Both cohorts were followed up until the end of 2010 to measure the incidence of osteoporosis. Cox proportional-hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to calculate hazard ratio and cumulative incidences of osteoporosis, respectively. The overall risk of osteoporosis was 4.55 times greater in the HZ group than in the control group (2.48 vs. 0.30 per 1000 person-years, respectively) after adjusting for age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and related comorbidities. Compared with controls, patients with HZ and subsequent postherpetic neuralgia had a 4.76-fold higher likelihood of developing osteoporosis (95% confidence interval: 2.44-9.29), which was a statistically significant difference (P <0.001). Osteoporosis risk factors included female gender, age, advanced Charlson Comorbidity Index, depression, and postherpetic neuralgia. This study identified HZ is associated with an increased osteoporosis risk. Further evaluation of the value of bone mineral density test in detecting osteoporosis after HZ may be suggested. HZ vaccination could also be evaluated to lower the incidence of HZ and possibly subsequent osteoporosis. Physicians should be alerted to this association to improve early identification of osteoporosis in patients with HZ.

  16. Perinatal suicide in Ontario, Canada: a 15-year population-based study.

    PubMed

    Grigoriadis, Sophie; Wilton, Andrew S; Kurdyak, Paul A; Rhodes, Anne E; VonderPorten, Emily H; Levitt, Anthony; Cheung, Amy; Vigod, Simone N

    2017-08-28

    Death by suicide during the perinatal period has been understudied in Canada. We examined the epidemiology of and health service use related to suicides during pregnancy and the first postpartum year. In this retrospective, population-based cohort study, we linked health administrative databases with coroner death records (1994-2008) for Ontario, Canada. We compared sociodemographic characteristics, clinical features and health service use in the 30 days and 1 year before death between women who died by suicide perinatally, women who died by suicide outside of the perinatal period and living perinatal women. The perinatal suicide rate was 2.58 per 100 000 live births, with suicide accounting for 51 (5.3%) of 966 perinatal deaths. Most suicides occurred during the final quarter of the first postpartum year, with highest rates in rural and remote regions. Perinatal women were more likely to die from hanging (33.3% [17/51]) or jumping or falling (19.6% [10/51]) than women who died by suicide non-perinatally (p = 0.04). Only 39.2% (20/51) had mental health contact within the 30 days before death, similar to the rate among those who died by suicide non-perinatally (47.7% [762/1597]; odds ratio [OR] 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40-1.25). Compared with living perinatal women matched by pregnancy or postpartum status at date of suicide, perinatal women who died by suicide had similar likelihood of non-mental health primary care and obstetric care before the index date but had a lower likelihood of pediatric contact (64.5% [20/31] v. 88.4% [137/155] at 30 days; OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.10-0.58). The perinatal suicide rate for Ontario during the period 1994-2008 was comparable to international estimates and represents a substantial component of Canadian perinatal mortality. Given that deaths by suicide occur throughout the perinatal period, all health care providers must be collectively vigilant in assessing risk. © 2017 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  17. Perinatal suicide in Ontario, Canada: a 15-year population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Grigoriadis, Sophie; Wilton, Andrew S.; Kurdyak, Paul A.; Rhodes, Anne E.; VonderPorten, Emily H.; Levitt, Anthony; Cheung, Amy; Vigod, Simone N.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Death by suicide during the perinatal period has been understudied in Canada. We examined the epidemiology of and health service use related to suicides during pregnancy and the first postpartum year. METHODS: In this retrospective, population-based cohort study, we linked health administrative databases with coroner death records (1994–2008) for Ontario, Canada. We compared sociodemographic characteristics, clinical features and health service use in the 30 days and 1 year before death between women who died by suicide perinatally, women who died by suicide outside of the perinatal period and living perinatal women. RESULTS: The perinatal suicide rate was 2.58 per 100 000 live births, with suicide accounting for 51 (5.3%) of 966 perinatal deaths. Most suicides occurred during the final quarter of the first postpartum year, with highest rates in rural and remote regions. Perinatal women were more likely to die from hanging (33.3% [17/51]) or jumping or falling (19.6% [10/51]) than women who died by suicide non-perinatally (p = 0.04). Only 39.2% (20/51) had mental health contact within the 30 days before death, similar to the rate among those who died by suicide non-perinatally (47.7% [762/1597]; odds ratio [OR] 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.40–1.25). Compared with living perinatal women matched by pregnancy or postpartum status at date of suicide, perinatal women who died by suicide had similar likelihood of non–mental health primary care and obstetric care before the index date but had a lower likelihood of pediatric contact (64.5% [20/31] v. 88.4% [137/155] at 30 days; OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.10–0.58). INTERPRETATION: The perinatal suicide rate for Ontario during the period 1994–2008 was comparable to international estimates and represents a substantial component of Canadian perinatal mortality. Given that deaths by suicide occur throughout the perinatal period, all health care providers must be collectively vigilant in assessing risk. PMID

  18. Individuality and Contextual Influences on Drug Dependence: A 15-Year Prospective Longitudinal Study of Adolescents from Harlem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Brown, Elaine N.; Finch, Stephen J.; Brook, David W.

    2012-01-01

    In this 15-year longitudinal study the authors investigated individual and contextual factors that predispose adolescents from a disadvantaged urban area to drug dependence in adulthood. Adolescents were recruited from schools serving East Harlem in New York City. Of the 838 participants followed to adulthood, 59% were women, 55% were African…

  19. Individuality and Contextual Influences on Drug Dependence: A 15-Year Prospective Longitudinal Study of Adolescents from Harlem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Brown, Elaine N.; Finch, Stephen J.; Brook, David W.

    2012-01-01

    In this 15-year longitudinal study the authors investigated individual and contextual factors that predispose adolescents from a disadvantaged urban area to drug dependence in adulthood. Adolescents were recruited from schools serving East Harlem in New York City. Of the 838 participants followed to adulthood, 59% were women, 55% were African…

  20. What Can Influence Students' Environmental Attitudes? Results from a Study of 15-Year-Old Students in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Hebel, Florence; Montpied, Pascale; Fontanieu, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the environmental attitudes (EA) in the population of 15-year-old French students and, to check if the French student population presents similar EA categorization as described in the different models in the literature (e.g. the Model of Ecological Values, Wiseman & Bogner 2003). The second aim of…

  1. Fatal Passenger Vehicle Crashes with At Least 1 Driver Younger than 15 Years: A Fatality Analysis Reporting System Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Larry; Plessinger, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Context: A small number of fatalities continue to occur due to motor vehicle crashes on highways in which at least 1 passenger vehicle (automobile, van, or small truck) is driven by a child younger than 15 years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to extend previous work suggesting that such crashes occur frequently in the Southern states and…

  2. Fatal Passenger Vehicle Crashes with At Least 1 Driver Younger than 15 Years: A Fatality Analysis Reporting System Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Larry; Plessinger, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Context: A small number of fatalities continue to occur due to motor vehicle crashes on highways in which at least 1 passenger vehicle (automobile, van, or small truck) is driven by a child younger than 15 years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to extend previous work suggesting that such crashes occur frequently in the Southern states and…

  3. Marine mammal strandings and environmental changes: a 15-year study in the St. Lawrence ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Truchon, Marie-Hélène; Measures, Lena; L'Hérault, Vincent; Brêthes, Jean-Claude; Galbraith, Peter S; Harvey, Michel; Lessard, Sylvie; Starr, Michel; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994-2008; n = 1,193) and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice) to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have increased since 1994. Poor ice conditions observed during the same period may have affected marine mammals either directly, by modulating the availability of habitat for feeding and breeding activities, or indirectly, through changes in water conditions and marine productivity (krill abundance). For most species (75%, n = 6 species), a low volume of ice was correlated with increasing frequency of stranding events (e.g. R(2)adj = 0.59, hooded seal, Cystophora cristata). This likely led to an increase in seal mortality during the breeding period, but also to increase habitat availability for seasonal migratory cetaceans using ice-free areas during winter. We also detected a high frequency of stranding events for mysticete species (minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and resident species (beluga, Delphinapterus leucas), correlated with low krill abundance since 1994. Positive NAO indices were positively correlated with high frequencies of stranding events for resident and seasonal migratory cetaceans, as well as rare species (R(2)adj = 0.53, 0.81 and 0.34, respectively). This contrasts with seal mass stranding numbers, which were negatively correlated with a positive NAO index. In addition, an unusual multiple species mortality event (n = 114, 62% of total annual mortality) in 2008 was caused by a harmful algal bloom. Our findings provide an empirical baseline in understanding marine mammal survival when faced with climatic variability. This is a promising

  4. Mortality study update of ethylene oxide workers in chemical manufacturing: a 15 year update.

    PubMed

    Swaen, Gerard M H; Burns, Carol; Teta, Jane M; Bodner, Kenneth; Keenan, Dave; Bodnar, Catherine M

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the long-term mortality patterns of workers with past exposure to ethylene oxide (EO). We redefined and updated a cohort of male workers employed in industrial facilities where EO was produced or used. All 2063 men were employed between 1940 and the end of 1988 and were observed for mortality through 2003. Cause specific Standardized Mortality Ratios were calculated. Internal analyses were made by applying Cox proportional hazards models to the data. No indications were found for excess cancer risks from EO exposures, including the lymphohematopoietic malignancies. There were 11 leukemia deaths and 11.8 expected and 12 non-Hodgkin lymphoma deaths and 11.5 expected. Proportional hazards modeling for all cause, leukemia and lymphoid malignancies mortality revealed no trends or associations with cumulative exposure. Despite the relatively high EO exposures in the past and extensive mortality follow-up, the cause specific mortality rates are comparable with those of the general US population. The Standardized Mortality Ratio analyses and the proportional hazards modeling for all cause mortality, leukemia and lymphoid malignancies mortality do not indicate exposure related effects in this cohort.

  5. Marine Mammal Strandings and Environmental Changes: A 15-Year Study in the St. Lawrence Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Truchon, Marie-Hélène; Measures, Lena; L’Hérault, Vincent; Brêthes, Jean-Claude; Galbraith, Peter S.; Harvey, Michel; Lessard, Sylvie; Starr, Michel; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994–2008; n = 1,193) and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice) to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have increased since 1994. Poor ice conditions observed during the same period may have affected marine mammals either directly, by modulating the availability of habitat for feeding and breeding activities, or indirectly, through changes in water conditions and marine productivity (krill abundance). For most species (75%, n = 6 species), a low volume of ice was correlated with increasing frequency of stranding events (e.g. R2adj = 0.59, hooded seal, Cystophora cristata). This likely led to an increase in seal mortality during the breeding period, but also to increase habitat availability for seasonal migratory cetaceans using ice-free areas during winter. We also detected a high frequency of stranding events for mysticete species (minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and resident species (beluga, Delphinapterus leucas), correlated with low krill abundance since 1994. Positive NAO indices were positively correlated with high frequencies of stranding events for resident and seasonal migratory cetaceans, as well as rare species (R2adj = 0.53, 0.81 and 0.34, respectively). This contrasts with seal mass stranding numbers, which were negatively correlated with a positive NAO index. In addition, an unusual multiple species mortality event (n = 114, 62% of total annual mortality) in 2008 was caused by a harmful algal bloom. Our findings provide an empirical baseline in understanding marine mammal survival when faced with climatic variability. This is a promising

  6. Continuous long-term immunomodulatory therapy in relapsing multiple sclerosis: results from the 15-year analysis of the US prospective open-label study of glatiramer acetate

    PubMed Central

    Ford, C; Goodman, AD; Johnson, K; Kachuck, N; Lindsey, JW; Lisak, R; Luzzio, C; Myers, L; Panitch, H; Preiningerova, J; Pruitt, A; Rose, J; Rus, H; Wolinsky, J

    2010-01-01

    The ongoing US Glatiramer Acetate (GA) Trial is the longest evaluation of continuous immunomodulatory therapy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The objective of this study was to evaluate up to 15 years of GA as a sole disease-modifying therapy. Two hundred and thirty-two patients received at least one GA dose since study initiation in 1991 (mITT cohort), and 100 (43%, Ongoing cohort) continued as of February 2008. Patients were evaluated every 6 months using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Mean GA exposures were 8.6 ±5.2, 4.81 ±3.69, and 13.6 ± 1.3 years and mean disease durations were 17, 13, and 22 years for mITT, Withdrawn and Ongoing cohorts, respectively. For Ongoing patients, annual relapse rates (ARRs) maintained a decline from 1.12±0.82 at baseline to 0.25 ± 0.34 per year; 57% had stable/improved EDSS scores (change ± 0.5 points); 65% had not transitioned to secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS); 38%, 18%, and 3% reached EDSS 4, 6, and 8. For all patients on GA therapy (the mITT cohort), ARRs declined from 1.18 ± 0.82 to 0.43 ± 0.58 per year; 54% had stable/improved EDSS scores; 75% had not transitioned to SPMS; 39%, 23%, and 5% reached EDSS 4, 6, and 8. In conclusion, multiple sclerosis patients with mean disease duration of 22 years administering GA for up to 15 years had reduced relapse rates, and decreased disability progression and transition to SPMS. There were no long-term safety issues. PMID:20106943

  7. Vascular trauma in Western Australia: a comparison of two study periods over 15 years.

    PubMed

    Friend, Jikol; Rao, Sudhakar; Sieunarine, Kishore; Woodroof, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Royal Perth Hospital (RPH) has become Western Australia's only designated adult major trauma facility since a previous study of vascular trauma was conducted in 2001 at the same facility. The aim of this study is to identify changes in vascular trauma patterns over the two study periods and compare these changes with international literature. All individuals presenting to RPH between January 2000 and December 2010 with vascular injury were identified from a prospective trauma database for this descriptive study. Injuries were classified using the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS). The incidence of vascular trauma as a percentage of total trauma increased over the two study periods. The current 10-year study included 45 164 patients on the trauma database, of which 1205 patients (2.6%) sustained 1335 vascular injuries, an increase from 1% in the previous 5-year study at the same facility. Males aged 20-29 years were more frequently injured. Blunt trauma occurred more frequently than penetrating. The extremities, particularly the upper limbs were most commonly injured. The most common causes of injury for each region were as follows; motorbike crash (MBC), motor vehicle crash (MVC) and stabbing (neck, thorax and abdomen), MBC and MVC (lower limb) and piercing injuries (upper limb). Injury Severity Score (ISS) and mortality 43% (32 of 75) were highest for thoracic injuries, particularly thoracic aorta injury. Mortality rate has decreased. Vascular injuries in Western Australia are increasing. MVC are the most common cause of life threatening injury. Road safety interventions targeting young males are likely to reduce trauma. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  8. Odontogenic tumors in children and adolescents. A 15-year retrospective study in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Guerrisi, Marcela; Piloni, María Julia; Keszler, Alicia

    2007-05-01

    There are few studies on bucco-maxillary lesions in children and adolescents, and reports on odontogenic tumors (OT) are scanty. Comparison among the available data is difficult due to differences in the criteria used in each study. The aim of the present work was to perform a retrospective study of OT in patients aged up to 20 years diagnosed at a center specialized in histopathologic diagnosis of oral diseases. All cases diagnosed with OT between 1990 and 2004 were retrieved from the Service archives. The 153 retrieved cases accounted for 7% of total biopsies performed during that period, and to 78.4% of tumors of the jaws. Mean age of the whole population was 12.7 years and the male to female ratio was 2:1. The most frequent tumor types were Odontoma, (50.9%), Ameloblastoma (18.3%) and Myxoma (8.5%), and the most infrequent was Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor (1.3%). According to our results, OT cannot be considered infrequent. They are the prevalent tumors of the jaws in the age group studied herein.

  9. Risk Factors for Knee Injuries in Children 8 to 15 Years: The CHAMPS Study DK.

    PubMed

    Junge, Tina; Runge, Lisbeth; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2016-04-01

    Knee injuries are frequent in children, with most studies reporting traumatic knee injuries. Evidence of risk factors for knee injuries in children is sparse. The purpose of this study was to report the extent of traumatic and overuse knee injuries in children and to evaluate intrinsic and extrinsic factors for risk of these injuries. Weekly musculoskeletal pain, sport participation, and sports type were reported by 1326 school children (8-15 yr). Knee injuries were classified as traumatic or overuse. Multinomial logistic regression was used for analyses. During the study period, 952 (15% traumatic and 85% overuse) knee injuries were diagnosed. Period prevalence for traumatic and overuse knee injuries were 0.8/1000 and 5.4/1000 sport participations, respectively. Participation in tumbling gymnastics was a risk factor for traumatic knee injuries (OR, 2.14). For overuse knee injuries, intrinsic risk factors were sex (girls OR, 1.38) and previous knee injury (OR, 1.78), whereas participation in soccer (OR, 1.64), handball (OR, 1.95), basket (OR, 2.07), rhythmic (OR, 1.98), and tumbling gymnastics (OR, 1.74) were additional risk factors. For both injury types, sport participation above two times per week increased odds (OR, 1.46-2.40). Overuse knee injuries were the most frequent injury type. For traumatic knee injuries, participation in tumbling gymnastics was a risk factor. Risk factors for overuse knee injuries were being a girl; previous knee injury; and participation in soccer, handball, basket, and rhythmic and tumbling gymnastics. Further risk factors for both types of injury were participation in sports above two times per week. Although growth-related overuse knee injuries are a self-limiting condition, a major part of children are affected by these injuries with unknown short- and long-term consequences.

  10. Infectious keratitis progressing to endophthalmitis: a 15-year study of microbiology, associated factors, and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Henry, Christopher R; Flynn, Harry W; Miller, Darlene; Forster, Richard K; Alfonso, Eduardo C

    2012-12-01

    To describe the incidence, microbiology, associated factors, and clinical outcomes of patients with infectious keratitis progressing to endophthalmitis. Nonrandomized, retrospective, consecutive case series. All patients treated for culture-proven keratitis and endophthalmitis between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2009, at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute. Ocular microbiology and medical records were reviewed on all patients with positive corneal and intraocular cultures over the period of the study. Univariate analysis was performed to obtain P values described in the study. Microbial isolates, treatment strategies, and visual acuity (VA) outcomes. A total of 9934 corneal cultures were performed for suspected infectious keratitis. Only 49 eyes (0.5%) progressed to culture-proven endophthalmitis. Fungi (n = 26) were the most common responsible organism followed by gram-positive bacteria (n = 13) and gram-negative bacteria (n = 10). Topical steroid use (37/49 [76%]) was the most common associated factor identified in the current study, followed by previous surgery (30/49 [61%]), corneal perforation (17/49 [35%]), dry eye (15/49 [31%]), relative immune compromise (10/49 [20%]), organic matter trauma (9/49 [18%]), and contact lens wear (3/49 [6%]). There were 27 patients in whom a primary infectious keratitis developed into endophthalmitis, and 22 patients in whom an infectious keratitis adjacent to a previous surgical wound progressed into endophthalmitis. Patients in the primary keratitis group were more likely to be male (22/27 [81%] vs 8/22 [36%]; P = 0.001), have history of organic matter trauma (8/27 [30%] vs 1/22 [5%]); P = 0.030), and have fungal etiology (21/27 [78%] vs 5/22 [23%]; P<0.001). Patients in the surgical wound-associated group were more likely to use topical steroids (20/22 [91%] vs 17/27 [63%]; P = 0.024). A VA of ≥ 20/50 was achieved in 7 of 49 patients (14%), but was <5/200 in 34 of 49 (69%) at last follow-up. Enucleation or evisceration

  11. Early childhood precursors for eating problems in adolescence: a 15-year longitudinal community study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This longitudinal community study investigated the role of individual risk factors in early childhood (before age five) for the development of eating problems in adolescence. Nine hundred twenty-one mothers completed the first questionnaire when their child was 1.5 years old, and again when their child was 2.5 (n = 784) and 4.5 (n = 737) years old. Three hundred seventy-three of these children completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) when they were 16 years old. Results Mother-rated early childhood sleep problems (assessed before the age of five) predicted self-rated eating problems in adolescents, with gender, birth weight, and a number of early childhood internal and environmental factors controlled. Unexpectedly, early childhood eating problems were not associated with later eating problems. Conclusions The possible role of sleep in the development of eating problems needs further investigation. In particular, mediating mechanisms should be studied more closely. PMID:24999414

  12. Homicidal deaths in the Western suburbs of Paris: a 15-year-study.

    PubMed

    Cros, Jérôme; Alvarez, Jean-Claude; Sbidian, Emilie; Charlier, Philippe; Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy

    2012-12-01

    The aim of our study was to analyze the homicide pattern in the Western suburbs of Paris and its evolution between 1994 and 2008. All autopsy reports regarding homicides from the period January 1, 1994, to December 31, 2008, were retrospectively reviewed. Five hundred eleven homicide cases were selected of 4842 autopsy cases. The following data were recorded: assailants and victims characteristics, crime scene location, homicide motive, cause of death, and victim's postmortem toxicological results. Homicide rate steadily declined over the period at the exception of the number of homicide-suicide per year, which remained constant. Homicide victims remained unidentified after medicolegal investigations in 2% of the cases. Child and elder homicide cases represented, respectively, 10.7% and 8.2% of the cases. Offenders were male in 88% of the cases. Male and female assailants showed distinct homicide patterns: females were involved more frequently in familial quarrel and child abuse. They never killed a stranger and committed homicide exclusively in a private place with a predominance of sharp weapons. Males, in contrast, assaulted almost equally a stranger or an acquaintance, often in a public place with a predominance of firearm. Victim knew the assailant(s) in 57% of the cases. Homicides mostly took place at the residence of the assailant or the victim. Homicide motive was clearly determined in 71% of the cases. Argument was the most common motive in 44% of the cases. Sexual assault was rarely found (10 cases). Gunshot wounds were the most common cause of death (37%), followed by stab wounds (27%), blunt trauma (19%), and asphyxia (13%). A decrease of gunshot wounds as a cause of death was found over the studied period. Alcohol was the most common toxic detected in blood of the victim, in 48.5% of the cases when toxicological results were available. Blood alcohol concentration ranged from 1 to 500 mg/dL with a mean value of 150 mg/dL.

  13. Nordic Myeloma Study Group, the first 15 years: scientific collaboration and improvement of patient care.

    PubMed

    Hippe, Erik; Westin, Jan; Wislöff, Finn

    2005-03-01

    The accomplishments of the Nordic Myeloma Study Group (NMSG) during its first 15 yr are briefly surveyed, together with a discussion of principles guiding the group's clinical trials and of problems that need to be addressed in coming years. The group has so far carried out 12 clinical trials, comprising more than 2500 patients, spanning from minor phase II to large randomised phase III trials. At the time of writing, two randomised trials are running (comparing two doses of i.v. pamidronate, and melphalan-prednisone (MP) vs. MP-thalidomide to elderly patients). The group has strived for a simple organisation with much responsibility delegated to regional coordinators (Denmark 3, Norway 5, Sweden 5). With regard to trial design, the group has considered it important that studies are based on sound scientific questions, are simple to handle for the participants, population based, investigator initiated, include quality of life and health resources assessment as end-points, and can be used as basis for diverse scientific spin-off projects. Like other clinical trial groups, NMSG faces a number of challenges in coming years. The financial situation for independent investigator-initiated trials is far from satisfactory, especially with regard to the resource-consuming implementation of more stringent good clinical practice rules and ethical committee demands. NMSG has also encountered increasing difficulties in recruiting patients to recent trials, partly because of problems related to participating physicians (lack of support, laborious paper work, insufficient credit for participation). Solutions to these problems have to be found if industry-independent clinical trial groups are to survive.

  14. Long-term air pollution exposure and lung function in 15 year-old adolescents living in an urban and rural area in Germany: The GINIplus and LISAplus cohorts.

    PubMed

    Fuertes, Elaine; Bracher, Johannes; Flexeder, Claudia; Markevych, Iana; Klümper, Claudia; Hoffmann, Barbara; Krämer, Ursula; von Berg, Andrea; Bauer, Carl-Peter; Koletzko, Sibylle; Berdel, Dietrich; Heinrich, Joachim; Schulz, Holger

    2015-10-01

    The impact of outdoor air pollution exposure on long-term lung development and potential periods of increased lung susceptibility remain unknown. This study assessed associations between early-life and current residential exposure to air pollution and lung function at 15-years of age in two German birth cohorts. Fifteen year-old participants living in an urban and rural area in Germany underwent spirometry before and after bronchodilation (N=2266). Annual average (long-term) exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), particles with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 μg/m(3) (PM2.5) mass and less than 10 μg/m(3) (PM(10)) mass, PM(2.5) absorbance and ozone were estimated to each participant's birth-, 10- and 15-year home address using land-use regression and kriging (ozone only) modelling. Associations between lung function variables and long-term pollutant concentrations were assessed using linear regression models adjusted for host and environmental covariates and recent short-term air pollution exposures. Long-term air pollution concentrations assessed to the birth-, 10- and 15-year home addresses were not associated with lung function variables, before and after bronchodilation, in the complete or study area specific populations. However, several lung function variables were negatively associated with long-term NO2 concentrations among asthmatics. For example, NO(2) estimated to the 15-year home address was associated with the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity (FEV(1)/FVC) and the mean flow rate between 25% and 75% of FVC (-3.5%, 95% confidence interval [-6.0, -1.0] and -297.4 ml/s [-592.6, -2.1] per 5.9 μg/m(3) increase in NO(2), respectively). Nearly all effect estimates for the associations between the short-term PM(2.5) mass, PM(10) mass and ozone concentrations and the lung function variables were negative in the complete population. Early-life and current long-term air pollution exposures and lung function at the age of

  15. Pregnancy-associated deaths: a 15-year retrospective study and overall review of maternal pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Lydia R; Collins, Kim A

    2006-03-01

    referred for autopsy to the Forensic Section of the Medical University of South Carolina from January 1989 through December 2003. All decedents listed as pregnant or postpartum were analyzed as to maternal age, race, past medical history, previous pregnancies and outcome, prenatal care, gestational age, fetal or neonatal outcome, location of delivery, placental findings, maternal autopsy findings, toxicology, cause of death, manner of death, and fetal or neonatal autopsy findings. The authors present this retrospective study to better determine the factors leading to maternal demise and discuss the autopsy/ancillary techniques useful in determining the cause of death in this challenging area.

  16. Spirituality, Happiness, and Psychological Well-being in 13- to 15-year olds: A Cross-country Longitudinal RCT Study.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Samta P

    2017-03-01

    Based on a study of 5339 adolescents from 60 schools across 15 countries, this paper reports on the effect of spirituality on their happiness and psychological well-being. A customized spiritual program was administered and post-treatment outcome variable scores of the experimental group were higher. Adolescents from relatively affluent nations, boys, Christians, and those who self-practiced scored higher post-test. This makes a case for nominating spirituality as an important developmental variable for 13- to 15-year olds.

  17. Locus of control: relation to schizophrenia, to recovery, and to depression and psychosis -- A 15-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Harrow, Martin; Hansford, Barry G; Astrachan-Fletcher, Ellen B

    2009-08-15

    The present prospectively designed 15-year longitudinal research was conducted to study whether locus of control is linked to diagnosis, to major symptoms, to functioning and recovery, and to personality for schizophrenia patients, depressive patients, and patients with other major disorders. The research studied 128 patients from the Chicago Follow-up Study at the acute phase and reassessed them 5 times over a 15-year period. Patients were evaluated on locus of control, global outcome, recovery, premorbid developmental achievements, psychosis, diagnosis, depression, and personality variables. 1) After the acute phase, schizophrenia patients were not more external than other diagnostic groups. 2) Internality is significantly associated with increased recovery in schizophrenia. 3) A more external locus of control was significantly related to depression. 4) The relationship between externality and psychosis was significant. In severe psychiatric disorders a more external locus of control is not specific to schizophrenia and after the acute phase is not associated with one particular diagnostic group. A more external locus of control is significantly related to fewer periods of recovery, to both depressed mood and psychosis, and to various aspects of personality.

  18. [First permanent molar caries: a case study of Moroccan children between 6 and 15 year-old].

    PubMed

    Zouaidi, K; Chala, S; Ameziane, R; Chhoul, H

    2012-12-01

    It is a transverse descriptive study realized from clinical files of 100 Moroccan children aged between 6 and 15 year-old having consulted the Rabat Dental Hospital (U.T.H. Ibn Sina) in Morocco between January and December 2009. The criteria of inclusion are age, Moroccan origin, first four permanent molars having made their eruption and a complete clinical file. The criteria of exclusion are the non-eruption of a first permanent molar and an incomplete clinical file. The clinical parameters are: age, sex, tooth brushing, quality of alimentation and the condition of the first permanent molars (caries, extraction, filling). The results showed that 65% of the children between 6 and 15 years have at least a first decayed permanent molar. Eight per cent of the children have at least a filling material on the first permanent molar and 4% of the children have already extracted a first permanent molar. The caries touch both sexes, both right and left sectors and both superior and lower arches without statistically significant difference (p > 0.05). The presence of the caries increased, on the other hand, with the age (p < 0.05). The relation between presence of caries, tooth brushing and quality of alimentation is not significant (p < 0.05). These results are in accordance with numerous studies and show a particular cario-sensibility of the first permanent molar.

  19. Incidence of allergic rhinitis in a cohort of young adults from 13-15 years old to 23-25 years old in Castellon (Spain).

    PubMed

    Arnedo-Pena, A; Romeu-Gracia, Mª A; Bellido-Blasco, J B; Meseguer-Ferrer, N; Silvestre-Silvestre, E; Conde, F; Fernández-González, S; Dubon, Mª A; Ortuño-Forcada, M; Fabregat-Puerto, J; Fenollosa-Amposta, C; Segura-Navas, L; Pac-Sa, Mª R; Museros-Recatala, L; Vizcaino, A; Tosca-Segura, R

    The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of Allergic Rhinitis (AR) in young adults and its risk or protective factors. A population-based prospective cohort study was carried out in 2012. The cohort participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Childhood in Castellon in 1994 and 2002. A telephone survey was conducted using the same questionnaires. A new case of AR was defined as the participants free of the disease in 2002, who self-reported suffering from AR or taking medications for AR in the period 2002-2012. Of the 1805 schoolchildren in the cohort in 2002, 1435 young adults (23-25 years old) participated (follow-up 79.1%) in 2012; 743 were female and 692 male; their mean age was 24.9±0.6 years. Two hundred new cases of AR occurred in 1259 participants free of the disease with an incidence of 17.3 per 1000 person-years, and the incidence increased from 2002 (RR=1.42; 95% CI 1.15-1.75). The risk factors of AR adjusted by age and gender were sinusitis (RR=1.77; 95% CI 1.16-2.68), atopic dermatitis (RR=1.51; 95% CI 1.11-2.06) and constant exposure to truck traffic (RR=1.88; 95% CI 1.12-3.17). For male participants, the risk factors were asthma, sinusitis and atopic dermatitis, and for females bronchitis was a risk factor and presence of older siblings a protective factor. An increase in AR incidence was observed. Sinusitis, atopic dermatitis and constant exposure to truck traffic were the risk factors of the AR with some differences by gender. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Reflections, 15 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, George

    2016-01-01

    George Knox reflects on his 15-year career as president of Labette Community College in Parsons, Kansas. Knox writes that, as a first-time president coming into a brand new system, he was very fortunate to have many seasoned presidents and mentors in Kansas and from the American Association of Community Colleges' (AACC) Presidents Academy. He says…

  1. Reflections, 15 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, George

    2016-01-01

    George Knox reflects on his 15-year career as president of Labette Community College in Parsons, Kansas. Knox writes that, as a first-time president coming into a brand new system, he was very fortunate to have many seasoned presidents and mentors in Kansas and from the American Association of Community Colleges' (AACC) Presidents Academy. He says…

  2. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Serum Testosterone Concentrations at 15 Years of Age in Female ALSPAC Study Participants

    PubMed Central

    Calafat, Antonia M.; Marcus, Michele; Jaakkola, Jouni J.K.; Lashen, Hany

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) or to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increases mouse and human peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor alpha (PPARα) subtype activity, which influences lipid metabolism. Because cholesterol is the substrate from which testosterone is synthesized, exposure to these substances has the potential to alter testosterone concentrations. Objectives We explored associations of total testosterone and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations at age 15 years with prenatal exposures to PFOS, PFOA, perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluoronanoic acid (PFNA) in females. Methods Prenatal concentrations of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were measured in serum collected from pregnant mothers at enrollment (1991–1992) in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The median gestational age when the maternal blood sample was obtained was 16 weeks (interquartile range, 11–28 weeks). Total testosterone and SHBG concentrations were measured in serum obtained from their daughters at 15 years of age. Associations between prenatal PFAAs concentrations and reproductive outcomes were estimated using linear regression models (n = 72). Results Adjusted total testosterone concentrations were on average 0.18-nmol/L (95% CI: 0.01, 0.35) higher in daughters with prenatal PFOS in the upper concentration tertile compared with daughters with prenatal PFOS in the lower tertile. Adjusted total testosterone concentrations were also higher in daughters with prenatal concentrations of PFOA (β = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.43) and PFHxS (β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.35) in the upper tertile compared with daughters with concentrations in the lower tertile. We did not find evidence of associations between PFNA and total testosterone or between any of the PFAAs and SHBG. Conclusions Our findings were based on a small study sample and should be interpreted with caution. However, they suggest that prenatal

  3. A Cross-sectional Study of the Prevalence of Dental Caries among 12- to 15-year-old Overweight Schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Kottayi, Soni; Bhat, Sham S; Hegde, K Sundeep; Peedikayil, Faizal C; Chandru, T P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2016-09-01

    Overweight and obesity are growing health-related problems worldwide, and it is currently the most prevalent nutritional disorder among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to assess the association between overweight and dental caries among 12- to 15-year-old schoolchildren in Mangaluru district, Karnataka, India. Data were obtained from 2000 school-going children aged 12 to 15 years. The children were categorized as overweight and normal-weight group by assessing the body mass index (BMI). Body mass index was categorized using the classification system given by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) and obtained in units of kg/m(2). The dental caries was assessed by detection and was performed according to decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index. Of the 2000 children examined, the mean BMI recorded was 26.87 ± 2.26 for the overweight children and 20.82 ± 1.48 for the normal-weight children. Even though the DMFT (3.90 ± 2.95) in the overweight children was slightly higher than the control group (3.36 ± 2.73), it was not statistically significant. Within the confines of the present study, it can be concluded that there is no significant association between overweight and dental caries among the schoolchildren of Mangaluru district in Karnataka. Longitudinal studies are necessary to substantiate the possible relationships between dental caries and overweight in children. Knowledge of these relationships could lead to preventive health measures designed to reduce the prevalence of both obesity and dental caries.

  4. Low-dose CT pulmonary angiography on a 15-year-old CT scanner: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Kaup, Moritz; Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Scholtz, Jan E; Albrecht, Moritz H; Bucher, Andreas; Frellesen, Claudia; Vogl, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Background Computed tomography (CT) low-dose (LD) imaging is used to lower radiation exposure, especially in vascular imaging; in current literature, this is mostly on latest generation high-end CT systems. Purpose To evaluate the effects of reduced tube current on objective and subjective image quality of a 15-year-old 16-slice CT system for pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Material and Methods CTPA scans from 60 prospectively randomized patients (28 men, 32 women) were examined in this study on a 15-year-old 16-slice CT scanner system. Standard CT (SD) settings were 100 kV and 150 mAs, LD settings were 100 kV and 50 mAs. Attenuation of the pulmonary trunk, various anatomic landmarks, and image noise were quantitatively measured; contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) were calculated. Three independent blinded radiologists subjectively rated each image series using a 5-point grading scale. Results CT dose index (CTDI) in the LD series was 66.46% lower compared to the SD settings (2.49 ± 0.55 mGy versus 7.42 ± 1.17 mGy). Attenuation of the pulmonary trunk showed similar results for both series (SD 409.55 ± 91.04 HU; LD 380.43 HU ± 93.11 HU; P = 0.768). Subjective image analysis showed no significant differences between SD and LD settings regarding the suitability for detection of central and peripheral PE (central SD/LD, 4.88; intra-class correlation coefficients [ICC], 0.894/4.83; ICC, 0.745; peripheral SD/LD, 4.70; ICC, 0.943/4.57; ICC, 0.919; all P > 0.4). Conclusion The LD protocol, on a 15-year-old CT scanner system without current high-end hardware or post-processing tools, led to a dose reduction of approximately 67% with similar subjective image quality and delineation of central and peripheral pulmonary arteries. PMID:28286671

  5. Additional studies on side effects of melperone in long-term therapy for 1 to 15 years in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Kirkegaard, A; Kirkegaard, G; Geismar, L; Christensen, I

    1981-01-01

    The present study which reports on the hitherto longest continuous melperone treatment recorded in the literature, was conducted in order to reveal side effects of long-term melperone therapy. 17 female and 20 male patients, aged 33-97 years, most of them with the diagnoses: schizophrenia (11 patients), dementia organica (11 patients) and dementia senilis (11 patients) were treated with melperone (Buronil) in doses of 15--800 mg/day for 1 to 15 years. The patients were examined for clinical side effects, abnormal electrocardiograms and ophthalmological diseases as well as abnormal values in sedimentation rate, hemoglobin, leucocytes, creatinine, alanine-aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl-transferase and bilirubin. Also the thymol reaction was done. The electrocardiograms and laboratory investigations were controlled by specialists in internal medicine and the eye diseases by an ophthalmologist. We did not find any severe side effects which could be related with any certainty to melperone therapy.

  6. Stability of vocational interests among the intellectually gifted from adolescence to adulthood: a 15-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lubinski, D; Benbow, C P; Ryan, J

    1995-02-01

    A sample of 162 intellectually gifted adolescents (top 1%) were administered the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory at age 13. Fifteen years later, they were administered the Strong again. This study evaluated the intra- and interindividual temporal stability of the 6 RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) themes and the Strong's 23 Basic Interest Scales. Over the 15-year test-retest interval, RIASEC's median interindividual correlation for the 6 themes was .46; the median of all 162 intraindividual correlations was .57. Configural analyses of the most dominant theme at age 13 revealed that this theme was significantly more likely than chance to be either dominant or adjacent to the dominant theme at age 28--following RIASEC's hexagonal structure. For intellectually gifted individuals, it appears to be possible to forecast salient features of their adult RIASEC profile by assessing their vocational interests during early adolescence, but some RIASEC themes seem more stable than others.

  7. Tinnitus as an early indicator of permanent hearing loss. A 15 year longitudinal study of noise exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Griest, S E; Bishop, P M

    1998-07-01

    A retrospective study was designed to evaluate tinnitus (ringing or other sounds in the ears or head) as a potential early indicator of permanent hearing loss in a population of noise exposed workers. Data were examined from 91 male employees working in environments with noise levels ranging from 8 hour time weighted averages of 85 to 101 dBA over a period of 15 years. Results of annual audiometric testing were obtained as part of an ongoing hearing conservation program conducted since 1971 by ESCO Corporation, a steel foundry located in the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area. Results indicate the prevalence of tinnitus increases more than two and one half times for workers experiencing maximum threshold shifts > or = 15 decibels in hearing level (dBHL). Results also provide evidence that reports of tinnitus at the time of annual audiometric testing may be useful in identifying workers at greater risk for developing significant shifts in hearing thresholds.

  8. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Serum Testosterone Concentrations at 15 Years of Age in Female ALSPAC Study Participants.

    PubMed

    Maisonet, Mildred; Calafat, Antonia M; Marcus, Michele; Jaakkola, Jouni J K; Lashen, Hany

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) or to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increases mouse and human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) subtype activity, which influences lipid metabolism. Because cholesterol is the substrate from which testosterone is synthesized, exposure to these substances has the potential to alter testosterone concentrations. We explored associations of total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations at age 15 years with prenatal exposures to PFOS, PFOA, perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluoronanoic acid (PFNA) in females. Prenatal concentrations of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were measured in serum collected from pregnant mothers at enrollment (1991-1992) in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The median gestational age when the maternal blood sample was obtained was 16 weeks (interquartile range, 11-28 weeks). Total testosterone and SHBG concentrations were measured in serum obtained from their daughters at 15 years of age. Associations between prenatal PFAAs concentrations and reproductive outcomes were estimated using linear regression models (n = 72). Adjusted total testosterone concentrations were on average 0.18-nmol/L (95% CI: 0.01, 0.35) higher in daughters with prenatal PFOS in the upper concentration tertile compared with daughters with prenatal PFOS in the lower tertile. Adjusted total testosterone concentrations were also higher in daughters with prenatal concentrations of PFOA (β = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.43) and PFHxS (β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.35) in the upper tertile compared with daughters with concentrations in the lower tertile. We did not find evidence of associations between PFNA and total testosterone or between any of the PFAAs and SHBG. Our findings were based on a small study sample and should be interpreted with caution. However, they suggest that prenatal exposure to some PFAAs may alter testosterone

  9. II. Methods and measures used for follow-up at 15 years of the English and Romanian Adoptee (ERA) study.

    PubMed

    2010-04-01

    This chapter covers the methods and measures used in the ERA study, with a special focus on age 15 outcomes. First, we outline the sample participation rate for the 15-year follow-up-the percentages in all cases referring to the numbers at the time of initial sample contact. We then describe the measures used in this monograph, starting with those obtained at first contact with respect to functioning at the time of leaving institutional care. Because the group definitions relevant to the follow-up at age 15 are based on assessments at 6 and 11 years of age, we deal with the measures in those assessments first. At 11 years of age, we used a range of specific cognitive tests that might be of predictive value and those are detailed next. Then we discuss measures employed at the 15-year follow-up and those relevant to possible autism as used by Rutter in the separate assessment at 18-20 years. The monograph is structured around the possibility of deprivation-specific psychological patterns (DSPs), and hence on the strategies needed to test for them (see Rutter et al. in chapter I). Accordingly, the next section of this chapter deals with that strategy and details the measures taken to test the assumption's underlying the strategy. In our published papers concerning the 11-year follow-up, we tested whether outcomes were affected by the fact that some parents adopted mainly for altruistic reasons and others because of infertility-affected outcomes. Here we repeat this analysis in relation to DSPs. Similarly, we report findings on gender differences. The longitudinal study involved obtaining DNA for genotyping to examine the possibility that genetic features moderated the young people's response to institutional deprivation. Accordingly, in the next section of the chapter, we outline our genotyping approach. The final section of this chapter describes the statistical techniques we employed in our analyses.

  10. Assessment of the Dietary Intake of Schoolchildren in South Africa: 15 Years after the First National Study

    PubMed Central

    Steyn, Nelia; Eksteen, Gabriel; Senekal, Marjanne

    2016-01-01

    There has not been a national dietary study in children in South Africa since 1999. Fortification of flour and maize meal became mandatory in October 2003 to address micronutrient deficiencies found in the national study in 1999. The purpose of this review was to identify studies done after 1999 in schoolchildren, 6–15 years old, in order to determine whether dietary intakes reflected improvements in micronutrients, namely: iron, zinc, vitamin A, folate, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and niacin. An electronic and hand search was done to identify all studies complying with relevant inclusion criteria. The search yielded 10 studies. Overall, there is a paucity of dietary studies which have included the fortified nutrients; only four, of which only one, reported on all micronutrients; making it difficult to determine whether fortification has improved the micronutrient intake of schoolchildren. This is further complicated by the fact that different dietary methods were used and that studies were only done in three of the nine provinces and thus are not generalizable. The results of these studies clearly point to the importance of doing a national study on the dietary intake of schoolchildren in order to confirm the outcomes of the fortification process. PMID:27548214

  11. A 10 year study of the cause of death in children under 15 years in Manhiça, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Sacarlal, Jahit; Nhacolo, Ariel Q; Sigaúque, Betuel; Nhalungo, Delino A; Abacassamo, Fatima; Sacoor, Charfudin N; Aide, Pedro; Machevo, Sonia; Nhampossa, Tacilta; Macete, Eusébio V; Bassat, Quique; David, Catarina; Bardají, Azucena; Letang, Emili; Saúte, Francisco; Aponte, John J; Thompson, Ricardo; Alonso, Pedro L

    2009-01-01

    Background Approximately 46 million of the estimated 60 million deaths that occur in the world each year take place in developing countries. Further, this mortality is highest in Sub-Saharan Africa, although causes of mortality in this region are not well documented. The objective of this study is to describe the most frequent causes of mortality in children under 15 years of age in the demographic surveillance area of the Manhiça Health Research Centre, between 1997 and 2006, using the verbal autopsy tool. Methods Verbal autopsy interviews for causes of death in children began in 1997. Each questionnaire was reviewed independently by three physicians with experience in tropical paediatrics, who assigned the cause of death according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Each medical doctor attributed a minimum of one and a maximum of 2 causes. A final diagnosis is reached when at least two physicians agreed on the cause of death. Results From January 1997 to December 2006, 568499 person-year at risk (pyrs) and 10037 deaths were recorded in the Manhiça DSS. 3730 deaths with 246658 pyrs were recorded for children under 15 years of age. Verbal autopsy interviews were conducted on 3002 (80.4%) of these deaths. 73.6% of deaths were attributed to communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases accounted for 9.5% of the defined causes of death, and injuries for 3.9% of causes of deaths. Malaria was the single largest cause, accounting for 21.8% of cases. Pneumonia with 9.8% was the second leading cause of death, followed by HIV/AIDS (8.3%) and diarrhoeal diseases with 8%. Conclusion The results of this study stand out the big challenges that lie ahead in the fight against infectious diseases in the study area. The pattern of childhood mortality in Manhiça area is typical of developing countries where malaria, pneumonia and HIV/AIDS are important causes of death. PMID:19236726

  12. A 10 year study of the cause of death in children under 15 years in Manhiça, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Sacarlal, Jahit; Nhacolo, Ariel Q; Sigaúque, Betuel; Nhalungo, Delino A; Abacassamo, Fatima; Sacoor, Charfudin N; Aide, Pedro; Machevo, Sonia; Nhampossa, Tacilta; Macete, Eusébio V; Bassat, Quique; David, Catarina; Bardají, Azucena; Letang, Emili; Saúte, Francisco; Aponte, John J; Thompson, Ricardo; Alonso, Pedro L

    2009-02-24

    Approximately 46 million of the estimated 60 million deaths that occur in the world each year take place in developing countries. Further, this mortality is highest in Sub-Saharan Africa, although causes of mortality in this region are not well documented. The objective of this study is to describe the most frequent causes of mortality in children under 15 years of age in the demographic surveillance area of the Manhiça Health Research Centre, between 1997 and 2006, using the verbal autopsy tool. Verbal autopsy interviews for causes of death in children began in 1997. Each questionnaire was reviewed independently by three physicians with experience in tropical paediatrics, who assigned the cause of death according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Each medical doctor attributed a minimum of one and a maximum of 2 causes. A final diagnosis is reached when at least two physicians agreed on the cause of death. From January 1997 to December 2006, 568,499 person-year at risk (pyrs) and 10,037 deaths were recorded in the Manhiça DSS. 3,730 deaths with 246,658 pyrs were recorded for children under 15 years of age. Verbal autopsy interviews were conducted on 3,002 (80.4%) of these deaths. 73.6% of deaths were attributed to communicable diseases, non-communicable diseases accounted for 9.5% of the defined causes of death, and injuries for 3.9% of causes of deaths. Malaria was the single largest cause, accounting for 21.8% of cases. Pneumonia with 9.8% was the second leading cause of death, followed by HIV/AIDS (8.3%) and diarrhoeal diseases with 8%. The results of this study stand out the big challenges that lie ahead in the fight against infectious diseases in the study area. The pattern of childhood mortality in Manhiça area is typical of developing countries where malaria, pneumonia and HIV/AIDS are important causes of death.

  13. Gingival proliferative lesions in children and adolescents in Brazil: A 15-year-period cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    daSilva, Fabiana Caroline; Piazzetta, Cleto Mariosvaldo; Torres-Pereira, Cassius Carvalho; Schussel, Juliana Lucena; Amenábar, José Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of oral lesions in children and adolescents, particularly in gingiva are scarce in the literature. The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of gingival proliferative lesions based on clinical and histopathological diagnoses in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A review of clinical charts of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years old, admitted to the Oral Medicine Outpatient Unit, of Universidade Federal do Paraná, for 15 years (1994–2009) was performed. Results: Six hundred and sixty-nine out of 5,129 patients treated during this period were aged between 0 and 18 years old, and 45 of these had gingival lesions. The largest number of lesions was observed between 11 and 16 years old. The majority of the patients were referred by Curitiba's public health system. Pyogenic granuloma was the most frequent lesion (19 = 42.2%), followed by peripheral giant cell lesion (11 = 24.4%), gingival fibromatosis (10 = 22.2%), and peripheral ossifying fibroma (5 = 11.1%). Conclusion: Gingival proliferative lesions can show similar clinical characteristics. Appropriate clinical and histopathological diagnoses are necessary to guide the healthcare professional to establish the adequate treatment and to estimate the risk of recurrence. PMID:27041840

  14. ADHD modulates the course of delinquency: a 15-year follow-up study of young incarcerated man.

    PubMed

    Philipp-Wiegmann, Florence; Rösler, Michael; Clasen, Oriana; Zinnow, Toivo; Retz-Junginger, Petra; Retz, Wolfgang

    2017-06-13

    There is growing evidence of an association between ADHD and rule-breaking behaviour and that subjects with ADHD are more likely to be involved in the legal system. However, the research on ADHD as a risk factor not only for delinquency but also for recidivism is scarce and findings are controversial. Therefore, we explored the impact of ADHD on the course of delinquency in a sample of incarcerated young men. We conducted a 15-year follow-up study by investigating the criminal records of 106 former youth prisoners. Criminal recidivism was operationalized through three variables: criminal recidivism; frequency of recidivism; and time to recidivism. The incremental predictive validity of ADHD was analysed using survival analysis and controlled for confounders associated with recidivism. Offenders with ADHD (n = 74) reoffended 2.5 times faster and showed a higher rate of recidivism and further incarcerations compared to non-ADHD offenders (n = 33), even when controlling for general risk factors such as antisocial personality disorder. Median survival rate ranged between 6 and 7 months in the ADHD groups and 25 months in the non-ADHD group. Our results revealed that ADHD has an incremental predictive power on criminal recidivism, even above general risk factors. Moreover, the criminogenic influence of ADHD appeared to be crucial in terms of the interplay of childhood ADHD, irrespectively of the persistence of the symptomatology into later life. Our findings therefore highlight the importance of early intervention and consequently prevention.

  15. [Monitoring arterial hypertension in workers in professions exposed to vibration hazards (results of a 15-year study)].

    PubMed

    Drobyshev, V A; Efremov, A V; Loseva, M I; Britov, A N; Michurin, A I

    2002-01-01

    To follow up for 15 years prevalence of arterial hypertension (AH) in workers exposed to vibration, to study AH course and possible correction in long-term vibration exposure. The survey covered 1232 males aged 25-59 years exposed to vibration at their working places for 1 to 30 years (test group) and 1163 males matched for age but not exposed to vibration (control group). Active primary and secondary prevention of AH and annual population control for 10 years were performed in the test group. The control group was followed up outpatiently without active intervention. Final screening was conducted 5 years after completion of the program of AH prophylaxis. Among workers exposed to vibration AH prevalence was similar to that in the controls and tended to reduction in the process of preventive treatment. However, after the end of prophylactic measures AH incidence rate returned to the baseline level. In workers at risk of vibration aftereffects conversion of normal arterial pressure to hypertension was observed more frequently than in unexposed patients. This requires active prophylactic intervention. Long-term exposure to moderate and high frequency vibration is an AH risk factor. Incidence rate of AH increases with longer exposure to vibration. Compared to controls, aged workers exposed to vibration have AH much more frequently.

  16. Soft tissue recurrent ameloblastomas also show some malignant features: A clinicopathological study of a 15-year database

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zitong; Sun, Guowen; Hu, Qingang; Chen, Fei; Wen, Shanhui

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the clinicopathological features of six cases of soft tissue recurrent ameloblastoma and explore the role of increased aggressive biological behavior in the recurrences and treatment of this type of ameloblastomas. Material and Methods In this study, we retrospectively reviewed recurrent ameloblastomas during a 15-year period; six cases were diagnosed as soft tissue recurrent ameloblastoma. The clinical, radiographic, cytological and immunohistochemical records of these six cases were investigated and analyzed. Results All the six soft tissue recurrent ameloblastomas occurred after radical bone resection, and were located in the adjacent soft tissues around the osteotomy regions. In Case 4, the patient developed pulmonary metastasis, extensive skull-base infiltration and cytological malignancy after multiple recurrences and malignant transformation was diagnosed. In the other five cases, although there were no cytological signs are sufficient to justify an ameloblastoma as malignant, some malignant features were observed. In Case 1, the tumor showed moderate atypical hyperplasia and the Ki-67 staining percentage was 40% positive, which are strongly suggestive of potential malignance. In Case 5, the patient developed a second soft tissue recurrence in the parapharyngeal region and later died of tumor-related complications. All the remaining three patients showed cytology atypia of varying degrees and high expression of PCNA or Ki-67, which confirmed active cell proliferation. Conclusions Increased aggressiveness is an important factor of soft tissue recurrence. An intraoperative rapid pathological examination and more radical treatment are suggested for these cases. Key words: Ameloblastoma, soft tissue recurrence, aggressive biological behaviour. PMID:25662548

  17. Survival Data and Predictors of Functional Outcome an Average of 15 Years after the Fontan Procedure: The Pediatric Heart Network Fontan Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Atz, Andrew M.; Zak, Victor; Mahony, Lynn; Uzark, Karen; Shrader, Peter; Gallagher, Dianne; Paridon, Stephen M.; Williams, Richard V.; Breitbart, Roger E.; Colan, Steven D.; Kaltman, Jonathan R.; Margossian, Renee; Pasquali, Sara K.; Allen, Kerstin; Lai, Wyman W.; Korsin, Rosalind; Marino, Bradley S.; Mirarchi, Nicole; McCrindle, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Multicenter longitudinal outcome data for Fontan patients surviving into adulthood are lacking. The aim of this study was to better understand contemporary outcomes in Fontan survivors by collecting follow-up data in a previously well-characterized cohort. Design Baseline data from the Fontan Cross-Sectional Study (Fontan 1) were previously obtained in 546 Fontan survivors aged 11.9 ± 3.4 years. We assessed current transplant-free survival status in all subjects 6.8 ± 0.4 years after the Fontan 1 study. Anatomic, clinical, and surgical data were collected along with socioeconomic status and access to health care. Results Thirty subjects (5%) died or underwent transplantation since Fontan 1. Subjects with both an elevated (>21 pg/mL) brain natriuretic peptide and a low Child Health Questionnaire physical summary score (<44) measured at Fontan 1 were significantly more likely to die or undergo transplant than the remainder, with a hazard ratio of 6.2 (2.9–13.5). Among 516 Fontan survivors, 427 (83%) enrolled in this follow-up study (Fontan 2) at 18.4 ± 3.4 years of age. Although mean scores on functional health status questionnaires were lower than the general population, individual scores were within the normal range in 78% and 88% of subjects for the Child Health Questionnaire physical and psychosocial summary score, and 97% and 91% for the SF-36 physical and mental aggregate score, respectively. Since Fontan surgery, 119 (28%) had additional cardiac surgery; 55% of these (n = 66) in the interim between Fontan 1 and Fontan 2. A catheter intervention occurred in 242 (57%); 32% of these (n = 78) after Fontan 1. Arrhythmia requiring treatment developed in 118 (28%) after Fontan surgery; 58% of these (n = 68) since Fontan 1. Conclusions We found 95% interim transplant-free survival for Fontan survivors over an average of 7 years of follow-up. Continued longitudinal investigation into adulthood is necessary to better understand the determinants of long

  18. Is it possible and worth keeping track of deaths within general practice? Results of a 15 year observational study

    PubMed Central

    Beaumont, B; Hurwitz, B

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To assess the value of maintaining a death register in a general practice with particular reference to monitoring quality of care. Design of study: Observational study. Setting: Inner London general practice. Method: The practice maintained a manual death register, retained medical records of all deceased patients, and requested information on cause of death from health authorities and coroners for 15 years. Main outcome measures: Number and causes of deaths; 3 yearly age standardised death rates; proportion of deaths formally notified to the practice; place of death; source of cause of death information. Results: During the study period 578 patients died. Practice age standardised death rates fell significantly from 35.59 to 27.12/1000. 498 (86.2%) deaths were formally notified to the practice, 392 within 7 days of death. Of 143 deaths reported to the coroner, only 45 coroners' reports were received. 360 (64.1%) died in hospital, 139 (24.8%) at home, and 38 (6.8%) in a hospice. Death certificate cause of death information was obtained from patients' records in 33.6% (n=194) of cases and from health authority sources for 50% (n=289). The pattern of ascertained causes of deaths was similar to the national pattern. Conclusion: A death register can examine trends in practice deaths by age and place of death and comparisons undertaken with nationally published mortality data. An accurate picture of cause of death cannot be generated from routine data flows alone. There is delay in informing GPs of patient deaths. Meaningful and timely monitoring of deaths cannot be undertaken by individual practices. National Statistics should provide routine analysis of GP death certificate information. PMID:14532364

  19. Socioeconomic and geographic inequalities in adolescent smoking: A multilevel cross-sectional study of 15 year olds in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Levin, K.A.; Dundas, R.; Miller, M.; McCartney, G.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to present socioeconomic and geographic inequalities in adolescent smoking in Scotland. The international literature suggests there is no obvious pattern in the geography of adolescent smoking, with rural areas having a higher prevalence than urban areas in some countries, and a lower prevalence in others. These differences are most likely due to substantive differences in rurality between countries in terms of their social, built and cultural geography. Previous studies in the UK have shown an association between lower socioeconomic status and smoking. The Scottish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study surveyed 15 year olds in schools across Scotland between March and June of 2010. We ran multilevel logistic regressions using Markov chain Monte Carlo method and adjusting for age, school type, family affluence, area level deprivation and rurality. We imputed missing rurality and deprivation data using multivariate imputation by chained equations, and re-analysed the data (N = 3577), comparing findings. Among boys, smoking was associated only with area-level deprivation. This relationship appeared to have a quadratic S-shape, with those living in the second most deprived quintile having highest odds of smoking. Among girls, however, odds of smoking increased with deprivation at individual and area-level, with an approximate dose–response relationship for both. Odds of smoking were higher for girls living in remote and rural parts of Scotland than for those living in urban areas. Schools in rural areas were no more or less homogenous than schools in urban areas in terms of smoking prevalence. We discuss possible social and cultural explanations for the high prevalence of boys' and girls' smoking in low SES neighbourhoods and of girls' smoking in rural areas. We consider possible differences in the impact of recent tobacco policy changes, primary socialization, access and availability, retail outlet density and the home

  20. Sex Role Attitudes in Dating and Marriage: A 15-Year Follow-Up of the Boston Couples Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peplau, Letitia Anne; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses longitudinal research on sex-role attitudes during college and 15 years later among 231 college-age dating couples. Findings reveal significant links between sex-role attitudes and dating relationships but not relationship satisfaction. Fifteen years later, sex roles were largely unrelated to general patterns of marriage, childbearing,…

  1. Sweet Taste Perception and Dental Caries in 13- to 15-Year-Olds: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Ashi, H; Lara-Capi, C; Campus, G; Klingberg, G; Lingström, P

    2017-01-01

    Dietary habits and, in particular, the intake frequency of sucrose are of major importance for the development of dental caries. The perception of sweet taste is believed to have an influence on sucrose intake and therefore affects the predisposition to dental caries. The aim was to study the caries experience and sweet taste perception and to further analyze the possible relationship between the 2 tested variables in 13- to 15-year-old children from 3 different geographical areas. A cross-sectional survey comprising 669 children (220 Italian, 224 Mexican, and 225 Saudi Arabian) was conducted. The children were examined in their school setting. A sweet taste perception level was determined by the sweet taste threshold (TT) and sweet taste preference (TP). The sweet test was performed with sucrose solutions varying in concentration from 1.63 to 821.52 g/L. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) and DMFS indices were used to diagnose caries. The highest mean value for TT was found for Italian children followed by Saudi and Mexican. Saudi schoolchildren showed the highest mean values for TP and DMFS, followed by Italian and Mexican. A statistically significant difference for TP, TT, DMFS, and initial caries was found between the 3 countries. A weak yet positive correlation was found between taste perception (TT and TP) versus DMFS and manifest caries in all 3 countries (r = 0.137-0.313). The findings of the present study showed a variation in sweet taste perception between the 3 countries, which may influence the caries outcome of the children in the individual countries. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Dental pain among 10–15 year old children attending oral health promoting schools: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Saheer, Abdul; Kousalya, Pallavi Swami; Raju, Rekha; Gubbihal, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dental pain is a major public health problem and one of the consequences of oral diseases which requires significant adjustments in life management leading to decreased quality of life. Objective: To assess prevalence of dental pain and its impact on daily life and to explore its relationship with oral health behavior and clinical oral status among 10-15 year old school children attending oral health promoting schools. Method: This cross sectional study was conducted in 6 schools serving low -middle socio economic strata in Bangalore, India. A total of 1237 children were surveyed for history of dental pain during past 3 month. Participants who reported dental pain completed self-reported oral health behaviour and Child dental pain questionnaire. Clinical oral examination included assessment of dental caries, periodontal status. Data was analyzed using t - test, Chi-square test, ANOVA and Regression Analysis. Results: Prevalence of dental pain was 15.6% (n = 194). Among children with pain, 17%, 43% and 40% reported mild, moderate and severe pain. Impact on daily activities was reported by 66%. Mean DMFT and DMFS was 1.80 and 2.11 Mean deft and defs was 2.47 and 3.41. Multiple logistic regression revealed that severity and impact of dental pain was associated with gender, frequency of tooth brushing, consumption of sweets and deciduous dental caries experience. Conclusion: Prevalence of Dental pain is associated with brushing behavior, consumption of sweets and deciduous dental caries experience, showing need for further attention to these conditions and a need to strengthen preventive and therapeutic dental services. PMID:26942112

  3. Cultured autologous keratinocytes in the treatment of large and deep burns: a retrospective study over 15 years.

    PubMed

    Auxenfans, Celine; Menet, Veronique; Catherine, Zulma; Shipkov, Hristo; Lacroix, Pierre; Bertin-Maghit, Marc; Damour, Odile; Braye, Fabienne

    2015-02-01

    The aim was to review the use and indications of cultured autologous epidermis (CAE) in extensive burns and to evaluate the efficiency of our strategy of burn treatment. This retrospective study comprised 15 years (1997-2012). all patients who received CAE. patients who died before complete healing and patients who received exclusively cultured allogeneic keratinocytes. Evaluation criteria were clinical. Time and success of wound healing after CAE graft were evaluated. A total of 63 patients were included with severity Baux score of 107 (from 70 to 140) and mean percentage of TBSA of 71% (from 40% to 97%). The CAE were used as Cuono method, in STSG donor sites and deep 2nd degree burns and in combination with large-meshed STSG (1:6-1:12) in extensively burned patients. Cuono method was used in 6 patients. The final take was 16% (0-30) because of the great fragility of the obtained epidermis. Nine patients with deep 2nd degree burns (mean TBSA 81%, from 60 to 97%) were successfully treated with only CAE without skin grafting. Combined technique (STSG meshed at 1:6-1:12 covered with CAE) was used in 27 patients (mean TBSA 69%, from 49% to 96%) with 85% success rate. Finally, donor sites treated with CAE in 49 patients could be harvested several times thanks to rapid epithelialization (time of wound healing was 7 days (from 5 to 10 days)). The CAE allow rapid healing of STSG donor sites and deep 2nd second degree burns in extensively burned patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. Dental pain among 10-15 year old children attending oral health promoting schools: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Saheer, Abdul; Kousalya, Pallavi Swami; Raju, Rekha; Gubbihal, Radha

    2015-12-01

    Dental pain is a major public health problem and one of the consequences of oral diseases which requires significant adjustments in life management leading to decreased quality of life. To assess prevalence of dental pain and its impact on daily life and to explore its relationship with oral health behavior and clinical oral status among 10-15 year old school children attending oral health promoting schools. This cross sectional study was conducted in 6 schools serving low -middle socio economic strata in Bangalore, India. A total of 1237 children were surveyed for history of dental pain during past 3 month. Participants who reported dental pain completed self-reported oral health behaviour and Child dental pain questionnaire. Clinical oral examination included assessment of dental caries, periodontal status. Data was analyzed using t - test, Chi-square test, ANOVA and Regression Analysis. Prevalence of dental pain was 15.6% (n = 194). Among children with pain, 17%, 43% and 40% reported mild, moderate and severe pain. Impact on daily activities was reported by 66%. Mean DMFT and DMFS was 1.80 and 2.11 Mean deft and defs was 2.47 and 3.41. Multiple logistic regression revealed that severity and impact of dental pain was associated with gender, frequency of tooth brushing, consumption of sweets and deciduous dental caries experience. Prevalence of Dental pain is associated with brushing behavior, consumption of sweets and deciduous dental caries experience, showing need for further attention to these conditions and a need to strengthen preventive and therapeutic dental services.

