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Sample records for 15-year natural aging

  1. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  2. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto de; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  3. Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

  4. 29 CFR 570.33 - Prohibited occupations for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited occupations for minors 14 and 15 years of age... minors 14 and 15 years of age. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 28448, May 20, 2010. This subpart... revised text is set forth as follows: § 570.33 Occupations that are prohibited to minors 14 and 15...

  5. Brief Screening Instrument of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder for Children and Adolescents 7-15 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, AiZhong; Tan, Hongzhuan; Zhou, Jia; Li, Shuoqi; Yang, Tubao; Sun, Zhenqiu; Wen, Shi Wu

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a brief screening instrument of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for young victims of natural disasters. Data were derived from flood victims in 1998 and 1999 in Hunan, China. A representative population sample of 6,852 subjects 7-15 years of age was selected. Among them, 6,073 (88.6%) were…

  6. 29 CFR 570.31 - Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.31 Section 570.31 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age. Link to an amendment published at 75... concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age. The employment of minors between 14 and 16...

  7. 29 CFR 570.34 - Occupations that may be performed by minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Occupations that may be performed by minors 14 and 15 years... performed by minors 14 and 15 years of age. This subpart authorizes only the following occupations in which the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age is permitted when performed for periods and...

  8. 29 CFR 570.33 - Occupations that are prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Occupations that are prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years... prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years of age. The following occupations, which is not an exhaustive list... who are 14 and 15 years of age: (a) Manufacturing, mining, or processing occupations,...

  9. 29 CFR 570.33 - Occupations that are prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Occupations that are prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years... prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years of age. The following occupations, which is not an exhaustive list... who are 14 and 15 years of age: (a) Manufacturing, mining, or processing occupations,...

  10. 29 CFR 570.33 - Occupations that are prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Occupations that are prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years... prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years of age. The following occupations, which is not an exhaustive list... who are 14 and 15 years of age: (a) Manufacturing, mining, or processing occupations,...

  11. 29 CFR 570.33 - Occupations that are prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupations that are prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years... prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years of age. The following occupations, which is not an exhaustive list... who are 14 and 15 years of age: (a) Manufacturing, mining, or processing occupations,...

  12. Consumption of dairy products and the 15-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Wang, Jie Jin; Burlutsky, George; Rochtchina, Elena; Mitchell, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Habitual consumption of dairy products has been shown to play an important role in the prevention of several chronic diseases. We aimed to prospectively assess the relationship between the change in dairy product consumption (both regular fat and low/reduced fat) and the 15-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the Blue Mountains Eye Study, 2037 participants aged 49 years or above at baseline were re-examined at follow-up in 1997-9, 2002-4 and/or 2007-9. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ, and servings of dairy product consumption calculated. Over the 15-year follow-up, there were 352, 268 and eighty-four incident cases of any, early and late AMD, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, current smoking, white cell count and fish consumption, a significant linear trend (P for trend = 0·003) was observed with decreasing consumption of total dairy foods and the 15-year incidence of late AMD, comparing the lowest v. highest quintile of intake (OR 2·80, 95 % CI 1·21, 3·04). Over the 15 years, decreased consumption of reduced-fat dairy foods was associated with an increased risk of incident late AMD, comparing the lowest to highest quintile of intake (OR 3·10, 95 % CI 1·18, 8·14, P for trend = 0·04). Decreasing total dietary Ca intake over the 15 years was also associated with an increased risk of developing incident late AMD (multivariable-adjusted P for trend = 0·03). A lower consumption of dairy products (regular and low fat) and Ca was independently associated with a higher risk of developing incident late AMD in the long term. Additional cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  13. Tobacco use among students aged 13-15 years--Baghdad, Iraq, 2008.

    PubMed

    2009-04-01

    In 2008, Iraq's parliament ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), which obligates participants to establish tobacco use monitoring, surveillance, and evaluation systems. Lack of data on adolescent tobacco use in Iraq led the Ministry of Health (MOH) to conduct the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Baghdad in 2008. GYTS is a school-based survey of students aged 13--15 years that is self-administered in classes in selected schools. As in most Middle East countries, tobacco use in Iraq takes the form of cigarettes and shisha. Based on GYTS results, 7.4% of students aged 13--15 years reported having ever smoked cigarettes, 12.9% had ever smoked shisha, 3.2% currently smoked cigarettes, and 6.3% currently smoked shisha. Among never smokers aged 13--15 years, 13.0% reported they were likely to initiate cigarette smoking in the next year. Future declines in adolescent tobacco use in Iraq (and Baghdad) could be enhanced by expanding existing tobacco control programs to include prevention and cessation of the use of cigarettes and shisha, implementing measures that discourage adolescents who have never smoked from initiating tobacco use, expanding legislation to ban exposure to secondhand smoke in all indoor workplaces, and enacting legislation banning pro-tobacco advertising and sponsorship.

  14. 29 CFR 570.31 - Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.31 Section 570.31 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.31 Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age. The employment of minors between...

  15. 29 CFR 570.31 - Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.31 Section 570.31 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.31 Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age. The employment of minors between...

  16. 29 CFR 570.31 - Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.31 Section 570.31 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.31 Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age. The employment of minors between...

  17. 29 CFR 570.31 - Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.31 Section 570.31 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.31 Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age. The employment of minors between...

  18. Nonfatal bathroom injuries among persons aged15 years--United States, 2008.

    PubMed

    2011-06-10

    In 2008, approximately 21.8 million persons aged15 years sustained nonfatal, unintentional injuries, resulting in approximately $67.3 billion in lifetime medical costs. Information about where injuries occur is limited, but bathrooms commonly are believed to be a particularly hazardous location. To investigate this assumption, CDC analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of emergency departments (EDs) to describe the incidence and circumstances of nonfatal injuries in bathrooms (in any setting) among persons aged15 years in the United States. This report describes the results of that investigation, which found that, based on 3,339 cases documented in the 2008 National Electronic Surveillance System All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) database, an estimated 234,094 nonfatal bathroom injuries were treated in U.S. EDs. Injury rates increased with age, and most injuries (81.1%) were caused by falls. All persons, but especially older adults, should be aware of bathroom activities that are associated with a high risk for injury and of environmental modifications that might reduce that risk. PMID:21659980

  19. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels among U.S. Youth Aged 12-15 Years: United States, 1999-2004 and 2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... the National Technical Information Service NCHS Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels Among U.S. Youth Aged 12–15 Years: United ... of girls aged 12–15 years had adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. Overall, 42.2% of youth ...

  20. Prevalence of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among Population Aged 15 Years or Older, Vietnam, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Hai, Phan Thi; Minh, Nguyen Thac; Hsia, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing globally and is associated with adverse outcomes requiring tobacco control interventions. We estimated the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among adult populations in Vietnam in 2010 and examined its association with sociodemographic factors. Methods We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Vietnam in 2010. GATS surveyed a national representative sample of adults aged 15 years or older from 11,142 households by using a 2-phase sampling design analogous to a 3-stage stratified cluster sampling. Descriptive statistical analyses and multivariate logistic regression modeling were conducted. Results A total of 6.4% of Vietnamese aged 15 years or older (representing about 4.1 million adult waterpipe smokers) reported current waterpipe tobacco smoking. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking was significantly higher among men than women (13% vs 0.1%). Area of residence (rural or urban), age group, asset-based wealth quintile, and geographic region of residence were significantly associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking among men. The significant correlates of current waterpipe tobacco smoking among men were lower education levels, being middle-aged (45–54 years), lower asset-based wealth levels, living in rural areas, not living in the South East and the Mekong River Delta geographic regions, and the belief that smoking does not causes diseases. Conclusion Rural dwellers who are poor should be targeted in tobacco control programs. Further studies are needed that examine perceptions of the adverse health effects and the cultural factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking. PMID:23597395

  1. Corneal Thickness Profile and Associations in Chinese Children Aged 7 to 15 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingyan; Zhu, Xiaofeng; He, Xiangui; Lu, Lina; Zhu, Jianfeng; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Corneal thickness (CT) maps of the central (2-mm diameter), para-central (2 to 5-mm diameter), peripheral (5 to 6-mm diameter), and minimum (5-mm diameter) cornea were measured in normal Chinese school children aged 7 to 15 years old using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Multiple regression analyses were performed to explore the effect of associated factors [age, gender, refraction, axial length and corneal curvature radius (CCR)] on CT and the relationship between central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP). A total of 1228 eyes from 614 children were analyzed. The average CCT was 532.96 ± 28.33 μm for right eyes and 532.70 ±28.45 μm for left eyes. With a 10 μm increase in CCT, the IOP was elevated by 0.37 mm Hg, as measured by noncontact tonometry. The CT increased gradually from the center to the periphery. The superior and superior nasal regions had the thickest CTs, while the thinnest points were primarily located in the inferior temporal cornea. The CCT was associated with CCR (p = 0.008) but not with gender (p = 0.075), age (p = 0.286), axial length (p = 0.405), or refraction (p = 0.985). In the para-central region and the peripheral cornea, increased CT was associated with younger age, male gender, and a flatter cornea. PMID:26751798

  2. Corneal Epithelium Thickness Profile in 614 Normal Chinese Children Aged 7–15 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingyan; He, Xiangui; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Lu, Lina; Zhu, Jianfeng; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to describe the values and distribution of corneal epithelium thickness (CET) in normal Chinese school-aged children, and to explore associated factors with CET. CET maps were measured by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) in normal Chinese children aged 7 to 15 years old from two randomly selected schools in Shanghai, China. Children with normal intraocular pressure were further examined for cycloplegic autorefraction, corneal curvature radius (CCR) and axial length. Central (2-mm diameter area), para-central (2- to 5-mm diameter area), and peripheral (5- to 6-mm diameter area) CET in the superior, superotemporal, temporal, inferotemporal, inferior, inferonasal, nasal, superonasal cornea; minimum, maximum, range, and standard deviation of CET within the 5-mm diameter area were recorded. The CET was thinner in the superior than in the inferior and was thinner in the temporal than in the nasal. The maximum CET was located in the inferior zone, and the minimum CET was in the superior zone. A thicker central CET was associated with male gender (p = 0.009) and older age (p = 0.037) but not with CCR (p = 0.061), axial length (p = 0.253), or refraction (p = 0.351) in the multiple regression analyses. CCR, age, and gender were correlated with para-central and peripheral CET. PMID:27004973

  3. Correlates of 15-Year Maintenance of Physical Activity in Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Imke; Dugan, Sheila A.; Karavolos, Kelly; Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Powell, Lynda H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To gain a better understanding of the correlates of sustained physical activity in midlife women, we used longitudinal epidemiologic data to investigate links between sustained physical activity and constructs advocated by three basic behavioral and social science theories: 1) self-determination; 2) social cognitive; and 3) social networks. Methods A random sample of 90 mid-life women, stratified by level of physical activity over 15 years, was selected from the Chicago cohort of the longitudinal Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Using data on self-reported physical activity collected over 15 years, women were categorized into consistently active, spoardically active, and sedentary. New data were collected on theory-relevant constructs, i.e. autonomous motivation (assessed by the Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ)) and self-efficacy (assessed by the Self-Efficacy and Exercise Habits Survey). Every SWAN woman identified a close female friend who also completed the physical activity questionnaire. Results SWAN women with higher autonomous motivation (p=0.002) and higher self-efficacy (p<0.001) were more likely to be consistently physically active in analyses adjusted for age, race, and socioeconomic status. Sixty one percent of SWAN women with a history of consistent physical activity had a friend who is currently highly active, versus 34% and 23% for sporadically active and sedentary women, respectively (test for trend p=0.008). Conclusions In midlife women, constructs advocated by basic behavioral and social science theories were consistent with long-term patterns of physical activity behavior. Special focus should be given to these basic theories in the design of interventions to promote sustained physical activity in midlife women. PMID:23813123

  4. Behavioural early-life exposures and body composition at age 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Leary, S D; Lawlor, D A; Davey Smith, G; Brion, M J; Ness, A R

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated associations between some early-life exposures and later obesity, but most have used body mass index in childhood or adulthood as the outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate whether early-life exposures were associated with directly measured fat and lean mass in adolescence. Subjects/Methods: This study used data on 4750 mother–offspring pairs, collected as a part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Bristol, UK between 1991 and 1992; associations between behavioural exposures occurring from conception up to 5 years of age (maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding, age at introduction to solids, dietary patterns and physical inactivity during early childhood) and offspring body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ~15 years were assessed. Results: After full adjustment for potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy, having a junk food diet and spending more time watching television in early childhood were all associated with higher fat mass at age 15, whereas maternal smoking, having a healthy diet and playing computer games more frequently in early childhood were all associated with a higher lean mass at age 15. Associations with paternal smoking were generally weaker for both fat and lean mass, but as there was no strong statistical evidence for maternal vs paternal differences, confounding by social factors rather than a direct effect of maternal smoking cannot be ruled out. Early feeding was not associated with fat or lean mass at age 15. Conclusions: This study does not provide compelling evidence for associations between most early-life factors and body composition in adolescence. However, possible associations with dietary patterns and physical inactivity in early childhood require further investigation in other cohorts that have direct measurements of adolescent body composition. PMID:25664839

  5. Adolescent female volleyballers' (aged 13-15 years) body build classification and proficiency in competitions.

    PubMed

    Stamm, Raini; Stamm, Meelis; Koskel, Säde

    2006-12-01

    The present paper studies the body build and proficiency in the game of 74 female volleyballers aged 13-15 years from eight teams, who participated in Estonian championships. Fourteen anthropometric measurements were taken from the players, and these data were systematized into a 5 SD height-weight classification (small, medium, large, pyknomorphous and leptomorphous). The players participated in 28 matches, which were recorded in parallel with two computers equipped with the program Game. The girls' proficiency in the game was assessed in the same body build classes. For each class, the total number of serves, receptions, attacks and blocks, their mean values per player and percentage from elements performed during the whole tournament were calculated. In the same way, for each class the total number of points scored and separately the number of points scored in serve, attack and block were calculated. For each class the mean index of proficiency was calculated for serve, reception, attack and block. The results showed, that the most successful were the girls of class 3 with big height and weight. The small girls of class 1 were the least successful. The players belonging to the other classes formed an intermediate group. The authors recommend the use of the body build classification as it enables simultaneous assessment of body build and proficiency in competitions.

  6. Micronutrient interventions on cognitive performance of children aged 5-15 years in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Khor, Geok Lin; Misra, Snigdha

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 200 million young children worldwide fail to reach their potential in cognitive development owing to undernutrition. Numerous studies have assessed the effects of micronutrient supplementation on growth and cognitive development in infants, toddlers and preschoolers. However, micronutrient interventions on the cognitive performance of older children are limited. This article seeks to provide an update on micronutrient interventions and cognitive outcomes among children aged 5-15 years in developing countries. A total of 13 randomized controlled trials published since 2000 were identified. Majority of these studies assessed the effects of micronutrient-fortified foods on various domains of cognitive function. Among key micronutrients assessed were iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A. This review found a lack of consistency in the impact of micronutrient supplementation on intelligence, long term mental functions and school examination grades of the children. A beneficial effect of micronutrient supplementation on short term memory was more consistently reported. Overall, the evidence from this review for the impact of micronutrients on cognitive performance in older children remains equivocal. In light of the growing interest on the influence of nutrition on cognition, it is important that culturally-appropriate and sufficiently sensitive assessment tools be used for measuring the desired cognitive outcomes that are most likely to be affected by the nutrients under study. PMID:23017305

  7. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.35 Section 570.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age. (a) Hours standards. Except... provided, for any youth 14 or 15 years of age who: (i) Has graduated from high school; (ii) Has...

  8. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.35 Section 570.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age. (a) Hours standards. Except... provided, for any youth 14 or 15 years of age who: (i) Has graduated from high school; (ii) Has...

  9. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.35 Section 570.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age. (a) Hours standards. Except... provided, for any youth 14 or 15 years of age who: (i) Has graduated from high school; (ii) Has...

  10. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.35 Section 570.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age. (a) Hours standards. Except... provided, for any youth 14 or 15 years of age who: (i) Has graduated from high school; (ii) Has...

  11. Causes of Death in Children Aged < 15 Years in the Inner Mongolia Region of China, 2008-2012

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Du, Maolin; Hao, Zhihui; Zhang, Hairong; Zhang, Qing; Hao, Wenli; Xi, Lei; Sun, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to identify the causes of death in children <15 years of age in Inner Mongolia and to examine the age-specific causes of death. Study data from 2008–2012 were obtained from the Death Registry System that is maintained by the Inner Mongolia Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The mortality rate (per 100,000) for children <15 years of age was calculated and stratified by age in different years. We computed the proportion of age-specific causes of death for children <15 years that occurred between 2008 and 2012 across eight monitoring points in Inner Mongolia. We used a log-linear model to analyze the year and age effects on childhood mortality. From 2008-2012, the standardized mortality of children <15 years of age was 42.78/100,000. The mortality rate was not significantly different from 2008 to 2012 (p>0.05); the mortality rate was the highest in the <1-year age group (p<0.05); and the mortality rate of the <1-year age group was higher in 2012 compared to that in 2009 (p<0.05), 2010 (p<0.05), and 2011 (p<0.05). In children aged 1-14 years, the leading cause of death was injuries, among which transport accident injuries were the most prevalent. To reduce the childhood mortality rate in Inner Mongolia, China, we should focus on the prevention of perinatal deaths in infants <1 year of age and on the prevention of transport accident injuries among older children (1-14 years). PMID:27157187

  12. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of 19 games…

  13. Health Behaviors and Protective Factors of School Students Aged 13-15 Years Old in Four Cities of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Benchun; Zhang, Wei; Qian, Ling; Lv, Shuhong; Tian, Xiangyang; Xiong, Guanglian; Yan, Weihong; Zhang, Xinwei; Kann, Laura K.; Riley, Leanne

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents baseline data on health behaviors and protective factors among junior middle school students aged 13-15 years old in China for the purpose of developing priorities, establishing programs and policies for school health and youth health and also establishing trends in the prevalence of these behaviors. The 2003 CHINA GSHS…

  14. The Relationship between Psychological Health and Attitude toward Christianity among Pupils Aged 11 to 15 Years in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Burton, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Advocates of the secularization thesis describe radical decline in the significance of the Christian tradition among young people in England. In this context, a sample of 5,808 pupils age 11 to 15 years provided data about their religious identity and practice and completed the short-form Revised Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (as a…

  15. Positive parenting mitigates the effects of poor self-regulation on BMI trajectories from age 4 to 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Lauren E.; Francis, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine whether parenting style moderated the effects of delay of gratification on BMI trajectories from age 4 to 15 years. Methods Longitudinal data were analyzed on 778 children drawn from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, neglectful) was created from measures of mothers’ sensitivity and expectations for self-control when children were age 4 years. Self-regulation was also measured at 4 years using a well-known delay of gratification protocol. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight at each time point. Mixed modeling was used to test the interaction of parenting styles and ability to delay gratification on BMI trajectories from 4 to 15 years. Results There was a significant interaction effect of parenting and ability to delay on BMI growth from 4 to 15 years for boys. Boys who had authoritarian mothers and failed to delay gratification had a significantly steeper rate of growth in BMI from childhood through adolescence than children in any other parenting x delay group. Conclusions Authoritative and permissive parenting styles were protective against more rapid BMI gains for boys who could not delay gratification. Ability to delay gratification was protective against BMI gains for boys who had parents with authoritarian or neglectful parenting styles. PMID:23977874

  16. Development of the Concept of Freedom over a 15-year Age Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Daniel P.

    Freedom is subject to a variety of conceptions in life because people think of it from where they are in life. Psychological literature contains a great deal about freedom but it is almost always found under the rubric of freedom versus determinism. This study examined the concepts of freedom in subjects (N=450) who ranged in age from 7 to 21…

  17. Ontogeny of two-point discrimination for fingers and toes in children (ages 7 through 15 years).

    PubMed

    Richards, P M; Persinger, M A; Michel, R N

    1998-06-01

    Accuracies of two-point discrimination (successive 2-min increments between 0 and 10 mm) for the middle fingers and the middle toes for 87 children from ages 7 through 15 years were measured to obtain normative data. The finer discriminative capacity for the fingers rather than the toes was evident. Whereas discriminative accuracy approached the asymptote with distances equal to or greater than 4 mm for the fingers, distances equal to or greater than 8 mm were required for the toes. For this ontogenetic range, the effects for toes vs fingers was much greater than the effect size for age.

  18. Pattern of malignancies in children <15 years of age reported in Hadhramout Cancer Registry, Yemen between 2002 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Jawass, Mazin A.; Al-Ezzi, Jalil I.; Gouth, Hanan S. Bin; Bahwal, Saleh A.; Bamatraf, Fawzia F.; Ba’amer, Abubakir A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the patterns of childhood cancers in Hadhramout Sector, Yemen between January 2002 and December 2014. Methods: This descriptive retrospective study was based on secondary data from Hadhramout Cancer Registry, Hadhramout, Yemen. All Yemeni children under age of 15 years, who were diagnosed with cancer were included. The International Childhood Cancer Classification system was used to categorize cancer types. Results: A total of 406 childhood cancers of both gender <15 years of age were reported. These represented 8.5% of all cases registered. The mean age was 7.34 ± 4.18 years. There were 240 males (59.1%) and 166 females (40.9%) with a male to female ratio of 1.4:1. Calculated incidence of cancer in children in this population is 1.9 per 100,000. The predominant age group was 5-9 years (35%) followed by 10-14 years (33.7%), and 0-4 years group (31%). The most common group of malignancies were hematological malignancies accounting for 47% of cases, followed by nervous system malignancies (15%). The most frequently reported cancer types were lymphoma (24%), leukemia (23%), carcinoma (13.1%), and central nervous system (CNS) tumors (11.6%). Conclusions: There is a lower frequency of childhood cancer in Hadhramout Sector when compared with developed countries. The most common cancers among children were lymphoma, leukemia, carcinoma, and CNS tumors. PMID:27146613

  19. Changes in tobacco use among youths aged 13-15 years - Panama, 2002 and 2008.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of death in the world today, and the majority of smokers begin using tobacco products before age 18 years. However, before the late 1990s, few countries had reliable data on youth tobacco use. In 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO), CDC, and the Canadian Public Health Association developed the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) to help countries monitor youth tobacco use. At the same time, WHO initiated the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), the first international public health treaty on tobacco control. Panama ratified WHO FCTC in 2004 and enacted two key antitobacco regulations in 2005 and 2008. To evaluate progress toward attaining tobacco control goals in Panama, Panama's Ministry of Health, CDC, and WHO compared results from GYTS surveys conducted in Panama in 2002 and 2008. This report summarizes the results of that comparison, which revealed substantial decreases from 2002 to 2008 in youth current cigarette smoking (13.2% versus 4.3%), current use of tobacco products other than cigarettes (9.8% versus 5.8%), and likely initiation of smoking by never smokers (13.8% versus 10.0%). In addition, factors influencing tobacco use showed substantial decreases, including 1) exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home and in public places, 2) best friends smoking, 3) protobacco advertising in newspapers and magazines, and 4) having an object with a tobacco company logo on it. These results suggest that comprehensive regulations in Panama helped reduce tobacco use among adolescents and further gains are possible. PMID:19129746

  20. Changes in tobacco use among youths aged 13-15 years - Panama, 2002 and 2008.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of death in the world today, and the majority of smokers begin using tobacco products before age 18 years. However, before the late 1990s, few countries had reliable data on youth tobacco use. In 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO), CDC, and the Canadian Public Health Association developed the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) to help countries monitor youth tobacco use. At the same time, WHO initiated the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), the first international public health treaty on tobacco control. Panama ratified WHO FCTC in 2004 and enacted two key antitobacco regulations in 2005 and 2008. To evaluate progress toward attaining tobacco control goals in Panama, Panama's Ministry of Health, CDC, and WHO compared results from GYTS surveys conducted in Panama in 2002 and 2008. This report summarizes the results of that comparison, which revealed substantial decreases from 2002 to 2008 in youth current cigarette smoking (13.2% versus 4.3%), current use of tobacco products other than cigarettes (9.8% versus 5.8%), and likely initiation of smoking by never smokers (13.8% versus 10.0%). In addition, factors influencing tobacco use showed substantial decreases, including 1) exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home and in public places, 2) best friends smoking, 3) protobacco advertising in newspapers and magazines, and 4) having an object with a tobacco company logo on it. These results suggest that comprehensive regulations in Panama helped reduce tobacco use among adolescents and further gains are possible.

  1. Multi-Directional Sprinting and Acceleration Phase in Basketball and Handball Players Aged 14 and 15 Years.

    PubMed

    Popowczak, Marek; Rokita, Andrzej; Struzik, Artur; Cichy, Ireneusz; Dudkowski, Andrzej; Chmura, Paweł

    2016-10-01

    An important role in handball and basketball is played by ability to accelerate and ability to repeat multiple sprints. The aim of the study was to assess level of ability in multi-directional sprinting and running time over the first 5 m of the 30 m sprint in 93 basketball and handball players (46 boys and 47 girls) aged 14 to 15 years. The attempts were also made to find the relationships between the time of a 5-m run to evaluate initial acceleration phase and multi-directional sprinting evaluated using Five-Time Shuttle Run To Gates Test Statistical analysis revealed no important differences in times of 5-m runs and times of multi-directional sprinting between groups with different ages, genders, and sports specialties. Furthermore, no significant correlations were found based on Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between times of 5-m run and multi-directional sprinting in the most of subgroups studied.

  2. Jaw and tooth abnormalities detected on panoramic radiographs in New Zealand children aged 10-15 years.

    PubMed

    Cholitgul, W; Drummond, B K

    2000-03-01

    Panoramic radiographs of 1,608 children and adolescents aged 10 to 15 years (797 males and 811 females) were reviewed to determine the prevalence of tooth and jaw abnormalities. Abnormalities were detected on 21 percent of the radiographs (23 percent females and 17.3 percent males); 879 teeth were diagnosed with abnormalities on 331 radiographs. The more common abnormalities were malpositioned teeth, missing teeth, misshaped teeth, and teeth with hypoplastic appearance. Bony abnormalities and growth problems were detected in a few radiographs. This study demonstrates the value of panoramic radiography in detecting or confirming dental abnormalities, and supports recommendations on the use of panoramic radiography to aid in the assessment of dental development. PMID:10860374

  3. Discriminatory power of game-related statistics in 14-15 year age group male volleyball, according to set.

    PubMed

    García-Hermoso, Antonio; Dávila-Romero, Carlos; Saavedra, Jose M

    2013-02-01

    This study compared volleyball game-related statistics by outcome (winners and losers of sets) and set number (total, initial, and last) to identify characteristics that discriminated game performance. Game-related statistics from 314 sets (44 matches) played by teams of male 14- to 15-year-olds in a regional volleyball championship were analysed (2011). Differences between contexts (winning or losing teams) and "set number" (total, initial, and last) were assessed. A discriminant analysis was then performed according to outcome (winners and losers of sets) and "set number" (total, initial, and last). The results showed differences (winning or losing sets) in several variables of Complexes I (attack point and error reception) and II (serve and aces). Game-related statistics which discriminate performance in the sets index the serve, positive reception, and attack point. The predictors of performance at these ages when players are still learning could help coaches plan their training. PMID:23829141

  4. Variability in lateralised blood flow response to language is associated with language development in children aged 1-5 years.

    PubMed

    Kohler, M; Keage, H A D; Spooner, R; Flitton, A; Hofmann, J; Churches, O F; Elliott, S; Badcock, N A

    2015-01-01

    The developmental trajectory of language lateralisation over the preschool years is unclear. We explored the relationship between lateralisation of cerebral blood flow velocity response to object naming and cognitive performance in children aged 1-5 years. Functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound was used to record blood flow velocity bilaterally from middle cerebral arteries during a naming task in 58 children (59% male). At group level, the Lateralisation Index (LI) revealed a greater relative increase in cerebral blood flow velocity within the left as compared to right middle cerebral artery. After controlling for maternal IQ, left-lateralised children displayed lower expressive language scores compared to right- and bi-lateralised children, and reduced variability in LI. Supporting this, greater variability in lateralised response, rather than mean response, was indicative of greater expressive language ability. Findings suggest that a delayed establishment of language specialisation is associated with better language ability in the preschool years.

  5. Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Poterico, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15–49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children <5y. We employed the WHO BMI-age standardized curves for teenagers between 15–19y. In women >19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Results We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001), wasting (p<0.001), and stunting (p<0.001) in children under 5y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001), however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%). Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001); with higher reduction in urban (↓43%) than in rural children (↓24%). BMI in women aged 15–19 years increased (p<0.001) across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19y. Conclusion Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions—undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia—considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies

  6. A two-dose schedule for combined hepatitis A and B vaccination in children aged 6-15 years.

    PubMed

    Kurugöl, Zafer; Mutlubaş, Fatma; Ozacar, Tijen

    2005-04-22

    A combined hepatitis A and B vaccine, Twinrix, in a paediatric formulation for ages 1-15 years and in an adult formulation for those ages 16 years and older, became commercially available in Turkey as well as in many countries. It is administered according to a three-dose schedule (0, 1 and 6 months). A reduction in the number of doses would improve the compliance rate and reduce administration costs. Therefore, we planned a trial evaluation of the immunogenicity, safety and reactogenicity profile of a high-dose combined hepatitis A and B vaccine, administered in two doses, compared with the profile of a paediatric-dose combined vaccine, administered in three doses, in healthy children aged 6-15 years. One hundred children were randomly attributed to the two study groups. The first group (paediatric-dose vaccine group) received the licensed Twinrix Paediatric, at months 0, 1 and 6; the second group (high-dose vaccine group) received the high-dose vaccine, following a 0, 6 months schedule. The reactogenicity was assessed after each vaccine dose. The immunogenicity was evaluated by testing for anti-HBs and anti-HAV antibodies. Seroconversion rates and geometric mean titres (GMTs) were compared. Both formulations of the combined vaccine were well tolerated. The high-dose combined vaccine administered in two doses, elicits satisfactory immunogenicity profiles, similar to those elicited by the paediatric vaccine administered in three doses. On completion of the vaccination schedule in the two groups all children were protected against hepatitis B and immune for hepatitis A. Anti-HAV GMTs after completion of the vaccination schedule were 7163 mlU/ml in the paediatric-dose group, 8241 mlU/ml in the high-dose group; anti-HBs GMTs were 8679 and 4583 mlU/ml, respectively. These results indicate that a two-dose schedule, compared with the standard three-dose schedule, offers fewer injections for satisfactory protection against the two infections. This means fewer clinic

  7. Multi-Directional Sprinting and Acceleration Phase in Basketball and Handball Players Aged 14 and 15 Years.

    PubMed

    Popowczak, Marek; Rokita, Andrzej; Struzik, Artur; Cichy, Ireneusz; Dudkowski, Andrzej; Chmura, Paweł

    2016-10-01

    An important role in handball and basketball is played by ability to accelerate and ability to repeat multiple sprints. The aim of the study was to assess level of ability in multi-directional sprinting and running time over the first 5 m of the 30 m sprint in 93 basketball and handball players (46 boys and 47 girls) aged 14 to 15 years. The attempts were also made to find the relationships between the time of a 5-m run to evaluate initial acceleration phase and multi-directional sprinting evaluated using Five-Time Shuttle Run To Gates Test Statistical analysis revealed no important differences in times of 5-m runs and times of multi-directional sprinting between groups with different ages, genders, and sports specialties. Furthermore, no significant correlations were found based on Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between times of 5-m run and multi-directional sprinting in the most of subgroups studied. PMID:27565172

  8. Prevalence of the developmental defects of the enamel in children aged 12–15 years in Kollam district

    PubMed Central

    Ravindran, Rathy; Saji, Ajish M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: To determine the prevalence of developmental defects of enamel in children aged 12–15 years in Kollam district and to examine the etiological factors associated with the developmental defects of the enamel (DDE). Materials and Methods: A total of 2,500 children from 10 urban and 10 rural schools were examined using modified DDE criteria for recording enamel defects. Ten index permanent teeth were screened for the DDE. Results: The overall prevalence of the DDE was found to be 32% and the prevalence is higher in urban schools (34.3%) compared to rural schools (29.6%). The most common tooth affected by the defect was maxillary right lateral incisor (P = 28.6%) and the tooth least affected was maxillary right first premolar (P = 3%). The most common deformity was demarcated opacities (P = 28.76%) and the least common deformity was combination of diffuse opacities and hypoplasia and combination of demarcated, diffuse opacities, and hypoplasia (P = 0%). There was a very high significant association between DDE and the mothers’ pregnancy age, illness during pregnancy for mother, medication taken during pregnancy by mother, prematurity of birth, intubation done during prematurity, birth weight, systemic illness during the first 5 years of life, intake of drugs or chemicals during the first 5 years of life, nutritional status, and trauma or infection on deciduous teeth and dental caries. Conclusions: The study population showed a prevalence of 32% and very high significant association between perinatal, natal, and postnatal etiological factors. It indicates the need for educating the population about the risk factors for the DDE. PMID:27011929

  9. Trends in the Prevalence of Morbid and Severe Obesity in Australian Children Aged 7-15 Years, 1985-2012

    PubMed Central

    Garnett, Sarah P.; Baur, Louise A.; Jones, Aimee M. D.; Hardy, Louise L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Children with severe obesity have greater risk of adverse health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess trends in the prevalence of morbid and severe obesity in Australian children between 1985 and 2012. Methods Secondary analysis of four national Australian cross-sectional surveys of measured height/weight in 7–15 year olds: Australian Health and Fitness Survey 1985 (n = 8,486), National Nutrition Survey 1995 (n = 1,541), the National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2007 (n = 2,585) and the National Health Survey 2012 (n = 2,940). International Obesity Taskforce cut-point was used for morbid obesity (equivalent to a BMI ≥35kg/m2 at age 18 years). Severe obesity class 2 was defined as BMI ≥120% and <140% of the 95th percentile of the CDC 2000 growth charts or a BMI ≥35 and <40, and severe obesity class 3 as BMI ≥140% of the 95th percentile or a BMI ≥40. Results Between 1985 and 2012 the prevalence of morbid obesity increased from 0.2% to 1.8%, class 2 severe obesity from 0.3% to 2.0%, and class 3 from 0.1% to 0.5%. Children with morbid obesity represented 11.3% of children with obesity in 1985 and increased to 22.5% in 2012 (P = 0.005). Children with severe obesity represented 19.3% of children with obesity in 1985 and increased to 32.0% in 2012 (P = 0.016). The greatest increase was observed between 1995 and 2007. The proportion of children who were classified as morbidly or severely obese was not significantly different between 2007 and 2012, nor was it significantly different between age and sex groups. Conclusion Prevalence of morbid and severe obesity among children is low, but has significantly increased between 1985 and 2012. In contrast to overweight and obese children, children with morbid obesity require tertiary intervention. Failure to treat these children will have significant implications for the individual child and community. PMID:27171503

  10. Changes in TMD signs and in mandibular movements from 10 to 15 years of age in relation to articulatory speech disorders.

    PubMed

    Pahkala, R H; Laine-Alava, M T

    2000-12-01

    This study is part of a longitudinal study on the associations between different orofacial dysfunctions. The aim was to determine changes in signs of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and in mandibular movement capacity in subjects with articulatory speech disorders and in controls by re-examining a sample of 187 previously studied children from 10 to 15 years of age. Articulatory speech disorders were diagnosed by a phoniatrician. Mandibular movement capacity, signs of TMD, occlusal contacts/ interference and slide between retruded and intercuspal positions were recorded by a dentist. The follow-up results showed that mandibular mobility mainly increased up to the age of 15, but there was a decrease in protrusion capacity in almost half of the cases. This fluctuation probably reflects the normal changes in growth pattern. Signs of TMDs proved to be inconsistent in nature, especially among the controls. With age, girls in the control group, more so than boys, were prone to new signs of TMD, but no gender difference was found in the group of subjects with misarticulations of speech. The findings indicate that in adolescence different orofacial dysfunctions are related.

  11. Strategies for reducing exposure to indoor air pollution from household burning of solid fuels: effects on acute lower respiratory infections in children under the age of 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Havens, Deborah; Jary, Hannah R; Patel, Latifa B; Chiume, Msandeni E; Mortimer, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: This study aims to assess the effects of intervention strategies that reduce exposure to household air pollution from burning solid fuels on episodes of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in children under the age of 15 years.

  12. School-Based Reproductive Health and Safety Education for Students Aged 12-15 Years in UNESCO's (2009) "International Technical Guidance"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Collier-Harris, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, adolescents aged 12-15 years are making sexual and reproductive decisions of profound significance for their future, often based on misguided, inadequate or dangerously wrong information. Very few countries provide evidential and comprehensive education about puberty, sexuality, and reproductive health and safety to children and young…

  13. Saccadic Eye Movements in Normal Children from 8 to 15 Years of Age: A Developmental Study of Visuospatial Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Randal G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study used saccadic eye movements to assess visuospatial attention in 53 normal children (ages 8-15). Saccadic latency, the ability to suppress extraneous saccades during fixation, and the ability to inhibit task-provoked anticipatory saccades all improved with age. Developmental patterns varied by task. Analyses of age-related changes may be…

  14. Modelling of facial growth in Czech children based on longitudinal data: Age progression from 12 to 15 years using 3D surface models.

    PubMed

    Koudelová, Jana; Dupej, Ján; Brůžek, Jaroslav; Sedlak, Petr; Velemínská, Jana

    2015-03-01

    Dealing with the increasing number of long-term missing children and juveniles requires more precise and objective age progression techniques for the prediction of their current appearance. Our contribution includes detailed and real facial growth information used for modelling age progression during adolescence. This study was based on an evaluation of the overall 180 three-dimensional (3D) facial scans of Czech children (23 boys, 22 girls), which were longitudinally studied from 12 to 15 years of age and thus revealed the real growth-related changes. The boys underwent more marked changes compared with the girls, especially in the regions of the eyebrow ridges, nose and chin. Using modern geometric morphometric methods, together with their applications, we modelled the ageing and allometric trajectories for both sexes and simulated the age-progressed effects on facial scans. The facial parts that are important for facial recognition (eyes, nose, mouth and chin) all deviated less than 0.75mm, whereas the areas with the largest deviations were situated on the marginal parts of the face. The mean error between the predicted and real facial morphology obtained by modelling the children from 12 to 15 years of age was 1.92mm in girls and 1.86mm in boys. This study is beneficial for forensic artists as it reduces the subjectivity of age progression methods.

  15. National Growth Charts for United Arab Emirates Children With Down Syndrome From Birth to 15 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    H Aburawi, Elhadi; Nagelkerke, Nicolas; Deeb, Asma; Abdulla, Shahrban; Abdulrazzaq, Yousef M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Specific centile growth charts for children with Down syndrome (DS) have been produced in many countries and are known to differ from those of normal children. Since growth assessment depends on the growth pattern characteristic for these conditions, disorder-specific charts are desirable for various ethnic groups. Aims To provide cross-sectional weight, height, and head circumference (HC) references for healthy United Arab Emirates (UAE) children with DS. Methods A retrospective and cross-sectional growth study of Emirati children with DS, aged 0 to 18 years old, was conducted. Height, weight, and HC were measured in each child. Cole’s LMS statistical method was applied to estimate age-specific percentiles, and measurements were compared to UAE reference values for normal children. Results Incidence of DS in the UAE population is 1 in 374 live births (267 in 10 000 live births). We analyzed 1263 growth examinations of 182 children with DS born between 1994 and 2012. The male-to-female ratio was 1.6:1. Height, weight, and HC centile charts were constructed for ages 0 to 13 years. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in DS children aged 10 to 13 years of age was 32% and 19%, respectively. The DS children were significantly shorter and heavier than normal children in the UAE. Conclusions Weight, height, and HC growth charts were created for children with DS. These can be used as a reference standard for the UAE children with DS. Overweight and obesity are quite common in DS children ≥10 years of age, as DS children tend to be shorter and heavier than non-DS children. PMID:25196167

  16. Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in the South-Eastern Europe Health Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stojiljkovic, Djorde; Haralanova, Maria; Nikogosian, Haik; Petrea, Ionela; Chauvin, James; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine adolescent tobacco use among members of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE) Health Network using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Methods: Nationally representative samples were drawn from students in grades associated with youth aged 13 to 15 in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Former…

  17. Children's Sexual Thinking: A Comparative Study of Children Aged 5 to 15 Years in Australia, North America, Britain and Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Ronald; Goldman, Juliette

    The purpose of this cross-national descriptive study is to measure the extent of children's sexual knowledge and sexual understanding at various ages and to identify what processes of thought children use in trying to explain biological functions and the phenomena of their own bodies as they grow and change. Sexual thinking is defined as thinking…

  18. 29 CFR 570.34 - Occupations that may be performed by minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... machines. (b) Work of an intellectual or artistically creative nature such as, but not limited to, computer... making shops, toy manufacturing shops, and pallet shops. The term shall not include construction sites... machines shall mean all fixed or portable machines or tools driven by power and used or designed...

  19. 29 CFR 570.34 - Occupations that may be performed by minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... machines. (b) Work of an intellectual or artistically creative nature such as, but not limited to, computer... making shops, toy manufacturing shops, and pallet shops. The term shall not include construction sites... machines shall mean all fixed or portable machines or tools driven by power and used or designed...

  20. 29 CFR 570.34 - Occupations that may be performed by minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... machines. (b) Work of an intellectual or artistically creative nature such as, but not limited to, computer... making shops, toy manufacturing shops, and pallet shops. The term shall not include construction sites... machines shall mean all fixed or portable machines or tools driven by power and used or designed...

  1. [The issue of expert opinions in underage pornography materials involving underage persons below 15 years of age].

    PubMed

    Szydłowski, Łukasz; Lorkiewicz-Muszyńska, Dorota; Łabicka, Marzena; Waloszczyk, Piotr; Parafiniuk, Mirosław

    2007-01-01

    The number of cases in which the estimation of age of the persons pictured in pornography materials is mandatory has been increasing for the last few years. The aim of the publication was to indicate the possibilities which are currently available for the forensic experts in this matter. The ones published heretofore mainly had focused on the difficulties which are inseparable elements of such expertise. Current publication has a demonstrative character and has been based upon the experience of two Forensic Medicine Departments. Such expertise have been constantly prepared in both of them for the last few years and none of them had to be changed till now. The currently available methods which allow for age estimation of the persons upon their photographical and movie images are far from perfection. Still authors remain skeptic about the possibility that significant progress in that matter can be achieved in predictable future. In such situation the most effective application of existing techniques becomes essential to minimize the risk of false-positive and false-negative results from appearing. Some of the difficulties pointed out by other authors are not important in practice.