  5. Aluminum and silica in drinking water and the risk of Alzheimer's disease or cognitive decline: findings from 15-year follow-up of the PAQUID cohort.

    PubMed

    Rondeau, Virginie; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Commenges, Daniel; Helmer, Catherine; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2009-02-15

    The authors examined associations between exposure to aluminum or silica from drinking water and risk of cognitive decline, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease among elderly subjects followed for 15 years (1988-2003). They actively searched for incident cases of dementia among persons aged 65 years or over living in 91 civil drinking-water areas in southern France. Two measures of exposure to aluminum were assessed: geographic exposure and individual exposure, taking into account daily consumption of tap water and bottled water. A total of 1,925 subjects who were free of dementia at baseline and had reliable water assessment data were analyzed. Using random-effects models, the authors found that cognitive decline with time was greater in subjects with a higher daily intake of aluminum from drinking water (>or=0.1 mg/day, P=0.005) or higher geographic exposure to aluminum. Using a Cox model, a high daily intake of aluminum was significantly associated with increased risk of dementia. Conversely, an increase of 10 mg/day in silica intake was associated with a reduced risk of dementia (adjusted relative risk =0.89, P=0.036). However, geographic exposure to aluminum or silica from tap water was not associated with dementia. High consumption of aluminum from drinking water may be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Aluminum and silica in drinking water and the risk of Alzheimer's disease or cognitive decline: findings from 15-year follow-up of the PAQUID cohort

    PubMed Central

    Rondeau, Virginie; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Commenges, Daniel; Helmer, Catherine; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined associations between exposure to aluminum or silica from drinking water and risk of cognitive decline, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Subjects were followed-up for 15 years with an active search for incident cases of dementia, aged 65 years and over living in 91 civil drinking water areas in Southern France. Two measures of exposure to aluminum were assessed: a geographical exposure and an individual exposure taking into account the daily consumption of tap and bottled water. A total of 1,925 subjects free from dementia at baseline and with reliable water assessment were analyzed. Using random effects models, cognitive decline with time was greater in subjects with a higher daily aluminum intake from drinking water (≥ 0.1 mg/day, p = 0.005) or a higher geographical exposure to aluminum. Using a Cox model, a high daily intake of aluminum was significantly associated with increased risk of dementia. Conversely, an increase of 10 mg/day in silica intake was associated with a reduced risk of dementia (adjusted RR = 0.89, p = 0.036). However, the geographical exposure to aluminum or silica from tap water was not associated with dementia. High consumption of aluminum from drinking water may be a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:19064650

  7. [Long-term immunogenicity and effectiveness of live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine (H2-strain)-a study on the result of 15 years' follow up].

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Fang-cheng; Mao, Zi-an; Jiang, Li-min; Wu, Jie; Chen, Yue-qing; Jiang, Qi; Chen, Nian-liang; Chai, Shao-ai; Mao, Jiang-sen

    2010-12-01

    To evaluate the long-term immunogenicity and effectiveness of live attenuated hepatitis A (HA) vaccine (H2 strain) after one dose injection, through a 15 years' follow up observation. A total of 220 children with negative anti-HAV antibody (aged 1-3 y) were involved and followed up in Jiaojiang district, Taizhou city, Zhejiang province. Indicators would include seroconversion and geometric mean titer (GMT) levels after inoculation the vaccine with single dose at 2 m, 12 m, 6 years, 10 years and 15 years. Epidemiological observation was carried out within the 15 years to evaluate the relationship between vaccine coverage, the incidence of HA and the overall effectiveness. In the studied population, serum was tested by ELISA (calibrated by WHO international reference) and ABBOTT Axsym HAVAB mEIA. Seroconversion rates were found to be 98.6% and 81.3% after 2 months and 15 years of inoculation and slowly decreased. GMT level was 128 mIU/ml after 15 years, significantly higher than the required protective level of 20 mIU/ml, recommended by WHO experts. Effectiveness through the 15-year follow up program showed a significant correlation between vaccine coverage and incidence of HA in 1-15 years aged group (Kendall-Rank test, τ =-0.931, P<0.01). There was no HA case seen among the observed accumulated 236 413 person-year vaccines, compared to 4 HA cases discovered in the 27 206 person-year of the non-vaccinees. The overall protective rate reached 100%. Through a mass vaccination program on children, the whole population established an immune-defence to enable the incidence of HA decreased by 96.7%. The long-term immunogenicity and effectiveness of live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine (H2 strain) after one dose injection could last as long as 15 years.

  8. Toxin Levels and Profiles in Microalgae from the North-Western Adriatic Sea—15 Years of Studies on Cultured Species

    PubMed Central

    Pistocchi, Rossella; Guerrini, Franca; Pezzolesi, Laura; Riccardi, Manuela; Vanucci, Silvana; Ciminiello, Patrizia; Dell’Aversano, Carmela; Forino, Martino; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Tartaglione, Luciana; Milandri, Anna; Pompei, Marinella; Cangini, Monica; Pigozzi, Silvia; Riccardi, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The Northern Adriatic Sea is the area of the Mediterranean Sea where eutrophication and episodes related to harmful algae have occurred most frequently since the 1970s. In this area, which is highly exploited for mollusk farming, the first occurrence of human intoxication due to shellfish consumption occurred in 1989, nearly 10 years later than other countries in Europe and worldwide that had faced similar problems. Until 1997, Adriatic mollusks had been found to be contaminated mostly by diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins (i.e., okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) that, along with paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (i.e., saxitoxins), constitute the most common marine biotoxins. Only once, in 1994, a toxic outbreak was related to the occurrence of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in the Adriatic coastal waters. Moreover, in the past 15 years, the Adriatic Sea has been characterized by the presence of toxic or potentially toxic algae, not highly widespread outside Europe, such as species producing yessotoxins (i.e., Protoceratium reticulatum, Gonyaulax spinifera and Lingulodinium polyedrum), recurrent blooms of the potentially ichthyotoxic species Fibrocapsa japonica and, recently, by blooms of palytoxin-like producing species of the Ostreopsis genus. This review is aimed at integrating monitoring data on toxin spectra and levels in mussels farmed along the coast of the Emilia-Romagna region with laboratory studies performed on the species involved in the production of those toxins; toxicity studies on toxic or potentially toxic species that have recently appeared in this area are also reviewed. Overall, reviewed data are related to: (i) the yessotoxins producing species P. reticulatum, G. spinifera and L. polyedrum, highlighting genetic and toxic characteristics; (ii) Adriatic strains of Alexandrium minutum, Alexandrium ostenfeldii and Prorocentrum lima whose toxic profiles are compared with those of strains of different geographic origins; (iii) F

  9. Toxin levels and profiles in microalgae from the north-Western Adriatic Sea--15 years of studies on cultured species.

    PubMed

    Pistocchi, Rossella; Guerrini, Franca; Pezzolesi, Laura; Riccardi, Manuela; Vanucci, Silvana; Ciminiello, Patrizia; Dell'Aversano, Carmela; Forino, Martino; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Tartaglione, Luciana; Milandri, Anna; Pompei, Marinella; Cangini, Monica; Pigozzi, Silvia; Riccardi, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The Northern Adriatic Sea is the area of the Mediterranean Sea where eutrophication and episodes related to harmful algae have occurred most frequently since the 1970s. In this area, which is highly exploited for mollusk farming, the first occurrence of human intoxication due to shellfish consumption occurred in 1989, nearly 10 years later than other countries in Europe and worldwide that had faced similar problems. Until 1997, Adriatic mollusks had been found to be contaminated mostly by diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins (i.e., okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) that, along with paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (i.e., saxitoxins), constitute the most common marine biotoxins. Only once, in 1994, a toxic outbreak was related to the occurrence of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in the Adriatic coastal waters. Moreover, in the past 15 years, the Adriatic Sea has been characterized by the presence of toxic or potentially toxic algae, not highly widespread outside Europe, such as species producing yessotoxins (i.e., Protoceratium reticulatum, Gonyaulax spinifera and Lingulodinium polyedrum), recurrent blooms of the potentially ichthyotoxic species Fibrocapsa japonica and, recently, by blooms of palytoxin-like producing species of the Ostreopsis genus. This review is aimed at integrating monitoring data on toxin spectra and levels in mussels farmed along the coast of the Emilia-Romagna region with laboratory studies performed on the species involved in the production of those toxins; toxicity studies on toxic or potentially toxic species that have recently appeared in this area are also reviewed. Overall, reviewed data are related to: (i) the yessotoxins producing species P. reticulatum, G. spinifera and L. polyedrum, highlighting genetic and toxic characteristics; (ii) Adriatic strains of Alexandrium minutum, Alexandrium ostenfeldii and Prorocentrum lima whose toxic profiles are compared with those of strains of different geographic origins; (iii) F

  10. An 11- to 15-year clinical outcome study of the Advance Medial Pivot total knee arthroplasty: pivot knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Karachalios, Th; Varitimidis, S; Bargiotas, K; Hantes, M; Roidis, N; Malizos, K N

    2016-08-01

    The Advance Medial-Pivot total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was designed to reflect contemporary data regarding the kinematics of the knee. We wished to examine the long-term results obtained with this prosthesis by extending a previous evaluation. We retrospectively evaluated prospectively collected data from 225 consecutive patients (41 men and 184 women; mean age at surgery 71 years, 52 to 84) who underwent 284 TKAs with a mean follow-up of 13.4 years (11 to 15). Implant failure, complication rate, clinical (both subjective and objective) and radiological outcome were assessed. Pre- and post-operative clinical and radiographic data were available at regular intervals for all patients. A total of ten patients (4.4%; ten TKAs) were lost to follow-up. Survival analysis at 15 years showed a cumulative success rate of 97.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 96.7 to 97.9) for revision for any reason, of 96.4% (95% CI 95.2 to 97.6) for all operations, and 98.8% (95% CI 98.2 to 99.4) for aseptic loosening as an end point. Three TKAs (1.06%) were revised due to aseptic loosening, two (0.7%) due to infection, one (0.35%) due to instability and one (0.35%) due to a traumatic dislocation. All patients showed a statistically significant improvement on the Knee Society Score (p = 0.001), Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (p = 0.001), Short Form-12 (p = 0.01), and Oxford Knee Score (p = 0.01). A total of 207 patients (92%) were able to perform age appropriate activities with a mean flexion of the knee of 117° (85° to 135°) at final follow-up. This study demonstrates satisfactory functional and radiographic long-term results for this implant. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1050-5. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  11. Predictive Validity of ICD-11 PTSD as Measured by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised: A 15-Year Prospective Study of Political Prisoners.

    PubMed

    Hyland, Philip; Brewin, Chris R; Maercker, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The 11(th) edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11; World Health Organization, 2017) proposes a model of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that includes 6 symptoms. This study assessed the ability of a classification-independent measure of posttraumatic stress symptoms, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (Weiss & Marmar, 1996), to capture the ICD-11 model of PTSD. The current study also provided the first assessment of the predictive validity of ICD-11 PTSD. Former East German political prisoners were assessed in 1994 (N = 144) and in 2008-2009 (N = 88) on numerous psychological variables using self-report measures. Of the participants, 48.2% and 36.8% met probable diagnosis for ICD-11 PTSD at the first and second assessments, respectively. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the factorial validity of the 3-factor ICD-11 model of PTSD, as represented by items selected from the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis demonstrated that, controlling for sex, the symptom clusters of ICD-11 PTSD (reexperiencing, avoidance, and sense of threat) significantly contributed to the explanation of depression (R(2) = .17), quality of life (R(2) = .21), internalized anger (R(2) = .10), externalized anger (R(2) = .12), hatred of perpetrators (R(2) = .15), dysfunctional disclosure (R(2) = .27), and social acknowledgment as a victim (R(2) = .12) across the 15-year study period. Current findings add support for the factorial and predictive validity of ICD-11 PTSD within a unique cohort of political prisoners. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  12. [International cohort studies].

    PubMed

    Ahrens, W; Pigeot, I

    2012-06-01

    Among observational studies, cohort studies, i.e. longitudinal observations of selected population groups, provide the highest possible evidence of a causal association between specific risk factors (exposure) and the occurrence of disease in populations. Besides the fact that many exposures cannot be investigated in experimental designs, cohort studies have the advantage over randomized clinical trials that they are conducted in free living populations and not in restrictive, clinical settings. In this paper we describe the aims and features of international cohorts that have been selected because of their impact, their size or their endpoints. We do not only present the study designs and survey instruments used but we also highlight some of the most important results gained by these studies. Most of these prospective studies investigated common chronic diseases in the elderly, such as cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular or neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporosis and ophthalmologic disorders. Newer cohorts and recent reassessments of existing cohorts almost always include the collection and storage of biological samples. In recent years technological developments allowed the implementation of cutting edge measurement procedures, such as imaging techniques for phenotyping. Finally, we discuss on the one hand whether these designs can be transferred to the German situation and on the other hand to what degree the results obtained from foreign cohorts can be generalized for the German population. We conclude with recommendations for future cohort studies.

  13. Early laser-welded titanium frameworks supported by implants in the edentulous mandible: a 15-year comparative follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Ortorp, Anders; Jemt, Torsten

    2009-12-01

    Comparative long-term knowledge of different framework materials in the edentulous implant patient is not available for 15 years of follow-up. To report and compare a 15-year retrospective data on implant-supported prostheses in the edentulous mandible provided with laser-welded titanium frameworks (test) and gold alloy frameworks (control). Altogether, 155 patients were consecutively treated with abutment-level prostheses with two early generations of fixed laser-welded titanium frameworks (titanium group). Fifty-three selected patients with gold alloy castings formed the control group. Clinical and radiographic 15-year data were collected and compared for the groups. All patients who were followed up for 15 years (n = 72) still had a fixed prosthesis in the mandible at the termination of the study. The 15-year original prosthesis cumulative survival rate (CSR) was 89.2 and 100% for titanium and control frameworks (p = .057), respectively (overall CSR 91.7%). The overall 15-year implant CSR was 98.7%. The average 15-year bone loss was 0.59 mm (SD 0.56) and 0.98 mm (SD 0.64) for the test and control groups (p = .027), respectively. Few (1.3%) implants had >3.1-mm accumulated bone loss after 15 years. The most common complications for titanium frameworks were resin or veneer fractures and soft tissue inflammation. Fractures of the titanium metal frame were observed in 15.5% of the patients. More patients had framework fractures in the earliest titanium group (Ti-1 group) compared to the gold alloy group (p = .034). Loose and fractured implant screw components were few (2.4%). Predictable overall long-term results could be maintained with the present treatment modality. Fractures of the metal frames and remade prostheses were more common in the test group, and the gold alloy frameworks had a tendency to work better when compared with welded titanium frameworks during 15 years. However, on the average, more bone loss was observed for implants supporting gold alloy

  14. Self-reported care needs of Dutch homeless people with and without a suspected intellectual disability: a 1.5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Van Straaten, Barbara; Rodenburg, Gerda; Van der Laan, Jorien; Boersma, Sandra N; Wolf, Judith R L M; Van de Mheen, Dike

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a prevalent problem among the homeless and seems related to more psychosocial problems. However, little is known about the care needs of the subgroup of homeless people with an intellectual disability compared to those without an intellectual disability and how their care needs develop over time. This study explores self-reported care needs within a broad range of life domains among Dutch homeless people with and without a suspected intellectual disability to gain insight into the transition of self-reported care needs from baseline to follow-up in both subgroups. This longitudinal study is part of a cohort study among homeless people who had been accepted for an individual programme plan in four major Dutch cities. The initial cohort consisted of 513 participants who were interviewed in 2011. At 1.5-year follow-up, 336 participants (65.5%) were also interviewed and screened for intellectual disability. Of these participants, 31% (95% CI 26.2-36.1) had a suspected intellectual disability. For both groups, between baseline and follow-up, the number of 'unmet care needs' decreased significantly and the number of 'no care needs' increased significantly, while at follow-up, participants with a suspected intellectual disability reported 'no care needs' on significantly fewer life domains than those without a suspected intellectual disability (mean numbers 16.4 vs. 17.5). Between baseline and follow-up, 'met care needs' decreased significantly on housing for both groups, and increased on finances and dental care for participants with a suspected intellectual disability. At follow-up, participants with a suspected intellectual disability more often preferred housing support available by appointment than those without a suspected intellectual disability. These findings suggest that homeless people who had been accepted for an individual programme plan with a suspected intellectual disability have care needs for a longer period of time than those

  15. Alcohol drinking and overall and cause-specific mortality in China: nationally representative prospective study of 220,000 men with 15 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ling; Zhou, Maigeng; Sherliker, Paul; Cai, Yue; Peto, Richard; Wang, Lijun; Millwood, Iona; Smith, Margaret; Hu, Yuehua; Yang, Gonghuan; Chen, Zhengming

    2012-08-01

    Regular alcohol drinking contributes both favourably and adversely to health in the Western populations, but its effects on overall and cause-specific mortality in China are still poorly understood. A nationally representative prospective cohort study included 220,000 men aged 40-79 years from 45 areas in China in 1990-91, and >40,000 deaths occurred during 15 years of follow-up. Cox regression was used to relate alcohol drinking to overall and cause-specific mortality, adjusting for age, area, smoking and education. Overall, 33% of the participants reported drinking alcohol regularly at baseline, consuming mainly distilled spirits, with an estimated mean amount consumed of 372 g/week (46.5 units per week). After excluding all men with prior disease at baseline and the first 3 years of follow-up, there was a 5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2-8] excess risk of overall mortality among regular drinkers. Compared with non-drinkers, the adjusted hazard ratios among men who drank <140, 140-279, 280-419, 420-699 and ≥ 700 g/week were 0.97, 1.00, 1.02, 1.12 and 1.27, respectively (P < 0.0001 for trend). The strength of the relationship appeared to be greater in smokers than in non-smokers. There was a strong positive association of alcohol drinking with mortality from stroke, oesophageal cancer, liver cirrhosis or accidental causes, a weak J-shaped association with mortality from ischaemic heart disease, stomach cancer and lung cancer and no apparent relationship with respiratory disease mortality. Among Chinese men aged 40-79 years, regular alcohol drinking was associated with a small but definite excess risk of overall mortality, especially among smokers.

  16. The relationship of severe health disorders with bone loss, grip strength, and mobility in postmenopausal women - a 15-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Suuronen, Juha; Sjöblom, Samu; Honkanen, Risto; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Kröger, Heikki; Sirola, Joonas; Rikkonen, Toni

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the relationships of severe health disorders (SHD) with bone loss, grip strength (GS) and mobility in postmenopausal women. The study sample consisted of 2227 Finnish women (mean age 53.2) from the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention (OSTPRE) cohort. Postal inquiries and clinical measurements were completed during the 15-year follow-up at 5-year intervals between 1989 and 2004. Femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) and GS were measured. Life-style factors and mobility were obtained via postal inquiries. Work disability pension according to the ICD-9 was an indicator of a SHD. At the baseline 242 women had SHD, 506 got late SHD during 1989-1995, whereas 1479 women had none until 1996. The women with baseline SHD had higher annual bone loss (0.44%) than those without SHD (0.34%) (p < 0.05), those with late SHD (0.39%) no difference was seen. Bone loss was highest with respiratory diseases, but BMD was lowest throughout the follow-up in nervous and sense organ diseases. Lower GS and mobility was also associated with SHD. Effects of SHDs on BMD, GS, and mobility are disease-specific. Thus, rehabilitation should be encouraged in postmenopausal women with SHD, especially in case of diseases of respiratory and nervous system. Implications for Rehabilitation Osteoporosis, muscle strength and co-morbidity Women with severe health disorders (SHD) leading to work disability have impaired musculoskeletal health. Active monitoring of the musculoskeletal health is advised for those with SHD. Women with SHD may benefit from rehabilitative treatment in order to avoid complications of musculoskeletal impairments.

  17. On the prevention of caries and periodontal disease. Results of a 15-year longitudinal study in adults.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, P; Lindhe, J; Nyström, B

    1991-03-01

    In 1971-72, a total of 375 adult subjects were recruited for a clinical trial aimed at assessing the effect of a preventive program, based on plaque control and topical application of fluoride, on the incidence of caries and periodontal disease. After a baseline examination, the volunteers were subjected to scaling, root planning and conventional caries therapy. During the course of the subsequent 6 years, they were recalled for preventive measures once every 2-3 months. After the 6-year follow-up examination, however, it was decided to extend the interval between the preventive sessions. Thus, during the next 9-year period, about 95% of the participants returned for preventive measures only 1 to 2 times per year. A small subgroup of about 15 subjects, who, during the initial 6 years had developed new caries lesions or had exhibited additional periodontal attachment loss, however, were also during the following 9 years recalled 3-6 times per year for oral hygiene control and preventive therapy. The re-examination performed in 1987 disclosed that the 317 subjects, who participated during the entire 15-year period, had a low incidence of caries and almost no further loss of periodontal tissue support. It was suggested that improved self performed oral hygiene, daily use of fluoridated dentifrice and regularly repeated professional tooth cleaning effectively prevented recurrence of dental disease.

  18. Family- and School-Related Factors in 9- to 15-Year-Olds Predicting Educational Attainment in Adulthood: A Prospective 27-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Merjonen, Paivi; Leino, Mare; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This prospective longitudinal study examined several selected family- and school-related factors simultaneously in order to investigate the importance of well known and less examined predictors of educational attainment. Method: The participants were 844 (486 girls) nine-, 12-, and 15-years old comprehensive school students. Family-…

  19. Intimate relationships and childbearing after adolescent depression: a population-based 15 year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, U; Bohman, H; Hjern, A; von Knorring, L; Paaren, A; Olsson, G; von Knorring, A-L

    2011-08-01

    Adolescent depression is associated with a range of interpersonal adversities. We hypothesized that depressed adolescents are at subsequent increased risk of problems related to intimate relationships and childbearing in adulthood, and used longitudinal data to examine this. A population-based investigation of depression in 16 to 17 year olds was followed up after 15 years, at around the age of 30 years. Comparisons were made between adolescents with depression (n = 361, 78% females) and non-depressed peers (n = 248, 77% females). Data from both national registers and personal interviews were used. At follow-up, the former depressed and non-depressed adolescents had become parents to a similar extent. The former depressed females were more likely than the non-depressed females to report abortion, miscarriage, intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted disease. They also reported a higher number of intimate relationships and were more likely to have divorced and to be registered as single mothers. Depressed females with a comorbid disruptive disorder had a particularly poor outcome. In the depressed females without a disruptive disorder, only those who subsequently had recurrent depressions in adulthood were at increased risk of poor outcome. There was no indication that the formerly depressed males were at increased risk of subsequent problems related to intimate relationships. Females with adolescent depression subsequently have problems related to intimate relationships and childbearing. Disruptive disorders and recurrence of depression appear to be instrumental in this association. Attention should be given to intimate relationship problems and sexual and reproductive health issues in young women with depression.

  20. Sleep Problems and Hospitalization for Self-Harm: A 15-Year Follow-Up of 9,000 Norwegian Adolescents. The Young-HUNT Study

    PubMed Central

    Junker, Asbjørn; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Gunnell, David; Bjerkeset, Ottar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association between sleeping problems in adolescence and subsequent hospital admission for self-harm (SH). Design: Prospective cohort study, linking health survey information on sleep problems to hospital-based patient records. Setting: Residents of Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway, aged 13-19 years in 1995-97. Patients or Participants: 10,202 adolescents were invited to participate in the Young-HUNT study; 8,983 (88%) completed the health survey. Measurements and Results: 10% of participants reported difficulties initiating sleep, 4% reported early morning wakening. Ninety-eight participants (27% male) were hospitalized following SH over a mean 12 years follow-up. Difficulties initiating sleep/early morning wakening were associated with increased risk of SH (HR 2.11, 95% CI 1.29-3.46, sex- and age-adjusted) compared with no problems, yet coexistent symptoms of combined anxiety/depression explained most of the association with sleep problems (fully adjusted HR 1.19, 95% CI 0.66-2.16). The HR of combined difficulties initiating sleep/early morning wakening differed in those with and without anxiety/depression at baseline (P interaction = 0.03); among those without caseness symptoms of anxiety/depression it was 5.58 (95% CI 2.02-15.40), while in those with caseness symptoms of anxiety/ depression it was 0.82 (95% CI 0.19-3.44). Conclusions: Sleep problems are common among Norwegian adolescents. The strong association between sleep problems and subsequent hospitalization for self-harm could mainly be related to coexistent symptoms of anxiety and depression. Prevention of adolescent sleep problems, anxiety and depression should be targeted when seeking to reduce and prevent self-harm. Citation: Junker A; Bjørngaard JH; Gunnell D; Bjerkeset O. Sleep problems and hospitalization for self-harm: a 15-year follow-up of 9,000 Norwegian adolescents. the Young-HUNT study. SLEEP 2014;37(3):579-585. PMID:24587581

  1. Prevalence of dental caries among 13 and 15-year-old school children in an endemic fluorosis area: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Anuradha, Br; Laxmi, G Sri; Sudhakar, P; Malik, Vn; Reddy, K Amarendher; Reddy, S Nagalaxmi; Prasanna, A Lakshmi

    2011-11-01

    To assess the prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis among 13- to 15-year-old school children in Panyam, Andhra Pradesh, India. The cross-sectional study was conducted among 202 school children and were examined for dental fluorosis and dental caries. This study shows that male students have a decrease in DMFT (Decayed, missing, filled, teeth) index and increase in Dean's index when compared with females. Among students with 13 to 15 years of age, 13-year-old student has increase in DMFT score when compared with other age groups and 14-year-old students has increase in Dean's score when compared with other age group students. The prevalence of dental caries decreased with the increase of fluorosis among the students examined. Patients with dental fluorosis show a decreased prevalence of dental caries.

  2. Cohort Profile Update: The GAZEL Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Marcel; Leclerc, Annette; Zins, Marie

    2015-02-01

    The original GAZEL cohort was composed of 20 625 employees of the French national gas and electricity companies (15 011 male employees then aged 40 to 50 years and 5614 women between 35 and 50 years old) at its inception in 1989. A Cohort Profile article was published in 2007. By the end of 2013, participants were aged 60-75, and almost all of them retired during follow-up. Accordingly, the main focus of research in the past decade was devoted to the study of the persistent, long-term effects of occupational exposures after retirement; of the transition between professionally active life and retirement; and on determinants of early ageing. Accordingly, in addition to the health, behavioural and social data collected yearly since the beginning of the follow-up, new data were thus collected on cognitive complaints, cognitive and physical functioning, limitations in daily activities, time use and social relationships of retirees. This update presents the main findings of research within the GAZEL Cohort Study during the past 7 years. Any research group, in France or elsewhere, can submit a research proposal to work on the GAZEL cohort. To do this, interested researchers should contact one of the principal investigators of the GAZEL Cohort Study.

  3. Cohort profile: The Isle of Man Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, Stephanie A; Rolfe, Edna M; Golding, Jean

    2013-10-01

    The Isle of Man is a self-governing British Crown Dependency situated equidistantly from England, Scotland and Ireland. In 1991, its population of ∼75,000 comprised ∼50% indigenous Manx and 50% immigrants, mainly from the surrounding countries. It was invited to join the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. The aim of the study was to enrol all pregnant women resident on the Island with an expected date of delivery in the 18-month period of January 1991-June 1992. A total of 1314 livebirths formed the eligible cohort. Questionnaires were completed by mothers and their partners during pregnancy and subsequently at 6 weeks, 6 months, 18 months, 3, 5, 7 and 15/16 years. Hands-on examination of the children occurred at age 7 years, when biological samples were collected. Teachers completed questionnaires at 7 and 15 years; medical records were extracted for the obstetric and childhood periods. Response rates varied from >80% from teachers and children at 15 years to only 23% from partners when their children were aged 7 years. Selected data sets are available to collaborators, although many of the data need funds for further collaboration.

  4. Socio-economic risk factors for injuries in Swedish children and adolescents: a national study over 15 years.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Cecilia; Schyllander, Jan; Stark Ekman, Diana; Janson, Staffan

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have assessed if Sweden's injury prevention work has been equally effective for children of different socio-economic backgrounds. The goal of this paper is to review the country's injury rates for children over time, stratified by socio-economic status (SES), to see if the effects are similar across SES levels. This study employs a retrospective case-control study design, using data from the hospitalisation records of 51,225 children, which were linked to family socio-economic data. Children and adolescents in families receiving social welfare benefits, and those living with single parents and mothers with less education had higher risks of injuries leading to hospitalisation. The population-based safety work over the past decades seems to have had only minor effects on reducing the impact of socio-economic based difference in injury risks to younger Swedes.

  5. A regional study of loblolly pine plantation development through 15 years after early complete woody and herbaceous plant control (COMP)

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller; B.R. Zutter; S.M Zedaker; M.B. Edwards; R.A. Newbold

    2002-01-01

    Pine plantations are increasingly cultured using early woody and/or herbaceous plant control. Developments in sustainable cultural practices are hindered by the absence of long-term data on productivity gains relative to competition levels, crop-competition dynamics, and compositional succession. To gain baseline data, this study examined loblolly pine (Pinus...

  6. Violence, Bullying and Academic Achievement: A Study of 15-Year-Old Adolescents and Their School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Ida Frugard; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated academic achievement among adolescents exposed to violence, sexual abuse and bullying. Moreover, we sought to determine the individual and contextual influence of the adolescents' school environment in terms of bullying, classmate relationships and teacher support on academic achievement. Finally, we wished to…

  7. Violence, Bullying and Academic Achievement: A Study of 15-Year-Old Adolescents and Their School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Ida Frugard; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated academic achievement among adolescents exposed to violence, sexual abuse and bullying. Moreover, we sought to determine the individual and contextual influence of the adolescents' school environment in terms of bullying, classmate relationships and teacher support on academic achievement. Finally, we wished to…

  8. Subthreshold Conditions as Precursors for Full Syndrome Disorders: A 15-Year Longitudinal Study of Multiple Diagnostic Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shankman, Stewart A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Klein, Daniel N.; Small, Jason W.; Seeley, John R.; Altman, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There has been increasing interest in the distinction between subthreshold and full syndrome disorders and specifically whether subthreshold conditions escalate or predict the onset of full syndrome disorders over time. Most of these studies, however, examined whether a single subthreshold condition escalates into the full syndrome…

  9. Day Service Provision for People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Case Study Mapping 15-Year Trends in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Padraic; McGilloway, Sinead; Barry, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Day services for people with intellectual disabilities are experiencing a global paradigm shift towards innovative person-centred models of care. This study maps changing trends in day service utilization to highlight how policy, emergent patterns and demographic trends influence service delivery. Methods: National intellectual…

  10. Saccadic Eye Movements in Normal Children from 8 to 15 Years of Age: A Developmental Study of Visuospatial Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Randal G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study used saccadic eye movements to assess visuospatial attention in 53 normal children (ages 8-15). Saccadic latency, the ability to suppress extraneous saccades during fixation, and the ability to inhibit task-provoked anticipatory saccades all improved with age. Developmental patterns varied by task. Analyses of age-related changes may be…

  11. Day Service Provision for People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Case Study Mapping 15-Year Trends in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Padraic; McGilloway, Sinead; Barry, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Background: Day services for people with intellectual disabilities are experiencing a global paradigm shift towards innovative person-centred models of care. This study maps changing trends in day service utilization to highlight how policy, emergent patterns and demographic trends influence service delivery. Methods: National intellectual…

  12. Geographic and socioeconomic variations in adolescent toothbrushing: A multilevel cross-sectional study of 15 year olds in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Levin, KA; Nicholls, N; Macdonald, S; Dundas, R; Douglas, GVA

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examined urban-rural and socioeconomic differences in adolescent toothbrushing. Methods The data were modelled using logistic multilevel modelling and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method of estimation. Twice-a-day toothbrushing was regressed upon age, family affluence, family structure, school type, area-level deprivation and rurality, for boys and girls separately. Results Boys’ toothbrushing was associated with area- level deprivation but not rurality. Variance at the school level remained significant in the final model for boys’ toothbrushing. The association between toothbrushing and area-level deprivation was particularly strong for girls, after adjustment for individuals’ family affluence and type of school attended. Rurality too was independently significant with lower odds of brushing teeth in accessible rural areas. Conclusions The findings are at odds with the results of a previous study which showed, lower caries prevalence among children living in rural Scotland. A further study concluded that adolescents have a better diet in rural Scotland. In total, these studies highlight the need for an examination into the relative importance of diet and oral health on caries, as increases are observed in population obesity and consumption of sugars. PMID:24917568

  13. Subthreshold Conditions as Precursors for Full Syndrome Disorders: A 15-Year Longitudinal Study of Multiple Diagnostic Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shankman, Stewart A.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Klein, Daniel N.; Small, Jason W.; Seeley, John R.; Altman, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There has been increasing interest in the distinction between subthreshold and full syndrome disorders and specifically whether subthreshold conditions escalate or predict the onset of full syndrome disorders over time. Most of these studies, however, examined whether a single subthreshold condition escalates into the full syndrome…

  14. [Rare hemoglobins in Togo: a 15-year study at the Lomé University Campus Hospital Center].

    PubMed

    Kueviakoe, M D I; Agbétiafa, K; Padaro, E; Fétéké, L; Layibo, Y; Amavi, T; Egnondou, K; Vovor, A; Ségbéna, A Y

    2013-01-01

    To identify the rare hemoglobins (Hbs) encountered in Togo and characterize their geographical and ethnic distribution and hematologic expression. This retrospective descriptive study covers 27,530 hemoglobin electrophoresis tests performed in the department of Hematology of the Lomé Campus teaching hospital from January 1996 through December 2010, the national reference laboratory. The anomalies identified were studied with both alkaline and acid electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), all performed in Lome. Any other specialized examinations were conducted mainly at the biochemistry laboratories of either Robert Debre Hospital in Paris or Henri Mondor Hospital in Creteil (France). During the study period, 20 cases of a rare Hb were identified, i.e., 0.07% of all Hb analyses. These rare mutants were: HbK Woolwich (10 cases, 50% of the rare Hbs); HbD Korle-Bu (7 cases, 35%); HbJ Lome, G Philadelphia, and Hb Lepore (1 case each, 5% for each). Eighteen cases were associated with Hb A. Two cases of composite rare Hb were found: HbS/HbK Woolwich and HbC/Hb D Korle-Bu. Carriers of Hb Lepore and of HbC/HbD Korle-Bu had hypochromic and microcytic anemia. HbK Woolwich was found in the Adja-Ewé and Tem-Kabyé ethnic groups, in the Maritime and Kara regions; HbD Korle-Bu, HbJ Lome, and Hb Lepore were also identified among the Adja-Ewé, and HbG Philadelphia in the Akposso ethnic group of the Plateau zone. This study although limited to Lome, allowed us to identify the rare Hb forms observed in Togo. Other studies on a national scale will specify their real frequency.

  15. Infectious Keratitis Progressing to Endophthalmitis: A 15-Year-Study of Microbiology, Associated Factors, and Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Christopher R.; Flynn, Harry W.; Miller, Darlene; Forster, Richard K.; Alfonso, Eduardo C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To describe the incidence, microbiology, associated factors and clinical outcomes of patients with infectious keratitis progressing to endophthalmitis. Design Non-randomized, retrospective, consecutive case series. Participants All patients treated for culture-proven keratitis and endophthalmitis between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2009 at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute. Methods Ocular microbiology and medical records were reviewed on all patients with positive corneal and intraocular cultures over the period of the study. Univariate anaylsis was performed to obtain p values described in the study. Main Outcome Measures Microbial isolates, treatment strategies, visual acuity outcomes. Results A total of 9934 corneal cultures were performed for suspected infectious keratitis. Only 49 eyes (0.5%) progressed to culture-proven endophthalmitis. Fungi (n=26) were the most common responsible organism followed by gram positive bacteria (n=13) and gram negative bacteria (n=10). Topical steroid use (37/49[76%]) was the most common associated factor identified in the current study, followed by previous surgery (30/49[61%]), corneal perforation (17/49[35%]), dry eye (15/49[31%]), relative immune compromise (10/49[20%]), organic matter trauma (9/49[18%]) and contact lens wear (3/49[6%]). There were 27 patients in which a primary infectious keratitis developed into endophthalmitis, and 22 patients in which an infectious keratitis adjacent to a previous surgical wound progressed into endophthalmitis. Patients in the primary keratitis group were more likely to be male (22/27[81%] vs. 8/22[36%], p=0.001), have history of organic matter trauma (8/27[30%] vs. 1/22[5%]), p=0.030), and have fungal etiology (21/27[78%] vs. 5/22[23%], p<0.001). Patients in the surgical-wound-associated group were more likely to use topical steroids (20/22[91%] vs. 17/27[63%], p=0.024). Visual acuity of ≥20/50 was achieved in 7/49[14%] patients, but was <5/200 in 34/49[69%] patients at

  16. Environmental exposure of lead and iron deficit anemia in children age ranged 1-5 years: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Shah, Abdul Qadir

    2010-10-15

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is the most common nutritional problem among children and lead (Pb) toxicity is the most common environmental health threat to children all over the world. The objective of this study was to determine blood lead (BPb) levels and prevalence of Fe deficient anemia among 1 to 5year old children attending day care clinic in pediatric ward of civil hospital Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 340 children of both genders participating in this study, were screened for anemia. Among them 215 were anemic and 125 non-anemic. The anemic group was further divided in two groups on the basis of % hemoglobin (Hb), mild (Hb <10g/dL) and severe anemic group (Hb <8g/dL), while non-anemic as referent children (Hb >10g/dL). The blood samples were analysed for Pb and Fe, along with hematological parameters. The result indicated that anemic children had a higher mean values of Pb in blood than referent children with Hb >10g/dL. The Pb levels <100μg/L were detected in 40% referent children while 60% of them had >10μg/dL. The BPb concentration in severe anemic children (53%) was found in the range of 100-200μg/L, whereas 47% had >200μg/L. The significant negative correlations of BPb level with % Hb (r=-0.514 and r=-0.685) and Fe contents (r=-0.522, r=-0.762, p<0.001) were observed in mild and severe anemic children respectively. While positive correlation was observed between BPb and age of both group and genders (r=0.69, p<0.01). The BPb levels were significantly associated with biochemical indices in the blood which have the potential to be used as biomarkers of Pb intoxication and Fe deficient anemia.

  17. Violence, bullying and academic achievement: a study of 15-year-old adolescents and their school environment.

    PubMed

    Strøm, Ida Frugård; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated academic achievement among adolescents exposed to violence, sexual abuse and bullying. Moreover, we sought to determine the individual and contextual influence of the adolescents' school environment in terms of bullying, classmate relationships and teacher support on academic achievement. Finally, we wished to assess whether school-level influence is different for the adolescents exposed to violence and sexual abuse versus the adolescents not exposed to these forms of abuse. This is a cross-sectional study of a sample of 7,343 adolescents between the ages of 15 and 16 from 56 schools in Oslo, Norway. We investigated associations between violence, sexual abuse, bullying, classmate relationships, teacher support and academic achievement. Linear regression was used to investigate associations on the individual level. Multilevel analyses were conducted to test for school level differences while controlling for both individual and contextual factors. On the individual level, all combinations of violence and sexual abuse categories were significantly associated with lower grades. This was also true for bullying, while teacher support resulted in better grades. At the school level, the analysis showed that students in schools with higher levels of bullying performed worse academically. Each unit of increment in bullying in school corresponded to an average 0.98 point decrease in grades (p<.01) when we controlled for sociodemographic characteristics. The association remained significant when the model was tested separately for the nonbullied students, with a small reduction in the coefficient value (-.84, p<.01). No overall significance was found for the interaction between the school environment and adolescent exposure to violence, indicating that the school environment affects all students. Factors on both levels can contribute to reduced grades. This stresses the need to investigate individual and contextual factors simultaneously when examining

  18. Physical activity is independently associated with reduced mortality: 15-years follow-up of the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK)

    PubMed Central

    Kopperstad, Øyvind; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Sivertsen, Børge; Tell, Grethe S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is associated with lower risk for non-communicable diseases and mortality. We aimed to investigate the prospective association between PA and all-cause and cause-specific mortality, and the impact of other potentially contributing factors. Method Data from the community-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK, 1997–99) were linked to the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. The study included 20,506 individuals born 1950–1957 and 2,225 born in 1925–1927 (baseline age 40–49 and 70–74). Based on self-report, individuals were grouped as habitually performing low intensity, short duration, low intensity, longer duration or high intensity PA. The hazard ratios (HR) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality during follow-up were calculated. Measures of socioeconomic status, physical health, mental health, smoking and alcohol consumption were added separately and cumulatively to the model. Results PA was associated with lower all-cause mortality in both older (HR 0.75 (95% CI 0.67–0.84)) and younger individuals (HR 0.82 (95% CI 0.72–0.92)) (crude models, HR: risk associated with moving from low intensity, short duration to low intensity, longer duration PA, and from low intensity, longer duration to high intensity). Smoking, education, somatic diagnoses and mental health accounted for some of the association between physical activity and mortality, but a separate protective effect of PA remained in fully adjusted models for cardiovascular (HR 0.78 (95% CI 0.66–0.92)) and respiratory (HR 0.45 (95% CI 0.32–0.63) mortality (both age-groups together), as well as all-cause mortality in the older age group (HR 0.74, 95%CI 0.66–0.83). Conclusion Low intensity, longer duration and high intensity physical activity was associated with reduced all-cause, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality, indicating that physical activity is beneficial also among older individuals, and that a moderate increase in PA can be beneficial. PMID

  19. Aggression and violence in psychiatric hospitals with and without open door policies: A 15-year naturalistic observational study.

    PubMed

    Schneeberger, Andres R; Kowalinski, Eva; Fröhlich, Daniela; Schröder, Katrin; von Felten, Stefanie; Zinkler, Martin; Beine, Karl H; Heinz, Andreas; Borgwardt, Stefan; Lang, Undine E; Bux, Donald A; Huber, Christian G

    2017-08-26

    Aggressive behavior and violence in psychiatric patients have often been quoted to justify more restrictive settings in psychiatric facilities. However, the effects of open vs. locked door policies on aggressive incidents remain unclear. This study had a naturalistic observational design and analyzed the occurrence of aggressive behavior as well as the use of seclusion or restraint in 21 German hospitals. The analysis included data from 1998 to 2012 and contained a total of n = 314,330 cases, either treated in one of 17 hospitals with (n = 68,135) or in one of 4 hospitals without an open door policy (n = 246,195). We also analyzed the data according to participants' stay on open, partially open, or locked wards. To compare hospital and ward types, we used generalized linear mixed-effects models on a propensity score matched subset (n = 126,268) and on the total dataset. The effect of open vs. locked door policy was non-significant in all analyses of aggressive behavior during treatment. Restraint or seclusion during treatment was less likely in hospitals with an open door policy. On open wards, any aggressive behavior and restraint or seclusion were less likely, whereas bodily harm was more likely than on closed wards. Hospitals with open door policies did not differ from hospitals with locked wards regarding different forms of aggression. Other restrictive interventions used to control aggression were significantly reduced in open settings. Open wards seem to have a positive effect on reducing aggression. Future research should focus on mental health care policies targeted at empowering treatment approaches, respecting the patient's autonomy and promoting reductions of institutional coercion. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Infants under the age of six months with acute mastoiditis. A descriptive study of 15 years in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Stenfeldt, K; Enoksson, F; Stalfors, J; Hultcrantz, M; Hermansson, A; Groth, A

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the occurrence, clinical signs and outcome of acute mastoiditis in infants under the age of 6 months in Sweden between the years 1993-2007. All ENT departments in Sweden reported children 0-5 months treated for acute mastoiditis 1993-2007 and all records were reviewed. The clinical course and various characteristics were recorded. Seventeen young infants with acute mastoiditis were identified. Three patients had suffered acute otitis media earlier, otherwise the children were previously healthy. Preceding the episode of acute mastoiditis, the children had an upper respiratory tract infection or fever for seven days in mean (median three days) and the mean number of days with ear-symptoms was three days (median two days). Three patients were treated with antibiotics prior to admittance. Almost all children presented with clear retroauricular signs with protruding ear and redness behind the ear. The children were hospitalised for six days (mean and median). Eight patients (47%) suffered from a subperiosteal abscess. All but one patient underwent surgery: myringotomy (13); incision or punction of the mastoid (5); mastoidectomy (3). Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most frequent bacterium identified in cultures. No intracranial complications or other severe complications were found. Acute mastoiditis is extremely rare in infants under the age of 6 months. The patients in this study did not have any predisposing diseases. An upper respiratory tract infection had preceded the episode of acute mastoiditis for some time in the majority of cases, but the time from first ear symptoms to hospitalization was very short. Acute mastoiditis is a potentially life-threatening disease, but the timely administration of intravenous antibiotics and surgical intervention prevented the occurrence of severe complications in these young infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of war on central nervous system tumors incidence--a 15-year retrospective study in Istria County, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Telarović, Srdana; Telarović, Sinisa; Relja, Maja; Franinović-Marković, Julijana

    2006-03-01

    The aim of study was to analyze epidemiological features of central nervous system (CNS) tumors diagnosed in Istria County, Croatia, with a particular emphasis on incidence dynamics during the wartime (1991-1995). The data were extracted from the medical records of patients with CNS tumors admitted to the Department of Neurology of Pula General Hospital in the period from the 1st January 1986 to the 31st December 2000, N = 364. For calculation of rates, we used data from the 2001 Croatian consensus http://www.dzs.hr/Eng/Census/census2001.htm. Data are presented as counts and incidence rates (IRs) per 100,000 persons-years in the case of annual rates. Annual incidence rates are shown as "raw" incidence rates and smoothed 5-year rolling average rates. The examined patient-related variables were: sex, age, occupation, premorbidity and comorbidity, with a particular emphasis on psychosomatic disorders and negative habits. The analyzed tumor-related variables included clinical manifestation, localization, and applied diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Primary tumors were separated from the metastatic, and the latter were analysed with respect to their site of origin. The lowest incidence of CNS tumors (10 patients) was reported in 1990, and the highest (42 patients) in 1993. The incidence dynamics of CNS tumors showed a rapidly progressive increase over the 1991-1995 period, followed by the return to average values. The access to a better and more readily available diagnostics may only partially explain this phenomenon. Therefore, we analyzed other factors that may have contributed towards the rapid increase in the number of CNS tumors, such as its coincidence with the war or psychotrauma. The results confirm the observational clinical hypothesis of an extreme increase in the number of CNS tumors during the period under consideration.

  2. Evaluation of Oral Health Status among 5-15-Year-old School Children in Shimoga City, Karnataka, India: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Shashibhushan, Kukkalli Kamalaksharappa; Pradeep, Muttugadur Chandrappa; Babaji, Prashant; Reddy, Vundela Rajashekar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Oral health is an integral part of general health. Dental problems can be avoided if identified at an early stage. There is no data on oral health status of school going children in Karnataka state’s Shimoga city. Aim To evaluate oral health status of school going children among 5-15-year-old in Shimoga city. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1458 government and private school children aged 5-6, 9-10 and 14-15 years. Dental caries (DMFT and deft Index), oral hygiene status (OHI-S Index) and dental fluorosis (Dean’s Fluorosis Index) according to WHO diagnostic criteria (1997) were assessed. Data was evaluated using ANOVA and t-test by SPSS (IBM statistical software version 21.0.) at a level of 5% significance. Results The deft among 5-6-year-old children was 3.36±3.511, deft and DMFT among 9-10-year-old was 2.55±2.497 and 0.45±0.996 respectively and DMFT among 14-15-year-old was 1.34±1.832. The caries prevalence among 5-6-year-old was 68.8%, 9-10-year-old was 77.2% and 14-15-year-old was 48.9% and overall prevalence of dental caries was 65.3% which was statistically significant. Among 9-10-year-old oral hygiene was good in 85.4%, fair in 13.5% and poor in 1% of school children and among 14-15-year-old oral hygiene was good in 77.4%, fair in 22.2% and poor in 0.4%. Overall 81.7% of children had good oral hygiene. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 14.5%. Conclusion The children from government school were found to be less caries free than the private school children, but the difference was not significant. Oral hygiene status is found to be good among both the private and government school children. So the dental awareness is required among children of government school. PMID:28893041

  3. Evaluation of Oral Health Status among 5-15-Year-old School Children in Shimoga City, Karnataka, India: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Soumya, Shivananda Gudal; Shashibhushan, Kukkalli Kamalaksharappa; Pradeep, Muttugadur Chandrappa; Babaji, Prashant; Reddy, Vundela Rajashekar

    2017-07-01

    Oral health is an integral part of general health. Dental problems can be avoided if identified at an early stage. There is no data on oral health status of school going children in Karnataka state's Shimoga city. To evaluate oral health status of school going children among 5-15-year-old in Shimoga city. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1458 government and private school children aged 5-6, 9-10 and 14-15 years. Dental caries (DMFT and deft Index), oral hygiene status (OHI-S Index) and dental fluorosis (Dean's Fluorosis Index) according to WHO diagnostic criteria (1997) were assessed. Data was evaluated using ANOVA and t-test by SPSS (IBM statistical software version 21.0.) at a level of 5% significance. The deft among 5-6-year-old children was 3.36±3.511, deft and DMFT among 9-10-year-old was 2.55±2.497 and 0.45±0.996 respectively and DMFT among 14-15-year-old was 1.34±1.832. The caries prevalence among 5-6-year-old was 68.8%, 9-10-year-old was 77.2% and 14-15-year-old was 48.9% and overall prevalence of dental caries was 65.3% which was statistically significant. Among 9-10-year-old oral hygiene was good in 85.4%, fair in 13.5% and poor in 1% of school children and among 14-15-year-old oral hygiene was good in 77.4%, fair in 22.2% and poor in 0.4%. Overall 81.7% of children had good oral hygiene. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 14.5%. The children from government school were found to be less caries free than the private school children, but the difference was not significant. Oral hygiene status is found to be good among both the private and government school children. So the dental awareness is required among children of government school.

  4. Cohort profile: UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS).

    PubMed

    Connelly, Roxanne; Platt, Lucinda

    2014-12-01

    The UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) is an observational, multidisciplinary cohort study that was set up to follow the lives of children born at the turn of the new century. The MCS is nationally representative and 18 552 families (18 827 children) were recruited to the cohort in the first sweep. There have currently been five main sweeps of data collection, at ages 9 months and 3, 5, 7 and 11 years. A further sweep of data collection is planned for age 14 years. A range of health-related data have been collected as well as measures concerning child development, cognitive ability and educational attainment. The data also include a wealth of information describing the social, economic and demographic characteristics of the cohort members and their families. In addition, the MCS data have been linked to administrative data resources including health records. The MCS provides a unique and valuable resource for the analysis of health outcomes and health inequalities. The MCS data are freely available to bona fide researchers under standard access conditions via the UK Data Service (http://ukdataservice.ac.uk) and the MCS website provides detailed information on the study (http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/mcs).

  5. [A prospective study of the origin of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the esophageal mucosa:result from a high risk area of esophageal cancer in China during a 15-year follow up (1987 - 2002)].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-qing; Wei, Wen-qiang; Hao, Chang-qing; Wang, Guo-qing; Lü, Ning; Qiao, You-lin

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the association between the occurrence of esophageal cancer lesions and esophageal mucosa fold (white ridges), and further identify where is the initial origin of esophageal cancer lesions in the esophagus mucosa. This was a cohort study which recruited 551 subjects underwent endoscopic examination in a high risk area of esophageal cancer in Linxian, Henan Province in 1987. 339 subjects with esophageal white ridges, and with red area or erosion lesion at the surface of the white ridges, was studied as exposure group. Other 212 subjects whose esophagus had no white ridges and pathological diagnosis was negative, was studied as control group. The endpoint was occurrence of pathologically confirmed esophageal cancer. After a 15-year follow-up, the results were compared between two groups. Among the 551 subjects, there were 339 cases with esophageal mucosal white ridges in the exposure group. During the period of 15 year follow-up, the incidence of esophageal cancer was 11.8% (9/76) in 76 case with simple mucosal white ridges, 33.5% (88/263) in 263 subjects with white ridges and red area, or erosions on the surface of white ridge. While only 8.0% of subjects (17/212) developed esophageal cancer after the 15-year follow up in the control group. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.001). Esophageal mucosal white ridge, especially white ridge with red area or erosions is closely associated with subsequent esophageal cancer occurrence in the esophageal cancer high risk area in China. It is suggested that esophageal mucosa with white ridge may be the initial origin of esophageal cancer. Further investigations focused on this spot are required.

  6. Up to 15-year clinical follow-up of a pilot Phase III immunotherapy study in stage II breast cancer patients using oxidized mannan-MUC1.

    PubMed

    Vassilaros, Stamatis; Tsibanis, Anastasios; Tsikkinis, Annivas; Pietersz, Geoffrey A; McKenzie, Ian F C; Apostolopoulos, Vasso

    2013-11-01

    Targeting antigens to dendritic cell receptors has recently become a popular approach to inducing effective immune responses against cancer antigens. Almost 20 years ago, however, we demonstrated that targeting the mannose receptor on macrophages and dendritic cells leads to strong cellular immune responses. We conducted numerous human clinical trials demonstrating the effectiveness of oxidized mannan-MUC1 (M-FP) in MUC1(+) adenocarcinoma patients. In one trial, the 5-8-year follow-up of breast cancer patients vaccinated with M-FP was published previously; we now report here the 12-15-year follow-up. Details regarding the preparation of the vaccine, inclusion and exclusion criteria, immunotherapy and follow-up schedule, were published previously. The follow-up at 12-15 years showed that the recurrence rate in patients receiving placebo was 60% (nine of 15). In those receiving immunotherapy (M-FP), the rate was 12.5% (two of 16). The time of recurrence in the placebo group ranged from 7 to 180 months (mean: 65.8 months) and in the two patients of the vaccine group, the recurrence appeared at 95 and 141 months (mean: 118 months) after surgery. These findings are statistically significant (p = 0.02 for survival and p = 0.009 for percentage of patients cancer-free). All patients injected with M-FP showed no evidence of toxic effects or signs of autoimmunity during the 12-15-year follow-up. The preliminary evidence indicates that M-FP is beneficial in the overall survival of early-stage breast cancer patients. This long-term clinical follow-up of patients strongly supports the necessity for a large Phase III study of direct M-FP injection in early-stage breast cancer patients, to evaluate immunotherapy as an adjuvant treatment for breast cancer.

  7. Elaboration on the association between immigration and schizophrenia: a population-based national study disaggregating annual trends, country of origin and sex over 15 years.

    PubMed

    Werbeloff, Nomi; Levine, Stephen Z; Rabinowitz, Jonathan

    2012-02-01

    Generally, immigrant status and male sex are separately documented to increase the risk of schizophrenia; although population-based risk trends by sex and immigration over time have not been examined. This study aims to examine the extent to which immigration acts as a risk factor for schizophrenia, delineated by origin, sex and year, using national population-based data over 15 years. Data on all first psychiatric admissions from 1978 to 1992 (n = 10,892) from the National Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry of the State of Israel were merged with aggregate national data from the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics. Compared to native-born Israelis, people who migrated prior to the age of 15 (n = 2,335) were at a greater risk of schizophrenia (n = 8,557; RR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.53; 1.68), particularly those from Far Eastern (RR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.91; 3.1) and Caribbean and South American (RR = 1.94, 95% CI = 1.51; 2.51) countries. Aggregate risk was higher among female than male immigrants and over the 15-year study immigration-related risk declined across the sexes. The current findings replicate past research showing that immigrants, particularly from a social minority, as suggested by the social defeat-hypothesis, are at an increased risk of schizophrenia, and extend past findings to show that risk at least in Israel has decreased with time irrespective of sex.

  8. Internal prostatic architecture on transrectal ultrasonography predicts future prostatic growth: natural history of prostatic hyperplasia in a 15-year longitudinal community-based study.

    PubMed

    Fukuta, Fumimasa; Masumori, Naoya; Mori, Mitsuru; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2011-05-01

    From 1992 to 1993, we conducted a cross-sectional community-based study to clarify the prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia in Japanese men aged 40-79. Based on the results, we hypothesized that the internal prostatic architecture (IPA) on transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) would predict future prostatic growth. We investigated the changes in prostate volume (PV) over time and validated our hypothesis on predictors for future prostatic growth. Of 319 participants in the initial study, the PV of 104 men was evaluated by TRUS with approximately a 15-year follow-up in the current study. We categorized prostates into three groups based on the IPA: group 1, invisible transition zone (TZ); group 2, visible TZ with an unclear border; and group 3, visible TZ with a clear border. Overall PV significantly increased from 17.4  ml to 23.9  ml (P  <  0.001). The median PV changes by age decade (40s, 50s, 60s, and 70s) were 5.5, 5.6, 8.6, and 11.1  ml, respectively. Those by baseline PV < 20  ml, 20-25  ml, and ≥ 25  ml were 5.3, 9.8, and 14.7  ml, respectively. Those by baseline IPA for group 1, group 2, and group 3 were 4.7, 6.5, and 17.3  ml, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that PV (P  =  0.027) and the IPA (P  <  0.001) at baseline were independent predictors for future prostatic growth. This was the first study by longitudinal community-based study that the PV in Japanese men increased during 15 years. The IPA on TRUS is useful for predicting future prostatic growth. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. A 15-Year Follow-Up Study of Sense of Humor and Causes of Mortality: The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study.

    PubMed

    Romundstad, Solfrid; Svebak, Sven; Holen, Are; Holmen, Jostein

    2016-04-01

    Associations between the sense of humor and survival in relation to specific diseases has so far never been studied. We conducted a 15-year follow-up study of 53,556 participants in the population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, Norway. Cognitive, social, and affective components of the sense of humor were obtained, and associations with all-cause mortality, mortality due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD), infections, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases were estimated by hazard ratios (HRs). After multivariate adjustments, high scores on the cognitive component of the sense of humor were significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality in women (HR = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.33-0.81), but not in men (HR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.59-1.32). Mortality due to CVD was significantly lower in women with high scores on the cognitive component (HR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.15-0.47), and so was mortality due to infections both in men (HR = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.09-0.74) and women (HR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.04-0.76). The social and affective components of the sense of humor were not associated with mortality. In the total population, the positive association between the cognitive component of sense of humor and survival was present until the age of 85 years. The cognitive component of the sense of humor is positively associated with survival from mortality related to CVD and infections in women and with infection-related mortality in men. The findings indicate that sense of humor is a health-protecting cognitive coping resource.

  10. Ten- to 15-year results of the Oxford Phase III mobile unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: a prospective study from a non-designer group.

    PubMed

    Lisowski, L A; Meijer, L I; Bekerom, M P J van den; Pilot, P; Lisowski, A E

    2016-10-01

    The interest in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) for medial osteoarthritis has increased rapidly but the long-term follow-up of the Oxford UKAs has yet to be analysed in non-designer centres. We have examined our ten- to 15-year clinical and radiological follow-up data for the Oxford Phase III UKAs. Between January 1999 and January 2005 a total of 138 consecutive Oxford Phase III arthroplasties were performed by a single surgeon in 129 patients for medial compartment osteoarthritis (71 right and 67 left knees, mean age 72.0 years (47 to 91), mean body mass index 28.2 (20.7 to 52.2)). Both clinical data and radiographs were prospectively recorded and obtained at intervals. Of the 129 patients, 32 patients (32 knees) died, ten patients (12 knees) were not able to take part in the final clinical and radiological assessment due to physical and mental conditions, but via telephone interview it was confirmed that none of these ten patients (12 knees) had a revision of the knee arthroplasty. One patient (two knees) was lost to follow-up. The mean follow-up was 11.7 years (10 to 15). A total of 11 knees (8%) were revised. The survival at 15 years with revision for any reason as the endpoint was 90.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 85.2 to 96.0) and revision related to the prosthesis was 99.3% (95% CI 97.9 to 100). The mean total Knee Society Score was 47 (0 to 80) pre-operatively and 81 (30 to 100) at latest follow-up. The mean Oxford Knee Score was 19 (12 to 40) pre-operatively and 42 (28 to 55) at final follow-up. Radiolucency beneath the tibial component occurred in 22 of 81 prostheses (27.2%) without evidence of loosening. This study supports the use of UKA in medial compartment osteoarthritis with excellent long-term functional and radiological outcomes with an excellent 15-year survival rate. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B(10 Suppl B):41-7. ©2016 Lisowski et al.

  11. Back pain and MRI changes in the thoraco-lumbar spine of top athletes in four different sports: a 15-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Baranto, Adad; Hellström, Mikael; Cederlund, C-G; Nyman, Rickard; Swärd, Leif

    2009-09-01

    A total 71 male athletes (weight lifters, wrestlers, orienteers, and ice-hockey players) and 21 non-athletes were randomly selected, for a baseline MRI study. After 15 years all the participants at baseline were invited to take part in a follow-up examination, including a questionnaire on back pain and a follow-up MRI examination. Thirty-two athletes and all non-athletes had disc height reduction at one or several disc levels. Disc degeneration was found in more than 90% of the athletes and deterioration had occurred in 88% of the athletes, with the highest frequency in weight lifters and ice-hockey players. 78% of the athletes and 38% of the non-athletes reported previous or present history of back pain at baseline and 71 and 75%, respectively at follow-up. There was no statistically significant correlation between back pain and MRI changes. In conclusion, athletes in sports with severe or moderate demands on the back run a high risk of developing disc degeneration and other abnormalities of the spine on MRI and they report high frequency of back pain. The study confirmed our hypothesis, i.e. that most of the spinal abnormalities in athletes seem to occur during the growth spurt, since the majority of the abnormalities demonstrated at follow-up MRI after the sports career were present already at baseline. The abnormalities found at young age deteriorated to a varying degree during the 15-year follow-up, probably due to a combination of continued high load sporting activities and normal ageing. Preventive measures should be considered to avoid the development of these injuries in young athletes.

  12. Psycho-social and environmental correlates of location-specific physical activity among 9- and 15- year-old Norwegian boys and girls: the European Youth Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Ommundsen, Yngvar; Klasson-Heggebø, Lena; Anderssen, Sigmund A

    2006-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the existence of independent location- or context specific forms of physical activity. This study sought to identify location-specific forms of physical activity in a sample of 9 and 15 years-olds Norwegian boys and girls, and examined their associations to psycho-social and environmental factors. Methods A cross-sectional study of 9 and 15-year-olds (N = 760; 379 boys and 381 girls) was conducted in which participants responded to a computer-based questionnaire (PEACH) tapping potentially location specific forms of physical activity as well as psycho-social and environmental correlates. Results Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the nine and fifteen year-olds self-reported their physical activity as located in three separate and specific contexts: a) school commuting, b) informal games play at school and c) organized sport, structured exercise and games play in leisure time. Dependent of location, psycho-social and environmental correlates explained between 15 and 55 percent of the variance in physical activity. The impact of peer support, enjoyment and perceived competence in physical activity generalized across the three locations. Enjoyment of physical education classes, parental support and teacher support, in contrast, confined to particular location-specific forms of physical activity. Generally, behavioural beliefs and environmental factors represented marginal correlates of all location-specific forms of activity. Conclusion Young peoples' physical activity was identified as taking place in multiply genuine locations, and the psychosocial correlates of their physical activity seem to some extent to be location specific. Results may inform intervention efforts suggesting that targeting specific sets of psycho-social factors may prove efficient across physical activity locations, gender and age groups. Others, in contrast may prove effective in facilitating location specific physical activity, in which age may come to

  13. Predictors of Booster Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine at 15 years of age: A Cross-Sectional School-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Sheng; Chu, Chia-Hsiang; Wang, Jen-Hung; Lin, Jun-Song; Chang, Yung-Chieh

    2016-08-01

    The current consensus does not support the use of booster dose because of its anamnestic response in almost all children 15 years after universal infant hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination. However, in our clinical setting, numerous concerned parents request a booster administration for their children. We aimed to provide the possible predictors of booster response in adolescents before this booster administration. This study comprised a series of cross-sectional serological surveys of HBV markers in 15-year-old individuals between 2008 and 2012. Data on serum hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), and liver-function biomarkers in a total of 887 senior high-school students were collected. There were two parts to this study: HBV seroepidemiology and booster-response analysis to identify the possible response predictors and decay factors after the HBV booster administration. The overall anti-HBs and hepatitis B surface antigen seropositivity rates were 34.7% and 0.7%, respectively, and the median anti-HBs titer was 3.3 mIU/mL. Six weeks after one dose of recombinant HBV vaccine, the overall booster-response rate in the double-seronegative recipients was 94% (471/501). Among the participants whose initial anti-HBs titers were undetectable or low, 72.4% (247/341) and 95.6% (153/160), respectively, reactivated their anti-HBs titers ≥ 100 mIU/mL about 6 weeks after the booster administration. The likelihood of postbooster anti-HBs titer reaching an adequate protective level increased with the prebooster titer. The female participants had stronger anamnestic responses compared to the male participants. We found that the female participants and prebooster anti-HBs titers above the detection limit of the immunoassay were good predictors of HBV booster response. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Incidence of Ceramic Liner Malseating After Ceramic-on-Ceramic Total Hip Arthroplasty Associated With Osteolysis: A 5- to 15-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Yoshitoshi; Hasegawa, Yukiharu; Komatsu, Daigo; Seki, Taisuke; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2017-05-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of malseating of the acetabular liner in ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty (THA). Outcomes for 160 ceramic-on-ceramic THAs, contributed by 116 women and 39 men, were evaluated. Clinical and radiographic measurements were obtained over a 5- to 15-year follow-up for analysis. Liner malseating was identified in 20% of cases. Outcomes for 32 cases with liner malseating (group A) were compared to outcomes for 128 joints with correct liner seating (group B). The Harris hip score at the last follow-up was 90.1 for group A and 89.6 for group B. Osteolysis was identified in 5 cases in group A (15.6%), compared to 3 cases in group B (P < .001). No significant between-group differences were identified with regard to ceramic fracture, audible squeaking, loosening of components, and revision THA. The mean annual liner wear rate was comparable between groups, 0.0045 mm/y for group A and 0.0039 mm/y for group B. The 10-year Kaplan-Meier survivorship, based on an end point of revision THA, was 100% for group A and 99.0% for group B. Over a moderate-length follow-up of 5-15 years, malseating of the acetabular liner was not associated with negative clinical outcomes or THA survivorship. Malseating did increase the incidence of osteolysis, a risk factor for adverse effects. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to fully quantify the effects of malseating of the acetabular liner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Antibiotic prescribing of village doctors for children under 15 years with upper respiratory tract infections in rural China: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhixia; Zhan, Xingxin; Zhou, Hongjun; Sun, Fang; Zhang, Heng; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Liu, Qian; Li, Yingxue; Yan, Weirong

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of village doctors regarding the prescribing of antibiotics for children under 15 years with upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in rural China. Twelve focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Xianning, a prefecture-level city in rural China, during December 2014. We conducted 6 FGDs with 35 village doctors, 3 with 13 primary caregivers (11 parents), and 3 with 17 directors of township hospitals, county-level health bureaus, county-level Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or county-level Chinese Food and Drug Administration offices. Audio records of the interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the thematic analysis approach. Participants believed that unnecessary antibiotic prescribing for children under 15 years with The occurrence of URTIs was a problem in village clinics in rural China. The discussions revealed that most of the village doctors had inadequate knowledge and misconceptions about antibiotic use, which was an important factor in the unnecessary prescribing. Village doctors and directors reported that the doctors' fear of complications, the primary caregivers' pressure for antibiotic treatment, and the financial considerations of patient retention were the main factors influencing the decision to prescribe antibiotics. Most of the primary caregivers insisted on antibiotics, even when the village doctors were reluctant to prescribe them, and they preferred to go to see those village doctors who prescribed antibiotics. The interviewees also gave their opinions on what would be the most effective measures for optimizing antibiotic prescriptions; these included educational/training campaigns, strict regulations on antibiotic prescription, and improved supervision. Findings emphasized the need to improve the dissemination of information and training/education, and implement legislation on the rational use of antibiotics. And it also provided

  16. Design of a school-based randomized trial to reduce smoking among 13 to 15-year olds, the X:IT study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent smoking is still highly prevalent in Denmark. One in four 13-year olds indicates that they have tried to smoke, and one in four 15-year olds answer that they smoke regularly. Smoking is more prevalent in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations in Denmark as well as in most Western countries. Previous school-based programs to prevent smoking have shown contrasting results internationally. In Denmark, previous programs have shown limited or no effect. This indicates a need for developing a well-designed, comprehensive, and multi-component intervention aimed at Danish schools with careful implementation and thorough evaluation. This paper describes X:IT, a study including 1) the development of a 3-year school-based multi-component intervention and 2) the randomized trial investigating the effect of the intervention. The study aims at reducing the prevalence of smoking among 13 to 15-year olds by 25%. Methods/Design The X:IT study is based on the Theory of Triadic Influences. The theory organizes factors influencing adolescent smoking into three streams: cultural environment, social situation, and personal factors. We added a fourth stream, the community aspects. The X:IT program comprises three main components: 1) smoke-free school premises, 2) parental involvement including smoke-free dialogues and smoke-free contracts between students and parents, and 3) a curricular component. The study encompasses process- and effect-evaluations as well as health economic analyses. Ninety-four schools in 17 municipalities were randomly allocated to the intervention (51 schools) or control (43 schools) group. At baseline in September 2010, 4,468 year 7 students were eligible of which 4,167 answered the baseline questionnaire (response rate = 93.3%). Discussion The X:IT study is a large, randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of an intervention, based on components proven to be efficient in other Nordic settings. The X:IT study directs

  17. Selection factors in cohort studies

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, W.J.

    1985-05-01

    Cohort studies play an important role in the quantitation of cancer risk among occupationally exposed individuals. Properly conducted cohort studies can develop important data on the age, time, and exposure dependence of cancer risk. Such information allows identification of possible selection effects which may be present and allows generalization of risk estimates to other exposure circumstances.

  18. Cohort profile: Shahroud Eye Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Fotouhi, Akbar; Hashemi, Hassan; Shariati, Mohammad; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Yazdani, Kamran; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Koohian, Hassan; Khademi, Mohammad Reza; Hodjatjalali, Kamran; Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Chaman, Reza; Malihi, Sarvenaz; Mirzaii, Mehdi; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2013-10-01

    The Shahroud Eye Cohort Study was set up to determine the prevalence and incidence of visual impairment and major eye conditions in the 40-64-year-old population of Shahroud as a Middle Eastern population. The first phase of the study was conducted in 2009-10. Using random cluster sampling, 6311 Shahroud inhabitants were invited for ophthalmologic examinations; of these, 5190 participants completed phase 1 (participation rate of 82.2%). All participants were interviewed to collect data on participants' demographics, occupation status, socioeconomic status, history of smoking, and medical and ophthalmic history, as well as history of medication, and the quality and duration of their insurance. DNA and plasma samples, as well as four dots of whole blood were collected from participants. Extensive optometric and ophthalmologic examinations were performed for each participant, including lensometry of current glasses, testing near and far visual acuity; determining objective and subjective refraction; eye motility; cycloplegic refraction; colour vision test; slit-lamp biomicroscopy and intraocular pressure measurement; direct and indirect fundoscopy; perimetry test; ocular biometry; corneal topography; lens and fundus photography; and the Schirmer's (1008 participants) and tear breakup time tests (1013 participants). The study data are available for collaborative research at Noor Ophthalmology Research Center, Tehran, Iran.

  19. Dyslipidemia incidence and the trend of lipid parameters changes in women with history of gestational diabetes: a 15-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Minooee, Sonia; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Rahmati, Maryam; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-09-07

    Evidence shows that patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) may exhibit features of dyslipidemic phenotype later in life. We aimed to examine and compare dyslipidemia incidence rate and the trend of lipid changes over a 15-years follow-up between the women with the history of GDM and their healthy peers. This longitudinal study included 289 patients with GDM and 1183 women without GDM, aged 20-50 years. Pooled logistic regression model was utilized to estimate odds ratio of dyslipidemia. The generalized estimating equation was used to evaluate the trend of lipid parameters changes over time. Person-time dyslipidemia incidence rate in women with previous GDM was 0.067 (CI: 0.038, 0.096) with a median progression time of 2.13 years and for those without GDM was 0.059 (CI: 0.046, 0.072) with the median time of 2.31 years ([Formula: see text] = 0.214). The generalized estimating equation (GEE) analysis revealed no significant difference in trend changes of lipid profiles between two groups. Lipid disorder after GDM might be more influenced by other variables (BMI, anthropometric features, and smoking/lifestyle habits) rather than by the GDM status alone. Lipid profile changes of GDM women do not become significantly worse than their non-GDM counterparts, as time progresses.

  20. Impact of Age-related Macular Degeneration on Vision-Specific Quality of Life: Follow-Up from the 10-Year and 15-Year Visits of The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Anne L.; Yu, Fei; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Stone, Katie L.; Cauley, Jane A; Pedula, Kathryn L.; Hochberg, Marc C.; Mangione, Carol M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To assess vision-specific quality of life (QOL), based on abbreviated surveys derived from the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ), in a cohort of US women who participated in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF). Design Prospective, observational cohort study Methods Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) status, based on a three level classification (no AMD, early AMD, late AMD), and vision-specific QOL, based on abbreviated NEI-VFQ surveys were calculated for 1,674 women enrolled in the SOF at 4 centers within the US, who had gradable fundus photographs at both the 10-year and 15-year follow-up visits. The associations among 5-year changes in NEI-VFQ composite scores, change in AMD status, and distance visual acuity were examined. Results Compared to study participants without AMD at both visits, study participants with late AMD at both visits and those that progressed from early AMD to late AMD demonstrated the greatest declines in adjusted NEI-VFQ composite scores, up to a mean decrease of 16.2 out of a scale of 100. Visual acuity declines were also most prominent for patients with late AMD at both visits and for those that progressed from early AMD to late AMD. Change in visual acuity was found to correlate significantly with change in vision-specific QOL. Conclusions The abbreviated NEI-VFQ surveys provide reliable assessments of vision-specific QOL in AMD patients. The decline in vision-specific QOL associated with the progression of AMD is clinically meaningful. PMID:20691423

  1. Head Trauma with or without Mild Brain Injury Increases the Risk of Future Traumatic Death: A Controlled Prospective 15-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Vaaramo, Kalle; Puljula, Jussi; Tetri, Sami; Juvela, Seppo; Hillbom, Matti

    2015-10-15

    Patients who have recovered from traumatic brain injury (TBI) show an increased risk of premature death. To investigate long-term mortality rates in a population admitted to the hospital for head injury (HI), we conducted a population-based prospective case-control, record-linkage study, All subjects who were living in Northern Ostrobothnia, and who were admitted to Oulu University Hospital in 1999 because of HI (n=737), and 2196 controls matched by age, gender, and residence randomly drawn from the population of Northern Ostrobothnia were included. Death rate and causes of death in HI subjects during 15 years of follow-up was compared with the general population controls. The crude mortality rates were 56.9, 18.6, and 23.8% for subjects having moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), mild TBI, and head injury without TBI, respectively. The corresponding approximate annual mortality rates were 6.7%, 1.4%, and 1.9%. All types of index HI predicted a significant risk of traumatic death in the future. Subjects who had HI without TBI had an increased risk of both death from all causes (hazard ratio 2.00; 95% confidence interval 1.57-2.55) and intentional or unintentional traumatic death (4.01, 2.20-7.30), compared with controls. The main founding was that even HI without TBI carries an increased risk of future traumatic death. The reason for this remains unknown and further studies are needed. To prevent such premature deaths, post-traumatic therapy should include an interview focusing on lifestyle factors.

  2. Prognostic significance of functional somatic symptoms in adolescence: a 15-year community-based follow-up study of adolescents with depression compared with healthy peers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a lack of population-based long-term longitudinal research on mental health status and functional physical/somatic symptoms. Little is known about the long-term mental health outcomes associated with somatic symptoms or the temporal relationship between depression and such symptoms. This 15-year study followed up adolescents with depression and matched controls, screened from a population-based sample, who reported different numbers of somatic symptoms. Methods The total population of 16–17-year-olds in Uppsala, Sweden, was screened for depression in 1991–1993. Adolescents who screened positive and an equal number of healthy controls took part in a semi-structured diagnostic interview. In addition, 21 different self-rated somatic symptoms were assessed. Sixty-four percent of those adolescents participated in a follow-up structured interview 15 years later. Results Somatic symptoms in adolescence predicted depression and other adult mental disorders regardless of the presence of adolescent depression. In adolescents with depression, the number of functional somatic symptoms predicted, in a dose response relationship, suicidal behavior, bipolar episodes, and psychotic episodes as well as chronic and recurrent depression. Contrary to expectations, the somatic symptoms of abdominal pain and perspiration without exertion better predicted depression than all DSM-IV depressive symptoms. Abdominal pain persisted as an independent strong predictor of depression and anxiety, even after controlling for other important confounders. Conclusions Somatic symptoms in adolescence can predict severe adult mental health disorders. The number of somatic symptoms concurrent with adolescent depression is, in a stepwise manner, linked to suicidal attempts, bipolar disorders, psychotic disorders, and recurrent and chronic depression. These findings can be useful in developing treatment guidelines for patients with somatic symptoms. PMID:22839681

  3. Metabolic syndrome factors and risk of postoperative depression in high-grade glioma patients in a 1.5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jian-tong; Jiang, Chen; Huang, Jin; Dai, Min-chao; Wang, Cheng; Cheng, Chao; Shao, Jun-fei

    2014-10-01

    To date, the relationship between metabolic syndrome factors and the risk of glioma-related depression is still unclear, and no study investigates this relationship. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome factors and the risk of postoperative depression in high-grade patients. A total of 386 high-grade glioma patients participated in blood sample collection for metabolic syndrome factors analysis and the hospital anxiety and depression scale testing. The association between metabolic syndrome factors and the risk of postoperative depression was assessed using Cox regression proportional hazards models, and Student's t tests were used to evaluate the differences in demographic variables and clinical characteristics in subgroups. The incidence of postoperative depression in our 1.5-year follow-up was 30.5%. We found the risk of postoperative depression was elevated with increased blood glucose level [hazard ratios (HR) 2.277, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.201-4.320, top vs. bottom quartile]. The hazard ratio was increased for z-scores of blood glucose (HR 1.672 per unit standard deviation, 95% CI 1.311-2.133] and of the combined metabolic syndrome score (HR 1.080, 95% CI 1.000-1.167). In addition, risk of postoperative depression risk was increased in high-grade glioma patients with high blood glucose levels (≥6.0 mmol/l) (HR 2.084, 95% CI 1.235-3.515). However, we did not find significant associations between postoperative depression and other metabolic syndrome factors, including body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglycerides. Depression is prevalent among patients with high-grade glioma after operation. Blood glucose level is positively associated with the risk of postoperative depression, and might be involved in the etiology of postoperative depression, and may predict its development in high-grade glioma patients.

  4. Acute mastoiditis in children under 15 years of age in Southern Israel following the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines: a 4-year retrospective study (2009-2012).

    PubMed

    Kordeluk, Sofia; Orgad, Ran; Kraus, Mordechai; Puterman, Moshe; Kaplan, Daniel M; Novak, Lena; Dagan, Ron; Leibovitz, Eugene

    2014-10-01

    To describe the epidemiologic, microbiologic, clinical and therapeutic aspects of acute mastoiditis (AM) in children <15 years of age during the 4-year period (2009-2012) following the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in Israel. The medical records of all children with a discharge diagnosis of AM were reviewed. A total of 66 AM episodes occurred in 61 patients. Forty-four (66.6%) cases occurred among patients <4 years, recent acute otitis media (AOM) history was reported in 27.1% and 28.8% patients received previous antibiotics for AOM. Postauricular swelling, postauricular sensitivity, protrusion of auricle and postauricular edema (93.8%, 90.6%, 85.9% and 95.7%, respectively) were the most common signs of AM. Leukocytosis >15,000 WBC/mm(3) was found in 39 (59.1%) cases. Cultures were performed in 52/66 episodes (positive in 27, 51.92% episodes), with recovery of 32 pathogens. The most frequently isolated pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae (15/52, 28.85%), Streptococcus pyogenes (9, 17.3%) and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (5, 9.62%). Eight (53.3%) S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to penicillin. Mean incidence of overall and pneumococcal AM were 11.1 and 2.58 cases/100000, with no significant changes during the study years. Surgical intervention was required in 19 (28.8%) patients. (1) AM occurs frequently in patients without previous AOM history and with no previous antibiotic treatment; (2) S. pneumoniae and S. pyogenes continued to be the main etiologic agents of AM during the postvaccination period; (3) No changes were recorded in overall AM incidence and in pneumococcal AM incidence during the postvaccination period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth Risk Score and 15-year Change in Risk Score with Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Young Adults (From the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study)

    PubMed Central

    McMahan, C. Alex; Gidding, Samuel S.; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Juonala, Markus; Kähönen, Mika; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Jokinen, Eero; Taittonen, Leena; Pietikäinen, Matti; McGill, Henry C.; Raitakari, Olli T.

    2009-01-01

    The Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth (PDAY) study of autopsied 15-34 year old young people developed a risk score using the coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors (sex, age, serum lipoprotein concentrations, smoking, hypertension, obesity, and hyperglycemia) to estimate the probability of advanced atherosclerotic lesions in the coronary arteries. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study measured CHD risk factors in a population-based cohort in 1986 and 2001 and measured carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) with ultrasound in 2001. We computed the PDAY risk score from risk factors measured in 1279 subjects who were 12-24 years old in 1986 and 27-39 years in 2001. The PDAY risk score early in life (1986) and the change in risk score over the following 15 years (between 1986 and 2001) were independent predictors of carotid artery IMT; the multiplicative effect of 1 point in the 1986 risk score was 1.008 (95% CI 1.005-1.012) and the multiplicative effect of a 1 point increase between 1986 and 2001 risk scores was 1.003 (95% CI 1.001-1.006) (multiplicative effect 0.997 for 1 point decrease). In conclusion, the change over time (either a decrease or an increase) in the risk score during adolescence and young adulthood as well as the risk score early in life are important predictors of atherosclerosis. PMID:17884375

  6. [Snoring as an sign of sleep disorders in 11- to 15-year-old school children--initial results of a Vienna epidemiologic study].

    PubMed

    Török, Katalin; Fatemi, Ali; Werner, Irene; Kerbl, Reinhold; Schwarz, Bernhard; Ipsiroglu, Osman S

    2003-12-30

    The prevalence of snoring was evaluated in school children between 11 and 15 years of age. In addition to items reported by parents, children were asked to answer a questionnaire in order to receive information about the children's potential complaints, life style and school performance. The study was performed in 21 randomly selected schools in the Vienna area. 1434 school children were interviewed by a questionnaire (mean age 12.5 years, median 13 years, 676 girls vs. 699 boys). The questionnaire consisted of 45 multiple-choice questions about the socioeconomic status, possible sleep disorders and signs or symptoms of obstructive sleep apneas (OSA). The questionnaire completed by parents was also used to calculate the Brouillette-Score from the items snoring, obstructed breaths and apneas. 5.2% (74/1434) of children and 6.9% (86/1259) of parents or caregivers reported about snoring (frequently or very frequently). There were no sex differences for the children's and the parents' questionnaire. None of the children had a clearly positive result (hint of OSA) from the Brouillette-Score whereas "suspicious OSA" was observed in 3.2% (40/1259). When frequent and very frequent snorers were compared with the other children, more mouth breathing during sleep (p < 0.00001), mouth dryness (p < 0.00005), headache (p < 0.0005), cigarette exposition at home (p < 0.001), smoking (p < 0.005), daytime naps (p < 0.005), crying out of sleep (p < 0.01), daytime tiredness (p < 0.05) und a higher body mass index (p < 0.05) could be observed in this group, in addition to the items reported by the parents. The prevalence of snoring is lower in our study than in other studies. No statistically significant sex differences were observed, both in the parents' and the children's questionnaire. In our study snoring seems to be a sign or symptom of different sleep disorders, and not only of OSA. A statistically significant correlation between snoring and anamnestic hints of sleep disorders

  7. Variety of gambling activities from adolescence to age 30 and association with gambling problems: a 15-year longitudinal study of a general population sample.

    PubMed

    Carbonneau, Rene; Vitaro, Frank; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    To estimate trajectories of gambling variety from mid-adolescence to age 30 years, and compare the different trajectory groups with regard to the type and the frequency of gambling activities practiced and gambling-related problems. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Province of Quebec, Canada. A mixed-gender general population cohort assessed at ages 15 (n=1882), 22 (n=1785) and 30 (n=1358). Adolescent and adult versions of the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Group-based trajectory analysis identified three distinct trajectories: a late-onset low trajectory (26.7% of sample) initiating gambling at age 22, an early-onset low trajectory (64.8% of sample), characterized by one to two different activities from age 15 onwards and a high trajectory (8.4% of sample), with an average of four to five different activities from age 15 to 30. Males (14.2%) were four times more likely to be on a high trajectory than females (3.5%) (P<0.001). Preferred types of gambling activities were similar across the three trajectories. Participants on a high trajectory reported higher gambling frequency at ages 15 and 30, and were more likely to experience problem gambling at age 30: 3.09 [95% confidence interval (CI)=1.66, 5.75] and 2.26 (95% CI=1.27, 4.04) times more, respectively, than late-onset low and early-onset low participants, even when socio-economic status (SES), frequency of gambling and problem gambling in adolescence, gender, age 30 education, SES and frequency of gambling were controlled. Engaging in several different types of gambling in early adulthood appears to be a risk factor for emergence of problem gambling. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Fruit and vegetable intake is associated with frequency of breakfast, lunch and evening meal: cross-sectional study of 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Meilstrup, Charlotte; Holstein, Bjørn E; Rasmussen, Mette

    2012-02-06

    Frequency of eating breakfast, lunch and evening meal as a determinant of fruit and vegetable intake among young people is little studied. We investigated whether irregular meal consumption was associated with fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents. We used separate analyses, and special emphasis was on the potentially modifying effect of sex and age. Data were from the Danish contribution to the international collaborative Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC) in 2002. We used a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional design to study schoolchildren aged 11, 13 and 15 years (n = 3913) selected from a random sample of schools in Denmark. Fruit intake and vegetable intake were measured by a food frequency questionnaire and analyses were conducted using multivariate logistic regression. Overall, statistically significant associations were found between irregular breakfast, lunch and evening meal consumption and low frequency of fruit intake and vegetable intake (breakfast: fruit OR = 1.42, vegetables OR = 1.48; lunch: fruit OR = 1.68, vegetables OR = 1.83; evening meal: vegetables OR = 1.70). No association was found for irregular evening meal consumption and low frequency of fruit intake. Analyses stratified by sex showed that the associations between irregular breakfast consumption and both fruit and vegetable intake remained statistically significant only among girls. When analyses were stratified by both sex and age, different patterns appeared. Overall, skipping meals seemed to be a less serious risk factor for low frequency of fruit and vegetable intake among younger participants compared with those who were older. This was especially evident for skipping breakfast. The same tendency was also seen for skipping lunch and evening meal, although the age pattern varied between boys and girls and between fruit and vegetable intake. Our results showed that irregular breakfast, lunch and evening meal consumption among adolescents was associated with a

  9. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in oral health among 15-year-old Danish adolescents during 1995-2013: A nationwide, register-based, repeated cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Kaushik; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Skovgaard, Lene Theil; Andersen, Ingelise

    2017-10-01

    Scandinavian welfare states, despite having better population oral health than less egalitarian societies, are characterized by ubiquitous social gradients and large relative socioeconomic inequalities in oral health. However, trends in these inequalities among Scandinavian children and adolescents have not been studied in detail. To describe the associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) and oral health in adolescents and to investigate the trends in these associations between 1995 and 2013. Nationwide repeated cross-sectional studies (using individual-level data) were conducted on 15-year-olds in Denmark from 1995, 2003, and 2013 (N=154,750). Dental data were obtained from the national dental register of the Danish Health Authority (Sundhedsstyrelsens Centrale Odontologiske Register [SCOR]) and data on social variables from administrative registers at Statistics Denmark. SEP measures included previous year's parental education (highest attained educational level by either of the parents), income (equivalized household disposable income), and occupational social class (highest recorded occupational class between the parents). Covariates were immigration status, country of origin, number of children and persons in the family, and household type. The outcome was dental caries experience, represented by the decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMFS) index. Negative binomial regression models were used to examine the association between DMFS count and each of the explanatory variables separately while accounting for cluster-correlated family data. Furthermore, hierarchical multiple regressions of DMFS on SEP indicators-using the zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) distribution as the outcome distribution-were estimated while successively adjusting for the potential effects of the included covariates. Caries prevalence declined from 71% in 1995 to 63% in 2003 and 45% in 2013. Separate assessment of each covariate showed statistically significant graded

  10. A 15-Year Comparative Prospective Study of Surgical and Prosthetic Care and Aftercare of Overdenture Treatment in the Atrophied Mandible: Augmentation Versus Nonaugmentation.

    PubMed

    Visser, Anita; Stellingsma, Cornelis; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Meijer, Henny Ja; Vissink, Arjan

    2016-12-01

    Different treatment strategies for the atrophied mandible are described in literature. The need for long term care and aftercare for these strategies is sparsely described, however. To prospectively assess the need for prosthetic and surgical care and aftercare of two implant treatment strategies for the atrophied mandible. Forty edentulous elderly patients were randomly assigned according to a balanced allocation method to a treatment strategy: dental implants in combination with an augmentation procedure versus a nonaugmentation procedure. All surgical and prosthetic care and aftercare were scored from the first visit until 15 years after implant placement. Twenty elderly patients completed the 15-year follow-up. As expected, the augmentation group needed significantly more surgical time than the nonaugmentation group (338 vs 145 minutes), but the need for prosthetic care and surgical/prosthetic aftercare was comparable. Implant survival was lower in augmented mandibles (88.7% vs 98.7%, p < .05). Aftercare mainly consisted of routine inspections; the need for prosthetic adjustments was minor. Surgical aftercare was hardly needed. The only difference in the need for surgical and prosthetic (after) care was the extra time needed for performing augmentation surgery and the higher risk on implant loss in augmented mandibles. Otherwise, the need for care and aftercare was of the same magnitude. Thus, when applicable, nonaugmentation surgery is preferred as no general anesthesia is needed and the morbidity is low. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Follow-up study of more than 15 years of an angle-supported phakic intraocular lens model (ZB5M) for high myopia: outcomes and complications.

    PubMed

    Alio, Jorge L; Abbouda, Alessandro; Peña-Garcia, Pablo; Huseynli, Samira

    2013-12-01

    This study confirmed the long-term outcomes of the ZB5M phakic intraocular lens (PIOL). To evaluate the potential long-term risk associated with ZB5M PIOL implantation. A retrospective, nonrandomized, consecutive cohort study of a total of 208 eyes implanted with ZB5M PIOLs at VISSUM Corporación Oftalmológica de Alicante between 1990 and 1996 identified through surgical records (208 eyes of 123 patients); 50 of these patients (97 eyes) had available records and follow-up. ZB5M PIOL implantation. To evaluate the incidence and onset of each complication during the follow-up and risk factors and causes for loss of visual acuity. Mean (SD) preoperative spherical equivalent refraction was -19.36 (6.7) diopters and at the end of follow-up, it was -1.4 (2.6) diopters. Mean (SD) best-corrected visual acuity at the preoperative visit was 0.35 (0.2) decimal and at the end of follow-up, 0.56 (0.3) decimal. Mean (SD) endothelial cell density preoperatively and at the end of follow-up was 2783 (787) cells/mm(2) and 1921 (672) cells/mm(2), respectively. The incidence of cataract during the follow-up was 0.010 eye-year (EY); cornea decompensation, 0.001 EY; ocular hypertension, 0.008 EY; pupil ovalization, 0.020 EY; uveitis, 0.001 EY; and retinal detachment, 0.002 EY. To our knowledge, this is the first study that describes the long-term outcomes and complications of ZB5M PIOLs and suggests increasing the postoperative follow-up examinations in patients older than 40 years, analyzing anterior chamber modifications, and recommends PIOL explantation in cases of an increase in the crystalline size.

  12. Adrenocortical carcinoma: a 15-year survival after complete resection and repeated resection. A retrospective study in a patient with an expected poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Rocco; Pelizzo, Maria Rosa; Lirussi, Flavio

    2003-01-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma is a rare but aggressive malignancy with metastases being present in 30-40% of cases at the time of diagnosis. A number of prognostic factors have been identified in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma, but criteria predicting survival are not uniform. We report the case of a 58-year-old man with a large, non-functioning and poorly-differentiated adrenocortical carcinoma who, according to current knowledge, was expected to have a short survival. On the contrary, the prompt diagnosis and curative resection of the primary tumour, together with two reoperations for local recurrences, allowed a 15-year survival and a good quality of life. A revision of both clinical and histological prognostic factors is therefore needed in patients with this type of malignancy.

  13. Trends in hospital admissions and surgical procedures for degenerative lumbar spine disease in England: a 15-year time-series study.

    PubMed

    Sivasubramaniam, Vinothan; Patel, Hitesh C; Ozdemir, Baris A; Papadopoulos, Marios C

    2015-12-15

    Low back pain (LBP), from degenerative lumbar spine disease, represents a significant burden on healthcare resources. Studies worldwide report trends attributable to their country's specific demographics and healthcare system. Considering England's specific medico-socioeconomic conditions, we investigate recent trends in hospital admissions and procedures for LBP, and discuss the implications for the allocation of healthcare resources. Retrospective cohort study using Hospital Episode Statistics data relating to degenerative lumbar spine disease in England, between 1999 and 2013. Regression models were used to analyse trends. Trends in the number of admissions and procedures for LBP, mean patient age, gender and length of stay. Hospital admissions and procedures have increased significantly over the study period, from 127.09 to 216.16 and from 24.5 to 48.83 per 100,000, respectively, (p<0.001). The increase was most marked in the oldest age groups with a 1.9 and 2.33-fold increase in admissions for patients aged 60-74 and ≥ 75 years, respectively, and a 2.8-fold increase in procedures for those aged ≥ 60 years. Trends in hospital admissions were characterised by a widening gender gap, increasing mean patient age, and decreasing mean hospital stay (p<0.001). Trends in procedures were characterised by a narrowing gender gap, increasing mean patient age (p=0.014) and decreasing mean hospital stay (p<0.001). Linear regression models estimate that each hospital admission translates to 0.27 procedures, per 100,000 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.30, r 0.99, p<0.001; r, Pearson's correlation coefficient). Hospital admissions are increasing at 3.5 times the rate of surgical procedures (regression gradient 7.63 vs 2.18 per 100,000/year). LBP represents a significant and increasing workload for hospitals in England. These trends demonstrate an increasing demand for specialists involved in the surgical and non-surgical management of this disease, and highlight the need for services

  14. Trends in hospital admissions and surgical procedures for degenerative lumbar spine disease in England: a 15-year time-series study

    PubMed Central

    Sivasubramaniam, Vinothan; Patel, Hitesh C; Ozdemir, Baris A; Papadopoulos, Marios C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Low back pain (LBP), from degenerative lumbar spine disease, represents a significant burden on healthcare resources. Studies worldwide report trends attributable to their country's specific demographics and healthcare system. Considering England's specific medico-socioeconomic conditions, we investigate recent trends in hospital admissions and procedures for LBP, and discuss the implications for the allocation of healthcare resources. Design Retrospective cohort study using Hospital Episode Statistics data relating to degenerative lumbar spine disease in England, between 1999 and 2013. Regression models were used to analyse trends. Outcome measures Trends in the number of admissions and procedures for LBP, mean patient age, gender and length of stay. Results Hospital admissions and procedures have increased significantly over the study period, from 127.09 to 216.16 and from 24.5 to 48.83 per 100 000, respectively, (p<0.001). The increase was most marked in the oldest age groups with a 1.9 and 2.33-fold increase in admissions for patients aged 60–74 and ≥75 years, respectively, and a 2.8-fold increase in procedures for those aged ≥60 years. Trends in hospital admissions were characterised by a widening gender gap, increasing mean patient age, and decreasing mean hospital stay (p<0.001). Trends in procedures were characterised by a narrowing gender gap, increasing mean patient age (p=0.014) and decreasing mean hospital stay (p<0.001). Linear regression models estimate that each hospital admission translates to 0.27 procedures, per 100 000 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.30, r 0.99, p<0.001; r, Pearson's correlation coefficient). Hospital admissions are increasing at 3.5 times the rate of surgical procedures (regression gradient 7.63 vs 2.18 per 100 000/year). Conclusions LBP represents a significant and increasing workload for hospitals in England. These trends demonstrate an increasing demand for specialists involved in the surgical and non

  15. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Child-Reported Maternal Warmth on Cortisol Stress Response 15 Years After Parental Divorce.

    PubMed

    Luecken, Linda J; Hagan, Melissa J; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Sandler, Irwin N; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2016-01-01

    The experience of parental divorce during childhood is associated with an increased risk of behavioral and physical health problems. Alterations in adrenocortical activity may be a mechanism in this relation. Parent-child relationships have been linked to cortisol regulation in children exposed to adversity, but prospective research is lacking. We examined maternal warmth in adolescence as a predictor of young adults' cortisol stress response 15 years after parental divorce. Participants included 240 youth from recently divorced families. Mother and child reports of maternal warmth were assessed at 6 time points across childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Offspring salivary cortisol was measured in young adulthood before and after a social stress task. Structural equation modeling was used to predict cortisol response from maternal warmth across early and late adolescence. Higher child-reported maternal warmth in early adolescence predicted higher child-reported maternal warmth in late adolescence (standardized regression = 0.45, standard error = 0.065, p < .01), which predicted lower cortisol response to a challenging interpersonal task in young adulthood (standardized regression = -0.20, standard error = 0.094, p = .031). Neither mother-reported warmth in early adolescence nor late adolescence was significantly related to offspring cortisol response in young adulthood. Results suggest that for children from divorced families, a warm mother-child relationship after divorce and across development, as perceived by the child, may promote efficient biological regulation later in life. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01407120.

  16. [Contact urticaria to natural rubber latex in childhood and associated atopic symptoms: a study of 27 patients aged under 15 years].

    PubMed

    Guillet, M-H; Guillet, G

    2004-01-01

    Although natural rubber latex hypersensitivity is considered as a major problem in adult, it may be still misdiagnosed in childhood. We collected 27 observations of natural rubber latex contact urticaria in children under 15 Years of age, 21 of them aged under 8. All of them where atopic and 19 out of 27 presented with other association paroxystic signs of immediate hypersensitivity, that were lately related to latex allergy (i. e. asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, fainting). Cross-allergy to food allergens was present in 33 p. 100. Average level of specific IgE to natural rubber latex was 21.7 kU/l. One to 4 Years follow up confirmed the benefit of latex eviction on urticaria as well as on associated symptoms. It led to the early detection of ficus allergy in 4 of them. This series confirms that atopy is at high risk for natural rubber latex allergy in children. These data suggest that atopic children are exposed too early to latex devices such as pacifiers, toodles of latex toys. Contact urticaria in children must be considered as a possible marker of other respiratory or general symptoms that may have been misconsidered under other etiologies.

  17. No abatement of steroid injections for tennis elbow in Australian General Practice: A 15-year observational study with random general practitioner sampling.

    PubMed

    Vicenzino, Bill; Britt, Helena; Pollack, Allan J; Hall, Michelle; Bennell, Kim L; Hunter, David J

    2017-01-01

    Evaluate general practitioner (GP) management of tennis elbow (TE) in Australia. Data about the management of TE by GPs from 2000 to 2015 were extracted from the Bettering the Evaluation of Care of Health program database. Patient and GP characteristics and encounter management data were classified by the International Classification of Primary Care, version 2, and reported using descriptive statistics with point estimates and 95% confidence intervals. TE was managed by GPs 242,000 times per year on average. Patients were mainly female (52.3%), aged between 35 and 64 years (mean: 49.3 yrs), had higher relative risks of concomitant disorders (e.g. carpal tunnel syndrome and other tendonitis) and their TE was 10 times more likely to be work related than problems managed for patients who did not have TE. Use of diagnostic tests was low, implying a clinical examination based diagnosis of TE. Management was by procedural treatments (36 per 100 TE problems), advice, education or counselling (25 per 100), and referral to other health care providers (14 per 100, mainly to physiotherapy). The rate of local injection did not change over the 15 years and was performed at similar rates as physiotherapy referral. The high risk of comorbidities and work relatedness and no abatement in the reasonably high rate of local injections (which is contrary to the evidence from clinical trials) provides support for the development and dissemination of TE clinical guidelines for GPs.

  18. A longitudinal study of the effects of child-reported maternal warmth on cortisol stress response 15 years after parental divorce

    PubMed Central

    Luecken, Linda J.; Hagan, Melissa J.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Sandler, Irwin N.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Objective Childhood parental divorce is associated with an increased risk of behavioral and physical health problems. Alterations in adrenocortical activity may be a mechanism in this relation. Parent-child relationships have been linked to cortisol regulation in children exposed to adversity, but prospective research is lacking. We examined maternal warmth in adolescence as a predictor of young adults’ cortisol stress response 15 years after parental divorce. Methods Participants included 240 youth from recently divorced families. Mother and child reports of maternal warmth were assessed at 6 time points across childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Offspring salivary cortisol was measured in young adulthood before and after a social stress task. Structural equation modeling was used to predict cortisol response from maternal warmth across early and late adolescence. Results Higher child-reported maternal warmth in early adolescence predicted higher child-reported maternal warmth in late adolescence (std. regression = .45, SE = .065, p < .01), which predicted lower cortisol response to a challenging interpersonal task in young adulthood (std. regression = −.20, SE = .094, p = .031). Neither mother-reported warmth in early adolescence nor late adolescence was significantly related to offspring cortisol response in young adulthood. Conclusions Results suggest that for children from divorced families, a warm mother-child relationship post-divorce and across development, as perceived by the child, may promote efficient biological regulation later in life. PMID:26465217

  19. A Survey of Psychological, Motivational, Family and Perceptions of Physics Education Factors that Explain 15-Year-Old Students' Aspirations to Study Physics in Post-Compulsory English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors that influence 15-year-old students' intentions to study physics post-16, when it is no longer compulsory. The analysis is based on the year 10 (age, 15 years) responses of 5,034 students from 137 England schools as learners of physics during the academic year 2008-2009. Factor analyses uncovered a range of…

  20. A Survey of Psychological, Motivational, Family and Perceptions of Physics Education Factors that Explain 15-Year-Old Students' Aspirations to Study Physics in Post-Compulsory English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors that influence 15-year-old students' intentions to study physics post-16, when it is no longer compulsory. The analysis is based on the year 10 (age, 15 years) responses of 5,034 students from 137 England schools as learners of physics during the academic year 2008-2009. Factor analyses uncovered a range of…

  1. Spatial and temporal variations of trace element distribution in soils and street dust of an industrial town in NW Spain: 15years of study.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, A; Álvarez, R; De Miguel, E; Charlesworth, S

    2015-08-15

    Extensive spatial and temporal surveys, over 15 years, have been conducted in soil in urban parks and street dusts in one of the most polluted cities in western Europe, Avilés (NW Spain). The first survey was carried out in 1996, and since then monitoring has been undertaken every five years. Whilst the sampling site is a relatively small town, industrial activities (mainly the steel industry and Zn and Al metallurgy) and other less significant urban sources, such as traffic, strongly affect the load of heavy metals in the urban aerosol. Elemental tracers have been used to characterise the influence of these sources on the composition of soil and dust. Although PM10 has decreased over these years as a result of environmental measures undertaken in the city, some of the "industrial" elements still remain in concentrations of concern for example, up to 4.6% and 0.5% of Zn in dust and soil, respectively. Spatial trends in metals such as Zn and Cd clearly reflect sources from the processing industries. The concentrations of these elements across Europe have reduced over time, however the most recent results from Avilés revealed an upward trend in concentration for Zn, Cd, Hg and As. A risk assessment of the soil highlighted As as an element of concern since its cancer risk in adults was more than double the value above which regulatory agencies deem it to be unacceptable. If children were considered to be the receptors, then the risk nearly doubles from this element.

  2. Prehospital and Early Clinical Care of Infants, Children, and Teenagers Compared to an Adult Cohort : Analysis of 2,961 Children in Comparison to 21,435 Adult Patients from the Trauma Registry of DGU in a 15-Year Period.

    PubMed

    Wyen, Hendrik; Jakob, Heike; Wutzler, Sebastian; Lefering, Rolf; Laurer, Helmut L; Marzi, Ingo; Lehnert, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Although the incidence of pediatric patients in emergency services is as low as 5-10%, trauma remains one of the leading causes of death during childhood. Only a few reports exist about the quality of the initial treatment of pediatric trauma patients. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis of whether prehospital treatment and emergency management in pediatric trauma patients is similar to the treatment that is provided for adult patients. We performed a retrospective data analysis of the German Trauma Registry of the DGU from January 1993 to December 2007. Exclusion criteria were missing information about injury severity and/or age and patients older than 50 years. All pediatric patients were subdivided into five groups (infants 0-1 year, toddlers 2-5 years, children 6-9 years, pupils 10-13 years, teenagers 14-17 years) with regard to their age and were compared with the adult cohort (18-50 years). From 24,396 patients, 2,961 were below 18 years of age, thus, about 12% of the whole population of injured patients below the age of 50 years. 66.4% of infants sustained relevant head injuries (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] ≥3), and this rate declined with increasing age. The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) increased from 21.0 (±11.6) in the group of infants to 26.7 (±13.9) in the adult cohort. In all groups, the majority of patients were male. The injury pattern differed according to age, with predominant traumatic brain injury (TBI) in infants. During the preclinical treatment, infants were less often intubated and this was contrasted by a higher rate of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in this group (infants 16.2%, toddlers 6.8%, adults 3.1%). Diagnostic multislice computed tomography (CT) examination was less often performed in infants as compared to the other groups (infants 57.1%, toddlers 77.2%, adults 77.8%). Mortality and quality indicators such as timelines show no significant differences between children and adults. We observed typical age

  3. Optimal Cut-Offs of Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) to Identify Dysglycemia and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 15-Year Prospective Study in Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Lee, C. H.; Shih, A. Z. L.; Woo, Y. C.; Fong, C. H. Y.; Leung, O. Y.; Janus, E.; Cheung, B. M. Y.; Lam, K. S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background The optimal reference range of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in normal Chinese population has not been clearly defined. Here we address this issue using the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study (CRISPS), a prospective population-based cohort study with long-term follow-up. Material & Methods In this study, normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were defined according to the 1998 World Health Organization criteria. Dysglycemia referred to IFG, IGT or T2DM. This study comprised two parts. Part one was a cross-sectional study involving 2,649 Hong Kong Chinese subjects, aged 25–74 years, at baseline CRISPS-1 (1995–1996). The optimal HOMA-IR cut-offs for dysglycemia and T2DM were determined by the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Part two was a prospective study involving 872 subjects who had persistent NGT at CRISPS-4 (2010–2012) after 15 years of follow-up. Results At baseline, the optimal HOMA-IR cut-offs to identify dysglyceia and T2DM were 1.37 (AUC = 0.735; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.713–0.758; Sensitivity [Se] = 65.6%, Specificity [Sp] = 71.3%] and 1.97 (AUC = 0.807; 95% CI = 0.777–0.886; Se = 65.5%, Sp = 82.9%) respectively. These cut-offs, derived from the cross-sectional study at baseline, corresponded closely to the 75th (1.44) and 90th (2.03) percentiles, respectively, of the HOMA-IR reference range derived from the prospective study of subjects with persistent NGT. Conclusions HOMA-IR cut-offs, of 1.4 and 2.0, which discriminated dysglycemia and T2DM respectively from NGT in Southern Chinese, can be usefully employed as references in clinical research involving the assessment of insulin resistance. PMID:27658115

  4. 15 Years of GRACE Earth Observations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-15

    For 15 years, the GRACE mission has unlocked mysteries of how water moves around our planet. It gave us the first view of underground aquifers from space, and shows how fast polar ice sheets and mountain glaciers are melting.

  5. Cohort Profile Update: The China Jintan Child Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianghong; Cao, Siyuan; Chen, Zehang; Raine, Adrian; Hanlon, Alexandra; Ai, Yuexian; Zhou, Guoping; Yan, Chonghuai; Leung, Patrick W; McCauley, Linda; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The China Jintan Child Cohort study began in 2004 with 1656 pre-school participants and a research focus on studying the impact of environmental exposures, such as lead, on children’s neurobehavioural outcomes. This population cohort now includes around 1000 of the original participants, who have been assessed three times over a period of 10 years. Since the original IJE cohort profile publication in 2010, participants have experienced a critical developmental transition from pre-school to school age and then adolescence. The study has also witnessed an increase in breadth and depth of data collection from the original aim of risk assessment. This cohort has added new directions to investigate the mechanisms and protective factors for the relationship between early health factors and child physical and mental health outcomes, with an emphasis on neurobehavioural consequences. The study now encompasses 11 domains, composed of repeated measures of the original variables and new domains of biomarkers, sleep, psychophysiology, neurocognition, personality, peer relationship, mindfulness and family dynamics. Depth of evaluation has increased from parent/teacher report to self/peer report and intergenerational family report. Consequently, the cohort has additional directions to include: (i) classmates of the original cohort participants for peer relationship assessment; and (ii) parental and grandparental measures to assess personality and dynamics within families. We welcome interest in our study and ask investigators to contact the corresponding author for additional information on data acquisition. PMID:26323725

  6. PHENIX: Beyond 15 years of discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, David; Nagle, James L.

    2015-01-12

    The PHENIX experiment at BNL’s Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) was designed to uncover properties of the quark–gluon plasma (QGP) via rare penetrating probes. Over the past 15 years, the collaboration has delivered on its promised measurements, often with exciting results beyond those originally foreseen. That the QGP behaves as a nearly perfect fluid and that non-photonic electrons are substantially suppressed has led to the use of heavy quarks as probes of the medium. The PHENIX silicon vertex detectors are opening a new arena for QGP studies, and the MPC-EX, a novel forward calorimeter with silicon readout, accesses low-x physics via direct photons with unprecedented precision. PHENIX has proposed sPHENIX, a major upgrade using the recently acquired BaBar solenoid and full calorimetric coverage and high rate capabilities. sPHENIX will reconstruct jets and extend observables to higher transverse momentum, where comparisons to results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) heavy-ion program will provide the most insightful. Following the RHIC program, the nuclear physics community has identified an electron ion collider (EIC) as crucial to the next generation of QCD investigations. The BaBar magnet and sPHENIX calorimetry will be an excellent foundation for a new collaborative pursuit of discovery.

  7. PHENIX: Beyond 15 years of discovery

    DOE PAGES

    Morrison, David; Nagle, James L.

    2015-01-12

    The PHENIX experiment at BNL’s Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) was designed to uncover properties of the quark–gluon plasma (QGP) via rare penetrating probes. Over the past 15 years, the collaboration has delivered on its promised measurements, often with exciting results beyond those originally foreseen. That the QGP behaves as a nearly perfect fluid and that non-photonic electrons are substantially suppressed has led to the use of heavy quarks as probes of the medium. The PHENIX silicon vertex detectors are opening a new arena for QGP studies, and the MPC-EX, a novel forward calorimeter with silicon readout, accesses low-x physicsmore » via direct photons with unprecedented precision. PHENIX has proposed sPHENIX, a major upgrade using the recently acquired BaBar solenoid and full calorimetric coverage and high rate capabilities. sPHENIX will reconstruct jets and extend observables to higher transverse momentum, where comparisons to results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) heavy-ion program will provide the most insightful. Following the RHIC program, the nuclear physics community has identified an electron ion collider (EIC) as crucial to the next generation of QCD investigations. The BaBar magnet and sPHENIX calorimetry will be an excellent foundation for a new collaborative pursuit of discovery.« less

  8. Judgments of Omitted BE and DO in Questions as Extended Finiteness Clinical Markers of Specific Language Impairment (SLI) to 15 Years: A Study of Growth and Asymptote

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Mabel L.; Hoffman, Lesa; Wexler, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Clinical grammar markers are needed for children with SLI older than 8 years. This study followed children who were previously studied on sentences with omitted finiteness to determine if affected children continue to perform at low levels and to examine possible predictors of low performance. This is the first longitudinal report of…

  9. Prediction of cancer and coronary heart disease mortality by means of a personality inventory: results of a 15-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Eysenck, H J

    1993-04-01

    This paper reports on the 1982-1986 follow-up of two samples of healthy persons first studied in 1972 and followed up in 1982 when mortality and cause of death were established (N = 2,146). Both were related to stress and personality type according to clearly elaborated theories, and results were very much in accordance with theory. The second follow-up was instigated to answer criticisms of the first study and to test whether results would still support the theories involved. The data support the previous results strongly and show that psychosocial data can predict with considerable accuracy mortality and cause of death over 14 years ahead.