  2. Current Cigarette Smoking, Access, and Purchases from Retail Outlets Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 45 Countries, 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Denise; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Yin, Shaoman; Palipudi, Krishna; Mbulo, Lazarous

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, with nearly 6 million deaths caused by tobacco use worldwide every year (1). Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in most countries, and the majority of adult smokers initiate smoking before age 18 years (2,3). Limiting access to cigarettes among youths is an effective strategy to curb the tobacco epidemic by preventing smoking initiation and reducing the number of new smokers (3,4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 45 countries to examine the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, purchase of cigarettes from retail outlets, and type of cigarette purchases made among school students aged 13-15 years. The results are presented by the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions: African Region (AFR); Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR); European Region (EUR); Region of the Americas (AMR); South-East Asian Region (SEAR); and Western Pacific Region (WPR). Across all 45 countries, the median overall current cigarette smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 6.8% (range = 1.7% [Kazakhstan]-28.9% [Timor-Leste]); the median prevalence among boys was 9.7% (2.0% [Kazakhstan]-53.5% [Timor-Leste]), and among girls was 3.5% (0.0% [Bangladesh]-26.3% [Italy]). The proportion of current cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years who reported purchasing cigarettes from a retail outlet such as a store, street vendor, or kiosk during the past 30 days ranged from 14.9% [Latvia] to 95.1% [Montenegro], and in approximately half the countries, exceeded 50%. In the majority of countries assessed in AFR and SEAR, approximately 40% of cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years reported purchasing individual cigarettes. Approximately half of smokers in all but one country assessed in EUR reported purchasing cigarettes in packs. These findings could be used by countries to inform tobacco control strategies in the retail environment to reduce and prevent marketing and sales of

  3. Current Cigarette Smoking, Access, and Purchases from Retail Outlets Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 45 Countries, 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Denise; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Yin, Shaoman; Palipudi, Krishna; Mbulo, Lazarous

    2016-09-02

    Tobacco use is a leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality, with nearly 6 million deaths caused by tobacco use worldwide every year (1). Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in most countries, and the majority of adult smokers initiate smoking before age 18 years (2,3). Limiting access to cigarettes among youths is an effective strategy to curb the tobacco epidemic by preventing smoking initiation and reducing the number of new smokers (3,4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 45 countries to examine the prevalence of current cigarette smoking, purchase of cigarettes from retail outlets, and type of cigarette purchases made among school students aged 13-15 years. The results are presented by the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions: African Region (AFR); Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR); European Region (EUR); Region of the Americas (AMR); South-East Asian Region (SEAR); and Western Pacific Region (WPR). Across all 45 countries, the median overall current cigarette smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 6.8% (range = 1.7% [Kazakhstan]-28.9% [Timor-Leste]); the median prevalence among boys was 9.7% (2.0% [Kazakhstan]-53.5% [Timor-Leste]), and among girls was 3.5% (0.0% [Bangladesh]-26.3% [Italy]). The proportion of current cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years who reported purchasing cigarettes from a retail outlet such as a store, street vendor, or kiosk during the past 30 days ranged from 14.9% [Latvia] to 95.1% [Montenegro], and in approximately half the countries, exceeded 50%. In the majority of countries assessed in AFR and SEAR, approximately 40% of cigarette smokers aged 13-15 years reported purchasing individual cigarettes. Approximately half of smokers in all but one country assessed in EUR reported purchasing cigarettes in packs. These findings could be used by countries to inform tobacco control strategies in the retail environment to reduce and prevent marketing and sales of

  4. Environmental exposure of lead and iron deficit anemia in children age ranged 1-5 years: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Shah, Abdul Qadir

    2010-10-15

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is the most common nutritional problem among children and lead (Pb) toxicity is the most common environmental health threat to children all over the world. The objective of this study was to determine blood lead (BPb) levels and prevalence of Fe deficient anemia among 1 to 5year old children attending day care clinic in pediatric ward of civil hospital Karachi, Pakistan. A total of 340 children of both genders participating in this study, were screened for anemia. Among them 215 were anemic and 125 non-anemic. The anemic group was further divided in two groups on the basis of % hemoglobin (Hb), mild (Hb <10g/dL) and severe anemic group (Hb <8g/dL), while non-anemic as referent children (Hb >10g/dL). The blood samples were analysed for Pb and Fe, along with hematological parameters. The result indicated that anemic children had a higher mean values of Pb in blood than referent children with Hb >10g/dL. The Pb levels <100μg/L were detected in 40% referent children while 60% of them had >10μg/dL. The BPb concentration in severe anemic children (53%) was found in the range of 100-200μg/L, whereas 47% had >200μg/L. The significant negative correlations of BPb level with % Hb (r=-0.514 and r=-0.685) and Fe contents (r=-0.522, r=-0.762, p<0.001) were observed in mild and severe anemic children respectively. While positive correlation was observed between BPb and age of both group and genders (r=0.69, p<0.01). The BPb levels were significantly associated with biochemical indices in the blood which have the potential to be used as biomarkers of Pb intoxication and Fe deficient anemia. PMID:20801490

  5. Maternal prenatal anxiety and child brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genotype: effects on internalizing symptoms from 4 to 15 years of age.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Kieran J; Glover, Vivette; Holbrook, Joanna D; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2014-11-01

    Multiple behavioral and health outcomes, including internalizing symptoms, may be predicted from prenatal maternal anxiety, depression, or stress. However, not all children are affected, and those that are can be affected in different ways. Here we test the hypothesis that the effects of prenatal anxiety are moderated by genetic variation in the child's brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children population cohort. Internalizing symptoms were assessed from 4 to 13 years of age using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (n = 8,584); a clinical interview with the adolescents was conducted at age 15 years (n = 4,704). Obstetric and psychosocial risk and postnatal maternal symptoms were included as covariates. Results show that prenatal maternal anxiety predicted internalizing symptoms, including with the diagnostic assessment at 15 years. There was a main effect of two BDNF polymorphisms (rs6265 [val66met] and rs11030104) on internalizing symptoms up to age 13. There was also genetic moderation of the prenatal anxiety effect by different BDNF polymorphisms (rs11030121 and rs7124442), although significant effects were limited to preadolescence. The findings suggest a role for BDNF gene-environment interactions in individual vulnerability to the effects of prenatal anxiety on child internalizing symptoms.

  6. Reflections, 15 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, George

    2016-01-01

    George Knox reflects on his 15-year career as president of Labette Community College in Parsons, Kansas. Knox writes that, as a first-time president coming into a brand new system, he was very fortunate to have many seasoned presidents and mentors in Kansas and from the American Association of Community Colleges' (AACC) Presidents Academy. He says…

  7. Should Women Younger Than 40 Years of Age With Invasive Breast Cancer Have a Mastectomy?: 15-Year Outcomes in a Population-Based Cohort

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Jeffrey Q.; Truong, Pauline T.; Olivotto, Ivo A.; Olson, Robert; Coulombe, Genevieve; Keyes, Mira; Weir, Lorna; Gelmon, Karen; Bernstein, Vanessa; Woods, Ryan; Speers, Caroline; Tyldesley, Scott

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Optimal local management for young women with early-stage breast cancer remains controversial. This study examined 15-year outcomes among women younger than 40 years treated with breast-conserving surgery plus whole-breast radiation therapy (BCT) compared with those treated with modified radical mastectomy (MRM). Methods and Materials: Women aged 20 to 39 years with early-stage breast cancer diagnosed between 1989 and 2003 were identified in a population-based database. Primary outcomes of breast cancer–specific survival (BCSS), overall survival (OS) and secondary outcomes of local relapse–free survival (LRFS), locoregional relapse–free survival (LRRFS), and distant relapse–free survival (DRFS) were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods and compared between BCT and MRM cohorts using log-rank tests. A planned subgroup analysis was performed on patients considered “ideal” for BCT (ie, T1N0, negative margins and no extensive ductal carcinoma in situ) and in whom local therapy may have the largest impact on survival because of low systemic risk. Results: 965 patients were identified; 616 had BCT and 349 had MRM. The median follow-up time was 14.4 years (range, 8.4-23.3 years). Overall, 15-year rates of BCSS (76.0% vs 74.1%, P=.62), OS (74.2% vs 73.0%, P=.75), LRFS (85.4% vs 86.5%, P=.95), LRRFS (82.2% vs 81.6%, P=.61), and DRFS (74.4% vs 71.6%, P=.40) were similar between the BCT and MRM cohorts. In the “ideal” for BCT subgroup, there were 219 BCT and 67 MRM patients with a median follow-up time of 15.5 years. The 15-year BCSS (86.1% vs 82.9%, P=.57), OS (82.6% vs 82.9%, P=.89), LRFS (86.2% vs 84.2%, P=.50), LRRFS (83.1% vs 78.3%, P=.24), and DRFS (84.8% vs 79.1%, P=.17) were similar in the BCT and MRM cohorts. Conclusions: This population-based analysis with long-term follow-up confirmed that women younger than 40 years treated with BCT had similar 15-year outcomes compared with MRM. Young age alone is not a contraindication to BCT.

  8. Modelling Survival and Mortality Risk to 15 Years of Age for a National Cohort of Children with Serious Congenital Heart Defects Diagnosed in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Rachel L.; Bull, Catherine; Wren, Christopher; Wade, Angela; Goldstein, Harvey; Dezateux, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Background Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are a significant cause of death in infancy. Although contemporary management ensures that 80% of affected children reach adulthood, post-infant mortality and factors associated with death during childhood are not well-characterised. Using data from a UK-wide multicentre birth cohort of children with serious CHDs, we observed survival and investigated independent predictors of mortality up to age 15 years. Methods Data were extracted retrospectively from hospital records and death certificates of 3,897 children (57% boys) in a prospectively identified cohort, born 1992–1995 with CHDs requiring intervention or resulting in death before age one year. A discrete-time survival model accounted for time-varying predictors; hazards ratios were estimated for mortality. Incomplete data were addressed through multilevel multiple imputation. Findings By age 15 years, 932 children had died; 144 died without any procedure. Survival to one year was 79.8% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 78.5, 81.1%) and to 15 years was 71.7% (63.9, 73.4%), with variation by cardiac diagnosis. Importantly, 20% of cohort deaths occurred after age one year. Models using imputed data (including all children from birth) demonstrated higher mortality risk as independently associated with cardiac diagnosis, female sex, preterm birth, having additional cardiac defects or non-cardiac malformations. In models excluding children who had no procedure, additional predictors of higher mortality were younger age at first procedure, lower weight or height, longer cardiopulmonary bypass or circulatory arrest duration, and peri-procedural complications; non-cardiac malformations were no longer significant. Interpretation We confirm the high mortality risk associated with CHDs in the first year of life and demonstrate an important persisting risk of death throughout childhood. Late mortality may be underestimated by procedure-based audit focusing on shorter-term surgical

  9. Exposure to Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in U.S. Children 12–15 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Kate; Webster, Thomas F.; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Weinberg, Janice; Vieira, Verónica M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been widely used in consumer products. Exposures in the United States and in world populations are widespread. PFC exposures have been linked to various health impacts, and data in animals suggest that PFCs may be potential developmental neurotoxicants. Objectives We evaluated the associations between exposures to four PFCs and parental report of diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2000 and 2003–2004 for children 12–15 years of age. Parental report of a previous diagnosis by a doctor or health care professional of ADHD in the child was the primary outcome measure. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) levels were measured in serum samples from each child. Results Parents reported that 48 of 571 children included in the analysis had been diagnosed with ADHD. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for parentally reported ADHD in association with a 1-μg/L increase in serum PFOS (modeled as a continuous predictor) was 1.03 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01–1.05]. Adjusted ORs for 1-μg/L increases in PFOA and PFHxS were also statistically significant (PFOA: OR = 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01–1.23; PFHxS: OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02–1.11), and we observed a nonsignificant positive association with PFNA (OR = 1.32; 95% CI, 0.86–2.02). Conclusions Our results, using cross-sectional data, are consistent with increased odds of ADHD in children with higher serum PFC levels. Given the extremely prevalent exposure to PFCs, follow-up of these data with cohort studies is needed. PMID:20551004

  10. Do Effects of Early Child Care Extend to Age 15 Years? Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Belsky, Jay; Burchinal, Margaret; Steinberg, Laurence; Vandergrift, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    Relations between nonrelative child care (birth to 4 1/2 years) and functioning at age 15 were examined (N = 1,364). Both quality and quantity of child care were linked to adolescent functioning. Effects were similar in size as those observed at younger ages. Higher quality care predicted higher cognitive-academic achievement at age 15, with…

  11. Guillain-Barré syndrome in children aged <15 years in Latin America and the Caribbean: baseline rates in the context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic.

    PubMed

    Landaverde, José Mauricio; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Trumbo, Silas Pierson; Pacis-Tirso, Carmelita Lucia; Ruiz-Matus, Cuauhtémoc

    2010-03-01

    In light of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization of the World Health Organization requested that the acute flaccid paralysis surveillance system of Latin American and the Caribbean be used to establish Guillain-Barré syndrome incidence rates. An analysis was conducted of 10,486 acute flaccid paralysis cases diagnosed as Guillain-Barré syndrome from 2000 through 2008 in children aged <15 years in Latin American and the Caribbean countries and territories. The average incidence was 0.82 cases per 100,000 children aged <15 years (range, 0.72-0.90 cases per 100,000 children), with significant differences between northern and southern countries (1.08 vs 0.57 cases per 100,000 children). The acute flaccid paralysis surveillance system represents a useful means of monitoring Guillain-Barré syndrome during the pandemic.

  12. Action Imitation at 1.5 Years Is Better than Pointing Gesture in Predicting Late Development of Language Production at 3 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambrana, Imac M.; Ystrom, Eivind; Schjolberg, Synnve; Pons, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether poor pointing gestures and imitative actions at 18 months of age uniquely predicted late language production at 36 months, beyond the role of poor language at 18 months of age. Data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were utilized. Maternal reports of the children's nonverbal skills and language were…

  13. Childbearing in adolescents aged 12-15 years in low resource countries: a neglected issue. New estimates from demographic and household surveys in 42 countries.

    PubMed

    Neal, Sarah; Matthews, Zoë; Frost, Melanie; Fogstad, Helga; Camacho, Alma V; Laski, Laura

    2012-09-01

    There is strong evidence that the health risks associated with adolescent pregnancy are concentrated among the youngest girls (e.g. those under 16 years). Fertility rates in this age group have not previously been comprehensively estimated and published. By drawing data from 42 large, nationally representative household surveys in low resource countries carried out since 2003 this article presents estimates of age-specific birth rates for girls aged 12-15, and the percentage of girls who give birth at age 15 or younger. From these we estimate that approximately 2.5 million births occur to girls aged under 16 in low resource countries each year. The highest rates are found in Sub-Saharan Africa, where in Chad, Guinea, Mali, Mozambique, Niger and Sierra Leone more than 10% of girls become mothers before they are 16. Strategies to reduce these high levels are vital if we are to alleviate poor reproductive health. PMID:22620274

  14. The Natural History of Gross Motor Development in Children with Cerebral Palsy Aged 1 to 15 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckung, E.; Carlsson, G.; Carlsdotter, S.; Uvebrant, P.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore motor development in children with cerebral palsy (CP) using developmental curves for CP, subtypes, and the five severity levels of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). The Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and the GMFCS were applied to 317 children (145 females, 172 males) with CP, aged…

  15. Evaluation of an Intensive Intervention Programme to Protect Children Aged 1-5 Years from Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure at Home in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yücel, U.; Öcek, Z. A.; Çiçeklioglu, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this randomized-controlled trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive intervention to reduce children's environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure at their home compared with a minimal intervention. The target population of the study was the mothers of children aged 1-5 who lived in the Cengizhan district of Izmir in…

  16. Prevalence of Tobacco Use among Students Aged 13-15 Years in Health Ministers' Council/Gulf Cooperation Council Member States, 2001-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Mulla, Ahmad Moh'd; Helmy, Sahar Abdou; Al-Lawati, Jawad; Nasser, Sami Al; Rahman, Salah Ali Abdel; Almutawa, Ayesha; Saab, Bassam Abi; Al-Bedah, Abdullah Mohammed; Al-Rabeah, Abdullah Mohamed; Bahaj, Ahmed Ali; El-Awa, Fatimah; Warren, Charles W.; Jones, Nathan R.; Asma, Samira

    2008-01-01

    Background: This article examines differences and similarities in adolescent tobacco use among Member States of the Health Ministers' Council for the Gulf Cooperation Council (HMC/GCC) using Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data. Methods: Nationally representative samples of students in grades associated with ages 13-15 in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman,…

  17. Dietary diversity, animal source food consumption and linear growth among children aged 1-5 years in Bandung, Indonesia: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Muslimatun, Siti; Wiradnyani, Luh Ade Ari

    2016-07-01

    Dietary diversity involves adequate intake of macronutrient and micronutrient. The inclusion of animal source foods (ASF) in the diet helps prevent multiple nutrient deficiencies and any resultant, linear growth retardation. The objective of the current study was to assess the relationship between dietary diversity, ASF consumption and height-for-age z-score (HAZ) among children aged 12-59 months old across a 1-year observation. This longitudinal observational study without controls was conducted among four age groups: 12-23 months (n 57), 24-35 months (n 56), 36-47 months (n 58) and 48-59 months (n 56). Anthropometry and dietary intake were measured during each of four visits at 16-20-week intervals. The general characteristics and other observations were only collected at baseline and endline. During the year-long study period, approximately 27 % of the children ate a diverse diet (consumed ≥6 out of 9 food groups) according to ≥3 visits. ASF consumption was high, particularly for eggs, poultry, processed meats and liquid milk. Yet, micronutrient intake inadequacy, especially of Zn, Ca, Fe and vitamin A, was highly prevalent. A multivariate regression analysis showed that the consumption of a diverse diet and ASF was not significantly associated with the HAZ at endline, after controlling for demographic characteristics and the baseline HAZ. The consumption of a diverse diet was significantly associated with Ca intake adequacy. Moreover, ASF consumption was significantly associated with adequate intake of protein and micronutrients, particularly vitamin A, Ca and Zn. Thus, the recommendation is to continue and strengthen the promotion of consuming a diverse diet that includes ASF in supporting the linear growth of young children.

  18. Prevalence of smoking and other smoking-related behaviours among students aged 13 to 15 years in Montenegro: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey of 2008.

    PubMed

    Ljaljević, Agima; Zvrko, Elvir; Mugosa, Boban; Matijević, Snezana; Andjelić, Jasmina

    2010-06-01

    The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) is an international study that provides data on youth tobacco use for development of tobacco control programs. It is a school-based survey that uses a standardised methodology for sampling, core questionnaire items, training protocol, field procedures, and data management. This article reports the findings from a GYTS conducted in Montenegro in 2008, which included 5723 adolescents. More than 30 % of students aged 13 to 15 tried smoking, 5.1 % smoked cigarettes, and 3.6 % of students used tobacco products other than cigarettes. Four in 10 ever smokers started to smoke before the age of 10. More than half the students reported secondary smoke exposure at home. Almost all (96.5 %) current smokers bought cigarettes in a store. Two in 10 students owned an artifact with a cigarette or tobacco brand logo on it. The GYTS study has shown that there is an urgent need to introduce effective child-oriented smoking prevention programmes in early elementary school classes. These should be accompanied by public awareness campaigns on smoke-free homes.

  19. The role of maternal education in the 15-year trajectory of malnutrition in children under 5 years of age in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Md Tanvir; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J; Williams, Gail M; Mamun, Abdullah A

    2016-10-01

    Malnutrition in children under 5 years of age (U5s) is a serious public health problem in low- and middle-income countries including Bangladesh. Improved maternal education can contribute effectively to reduce child malnutrition. We examined the long-term impact of maternal education on the risk of malnutrition in U5s and quantified the level of education required for the mothers to reduce the risk. We used pooled data from five nationwide demographic and health surveys conducted in 1996-1997, 1999-2000, 2004, 2007 and 2011 in Bangladesh involving 28 941 U5s. A log-binomial regression model was used to examine the association between maternal education (no education, primary, secondary or more) and malnutrition in children, measured by stunting, underweight and wasting controlling for survey time, maternal age, maternal body mass index, maternal working status, parity, paternal education and wealth quintile. An overall improvement in maternal educational attainment was observed between 1996 and 2011. The prevalence of malnutrition although decreasing was consistently high among children of mothers with lower education compared with those of mothers with higher education. In adjusted models incorporating time effects, children of mothers with secondary or higher education were at lower risk of childhood stunting [risk ratio (RR): 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81, 0.89], underweight (RR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.78, 0.88) and wasting (RR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.91) compared with children of mothers with no education. We demonstrated the importance of promoting women's education at least up to the secondary level as a means to tackle malnutrition in Bangladesh.

  20. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in a representative sample of 11-15 year olds in France: Results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents is high and overweight is associated with poor health outcomes over short- and long-term. Lifestyle factors can interact to influence overweight. Comprehensive studies linking overweight concomitantly with several demographic and potentially-modifiable lifestyle factors and health-risk behaviours are limited in adolescents - an age-group characterized by changes in lifestyle behaviours and high prevalence of overweight. Thus, the objective of the current study was to examine the association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle variables simultaneously in a representative sample of adolescents. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11-15 year-olds (n = 7154) in France participated as part of the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Students reported data on their age, height, weight, socio-demographic variables, lifestyle factors including nutrition practices, physical activity at two levels of intensity (moderate and vigorous), sedentary behaviours, as well as smoking and alcohol consumption patterns using standardized HBSC protocols. Overweight (including obesity) was defined using the IOTF reference. The multivariate association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors was examined with logistic regression models. Results The adjusted odds ratios for the association with overweight were: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.37-2.36) for low family affluence; 0.73 (0.60-0.88) for eating breakfast daily; 0.69 (0.56-0.84) for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA); and 0.71 (0.59-0.86) for vigorous physical activity (VPA). Significant interactions between age and gender as well as television (TV) viewing and gender were noted: for boys, overweight was not associated with age or TV viewing; in contrast, for girls overweight correlated negatively with age and positively with TV viewing. Fruit and vegetable intake, computer

  1. Overweight among students aged 11–15 years and its relationship with breakfast, area of residence and parents’ education: results from the Italian HBSC 2010 cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The international increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents over the past three decades confirms that childhood obesity is a global ‘epidemic’. The World Health Organization considers childhood obesity to be a major public health concern. Childhood obesity is associated with cardiovascular, endocrine, musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal complications, and may have psycho-social consequences. The aim of this paper is to examine overweight (including obesity) prevalence and its association with geographic area of residence, parental education and daily breakfast consumption in Italian students aged 11–15 yrs. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11–15 year old students from 20 Italian Regions (Italian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2010-HBSC) was randomly selected (2,504 schools and 77,113 students). Self-reported anonymous questionnaires, prepared by the international HBSC network, were used to collect the data. BMI was calculated using self-reported weight and height and the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to assess the relationship between the risk of overweight and parental education, area of residence and breakfast consumption in each age group and gender. Results Boys were more likely to be overweight or obese than girls (28.1% vs. 18.9% at 11 yrs-old, 24.8% vs. 16.5% at 13 yrs and 25.4 vs. 11.8% at 15 yrs). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was lower among the older girls. Overweight and obesity rates increased from the North of Italy to the South in both boys and girls and in all age groups. Boys 11-15 yrs living in southern Italy had an OR=2.05 (1.77-2.38) and girls 2.04 (95% CI 1.70-2.44) for overweight (including obesity) compared with those living in the North. Parent’s low educational level and no daily breakfast consumption were also associated with overweight including obesity (p<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of

  2. Two consecutive randomized controlled pertussis booster trials in children initially vaccinated in infancy with an acellular vaccine: The first with a five-component Tdap vaccine to 5-year olds and the second with five- or monocomponent Tdap vaccines at age 14-15 years.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, R M; Gustafsson, L; Hallander, H O; Ljungman, M; Olin, P; Gothefors, L; Nilsson, L; Netterlid, E

    2015-07-17

    Prior study children from a DTaP efficacy trial were recruited at ages 5 and 15 years to randomized booster trials addressing immunogenicity and reactogenicity; 475 preschool children received mixed or separate injections of a reduced antigen vaccine (Tdap5, Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and an inactivated polio vaccine, and 230 adolescents received the same or another booster vaccine (Tdap1, SSI, Denmark). Pre-vaccination antibody concentrations against pertussis antigens were significantly higher at 15 than 5 years of age, probably due to natural boosting between the studies. Tdap5 induced comparable anti-PT concentrations at both ages, but antibody responses were significantly higher to filamentous haemagglutinin, pertactin and fimbriae 2/3 in adolescents. As expected, a higher amount of PT (Tdap1, 20μg) induced a stronger anti-PT response than a lower amount (Tdap5, 2.5μg). The frequency of adverse events was low and there were no serious adverse reactions. All local reactions had an early onset and a short duration. A large swelling or redness of more than half of the upper arm circumference was reported in 8/475 5-year-olds and in 6/230 15-year-olds. Children vaccinated with Tdap5 reported more moderate pain in adolescence than at preschool age, whereas itching was only reported in preschool children. Sweden introduced DTaP vaccines in 1996 after a 17-year hiatus with no general pertussis vaccination and pertussis was still endemic at the time of the studies. The frequency of adverse events was nevertheless low in both preschool children and adolescents and antibody responses were adequate. These studies document immunogenicity and reactogenicity in a trial cohort consecutively vaccinated with acellular pertussis vaccines from infancy to adolescence. The adolescent study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov on 26 March 2009 (NCT00870350).

  3. Artemether-Lumefantrine versus Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Children Aged Less than 15 Years in Guinea-Bissau – An Open-Label Non-Inferiority Randomised Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ursing, Johan; Rombo, Lars; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2016-01-01

    Background Artemether-lumefantrine (AL) was introduced for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Guinea-Bissau in 2008. Malaria then resurged and recurrent malaria after treatment with AL and stock-outs of AL were common. This study therefore aimed to assess the efficacy of AL and identify an alternative second line antimalarial. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) was chosen as it has been shown to be safe and efficacious and to reduce the incidence of recurrent malaria. Methods and Findings In a multicentre randomised open-label non-inferiority clinical trial, AL or DP were given over 3 days to children aged 6 months-15 years with uncomplicated P. falciparum mono-infection. Intake was observed and AL was given with milk. Children were seen on days 0, 1, 2 and 3 and then weekly days 7–42. Recurring P. falciparum were classified as recrudescence or new infections by genotyping. Between November 2012 and July 2015, 312 children were randomised to AL (n = 155) or DP (n = 157). The day 42 PCR adjusted per protocol adequate clinical and parasitological responses were 95% and 100% in the AL and DP groups respectively, Mantel-Haenszel weighted odds ratio (OR) 0.22 (95% CI 0–0.68), p = 0.022. In a modified intention to treat analysis in which treatment failures day 0 and reinfections were also considered as treatment failures adequate clinical and parasitological responses were 94% and 97% (OR 0.42 [95% CI, 0.13–1.38], p = 0.15). Parasite clearance and symptom resolution were similar with both treatments. Conclusions Both treatments achieved the WHO recommended efficacy for antimalarials about to be adopted as policy. DP was not inferior to AL for treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in Guinea-Bissau. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NTC01704508 PMID:27649561

  4. Achievement Motivation and Physical Fitness of 15-Year Old Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guszkowska, Monika; Rychta, Tadeusz

    2007-01-01

    Study aim: To determine the relations between the general and physical education-specific achievement motivation, and physical fitness of adolescent girls. Material and methods: A group of 52 girls aged 15 years were studied by applying two questionnaires: P-O scale of Widerszal-Bazyl for evaluating the general achievement motivation and Nishida's…

  5. Neonatal Duodenal Obstruction: A 15-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Rattan, Kamal Nain; Singh, Jasbir; Dalal, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Congenital duodenal obstruction is one of the commonest causes of neonatal intestinal obstruction. We are presenting our 15-year experience by analyzing clinical spectrum and outcome in neonates with duodenal obstruction admitted at our center. Material and Methods: The hospital records of all neonates admitted with duodenal obstruction from June 2000 to June 2015 were reviewed. The patient records were analyzed for antenatal diagnosis, age, sex, clinical presentation, diagnosis, associated anomalies, surgical procedures performed; postoperative morbidity and mortality. We excluded from our study malrotation of gut associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and abdominal wall defects. Results: A total of 81 patients were admitted, out of which 56 were males and 25 were females. Polyhydramnios was detected in 24 (30%) pregnancies. Average birth weight was 2.1±1.0Kg and average gestational age was 38 (SD±1) weeks with 17 (21%) preterm neonates. Presenting features were vomiting in 81(100%) which was bilious in 81% and non-bilious in 19%, epigastric fullness in 56 (69%) and dehydration in 18 (22%) and failure to thrive in 16 (19%). Most common cause of obstruction was duodenal atresia in 38 (46.9%), followed by malrotation of gut in 33 (40.7%), and annular pancreas in 4 cases. Depending upon site of location, infra-ampullary obstruction was the most common in 64 (79%), supra-ampullary in 9 (7.4%) and ampullary 8 neonates. Both duodenal atresia and malrotation of gut was present in 4 cases. X-ray abdomen was most commonly used investigation to confirm the diagnosis. All cases were managed surgically by open laparotomy. Eleven (13.5%) patients died due to sepsis and associated congenital anomalies. Conclusion: Congenital duodenal obstruction most commonly presents in early neonatal period with features of upper GIT obstruction like vomiting and epigastrium fullness as in our series. Early antenatal diagnosis and surgical interventions hold the key in

  6. Prognosis after myocardial infarction: results of 15 year follow up.

    PubMed Central

    Merrilees, M A; Scott, P J; Norris, R M

    1984-01-01

    A total of 271 out of 757 patients who had suffered a myocardial infarction during 1966-7 were still alive after six years; these patients were subsequently followed up 15 years after the infarction. Two hundred and sixty eight (99%) of the patients alive at six years and 519 (95%) of the 549 originally discharged from hospital were traced. A coronary prognostic index, which had predicted survival both to three years and from three to six years after recovery from the infarct also predicted survival from six to 15 years after recovery. The major factor affecting survival to 15 years was age at the time of the original infarct. Among patients aged under 60 at the time of infarction women fared better than men (p = 0.027). Factors in the coronary prognostic index that were associated with impairment of left ventricular function at the time of infarction and that had predicted mortality to three years and from three to six years also predicted mortality from six to 15 years. These factors were cardiac enlargement, pulmonary venous congestion, and the presence of infarction before the index infarct. The dominant cause of death remained coronary heart disease and its complications. PMID:6229313

  7. Early-onset schizophrenia: a 15-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Röpcke, Bernd; Eggers, Christian

    2005-09-01

    The study describes the psychopathological and social outcome of patients treated for schizophrenia in adolescence (mean age at onset 16.0 years/SD 1.52) after a mean follow-up period of 15.4 years (10.2-21.2 years). Out of 55 patients consecutively admitted to hospital, 47 (85 %) could be traced and 39 (71 %) could be re-examined. At follow-up, 33/39 patients (85 %) had had at least one readmission. Full remission of global psychopathological symptoms [Clinical Global Impression (CGI) nature of the diagnosis in the first episode strongly predicted the diagnosis given for the whole course after 15 years. In 26/37 cases (70 %), diagnosis at onset and overall diagnoses were the same. Our finding of an incidence of 61% insidious onset is similar to that in adult onset schizophrenia (AOS), but different to very early onset schizophrenia (VEOS), which shows a higher rate of insidious onset, cognitive impairment and poor outcome. Therefore, it seems that VEOS is a special group compared with early onset schizophrenia (EOS) and AOS. PMID:16220219

  8. PHENIX: Beyond 15 years of discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, David; Nagle, James L.

    2015-01-12

    The PHENIX experiment at BNL’s Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) was designed to uncover properties of the quark–gluon plasma (QGP) via rare penetrating probes. Over the past 15 years, the collaboration has delivered on its promised measurements, often with exciting results beyond those originally foreseen. That the QGP behaves as a nearly perfect fluid and that non-photonic electrons are substantially suppressed has led to the use of heavy quarks as probes of the medium. The PHENIX silicon vertex detectors are opening a new arena for QGP studies, and the MPC-EX, a novel forward calorimeter with silicon readout, accesses low-x physics via direct photons with unprecedented precision. PHENIX has proposed sPHENIX, a major upgrade using the recently acquired BaBar solenoid and full calorimetric coverage and high rate capabilities. sPHENIX will reconstruct jets and extend observables to higher transverse momentum, where comparisons to results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) heavy-ion program will provide the most insightful. Following the RHIC program, the nuclear physics community has identified an electron ion collider (EIC) as crucial to the next generation of QCD investigations. The BaBar magnet and sPHENIX calorimetry will be an excellent foundation for a new collaborative pursuit of discovery.

  9. PHENIX: Beyond 15 years of discovery

    DOE PAGES

    Morrison, David; Nagle, James L.

    2015-01-12

    The PHENIX experiment at BNL’s Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) was designed to uncover properties of the quark–gluon plasma (QGP) via rare penetrating probes. Over the past 15 years, the collaboration has delivered on its promised measurements, often with exciting results beyond those originally foreseen. That the QGP behaves as a nearly perfect fluid and that non-photonic electrons are substantially suppressed has led to the use of heavy quarks as probes of the medium. The PHENIX silicon vertex detectors are opening a new arena for QGP studies, and the MPC-EX, a novel forward calorimeter with silicon readout, accesses low-x physicsmore » via direct photons with unprecedented precision. PHENIX has proposed sPHENIX, a major upgrade using the recently acquired BaBar solenoid and full calorimetric coverage and high rate capabilities. sPHENIX will reconstruct jets and extend observables to higher transverse momentum, where comparisons to results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) heavy-ion program will provide the most insightful. Following the RHIC program, the nuclear physics community has identified an electron ion collider (EIC) as crucial to the next generation of QCD investigations. The BaBar magnet and sPHENIX calorimetry will be an excellent foundation for a new collaborative pursuit of discovery.« less

  10. Bronchial Leech Infestation in a 15-Year-Old Female

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Mohammad Ashkan; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a common incidence in young children. Leeches are rarely reported as FBA at any age. This study describes a 15-year-old female who presented with hemoptysis, hematemesis, coughs, melena, and anemia seven months prior to admission. Chest X-ray showed a round hyperdensity in the right lower lobe. A chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated an area of consolidation and surrounding ground glass opacities in the right lower lobe. Hematological investigations revealed anemia. Finally, bronchoscopy was performed and a 5 cm leech was found within the right B7-8 bronchus and removed by forceps and a Dormia basket. PMID:27752380

  11. Deliberate Self-Harm by under-15-Year-Olds: Characteristics, Trends and Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawton, Keith; Harriss, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Background: Relatively little information is available about the characteristics and long-term outcome of children and adolescents aged under 15 years who present to general hospitals because of deliberate self-harm (DSH). Method: Information was collected on 710 consecutive under-15-year-olds presenting to a general hospital in central England…

  12. Hydrofluoric acid burns: a 15-year experience.

    PubMed

    Stuke, Lance E; Arnoldo, Brett D; Hunt, John L; Purdue, Gary F

    2008-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is a strong inorganic acid commonly used in many domestic and industrial settings. It is one of the most common chemical burns encountered in a burn center and frequently engenders controversy in its management. We report our 15 year experience with management of HF burns. We reviewed our experience from 1990 to 2005 for patients admitted with HF burns. Primary treatment was with calcium gluconate gel. Arterial infusion of calcium and fingernail removal were reserved for unrelenting symptoms. There were 7944 acute burn admissions to our center during this study period, 204 of which were chemical burns. HF burns comprised 17% of these chemical burn admissions (35 patients). All were men, with a mean burn size of 2.1 +/- 1.5% (range, 1-6%) and hospital stay of 1.6 +/- 0.7 days (range, 0-3 days). The most common seasonal time of injury was in the summer. Twelve patients (34%) were admitted to the intensive care unit for a total of 14 intensive care unit days, primarily for arterial infusions. Ventilator support was not required in any patient. No electrolyte abnormalities occurred. All burns were either partial thickness or small full thickness with no operative intervention required and no deaths. The upper extremity was most commonly involved (29 patients, 83%). The most common cause was air conditioner cleaner (8 patients, 23%). HF is a common cause of chemical burns. Although hospital admission is usually required for vigorous treatment and pain control, burn size is usually small and does not cause electrolyte abnormalities, significant morbidity, or death. PMID:18849854

  13. The impact of drinking water, indoor dust and paint on blood lead levels of children aged 1-5 years in Montréal (Québec, Canada).

    PubMed

    Levallois, Patrick; St-Laurent, Julie; Gauvin, Denis; Courteau, Marilène; Prévost, Michèle; Campagna, Céline; Lemieux, France; Nour, Shokoufeh; D'Amour, Monique; Rasmussen, Pat E

    2014-01-01

    Lead is neurotoxic at very low dose and there is a need to better characterize the impact of domestic sources of lead on the biological exposure of young children. A cross-sectional survey evaluated the contribution of drinking water, house dust and paint to blood lead levels (BLLs) of young children living in old boroughs of Montréal (Canada). Three hundred and six children aged 1 to 5 years and currently drinking tap water participated in the study. For each participant, residential lead was measured in kitchen tap water, floor dust, windowsill dust and house paint and a venous blood sample was analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between elevated BLL in the children (≥ 75th percentile) and indoor lead contamination by means of odds ratios (OR) using 95% confidence intervals (CI). There was an association between BLL ≥75th percentile (1.78 μg/dL) and water lead when the mean water concentration was >3.3 μg/L: adjusted OR=4.7 (95% CI: 2.1-10.2). Windowsill dust loading >14.1 μg/ft(2) was also associated with BLL ≥1.78 μg/dL: adjusted OR=3.2 (95% CI: 1.3-7.8). Despite relatively low BLLs, tap water and house dust lead contribute to an increase of BLLs in exposed young children.

  14. Development of Face Recognition in 5- to 15-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnunen, Suna; Korkman, Marit; Laasonen, Marja; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of face recognition in typically developing preschool- and school-aged children (aged 5 to 15 years old, "n" = 611, 336 girls). Social predictors include sex differences and own-sex bias. At younger ages, the development of face recognition was rapid and became more gradual as the age increased up…

  15. Advanced Stage, Increased Lactate Dehydrogenase, and Primary Site, but Not Adolescent Age (≥ 15 Years), Are Associated With an Increased Risk of Treatment Failure in Children and Adolescents With Mature B-Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Results of the FAB LMB 96 Study

    PubMed Central

    Cairo, Mitchell S.; Sposto, Richard; Gerrard, Mary; Auperin, Anne; Goldman, Stanton C.; Harrison, Lauren; Pinkerton, Ross; Raphael, Martine; McCarthy, Keith; Perkins, Sherrie L.; Patte, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Adolescents (age 15 to 21 years) compared with younger children with mature B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) have been historically considered to have an inferior prognosis. We therefore analyzed the impact of age and other diagnostic factors on the risk of treatment failure in children and adolescents treated on the French-American-British Mature B-Cell Lymphoma 96 (FAB LMB 96) trial. Patients and Methods Patients were divided by risk: group A (limited), group B (intermediate), and group C (advanced), as previously described. Prognostic factors analyzed for event-free survival (EFS) included age (< 15 v ≥ 15 years), stage (I/II v III/IV), primary site, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), bone marrow/CNS (BM/CNS) involvement, and histology (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma v mediastinal B-cell lymphoma v Burkitt lymphoma or Burkitt-like lymphoma). Results The 3-year EFS for the whole cohort was 88% ± 1%. Age was not associated as a risk factor for increased treatment failure in either univariate analysis (P = .15) or multivariate analysis (P = .58). Increased LDH (≥ 2 × upper limit of normal [ULN] v < 2 × ULN), primary site, and BM-positive/CNS-positive disease were all independent risk factors associated with a significant increase in treatment failure rate (relative risk, 2.0; P < .001, P < .012, and P < .001, respectively). Conclusion LDH level at diagnosis, mediastinal disease, and combined BM-positive/CNS-positive involvement are independent risk factors in children with mature B-cell NHL. Future studies should be developed to identify specific therapeutic strategies (immunotherapy) to overcome these risk factors and to identify the biologic basis associated with these prognostic factors in children with mature B-cell NHL. PMID:22215753

  16. Patterns of Weight Control Behavior among 15 year old Girls

    PubMed Central

    Balantekin, Katherine N.; Birch, Leann L.; Savage, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objectives were to identify and predict patterns of weight control behavior in 15 year old (yo) girls and to examine weight control group differences in energy intake. Method Subjects included 166 girls assessed every 2 years (ys) from age 5 to 15. Latent class analysis was used to identify patterns of weight control behaviors. Antecedent variables (e.g. inhibitory control at 7ys), and concurrent variables (e.g. BMI and dietary intake at 15ys) were included as predictors. Assessments were a combination of survey, interview, and laboratory measures. Results LCA identified four classes of weight control behaviors, Non-dieters (26%), and three dieting groups: Lifestyle (16%), Dieters (43%), and Extreme Dieters (17%). Levels of restraint, weight concerns, and dieting frequency increased across groups, from Non-dieters to Extreme Dieters. BMI at 5ys and inhibitory control at 7ys predicted weight control group at 15ys; e.g. with every one-point decrease in inhibitory control, girls were twice as likely to be Extreme Dieters than Non-dieters. Girls in the Extreme Dieters group were mostly classified as under-reporters, and had the lowest self-reported intake, but ate significantly more in the laboratory. Discussion Among 15yo girls, “dieting” includes a range of both healthy and unhealthy behaviors. Risk factors for membership in a weight control groups are present as early as 5ys. Patterns of intake in the laboratory support the view that lower reported energy intake by Extreme Dieters is likely due under-reporting as an intent to decrease intake, not actual decreased intake. PMID:26284953

  17. Psychosocial Precursors and Correlates of Differing Internalizing Trajectories from 3 to 15 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letcher, Primrose; Smart, Diana; Sanson, Ann; Toumbourou, John W.

    2009-01-01

    Psychosocial precursors and correlates of parent-reported internalizing behavior trajectories across the age span of 3-15 years were explored using a community-based cohort of Australian children. Six internalizing trajectories had previously been identified for both girls (N = 810) and boys (N = 874) in this sample, comprising stable low, high,…

  18. The Asset-Burden Paradox of Giftedness: A 15-Year Phenomenological, Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2012-01-01

    A 15-year phenomenological case study of an exceptional female from age 15 through 30 was focused on exploring the subjective experience of development during adolescence and young adulthood, with attention to how giftedness and context interacted. The main focus became her response to trauma, which was revealed early in the study. Data, including…

  19. The Relationship between Bible Reading and Attitude toward Substance Use among 13-15 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between Bible reading and attitude toward drug use is examined among a sample of 25,888 teenagers, 13-15 year olds, throughout England and Wales. Information about sex, age, personality, belief in God, and church attendance was also considered. The conclusion is that Bible reading makes a small but significant contribution to…

  20. Behavior Disorders and Learning Disabilities over 15 Years in Rural Vermont.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huessy, Hans R.