  10. Professional School Counseling (PSC) Publication Pattern Review: A Meta-Study of Author and Article Characteristics from the First 15 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Giguere, Monica; Glenn, Kacie; Ciarlone, Hallie

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of articles published in "Professional School Counseling" (PSC) from the first 15 volumes were reviewed in this meta-study. Author characteristics (e.g., sex, employment setting, nation of domicile) and article characteristics (e.g., topic, type, design, sample, sample size, participant type, statistical procedures and…

  11. Professional School Counseling (PSC) Publication Pattern Review: A Meta-Study of Author and Article Characteristics from the First 15 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Giguere, Monica; Glenn, Kacie; Ciarlone, Hallie

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of articles published in "Professional School Counseling" (PSC) from the first 15 volumes were reviewed in this meta-study. Author characteristics (e.g., sex, employment setting, nation of domicile) and article characteristics (e.g., topic, type, design, sample, sample size, participant type, statistical procedures and…

  12. The Development of Extraversion and Ability: Analysis of Data from a Large-Scale Longitudinal Study of Children Tested at 10-11 and 14-15 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    Results of analysis of correlations collected by Cookson, following Eysenck and Cookson's study of personality and ability in young people, confirm the finding from previous Cattellian test data that the more intelligent children decline in relative extraversion scores and cast doubt on Eysenck's suggestion that introverts gradually show higher…

  13. Changes in dietary pattern in 15 year old adolescents following a 4 month dietary intervention with school breakfast--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ask, Anne S; Hernes, Sigrunn; Aarek, Ingebjørg; Johannessen, Gaute; Haugen, Margaretha

    2006-12-07

    Few studies on impact of meals served in school have been published. However, implications of school meals are an actual issue of both public and political concern in several countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate if breakfast served in a lower secondary school could improve dietary habits and school performance among the students. All students in 10th grade in a lower secondary school, consisting of two school classes, were invited to participate in a controlled study. The students in one class were offered a free breakfast at the beginning of each school day for 4 months, while the students in the second class were controls. Both classes were educated in the importance of healthy eating, and a data program enabling them to evaluate dietary intake was introduced. The students answered two questionnaires, one on school performance and one short food frequency questionnaire, four weeks before study start and one week after. Body weight and height were measured by the school nurse at the beginning and end of the study. Because of few students in each group, non-parametrical statistic analyses were used. All students in the intervention group had breakfast at school during the intervention. One week after the intervention the students in the class who received breakfast had returned to their normal breakfast pattern. In the control group the frequency of a lunch intake had increase, as compared to before study start (p < 0.01). An improved food pattern was seen among the male students in the intervention group, as measured by a healthy eating index after the intervention (p < 0.01). Body Mass Index increased statistically significant in both males and females in the control group (p < 0,01 for males and p < 0.05 for females), but not in the intervention group. Improvement in school performance following school breakfast was not found, but the males in the intervention group reported a significant increase in school contentment (p < 0.05). In a lower

  14. Zest for work? Assessment of enthusiasm and satisfaction with the present work situation and health--a 1.5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Josephson, Malin; Vingård, Eva

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether assessing zest for work is a valuable approach in occupational health work. The term "zest for work" comes from the expression "zest for life" and can roughly be interpreted as the degree of enthusiasm and satisfaction with the present work situation. The measurements comprise three components: listing important factors for the feeling of zest for work, attitude rating and stating whether it is possible to have any influence over the listed factors. Included in this study were 5539 employees, mainly women. Low zest for work was associated with job strain and insufficient social support and imposed an increased risk for poor health for working and long spells of sick leave. The results support that assessing zest for work can be useful in occupational health work.

  15. Assessment of visual perception in adolescents with a history of central coordination disorder in early life – 15-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Ireneusz M.; Domagalska, Małgorzata; Szopa, Andrzej; Dwornik, Michał; Kujawa, Jolanta; Stępień, Agnieszka; Śliwiński, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Central nervous system damage in early life results in both quantitative and qualitative abnormalities of psychomotor development. Late sequelae of these disturbances may include visual perception disorders which not only affect the ability to read and write but also generally influence the child's intellectual development. This study sought to determine whether a central coordination disorder (CCD) in early life treated according to Vojta's method with elements of the sensory integration (S-I) and neuro-developmental treatment (NDT)/Bobath approaches affects development of visual perception later in life. Material and methods The study involved 44 participants aged 15-16 years, including 19 diagnosed with moderate or severe CCD in the neonatal period, i.e. during the first 2-3 months of life, with diagnosed mild degree neonatal encephalopathy due to perinatal anoxia, and 25 healthy people without a history of developmental psychomotor disturbances in the neonatal period. The study tool was a visual perception IQ test comprising 96 graphic tasks. Results The study revealed equal proportions of participants (p < 0.05) defined as very skilled (94-96), skilled (91-94), aerage (71-91), poor (67-71), and very poor (0-67) in both groups. These results mean that adolescents with a history of CCD in the neonatal period did not differ with regard to the level of visual perception from their peers who had not demonstrated psychomotor development disorders in the neonatal period. Conclusions Early treatment of children with CCD affords a possibility of normalising their psychomotor development early enough to prevent consequences in the form of cognitive impairments in later life. PMID:23185199

  16. Childhood trajectories of inattention, hyperactivity and oppositional behaviors and prediction of substance abuse/dependence: a 15-year longitudinal population-based study.

    PubMed

    Pingault, J-B; Côté, S M; Galéra, C; Genolini, C; Falissard, B; Vitaro, F; Tremblay, R E

    2013-07-01

    Numerous prospective studies have shown that children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk of long-term substance abuse/dependence. However, there are three important limits to these studies: (a) most did not differentiate the role of hyperactivity and inattention; (b) most did not control for associated behavioral problems; and (c) most did not consider females. Our aim was to clarify the unique and interactive contributions of childhood inattention and hyperactivity symptoms to early adulthood substance abuse/dependence. Behavioral problems of 1803 participants (814 males) in a population-based longitudinal study were assessed yearly between 6 and 12 years by mothers and teachers. The prevalence of substance abuse/dependence at age 21 years was 30.7% for nicotine, 13.4% for alcohol, 9.1% for cannabis and 2.0% for cocaine. The significant predictors of nicotine dependence were inattention (odds ratio (OR): 2.25; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.63-3.11) and opposition (OR: 1.65; 95%: 1.20-2.28). Only opposition contributed to the prediction of cannabis dependence (OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.40-3.87) and cocaine dependence (OR: 2.97; 95% CI: 1.06-8.57). The best behavioral predictor of alcohol abuse/dependence (opposition) was only marginally significant (OR: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.98-1.95). Frequent oppositional behaviors during elementary school were clearly the most pervasive predictors of substance abuse/dependence in early adulthood. The association of childhood ADHD with substance abuse/dependence is largely attributable to its association with opposition problems during childhood. However, inattention remained an important predictor of nicotine dependence, in line with genetic and molecular commonalities between the two phenotypes suggested in the literature.

  17. Dietary diversity, animal source food consumption and linear growth among children aged 1-5 years in Bandung, Indonesia: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Muslimatun, Siti; Wiradnyani, Luh Ade Ari

    2016-07-01

    Dietary diversity involves adequate intake of macronutrient and micronutrient. The inclusion of animal source foods (ASF) in the diet helps prevent multiple nutrient deficiencies and any resultant, linear growth retardation. The objective of the current study was to assess the relationship between dietary diversity, ASF consumption and height-for-age z-score (HAZ) among children aged 12-59 months old across a 1-year observation. This longitudinal observational study without controls was conducted among four age groups: 12-23 months (n 57), 24-35 months (n 56), 36-47 months (n 58) and 48-59 months (n 56). Anthropometry and dietary intake were measured during each of four visits at 16-20-week intervals. The general characteristics and other observations were only collected at baseline and endline. During the year-long study period, approximately 27 % of the children ate a diverse diet (consumed ≥6 out of 9 food groups) according to ≥3 visits. ASF consumption was high, particularly for eggs, poultry, processed meats and liquid milk. Yet, micronutrient intake inadequacy, especially of Zn, Ca, Fe and vitamin A, was highly prevalent. A multivariate regression analysis showed that the consumption of a diverse diet and ASF was not significantly associated with the HAZ at endline, after controlling for demographic characteristics and the baseline HAZ. The consumption of a diverse diet was significantly associated with Ca intake adequacy. Moreover, ASF consumption was significantly associated with adequate intake of protein and micronutrients, particularly vitamin A, Ca and Zn. Thus, the recommendation is to continue and strengthen the promotion of consuming a diverse diet that includes ASF in supporting the linear growth of young children.

  18. Childhood Trajectories of Inattention, Hyperactivity and Oppositional Behaviors and Prediction of Substance Abuse/Dependence: A 15-Year Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Côté, Sylvana M.; Galéra, Cédric; Genolini, Christophe; Falissard, Bruno; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous prospective studies have shown that children diagnosed with ADHD are at higher risk of long-term substance abuse/dependence. However, there are two important limits to these studies: a) most did not differentiate the role of hyperactivity and inattention; b) most did not control for associated behavioral problems; c) most did not consider females. Our aim was to clarify the unique and interactive contributions of childhood inattention and hyperactivity symptoms to early adulthood substance abuse/dependence. Behavioral problems of 1804 participants (814 males) in a population-based longitudinal study were assessed yearly between 6 and 12 years by mothers and teachers. The prevalence of substance abuse/dependence at age 21 years was 30.7% for nicotine, 13.4% for alcohol, 9.1 % for cannabis and 2.0% for cocaine. The significant predictors of nicotine dependence were inattention (OR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.63–3.11) and opposition (OR: 1.65; 95%: 1.20–2.28). Only opposition contributed to the prediction of cannabis dependence (OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.40–3.87) and cocaine dependence (OR: 2.97; 95% CI: 1.06–8.57). The best behavioral predictor of alcohol abuse/dependence (opposition) was only marginally significant (OR: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.98–1.95). Frequent oppositional behaviors during elementary school were clearly the most pervasive predictors of substance abuse/dependence in early adulthood. The association of childhood ADHD with substance abuse/dependence is largely attributable to its association with opposition problems during childhood. However, inattention remained a key predictor of nicotine dependence, in line with genetic and molecular commonalities between the two phenotypes suggested in the literature. PMID:22733124

  19. Comparing identified and statistically significant lipids and polar metabolites in 15-year old serum and dried blood spot samples for longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Jennifer E; Casey, Cameron P; Stratton, Kelly G; Zink, Erika M; Kim, Young-Mo; Zheng, Xueyun; Monroe, Matthew E; Weitz, Karl K; Bloodsworth, Kent J; Orton, Daniel J; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Moore, Ronald J; Lee, Christine G; Pedersen, Catherine; Orwoll, Eric; Smith, Richard D; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E; Baker, Erin S

    2017-03-15

    The use of dried blood spots (DBS) has many advantages over traditional plasma and serum samples such as the smaller blood volume required, storage at room temperature, and ability to sample in remote locations. However, understanding the robustness of different analytes in DBS samples is essential, especially in older samples collected for longitudinal studies. Here we analyzed the stability of polar metabolites and lipids in DBS samples collected in 2000-2001 and stored at room temperature. The identified and statistically significant molecules were then compared to matched serum samples stored at -80°C to determine if the DBS samples could be effectively used in a longitudinal study following metabolic disease. A total of 400 polar metabolites and lipids were identified in the serum and DBS samples using gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), liquid chromatography (LC)/MS, and LC/ion mobility spectrometry-MS (LC/IMS-MS). The identified polar metabolites overlapped well between the sample types, though only one statistically significant metabolite was conserved in a case-control study of older diabetic males with low amounts of high-density lipoproteins and high body mass indices, triacylglycerides and glucose levels when compared to non-diabetic patients with normal levels, indicating that degradation in the DBS samples affects polar metabolite quantitation. Differences in the lipid identifications indicated that some oxidation occurs in the DBS samples. However, 36 statistically significant lipids correlated in both sample types. The difference in the number of statistically significant polar metabolites and lipids indicated that the lipids did not degrade to as great of a degree as the polar metabolites in the DBS samples and lipid quantitation was still possible. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Association between Alcohol Consumption and Pre-Diabetes among 383,442 Thai Population Aged 15 Years and Older in Ubon Ratchathani: Analytical Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Suebsamran, Phalakornm; Choenchoopon, Hansa; Rojanasaksothorn, Suvit; Loiha, Suraporn; Chamnan, Parinya

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has been reported to be associated with the risk of diabetes. However, few studies have examined alcohol consumption as a risk factor for pre-diabetes in Asian populations. This study is an analytical cross-sectional study aimed at determining the relationship between alcoholic consumption and pre-diabetes. This study used data on 383,442 men and women participating in the Health Checks Ubon Ratchathani (HCUR) project in 2007. Pre-diabetes was defined as a fasting blood glucose of > 100-125 mg%. Data on alcohol consumption was questioned and categorized into six groups: never, occasionally, 1-2 times/month, 1-2 times/week, 3-4 times/week and every day. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to estimate the association between self-reported alcohol consumption and pre-diabetes. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was 10.5% (11.2% and 9.7% in men and women, respectively). After adjusting for other risk factors, alcohol consumption was independently associated with pre-diabetes, with dose response relationship (adjusted odds ratio (OR(adj) of 1.80, 95% CI 1.53-2.11, p < 0.001 and 1.47, 95% CI 1.28-1.68, p < 0.001) for those who drank every day and 3-4 times a week, as compared to no consumption), but who drank 1-2 times/month is decreased risk of prediabetes (OR(adj) = 0.89, 95% CI, 0.82-0.97, p = 0.006). Similar findings were observed for men. Women who drank occasionally had a significantly decreased risk of pre-diabetes, compared with non-drinker in women (OR(adj) 0.95, 95% CI 0.91-0.99, p = 0.039). There was no interaction between alcohol consumption with other potential covariates. Alcohol consumption was independently associated with the risk of pre-diabetes in a possibly dose response fashion. Mild-moderate alcohol consumption appeared to be related with a decreased risk.

  1. Parental separation in childhood as a risk factor for depression in adulthood: a community-based study of adolescents screened for depression and followed up after 15 years.

    PubMed

    Bohman, Hannes; Låftman, Sara Brolin; Päären, Aivar; Jonsson, Ulf

    2017-03-29

    Earlier research has investigated the association between parental separation and long-term health outcomes among offspring, but few studies have assessed the potentially moderating role of mental health status in adolescence. The aim of this study was to analyze whether parental separation in childhood predicts depression in adulthood and whether the pattern differs between individuals with and without earlier depression. A community-based sample of individuals with adolescent depression in 1991-93 and matched non-depressed peers were followed up using a structured diagnostic interview after 15 years. The participation rate was 65% (depressed n = 227; non-depressed controls n = 155). Information on parental separation and conditions in childhood and adolescence was collected at baseline. The outcome was depression between the ages 19-31 years; information on depression was collected at the follow-up diagnostic interview. The statistical method used was binary logistic regression. Our analyses showed that depressed adolescents with separated parents had an excess risk of recurrence of depression in adulthood, compared with depressed adolescents with non-separated parents. In addition, among adolescents with depression, parental separation was associated with an increased risk of a switch to bipolar disorder in adulthood. Among the matched non-depressed peers, no associations between parental separation and adult depression or bipolar disorder were found. Parental separation may have long-lasting health consequences for vulnerable individuals who suffer from mental illness already in adolescence.

  2. Family structure and breakfast consumption of 11-15 year old boys and girls in Scotland, 1994-2010: a repeated cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Levin, Kate A; Kirby, Joanna; Currie, Candace

    2012-03-22

    The benefits of breakfast during childhood and adolescence have been reported previously though few studies have considered family structure inequalities in breakfast consumption. The proportion of young people living in non-traditional family types has increased in recent years, strengthening the need to describe and monitor the impact of the changing family unit on adolescent breakfast consumption. This study aimed to describe changes in daily breakfast consumption among adolescents in Scotland between 1994 and 2010, while also considering family structure inequalities, and the degree to which these have changed over time. Data from the 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006 and 2010 Scottish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys were analysed using logistic multilevel regression models for binary outcome variable daily breakfast consumption. Daily breakfast consumption among adolescents increased between 1994 and 2010, although there were differences by age and sex. In fact those aged over 14.5 years saw decreases in breakfast consumption, and girls saw significantly larger increases than boys. Daily breakfast consumption was more prevalent among adolescents from 'both parent' families, with lowest prevalence among those from single parent families. Trends in daily breakfast consumption between 1994 and 2010 also varied by family structure. While prevalence of daily breakfast consumption increased among those living with 'both parents', the largest proportion of the population, prevalence decreased over time among adolescents of single parent families, and particularly among those living with their father. Family structure inequalities in daily breakfast consumption increased between 1994 and 2010, while breakfast consumption across the population as a whole increased. As the proportion of young people living in an alternative family structure continues to grow it is important to understand why these inequalities have increased and how these may be overcome

  3. Family structure and breakfast consumption of 11-15 year old boys and girls in Scotland, 1994-2010: a repeated cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The benefits of breakfast during childhood and adolescence have been reported previously though few studies have considered family structure inequalities in breakfast consumption. The proportion of young people living in non-traditional family types has increased in recent years, strengthening the need to describe and monitor the impact of the changing family unit on adolescent breakfast consumption. This study aimed to describe changes in daily breakfast consumption among adolescents in Scotland between 1994 and 2010, while also considering family structure inequalities, and the degree to which these have changed over time. Methods Data from the 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006 and 2010 Scottish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys were analysed using logistic multilevel regression models for binary outcome variable daily breakfast consumption. Results Daily breakfast consumption among adolescents increased between 1994 and 2010, although there were differences by age and sex. In fact those aged over 14.5 years saw decreases in breakfast consumption, and girls saw significantly larger increases than boys. Daily breakfast consumption was more prevalent among adolescents from 'both parent' families, with lowest prevalence among those from single parent families. Trends in daily breakfast consumption between 1994 and 2010 also varied by family structure. While prevalence of daily breakfast consumption increased among those living with 'both parents', the largest proportion of the population, prevalence decreased over time among adolescents of single parent families, and particularly among those living with their father. Conclusions Family structure inequalities in daily breakfast consumption increased between 1994 and 2010, while breakfast consumption across the population as a whole increased. As the proportion of young people living in an alternative family structure continues to grow it is important to understand why these inequalities have

  4. Retinal Vessel Diameters and Their Relationship with Cardiovascular Risk and All-Cause Mortality in the Inter99 Eye Study: A 15-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Munch, Inger Christine; Glümer, Charlotte; Faerch, Kristine; Kessel, Line; Larsen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To describe associations between retinal vessel diameters and cardiovascular risk markers and mortality. Methods. The present study included 908 persons aged 30 to 60 years. Vessel diameters were expressed as central retinal venular equivalent (CRVE) and central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE). Multiple linear regression analyses and Cox regression models were used. Results. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that narrower CRAE was associated with higher systolic blood pressure, age, and higher HDL cholesterol, whereas wider CRAE and CRVE were associated with smoking. Narrower CRVE was associated with higher HDL cholesterol. In an age-adjusted model, associations between wider CRVE and risk of ischemic heart disease were found (P < 0.001). Wider CRVE was associated with all-cause mortality (HR = 2.02, P = 0.033) in a model adjusted for age, gender, and blood pressure. However, the association was not statistically significant after additional adjustment for smoking. Conclusions. The associations between retinal vessel diameters and known cardiovascular risk factors were confirmed. All-cause mortality was not associated with retinal vessel diameters when adjusting for relevant confounders. PMID:28053777

  5. Geographical and temporal trends in imported infections from the tropics requiring inpatient care at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London – a 15 year study

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Michael; Armstrong, Margaret; Whitty, Christopher J. M.; Doherty, Justin F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding geographic and temporal trends in imported infections is key to the management of unwell travellers. Many tropical infections can be managed as outpatients, with admission reserved for severe cases. Methods We prospectively recorded the diagnosis and travel history of patients admitted between 2000 and 2015. We describe the common tropical and non-tropical infectious diseases and how these varied based on region, reason for travel and over time. Results A total of 4362 admissions followed an episode of travel. Falciparum malaria was the most common diagnosis (n=1089). Among individuals who travelled to Africa 1206/1724 (70.0%) had a tropical diagnosis. The risk of a tropical infection was higher among travellers visiting friends and relatives than holidaymakers (OR 2.8, p<0.001). Among travellers to Asia non-tropical infections were more common than tropical infections (349/782, 44.6%), but enteric fever (117, 33.5%) of the tropical infections and dengue (70, 20.1%) remained important. The number of patients admitted with falciparum malaria declined over the study but those of enteric fever and dengue did not. Conclusions Most of those arriving from sub-Saharan Africa with an illness requiring admission have a classical tropical infection, and malaria still predominates. In contrast, fewer patients who travelled to Asia have a tropical diagnosis but enteric fever and dengue remain relatively common. Those visiting friends and relatives are most likely to have a tropical infection. PMID:27618924

  6. Geographical and temporal trends in imported infections from the tropics requiring inpatient care at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London - a 15 year study.

    PubMed

    Marks, Michael; Armstrong, Margaret; Whitty, Christopher J M; Doherty, Justin F

    2016-08-01

    Understanding geographic and temporal trends in imported infections is key to the management of unwell travellers. Many tropical infections can be managed as outpatients, with admission reserved for severe cases. We prospectively recorded the diagnosis and travel history of patients admitted between 2000 and 2015. We describe the common tropical and non-tropical infectious diseases and how these varied based on region, reason for travel and over time. A total of 4362 admissions followed an episode of travel. Falciparum malaria was the most common diagnosis (n=1089). Among individuals who travelled to Africa 1206/1724 (70.0%) had a tropical diagnosis. The risk of a tropical infection was higher among travellers visiting friends and relatives than holidaymakers (OR 2.8, p<0.001). Among travellers to Asia non-tropical infections were more common than tropical infections (349/782, 44.6%), but enteric fever (117, 33.5%) of the tropical infections and dengue (70, 20.1%) remained important. The number of patients admitted with falciparum malaria declined over the study but those of enteric fever and dengue did not. Most of those arriving from sub-Saharan Africa with an illness requiring admission have a classical tropical infection, and malaria still predominates. In contrast, fewer patients who travelled to Asia have a tropical diagnosis but enteric fever and dengue remain relatively common. Those visiting friends and relatives are most likely to have a tropical infection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. Illness and exposure to negative life experiences in adolescence: two sides of the same coin? A study of 15-year-olds in Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Haavet, O R; Straand, J; Saugstad, O D; Grünfeld, B

    2004-03-01

    To investigate associations between negative life experiences and common illnesses among adolescents. Cross-sectional questionnaire study carried out at all lower secondary schools (10 grade) in Oslo. Norway, during 2000 and 2001 (n = 8316 pupils). Different negative life experiences and illnesses were addressed. The participation rate was 88%. Among reported negative life experiences last year were a pressure felt to succeed (62%), death of a close person (26%), exposure to physical violence (22%), bullying at school (15%) and sexual violation (4%). A large number of the pupils had some chronic illness: hay fever (38%), eczema (29%) and asthma (13%). Reported illnesses the previous 12 month were: headache (56%), painful neck or shoulders (35%), sore throat at least three times (15%), lower respiratory tract infection (9%) and mental problems for which help was sought (7%). During the week prior to the survey, 26% of all girls had symptoms of a depressive disorder, while this applied to 10% of all boys. Fifty-three percent of the boys (29% of the girls) who had depressive symptoms had been exposed to physical violence. Sexually violated boys had a high probability for seeking help for mental problems (OR = 4.9) and for frequent episodes of sore throat (OR = 2.5). Corresponding odds ratios for girls were 1.7 and 2.5, respectively. Common illnesses in adolescence are significantly associated with negative life experiences. In clinical encounters with adolescents not only should the presenting complaints be addressed, but also other common illnesses and relevant background factors such as negative life events.

  8. Trends and interaction of polypharmacy and potentially inappropriate prescribing in primary care over 15 years in Ireland: a repeated cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Moriarty, Frank; Hardy, Colin; Bennett, Kathleen; Smith, Susan M; Fahey, Tom

    2015-09-18

    To examine: (1) changes in polypharmacy in 1997, 2002, 2007 and 2012 and; (2) changes in potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) prevalence and the relationship between PIP and polypharmacy in individuals aged ≥65 years over this period in Ireland. This repeated cross-sectional study using pharmacy claims data included all individuals eligible for the General Medical Services scheme in the former Eastern Health Board region of Ireland in 1997, 2002, 2007 and 2012 (range 338,025-539,752 individuals). Outcomes evaluated were prevalence of polypharmacy (being prescribed ≥5 regular medicines) and excessive polypharmacy (≥10 regular medicines) in all individuals and PIP prevalence in those aged ≥65 years determined by 30 criteria from the Screening Tool for Older Persons' Prescriptions. The prevalence of polypharmacy increased from 1997 to 2012, particularly among older individuals (from 17.8% to 60.4% in those aged ≥65 years). The adjusted incident rate ratio for polypharmacy in 2012 compared to 1997 was 4.16 (95% CI 3.23 to 5.36), and for excessive polypharmacy it was 10.53 (8.58 to 12.91). Prevalence of PIP rose from 32.6% in 1997 to 37.3% in 2012. High-dose aspirin and digoxin prescribing decreased over time, but long-term proton pump inhibitors at maximal dose increased substantially (from 0.8% to 23.8%). The odds of having any PIP in 2012 were lower compared to 1997 after controlling for gender and level of polypharmacy, OR 0.39 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.4). Accounting for the marked increase in polypharmacy, prescribing quality appears to have improved with a reduction in the odds of having PIP from 1997 to 2012. With growing numbers of people taking multiple regular medicines, strategies to address the related challenges of polypharmacy and PIP are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Cohort Profile Update: The 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise P; Gonçalves, Helen; dos Santos Motta, JanainaVieira; Loret de Mola, Christian; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-04-01

    In this manuscript, we update the profile of the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study.In 1982, 5914 live births whose families lived in the urban are of Pelotas were enrolled in the cohort. In 2012-13, we tried to locate the whole original cohort; 3701 participants were interviewed who, added to the 325 known deaths, represented a follow-up rate of 68.1%. In contrast to the previous home interviews, in this wave all participants were invited to visit the research clinic to be interviewed and examined. The visit was carried out at a mean age of 30.2 years and mainly focused on four categories of outcomes: (i) mental health; (ii) body composition; (iii) precursors of complex chronic diseases; and (iv) human capital. Requests for collaboration by outside researchers are welcome.

  10. Cohort Profile Update: The 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise P; Gonçalves, Helen; dos Santos Motta, JanainaVieira; Loret de Mola, Christian; Oliveira, Isabel O; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we update the profile of the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study.In 1982, 5914 live births whose families lived in the urban are of Pelotas were enrolled in the cohort. In 2012–13, we tried to locate the whole original cohort; 3701 participants were interviewed who, added to the 325 known deaths, represented a follow-up rate of 68.1%. In contrast to the previous home interviews, in this wave all participants were invited to visit the research clinic to be interviewed and examined. The visit was carried out at a mean age of 30.2 years and mainly focused on four categories of outcomes: (i) mental health; (ii) body composition; (iii) precursors of complex chronic diseases; and (iv) human capital. Requests for collaboration by outside researchers are welcome. PMID:25733577

  11. Cohort profile: the Social Inequality in Cancer (SIC) cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nordahl, Helene; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Diderichsen, Finn; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Osler, Merete; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Prescott, Eva; Tjønneland, Anne; Lange, Theis; Keiding, Niels; Andersen, Per Kragh; Andersen, Ingelise

    2014-12-01

    The Social Inequality in Cancer (SIC) cohort study was established to determine pathways through which socioeconomic position affects morbidity and mortality, in particular common subtypes of cancer. Data from seven well-established cohort studies from Denmark were pooled. Combining these cohorts provided a unique opportunity to generate a large study population with long follow-up and sufficient statistical power to develop and apply new methods for quantification of the two basic mechanisms underlying social inequalities in cancer-mediation and interaction. The SIC cohort included 83 006 participants aged 20-98 years at baseline. A wide range of behavioural and biological risk factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, alcohol intake, hormone replacement therapy, body mass index, blood pressure and serum cholesterol were assessed by self-administered questionnaires, physical examinations and blood samples. All participants were followed up in nationwide demographic and healthcare registries. For those interested in collaboration, further details can be obtained by contacting the Steering Committee at the Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, at inan@sund.ku.dk.

  12. An epidemiological study to determine the prevalence and risk assessment of gingivitis in 5-, 12- and 15-year-old children of rural and urban area of Panchkula (Haryana).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Avninder; Gupta, Nidhi; Baweja, Devinder Kaur; Simratvir, Mauli

    2014-01-01

    The aim and objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence and severity of gingivitis and evaluate the factors associated with gingivitis in children residing in rural and urban areas of Panchkula. The present study was carried out on a sample of 1269 school children, aged 5, 12 and 15 years, randomly selected from the rural and the urban schools of Panchkula and gingival index was recorded as devised by Loe and Silness (1963) to assess the severity of gingivitis. A standardized questionnaire was self prepared, which was filled by the examiner prior to the clinical examination. The data were subjected to SPSS, version 13, and statistically analyzed using Chi test, F test, ANOVA test. In the age group of 5 years, the children affected with gingivitis in the rural and the urban areas were 67 and 33%, respectively, which was statistically highly significant (P = 0.0001). In the age group of 12 years, the children affected with gingivitis in the rural and the urban areas were 94 and 92%, respectively (P = 0.537), whereas in 15-year olds, the children affected with gingivitis in the rural and the urban areas were 98 and 64%, respectively (P = 0.0001). The children who brushed once a day had higher prevalence of gingivitis as compared to children who brushed more than once per day in all the age groups. The results showed that the percentage of children affected with gingivitis was significantly higher in the rural areas in 5- and 15-year-old children, but this trend was not seen in 12-year age group, reflecting the lack of awareness in rural areas.

  13. [Birth cohort studies in China: a review].

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Sun, L; He, X Y; Wang, Y X; Yu, W P

    2017-04-10

    With longer than 100-year experience of development, methods used on birth cohort study have been viewed as having important roles in exploring the probable effects of health and environment exposure both prior to and during the pregnancy in the life circle as infants, children, adolescents, adults, and the elderly. However in China, birth cohort studies started late but with rapid development. Recently, some well-known methods on birth cohort studies were established in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan area. This paper presented an overall review on the progress about birth cohort studies and their prospects, in China.

  14. Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS)

    PubMed Central

    Justice, Amy C.; Dombrowski, Elizabeth; Conigliaro, Joseph; Fultz, Shawn L.; Gibson, Deborah; Madenwald, Tamra; Goulet, Joseph; Simberkoff, Michael; Butt, Adeel A.; Rimland, David; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Oursler, Kris Ann K.; Brown, Sheldon; Leaf, David A.; Goetz, Matthew B.; Bryant, Kendall

    2010-01-01

    Background The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) is a study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected and uninfected patients seen in infectious disease and general medical clinics. VACS includes the earlier 3 and 5 site studies (VACS 3 and VACS 5) as well as the ongoing 8 site study. Objectives We sought to provide background and context for analyses based upon VACS data, including study design and rationale as well as its basic protocol and the baseline characteristics of the enrolled sample. Research Design We undertook a prospectively consented multisite observational study of veterans in care with and without HIV infection. Measures Data were derived from patient and provider self report, telephone interviews, blood and DNA samples, focus groups, and full access to the national VA “paperless” electronic medical record system. Results More than 7200 veterans have been enrolled in at least one of the studies. The 8 site study (VACS) has enrolled 2979 HIV-infected and 3019 HIV-uninfected age–race–site matched comparators and has achieved stratified enrollment targets for race/ethnicity and age and 99% of its total target enrollment as of October 30, 2005. Participants in VACS are similar to other veterans receiving care within the VA. VACS participants are older and more predominantly black than those reported by the Centers for Disease Control. Conclusions VACS has assembled a rich, in-depth, and representative sample of veterans in care with and without HIV infection to conduct longitudinal analyses of questions concerning the association between alcohol use and related comorbid and AIDS-defining conditions. PMID:16849964

  15. Pectus excavatum: a 15-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Golladay, E S; Wagner, C W

    1991-09-01

    Pectus excavatum is relatively uncommon. Our experience with 177 children during a 15-year period produced changes in our surgical technique, which now includes a small transverse incision, minimal subcutaneous flap elevation, a muscle-relaxing incision over the fifth costal cartilage, complete resection of involved cartilage, use of Adkins' strut, suspension of sternum to strut, taut reefing of intercostal muscle, no tubes or drains, epidural analgesia, a patient-controlled analgesia device postoperatively, and eventual strut removal. Use of the evolved technique gives excellent cosmetic results, good functional results with minimal discomfort, and a shorter convalescent period.

  16. Pyogenic brain abscess, a 15 year survey.

    PubMed

    Helweg-Larsen, Jannik; Astradsson, Arnar; Richhall, Humeira; Erdal, Jesper; Laursen, Alex; Brennum, Jannick

    2012-11-30

    Brain abscess is a potentially fatal disease. This study assesses clinical aspects of brain abscess in a large hospital cohort. Retrospective review of adult patients with pyogenic brain abscess at Rigshospitalet University Hospital, Denmark between 1994 and 2009. Prognostic factors associated with Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) (death, severe disability or vegetative state) were assessed by logistic regression. 102 patients were included. On admission, only 20% of patients had a triad of fever, headache and nausea, 39% had no fever, 26% had normal CRP and 49% had no leucocytosis. Median delay from symptom onset to antibiotic treatment was 7 days (range 0-97 days). Source of infection was contiguous in 36%, haematogenous in 28%, surgical or traumatic in 9% and unknown in 27% of cases. Abscess location did not accurately predict the portal of entry. 67% were treated by burr hole aspiration, 20% by craniotomy and 13% by antibiotics alone. Median duration of antibiotic treatment was 62 days. No cases of recurrent abscess were observed. At discharge 23% had GOS ≤3. The 1-, 3- and 12-month mortality was 11%, 17% and 19%. Adverse outcome was associated with a low GCS at admission, presence of comorbidities and intraventricular rupture of abscess. The clinical signs of brain abscess are unspecific, many patients presented without clear signs of infection and diagnosis and treatment were often delayed. Decreased GCS, presence of comorbidities and intraventricular rupture of brain abscess were associated with poor outcome. Brain abscess remains associated with considerable morbidity and mortality.

  17. Pyogenic brain abscess, a 15 year survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Brain abscess is a potentially fatal disease. This study assesses clinical aspects of brain abscess in a large hospital cohort. Methods Retrospective review of adult patients with pyogenic brain abscess at Rigshospitalet University Hospital, Denmark between 1994 and 2009. Prognostic factors associated with Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) (death, severe disability or vegetative state) were assessed by logistic regression. Results 102 patients were included. On admission, only 20% of patients had a triad of fever, headache and nausea, 39% had no fever, 26% had normal CRP and 49% had no leucocytosis. Median delay from symptom onset to antibiotic treatment was 7 days (range 0–97 days). Source of infection was contiguous in 36%, haematogenous in 28%, surgical or traumatic in 9% and unknown in 27% of cases. Abscess location did not accurately predict the portal of entry. 67% were treated by burr hole aspiration, 20% by craniotomy and 13% by antibiotics alone. Median duration of antibiotic treatment was 62 days. No cases of recurrent abscess were observed. At discharge 23% had GOS ≤3. The 1-, 3- and 12-month mortality was 11%, 17% and 19%. Adverse outcome was associated with a low GCS at admission, presence of comorbidities and intraventricular rupture of abscess. Conclusions The clinical signs of brain abscess are unspecific, many patients presented without clear signs of infection and diagnosis and treatment were often delayed. Decreased GCS, presence of comorbidities and intraventricular rupture of brain abscess were associated with poor outcome. Brain abscess remains associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. PMID:23193986

  18. Achievement Motivation and Physical Fitness of 15-Year Old Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guszkowska, Monika; Rychta, Tadeusz

    2007-01-01

    Study aim: To determine the relations between the general and physical education-specific achievement motivation, and physical fitness of adolescent girls. Material and methods: A group of 52 girls aged 15 years were studied by applying two questionnaires: P-O scale of Widerszal-Bazyl for evaluating the general achievement motivation and Nishida's…

  19. Achievement Motivation and Physical Fitness of 15-Year Old Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guszkowska, Monika; Rychta, Tadeusz

    2007-01-01

    Study aim: To determine the relations between the general and physical education-specific achievement motivation, and physical fitness of adolescent girls. Material and methods: A group of 52 girls aged 15 years were studied by applying two questionnaires: P-O scale of Widerszal-Bazyl for evaluating the general achievement motivation and Nishida's…

  20. Riyadh Mother and Baby Multicenter Cohort Study: The Cohort Profile

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeil, Samia; Alzeidan, Rasmieh; Elawad, Mamoun; Tabassum, Rabeena; Hansoti, Shehnaz; Magzoup, Mohie Edein; Al-Kadri, Hanan; Elsherif, Elham; Al-Mandil, Hazim; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Zakaria, Nasria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effects of non-communicable diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity, on the mother and the infant. Methods A multicentre cohort study was conducted in three hospitals in the city of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia. All Saudi women and their babies who delivered in participating hospitals were eligible for recruitment. Data on socio-demographic characteristics in addition to the maternal and neonatal outcomes of pregnancy were collected. The cohort demographic profile was recorded and the prevalence of maternal conditions including gestational diabetes, pre-gestational diabetes, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy and obesity were estimated. Findings The total number of women who delivered in participating hospitals during the study period was 16,012 of which 14,568 women participated in the study. The mean age of the participants was 29 ± 5.9 years and over 40% were university graduates. Most of the participants were housewives, 70% were high or middle income and 22% were exposed to secondhand smoke. Of the total cohort, 24% were married to a first cousin. More than 68% of the participants were either overweight or obese. The preterm delivery rate was 9%, while 1.5% of the deliveries were postdate. The stillbirth rate was 13/1000 live birth. The prevalence of gestational diabetes was 24% and that of pre-gestational diabetes was 4.3%. The preeclampsia prevalence was 1.1%. The labour induction rate was 15.5% and the cesarean section rate was 25%. Conclusion Pregnant women in Saudi Arabia have a unique demographic profile. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in pregnancy are among the highest in the world. PMID:26937965

  1. Dental anxiety and temperament in 15-year olds.

    PubMed

    Stenebrand, Agneta; Wide Boman, Ulla; Hakeberg, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the prevalence of dental anxiety and its association with temperament, sociodemographic factors and previous painful and unpleasant experiences of dental care among 15-year old individuals. The sample included 263 randomly selected 15-year old individuals living in the municipality of Jönköping, Sweden. The school, parental and adolescent consent was acquired. Three self-reported questionnaires were used, one included items of sociodemography, while the others dealt with dental anxiety assessed by the Dental Fear Survey (DFS) and temperament assessed by an adapted version of The EAS Temperament Survey for Children modified for adults, the EASI temperament survey. The results showed that 6.5% of the adolescents were classified as dentally anxious and with girls proportionally more fearful than boys. The three temperaments activity, impulsivity and emotionality were significantly correlated with dental anxiety. A hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis showed that pain at the last dental appointment or previous pain experiences during dental care treatment were the strongest predictors regarding dental anxiety in 15-year olds. The temperament dimensions activity and impulsivity were also significantly predictive of dental anxiety. Although some of the temperament dimensions are correlated with dental anxiety, which may emphasize an important finding with regard to personality, this study showed that previous pain experiences during dental care treatment is a strong predictor for high dental anxiety in 15-year olds.

  2. Cohort Profile: The Limache, Chile, birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Zumelzú, Elinor; Rona, Roberto J

    2014-01-01

    The Limache cohort was set up to assess the programming and life course events hypotheses in relation to cardiovascular risk factors and chronic respiratory conditions, especially asthma, in the context of an unprecedented economic growth in Chile. The cohort was a representative sample of 1232 participants born between 1974 and 1978 in the hospital of Limache. The study includes data collected at birth, during the 1st year of life, at 22 to 28 years (collected between 2000 and 2002) and at 32 to 38 years (collected between 2010 and 2012). The data collected include anthropometric measurements at birth, 1st year of life and in adulthood, socio-economic and demographic data, lifestyle information including smoking, alcohol consumption and food intake, respiratory symptoms, lung function, broncho-reactivity to methacholine and skin prick reaction to eight allergens, measurement of cardiovascular risk factors and information on common mental health, mainly in the most recent study. The principal researchers welcome collaborative projects, especially those that will compare similar data sets in other settings [E-mail: hamigo@med.uchile.cl]. PMID:24366489

  3. Cohort profile: The Limache, Chile, birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Amigo, Hugo; Bustos, Patricia; Zumelzú, Elinor; Rona, Roberto J

    2014-08-01

    The Limache cohort was set up to assess the programming and life course events hypotheses in relation to cardiovascular risk factors and chronic respiratory conditions, especially asthma, in the context of an unprecedented economic growth in Chile. The cohort was a representative sample of 1232 participants born between 1974 and 1978 in the hospital of Limache. The study includes data collected at birth, during the 1st year of life, at 22 to 28 years (collected between 2000 and 2002) and at 32 to 38 years (collected between 2010 and 2012). The data collected include anthropometric measurements at birth, 1st year of life and in adulthood, socio-economic and demographic data, lifestyle information including smoking, alcohol consumption and food intake, respiratory symptoms, lung function, broncho-reactivity to methacholine and skin prick reaction to eight allergens, measurement of cardiovascular risk factors and information on common mental health, mainly in the most recent study. The principal researchers welcome collaborative projects, especially those that will compare similar data sets in other settings.

  4. Erfurt Male cohort Study (ERFORT Study). Study design and descriptive results.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Joachim; Meisinger, Christa; Wölke, Gabriele; Greschik, Claudia; Schneller, Hubert; Brasche, Sabine; Strube, Gert

    2007-06-01

    The main objective of ERFORT Study is to investigate cardiovascular risk factors, life-style related factors and psychosocial factors with regard to total and cause-specific mortality and morbidity. This paper describes the study design, frequency data on cardiovascular and psychosocial factors at baseline survey, and findings of three 5 year follow-up medical examinations. Life status was followed for 30 years. The Erfurt Male Cohort Study (ERFORT Study) is a population-based prospective cohort study and has its origin in the WHO initiated feasibility study to acquire experience in multi-factorial intervention programs. The baseline survey in 1973-75 examined a random population-based sample of 1,160 males aged 35-61 years (brutto response rate 74.6%) from the city of Erfurt, East Germany. Standardized and mostly validated methods were applied for a collection of data on cardiovascular risk factors, lifestyle-related and psychosocial factors, blood tests and ECG. Three consecutive follow-up examinations yielded datasets of 907, 740 and 609 subjects' re-examination in 1978-79, 1983-85 and 1988-90. Cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, and claudication intermittent approximately doubled within a 15-year follow-up. Prevalence of diabetes strongly increases from 2.8% at baseline to 12.0% at the 15-years follow up. High blood pressure (> or = 160/95 mm Hg) only slightly increased, whereas the antihypertensive treatment increased from 8.7% to 33.6%. This data set of a German cohort followed for several decades is an outstanding database to answer questions about long-term associations between biological and psychosocial factors and mortality in men.

  5. Porphyria in Switzerland, 15 years experience.

    PubMed

    Schneider-Yin, Xiaoye; Harms, Juergen; Minder, Elisabeth I

    2009-04-04

    The porphyrias, a group of seven metabolic disorders in the haem biosynthesis, can be classified into acute and non-acute porphyrias. A common symptom of acute porphyrias is severe acute abdominal pain, whereas cutaneous photosensitivity can occur in both acute and non-acute porphyrias. All porphyrias, except for sporadic porphyria cutanea tarda (sPCT), are hereditary disorders caused by mutations in the respective genes. We present porphyria cases documented in our porphyria centre during the past 15 years. Diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms and biochemical analyses. Mutation analysis was performed in patients/families with a confirmed hereditary porphyria. As the porphyria specialist centre of Switzerland, we perform the specialized analyses required for the diagnosis of all types of porphyrias, and give advice to patients, physicians and other laboratories. We therefore estimated that our data cover 80-90% of all diagnosed Swiss cases. A total of 217 patients from 170 families were diagnosed including, 111 acute intermittent porphyria, 45 erythropoietic protoporphyria, 30 variegate porphyria, 21 sPCT, five congenital erythropoietic porphyria, four hereditary coproporphyria and one hepatoerythropoietic porphyria patient. Systematic monitoring of the patients would allow early detection of the potential life-threatening complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma and renal insufficiency in acute porphyrias, and liver failure in EPP. Seventy-five percent of all families underwent genetic testing. Identification of pre-symptomatic mutation carriers so that these individuals and their physicians can be consulted with safety on drug use and other preventive measures, is important in managing acute porphyrias. The unique phenomenon of founder mutations in the Swiss population is also discussed.

  6. A Study of Group Dynamics in Educational Leadership Cohort and Non-Cohort Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenlee, Bobbie J.; Karanxha, Zorka

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine group dynamics of educational leadership students in cohorts and make comparisons with the group dynamics characteristics of non-cohort students. Cohorts have emerged as dynamic and adaptive entities with attendant group dynamic processes that shape collective learning and action. Cohort (n=42) and…

  7. The Finnish Twin Cohort Study: an Update

    PubMed Central

    Kaprio, Jaakko

    2015-01-01

    In 2002 and 2006 review papers have described the Finnish Twin Cohort and studies conducted on these population-based, longitudinal data-sets with extensive follow-up data. Three cohorts have been established, the older twin cohort in the 1970s, and the Finntwin12 and Finntwin16 studies initiated in the 1990s. The present review provides on update on the latest data collections conducted since the previous review. These cover the fourth waves of data collection in the older cohort (twins born before 1958) and Finntwin12 (twins born 1983–1987). The fifth wave of data collection in Finntwin16 (twins born 1975–1979) included also assessments of their spouses/partners. An analysis of mortality in the older cohort from 1975 to 2009 indicates that the mortality of adult twins (as individuals) does not differ from the population at large. Based on the cohorts, many sub-studies with more detailed phenotyping and collection of omics data have been conducted or are in progress. We also contribute to numerous national and international collaborations. PMID:23298696

  8. Ethylene oxide and breast cancer incidence in a cohort study of 7576 women (United States).

    PubMed

    Steenland, Kyle; Whelan, Elizabeth; Deddens, James; Stayner, Leslie; Ward, Elizabeth

    2003-08-01

    Ethylene oxide (ETO) is a sterilant gas considered to be a human carcinogen, due primarily to excess hematopoietic cancer in exposed cohorts. ETO causes mammary tumors in mice, and has been associated with breast cancer incidence in one small epidemiologic study. We have studied breast cancer incidence in a cohort of 7576 women employed for at least one year and exposed for an average 10.7 years while working in commercial sterilization facilities. Breast cancer incidence (n = 319) was ascertained via interview, death certificates, cancer registries, and medical records. Interviews were obtained for 68% of the cohort. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for incident breast cancer in the whole cohort using external referent rates (SEER) was 0.87 (0.77-0.97). The SIR for those in the top quintile of cumulative exposure, with a 15 year lag, was 1.27 (0.94-1.69), with a positive trend of increasing SIR with increasing exposure (p = 0.002). SIRs are underestimated because breast cancer incidence in the whole cohort was under-ascertained, due to incomplete response and lack of complete coverage by state cancer registries. In internal nested case-control analyses of those with interviews (complete cancer ascertainment), controlling for reproductive risk factors, a positive exposure-response was found with the log of cumulative exposure with a 15-year lag (p = 0.0005). The odds ratio by quintile of cumulative exposure were 1.00 (0 exposure due to 15 year lag), 1.06, 0.99, 1.24, 1.42, and 1.87. Our data suggest that ETO is associated with breast cancer, but a causal interpretation is weakened due to some inconsistencies in exposure-response trends and possible biases due to non-response and incomplete cancer ascertainment.

  9. Review of Cohort Studies for Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Baek, Ji Hyun; Ahn, Yong-Min; Kim, Se Joo; Ha, Tae Hyun; Cha, Boseok; Moon, Eunsoo; Kang, Hee-Ju; Ryu, Vin; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Kiwon

    2016-01-01

    This paper aimed to review currently available cohort studies of subjects with mood disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). Using the PubMed and KoreaMed databases, we reviewed eight major cohort studies. Most studies recruited participants with MDD and BD separately, so direct comparison of factors associated with diagnostic changes was difficult. Regular and frequent follow-up evaluations utilizing objective mood ratings and standardized evaluation methods in a naturalistic fashion are necessary to determine detailed clinical courses of mood disorders. Further, biological samples should also be collected to incorporate clinical findings in the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. An innovative cohort study that can serve as a platform for translational research for treatment and prevention of mood disorders is critical in determining clinical, psychosocial, neurobiological and genetic factors associated with long-term courses and consequences of mood disorders in Korean patients. PMID:27247592

  10. Bathroom injuries in children less than 15 years old.

    PubMed

    Head, Elizabeth Nicole; Stevens, Judy A; Haileyesus, Tadesse

    2013-10-01

    To quantify and describe non-fatal, unintentional bathroom injuries among children less than 15 years of age treated in US hospital emergency departments (EDs). This study used 2008 data from a nationally representative sample of EDs, available from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program. We examined unintentional non-fatal bathroom injuries in any setting (eg, home, school or public place) among children less than 15 years of age and identified types of injuries, major locations within the bathroom and precipitating events. Based on 1099 cases, an estimated 51 132 non-fatal bathroom injuries in children less than 15 years of age were treated in US EDs in 2008. Most injuries (73.8%) were caused by falls. The highest rate was for injuries that occurred in or around the shower or bathtub (65.9 per 100 000). Children less than 15 years of age sustained the greatest number of injuries and had the highest injury rate (151 per 100 000 (95% CI 108.7 to 193.3)), while children 10-14 years of age had the lowest rate (28.7 (95% CI 20.6 to 36.8)). The rates differed significantly by age group (p<0.001). A majority of the patients (96.9%) were treated in the ED and released. Most bathroom injuries in children occurred while they were showering or bathing and were caused by falling or hitting an object. Such injuries might be reduced by improving caregiver supervision for younger children. For older children, a combination of bathroom safety education and environmental modifications, such as installing grab bars inside and outside the shower or tub, may reduce bathroom injuries.

  11. Brain-Science Based Cohort Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koizumi, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a number of human cohort studies based on the concept of brain-science and education. These studies assess the potential effects of new technologies on babies, children and adolescents, and test hypotheses drawn from animal and genetic case studies to see if they apply to people. A flood of information, virtual media,…

  12. Brain-Science Based Cohort Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koizumi, Hideaki

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a number of human cohort studies based on the concept of brain-science and education. These studies assess the potential effects of new technologies on babies, children and adolescents, and test hypotheses drawn from animal and genetic case studies to see if they apply to people. A flood of information, virtual media,…

  13. Cohort studies in health sciences librarianship

    PubMed Central

    Eldredge, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Question: What are the key characteristics of the cohort study design and its varied applications, and how can this research design be utilized in health sciences librarianship? Data Sources: The health, social, behavioral, biological, library, earth, and management sciences literatures were used as sources. Study Selection: All fields except for health sciences librarianship were scanned topically for either well-known or diverse applications of the cohort design. The health sciences library literature available to the author principally for the years 1990 to 2000, supplemented by papers or posters presented at annual meetings of the Medical Library Association. Data Extraction: A narrative review for the health, social, behavioral, biological, earth, and management sciences literatures and a systematic review for health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000, with three exceptions, were conducted. The author conducted principally a manual search of the health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000 as part of this systematic review. Main Results: The cohort design has been applied to answer a wide array of theoretical or practical research questions in the health, social, behavioral, biological, and management sciences. Health sciences librarianship also offers several major applications of the cohort design. Conclusion: The cohort design has great potential for answering research questions in the field of health sciences librarianship, particularly evidence-based librarianship (EBL), although that potential has not been fully explored. PMID:12398244

  14. Observed and Expected Mortality in Cohort Studies.

    PubMed

    Richardson, David B; Keil, Alexander P; Cole, Stephen R; MacLehose, Richard F

    2017-03-15

    Epidemiologists often compare the observed number of deaths in a cohort with the expected number of deaths, obtained by multiplying person-time accrued in the cohort by mortality rates for a reference population (ideally, a reference that represents the mortality rate in the cohort in the absence of exposure). However, if exposure is hazardous (or salutary), this calculation will not consistently estimate the number of deaths expected in the absence of exposure because exposure will have affected the distribution of person-time observed in the study cohort. While problems with interpretation of this standard calculation of expected counts were discussed more than 2 decades ago, these discussions had little impact on epidemiologic practice. The logic of counterfactuals may help clarify this topic as we revisit these issues. In this paper, we describe a simple way to consistently estimate the expected number of deaths in such settings, and we illustrate the approach using data from a cohort study of mortality among underground miners. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Coffee to Go: Woman "Thinks" First Cup in 15 Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: NIBIB Robotics Coffee to Go: Woman "Thinks" First Cup in 15 Years Past ... Athlete Stands Again…On His Own! / Coffee to Go: Woman "Thinks" First Cup in 15 Years Spring ...

  16. T₂ mapping provides multiple approaches for the characterization of muscle involvement in neuromuscular diseases: a cross-sectional study of lower leg muscles in 5-15-year-old boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Arpan, Ishu; Forbes, Sean C; Lott, Donovan J; Senesac, Claudia R; Daniels, Michael J; Triplett, William T; Deol, Jasjit K; Sweeney, H Lee; Walter, Glenn A; Vandenborne, Krista

    2013-03-01

    Skeletal muscles of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) show enhanced susceptibility to damage and progressive lipid infiltration, which contribute to an increase in the MR proton transverse relaxation time (T₂). Therefore, the examination of T₂ changes in individual muscles may be useful for the monitoring of disease progression in DMD. In this study, we used the mean T₂, percentage of elevated pixels and T₂ heterogeneity to assess changes in the composition of dystrophic muscles. In addition, we used fat saturation to distinguish T₂ changes caused by edema and inflammation from fat infiltration in muscles. Thirty subjects with DMD and 15 age-matched controls underwent T₂ -weighted imaging of their lower leg using a 3-T MR system. T₂ maps were developed and four lower leg muscles were manually traced (soleus, medial gastrocnemius, peroneal and tibialis anterior). The mean T₂ of the traced regions of interest, width of the T₂ histograms and percentage of elevated pixels were calculated. We found that, even in young children with DMD, lower leg muscles showed elevated mean T₂, were more heterogeneous and had a greater percentage of elevated pixels than in controls. T₂ measures decreased with fat saturation, but were still higher (P < 0.05) in dystrophic muscles than in controls. Further, T₂ measures showed positive correlations with timed functional tests (r = 0.23-0.79). The elevated T₂ measures with and without fat saturation at all ages of DMD examined (5-15 years) compared with unaffected controls indicate that the dystrophic muscles have increased regions of damage, edema and fat infiltration. This study shows that T₂ mapping provides multiple approaches that can be used effectively to characterize muscle tissue in children with DMD, even in the early stages of the disease. Therefore, T₂ mapping may prove to be clinically useful in the monitoring of muscle changes caused by the disease process or by therapeutic

  17. T2 mapping provides multiple approaches to characterize muscle involvement in neuromuscular diseases: a cross-sectional study of lower leg muscles in 5–15 year old boys with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Arpan, Ishu; Forbes, Sean C; Lott, Donovan J; Senesac, Claudia R; Daniels, Michael J; Triplett, William T; Deol, Jasjit K; Sweeney, H Lee; Walter, Glenn A; Vandenborne, Krista

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Skeletal muscles of children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) have enhanced susceptibility to damage and progressive lipid infiltration, which contribute to an increase in magnetic resonance proton transverse relaxation time (T2). Therefore, examining T2 changes in individual muscles may be useful for monitoring disease progression in DMD. In this study we utilized mean T2, percent elevated pixels, and T2 heterogeneity to assess changes in composition of dystrophic muscles. In addition, we used fat saturation (fatsat) to distinguish T2 changes due to edema and inflammation from fat infiltration in muscles. Methods Thirty subjects with DMD and 15 age-matched controls underwent T2-weighted imaging of their lower leg using 3-T MR system. T2 maps were developed and four lower leg muscles were manually traced (soleus, medial gastrocnemius, peroneal and tibialis anterior). Mean T2 of the traced regions of interest (ROI), width of T2 histograms, and percent-elevated pixels were calculated. Results We found that even in young children with DMD, muscles had elevated mean T2, were more heterogeneous, and had a greater percent-elevated pixels in the lower leg muscles than controls. T2 measures decreased with fat saturation, but were still higher (p<0.05) in dystrophic muscles than controls. Further, T2 measures showed positive correlations with timed functional tests (r=0.23–0.79). Conclusion The elevated T2 measures with and without fat saturation in all ages of DMD examined (5–15 years) compared to unaffected controls indicate that the dystrophic muscles have increased regions of damage, edema, and fat infiltration. This study shows that T2 mapping provides multiple approaches that can be effectively utilized to characterize muscle tissue in children with DMD even in the early stages of the disease. Therefore, T2 mapping may prove clinically useful in monitoring muscle changes due to disease process or therapeutic interventions in DMD. PMID:23044995

  18. Usefulness of multiplex PCR methods and respiratory viruses’ distribution in children below 15 years old according to age, seasons and clinical units in France: A 3 years retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Collin, Gilles; Ichou, Houria; Charpentier, Charlotte; Bendhafer, Samia; Dumitrescu, Madalina; Allal, Lahcene; Cojocaru, Bogdan; Desfrère, Luc; Descamps, Diane; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Houhou-Fidouh, Nadhira

    2017-01-01

    Background To date, only influenza and RSV testing are recommended for respiratory viruses’ detection in paediatric units. In this study, we described, according to seasons, ages and clinical units, the results obtained in children (<15 years old) by multiplex-PCR (mPCR) tests allowing a quick and wide range detection of all respiratory viruses. These results were also compared with RSV specific detection. Methods All nasopharyngeal mPCR and RSV tests requested by clinicians in our French teaching hospitals group between 2011 and 2014 were retrospectively included. All repeated samples for the same children in the same month were discarded. Results Of the 381 mPCR tests (344 children) performed, 51.4% were positive. Positivity and viral co-infection rates were higher in the 6–36 months old strata (81% and 25%, p<0.0001 and p = 0.04, respectively). Viral distribution showed strong variations across ages. During specific influenza epidemic periods, only 1/39 (2.5%) mPCR tests were positive for influenza and 19/39 (48.7%) for other viruses. During specific RSV epidemic periods, only 8/46 (17.4%) mPCR tests were positive for RSV and 14/46 (30.4%) for other viruses. 477/1529 (31.2%) of RSV immunochromatography-tests were positive. Among the negatives immunochromatography-test also explored by mPCR, 28/62 (31%) were positive for other respiratory viruses. Conclusion This study provides a wide description of respiratory viruses’ distribution among children in hospital settings using mPCR over 3 years. It emphasizes the number of undiagnosed respiratory viruses according to the current diagnosis practice in France and gives a better picture of respiratory viruses identified in hospital settings by mPCR all over the year in France. PMID:28235002

  19. Usefulness of multiplex PCR methods and respiratory viruses' distribution in children below 15 years old according to age, seasons and clinical units in France: A 3 years retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Visseaux, Benoit; Collin, Gilles; Ichou, Houria; Charpentier, Charlotte; Bendhafer, Samia; Dumitrescu, Madalina; Allal, Lahcene; Cojocaru, Bogdan; Desfrère, Luc; Descamps, Diane; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Houhou-Fidouh, Nadhira

    2017-01-01

    To date, only influenza and RSV testing are recommended for respiratory viruses' detection in paediatric units. In this study, we described, according to seasons, ages and clinical units, the results obtained in children (<15 years old) by multiplex-PCR (mPCR) tests allowing a quick and wide range detection of all respiratory viruses. These results were also compared with RSV specific detection. All nasopharyngeal mPCR and RSV tests requested by clinicians in our French teaching hospitals group between 2011 and 2014 were retrospectively included. All repeated samples for the same children in the same month were discarded. Of the 381 mPCR tests (344 children) performed, 51.4% were positive. Positivity and viral co-infection rates were higher in the 6-36 months old strata (81% and 25%, p<0.0001 and p = 0.04, respectively). Viral distribution showed strong variations across ages. During specific influenza epidemic periods, only 1/39 (2.5%) mPCR tests were positive for influenza and 19/39 (48.7%) for other viruses. During specific RSV epidemic periods, only 8/46 (17.4%) mPCR tests were positive for RSV and 14/46 (30.4%) for other viruses. 477/1529 (31.2%) of RSV immunochromatography-tests were positive. Among the negatives immunochromatography-test also explored by mPCR, 28/62 (31%) were positive for other respiratory viruses. This study provides a wide description of respiratory viruses' distribution among children in hospital settings using mPCR over 3 years. It emphasizes the number of undiagnosed respiratory viruses according to the current diagnosis practice in France and gives a better picture of respiratory viruses identified in hospital settings by mPCR all over the year in France.

  20. Changes in characteristics and management of Asian and Anglo-Celts with type 2 diabetes over a 15-year period in an urban Australian community: The Fremantle Diabetes Study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Eva D D; Davis, Wendy A; Davis, Timothy M E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine temporal changes in characteristics and management of Asians with type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared with those of the majority Anglo-Celt (AC) patients in an urban Australian community. Cross-sectional data from the observational Fremantle Diabetes Study (FDS) collected in 1993-96 (Phase I; FDS1) and 2008-11 (Phase II; FDS2) were analyzed for patients classified as Asian (n = 44 and 65 in FDS1 and FDS2, respectively) or AC (n = 796 and 793, respectively). Between-group differences in changes in key variables between FDS phases were analyzed by generalized linear modeling with adjustment for age and gender. Asians patients were significantly younger at diagnosis and recruitment and had a lower body mass index and smaller waist circumference than the AC participants in both FDS phases. They were also less likely to be treated for hypertension. Cardiovascular risk factors and their management and macrovascular complications were similar in the two groups over time. A greater propensity to retinopathy with Asian ethnicity in FDS1 (27.3% vs 13.5%; P = 0.23) was attenuated in FDS2 (23.7% vs 19.0%; P = 0.39). Asians had a significantly lower prevalence of peripheral sensory neuropathy in FDS2 (33.8% vs 63.3%; P < 0.001; adjusted P = 0.011 for between-group temporal change). There were persistent differences between the phenotypic features of Asian migrants with T2D versus AC patients in an Australian urban community over 15 years of follow-up, but management of diabetes and non-glycemic risk factors remained comparable. Ethnicity-specific differences in susceptibility to microvascular complications should be considered in clinical management. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. Cohort Survival and Withdrawal Study District Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shainline, Michael

    At the completion of the 1986-87 school year, the Albuquerque (New Mexico) Public Schools (APS) conducted a cohort survival and withdrawal study to follow-up 5,976 students who had begun the ninth grade within the district in 1983-84. Current records were matched with those from the 1983-84 school year to determine whether members of the…

  2. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in a representative sample of 11-15 year olds in France: results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Marie; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Vignes, Céline; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet

    2011-06-07

    The prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents is high and overweight is associated with poor health outcomes over short- and long-term. Lifestyle factors can interact to influence overweight. Comprehensive studies linking overweight concomitantly with several demographic and potentially-modifiable lifestyle factors and health-risk behaviours are limited in adolescents--an age-group characterized by changes in lifestyle behaviours and high prevalence of overweight. Thus, the objective of the current study was to examine the association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle variables simultaneously in a representative sample of adolescents. A nationally representative sample of 11-15 year-olds (n = 7154) in France participated as part of the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Students reported data on their age, height, weight, socio-demographic variables, lifestyle factors including nutrition practices, physical activity at two levels of intensity (moderate and vigorous), sedentary behaviours, as well as smoking and alcohol consumption patterns using standardized HBSC protocols. Overweight (including obesity) was defined using the IOTF reference. The multivariate association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors was examined with logistic regression models. The adjusted odds ratios for the association with overweight were: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.37-2.36) for low family affluence; 0.73 (0.60-0.88) for eating breakfast daily; 0.69 (0.56-0.84) for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA); and 0.71 (0.59-0.86) for vigorous physical activity (VPA). Significant interactions between age and gender as well as television (TV) viewing and gender were noted: for boys, overweight was not associated with age or TV viewing; in contrast, for girls overweight correlated negatively with age and positively with TV viewing. Fruit and vegetable intake, computer and video-games use, smoking

  3. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in a representative sample of 11-15 year olds in France: Results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents is high and overweight is associated with poor health outcomes over short- and long-term. Lifestyle factors can interact to influence overweight. Comprehensive studies linking overweight concomitantly with several demographic and potentially-modifiable lifestyle factors and health-risk behaviours are limited in adolescents - an age-group characterized by changes in lifestyle behaviours and high prevalence of overweight. Thus, the objective of the current study was to examine the association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle variables simultaneously in a representative sample of adolescents. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11-15 year-olds (n = 7154) in France participated as part of the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Students reported data on their age, height, weight, socio-demographic variables, lifestyle factors including nutrition practices, physical activity at two levels of intensity (moderate and vigorous), sedentary behaviours, as well as smoking and alcohol consumption patterns using standardized HBSC protocols. Overweight (including obesity) was defined using the IOTF reference. The multivariate association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors was examined with logistic regression models. Results The adjusted odds ratios for the association with overweight were: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.37-2.36) for low family affluence; 0.73 (0.60-0.88) for eating breakfast daily; 0.69 (0.56-0.84) for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA); and 0.71 (0.59-0.86) for vigorous physical activity (VPA). Significant interactions between age and gender as well as television (TV) viewing and gender were noted: for boys, overweight was not associated with age or TV viewing; in contrast, for girls overweight correlated negatively with age and positively with TV viewing. Fruit and vegetable intake, computer

  4. [Socio-demographic impact of 15 years of family planning].

    PubMed

    Rosales Aujang, Enrique; Felguérez Flores, Jesús Alberto

    2005-08-01

    Familiar planning is an important branch of the preventive medicine that can have a great impact on the health of the humanity. The present study is an evaluation by a cross section of the effects obtained by the program of familiar planning during a period of 15 years in the Aguascalientes Delegation of the Mexican Institute of the Social Security, establishing therefore a diagnosis and identifying elements that can contribute in the suitable planning of strategies to improve the quality of the attention and to respond to social and health necessities of the population.

  5. Bronchial Leech Infestation in a 15-Year-Old Female

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Mohammad Ashkan; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a common incidence in young children. Leeches are rarely reported as FBA at any age. This study describes a 15-year-old female who presented with hemoptysis, hematemesis, coughs, melena, and anemia seven months prior to admission. Chest X-ray showed a round hyperdensity in the right lower lobe. A chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated an area of consolidation and surrounding ground glass opacities in the right lower lobe. Hematological investigations revealed anemia. Finally, bronchoscopy was performed and a 5 cm leech was found within the right B7-8 bronchus and removed by forceps and a Dormia basket. PMID:27752380

  6. Bronchial Leech Infestation in a 15-Year-Old Female.

    PubMed

    Moslehi, Mohammad Ashkan; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi; Adib, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a common incidence in young children. Leeches are rarely reported as FBA at any age. This study describes a 15-year-old female who presented with hemoptysis, hematemesis, coughs, melena, and anemia seven months prior to admission. Chest X-ray showed a round hyperdensity in the right lower lobe. A chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated an area of consolidation and surrounding ground glass opacities in the right lower lobe. Hematological investigations revealed anemia. Finally, bronchoscopy was performed and a 5 cm leech was found within the right B7-8 bronchus and removed by forceps and a Dormia basket.

  7. Thyroid surgery without drainage: 15 years of clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Ariyanayagam, D C; Naraynsingh, V; Busby, D; Sieunarine, K; Raju, G; Jankey, N

    1993-04-01

    Drainage in thyroid surgery has been a routine but empirical practice with no scientific evidence to support its benefit. The largest series to date of non-drainage in thyroid surgery is presented, comprising 260 patients over a 15-year period. No case selection for non-drainage was employed. Two hundred and fifty-nine cases were not drained and included toxic goitres, and bilateral and redo procedures. There was one thyroid storm and two cases of subcutaneous fluid collection, treated by needle aspiration. No cases of recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, airway obstruction or death were recorded. This study strongly demonstrates the safety of non-drainage in routine thyroid surgery.

  8. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto de; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age.

  9. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  10. Glycolipid metabolic status of overweight/obese adolescents aged 9- to 15-year-old and the BMI-SDS/BMI cut-off value of predicting dyslipidemiain boys, Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of adolescents’ obesity and overweight has dramatically elevated in China. Obese children were likely to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, which are risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. However there was no cut-off point of anthropometric values to predict the risk factors in Chinese adolescents. The present study was to investigate glycolipid metabolism status of adolescents in Shanghai and to explore the correlations between body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) and metabolic indices, determine the best cut-off value of BMI-SDS to predict dyslipidemia. Methods Fifteen schools in Shanghai’s two districts were chosen by cluster sampling and primary screening was done in children aged 9-15 years old. After screening of bodyweight and height, overweight and obese adolescents and age-matched children with normal body weight were randomly recruited in the study. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical measurements of glycolipid profiles were done. SPSS19.0 was used to analyze the data. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were made and the best cut-off values of BMI-SDS to predict dyslipidemia were determined while the Youden indices were maximum. Results Five hundred and thirty-eight adolescents were enrolled in this research, among which 283 have normal bodyweight, 115 were overweight and 140 were obese. No significant differences of the ages among 3 groups were found. There were significant differences of WC-SDS (p<0.001), triacylglycerol (p<0.05), high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (p<0.01), fasting insulin (p<0.01) and C-peptide (p<0.001) among 3 groups. Significant difference of fasting glucose was only found between normal weight and overweight group. Significant difference of total cholesterol was found between obese and normal weight group. There was no significant difference of glycated hemoglobin among 3 groups. The same tendency was found in boys but not in girls. Only HDL-C reduced and

  11. Glycolipid metabolic status of overweight/obese adolescents aged 9- to 15-year-old and the BMI-SDS/BMI cut-off value of predicting dyslipidemiain boys, Shanghai, China: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chun-dan; Wu, Qiao-ling; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Zheng-yan; Peng, Yong-mei

    2013-08-28

    The prevalence of adolescents' obesity and overweight has dramatically elevated in China. Obese children were likely to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, which are risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. However there was no cut-off point of anthropometric values to predict the risk factors in Chinese adolescents. The present study was to investigate glycolipid metabolism status of adolescents in Shanghai and to explore the correlations between body mass index standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) and metabolic indices, determine the best cut-off value of BMI-SDS to predict dyslipidemia. Fifteen schools in Shanghai's two districts were chosen by cluster sampling and primary screening was done in children aged 9-15 years old. After screening of bodyweight and height, overweight and obese adolescents and age-matched children with normal body weight were randomly recruited in the study. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical measurements of glycolipid profiles were done. SPSS19.0 was used to analyze the data. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were made and the best cut-off values of BMI-SDS to predict dyslipidemia were determined while the Youden indices were maximum. Five hundred and thirty-eight adolescents were enrolled in this research, among which 283 have normal bodyweight, 115 were overweight and 140 were obese. No significant differences of the ages among 3 groups were found. There were significant differences of WC-SDS (p<0.001), triacylglycerol (p<0.05), high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (p<0.01), fasting insulin (p<0.01) and C-peptide (p<0.001) among 3 groups. Significant difference of fasting glucose was only found between normal weight and overweight group. Significant difference of total cholesterol was found between obese and normal weight group. There was no significant difference of glycated hemoglobin among 3 groups. The same tendency was found in boys but not in girls. Only HDL-C reduced and TG increased while BMI elevated

  12. Uroflowmetry nomograms for healthy children 5 to 15 years old.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Dheeraj Kumar; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Goel, Apul

    2013-09-01

    We determined flow rates and generated flow rate-voided volume nomograms based on healthy children 5 to 15 years old voiding spontaneously in their natural environment. A total of 824 healthy school children of both genders were enrolled. A single uroflow record from each child was evaluated. A total of 103 children with a voided volume of less than 50 ml and/or a staccato/interrupted uroflow pattern were excluded, and 721 records were analyzed. Data were evaluated using several mathematical formulas and goodness of fit was determined. Linear regression analysis was used to generate nomograms. Flow rates and voided volumes increased with increasing age, with the effect being more pronounced in girls. No significant difference was noted in uroflow rates from 5 to 10 years, but significant differences (p <0.001) started appearing at 11 to 15 years. Also no significant difference was noted in uroflow rates among children 11 to 15 years. Therefore, 2 age groups were designated, with group 1 consisting of patients 5 to 10 years old and group 2 consisting of patients 11 to 15 years old. There were 222 boys and 122 girls in group 1 and 240 boys and 137 girls in group 2. In group 1 the maximum and average ± SD flow rates were 15.26 ± 4.54 ml per second and 7.68 ± 3.26 ml per second, respectively, for boys and 17.98 ± 6.06 ml per second and 9.19 ± 4.23 ml per second, respectively, for girls. In group 2 these rates were 22.50 ± 7.24 ml per second and 10.78 ± 4.03 ml per second, respectively, for boys and 27.16 ± 9.37 ml per second and 13.48 ± 5.21 ml per second, respectively, for girls. This large study, which expands the scant existing literature on uroflow parameters in healthy children, will hopefully promote wider application of uroflowmetry testing in the pediatric population. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Magnesium intake and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: results from five large cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Fondell, Elinor; O'Reilly, Eilis J; Fitzgerald, Kathryn C; Falcone, Guido J; McCullough, Marjorie L; Park, Yikyung; Kolonel, Laurence N; Ascherio, Alberto

    2013-09-01

    A low magnesium intake has been suggested to be associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in pathological and case-control studies, but prospective studies in humans are lacking. The relation between dietary intake of magnesium and ALS risk was explored in five large prospective cohort studies (the Nurses' Health Study, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, the Multiethnic Cohort Study, and the National Institutes of Health - AARP Diet and Health Study), comprising over 1,050,000 males and females contributing 1093 cases of ALS during a mean of 15 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used within each cohort, and cohort-specific estimates were subsequently pooled using a random-effects model. Results demonstrated that dietary magnesium intake was not associated with ALS risk, relative risk 1.07, 95% confidence interval 0.88 - 1.31 comparing the highest quintile of intake with the lowest. This finding does not support a protective effect of magnesium intake on ALS risk. Further analyses should explore magnesium intake in combination with heavy metal exposure and genetic variants affecting magnesium absorption.

  14. Magnesium Intake and Risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Results From Five Large Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Fondell, Elinor; O’Reilly, Éilis J.; Fitzgerald, Kathryn C.; Falcone, Guido J.; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Park, Yikyung; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Ascherio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Objective A low magnesium intake has been suggested to be associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in pathological and case-control studies, but prospective studies in humans are lacking. Methods The relation between dietary intake of magnesium and ALS risk was explored in five large prospective cohort studies [the Nurses’ Health Study, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, the Multiethnic Cohort Study, and the National Institutes of Health – AARP Diet and Health Study], comprising over 1,050,000 men and women contributing 1,093 cases of ALS during a mean of 15 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used within each cohort, and cohort-specific estimates were subsequently pooled using a random-effects model. Results Dietary magnesium intake was not associated with ALS risk, relative risk 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 0.88– 1.31 comparing the highest quintile of intake with the lowest. Conclusions This finding does not support a protective effect of magnesium intake on ALS risk. Further analyses should explore magnesium intake in combination with heavy metal exposure and genetic variants affecting magnesium absorption. PMID:23777266

  15. A cohort mortality study of petrochemical workers

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, S.G.; Schnatter, A.R.

    1983-04-01

    A historical prospective cohort mortality study was conducted for a cohort of 6,588 white male employees of a Texas petrochemical plant because of a suspected increased incidence of malignant brain tumors. Mortality experience from 1941 to 1977 was determined and compared with that of the general U.S. white male population adjusting for age and time period. Overall and cause-specific standardized mortality ratios were calculated for various subgroups of the population defined by length of employment, latency and payroll status. Significant deficits in total cohort mortality were found for all causes of death, all circulatory diseases, all respiratory diseases and all digestive diseases. Although not statistically significant, fewer deaths were observed (O) than expected (E) for all malignant neoplasms. No statistically significant excess of malignant brain tumors was found in the overall plant population (O/E = 12/7.42 = 1.62). A borderline significant excess of brain cancer deaths was found among hourly employees with more than six months' employment based on 10 observed and five expected deaths. This excess was observed to occur among elderly employees (over 55 years) and in later follow-up years (post-1970). Risk did not appear to be related to length of employment. Because of the nature of the problem that prompted this study, the small number of cases involved and the lack of a suspect agent in the plant that could have produced this excess, insufficient evidence was found to conclude that these tumors were occupationally related.

  16. Haploidentical HSCT: a 15-year experience at San Raffaele.

    PubMed

    Bonini, C; Peccatori, J; Stanghellini, M T L; Vago, L; Bondanza, A; Cieri, N; Greco, R; Bernardi, M; Corti, C; Oliveira, G; Zappone, E; Traversari, C; Bordignon, C; Ciceri, F

    2015-06-01

    Hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) from HLA haploidentical family donors is a promising therapy for high-risk hematological malignancies. In the past 15 years at San Raffaele Scientific Institute, we investigated several transplant platforms and post transplant cellular-based interventions. We showed that T cell-depleted haploidentical transplantation followed by the infusion of genetically modified donor T cells (TK007 study, Eudract-2005-003587-34) promotes fast and wide immune reconstitution and GvHD control. This approach is currently tested in a phase III multicenter randomized trial (TK008 study, NCT00914628). We targeted patients with advanced leukemia with a sirolimus-based, calcineurin inhibitor-free prophylaxis of GvHD to allow the safe infusion of unmanipulated PBSCs from haploidentical family donors (TrRaMM study, Eudract 2007-5477-54). Results of these approaches are summarized and discussed.

  17. Lynch syndrome in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Bodas, A; Pérez-Segura, P; Maluenda, C; Caldés, T; Olivera, E; Díaz-Rubio, E

    2008-10-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), or Lynch syndrome, dominantly inherited, is characterized by the development of a variety of cancers due to germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes (MMR). This syndrome was diagnosed in a 15-year-old boy because his father and grandmother were also found to have the same kind of cancer. Microsatellite instability prompted a search for germline mutations in the MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 genes. Use of immunohistochemical staining for MMR proteins, genomic sequencing, and deletion studies, evidenced MSH2 axonal deletion. Neoplastic lesions of colon are most often encountered in the adult population but can, on rare occasions, be found in younger patients. We would like to emphasize the importance of suspecting Lynch syndrome and performing genetic studies, even in young patients, when there is a family history of colorectal cancer.

  18. Cohort profile: the lidA Cohort Study-a German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation.

    PubMed

    Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans

    2014-12-01

    The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (http://fdz.iab.de/en.aspx).

  19. Do deterrence and social-control theories predict driving after drinking 15 years after a DWI conviction?

    PubMed

    Lapham, Sandra C; Todd, Michael

    2012-03-01

    This study investigates the utility of deterrence and social-control theories for prospective prediction of driving-while-impaired (DWI) outcomes of first-time DWI offenders. The sample consisted of a subset of 544 convicted first-time DWI offenders (N=337 females) who were interviewed 5 and 15 years after referral to a Screening Program in Bernalillo County, New Mexico. Variables collected at the 5-year (initial) interview were used in structural equation models to predict past 3-months, self-reported DWI at the 15-year follow-up (follow-up) interview. These variables represented domains defined by deterrence and social-control theories of DWI behavior, with one model corresponding to deterrence theory and one to social-control theory. Both models fit the data. DWI jail time was positively related to perceived enforcement, which was negatively but not significantly related to self-reported DWI. Neither jail time for DWI nor perceived likelihood of arrest was linearly related to self-reported DWI at follow-up. Interactions between jail time and prior DWI behavior indicated relatively weaker associations between initial and 15-year DWI for those reporting more jail time. Our prospective study demonstrated that for this convicted DWI offender cohort, classic formulations of deterrence and social-control theories did not account for DWI. However, results suggest that punishment may decrease the likelihood of DWI recidivism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Do Deterrence and Social-Control Theories Predict Driving after Drinking 15 years after a DWI Conviction?

    PubMed Central

    Lapham, Sandra C.; Todd, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study investigates the utility of deterrence and social-control theories for prospective prediction of driving-while-impaired (DWI) outcomes of first-time DWI offenders. Method The sample consisted of a subset of 544 convicted first-time DWI offenders (n = 337 females) who were interviewed 5 and 15 years after referral to a screening program in Bernalillo County, New Mexico. Variables collected at the 5-year (initial) interview were used in structural equation models to predict past 3-months, self-reported DWI at the 15-year follow-up (follow-up) interview. These variables represented domains defined by deterrence and social-control theories of DWI behavior, with one model corresponding to deterrence theory and one to social-control theory. Results Both models fit the data. DWI jail time was positively related to perceived enforcement, which was negatively but not significantly related to self-reported DWI. Neither jail time for DWI nor perceived likelihood of arrest was linearly related to self-reported DWI at follow-up. Interactions between jail time and prior DWI behavior indicated relatively weaker associations between initial and 15-year DWI for those reporting more jail time. Conclusion Our prospective study demonstrated that for this convicted DWI offender cohort, classic formulations of deterrence and social-control theories did not account for DWI. However, results suggest that punishment may decrease the likelihood of DWI recidivism. PMID:22269495

  1. Attitudes toward the metric system 15 years later.

    PubMed

    Gayton, W F; Hearns, J F; Elgee, L; Harvey, C

    2001-04-01

    This follow-up study investigated whether attitudes toward the metric system have changed over the last 15 years. 132 subjects ranging in age from 18 to 45 years participated by filling out a 7-item survey designed to measure attitudes toward the metric system. Each survey item was scored using a 5-point rating, e.g., "the change to the metric system will create more problems than it solves," 1: strongly agree and 5: strongly disagree. Scores were compared to those obtained for a similar sample in 1983. Comparisons using t tests indicated no significant differences between attitude scores from 1983 to 1998 for either men (t64 = .95) or women (t133 = .06).

  2. Cohort Profile: Recruitment cohorts in the neuropsychological substudy of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Becker, James T; Kingsley, Lawrence A; Molsberry, Samantha; Reynolds, Sandra; Aronow, Aaron; Levine, Andrew J; Martin, Eileen; Miller, Eric N; Munro, Cynthia A; Ragin, Ann; Sacktor, Ned; Selnes, Ola A

    2015-01-01

    The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) is one of the largest and longest running studies of the natural and treated history of HIV disease. The Neuropsychological (NP) substudy was begun in 1988 following reports of significant adverse neurological consequences of HIV disease, including dementia. The goal was to characterize the neuropsychological deficits among individuals with HIV disease, and track the natural history of the neurological complications over time. There were three distinct MACS recruitment stages that focused on different groups of HIV-infected men, or men at risk for infection. Initially, a subcohort was evaluated semi-annually with NP tests but, beginning in 2005, the entire group of MACS participants have had NP examinations biannually, unless closer follow-up was warranted. The participants complete a battery of NP tests, and are classified as either normal, mildly or severely impaired using the Antinori criteria for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND). Additional behavioural data, including mood state and psychoactive substance use, are recorded as part of the main MACS data collection. The MACS public data set (PDS) has been available since 1994 and includes baseline and 6-monthly follow-up data. Beginning in October 1995, the PDS has been released annually with new releases superseding previous versions. PMID:24771276

  3. How are European birth-cohort studies engaging and consulting with young cohort members?

    PubMed

    Lucas, Patricia J; Allnock, Debra; Jessiman, Tricia

    2013-04-11

    Birth cohort studies, where parents consent for their child to be enrolled in a longitudinal study prior to or soon after birth, are a powerful study design in epidemiology and developmental research. Participation often continues into adulthood. Where participants are enrolled as infants, provision should be made for consent, consultation and involvement in study design as they age. This study aims to audit and describe the extent and types of consultation and engagement currently used in birth cohorts in Europe. Seventy study groups (representing 84 cohorts) were contacted to ask about their practice in engaging and involving study members. Information was gathered from study websites and publications, 15 cohorts provided additional information via email and 17 cohorts were interviewed over the phone. The cohorts identified confirm the growth of this study design, with more than half beginning since 1990, and 4 since 2011. Most studies maintain a website open to the general public, although many are written for the scientific community only. Five studies have web pages specifically for young cohort members and one study provides a dedicated page for fathers. Cohorts send newsletters, cards, and summaries of findings to participants to stay in touch. Six cohorts use Facebook for this purpose. Five cohorts provide feedback opportunities for participants after completing a round of data collection. We know of just 8 cohorts who have a mechanism for consulting with parents and 3 a mechanism for consulting with young people themselves, although these were 'one off' consultations for some groups. Barriers to further consultation with cohort members were: concerns about impact on quality of research, ethical constraints, resource limitations, lack of importance, and previous adverse experiences. Although the children in some of the cohorts are still young (born in the last 10 years) many are old enough to include some element of consultation. Barriers to greater

  4. The Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study (BIGCS).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xiu; Lu, Jin-Hua; He, Jian-Rong; Lam, Kin-Bong Hubert; Shen, Song-Ying; Guo, Yong; Kuang, Ya-Shu; Yuan, Ming-Yang; Qiu, Lan; Chen, Nian-Nian; Lu, Min-Shan; Li, Wei-Dong; Xing, Yan-Fei; Zhou, Feng-Juan; Bartington, Suzanne; Cheng, Kar Keung; Xia, Hui-Min

    2017-04-01

    The Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study (BIGCS) is a large-scale prospective observational study investigating the role of social, biological and environmental influences on pregnancy and child health and development in an urban setting in southern China. Pregnant women who reside in Guangzhou and who attend Guangzhou Women and Children's Medical Center (GWCMC) for antenatal care in early pregnancy (<20 weeks' gestation) are eligible for inclusion. Study recruitment commenced in February 2012, with an overall participation rate of 76.3%. Study recruitment will continue until December 2018 to achieve the target sample size of 30,000 mother-child pairs. At 30 April 2016, a total of 75,422 questionnaires have been collected, while 14,696 live births have occurred with planned follow-up of cohort children until age 18 years. During the same period a total of 1,053,000 biological samples have been collected from participants, including maternal, paternal and infant blood, cord blood, placenta, umbilical cord, and maternal and infant stool samples. The dataset has been enhanced by record linkage to routine health and administrative records. We plan future record linkage to school enrolment and national examination records.

  5. Corneal donations in South Africa: A 15-year review.

    PubMed

    York, Nicholas J; Tinley, Christopher

    2017-07-28

    Corneal pathology is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness in South Africa (SA). A corneal transplant can restore or significantly improve vision in most cases. However, in SA there is a gross shortage of corneal tissue available to ophthalmologists. Little has been published describing the magnitude of the problem. To describe trends in the number of corneal donors per year in SA, the number of corneal transplants performed each year, the origin of donors, the allocation of corneas to the public or private sector, and the demographics of donors. This was a retrospective review of all corneal donations to SA eye banks over the 15-year period 1 January 2002 - 31 December 2016. There was a progressive year-on-year decline in corneal donors over the study period, from 565 per year in 2002 to 89 in 2016. As a direct result, there has been an 85.5% decrease in the number of corneal transplants performed per year using locally donated corneas, from 1 049 in 2002 to 152 in 2016. Of the donors, 48.8% originated from mortuaries, 39.0% from private hospitals and 12.2% from government hospitals; donors from mortuaries showed the most significant decline over the 15-year period, decreasing by 94.8%. Of donated corneas, 79.3% were allocated to the private sector and 21.7% to the public sector. Males comprised 69.1% of donors, while 77.2% were white, 14.0% coloured, 6.3% black and 2.5% Indian/Asian. Donor age demonstrated a bimodal peak at 25 and 55 years. The number of corneal donations in SA has declined markedly, causing the burden of corneal disease requiring transplantation to rise steadily. Population groups with a low donor rate may have cultural and other objections to corneal donation, which should be a major focus of future research and initiatives aimed at reversing the current trends.

  6. Advanced Stage, Increased Lactate Dehydrogenase, and Primary Site, but Not Adolescent Age (≥ 15 Years), Are Associated With an Increased Risk of Treatment Failure in Children and Adolescents With Mature B-Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Results of the FAB LMB 96 Study

    PubMed Central

    Cairo, Mitchell S.; Sposto, Richard; Gerrard, Mary; Auperin, Anne; Goldman, Stanton C.; Harrison, Lauren; Pinkerton, Ross; Raphael, Martine; McCarthy, Keith; Perkins, Sherrie L.; Patte, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Adolescents (age 15 to 21 years) compared with younger children with mature B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) have been historically considered to have an inferior prognosis. We therefore analyzed the impact of age and other diagnostic factors on the risk of treatment failure in children and adolescents treated on the French-American-British Mature B-Cell Lymphoma 96 (FAB LMB 96) trial. Patients and Methods Patients were divided by risk: group A (limited), group B (intermediate), and group C (advanced), as previously described. Prognostic factors analyzed for event-free survival (EFS) included age (< 15 v ≥ 15 years), stage (I/II v III/IV), primary site, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), bone marrow/CNS (BM/CNS) involvement, and histology (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma v mediastinal B-cell lymphoma v Burkitt lymphoma or Burkitt-like lymphoma). Results The 3-year EFS for the whole cohort was 88% ± 1%. Age was not associated as a risk factor for increased treatment failure in either univariate analysis (P = .15) or multivariate analysis (P = .58). Increased LDH (≥ 2 × upper limit of normal [ULN] v < 2 × ULN), primary site, and BM-positive/CNS-positive disease were all independent risk factors associated with a significant increase in treatment failure rate (relative risk, 2.0; P < .001, P < .012, and P < .001, respectively). Conclusion LDH level at diagnosis, mediastinal disease, and combined BM-positive/CNS-positive involvement are independent risk factors in children with mature B-cell NHL. Future studies should be developed to identify specific therapeutic strategies (immunotherapy) to overcome these risk factors and to identify the biologic basis associated with these prognostic factors in children with mature B-cell NHL. PMID:22215753

  7. Altered knee joint neuromuscular control during landing from a jump in 10-15 year old children with Generalised Joint Hypermobility. A substudy of the CHAMPS-study Denmark.

    PubMed

    Junge, Tina; Wedderkopp, Niels; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Søgaard, Karen; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2015-06-01

    Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is considered an intrinsic risk factor for knee injuries. Knee neuromuscular control during landing may be altered in GJH due to reduced passive stability. The aim was to identify differences in knee neuromuscular control during landing of the Single-Leg-Hop-for-Distance test (SLHD) in 25 children with GJH compared to 29 children without GJH (controls), all 10-15years. Inclusion criteria for GJH: Beighton score⩾5/9 and minimum one hypermobile knee. EMG was recorded from the quadriceps, the hamstring and the calf muscles, presented relative to Maximum Voluntary Electrical activity (MVE). There was no difference in jump length between groups. Before landing, GJH had 33% lower Semitendinosus, but 32% higher Gastrocnemius Medialis activity and 39% higher co contraction of the lateral knee muscles, than controls. After landing, GJH had 36% lower Semitendinosus activity than controls, all significant findings. Although the groups performed equally in SLHD, GJH had a Gastrocnemius Medialis dominated neuromuscular strategy before landing, plausibly caused by reduced Semitendinosus activity. Reduced Semitendinosus activity was seen in GJH after landing, but with no compensatory Gastrocnemius Medialis activity. Reduced pre and post-activation of the Semitendinosus may present a risk factor for traumatic knee injuries as ACL ruptures in GJH with knee hypermobility. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Your Child's Development: 1.5 Years (18 Months)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Your Child's Development: 1.5 Years (18 Months) KidsHealth > For Parents > ... parts ("Where is your nose?") Movement and Physical Development runs walks up stairs with hand held throws ...

  9. 15-year Results of Improvement Cutting in Bottomland Hardwoods

    Treesearch

    W. R. Beaufait; R. L. Johnson

    1956-01-01

    That severely depleted bottomland stands can be returned to quality hardwood production is being demonstrated on a representative tract in the Delta Experimental Forest which was given an improvement cutting about 15 years ago.

  10. Association of caesarean delivery with child adiposity from age 6 weeks to 15 years.

    PubMed

    Blustein, J; Attina, T; Liu, M; Ryan, A M; Cox, L M; Blaser, M J; Trasande, L

    2013-07-01

    o assess associations of caesarean section with body mass from birth through adolescence. ongitudinal birth cohort study, following subjects up to 15 years of age. Children born in 1991-1992 in Avon, UK who participated in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (n=10 219). standardized measures of body mass (weight-for length z-scores at 6 weeks, 10 and 20 months; and body mass index (BMI) z-scores at 38 months, 7, 9, 11 and 15 years). Secondary outcome: categorical overweight or obese (BMI: 85th percentile) for age and gender, at 38 months, 7, 9, 11 and 15 years. Of the 10 219 children, 926 (9.06%) were delivered by caesarean section. Those born by caesarean had lower-birth weights than those born vaginally (-46.1 g, 95% confidence interval(CI): 14.6-77.6 g; P=0.004). In mixed multivariable models adjusting for birth weight, gender, parental body mass, family sociodemographics, gestational factors and infant feeding patterns, caesarean delivery was consistently associated with increased adiposity, starting at 6 weeks (+0.11 s.d. units, 95% CI: 0.03-0.18; P=0.005), through age 15 (BMI z-score increment+0.10 s.d. units, 95% CI: 0.001-0.198; P=0.042). By age 11 caesarean-delivered children had 1.83 times the odds of overweight or obesity (95% CI: 1.24-2.70; P=0.002). When the sample was stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy weight, the association among children born of overweight/obese mothers was strong and long-lasting. In contrast, evidence of an association among children born of normal-weight mothers was weak. Cesarean delivery is associated with increased body mass in childhood and adolescence. Research is needed to further characterize the association in children of normal weight women. Additional work is also needed to understand the mechanism underlying the association, which may involve relatively enduring changes in the intestinal microbiome.

  11. Correlates of 15-Year Maintenance of Physical Activity in Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Imke; Dugan, Sheila A.; Karavolos, Kelly; Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Powell, Lynda H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To gain a better understanding of the correlates of sustained physical activity in midlife women, we used longitudinal epidemiologic data to investigate links between sustained physical activity and constructs advocated by three basic behavioral and social science theories: 1) self-determination; 2) social cognitive; and 3) social networks. Methods A random sample of 90 mid-life women, stratified by level of physical activity over 15 years, was selected from the Chicago cohort of the longitudinal Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Using data on self-reported physical activity collected over 15 years, women were categorized into consistently active, spoardically active, and sedentary. New data were collected on theory-relevant constructs, i.e. autonomous motivation (assessed by the Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ)) and self-efficacy (assessed by the Self-Efficacy and Exercise Habits Survey). Every SWAN woman identified a close female friend who also completed the physical activity questionnaire. Results SWAN women with higher autonomous motivation (p=0.002) and higher self-efficacy (p<0.001) were more likely to be consistently physically active in analyses adjusted for age, race, and socioeconomic status. Sixty one percent of SWAN women with a history of consistent physical activity had a friend who is currently highly active, versus 34% and 23% for sporadically active and sedentary women, respectively (test for trend p=0.008). Conclusions In midlife women, constructs advocated by basic behavioral and social science theories were consistent with long-term patterns of physical activity behavior. Special focus should be given to these basic theories in the design of interventions to promote sustained physical activity in midlife women. PMID:23813123

  12. Case study of a 15-year-old boy with McCune-Albright syndrome combined with pituitary gigantism: effect of octreotide-long acting release (LAR) and cabergoline therapy.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Toshihiro; Tsubaki, Junko; Ishizu, Katsura; Jo, Wakako; Ishi, Nobuaki; Fujieda, Kenji

    2008-07-01

    The use of octreotide-LAR and cabergoline therapy has shown great promise in adults with acromegaly; however, the experience in pediatric patients has rarely been reported. We described a clinical course of a 15-year-old boy of McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) with pituitary gigantism. At the age of 8 years, a growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) producing pituitary adenoma was diagnosed at our hospital. He also had multiple fibrous dysplasia, so that he was diagnosed as having MAS. The tumor was partially resected, and GNAS1 gene mutation (R201C) was identified in affected tissues. We introduced octreotide to suppress GH secretion (100 mug 2/day s.c). During therapy with octreotide, IGF-1 and GH levels could not be suppressed and the patient frequently complained of nausea from octreotide treatment. Therefore, the therapy was changed to monthly injections of octreotide-LAR at the age of 12.3 years and was partially effective. However, as defect of left visual field worsened due to progressive left optic canal stenosis, he underwent second neurological decompression of the left optic nerve at 13.4 years of age. After surgery, in addition to octreotide-LAR, cabergoline (0.25 mg twice a month) was started. This regimen normalized serum levels of GH and IGF-1; however, he showed impaired glucose tolerance and gallstones at 15.7 years of age. Therefore, the dose of octreotide-LAR was reduced to 10 mg and the dose of cabergoline increased. This case demonstrated the difficulty of treating pituitary gigantism due to MAS. The use of octreotide-LAR and cabergoline should be considered even in pediatric patients; however, adverse events due to octreotide-LAR must be carefully examined.

  13. Experience with monocomponent acellular pertussis combination vaccines for infants, children, adolescents and adults--a review of safety, immunogenicity, efficacy and effectiveness studies and 15 years of field experience.

    PubMed

    Thierry-Carstensen, Birgit; Dalby, Tine; Stevner, Michael A; Robbins, John B; Schneerson, Rachel; Trollfors, Birger

    2013-10-25

    Combination vaccines containing a monocomponent acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine, manufactured at Statens Serum Institut (SSI), Denmark, have successfully controlled Bordetella pertussis infections in Denmark since 1997. The efficacy of this aP vaccine was 71% in a double-blind, randomised and controlled clinical trial. Its safety and immunogenicity have been demonstrated in infants, children, adolescents and adults. In approximately 500,000 children it was effective against pertussis requiring hospitalisation (VE: 93% after 3 doses) and against pertussis not requiring hospitalisation (VE: 78% after 3 doses). IgG antibodies against pertussis toxin (IgG anti-PT) response rates after booster vaccination of adults with tetanus, diphtheria and aP combination vaccine (TdaP) were considerably higher for this monocomponent aP vaccine containing 20μg pertussis toxoid, inactivated by hydrogen peroxide (92.0%), than for two multicomponent aP vaccines inactivated by formaldehyde and/or glutaraldehyde: 3-component aP with 8μg pertussis toxoid (77.2%) and 5-component aP with 2.5μg pertussis toxoid (47.1%), without compromising the safety profile. In Denmark where this monocomponent aP vaccine has been the only pertussis vaccine in use for 15 years, there has been no pertussis epidemic since 2002 (population incidence 36 per 100,000), in contrast to neighbouring countries, where epidemics have occurred. This monocomponent aP vaccine can be used in combination vaccines for primary and booster vaccination against pertussis in all age groups and is an important tool for successful pertussis control. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Overweight among students aged 11–15 years and its relationship with breakfast, area of residence and parents’ education: results from the Italian HBSC 2010 cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The international increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents over the past three decades confirms that childhood obesity is a global ‘epidemic’. The World Health Organization considers childhood obesity to be a major public health concern. Childhood obesity is associated with cardiovascular, endocrine, musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal complications, and may have psycho-social consequences. The aim of this paper is to examine overweight (including obesity) prevalence and its association with geographic area of residence, parental education and daily breakfast consumption in Italian students aged 11–15 yrs. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11–15 year old students from 20 Italian Regions (Italian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2010-HBSC) was randomly selected (2,504 schools and 77,113 students). Self-reported anonymous questionnaires, prepared by the international HBSC network, were used to collect the data. BMI was calculated using self-reported weight and height and the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to assess the relationship between the risk of overweight and parental education, area of residence and breakfast consumption in each age group and gender. Results Boys were more likely to be overweight or obese than girls (28.1% vs. 18.9% at 11 yrs-old, 24.8% vs. 16.5% at 13 yrs and 25.4 vs. 11.8% at 15 yrs). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was lower among the older girls. Overweight and obesity rates increased from the North of Italy to the South in both boys and girls and in all age groups. Boys 11-15 yrs living in southern Italy had an OR=2.05 (1.77-2.38) and girls 2.04 (95% CI 1.70-2.44) for overweight (including obesity) compared with those living in the North. Parent’s low educational level and no daily breakfast consumption were also associated with overweight including obesity (p<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of

  15. Overweight among students aged 11-15 years and its relationship with breakfast, area of residence and parents' education: results from the Italian HBSC 2010 cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, Giacomo; Giacchi, Mariano Vincenzo; Spinelli, Angela; Pammolli, Andrea; Dalmasso, Paola; Nardone, Paola; Lamberti, Anna; Cavallo, Franco

    2014-07-05

    The international increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents over the past three decades confirms that childhood obesity is a global 'epidemic'. The World Health Organization considers childhood obesity to be a major public health concern. Childhood obesity is associated with cardiovascular, endocrine, musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal complications, and may have psycho-social consequences. The aim of this paper is to examine overweight (including obesity) prevalence and its association with geographic area of residence, parental education and daily breakfast consumption in Italian students aged 11-15 yrs. A nationally representative sample of 11-15 year old students from 20 Italian Regions (Italian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2010-HBSC) was randomly selected (2,504 schools and 77,113 students). Self-reported anonymous questionnaires, prepared by the international HBSC network, were used to collect the data. BMI was calculated using self-reported weight and height and the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to assess the relationship between the risk of overweight and parental education, area of residence and breakfast consumption in each age group and gender. Boys were more likely to be overweight or obese than girls (28.1% vs. 18.9% at 11 yrs-old, 24.8% vs. 16.5% at 13 yrs and 25.4 vs. 11.8% at 15 yrs). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was lower among the older girls. Overweight and obesity rates increased from the North of Italy to the South in both boys and girls and in all age groups. Boys 11-15 yrs living in southern Italy had an OR=2.05 (1.77-2.38) and girls 2.04 (95% CI 1.70-2.44) for overweight (including obesity) compared with those living in the North. Parent's low educational level and no daily breakfast consumption were also associated with overweight including obesity (p<0.05). The prevalence of obesity and overweight in Italian school-children 11

  16. [Algological treatment of trigeminal neuralgia. Experience of 15 years].

    PubMed

    Delgado-Carlo, Mirna Magali; Tamayo-Valenzuela, Antonio César; López-Martínez, José Antonio; Cardona-Cordero, Alma Verónica; Granja-Posadas, Enrique; Guevara-López, Uriah

    2006-01-01

    We present the experience in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) during 15 years in one institute, evaluating epidemiological variables and clinical presentation, and comparing the results obtained with different treatments available. A retrospective, descriptive study was carried out by reviewing cases diagnosed by the Neurology Service, such as TN, and treated by the Pain Medicine and Palliative Care Unit of the Insituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición "Salvador Zubíran," from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2003. Age, sex, type of neuralgia, anatomical site affected and intensity of pain were evaluated by means of the Analogue Visual Scale (AVS). The following treatments were evaluated (pharmacologic, surgical, and blockade of Gasser ganglion). Descriptive statistics, linear regression and bivariate correlation were used (statistical package SPSS). Fifty two cases were studied with a female predominance (2:1). Average age was 60 years. Clinical presentation most frequently was typical neuralgia (51.9%), right predominance (59.6%) and affected branch V2 (50%). In 88%, pharmacological treatment was used. The reduction of pain was 74% in all cases, with r-.765 for the pharmacological treatment, r-.715 in the blockade of the Gasser ganglion, and r-.901 for surgical treatment (p < 0.01). In the experience of the INCMNSZ, treatment of choice in most cases of TN is pharmacological, with surgical treatment useful in cases where vascular alterations were identified.

  17. Cohort Profile: The Gubbio Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Cirillo, Massimo; Terradura-Vagnarelli, Oscar; Mancini, Mario; Menotti, Alessandro; Zanchetti, Alberto; Laurenzi, Martino

    2014-01-01

    The Gubbio Study is a prospective epidemiological study on the population residing in the city of Gubbio, Italy. Original objectives of the study were the control of hypertension and the role of cellular electrolyte handling in hypertension. Other objectives were added during the 30-year activity of the study. The original target cohort consists of individuals aged ≥ 5 years residing within the medieval walls of the city. To complete family genealogies, individuals residing outside the city were also included. Three active screenings (exams) were conducted. A total of 5376 individuals (response rate 92%) participated in Exam 1 which was performed in 1983–86. Follow-up exams were completed between 1989–92 and 2001–2007. Data categories included demographics, personal and family medical history, lifestyle habits, education, type of work, anthropometry, blood pressure, pulse rate, blood biochemistry, urine biochemistry and special investigations on cellular electrolyte handling. Electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure and uroflowmetry were performed in selected subgroups defined by age and/or sex. Data about hospitalizations, mortality and causes of death were collected starting from completion of Exam 1. The study shared the data with other studies. PMID:23543599

  18. The millennium Cohort Study: a 21-year prospective cohort study of 140,000 military personnel.

    PubMed

    Gray, Gregory C; Chesbrough, Karen B; Ryan, Margaret A K; Amoroso, Paul; Boyko, Edward J; Gackstetter, Gary D; Hooper, Tomoko I; Riddle, James R

    2002-06-01

    Does military service, in particular operational deployment, result in a higher risk of chronic illness among military personnel and veterans? The Millennium Cohort Study, the largest Department of Defense prospective cohort study ever conducted, will attempt to answer this question. The probability-based sample of 140,000 military personnel will be surveyed every 3 years during a 21-year period. The first questionnaire, scheduled for release in summer 2001, will be sent to 30,000 veterans who have been deployed to southwest Asia, Bosnia, or Kosovo since August 1997 and 70,000 veterans who have not been deployed to these conflict areas. Twenty thousand new participants will be added to the group in each of the years 2004 and 2007 to complete the study population of 140,000. The participants will have the option of completing the study questionnaire either on the paper copy received in the mail or through the World Wide Web-based version, which is available at www.MillenniumCohort.org. This will be one of the first prospective studies ever to offer such an option. The initial survey instrument will collect data regarding demographic characteristics, self-reported medical conditions and symptoms, and health-related behaviors. Validated instruments will be incorporated to capture self-assessed physical and mental functional status (Short Form for Veterans), psychosocial assessment (Patient Health Questionnaire), and post-traumatic stress disorder (Patient Checklist-17). Information obtained from the survey responses will be linked with other military databases, including data on deployment, occupation, vaccinations, health care utilization, and disability. In addition to revealing changes in veterans' health status over time, the Millennium Cohort Study will serve as a data repository, providing a solid foundation upon which additional epidemiological studies may be constructed.

  19. The Iberoamerican Cerebrovascular Diseases Society: 15 years moving forward.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Diez-Tejedor, Exuperio; Sacks, Claudio; Ameriso, Sebastián F; Náder, Juan; Alonso de Leciñana, María; Massaro, Ayrton

    2013-06-01

    The Iberoamerican Cerebrovascular Diseases Society was founded 15 years ago. Being aware of the increased burden of stroke in Latin America, its members have been working to enhance the knowledge on stroke among physicians in the region, to increase public awareness on stroke warning signs, and to motivate public health authorities to implement programs that speed the access of stroke patients to specialized units. Besides organizing annual meetings that have convened an increasing number of attendees, the Society has been actively involved in the elaboration of guidelines for stroke classification and therapy that will be practical for use at a regional level, as well as in the consolidation of links with other stroke societies to increase the diffusion of local stroke issues to the medical community at large. The Society is also involved in the Safe Implementation of Treatment in Stroke trial as well as in other studies that will increase the knowledge on stroke management and prognosis in the region. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  20. [Analysis of a series pheochromocytoma cases over 15 years].

    PubMed

    Rojo Alvaro, J; Toni, M; Ollero, Md; Pineda, Jj; Munárriz, P; Anda, E

    2012-01-01

    The pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine secreting tumour derived from chromaffin cells of the sympathetic nervous system. Eighty to eighty-five percent of these tumours are localized in the adrenal medulla. When pheocromocytomas are found outside the adrenal gland they are referred to as extra-adrenal pheochromocytomas or paragangliomas. The diagnosis is confirmed by elevation of catecholamines and the metanephrines in blood plasma and urine. Localization of the tumour should be done following biochemical diagnosis by means of CT scan and/or MRI. The treatment of choice is tumour resection by laparoscopic surgery. A review was made of all patient medical histories diagnosed with pheochromocytoma confirmed by the pathology reports of Pathological anatomy of the Navarre hospital Complex (Anatomía patológica del Complejo hospitalario de Navarra A y B) between 1996 to 2010. Descriptive analysis was made using the IBM SPSS statistics program. Our series consists of 43 patients diagnosed with pheochromocytoma over a span of 15 years. The average age on presentation was 47 years. Among the younger patients specific genetic syndromes were found. Computerized tomography was the most widely used method of localization. Contradictory results were found regarding perioperative medical management protocols. All pheocromocytoma tumours in this series were benign. It is advisable to carry out a genetic study on patients under twenty. The biochemical indicators with the greatest diagnostic sensitivity were the levels of normetanephrine and metanephrine in urine. Surgery was the only treatment option.

  1. Astrolabe Photoelectric PAII. An Experience of 15 Years of Cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, E.; Pacheco, A.; Actis, E.; Podestá, R.; González, A.; Gómez, G.; Manrique, W.; Alacoria, J.; Peñaloza, L.; Petrucci, R.; Jofré, E.; Tejada, P.; Duplancic, F.; Petruzzi, R.; Molina, S.; Zezhi, W.; Qiyuang, Q.; Zhifang, Z.; Hongi, W.; Lizhi, L.; Fan Miao, Z.; Weidong, L.; Shao, G.

    2009-05-01

    Following a cooperation agreement between the Chinese Academy of Sciences, CONICET, La Plata National University and the San Juan National University, on February 1992, the Photoelectric Astrolabe Mk 2 (PA2). was placed at the Félix Aguilar Astronomical Observatory in San Juan (Argentina). This instrument, designed and built in Nanging (China), is fully automatic and can observe stars brighter than 11.5 apparent magnitude. Similar instruments are simultaneously operated in China (Beijing, Shangai and Yunan) in order to obtain homogeneous Star Catalogues of great precision and extended to faint stars. It also brings secondary results as Catalogues of Optic Radio Sources, Planets, Minor Planets, Coordinates of the Instantaneous Pole and Earth Rotation Parameters. Some results obatined during these 15 years are: the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd San Juan Photoelectric Astrolabe Catalogues, which are referred to the Southern Hemisphere. These have been afterwards related to those observed in the Northern Hemisphere (China), producing the 1st Global Astrolabe Star Catalogue, which contains more than 10.000 stars with declinations from +80 to -80 degrees. Nowadays we are performing Astrogeodynamics Studies which consist in the analysis of anomalies of Time-Latitude variations, and then relate them to big earthquakes occurred in San Juan during that period.

  2. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: A Cohort Mortality Study With Emphasis on Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schleiff, Patricia L.; Lubin, Jay H.; Blair, Aaron; Stewart, Patricia A.; Vermeulen, Roel; Coble, Joseph B.; Silverman, Debra T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Current information points to an association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer and other mortality outcomes, but uncertainties remain. Methods We undertook a cohort mortality study of 12 315 workers exposed to diesel exhaust at eight US non-metal mining facilities. Historical measurements and surrogate exposure data, along with study industrial hygiene measurements, were used to derive retrospective quantitative estimates of respirable elemental carbon (REC) exposure for each worker. Standardized mortality ratios and internally adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate REC exposure–associated risk. Analyses were both unlagged and lagged to exclude recent exposure such as that occurring in the 15 years directly before the date of death. Results Standardized mortality ratios for lung cancer (1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09 to 1.44), esophageal cancer (1.83, 95% CI = 1.16 to 2.75), and pneumoconiosis (12.20, 95% CI = 6.82 to 20.12) were elevated in the complete cohort compared with state-based mortality rates, but all-cause, bladder cancer, heart disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality were not. Differences in risk by worker location (ever-underground vs surface only) initially obscured a positive diesel exhaust exposure–response relationship with lung cancer in the complete cohort, although it became apparent after adjustment for worker location. The hazard ratios (HRs) for lung cancer mortality increased with increasing 15-year lagged cumulative REC exposure for ever-underground workers with 5 or more years of tenure to a maximum in the 640 to less than 1280 μg/m3-y category compared with the reference category (0 to <20 μg/m3-y; 30 deaths compared with eight deaths of the total of 93; HR = 5.01, 95% CI = 1.97 to 12.76) but declined at higher exposures. Average REC intensity hazard ratios rose to a plateau around 32 μg/m3. Elevated hazard ratios and evidence of exposure

  3. Cohort profile: the Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study

    PubMed Central

    López Gómez, María Andrée; Durán, Xavier; Zaballa, Elena; Sanchez-Niubo, Albert; Delclos, George L; Benavides, Fernando G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The global economy is changing the labour market and social protection systems in Europe. The effect of both changes on health needs to be monitored in view of an ageing population and the resulting increase in prevalence of chronic health conditions. The Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study provides unique longitudinal data to study the impact of labour trajectories and employment conditions on health, in terms of sickness absence, permanent disability and death. Participants The WORKss cohort originated from the Continuous Working Life Sample (CWLS) generated by the General Directorate for the Organization of the Social Security in Spain. The CWLS contains a 4% representative sample of all individuals in contact with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort exclusively includes individuals with a labour trajectory from 1981 or later. In 2004, the cohort was initiated with 1 022 779 Social Security members: 840 770 (82.2%) contributors and 182 009 (17.8%) beneficiaries aged 16 and older. Findings to date The WORKss cohort includes demographic characteristics, chronological data about employment history, retirement, permanent disability and death. These data make possible the measurement of incidence of permanent disability, the number of potential years of working life lost, and the number of contracts and inactive periods with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort was linked to temporary sickness absence registries to study medical diagnoses that lead to permanent disability and consequently to an earlier exit from the labour market in unhealthy conditions. Future plans Thanks to its administrative source, the WORKss cohort study will continue follow-up in the coming years, keeping the representativeness of the Spanish population affiliated to the Social Security system. The linkage between the WORKss cohort and temporary sickness absence registries is envisioned to continue. Future plans include the linkage of

  4. Demographic characteristics in adult paternity for first births to adolescents under 15 years of age.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D J; Chavez, G F; Adams, E J; Chabra, A; Shah, R S

    1999-04-01

    To examine parental demographic characteristics by adult (> or = 20 years at baby's conception) and teenage (< 20 years at baby's conception) paternity in births to very young adolescents (< 15 years at baby's conception). This was a population-based, retrospective cohort analysis of all 12,317 very young adolescent mothers residing in California with a first singleton live birth during 1993-1995. Risks for adult, compared to teenage, paternity were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression. Adult fathers, responsible for 26.7% of births to very young adolescents, were a mean of 8.8 years older than the mother. The risk factors for adult compared to adolescent paternity were as follows: father's educational attainment of at least 3 years below that considered adequate for his age [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 8.34], father's (AOR = 2.46) or mother's (AOR = 1.36) educational attainment 1-2 years below that considered adequate for their age, mother's birthplace outside the United States (AOR = 3.12), and father's Hispanic ethnicity (AOR = 1.60) or African-American race (AOR = 1.50). Adult fathers were responsible for over one quarter of the births in our study. Adolescent pregnancy prevention focusing on younger adolescents must programmatically address adult paternity. Variations in adult paternity patterns across cultural groups suggest that we need further study of the role that cultural beliefs and practices play in very young adolescent pregnancy.

  5. Absence of Coronary Artery Calcium Identifies Asymptomatic Diabetic Individuals at Low Near-Term But Not Long-Term Risk of Mortality: A 15-Year Follow-Up Study of 9715 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Valenti, Valentina; Hartaigh, Bríain ó; Cho, Iksung; Schulman-Marcus, Joshua; Gransar, Heidi; Heo, Ran; Truong, Quynh A.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Knapper, Joseph; Kelkar, Anita A.; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Callister, Tracy Q.; Min, James K

    2016-01-01

    Background Data regarding coronary artery calcification (CAC) prognosis in diabetic individuals are limited to 5-years follow-up. We investigated the long-term risk stratification of CAC among diabetics, compared to non-diabetic individuals. Methods and Results 9715 asymptomatic individuals undergoing CAC scoring were followed for a median (IQR) of 14.7 (13.9–15.6) years The incidence density rate and hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were used to calculate all-cause mortality. Incremental prognostic utility of CAC was evaluated using the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) and net reclassification improvement (NRI). Diabetics (54.7±10.8 years; 59.4% male) comprised 8.3% of the cohort (n=810), of which 188 (23.2%) died. For CAC=0, the rate of mortality was similar between diabetic and non-diabetic individuals for the first 5 years (p>0.05), with a non-linear increased risk of mortality for diabetics after 5 years (p<0.05). The adjusted risk of death for those in the highest (CAC>400) versus the lowest (CAC=0) category of CAC increased by a hazards of 4.64 (95%CI=3.74–5.76) and 3.41 (95%CI=2.22–5.22) for non-diabetic and diabetic individuals, respectively. The presence of CAC improved discrimination (AUC range: 0.73–0.74, P<0.01) and reclassification (category-free NRI range: 0.53–0.50, P<0.001) beyond conventional risk factors in non-diabetic and diabetic respectively. Conclusions CAC=0 is associated with a favorable 5-year prognosis for asymptomatic diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. After 5 years, the risk of mortality increases significantly for diabetic individuals even in the presence of a baseline CAC=0. PMID:26848062

  6. The mummy's curse: historical cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Mark R

    2002-01-01

    Objective To examine survival of individuals exposed to the “mummy's curse” reputedly associated with the opening of the tomb of Tutankhamen in Luxor, Egypt, between February 1923 and November 1926. Design Retrospective cohort study. Participants 44 Westerners identified by Howard Carter as present in Egypt at the specified dates, 25 of whom were potentially exposed to the curse. Main outcome measures Length of survival after date of potential exposure. Results In the 25 people exposed to the curse the mean age at death was 70 years (SD 12) compared with 75 (13) in those not exposed (P=0.87 for difference). Survival after the date of exposure was 20.8 (15.2) v 28.9 (13.6) years respectively (P=0.95 for difference). Female sex was a predictor for survival (P=0.02). Conclusions There was no significant association between exposure to the mummy's curse and survival and thus no evidence to support the existence of a mummy's curse. What is already known on this topicThe methods of evidence based medicine have not been used to investigate the reality of the “mummy's curse”The arguments against the curse have been as anecdotal as the contemporary newspapers that reported itWhat this study addsThere was no association between potential exposure to the mummy's curse during the excavation of Tutankamen's tomb and death within 10 yearsNo evidence was found for the existence of a mummy's curse PMID:12493675

  7. Genetic and lifestyle predictors of 15-year longitudinal change in episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Josefsson, Maria; de Luna, Xavier; Pudas, Sara; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Nyberg, Lars

    2012-12-01

    To reveal distinct longitudinal trajectories in episodic memory over 15 years and to identify demographic, lifestyle, health-related, and genetic predictors of stability or decline. Prospective cohort study. The Betula Project, Umeå, Sweden. One thousand nine hundred fifty-four healthy participants aged 35 to 85 at baseline. Memory was assessed according to validated episodic memory tasks in participants from a large population-based sample. Data were analyzed using a random-effects pattern-mixture model that considered the effect of attrition over two to four longitudinal sessions. Logistic regression was used to determine significant predictors of stability or decline relative to average change in episodic memory. Of 1,558 participants with two or more test sessions, 18% were classified as maintainers and 13% as decliners, and 68% showed age-typical average change. More educated and more physically active participants, women, and those living with someone were more likely to be classified as maintainers, as were carriers of the met allele of the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene. Less educated participants, those not active in the labor force, and men were more likely to be classified as decliners, and the apolipoprotein E ~4 allele was more frequent in decliners. Quantitative, attrition-corrected assessment of longitudinal changes in memory can reveal substantial heterogeneity in aging trajectories, and genetic and lifestyle factors predict such heterogeneity. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  8. Early Adolescence: Understanding the 10 to 15 Year Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caissy, Gail A.