    Early identification of Minimal Brain Dysfunction (MBD) is now easier, partly as a result of a series of 3 studies made in rural Vermont over a period of 15 years. MBD victims exhibit different behaviors at different ages. "Fidgetiness", a "nuisance" factor, and poor learning are all strong predictors of MBD for children at the 9th grade level.…

  1. Characteristics of 15-Year-Old Students Predicting Scientific Literacy Skills in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Ergül

    2016-01-01

    Since 2003, Turkey regularly participates in PISA. According to the PISA 2012 results, 15-year-old students in Turkey performed below both OECD countries and participating countries. Defining the relations between students' characteristics and their scientific literacy skills is thought to provide deeper understanding for the nature of this…

  2. Raising the Standard: A 15-Year Retrospective, 1987-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, Detroit, MI.

    This report describes the past 15 years of work by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) to raise the standards for teacher quality. The NBPTS identified five core propositions that describe the knowledge, skills, and dispositions characterizing accomplished teaching. It created professional standards for K-12 teachers,…

  3. Age at Natural Menopause and Related Factors in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Golshiri, Parastoo; Abdollahzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed to evaluate the age at natural menopause and related factors among women in a population based study in 2015 in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study 960 menopausal women were selected by cluster sampling. Demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle behavior and reproductive history aspects were collected using a structured questionnaire. Woman and her husband's educational level and occupation with family income were the variables to construct socioeconomic status using principal component analysis. Results Mean and median of natural menopause age were 48.66 and 48 years, respectively. Women body mass index (BMI) more than 30 kg/m2 had significantly higher menopausal age than women with lower BMI (P value = 0.022). The mean of menopausal age was not statistically significant in regard to marital status, physical activity, smoking status, menarche age, age at first pregnancy and history of abortion. Menopause age with pregnancy numbers and age at last pregnancy had a significant positive association. Women with better socioeconomic status had significantly higher natural menopause age. Multiple linear regression shows significant relationship between lower age at menopause with higher age at marriage, higher number of pregnancy and lower socioeconomic status. Conclusion Age at menopause in our studied sample is similar to previous estimates reported for other Iranian populations. Age at marriage, higher number of pregnancy and lower socioeconomic status were the significant factors in relations to age at menopause. PMID:27617243

  4. Age at Natural Menopause and Related Factors in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Golshiri, Parastoo; Abdollahzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed to evaluate the age at natural menopause and related factors among women in a population based study in 2015 in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study 960 menopausal women were selected by cluster sampling. Demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle behavior and reproductive history aspects were collected using a structured questionnaire. Woman and her husband's educational level and occupation with family income were the variables to construct socioeconomic status using principal component analysis. Results Mean and median of natural menopause age were 48.66 and 48 years, respectively. Women body mass index (BMI) more than 30 kg/m2 had significantly higher menopausal age than women with lower BMI (P value = 0.022). The mean of menopausal age was not statistically significant in regard to marital status, physical activity, smoking status, menarche age, age at first pregnancy and history of abortion. Menopause age with pregnancy numbers and age at last pregnancy had a significant positive association. Women with better socioeconomic status had significantly higher natural menopause age. Multiple linear regression shows significant relationship between lower age at menopause with higher age at marriage, higher number of pregnancy and lower socioeconomic status. Conclusion Age at menopause in our studied sample is similar to previous estimates reported for other Iranian populations. Age at marriage, higher number of pregnancy and lower socioeconomic status were the significant factors in relations to age at menopause.

  5. Genetic and genomic insights into age at natural menopause.

    PubMed

    Moron, Francisco Jesus; Ruiz, Agustin; Galan, Jose Jorge

    2009-01-01

    The age at natural menopause shows great variability. It has been proposed that early age at menopause is a risk factor for osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease, whereas later age at menopause is a risk factor for breast cancer. In addition, it is thought that the genetic factors accounting for the genetic variability in age at menopause could also play a role in those diseases, as well as infertility in women. In this minireview we comment on the latest genetics and genomics insights into age at natural menopause.

  6. Skin Ageing: Natural Weapons and Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Binic, Ivana; Lazarevic, Viktor; Ljubenovic, Milanka; Mojsa, Jelena; Sokolovic, Dusan

    2013-01-01

    The fact that the skin is the most visible organ makes us aware of the ageing process every minute. The use of plant extracts and herbs has its origins in ancient times. Chronological and photo-ageing can be easily distinguished clinically, but they share important molecular features. We tried to gather the most interesting evidence based on facts about plants and plant extracts used in antiaging products. Our main idea was to emphasize action mechanisms of these plant/herbal products, that is, their “strategies” in fighting skin ageing. Some of the plant extracts have the ability to scavenge free radicals, to protect the skin matrix through the inhibition of enzymatic degradation, or to promote collagen synthesis in the skin. There are some plants that can affect skin elasticity and tightness. Certainly, there is a place for herbal principles in antiaging cosmetics. On the other hand, there is a constant need for more evaluation and more clinical studies in vivo with emphasis on the ingredient concentration of the plant/herbal products, its formulation, safety, and duration of the antiaging effect. PMID:23431351

  7. Lytic Cycle of Toxoplasma gondii: 15 Years Later.

    PubMed

    Blader, Ira J; Coleman, Bradley I; Chen, Chun-Ti; Gubbels, Marc-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is the clinical and pathological consequence of acute infection with the obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Symptoms result from tissue destruction that accompanies lytic parasite growth. This review updates current understanding of the host cell invasion, parasite replication, and eventual egress that constitute the lytic cycle, as well as the ways T. gondii manipulates host cells to ensure its survival. Since the publication of a previous iteration of this review 15 years ago, important advances have been made in our molecular understanding of parasite growth and mechanisms of host cell egress, and knowledge of the parasite's manipulation of the host has rapidly progressed. Here we cover molecular advances and current conceptual frameworks that include each of these topics, with an eye to what may be known 15 years from now.

  8. Dynamic Characteristic Analysis of Spinal Motor Control Between 11- and 15-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Chow, Daniel H; Lau, Newman M

    2016-07-01

    Spinal motor control can provide substantial insight for the causes of spinal musculoskeletal disorders. Its dynamic characteristics however, have not been fully investigated. The objective of this study is to explore the dynamic characteristics of spinal motor control via the fractional Brownian motion mathematical technique. Spinal curvatures and repositioning errors of different spinal regions in 64 children age 11- or 15-years old during upright stance were measured and compared for the effects of age and gender. With the application of the fractional Brownian motion analytical technique to the changes of spinal curvatures, distinct persistent movement behaviors could be determined, which could be interpreted physiologically as open-loop behaviors. Moreover, it was found that the spinal motor control of 15-year-old children was better than that of 11-year-old children with smaller repositioning error and less curvature variability as well as shorter response time and smaller curvature deformation.

  9. National survey of the oral health of 12- and 15-year-old schoolchildren in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    El-Nadeef, M A I; Al Hussani, E; Hassab, H; Arab, I A

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the first national survey of oral health in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Using WHO criteria, dental caries and fluorosis were recorded in 2651 schoolchildren aged 12 and 15 years, and periodontal disease in those aged 15 years. The prevalence of dental caries in the permanent teeth of 12-year-olds was 54%; the mean DMFT (number of decayed, missing or filled permanent teeth) per child was 1.6. The prevalence of dental caries in 15-year-olds was 65% and the mean DMFT was 2.5. For the UAE as a whole, 70% of 12-year-old schoolchildren had no dental fluorosis and 37% of 15-year-olds had healthy periodontal tissues.

  10. Type IV congenital laryngeal web: Case report and 15 year follow up.

    PubMed

    Sorichetti, Brendan; Moxham, John P; Kozak, Frederick K

    2016-01-01

    A five day old patient with mild VACTERL syndrome had repair of a type IV congenital laryngeal web with successful decannulation 76 days later. Voice and respiratory outcome is good with follow up 15 years later. This case presents a rare clinical finding of a type IV laryngeal web successfully repaired with a keel and subsequent long term follow up during an era when it was suggested that repair be delayed until 18 months of age at the earliest. PMID:26954872

  11. Phase II TPDCV protocol for pediatric low-grade hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas: 15-year update

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Kavita K.; Squire, Sarah; Lamborn, Kathleen; Banerjee, Anuradha; Gupta, Nalin; Wara, William M.; Prados, Michael D.; Berger, Mitchel S.

    2010-01-01

    To report long-term results for children with low-grade hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas treated on a phase II chemotherapy protocol. Between 1984 and 1992, 33 children with hypothalamic/chiasmatic LGGs received TPDCV chemotherapy on a phase II prospective trial. Median age was 3.0 years (range 0.3–16.2). Twelve patients (36%) underwent STRs, 14 (42%) biopsy only, and seven (21%) no surgery. Twenty patients (61%) had pathologic JPAs, nine (27%) grade II gliomas, and four (12%) no surgical sampling. Median f/u for surviving patients was 15.2 years (range 5.3–20.7); 20 of the 23 surviving patients had 14 or more years of follow-up. Fifteen-year PFS and OS were 23.4 and 71.2%, respectively. Twenty-five patients progressed, of whom 13 are NED, two are AWD, and 10 have died. All children who died were diagnosed and first treated at age three or younger. Age at diagnosis was significantly associated with relapse and survival (P = 0.004 for PFS and P = 0.037 for OS). No PFS or OS benefit was seen with STR versus biopsy/no sampling (P = 0.58 for PFS, P = 0.59 for OS). For patients with JPAs and WHO grade II tumors, the 15-year PFS was 18.8 and 22.2% (P = 0.95) and 15-year OS was 73.7 and 55.6% (P = 0.17), respectively. Upfront TPDCV for children with hypothalamic/chiasmatic LGGs resulted in 15-year OS of 71.2% and 15-year PFS of 23.4%. No survival benefit is demonstrated for greater extent of resection. Age is a significant prognostic factor for progression and survival. PMID:20221671

  12. VII. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB): factor structure for 3 to 15 year olds.

    PubMed

    Mungas, Dan; Widaman, Keith; Zelazo, Philip David; Tulsky, David; Heaton, Robert K; Slotkin, Jerry; Blitz, David L; Gershon, Richard C

    2013-08-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis was used the evaluate the dimensional structure underlying the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB) and the measures chosen to serve as concurrent validity criteria for the NIH Toolbox CB. These results were used to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity of the CB in children ranging from 3 to 15 years of age. Results were evaluated separately for a 3- to 6-year-old group and a 8- to 15-year-old group because different validation measures were used in these age groups. Three distinct dimensions were found for the 3- to 6-year-old group: Vocabulary, Reading, and Fluid Abilities. Five dimensions were found for 8-15 year olds: Vocabulary, Reading, Episodic Memory, Working Memory, and Executive Function/Processing Speed. CB measures and their validation analogues consistently defined common factors in a pattern that broadly supported the convergent and discriminant validity of the CB, but results showed higher intercorrelation and less differentiation of cognitive dimensions in younger than in older children and in older children compared with adults. Age was strongly related to the cognitive dimensions underlying test performance in both groups of children and results are consistent with broader literature showing increasing differentiation of cognitive abilities associated with the rapid brain development that occurs from early childhood into adulthood.

  13. [Socio-demographic impact of 15 years of family planning].

    PubMed

    Rosales Aujang, Enrique; Felguérez Flores, Jesús Alberto

    2005-08-01

    Familiar planning is an important branch of the preventive medicine that can have a great impact on the health of the humanity. The present study is an evaluation by a cross section of the effects obtained by the program of familiar planning during a period of 15 years in the Aguascalientes Delegation of the Mexican Institute of the Social Security, establishing therefore a diagnosis and identifying elements that can contribute in the suitable planning of strategies to improve the quality of the attention and to respond to social and health necessities of the population.

  14. Oral cavity rare lesions: 15 years case histories

    PubMed Central

    BARTULI, F.N.; LUCIANI, F.; CARDONI, G.; MUZZI, F.; CADDEO, F.; OTTRIA, L.; ARCURI, C.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives. Oral cavity rare diseases include a various group of uncommon morbid conditions. For this reason they are often called “orphan diseases”, as they are not interesting for research and the description of their natural history is not easy. The aim of our study is to analyze the prevalence and the distribution of oral cavity rare diseases in order to increase their knowledge and allow a fast therapeutic approach. Methods and material. 3144 patients took part to our study, they were choosen according to specific criteria and included in a experimental program; they all were prepared for oral biopsy surgery at Fatebenefratelli Hospital - Tor Vergata University of Rome. Following the results of the histological diagnosis, patients have been grouped. Results. From 1996 to 2010, we observed 1635 men and 1509 women, average age was 53 years, higher for women (55y.) and lower for men (52y.). Conclusions. Nevertheless the low level of accordance and the difficulty in description of natural history of diseases reported in literature, we can conclude that, according to our study the onset of rare diseases shows a percentage of appearing statistically significant. PMID:23277869

  15. Cutaneous metastases from gastric adenocarcinoma 15 years after curative gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Yan, Wen Liang; Liu, Haibo; Zhang, Min; Sang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 38-year-old man, who developed cutaneous metastases in the left inguinal groove 15 years after curative gastrectomy for advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. Histopathologic examination revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma cells. They were stained positive for villin, CDX-2, CKpan (AE1/ AE3), CEA, CK8/18, CK19, CK7, EMA, Ki-67 (50%), and negative for S-100, CK20, CD34, GCDFP-15 and TTF-1. The patient underwent local excision, after the presence of other metastases was excluded. Nevertheless, local recurrence developed at the surgical bed one year later and PET/CT revealed metastases to lymph nodes, bone and skin. He died 2 years after the appearance of cutaneous metastases. We have reviewed the literature and described the immunohistochemical characteristics of cutaneous metastases from gastric adenocarcinoma. PMID:26312672

  16. Towards understanding software: 15 years in the SEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose

    1990-01-01

    For 15 years, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) at GSFC has been carrying out studies and experiments for the purpose of understanding, assessing, and improving software, and software processes within a production software environment. The SEL comprises three major organizations: (1) the GSFC Flight Dynamics Division; (2) the University of Maryland Computer Science Department; and (3) the Computer Sciences Corporation Flight Dynamics Technology Group. These organizations have jointly carried out several hundred software studies, producing hundreds of reports, papers, and documents: all describing some aspect of the software engineering technology that has undergone analysis in the flight dynamics environment. The studies range from small controlled experiments (such as analyzing the effectiveness of code reading versus functional testing) to large, multiple-project studies (such as assessing the impacts of Ada on a production environment). The key findings that NASA feels have laid the foundation for ongoing and future software development and research activities are summarized.

  17. [Application of variable magnetic fields in medicine--15 years experience].

    PubMed

    Sieroń, Aleksander; Cieślar, Grzegorz

    2003-01-01

    The results of 15-year own experimental and clinical research on application of variable magnetic fields in medicine were presented. In experimental studies analgesic effect (related to endogenous opioid system and nitrogen oxide activity) and regenerative effect of variable magnetic fields with therapeutical parameters was observed. The influence of this fields on enzymatic and hormonal activity, free oxygen radicals, carbohydrates, protein and lipid metabolism, dielectric and rheological properties of blood as well as behavioural reactions and activity of central dopamine receptor in experimental animals was proved. In clinical studies high therapeutic efficacy of magnetotherapy and magnetostimulation in the treatment of osteoarthrosis, abnormal ossification, osteoporosis, nasosinusitis, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, spastic paresis, diabetic polyneuropathy and retinopathy, vegetative neurosis, peptic ulcers, colon irritable and trophic ulcers was confirmed. PMID:15049208

  18. The Iberoamerican Cerebrovascular Diseases Society: 15 years moving forward.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Diez-Tejedor, Exuperio; Sacks, Claudio; Ameriso, Sebastián F; Náder, Juan; Alonso de Leciñana, María; Massaro, Ayrton

    2013-06-01

    The Iberoamerican Cerebrovascular Diseases Society was founded 15 years ago. Being aware of the increased burden of stroke in Latin America, its members have been working to enhance the knowledge on stroke among physicians in the region, to increase public awareness on stroke warning signs, and to motivate public health authorities to implement programs that speed the access of stroke patients to specialized units. Besides organizing annual meetings that have convened an increasing number of attendees, the Society has been actively involved in the elaboration of guidelines for stroke classification and therapy that will be practical for use at a regional level, as well as in the consolidation of links with other stroke societies to increase the diffusion of local stroke issues to the medical community at large. The Society is also involved in the Safe Implementation of Treatment in Stroke trial as well as in other studies that will increase the knowledge on stroke management and prognosis in the region.

  19. U.S. energy independence in 15 years

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Chris R

    2008-01-01

    Establish U.S. energy independence within 15 years -- This is a enormous systems engineering challenge to thoroughly analyze the present mix of power generation, energy consumption in all sectors such as transportation, industrial, commercial and residential, and devise new technologies to assist the process to independence. At this level, all citizens will be affected, requiring not only effective technologies, but superior cost/benefit ratios and effective free market interactions. With U.S. energy independence, world markets will be influenced. It will be necessary to develop or modify new energy sources, possibly including storage, and adjust or modify energy consumption profiles. Figure 1 shows the expected transition from present-day energy consumption based on both domestic and imported energy. During the 15 year period, the U.S. transitions to energy independence, eliminating imports, and perhaps reduces total energy consumption due to increased efficiency. In the future, U.S. energy consumption is able to grow in accordance with national policies and enhanced domestic capabilities. At the present time, the primary energy import is hydrocarbon products -- primarily oil. Of that imported oil, most of it is used for transportation. In order to reduce the need for imported oil, the U.S. will need to revamp its energy supply and energy consumption mixes. This change in business and usage in the U.S. will require enonnous effort on the part of many organizations and individuals. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) will take the technological lead on this grand challenge. Nearly all directorates, technical, planning and policy capabilities will be brought together and focused on this objective. A simplified chart of the interactions within LANL is shown in Figure 3. Given the enonnous undertaking of U.S. energy independence, the vast engineering, technological and science-based capabilities of LANL will work together performing systems engineering, applied

  20. Pulse Pressure Magnifies the Effect of COMT Val(158)Met on 15 Years Episodic Memory Trajectories.

    PubMed

    Persson, Ninni; Lavebratt, Catharina; Sundström, Anna; Fischer, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether a physiological marker of cardiovascular health, pulse pressure (PP), and age magnified the effect of the functional COMT Val(158)Met (rs4680) polymorphism on 15-years cognitive trajectories [episodic memory (EM), visuospatial ability, and semantic memory] using data from 1585 non-demented adults from the Betula study. A multiple-group latent growth curve model was specified to gauge individual differences in change, and average trends therein. The allelic variants showed negligible differences across the cognitive markers in average trends. The older portion of the sample selectively age-magnified the effects of Val(158)Met on EM changes, resulting in greater decline in Val compared to homozygote Met carriers. This effect was attenuated by statistical control for PP. Further, PP moderated the effects of COMT on 15-years EM trajectories, resulting in greater decline in Val carriers, even after accounting for the confounding effects of sex, education, cardiovascular diseases (diabetes, stroke, and hypertension), and chronological age, controlled for practice gains. The effect was still present after excluding individuals with a history of cardiovascular diseases. The effects of cognitive change were not moderated by any other covariates. This report underscores the importance of addressing synergistic effects in normal cognitive aging, as the addition thereof may place healthy individuals at greater risk for memory decline. PMID:26973509

  1. Asymptomatic abdominal wall endometrioma 15 years after cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Tica, V I; Tomescu, C L; Tomescu, Aneta; Micu, Luminiţa; Zaher, M; Bafani, S; Beghim, M; Serbănescu, L; Tica, Irina

    2006-01-01

    Abdominal wall endometriosis is rare and its diagnosis is difficult. However, the consequences may be serious, like recurrences or even malignant transformation. We report a rarer case of asymptomatic abdominal wall endometrioma, accidentally found during a surgical procedure for a second cesarean section, in a 39-years old patient, without any relevant history of endometriosis. The tumor was subcutaneous, 3/3 cm in size, located in the left angle of the incision from the 15 years previously performed cesarean section and freely mobile in relation with the skin and the fascia. It was excised, with clear margins (to prevent recurrences), during the procedure. The patient was discharged after five days. The postoperative period and the follow-up at one and three months were uneventful. The pathological examination clarified the diagnosis by revealing an endometrioma with decidual reaction. Such a condition may be, therefore, evoked before an abdominal wall tumor, even without specific symptoms, even in a 39-years old woman and longtime after the possible causal surgery. Pathological examination remains the ultimate diagnostic tool. Relevant prophylactic attitude at the end of the cesarean section may be considered.

  2. Talocalcaneal coalition in a 15 year old female basketball player.

    PubMed

    Schenkel, David; Degraauw, Jennifer; Degraauw, Christopher

    2010-12-01

    This case reports an adolescent athlete with activity related chronic bilateral dorsal foot pain and stiffness. A 15 year old competitive female basketball player presented to a chiropractor subsequent to an unsuccessful course of conservative treatment for posterior tibial dysfunction. The patient's plain films were incorrectly read as normal and a CT scan obtained by the radiologist called the findings bilateral osteoarthritis. The patient was awaiting a referral to a rheumatologist at the time of initial consultation with the chiropractor. Examination revealed limited subtalar mobility and review of the images revealed bilateral non-osseous talocalcaneal coalition. The patient was subsequently directed to a pediatric orthopedic surgeon and is scheduled for a resection of the coalition. Primary care practitioners should be aware of this uncommon, but not rare, variable clinical presentation as misdiagnosis and mismanagement could lead to suboptimal patient outcomes. To our knowledge this is the first case report of a patient with tarsal coalition published in chiropractic literature. In addition, this case is the first to report radiographic evidence of chronic mechanical stress to the second metatarsal associated with tarsal coalition.

  3. Natural Compounds and Aging: Between Autophagy and Inflammasome

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Shih-Yi; Lin, Chih-Hung; Fang, Jia-You

    2014-01-01

    Aging, a natural physiological process, is characterized by a progressive loss of physiological integrity. Loss of cellular homeostasis in the aging process results from different sources, including changes in genes, cell imbalance, and dysregulation of the host-defense systems. Innate immunity dysfunctions during aging are connected with several human pathologies, including metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies have clearly indicated that the decline in autophagic capacity that accompanies aging results in the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and further process dysfunction of the NACHT, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation in the macrophages, which produce the proinflammatory cytokines. These factors impair cellular housekeeping and expose cells to higher risk in many age-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. In this review, we investigated the relationship between dysregulation of the inflammasome activation and perturbed autophagy with aging as well as the possible molecular mechanisms. We also summarized the natural compounds from food intake, which have potential to reduce the inflammasome activation and enhance autophagy and can further improve the age-related diseases discussed in this paper. PMID:25298963

  4. Gouty arthritis in a 15-year-old girl with Bartter's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Derakhshan, Nima; Derakhshan, Dorna; Basiratnia, Mitra; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Hashemi, Ghamar; Derakhshan, Ali

    2010-11-01

    A 15-year-old girl, a known case of Bartter's syndrome (BS) for 7 years, developed severe pain in her right knee and right and left ankle. Her older sister had BS and developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) at the age of 14 years. Her serum uric acid was 12.6 mg/dL, 6 months ago, and 15.4 mg/dL in her recent lab data. Hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis are commonly seen in adults with BS, but to our knowledge there is no report of gouty arthritis in pediatric literature.

  5. Temporal Space Lymphatic Malformation in a 15-Year-Old Adolescent: An Extraordinary Case.

    PubMed

    Igoumenakis, Dimosthenis; Logothetis, Ioannis; Barmpagadaki, Alina; Ieromonachou, Panayotis; Mastorakis, George

    2016-07-01

    Lymphatic malformations-previously called lymphangiomas or cystic hygromas-are regarded as non-malignant primary disorders of the lymphatic system. They appear predominantly in infants and children, with 90 % of cases being diagnosed by the age of 2 years. Also, they constitute an infrequent entity, accounting for 5 % of all benign tumors in infants and children. In adults they are extremely rare. In the present article we present an extraordinary case of a lymphatic malformation that ensued in the temporal area of a 15-year old adolescent.

  6. Temporal Space Lymphatic Malformation in a 15-Year-Old Adolescent: An Extraordinary Case.

    PubMed

    Igoumenakis, Dimosthenis; Logothetis, Ioannis; Barmpagadaki, Alina; Ieromonachou, Panayotis; Mastorakis, George

    2016-07-01

    Lymphatic malformations-previously called lymphangiomas or cystic hygromas-are regarded as non-malignant primary disorders of the lymphatic system. They appear predominantly in infants and children, with 90 % of cases being diagnosed by the age of 2 years. Also, they constitute an infrequent entity, accounting for 5 % of all benign tumors in infants and children. In adults they are extremely rare. In the present article we present an extraordinary case of a lymphatic malformation that ensued in the temporal area of a 15-year old adolescent. PMID:27408452

  7. 15 years experience with helium ion radiotherapy for uvealmelanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Joseph R.; D.H. Char, P.L. Petti; Daftarii, K.; Quivey,J.M.; Singh, R.P.; Blakeley, E.A.; Phillips, T.L.

    1997-06-01

    Purpose: To review the long-term experience of helium iontherapy as a therapeutic alternative to enucleation for uveal melanoma,particularly with respect to survival, local control, and morbidity.Methods and Materials: 347 patients with uveal melanoma were treated withheluim ion RT from 1978-1992. A nonrandomized dose-searching study wasundertaken, with doses progressively reduced from 80 GyE in fivefractionsto 48 GyE in four fractions, given in 3-15 days, mean of 7days. Results: Local control was achieved in 96 percent of patients, withno difference in the rate of local control being seen at 80, 70, 60, or50 GyE in five fractions. At the lowest dose level of 48 GyE in fourfractions, the local control rate fell to 87 percent. Fifteen of 347patients (4 percent) had local regrowth in the eye requiring enucleation(12 patients), laser (1 patient) or reirradiation (2 patients). The timeof appearance of local regrowth ranged from 4 months to 5 yearsposttreatment, with 85 percent occurring within 3 years. Of the 347patients, 208 are alive as of May 1, 1997. The median follow up of allpatients is 8.5 years, range 1-17 years. Kaplan-Maier (K-M) survival is80 percent at 5 years, 76 percent at 10 years, and 72 percent at 15 yearsposttreatment. Patients with tumors not involving the ciliary body have a15-year K-M survival of 80 percent. The results for patients whose tumorsinvolved the ciliary body are poor, with a 15-year K-M survival of 43percent. Seventy-five percent of patients with tumors at least 3.0 mmfrom the fovea and optic nerve, and initial ultrasound height less than6.0 mm, retained vision of 20/200 or better posttreatment. Patients withtumors larger than 6 mm in thickness, or with tumors lying close to theoptic nerve or fovea, have a reduced chance of retaining useful vision.The enucleation rate is 19 percent, 3 percent for local failure and 16percent because of complications of the helium RT, particularlyneovascular glaucoma, which occurred in 35 percent of

  8. Methods and Measures Used for Follow-up at 15 Years of the English and Romanian Adoptee (ERA) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This chapter covers the methods and measures used in the ERA study, with a special focus on age 15 outcomes. First, the authors outline the sample participation rate for the 15-year follow-up--the percentages in all cases referring to the numbers at the time of initial sample contact. They then describe the measures used in this monograph,…

  9. Bioactive compounds from natural resources against skin aging.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Pulok K; Maity, Niladri; Nema, Neelesh K; Sarkar, Birendra K

    2011-12-15

    Skin aging involves degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in both the epidermal and dermal layers, it leaves visible signs on the surface of skin and the physical properties of the skin are modified. Chronological aging is due to passage of time, whereas premature aging occurred due to some environmental factors on skin produces visible signs such as irregular dryness, dark/light pigmentation, sallowness, severe atrophy, telangiectases, premalignant lesions, laxity, leathery appearance and deep wrinkling. There are several synthetic skincare cosmetics existing in the market to treat premature aging and the most common adverse reactions of those include allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, phototoxic and photo-allergic reactions. Recent trends in anti-aging research projected the use of natural products derived from ancient era after scientific validation. Ample varieties of phytomolecules such as aloin, ginsenoside, curcumin, epicatechin, asiaticoside, ziyuglycoside I, magnolol, gallic acid, hydroxychavicol, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, etc. scavenges free radicals from skin cells, prevent trans-epidermal water loss, include a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 or higher contribute to protect skin from wrinkles, leading to glowing and healthy younger skin. Present era of treating aging skin has become technologically more invasive; but herbal products including botanicals are still relevant and combining them with molecular techniques outlined throughout this review will help to maximize the results and maintain the desired anti-skin aging benefits. PMID:22115797

  10. Bioactive compounds from natural resources against skin aging.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Pulok K; Maity, Niladri; Nema, Neelesh K; Sarkar, Birendra K

    2011-12-15

    Skin aging involves degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in both the epidermal and dermal layers, it leaves visible signs on the surface of skin and the physical properties of the skin are modified. Chronological aging is due to passage of time, whereas premature aging occurred due to some environmental factors on skin produces visible signs such as irregular dryness, dark/light pigmentation, sallowness, severe atrophy, telangiectases, premalignant lesions, laxity, leathery appearance and deep wrinkling. There are several synthetic skincare cosmetics existing in the market to treat premature aging and the most common adverse reactions of those include allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, phototoxic and photo-allergic reactions. Recent trends in anti-aging research projected the use of natural products derived from ancient era after scientific validation. Ample varieties of phytomolecules such as aloin, ginsenoside, curcumin, epicatechin, asiaticoside, ziyuglycoside I, magnolol, gallic acid, hydroxychavicol, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids, etc. scavenges free radicals from skin cells, prevent trans-epidermal water loss, include a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15 or higher contribute to protect skin from wrinkles, leading to glowing and healthy younger skin. Present era of treating aging skin has become technologically more invasive; but herbal products including botanicals are still relevant and combining them with molecular techniques outlined throughout this review will help to maximize the results and maintain the desired anti-skin aging benefits.

  11. Reproducibility of a web-based FFQ for 13- to 15-year-old Danish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bjerregaard, Anne A; Tetens, Inge; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2016-01-01

    FFQ are widely used in large-scale studies to assess dietary intake. To aid interpretation of diet-disease associations assessment of validity must be performed. Reproducibility is one aspect of validity focusing on the stability of repeated assessment with the same method which may also reveal problems in instrument design or participant instructions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reproducibility of a web-based FFQ targeting Danish adolescents within the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Data for the present study were obtained from a prospective design nested within the DNBC. Adolescents aged 13 to 15 years old (n 48, 60 % girls) completed the FFQ twice 4 weeks apart. The proportion of adolescents consistently classified into the same tertile according to amount of food intake ranged from 45 % (fish) to 77 % (vegetables), whereas classification into opposite tertiles ranged from 0 % (fruit, oils and dressing) to 15 % (beverages). Overall, no significant differences were observed in intake of food groups or nutrients between the two completions of the FFQ. Mean crude Spearman correlation for all food groups was 0·56 and mean intra-class correlation for all food groups was 0·61. In conclusion, the reproducibility of the FFQ for Danish adolescents was acceptable. The study revealed that adolescents aged 13-15 years seemed capable of recalling consistently overall dietary habits and had some difficulties estimating the frequency of consumption of regularly consumed food items. PMID:26855775

  12. Survival of rock-colonizing organisms after 1.5 years in outer space.

    PubMed

    Onofri, Silvano; de la Torre, Rosa; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Ott, Sieglinde; Zucconi, Laura; Selbmann, Laura; Scalzi, Giuliano; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J; Rabbow, Elke; Sánchez Iñigo, Francisco J; Horneck, Gerda

    2012-05-01

    Cryptoendolithic microbial communities and epilithic lichens have been considered as appropriate candidates for the scenario of lithopanspermia, which proposes a natural interplanetary exchange of organisms by means of rocks that have been impact ejected from their planet of origin. So far, the hardiness of these terrestrial organisms in the severe and hostile conditions of space has not been tested over extended periods of time. A first long-term (1.5 years) exposure experiment in space was performed with a variety of rock-colonizing eukaryotic organisms at the International Space Station on board the European EXPOSE-E facility. Organisms were selected that are especially adapted to cope with the environmental extremes of their natural habitats. It was found that some-but not all-of those most robust microbial communities from extremely hostile regions on Earth are also partially resistant to the even more hostile environment of outer space, including high vacuum, temperature fluctuation, the full spectrum of extraterrestrial solar electromagnetic radiation, and cosmic ionizing radiation. Although the reported experimental period of 1.5 years in space is not comparable with the time spans of thousands or millions of years believed to be required for lithopanspermia, our data provide first evidence of the differential hardiness of cryptoendolithic communities in space.

  13. Ca2+ dynamics in oocytes from naturally-aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Haverfield, Jenna; Nakagawa, Shoma; Love, Daniel; Tsichlaki, Elina; Nomikos, Michail; Lai, F. Anthony; Swann, Karl; FitzHarris, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The ability of human metaphase-II arrested eggs to activate following fertilisation declines with advancing maternal age. Egg activation is triggered by repetitive increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in the ooplasm as a result of sperm-egg fusion. We therefore hypothesised that eggs from older females feature a reduced ability to mount appropriate Ca2+ responses at fertilisation. To test this hypothesis we performed the first examination of Ca2+ dynamics in eggs from young and naturally-aged mice. Strikingly, we find that Ca2+ stores and resting [Ca2+]i are unchanged with age. Although eggs from aged mice feature a reduced ability to replenish intracellular Ca2+ stores following depletion, this difference had no effect on the duration, number, or amplitude of Ca2+ oscillations following intracytoplasmic sperm injection or expression of phospholipase C zeta. In contrast, we describe a substantial reduction in the frequency and duration of oscillations in aged eggs upon parthenogenetic activation with SrCl2. We conclude that the ability to mount and respond to an appropriate Ca2+ signal at fertilisation is largely unchanged by advancing maternal age, but subtle changes in Ca2+ handling occur that may have more substantial impacts upon commonly used means of parthenogenetic activation. PMID:26785810

  14. Coronary artery occlusion after arterial switch operation in an asymptomatic 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Saini, Ashish P; Cyran, Stephen E; Ettinger, Steven M; Pauliks, Linda B

    2016-08-16

    A 15-year-old boy with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and neonatal arterial switch operation (ASO) presented with complete occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA). Intra-operatively, an intramural left coronary artery was identified. Therefore, since age 7 years he had a series of screening exercise stress tests. At 13 years old, he had 3 to 4 mm ST segment depression in the infero-lateral leads without symptoms. This progressed to 4.2 mm inferior ST segment depression at 15 years old with normal stress echocardiogram. Sestamibi myocardial perfusion scan and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was inconclusive. Therefore, a coronary angiogram was obtained which showed complete occlusion of the LMCA with ample collateralization from the right coronary artery system. This was later confirmed on a computed tomogram (CT) angiogram, obtained in preparation of coronary artery bypass grafting. The case illustrates the difficulty of detecting coronary artery stenosis and occlusion in young patients with rich collateralization. Coronary CT angiogram and conventional angiography were the best imaging modalities to detect coronary anomalies in this adolescent with surgically corrected TGA. Screening CT angiography may be warranted for TGA patients, particularly for those with known coronary anomalies.

  15. Coronary artery occlusion after arterial switch operation in an asymptomatic 15-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Ashish P; Cyran, Stephen E; Ettinger, Steven M; Pauliks, Linda B

    2016-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and neonatal arterial switch operation (ASO) presented with complete occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA). Intra-operatively, an intramural left coronary artery was identified. Therefore, since age 7 years he had a series of screening exercise stress tests. At 13 years old, he had 3 to 4 mm ST segment depression in the infero-lateral leads without symptoms. This progressed to 4.2 mm inferior ST segment depression at 15 years old with normal stress echocardiogram. Sestamibi myocardial perfusion scan and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was inconclusive. Therefore, a coronary angiogram was obtained which showed complete occlusion of the LMCA with ample collateralization from the right coronary artery system. This was later confirmed on a computed tomogram (CT) angiogram, obtained in preparation of coronary artery bypass grafting. The case illustrates the difficulty of detecting coronary artery stenosis and occlusion in young patients with rich collateralization. Coronary CT angiogram and conventional angiography were the best imaging modalities to detect coronary anomalies in this adolescent with surgically corrected TGA. Screening CT angiography may be warranted for TGA patients, particularly for those with known coronary anomalies. PMID:27574609

  16. Coronary artery occlusion after arterial switch operation in an asymptomatic 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Saini, Ashish P; Cyran, Stephen E; Ettinger, Steven M; Pauliks, Linda B

    2016-08-16

    A 15-year-old boy with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and neonatal arterial switch operation (ASO) presented with complete occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA). Intra-operatively, an intramural left coronary artery was identified. Therefore, since age 7 years he had a series of screening exercise stress tests. At 13 years old, he had 3 to 4 mm ST segment depression in the infero-lateral leads without symptoms. This progressed to 4.2 mm inferior ST segment depression at 15 years old with normal stress echocardiogram. Sestamibi myocardial perfusion scan and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was inconclusive. Therefore, a coronary angiogram was obtained which showed complete occlusion of the LMCA with ample collateralization from the right coronary artery system. This was later confirmed on a computed tomogram (CT) angiogram, obtained in preparation of coronary artery bypass grafting. The case illustrates the difficulty of detecting coronary artery stenosis and occlusion in young patients with rich collateralization. Coronary CT angiogram and conventional angiography were the best imaging modalities to detect coronary anomalies in this adolescent with surgically corrected TGA. Screening CT angiography may be warranted for TGA patients, particularly for those with known coronary anomalies. PMID:27574609

  17. [Radiology of osteoarticular changes in patients undergoing periodic hemodialysis for more than 15 years].

    PubMed

    Orzincolo, C; Bedani, P L; Scutellari, P N; Ghedini, M; Storari, A; Cavallari, L; Cardona, P

    1991-05-01

    Osteoarticular complications, which are characterized by osseous pain, pathologic fractures, and decreased articular mobility, represent one of the major problems affecting long-term (over 15 years) hemodialysis patients. These changes seem to have a multifactorial etiology; they include osteomalacia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and dialysis-related amyloidosis. Ten patients (5 males and 5 females, mean age 55 +/- 7 years) on long-term (over 15 years) hemodialysis were submitted to X-ray examinations of the skull, spine, shoulders, wrists, pelvis, and knees. Serum calcium, phosphorous, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase, and basal aluminium levels were also calculated. Osteopenia was demonstrated in all patients. Seven of them had alterations due to hyperparathyroidism. Six patients exhibited signs related to dialysis spondyloarthropathy; in 9 cases amyloid lesions, geodes, and erosions were present in wrists, humeral heads, or hips. One patient exhibited osteomalacic changes. Most long-term dialysis patients presented multifactorial osteoarticular changes due to hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia, and dialysis-related amyloidosis. Clinical symptoms and decreased articular mobility appeared to be due mainly to amyloid osteoarthropathy.

  18. [Statistical studies on suicides in Shiga Prefecture during the 15-year period, 1974 to 1988].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Yamada, M; Fukunaga, T; Tatsuno, Y

    1990-04-01

    The authors examined 3,335 cases of suicides among the unnatural deaths in Shiga Prefecture during the 15-year period, 1974 to 1988. The results obtained were as follows: The number of suicides in a year amounted to 200 during the period from 1974 to 1982, and increased to 280 in 1983 at maximum. The cases of suicide were more in male than in female. The incidence of suicide was higher in March to July and the peak of incidence was observed in April. The highest frequency of suicides was in 40-49 year age group in male, and 70-79 year group in female. Among various procedures of suicide, hanging was most frequent during the past 15 years in both sexes, and the following procedure was carbon monoxide poisoning in male and drowning in female. As to the occupation, housewives and person without a regular occupation constituted 53.1% of the total suicidal cases, and products makers and laborers were found in 11.1%. With regarded to the causative factors, "suffering from illness" was the most frequent factor, and followed by "insanity or mental disorder", "problems of economic distress", "disagreement with family" and others.

  19. [15 years' results in the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in a region of endemic goiter].

    PubMed

    Perinetti, H A; Staneloni, L N; Vitale, R

    1990-01-01

    We have evaluated the results of differentiated thyroid carcinoma treatment after 15 years of follow up. The group consisted of 120 cases of papillary type and 144 cases of follicular type; the mean age of the patients was 38.2 years for papillary and 46.5 for the follicular. The ratio men/women was 1/4 for the papillary and 1/3.2 for the follicular. The prognostic factors evaluated included: a) histologic types according to WHO classification, b) clinical stage, c) age and d) sex. The staging of the disease followed the classification suggested by Smendal, stage I: intraglandular disease; stage II: regional lymph node metastases; stage III: invasion of other tissues in the neck or mediastinum and stage IV: distant metastases. The basic treatment was surgery with the use of 131I and thyroid hormone. The results were statistically analyzed with the conventional life table method or chi square. At 15 years the overall survival was 84 +/- 4% for the papillary type and 66 +/- 9% for the follicular type (p = 0.01) (Fig. 1). The patients treated in stage I had a survival of 90 +/- 5%, significantly higher than those in stage II (53 +/- 8%), p less than 0.03. In stage III and IV the small number of patients made it difficult to interpret the results statistically (Fig. 2). The age of the patients appears to be another prognostic factor. The group under 40 years had 85 +/- 5% of survival compared to 59 +/- 4% over 40 years, p less than 0.01 (Fig. 3).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Development Program for Natural Aging Aluminum Casting Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Geoffrey K. Sigworth

    2004-05-14

    A number of 7xx aluminum casting alloys are based on the ternary Al-Zn-Mg system. These alloys age naturally to high strength at room temperature. A high temperature solution and aging treatment is not required. Consequently, these alloys have the potential to deliver properties nearly equivalent to conventional A356-T6 (Al-Si-Mg) castings, with a significant cost saving. An energy savings is also possible. In spite of these advantages, the 7xx casting alloys are seldom used, primarily because of their reputation for poor castibility. This paper describes the results obtained in a DOE-funded research study of these alloys, which is part of the DOE-OIT ''Cast Metals Industries of the Future'' Program. Suggestions for possible commercial use are also given.