    Early adolescence, the period from 10 to 15 years, is a significant transitional period in human development, marking the crossroads between childhood and young adulthood. This book is designed as a guide for parents, teachers, or anyone else who has contact with and who would like to better understand early adolescent children. The chapters in…

  9. Your Child's Development: 1.5 Years (18 Months)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Child Too Busy? Helping Your Child Adjust to Preschool School Lunches Kids and Food: 10 Tips for Parents Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Your Child's Development: 1.5 Years (18 Months) KidsHealth > For Parents > ...

  10. Concepts of Romance in 15-Year-Old Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice

    1996-01-01

    Examined 15-year olds' descriptions of dating partners and romance. Dating experiences were brief in duration, though intense in frequency of contact. Affiliative qualities more than attachment qualities characterized their conscious views of romance. Girls were more likely than boys to mention interpersonal qualities, while boys were more likely…

  11. Early Adolescence: Understanding the 10 to 15 Year Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caissy, Gail A.

    Early adolescence, the period from 10 to 15 years, is a significant transitional period in human development, marking the crossroads between childhood and young adulthood. This book is designed as a guide for parents, teachers, or anyone else who has contact with and who would like to better understand early adolescent children. The chapters in…

  12. Raising the Standard: A 15-Year Retrospective, 1987-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, Detroit, MI.

    This report describes the past 15 years of work by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) to raise the standards for teacher quality. The NBPTS identified five core propositions that describe the knowledge, skills, and dispositions characterizing accomplished teaching. It created professional standards for K-12 teachers,…

  13. Evaluating Health Effects of Military Service: The Millennium Cohort Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    important information to the field of preventive medicine and public health, benefiting both military and civilian populations. Previous cohort ... studies , including the Framingham Heart Study and the Nurses’ Cohort Study, have expanded our understanding of causes of heart disease and cancer. The

  14. Thiazolidinediones and Parkinson Disease: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Connolly, John G; Bykov, Katsiaryna; Gagne, Joshua J

    2015-12-01

    Thiazolidinediones, a class of medications indicated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, reduce inflammation and have been shown to provide a therapeutic benefit in animal models of Parkinson disease. We examined the association between treatment with thiazolidinediones and the onset of Parkinson disease in older individuals. We performed a cohort study of 29,397 Medicare patients enrolled in state pharmaceutical benefits programs who initiated treatment with thiazolidinediones or sulfonylureas during the years 1997 through 2005 and had no prior diagnosis of Parkinson disease. New users of thiazolidinediones were propensity score matched to new users of sulfonylureas and followed to determine whether they were diagnosed with Parkinson disease. We used Cox proportional hazards models to compare time to diagnosis of Parkinson disease in the propensity score-matched populations. To assess the association with duration of use, we performed several analyses that required longer continuous use of medications. In the primary analysis, thiazolidinedione users had a hazard ratio for a diagnosis of Parkinson disease of 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 0.71, 1.66) when compared with sulfonylurea users. Increasing the duration-of-use requirements to 10 months did not substantially change the association; the hazard ratios ranged from 1.00 (95% confidence interval: 0.49, 2.05) to 1.17 (95% confidence interval: 0.60, 2.25). Thiazolidinedione use was not associated with a longer time to diagnosis of Parkinson disease than was sulfonylurea use, regardless of duration of exposure.

  15. Retrospective Cohort Study of Hydrotherapy in Labor.

    PubMed

    Vanderlaan, Jennifer

    To describe the use of hydrotherapy for pain management in labor. This was a retrospective cohort study. Hospital labor and delivery unit in the Northwestern United States, 2006 through 2013. Women in a nurse-midwifery-managed practice who were eligible to use hydrotherapy during labor. Descriptive statistics were used to report the proportion of participants who initiated and discontinued hydrotherapy and duration of hydrotherapy use. Logistic regression was used to provide adjusted odds ratios for characteristics associated with hydrotherapy use. Of the 327 participants included, 268 (82%) initiated hydrotherapy. Of those, 80 (29.9%) were removed from the water because they met medical exclusion criteria, and 24 (9%) progressed to pharmacologic pain management. The mean duration of tub use was 156.3 minutes (standard deviation = 122.7). Induction of labor was associated with declining the offer of hydrotherapy, and nulliparity was associated with medical removal from hydrotherapy. In a hospital that promoted hydrotherapy for pain management in labor, most women who were eligible initiated hydrotherapy. Hospital staff can estimate demand for hydrotherapy by being aware that hydrotherapy use is associated with nulliparity. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Global teaching and training initiatives for emerging cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Jessica K; Santoyo-Vistrain, Rocío; Havelick, David; Cohen, Amy; Kalyesubula, Robert; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O; Mattsson, Jens G; Adami, Hans-Olov; Dalal, Shona

    2012-09-01

    A striking disparity exists across the globe, with essentially no large-scale longitudinal studies ongoing in regions that will be significantly affected by the oncoming non-communicable disease epidemic. The successful implementation of cohort studies in most low-resource research environments presents unique challenges that may be aided by coordinated training programs. Leaders of emerging cohort studies attending the First World Cohort Integration Workshop were surveyed about training priorities, unmet needs and potential cross-cohort solutions to these barriers through an electronic pre-workshop questionnaire and focus groups. Cohort studies representing India, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania and Uganda described similar training needs, including on-the-job training, data analysis software instruction, and database and bio-bank management. A lack of funding and protected time for training activities were commonly identified constraints. Proposed solutions include a collaborative cross-cohort teaching platform with web-based content and interactive teaching methods for a range of research personnel. An international network for research mentorship and idea exchange, and modifying the graduate thesis structure were also identified as key initiatives. Cross-cohort integrated educational initiatives will efficiently meet shared needs, catalyze the development of emerging cohorts, speed closure of the global disparity in cohort research, and may fortify scientific capacity development in low-resource settings.

  17. Global teaching and training initiatives for emerging cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Jessica K.; Santoyo-Vistrain, Rocío; Havelick, David; Cohen, Amy; Kalyesubula, Robert; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O.; Mattsson, Jens G.; Adami, Hans-Olov; Dalal, Shona

    2015-01-01

    A striking disparity exists across the globe, with essentially no large-scale longitudinal studies ongoing in regions that will be significantly affected by the oncoming non-communicable disease epidemic. The successful implementation of cohort studies in most low-resource research environments presents unique challenges that may be aided by coordinated training programs. Leaders of emerging cohort studies attending the First World Cohort Integration Workshop were surveyed about training priorities, unmet needs and potential cross-cohort solutions to these barriers through an electronic pre-workshop questionnaire and focus groups. Cohort studies representing India, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania and Uganda described similar training needs, including on-the-job training, data analysis software instruction, and database and bio-bank management. A lack of funding and protected time for training activities were commonly identified constraints. Proposed solutions include a collaborative cross-cohort teaching platform with web-based content and interactive teaching methods for a range of research personnel. An international network for research mentorship and idea exchange, and modifying the graduate thesis structure were also identified as key initiatives. Cross-cohort integrated educational initiatives will efficiently meet shared needs, catalyze the development of emerging cohorts, speed closure of the global disparity in cohort research, and may fortify scientific capacity development in low-resource settings. PMID:23856451

  18. 15 Years of Terra MODIS Instrument on-Orbit Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, X.; Salomonson, V.

    2014-12-01

    The first MODIS instrument, launched on-board the NASA EOS Terra spacecraft in December 1999, has successfully operated for nearly 15 years. MODIS observations have significantly contributed to the studies of many geophysical parameters of the earth's system and its changes over time. Dedicated effort made by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) to constantly monitor instrument operation, to calibrate changes in sensor response, to derive and update sensor calibration parameters, and to maintain and improve calibration algorithms has played an extremely important role to assure the quality of MODIS data products. MODIS was developed with overall improvements over its heritage sensors. Its observations are made in 36 spectral bands, covering wavelengths from visible to long-wave infrared. The reflective solar bands (1-19 and 26) are calibrated on-orbit by a solar diffuser (SD) panel and regularly scheduled lunar observations. The thermal emissive bands (20-25 and 27-36) calibration is referenced to an on-board blackbody (BB) source. On-orbit changes in the sensor spectral and spatial characteristics are tracked by a spectroradiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). This paper provides an overview of Terra MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities implemented from launch to present and the status of instrument health and functions. It demonstrates sensor on-orbit performance derived from its telemetry, on-board calibrators (OBC), and lunar observations. Also discussed in this paper are changes in sensor characteristics, corrections applied to maintain level 1B data quality, various challenging issues, and future improvements.

  19. Cohort profile: The lidA Cohort Study—a German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation

    PubMed Central

    Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans

    2014-01-01

    The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (http://fdz.iab.de/en.aspx). PMID:24618186

  20. 15 years experience with helium ion radiotherapy for uvealmelanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Joseph R.; D.H. Char, P.L. Petti; Daftarii, K.; Quivey,J.M.; Singh, R.P.; Blakeley, E.A.; Phillips, T.L.

    1997-06-01

    Purpose: To review the long-term experience of helium iontherapy as a therapeutic alternative to enucleation for uveal melanoma,particularly with respect to survival, local control, and morbidity.Methods and Materials: 347 patients with uveal melanoma were treated withheluim ion RT from 1978-1992. A nonrandomized dose-searching study wasundertaken, with doses progressively reduced from 80 GyE in fivefractionsto 48 GyE in four fractions, given in 3-15 days, mean of 7days. Results: Local control was achieved in 96 percent of patients, withno difference in the rate of local control being seen at 80, 70, 60, or50 GyE in five fractions. At the lowest dose level of 48 GyE in fourfractions, the local control rate fell to 87 percent. Fifteen of 347patients (4 percent) had local regrowth in the eye requiring enucleation(12 patients), laser (1 patient) or reirradiation (2 patients). The timeof appearance of local regrowth ranged from 4 months to 5 yearsposttreatment, with 85 percent occurring within 3 years. Of the 347patients, 208 are alive as of May 1, 1997. The median follow up of allpatients is 8.5 years, range 1-17 years. Kaplan-Maier (K-M) survival is80 percent at 5 years, 76 percent at 10 years, and 72 percent at 15 yearsposttreatment. Patients with tumors not involving the ciliary body have a15-year K-M survival of 80 percent. The results for patients whose tumorsinvolved the ciliary body are poor, with a 15-year K-M survival of 43percent. Seventy-five percent of patients with tumors at least 3.0 mmfrom the fovea and optic nerve, and initial ultrasound height less than6.0 mm, retained vision of 20/200 or better posttreatment. Patients withtumors larger than 6 mm in thickness, or with tumors lying close to theoptic nerve or fovea, have a reduced chance of retaining useful vision.The enucleation rate is 19 percent, 3 percent for local failure and 16percent because of complications of the helium RT, particularlyneovascular glaucoma, which occurred in 35 percent of

  1. Dietary Fiber and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Results From 5 Large Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Fondell, Elinor; O'Reilly, Éilis J.; Fitzgerald, Kathryn C.; Falcone, Guido J.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Park, Yikyung; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Ascherio, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fast-progressing neurodegenerative disease with a median survival time from diagnosis of 1.5–3 years. The cause of ALS is unknown, but inflammation may play a role. Fiber has been shown to lower inflammatory markers, and a high fiber intake was associated with a lower risk of ALS in a case-control study; however, prospective studies are lacking. We explored the relation between dietary intake of fiber and the risk of ALS in 5 large prospective cohort studies comprising over 1,050,000 US citizens who contributed 1,133 ALS cases during a mean of 15 years of follow-up (1980–2008). Cox proportional hazards models were used within each cohort, and cohort-specific estimates were subsequently pooled using a random-effects model. We found that intakes of total fiber, cereal fiber, vegetable fiber, and fruit fiber were not associated with ALS risk when comparing the highest quintile of intake with the lowest (for total fiber, pooled multivariable relative risk (RR) = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80, 1.24; for cereal fiber, RR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.94, 1.37; for vegetable fiber, RR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.77, 1.23; and for fruit fiber, RR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.86, 1.29). These findings do not support the hypothesis that fiber intake is a major determinant of ALS risk. PMID:24816788

  2. Validation of the pooled cohort risk score in an Asian population - a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chia, Yook Chin; Lim, Hooi Min; Ching, Siew Mooi

    2014-11-20

    The Pooled Cohort Risk Equation was introduced by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) 2013 in their Blood Cholesterol Guideline to estimate the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. However, absence of Asian ethnicity in the contemporary cohorts and limited studies to examine the use of the risk score limit the applicability of the equation in an Asian population. This study examines the validity of the pooled cohort risk score in a primary care setting and compares the cardiovascular risk using both the pooled cohort risk score and the Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk score. This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study of randomly selected patients aged 40-79 years. Baseline demographic data, co-morbidities and cardiovascular (CV) risk parameters were captured from patient records in 1998. Pooled cohort risk score and Framingham General CVD risk score for each patient were computed. All ASCVD events (nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease (CHD) death, fatal and nonfatal stroke) occurring from 1998-2007 were recorded. A total of 922 patients were studied. In 1998, mean age was 57.5 ± 8.8 years with 66.7% female. There were 47% diabetic patients and 59.9% patients receiving anti-hypertensive treatment. More than 98% of patients with pooled cohort risk score ≥7.5% had FRS >10%. A total of 45 CVD events occurred, 22 (7.2%) in males and 23 (3.7%) in females. The median pooled cohort risk score for the population was 10.1 (IQR 4.7-20.6) while the actual ASCVD events that occurred was 4.9% (45/922). Our study showed moderate discrimination with AUC of 0.63. There was good calibration with Hosmer-Lemeshow test χ2 = 12.6, P = 0.12. The pooled cohort risk score appears to overestimate CV risk but this apparent over-prediction could be a result of treatment. In the absence of a validated score in an untreated population, the pooled cohort risk score appears to be

  3. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Blair, A.; Hines, C.J.; Thomas, K.W.; Alavanja, M.C.R.; Beane Freeman, L.E.; Hoppin, J.A.; Kamel, F.; Lynch, C.F.; Lubin, J.H.; Silverman, D.T.; Whelan, E.; Zahm, S. H.; Sandler, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the contribution of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes to the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used for occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. We draw upon our experience using this design to study agricultural workers to identify conditions that might foster use of prospective cohorts to study other occupational settings. Prospective cohort studies are perceived by many as the strongest epidemiologic design. It allows updating of information on exposure and other factors, collection of biologic samples before disease diagnosis for biomarker studies, assessment of effect modification by genes, lifestyle, and other occupational exposures, and evaluation of a wide range of health outcomes. Increased use of prospective cohorts would be beneficial in identifying hazardous exposures in the workplace. Occupational epidemiologists should seek opportunities to initiate prospective cohorts to investigate high priority, occupational exposures. PMID:25603935

  4. The lytic cycle of Toxoplasma gondii: 15 years later

    PubMed Central

    Blader, Ira; Coleman, Bradley; Chen, Chun-Ti; Gubbels, Marc-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is the clinical and pathological consequence of acute infection with the obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Symptoms result from tissue destruction that accompanies lytic parasite growth. This review updates current understanding of the host cell invasion, parasite replication and eventual egress that comprise the lytic cycle, as well as the ways T. gondii manipulates host cells to assure survival. Since the publication of a previous iteration of this review 15 years ago, important advances have been made in our molecular understanding of parasite growth and mechanisms of host cell egress, and knowledge of the parasite’s manipulation of the host has rapidly progressed. Here we cover molecular advances and current conceptual frameworks that include each of these topics, with an eye to what might be known 15 years from now. PMID:26332089

  5. Traumatic Dental Injuries in the primary dentition: a 15-year bibliometric analysis of Dental Traumatology.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Onetto, Juan; Flores, Marie Therese; Borges, Tássia Silvana; Feldens, Carlos Alberto

    2016-10-01

    To explore the profile of articles on traumatic dental injuries (TDI) in the primary dentition published in Dental Traumatology in the last 15 years using bibliometric analysis. Three researchers read all titles and abstracts of articles published in Dental Traumatology between 2000 and 2014 (excluding editorials and letters) and selected all articles on TDI in the primary dentition. The articles were categorized according to year of publication, country in which the study was conducted, study design, and topics addressed. Divergences were resolved by consensus between the researchers. Among a total of 1257 articles published, 98 were initially excluded. Among the remaining 1159 articles, 152 (13.1%) focused on TDI in the primary dentition. The articles were conducted in 29 countries, with Brazil (38.8%) and Turkey (11.8%) accounting for the largest numbers. Cross-sectional studies (36.2%) and case report/case series (33.6%) were the most frequent study designs. Only two systematic reviews were published. The most commonly addressed topics were frequency/etiology/associated factors (36.8%), treatment (30.9%), and prognosis (19.7%). Among the articles addressing treatment, two-thirds were case reports or case series. The effects of TDI in primary teeth on their permanent successors were addressed in 20.4% of the articles (31/152). The number of articles on TDI in the primary dentition has increased, but remains low. The evaluation of study designs and topics addressed identified gaps that could contribute to the development of new studies on TDI in the primary dentition, especially cohort studies that evaluate risk factors, prognosis, and treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A 15 year old boy with a posterior fossa tumor.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Erin M; Ranger, Adrianna; Lee, Donald H; Hammond, Robert R

    2009-04-01

    A 15 year old male presented with hydrocephalus from a tectal mass obstructing the cerebral aqueduct and upper fourth ventricle. The solid-cystic partly enhancing mass proved to be a pigmented pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, the third such example reported. The lesion revealed typical features of a PXA with the unusual addition of intracytoplasmic melanin in select lesional cells. Melanin pigment production is uncommon in glial tumors and of uncertain significance. The present case is recurrence-free one year post-operatively.

  7. The Hi Five study: design of a school-based randomized trial to reduce infections and improve hygiene and well-being among 6-15 year olds in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Anette; Denbæk, Anne Maj; Bonnesen, Camilla Thørring; Due, Pernille

    2015-03-01

    Infectious illnesses such as influenza and diarrhea are leading causes of absenteeism among Danish school children. Interventions in school settings addressing hand hygiene have shown to reduce the number of infectious illnesses. However, most of these studies include small populations and almost none of them are conducted as randomized controlled trials. The overall aim of the Hi Five study was to develop, implement and evaluate a multi-component school-based intervention to improve hand hygiene and well-being and to reduce the prevalence of infections among school children in intervention schools by 20% compared to control schools. This paper describes the development and the evaluation design of Hi Five. The Hi Five study was designed as a tree-armed cluster-randomized controlled trial. A national random sample of schools (n = 44) was randomized to one of two intervention groups (n = 29) or to a control group with no intervention (n = 15). A total of 8,438 six to fifteen-year-old school children were enrolled in the study. The Hi Five intervention consisted of three components: 1) a curriculum component 2) mandatory daily hand washing before lunch 3) extra cleaning of school toilets during the school day. Baseline data was collected from December 2011 to April 2012. The intervention period was August 2012 to June 2013. The follow-up data was collected from December 2012 to April 2013. The Hi Five study fills a gap in international research. This large randomized multi-component school-based hand hygiene intervention is the first to include education on healthy and appropriate toilet behavior as part of the curriculum. No previous studies have involved supplementary cleaning at the school toilets as an intervention component. The study will have the added value of providing new knowledge about usability of short message service (SMS, text message) for collecting data on infectious illness and absenteeism in large study populations. Current Controlled

  8. ASTER system operating achievement for 15 years on orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Hitomi; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Sakuma, Fumihiro; Tatsumi, Kenji; Akagi, Shigeki; Ono, Hidehiko

    2015-10-01

    ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) System is operating more than 15 years since launched on board of NASA's Terra spacecraft in December 1999. ASTER System is composed of 3 radiometers (VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer), SWIR (Short-Wave Infrared Radiometer), and TIR (Thermal Infrared Radiometer)), CSP (Common Signal Processor) and MSP (Master Power Supply). This paper describes the ASTER System operating history and the achievement of ASTER System long term operation since the initial checkout operation, the normal operation, and the continuous operation. Through the 15 years operation, ASTER system had totally checked the all subsystems (MPS, VNIR, TIR, SWIR, and CSP) health and safety check using telemetry data trend evaluation, and executed the necessary action. The watch items are monitored as the life control items. The pointing mechanics for VNIR, SWIR and TIR, and the cooler for SWIR and TIR are all operating with any problem for over 15 years. In 2003, ASTER was successfully operated for the lunar calibration. As the future plan, ASTER team is proposing the 2nd lunar calibration before the end of mission.

  9. Cohort Profile: The JS High School study (JSHS): a cohort study of Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong Phil; Lee, Joo Young; Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2015-05-06

    Major aetiologies of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases begin in childhood and atherosclerotic vascular abnormalities can be observed among children and adolescents. Adolescent cohort studies have important advantages because they can observe earlier changes in vascular structure and function. The purpose of the JS High School study (JSHS) is to identify biomarkers predicting or indicating early structural and functional vascular change in adolescents. The JSHS is a prospective cohort study of a Korean adolescent population. The target population of the JSHS was first-graders (aged 14 to17 years) at a high school of South Korea. Enrolment and baseline examinations were conducted in years 2007, 2010, 2011 and 2012. Among the total eligible population of 1115 students, 1071 (96.1%) participated in the study and completed all baseline examinations. Informed consent forms were obtained from each participant and his/her parent or guardian. Baseline examinations include: questionnaires on demographics, health behaviours, medical history, and depression symptoms; fasting blood analysis; anthropometric measurement; body impedance analysis; blood pressure measurement; radial artery tonometry; bone densitometry; pulmonary function tests; and carotid ultrasonography. Participants enrolled from 2007 through 2012 were re-examined after 30 months of follow-up, and those who enrolled in 2012 were re-examined after 24 months of follow-up. The corresponding author may be contacted for potential collaboration and data access.

  10. What Drives Teacher Engagement: A Study of Different Age Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guglielmi, Dina; Bruni, Ilaria; Simbula, Silvia; Fraccaroli, Franco; Depolo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing body of research on work engagement, little is known about what drives work engagement among different age cohorts. This study aims to investigate whether engagement varies across age cohorts and examines the job resources that foster teacher engagement. A questionnaire was distributed to 537 teachers who were employed in…

  11. A population study of 5 to 15 year olds: full time maternal employment not associated with high BMI. The importance of screen-based activity, reading for pleasure and sleep duration in children's BMI.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Anne W; Winefield, Helen; Kettler, Lisa; Roberts, Rachel; Gill, Tiffany K

    2012-04-01

    To describe the relationship between maternal full time employment and health-related and demographic variables associated with children aged 5-15 years, and the factors associated with child overweight/obesity. Data from a chronic disease and risk factor surveillance system were limited to children aged 5-15 years whose mothers responded on their behalf (n = 641). Univariate/multivariate analyses described the differences between mothers who did and did not work full time. The same data were analysed comparing children who are overweight/obese against those with a normal BMI. The children of mothers who worked full time are more likely to be older, live in a household with a higher household income, be an only child or have one sibling or other child in the household, have a sole mother family structure and not spend any time reading for pleasure. No relationship was found between maternal employment and BMI. Compared with children of normal weight, those who were overweight/obese were more likely to spend no time studying, spend more than 2 h per day in screen-based activity and sleep less than 10 h per night. Child BMI status was not related to maternal employment. Although this analysis included eight diet related variables none proved to be significant in the final models.This study has shown that mothers' working status is not related to children's BMI. The relationship between overweight/obesity of children and high levels of screen-based activity, low levels of studying, and short sleep duration suggests a need for better knowledge and understanding of sedentary behaviours of children.

  12. The unseen sample in cohort studies: estimation of its size and effect. Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hoover, D R; Muñoz, A; Carey, V; Odaka, N; Taylor, J M; Chmiel, J S; Armstrong, J; Vermund, S H

    1991-12-01

    Recruitment of disease-free subjects into cohort studies and measurement of their time from exposure/infection to disease selectively excludes individuals (the unseen sample) who had earlier exposure and who have shorter times to disease. The unseen and observed samples may differ in other characteristics in addition to incubation period and exposure/infection time. For data with known truncation times, we develop non-parametric maximum likelihood estimates of the size, exposure/infection dates and distribution of incubation time in the unseen sample. We provide procedures to estimate and compensate for the biasing effects due to exclusion of the unseen sample in descriptive and survival analysis. We give consistency properties of these estimates and assess variability using bootstrap methods. One can use imputation to derive the above estimates from data with unknown truncation times that have been estimated parametrically. Application is made to an AIDS cohort study of over 5000 homosexual men. Important estimates obtained from this application are the annual seroconversion rates from 1978 to 1983, not otherwise obtainable in this study population.

  13. Height gain after two-years-of-age is associated with better cognitive capacity, measured with Raven's coloured matrices at 15-years-of-age in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Teivaanmäki, Tiina; Bun Cheung, Yin; Pulakka, Anna; Virkkala, Jussi; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per

    2017-04-01

    Stunting is a measure of chronic undernutrition, and it affects approximately 160 million children worldwide. Cognitive development of stunted children is compromised, but evidence about the association between height gain in late childhood and adolescent cognitive capacity is scarce. We aimed to determine the association between height gains at different ages, including late childhood, and cognitive capacity at 15-years-of-age. We conducted a prospective cohort study in a rural African setting in Southern Malawi. The study cohort was enrolled between June 1995 and August 1996. It originally comprised mothers of 813 fetuses, and the number of children born live was 767. These children were followed up until the age of 15 years. The anthropometrics were measured at one and 24-months-of-age and 15-years-of-age, and cognitive capacity of participants was assessed at 15-years-of-age with Raven's Coloured Matrices score, mathematic test score, median reaction time (RT) (milliseconds) and RT lapses. The associations between growth and the outcome measures were assessed with linear regression. Raven's Coloured Matrices score was predicted by height gain between 24 months and 15-years-of-age (coefficient 0.85, P = 0.03) and (coefficient 0.69, P = 0.06), but not by earlier growth, when possible confounders were included in the model. The association weakened when school education was further added in the model (coefficient = 0.69, P = 0,060). In conclusion, in rural Malawi, better growth in late childhood is likely to lead to better cognitive capacity in adolescence, partly through more school education. In light of these results, growth promotion should not only be limited to early childhood. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Behavioural early-life exposures and body composition at age 15 years.

    PubMed

    Leary, S D; Lawlor, D A; Davey Smith, G; Brion, M J; Ness, A R

    2015-02-09

    Previous studies have demonstrated associations between some early-life exposures and later obesity, but most have used body mass index in childhood or adulthood as the outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate whether early-life exposures were associated with directly measured fat and lean mass in adolescence. This study used data on 4750 mother-offspring pairs, collected as a part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Bristol, UK between 1991 and 1992; associations between behavioural exposures occurring from conception up to 5 years of age (maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding, age at introduction to solids, dietary patterns and physical inactivity during early childhood) and offspring body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ~15 years were assessed. After full adjustment for potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy, having a junk food diet and spending more time watching television in early childhood were all associated with higher fat mass at age 15, whereas maternal smoking, having a healthy diet and playing computer games more frequently in early childhood were all associated with a higher lean mass at age 15. Associations with paternal smoking were generally weaker for both fat and lean mass, but as there was no strong statistical evidence for maternal vs paternal differences, confounding by social factors rather than a direct effect of maternal smoking cannot be ruled out. Early feeding was not associated with fat or lean mass at age 15. This study does not provide compelling evidence for associations between most early-life factors and body composition in adolescence. However, possible associations with dietary patterns and physical inactivity in early childhood require further investigation in other cohorts that have direct measurements of adolescent body composition.

  15. A cohort study of bacteremic pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Guillamet, Cristina Vazquez; Vazquez, Rodrigo; Noe, Jonas; Micek, Scott T.; Kollef, Marin H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bacteremic pneumonia is usually associated with greater mortality. However, risk factors associated with hospital mortality in bacteremic pneumonia are inadequately described. The study was a retrospective cohort study, conducted in Barnes-Jewish Hospital (2008–2015). For purposes of this investigation, antibiotic susceptibility was determined according to ceftriaxone susceptibility, as ceftriaxone represents the antimicrobial agent most frequently recommended for hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia as opposed to nosocomial pneumonia. Two multivariable analyses were planned: the first model included resistance to ceftriaxone as a variable, whereas the second model included the various antibiotic-resistant species (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacteriaceae). In all, 1031 consecutive patients with bacteremic pneumonia (mortality 37.1%) were included. The most common pathogens associated with infection were S aureus (34.1%; methicillin resistance 54.0%), Enterobacteriaceae (28.0%), P aeruginosa (10.6%), anaerobic bacteria (7.3%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (5.6%). Compared with ceftriaxone-susceptible pathogens (46.8%), ceftriaxone-resistant pathogens (53.2%) were significantly more likely to receive inappropriate initial antibiotic treatment (IIAT) (27.9% vs 7.1%; P < 0.001) and to die during hospitalization (41.5% vs 32.0%; P = 0.001). The first logistic regression analysis identified IIAT with the greatest odds ratio (OR) for mortality (OR 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5–3.2, P < 0.001). Other independent predictors of mortality included age, mechanical ventilation, immune suppression, prior hospitalization, prior antibiotic administration, septic shock, comorbid conditions, and severity of illness. In the second multivariable analysis that included the antibiotic-resistant species, IIAT was still associated with excess mortality, and P aeruginosa infection was

  16. Cohort profile: the Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study.

    PubMed

    López Gómez, María Andrée; Durán, Xavier; Zaballa, Elena; Sanchez-Niubo, Albert; Delclos, George L; Benavides, Fernando G

    2016-03-07

    The global economy is changing the labour market and social protection systems in Europe. The effect of both changes on health needs to be monitored in view of an ageing population and the resulting increase in prevalence of chronic health conditions. The Spanish WORKing life Social Security (WORKss) cohort study provides unique longitudinal data to study the impact of labour trajectories and employment conditions on health, in terms of sickness absence, permanent disability and death. The WORKss cohort originated from the Continuous Working Life Sample (CWLS) generated by the General Directorate for the Organization of the Social Security in Spain. The CWLS contains a 4% representative sample of all individuals in contact with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort exclusively includes individuals with a labour trajectory from 1981 or later. In 2004, the cohort was initiated with 1,022 ,79 Social Security members: 840,770 (82.2%) contributors and 182,009 (17.8%) beneficiaries aged 16 and older. The WORKss cohort includes demographic characteristics, chronological data about employment history, retirement, permanent disability and death. These data make possible the measurement of incidence of permanent disability, the number of potential years of working life lost, and the number of contracts and inactive periods with the Social Security system. The WORKss cohort was linked to temporary sickness absence registries to study medical diagnoses that lead to permanent disability and consequently to an earlier exit from the labour market in unhealthy conditions. Thanks to its administrative source, the WORKss cohort study will continue follow-up in the coming years, keeping the representativeness of the Spanish population affiliated to the Social Security system. The linkage between the WORKss cohort and temporary sickness absence registries is envisioned to continue. Future plans include the linkage of the cohort with mortality registries. Published by the BMJ

  17. ACL injuries in men's professional football: a 15-year prospective study on time trends and return-to-play rates reveals only 65% of players still play at the top level 3 years after ACL rupture.

    PubMed

    Waldén, Markus; Hägglund, Martin; Magnusson, Henrik; Ekstrand, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Studies investigating the development of ACL injuries over time in football are scarce and more data on what happens before and after return to play (RTP) are needed. To investigate (1) time trends in ACL injury rates, (2) complication rates before return to match play following ACL reconstruction, and (3) the influence of ACL injury on the subsequent playing career in male professional football players. 78 clubs were followed between 2001 and 2015. Time trend in ACL injury rate was analysed using linear regression. ACL-injured players were monitored until RTP and tracked for 3 years after RTP. We recorded 157 ACL injuries, 140 total and 17 partial ruptures, with a non-significant average annual increase in the ACL injury rate by 6% (R(2)=0.13, b=0.059, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.15, p=0.20). The match ACL injury rate was 20-fold higher than the training injury rate (0.340 vs 0.017 per 1000 h). 138 players (98.6%) with a total rupture underwent ACL reconstruction; all 134 players with RTP data (4 players still under rehabilitation) were able to return to training, but 9 of them (6.7%) suffered complications before their first match appearance (5 reruptures and 4 other knee surgeries). The median layoff after ACL reconstruction was 6.6 months to training and 7.4 months to match play. We report 3-year follow-up data for 106 players in total; 91 players (85.8%) were still playing football and 60 of 93 players (65%) with ACL reconstruction for a total rupture played at the same level. The ACL injury rate has not declined during the 2000s and the rerupture rate before return to match play was 4%. The RTP rate within a year after ACL reconstruction was very high, but only two-thirds competed at the highest level 3 years later. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Effect of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination without a booster dose on invasive H influenzae type b disease, nasopharyngeal carriage, and population immunity in Kilifi, Kenya: a 15-year regional surveillance study

    PubMed Central

    Hammitt, Laura L; Crane, Rosie J; Karani, Angela; Mutuku, Alex; Morpeth, Susan C; Burbidge, Polly; Goldblatt, David; Kamau, Tatu; Sharif, Shahnaaz; Mturi, Neema; Scott, J Anthony G

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, delivered as a three-dose series without a booster, was introduced into the childhood vaccination programme in Kenya in 2001. The duration of protection and need for a booster dose are unknown. We aimed to assess vaccine effectiveness, the impact of the vaccine on nasopharyngeal carriage, and population immunity after introduction of conjugate Hib vaccine in infancy without a booster dose in Kenya. Methods This study took place in the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS), an area of Kenya that has been monitored for vital events and migration every 4 months since 2000. We analysed sterile site cultures for H influenzae type b from children (aged ≤12 years) admitted to the Kilifi County Hospital (KCH) from Jan 1, 2000, through to Dec 31, 2014. We determined the prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage by undertaking cross-sectional surveys in random samples of KHDSS residents (of all ages) once every year from 2009 to 2012, and measured Hib antibody concentrations in five cross-sectional samples of children (aged ≤12 years) within the KHDSS (in 1998, 2000, 2004–05, 2007, and 2009). We calculated incidence rate ratios between the prevaccine era (2000–01) and the routine-use era (2004–14) and defined vaccine effectiveness as 1 minus the incidence rate ratio, expressed as a percentage. Findings 40 482 children younger than 13 years resident in KHDSS were admitted to KCH between 2000 and 2014, 38 206 (94%) of whom had their blood cultured. The incidence of invasive H influenzae type b disease in children younger than 5 years declined from 62·6 (95% CI 46·0–83·3) per 100 000 in 2000–01 to 4·5 (2·5–7·5) per 100 000 in 2004–14, giving a vaccine effectiveness of 93% (95% CI 87–96). In the final 5 years of observation (2010–14), only one case of invasive H influenzae type b disease was detected in a child younger than 5 years. Nasopharyngeal H

  19. Effect of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination without a booster dose on invasive H influenzae type b disease, nasopharyngeal carriage, and population immunity in Kilifi, Kenya: a 15-year regional surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Hammitt, Laura L; Crane, Rosie J; Karani, Angela; Mutuku, Alex; Morpeth, Susan C; Burbidge, Polly; Goldblatt, David; Kamau, Tatu; Sharif, Shahnaaz; Mturi, Neema; Scott, J Anthony G

    2016-03-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, delivered as a three-dose series without a booster, was introduced into the childhood vaccination programme in Kenya in 2001. The duration of protection and need for a booster dose are unknown. We aimed to assess vaccine effectiveness, the impact of the vaccine on nasopharyngeal carriage, and population immunity after introduction of conjugate Hib vaccine in infancy without a booster dose in Kenya. This study took place in the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS), an area of Kenya that has been monitored for vital events and migration every 4 months since 2000. We analysed sterile site cultures for H influenzae type b from children (aged ≤12 years) admitted to the Kilifi County Hospital (KCH) from Jan 1, 2000, through to Dec 31, 2014. We determined the prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage by undertaking cross-sectional surveys in random samples of KHDSS residents (of all ages) once every year from 2009 to 2012, and measured Hib antibody concentrations in five cross-sectional samples of children (aged ≤12 years) within the KHDSS (in 1998, 2000, 2004-05, 2007, and 2009). We calculated incidence rate ratios between the prevaccine era (2000-01) and the routine-use era (2004-14) and defined vaccine effectiveness as 1 minus the incidence rate ratio, expressed as a percentage. 40,482 children younger than 13 years resident in KHDSS were admitted to KCH between 2000 and 2014, 38,206 (94%) of whom had their blood cultured. The incidence of invasive H influenzae type b disease in children younger than 5 years declined from 62·6 (95% CI 46·0-83·3) per 100,000 in 2000-01 to 4·5 (2·5-7·5) per 100,000 in 2004-14, giving a vaccine effectiveness of 93% (95% CI 87-96). In the final 5 years of observation (2010-14), only one case of invasive H influenzae type b disease was detected in a child younger than 5 years. Nasopharyngeal H influenzae type b carriage was detected in one (0·2%) of 623

  20. Estimation of Error Components in Cohort Studies: A Cross-Cohort Analysis of Dutch Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keuning, Jos; Hemker, Bas

    2014-01-01

    The data collection of a cohort study requires making many decisions. Each decision may introduce error in the statistical analyses conducted later on. In the present study, a procedure was developed for estimation of the error made due to the composition of the sample, the item selection procedure, and the test equating process. The math results…

  1. Estimation of Error Components in Cohort Studies: A Cross-Cohort Analysis of Dutch Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keuning, Jos; Hemker, Bas

    2014-01-01

    The data collection of a cohort study requires making many decisions. Each decision may introduce error in the statistical analyses conducted later on. In the present study, a procedure was developed for estimation of the error made due to the composition of the sample, the item selection procedure, and the test equating process. The math results…

  2. College Daughters' Relationships with Their Fathers: A 15 Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Data collected from 1990 until 2004 from 423 college women show that, although the majority felt they had a loving relationship with their fathers, the vast majority felt that the mother-daughter relationship was more communicative, more emotionally intimate, and more comfortable. Daughters and mothers knew one another better and were more…

  3. Pediatric Gliomatosis Cerebri: A Review of 15 Years.

    PubMed

    George, Emilie; Settler, Allison; Connors, Scott; Greenfield, Jeffrey P

    2016-03-01

    Gliomatosis cerebri is a rare glial tumor that carries a poor prognosis. Seen in both adults and children, gliomatosis cerebri appears to differ in these populations as with adult versus pediatric glioblastoma. We present 10 children who either presented to the Weill Cornell Medical College or enrolled in the institution's Gliomatosis Cerebri International Registry alongside a cohort of 89 pediatric patients reported in the literature between 2000 and 2014. Age ranged from 4 months to 21 years, with a male to female ratio of 1.71. Median overall survival for patients in the registry cohort was 17 months (n = 10) and for the historic cohort was 13 months (n = 52). Overall survival was analyzed for the combined cohort and was significantly longer when presenting at age ≥ 10 (20 vs 10 months), for boys (18 vs 11 months), and with low-grade pathology (26.5 vs 12 months) but did not vary significantly by treatment approach.

  4. Overview of ongoing cohort and dietary studies in the Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Weihe, Pál; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva; Dudarev, Alexey; Halling, Jónrit; Hansen, Solrunn; Muckle, Gina; Nøst, Therese; Odland, Jon Øyvind; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Rautio, Arja; Veyhe, Anna Sofía; Wennberg, Maria; Bergdahl, Ingvar

    2016-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the ongoing cohort and dietary studies underlying the assessment of population health in the Arctic. The emphasis here is on a description of the material, methods and results or preliminary results for each study. Detailed exposure information is available in an article in this journal, whereas another paper describes the effects associated with contaminant exposure in the Arctic. The cohort descriptions have been arranged geographically, beginning in Norway and moving east to Finland, Sweden, Russia and the other Arctic countries and ultimately to the Faroe Islands. No cohort studies have been reported for Alaska or Iceland. PMID:27974135

  5. Anesthesia and Poliomyelitis: A Matched Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Van Alstine, Luke W; Gunn, Paul W; Schroeder, Darrell R; Hanson, Andrew C; Sorenson, Eric J; Martin, David P

    2016-06-01

    Poliomyelitis is a viral infectious disease caused by 1 of the 3 strains of poliovirus. The World Health Organization launched an eradication campaign in 1988. Although the number of cases of poliomyelitis has drastically declined, eradication has not yet been achieved, and there are a substantial number of survivors of the disease. Survivors of poliomyelitis present a unique set of challenges to the anesthesiologist. The scientific literature regarding the anesthetic management of survivors of poliomyelitis, however, is limited and primarily experiential in nature. Using a retrospective, matched cohort study, we sought to more precisely characterize the anesthetic implications of poliomyelitis and to determine what risks, if any, may be present for patients with a history of the disease. Using the Mayo Clinic Life Sciences System Data Discovery and Query Builder, study subjects were identified as those with a history of paralytic poliomyelitis who had undergone major surgery at Mayo Clinic Rochester between 2005 and 2009. For each case, 2 sex- and age-matched controls that underwent the same surgical procedure during the study period were randomly selected from a pool of possible controls. Medical records were manually interrogated with respect to demographic variables, comorbid conditions, operative and anesthetic course, and postoperative course. We analyzed 100 cases with 2:1 matched controls and found that the peri- and postoperative courses were very similar for both groups of patients. Pain scores, postanesthesia care unit admission, length of postanesthesia care unit stay, intensive care unit admission, length of intensive care unit stay, and initial extubation location were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Looking at pulmonary complications in our primary outcome, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups (17% vs 14% for polio versus control, respectively; conditional logistic regression odds ratio = 1.5; 95% confidence

  6. A look at 15 years of planar thallium-201 imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, S. )

    1989-09-01

    Extensive experience has been accumulated over the past 15 years regarding planar thallium-201 imaging. Quantitation of technically superior images provides a high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of CAD. In addition, planar thallium-201 images provide very important prognostic information in different clinical situations. Although single photon emission computerized tomography offers potential theoretical advantages over planar imaging, because of the problems involved in reconstruction, specifically the creation of artifacts, it may not be the ideal imaging modality in all situations. Good quality planar thallium-201 imaging still has an important role in clinical cardiology today. 144 references.

  7. Nested case-control studies in cohorts with competing events.

    PubMed

    Wolkewitz, Martin; Cooper, Ben S; Palomar-Martinez, Mercedes; Olaechea-Astigarraga, Pedro; Alvarez-Lerma, Francisco; Schumacher, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In nested case-control studies, incidence density sampling is the time-dependent matching procedure to approximate hazard ratios. The cumulative incidence function can also be estimated if information from the full cohort is used. In the presence of competing events, however, the cumulative incidence function depends on the hazard of the disease of interest and on the competing events hazard. Using hospital-acquired infection as an example (full cohort), we propose a sampling method for nested case-control studies to estimate subdistribution hazard ratios. With further information on the full cohort, the cumulative incidence function for the event of interest can then be estimated as well.

  8. Interactive computer program for optimal designs of longitudinal cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Tekle, Fetene B; Tan, Frans E S; Berger, Martijn P F

    2009-05-01

    Many large scale longitudinal cohort studies have been carried out or are ongoing in different fields of science. Such studies need a careful planning to obtain the desired quality of results with the available resources. In the past, a number of researches have been performed on optimal designs for longitudinal studies. However, there was no computer program yet available to help researchers to plan their longitudinal cohort design in an optimal way. A new interactive computer program for the optimization of designs of longitudinal cohort studies is therefore presented. The computer program helps users to identify the optimal cohort design with an optimal number of repeated measurements per subject and an optimal allocations of time points within a given study period. Further, users can compute the loss in relative efficiencies of any other alternative design compared to the optimal one. The computer program is described and illustrated using a practical example.

  9. Public perceptions of cohort studies and biobanks in Germany.

    PubMed

    Starkbaum, Johannes; Gottweis, Herbert; Gottweis, Ursula; Kleiser, Christina; Linseisen, Jakob; Meisinger, Christa; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Börm, Sonja; Wichmann, H-Erich

    2014-04-01

    Cohort studies and biobank projects have led to public discussions in several European countries in the past. In Germany, many medium-sized studies are currently running successfully in terms of respondent rates. However, EU-wide research on general public perceptions of biobanks and cohort studies have shown that Germany is among those countries where people express the highest reluctance for providing body material and other data for research purposes. Because of early efforts of the just-initiated German National Cohort Study, we are able to begin to investigate in greater detail how various groups of people across Germany reflect and discuss the ongoing implementation of cohort studies and biobanking in Germany. Our research is based on 15 focus group discussions in four German regions, as well as on Eurobarometer poll data on biobanking.

  10. ASTER 15 years challenging trail on-orbit operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Masakuni; Sakuma, Fumihiro; Tatsumi, Kenji; Inada, Hitomi; Itou, Yoshiyuki; Akagi, Shigeki; Ono, Hidehiko

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a high-resolution optical sensor system that can observe in a wide region from the visible and near-infrared, the short wavelength infrared to the thermal infrared with 14 spectral bands on board of NASA's Terra spacecraft for Earth Observing System (EOS) "A mission to planet earth." ASTER achieved 5 years mission success on orbit operation normally which is the specified target after launched on December, 1999. And after through 10 years continuous orbit operation, ASTER has still operating the long life observation of extra success to be 15 years in total on December, 2014. As for ASTER instrument that is composed of 3 radiometers; the Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer (VNIR) with 3 bands, the Short Wavelength Infrared Radiometer (SWIR) with 6 bands, the Thermal Infrared Radiometer (TIR) with 5 bands, overall ASTER long life data taken by 15 years onboard operation has been reviewed from the point of view of the health and safety check by Telemetry (TLM) data trend, the function and performance evaluation by observation data trend, the onboard calibration and verification by periodic Calibration(CAL) data trend. As a result, the radiometric degradation of VNIR and TIR and the temperature rise of SWIR detector were identified as significant challenges. The countermeasure plan towards the end of mission was clarified and also the novel lessons learned was verified.

  11. Hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome - a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Devdeep; Sinha, Rajiv; Akhtar, Md Shakil; Saha, Agni Sekhar

    2017-01-01

    AIM To ascertain the frequency of hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome (HHS) in a cohort of children with hypertensive emergency in a tertiary pediatric hospital. METHODS A retrospective review was undertaken among children with hypertensive emergency admitted in our tertiary children hospital between June 2014 and December 2015 with an aim to identify any children with HHS. Three children with HHS were identified during this period. RESULTS The 3 patients with HHS presented with hypertensive emergency. They were initially managed with Labetalol infusion and thereafter switched to oral anti-hypertensives (combination of Nifedipine sustained release, Hydralazine and Beta Blocker). All 3 were diagnosed to have unilateral renal artery stenosis. One child was lost to follow up, whereas the other 2 underwent renal angioplasty which was followed with normalization of blood pressure. CONCLUSION Despite activation of renin angiotensin axis secondary to renal artery stenosis, these groups of children have significant hyponatremia. Renal re-vascularisation produces excellent results in most of them. PMID:28101450

  12. Breastfeeding and Snoring: A Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Brew, Bronwyn K.; Marks, Guy B.; Almqvist, Catarina; Cistulli, Peter A.; Webb, Karen; Marshall, Nathaniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between breastfeeding and snoring in childhood. Methods In a cohort of children with a family history of asthma who were recruited antenatally we prospectively recorded data on infant feeding practices throughout the first year of life. Snoring status and witnessed sleep apnea were measured at age 8 years by parent-completed questionnaire. Associations were estimated by logistic regression with, and without, adjustment for sets of confounders designed to exclude biasing effects. Results Habitual snoring was reported in 18.8% of the sample, and witnessed apnea in 2.7%. Any breastfeeding for longer than one month was associated with a reduced risk of habitual snoring at age 8 (adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.81) and duration of breastfeeding was inversely associated with the prevalence of habitual snoring (adjusted OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.00). Any breastfeeding for longer than 1 month was associated with a lower risk of witnessed sleep apnea (adjusted OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.71). The protective associations were not mediated by BMI, current asthma, atopy or rhinitis at age 8 years. Conclusions Breastfeeding for longer than one month decreases the risk of habitual snoring and witnessed apneas in this cohort of children with a family history of asthma. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but the finding would be consistent with a beneficial effect of the breast in the mouth on oropharyngeal development with consequent protection against upper airway dysfunction causing sleep-disordered breathing. PMID:24416321

  13. Breastfeeding and snoring: a birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Brew, Bronwyn K; Marks, Guy B; Almqvist, Catarina; Cistulli, Peter A; Webb, Karen; Marshall, Nathaniel S

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between breastfeeding and snoring in childhood. In a cohort of children with a family history of asthma who were recruited antenatally we prospectively recorded data on infant feeding practices throughout the first year of life. Snoring status and witnessed sleep apnea were measured at age 8 years by parent-completed questionnaire. Associations were estimated by logistic regression with, and without, adjustment for sets of confounders designed to exclude biasing effects. Habitual snoring was reported in 18.8% of the sample, and witnessed apnea in 2.7%. Any breastfeeding for longer than one month was associated with a reduced risk of habitual snoring at age 8 (adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.81) and duration of breastfeeding was inversely associated with the prevalence of habitual snoring (adjusted OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.00). Any breastfeeding for longer than 1 month was associated with a lower risk of witnessed sleep apnea (adjusted OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.71). The protective associations were not mediated by BMI, current asthma, atopy or rhinitis at age 8 years. Breastfeeding for longer than one month decreases the risk of habitual snoring and witnessed apneas in this cohort of children with a family history of asthma. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but the finding would be consistent with a beneficial effect of the breast in the mouth on oropharyngeal development with consequent protection against upper airway dysfunction causing sleep-disordered breathing.

  14. Pregnancy outcomes among mothers aged 15 years or less.

    PubMed

    Traisrisilp, Kuntharee; Jaiprom, Jedsada; Luewan, Suchaya; Tongsong, Theera

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine pregnancy outcomes among early adolescent women (aged ≤ 15 years) compared with those in late adolescence (16-19 years) and adults aged 20-30 years. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on singleton pregnancies with maternal age ≤15 years (early adolescent), 16-19 years (late adolescent), and 20-30 years (adult). The primary outcomes for comparison were the rates of preterm birth, low birthweight, growth restriction and cesarean section. A total of 33 777 pregnancies, 298 early adolescent, 4456 late adolescent, and 29 023 adults, were enrolled. Most baseline characteristics were comparable but rates of pregnancy complicated by medical diseases were significantly higher in the adults, especially diabetes mellitus and chronic hypertension. When compared to the adult group, the early adolescent group had significantly higher rates of preterm birth (31.9% vs 14.5%, P < 0.001), growth restriction (11.7% vs 7.1%, P = 0.002), low birthweight (28.9% vs 14.7%, P < 0.001), while maternal morbidity, such as pre-eclampsia and placenta previa, was similar. Likewise, most of the main outcomes in early adolescents were also significantly higher than those in late adolescents, but with lesser degrees. Interestingly, the primary cesarean rate was significantly lower in early adolescent women (6.7% vs 12.3%, P = 0.005). Early adolescent pregnancy was associated with higher risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes, in particular preterm birth and growth restriction, though most maternal morbidity was comparable with that in the control groups. Cesarean rate was significantly lower in early adolescent mothers. This information should be provided to women and their families. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Children Treated for Nocturnal Enuresis: Characteristics and Trends over a 15-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Kushnir, Baruch; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal Enuresis (NE) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders and has significant negative psychosocial impact on the child and family. Objective: To assess the characteristics of children with NE and trends over a 15-year period. Methods: The study included 18,677 children [11,205 (60%) boys and 7,472 (40%) girls] referred…

  16. Non-Standard Dialect in the Formal Speech of 15-Year-Olds on Tyneside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crinson, James; Williamson, John

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports a study of the use of non-standard English in the formal speech of 15-year-olds of both genders and of varying attainment levels. The pupils were drawn from two schools on Tyneside which take pupils from catchment areas of markedly different socioeconomic status. Differences were found in the incidence of non-standard lexis and…

  17. Development of Face Recognition in 5- to 15-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnunen, Suna; Korkman, Marit; Laasonen, Marja; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of face recognition in typically developing preschool- and school-aged children (aged 5 to 15 years old, "n" = 611, 336 girls). Social predictors include sex differences and own-sex bias. At younger ages, the development of face recognition was rapid and became more gradual as the age increased up…

  18. Children Treated for Nocturnal Enuresis: Characteristics and Trends over a 15-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Kushnir, Baruch; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal Enuresis (NE) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders and has significant negative psychosocial impact on the child and family. Objective: To assess the characteristics of children with NE and trends over a 15-year period. Methods: The study included 18,677 children [11,205 (60%) boys and 7,472 (40%) girls] referred…

  19. Prader-Willi Syndrome after age 15 years.

    PubMed Central

    Laurance, B M; Brito, A; Wilkinson, J

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-four patients, all of them over 15 years, with the Prader-Willi syndrome are described. Obesity, often extreme, associated with an insatiable appetite, was their principal handicap and this was made worse by educational subnormality and hypogonadism. Three of the them developed diabetes. Each attended a special school or an adult training centre. Although most of them were of short stature and had scoliosis, 2 were tall but they even more severely mentally retarded than is usually the case. Nine other patients died aged between 3 and 23 years. The most common cause of death was cor pulmonale. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7212756

  20. A 15-year epileptogenic period after perinatal brain injury.

    PubMed

    Pisani, F; Pavlidis, E; Facini, C; La Morgia, C; Fusco, C; Cantalupo, G

    Seizures are a frequent acute neurological event in the neonatal period. Up to 12 to 18% of all seizures in newborns are due to perinatal stroke and up to 39% of affected children can then develop epilepsy in childhood. We report the case of a young patient who presented stroke-related seizures in the neonatal period and then developed focal symptomatic epilepsy at 15 years of age, and in whom the epileptic focus was found to co-localize with the site of his ischemic brain lesion. Such a prolonged silent period before onset of remote symptomatic epilepsy has not previously been reported. This case suggests that newborns with seizures due to a neonatal stroke are at higher risk of epilepsy and that the epileptogenic process in these subjects can last longer than a decade.

  1. Atypical antipsychotic drugs and pregnancy outcome: a prospective, cohort study.

    PubMed

    Habermann, Frank; Fritzsche, Juliane; Fuhlbrück, Frederike; Wacker, Evelin; Allignol, Arthur; Weber-Schoendorfer, Corinna; Meister, Reinhard; Schaefer, Christof

    2013-08-01

    Women of childbearing age are often affected with psychotic disorders, requiring the use of antipsychotic medication during pregnancy. In the present study, we prospectively followed the pregnancies of 561 women exposed to second-generation antipsychotic agents (SGAs; study cohort) and compared these to 284 pregnant women exposed to first-generation antipsychotic agents (FGAs; comparison cohort I) and to 1122 pregnant women using drugs known as not harmful to the unborn (comparison cohort II). Subjects were enrolled through the Institute's consultation service. Major malformation rates of SGA exposed were higher compared to comparison cohort II (adjusted odds ratio, 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-3.91), possibly reflecting a detection bias concerning atrial and ventricular septal defects. Postnatal disorders occurred significantly more often in infants prenatally exposed to SGAs (15.6%) and FGAs (21.6%) compared to 4.2% of comparison cohort II. Cumulative incidences of elective terminations of pregnancy were significantly higher in both the study cohort (17%) and comparison cohort I (21%) compared to comparison cohort II (3%), whereas the rates of spontaneous abortions did not differ. The numbers of stillbirths and neonatal deaths were within the reference range. Preterm birth and low birth weight were more common in infants exposed to FGAs. To conclude, our findings did not reveal a major teratogenic risk for SGAs, making the better studied drugs of this group a treatment option during pregnancy. Because neonates exposed to SGAs or FGAs in the last gestational week are at higher risk of postnatal disorders, delivery should be planned in clinics with neonatal intensive care units.

  2. U.S. energy independence in 15 years

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Chris R

    2008-01-01

    Establish U.S. energy independence within 15 years -- This is a enormous systems engineering challenge to thoroughly analyze the present mix of power generation, energy consumption in all sectors such as transportation, industrial, commercial and residential, and devise new technologies to assist the process to independence. At this level, all citizens will be affected, requiring not only effective technologies, but superior cost/benefit ratios and effective free market interactions. With U.S. energy independence, world markets will be influenced. It will be necessary to develop or modify new energy sources, possibly including storage, and adjust or modify energy consumption profiles. Figure 1 shows the expected transition from present-day energy consumption based on both domestic and imported energy. During the 15 year period, the U.S. transitions to energy independence, eliminating imports, and perhaps reduces total energy consumption due to increased efficiency. In the future, U.S. energy consumption is able to grow in accordance with national policies and enhanced domestic capabilities. At the present time, the primary energy import is hydrocarbon products -- primarily oil. Of that imported oil, most of it is used for transportation. In order to reduce the need for imported oil, the U.S. will need to revamp its energy supply and energy consumption mixes. This change in business and usage in the U.S. will require enonnous effort on the part of many organizations and individuals. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) will take the technological lead on this grand challenge. Nearly all directorates, technical, planning and policy capabilities will be brought together and focused on this objective. A simplified chart of the interactions within LANL is shown in Figure 3. Given the enonnous undertaking of U.S. energy independence, the vast engineering, technological and science-based capabilities of LANL will work together performing systems engineering, applied

  3. Prostate cancer incidence in men with self-reported prostatitis after 15 years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Vaarala, Markku H.; Mehik, Aare; Ohtonen, Pasi; Hellström, Pekka A.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding a possible association between prostatitis and prostate cancer. To further evaluate the incidence of prostate cancer following prostatitis, a study of prostate cancer incidence in a cohort of Finnish men was performed. The original survey evaluating self-reported prostatitis was conducted in 1996–1997. A database review was conducted focusing on prostate cancer diagnoses in the cohort. In 2012, there were 13 (5.2%) and 27 (1.8%) prostate cancer cases among men with (n=251) and without (n=1,521) prostatitis symptoms, respectively. There were no significant differences in age, primary therapy distribution, prostate-specific antigen levels, Gleason score, clinical T-class at the time of prostate cancer diagnosis, or time lag between the original survey and prostate cancer diagnosis. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of prostate cancer was 1.16 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.62–1.99] and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.29–0.64) among men with and without prostatitis symptoms, respectively. After 15 years of follow-up subsequent to self-reported prostatitis, no evident increase in incidence of prostate cancer was detected among Finnish men with prostatitis symptoms. The higher percentage of prostate cancer among men with prostatitis symptoms appears to be due to coincidentally low SIR of prostate cancer among men without prostatitis symptoms, and may additionally be due to increased diagnostic examinations. Further research is required to confirm this speculation. PMID:27446410

  4. Prostate cancer incidence in men with self-reported prostatitis after 15 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Vaarala, Markku H; Mehik, Aare; Ohtonen, Pasi; Hellström, Pekka A

    2016-08-01

    Controversy exists regarding a possible association between prostatitis and prostate cancer. To further evaluate the incidence of prostate cancer following prostatitis, a study of prostate cancer incidence in a cohort of Finnish men was performed. The original survey evaluating self-reported prostatitis was conducted in 1996-1997. A database review was conducted focusing on prostate cancer diagnoses in the cohort. In 2012, there were 13 (5.2%) and 27 (1.8%) prostate cancer cases among men with (n=251) and without (n=1,521) prostatitis symptoms, respectively. There were no significant differences in age, primary therapy distribution, prostate-specific antigen levels, Gleason score, clinical T-class at the time of prostate cancer diagnosis, or time lag between the original survey and prostate cancer diagnosis. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of prostate cancer was 1.16 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.62-1.99] and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.29-0.64) among men with and without prostatitis symptoms, respectively. After 15 years of follow-up subsequent to self-reported prostatitis, no evident increase in incidence of prostate cancer was detected among Finnish men with prostatitis symptoms. The higher percentage of prostate cancer among men with prostatitis symptoms appears to be due to coincidentally low SIR of prostate cancer among men without prostatitis symptoms, and may additionally be due to increased diagnostic examinations. Further research is required to confirm this speculation.

  5. Cohort study of occupational asbestos-exposure related neoplasms in Texas Gulf Coast area

    SciTech Connect

    Zadeii, G.R.M.

    1987-01-01

    A cohort study was conducted in Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast area on individual workers who have been exposed to asbestos for 15 years or more. Most of these workers were employed in petrochemical industries. Of the 15,742 subjects initially selected for the cohort study, 3258 had positive chest x-ray findings believed to be related to prolonged asbestos exposure. These subjects were further investigated. Their work out included detailed medical and occupational history, laboratory tests and spirometry. One thousand eight-hundred and three cases with positive chest x-ray findings whose data files were considered complete at the end of May 1986 were analyzed and their findings included in this report. The prevalence of lung cancer and cancer of the following sights: skin, stomach, oropharyngeal, pancreas and kidneys were significantly increased when compared to data from Connecticut Tumor Registry. The prevalence of other chronic conditions such as hypertension, emphysema, heart disease and peptic ulcer was also significantly high when compared to data for the US and general population furnished by the National Center for Health Statistics. In most instances the occurrence of cancer and the chronic ailment previously mentioned appeared to follow 15-25 years of exposure to asbestos.

  6. Methodological aspects of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Victora, Cesar Gomes; Araújo, Cora Luiza Pavin; Menezes, Ana Maria Batista; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Vieira, Maria de Fátima; Neutzling, Marilda Borges; Gonçalves, Helen; Valle, Neiva Cristina; Lima, Rosangela Costa; Anselmi, Luciana; Behague, Dominique; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando Celso

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the main methodological aspects of a cohort study, with emphasis on its recent phases, which may be relevant to investigators planning to carry out similar studies. In 1993, a population based study was launched in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All 5,249 newborns delivered in the city’s hospitals were enrolled, and sub-samples were visited at the ages of one, three and six months and of one and four years. In 2004-5 it was possible to trace 87.5% of the cohort at the age of 10-12 years. Sub-studies are addressing issues related to oral health, psychological development and mental health, body composition, and ethnography. Birth cohort studies are essential for investigating the early determinants of adult disease and nutritional status, yet few such studies are available from low and middle-income countries where these determinants may differ from those documented in more developed settings. PMID:16410981

  7. Using full-cohort data in nested case-control and case-cohort studies by multiple imputation.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Ruth H; White, Ian R

    2013-10-15

    In many large prospective cohorts, expensive exposure measurements cannot be obtained for all individuals. Exposure-disease association studies are therefore often based on nested case-control or case-cohort studies in which complete information is obtained only for sampled individuals. However, in the full cohort, there may be a large amount of information on cheaply available covariates and possibly a surrogate of the main exposure(s), which typically goes unused. We view the nested case-control or case-cohort study plus the remainder of the cohort as a full-cohort study with missing data. Hence, we propose using multiple imputation (MI) to utilise information in the full cohort when data from the sub-studies are analysed. We use the fully observed data to fit the imputation models. We consider using approximate imputation models and also using rejection sampling to draw imputed values from the true distribution of the missing values given the observed data. Simulation studies show that using MI to utilise full-cohort information in the analysis of nested case-control and case-cohort studies can result in important gains in efficiency, particularly when a surrogate of the main exposure is available in the full cohort. In simulations, this method outperforms counter-matching in nested case-control studies and a weighted analysis for case-cohort studies, both of which use some full-cohort information. Approximate imputation models perform well except when there are interactions or non-linear terms in the outcome model, where imputation using rejection sampling works well.

  8. Selection Bias Due to Loss to Follow Up in Cohort Studies.

    PubMed

    Howe, Chanelle J; Cole, Stephen R; Lau, Bryan; Napravnik, Sonia; Eron, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Selection bias due to loss to follow up represents a threat to the internal validity of estimates derived from cohort studies. Over the past 15 years, stratification-based techniques as well as methods such as inverse probability-of-censoring weighted estimation have been more prominently discussed and offered as a means to correct for selection bias. However, unlike correcting for confounding bias using inverse weighting, uptake of inverse probability-of-censoring weighted estimation as well as competing methods has been limited in the applied epidemiologic literature. To motivate greater use of inverse probability-of-censoring weighted estimation and competing methods, we use causal diagrams to describe the sources of selection bias in cohort studies employing a time-to-event framework when the quantity of interest is an absolute measure (e.g., absolute risk, survival function) or relative effect measure (e.g., risk difference, risk ratio). We highlight that whether a given estimate obtained from standard methods is potentially subject to selection bias depends on the causal diagram and the measure. We first broadly describe inverse probability-of-censoring weighted estimation and then give a simple example to demonstrate in detail how inverse probability-of-censoring weighted estimation mitigates selection bias and describe challenges to estimation. We then modify complex, real-world data from the University of North Carolina Center for AIDS Research HIV clinical cohort study and estimate the absolute and relative change in the occurrence of death with and without inverse probability-of-censoring weighted correction using the modified University of North Carolina data. We provide SAS code to aid with implementation of inverse probability-of-censoring weighted techniques.

  9. Cohort Profile: Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SABPA) prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Malan, Leoné; Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Steyn, Hendrik S; Malan, Nicolaas T

    2015-01-01

    Adapting to an over-demanding stressful urban environment may exhaust the psychophysiological resources to cope with these demands, and lead to sympathetic nervous system dysfunction. The evidence that an urban-dwelling lifestyle may be detrimental to the cardiometabolic health of Africans motivated the design of the Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in African Prospective cohort study. We aimed to determine neural mechanistic pathways involved in emotional distress and vascular remodelling. The baseline sample included 409 teachers representing a bi-ethnic sex cohort from South Africa. The study was conducted in 2008–09 and repeated after 3-year follow-up in 2011–12, with an 87.8% successful follow-up rate. Seasonal changes were avoided and extensive clinical assessments were performed in a well-controlled setting. Data collection included sociodemographics, lifestyle habits, psychosocial battery and genetic analysis, mental stress responses mimicking daily life stress (blood pressure and haemostatic, cardiometabolic, endothelial and stress hormones). Target organ damage was assessed in the brain, heart, kidney, blood vessels and retina. A unique highly phenotyped cohort is presented that can address the role of a hyperactive sympathetic nervous system and neural response pathways contributing to the burden of cardiometabolic diseases in Africans. PMID:25344943

  10. Association among work exposure, alcohol intake, smoking and Dupuytren's disease in a large cohort study (GAZEL).

    PubMed

    Descatha, Alexis; Carton, Matthieu; Mediouni, Zakia; Dumontier, Christian; Roquelaure, Yves; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Leclerc, Annette

    2014-01-29

    In view of the debate of factors in Dupuytren's disease, we aimed to describe its relationship with certain occupational factors, alcohol intake and smoking. The French GAZEL cohort (employees of Electricité de France and Gaz de France). Participants of the cohort who answered a questionnaire in 2012, that is, 13 587 participants (73.7% of the questionnaire sent). In 2007, self-assessed lifetime occupational biomechanical exposure was recorded (carrying loads, manipulating a vibrating tool and climbing stairs), as well as alcohol intake, smoking and diabetes mellitus. Analyses were performed on high alcohol intake, smoking and duration of relevant work exposure, stratified by gender. From a specific question on Dupuytren's disease assessed in 2012, the outcome measures were self-reported Dupuytren's disease (yes/no) and disabling Dupuytren's disease (including surgery). A total of 10 017 men and 3570 women, aged 64-73 years, were included; the mean age for men was 68 years and for women was 65 years. Among men, the following were significantly associated with Dupuytren's disease: age (OR 1.03 (1.00; 1.06)), diabetes (OR 1.31 (1.07; 1.60)), heavy drinking (OR 1.36 (1.10; 1.69)) and over 15 years of manipulating a vibrating tool at work (OR 1.52 (1.15; 2.02)); except for diabetes, the association with these factors was stronger for disabling Dupuytren's disease (or surgery), with OR 1.07 (1.03; 1.11), 1.71 (1.25; 2.33) and 1.98(1.34; 2.91), respectively, for age, heavy drinking and over 15 years of manipulating a vibrating tool at work. Among the 3570 women included, 160 reported Dupuytren's disease (4.5%). The number of cases in the group of women was too low to reach conclusions, although the findings seemed similar for age, diabetes and vibration exposure. In this large French cohort study, Dupuytren's disease in men was associated with high levels of alcohol consumption and exposure to hand-transmitted vibration. It is likely that the same applied to women.

  11. Body dissatisfaction and dieting in 4,952 Norwegian children aged 11-15 years: less evidence for gender and age differences.

    PubMed

    Børresen, R; Rosenvinge, J H

    2003-09-01

    A number of studies have shown that dieting and body dissatisfaction are highly frequent among adolescents. We here describe the relationship between dieting and body dissatisfaction in 4,952 children selected from the 11, 13 and 15 year age cohorts of the Norwegian national sample in the multinational WHO survey "Health Behavior in School Children". Body dissatisfaction was defined as the subjective experience of being a bit or much too fat and, using this definition, about 20% of the boys reported body dissatisfaction and 7% that they were on a diet. About 37% of the girls reported body dissatisfaction and 15% that they were on a diet. Within the age cohorts, respectively 22%, 30% and 32% reported body dissatisfaction, whereas about 40% overall indicated no body dissatisfaction. Being on a diet was reported by 8% of the 11-year olds, and subsequently increased to 10% (13 years) and 14% (15 years). Multiple regression analysis showed that body dissatisfaction explained 33% of the variance in dieting behaviour, and that the overall effect of gender and age was small. Dieting and body dissatisfaction should therefore be recognised as being equally important among boys, and be counteracted within the framework of a health promotion strategy aimed at the general adolescent population.

  12. Japan Diabetic Nephropathy Cohort Study: study design, methods, and implementation.

    PubMed

    Furuichi, Kengo; Shimizu, Miho; Toyama, Tadashi; Koya, Daisuke; Koshino, Yoshitaka; Abe, Hideharu; Mori, Kiyoshi; Satoh, Hiroaki; Imanishi, Masahito; Iwano, Masayuki; Yamauchi, Hiroyuki; Kusano, Eiji; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Suzuki, Yoshiki; Okuda, Seiya; Kitagawa, Kiyoki; Iwata, Yasunori; Kaneko, Shuichi; Nishi, Shinichi; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Ueda, Yoshihiko; Haneda, Masakazu; Makino, Hirofumi; Wada, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic nephropathy, leading to end-stage renal disease, has a considerable impact on public health and the social economy. However, there are few national registries of diabetic nephropathy in Japan. The aims of this prospective cohort study are to obtain clinical data and urine samples for revising the clinical staging of diabetic nephropathy, and developing new diagnostic markers for early diabetic nephropathy. The Japanese Society of Nephrology established a nationwide, web-based, and prospective registry system. On the system, there are two basic registries; the Japan Renal Biopsy Registry (JRBR), and the Japan Kidney Disease Registry (JKDR). In addition to the two basic registries, we established a new prospective registry to the system; the Japan Diabetic Nephropathy Cohort Study (JDNCS), which collected physical and laboratory data. We analyzed the data of 321 participants (106 female, 215 male; average age 65 years) in the JDNCS. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 130.1 and 72.3 mmHg, respectively. Median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 33.3 ml/min/1.73 m(2). Proteinuria was 1.8 g/gCr, and serum levels of albumin were 3.6 g/dl. The majority of the JDNCS patients presented with preserved eGFR and low albuminuria or low eGFR and advanced proteinuria. In the JRBR and JKDR registries, 484 and 125 participants, respectively, were enrolled as having diabetes mellitus. In comparison with the JRBR and JKDR registries, the JDNCS was characterized by diabetic patients presenting with low proteinuria with moderately preserved eGFR. There are few national registries of diabetic nephropathy to evaluate prognosis in Japan. Future analysis of the JDNCS will provide clinical insights into the epidemiology and renal and cardiovascular outcomes of type 2 diabetic patients in Japan.

  13. Studies on the extended Techa river cohort: cancer risk estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Kossenko, M M.; Preston, D L.; Krestinina, L Y.; Degteva, M O.; Startsev, N V.; Thomas, T; Vyushkova, O V.; Anspaugh, L R.; Napier, Bruce A. ); Kozheurov, V P.; Ron, E; Akleyev, A V.

    2001-12-01

    Initial population-based studies of riverside residents were begun in the late 1950s and in 1967 a systematic effort was undertaken to develop a well-defined fixed cohort of Techa river residents, to carry out ongoing mortality and (limited) clinical follow-up of this cohort, and to provide individualized dose estimates for cohort members. Over the past decade, extensive efforts have been made to refine the cohort definition and improve both the follow-up and dosimetry data. Analyses of the Techa river cohort can provide useful quantitative estimates of the effects of low dose rate, chronic external and internal exposures on cancer mortality and incidence and non-cancer mortality rates. These risk estimates complement quantitative risk estimates for acute exposures based on the atomic bomb survivors and chronic exposure risk estimates from worker studies, including Mayak workers and other groups with occupational radiation exposures. As the dosimetry and follow-up are refined it may also be possible to gain useful insights into risks associated with 90Sr exposures.

  14. Patterns of Weight Control Behavior among 15 year old Girls

    PubMed Central

    Balantekin, Katherine N.; Birch, Leann L.; Savage, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objectives were to identify and predict patterns of weight control behavior in 15 year old (yo) girls and to examine weight control group differences in energy intake. Method Subjects included 166 girls assessed every 2 years (ys) from age 5 to 15. Latent class analysis was used to identify patterns of weight control behaviors. Antecedent variables (e.g. inhibitory control at 7ys), and concurrent variables (e.g. BMI and dietary intake at 15ys) were included as predictors. Assessments were a combination of survey, interview, and laboratory measures. Results LCA identified four classes of weight control behaviors, Non-dieters (26%), and three dieting groups: Lifestyle (16%), Dieters (43%), and Extreme Dieters (17%). Levels of restraint, weight concerns, and dieting frequency increased across groups, from Non-dieters to Extreme Dieters. BMI at 5ys and inhibitory control at 7ys predicted weight control group at 15ys; e.g. with every one-point decrease in inhibitory control, girls were twice as likely to be Extreme Dieters than Non-dieters. Girls in the Extreme Dieters group were mostly classified as under-reporters, and had the lowest self-reported intake, but ate significantly more in the laboratory. Discussion Among 15yo girls, “dieting” includes a range of both healthy and unhealthy behaviors. Risk factors for membership in a weight control groups are present as early as 5ys. Patterns of intake in the laboratory support the view that lower reported energy intake by Extreme Dieters is likely due under-reporting as an intent to decrease intake, not actual decreased intake. PMID:26284953

  15. Liver transplantation in Greek children: 15 years experience

    PubMed Central

    Xinias, Ioannis; Mavroudi, Antigoni; Vrani, Olga; Imvrios, Georgios; Takoudas, Dimitrios; Spiroglou, Kleomenis

    2010-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is the only available live-saving procedure for children with irreversible liver failure. This paper reports our experience from the follow-up of 16 Greek children with end-stage liver failure who underwent a LT. Over a period of 15 years, 16 pediatric liver recipients received follow up after being subjected to OLT (orthotopic liver transplantation) due to end-stage liver failure. Nine children initially presented with extrahepatic biliary atresia, 2 with acute liver failure after toxic mushroom ingestion, 2 with intrahepatic cholestasis, 2 with metabolic diseases and one with hepatoblastoma. Ten children received a liver transplant in the Organ Transplantation Unit of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki and the rest in other transplant centers. Three transplants came from a living-related donor and 13 from a deceased donor. Six children underwent immunosuppressive treatment with cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids, and 7 with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids. Three out of 16 children died within the first month after the transplantation due to post-transplant complications. Three children presented with acute rejection and one with chronic organ rejection which was successfully managed. Five children presented with cytomegalovirus infection, 5 with Epstein-Barr virus, 2 with HSV1,2, 2 with ParvoB19 virus, 2 with varicella-zoster virus and one with C. Albicans infection. One child presented with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage and one with small biliary paucity. A satisfying outcome was achieved in most cases, with good graft function, except for the patient with small biliary paucity who required re-transplantation. The long-term clinical course of liver transplanted children is good under the condition that they are attended in specialized centers. PMID:21589827

  16. Reanalysis of a 15-year Archive of IMPROVE Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyslop, N. P.; White, W. H.; Trzepla, K.

    2013-12-01

    The IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments) network monitors aerosol concentrations at 170 remote sites throughout the United States. Twenty-four-hour filter samples of particulate matter are collected every third day and analyzed for chemical composition. About 30 of the sites have operated continuously since 1988, and the sustained data record (http://views.cira.colostate.edu/web/) offers a unique window on regional aerosol trends. All elemental analyses have been performed by Crocker Nuclear Laboratory at the University of California in Davis, and sample filters collected since 1995 are archived on campus. The suite of reported elements has remained constant, but the analytical methods employed for their determination have evolved. For example, the elements Na - Mn were determined by PIXE until November 2001, then by XRF analysis in a He-flushed atmosphere through 2004, and by XRF analysis in vacuum since January 2005. In addition to these fundamental changes, incompletely-documented operational factors such as detector performance and calibration details have introduced variations in the measurements. Because the past analytical methods were non-destructive, the archived filters can be re-analyzed with the current analytical systems and protocols. The 15-year sample archives from Great Smoky Mountains, Mount Rainier, and Point Reyes National Parks were selected for reanalysis. The agreement between the new analyses and original determinations varies with element and analytical era (Figure 1). Temporal trends for some elements are affected by these changes in measurement technique while others are not (Figure 2). Figure 1. Repeatability of analyses for sulfur and vanadium at Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Each point shows the ratio of mass loadings determined by the original analysis and recent reanalysis. Major method distinctions are indicated at the top. Figure 2. Trends, based on Thiel-Sen regression, in lead concentrations

  17. Cohort profile of the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study at final follow-up.

    PubMed

    Tamakoshi, Akiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Koji; Sakata, Kiyomi; Mori, Mitsuru; Kikuchi, Shogo; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sakauchi, Fumio; Motohashi, Yutaka; Tsuji, Ichiro; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Mikami, Haruo; Kurosawa, Michiko; Hoshiyama, Yoshiharu; Tanabe, Naohito; Tamakoshi, Koji; Wakai, Kenji; Tokudome, Shinkan; Hashimoto, Shuji; Wada, Yasuhiko; Kawamura, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Miki, Tsuneharu; Date, Chigusa; Kurozawa, Yoichi; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Shibata, Akira; Okamoto, Naoyuki; Shio, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC Study) was established in the late 1980s to evaluate the risk impact of lifestyle factors and levels of serum components on human health. During the 20-year follow-up period, the results of the study have been published in almost 200 original articles in peer-reviewed English-language journals. However, continued follow-up of the study subjects became difficult because of the retirements of principal researchers, city mergers throughout Japan in the year 2000, and reduced funding. Thus, we decided to terminate the JACC Study follow-up at the end of 2009. As a final point of interest, we reviewed the population registry information of survivors. A total of 207 (0.19%) subjects were ineligible, leaving 110 585 eligible participants (46 395 men and 64 190 women). Moreover, errors in coding date of birth and sex were found in 356 (0.32%) and 59 (0.05%) cases, respectively, during routine follow-up and final review. Although such errors were unexpected, their impact is believed to be negligible because of the small numbers relative to the large total study population. Here, we describe the final cohort profile at the end of the JACC Study along with selected characteristics of the participants and their status at the final follow-up. Although follow-up of the JACC Study participants is finished, we will continue to analyze and publish study results.

  18. A clinical research analytics toolkit for cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yiqin; Zhu, Yu; Sun, Xingzhi; Tao, Ying; Zhang, Shuo; Xu, Linhao; Pan, Yue

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a clinical informatics toolkit that can assist physicians to conduct cohort studies effectively and efficiently. The toolkit has three key features: 1) support of procedures defined in epidemiology, 2) recommendation of statistical methods in data analysis, and 3) automatic generation of research reports. On one hand, our system can help physicians control research quality by leveraging the integrated knowledge of epidemiology and medical statistics; on the other hand, it can improve productivity by reducing the complexities for physicians during their cohort studies.

  19. Cohort profile: the skin cancer after organ transplant study.

    PubMed

    Madeleine, Margaret M; Johnson, Lisa G; Daling, Janet R; Schwartz, Stephen M; Carter, Joseph J; Berg, Daniel; Nelson, Karen; Davis, Connie L; Galloway, Denise A

    2013-12-01

    The Skin Cancer after Organ Transplant (SCOT) study was designed to investigate the link between genus beta human papillomavirus (HPV) and squamous cell skin cancer (SCSC). We focused on a population receiving immunosuppressive therapy for extended periods, transplant patients, as they are at extremely high risk for developing SCSC. Two complementary projects were conducted in the Seattle area: (i) a retrospective cohort with interview data from 2004 recipients of renal or cardiac transplants between 1995 and 2010 and (ii) a prospective cohort with interview data from 328 people on the transplant waiting lists between 2009 and 2011. Within the retrospective cohort, we developed a nested case-control study (172 cases and 337 control subjects) to assess risk of SCSC associated with markers of HPV in SCSC tumour tissue and eyebrow hair bulb DNA (HPV genotypes) and blood (HPV antibodies). In the prospective cohort, 135 participants had a 1-year post-transplant visit and 71 completed a 2-year post-transplant visit. In both arms of the cohort, we collected samples to assess markers of HPV infection such as acquisition of new types, proportion positive for each type, persistence of types at consecutive visits and number of HPV types detected. In the prospective cohort, we will also examine these HPV markers in relation to levels of cell-mediated immunity. The goal of the SCOT study is to use the data we collected to gain a more complete understanding of the role of immune suppression in HPV kinetics and of genus beta HPV types in SCSC. For more information, please contact the principal investigator through the study website: http://www.fhcrc.org/science/phs/cerc/The_SCOT_Study.html.

  20. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the role of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes in the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used in the study of occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. W...

  1. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the role of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes in the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used in the study of occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. W...

  2. Metabolic Syndrome and Breast Cancer Risk: A Case-Cohort Study Nested in a Multicentre Italian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Sieri, Sabina; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Frasca, Graziella; Pala, Valeria; Mattiello, Amalia; Chiodini, Paolo; Iacoviello, Licia; De Curtis, Amalia; Panico, Salvatore; Krogh, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (defined as at least three among abdominal obesity, high blood triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high blood glucose, and high blood pressure) is emerging as a risk factor for breast cancer; however few studies – most confined to postmenopausal women – have investigated associations between breast cancer risk and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between metabolic syndrome and its components, and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal and premenopausal women. Methods We performed a case-cohort study on 22,494 women recruited in 1993-1998 to four Italian centres (Turin, Varese, Naples, Ragusa) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and followed-up for up to 15 years. A random subcohort of 565 women was obtained and 593 breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for potential confounders, were estimated by Prentice-weighted Cox proportional hazards models. Results Presence of metabolic syndrome was associated with significantly increased breast cancer risk in all women (HR 1.52, 95%CI 1.14-2.02). When the analyses were repeated separately for menopausal status, the association was limited to postmenopausal women (HR 1.80, 95%CI 1.22-2.65) and absent in premenopausal women (HR 0.71, 95%CI 0.43-1.16); P for interaction between metabolic syndrome and menopausal status was 0.001. Of metabolic syndrome components, only high blood glucose was significantly associated with increased breast cancer risk in all women (HR 1.47, 95%CI 1.13-1.91) and postmenopausal women (HR 1.89, 95%CI 1.29-2.77), but not premenopausal women (HR 0.80, 95%CI 0.52-1.22; P interaction=0.004). Conclusions These findings support previous data indicating that metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for breast cancer in postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women, and suggest that prevention of

  3. Metabolic syndrome and breast cancer risk: a case-cohort study nested in a multicentre italian cohort.

    PubMed

    Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Sieri, Sabina; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Tumino, Rosario; Frasca, Graziella; Pala, Valeria; Mattiello, Amalia; Chiodini, Paolo; Iacoviello, Licia; De Curtis, Amalia; Panico, Salvatore; Krogh, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (defined as at least three among abdominal obesity, high blood triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high blood glucose, and high blood pressure) is emerging as a risk factor for breast cancer; however few studies - most confined to postmenopausal women - have investigated associations between breast cancer risk and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between metabolic syndrome and its components, and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal and premenopausal women. We performed a case-cohort study on 22,494 women recruited in 1993-1998 to four Italian centres (Turin, Varese, Naples, Ragusa) of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) and followed-up for up to 15 years. A random subcohort of 565 women was obtained and 593 breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for potential confounders, were estimated by Prentice-weighted Cox proportional hazards models. Presence of metabolic syndrome was associated with significantly increased breast cancer risk in all women (HR 1.52, 95%CI 1.14-2.02). When the analyses were repeated separately for menopausal status, the association was limited to postmenopausal women (HR 1.80, 95%CI 1.22-2.65) and absent in premenopausal women (HR 0.71, 95%CI 0.43-1.16); P for interaction between metabolic syndrome and menopausal status was 0.001. Of metabolic syndrome components, only high blood glucose was significantly associated with increased breast cancer risk in all women (HR 1.47, 95%CI 1.13-1.91) and postmenopausal women (HR 1.89, 95%CI 1.29-2.77), but not premenopausal women (HR 0.80, 95%CI 0.52-1.22; P interaction=0.004). These findings support previous data indicating that metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for breast cancer in postmenopausal women, but not in premenopausal women, and suggest that prevention of metabolic syndrome through lifestyle changes

  4. Alzheimer's disease and smoking: bias in cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Debanne, Sara M; Bielefeld, Roger A; Cheruvu, Vinay K; Fritsch, Thomas; Rowland, Douglas Y

    2007-06-01

    The discrepancy between cohort and case-control studies regarding the association between smoking and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been attributed to the competing risk of early mortality of smokers. A simulation study was conducted to show that the bias favoring smokers acts also on cohort studies. In the model, individuals {grow older} and have smoking habits according to published year-age-gender-specific patterns, with morbidity and mortality according to their demographic and smoking profiles. Those individuals dying of smoking-related causes ("phantoms") remain at risk of AD and of death from other causes. Three scenarios were considered: no association of AD and smoking, increased risk for smokers, and decreased risk for smokers. For each simulation of a cohort study, two incidence density ratios (IDR) were computed: one including the phantoms that developed AD (thus ignoring smoking-related deaths) and another excluding them (thus mimicking real-life studies). For all scenarios, the simulations show that smoking-related death creates a bias, resulting in smokers having an understated risk of AD compared to non-smokers. The speculation that the conflicting results of case-control and cohort studies are solely due to the increased mortality in smokers thus appears unjustified. Other factors must also be considered to explain the discrepancy in results.

  5. The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease in Denmark 1980-2013: a nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lophaven, S N; Lynge, E; Burisch, J

    2017-04-01

    Globally, the incidence rates of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasing; however, data from high-incidence areas are conflicting. Previous studies in Denmark have assessed incidence rates of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) using short observation periods. To investigate trends in IBD incidence in Denmark over a thirty-year period using nationwide data. Patients diagnosed with CD or UC in Denmark between 1980 and 2013 were identified in the Danish National Patient Registry (NPR) and included in a nationwide cohort. Incidence rates estimated using different numbers of National Patient Registry records (≥1, 2, 3 or 4) required for case definition were compared. From 1980 to 2013 the incidence of CD increased from 5.2 (95% CI: 5.0-5.4) per 100 000 to 9.1 (95% CI: 8.7-9.5) per 100 000 and the incidence of UC increased from 10.7 (95% CI: 10.4-11.0) per 100 000 to 18.6 (95% CI: 18.0-19.2) per 100 000. The increased incidence in CD and UC was independent of gender. The annual increase in incidence rate was greatest in patients aged <15 years for CD and those older than 15 years for UC. For both CD and UC the incidence rates for females were significantly higher than for males. The number of registry records chosen to define IBD cases greatly influenced incidence estimates. The incidence of IBD in Denmark continues to increase and is among the highest in the world. Using at ≥2 records of IBD diagnosis in the Danish National Patient Registry will result in more valid incidence estimates. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The prevalence of malocclusion among 7-15-year-old Lithuanian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Sidlauskas, Antanas; Lopatiene, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiological data on the prevalence of malocclusion is an important determinant in planning appropriate levels of orthodontic services. The occurrence of occlusal anomalies varies between different countries, ethnic and age groups. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of malocclusion among Lithuanian schoolchildren in the 7-9-, 10-12-, and 13-15-year age groups assessing occlusal morphology. The study included 1681 schoolchildren aged 7-15 years. The crowding, spacing, overbite, overjet, the relationship of the first upper and lower molars according Angle's classification, and posterior crossbite were assessed. The study demonstrated that only 257 children had normal occlusion, and 44 had undergone orthodontic treatment among them. The greatest overjet in the studied contingent was 11 mm, and the negative overjet - 3 mm. The overbite ranged between 0 and 6 mm with a mean of 2.29+/-1.23 mm. Posterior crossbite was recorded in 148 children (8.8%). This study showed that the prevalence of malocclusion among 7-15-year-old Lithuanian schoolchildren is 84.6%. The most common malocclusion was dental crowding. The upper dental arch crowding was registered for 44.1% and lower for 40.3% of all schoolchildren. The class I molar relationship was detected in 68.4% of the subjects, class II - in 27.7%, and class III - in 2.8%.

  7. [15-year experience of moxifloxacin in the treatment of patients with bacterial rhinosinusitis].

    PubMed

    Ovchinnikov, A Y; Edzhe, M A; Miroshnichenko, N A; Hon, E M; Korostelev, S A

    2015-01-01

    The article summarizes 15 years of experience of the use of moxifloxacin (Avelox) in Russia in patients with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis. Emphasize its high bactericidal activity against a broad spectrum of microorganisms- from basic agents to the atypical and anaerobic microflora. The results of these studies suggest the continued effectiveness of the dosage of 400 mg a short course (7 days) over 15 years of practical use of the drug, which in its clinical efficacy is superior to amoxicillin/clavulanate, cefuroxime axetil and levofloxacin. The safety profile of moxifloxacin, studied at the population level is not associated with an increased risk of adverse effects in compliance with the dosing regimen, taking into account the indications and contraindications.

  8. Design and Methodology of the Korean Early Psychosis Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Lee, Bong Ju; Kim, Jung Jin; Yu, Je-Chun; Lee, Kyu Young; Won, Seung-Hee; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kang, Shi Hyun

    2017-01-01

    The present study details the rationale and methodology of the Korean Early Psychosis Cohort Study (KEPS), which is a clinical cohort investigation of first episode psychosis patients from a Korean population. The KEPS is a prospective naturalistic observational cohort study that follows the participants for at least 2 years. This study includes patients between 18 and 45 years of age who fulfill the criteria for one of schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders according to the diagnostic criteria of DSM-5. Early psychosis is defined as first episode patients who received antipsychotic treatment for fewer than 4 consecutive weeks after the onset of illness or stabilized patients in the early stages of the disorder whose duration of illness was less than 2 years from the initiation of antipsychotic treatment. The primary outcome measures are treatment response, remission, recovery, and relapse. Additionally, several laboratory tests are conducted and a variety of objective and subjective psychiatric measures assessing early life trauma, lifestyle pattern, and social and cognitive functioning are administered. This long-term prospective cohort study may contribute to the development of early intervention strategies and the improvement of long-term outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:28096881

  9. Cohort profile: the European Male Ageing Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, David M; Pye, Stephen R; Tajar, Abdelouahid; O'Neill, Terence W; Finn, Joseph D; Boonen, Steven; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Casanueva, Felipe F; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Kula, Krzysztof; Lean, Michael E J; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Silman, Alan J; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Wu, Frederick C W

    2013-04-01

    The European Male Ageing Study (EMAS) was designed to examine the hypothesis that inter-individual and regional variability in symptomatic dysfunctions, alterations in body composition and health outcomes in ageing men can be explained by different rates of decline in anabolic hormones, the most important of which being testosterone. Between 2003 and 2005, 3369 community-dwelling men, aged between 40 and 79 years, were recruited from population-based registers in eight European centres to participate in the baseline survey, with follow-up investigations performed a median of 4.3 years later. Largely, identical questionnaire instruments and clinical investigations were used in both phases to capture contemporaneous data on general health (including cardiovascular diseases and chronic conditions), physical and cognitive functioning, mental health, sexual function, quality of life, bone health, chronic pain, disease biomarkers, hormones (sex hormones and metabolic hormones) and genetic polymorphisms. EMAS actively encourages new collaborations, data sharing for validation studies and participation in genetic study consortia. Potential collaborators should contact the principal investigator (F.C.W.W.) in the first instance.

  10. DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN UTAH: A COHORT MORTALITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The association of drinking water arsenic and mortality outcome was investigated in a cohort of residents from Millard County, Utah. Median drinking water arsenic concentrations for selected study towns ranged from 14 to 166 ppb and were from public and private samples collected ...

  11. The Southern Community Cohort Study: Investigating Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Signorello, Lisa B.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Blot, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Over 73,700 adults age 40–79, nearly 70% African American, were recruited at community health centers across 12 southeastern states; individual characteristics were recorded and biologic specimens collected at baseline for later follow-up. The Southern Community Cohort Study is a unique national resource for assessing determinants of racial/ethnic differentials in diseases. PMID:20173283

  12. DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN UTAH: A COHORT MORTALITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The association of drinking water arsenic and mortality outcome was investigated in a cohort of residents from Millard County, Utah. Median drinking water arsenic concentrations for selected study towns ranged from 14 to 166 ppb and were from public and private samples collected ...

  13. A Phenomenological Study of an Indonesian Cohort Group's Transformative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budiraharjo, Markus

    2013-01-01

    This study was set to investigate how a cohort of ten Indonesian teachers experienced transformations in their teaching professionalism upon receiving an assignment of instructional leadership training to other school leaders. These ten teachers, who came from three different Indonesian Jesuit high schools and one archdiocese-based educational…

  14. Multiple imputation analysis of case-cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Marti, Helena; Chavance, Michel

    2011-06-15

    The usual methods for analyzing case-cohort studies rely on sometimes not fully efficient weighted estimators. Multiple imputation might be a good alternative because it uses all the data available and approximates the maximum partial likelihood estimator. This method is based on the generation of several plausible complete data sets, taking into account uncertainty about missing values. When the imputation model is correctly defined, the multiple imputation estimator is asymptotically unbiased and its variance is correctly estimated. We show that a correct imputation model must be estimated from the fully observed data (cases and controls), using the case status among the explanatory variable. To validate the approach, we analyzed case-cohort studies first with completely simulated data and then with case-cohort data sampled from two real cohorts. The analyses of simulated data showed that, when the imputation model was correct, the multiple imputation estimator was unbiased and efficient. The observed gain in precision ranged from 8 to 37 per cent for phase-1 variables and from 5 to 19 per cent for the phase-2 variable. When the imputation model was misspecified, the multiple imputation estimator was still more efficient than the weighted estimators but it was also slightly biased. The analyses of case-cohort data sampled from complete cohorts showed that even when no strong predictor of the phase-2 variable was available, the multiple imputation was unbiased, as precised as the weighted estimator for the phase-2 variable and slightly more precise than the weighted estimators for the phase-1 variables. However, the multiple imputation estimator was found to be biased when, because of interaction terms, some coefficients of the imputation model had to be estimated from small samples. Multiple imputation is an efficient technique for analyzing case-cohort data. Practically, we suggest building the analysis model using only the case-cohort data and weighted

  15. Perceived employability trajectories: A Swedish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Törnroos (née Kirves), Kaisa; Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia; Leineweber, Constanze

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study identified perceived employability trajectories and their associations with sleeping difficulties and depressive symptoms over time. Methods: The sample was part of the Swedish Longitudinal Survey on Health from 2008 to 2014 (n=4,583). Results: Two stable trajectories (high and low perceived employability over time) and three trajectories with changes (increasing, decreasing, and V-shaped perceived employability over time) were identified. Workers with stable low perceived employability reported more sleeping difficulties and depressive symptoms than those who perceived high or increasing employability. Conclusion: Perceived employability is a rather stable personal resource, which is associated with well-being over time. However, changes in perceived employability do not seem to be echoed in well-being, at least not as immediately as theoretically expected. PMID:28539535

  16. Studies on Early Allergic Sensitization in the Lithuanian Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Dubakiene, Ruta; Rudzeviciene, Odilija; Butiene, Indre; Sezaite, Indre; Petronyte, Malvina; Vaicekauskaite, Dalia; Zvirbliene, Aurelija

    2012-01-01

    Cohort studies are of great importance in defining the mechanism responsible for the development of allergy-associated diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, allergic asthma, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Although these disorders share genetic and environmental risk factors, it is still under debate whether they are linked or develop sequentially along an atopic pathway. The current study was aimed to determine the pattern of allergy sensitization in the Lithuanian birth cohort “Alergemol” (n = 1558) established as a part of the multicenter European birth cohort “EuroPrevall”. Early sensitization to food allergens in the “Alergemol” birth cohort was analysed. The analysis revealed 1.3% and 2.8% of symptomatic-sensitized subjects at 6 and 12 months of age, respectively. The sensitization pattern in response to different allergens in the group of infants with food allergy symptoms was studied using allergological methods in vivo and in vitro. The impact of maternal and environmental risk factors on the early development of food allergy in at 6 and 12 months of age was evaluated. Our data showed that maternal diet, diseases, the use of antibiotics, and tobacco smoke during pregnancy had no significant impact on the early sensitization to food allergens. However, infants of atopic mothers were significantly more often sensitized to egg as compared to the infants of nonatopic mothers. PMID:22606067

  17. Dalfampridine prior authorization program: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Patrick P; Phillips, Jill; Fenrick, Beckie A; Delgado-Riley, Ana; Starner, Catherine I

    2013-01-01

    Dalfampridine (Ampyra) is indicated to improve walking in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and was found to be effective in 35%-43% of individuals with MS in clinical trials. Dalfampridine may increase seizure risk, particularly in patients with renal impairment. A U.S. managed care expert consensus panel agreed that patient access to dalfampridine is best managed by a prior authorization (PA) in accordance with the FDA-approved labeling. To ensure safe and appropriate dalfampridine use, a health plan developed and implemented a 2-phase point-of-sale PA program. To evaluate dalfampridine PA review decisions, utilization, and pharmacy expenditures following the implementation of a dalfampridine safety and clinical PA program compared with a group of dalfampridine utilizers unexposed to a PA program. The study utilized retrospective administrative pharmacy claims data from a commercial health plan averaging 1.3 million members per month. The plan implemented a 2-phase dalfampridine safety and effectiveness PA program on August 1, 2010. A comparison group that did not implement the dalfampridine PA program was identified from a commercially insured population with approximately 350,000 members per month. Members in both groups were required to be continuously enrolled from August 1, 2010, through January 31, 2011. A member's earliest paid or rejected claim found from August 1, 2010, through October 31, 2010, was defined as the index claim. Dalfampridine-weighted 30-day supply claims were summed and compared between groups from index date through January 31, 2011. A pharmacy cost avoidance estimate was calculated using the difference in average claims per member from index claim through January 31, 2011, multiplied by dalfampridine wholesale acquisition cost. Overall, dalfampridine utilization was evaluated between the intervention and comparison populations from August 2010 (implementation of PA in intervention group) through December 2011. Linear regression and

  18. Cohort Profile Update: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    PubMed

    Magnus, Per; Birke, Charlotte; Vejrup, Kristine; Haugan, Anita; Alsaker, Elin; Daltveit, Anne Kjersti; Handal, Marte; Haugen, Margaretha; Høiseth, Gudrun; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Paltiel, Liv; Schreuder, Patricia; Tambs, Kristian; Vold, Line; Stoltenberg, Camilla

    2016-04-01

    This is an update of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) cohort profile which was published in 2006. Pregnant women attending a routine ultrasound examination were initially invited. The first child was born in October 1999 and the last in July 2009. The participation rate was 41%. The cohort includes more than 114 000 children, 95 000 mothers and 75 000 fathers. About 1900 pairs of twins have been born. There are approximately 16 400 women who participate with more than one pregnancy. Blood samples were obtained from both parents during pregnancy and from mothers and children (umbilical cord) after birth. Samples of DNA, RNA, whole blood, plasma and urine are stored in a biobank. During pregnancy, the mother responded to three questionnaires and the father to one. After birth, questionnaires were sent out when the child was 6 months, 18 months and 3 years old. Several sub-projects have selected participants for in-depth clinical assessment and exposure measures. The purpose of this update is to explain and describe new additions to the data collection, including questionnaires at 5, 7, 8 and 13 years as well as linkages to health registries, and to point to some findings and new areas of research. Further information can be found at [www.fhi.no/moba-en]. Researchers interested in collaboration and access to the data can complete an electronic application available on the MoBa website above. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  19. Diabetes and burns: retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    McCampbell, Beth; Wasif, Nabil; Rabbitts, Angela; Staiano-Coico, Lisa; Yurt, Roger W; Schwartz, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    Burn injuries are often associated with multisystemic complications, even in otherwise healthy individuals. It is therefore intuitive that for the diabetic patient, the underlying pathophysiologic alterations in vascular supply, peripheral neuropathy, and immune function could have a profoundly devastating impact on patient outcome. The effects of diabetes on morbidity and mortality of the burn-injured patient have not been examined in great detail. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare clinical outcomes between diabetic and nondiabetic burn patients. We reviewed the charts of 181 diabetic (DM) and 190 nondiabetic (nDM) patients admitted with burns between January 1996 and May 2000, matched by sex and date of admission. Burn cause and size, time to presentation, clinical course, and outcomes were evaluated. Because age was a factor, the analysis was done by three age groups: younger than 18 years, 18 to 65 years, and older than 65 years. Of patients 18 to 65 years, 51% (98/191) were diabetic, whereas 84% (81/96) of those older than 65 and only 4% (3/85) of patients younger than 18 were diabetic. Because of the disproportion in numbers of diabetics compared with nondiabetics in the younger than 18 and older than 65 years-old groups, these patients will not be discussed. Diabetics were more likely to incur scald injury from tub or shower water rather than hot fluid spills (33% DM vs 15% nDM; P < or = 0.01), and have a delayed presentation (45 vs 23%; P = 0.00001). There was no difference in total burn size in all groups. Diabetics in the 18 to 65 years group had a higher rate of full-thickness burns (51 vs 31%; P = 0.025), skin grafts (50 vs 28%; P = 0.01) and burn-related procedures (57 vs 32%; P = 0.001), infections (65 vs 51%; P = 0.05), and longer lengths of stay (23 vs 12 days; P = 0.0001). Although there was no statistically significant difference in incidence of specific infections, the rates of cellulitis, wound infection, urinary tract

  20. Tubal sterilization and breast cancer incidence: results from the cancer prevention study II nutrition cohort and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Mia M; Patel, Alpa V; Sun, Juzhong; Teras, Lauren R; Gapstur, Susan M

    2013-03-15

    Tubal sterilization is a common form of contraception in the United States and is hypothesized to be associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. However, prior observational studies have reported inconsistent results. We investigated the association between tubal sterilization and breast cancer risk among 77,249 postmenopausal, cancer-free women in the Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II) Nutrition Cohort, enrolled in 21 states in the United States during 1992-1993. During 15 years of follow-up through June 30, 2007, 4,084 invasive breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. A meta-analysis including the CPS-II Nutrition Cohort results with other published results from 4 case-control studies and 3 prospective studies was conducted to provide a summary estimate for the association between tubal sterilization and breast cancer risk. In the CPS-II Nutrition Cohort, tubal sterilization was not associated with breast cancer incidence (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio = 1.08, 95% confidence interval: 0.97, 1.20). Associations stratified by year of tubal sterilization, age, and time since surgery were also null. The meta-analysis also found no association between tubal sterilization and breast cancer risk (odds ratio = 0.97, 95% confidence interval: 0.84, 1.09). Tubal sterilization does not appear to be associated with breast cancer risk.

  1. [Historical cohort study in the German rubber industry: goals, study design and data collection].

    PubMed

    Birk, T; Weiland, S K; Schumann, J; Person, M; Mundt, K; Keil, U

    1995-01-01

    A historical cohort study is carried out to investigate occupational hazards in the German rubber industry since 1991. We present and discuss the study objectives and study design features such as cohort definition, assessment of occupational exposure and selection of the reference population. Cohort enumeration, assessment of vital status and cause of death ascertainment are described. With approximately 2,800 deaths throughout the observation period 1981 to 1991 it will be possible also to study the occupational etiology of rare diseases.

  2. Cohort profile: the housing regeneration and health study.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Sarah E; Heaven, Martin; Lacey, Arron; Poortinga, Wouter; Dunstan, Frank D; Jones, Kerina H; Palmer, Stephen R; Phillips, Ceri J; Smith, Robert; John, Ann; Davies, Gwyneth A; Lyons, Ronan A

    2014-02-01

    A cohort comprising residents of a housing regeneration and health programme was created from routinely collected data using a system which allows us to anonymously link housing data to individuals and their health. The regeneration programme incorporating four rolling work packages runs from 2009 to 2014. The main intervention cohort we describe here contains the 18 312 residents of 9051 residences at baseline. The cohort will be followed continuously through routine health data (demographics, mortality, hospital admissions and general practitioner records including prescriptions) with periodic updates of housing regeneration intervention data. Here, we describe the baseline data for the primary health outcomes of emergency hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions and injuries for those aged ≥60 years. We will compare the health of residents within the homes before and after the housing regeneration work has taken place, and we will calculate the change in health service costs with use of hospital and General Practitioners (GP) services. We will also use a difference in differences approach to assess changes in comparison with comparator cohorts. These data will be accessible at the end of the study period in 2016. Further information about this study can be obtained from Ronan Lyons; r.a.lyons@swansea.ac.uk.

  3. Cohort Profile: The French Childhood Cancer Survivor Study For Leukaemia (LEA Cohort)

    PubMed Central

    Berbis, Julie; Michel, Gérard; Baruchel, André; Bertrand, Yves; Chastagner, Pascal; Demeocq, François; Kanold, Justyna; Leverger, Guy; Plantaz, Dominique; Poirée, Marilyne; Stephan, Jean-Louis; Auquier, Pascal; Contet, Audrey; Dalle, Jean-Hugues; Ducassou, Stéphane; Gandemer, Virginie; Lutz, Patrick; Sirvent, Nicolas; Tabone, Marie-Dominique; Thouvenin-Doulet, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the Leucémies de l’Enfant et l’Adolescent (LEA) project (Childhood and Adolescent Leukaemia) is to study the determinants (medical, socioeconomic, behavioural and environmental) of medium- and long-term outcomes of patients treated for childhood acute leukaemia (AL). The LEA study began in 2004 and is based on a French multicentric prospective cohort. Included are children treated for AL since January 1980 (incident and prevalent cases), surviving at month 24 for myeloblastic AL and lymphoblastic AL grafted in first complete remission or at month 48 for lymphoblastic AL not grafted in first complete remission. Information is collected during specific medical visits and notably includes the following data: socioeconomic data, AL history, physical late effects (such as fertility, cardiac function and metabolic syndrome) and quality of life. Data are collected every 2 years until the patient is 20 years old and has had a 10-year follow-up duration from diagnosis or last relapse. Thereafter, assessments are planned every 4 years. In active centres in 2013, eligible patients number more than 3000. The cohort has already included 2385 survivors, with rate of exhaustiveness of almost 80%. Data access can be requested from principal coordinators and must be approved by the steering committee. PMID:24639445

  4. One-to-many propensity score matching in cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Rassen, Jeremy A; Shelat, Abhi A; Myers, Jessica; Glynn, Robert J; Rothman, Kenneth J; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2012-05-01

    Among the large number of cohort studies that employ propensity score matching, most match patients 1:1. Increasing the matching ratio is thought to improve precision but may come with a trade-off with respect to bias. To evaluate several methods of propensity score matching in cohort studies through simulation and empirical analyses. We simulated cohorts of 20,000 patients with exposure prevalence of 10%-50%. We simulated five dichotomous and five continuous confounders. We estimated propensity scores and matched using digit-based greedy ("greedy"), pairwise nearest neighbor within a caliper ("nearest neighbor"), and a nearest neighbor approach that sought to balance the scores of the comparison patient above and below that of the treated patient ("balanced nearest neighbor"). We matched at both fixed and variable matching ratios and also evaluated sequential and parallel schemes for the order of formation of 1:n match groups. We then applied this same approach to two cohorts of patients drawn from administrative claims data. Increasing the match ratio beyond 1:1 generally resulted in somewhat higher bias. It also resulted in lower variance with variable ratio matching but higher variance with fixed. The parallel approach generally resulted in higher mean squared error but lower bias than the sequential approach. Variable ratio, parallel, balanced nearest neighbor matching generally yielded the lowest bias and mean squared error. 1:n matching can be used to increase precision in cohort studies. We recommend a variable ratio, parallel, balanced 1:n, nearest neighbor approach that increases precision over 1:1 matching at a small cost in bias. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Vertical craniofacial growth changes in French-Canadians between 10 and 15 years of age.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Helder Baldi; Buschang, Peter H

    2011-06-01

    Because of limited available reference data, this study described the vertical growth changes that occur in untreated adolescents 10 to 15 years of age and evaluated the validity of measurements commonly used to classify patients' vertical growth tendencies. The sample consisted of 228 subjects (119 boys, 109 girls) between 10 and 15 years of age with normal occlusions or malocclusions who had lateral cephalograms (n = 1303) taken annually. Based on 6 landmarks, 3 angles (PPA, MPA, PP/MPA) and 2 proportions (PFH:AFH and UFH:LFH) were calculated. To reduce errors, each subject's growth curve was estimated by using multilevel modeling procedures, and the estimated values were analyzed. Growth changes between 10 and 15 years for each of the 5 measurements followed relatively simple (linear or quadratic) polynomial models. On average, PPA and PFH:AFH increased, and MPA and PP/MPA decreased. The UFH:LFH ratio increased during the first few years and then decreased. MPA, PP/MPA, and PFH:AFH showed moderately high intercorrelations; PPA displayed moderate to moderately low correlations with UFH:LFH; UFH:LFH showed a moderate correlation with PP/MPA. Approximately 75% to 86% of the subjects classified as hyperdivergent or hypodivergent at 10 years maintained their classification. Subjects classified as hyperdivergent at 15 years of age showed significantly greater growth changes than did those classified within normal limits, who, in turn, showed greater changes than did the hypodivergent subjects. Measurements typically used to classify vertical growth tendencies changed significantly during adolescence, with boys generally showing greater changes than girls. Although MPA, PFH:AFH, and PP/MPA measured the same phenotypic attribute, PPA and UFH:LFH were relatively independent of the other 3 measurements. Most subjects maintained their vertical facial types, but some worsened, and others improved. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby

  6. The Antecedents of Schizophrenia: A Review of Birth Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Welham, Joy; Isohanni, Matti; Jones, Peter; McGrath, John

    2009-01-01

    Background: Birth cohort (BC) studies demonstrate that individuals who develop schizophrenia differ from the general population on a range of developmental indices. The aims of this article were to summarize key findings from BC studies in order to identify areas of convergence and to outline areas requiring further research. Method: We define BC studies as studies based on general population BCs where data are collected prospectively from birth or childhood and which identify schizophrenia or related disorders as an outcome. To identify such studies, we searched various electronic databases using the search parameters (schizo* OR psych*) AND (birth cohort). We also checked the references of relevant articles and previous reviews. Results: We identified 11 BCs from 7 countries that have examined schizophrenia as an outcome in adulthood. There is relatively consistent evidence that, as a group, children who later develop schizophrenia have behavioral disturbances and psychopathology, intellectual and language deficits, and early motor delays. Evidence with respect to alterations in language, educational performance, and physical growth has also been identified in some studies. BC studies have also contributed evidence about a wide range of putative risk factors for schizophrenia. Conclusions: BC studies have provided important, convergent insights into how the developmental trajectory of individuals who develop schizophrenia differs from their peers. The combination of new paradigms and larger cohorts, with the tools of modern epidemiology and biomedical science, is advancing our understanding of the developmental pathways to schizophrenia. PMID:18658128

  7. Bidirectional association between ESRD dialysis and diabetes: National cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yeh-Wen; Wu, Wen-Shiann; Hsu, Chen-Fang; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Weng, Shih-Feng; Chien, Chih-Chiang

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetes is associated with development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) dialysis, but it is not clear whether ESRD dialysis is a risk factor for new-onset diabetes (NODM). Methods Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, we designed two cohort studies to determine the association between dialysis and diabetes. Analysis 1 estimated the hazard ratios (HR) of ESRD dialysis in 20,585 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and 82,340 gender- and age- matched controls without diabetes. Analysis 2 estimated the HRs of NODM in 18,489 ESRD patients undergoing dialysis and 73,956 gender- and age- matched controls without ESRD dialysis. The follow-up period was from 2000 to date of endpoint, the date of death, or December 31, 2008. Cox proportional models were used to estimate the relative hazards. Results In analysis 1, the incidence of ESRD dialysis was higher in the T2DM cohort than in the non-diabetes cohort (6.78 vs. 0.61 per 1,000 person-years; HR: 7.97; 95%CI: 7.05–8.00). In analysis 2, the incidence of NODM was higher in the ESRD dialysis cohort than in the without-ESRD dialysis cohort (22.84 vs. 13.99 per 1,000 person-years; HR: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.34–1.47). Conclusions ESRD dialysis and diabetes were bidirectionally associated. The relationship between T2DM and incident ESRD dialysis was much stronger than between ESRD dialysis and NODM. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanism of ESRD dialysis-related NODM. PMID:28296932

  8. Meat and dairy food consumption and breast cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Missmer, Stacey A; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Spiegelman, Donna; Yaun, Shiaw-Shyuan; Adami, Hans-Olov; Beeson, W Lawrence; van den Brandt, Piet A; Fraser, Gary E; Freudenheim, Jo L; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Graham, Saxon; Kushi, Lawrence H; Miller, Anthony B; Potter, John D; Rohan, Thomas E; Speizer, Frank E; Toniolo, Paolo; Willett, Walter C; Wolk, Alicja; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Hunter, David J

    2002-02-01

    More than 20 studies have investigated the relation between meat and dairy food consumption and breast cancer risk with conflicting results. Our objective was to evaluate the risk of breast cancer associated with meat and dairy food consumption and to assess whether non-dietary risk factors modify the relation. We combined the primary data from eight prospective cohort studies from North America and Western Europe with at least 200 incident breast cancer cases, assessment of usual food and nutrient intakes, and a validation study of the dietary assessment instrument. The pooled database included 351,041 women, 7379 of whom were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer during up to 15 years of follow-up. We found no significant association between intakes of total meat, red meat, white meat, total dairy fluids, or total dairy solids and breast cancer risk. Categorical analyses suggested a J-shaped association for egg consumption where, compared to women who did not eat eggs, breast cancer risk was slightly decreased among women who consumed < 2 eggs per week but slightly increased among women who consumed > or = 1 egg per day. We found no significant associations between intake of meat or dairy products and risk of breast cancer. An inconsistent relation between egg consumption and risk of breast cancer merits further investigation.

  9. Vocations as a source of identity: reciprocal relations between Big Five personality traits and RIASEC characteristics over 15 years.

    PubMed

    Wille, Bart; De Fruyt, Filip

    2014-03-01

    Although work is a core part of life, the direction of influence from personality to work has typically been conceived as only unidirectional. The present study aims to contribute to the literature by considering reciprocal relations between personality and occupational characteristics, drawing on current perspectives from personality psychology (i.e., the social investment principle) and using a well-established framework to conceptualize career development (i.e., Holland's RIASEC theory). For this purpose, a longitudinal cohort of college alumni (N = 266) was tracked across a substantial and significant period in their professional career. Big Five personality traits and RIASEC occupational characteristics were assessed at the career start and 15 years later when their careers had unfolded. A combination of observed and latent variable analyses were used to disentangle the longitudinal and reciprocal relations between traits and occupational characteristics. Our results indicate that personality shapes and is shaped by our vocational experiences, suggesting that work can be a source of identity. The implications for theory and research on personality in the industrial and organizational literature are discussed alongside a number of practical implications for organizational and counseling settings.