  1. The WIYN Open Cluster Study: A 15-Year Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, Robert D.; WOCS Collaboration

    2013-06-01

    The WIYN 3.5m telescope combines large aperture, wide field of view and superb image quality. The WIYN consortium includes investigators in numerous areas of open cluster research. The combination spawned the WIYN Open Cluster Study (WOCS) over a decade ago, with the goals of producing 1) comprehensive photometric, astrometric and spectroscopic data for new fundamental open clusters and 2) addressing key astrophysical problems with these data. The set of core WOCS open clusters spans age and metallicity. Low reddening, solar proximity and richness were also desirable features in selecting core open clusters. More than 50 WIYN Open Cluster Study papers have been published in refereed journals. Highlights include: deep and wide-field photometry of NGC 188, NGC 2168 (M35), and NGC 6819 (WOCS I, II, XI and LII); deep and wide-field proper-motion studies of the old open clusters NGC 188, NGC 2682 (M67) and NGC 6791 (WOCS XVII, XXXIII and XLVI); comprehensive radial-velocity surveys of NGC 188, NGC 2168 and NGC 6819 (WOCS XXXII, XXIV, and XXXVIII); metallicity and lithium abundances in NGC 2168 (WOCS V); comprehensive definition of the hard-binary populations of NGC 188 and NGC 2168 (WOCS XXII and XLVIII); rotation period distributions in NGC 1039 (M34) and NGC 2168 (WOCS XXXV, XLIII, and XLV); study of chromospheric activity in NGC 2682 (WOCS XVIII); photometric variability surveys in NGC 188 and NGC 2682 (IX and XV); new Bayesian techniques for determination of cluster parameters (WOCS XXIII); a new infrared age-diagnostic for open clusters (WOCS XL); theoretical studies of stellar rotation (WOCS XIII and XIV); sophisticated N-body simulations of NGC 188 (WOCS LI); and the discovery of a high binary frequency and white dwarf companions among NGC 188 blue stragglers. While the WIYN 3.5m telescope remains at its heart, today the WIYN Open Cluster Study collaboration extends beyond both the WIYN observatory and consortium, and continues as a vital and productive

  2. Community-acquired intracranial suppurative infections: A 15-year report

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırmak, Taner; Gedik, Habip; Şimşek, Funda; Kantürk, Arzu

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of patients with intracranial suppurative infection (ISI) by review of clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings. Methods: The data collected from all patients who had been diagnosed with ISI and followed up at the Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Department of the study site between 1998 and 2013 were reviewed. Results: Of the 23 ISI patients identified, the mean age was 38.21 ± 12.61 years (range: 19–67 years, median: 34) and mean symptom duration was 22.25 ± 20.22 days. Headache was the most common symptom, the frontal lobe the most common localization of ISI, and mastoiditis due to chronic suppurative otitis media the most common source of infection causing ISI. Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., Enterococcus avium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, and Toxoplasma gondii were isolated from the specimens collected from 6 (37.5%) of the 16 patients who underwent invasive procedures. Of these 16 patients, 2 underwent craniotomy, 12 burr hole aspiration, and 2 stereotactic biopsy. The rate of recurrence was 0% and the rates of sequelae and fatality were both 8%. Conclusions: ISI should be considered in male patients presenting with headache and neurological signs and symptoms, whether with or without fever, on admission for early diagnosis and provision of timely, adequate therapy and, if required, surgical intervention to reduce mortality and sequelae rates. PMID:25317357

  3. Resected tumours of the sublingual gland: 15 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tung-Tsun; Chou, Yu-Fu; Wen, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Peir-Rong

    2016-07-01

    Sublingual gland tumours are rare, and we have evaluated the clinical features and prognosis of patients treated at a tertiary medical centre in eastern Taiwan. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of nine patients with sublingual gland tumours that were resected from December 1993 to November 2008, four of whom were men and five women. The median (range) age at diagnosis was 52 (39-63) years. Seven had malignant tumours, of which adenoid cystic carcinoma was the most common. All patients with malignant tumours had neck dissections, and four had cervical lymph node metastases. The incidence of lymph node metastases was much higher in patients with advanced primary tumours (T1/2 compared with T3/4: one out of three compared with three out of four). All patients with malignant tumours were given adjuvant radiotherapy. There were no local failures. One patient had regional recurrence in the neck and had a successful further resection. Three patients developed distant metastases, and two died during the follow-up period. Our results suggest that radical resection with postoperative radiotherapy offers adequate local and regional control for malignant sublingual gland tumours. Neck dissection is beneficial, especially for T3/4 disease.

  4. Terra - 15 Years as the Earth Observing System Flagship Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thome, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    Terra marks its 15th year on orbit with an array of accomplishments and the potential to do much more. Efforts continue to extend the Terra data record to make its data more valuable by creating a record length to examine interannual variability, observe trends on the decadal scale, and gather statistics relevant to climate metrics. Continued data from Terra's complementary instruments will play a key role in creating the data record needed for scientists to develop an understanding of our climate system. Terra's suite of instruments: ASTER (contributed by the Japanese Ministry of Economy and Trade and Industry with a JPL-led US Science Team), CERES (NASA LaRC - PI), MISR (JPL - PI), MODIS (NASA GSFC), and MOPITT (sponsored by Canadian Space Agency with NCAR-led Science Team) are providing an unprecedented 81 core data products. The annual demand for Terra data remains with >120 million files distributed in 2011 and >157 million in 2012. More than 1,100 peer-reviewed publications appeared in 2012 using Terra data bringing the lifetime total >7,600. Citation numbers of 21,000 for 2012 and over 100,000 for the mission's lifetime. The power of Terra is in the high quality of the data calibration, sensor characterization, and the complementary nature of the instruments covering a range of scientific measurements as well as scales. The broad range of products enable the community to provide answers to the overarching question, "How is the Earth changing and what are the consequences for life on Earth?" Terra continues to provide data that: (1) Extend the baseline of morning-orbit collections; (2) Enable comparison of measurements acquired from past high-impact events; (3) Add value to recently-launched and soon-to-be launched missions, and upcoming field programs. Terra data continue to support monitoring and relief efforts for natural and man-made disasters that involve U.S. interests. Terra also contributes to Applications Focus Areas supporting the U.S. National

  5. The natural, the normal and the normative: contested terrains in ageing and old age.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ian Rees; Higgs, Paul F

    2010-10-01

    Improvements in health and longevity in countries such as the UK and USA have radically destabilised notions of ageing and old age. From the 19th century onwards the idea of a natural lifecourse following normatively understood stages ending in infirmity and death has been challenged by social and bio-medical developments. Breakthroughs in bio-gerontology and in bio-medicine have created the possibility of an increasingly differentiated idea of normal ageing. The potential to overcome or significantly reduce the age-associated effects of bodies growing older has led many social gerontologists to argue for a return to a more 'normatively' based conception of ageing and old age. This paper examines and outlines the tensions between these different discourses and points out that our understanding of the norm is also fast changing as it intersects with the somatic diversity inherent in contemporary consumer society. Drawing on the theoretical work of Ulrich Beck and Zygmunt Bauman, this paper argues that the normalization of diversity leads to a reworking of the idea of normativity which in turn is reflected in profound transformations at the level of institutional arrangements and legal systems. Such changes not only lead to more discussion of what is legally and socially acceptable but also potentially lead to greater calls for regulation concerning outcomes. In this paper we argue that we need to distinguish between the newly reconfigured domains of the natural, the normal and the normative now being utilised in the understanding of ageing if we are to understand this important field of health. PMID:20728972

  6. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period*

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  7. Once Annealed Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene Exhibits Low Wear at 9 to 15 Years.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, James; Capello, William N; Ramakrishnan, Rama

    2016-05-01

    A once annealed highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) was introduced in 1998. Concerns regarding its long-term performance and oxidative resistance exist because of the presence of retained free radicals. The authors studied 48 patients with 50 hip implants having an average age of 62 years. They were followed for 9 to 15 years. The purpose of this study was to determine linear wear rate and the incidence of osteolysis and/or mechanical failure. At an average follow-up of 12.2 years, the annual linear wear rate was 0.018 mm (SD, 0.024 mm). No mechanical failures or osteolysis have been found to date. The clinical performance of this HXLPE continues to meet expectations despite the presence of free radicals. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e565-e571.]. PMID:27088350

  8. The endovascular management of recurrent aortic hypoplasia and coarctation in a 15-year-old male.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Andrew B; O'Donnell, Sean D; Gillespie, David L; Rasmussen, Todd E; Johnson, Chatt A; Fox, Charles J; Burklow, Thomas R; Hagler, David J

    2005-03-01

    A 15-year-old male complained of easy fatigability, leg weakness, and pain on exertion with episodes of syncope while playing baseball. His past medical history was significant for aortic coarctation associated with a congenital bovine hypoplastic aortic arch. A recent arteriogram revealed innominate and left common carotid artery stenosis as well as recurrent coarctation. He had previously undergone three Dacron patch aortoplasties. At the age of 7, he underwent a fourth operation for recurrent coarctation and because of extensive scar tissue in the region of his prior procedures, a left subclavian artery-to-descending aortic bypass was performed. An endovascular repair to deal with the recent recurrence was performed because of prior surgical difficulties. Percutaneous balloon-expandable stents were placed in the aortic coarctation, innominate, and the left common carotid arteries. Postprocedure, ankle brachial indices were >1 and the patient remains asymptomatic after 1 year.

  9. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined.

  10. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity: National study of 11- to 15-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O; Due, P; Holstein, B E

    2016-10-01

    More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical inactivity. The Danish sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2006 included 6269 schoolchildren in three age groups: 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from a random sample of 80 schools. The students answered the internationally standardized HBSC questionnaire. The applied definition leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1.67-3.41). Exposure to bullying did not explain the association between social class and physical inactivity. The association between social class and physical inactivity was more pronounced among participants also exposed to bullying. In conclusion, there was a significantly increased odds ratio for physical inactivity among students from lower social classes and for students exposed to bullying. There was a combined effect of low social class and bullying on physical inactivity.

  11. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity: National study of 11- to 15-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O; Due, P; Holstein, B E

    2016-10-01

    More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical inactivity. The Danish sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2006 included 6269 schoolchildren in three age groups: 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from a random sample of 80 schools. The students answered the internationally standardized HBSC questionnaire. The applied definition leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1.67-3.41). Exposure to bullying did not explain the association between social class and physical inactivity. The association between social class and physical inactivity was more pronounced among participants also exposed to bullying. In conclusion, there was a significantly increased odds ratio for physical inactivity among students from lower social classes and for students exposed to bullying. There was a combined effect of low social class and bullying on physical inactivity. PMID:26454139

  12. Isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency in a 15-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Murayama, K; Kimura, M; Yamaguchi, S; Shinka, T; Kodama, K

    1997-06-01

    A 15-year-old girl with a former clinical diagnosis of cerebral palsy was found to have isolated deficiency of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis and enzyme determination. Her symptoms included marked growth retardation from birth, profound mental retardation, tonic seizures, rigospastic quadriplegia with opisthotonic dystonia, gastroesophageal reflux with poor esophageal peristalsis, and recurrent episodes of aspiration pneumonia. Brain MRI revealed marked brain atrophy, involving both the gray and white matter. Although she did not exhibit acute metabolic decompensation or acute encephalopathy, her neurological symptoms continuously worsened. This patient is the oldest among reported cases of MCC deficiency who had symptoms at birth, and this case may have the severest sequelae of the longest known natural course of this inborn error of metabolism.

  13. Psychosocial resources, aging, and natural killer cell terminal maturity

    PubMed Central

    Segerstrom, Suzanne C.; Al-Attar, Ahmad; Lutz, Charles T.

    2012-01-01

    Psychosocial factors may influence aspects of immunological aging. The present study tested the hypothesis that psychosocial resources correlate with the expression of the cell surface maker CD57 on natural killer (NK) immune cells. CD57 is a marker of terminal maturation and senescence in this cell subset. The study further tested the relative contribution of specific resources in the social, psychological, financial, and status-skill domains, given the potential differential value of different resources for younger and older adults, and the contribution of relative vs. absolute resources. Younger (N=38) and older (N=34) women completed measures of relative and absolute resources and had blood drawn. Examined both between groups and within the older women, older age and fewer total relative resources were associated with more CD57 expression on NK cells. One SD in resources was the equivalent of 5 years of aging among the older women. Among the specific resource types, a preponderance of financial resources, both relative and absolute, was associated with less CD57 expression on NK cells, and these relationships did not significantly vary between younger and older women. There was no evidence that depressive symptoms mediated the effects of resources on CD57 expression on NK cells. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that the sense that one has substantial resources, particular with regard to finances and possessions, may retard age-associated aspects of the microenvironment in which NK cells develop and mature, independent of effects on distress, and this process may begin in younger adulthood. PMID:22708535

  14. Ten- to 15-year results of the Oxford Phase III mobile unicompartmental knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lisowski, L. A.; Meijer, L. I.; van den Bekerom, M. P. J.; Pilot, P.; Lisowski, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Aims The interest in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) for medial osteoarthritis has increased rapidly but the long-term follow-up of the Oxford UKAs has yet to be analysed in non-designer centres. We have examined our ten- to 15-year clinical and radiological follow-up data for the Oxford Phase III UKAs. Patients and Methods Between January 1999 and January 2005 a total of 138 consecutive Oxford Phase III arthroplasties were performed by a single surgeon in 129 patients for medial compartment osteoarthritis (71 right and 67 left knees, mean age 72.0 years (47 to 91), mean body mass index 28.2 (20.7 to 52.2)). Both clinical data and radiographs were prospectively recorded and obtained at intervals. Of the 129 patients, 32 patients (32 knees) died, ten patients (12 knees) were not able to take part in the final clinical and radiological assessment due to physical and mental conditions, but via telephone interview it was confirmed that none of these ten patients (12 knees) had a revision of the knee arthroplasty. One patient (two knees) was lost to follow-up. Results The mean follow-up was 11.7 years (10 to 15). A total of 11 knees (8%) were revised. The survival at 15 years with revision for any reason as the endpoint was 90.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) 85.2 to 96.0) and revision related to the prosthesis was 99.3% (95% CI 97.9 to 100). The mean total Knee Society Score was 47 (0 to 80) pre-operatively and 81 (30 to 100) at latest follow-up. The mean Oxford Knee Score was 19 (12 to 40) pre-operatively and 42 (28 to 55) at final follow-up. Radiolucency beneath the tibial component occurred in 22 of 81 prostheses (27.2%) without evidence of loosening. Conclusion This study supports the use of UKA in medial compartment osteoarthritis with excellent long-term functional and radiological outcomes with an excellent 15-year survival rate. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B(10 Suppl B):41–7. PMID:27694515

  15. Factors Associated With Kyphosis Progression in Older Women: 15 years experience in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Kado, DM; Huang, MH; Karlamangla, AS; Cawthon, P; Katzman, W; Hillier, TA; Ensrud, K; Cummings, SR

    2012-01-01

    Age-related hyperkyphosis is thought to be a result of underlying vertebral fractures, but studies suggest that among the most hyperkyphotic women, only one in three have underlying radiographic vertebral fractures. Although commonly observed, there is no widely accepted definition of hyperkyphosis in older persons, and other than vertebral fracture, no major causes have been identified. To identify important correlates of kyphosis and risk factors for its progression over time, we conducted a 15 year retrospective cohort study of 1,196 women, aged 65 years and older at baseline (1986–88), from four communities across the United States: Baltimore County, MD; Minneapolis, MN, Portland, Oregon, and the Monongahela Valley, PA. Cobb angle kyphosis was measured from radiographs obtained at baseline and an average of 3.7 and 15 years later. Repeated measures, mixed effects analyses were performed. At baseline, the mean kyphosis angle was 44.7 degrees (standard error 0.4, standard deviation 11.9) and significant correlates included a family history of hyperkyphosis, prevalent vertebral fracture, low bone mineral density, greater body weight, degenerative disc disease, and smoking. Over an average of 15 years, the mean increase in kyphosis was 7.1 degrees (standard error 0.25). Independent determinants of greater kyphosis progression were prevalent and incident vertebral fractures, low bone mineral density and concurrent bone density loss, low body weight, and concurrent weight loss. Thus, age-related kyphosis progression may be best prevented by slowing bone density loss and avoiding weight loss. PMID:22865329

  16. The 15-Year Evolution of the Thoracoscopic Anterior Release: Does It Still Have a Role?

    PubMed Central

    Arunakul, Rattalerk; Peterson, Alex; Bartley, Carrie E.; Cidambi, Krishna R.; Varley, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective. Purpose To determine how the indications for anterior thoracoscopic release and fusion have evolved over time. Overview of Literature Anterior release was commonly performed to correct severe spinal deformities before the advent of pedicle screw fixation. The thoracoscopic approach significantly reduced the morbidity, as compared to open thoracotomy procedures. Methods We reviewed charts and radiographs of pediatric spinal deformity patients who underwent thoracoscopic release/fusion for their deformity from 1994 to 2008. Indications for the thoracoscopic procedure were assigned to one of the following categories: hyperkyphosis, large/stiff scoliosis, crankshaft prevention, and 'other'. We analysed indications grouped in 3-year intervals to determine how the indications for this procedure evolved over the past 15 years. Results One hundred and thirty-eight patients (mean age, 15 years; range, 2-28 years) underwent the procedure, with 160 identified indications. The frequency of thoracoscopic anterior release/fusion decreased after peaking in the years 2000-2002. Initially, hyperkyphosis was the most frequent indication (15/33, 45%; 1994-1996), but declined to an intermittent indication since 2006. The use of thoracoscopy to prevent crankshaft has also declined, but remains an indication for the most immature cases (2/17, 12%; 2006-2008). Severe or rigid scoliosis is currently the most common indication for thoracoscopic release/fusion at our center (11/17, 65%; 2006-2008). Conclusions The indications for a thoracoscopic anterior release/fusion has evolved with our increased understanding of this procedure and improved posterior fixation with pedicle screw instrumentation. Thoracoscopy in select spinal deformity patients still has an important role despite its less frequent use, as compared to the past decade. PMID:26240714

  17. Impact of Cryoglobulinemic Syndrome on the Outcome of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A 15-Year Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Lauletta, Gianfranco; Russi, Sabino; Conteduca, Vincenza; Sansonno, Loredana; Dammacco, Franco; Sansonno, Domenico

    2013-08-26

    We evaluated the influence of cryoglobulinemic syndrome (CS) on the outcome of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in a 15-year prospective study. We assessed a cohort of 950 chronically HCV-infected patients, collected from the beginning of 1990 to the end of 2010. All patients had received a liver histologic diagnosis. Mixed cryoglobulinemia (MC) was determined in 246 patients (25.8%), of whom 184 also had CS. They were assessed every 3 months for 15 years, at least; 141 patients with CS and 601 without MC completed the study.No spontaneous clearance of cryoglobulins was noted. Type II to type III spontaneous switching was ascertained in 1.6% (0.08%/yr) patients. The estimated progression rate of liver fibrosis was lower in CS(+) than in MC(-) patients (p < 0.05). The 15-year cumulative probability of developing cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma was higher in MC(-) than in CS(+) patients (24.9% vs. 14.2%, p < 0.005 and 20.3% vs. 7.5%, p = 0.003, respectively). Renal insufficiency, neurologic impairment, or B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma were significantly more frequent in CS(+) than in MC(-) patients (32.6% vs. 3%, p < 0.0001; 31.2% vs. 4.8%, p < 0.0001; and 15% vs. 7.1%, p = 0.003, respectively). However, in spite of different morbidity features and causes of death, the 15-year survival rate was similar in the 2 groups (70.2% vs. 71.7%). Antiviral therapy had an undisputable impact on patient outcome.This 15-year prospective cohort study shows that, although CS has no influence on the overall survival of HCV-infected patients, it significantly modifies the natural history of chronically HCV-infected patients.

  18. [Changes in food allergen sensitization rates of Japanese allergic children during the last 15 years].

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, Takashi; Miyanomae, Takeshi; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Itoh, Masatoshi; Yoshioka, Takakazu; Okafuji, Ikuo; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Heike, Toshio; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi

    2004-07-01

    In order to evaluate the changes in food allergen sensitization rates of allergic children, serum samples from 85 patients about 15 years ago (past group) and those from 90 current patients (present group) were randomly selected, and the specific IgE for six food allergens (wheat, peanuts, sesame, mackerel, ovomucoid, and kiwi) were measured with the CAP-RAST system. Sensitivity rates (class 2 or higher) for wheat and peanuts were significantly higher in the present than in the past group. Although there was no statistical difference in sensitivity rates (class 2 or higher) for kiwi between the groups, sensitivity rates (class 1 or higher) of the present group were significantly higher than those of the past group, indicating that the number of cases mildly sensitized to kiwi has been increasing. This trend was especially marked among children aged 6 or younger, and there was no statistical difference in sensitivity rates among those aged 7 or older. For the management of food allergy, special attention should therefore be paid not only to an increase in the number of patients, but also to changes in the kinds of causative foods.

  19. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Kakugawa, Tomoyuki; Mukae, Hiroshi; Nagata, Towako; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kaida, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Suematsu, Takashi; Kadota, Jun-ichi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2002-11-01

    Giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) is a very uncommon respiratory disease. We report a juvenile patient with GIP aged 15 years. Although he has a negative past history of direct exposure to hard metals, we could not exclude possible exposure in very small amounts through his parents. Microscopic examination of lung biopsy specimen obtained by video-assisted thoracoscopy revealed marked cellular interstitial infiltrates and prominent intraalveolar macrophages as well as giant cells showing cellular cannibalism. Analysis of the biopsied lung tissue for cobalt and tungsten was negative. Clinical symptoms, laboratory, and radiological findings improved markedly after treatment with corticosteroids. To our knowledge, only eleven cases of GIP have been reported in Japan. Although possible exposure to hard metals was identified in 9 of the 11 reported cases, there is no clear dose-dependent relationship with onset and prognosis. The average age at onset was 46.2+/-15.0 years. Our patient is the youngest case of GIP reported in the world. PMID:12487179

  20. Salivary gland tumours: a 15-year review at the Dental Centre Lagos University Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ladeinde, A L; Adeyemo, W L; Ogunlewe, M O; Ajayi, O F; Omitola, O G

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequency of tumours of the salivary gland seen at the Dental Centre, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria over a period of 15 years. All cases that were histologically diagnosed as salivary gland tumours from January 1990 to December 2004 were retrieved from the histopathology records of the Department of Oral Pathology and Biology and Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. All the cases were subjected to analysis of age, sex, site of occurrence and histologic diagnosis based on 1991 World Health Organisation (WHO) classification. Salivary gland constituted 6.3% of all oro-facial tumours and tumour-like lesions. The frequency of malignant tumours was 60.8% (n = 73) and benign tumours 39.2% (n = 47). Minor salivary glands (63.3%) were mostly affected. The male-to-female ratio was 1.1:1, and most (72.5%) of the tumours occurred in the age group of 21-60 years. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most commonly occurring tumour (29.2%) followed by adenoid cystic carcinoma (19.2%). The predominant benign and malignant tumours were pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma respectively. Palate (45.8%) was the most frequently affected site. The mean.age (+/-SD) of patients with benign tumours was significantly lower than those with malignant tumours (P = 0.003). The incidence of salivary gland tumours in this study is higher than in most previous reports. Malignant tumours which occurred in older age group were the most commonly seen.

  1. Ethmoid pneumocele presenting with exophthalmos 15 years after endoscopic sinus surgery

    PubMed Central

    Song, Michelle; Ahn, Sun M.; Reh, Douglas R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: A pneumocele is an abnormal dilation of an air-containing sinus beyond the normal margins of bone, with associated bony thinning. A delayed ethmoid pneumocele after sinus surgery has not previously been reported. Methods: A case report of a patient with a delayed ethmoid pneumocele after sinus surgery. The diagnostic workup, operative approach, and postoperative results were evaluated. Results: A 57-year-old female with a history of endoscopic sinus surgery 15 years prior presented with right eye proptosis and severe orbital and facial pressure. A maxillofacial computed tomography showed a markedly expanded air-filled right anterior ethmoid space with a dehiscent lamina papyracea, consistent with a pneumocele. Marsupialization of the pneumocele as well as a revision ethmoidectomy were performed, with a visible return of the orbital contents to a more natural position. The patient experienced worsened diplopia immediately postoperatively that resolved within two weeks. Conclusions: This case demonstrates that a pneumocele can present even years after endoscopic sinus surgery, and acute but temporary development or worsening of diplopia can result from surgical decompression of the pneumocele as the eye returns to its natural position. PMID:26302735

  2. Physical Activity in U.S. Youth Aged 12-15 Years, 2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... obesity and physical activity is complex. For example, childhood obesity has been partially attributed to physical inactivity ( 12 ), ... Ogden CL, Flegal KM. Changes in terminology for childhood overweight and obesity. National health statistics reports; no 25. Hyattsville, MD: ...

  3. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause.

    PubMed

    Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries.

  4. Lifestyle and dietary factors determine age at natural menopause.

    PubMed

    Sapre, Shilpa; Thakur, Ratna

    2014-01-01

    A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries. PMID:24672198

  5. The Bender Gestalt test for 5- to 15-year old Brazilian children: norms and validity.

    PubMed

    Brito, G N; Santos, T R

    1996-11-01

    Norms for two modalities (normal and stress) of the Bender Gestalt test were developed for the neuropsychological assessment of children in the greater Rio de Janeiro area. For each modality, a measure of performance, a measure of speed and a measure of emotional disturbance were obtained. A total of 398 children (199 males and 199 females), 5 to 15 years old, who were attending a public school in Niterói were the subjects of this study. Analysis of the data revealed that age, but not sex, had a significant effect on performance, but not on speed, in both modalities such that older children made fewer errors than younger children. Also, the number of emotional indicators significantly decreased with age. Additionally, boys needed more time to complete the normal modality than girls, and showed a higher number of emotional indicators in both modalities. The Bender test was found to be valid in the sense that children who had failed at least one grade in school performed worse than those who had not. The number of emotional indicators was shown to be valid since it was significantly correlated with factors such as hyperactivity-conduct problem, and independent functioning, and inattention of the Composite Teacher Rating Scale (Brito GNO and Pinto RCA (1991). Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13: 417-418). We conclude that the Bender test is valid for use in schoolchildren, and the number of emotional indicators is valid as an index of psychopathology, but sex and age should be considered when using the norms in Brazil.

  6. Externalizing Behavior and Substance Use Related Problems at 15 Years in Prenatally Cocaine Exposed Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Min, Meeyoung O.; Minnes, Sonia; Lang, Adelaide; Weishampel, Paul; Short, Elizabeth J.; Yoon, Susan; Singer, Lynn T.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on externalizing behavior and substance use related problems at 15 years of age was examined. Participants consisted of 358 adolescents (183 PCE, 175 non-cocaine exposed (NCE)), primarily African-American and of low socioeconomic status, prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal study from birth. Regression analyses indicated that the amount of PCE was associated with higher externalizing behavioral problems (β=.15, p=.02). Adolescents with PCE were also 2.8 times (95% CI=1.38–5.56) more likely to have substance use related problems than their NCE counterparts. No differences between PCE adolescents in non-kinship adoptive or foster care (n=44) and PCE adolescents in maternal/relative care (n=139) were found in externalizing behavior or in the likelihood of substance use related problems. Findings demonstrate teratologic effects of PCE persisting into adolescence. PCE is a reliable marker for the potential development of problem behaviors in adolescence, including substance use related problems. PMID:24636687

  7. Leprosy in children and adolescents under 15 years old in an urban centre in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Selton Diniz; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Natividade, Marcio Santos; Teixeira, Maria Glória

    2016-05-24

    This original study describes the intra-urban distribution of cases of leprosy in residents under 15 years old in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; the study also identifies the environment in which Mycobacterium leprae is being transmitted. The cases were distributed by operational classification, clinical forms, type of contact and the addresses were geo-referenced by neighborhood. Between 2007 and 2011, were reported 145 cases of leprosy in target population living in Salvador, corresponding to detection rates of 6.21, 6.14, 5.58, 5.41 and 6.88/100,000 inhabitants, respectively. The spatial distribution of the disease was focal. Of the 157 neighborhoods of Salvador, 44 (28.6%) notified cases of leprosy and in 22 (50%) of these were detected more than 10 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The infectious forms were found in 40% of cases. Over 90% of cases had been living in Salvador for more than five years. Overall, 52.6% reported having had contact with another infected individual inside the household and 25% in their social circle. In Salvador, M. leprae transmission is established. The situation is a major concern, since transmission is intense at an early age, indicating that this endemic disease is expanding and contacts extend beyond individual households. PMID:27223655

  8. Gout in a 15-year-old boy with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Joint pain is a common complaint in pediatrics and is most often attributed to overuse or injury. In the face of persistent, severe, or recurrent symptoms, the differential typically expands to include bony or structural causes versus rheumatologic conditions. Rarely, a child has two distinct causes for joint pain. In this case, an obese 15-year-old male was diagnosed with gout, a disease common in adults but virtually ignored in the field of pediatrics. The presence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) complicated and delayed the consideration of this second diagnosis. Indeed, the absence of gout from this patient’s differential diagnosis resulted in a greater than two-year delay in receiving treatment. The patients’ BMI was 47.4, and he was also mis-diagnosed with osteochondritis dissecans and underwent medical treatment for JIA, assorted imaging studies, and multiple surgical procedures before the key history of increased pain with red meat ingestion, noticed by the patient, and a subsequent elevated uric acid confirmed his ultimate diagnosis. With the increased prevalence of obesity in the adolescent population, the diagnosis of gout should be an important consideration in the differential diagnosis for an arthritic joint in an overweight patient, regardless of age. PMID:24393408

  9. Gout in a 15-year-old boy with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a case study.

    PubMed

    Morris, Hallie; Grant, Kristen; Khanna, Geetika; White, Andrew J

    2014-01-06

    Joint pain is a common complaint in pediatrics and is most often attributed to overuse or injury. In the face of persistent, severe, or recurrent symptoms, the differential typically expands to include bony or structural causes versus rheumatologic conditions. Rarely, a child has two distinct causes for joint pain. In this case, an obese 15-year-old male was diagnosed with gout, a disease common in adults but virtually ignored in the field of pediatrics. The presence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) complicated and delayed the consideration of this second diagnosis. Indeed, the absence of gout from this patient's differential diagnosis resulted in a greater than two-year delay in receiving treatment. The patients' BMI was 47.4, and he was also mis-diagnosed with osteochondritis dissecans and underwent medical treatment for JIA, assorted imaging studies, and multiple surgical procedures before the key history of increased pain with red meat ingestion, noticed by the patient, and a subsequent elevated uric acid confirmed his ultimate diagnosis. With the increased prevalence of obesity in the adolescent population, the diagnosis of gout should be an important consideration in the differential diagnosis for an arthritic joint in an overweight patient, regardless of age.

  10. Leprosy in children and adolescents under 15 years old in an urban centre in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Selton Diniz; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Natividade, Marcio Santos; Teixeira, Maria Glória

    2016-01-01

    This original study describes the intra-urban distribution of cases of leprosy in residents under 15 years old in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; the study also identifies the environment in which Mycobacterium leprae is being transmitted. The cases were distributed by operational classification, clinical forms, type of contact and the addresses were geo-referenced by neighborhood. Between 2007 and 2011, were reported 145 cases of leprosy in target population living in Salvador, corresponding to detection rates of 6.21, 6.14, 5.58, 5.41 and 6.88/100,000 inhabitants, respectively. The spatial distribution of the disease was focal. Of the 157 neighborhoods of Salvador, 44 (28.6%) notified cases of leprosy and in 22 (50%) of these were detected more than 10 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The infectious forms were found in 40% of cases. Over 90% of cases had been living in Salvador for more than five years. Overall, 52.6% reported having had contact with another infected individual inside the household and 25% in their social circle. In Salvador, M. leprae transmission is established. The situation is a major concern, since transmission is intense at an early age, indicating that this endemic disease is expanding and contacts extend beyond individual households. PMID:27223655

  11. Persistence of artificial sweeteners in a 15-year-old septic system plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, W. D.; Van Stempvoort, D. R.; Solomon, D. K.; Homewood, J.; Brown, S. J.; Spoelstra, J.; Schiff, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    SummaryGroundwater contamination from constituents such as NO3-, often occurs where multiple sources are present making source identification difficult. This study examines a suite of major ions and trace organic constituents within a well defined septic system plume in southern Ontario, Canada (Long Point site) for their potential use as wastewater tracers. The septic system has been operating for 20 years servicing a large, seasonal-use campground and tritium/helium age dating indicates that the 200 m long monitored section of the plume is about 15 years old. Four parameters are elevated along the entire length of the plume as follows; the mean electrical conductivity value (EC) in the distal plume zone is 926 μS/cm which is 74% of the mean value below the tile bed, Na+ (14.7 mg/L) is 43%, an artificial sweetener, acesulfame (12.1 μg/L) is 23% and Cl- (71.5 mg/L) is 137%. EC and Cl- appear to be affected by dispersive dilution with overlying background groundwater that has lower EC but has locally higher Cl- as result of the use of a dust suppressant (CaCl2) in the campground. Na+, in addition to advective dilution, could be depleted by weak adsorption. Acesulfame, in addition to the above processes could be influenced by increasing consumer use in recent years. Nonetheless, both Na+ and acesulfame remain elevated throughout the plume by factors of more than 100 and 1000 respectively compared to background levels, and are strong indicators of wastewater impact at this site. EC and Cl- are less useful because their contrast with background values is much less (EC) or because other sources are present (Cl-). Nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, PO43-, K+) and pathogens (Escherichia coli) do not persist in the distal plume zone and are less useful as wastewater indicators here. The artificial sweetener, acesulfame, has persisted at high concentrations in the Long Point plume for at least 15 years (and this timing agrees with tritium/helium-3 dating) and this compound likely

  12. Clinical applications of maternal plasma fetal DNA analysis: translating the fruits of 15 years of research.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Rossa Wai Kwun; Lo, Yuk Ming Dennis

    2013-01-01

    The collection of fetal genetic materials is required for the prenatal diagnosis of fetal genetic diseases. The conventional methods for sampling fetal genetic materials, such as amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling, are invasive in nature and are associated with a risk of fetal miscarriage. For decades, scientists had been pursuing studies with goals to develop non-invasive methods for prenatal diagnosis. In 1997, the existence of fetal derived cell-free DNA molecules in plasma of pregnant women was first demonstrated. This finding provided a new source of fetal genetic material that could be obtained safely through the collection of a maternal blood sample and provided a new avenue for the development of non-invasive prenatal diagnostic tests. Now 15 years later, the diagnostic potential of circulating fetal DNA analysis has been realized. Fruitful research efforts have resulted in the clinical implementation of a number of non-invasive prenatal tests based on maternal plasma DNA analysis and included tests for fetal sex assessment, fetal rhesus D blood group genotyping and fetal chromosomal aneuploidy detection. Most recently, research groups have succeeded in decoding the entire fetal genome from maternal plasma DNA analysis which paved the way for the achievement of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of many single gene diseases. A paradigm shift in the practice of prenatal diagnosis has begun.

  13. Population Based National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey among Adults (>15 Years) in Pakistan, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Qadeer, Ejaz; Fatima, Razia; Yaqoob, Aashifa; Tahseen, Sabira; Ul Haq, Mahboob; Ghafoor, Abdul; Asif, Muhammad; Straetemans, Masja; Tiemersma, Edine W.

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) amongst the adult population in 2010–2011 in Pakistan. Method A nationwide cross-sectional survey with multistage cluster sampling was conducted among adults (≥15 years) in 95 clusters in 2010–2011. All consenting participants were screened for cough and by chest X-ray. Participants with presumptive TB submitted two sputum samples for smear microscopy, culture, and molecular testing if needed. The TB prevalence estimates were adjusted for missing data and the cluster design. Result Of 131,329 eligible individuals, 105,913 (81%) participated in the survey, of whom 10,471 (9.9%) were eligible for sputum examination. We found 341 bacteriologically positive TB cases of whom 233 had sputum smear-positive TB. The adjusted prevalence estimates for smear and bacteriologically positive TB were 270/100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 217–323), and 398/100,000 (95% CI 333–463), respectively. Only 61% of the diagnosed TB cases screened positive on symptoms (cough >2wks), whereas the other TB cases were detected based on X-ray abnormalities. The TB prevalence increased with age and was 1.8 times higher among men than women. The prevalence-to-notification ratio of smear-positive TB was 3.1 (95% CI 2.5–3.7), was higher among men than women, and increased with age. Conclusion Our data suggest that there is under-detection and/or -notification of TB, especially among men and elderly. TB control should be strengthened specifically in these risk groups. X-ray examination should be combined with symptom screening to enhance case detection. PMID:26863617

  14. Survey of rehabilitation support for children 0–15 years in a rural part of Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Gona, Joseph K.; Odera-Mung’ala, Victor; Newton, Charles R.; Geere, Jo-Anne; Hong, Chia Swee; Hartley, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Information regarding the nature, availability and distribution of rehabilitation services for children with disabilities across developing countries is scarce, and data that do exist are of variable quality. If planning and development are to progress, information about service provision is vital. The aim was to establish the scope and nature of rehabilitation support available to children with disabilities (0–15 years) and their families in rural Kenya. Method A comprehensive sample comprising service provision in the health and special education sectors was established. Non-governmental and community-based organisations were also included. A survey of rehabilitation services was conducted through examination of service-related documentation and key informant interviews with the heads of services. Results Rehabilitation comprised hospital-based occupational therapy, physiotherapy and orthopaedic technology; and seven special education establishments plus an education assessment resource centre. There was one non-government organisation and one community-based organisation relevant to children with disabilities. Activities focused on assessment, diagnosis and raising community awareness. Provision was challenged by inadequate staffing, resources and transport. Government funding was supplemented variously by donations and self-sufficiency initiatives. Rehabilitation approaches appeared to be informed by professional background of practitioner, rather than the needs of child. Service documentation revealed use of inconsistent recording methods. Conclusions The data highlight the challenges of rehabilitation, demanding greater investment in personnel and their training, more material resources, improved access to the community and better recording mechanisms. Implications for Rehabilitation There needs to be greater investment in rehabilitation provision in developing countries. Consideration of community-based initiatives is required to support better

  15. The integration of visual context information in facial emotion recognition in 5- to 15-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Theurel, Anne; Witt, Arnaud; Malsert, Jennifer; Lejeune, Fleur; Fiorentini, Chiara; Barisnikov, Koviljka; Gentaz, Edouard

    2016-10-01

    The current study investigated the role of congruent visual context information in the recognition of facial emotional expression in 190 participants from 5 to 15years of age. Children performed a matching task that presented pictures with different facial emotional expressions (anger, disgust, happiness, fear, and sadness) in two conditions: with and without a visual context. The results showed that emotions presented with visual context information were recognized more accurately than those presented in the absence of visual context. The context effect remained steady with age but varied according to the emotion presented and the gender of participants. The findings demonstrated for the first time that children from the age of 5years are able to integrate facial expression and visual context information, and this integration improves facial emotion recognition.

  16. The integration of visual context information in facial emotion recognition in 5- to 15-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Theurel, Anne; Witt, Arnaud; Malsert, Jennifer; Lejeune, Fleur; Fiorentini, Chiara; Barisnikov, Koviljka; Gentaz, Edouard

    2016-10-01

    The current study investigated the role of congruent visual context information in the recognition of facial emotional expression in 190 participants from 5 to 15years of age. Children performed a matching task that presented pictures with different facial emotional expressions (anger, disgust, happiness, fear, and sadness) in two conditions: with and without a visual context. The results showed that emotions presented with visual context information were recognized more accurately than those presented in the absence of visual context. The context effect remained steady with age but varied according to the emotion presented and the gender of participants. The findings demonstrated for the first time that children from the age of 5years are able to integrate facial expression and visual context information, and this integration improves facial emotion recognition. PMID:27367301

  17. Past 15-Year Trends in Adolescent Marijuana Use: Differences by Race/Ethnicity and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Renee M.; Fairman, Brian; Gilreath, Tamika; Xuan, Ziming; Rothman, Emily F.; Parnham, Taylor; Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The potential for increases in adolescent marijuana use is an important concern given recent changes in marijuana policy. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in marijuana use from 1999-2013 among a national sample of US high school students. We examine changes over time by race/ethnicity and sex. Methods Data are from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), which involves biennial, school-based surveys that generate nationally-representative data about 9th-12th grade students in the United States. Students self-reported sex, race/ethnicity, and marijuana use (i.e., lifetime use, current use, any use before age 13). We generated national estimates of the prevalence of marijuana use for the time period, and also tested for linear and quadratic trends (n=115,379). Results The prevalence of lifetime marijuana use decreased modestly from 1999 to 2009 (44% to 37%), and has increased slightly since 2009 (41%). Other marijuana use variables (e.g., past 30-day use) followed a similar pattern over time. The prevalence of past 30-day use from 1999-2013 for all groups and both sexes was 22.5%, and it was lowest among Asians and highest among American Indian/Alaska Natives. Although boys have historically had a higher prevalence of marijuana use, results indicate that male-female differences in marijuana use decreased over time. Conclusion Despite considerable changes in state marijuana policies over the past 15 years, marijuana use among high school students has largely declined. Continued surveillance is needed to assess the impact of policy changes on adolescent marijuana use. PMID:26361714

  18. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and 15-Year Cognitive Decline: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Lutsey, Pamela L.; Bengtson, Lindsay G.S.; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Shahar, Eyal; Mosley, Thomas H.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Wruck, Lisa M.; MacLehose, Richard F.; Alonso, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Prospective data evaluating abnormal sleep quality and quantity with cognitive decline are limited because most studies used subjective data and/or had short follow-up. We hypothesized that, over 15 y of follow-up, participants with objectively measured obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and other indices of poor sleep quantity and quality would experience greater decline in cognitive functioning than participants with normal sleep patterns. Methods: ARIC participants (n = 966; mean age 61 y, 55% women) with in-home polysomnography (1996–1998) and repeated cognitive testing were followed for 15 y. Three cognitive tests (Delayed Word Recall, Word Fluency, and Digit Symbol Substitution) were administered at two time points (1996–1998 and 2011–2013). Ten additional cognitive tests were administered at the 2011–2013 neurocognitive examination. OSA was modeled using established clinical OSA severity categories. Multivariable linear regression was used to explore associations of OSA and other sleep indices with change in cognitive tests between the two assessments. Results: A median of 14.9 y (max: 17.3) passed between the two cognitive assessments. OSA category and additional indices of sleep (other measures of hypoxemia and disordered breathing, sleep fragmentation, sleep duration) were not associated with change in any cognitive test. Analyses of OSA severity categories and 10 cognitive tests administered only in 2011–2013 also showed little evidence of an association. Conclusions: Overall, abnormal sleep quality and quantity at midlife was not related to cognitive decline and later-life cognition. The effect of adverse sleep quality and quantity on cognitive decline among the elderly remains to be determined. Citation: Lutsey PL, Bengtson LG, Punjabi NM, Shahar E, Mosley TH, Gottesman RF, Wruck LM, MacLehose RF, Alonso A. Obstructive sleep apnea and 15-year cognitive decline: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. SLEEP 2016

  19. Malaysia family-planning centers strive to maintain gains won in 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Roemer, R

    1968-09-12

    Family planning in Malaysia is discussed. Family planning began in Malaysia about 15 years ago through the efforts of voluntary family Planning Associations in the various Malay states. In 1966 the Malaysian Parliament passed the National Family Planning Act setting up the National FAmily Planning Board to formulate policies and methods for the promotion and spread of family planning knowledge and practice on the grounds of health of mothers and children and welfare of the family. In 1967, the board set a target of 40,000 new acceptors of family planning and 90% of the target was reached. This represents 3% of the child-bearing married women aged 15-49. The target for 1968 of 65,000 new acceptors is being achieved. A survey of acceptors is to be carried out from December 1968 to April 1969 to ascertain how many women who accepted family planning continue to practice it. Malaysia's crude birth rate declined from 46.2 in 1957 to 37.3 in 1966 before the government program was instituted. Abortion attempts have been frequent. The main method of contraception used is oral contraceptives. According to a 1957 survey, 31% of the married women in the metropolitan areas and 2% of rural women were using contraception. Presently, in Malaysia there is a need to: 1) train personnel to provide services, 2) inform and motivate families to accept family planning, 3) continue a broad educational program, 4) reform Malaysia's antiquated abortion law, and 5) integrate family planning services more fully into the general health services of the country.

  20. Ten years of Nature Physics: Numerical models come of age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gull, E.; Millis, A. J.

    2015-10-01

    When Nature Physics celebrated 20 years of high-temperature superconductors, numerical approaches were on the periphery. Since then, new ideas implemented in new algorithms are leading to new insights.

  1. The szilard hypothesis on the nature of aging revisited.

    PubMed

    Zetterberg, Henrik; Båth, Magnus; Zetterberg, Madeleine; Bernhardt, Peter; Hammarsten, Ola

    2009-05-01

    This year marks the 50th anniversary of a nearly forgotten hypothesis on aging by Leo Szilard, best known for his pioneering work in nuclear physics, his participation in the Manhattan Project during World War II, his opposition to the nuclear arms race in the postwar era, and his pioneering ideas in biology. Given a specific set of assumptions, Szilard hypothesized that the major reason for the phenomenon of aging was aging hits, e.g., by ionizing radiation, to the gene-bearing chromosomes and presented a mathematical target-hit model enabling the calculation of the average and maximum life span of a species, as well as the influence of increased exposure to DNA-damaging factors on life expectancy. While many new findings have cast doubt on the specific features of the model, this was the first serious effort to posit accumulated genetic damage as a cause of senescence. Here, we review Szilard's assumptions in the light of current knowledge on aging and reassess his mathematical model in an attempt to reach a conclusion on the relevance of Szilard's aging hypothesis today.

  2. The Szilard Hypothesis on the Nature of Aging Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Zetterberg, Henrik; Båth, Magnus; Zetterberg, Madeleine; Bernhardt, Peter; Hammarsten, Ola

    2009-01-01

    This year marks the 50th anniversary of a nearly forgotten hypothesis on aging by Leo Szilard, best known for his pioneering work in nuclear physics, his participation in the Manhattan Project during World War II, his opposition to the nuclear arms race in the postwar era, and his pioneering ideas in biology. Given a specific set of assumptions, Szilard hypothesized that the major reason for the phenomenon of aging was aging hits, e.g., by ionizing radiation, to the gene-bearing chromosomes and presented a mathematical target-hit model enabling the calculation of the average and maximum life span of a species, as well as the influence of increased exposure to DNA-damaging factors on life expectancy. While many new findings have cast doubt on the specific features of the model, this was the first serious effort to posit accumulated genetic damage as a cause of senescence. Here, we review Szilard's assumptions in the light of current knowledge on aging and reassess his mathematical model in an attempt to reach a conclusion on the relevance of Szilard's aging hypothesis today. PMID:19403867

  3. Physical activity, fitness and body composition of Finnish police officers: a 15-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Sörensen, L; Smolander, J; Louhevaara, V; Korhonen, O; Oja, P

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated changes in the physical activity, fitness and body composition of 103 police officers during a 15-year follow-up. The absolute aerobic capacity was similar in 1981 and 1996, muscular performance had declined, and body weight had increased approximately 0.5 kg/year. More than half the subjects (53%) had increased their leisure-time physical activity in 1996. The correlation was significant between physical activity in 1981 and physical fitness in 1996, but weak between physical activity in 1996 and fitness in 1996. It was also significant between waist circumference and waist/hip ratio in 1996 and physical activity during the previous 5 and 15 years. No significant correlations were found between physical activity and work ability or perceived physical or mental job stress. The physical fitness of middle-aged police officers seems to be predicted strongly by physical activity in early adulthood. Therefore health and fitness promotion measures should start at that time. This, together with regular systematic training, should help to sustain work ability of middle-aged police officers.

  4. Hospitalization Incidence, Mortality, and Seasonality of Common Respiratory Viruses Over a Period of 15 Years in a Developed Subtropical City

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Paul K.S.; Tam, Wilson W.S.; Lee, Tsz Cheung; Hon, Kam Lun; Lee, Nelson; Chan, Martin C.W.; Mok, Hing Yim; Wong, Martin C.S.; Leung, Ting Fan; Lai, Raymond W.M.; Yeung, Apple C.M.; Ho, Wendy C.S.; Nelson, E. Anthony S.; Hui, David S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Information on respiratory viruses in subtropical region is limited. Incidence, mortality, and seasonality of influenza (Flu) A/B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus (ADV), and parainfluenza viruses (PIV) 1/2/3 in hospitalized patients were assessed over a 15-year period (1998–2012) in Hong Kong. Male predominance and laterally transversed J-shaped distribution in age-specific incidence was observed. Incidence of Flu A, RSV, and PIV decreased sharply from infants to toddlers; whereas Flu B and ADV increased slowly. RSV conferred higher fatality than Flu, and was the second killer among hospitalized elderly. ADV and PIV were uncommon, but had the highest fatality. RSV, PIV 2/3 admissions increased over the 15 years, whereas ADV had decreased significantly. A “high season,” mainly contributed by Flu, was observed in late-winter/early-spring (February–March). The “medium season” in spring/summer (April–August) was due to Flu and RSV. The “low season” in late autumn/winter (October–December) was due to PIV and ADV. Seasonality varied between viruses, but predictable distinctive pattern for each virus existed, and temperature was the most important associating meteorological variable. Respiratory viruses exhibit strong sex- and age-predilection, and with predictable seasonality allowing strategic preparedness planning. Hospital-based surveillance is crucial for real-time assessment on severity of new variants. PMID:26579810

  5. A 15 year legacy of cloud and atmosphere observations in Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupe, M.

    2012-12-01

    For the past 15 years, the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has operated the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) atmospheric observatory in Barrow, Alaska. Barrow offers many valuable perspectives on the Arctic environment that complement observations at lower latitudes. Unique features of the Arctic region include cold and dry atmospheric conditions, strong annual variability in sun light, a seasonally high-reflective surface, and persistent clouds that involve mixed-phase processes. ARM's ultimate objective with its flagship observatory at the northernmost point in U.S. territory is to provide measurements that can be used to improve the understanding of these atmospheric physical and radiative properties and processes such that they can be better represented in climate models. The NSA is the most detailed and long-lasting cloud-radiation-atmosphere observatory in the Arctic, providing continuous, sophisticated measurements of climate-relevant parameters. Instrument suites include active radars and lidars at various frequencies, passive radiometers monitoring radiation in microwave, infrared, visible and ultraviolet wavelengths, meteorological towers, and sounding systems. Together these measurements are used to characterize many of the important properties of clouds, aerosols, atmospheric radiation, dynamics, thermodynamics, and the surface. The coordinated nature of these measurements offers important multi-dimensional insight into many fundamental processes linking these different elements of the climate system. Moreover, the continuous operations of the facility support these observations over the full diurnal cycle and in all seasons of the year. This presentation will highlight a number of important studies and key findings that have been facilitated by the NSA observations during the first 15 years in operation. Some of these include: a thorough documentation of clouds, their occurrence frequency, phase, microphysical

  6. The outcome at 15 years of endoscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using hamstring tendon autograft for 'isolated' anterior cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Bourke, H E; Gordon, D J; Salmon, L J; Waller, A; Linklater, J; Pinczewski, L A

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the outcome of 'isolated' anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures treated with anatomical endoscopic reconstruction using hamstring tendon autograft at a mean of 15 years (14.25 to 16.9). A total of 100 consecutive men and 100 consecutive women with 'isolated' ACL rupture underwent four-strand hamstring tendon reconstruction with anteromedial portal femoral tunnel drilling and interference screw fixation by a single surgeon. Details were recorded pre-operatively and at one, two, seven and 15 years post-operatively. Outcomes included clinical examination, subjective and objective scoring systems, and radiological assessment. At 15 years only eight of 118 patients (7%) had moderate or severe osteo-arthritic changes (International Knee Documentation Committee Grades C and D), and 79 of 152 patients (52%) still performed very strenuous activities. Overall graft survival at 15 years was 83% (1.1% failure per year). Patients aged < 18 years at the time of surgery and patients with > 2 mm of laxity at one year had a threefold increase in the risk of suffering a rupture of the graft (p = 0.002 and p = 0.001, respectively). There was no increase in laxity of the graft over time. ACL reconstructive surgery in patients with an 'isolated' rupture using this technique shows good results 15 years post-operatively with respect to ligamentous stability, objective and subjective outcomes, and does not appear to cause osteoarthritis.

  7. Parenting Stress and Child Behavior Problems within Families of Children with Developmental Disabilities: Transactional Relations across 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Ashley C.; Mawdsley, Helena P.; Hauser-Cram, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children with developmental disabilities (DD) are at increased risk of experiencing psychological stress compared to other parents. Children’s high levels of internalizing and externalizing problems have been found to contribute to this elevated level of stress. Few studies have considered the reverse direction of effects, however, in families where a child has a DD. The present study investigated transactional relations between child behavior problems and maternal stress within 176 families raising a child with early diagnosed DD. There was evidence of both child-driven and parent-driven effects over the 15-year study period, spanning from early childhood (age 3) to adolescence (age 18), consistent with transactional models of development. Parent-child transactions were found to vary across different life phases and with different domains of behavior problems. PMID:25462487

  8. Prevalence and self perception of Dental Fluorosis among 15 year old school children in Prakasham district of south India

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, Guntipalli M; Rahamthullah, S A K Uroof; Kopuri, Raj Kumar Chowdary; Kumar, Y Anil; Suman, S V; Balaga, Ramesh Naidu

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the Prevalence and self perception of dental fluorosis among 15 - year old school children. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 840, 15 - year old school children from 12 schools of Prakasam district. After taking informed consent from their parents or legal representatives, an interview was conducted using a pretested questionnaire to collect the data regarding self perception of dental fluorosis, dental behaviour, and source of water and diet and socio demographic characters. Oral examination was done under natural light to score Deans fluorosis index. Statistical test used was chisquare test. Results: Study revealed that 82.04% of the study population were having dental fluorosis. Out of which only 42.3% were aware of the existing situations. 47.90% of boys are aware of dental fluorosis where as 40.50% of girls are aware of dental fluorosis. Fluorosis score in relation to gender is not statistically significant (chisquare (8.796);p=0.117). Conclusion: Dental fluorosis is a public health problem in Kanigiri town. As there was no study conducted in Kanigiri town even though it is one of the severely affected area in our country. Active steps must be taken to De fluoridate the water before distribution to reduce the morbidity associated with dental fluorosis in this area. How to cite this article: Naidu GM, Rahamthullah SA, Kopuri RK, Kumar YA, Suman SV, Balaga RN. Prevalence and self perception of Dental Fluorosis among 15 year old school children in Prakasham district of south India. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):67-71. PMID:24453447

  9. Placement from a Community-Based Mental Retardation Program: A 15-Year Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalock, Robert L.; Genung, Tom L.

    1993-01-01

    Eighty-five persons with developmental disabilities who had been placed into independent housing and competitive employment 15 years previously were evaluated. Two primary groups emerged: 19% in and 59% not in mental retardation/developmental disability services. The two groups were compared on social and support networks, lifestyle, quality of…

  10. Mathematical Literacy of Hong Kong's 15-Year-Old Students in PISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Ka-Ming Patrick

    2003-01-01

    This article reports the performance of 15-year-old Hong Kong students in mathematical literacy in an international study called PISA 2000, in which Hong Kong has topped the list of 41 participating countries/regions, with a mean score significantly higher than all other countries except Japan and Korea. With the conceptual framework developed by…

  11. Children Treated for Nocturnal Enuresis: Characteristics and Trends over a 15-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Kushnir, Baruch; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal Enuresis (NE) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders and has significant negative psychosocial impact on the child and family. Objective: To assess the characteristics of children with NE and trends over a 15-year period. Methods: The study included 18,677 children [11,205 (60%) boys and 7,472 (40%) girls] referred…

  12. Stability and Change in Counseling Psychologists' Identities, Roles, Functions, and Career Satisfaction across 15 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Rodney K.; Murdock, Nancy; Lichtenberg, James W.; McPherson, Robert; Koetting, Kristin; Petren, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined changes in the profession of counseling psychology by comparing results of similar surveys of Society of Counseling Psychology (SCP) members administered 15 years apart (in 1985 and 2000). The authors found the roles and settings of SCP members were relatively stable across this period but observed that notably fewer…

  13. Five Years of Tamoxifen Continues to Benefit Women 15 Years after Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    In a large randomized clinical trial, women with early-stage breast cancer who received 5 years of adjuvant treatment with tamoxifen had better outcomes up to 15 years after the start of treatment than those who received 2 years of tamoxifen therapy.

  14. PUBIS STRESS FRACTURE IN A 15-YEAR-OLD SOCCER PLAYER

    PubMed Central

    Bertolini, Fabrício Melo; Vieira, Rodrigo Barreiros; Oliveira, Lucas Henrique Araujo de; Lasmar, Rodrigo Pace; Junior, Otaviano de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents a 15-year-old football player who was diagnosed with a pubis stress fracture and underwent conservative treatment with satisfactory results. After a review of the literature, the clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment are described. The importance of this paper comes from the rarity of finding reports about this kind of injury in the literature. PMID:27027039

  15. Observations about Research Methodology during 15 Years of Presenting Capacity-Building Seminars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Walt, Johannes L.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the author shares some of his most important impressions and experiences that he accumulated over a span of more than 15 years of facilitating courses in the foundations of scholarship and article-writing. This is done in an effort to stimulate discussion about the "art" of article-writing and also to help budding academic…

  16. How "Green" Are Today's 15-Year-Olds? PISA in Focus. No. 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    How "green" are 15-year-olds? To what extent do they understand environmental issues? What are the sources of their information about the environment? Can they apply scientific principles and evidence to the world around them? This paper reports that across OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries, around one in five…

  17. Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus in a 15-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Hedawoo, J. B.; Nagdeve, N. G.; Sarve, G. N.

    2010-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the lower esophagus is reported because of its rarity. The patient presented with dysphagia for 3 months and weight loss. The case was treated with radical excision, with excellent immediate response. PMID:20975784

  18. Natural selection of mitochondria during somatic lifetime promotes healthy aging

    PubMed Central

    Rodell, Anders; Rasmussen, Lene J.; Bergersen, Linda H.; Singh, Keshav K.; Gjedde, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis during life-time challenges both eliminates disadvantageous properties and drives adaptive selection of advantageous phenotypic variations. Intermittent fission and fusion of mitochondria provide specific targets for health promotion by brief temporal stressors, interspersed with periods of recovery and biogenesis. For mitochondria, the mechanisms of selection, variability, and heritability, are complicated by interaction of two independent genomes, including the multiple copies of DNA in each mitochondrion, as well as the shared nuclear genome of each cell. The mechanisms of stress-induced fission, followed by recovery-induced fusion and biogenesis, drive the improvement of mitochondrial functions, not only as directed by genotypic variations, but also as enabled by phenotypic diversity. Selective adaptation may explain unresolved aspects of aging, including the health effects of exercise, hypoxic and poisonous preconditioning, and tissue-specific mitochondrial differences. We propose that intermittent purposeful enhancement of mitochondrial biogenesis by stressful episodes with subsequent recovery paradoxically promotes adaptive mitochondrial health and continued healthy aging. PMID:23964235

  19. Comparison of breast, cow, and soy feedings in the prevention of onset of allergic disease: a 15-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Gruskay, F L

    1982-08-01

    It has been reported that the feeding of cow's milk may enhance the development of atopy in predisposed infants. A prospective study following children from birth through 15 years of age in a private pediatric practice was designed to determine if the food ingested during the first months of life is related to the development of atopy in the offspring of allergic families. Each of 328 children with a positive family history of allergy was assigned to one of three groups according to the feeding preference of the parents: 48 were fed breast milk; 79 soy-based formula; and 201, cow's milk formula. All groups had egg, citrus, tomato, and wheat restrictions as well as inhalant allergen avoidance. These were compared to a control group of 580 children with no family history of allergy. Breast fed infants were found to have approximately one-half the incidence of atopy of cow's milk or soy formula fed infants from atopic families when followed for up to 15 years. Soy feeding produced no advantage over cow's milk in the prophylaxis of allergic disease. There was a three-fold increase in clinically apparent atopic disease in offspring of allergic families when compared to controls but only a two-fold increase if the infant was breast fed. These results support the hypothesis that breast feeding and delay of exposure to known allergens may reduce the frequency of clinical allergic disease in the offspring of allergic families.

  20. Oral health status and treatment needs among 12- and 15-year-old government and private school children in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Shailee, Fotedar; Girish, M. Sogi; Kapil, R. Sharma; Nidhi, Pruthi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the dental caries, periodontal health, and malocclusion of school children aged 12 and 15 years in Shimla city and to compare them in government and private schools. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 12- and 15-year-old children in government and private schools was conducted in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India. A sample of 1011 school children (both males and females) was selected by a two-stage cluster sampling method. Clinical recordings of dental caries and malocclusion were done according to World Health Organization diagnostic criteria 1997. Periodontal health was assessed by Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs index. The data collected was analyzed by SPSS package 13. The statistical tests used were t-test and Chi-square tests. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 32.6% and 42.2% at 12 and 15 years, respectively. At the12 years of age, the mean decayed, missing, filled teeth was 0.62 ± 1.42 and it was 1.06 ± 2.93 at 15 years of age. Females had higher level of caries than males at both the ages. At both ages, mean of decayed teeth was statistically higher in government schools as compared with private schools. Children in government schools had significantly less number of mean filled teeth at both ages as compared with private schools. The healthy component of gingiva was present in higher percentage of children in private schools as compared with government schools at both the age groups. The prevalence of malocclusion among the 12- year-old (58.1%) was more as compared with that among the 15-year-old (53.5%). Conclusion: The caries experience of 12- and 15-year-old children was low but the prevalence of gingivitis and malocclusion was quite high. Effective oral health promotion strategies need to be implemented to improve the oral health of school children further in Shimla city. PMID:24478980

  1. A 15-year warranty period for asymptomatic individuals without coronary artery calcium: a prospective follow-up of 9715 individuals

    PubMed Central

    Valenti, Valentina; Hartaigh, Bríain ó; Heo, Ran; Cho, Iksung; Schulman-Marcus, Joshua; Gransar, Heidi; Truong, Quynh A.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Knapper, Joseph; Kelkar, Anita A.; Sandesara, Pratik; Lin, Fay Y.; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Callister, Tracy Q.; Min, James K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine long-term prognosis of a zero coronary artery calcium (CAC) score among asymptomatic individuals and its associated warranty period. Background Emerging evidence supports CAC=0 as a favorable cardiovascular short-to-intermediate term prognostic factor. Methods 9715 individuals undergoing CAC imaging were stratified by age, Framingham risk score (FRS) and Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) categories and followed for a mean of 14.6 (12.9–16.8) years. Cox regression, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and net reclassification information (NRI) were used to assess all-cause mortality, discrimination and reclassification of CAC=0 compared with FRS and NCEP ATP III, respectively. A warranty period was pre-defined as <1% annual mortality rate. Vascular age was estimated by linear regression. Results Among 4864 individuals with baseline CAC=0 (mean age 52.1±10.8 years; 57.9% male), 229 deaths occurred. The warranty period of CAC=0 was almost 15 years for individuals at low and intermediate risk with no significant differences regarding age and gender. CAC=0 was associated with a vascular age of 1, 10, 20, and 30 years below chronologic age for individuals between 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, and ≥80 years, respectively. CAC score was the strongest predictor of death (HR 2.67, 95% CI 2.29–3.11) that enabled discrimination and consistent reclassification beyond FRS (AUC 0.71 vs. 0.64, p<0.001) and NCEP ATP III (AUC 0.72 vs. 0.64, p<0.001). Conclusions CAC=0 confers a 15-year warranty period against mortality among individuals at low-to-intermediate risk, which is unaffected by age or gender. Furthermore, in individuals considered at high-risk by clinical risk scores the presence of CAC=0 confers better survival than in individuals at low-to-intermediate risk but with any CAC. PMID:26189116

  2. Natural and artefactual aneuploidy in human lymphocytes in extreme old age.

    PubMed

    Lezhava, T; Khmaladze, E; Lokhadze, T; Buadze, T

    2008-04-01

    At present it is generally believed that aging is accompanied by an increase in the numbers of cells with altered chromosome sets. However, the problem of aneuploidy in extreme old age (80 years and over) has hardly been subjected to systematic investigation. The purpose of this study was to examine quantitative chromosome changes and relationship between "artefactual" and "natural" aneuploidy in subjects from 80 to 114 years of age using karyotype analyses. Chromosomes were studied in 1136 karyotypes of relatively round metaphases from 40 lymphocyte cultures obtained from 40 apparently normal subjects aged from 80 to 114 ( including 26 men and 14 women). 964 karyotypes from 48 donors aged 20 to 48 served as control. Lymphocytes were cultivation by modification method (Lezhava, 2006). It is suggested that the probability of natural aneuploidy rises substantially among elderly women; while that of artefactual aneuploidy is increased among elderly men; the problem of natural aneuploidy in males remains unclear.

  3. [Renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the thyroid gland 15 years after nephrectomy].

    PubMed

    Mathiesen, Jes Sloth; Fleischer, Jens Geelmuyden; Godballe, Christian

    2015-01-26

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastasis to the thyroid gland is rare and can mimic primary thyroid carcinoma leading to diagnostic difficulties. We present a case of a 55-year-old female with RCC metastasis to the thyroid gland 15 years after nephrectomy. Diagnosis was made after total thyroidectomy. This case emphasizes the importance of considering metastasis in patients with increasing growth of the thyroid gland over a short period of time known with earlier RCC, even decades after nephrectomy. PMID:25612964

  4. Trisomy 18 mosaicism in a 15-year-old boy with normal intelligence and short stature

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-08

    We report a 15-year-old boy with mosaicism for trisomy 18 and normal intelligence. Approximately 50% of his leukocytes are trisomic. This patient represents the sixth report of an individual with trisomy 18 mosaicism and normal intelligence. Those individuals with trisomy 18 mosaicism and normal intelligence need to be advised of increased risks for offspring with chromosome abnormalities and offered the option of prenatal diagnosis for cytogenetic anomalies. 6 refs.

  5. Hamartoma of the urinary bladder in a 15-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Al Shahwani, Noora; Alnaimi, Abdulla Rashid; Ammar, Adham; Al-ahdal, Esra M.

    2016-01-01

    Hamartoma of the bladder is an unusual entity described in only eleven patients to date. It may present as painless hematuria, irritative urinary tract symptoms, or inability to void or it may be diagnosed incidentally. Hamartoma of the bladder may be isolated or occur as part of a syndrome. No isolated bladder hamartoma to date has shown malignant potential. We describe here a bladder hamartoma in a 15-year-old boy. PMID:27274896

  6. A 15-year-old boy with snoring and molar tooth sign.

    PubMed

    El-Kersh, Karim; Senthilvel, Egambaram

    2015-04-01

    A 15-year-old boy presented for evaluation of snoring and sleep-disordered breathing. The parents noted that the patient snored every night and that he had episodes when he stopped breathing, ending with gasping for air. He had no history of sleep walking, night terrors, tongue biting, or seizures. The patient had two healthy siblings, but he had a history of intellectual disability and developmental delay. The patient had a history of adenotonsillectomy. PMID:25846539

  7. (Un)Healthy immigrant citizens: naturalization and activity limitations in older age.

    PubMed

    Gubernskaya, Zoya; Bean, Frank D; Van Hook, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This research argues that immigrants' political, social, and economic incorporation experiences, which are embedded in individual life course trajectories and heavily influenced by governmental policies, play an important role in producing diverse health outcomes among older U.S. foreign-born persons. Using data from the 2008-2010 American Community Survey and 1998-2010 Integrated Health Interview Series, we demonstrate how naturalization, a key indicator of social and political inclusion, is related to functional health in midlife and older age. Consistent with the theoretical framework, we find that among those foreign-born who immigrated as children and young adults, naturalized citizens show better health at older ages compared with noncitizens, although this relationship is partly mediated by education. But among those older foreign-born who immigrated at middle and older ages, naturalized citizens report worse health compared with noncitizens. Moreover, this negative health selection into naturalization becomes stronger for those naturalizing after the 1996 Welfare Reform Act.

  8. ASTER VNIR 15 years growth to the standard imaging radiometer in remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, Masaru; Inada, Hitomi; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Sakuma, Fumihiro

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer (VNIR) is the remote sensing equipment which has 3 spectral bands and one along-track stereoscopic band radiometer. ASTER VNIR's planned long life design (more than 5 years) is successfully achieved. ASTER VNIR has been imaging the World-wide Earth surface multiband images and the Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM). VNIR data create detailed world-wide maps and change-detection of the earth surface as utilization transitions and topographical changes. ASTER VNIR's geometric resolution is 15 meters; it is the highest spatial resolution instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft. Then, ASTER VNIR was planned for the geometrical basis map makers in Terra instruments. After 15-years VNIR growth to the standard map-maker for space remote-sensing. This paper presents VNIR's feature items during 15-year operation as change-detection images , DEM and calibration result. VNIR observed the World-wide Earth images for biological, climatological, geological, and hydrological study, those successful work shows a way on space remote sensing instruments. Still more, VNIR 15 years observation data trend and onboard calibration trend data show several guide or support to follow-on instruments.

  9. Factors Related to Age at Natural Menopause: Longitudinal Analyses From SWAN

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Ellen B.; Crawford, Sybil L.; Avis, Nancy E.; Crandall, Carolyn J.; Matthews, Karen A.; Waetjen, L. Elaine; Lee, Jennifer S.; Thurston, Rebecca; Vuga, Marike; Harlow, Siobán D.

    2013-01-01

    Early age at the natural final menstrual period (FMP) or menopause has been associated with numerous health outcomes and might be a marker of future ill health. However, potentially modifiable factors affecting age at menopause have not been examined longitudinally in large, diverse populations. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) followed 3,302 initially premenopausal and early perimenopausal women from 7 US sites and 5 racial/ethnic groups, using annual data (1996–2007) and Cox proportional hazards models to assess the relation of time-invariant and time-varying sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health factors to age at natural FMP. Median age at the FMP was 52.54 years (n = 1,483 observed natural FMPs). Controlling for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health factors, we found that racial/ethnic groups did not differ in age at the FMP. Higher educational level, prior oral contraceptive use, and higher weight at baseline, as well as being employed, not smoking, consuming alcohol, having less physical activity, and having better self-rated health over follow-up, were significantly associated with later age at the FMP. These results suggest that age at the natural FMP reflects a complex interrelation of health and socioeconomic factors, which could partially explain the relation of late age at FMP to reduced morbidity and mortality. PMID:23788671

  10. Factors related to age at natural menopause: longitudinal analyses from SWAN.

    PubMed

    Gold, Ellen B; Crawford, Sybil L; Avis, Nancy E; Crandall, Carolyn J; Matthews, Karen A; Waetjen, L Elaine; Lee, Jennifer S; Thurston, Rebecca; Vuga, Marike; Harlow, Siobán D

    2013-07-01

    Early age at the natural final menstrual period (FMP) or menopause has been associated with numerous health outcomes and might be a marker of future ill health. However, potentially modifiable factors affecting age at menopause have not been examined longitudinally in large, diverse populations. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) followed 3,302 initially premenopausal and early perimenopausal women from 7 US sites and 5 racial/ethnic groups, using annual data (1996-2007) and Cox proportional hazards models to assess the relation of time-invariant and time-varying sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health factors to age at natural FMP. Median age at the FMP was 52.54 years (n = 1,483 observed natural FMPs). Controlling for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health factors, we found that racial/ethnic groups did not differ in age at the FMP. Higher educational level, prior oral contraceptive use, and higher weight at baseline, as well as being employed, not smoking, consuming alcohol, having less physical activity, and having better self-rated health over follow-up, were significantly associated with later age at the FMP. These results suggest that age at the natural FMP reflects a complex interrelation of health and socioeconomic factors, which could partially explain the relation of late age at FMP to reduced morbidity and mortality. PMID:23788671

  11. Factors related to age at natural menopause: longitudinal analyses from SWAN.

    PubMed

    Gold, Ellen B; Crawford, Sybil L; Avis, Nancy E; Crandall, Carolyn J; Matthews, Karen A; Waetjen, L Elaine; Lee, Jennifer S; Thurston, Rebecca; Vuga, Marike; Harlow, Siobán D

    2013-07-01

    Early age at the natural final menstrual period (FMP) or menopause has been associated with numerous health outcomes and might be a marker of future ill health. However, potentially modifiable factors affecting age at menopause have not been examined longitudinally in large, diverse populations. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) followed 3,302 initially premenopausal and early perimenopausal women from 7 US sites and 5 racial/ethnic groups, using annual data (1996-2007) and Cox proportional hazards models to assess the relation of time-invariant and time-varying sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health factors to age at natural FMP. Median age at the FMP was 52.54 years (n = 1,483 observed natural FMPs). Controlling for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health factors, we found that racial/ethnic groups did not differ in age at the FMP. Higher educational level, prior oral contraceptive use, and higher weight at baseline, as well as being employed, not smoking, consuming alcohol, having less physical activity, and having better self-rated health over follow-up, were significantly associated with later age at the FMP. These results suggest that age at the natural FMP reflects a complex interrelation of health and socioeconomic factors, which could partially explain the relation of late age at FMP to reduced morbidity and mortality.

  12. Degradation of mechanical behavior in UHMWPE after natural and accelerated aging.

    PubMed

    Edidin, A A; Jewett, C W; Kalinowski, A; Kwarteng, K; Kurtz, S M

    2000-07-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is known to degrade during natural (shelf) aging following gamma irradiation in air, but the mechanical signature of degradation remains poorly understood. Accelerated aging methods have been developed to reproduce the natural aging process as well as to precondition total joint replacement components prior to joint simulator wear testing. In this study, we compared the mechanical behavior of naturally (shelf) aged and accelerated aged tibial inserts using a previously validated miniature specimen testing technique known as the small punch test. Tibial inserts made-of GUR 1120 and sterilized with 25 to 40 kGy of gamma radiation (in air) in 1988, 1993, and 1997 were obtained; a subset of the 1997 implants were subjected to 4 weeks of accelerated aging in air at 80 degrees C. To determine the spatial variation of mechanical properties within each insert, miniature disk shaped specimens were machined from the surface and subsurface regions of the inserts. Analysis of variance of the test data showed that aging significantly affected the small punch test measures of elastic modulus, initial load, ultimate load, ultimate displacement, and work to failure. The accelerated aging protocol was unable to reproduce the spatial mechanical profile seen in shelf aged components, but it did mechanically degrade the surface of GUR 1120 tibial components to an extent comparable to that seen after 10 years of natural aging. Test specimens showed a fracture morphology consistent with the decreased ductility and toughness which was corroborated by the small punch test metrics of this study. Our data support the hypothesis that UHMWPE undergoes a spatially nonuniform change towards a less ductile (more brittle) mechanical behavior after gamma irradiation in air and shelf aging.

  13. Traumatic Dental Injuries Among 12-15-Year-Old-School Children in Panchkula

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Amandeep; Lakhanpal, Manav; Rao, NC; Gupta, Nidhi; Vashisth, Shelja

    2014-01-01

    Background: Traumatic dental injury (TDI) in children and adolescents has become one of the most serious dental public health problems. Despite such a high prevalence of dental trauma, very less attention has been paid to TDI, its etiology, and prevention. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of anterior tooth traumatic dental injuries in 12-15-year-old school children of Panchkula district, India, and to find any correlation with the cause, gender, extent of overbite as well as over-jet, and previous treatment. Patients and Methods: A multistage sample of 12-15-year-old school children (n = 810) in Panchkula district, Haryana, was selected. The children were screened using WHO criteria for oral examination and a trained dental surgeon examined the children. Those with clinical TDI were examined further for the type of traumatic injuries using Elis classification modified by Holland. Overjet and overbite were recorded. After examination, questions regarding the cause of trauma and its treatment were asked. Data were subjected to statistical analysis using the Chi square and Mantel-Haenszel tests by SPSS version 20.0. Results: The results showed that out of 810 children, 86 (10.2 %) had TDI. Males had higher prevalence of trauma than females (P < 0.05). The common cause of trauma was fall (51.11%) followed by sports injuries (41.86%). Enamel-dentin fracture without pulpal involvement was the most common type of trauma and the most frequent involved teeth were maxillary central incisors. A significant association was observed between overjet and overbite and trauma. Only 3.5% of the children affected with trauma had received treatment. Conclusions: The prevalence of traumatic injuries to permanent incisors in 12-15-year-old Panchkula school children was relatively high. TDI was associated with gender, overjet, and lip competence. There was a great unmet treatment need. PMID:25032172

  14. Epidemiological Follow-up 15 Years after the Breast Cancer Scandal in Essen.

    PubMed

    Hauth, E A M; Berkemeyer, S; Jaeger, H; Forsting, M; Hoffmann, B; Jöckel, K-H

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: In the years 1993-1996 a number of presumably false-positive breast cancer diagnoses were made by a pathologist in Essen. A follow-up, undertaken 15 years later, investigated how many women had tumour recurrence and/or metastasis or had died from breast cancer. Material and Methods: A total of 151 (68 %) out of 222 women could be traced. One hundred and forty-seven (66.2 %) of the 222 women were alive. The observed survival rate, number of recurrences and/or metastases, and number of deaths from breast cancer were compared with data from the Munich Tumour Registry. The number of breast cancer cases among daughters of the affected women was ascertained. Results: The total observed survival rate at follow-up after 15 years was 93 %, a much higher figure than the survival rate of 45 % given by the Munich Tumour Registry. Recurrence and/or metastasis or death from breast cancer occurred in 9/222 cases (4.1 %). The incidence for these events calculated according to data from the Munich Tumour Registry is 13 %. Two daughters (2.2 %) out of a total of 90 were diagnosed with breast cancer whereas, according to the German Cancer Research Centre, the expected rate would have been between 5 and 10 %. Conclusions: The results of our follow-up after 15 years show that more women survived than expected and that the number of recurrences and/or metastases and deaths due to breast cancer was lower than expected. Fewer daughters of affected women were diagnosed with breast cancer than expected. These results support our suspicion that not all women diagnosed with breast cancer by a pathologist in Essen actually had breast cancer.

  15. Natural aging and reversion behavior of Al-Cu-Li-Ag-Mg alloy Weldalite (tm) 049

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayle, Frank W.; Heubaum, Frank H.; Pickens, Joseph R.

    1991-01-01

    This study was initiated to understand the natural aging and reversion behavior of Weldalite (trademark) 049 in tempers without cold work. Of particular interest are: (1) the microstructural basis for the high strength in the T4 condition; (2) an explanation of the reversion phenomenon; and (3) the effect of re-aging at room temperature after a reversion treatment. Mechanical properties were measured and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis performed at various stages of microstructural development during aging, reversion, and subsequent re-aging.

  16. Hemoptysis workup before embolization: single-center experience with a 15-year period follow-up.

    PubMed

    de Gregorio, Miguel A; Medrano, Joaquin; Laborda, Alicia; Higuera, Teresa

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this work was to present our experience in arterial embolization in the endovascular treatment of massive hemoptysis and remark on the importance of the workup before embolization. We present some clinical aspects to keep in mind before carrying out a bronchial embolization in a patient with severe hemoptysis. The main causes of hemoptysis are presented, as well as diagnosis means and the most important therapeutic procedures aimed to stabilize the patient who will undergo a bronchial arterial embolization. Likewise, we present our own experience with 401 patients with over a 15-year period of follow-up. PMID:18572140

  17. Visual illusions on the Internet: 15 years of change in technology and user behavior.

    PubMed

    Bach, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Looking back over 15 years of demonstrating visual phenomena and optical illusions on the Internet, I will discuss two major topics. The first concerns the methodology used to present interactive visual experiments on the web, with respect to (a) wide accessibility, ie independent of browser and platform, (b) capable and elegant graphic user interface, (c) sufficient computational power, (d) ease of development and, finally, (e) future-proofing in an ever-changing online environment. The second major topic addresses some aspects of user behaviour, mainly temporal patterns (eg changes over weeks. years, long-term), which reveal that there are more visitors during office hours.

  18. [Coexistence of Crohn disease and Wegener granulomatosis in a 15-year-old patient].

    PubMed

    Sieczkowska, Agnieszka; Lewandowski, Piotr; Szumera, Małgorzata; Kamińska, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Crohn disease is being diagnosed more and more frequently in children and teenagers. Clinical symptoms are mainly related to the gastrointestinal tract, however there are many reports in the literature about the coexistence of Crohn disease with other autoimmunological disorders such as celiac disease, autoimmune hypothyroidism, systemic lupus erythematosus and Wegener granulomatosis. We report a 15-year-old patient with Crohn disease who also developed Wegener granulomatosis. The presented case illustrates the difficulties in establishing the diagnosis when symptoms of the original disease are superimposed on symptoms of a different disorder. PMID:22516704

  19. Adenocarcinoma at ureterosigmoidostomy junction in a renal transplant recipient 15 years after conversion to ileal conduit.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, T; Zevin, D; Kyzer, S; Korzets, A; Halperin, M; Luria, B; Levi, J

    1995-08-01

    In recent years, adenocarcinoma of the colon mucosa has become a recognized complication of ureterosigmoidostomy and in most cases the tumor arises at the site of ureterocolonic anastomosis. We report a case of a 29-year-old renal transplant recipient who developed two colonic carcinomas at the site of ureterosigmoidostomy 25 years after the urinary diversion and 15 years after conversion to an ileal conduit. This case emphasizes the need for a careful life-long follow-up of all patients who undergo ureterosigmoidostomy. PMID:8529301

  20. A Summer School for High School students: a 15 years experience.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamorano, Nelson

    2004-03-01

    During the last 15 years we have been offering a summer course (usually lasting four weeks) to interested high school students. In this work we summarizes its evolution, mainly of the physics course, during these years. The summer school started with 45 students for a physics course, and now we have 4000 students applying to the different subjects offered. In the physics course, we have offered, from the very beginning, a numerical complement to the students, where we use maple, excel and Interactive Physics. Starting from this experience we have derived to winter school for younger students and collective experiments like measuring the Earth radious using the Eratosthenes method.

  1. [Health surveillance in a steel making industry with electric arc furnace: 15 years of experience].

    PubMed

    Corti, P

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the results of health surveillance carried out in an electric steel mill for 15 years. We have analyzed the trend of audiometry, spirometry and main indicators of exposure to chemical risk: serum lead, urinary OH-pyrene, erythrocyte ZPP, and the results of risk assessment of stress work related. The analyses of the trend of audiometry, spirometry and biological monitoring shows an important improving in the working environment due to the progressive automation of production steps in the course of several years, consistent and correct use of DPI, information and training.

  2. Plummer-Vinson syndrome in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Dinler, Gönül; Tander, Burak; Kalayci, Ayhan Gazi; Rizalar, Riza

    2009-01-01

    Plummer-Vinson syndrome presents as a classical triad of dysphagia, iron deficiency anemia and upper esophageal web(s). The syndrome usually occurs in adults, and is rare in childhood. We report a case of this syndrome occurring in a 15-year-old boy. He presented with dysphagia and anemia. Radiological examination showed the presence of webs at the cervical esophagus. The boy was treated with endoscopic balloon dilation and iron supplementation and remains in good general condition six months after the treatment.

  3. [Relapse of bleeding ulcer in a 15 year-old boy with collagenous gastritis].

    PubMed

    Haase, Anne-Mette; Kelsen, Jens

    2012-06-18

    Collagenous gastritis (CG) is a rare disorder. Two patient groups are known: 1) Children and young adults, presenting with anaemia and abdominal pain, and 2) adults presenting with watery diarrhoea. In the latter group, CG is frequently associated with collagenous colitis and/or coeliac disease. This case concerns a 15-year-old boy with a bleeding ulcer. The biopsies from corpus ventriculi showed a thickened subepithelial collagen band (> 10 micrometres), and the patient was diagnosed with CG. Ulcers are rarely linked to CG. CG should be considered when ulcers are found in children and young adults. PMID:22713227

  4. A 15-year-old boy with severe combined immunodeficiency, fungal infection, and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Abul, Mehtap Haktanir; Tuano, Karen; Healy, C Mary; Vece, Timothy J; Quintanilla, Norma M; Davis, Carla M; Seeborg, Filiz O; Hanson, Imelda Celine

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) outcomes in X-linked severe combined immune deficiency are most effective when performed with patients <3 months of age and without coexisting morbidity, and with donor cells from a matched sibling. Even under such favorable circumstances, outcomes can be suboptimal, and full cellular engraftment may not be complete, which results in poor B or natural killer cell function. Protein losing enteropathies can accompany persistent immune deficiency disorders with resultant low serum globulins (immunoglobulin A [IgA], IgG, IgM) and lymphopenia. Patients with immune disorders acquire infections that can be predicted by their immune dysfunction. Fungal infections are typically noted in neutropenic (congenital or acquired) and T-cell deficient individuals. Coexisting fungal infections are rare, even in hosts who are immunocompromised, and they require careful evaluation. Antifungal treatment may result in drug-drug interactions with significant complications. PMID:26314823

  5. ApoE genotypes are associated with age at natural menopause in Chinese females.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fan-Tao; Wang, Yan-Li; Liu, Ji; Zhao, Jun; Liu, Rong-Yu; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2012-08-01

    Ages at natural menarche and menopause are influenced by several genetic factors. This study aimed to investigate the possible relationship between the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype and the age at menarche and natural menopause in Chinese females. In the current study, 398 (elderly group, aged 47-80 years) and 825 (young group, aged 15-25 years) Chinese females were enrolled under informed content. Ages at natural menarche and menopause were obtained by questionnaires. ApoE genotypes were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. In the elderly group, the number of pregnancies and live births and breastfeeding were associated with the age at menopause (P = 0.008, P = 0.002, and P = 0.023, respectively). One-way ANOVA analysis revealed that the ApoE genotype was significantly associated with age at natural menopause (ANM; P = 0.010). Compared with ApoE ε3/3 carriers, ApoE ε3/4 females showed a 1.8-year delay in ANM (P = 0.002). Single ApoE allele-positive/allele-negative analysis also showed that the age at menopause of ApoE ε4 carriers was delayed compared with those who were not carriers (P = 0.023). In the young group, no statistical difference was found in the age of menarche between the carriers of ApoE ε3/3 and ε3/4. Single ApoE allele-positive/allele-negative analysis showed that the age at menarche in ApoE ε4 carriers was slightly earlier than in those who were not carriers (P = 0.048). Meanwhile, univariate association analysis revealed that the ApoE genotypes were not significantly associated with the age at menarche using age as a covariate in the pooled group (young + elderly) (P = 0.143). We demonstrated that the ApoE genotype is significantly linked to the age at natural menopause.