  10. Gene Therapy for Leber's Congenital Amaurosis is Safe and Effective Through 1.5 Years After Vector Administration

    PubMed Central

    Simonelli, Francesca; Maguire, Albert M; Testa, Francesco; Pierce, Eric A; Mingozzi, Federico; Bennicelli, Jeannette L; Rossi, Settimio; Marshall, Kathleen; Banfi, Sandro; Surace, Enrico M; Sun, Junwei; Redmond, T Michael; Zhu, Xiaosong; Shindler, Kenneth S; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Ziviello, Carmela; Acerra, Carmela; Wright, J Fraser; McDonnell, Jennifer Wellman; High, Katherine A; Bennett, Jean; Auricchio, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of gene therapy for inherited retinal diseases is being tested in humans affected with Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA), an autosomal recessive blinding disease. Three independent studies have provided evidence that the subretinal administration of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors encoding RPE65 in patients affected with LCA2 due to mutations in the RPE65 gene, is safe and, in some cases, results in efficacy. We evaluated the long-term safety and efficacy (global effects on retinal/visual function) resulting from subretinal administration of AAV2-hRPE65v2. Both the safety and the efficacy noted at early timepoints persist through at least 1.5 years after injection in the three LCA2 patients enrolled in the low dose cohort of our trial. A transient rise in neutralizing antibodies to AAV capsid was observed but there was no humoral response to RPE65 protein. The persistence of functional amelioration suggests that AAV-mediated gene transfer to the human retina does not elicit immunological responses which cause significant loss of transduced cells. The persistence of physiologic effect supports the possibility that gene therapy may influence LCA2 disease progression. The safety of the intervention and the stability of the improvement in visual and retinal function in these subjects support the use of AAV-mediated gene augmentation therapy for treatment of inherited retinal diseases. PMID:19953081

  11. Gene therapy for Leber's congenital amaurosis is safe and effective through 1.5 years after vector administration.

    PubMed

    Simonelli, Francesca; Maguire, Albert M; Testa, Francesco; Pierce, Eric A; Mingozzi, Federico; Bennicelli, Jeannette L; Rossi, Settimio; Marshall, Kathleen; Banfi, Sandro; Surace, Enrico M; Sun, Junwei; Redmond, T Michael; Zhu, Xiaosong; Shindler, Kenneth S; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Ziviello, Carmela; Acerra, Carmela; Wright, J Fraser; McDonnell, Jennifer Wellman; High, Katherine A; Bennett, Jean; Auricchio, Alberto

    2010-03-01

    The safety and efficacy of gene therapy for inherited retinal diseases is being tested in humans affected with Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA), an autosomal recessive blinding disease. Three independent studies have provided evidence that the subretinal administration of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors encoding RPE65 in patients affected with LCA2 due to mutations in the RPE65 gene, is safe and, in some cases, results in efficacy. We evaluated the long-term safety and efficacy (global effects on retinal/visual function) resulting from subretinal administration of AAV2-hRPE65v2. Both the safety and the efficacy noted at early timepoints persist through at least 1.5 years after injection in the three LCA2 patients enrolled in the low dose cohort of our trial. A transient rise in neutralizing antibodies to AAV capsid was observed but there was no humoral response to RPE65 protein. The persistence of functional amelioration suggests that AAV-mediated gene transfer to the human retina does not elicit immunological responses which cause significant loss of transduced cells. The persistence of physiologic effect supports the possibility that gene therapy may influence LCA2 disease progression. The safety of the intervention and the stability of the improvement in visual and retinal function in these subjects support the use of AAV-mediated gene augmentation therapy for treatment of inherited retinal diseases.

  12. Systematic review of birth cohort studies in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Alasdair; Rudan, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Aim In sub-Saharan Africa, unacceptably high rates of mortality amongst women and children continue to persist. The emergence of research employing new genomic technologies is advancing knowledge on cause of disease. This review aims to identify birth cohort studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and to consider their suitability as a platform to support genetic epidemiological studies. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to identify birth cohort studies in sub-Saharan Africa across the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, AFRO and OpenSIGLE. A total of 8110 papers were retrieved. Application of inclusion/exclusion criteria retained only 189 papers, of which 71 met minimum quality criteria and were retained for full text analysis. Results The search revealed 28 birth cohorts: 14 of which collected biological data, 10 collected blood samples and only one study collected DNA for storage. These studies face many methodological challenges: notably, high rates of attrition and lack of funding for several rounds of study follow up. Population-based ‘biobanks’ have emerged as a major approach to harness genomic technologies in health research and yet the sub-Saharan African region still awaits large scale birth cohort biobanks collecting DNA and associated health and lifestyle data. Conclusion Investment in this field, together with related endeavours to foster and develop research capacity for these studies, may lead to an improved understanding of the determinants of intrauterine growth and development, birth outcomes such as prematurity and low birth weight, the links between maternal and infant health, survival of infectious diseases in the first years of life, and response to vaccines and antibiotic treatment. PMID:23198102

  13. [The design of a nationwide cohort study in Germany : the pretest studies of the German National Cohort (GNC)].

    PubMed

    Ahrens, W; Greiser, H; Linseisen, J; Kluttig, A; Schipf, S; Schmidt, B; Günther, K

    2014-11-01

    The German National Cohort (GNC) is the largest population-based cohort study in Germany. Beginning in 2014, a total of 200,000 women and men aged 20-69 years will be examined in 18 study centers. The aim of the study is to investigate the etiology of chronic diseases in relation to lifestyle, genetic, socioeconomic, and environmental factors and to develop appropriate methods for early diagnosis and prevention of diseases such as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative/psychiatric diseases, as well as musculoskeletal and infectious diseases. Pretest studies (phase 1 and 2) were conducted to select methods, instruments, and procedures for the main study, to develop standard operating procedures, and to design and test the examination program according to acceptance, expected duration, and feasibility. The pretest studies included testing of interviews, questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, several medical examinations, and the collection of biosamples. In addition, the logistic, technical, and personnel infrastructure for the main study could be established including the study centers, the central infrastructure for data management, processes to coordinate the study, and data protection and quality management concepts. The examination program for the main phase of the GNC was designed and optimized based on the results of the pretest studies. The GNC is a population-based, highly standardized and excellently phenotyped cohort that will be the basis for new strategies for risk assessment and identification, early diagnosis, and prevention of multifactorial diseases.

  14. Associations between Blood Zinc Concentrations and Sleep Quality in Childhood: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiaopeng; Liu, Jianghong

    2015-01-01

    Little evidence is available regarding the relationship between zinc and sleep in school children. The present study aimed to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between blood zinc concentrations and sleep quality throughout childhood. A total of 1295 children from the Jintan Child Cohort in China were included in this study. Venous blood sample of zinc and subjective sleep data were collected when the children were at preschool age (3–5 years old) and early adolescence (11–15 years old). Odds ratios (ORs) reflect the odds of the sleep quality/subdomain being at a greater impairment level associated with 1 unit increase in log zinc concentration. Cross-sectional analyses showed negative correlation of blood zinc concentrations with insufficient sleep duration (OR = 0.432, p = 0.002), sleep disturbances (OR = 0.454, p = 0.009) and poor sleep quality (OR = 0.559, p = 0.049) in adolescence, but no association at preschool age (p > 0.05). Longitudinal analyses indicated that blood zinc concentrations at preschool age predict poor sleep efficiency (OR = 0.186, p = 0.000) and poor sleep quality (OR = 0.358, p = 0.020) in adolescence. Our findings suggest that sufficient zinc concentration is associated with good sleep quality, dependent on the developmental stage in childhood. Future interventional research is warranted to examine the short and long-term effect of zinc status on sleep heath. PMID:26184300

  15. Recall bias in childhood atopic diseases among adults in the Odense Adolescence Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Mortz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus E; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2015-11-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common disease in childhood and an important risk factor for the later development of other atopic diseases. Many publications on childhood AD use questionnaires based on information obtained in adulthood, which introduce the possibility of recall bias. In a prospective cohort study, recall bias was evaluated in 1,501 unselected schoolchildren (mean age 14 years) evaluated for the first time in 1995 with a standardized questionnaire combined with a clinical examination and repeated in 2010. The lifetime prevalence of AD was 34.1% including data obtained both during school age and 15 years later, compared with 23.6% including data only from adulthood. The most important factors for remembering having had AD in childhood were: (i) long duration of dermatitis in childhood; (ii) adult hand eczema; and (iii) concomitant atopic disease. Recall bias for childhood AD affected the results of logistic regression on adult hand eczema and is a significant problem in retrospective epidemiological questionnaire studies evaluating previous AD as a risk factor for development of other diseases.

  16. Cohort Profile: The Manitoba Follow-up Study (MFUS).

    PubMed

    Tate, Robert B; Cuddy, T Edward; Mathewson, Francis A L

    2015-10-01

    The Manitoba Follow-up Study (MFUS) is Canada's longest running study of cardiovascular disease and ageing. The MFUS cohort consists of 3983 men recruited from the Royal Canadian Air Force at the end of World War II. At entry to the study, 1 July 1948, their mean age was 31 years, with 90% between ages 20 and 39 years. All study members were free of clinical evidence of ischaemic heart disease. The protocol of MFUS was to obtain routine medical examinations from these men at regular intervals over time. The research goal of the study was to examine the role that any abnormalities detected on routine electrocardiograms from apparently healthy men might play in the prediction of subsequent diagnoses of cardiovascular disease. Over the course of 65 years, about 35% of the cohort has documented evidence of ischaemic heart disease. The research focus was expanded in 1996 to explore the roles of physical, mental and social functioning in support of healthy and successful ageing. On 1 July 2013, 429 original cohort members were alive with a mean age of 92 years. Collaborative research with others outside the in-house team is welcomed.

  17. Propranolol Reduces Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ping-Ying; Huang, Wen-Yen; Lin, Cheng-Li; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Wu, Yi-Ying; Chen, Jia-Hong; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-07-01

    β-Blockers have been reported to exhibit potential anticancer effects in cancer cell lines and animal models. However, clinical studies have yielded inconsistent results regarding cancer outcomes and cancer risk when β-blockers were used. This study investigated the association between propranolol and cancer risk.Between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2011, a patient cohort was extracted from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, a subset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A propranolol cohort (propranolol usage >6 months) and nonpropranolol cohort were matched using a propensity score. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cancer associated with propranolol treatment.The study sample comprised 24,238 patients. After a 12-year follow-up period, the cumulative incidence for developing cancer was low in the propranolol cohort (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.67-0.85; P < 0.001). Patients with propranolol treatment exhibited significantly lower risks of cancers in head and neck (HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35-0.95), esophagus (HR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.13-0.96), stomach (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30-0.98), colon (HR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49-0.93), and prostate cancers (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.33-0.83). The protective effect of propranolol for head and neck, stomach, colon, and prostate cancers was most substantial when exposure duration exceeded 1000 days.This study supports the proposition that propranolol can reduce the risk of head and neck, esophagus, stomach, colon, and prostate cancers. Further prospective study is necessary to confirm these findings.

  18. Estimating Acute Air Pollution Health EFFects from Cohort Study Data

    PubMed Central

    Szpiro, Adam A.; Sheppard, Lianne; Adar, Sara D.; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Traditional studies of short-term air pollution health effects use time series data, while cohort studies generally focus on long-term effects. There is increasing interest in exploiting individual level cohort data to assess short-term health effects in order to understand the mechanisms and time scales of action. We extend semiparametric regression methods used to adjust for unmeasured confounding in time series studies to the cohort setting. Time series methods are not directly applicable since cohort data are typically collected over a prespecified time period and include exposure measurements on days without health observations. Therefore, long-time asymptotics are not appropriate, and it is possible to improve efficiency by exploiting the additional exposure data. We show that flexibility of the semiparametric adjustment model should match the complexity of the trend in the health outcome, in contrast to the time series setting where it suffices to match temporal structure in the exposure. We also demonstrate that pre-adjusting exposures concurrent with the health endpoints using trends in the complete exposure time series results in unbiased health effect estimation and can improve efficiency without additional confounding adjustment. A recently published article found evidence of an association between short-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and retinal arteriolar diameter as measured by retinal photography in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). We reanalyze the data from this article in order to compare the methods described here, and we evaluate our methods in a simulation study based on the MESA data. PMID:24571570

  19. Outcomes of Childhood Asthma and Wheezy Bronchitis. A 50-Year Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Tagiyeva, Nara; Devereux, Graham; Fielding, Shona; Turner, Stephen; Douglas, Graham

    2016-01-01

    Cohort studies suggest that airflow obstruction is established early in life, manifests as childhood asthma and wheezy bronchitis, and continues into early adulthood. Although an association between childhood asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in later life has been demonstrated, it is unclear if childhood wheezy bronchitis is associated with COPD. To investigate whether childhood wheezy bronchitis increases the risk of COPD in the seventh decade. A cohort of children recruited in 1964 at age 10 to 15 years, which was followed up in 1989, 1995, and 2001, was followed up again in 2014 when at age 60 to 65 years. Discrete time-to-event and linear mixed effects models were used. FEV1 and FVC were measured. COPD was defined as post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC <0.7. Childhood wheezing phenotype was related to 1989, 1995, 2001, and 2014 spirometry data. Three hundred thirty subjects, mean age 61 years, were followed up: 38 with childhood asthma; 53 with childhood wheezy bronchitis; and 239 control subjects (of whom 57 developed adulthood-onset wheeze between ages 16 and 46 yr). In adjusted multivariate analyses, childhood asthma was associated with an increased risk of COPD (odds ratio, 6.37; 95% confidence interval, 3.73-10.94), as was childhood wheezy bronchitis (odd ratio 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.91). The COPD risk increased with childhood asthma, and wheezy bronchitis was associated with reduced FEV1 that was evident by the fifth decade and not an accelerated rate of FEV1 decline. In contrast, adulthood-onset wheeze was associated with accelerated FEV1 decline. Childhood wheezy bronchitis and asthma are associated with an increased risk of COPD and reduced ventilatory function.

  20. Endometrial cancer and meat consumption: a case-cohort study.

    PubMed

    van Lonkhuijzen, Luc; Kirsh, Victoria A; Kreiger, Nancy; Rohan, Thomas E

    2011-07-01

    Diet plays an important role in the etiology of certain cancers, but there is limited evidence with regard to the association between diet and risk of endometrial cancer. Few prospective studies have investigated meat intake as a potential determinant of endometrial cancer risk. The objective of this study was to examine the association between endometrial cancer risk and total meat, red meat, processed meat, fish, and poultry intake. We conducted a case-cohort analysis within the Canadian Study of Diet, Lifestyle, and Health, a prospective cohort of 73 909 adults (39 614 women). Participants were recruited from 1992 to 1999, predominantly from three Canadian universities. We conducted a linkage with the Ontario Cancer Registry for the years 1992-2007 for the female cohort members, who resided in Ontario at the time of enrollment (n=26 024), to yield data on cancer incidence. The analytic sample was comprised of 107 incident cases and 1830 subcohort members, the latter being an age-stratified sample of the full cohort. A nonsignificant increase in the risk of endometrial cancer was associated with increased consumption of red meat [hazard ratio (HR)=1.62, 95% confidence intervals (CI)=0.86-3.08, for high vs. low intake; P trend=0.13)], processed meat (HR=1.45, 95% CI=0.80-2.61, for high vs. low intake; P trend=0.058), and all meat combined (HR=1.50, 95% CI=0.78-2.89, for high vs. low intake; P trend=0.14). No clear patterns were noted for poultry or fish. The results of this study, although based on a limited number of cases, suggest that relatively high meat intake may be associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer.

  1. Risk of inflammatory bowel disease in patients with rosacea: Results from a nationwide cohort study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun-Ying; Chang, Yun-Ting; Juan, Chao-Keui; Shieh, Jeng-Jer; Lin, Yu-Pu; Liu, Han-Nan; Lin, Jaw-Town; Chen, Yi-Ju

    2017-05-01

    A link between rosacea and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been proposed with unknown mechanisms. Epidemiologic evidence of this association needs to be examined. In this nationwide cohort study, a total of 89,356 patients with rosacea and 178,712 matched patients without rosacea between 1997 and 2013 were identified in the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database. Cumulative incidences of IBD were compared between these 2 cohorts. Frailty Cox proportional hazard model was used and subgroup analyses were conducted to examine the risk factors for IBD. The 15-year cumulative incidences of IBD were 0.036% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.00%-1.57%) and 0.019% (95% CI 0.00%-0.83%) in rosacea and nonrosacea cohorts, respectively (P = .05). Rosacea (adjusted hazard ratio 1.94, 95% CI 1.04-3.63, P = .04) and male gender (adjusted hazard ratio 3.52, 95% CI 2.03-6.11, P < .01) were independently associated with IBD, after adjustment for major comorbidities. Multivariate subgroup analyses revealed consistent results. The incidence rates of IBD decreased with increasing antibiotic use in patients with rosacea, but without statistical significance. Information related to lifestyle, diet, alcohol, and smoking was not included in the database. Patients with rosacea may have an increased risk of IBD. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. COMT and prenatal maternal smoking in associations with conduct problems and crime: the Pelotas 1993 birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Salatino-Oliveira, Angélica; Murray, Joseph; Kieling, Christian; Genro, Júlia Pasqualini; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Anselmi, Luciana; Wehrmeister, Fernando; de Barros, Fernando C.; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Hutz, Mara Helena

    2016-01-01

    Conduct problems in childhood and adolescence are significant precursors of crime and violence in young adulthood. The purpose of the current study is to test the interaction between prenatal maternal smoking and COMT Val158Met in conduct problems and crime in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. Conduct problems were assessed through the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at ages 11 and 15 years. A translated version of a confidential self-report questionnaire was used to collect criminal data at 18 years of age. Negative binomial regression analyses showed an association between prenatal maternal smoking and SDQ conduct problem scores (IRR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.14–1.34; p < 0.001) at 11 years of age. However, no evidence was found for an association between COMT genotypes and conduct scores or for an interaction between maternal smoking and this gene in predicting conduct problems. Very similar results were obtained using the 15 years conduct scores and crime measure at age 18. Prenatal maternal smoking was associated with crime (IRR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.09–1.48; p = 0.002) but neither COMT genotypes nor the possible interaction between gene and maternal smoking were significantly associated with crime. Replications of GxE findings across different social contexts are critical for testing the robustness of findings. PMID:27426045

  3. COMT and prenatal maternal smoking in associations with conduct problems and crime: the Pelotas 1993 birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Salatino-Oliveira, Angélica; Murray, Joseph; Kieling, Christian; Genro, Júlia Pasqualini; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Anselmi, Luciana; Wehrmeister, Fernando; de Barros, Fernando C; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Hutz, Mara Helena

    2016-07-18

    Conduct problems in childhood and adolescence are significant precursors of crime and violence in young adulthood. The purpose of the current study is to test the interaction between prenatal maternal smoking and COMT Val(158)Met in conduct problems and crime in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. Conduct problems were assessed through the parent version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire at ages 11 and 15 years. A translated version of a confidential self-report questionnaire was used to collect criminal data at 18 years of age. Negative binomial regression analyses showed an association between prenatal maternal smoking and SDQ conduct problem scores (IRR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.14-1.34; p < 0.001) at 11 years of age. However, no evidence was found for an association between COMT genotypes and conduct scores or for an interaction between maternal smoking and this gene in predicting conduct problems. Very similar results were obtained using the 15 years conduct scores and crime measure at age 18. Prenatal maternal smoking was associated with crime (IRR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.09-1.48; p = 0.002) but neither COMT genotypes nor the possible interaction between gene and maternal smoking were significantly associated with crime. Replications of GxE findings across different social contexts are critical for testing the robustness of findings.

  4. Cohort profile: the Hawai'i Family Study of Cognition.

    PubMed

    Onoye, Jane M M; Hishinuma, Earl S; McArdle, John J; Zonderman, Alan B; Bumanglag, R Janine; Takeshita, Junji

    2014-12-01

    Intergenerational longitudinal studies over the lifespan provide valuable information for understanding the contexts and dynamic relations among cognition, family and health in adults and the elderly. The Hawai'i Family Study of Cognition (HFSC), initiated in the early 1970s, included a cohort of over 6500 individuals representing over 1800 families of parents and their offspring. The HFSC gathered data on cognitive, personality, biological and other psychosocial variables, and provided novel information on the nature of cognitive abilities, especially on family issues. Some families were reassessed with short-term retesting in the 1970s. A select sample of offspring and their siblings and spouses were re-measured in the 1980s. Decades later, a 40-year follow-up of the original HFSC cohort was facilitated by the availability of contemporary tracking and tracing methods and internet-based testing. A subgroup of the original HFSC participants was re-contacted and retested on contemporary cognitive as well as socio-demographic and health measures. In this paper, we describe the original HFSC cohort and the design and methodology of the re-contact and retest studies of the HFSC, plans for expanding the re-contact and retesting, as well as directions for future research and collaborations. The Principal Investigator may be contacted for more information regarding the application, review and approval process for data access requests from qualified individuals outside the project. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  5. Cohort Profile: The Hawai’i Family Study of Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Onoye, Jane MM; Hishinuma, Earl S; McArdle, John J; Zonderman, Alan B; Takeshita, Junji

    2014-01-01

    Intergenerational longitudinal studies over the lifespan provide valuable information for understanding the contexts and dynamic relations among cognition, family and health in adults and the elderly. The Hawai‘i Family Study of Cognition (HFSC), initiated in the early 1970s, included a cohort of over 6500 individuals representing over 1800 families of parents and their offspring. The HFSC gathered data on cognitive, personality, biological and other psychosocial variables, and provided novel information on the nature of cognitive abilities, especially on family issues. Some families were reassessed with short-term retesting in the 1970s. A select sample of offspring and their siblings and spouses were re-measured in the 1980s. Decades later, a 40-year follow-up of the original HFSC cohort was facilitated by the availability of contemporary tracking and tracing methods and internet-based testing. A subgroup of the original HFSC participants was re-contacted and retested on contemporary cognitive as well as socio-demographic and health measures. In this paper, we describe the original HFSC cohort and the design and methodology of the re-contact and retest studies of the HFSC, plans for expanding the re-contact and retesting, as well as directions for future research and collaborations. The Principal Investigator may be contacted for more information regarding the application, review and approval process for data access requests from qualified individuals outside the project. PMID:24639439

  6. Predictors of smoking initiation among schoolchildren in Tunisia: a 4 years cohort study.

    PubMed

    Harrabi, I; Chahed, H; Maatoug, J; Gaha, J; Essoussi, S; Ghannem, H

    2009-09-01

    To identify predictors of smoking initiation among non smoking Tunisian school children; and to propose efficient antismoking strategies in order to prevent smoking initiation. It was a cohort study surveying prospectively for four years pupils attending schools in Sousse city in Tunisia. 441 non smoking pupils aged 13-15 years attending secondary schools in Sousse. Data were collected by a self administered questionnaire during class session. Two ways cross tabulation, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were the main analytical methods. 57.1% of the surveyed population were girls, 42.9 % were boys. 63% had at least one of their peers who smoked. Before 1999, 16.6% had already tried to smoke, 29.5% had already experienced alcohol. In 2003, smoking prevalence was 17%. 4.8% were girls; 33.3% of boys; p<0,001). 69.9 % of these smokers declared that they would carry on smoking during the following five years. Predictors which were highly associated with smoking initiation were previous experimentation with alcohol and tobacco, having a smoking best friend, lack of sensitization from the part of the school, believing that smoking makes one feel cool and that tobacco shouldn't be forbidden in public places. Intervention programs should target young children to avoid experiencing the first cigarette. Multidisciplinary management including community and school based intervention highlighted by mass media campaigns may provide schoolchildren with skills to resist smoking peers prompts to adopt unhealthy habits such as smoking.

  7. Early life socio-economic position and later alcohol use: birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Melotti, Roberto; Lewis, Glyn; Hickman, Matthew; Heron, Jon; Araya, Ricardo; Macleod, John

    2013-01-01

    Aims To investigate associations between socio-economic position in early life and later alcohol use and problem use among male and female adolescents. Design Birth cohort study. Setting South West England. Participants A total of 2711 girls and 2379 boys with one or more measures of alcohol use or problem use at age 15 years. Measurements Exposure measures were highest parental social class, maternal education and household disposable income (all maternal self-report before school-age); outcome measures were heavy typical drinking, frequent drinking, regular binge drinking, alcohol-related psychosocial problems and alcohol-related behavioural problems. Findings Alcohol use and related problems were relatively common amongst adolescent girls and boys. Boys were slightly more likely to report frequent drinking and girls were slightly more likely to drink heavily and to experience alcohol-related psychosocial problems. Higher maternal education appeared protective in relation to alcohol-related problems, particularly among boys. Higher household income was associated with greater risk of alcohol use and problem use, most apparently among girls. Conclusions Children from higher-income households in England appear to be at greater risk of some types of adolescent alcohol problems, and these risks appear different in girls compared to boys. Childhood social advantage may not generally be associated with healthier behaviour in adolescence. PMID:23164048

  8. A mortality cohort study in a north Italian aircraft factory.

    PubMed Central

    Costa, G; Merletti, F; Segnan, N

    1989-01-01

    Mortality in a cohort of 8626 workers employed between 1954 and 1981 in an aircraft manufacturing factory in northern Italy was studied. Total follow up was 132,042 person-years, with 76% accumulated in the age range 15 to 54. Median duration of follow up from the date of first employment was 16 years. Vital status was ascertained for 98.5% of the cohort. Standardised mortality ratios were calculated based on Italian national mortality rates. Altogether 685 deaths occurred (SMR = 85). There was a significant excess of mortality for melanoma (6 cases, SMR = 561). Six deaths certified as due to pleural tumours occurred. No significant excess of mortality was found in specific jobs or work areas. PMID:2818961

  9. The Korean Gastric Cancer Cohort Study: Study Protocol and Brief Results of a Large-Scale Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Bang Wool; Kim, Young-Woo; Nam, Byung-Ho; Ryu, Keun Won; Jeong, Hyun-Yong; Park, Young-Kyu; Lee, Young-Joon; Yang, Han-Kwang; Yu, Wansik; Yook, Jeong-Hwan; Song, Geun Am; Youn, Sei-Jin; Kim, Heung Up; Noh, Sung-Hoon; Park, Sung Bae; Yang, Doo-Hyun; Kim, Sung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to establish a large-scale database of patients with gastric cancer to facilitate the development of a national-cancer management system and a comprehensive cancer control policy. Materials and Methods An observational prospective cohort study on gastric cancer was initiated in 2010. A total of 14 cancer centers throughout the country and 152 researchers were involved in this study. Patient enrollment began in January 2011, and data regarding clinicopathological characteristics, life style-related factors, quality of life, as well as diet diaries were collected. Results In total, 4,963 patients were enrolled until December 2014, and approximately 5% of all Korean patients with gastric cancer annually were included. The mean age was 58.2±11.5 years, and 68.2% were men. The number of patients in each stage was as follows: 3,394 patients (68.4%) were in stage IA/B; 514 patients (10.4%), in stage IIA/B; 469 patients (9.5%), in stage IIIA/B/C; and 127 patients (2.6%), in stage IV. Surgical treatment was performed in 3,958 patients (79.8%), endoscopic resection was performed in 700 patients (14.1%), and 167 patients (3.4%) received palliative chemotherapy. The response rate for the questionnaire on the quality of life was 95%; however, diet diaries were only collected for 27% of patients. Conclusions To provide comprehensive information on gastric cancer for patients, physicians, and government officials, a large-scale database of Korean patients with gastric cancer was established. Based on the findings of this cohort study, an effective cancer management system and national cancer control policy could be developed. PMID:27752396

  10. A Cohort Study of Vitamin D Intake and Melanoma Risk

    PubMed Central

    Asgari, Maryam M.; Maruti, Sonia S.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; White, Emily

    2009-01-01

    Data suggest that vitamin D intake may have chemopreventive efficacy against melanoma, but there have been no published epidemiologic studies examining the association between vitamin D intake and melanoma risk in a large prospective cohort. We examined whether dietary and supplemental vitamin D intake was associated with melanoma risk among 68,611 men and women who were participants of the Vitamins and Lifestyle cohort study. Participants reported dietary vitamin D intake over the past year and 10-year use of multivitamin and individual vitamin D supplements on a baseline questionnaire. After follow-up through 2006, 455 incident melanomas were identified through linkage to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for vitamin D intake after adjustment for melanoma risk factors. Compared with the lowest quartile, we did not detect a risk reduction of melanoma in the highest quartiles of dietary vitamin D intake (RR = 1.31, CI = 0.94–1.82), 10-year average supplemental vitamin D intake (RR = 1.13, CI = 0.89–1.43), or combined dietary and supplemental intake (1.05, CI = 0.79–1.40). In this large prospective cohort, we did not find an association between vitamin D intake and melanoma risk. PMID:19194478

  11. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker; Alkjær, Tine; Koblauch, Henrik; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.84) after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of symptomatic

  12. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker; Alkjær, Tine; Koblauch, Henrik; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29–2.84) after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of symptomatic

  13. Spatiotemporal study of elderly suicide in Korea by age cohort.

    PubMed

    Joo, Y

    2017-01-01

    This study analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern and spatial diffusion of elderly suicide by age cohort, in Korea. The research investigated the elderly suicide rates of the 232 municipal units in South Korea between 2001 and 2011. The Gi* score, which is a spatially weighted indicator of area attributes, was used to identify hot spots and the spatiotemporal pattern of elderly suicide in the nation during the last 10 years. The spatial Markov matrix and spatial dynamic panel data model were employed to identify and estimate the diffusion effect. The suicide rate among elderly individuals 75 years and older was substantially higher than the rate for those between 65 and 74 years of age; however, the spatial patterns of the suicide clusters were similar between the two groups. From 2001 to 2011, the spatial distribution of elderly suicide hot spots differed each year. For both age cohorts, elderly suicide hot spots developed around the north area of South Korea in 2001 and moved to the mid-east area and the mid-western coastal area over 10 years. The spatial Markov matrix indicates that the change in the suicide rate of one area was affected by the suicide rates of neighbouring areas from the previous year, which suggests that suicide increase in one area inflates a neighbouring area's suicide rate over time. Using a spatial dynamic panel data model, elderly suicide diffusion effects were found to be statistically significant for both age cohorts even after economic and demographic indicators and a time variable are included. For individuals 75 years and older, the diffusion effect appeared to be larger. This study demonstrates that elderly suicide can spread spatially over time in both age cohorts. Thus, it is necessary to design a place-based and age-differentiated intervention policy that precisely considers the spatial diffusion of elderly suicide. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mysid Population Responses to Resource Limitation Differ from those Predicted by Cohort Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of anthropogenic stressors on animal populations are often evaluated by assembling vital rate responses from isolated cohort studies into a single demographic model. However, models constructed from cohort studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions be...

  15. Mysid Population Responses to Resource Limitation Differ from those Predicted by Cohort Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of anthropogenic stressors on animal populations are often evaluated by assembling vital rate responses from isolated cohort studies into a single demographic model. However, models constructed from cohort studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions be...

  16. Drinking water arsenic in Utah: A cohort mortality study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D R; Southwick, J W; Ouellet-Hellstrom, R; Rench, J; Calderon, R L

    1999-05-01

    The association of drinking water arsenic and mortality outcome was investigated in a cohort of residents from Millard County, Utah. Median drinking water arsenic concentrations for selected study towns ranged from 14 to 166 ppb and were from public and private samples collected and analyzed under the auspices of the State of Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Drinking Water. Cohort members were assembled using historical documents of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Standard mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated. Using residence history and median drinking water arsenic concentration, a matrix for cumulative arsenic exposure was created. Without regard to specific exposure levels, statistically significant findings include increased mortality from hypertensive heart disease [SMR = 2.20; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.36-3.36], nephritis and nephrosis (SMR = 1.72; CI, 1.13-2.50), and prostate cancer (SMR = 1.45; CI, 1.07-1. 91) among cohort males. Among cohort females, statistically significant increased mortality was found for hypertensive heart disease (SMR = 1.73; CI, 1.11-2.58) and for the category of all other heart disease, which includes pulmonary heart disease, pericarditis, and other diseases of the pericardium (SMR = 1.43; CI, 1.11-1.80). SMR analysis by low, medium, and high arsenic exposure groups hinted at a dose relationship for prostate cancer. Although the SMRs by exposure category were elevated for hypertensive heart disease for both males and females, the increases were not sequential from low to high groups. Because the relationship between health effects and exposure to drinking water arsenic is not well established in U.S. populations, further evaluation of effects in low-exposure populations is warranted.

  17. Drinking water arsenic in Utah: A cohort mortality study.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, D R; Southwick, J W; Ouellet-Hellstrom, R; Rench, J; Calderon, R L

    1999-01-01

    The association of drinking water arsenic and mortality outcome was investigated in a cohort of residents from Millard County, Utah. Median drinking water arsenic concentrations for selected study towns ranged from 14 to 166 ppb and were from public and private samples collected and analyzed under the auspices of the State of Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Drinking Water. Cohort members were assembled using historical documents of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Standard mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated. Using residence history and median drinking water arsenic concentration, a matrix for cumulative arsenic exposure was created. Without regard to specific exposure levels, statistically significant findings include increased mortality from hypertensive heart disease [SMR = 2.20; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.36-3.36], nephritis and nephrosis (SMR = 1.72; CI, 1.13-2.50), and prostate cancer (SMR = 1.45; CI, 1.07-1. 91) among cohort males. Among cohort females, statistically significant increased mortality was found for hypertensive heart disease (SMR = 1.73; CI, 1.11-2.58) and for the category of all other heart disease, which includes pulmonary heart disease, pericarditis, and other diseases of the pericardium (SMR = 1.43; CI, 1.11-1.80). SMR analysis by low, medium, and high arsenic exposure groups hinted at a dose relationship for prostate cancer. Although the SMRs by exposure category were elevated for hypertensive heart disease for both males and females, the increases were not sequential from low to high groups. Because the relationship between health effects and exposure to drinking water arsenic is not well established in U.S. populations, further evaluation of effects in low-exposure populations is warranted. PMID:10210691

  18. Gingival recession in school kids aged 10-15 years in Udaipur, India

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Anmol; Jain, Manish; Jain, Koushal; Samar, Mahima; Goutham, Balasubramanya; Swamy, Prabu Durai; Kulkarni, Suhas

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The study aimed to determine the incidence of gingival recession in the mandibular central incisor region among school children aged 10-15 years in Udaipur (India). Materials and Methods: A sample of 1800 males and female kids were examined in a mobile dental unit. World Health Organisation (WHO) rules and standards were followed. Result: Gingival recession, when compared, with respect to age, mean clinical crown length, anterior crowding and frenal involvement was significant (p less than 0.00) with respect to affected teeth. PMID:20376235

  19. Age, time period, and birth cohort differences in self-esteem: Reexamining a cohort-sequential longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Carter, Nathan T; Campbell, W Keith

    2016-12-08

    Orth, Trzesniewski, and Robins (2010) concluded that the nationally representative Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) cohort-sequential study demonstrated moderate to large age differences in self-esteem, and no birth cohort (generational) differences in the age trajectory. In a reanalysis of these data using 2 different statistical techniques, we find significant increases in self-esteem that could be attributed to birth cohort or time period. First, hierarchical linear modeling analyses with birth cohort as a continuous variable (vs. the multiple group formulation used by Orth et al.) find that birth cohort has a measurable influence on self-esteem through its interaction with age. Participants born in later years (e.g., 1960) were higher in self-esteem and were more likely to increase in self-esteem as they aged than participants born in earlier years (e.g., 1920). However, the estimated age trajectory up to age 60 is similar in Orth et al.'s results and in the results from our analyses including cohort. Second, comparing ACL respondents of the same age in 1986 versus 2002 (a time-lag design) yields significant birth cohort differences in self-esteem, with 2002 participants of the same age higher in self-esteem than those in 1986. Combined with some previous studies finding significant increases in self-esteem and positive self-views over time, these results suggest that cultural change in the form of cohort and time period cannot be ignored as influences in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Maternal prenatal anxiety and child brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genotype: effects on internalizing symptoms from 4 to 15 years of age.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Kieran J; Glover, Vivette; Holbrook, Joanna D; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2014-11-01

    Multiple behavioral and health outcomes, including internalizing symptoms, may be predicted from prenatal maternal anxiety, depression, or stress. However, not all children are affected, and those that are can be affected in different ways. Here we test the hypothesis that the effects of prenatal anxiety are moderated by genetic variation in the child's brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children population cohort. Internalizing symptoms were assessed from 4 to 13 years of age using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (n = 8,584); a clinical interview with the adolescents was conducted at age 15 years (n = 4,704). Obstetric and psychosocial risk and postnatal maternal symptoms were included as covariates. Results show that prenatal maternal anxiety predicted internalizing symptoms, including with the diagnostic assessment at 15 years. There was a main effect of two BDNF polymorphisms (rs6265 [val66met] and rs11030104) on internalizing symptoms up to age 13. There was also genetic moderation of the prenatal anxiety effect by different BDNF polymorphisms (rs11030121 and rs7124442), although significant effects were limited to preadolescence. The findings suggest a role for BDNF gene-environment interactions in individual vulnerability to the effects of prenatal anxiety on child internalizing symptoms.

  1. Oral cavity rare lesions: 15 years case histories

    PubMed Central

    BARTULI, F.N.; LUCIANI, F.; CARDONI, G.; MUZZI, F.; CADDEO, F.; OTTRIA, L.; ARCURI, C.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives. Oral cavity rare diseases include a various group of uncommon morbid conditions. For this reason they are often called “orphan diseases”, as they are not interesting for research and the description of their natural history is not easy. The aim of our study is to analyze the prevalence and the distribution of oral cavity rare diseases in order to increase their knowledge and allow a fast therapeutic approach. Methods and material. 3144 patients took part to our study, they were choosen according to specific criteria and included in a experimental program; they all were prepared for oral biopsy surgery at Fatebenefratelli Hospital - Tor Vergata University of Rome. Following the results of the histological diagnosis, patients have been grouped. Results. From 1996 to 2010, we observed 1635 men and 1509 women, average age was 53 years, higher for women (55y.) and lower for men (52y.). Conclusions. Nevertheless the low level of accordance and the difficulty in description of natural history of diseases reported in literature, we can conclude that, according to our study the onset of rare diseases shows a percentage of appearing statistically significant. PMID:23277869

  2. [Hospital admissions for varicella complications in children aged less than 15 years old].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Yarza, E-G; Arranz, L; Alustiza, J; Azkunaga, B; Uriz, J; Sarasua, A; Mendiburu, I; Emparanza, J I

    2003-09-01

    The complications of varicella are one of the arguments in favor of universal vaccination programs in children. To describe the complications of varicella requiring hospital admission in a well-defined population (Gipuzkoa, Spain) and to compare the incidence of hospitalization with that reported in other series. Observational, retrospective, multicenter study of admissions for varicella. The medical histories codified as varicella (minimum data set, CIE-0, codes 952.0-052.9) from 1 January 1993 to 31 December 2002 were reviewed. Calculation of hospitalization rates was based on emergency department visits and population data. The pediatric population of Gipuzkoa seeking medical attention at one of the four Basque Country Health Service hospitals in the area: Hondarribia, Mendaro, San Sebastian and Zumarraga. The mean coverage in Gipuzkoa is 54,999 children aged less than 15 years/year. All the children aged 0-15 years old admitted for more than 24 h with a discharge diagnosis of varicella complications. The variables studied are: age, gender, personal history, varicella immunization, immune status, fever, chest X-ray, complementary investigations, length of hospital stay, treatment, discharge diagnosis, clinical course, complications and sequelae at discharge. Seventy-one children were hospitalized. None had been vaccinated against the varicella-zoster virus. Eighty percent were aged less than 5 years and three were immunocompromised. Fifty-six percent had bacterial superinfection and invasive forms were found in seven patients. The mean length of admission was 6.5 days +/- 5.1. No deaths or sequelae were reported. The annual incidence rate of admissions longer than 24 hours due to varicella complications was 12.9 cases per 100,000 children aged less than 15 years, representing 0.31% of all annual admissions in this age group.

  3. The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Coast Guard Cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rusiecki, Jennifer; Alexander, Melannie; Schwartz, Erica G; Wang, Li; Weems, Laura; Barrett, John; Christenbury, Kate; Johndrow, David; Funk, Renée H; Engel, Lawrence S

    2017-09-12

    Long-term studies of oil spill responders are urgently needed as oil spills continue to occur. To this end, we established the prospective Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill Coast Guard Cohort study. DWH oil spill responders (n=8696) and non-responders (n=44 823) who were members of the US Coast Guard (20 April-17 December 2010) were included. This cohort uses both prospective, objective health data from military medical encounters and cross-sectional survey data. Here, we describe the cohort, present adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) estimating cross-sectional associations between crude oil exposure (none, low/medium, high) and acute physical symptoms, and present adjusted relative risks (RRs) based on longitudinal medical encounter data (2010-2012) for responders/non-responders and responders exposed/not exposed to crude oil. Responders and non-responders in this large cohort (n=53 519) have similar characteristics. Crude oil exposure was reported by >50% of responders. We found statistically significant associations for crude oil exposure with coughing (PRhigh=1.78), shortness of breath (PRhigh=2.30), wheezing (PRhigh=2.32), headaches (PRhigh=1.46), light-headedness/dizziness (PRhigh=1.96), skin rash/itching (PRhigh=1.87), diarrhoea (PRhigh=1.76), stomach pain (PRhigh=1.67), nausea/vomiting (PRhigh=1.48) and painful/burning urination (PRhigh=2.89) during deployment. Longitudinal analyses revealed that responders had elevated RRs for dermal conditions (RR=1.09), as did oil-exposed responders for chronic respiratory conditions (RR=1.32), asthma (RR=1.83) and dermal conditions (RR=1.21). We found positive associations between crude oil exposure and various acute physical symptoms among responders, as well as longer term health effects. This cohort is well positioned to evaluate both short-term and long-term effects of oil spill exposures using both self-reported and clinical health data. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the

  4. Cohort mortality study of Seattle fire fighters: 1945-1983

    SciTech Connect

    Heyer, N.; Weiss, N.S.; Demers, P.; Rosenstock, L. )

    1990-01-01

    Fire fighters are known to be occupationally exposed to many toxic substances. However, the limited number of previous studies has not demonstrated any consistent excess mortality from diseases of a priori concern, such as lung cancer, non-malignant respiratory disease, and cardiovascular disease. We studied 2,289 Seattle fire fighters from 1945 through 1983, and observed 383 deaths. Excess mortality from leukemia (SMR = 503, n = 3) and multiple myeloma (SMR = 989, n = 2) was observed among fire fighters with 30 years or more fire combat duty. Lung cancer mortality was elevated (SMR = 177, n = 18) among fire fighters 65 years old or older. We also analyzed the data by considering fire fighters at risk only after 30 years from first exposure. In this analysis, a trend of increasing risk with increasing exposure was observed for diseases of the circulatory system. For this cause of death, fire fighters with 30 years or more fire combat duty had a relative risk of 1.84 compared to those with less than 15 years of fire combat duty.

  5. A nationwide cohort study of mortality risk and long-term prognosis in infective endocarditis in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ternhag, Anders; Cederström, Agneta; Törner, Anna; Westling, Katarina

    2013-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) remains a serious disease with substantial mortality. In this study we investigated the incidence of IE, as well as its associated short and long term mortality rates. The IE cases were identified in the Swedish national inpatient register using ICD-10 codes, and then linked to the population register in order to identify deaths in the cohort. Crude mortality rates among IE patients were obtained for different time intervals. These rates were directly standardized using sex- and age-matched mortality in the general population. The cohort consisted of 7603 individuals and 7817 episodes of IE during 1997-2007. The 30 days all-cause crude mortality rate was 10.4% and the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 33.7 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 31.0-36.6). Excluding the first year of follow-up, the long term mortality (1-5 years) showed an increased SMR of 2.2 (95% CI: 2.0-2.3) compared to the general population. Significantly higher SMR was found for cases of IE younger than 65 years of age with a 1-5 year SMR of 6.3, and intravenous drug-users with a SMR of 19.1. Native valve IE cases, in which surgery was performed had lower crude mortality rates and Mantel-Haenzel odds ratios of less than one compared to those with medical therapy alone during 30-day and 5-years follow-up. The 30-days crude mortality rate for IE was 10.4% and long-term relative mortality risk remains increased even up to 5 years of follow-up, therefore a close monitoring of these patients would be of value.

  6. Teaching, Practice, Feedback: 15 years of COMPASS science communication training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeley, L.; Smith, B.; McLeod, K.; English, C. A.; Baron, N.

    2014-12-01

    COMPASS is focused on helping scientists build the skills and relationships they need to effectively participate in public discourse. Founded in 2001 with an emphasis on ocean science, and since expanding to a broader set of environmental sciences, we have advised, coached, and/or trained thousands of researchers of all career stages. Over the years, our primary work has notably shifted from needing to persuade scientists why communication matters to supporting them as they pursue the question of what their communication goals are and how best to achieve them. Since our earliest forays into media promotion, we have evolved with the state of the science communication field. In recent years, we have adapted our approach to one that facilitates dialogue and encourages engagement, helps scientists identify the most relevant people and times to engage, tests our own assumptions, and incorporates relevant social science as possible. In this case study, we will discuss more than a decade of experience in helping scientists find or initiate and engage in meaningful conversations with journalists and policymakers.

  7. Cell therapy for heart disease after 15 years: Unmet expectations.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Patrizia; Bassetti, Beatrice; Cavallotti, Laura; Catto, Valentina; Carbucicchio, Corrado; Pompilio, Giulio

    2017-02-21

    Over the past two decades cardiac cell therapy (CCT) has emerged as a promising new strategy to cure heart diseases at high unmet need. Thousands of patients have entered clinical trials for acute or chronic heart conditions testing different cell types, including autologous or allogeneic bone marrow (BM)-derived mononuclear or selected cells, BM- or adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal cells, or cardiac resident progenitors based on their potential ability to regenerate scarred or dysfunctional myocardium. Nowadays, the original enthusiasm surrounding the regenerative medicine field has been cushioned by a cumulative body of evidence indicating an inefficient or modest efficacy of CCT in improving cardiac function, along with the continued lack of indisputable proof for long-term prognostic benefit. In this review, we have firstly comprehensively outlined the positive and negative results of cell therapy studies in patients with acute myocardial infarction, refractory angina and chronic heart failure. Next, we have discussed cell therapy- and patient-related variables (e.g. cell intrinsic and extrinsic characteristics as well as criteria of patient selection and proposed methodologies) that might have dampened the efficacy of past cell therapy trials. Finally, we have addressed critical factors to be considered before embarking on further clinical trials.

  8. [Social and preventive medicine developments in the next 15 years].

    PubMed

    Burner, M

    1986-01-01

    At the present instant we are evolving in the withdrawing of a lot of traditions. Alas one shouldn't live in the illusion that probably nothing will basically change nor be suspicious of either mass-media histrionics or political opportunism towards fashion phenomena; these will probably be the caricatured reflections of what shall perhaps become our society. They will however refer to their futility in the form of the wave which will mark an evolution we shall try to anticipate. In some degree it will allow to stimulate the thought or to modify structure of our medical institutions or our patients, the social and preventive technics that risk to begin won't be simple improvements of what we have now, but they'll open a qualitative universe and extremely different from those, that were born in the 19th century. This study should above all permit us to understand that our rapport with another reality perhaps, or perhaps a new way of life, 'culture' in the broadest sense, will be upset or simply brought into question. Here we see the importance that will be played by social and preventive medicine and evidently social and preventive psychiatry in the year 2000.

  9. Cohort profile: the Caerphilly health and social needs electronic cohort study (E-CATALyST).

    PubMed

    Fone, David L; Dunstan, Frank; White, James; Kelly, Mark; Farewell, Daniel; John, Gareth; Lyons, Ronan A; Lloyd, Keith

    2013-12-01

    The Caerphilly Health and Social Needs study was established to inform and support collaborative multiagency working on reducing inequalities in health and to investigate neighbourhood influences on mental health. Initially, we collated a robust small-area multiagency dataset of contextual health determinants and outcomes from routine sources and sharing of data between the National Health Service and Caerphilly county borough council. These data were widely used in local joint planning to improve health and reduce health inequalities. Secondly, we carried out a baseline population questionnaire survey, collecting data from 10 892 (60.6%) respondents aged 18-74 years on a wide range of socio-economic, lifestyle, health and housing factors and perceptions of the local neighbourhood, including access to services, social cohesion and neighbourhood quality. We carried out wave 2 of the survey after 7 years with responses from 4558 (50.2%) participants to the same range of questions. We developed the study into an electronic cohort, linking all 17 979 sampled participants aged 18-74 years to mortality and hospital admission records with 10-year follow-up and full recording of migration both within and out of the borough. Readers with an interest in collaborative use of the data should contact Professor David Fone, Principal Investigator.

  10. Cohort Profile: The Japanese Population-based Osteoporosis (JPOS) Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Iki, Masayuki; Tamaki, Junko; Sato, Yuho; Morita, Akemi; Ikeda, Yukihiro; Kajita, Etsuko; Nishino, Harumi; Akiba, Takashi; Matsumoto, Toshio; Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Kagawa, Yoshiko; Yoneshima, Hideo; Matsukura, Tomoharu; Yamagami, Takashi; Kitagawa, Jun

    2015-04-01

    The Japanese Population-based Osteoporosis (JPOS) Cohort Study was launched in 1996 to produce a reference database of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bone turnover markers in the Japanese female population and to determine risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. At baseline, 3984 women aged 15 to 79 years were randomly selected to provide representative bone status data and aBMD values for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Follow-up surveys were conducted in 1999, 2002, 2006 and 2011/12 to determine changes in aBMD and identify incident morphometry-confirmed vertebral fractures and clinical fractures. These outcomes were obtained from 2174 women who participated in at least one follow-up survey. JPOS is a unique resource of individual-level bone health information with radiological and biological archives that include DXA images, and serum, plasma and DNA for future analyses with emerging radiological and biological techniques. The JPOS dataset is not freely available, but new collaborations are encouraged. Potential collaborators are invited to contact the Secretary General (M.I.) at the administrative office of the JPOS Study Group.

  11. Echinococcosis: A 15-year epidemiological, clinical and outcome overview.

    PubMed

    Amado-Diago, C A; Gutiérrez-Cuadra, M; Armiñanzas, C; Arnaíz de Las Revillas, F; Gómez-Fleitas, M; Fariñas, M C

    2015-10-01

    To analyze the epidemiological and clinical characteristics and mortality of patients with cystic echinococcosis (CE) in northern Spain. A retrospective study of the medical records of patients diagnosed with CE and hospitalized from 1997 to 2011 in a University Hospital. A total of 76 patients (44 men) were diagnosed with CE. The mean age was 57.8 years (SD: 19.1 years; range: 14.9-92.7). The yearly average incidence was 1.08 cases/100,000 inhabitants. The highest incidence was registered in patients aged 70-79 years (22.7% of all cases). Liver was the main organ involved (92.1%), followed by lung (6.6%) and peritoneum (1.3%). Fifty-five patients (72%) received treatment: 2 (3.6%) medical treatment with albendazole, 27 (49%) surgical treatment, 3 (5.4%) medical treatment combined with cyst drainage, and 23 (42%) combined medical and surgical treatment. Eight patients had a recurrence. Twenty-four (31.2%) patients died. No patient's death was attributed directly to hydatidosis, though mortality was significantly higher in the untreated vs. the treated patient group (57% vs. 22%, p=0.003). Hydatidosis treatment and diagnostic approaches remain heterogeneous. The liver continues being the main organ affected. Mortality was higher in patients who did not receive treatment. However, this result might have been influenced by other factors, mainly age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  12. Half of 12-15-year-olds with knee pain still have pain after one year.

    PubMed

    Rathleff, Camilla Rams; Olesen, Jens Lykkegaard; Roos, Ewa M; Rasmussen, Sten; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal

    2013-11-01

    Adolescent knee pain is considered benign and presumed to disappear without treatment. However, this has never been investigated. The purpose of this study was to 1) compare leisure time sports participation, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and body mass index between adolescents with and without self-reported knee pain, 2) investigate how many adolescents still have knee pain after one year and 3) identify risk factors for one-year persistence of knee pain. The design was a prospective cohort study and a nested case-control study. In September 2011, a total of 768 adolescents between 12-15 years of age from schools in the municipality of Aalborg answered a questionnaire on demographics, sports participation, current pain and HRQoL. After one year, adolescents who reported knee pain at first contact were again contacted by telephone and asked if they experienced knee pain. At first contact, 215 adolescents reported knee pain. Adolescents with knee pain had a significantly higher leisure time sports participation level and a lower HRQoL than adolescents without knee pain. 48.8% (n = 80) still reported knee pain after one year. Female gender, taking part in sports more than twice weekly, lower HRQoL and daily knee pain increased the risk of reporting knee pain after one year. Adolescents with self-reported knee pain participate in more leisure time sports and have a lower HRQoL than adolescents without knee pain. 50% had persistent long-lasting knee pain, and a higher frequency of leisure time sports participation increased the risk of reporting knee pain after one year. Danish Rheumatism Association, The Association of Danish Physiotherapists Research Fund and The Obel Family Foundation. None of the funders have any role in the study other than to provide funding. Ethical approval was obtained from the local ethics committee in the North Denmark Region (N-20110020).

  13. Early growth in children with coeliac disease: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kahrs, Christian R; Magnus, Maria C; Stigum, Hein; Lundin, Knut E A; Størdal, Ketil

    2017-06-13

    We aimed to study growth during the first 2 years of life in children later diagnosed with coeliac disease compared with children without, in a time with changing epidemiology and improved diagnostics. A prospective population-based pregnancy cohort study. The nationwide Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. 58 675 children born between 2000 and 2009 with prospectively collected growth data. Coeliac disease was identified through combined data from questionnaires and the Norwegian Patient Register. The differences in height and weight at age 0, 3, 6, 8, 12, 15-18 and 24 months using internally standardised age and gender-specific z-scores. Linear regression and mixed models were used. During a median follow-up of 8.6 years (range 4.6-14.2), 440 children (0.8%) were diagnosed with coeliac disease at a mean age of 4.4 years (range 1.5-8.5). Children with coeliac disease had significantly lower z-scores for height from 12 months (-0.09 standard deviation scores (SDS), 95% CI -0.18 to -0.01) and weight from 15 to 18 months of life (-0.09 SDS, 95% CI -0.18 to -0.01) compared with cohort controls. The longitudinal analysis from 0 to 24 months yielded a significant reduction in height z-score per year (-0.07 SDS, 95% CI -0.13 to -0.01) but not for weight among children with coeliac disease. Excluding children diagnosed before age 2 years gave similar results. This study indicates that growth retardation in children later diagnosed with coeliac disease commonly starts at 12 months of age, and precedes clinical symptoms that usually bring the suspicion of diagnosis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. [Evaluation of visual-motor integration functions in children between 6-15 years of age].

    PubMed

    Tekok Kiliç, Ayda; Elmastas-Dikec, Banu; Can, Handan

    2010-01-01

    Visual-motor integration skills are considered an essential domain of clinical and psycho-educational assessment. The goal of the present investigation is to provide the Turkish norms for the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Visual-Motor Integration Test (VMI-4th) for children and adolescents between the ages of 6-15 years as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. A total of 1887 children from elementary and high schools in the city of Bursa were recruited for this study. From this sample 44 children were re-tested 3-4 weeks following the first administration for test-retest reliability. Findings showed clear developmental trajectories in visual-motor integration skills. Significant performance increments were observed in six month intervals for ages 6 and 7. Starting from age 8, norms were established for each age group separately. Girls and boys performed similarly on the VMI-4. Test- retest correlation was modest but within an acceptable range. The age-based norms established for the VMI-4 in this study can be used to assess children between the ages of 6-15 years as part of a clinical neuropsychological and a psycho-educational assessment. The mean VMI scores presented in this study represent performance of children in middle and middle-upper socio-economic status and may not represent the normal performance range of children from lower SES.

  15. Maxillofacial metastases: a retrospective review of one institution's 15-year experience.

    PubMed

    McClure, Shawn A; Movahed, Reza; Salama, Andrew; Ord, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis to the maxillofacial region is a rare occurrence. In our retrospective study of patients with metastasis to the maxillofacial region, the subjects were evaluated to define the clinical behavior patterns in response to the treatment given. A retrospective record review during a 15-year period (1990 to 2005) was conducted. The patients were selected for inclusion in the present study if they had histologically confirmed maxillofacial metastases. In our retrospective study, during the 15-year period, 1,221 new patients with maxillofacial/oral cancer were seen and evaluated. Of these 1,221 patients, 26 (16 men and 10 women) were identified as having a histologically confirmed metastasis to the maxillofacial region, for an incidence of 2.1%. Patients with metastasis to the maxillofacial region are often deemed to not be surgical candidates because of the extensive nature of the metastatic disease. We believe that surgical intervention plays a beneficial role in improving quality of life in a properly selected group of patients with metastasis to the maxillofacial region. In our case series, surgery was performed in about 50% of the patients, and palliation and radiotherapy were the most commonly used modalities. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dairy intake and fecundability in 2 preconception cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Wise, Lauren A; Wesselink, Amelia K; Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Cueto, Heidi; Hahn, Kristen A; Rothman, Kenneth J; Tucker, Katherine L; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Hatch, Elizabeth E

    2017-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that a high intake of galactose, a breakdown product of lactose, increases ovarian toxicity. Few epidemiologic studies, to our knowledge, have examined the association between dairy intake and fertility, and they have had conflicting findings. We prospectively evaluated dairy intake in relation to fecundability among women who were planning for pregnancy. Data were derived from preconception cohort studies in Denmark (Snart Foraeldre) and North America [PRESTO (Pregnancy Study Online)] in which women completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire 10 d after enrollment. The dietary intake of dairy foods and their constituents was calculated based on reported frequencies, mean serving sizes, and standard recipes for mixed foods. Outcome data were updated every 8 wk for 12 mo or until reported conception. Analyses were restricted to 2426 women attempting pregnancy for ≤6 cycles at study entry. Fecundability ratios (FRs) and 95% CIs were estimated with the use of proportional probabilities regression models adjusted for potential confounders. FRs for total dairy intake (≥18 compared with <7 servings/wk) were 1.37 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.78) among 1126 Snart Foraeldre participants and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.38) among 1300 PRESTO participants (pooled FR: 1.11; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.31). The elevated FR for total dairy intake among Snart Foraeldre participants was limited to milk consumption and found only among women aged <30 y. There was no clear association between low- or high-fat dairy intake and fecundability in either cohort. Although there was little evidence of an association between dietary intake of calcium, potassium, magnesium, or vitamin D and fecundability, a greater consumption of phosphorus and lactose was associated with slightly higher fecundability in both cohorts. Associations between dairy intake and fecundability were generally small and inconsistent across cohorts. Our findings do not support the hypotheses that a greater

  17. Reproduction and marriage among male survivors of cancer in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood: a national cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gunnes, M W; Lie, R T; Bjørge, T; Ghaderi, S; Ruud, E; Syse, A; Moster, D

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased survival after cancer in young age has made long-term follow-up studies of high external validity important. In this national cohort study, we explored the impact of cancer in young age on reproduction and marital status in male survivors. Methods: Hazard ratios (HRs) and relative risks (RRs) of reproductive and marital outcomes were studied for male survivors of cancer in young age (<25 years) and cancer-free male comparisons, born during 1965–1985, by linking compulsory national registries in Norway. Results: Male cancer survivors (n=2687) had reduced paternity (HR: 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68–0.76). This was most apparent in survivors of testicular cancer, brain tumours, lymphoma, leukemia and bone tumours, and w