  6. [Microsurgical management of male infertility in china: 15-year development and prospects].

    PubMed

    Peng, Jing; Li, Zheng; Tu, Xiang-An; Tian, Long; Zhang, Yan; Hong, Kai; Wang, Xiang; Yuan, Yi-Ming; Zhao, Lian-Ming; Ping, Ping; Zhou, Li-Xin; Liu, Yi-Dong; Mao, Xiang-Ming; Zhao, Fu-Jun; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Dong, Qiang; Sun, Zhong-Yi; Zhou, Tie; Liu, Zhi-yong; Sun, Xiang-Zhou; Jiang, Tao; Philip, S Li

    2014-07-01

    Male infertility is a common and complex disease in urology and andrology, and for many years there has been no effective surgical treatment. With the emergence of microsurgery and assisted reproductive medicine (IVF/ICSI), rapid development has been achieved in the treatment of male infertility. The Center for Male Reproductive Medicine and Microsurgery at Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University has been playing an important leading role in developing microsurgical techniques for the management of male infertility. The development of microsurgical treatment of male infertility in China has experienced the 3 periods of emerging, making, and boosting ever since its systematic introduction from Weill Cornell Medical College 15 years ago. At present, many Chinese hospitals have adopted microsurgery in the management of male infertility, which has contributed to the initial establishment of a microsurgical treatment system for male infertility in China. However, some deficiencies do exist concerning microsurgical treatment of male infertility, as in normalized technical training programs for competent surgeons, unified criteria for evaluation of surgical outcomes, and detailed postoperative follow-up data. This article presents an overview on the 15-year development of microsurgical management of male infertility in China, points out the existing deficiencies, and offers some propositions for the promotion of its development.

  7. Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter pylori in the last 15 years in West Poland.

    PubMed

    Karpiński, Tomasz M; Andrzejewska, Ewa; Eder, Piotr; Linke, Krzysztof; Szkaradkiewicz, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Increasing resistance to drugs represents a serious problem in treatment of infections with Helicobacter pylori, providing cause of frequent therapeutic failures. Present study aimed at analysis of changes in resistance of H. pylori to antibiotics in West Poland within the recent 15 years. 108 strains of H. pylori were analysed, isolated from gastric mucosa of adult patients. Group 1 involved 66 strains isolated in years of 1998/1999. Group 2 comprised 42 isolates obtained in years of 2013/2014. Susceptibility to amoxicillin (AMX), clarithromycin (CL), tetracycline (TC) and metronidazole (MTZ) was determined by E-test (AB Biodisc). All strains on both studied groups were susceptible to AMX. In group 1 all strains proved to be susceptible to TC, while 9% and 36% of tested strains were resistant to CL and MTZ, respectively. By contrast, in group 2, 31% and 83% of strains were resistant to CL and MTZ, respectively. In parallel, 14% strains were found to be resistant to TC (according to EUCAST interpretations). In West Poland, within recent 15 years a dramatic increase was noted in H. pylori strains resistant to metronidazole. In parallel, a significant increase was noted in proportion of strains resistant to clarithromycin.

  8. EXPOSE-E: an ESA astrobiology mission 1.5 years in space.

    PubMed

    Rabbow, Elke; Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Bohmeier, Maria; Parpart, André; Panitz, Corinna; Horneck, Gerda; von Heise-Rotenburg, Ralf; Hoppenbrouwers, Tom; Willnecker, Rainer; Baglioni, Pietro; Demets, René; Dettmann, Jan; Reitz, Guenther

    2012-05-01

    The multi-user facility EXPOSE-E was designed by the European Space Agency to enable astrobiology research in space (low-Earth orbit). On 7 February 2008, EXPOSE-E was carried to the International Space Station (ISS) on the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) platform in the cargo bay of Space Shuttle STS-122 Atlantis. The facility was installed at the starboard cone of the Columbus module by extravehicular activity, where it remained in space for 1.5 years. EXPOSE-E was returned to Earth with STS-128 Discovery on 12 September 2009 for subsequent sample analysis. EXPOSE-E provided accommodation in three exposure trays for a variety of astrobiological test samples that were exposed to selected space conditions: either to space vacuum, solar electromagnetic radiation at >110 nm and cosmic radiation (trays 1 and 3) or to simulated martian surface conditions (tray 2). Data on UV radiation, cosmic radiation, and temperature were measured every 10 s and downlinked by telemetry. A parallel mission ground reference (MGR) experiment was performed on ground with a parallel set of hardware and samples under simulated space conditions. EXPOSE-E performed a successful 1.5-year mission in space.

  9. 200-BP-1 Prototype Hanford Barrier -- 15 Years of Performance Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Anderson L.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Link, Steven O.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2011-09-30

    Monitoring is an essential component of engineered barrier system design and operation. A composite capacitive cover, including a capillary break and an evapotranspiration (ET) barrier at the Hanford Site, is generating data that can be used to help resolve these issues. The prototype Hanford barrier was constructed over the 216-B-57 Crib in 1994 to evaluate surface-barrier constructability, construction costs, and physical and hydrologic performance at the field scale. The barrier has been routinely monitored between November 1994 and September 1998 as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) treatability test of barrier performance for the 200 BP 1 Operable Unit. Since FY 1998, monitoring has focused on a more limited set of key water balance, stability, and biotic parameters. In FY 2009, data collection was focused on: (1) water-balance monitoring, consisting of precipitation, runoff, soil moisture storage, and drainage measurements with evapotranspiration calculated by difference; (2) stability monitoring, consisting of asphalt-layer-settlement, basalt-side-slope-stability, and surface-elevation measurements; (3) vegetation dynamics; and (4) animal use. September 2009 marked 15 years since the start of monitoring and the collection of performance data. This report describes the results of monitoring activities during the period October 1, 2008, through September 30, 2009, and summarizes the 15 years of performance data collected from September 1994 through September 2009.

  10. High aerosol acidity despite declining atmospheric sulfate concentrations over the past 15 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Rodney J.; Guo, Hongyu; Russell, Armistead G.; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-04-01

    Particle acidity affects aerosol concentrations, chemical composition and toxicity. Sulfate is often the main acid component of aerosols, and largely determines the acidity of fine particles under 2.5 μm in diameter, PM2.5. Over the past 15 years, atmospheric sulfate concentrations in the southeastern United States have decreased by 70%, whereas ammonia concentrations have been steady. Similar trends are occurring in many regions globally. Aerosol ammonium nitrate concentrations were assumed to increase to compensate for decreasing sulfate, which would result from increasing neutrality. Here we use observed gas and aerosol composition, humidity, and temperature data collected at a rural southeastern US site in June and July 2013 (ref. ), and a thermodynamic model that predicts pH and the gas-particle equilibrium concentrations of inorganic species from the observations to show that PM2.5 at the site is acidic. pH buffering by partitioning of ammonia between the gas and particle phases produced a relatively constant particle pH of 0-2 throughout the 15 years of decreasing atmospheric sulfate concentrations, and little change in particle ammonium nitrate concentrations. We conclude that the reductions in aerosol acidity widely anticipated from sulfur reductions, and expected acidity-related health and climate benefits, are unlikely to occur until atmospheric sulfate concentrations reach near pre-anthropogenic levels.

  11. Gingival proliferative lesions in children and adolescents in Brazil: A 15-year-period cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    daSilva, Fabiana Caroline; Piazzetta, Cleto Mariosvaldo; Torres-Pereira, Cassius Carvalho; Schussel, Juliana Lucena; Amenábar, José Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of oral lesions in children and adolescents, particularly in gingiva are scarce in the literature. The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of gingival proliferative lesions based on clinical and histopathological diagnoses in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A review of clinical charts of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years old, admitted to the Oral Medicine Outpatient Unit, of Universidade Federal do Paraná, for 15 years (1994–2009) was performed. Results: Six hundred and sixty-nine out of 5,129 patients treated during this period were aged between 0 and 18 years old, and 45 of these had gingival lesions. The largest number of lesions was observed between 11 and 16 years old. The majority of the patients were referred by Curitiba's public health system. Pyogenic granuloma was the most frequent lesion (19 = 42.2%), followed by peripheral giant cell lesion (11 = 24.4%), gingival fibromatosis (10 = 22.2%), and peripheral ossifying fibroma (5 = 11.1%). Conclusion: Gingival proliferative lesions can show similar clinical characteristics. Appropriate clinical and histopathological diagnoses are necessary to guide the healthcare professional to establish the adequate treatment and to estimate the risk of recurrence. PMID:27041840

  12. Proposition of an Accelerated Ageing Method for Natural Fibre/Polylactic Acid Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandvliet, Clio; Bandyopadhyay, N. R.; Ray, Dipa

    2015-10-01

    Natural fibre composite based on polylactic acid (PLA) composite is of special interest because it is entirely from renewable resources and biodegradable. Some samples of jute/PLA composite and PLA alone made 6 years ago and kept in tropical climate on a shelf shows too fast ageing degradation. In this work, an accelerated ageing method for natural fibres/PLA composite is proposed and tested. Experiment was carried out with jute and flax fibre/PLA composite. The method was compared with the standard ISO 1037-06a. The residual flexural strength after ageing test was compared with the one of common wood-based panels and of real aged samples prepared 6 years ago.

  13. 15-year incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis at onset of type 1 diabetes in children from a regional setting (Auckland, New Zealand)

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, Craig; Cutfield, Samuel W.; Derraik, José G. B.; Bhagvandas, Jignal; Albert, Benjamin B.; Hofman, Paul L.; Gunn, Alistair J.; Cutfield, Wayne S.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children aged <15 years with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in the Auckland Region (New Zealand) in 1999–2013, in a retrospective review of a complete regional cohort. DKA and its severity were classified according to ISPAD 2014 guidelines. Of 730 children presenting with new-onset T1DM over the 15-year time period, 195 cases had DKA of any severity (27%). There was no change in the incidence of DKA or the proportion of children with severe DKA at presentation. The incidence of DKA among children aged <2.0 years (n = 40) was 53% compared to 25% for those aged 2–14 years (n = 690; p = 0.005). In children aged 2–14 years, increasing age at diagnosis was associated with greater likelihood of DKA at presentation (p = 0.025), with the odds of DKA increasing 1.06 times with each year increase in age. Non-Europeans were more likely to present in DKA than New Zealand Europeans (OR 1.52; p = 0.048). Despite a consistent secular trend of increasing incidence of T1DM, there was no reduction in the incidence of DKA in new-onset T1DM in the Auckland Region over time. Thus, it is important to explore ways to reduce DKA risk. PMID:25989414

  14. 15-year incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis at onset of type 1 diabetes in children from a regional setting (Auckland, New Zealand).

    PubMed

    Jefferies, Craig; Cutfield, Samuel W; Derraik, José G B; Bhagvandas, Jignal; Albert, Benjamin B; Hofman, Paul L; Gunn, Alistair J; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2015-05-19

    We assessed the incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children aged <15 years with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in the Auckland Region (New Zealand) in 1999-2013, in a retrospective review of a complete regional cohort. DKA and its severity were classified according to ISPAD 2014 guidelines. Of 730 children presenting with new-onset T1DM over the 15-year time period, 195 cases had DKA of any severity (27%). There was no change in the incidence of DKA or the proportion of children with severe DKA at presentation. The incidence of DKA among children aged <2.0 years (n = 40) was 53% compared to 25% for those aged 2-14 years (n = 690; p = 0.005). In children aged 2-14 years, increasing age at diagnosis was associated with greater likelihood of DKA at presentation (p = 0.025), with the odds of DKA increasing 1.06 times with each year increase in age. Non-Europeans were more likely to present in DKA than New Zealand Europeans (OR 1.52; p = 0.048). Despite a consistent secular trend of increasing incidence of T1DM, there was no reduction in the incidence of DKA in new-onset T1DM in the Auckland Region over time. Thus, it is important to explore ways to reduce DKA risk.

  15. Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Habitats in North East Germany: Reemergence of TBEV in Ticks after 15 Years of Inactivity

    PubMed Central

    Krienke, Anja; Riebold, Diana; Loebermann, Micha; Littmann, Martina; Fiedler, Karin; Klaus, Christine; Süss, Jochen; Reisinger, Emil Christian

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of tick-borne encephalitis has risen in Europe since 1990 and the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) has been documented to be spreading into regions where it was not previously endemic. In Mecklenburg-West Pomerania, a federal state in Northern Germany, TBEV was not detectable in over 16,000 collected ticks between 1992 and 2004. Until 2004, the last human case of TBE in the region was reported in 1985. Following the occurrence of three autochthonous human cases of TBE after 2004, however, we collected ticks from the areas in which the infections were contracted. To increase the chance of detecting TBEV-RNA, some of the ticks were fed on mice. Using nested RT-PCR, we were able to confirm the presence of TBEV in ticks for the first time after 15 years. A phylogenetic analysis revealed a close relationship between the sequences we obtained and a TBEV sequence from Mecklenburg-East Pomerania published in 1992 and pointed to the reemergence of a natural focus of TBEV after years of low activity. Our results imply that natural foci of TBEV may either persist at low levels of activity for years or reemerge through the agency of migrating birds. PMID:25110671

  16. Green-laser induced maculopathy in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Yan, William; Chakrabarti, Rahul; Little, Matthew; Carden, Susan M

    2016-06-01

    We report the case a 15-year-old boy who presented with retinopathy caused by a green-diode (class IIIB) laser. The patient was followed over a period of 8 weeks. Visual acuity on day 1 was 6/7.5, with central scotoma in the right eye, and 6/5 in the left eye. Macular optical coherence tomography of the right eye day 1 showed focal subfoveal disruption of the photoreceptor ellipsoid and myoid zones extending through the external limiting membrane to the outer nuclear layer. At week 8, visual acuity was 6/6 right eye and 6/5 in the left eye. Disruption of the ellipsoid and myoid layers, though still present, had improved.

  17. Mosquito Surveillance for 15 Years Reveals High Genetic Diversity Among West Nile Viruses in Israel.

    PubMed

    Lustig, Yaniv; Hindiyeh, Musa; Orshan, Laor; Weiss, Leah; Koren, Ravit; Katz-Likvornik, Shiri; Zadka, Hila; Glatman-Freedman, Aharona; Mendelson, Ella; Shulman, Lester M

    2016-04-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is endemic in Israel and has been the cause of several outbreaks in recent years. In 2000, a countrywide mosquito survey was established to monitor WNV activity and characterize viral genotypes in Israel. We analyzed data from 7135 pools containing 277 186 mosquitoes collected over the past 15 years and, here, report partial sequences of WNV genomes obtained from 102 of the 336 positive mosquito pools. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that cluster 4 and the Mediterranean and Eastern European subtypes of cluster 2 within WNV lineage 1 circulated in Israel, as did WNV lineage 2, highlighting a high genetic diversity of WNV genotypes in our region. As a major crossroads for bird migration between Africa and Eurasia and with a long history of human infection, Israel serves as a resource hub for WNV in Africa and Eurasia and provides valuable information on WNV circulation in these regions. PMID:26597260

  18. 15-Year blast furnace campaign concept for the reline of blast furnace C at Iscor

    SciTech Connect

    Noska, T.G.L.

    1995-07-01

    Since the 1970`s, when blast furnace campaigns of 3 to 5 years were experienced at the Vanderbijlpark Works, consequent improvements of cooling and refractory concepts as well as the development of a hot guniting practice for belly and lower shaft resulted in campaigns of 10 years and more. Having mastered the problems in belly and lower shaft, the furnace hearth became the ultimate limit and two hearth breakouts were experienced in the last 5 years in South Africa. After analyzing the causes for these breakouts, the requirements for a hearth refractory design, aimed at a 15-year plus campaign life, were formulated. A refractory design concept, which satisfies these requirements were developed based on European, American and Japanese philosophies.

  19. Laparoscopic surgery: surgical education in the People's Republic of China: changes after 15 years.

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-Hui; Witzke, Donald B; Gagliardi, Raymond J

    2007-06-01

    The introduction of laparoscopic surgery education in Mainland China took place in 1991, when Chinese surgeons rushed to the hospital where the first laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the country was performed to learn the keyhole technique; and different groups of surgeons from Western countries visited the land to convey their experience and foresight with their friendship. The situation in laparoscopic surgery and its education has changed a lot in the last 15 years. Communication via conference and workshops are used heavily as a teaching method in laparoscopic surgery education. Technical training is conveyed mainly in laparoscopic centers. Simple simulators created by Chinese surgeons, technical support by the Western forerunners, financial support, and other resources from major companies, and the large population contributed a lot to the fast development of laparoscopic surgery in China. PMID:17581456

  20. Targeted sustainable development: 15 years of government and community intervention on the St. Lawrence River.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, Serge; Painchaud, Jean; Dugas, Clément

    2006-02-01

    From 1988 to 2003, the St. Lawrence Action Plan, a Canada - Quebec cooperation agreement on the St. Lawrence River, helped to mobilize a still-growing number of stakeholders in the conservation and protection of this great river and generated tangible results in a number of areas of intervention. The successes enjoyed in the area of industrial, agricultural and urban clean-up, in protecting plant and animal species and their habitats, and in acquiring new knowledge on the state and trends of the ecosystem reflect the sustained efforts of government and non-government partners over the course of those 15 years. The committed involvement of local communities provides assurance of the sustainable development of this vast ecosystem.

  1. Pelvic osteomyelitis in a 15-year-old girl: case report.

    PubMed

    Tural Kara, Tugce; Ozdemir, Halil; Fitoz, Suat; Ciftci, Ergin; Ince, Erdal

    2016-10-01

    Pelvic osteomyelitis is a rare infection. Ilium, ischium, pubis and acetabulum are commonly affected sites. Pelvic radiography, pelvic magnetic resonance and scintigraphy are useful imaging techniques for diagnosis. However, diagnoses should be confirmed with bone biopsy from the lesion. Sometimes diagnosis is delayed because of deep localization of infection site. Here in, we report a 15-year-old girl with left groin pain who was diagnosed as pelvic osteomyelitis one month after initial symptoms. Patient was successfully treated with antibiotics for 8 weeks. In conclusion, although pelvic osteomyelitis is an unusual infection in childhood, it should be considered as differential diagnoses of pain in groin, hips, thigh, abdomen and spine. If diagnosis is suspicious, empiric treatment should be started quickly, because it will be possible to achieve satisfactory clinical results with effective treatment. PMID:27606666

  2. Pelvic osteomyelitis in a 15-year-old girl: case report.

    PubMed

    Tural Kara, Tugce; Ozdemir, Halil; Fitoz, Suat; Ciftci, Ergin; Ince, Erdal

    2016-10-01

    Pelvic osteomyelitis is a rare infection. Ilium, ischium, pubis and acetabulum are commonly affected sites. Pelvic radiography, pelvic magnetic resonance and scintigraphy are useful imaging techniques for diagnosis. However, diagnoses should be confirmed with bone biopsy from the lesion. Sometimes diagnosis is delayed because of deep localization of infection site. Here in, we report a 15-year-old girl with left groin pain who was diagnosed as pelvic osteomyelitis one month after initial symptoms. Patient was successfully treated with antibiotics for 8 weeks. In conclusion, although pelvic osteomyelitis is an unusual infection in childhood, it should be considered as differential diagnoses of pain in groin, hips, thigh, abdomen and spine. If diagnosis is suspicious, empiric treatment should be started quickly, because it will be possible to achieve satisfactory clinical results with effective treatment.

  3. X-ray emission from interacting wind massive binaries: A review of 15 years of progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauw, Gregor; Nazé, Yaël

    2016-09-01

    Previous generations of X-ray observatories revealed a group of massive binaries that were relatively bright X-ray emitters. This was attributed to emission of shock-heated plasma in the wind-wind interaction zone located between the stars. With the advent of the current generation of X-ray observatories, the phenomenon could be studied in much more detail. In this review, we highlight the progress that has been achieved in our understanding of the phenomenon over the last 15 years, both on theoretical and observational grounds. All these studies have paved the way for future investigations using the next generation of X-ray satellites that will provide crucial information on the X-ray emission formed in the innermost part of the wind-wind interaction.

  4. Results of our 15-year study into the biological effects of microwave exposure.

    PubMed

    Djordjević, Z; Kolak, A; Djoković, V; Ristić, P; Kelećević, Z

    1983-06-01

    The results obtained during 15 years of clinical and experimental examinations of biological microwave exposure effects are briefly surveyed. Some important results are reported. Based on their experience, the authors present their attitudes concerning harmful microwave effects on living matter. They consider that microwave effects, either direct or indirect, are the results of hyperthermia. Exposure of the living body to irradiation intensities not causing thermal effects do not induce important pathological alterations in the irradiated organisms. Also, it has been pointed out that the term "injury" is more suitable than the term "microwave sickness" when harmful effects of microwaves to the living organism are concerned. According to the authors, the term "microwave sickness" is not acceptable as a synonym for professional diseases of persons working with sources of microwave energy, since it refers to the complex of insufficiently defined symptoms of uncertain etiology. PMID:6882314

  5. Differential effects of stimulatory factors on natural killer cell activities of young and aged mice.

    PubMed

    Nogusa, Shoko; Murasko, Donna M; Gardner, Elizabeth M

    2012-09-01

    Age-associated influences on natural killer (NK) cell functions following cytokine stimulation were examined in splenocytes from C57BL/6 mice. NK cells of both young and aged mice exhibited significantly increased: interferon-γ production after interleukin (IL)-12 or IL-15 alone or any combination of IL-12, IL-18, and IL-2; cytotoxicity after IL-2 or IL-15; and granzyme B expression after IL-15. The only significant age-associated differences were observed in interferon-γ production after IL-15 or IL-12 + 18 + 2 and in granzyme B expression following IL-2 or IL-15. Perforin expression did not increase following stimulation; however, NK cells from aged mice expressed significantly higher levels than young mice. These results underscore the complexity of the cytokine-induced functional activities of NK cells and illustrate the differential response of NK cells from young and aged mice to cytokine stimulation.

  6. Is it possible and worth keeping track of deaths within general practice? Results of a 15 year observational study

    PubMed Central

    Beaumont, B; Hurwitz, B

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To assess the value of maintaining a death register in a general practice with particular reference to monitoring quality of care. Design of study: Observational study. Setting: Inner London general practice. Method: The practice maintained a manual death register, retained medical records of all deceased patients, and requested information on cause of death from health authorities and coroners for 15 years. Main outcome measures: Number and causes of deaths; 3 yearly age standardised death rates; proportion of deaths formally notified to the practice; place of death; source of cause of death information. Results: During the study period 578 patients died. Practice age standardised death rates fell significantly from 35.59 to 27.12/1000. 498 (86.2%) deaths were formally notified to the practice, 392 within 7 days of death. Of 143 deaths reported to the coroner, only 45 coroners' reports were received. 360 (64.1%) died in hospital, 139 (24.8%) at home, and 38 (6.8%) in a hospice. Death certificate cause of death information was obtained from patients' records in 33.6% (n=194) of cases and from health authority sources for 50% (n=289). The pattern of ascertained causes of deaths was similar to the national pattern. Conclusion: A death register can examine trends in practice deaths by age and place of death and comparisons undertaken with nationally published mortality data. An accurate picture of cause of death cannot be generated from routine data flows alone. There is delay in informing GPs of patient deaths. Meaningful and timely monitoring of deaths cannot be undertaken by individual practices. National Statistics should provide routine analysis of GP death certificate information. PMID:14532364

  7. (Un)Healthy Immigrant Citizens: Naturalization and Activity Limitations in Older Age*

    PubMed Central

    Gubernskaya, Zoya; Bean, Frank D.; Van hook, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This research argues that immigrants’ political, social and economic incorporation experiences, which are embedded in individual life-course trajectories and heavily influenced by governmental policies, play an important role in producing diverse health outcomes among older U.S. foreign-born persons. Using data from the 2008–2010 American Community Surveys and 1998–2010 Integrated Health Interview Surveys, we demonstrate how naturalization, a key indicator of social and political inclusion, is related to functional health in midlife and older age. Consistent with the theoretical framework, we find that among those foreign-born who immigrated as children and young adults, naturalized citizens show better health at older ages compared to non-citizens, although this relationship is partly mediated by education. But among those older foreign-born who immigrated at middle and older ages, naturalized citizens report worse health compared to non-citizens. Moreover, this negative health selection into naturalization becomes stronger for those naturalizing after the 1996 Welfare Reform Act. PMID:24311754

  8. Using naturally occurring radionuclides to determine drinking water age in a community water system

    DOE PAGES

    Waples, James T.; Bordewyk, Jason K.; Knesting, Kristina M.; Orlandini, Kent A.

    2015-07-22

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of 90Y/90Sr and 234Th/238U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.998, n =more » 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, 90Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 104 m3 d–1 capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.« less

  9. Using Naturally Occurring Radionuclides To Determine Drinking Water Age in a Community Water System.

    PubMed

    Waples, James T; Bordewyk, Jason K; Knesting, Kristina M; Orlandini, Kent A

    2015-08-18

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of (90)Y/(90)Sr and (234)Th/(238)U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r(2) = 0.998, n = 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r(2) = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, (90)Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 10(4) m(3) d(-1) capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.

  10. Farm machinery injuries: the 15-year experience at an urban joint trauma center system in a rural state.

    PubMed

    Jawa, Randeep S; Young, David H; Stothert, Joseph C; Yetter, Diane; Dumond, Robbie; Shostrom, Valerie K; Cemaj, Samuel; Rautiainen, Risto H; Mercer, David W

    2013-01-01

    Farm machinery is a major source of injury. The objective of this study is to characterize the incidence, injury characteristics, and outcomes of patients admitted with farm machinery injuries (FMIs) to an urban joint trauma system in a rural state. A retrospective 15-year review of the trauma registries of the two trauma centers that function as a single state-designated Level I joint trauma center system was conducted. There were 65 admissions for FMIs at hospital A and 41 at hospital B; this represents under 0.4% of total trauma admissions. The patients ranged in age from 2 to 87 years. At hospital A, 89% of admitted patients sustained extremity injuries, 16% sustained torso trauma, 92% required surgical intervention, and the mortality rate was 0%. At hospital B, 60% of admitted patients sustained extremity injuries, 36.6% of patients sustained torso trauma, 63% required surgical intervention, and the mortality rate was 14.6%. Tractor-related injuries were responsible for 17% of admissions at hospital A and 69% at hospital B. Of the six fatalities, five were tractor related. The data demonstrate that FMIs affect people in nearly all decades of life. FMIs at the two hospitals had differing injury characteristics and outcomes, in large part secondary to the differing frequency of tractor-related injuries. FMIs frequently required surgical intervention. PMID:23540300

  11. Seroprevalence of hepatitis a and associated factors among 1-15 year old children in Eastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Karaman, Serap; Karaman, Kamuran; Kızılyıldız, Baran Serdar; Ceylan, Nesrin; Kaba, Sultan; Parlak, Mehmet; Beger, Burhan; Ceylan, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis A is a common infectious disease during childhood worldwide. Recently, great deal of changes in the epidemiology has been reported. The seroepidemiologic studies of this infection are not sufficient in Eastern region of Turkey. Objective: To investigate the seroprevalence and association with socio-demographic variables of hepatitis A in 1-15 year old children in Van. Patients and Methods: This study was performed on 510 one to fifteen year old children from outpatient pediatric clinics in Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Medicine during last three months of 2009. Anti-HAV IgG was measured in sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The information about subjects was recorded on standardized forms and a chart review survey was performed. Results: The overall ratio for seropositivity was 54.9%. Statistical significance was found between hepatitis A seroprevalence and age, collective use of domestic items, fresh water resources, localization and type of toilet and the number of households. Conclusion: This study provided the most recent data of seropositivity and revealed the preliminary indication of epidemiological shift in seroprevalence of Hepatitis A virus in a region with high endemicity. PMID:26770581

  12. Farm machinery injuries: the 15-year experience at an urban joint trauma center system in a rural state.

    PubMed

    Jawa, Randeep S; Young, David H; Stothert, Joseph C; Yetter, Diane; Dumond, Robbie; Shostrom, Valerie K; Cemaj, Samuel; Rautiainen, Risto H; Mercer, David W

    2013-01-01

    Farm machinery is a major source of injury. The objective of this study is to characterize the incidence, injury characteristics, and outcomes of patients admitted with farm machinery injuries (FMIs) to an urban joint trauma system in a rural state. A retrospective 15-year review of the trauma registries of the two trauma centers that function as a single state-designated Level I joint trauma center system was conducted. There were 65 admissions for FMIs at hospital A and 41 at hospital B; this represents under 0.4% of total trauma admissions. The patients ranged in age from 2 to 87 years. At hospital A, 89% of admitted patients sustained extremity injuries, 16% sustained torso trauma, 92% required surgical intervention, and the mortality rate was 0%. At hospital B, 60% of admitted patients sustained extremity injuries, 36.6% of patients sustained torso trauma, 63% required surgical intervention, and the mortality rate was 14.6%. Tractor-related injuries were responsible for 17% of admissions at hospital A and 69% at hospital B. Of the six fatalities, five were tractor related. The data demonstrate that FMIs affect people in nearly all decades of life. FMIs at the two hospitals had differing injury characteristics and outcomes, in large part secondary to the differing frequency of tractor-related injuries. FMIs frequently required surgical intervention.

  13. Evaluation Efficacy of Ferrous Sulfate Therapy on Headaches of 5-15 Years Old Iron Deficient Children with Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, R; Zare Bidoki, S; Ordooei, M

    2016-01-01

    Background Some researches have shown the association between iron deficiency and migraine headache in adults. The aim of present study was to evaluate efficacy of ferrous sulfate treatment on migraine headaches of 5-15 years old migraineur children with iron deficiency. Materials and Methods In a quasi- experimental study, monthly frequency, severity, duration and disability of headaches of 5-15 years old migraineur children that prophylactic therapy was indicated in them and had iron deficiency who were referred to Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran between 2013 and 2015 and were treated with 2mg/kg/day topiramate plus 4mg/kg/day of ferrous sulfate for three consecutive months, were evaluated and headache characteristics before and after treatment were compared. Results In this study, 98 children with mean age of 9.72±3.19 were evaluated that 31children (31.6%) had iron deficiency. Monthly frequency (22.89±7.18 vs.14.5±4.56, P= 0.02), severity score (8.12± 1.76 vs. 5.03±1.15, P= 0.02) and disability score of headache (38.23±10.7vs. 30.12±7.46, P= 0.03) were more in children with iron deficiency. Iron therapy was effective in decreasing of monthlyfrequency 22.89± 7.18 vs. 10.13±4.51, P = 0.001), severity score (8.12±1.76 vs. 5.11±1.62, P =0.001), duration (2.14±1.23 vs.1.14±1.01, P= 0.001) and disability score of headache (38.23±10.7 vs. 22.87±8.65, P= 0.01). Conclusion In children, iron deficiency increased monthly frequency, severity and disability of migraine headache and ferrous sulfate can be used as a safe and effective drug in migraine prophylaxis. PMID:27222700

  14. Revisiting the Biomedicalization of Aging: Clinical Trends and Ethical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Sharon R.; Shim, Janet K.; Russ, Ann J.

    2004-01-01

    Developments in the realms of medical innovation and geriatric clinical intervention impact our understanding of the nature of late life, the possibilities for health in advanced age, medical decision making, and family responsibility in ways that could not have been predicted 15 years ago. This essay begins to map new forms of biomedicalization…

  15. ALH84001: The Key to Unlocking Secrets About Mars-15 Years and Counting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, D. S.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    From the December 27, 1984 discovery of ALH84001, and its subsequent identification as a sample of Mars in 1993, mystery and debate has surrounded the meteorite [1]. With the realization that the ALH84001 sample was a orthopyroxenite and one of the oldest SNC meteorites (approx.4.09 Ga) [2] available to study, important and critical information about the Martian hydrosphere and atmosphere along with the early history and evolution of the planet could be obtained by studying the unique carbonate globules (approx.3.9 Ga) in the sample [3]. The initial work showed the carbonate globules were deposited within fractures and cracks in the host-orthopyroxene by low-temperature aqueous fluids [4]. Ideas that the carbonates were formed at temperatures [5] approaching 800 C were ruled out by later experiments [6]. The 1996 announcement by McKay et al. [7] that ALH84001 contained features which could be interpreted as having a biogenic origin generated considerable excitement and criticism. The NASA Administrator Dan Golden said the 1996 ALH84001 announcement saved NASAs Mars planetary exploration program and injected $6 billion dollars over five years into the scientific research and analysis efforts [8]. All of the original four lines of evidence for possible biogenic features within ALH84001 offered by McKay et al. have withstood the test of time. Criticism has been directed at the interpretation of the 1996 analytical data. Research has expanded to other SNC meteorites. Despite the numerous attacks on the ideas, the debate continues after 15 years. The 2009 paper by Thomas-Keprta et al. [9] on the origins of a suite of magnetites within the ALH84001 has offered strong arguments that some of the magnetites can only be formed by biogenic processes and not from thermal decomposition or shock events which happened to the meteorite. NASA s Astrobiology Institute was formed from the foundation laid by the ALH84001 hypothesis of finding life beyond the Earth. The strong

  16. Monitoring the state of vegetation in Hungary using 15 years long MODIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Anikó; Bognár, Péter; Pásztor, Szilárd; Barcza, Zoltán; Timár, Gábor; Lichtenberger, János; Ferencz, Csaba

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring the state and health of the vegetation is essential to understand causes and severity of environmental change and to prepare for the negative effects of climate change on plant growth and productivity. Satellite remote sensing is the fundamental tool to monitor and study the changes of vegetation activity in general and to understand its relationship with the climate fluctuations. Vegetation indices and other vegetation related measures calculated from remotely sensed data are widely used to monitor and characterize the state of the terrestrial vegetation. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) are among the most popular indices that can be calculated from measurements of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor onboard the NASA EOS-AM1/Terra and EOS-PM1/Aqua satellites (since 1999 and 2002 respectively). Based on the available, 15 years long MODIS data (2000-2014) the vegetation characteristics of Hungary was investigated in our research, primarily using vegetation indices. The MODIS NDVI and EVI (both part of the so-called MOD13 product of NASA) are freely available with a finest spatial resolution of 250 meters and a temporal resolution of 16 days since 2000/2002 (for Terra and Aqua respectively). The accuracy, the spatial resolution and temporal continuity of the MODIS products makes these datasets highly valuable despite of its relatively short temporal coverage. NDVI is also calculated routinely from the raw MODIS data collected by the receiving station of Eötvös Loránd University. In order to characterize vegetation activity and its variability within the Carpathian Basin the area-averaged annual cycles and their interannual variability were determined. The main aim was to find those years that can be considered as extreme according to specific indices. Using archive meteorological data the effects of extreme weather on vegetation activity and growth were investigated with

  17. Risk factors for acute and overuse sport injuries in Swedish children 11 to 15 years old: What about resistance training with weights?

    PubMed

    Boström, A; Thulin, K; Fredriksson, M; Reese, D; Rockborn, P; Hammar, M L

    2016-03-01

    To determine the 1-year self-reported incidence of overuse and traumatic sport injuries and risk factors for injuries in children participating in a summer sports camp representing seven different sports. 4363 children, 11 to 15 years old participating in a summer camp in seven different sports answered a questionnaire. Injury in this cross-sectional study was defined as a sport-related trauma or overload leading to pain and dysfunction preventing the person from participation in training or competition for at least 1 week. A number of risk factors for injury were investigated such as sex, age, number of hours spent on training in general, and on resistance training with weights. Nearly half [49%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 48-51%] of the participants had been injured as a result of participation in a sport during the preceding year, significantly more boys than girls (53%, 95% CI 50-55% vs 46%, 95% CI 43-48%; P < 0.001). Three factors contributed to increased incidence of sport injuries: age, sex, and resistance training with weights. Time spent on resistance training with weights was significantly associated with sport injuries in a logistic regression analysis. In children age 11 to 15 years, the risk of having a sport-related injury increased with age and occurred more often in boys than in girls. Weight training was the only modifiable risk factor that contributed to a significant increase in the incidence of sport injuries.

  18. The clinical outcome of minimally invasive Phase 3 Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: a 15-year follow-up of 1000 UKAs.

    PubMed

    Pandit, H; Hamilton, T W; Jenkins, C; Mellon, S J; Dodd, C A F; Murray, D W

    2015-11-01

    There have been concerns about the long-term survival of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). This prospective study reports the 15-year survival and ten-year functional outcome of a consecutive series of 1000 minimally invasive Phase 3 Oxford medial UKAs (818 patients, 393 men, 48%, 425 women, 52%, mean age 66 years; 32 to 88). These were implanted by two surgeons involved with the design of the prosthesis to treat anteromedial osteoarthritis and spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee, which are recommended indications. Patients were prospectively identified and followed up independently for a mean of 10.3 years (5.3 to 16.6). At ten years, the mean Oxford Knee Score was 40 (standard deviation (sd) 9; 2 to 48): 79% of knees (349) had an excellent or good outcome. There were 52 implant-related re-operations at a mean of 5.5 years (0.2 to 14.7). The most common reasons for re-operation were arthritis in the lateral compartment (2.5%, 25 knees), bearing dislocation (0.7%, seven knees) and unexplained pain (0.7%, seven knees). When all implant-related re-operations were considered as failures, the ten-year rate of survival was 94% (95% confidence interval (CI) 92 to 96) and the 15-year survival rate 91% (CI 83 to 98). When failure of the implant was the endpoint the 15-year survival was 99% (CI 96 to 100). This is the only large series of minimally invasive UKAs with 15-year survival data. The results support the continued use of minimally invasive UKA for the recommended indications.

  19. Physical ageing of polyethylene terephthalate under natural sunlight: correlation study between crystallinity and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljoumaa, Khaled; Abboudi, Maher

    2016-01-01

    Semi-crystalline polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was aged under the effect of natural UV exposure and outdoor temperature during 670 days. The variation in the mechanical and thermal properties beside to the morphology was tracked by applying different analytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and wide angle X-ray diffraction, in addition to tensile strength and hardness measurements. It has been confirmed that the ageing process is the results of physical trend only. The aged PET showed a decrease in both tensile strength and strain with an increase in the degree of crystallinity of aged PET samples during the whole period. These changes in crystallinity were examined by various analysis methods: density, calorimetric and infrared spectroscopy. New peaks in FTIR analysis at 1115 and 1090 cm-1 were characterized and proved that this technique is considered to be an easy tool to track the change in the surface crystallinity of aged PET samples directly. The results of this study showed that an augmentation in the degree of crystallinity of outdoor aged PET samples from 18 to 36 %, accompanied with a decrease in tensile strength from 167.9 to 133.7 MPa. Moreover, a good exponential correlation was found between the degree of crystallinity and the mechanical properties of the aged PET.

  20. Socioeconomic and geographic inequalities in adolescent smoking: A multilevel cross-sectional study of 15 year olds in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Levin, K.A.; Dundas, R.; Miller, M.; McCartney, G.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to present socioeconomic and geographic inequalities in adolescent smoking in Scotland. The international literature suggests there is no obvious pattern in the geography of adolescent smoking, with rural areas having a higher prevalence than urban areas in some countries, and a lower prevalence in others. These differences are most likely due to substantive differences in rurality between countries in terms of their social, built and cultural geography. Previous studies in the UK have shown an association between lower socioeconomic status and smoking. The Scottish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study surveyed 15 year olds in schools across Scotland between March and June of 2010. We ran multilevel logistic regressions using Markov chain Monte Carlo method and adjusting for age, school type, family affluence, area level deprivation and rurality. We imputed missing rurality and deprivation data using multivariate imputation by chained equations, and re-analysed the data (N = 3577), comparing findings. Among boys, smoking was associated only with area-level deprivation. This relationship appeared to have a quadratic S-shape, with those living in the second most deprived quintile having highest odds of smoking. Among girls, however, odds of smoking increased with deprivation at individual and area-level, with an approximate dose–response relationship for both. Odds of smoking were higher for girls living in remote and rural parts of Scotland than for those living in urban areas. Schools in rural areas were no more or less homogenous than schools in urban areas in terms of smoking prevalence. We discuss possible social and cultural explanations for the high prevalence of boys' and girls' smoking in low SES neighbourhoods and of girls' smoking in rural areas. We consider possible differences in the impact of recent tobacco policy changes, primary socialization, access and availability, retail outlet density and the home

  1. Socioeconomic and geographic inequalities in adolescent smoking: a multilevel cross-sectional study of 15 year olds in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Levin, K A; Dundas, R; Miller, M; McCartney, G

    2014-04-01

    The objective of the study was to present socioeconomic and geographic inequalities in adolescent smoking in Scotland. The international literature suggests there is no obvious pattern in the geography of adolescent smoking, with rural areas having a higher prevalence than urban areas in some countries, and a lower prevalence in others. These differences are most likely due to substantive differences in rurality between countries in terms of their social, built and cultural geography. Previous studies in the UK have shown an association between lower socioeconomic status and smoking. The Scottish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study surveyed 15 year olds in schools across Scotland between March and June of 2010. We ran multilevel logistic regressions using Markov chain Monte Carlo method and adjusting for age, school type, family affluence, area level deprivation and rurality. We imputed missing rurality and deprivation data using multivariate imputation by chained equations, and re-analysed the data (N = 3577), comparing findings. Among boys, smoking was associated only with area-level deprivation. This relationship appeared to have a quadratic S-shape, with those living in the second most deprived quintile having highest odds of smoking. Among girls, however, odds of smoking increased with deprivation at individual and area-level, with an approximate dose-response relationship for both. Odds of smoking were higher for girls living in remote and rural parts of Scotland than for those living in urban areas. Schools in rural areas were no more or less homogenous than schools in urban areas in terms of smoking prevalence. We discuss possible social and cultural explanations for the high prevalence of boys' and girls' smoking in low SES neighbourhoods and of girls' smoking in rural areas. We consider possible differences in the impact of recent tobacco policy changes, primary socialization, access and availability, retail outlet density and the home

  2. Diagnostic algorithm for unilateral sinus disease: a 15-year retrospective review

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marianella Paz; Pinto, Jayant M.; Corey, Jacquelynne P.; Mhoon, Ernest E.; Baroody, Fuad M.; Naclerio, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients presenting with unilateral sinus symptoms or nasal polyps raise concerns about sinister pathology. Yet despite the relatively common occurrence of this presentation, and its potential severity, an organized diagnostic approach to unilateral sinus disease (USD) has never been defined. The purpose of this work was to propose a diagnostic algorithm for managing patients with USD based on prior experience. Methods We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of all patients with USD who underwent surgical intervention and had pathological specimens during a 15-year period at an urban academic center. Nasal endoscopy and computed tomography (CT) scan findings, demographic characteristics, presenting symptoms, medical histories, and previous treatments were analyzed. Results A total of 191 patients met the inclusion criteria, 153 of whom were initially diagnosed at our center. Among the latter group, 51 (33%) presented with a nasal mass or polyp observed by endoscopy. Inverted papilloma was present in 16% of those cases, and malignant tumors comprised 14%. In contrast, of patients without an obvious nasal polyp (n = 102), 2% had inverted papilloma and 3% had malignancies. Overall, chronic rhinosinusitis was the most common diagnosis both in patients with polyps (67%) and those without nasal polyps (69%). Conclusion Although USD is most likely to represent chronic inflammation, there exists a fair likelihood of finding malignant pathology, particularly in cases where patients have a unilateral polyp. Based on this review, we propose a strategy for the management of new presentations of USD. PMID:25880633

  3. Surgical treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid tumor: A 15-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lu; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Shan-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to highlight our experience over a 15-year period in dealing with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) due to a parathyroid tumor. Parathyroidectomy is the standard therapy for patients with PHPT. Our study included all patients with PHPT treated by parathyroidectomy at the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, China. Between 1998 and 2013, a total of 107 patients were recruited. Their clinical data, presentation, laboratory examinations, imageological diagnoses and surgical approaches were analyzed retrospectively. Eighty-four cases (78.5%) were followed up. During a median follow-up period of 5.7 years, a total of 80 patients were without recurrence and metastasis. The main symptoms of PHPT patients were palpable neck mass, joint pains and pathological fracture. The high levels of preoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) and serum calcium in PHPT patients decreased to below the normal upper limit within 3 days of surgery. The sensitivity of neck ultrasonography, sestamibi scanning, CT, MRI and the combination of three or four types of test were 86.0%, 90.4%, 80.8%, 79.6% and 96.1%, respectively. A 50% or greater drop in PTH levels within 20 min compared with the highest PTH levels before surgery occurred in 95/107 cases (88.8%). Transient hypocalcemia was the most common surgical complication. The ultrasonography and sestamibi scan is the most effective examination for parathyroid tumor. The 20 min PTH measurement appears to be extremely useful, and avoids unnecessary bilateral exploration.

  4. [Pedagocic and didactic renovation for histology and embryology learning. A 15 years experience].

    PubMed

    D'Ottavio, Alberto E; Bassan, Norberto D

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the pedagogical and didactical renovation carried out between 1986 y 2001 in the Cathedra of Histology and Embryology (Faculty of Medical Sciences, National University of Rosario). This process, initiated with pilot tests during early 70s and a full length paper in late 70s, was centered in differential activities performed by teachers and students, being adapted to the massive and no restricted admission during that period (2000 +/- 500 students). The design included individual and/or group management of self-learning and self-evaluation modules, training laboratories in microscopic diagnosis using protocols similar to clinical records, problem-solving sessions and theoretical sessions of consult and relearning, placed at the end of the aforesaid learning situations. Learning followed a decreasing support trajectory ([see text]) for reaching a systemic self-learning, relevant for incessant medical education. Its permanence and optimal results along 15 years encourage us to present this model as a valid and reliable one for Faculties with histological and embryological contents developed in a traditional formal or as a contribution to the passage from a traditional curriculum with independent subjects to other, renovated or innovative, with varied grades of integration. PMID:17639806

  5. Nonossifying fibroma (metaphyseal fibrous defect) of the mandible in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Mannan, Abul Ala; Singh, N Gopendro; Al-Waheeb, Salah; Taher, Taher N; Mohammed, Emad El Din El Din

    2015-06-01

    We describe a rare case of nonossifying fibroma of the mandible in a 15-year-old boy who presented with a left mandibular swelling. Conventional imaging showed an expansile radiolucent lesion involving the angle and the body of the left mandible. The lesion was curetted, and a miniplate was implanted at the excision site. Microscopic examination of the removed specimen revealed a cellular lesion characterized by a proliferation of uniform spindle-shaped cells in a vague but prominent storiform pattern, which represented the classic appearance of nonossifying fibroma. Three months later, radiography detected a fracture of the implantation plate. The area was re-explored with curettage of the soft tissue, which on microscopy demonstrated findings similar to the initial curettage findings. Follow-up radiology revealed satisfactory healing of the jaw, and no further recurrence was seen 2 years after the initial surgery. We present this case to highlight the importance of recognizing nonossifying fibroma in the mandible, which can be easily confused with more common mandibular lesions. PMID:26053991

  6. A 15-Year Time-series Study of Tooth Extraction in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Maria Aparecida Goncalves de Melo; Lino, Patrícia Azevedo; Santos, Thiago Rezende Dos; Vasconcelos, Mara; Lucas, Simone Dutra; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de

    2015-11-01

    Tooth loss is considered to be a public health problem. Time-series studies that assess the influence of social conditions and access to health services on tooth loss are scarce.This study aimed to examine the time-series of permanent tooth extraction in Brazil between 1998 and 2012 and to compare these series in municipalities with different Human Development Index (HDI) scores and with different access to distinct primary and secondary care.The time-series study was performed between 1998 and 2012, using data from the Brazilian National Health Information System. Time-series study was performed between 1998 and 2012. Two annual rates of tooth extraction were calculated and evaluated separately according to 3 parameters: the HDI, the presence of a Dental Specialty Center, and coverage by Oral Health Teams. The time-series was analyzed using a linear regression model.An overall decrease in the tooth-loss tendencies during this period was observed, particularly in the tooth-extraction rate during primary care procedures. In the municipalities with an HDI that was lower than the median, the average tooth-loss rates were higher than in the municipalities with a higher HDI. The municipalities with lower rates of Oral Health Team coverage also showed lower extraction rates than the municipalities with higher coverage rates.In general, Brazil has shown a decrease in the trend to extract permanent teeth during these 15 years. Increased human development and access to dental services have influenced tooth-extraction rates.

  7. Chronicling an Era: 15 Years of SN 1987A with Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Kari A.; Burrows, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Due to its close proximity, the remnant of SN 1987A is the only supernova remnant in which we can study the early developmental stages in detail, providing insight into stellar evolution, the mechanisms of the supernova explosion, and the transition from supernova to supernova remnant as the debris begins to interact with the surrounding CSM. We present here 15 years of X-ray observations with Chandra, including 4 new observations. The X-ray emission traces the progress of the blast wave and functions as a probe of the CSM. About 5000 days after the explosion, the blast wave began impacting the fringes of a dense equatorial ring. With Chandra, we are able to resolve this ring in X-ray images and monitor how it changes over time. We measure the apparent expansion rate of the ring, finding a sudden decrease in the velocity, from ~9000 km/s to ~2000 km/s, as the blast wave impacted the main body of the ring near day 5700. The soft X-ray flux has steadily increased, indicating the blast wave has continued to move through dense material. However, the latest observations suggest the flux has leveled off, a sign that the blast wave may be exiting the ring and on the verge of illuminating the previously unseen material beyond.

  8. Surgical treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid tumor: A 15-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lu; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Shan-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to highlight our experience over a 15-year period in dealing with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) due to a parathyroid tumor. Parathyroidectomy is the standard therapy for patients with PHPT. Our study included all patients with PHPT treated by parathyroidectomy at the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, China. Between 1998 and 2013, a total of 107 patients were recruited. Their clinical data, presentation, laboratory examinations, imageological diagnoses and surgical approaches were analyzed retrospectively. Eighty-four cases (78.5%) were followed up. During a median follow-up period of 5.7 years, a total of 80 patients were without recurrence and metastasis. The main symptoms of PHPT patients were palpable neck mass, joint pains and pathological fracture. The high levels of preoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) and serum calcium in PHPT patients decreased to below the normal upper limit within 3 days of surgery. The sensitivity of neck ultrasonography, sestamibi scanning, CT, MRI and the combination of three or four types of test were 86.0%, 90.4%, 80.8%, 79.6% and 96.1%, respectively. A 50% or greater drop in PTH levels within 20 min compared with the highest PTH levels before surgery occurred in 95/107 cases (88.8%). Transient hypocalcemia was the most common surgical complication. The ultrasonography and sestamibi scan is the most effective examination for parathyroid tumor. The 20 min PTH measurement appears to be extremely useful, and avoids unnecessary bilateral exploration. PMID:27602126

  9. Caustic Agent Ingestion by a 1.5-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Gharib, Behdad; Mohammadpour, Masoud; Yaghmaie, Bahareh; Sharifzadeh, Meisam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad; Zamani, Fatemeh; Edalatkhah, Rouhollah; Mohsenipour, Reihaneh

    2016-07-01

    We present a case of caustic ingestion by a 1.5-year-old boy. The caustic agent was drain opener which is a strong alkaline substance. Children in Iran and many other countries are still exposed to not "child proof" (child resistant packaging) toxic substance containers. Ingestion of caustic agents may lead to necrosis, perforation, and strictures. Substances that are ingested more frequently are liquid alkali material which causes severe, deep liquefaction necrosis. Common signs and symptoms of caustic agents are vomiting, drooling, refusal to drink, oral burns, stridor, hematemesis, dyspnea, dysphagia and abdominal pain. Even if no oropharyngeal lesion is seen, a significant esophageal injury which can lead to perforation and stricture cannot be ruled out. If abdominal pain or rigidity, substernal, chest or back pain exists, visceral perforation should be considered. The first thing to be checked is airway assessment. A lot of patients should be admitted to intensive care unit, and endoscopic evaluation, surgical intervention, long-term hospitalization, and worsening quality of life or among the complications. Preventive measures especially at the country level and approving proper legislation for obligating the related industries to produce child proof containers for house hold toxic products are the urgent measures to be followed by all of us.

  10. Migratory Pathways and Connectivity in Asian Houbara Bustards: Evidence from 15 Years of Satellite Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Combreau, Olivier; Riou, Samuel; Judas, Jacky; Lawrence, Mark; Launay, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Information on migratory pathways and connectivity is essential to understanding population dynamics and structure of migrant species. Our manuscript uses a unique dataset, the fruit of 103 individual Asian houbara bustards captured on their breeding grounds in Central Asia over 15 years and equipped with satellite transmitters, to provide a better understanding of migratory pathways and connectivity; such information is critical to the implementation of biologically sound conservation measures in migrant species. At the scale of the distribution range we find substantial migratory connectivity, with a clear separation of migration pathways and wintering areas between western and eastern migrants. Within eastern migrants, we also describe a pattern of segregation on the wintering grounds. But at the local level connectivity is weak: birds breeding within the limits of our study areas were often found several hundreds of kilometres apart during winter. Although houbara wintering in Arabia are known to originate from Central Asia, out of all the birds captured and tracked here not one wintered on the Arabian Peninsula. This is very likely the result of decades of unregulated off-take and severe habitat degradation in this area. At a time when conservation measures are being implemented to safeguard the long-term future of this species, this study provides critical data on the spatial structuring of populations. PMID:21687684

  11. Caustic Agent Ingestion by a 1.5-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Gharib, Behdad; Mohammadpour, Masoud; Yaghmaie, Bahareh; Sharifzadeh, Meisam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad; Zamani, Fatemeh; Edalatkhah, Rouhollah; Mohsenipour, Reihaneh

    2016-07-01

    We present a case of caustic ingestion by a 1.5-year-old boy. The caustic agent was drain opener which is a strong alkaline substance. Children in Iran and many other countries are still exposed to not "child proof" (child resistant packaging) toxic substance containers. Ingestion of caustic agents may lead to necrosis, perforation, and strictures. Substances that are ingested more frequently are liquid alkali material which causes severe, deep liquefaction necrosis. Common signs and symptoms of caustic agents are vomiting, drooling, refusal to drink, oral burns, stridor, hematemesis, dyspnea, dysphagia and abdominal pain. Even if no oropharyngeal lesion is seen, a significant esophageal injury which can lead to perforation and stricture cannot be ruled out. If abdominal pain or rigidity, substernal, chest or back pain exists, visceral perforation should be considered. The first thing to be checked is airway assessment. A lot of patients should be admitted to intensive care unit, and endoscopic evaluation, surgical intervention, long-term hospitalization, and worsening quality of life or among the complications. Preventive measures especially at the country level and approving proper legislation for obligating the related industries to produce child proof containers for house hold toxic products are the urgent measures to be followed by all of us. PMID:27424019

  12. A 15-Year Time-series Study of Tooth Extraction in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Maria Aparecida Goncalves de Melo; Lino, Patrícia Azevedo; dos Santos, Thiago Rezende; Vasconcelos, Mara; Lucas, Simone Dutra; de Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tooth loss is considered to be a public health problem. Time-series studies that assess the influence of social conditions and access to health services on tooth loss are scarce. This study aimed to examine the time-series of permanent tooth extraction in Brazil between 1998 and 2012 and to compare these series in municipalities with different Human Development Index (HDI) scores and with different access to distinct primary and secondary care. The time-series study was performed between 1998 and 2012, using data from the Brazilian National Health Information System. Time-series study was performed between 1998 and 2012. Two annual rates of tooth extraction were calculated and evaluated separately according to 3 parameters: the HDI, the presence of a Dental Specialty Center, and coverage by Oral Health Teams. The time-series was analyzed using a linear regression model. An overall decrease in the tooth-loss tendencies during this period was observed, particularly in the tooth-extraction rate during primary care procedures. In the municipalities with an HDI that was lower than the median, the average tooth-loss rates were higher than in the municipalities with a higher HDI. The municipalities with lower rates of Oral Health Team coverage also showed lower extraction rates than the municipalities with higher coverage rates. In general, Brazil has shown a decrease in the trend to extract permanent teeth during these 15 years. Increased human development and access to dental services have influenced tooth-extraction rates. PMID:26632688

  13. Bilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty in a 15 Year Old With Skeletal Dysplasia and Open Physes.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jason C; Siqueira, Marcelo B P; Jacob, Paul; Goodwin, Ryan C; Barsoum, Wael K

    2016-05-01

    There are limited reports of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the pediatric population. The use of constrained, stemmed components is particularly unusual in the setting of open physes due to concerns with growth arrest and implant survivorship. The current authors describe a 15-year-old boy with open growth plates and an epiphyseal dysplasia-like condition affecting the knees bilaterally. He had no other significant medical or orthopedic conditions and his genetic workup was negative. He had severe knee pain and a bilateral 40° valgus with severe lateral compartment arthritis. Conservative treatment provided no symptom relief, and the patient had been wheelchair bound for 18 months prior to presentation. Treatment with simultaneous bilateral TKA using cemented, stemmed, and constrained components was undertaken. There were no intraoperative complications, and his final follow-up was at 5.6 years postoperatively. Radiographic evaluation at follow-up showed that components were well placed with no loosening. The patient had pain-free motion and a perfect Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. Based on the review of the literature and the outcomes of this case, the authors believe simultaneous bilateral TKA using cemented, stemmed, and constrained components is a reasonable option for joint reconstruction in the pediatric patient with open physes who also has significant arthritis and deformity not of oncologic origin. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e549-e552.]. PMID:27045485

  14. Serum triiodothyronine 7-15 years after fractionated low dose radioiodine therapy of thyrotoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, J; Schaps, D; Rusche, H J; Berger, M; Krüskemper, H L; von zur Hühlen, A; Hackenberg, K; Reinwein, D

    1975-03-01

    In 189 of 334 patients, who had been treated with fractionated doses of radioiodine for Graves' disease 7-15 years ago, the serum concentrations of triiodothyronine have been estimated in additition to the following parameters: Protein bound 127-iodine (PB-127-I), free thyroxine index, cholesterol- and TSH-level in serum, tendon reflex time and clinical index according to Billewitz et al. (1969). In forty-one of the 189 sera the free T4 (AFT4) and free T3 (AFT3) concentrations were measured as well. The following hormonal and clinical patterns were observed: (1) Euthyroidism, with all parameters within the normal range in 148 patients (equals 78-4%). (2) Hypothyroidism with low serum T3, PBI, AFT4, AFT3 and elevated TSH six subjects (equals 3-2%). (3) Persistent hyperthyroidism with increased thyroid hormone concentrations and low TSH in seven cases (equals 3-7%). (4) In twenty-eight clinically euthyroid patients (equals 14-8%) TSH was elevated with normal PBI and AFT4. Twenty of these subjects had a low normal T3 and in nine the T3 was clearly in the hypothyroid range (40 plus or minus 12 mug/dl). (5) The constellation of normal T3, low T4 and elevated TSH, which has been frequently found after radioiodine therapy, has been seen in only moderate form in ten cases.

  15. Results of proximal gastric vagotomy over 1-5 years in a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Makey, D A; Tovey, F I; Heald, R J

    1979-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-three underwent proximal gastric vagotomy for duodenal ulceration over a 6-year period. One hundred and fifteen of these have been followed up for 1-5 years. The operative mortality was nil and the result was satisfactory in 91 per cent. The incidence of side effects was small, notably that of dumping being 2.4 per cent and of diarrhoea, 3.6 per cent. Incidence of postoperative heartburn was reduced from 13 per cent to 4 per cent by the introduction of hepatic interposition. The incidence of recurrent ulceration was 5.1 per cent after an average interval of 2 years and that of new gastric ulceration 2.6 per cent after an average of 4 years. There were no recurrent ulcers in those who had peroperative Burge tests, although secretory studies showed no difference between those tested and those not tested. Most recurrences occurred in the earliest cases operated on before Burge testing was introduced and when only 2 cm of the lower oesophagus were exposed.

  16. University of the seas, 15 years of oceanographic schools on board of the Marion Dufresne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaize, Bruno; Deverchere, Jacques; Leau, Hélène; Graindorge, David

    2015-04-01

    Since the first University at Sea, proposed by two French Universities (Brest and Bordeaux) in 1999, the R/V Marion Dufresne, in collaboration with the French Polar institute (IPEV), has welcome 12 oceanographic schools. The main objective of this educational and scientific program is to stimulate the potential interest of highly graduated students in scientific fields dealing with oceanography, and to broaden exchanges with foreign universities, strengthening a pool of excellence at a high international scientific level. It is a unique opportunity for the students to discover and to be involved in the work in progress of collecting scientific data on board of a ship, and to attend international research courses given by scientists involved in the cruise program. They also experience the final task of the scientific work by presenting their own training results, making posters on board, and writing a cruise report. For some University at Sea, students had also updated a daily journal, available on internet, hosted by the main institutions involved (as IPEV or EPOC, Bordeaux University). All this work is done in English, a common language to all the participants. An overview of these 15 years background experience will be presented, underlying the financial supports used, the logistic on board, as well as all the benefits acquiered by all former students, now in permanent positions in different international institutions.

  17. Choledochoduodenostomy. Analysis of 71 cases followed for 5 to 15 years.

    PubMed Central

    Escudero-Fabre, A; Escallon, A; Sack, J; Halpern, N B; Aldrete, J S

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the long-term effectiveness of choledochoduodenostomy (CDD), the experience with 71 patients followed for 5 or more years after CDD was analyzed retrospectively. From 1968 to 1984, 134 patients underwent CDD. Eight patients (6%) died in the immediate postoperative period, 55 left the hospital, 8 of them were lost to follow-up, and 47 were followed but died before 5 years elapsed after CDD. The remaining 71 patients form the data base for this analysis: 38 were followed for more than 5 years, 25 were followed for more than 10 years, and 8 were followed for more than 15 years (mean 12.1 years +/- 1.3 SEM). Choledocholithiasis, chronic pancreatitis, and postoperative stricture were the indications for CDD. Cholangitis was observed in only three patients. The diameter of the common bile duct (CBD) was large in most patients (mean 18 mm +/- 0.9 SEM). These results infer that CDD is effective to treat non-neoplastic obstructing lesions of the distal CBD on a long-term basis and that the presence of a dilated CBD (more than 16 mm) that allows the construction of a CDD more than 14 mm is essential to obtain good results. PMID:2039295

  18. Groundwater ages and mixing in the Piceance Basin natural gas province, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, Peter B.; Thomas, Judith C.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    Reliably identifying the effects of energy development on groundwater quality can be difficult because baseline assessments of water quality completed before the onset of energy development are rare and because interactions between hydrocarbon reservoirs and aquifers can be complex, involving both natural and human processes. Groundwater age and mixing data can strengthen interpretations of monitoring data from those areas by providing better understanding of the groundwater flow systems. Chemical, isotopic, and age tracers were used to characterize groundwater ages and mixing with deeper saline water in three areas of the Piceance Basin natural gas province. The data revealed a complex array of groundwater ages (50,000 years) and mixing patterns in the basin that helped explain concentrations and sources of methane in groundwater. Age and mixing data also can strengthen the design of monitoring programs by providing information on time scales at which water quality changes in aquifers might be expected to occur. This information could be used to establish maximum allowable distances of monitoring wells from energy development activity and the appropriate duration of monitoring.

  19. Perception of Weight Status in U.S. Children and Adolescents Aged 8-15 Years, 2005-2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Perception of Weight Status in U.S. Children and Adolescents ... 2 ). Weight status misperception occurs when the child’s perception of their weight status differs from their actual ...

  20. Exploring reliability of scar rating scales using photographs of burns from children aged up to 15 years.

    PubMed

    Simons, Megan; Ziviani, Jenny; Thorley, Michelle; McNee, Jessamine; Tyack, Zephanie

    2013-01-01

    Assessing burn scars from photographs is a common practice given the growing trend to support health service delivery via electronic media (eg, email, videoconferencing). Scar rating scales, originally designed for in-person assessment, have been used to rate scars from photographic images. Evidence for the reliability of this practice is lacking. Five raters completed three scar rating scales (Patient and Observer Scar Scale, Manchester Scar Scale, modified Vancouver Scar Scale), both in-person and using photographs on 12 participants (seven male, five female) with 18 scar areas (3 × 3 cm). Interrater reliability for the scar parameters of vascularity, color, contour, pliability, and overall opinion achieved intraclass correlation coefficient values of between 0.71 and 0.87 (in-person) and 0.72 and 0.77 (using photographs) for multiple raters. The level of agreement between in-person and photographic assessment was below acceptable levels, which brings into question construct validity when scar rating scales are used in a way for which they were not designed. Reliability estimates in this study were likely reduced by the underrepresentation of scars in the more severe range. This limitation needs to be addressed in future research. Advances are required in the development and refinement of burn scar rating scales, specifically for photographic use, given their routine use in clinical care.

  1. Use of cigarettes and other tobacco products among students aged 13-15 years--worldwide, 1999-2005.

    PubMed

    2006-05-26

    The use of tobacco in any form is a major preventable cause of premature death and disease. Globally, nearly 5 million persons die every year from tobacco-related illnesses, with disproportionately higher mortality occurring in developing countries. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), initiated in 1999 by the World Health Organization (WHO), CDC, and the Canadian Public Health Association, is a school-based survey that includes questions on prevalence of cigarette and other tobacco use; attitudes toward tobacco; access to tobacco products; exposure to secondhand smoke, school curricula on tobacco, media, and advertising; and smoking cessation. This report presents estimates of self-reported cigarette and other tobacco-product use during 1999-2005 in 132 different countries and the Gaza Strip/West Bank. The data are aggregated within each of the six WHO regions. GYTS data indicate that nearly two of every 10 students reported currently using a tobacco product, with no statistically significant difference between the proportion of those reporting cigarette smoking (8.9%) and other tobacco use (11.2%). Use of tobacco by adolescents is a major public health problem in all six WHO regions. Worldwide, more countries need to develop, implement, and evaluate their tobacco-control programs to address the use of all types of tobacco products, especially among girls.

  2. Physical Activity in U.S. Youth Aged 12-15 Years, 2012. NCHS Data Brief. Number 141

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fakhouri, Tala H. I.; Hughes, Jeffery P.; Burt, Vicki L.; Song, MinKyoung; Fulton, Janet E.; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2014-01-01

    The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, which have been adopted by the First Lady's Let's Move! initiative and the American Academy of Pediatrics, recommend that youth participate in "daily" moderate-to-vigorous physical activity for at least 60 minutes. This report presents the most recent national data from 2012 on…

  3. Treadmill Exercise Attenuates Retinal Oxidative Stress in Naturally-Aged Mice: An Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chan-Sik; Park, Sok; Chun, Yoonseok; Song, Wook; Kim, Hee-Jae; Kim, Junghyun

    2015-01-01

    In the retina, a number of degenerative diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, may occur as a result of aging. Oxidative damage is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of aging as well as to age-related retinal disease. Although physiological exercise has been shown to reduce oxidative stress in rats and mice, it is not known whether it has a similar effect in retinal tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate retinal oxidative stress in naturally-aged mice. In addition, we evaluated the effects of aerobic training on retinal oxidative stress by immunohistochemically evaluating oxidative stress markers. A group of twelve-week-old male mice were not exercised (young control). Two groups of twenty-two-month-old male mice were created: an old control group and a treadmill exercise group. The old control group mice were not exercised. The treadmill exercise group mice ran on a treadmill (5 to 12 m/min, 30 to 60 min/day, 3 days/week for 12 weeks). The retinal thickness and number of cells in the ganglion cell layer of the naturally-aged mice were reduced compared to those in the young control mice. However, treadmill exercise reversed these morphological changes in the retinas. We evaluated retinal expression of carboxymethyllysine (CML), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and nitrotyrosine. The retinas from the aged mice showed increased CML, 8-OHdG, and nitrotyrosine immunostaining intensities compared to young control mice. The exercise group exhibited significantly lower CML levels and nitro-oxidative stress than the old control group. These results suggest that regular exercise can reduce retinal oxidative stress and that physiological exercise may be distinctly advantageous in reducing retinal oxidative stress. PMID:26404251

  4. Dynamic changes of DNA epigenetic marks in mouse oocytes during natural and accelerated aging.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yan; Tu, Jiajie; Tang, Nelson Leung Sang; Kong, Grace Wing Shan; Chung, Jacqueline Pui Wah; Chan, Wai-Yee; Lee, Tin-Lap

    2015-10-01

    Aging is a complex time-dependent biological process that takes place in every cell and organ, eventually leading to degenerative changes that affect normal biological functions. In the past decades, the number of older parents has increased significantly. While it is widely recognized that oocyte aging poses higher birth and reproductive risk, the exact molecular mechanisms remain largely elusive. DNA methylation of 5-cytosine (5mC) and histone modifications are among the key epigenetic mechanisms involved in critical developmental processes and have been linked to aging. However, the impact of oocyte aging on DNA demethylation pathways has not been examined. The recent discovery of Ten-Eleven-Translocation (TET) family proteins, thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) and the demethylation intermediates 5hmC, 5fC and 5caC has provided novel clues to delineate the molecular mechanisms in DNA demethylation. In this study, we examined the cellular level of modified cytosines (5mC, 5hmC, 5fC and 5caC) and Tet/Tdg expression in oocytes obtained from natural and accelerated oocyte aging conditions. Here we show all the DNA demethylation marks are dynamically regulated in both aging conditions, which are associated with Tet3 over-expression and Tdg repression. Such an aberrant expression pattern was more profound in accelerated aging condition. The results suggest that DNA demethylation may be actively involved in oocyte aging and have implications for development of potential drug targets to rejuvenate aging oocytes. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Epigenetics dynamics in development and disease.

  5. Management of the Class III malocclusion treated with maxillary expansion, facemask therapy and corrective orthodontic. A 15-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    de ALMEIDA, Renato Rodrigues; ALESSIO, Luiz Eduardo; de ALMEIDA-PEDRIN, Renata Rodrigues; de ALMEIDA, Marcio Rodrigues; PINZAN, Arnaldo; VIEIRA, Luiz Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    The facial growth of Class III malocclusion worsens with age, in this case, the early orthopedic treatment, providing facial balance, modifying the maxillofacial growth and development. A 7.6-year old boy presented with Class III malocclusion associated with anterior crossbite; the mandible was shifted to the right and the maxilla had a transversal deficiency. Rapid maxillary expansion followed by facemask therapy was performed, to correct the anteroposterior relationship and improve the facial profile. The patient was followed for a 15-year period, after completion of the treatment, and stability was observed. Growing patients should be monitored following their treatment, so as to prevent malocclusion relapse. PMID:25760273

  6. Assessment of Mandibular Movements in 10 to 15 Year-old Patients With and Without Temporomandibular Disorders.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Silvina G; Biondi, Ana M; Fridman, Diana E; Guitelman, Ingrid; Farah, Catalina L

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference values for mandibular movements in 10- to 15-year-olds without dysfunction and compare these values to those in patients of the same age with tempromandibular disorders (TMD) and those found previously in a group of children younger than 11 years old without TMD. Children of both genders who visited the Department of Comprehensive Pediatric Dentistry at Buenos Aires University in 2013 and whose parents or guardians provided consent were evaluated using TMD/RDC by standardized pediatric dentists (Kappa 0.88). Three groups were formed according to diagnostic summary: Group C, without TMD; Group Ia, with myofascial pain, and Group Ib, pain with limited mouth opening. The following variables were analyzed: age, gender and mandibular movements. The sample included 169 patients aged 12.5±1.76 years, of whom 62.36% did not have TMD (C) while 37.27% were diagnosed with muscle disorder (29.58% Ia and 7.69% Ib). For Group C, the following values (in mm) were recorded: maximal unassisted opening: 48.28±6.14; right lateral movement 8.78±2.50; left lateral movement: 9.60±2.64; protrusion: 4.94±2.58 and overbite: 2.98 ± 2.5, with no variation associated to sex, but with differences in the values recorded for all movements compared to those obtained for mixed dentition (p=0.0001). Analysis of mean values for mandibular movements in all 3 groups only revealed differences for maximal unassisted opening (p= 0.0317). With relation to gender, TMD was more frequent in females, with significant differences between Groups C and Ia (p=0.019). In males without dysfunction, average maximal opening was 48.28±6.14mm, with lower values in patients with TMD. Mandibular movements in pediatric patients without TMD showed significant differences according to dentition type and age.

  7. Assessment of Mandibular Movements in 10 to 15 Year-old Patients With and Without Temporomandibular Disorders.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Silvina G; Biondi, Ana M; Fridman, Diana E; Guitelman, Ingrid; Farah, Catalina L

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference values for mandibular movements in 10- to 15-year-olds without dysfunction and compare these values to those in patients of the same age with tempromandibular disorders (TMD) and those found previously in a group of children younger than 11 years old without TMD. Children of both genders who visited the Department of Comprehensive Pediatric Dentistry at Buenos Aires University in 2013 and whose parents or guardians provided consent were evaluated using TMD/RDC by standardized pediatric dentists (Kappa 0.88). Three groups were formed according to diagnostic summary: Group C, without TMD; Group Ia, with myofascial pain, and Group Ib, pain with limited mouth opening. The following variables were analyzed: age, gender and mandibular movements. The sample included 169 patients aged 12.5±1.76 years, of whom 62.36% did not have TMD (C) while 37.27% were diagnosed with muscle disorder (29.58% Ia and 7.69% Ib). For Group C, the following values (in mm) were recorded: maximal unassisted opening: 48.28±6.14; right lateral movement 8.78±2.50; left lateral movement: 9.60±2.64; protrusion: 4.94±2.58 and overbite: 2.98 ± 2.5, with no variation associated to sex, but with differences in the values recorded for all movements compared to those obtained for mixed dentition (p=0.0001). Analysis of mean values for mandibular movements in all 3 groups only revealed differences for maximal unassisted opening (p= 0.0317). With relation to gender, TMD was more frequent in females, with significant differences between Groups C and Ia (p=0.019). In males without dysfunction, average maximal opening was 48.28±6.14mm, with lower values in patients with TMD. Mandibular movements in pediatric patients without TMD showed significant differences according to dentition type and age. PMID:27095624

  8. Effects of Natural Aging on the Tensile Properties of Water-Quenched U-6% Nb Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Sunwoo, A J; Hiromoto, D S

    2003-12-09

    Uranium-6 wt-% niobium (U-6% Nb) alloy has been in use for many years in the water-quenched (WQ) condition. The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of natural aging on tensile properties of the WQ U-6% Nb alloy. The materials studied were hemispherical shells after 15 and 20 years in storage. The alloy was successfully tested in the original curved configuration, using the specially designed tensile test apparatus. Finite element analysis confirmed the validity of the test method. The results of the tensile tests clearly indicated that in the WQ condition, the material is changing and after 15 and 20 years, the yield strength exceeds the original maximum allowable specification. The fracture mode transitions from highly ductile, microvoid coalescence in new material to a mixed mode of shallow dimples and inclusion-induced voids in the naturally aged material.

  9. The natural thermoluminescence of meteorites. VI - Carbon-14, thermoluminescence and the terrestrial ages of meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, P. H.; Jull, A. J. T.; Mckeever, S. W. S.; Sears, D. W. G.

    1993-01-01

    A relationship is noted between the natural thermoluminescence (TL) levels and the C-14-derived terrestrial ages for meteorite finds from the U.S. Prairie States and Roosevelt County, NM; those in the Sahara are also in accord with calculated TL decay curves, for 'storage' temperatures equal to the approximate average annual temperatures at individual sites. This discussion is limited to the empirical correspondence between the two methodologies, and to theoretical decay curves for a single 'average' ordinary chondrite.

  10. The Mediterranean Lifestyle as a Non-Pharmacological and Natural Antioxidant for Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Chatzianagnostou, Kyriazoula; Del Turco, Serena; Pingitore, Alessandro; Sabatino, Laura; Vassalle, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been suggested to affect age-associated physiological dysfunction. Therefore, it is speculated that antioxidant supplements could have a potential role in preventing age-related diseases and death. Among different dietary habits, the highly antioxidant Mediterranean dietary pattern, which includes high vegetable and fruit intake, consumption of legumes, cereals, and fish, low intake of meat and dairy derivatives, moderate red wine consumption, and use of extra-virgin olive oil, is characterized by other aspects than food, such as conviviality, sensory stimulation, socialization, biodiversity, and seasonality that can reinforce the Mediterranean diet’s (MeD) beneficial effects on wellbeing, quality of life, and healthy aging. The present review aims to discuss available data on the relationship between oxidative stress and aging, biomarkers of oxidative stress status, protective effects of the MeD, and the adoption of the Mediterranean lifestyle as a non-pharmacological and natural tool to cope with oxidative stress damage for a longer life span, and—even more important—healthy aging beyond the biological, psychological, and social challenges that old age entails. PMID:26783955

  11. The Mediterranean Lifestyle as a Non-Pharmacological and Natural Antioxidant for Healthy Aging.

    PubMed

    Chatzianagnostou, Kyriazoula; Del Turco, Serena; Pingitore, Alessandro; Sabatino, Laura; Vassalle, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been suggested to affect age-associated physiological dysfunction. Therefore, it is speculated that antioxidant supplements could have a potential role in preventing age-related diseases and death. Among different dietary habits, the highly antioxidant Mediterranean dietary pattern, which includes high vegetable and fruit intake, consumption of legumes, cereals, and fish, low intake of meat and dairy derivatives, moderate red wine consumption, and use of extra-virgin olive oil, is characterized by other aspects than food, such as conviviality, sensory stimulation, socialization, biodiversity, and seasonality that can reinforce the Mediterranean diet's (MeD) beneficial effects on wellbeing, quality of life, and healthy aging. The present review aims to discuss available data on the relationship between oxidative stress and aging, biomarkers of oxidative stress status, protective effects of the MeD, and the adoption of the Mediterranean lifestyle as a non-pharmacological and natural tool to cope with oxidative stress damage for a longer life span, and-even more important-healthy aging beyond the biological, psychological, and social challenges that old age entails. PMID:26783955

  12. The Mediterranean Lifestyle as a Non-Pharmacological and Natural Antioxidant for Healthy Aging.

    PubMed

    Chatzianagnostou, Kyriazoula; Del Turco, Serena; Pingitore, Alessandro; Sabatino, Laura; Vassalle, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been suggested to affect age-associated physiological dysfunction. Therefore, it is speculated that antioxidant supplements could have a potential role in preventing age-related diseases and death. Among different dietary habits, the highly antioxidant Mediterranean dietary pattern, which includes high vegetable and fruit intake, consumption of legumes, cereals, and fish, low intake of meat and dairy derivatives, moderate red wine consumption, and use of extra-virgin olive oil, is characterized by other aspects than food, such as conviviality, sensory stimulation, socialization, biodiversity, and seasonality that can reinforce the Mediterranean diet's (MeD) beneficial effects on wellbeing, quality of life, and healthy aging. The present review aims to discuss available data on the relationship between oxidative stress and aging, biomarkers of oxidative stress status, protective effects of the MeD, and the adoption of the Mediterranean lifestyle as a non-pharmacological and natural tool to cope with oxidative stress damage for a longer life span, and-even more important-healthy aging beyond the biological, psychological, and social challenges that old age entails.

  13. ALH84001: The Key to Unlocking Secrets About Mars-15 Years and Counting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.

    2011-01-01

    From the December 27, 1984 discovery of ALH84001, and its subsequent identification as a sample of Mars in 1993, mystery and debate has surrounded the meteorite. With the realization that the ALH84001 sample was a orthopyroxenite and one of the oldest SNC meteorites (4.09 Ga) available to study, important and critical information about the Martian hydrosphere and atmosphere along with the early history and evolution of the planet could be obtained by studying the unique carbonate globules (3.9 Ga) in the sample. The initial work showed the carbonate globules were deposited within fractures and cracks in the host-orthopyroxene by low-temperature aqueous fluids. Ideas that the carbonates were formed at temperatures approaching 800oC were ruled out by later experiments. The 1996 announcement by McKay et al. that ALH84001 contained features which could be interpreted as having a biogenic origin generated considerable excitement and criticism. The NASA Administrator Dan Golden said the 1996 ALH84001 announcement saved NASA s Mars planetary exploration program and injected $6 billion dollars over five years into the scientific research and analysis efforts. All of the original four lines of evidence for possible biogenic features within ALH84001 offered by McKay et al. have withstood the test of time. Criticism has been directed at the interpretation of the 1996 analytical data. Research has expanded to other SNC meteorites. Despite the numerous attacks on the ideas, the debate continues after 15 years. The 2009 paper by Thomas-Keprta et al. on the origins of a suite of magnetites within the ALH84001 has offered strong arguments that some of the magnetites can only be formed by biogenic processes and not from thermal decomposition or shock events which happened to the meteorite. NASA s Astrobiology Institute was formed from the foundation laid by the ALH84001 hypothesis of finding life beyond the Earth. The strong astrobiology outreach programs have expanded because of

  14. Marine mammal strandings and environmental changes: a 15-year study in the St. Lawrence ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Truchon, Marie-Hélène; Measures, Lena; L'Hérault, Vincent; Brêthes, Jean-Claude; Galbraith, Peter S; Harvey, Michel; Lessard, Sylvie; Starr, Michel; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994-2008; n = 1,193) and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice) to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have increased since 1994. Poor ice conditions observed during the same period may have affected marine mammals either directly, by modulating the availability of habitat for feeding and breeding activities, or indirectly, through changes in water conditions and marine productivity (krill abundance). For most species (75%, n = 6 species), a low volume of ice was correlated with increasing frequency of stranding events (e.g. R(2)adj = 0.59, hooded seal, Cystophora cristata). This likely led to an increase in seal mortality during the breeding period, but also to increase habitat availability for seasonal migratory cetaceans using ice-free areas during winter. We also detected a high frequency of stranding events for mysticete species (minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and resident species (beluga, Delphinapterus leucas), correlated with low krill abundance since 1994. Positive NAO indices were positively correlated with high frequencies of stranding events for resident and seasonal migratory cetaceans, as well as rare species (R(2)adj = 0.53, 0.81 and 0.34, respectively). This contrasts with seal mass stranding numbers, which were negatively correlated with a positive NAO index. In addition, an unusual multiple species mortality event (n = 114, 62% of total annual mortality) in 2008 was caused by a harmful algal bloom. Our findings provide an empirical baseline in understanding marine mammal survival when faced with climatic variability. This is a promising

  15. [Social stratification and nutritional anthropometry in children under 15 years old La Escalera, Lara State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Torres-Villanueva, Mario; Dellán-Rodríguez, Graciela; Papale-Centofanti, Jham; Rodríguez, Dioslibeth; Mendoza, Norelis; Berné, Yelitza

    2007-09-01

    Malnutrition is a public health problem for underdeveloped countries. From the 852 million of undernourished estimated by FAO between 2000 and 2002, 815 million belonged to underdeveloped countries, 28 million to countries in transition and 9 million to developed countries. Malnutrition in Venezuela had a 6% raise between 2000 and 2002, when it went from 11% to 17%. This work was done with children under 15 years old from La Escalera, using classic indicators and their combination, relating them with socioeconomic conditions, through the NBI and Graffar Méndez Castellano methods, as to consider the population nutritional profile. The higher prevalence corresponded to normal nutritional values, which oscillated between 55,7% and 80,7% in the 7-14 years old group and the 2-6 years old group, respectively. Malnutrition was found in the under 2 years old group and 7-14 years old group, with values ranging between 12,5 and 41,0% respectively. The least prevalence was found for excess malnutrition. 100% of the families in this study are poor, according to NBI; although the Graffar Mendez Castellano method established that poverty was about 60%, while 40% belonged to a medium-low status. Relating nutritional diagnosis with social stratification and the mother's educational level, three patterns were observed: III, IV and V, prevailing normal diagnosis, followed by malnutrition by deficit and malnutrition by excess, respectively. The predominating mother's educational level corresponded to incomplete high school, followed by analphabetism and the least prevalent has complete basic elementary education. It should be noted that the nutrition deficit was inversely related to the socioeconomic stratification and the mother's educational level.

  16. Hearing and loud music exposure in 14-15 years old adolescents.

    PubMed

    Serra, Mario R; Biassoni, Ester C; Hinalaf, María; Abraham, Mónica; Pavlik, Marta; Villalobo, Jorge Pérez; Curet, Carlos; Joekes, Silvia; Yacci, María R; Righetti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent exposure to loud music has become a social and health problem whose study demands a holistic approach. The aims of the current study are: (1) To detect early noise-induced hearing loss among adolescents and establish its relationship with their participation in musical recreational activities and (2) to determine sound immission levels in nightclubs and personal music players (PMPs). The participants consisted in 172 14-15 years old adolescents from a technical high school. Conventional and extended high frequency audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and questionnaire on recreational habits were administered. Hearing threshold levels (HTLs) were classified as: normal (Group 1), slightly shifted (Group 2), and significantly shifted (Group 3). The musical general exposure (MGE), from participation in recreational musical activities, was categorized in low, moderate, and high exposure. The results revealed an increase of HTL in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01), in Group 3 compared with Group 2 (P < 0.05) only in extended high frequency range, in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01). Besides, a decrease in mean global amplitude, reproducibility and in frequencies amplitude in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05) and in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05). A significant difference (P < 0.05) was found in Group 1's HTL between low and high exposure, showing higher HTL in high exposure. The sound immission measured in nightclubs (107.8-112.2) dBA and PMPs (82.9-104.6) dBA revealed sound levels risky for hearing health according to exposure times. It demonstrates the need to implement preventive and hearing health promoting actions in adolescents.

  17. Human psychopharmacology of Ecstasy (MDMA): a review of 15 years of empirical research.

    PubMed

    Parrott, A. C.

    2001-12-01

    MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) or 'Ecstasy' was scheduled as an illegal drug in 1986, but since then its recreational use has increased dramatically. This review covers 15 years of research into patterns of use, its acute psychological and physiological effects, and the long-term consequences of repeated use. MDMA is an indirect monoaminergic agonist, stimulating the release and inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) and, to a lesser extent, other neurotransmitters. Single doses of MDMA have been administered to human volunteers in double-blind placebo-controlled trials, although most findings are based upon recreational MDMA users. The 'massive' boost in neurotransmitter activity can generate intense feelings of elation and pleasure, also hyperactivity and hyperthermia. This psychophysiological arousal may be exacerbated by high ambient temperatures, overcrowding, prolonged dancing and other stimulant drugs. Occasionally the 'serotonin syndrome' reactions may prove fatal. In the days after Ecstasy use, around 80% of users report rebound depression and lethargy, due probably to monoaminergic depletion. Dosage escalation and chronic pharmacodynamic tolerance typically occur in regular users. Repeated doses of MDMA cause serotonergic neurotoxicity in laboratory animals, and there is extensive evidence for long-term neuropsychopharmacological damage in humans. Abstinent regular Ecstasy users often display reduced levels of 5-HT, 5-HIAA, tryptophan hydroxylase and serotonin transporter density; functional deficits in learning/memory, higher cognitive processing, sleep, appetite and psychiatric well-being, and, most paradoxically, 'loss of sexual interest/pleasure'. These psychobiological deficits are greatest in heavy Ecstasy users and may reflect serotonergic axonal loss in the higher brain regions, especially the frontal lobes, temporal lobes and hippocampus. These problems seem to remain long after the recreational use of Ecstasy has ceased

  18. Citation Analysis of the Croatian Medical Journal: the First 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kovačić, Nataša; Huić, Mirjana; Ivaniš, Ana

    2008-01-01

    The Croatian Medical Journal (CMJ) is a bimonthly scientific journal, publishing mostly original articles. It is indexed in the Index Medicus/MEDLINE, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, and the Science Citation Index – expanded. Since the CMJ’s 15th anniversary in 2007, our aim has been to assess the importance of the journal through its impact factor (IF) and immediacy index, with a particular focus placed on the proportion of self-citations. According the Web of Knowledge database, the current official IF for CMJ is 0.825, ranking it at the 62nd place out of 103 journals within the Thomson Scientific category “Medicine – General and Internal.” The exclusion of self-citations resulted in a small decrease in the journal’s rank – to 66th place. According to the Web of Science database, the predicted CMJ IF in 2007 is between 1.024 and 1.125, showing a clear increase. The immediacy index of the CMJ is continuously low, with a high contribution of self-citations, implying that articles published in the CMJ require more time to be cited, and that their topics are of particular interest to the journal's readers and contributors. Self-citations contributed significantly to the IF in the first few years after the journal was established. The proportion of independent citations progressively increased, and of all the citations included in the IF in 2007, almost 70% were fully independent. Some of these citations were from articles published in journals with IF higher than 5. Taken together, our data suggest that CMJ has significantly improved its citation data during the last 15 years, confirming that a quality-oriented editorial policy in a small peripheral journal may result in a truly increased international visibility. PMID:18293451

  19. Hearing and loud music exposure in 14-15 years old adolescents.

    PubMed

    Serra, Mario R; Biassoni, Ester C; Hinalaf, María; Abraham, Mónica; Pavlik, Marta; Villalobo, Jorge Pérez; Curet, Carlos; Joekes, Silvia; Yacci, María R; Righetti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent exposure to loud music has become a social and health problem whose study demands a holistic approach. The aims of the current study are: (1) To detect early noise-induced hearing loss among adolescents and establish its relationship with their participation in musical recreational activities and (2) to determine sound immission levels in nightclubs and personal music players (PMPs). The participants consisted in 172 14-15 years old adolescents from a technical high school. Conventional and extended high frequency audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and questionnaire on recreational habits were administered. Hearing threshold levels (HTLs) were classified as: normal (Group 1), slightly shifted (Group 2), and significantly shifted (Group 3). The musical general exposure (MGE), from participation in recreational musical activities, was categorized in low, moderate, and high exposure. The results revealed an increase of HTL in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01), in Group 3 compared with Group 2 (P < 0.05) only in extended high frequency range, in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01). Besides, a decrease in mean global amplitude, reproducibility and in frequencies amplitude in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05) and in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05). A significant difference (P < 0.05) was found in Group 1's HTL between low and high exposure, showing higher HTL in high exposure. The sound immission measured in nightclubs (107.8-112.2) dBA and PMPs (82.9-104.6) dBA revealed sound levels risky for hearing health according to exposure times. It demonstrates the need to implement preventive and hearing health promoting actions in adolescents. PMID:25209042

  20. Citation analysis of the Croatian Medical Journal: the first 15 years.

    PubMed

    Kovacić, Natasa; Huić, Mirjana; Ivanis, Ana

    2008-02-01

    The Croatian Medical Journal (CMJ) is a bimonthly scientific journal, that publishes mostly original articles. It is indexed in the Index Medicus/MEDLINE, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, and the Science Citation Index Expanded. Since the CMJ's 15th anniversary in 2007, our aim has been to assess the importance of the Journal through its impact factor (IF) and immediacy index, with a particular focus placed on the proportion of self-citations. According the Web of Knowledge database, the current official IF for the CMJ is 0.825, ranking it 62nd out of 103 journals within the Thomson Scientific category "Medicine - General and Internal." The exclusion of self-citations resulted in a small decrease in the journal's rank - to 66th place. According to the Web of Science database, the predicted CMJ IF in 2007 is between 1.024 and 1.125, showing a clear increase. The immediacy index of the CMJ is continuously low, with a high contribution of self-citations, implying that articles published in the CMJ require more time to be cited, and that their topics are of particular interest to the journal's readers and contributors. Self-citations contributed significantly to the IF in the first few years after the journal was established. The proportion of independent citations progressively increased, and of all the citations included in the IF in 2007, almost 70% were fully independent. Some of these citations were from articles published in journals with IF higher than 5. Taken together, our data suggest that the CMJ has significantly improved its citation ratings during the last 15 years, confirming that a quality-oriented editorial policy in a small peripheral journal may result in a truly increased international visibility.

  1. A 15-Year-Old Male Baseball Player With a Mass in the Brachialis Muscle.

    PubMed

    Golub, Ivan J; Garcia, Roberto A; Wittig, James C

    2016-05-01

    A 15-year-old boy presented with a mass in his right arm after suffering a minor injury playing baseball. He had been diagnosed with a hematoma. There was no other outstanding medical/surgical history. Magnetic resonance images showed a heterogeneous mass arising from the brachialis muscle that mainly enhanced peripherally with extremely scant internal nodular enhancement. Core needle biopsy cells were positive for CD31 and CD34, markers for atypical endothelial cells, as well as MIB-1 and p53. The final diagnosis was an angiosarcoma of the brachialis muscle. Pediatric angiosarcoma, particularly within deep tissue, is exceedingly rare. Histological and immunohistochemical modalities led to the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance images suggested a mass with a large cystic/hemorrhagic space that could have been misconstrued as a hematoma had there been absolutely no nodular or septal enhancement. The patient underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation before undergoing limb-sparing surgery that included resection of the mass with the brachialis muscle and short head of the biceps muscle. Neoadjuvant treatment was deemed successful due to a drastic reduction in the size of the tumor and 95% tumor necrosis. The patient was disease free 2 years postoperatively. There had been no local/systemic recurrences. He was pain free, had normal elbow function, and had returned to playing baseball. It is important to be extremely suspicious when a patient presents with a hemorrhagic, painless, enlarging mass after sustaining minor trauma. A careful and meticulous biopsy must be completed to achieve the correct diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium is recommended for evaluation because these masses can be often misinterpreted as hematomas. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e545-e548.].

  2. REOPERATION FOR INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION IN TWIST1 CONFIRMED SAETHRE-CHOTZEN SYNDROME: A 15 YEAR REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Roger H; Ul-Haq, Ehtesham; Wilkie, Andrew OM; Jayamohan, Jayaratnam; Richards, Peter G; Johnson, David; Lester, Tracy; Wall, Steven A

    2009-01-01

    Background Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS) is a syndromic craniosynostosis defined by a genetic mutation affecting the TWIST1 gene on chromosome 7p21. SCS is typically associated with uni- or bi-coronal synostosis, eyelid ptosis, dysmorphic external ears and other variable facial and limb abnormalities. Surgical management of the craniosynostosis addresses the calvarial deformity and may relieve or reduce risk of intracranial hypertension. The aim of this study was to assess surgical intervention, with particular consideration of reoperation rate for intracranial hypertension, in SCS patients. Method A retrospective casenote analysis was performed on all patients with a confirmed TWIST1 gene abnormality, who attended the Oxford Craniofacial Unit over a 15-year period. Each patient’s mutation and clinical features were recorded. Surgical intervention and sequelae were examined in greater detail. Results Thirty-four patients with genetically confirmed SCS were identified. All had craniosynostosis (bicoronal 76%, unicoronal 18%, bicoronal and sagittal 6%), and the majority had eyelid ptosis, low frontal hairline and external ear anomalies. Thirty-one cases had received surgical intervention. Nine of 26 patients (35%) with minimum 12 month follow-up after primary intervention, and 8 of 19 patients (42%) with minimum 5 year follow-up, developed intracranial hypertension necessitating secondary calvarial surgery. Conclusions Despite standard surgical intervention, patients with SCS have a high rate (35 - 42%) of recurrent intracranial hypertension necessitating further surgical expansion. All patients with either bicoronal synostosis or unicoronal synostosis with syndromic features, should be screened for TWIST1 mutations as this confers a greater risk than non-syndromic synostosis of the same sutures. Regular follow-up of SCS patients throughout the childhood years is essential. PMID:19483581

  3. A 15-Year-Old Male Baseball Player With a Mass in the Brachialis Muscle.

    PubMed

    Golub, Ivan J; Garcia, Roberto A; Wittig, James C

    2016-05-01

    A 15-year-old boy presented with a mass in his right arm after suffering a minor injury playing baseball. He had been diagnosed with a hematoma. There was no other outstanding medical/surgical history. Magnetic resonance images showed a heterogeneous mass arising from the brachialis muscle that mainly enhanced peripherally with extremely scant internal nodular enhancement. Core needle biopsy cells were positive for CD31 and CD34, markers for atypical endothelial cells, as well as MIB-1 and p53. The final diagnosis was an angiosarcoma of the brachialis muscle. Pediatric angiosarcoma, particularly within deep tissue, is exceedingly rare. Histological and immunohistochemical modalities led to the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance images suggested a mass with a large cystic/hemorrhagic space that could have been misconstrued as a hematoma had there been absolutely no nodular or septal enhancement. The patient underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation before undergoing limb-sparing surgery that included resection of the mass with the brachialis muscle and short head of the biceps muscle. Neoadjuvant treatment was deemed successful due to a drastic reduction in the size of the tumor and 95% tumor necrosis. The patient was disease free 2 years postoperatively. There had been no local/systemic recurrences. He was pain free, had normal elbow function, and had returned to playing baseball. It is important to be extremely suspicious when a patient presents with a hemorrhagic, painless, enlarging mass after sustaining minor trauma. A careful and meticulous biopsy must be completed to achieve the correct diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium is recommended for evaluation because these masses can be often misinterpreted as hematomas. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e545-e548.]. PMID:27045482

  4. Quality of life in families of Croatian veterans 15 years after the war.

    PubMed

    Zdjelarević, Ana; Komar, Zoran; Loncar, Mladen; Plasć, Ivana Dijanić; Hrabac, Pero; Groznica, Ivana; Marcinko, Darko

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to war trauma with its consequences such as post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and disability due to combat injuries poses a significant problem for modern Croatian society. However, this is also a public health problem requiring continuous study of effective treatment strategies to achieve an increase in quality of life of most war-affected groups. Aim of this study was to examine the quality of life of population most affected by war - families of Croatian veterans. Present study included 126 female participants, who agreed to complete physical and psychiatric examination organized by the Ministry of Family, War Veterans and Intergenerational Solidarity. Included were participants with status of either wife of war veteran suffering from PTSD, wife who lost her husband in war circumstances or wife of war veteran with physical disabilities resulting from war activities. All three groups were asked to fill out the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire - short form (WHOQOL-BREF). Results indicate that assumed intensity of secondary trauma is not associated with quality of life. Namely, the highest level of satisfaction was found in wives of the most seriously affected invalids of war (M=3.77; sd=0.741), folowed by the wives of deceased soldiers (M=3.5; sd= 0.697), while the lowest quality of life results were found in wives of veterans suffering from PTSD (M=3.12; sd=0.608). Our results confirm that, nearly 15 years after the war, wives of disabled or killed Croatian soldiers have a (comparatively) satisfactory quality of their everyday lives, compared to the wives of veterans suffering from PTSD.

  5. Data for effects of lanthanum complex on the thermo-oxidative aging of natural rubber.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Liu, Li; Zhao, Xiuying; He, Jingwei; Wang, Ao; Chan, Tung W; Wu, Sizhu

    2015-12-01

    Novel mixed antioxidants composed of antioxidant IPPD and lanthanum (La) complex were added as a filler to form natural rubber (NR) composites. By mechanical testing, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), a string of data, including the mechanical properties, the variation of internal groups and the thermal and thermo-oxidative decompositions of NR, was presented in this data article. The data accompanying its research article [1] studied the thermo-oxidative aging properties of NR in detail. The density function theoretical (DFT) calculations were also used as an assistant to study the thermo-oxidative aging mechanism of NR. The data revealed that this new rare-earth antioxidant could indeed enhance the thermo-oxidative aging resistance of NR, which is associated with its different function mechanism from that of the pure antioxidant IPPD. PMID:26693513

  6. Physicochemical characterization of thermally aged Egyptian linen dyed with organic natural dyestuffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourkoumelis, N.; El-Gaoudy, H.; Varella, E.; Kovala-Demertzi, D.

    2013-08-01

    A number of organic natural dyestuffs used in dyeing in ancient times, i.e. indigo, madder, turmeric, henna, cochineal, saffron and safflower, have been used to colour Egyptian fabrics based on linen. Their physicochemical properties have been evaluated on thermally aged linen samples. The aged dyed linen samples were thoroughly examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and tensile strength and elongation measurements. It was found that, in the molecular level, dyes interact mainly with the cellulose compounds of the aged linen while in the macroscopic level tensile and elongation parameters are altered. Tensile strength is positively related to the dye treatment while elongation depends specifically on the type of the dye used. Results converge that the dyed textiles did indeed play a role as protecting agents affecting strength and reducing thermal deterioration.

  7. Anticedants and natural prevention of environmental toxicants induced accelerated aging of skin.

    PubMed

    Tanuja Yadav; Mishra, Shivangi; Das, Shefali; Aggarwal, Shikha; Rani, Vibha

    2015-01-01

    Skin is frequently exposed to a variety of environmental and chemical agents that accelerate ageing. External stress such as UV radiations (UVR) and environmental pollutants majorly deteriorate the skin morphology, by activating certain intrinsic factors such as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) which trigger the activation of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammatory responses hence damaging the extracellular matrix (ECM) components. To counter this, an exogenous supply of anti-oxidants, is required since the endogenous anti-oxidant system cannot alone suffice the need. Bio-prospecting of natural resources for anti-oxidants has hence been intensified. Immense research is being carried out to identify potential plants with potent anti-oxidant activity against skin ageing. This review summarizes the major factors responsible for premature skin ageing and the plants being targeted to lessen the impact of those. PMID:25555260

  8. Anticedants and natural prevention of environmental toxicants induced accelerated aging of skin.

    PubMed

    Tanuja Yadav; Mishra, Shivangi; Das, Shefali; Aggarwal, Shikha; Rani, Vibha

    2015-01-01

    Skin is frequently exposed to a variety of environmental and chemical agents that accelerate ageing. External stress such as UV radiations (UVR) and environmental pollutants majorly deteriorate the skin morphology, by activating certain intrinsic factors such as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) which trigger the activation of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammatory responses hence damaging the extracellular matrix (ECM) components. To counter this, an exogenous supply of anti-oxidants, is required since the endogenous anti-oxidant system cannot alone suffice the need. Bio-prospecting of natural resources for anti-oxidants has hence been intensified. Immense research is being carried out to identify potential plants with potent anti-oxidant activity against skin ageing. This review summarizes the major factors responsible for premature skin ageing and the plants being targeted to lessen the impact of those.

  9. Data for effects of lanthanum complex on the thermo-oxidative aging of natural rubber.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wei; Liu, Li; Zhao, Xiuying; He, Jingwei; Wang, Ao; Chan, Tung W; Wu, Sizhu

    2015-12-01

    Novel mixed antioxidants composed of antioxidant IPPD and lanthanum (La) complex were added as a filler to form natural rubber (NR) composites. By mechanical testing, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), a string of data, including the mechanical properties, the variation of internal groups and the thermal and thermo-oxidative decompositions of NR, was presented in this data article. The data accompanying its research article [1] studied the thermo-oxidative aging properties of NR in detail. The density function theoretical (DFT) calculations were also used as an assistant to study the thermo-oxidative aging mechanism of NR. The data revealed that this new rare-earth antioxidant could indeed enhance the thermo-oxidative aging resistance of NR, which is associated with its different function mechanism from that of the pure antioxidant IPPD.

  10. Relationship between arsenic skin lesions and the age of natural menopause

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic exposure to arsenic is associated with neoplastic, cardiovascular, endocrine, neuro-developmental disorders and can have an adverse effect on women’s reproductive health outcomes. This study examined the relationship between arsenic skin lesions (a hallmark sign of chronic arsenic poisoning) and age of natural menopause (final menopausal period) in populations with high levels of arsenic exposure in Bangladesh. Methods We compared menopausal age in two groups of women – with and without arsenic skin lesions; and presence of arsenic skin lesions was used as an indicator for chronic arsenic exposure. In a cross-sectional study, a total of 210 participants were randomly identified from two ongoing studies— participants with arsenic skin lesions were identified from an ongoing clinical trial and participants with no arsenic skin lesions were identified from an ongoing cohort study. Mean age of menopause between these two groups were calculated and compared. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the relationship between the status of the arsenic skin lesions and age of natural menopause in women. Results Women with arsenic skin lesions were 1.5 years younger (p <0.001) at the time of menopause compared to those without arsenic skin lesions. After adjusting with contraceptive use, body mass index, urinary arsenic level and family history of premature menopause, the difference between the groups’ age at menopause was 2.1 years earlier (p <0.001) for respondents with arsenic skin lesions. Conclusions The study showed a statistically significant association between chronic exposure to arsenic and age at menopause. Heavily exposed women experienced menopause two years earlier than those with lower or no exposure. PMID:24886424

  11. Natural history of age-related lobular involution and impact on breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Radisky, Derek C; Visscher, Daniel W; Frank, Ryan D; Vierkant, Robert A; Winham, Stacey; Stallings-Mann, Melody; Hoskin, Tanya L; Nassar, Aziza; Vachon, Celine M; Denison, Lori A; Hartmann, Lynn C; Frost, Marlene H; Degnim, Amy C

    2016-02-01

    Age-related lobular involution (LI) is a physiological process in which the terminal duct lobular units of the breast regress as a woman ages. Analyses of breast biopsies from women with benign breast disease (BBD) have found that extent of LI is negatively associated with subsequent breast cancer development. Here we assess the natural course of LI within individual women, and the impact of progressive LI on breast cancer risk. The Mayo Clinic BBD cohort consists of 13,455 women with BBD from 1967 to 2001. The BBD cohort includes 1115 women who had multiple benign biopsies, 106 of whom had developed breast cancer. Within this multiple biopsy cohort, the progression of the LI process was examined by age at initial biopsy and time between biopsies. The relationship between LI progression and breast cancer risk was assessed using standardized incidence ratios and by Cox proportional hazards analysis. Women who had multiple biopsies were younger age and had a slightly higher family history of breast cancer as compared with the overall BBD cohort. Extent of LI at subsequent biopsy was greater with increasing time between biopsies and for women age 55 + at initial biopsy. Among women with multiple biopsies, there was a significant association of higher breast cancer risk among those with involution stasis (lack of progression, HR 1.63) as compared with those with involution progression, p = 0.036. The multiple biopsy BBD cohort allows for a longitudinal study of the natural progression of LI. The majority of women in the multiple biopsy cohort showed progression of LI status between benign biopsies, and extent of progression was highest for women who were in the perimenopausal age range at initial biopsy. Progression of LI status between initial and subsequent biopsy was associated with decreased breast cancer risk. PMID:26846985

  12. Using naturally occurring radionuclides to determine drinking water age in a community water system

    SciTech Connect

    Waples, James T.; Bordewyk, Jason K.; Knesting, Kristina M.; Orlandini, Kent A.

    2015-07-22

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of 90Y/90Sr and 234Th/238U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.998, n = 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, 90Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 104 m3 d–1 capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.

  13. Microsurgical varicocelectomy for infertile couples with advanced female age: natural history in the era of ART.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Jeanne H; Bowles, Ben; Kamal, Khaled M; Jarvi, Keith; Zini, Armand

    2004-01-01

    Varicocele represents the most common cause of male infertility, and most reports indicate that varicocelectomy has a beneficial effect on male fertility and pregnancy outcome. Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) are an alternative to varicocelectomy for the management of couples with a varicocele. The age of the female partner is important in the decision-making process; however, the true influence of female age on pregnancy outcome following varicocelectomy or ART in these couples is unknown. We evaluated the outcomes of 2 cohorts of infertile men with a varicocele and a female partner 35 years of age or older; one group selected varicocelectomy and the other a nonsurgical approach. We reviewed a group of consecutive infertile men who underwent microsurgical varicocelectomy and whose partners are 35 years of age or older (n = 110). We also reviewed a consecutive group of men with varicoceles who elected not to have surgery and whose partners are 35 years of age or older (n = 94). The outcome measures included changes in semen parameters, pregnancy rates (assisted and unassisted), and use of ART. The surgical and nonsurgical groups had comparable semen parameters and female ages. Mean sperm concentration and motility increased significantly after varicocelectomy (P < .05). At a mean of 30 months follow-up, 35% of couples in the surgical group achieved a spontaneous pregnancy and an additional 6% achieved a pregnancy via ART (20% of this group attempted ART). In the nonsurgical group, 25% achieved a spontaneous pregnancy and an additional 16% achieved a pregnancy with ART (40% of this group attempted ART). This study on the natural history of infertile men with varicocele and advanced female age suggests that the surgical and nonsurgical approaches offer comparable pregnancy outcome (combined assisted and unassisted pregnancy rates are about 40%). Overall, these data suggest that varicocelectomy is an acceptable option for couples with advanced female age

  14. Clinical characteristics at presentation of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children younger than 15 years in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Stipancic, Gordana; Sepec, Marija Pozgaj; Sabolic, Lavinija La Grasta; Radica, Ana; Skrabic, Veselin; Severinski, Srecko; Tiljak, Mirjana Kujundzic

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the clinical and biochemical characteristics of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) at presentation in children younger than 15 years in Croatia during a 9-year period, with special attention to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) incidence. The registered data set comprised blood glucose, pH, serum bicarbonate levels, and clinical symptoms at disease manifestation. During the study period, 692 children were diagnosed with type 1 DM. Polydipsia (96.7%), polyuria (96.05%), and weight loss (82.7%) were the most frequent symptoms anticipating disease detection. Enuresis was recorded in 11.55%. A total of 36.41% patients had DKA (pH < 7.3) at disease onset. During the 9-year period, the percentage of children presenting with DKA at time of diagnosis decreased from 41.67% to 33.33% (z = 1.68, p = 0.046). A positive family history of DM, the only factor with an impact on the DKA incidence rate in our population, lowers the probability of the development of ketoacidosis. This study confirms the importance of the detection of the classic symptoms of polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss in patients with new-onset type 1 DM. The percentage of patients with DKA at diabetes onset decreased during the observed period but is still high and includes one-third of all patients. This is why in every acutely ill child, especially at a younger age, one should evaluate the possibility of type 1 DM to avoid the development of ketoacidosis. PMID:22145453

  15. Long-term outcome after liver transplantation for hepatic schistosomiasis: a single-center experience over 15 years.

    PubMed

    El Moghazy, Walid; Kashkoush, Samy; O'hali, Wael; Abdallah, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to study the long-term outcomes of patients who had undergone liver transplantation because of schistosomiasis at our institute over the last 15 years. Four hundred forty-one patients underwent liver transplantation at our institute, and 14 did so for schistosomiasis. The survival of patients who underwent transplantation for schistosomiasis was compared with that of patients who underwent transplantation for other liver diseases. Survival curves were drawn via the Kaplan-Meier method and were compared with the log-rank test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. All 14 patients were male, and the average age was 56.8 ± 8.4 years. The average Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score was 18.2 ± 5.6, and the average Child-Pugh score was 10.6 ± 1.2. All patients had splenomegaly; pretransplant variceal bleeding occurred in 7 patients (50%), and portal vein thrombosis was diagnosed in 5 patients (36%). Patient survival was 75% 1 year after transplantation and 75% at the end of follow-up because no patients were lost after the first year. Patients who underwent transplantation for other causes achieved survival rates of 86% and 76% 1 and 10 years after transplantation, respectively. There was no significant survival difference between the 2 groups (P = 0.66). All patients who survived the early posttransplant period had functioning liver grafts with no reported diagnoses of schistosomiasis in the new grafts. In conclusion, liver transplantation for patients with schistosomiasis has a favorable outcome with no risk of reactivation.

  16. In Vitro-Stimulated IL-6 Monocyte Secretion and In Vivo Peripheral Blood T Lymphocyte Activation Uniquely Predicted 15-Year Survival in Patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Aarstad, Helene Hersvik; Vintermyr, Olav Karsten; Ulvestad, Elling; Kross, Kenneth; Heimdal, John Helge; Aarstad, Hans Jorgen

    2015-01-01

    The study was performed in order to determine whether peripheral blood monocyte in vitro function, and lymphocyte in vivo activation at diagnosis, was associated with HPV tumor infection status and 15-year survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. Sixty-five patients from a consecutive cohort of newly diagnosed HNSCCs, together with 18 control patients, were included in the study. Monocyte responsiveness was assessed by measuring monocyte in vitro interleukin (IL)-6 secretions after 24 hours of LPS stimulation in cultures with a serum-free medium. T lymphocyte activation was determined as the fraction of CD71-positive cells on CD3-positive cells by flow cytometry, whereas HPV infection was determined by PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue. Disease-specific survivals and overall survivals were determined 15 years following inclusion. HPV-positive HNSCC patients had a lower monocyte LPS-stimulated IL-6 response. A high LPS-stimulated monocyte IL-6 response predicted a decreased survival rate (P=0.019). A high percentage of CD71-positive T lymphocytes also predicted an impaired prognosis (P=0.021). The predictive power of IL-6 monocyte LPS-stimulated responses was retained when adjusted for age, gender and TNM stage of the patients. The monocyte and T lymphocyte survival predictions were independent of each other. The survival was particularly low with a combined high activated monocyte and T lymphocyte status. In a multivariate analysis, IL-6 secretion and the percentage of CD71-positive T lymphocytes both uniquely predicted survival independent of HPV infection status. It is postulated that the natural and adaptive immune systems are separately and additionally linked to the clinical aggressiveness of HNSCCs. PMID:26079381

  17. The age and symptomatology of natural menopause among United Arab Emirates women.

    PubMed

    Rizk, D E; Bener, A; Ezimokhai, M; Hassan, M Y; Micallef, R

    1998-06-17

    A population-based survey of 742 United Arab Emirates women aged 40 years and over who had attained natural menopause (amenorrhea of at least 6 months' duration) investigated age at onset and the prevalence of climacteric symptoms. Women from both urban and rural areas of Al-Ain City and Abu Dhabi, Dubai, and Sharjah Emirates were recruited through use of the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. The median age at menopause in this sample was 48 years (mean, 47.3 +or- 3.29 years; range, 40-59 years)--significantly lower than the 50.3 year mean recorded among Western women. Median age at menopause was significantly associated with that of the mother (p 0.001) and older sister (p 0.001), parity (p 0.0001), and a history of use of oral contraceptives for more than 1 year (p 0.001). 394 women (53%) reported at least one climacteric symptom. Most common were hot flushes, reported by 47% of women. 145 women (19.5%) were currently taking hormone replacement therapy. The relatively low age at menopause in this population could reflect additional social, economic, environmental, or genetic factors that were not explored in this study.

  18. Online teaching and learning in oceanography: A look back at 15 years of undergraduate general education (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D.

    2013-12-01

    Online courses in higher education have garnered a growing presence in the popular media, yet misperceptions abound. Consequently, a retrospective examination of the evolution of an online oceanography class, first offered to undergraduates at the San Jose State University in the fall semester of 1998, may be especially relevant to the development of future efforts in this field. Since that initial offering, the development of the course, involving the creation of virtual field experiences whereby students take on the role of practicing research oceanographers, has been supported through several awards from the National Science Foundation, principally the Division of Undergraduate Education and the Geoscience Directorate. The online material, organized into expeditions, which focus on the nature of scientific discovery, has evolved over time from a static graphics and text-based format to include video, largely available through YouTube, and animations that take advantage of social media, all to highlight contemporary ocean research. To sustain the project beyond NSF funding, the course has been offered throughout the academic year, and in winter and summer special sessions, to more the 4000 students over the 15 year period since its initial offering. The materials have always been openly available through the course website (http://oceansjsu.com) to institutions throughout the world, long in advance of current MOOC movement. Just as the course format, and available content, have evolved, so have the students enrolled in the class, which now more closely mirror the university student body as a whole. Future efforts in course development should span multi-campus university systems to take advantage of the collective scientific expertise available and to leverage the effort across a larger number of courses and disciplines.

  19. Marine mammal strandings and environmental changes: a 15-year study in the St. Lawrence ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Truchon, Marie-Hélène; Measures, Lena; L'Hérault, Vincent; Brêthes, Jean-Claude; Galbraith, Peter S; Harvey, Michel; Lessard, Sylvie; Starr, Michel; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994-2008; n = 1,193) and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice) to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have increased since 1994. Poor ice conditions observed during the same period may have affected marine mammals either directly, by modulating the availability of habitat for feeding and breeding activities, or indirectly, through changes in water conditions and marine productivity (krill abundance). For most species (75%, n = 6 species), a low volume of ice was correlated with increasing frequency of stranding events (e.g. R(2)adj = 0.59, hooded seal, Cystophora cristata). This likely led to an increase in seal mortality during the breeding period, but also to increase habitat availability for seasonal migratory cetaceans using ice-free areas during winter. We also detected a high frequency of stranding events for mysticete species (minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and resident species (beluga, Delphinapterus leucas), correlated with low krill abundance since 1994. Positive NAO indices were positively correlated with high frequencies of stranding events for resident and seasonal migratory cetaceans, as well as rare species (R(2)adj = 0.53, 0.81 and 0.34, respectively). This contrasts with seal mass stranding numbers, which were negatively correlated with a positive NAO index. In addition, an unusual multiple species mortality event (n = 114, 62% of total annual mortality) in 2008 was caused by a harmful algal bloom. Our findings provide an empirical baseline in understanding marine mammal survival when faced with climatic variability. This is a promising

  20. Sudden, unexpected death of a 15-year-old boy due to pancarditis

    PubMed Central

    Osculati, Antonio; Visonà, Silvia Damiana; Ventura, Francesco; Castelli, Francesca; Andrello, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Generally, rheumatic heart disease is, today, sporadic in developed countries, even though it continues to be a major health hazard in the developing ones. It is also a very rare cause of sudden unexpected death. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy who suddenly died at home. Since 3 days he had presented fever and chest pain. The family physician had diagnosed bronchitis and treated the boy with amoxicillin. Methods: Seven hours after death, a forensic autopsy were performed . Before the autopsy, anamnesis and some circumstantial data were collected from the boy's parents. During the autopsy, samples for histological, toxicological and molecular examinations were collected. The samples for the histology (brain, hypophysis, heart and pericardium, lungs, spleen, liver, kidney, adrenal glands) were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded. Each section was stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin. Immunostaining was also performed, with anti-CD 68, anti-CD3, anti-CD 20, anti-myeloperoxidase. Microbiological cultures were performed on cardiac blood, myocardium, pericardial effusion and cerebrospinal fluid samples collected during autopsy. Blood specimens were also processed through PCR, in order to reveal the presence of Enteroviruses, Chickenpox virus, Epstein Barr virus. Also chemical-toxicological examinations for the detection of the main medications and drugs were performed on blood samples. Results: The anamnesis, collected before the autopsy, revealed an acute pharyngitis few weeks before. The autopsy, and the following histological and immunochemical examinations suggested an immunological etiology. The immunohistochemistry, showing a strong positivity of antiCD68 antibodies, integrated with clinical-anamnestic information, leads to hypothesize a rheumatic carditis. Conclusion: In light of this case, at least 3 main messages of great importance for the clinician can be deduced. First, an accurate anamnesis collected by the family physician could have

  1. Marine Mammal Strandings and Environmental Changes: A 15-Year Study in the St. Lawrence Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Truchon, Marie-Hélène; Measures, Lena; L’Hérault, Vincent; Brêthes, Jean-Claude; Galbraith, Peter S.; Harvey, Michel; Lessard, Sylvie; Starr, Michel; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994–2008; n = 1,193) and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice) to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have increased since 1994. Poor ice conditions observed during the same period may have affected marine mammals either directly, by modulating the availability of habitat for feeding and breeding activities, or indirectly, through changes in water conditions and marine productivity (krill abundance). For most species (75%, n = 6 species), a low volume of ice was correlated with increasing frequency of stranding events (e.g. R2adj = 0.59, hooded seal, Cystophora cristata). This likely led to an increase in seal mortality during the breeding period, but also to increase habitat availability for seasonal migratory cetaceans using ice-free areas during winter. We also detected a high frequency of stranding events for mysticete species (minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and resident species (beluga, Delphinapterus leucas), correlated with low krill abundance since 1994. Positive NAO indices were positively correlated with high frequencies of stranding events for resident and seasonal migratory cetaceans, as well as rare species (R2adj = 0.53, 0.81 and 0.34, respectively). This contrasts with seal mass stranding numbers, which were negatively correlated with a positive NAO index. In addition, an unusual multiple species mortality event (n = 114, 62% of total annual mortality) in 2008 was caused by a harmful algal bloom. Our findings provide an empirical baseline in understanding marine mammal survival when faced with climatic variability. This is a promising

  2. A New 15-year Multisite AWS Temperature and Pressure Record for West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusch, D. B.; Alley, R. B.

    2002-05-01

    spanning West Antarctica from the Ross Island area (Ferrell) to the Bellingshausen Sea region (Siple Station) for the period 1979-1993. EOF analysis of the 15-year temperature records suggests significant (though as yet uninterpreted) differences between the easterly/ice-sheet (Siple Station and Byrd) and westerly/ice-shelf (Lettau, Marilyn, Ferrell) stations. Short-term trends in annual high and low temperatures are also present. These results support high confidence in the ANN-based predictions from ECMWF data for periods where AWS data are unavailable, e.g., before installation. ANNs thus provide a means to expand our surface meteorological records significantly in West Antarctica.

  3. Investigating earthquake scaling relationships from a 15 year archive of InSAR-derived earthquake models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funning, G. J.; Ferreira, A. M.; Parsons, B. E.

    2008-12-01

    In the 15 years since the first InSAR study of the 1992 Landers earthquake, the first event to be studied using InSAR, over 50 events have been studied wholly or jointly using InSAR. This constitutes a rich archive of published studies that can be mined for information on earthquake phenomenology. Empirical earthquake scaling relationships, as can be inferred from estimates of fault dimensions, slip and moment for multiple earthquakes, are extensively used in seismic hazard forecasting, and also constitute a means of placing constraints on the bulk mechanical behaviour of the seismogenic upper crust. As a source of such data, studies that utilise information from InSAR have an advantage over seismic methods in that in many cases, a key parameter, the fault length, can be measured directly from the observations. In addition, in cases of good interferogram coherence, the high spatial density of surface deformation observations that InSAR affords can place tight constraints on fault width and other important parameters. We present here a preliminary survey of earthquake scaling relationships as supported by the existing archive of InSAR earthquake studies. We find that for events with Mw > 6, the data support moment scaling with the square of fault length, in keeping with the studies of Scholz and others, and imply proportionality between fault average slip and fault length. There are currently too few datapoints for great earthquakes (Mw > 8) to assess any proposed change in scaling for such events. Scatterplots of average slip versus fault length show two broad fields -- an area of high slip-to-length ratios (> 2 × 10-5) which are predominantly associated with faults with low long-term slip rates, predominantly from intraplate settings, and an area of lower slip-to-length ratios (< 2 × 10-5) which typically are larger events from faults with higher long-term slip rates (e.g. the North Anatolian and Kunlun faults, and the Peru-Chile subduction zone). In addition

  4. Copper-complexed catenanes and rotaxanes in motion: 15 years of molecular machines.

    PubMed

    Durot, Stéphanie; Reviriego, Felipe; Sauvage, Jean-Pierre

    2010-11-28

    In this review, we try to summarise the work performed in our laboratories in the course of the last 15 years, in the field of catenane- and rotaxane-based molecular machines containing copper(I), copper(II) or zinc(II) atoms. We put our work into perspective, showing how the properties of the compounds made have been gradually improved, mostly in terms of motion rate. In parallel, the function of the molecular machines elaborated have been made more and more complex. Instead of discussing all the systems elaborated and studied in our team, we preferred to select a few representative examples and show what were the principles which guided us for improving their performances and how the compounds were experimentally modified to afford new functions and faster-responding molecular machines. Starting from an electrochemically-driven "swinging" [2]catenane, reported in 1994, whose rearrangement was disappointingly slow, we could recently elaborate fast moving pirouetting copper-complexed [2]rotaxanes or molecular shuttles. The rearrangement mechanism of the pirouetting systems, as studied by experimental and computational methods, led us to synthesise interlocking compounds with a very open structure around the copper centre, allowing facile ligand exchange. With such compounds, whose copper centres are highly accessible, the minutes or hours required for the first generation of molecular machines to rearrange were converted to milliseconds or seconds, demonstrating that the rate limiting step in the electrochemically-steered copper catenanes and rotaxanes is probably decoordination of ligands to be replaced by entering ligands leading to the new form of the species. In addition to the electrochemically-piloted systems, we discuss a few compounds, which were not set in motion using an electrochemical signal but rather a chemical stimulus, including porphyrin-containing [2]rotaxanes or a "molecular muscle", based on a [2]rotaxane dimer of the hermaphroditic type. In

  5. Microstructure and Mechanical Instability of Water-Quenched U-6wt% Nb Alloy Affected by Long-Term Aging

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, L; Zhou, J

    2005-12-06

    A combinative approach of microhardness testing, tensile testing, and TEM microstructural analysis was employed to study the microstructure and mechanical instability of a water-quenched U-6wt.% Nb (WQ-U6Nb) alloy subjected to different aging schedules including artificial aging at 200 C, 15-year natural aging at ambient temperatures, and 15-year natural aging followed by accelerative aging at 200 C. The changes in mechanical property during and after the aging processes were examined using microhardness and tensile-testing methods. During the early stages of artificial aging at 200 C, the microhardness of WQ-U6Nb alloy increased, i.e., age hardening, as a result of the development of nanoscale modulation caused by spinodal decomposition. Coarsening of the modulated structure occurred after a prolonged aging at 200 C for 16 hours, and it led to a decrease of microhardness, i.e., age softening. Phase instability was also found to occur in WQ-U6Nb alloy that was subjected to a 15-year natural aging at ambient temperatures. The formation of partially ordered domains resulting from a spinodal modulation with an atomic-scale wavelength rendered the appearance of swirl-shape antiphase domain boundaries (APBs) observed in TEM images. Although it did not cause a significant change in microhardness, 15-year natural aging has dramatically affected the aging mechanisms of the alloy isothermally aged at 200 C. Microhardness values of the NA alloy continuously increased and no age softening was found after isothermal aging at 200 C for 96 hours as a result of the phase decomposition of partially ordered domains into Nb-depleted {alpha} phase and Nb-enriched U{sub 3}Nb ordered phase in the alloy. It is concluded that the long-term natural aging changes the transformation pathway of WQ-U6Nb, and it leads to order-disorder transformation, precipitation hardening, and ductility embrittlement of WQ-U6Nb alloy.

  6. Effect of natural exogenous antioxidants on aging and on neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Araiza, C; Álvarez-Mejía, A L; Sánchez-Torres, S; Farfan-García, E; Mondragón-Lozano, R; Pinto-Almazán, R; Salgado-Ceballos, H

    2013-07-01

    Aging and neurodegenerative diseases share oxidative stress cell damage and depletion of endogenous antioxidants as mechanisms of injury, phenomena that are occurring at different rates in each process. Nevertheless, as the central nervous system (CNS) consists largely of lipids and has a poor catalase activity, a low amount of superoxide dismutase and is rich in iron, its cellular components are damaged easily by overproduction of free radicals in any of these physiological or pathological conditions. Thus, antioxidants are needed to prevent the formation and to oppose the free radicals damage to DNA, lipids, proteins, and other biomolecules. Due to endogenous antioxidant defenses are inadequate to prevent damage completely, different efforts have been undertaken in order to increase the use of natural antioxidants and to develop antioxidants that might ameliorate neural injury by oxidative stress. In this context, natural antioxidants like flavonoids (quercetin, curcumin, luteolin and catechins), magnolol and honokiol are showing to be the efficient inhibitors of the oxidative process and seem to be a better therapeutic option than the traditional ones (vitamins C and E, and β-carotene) in various models of aging and injury in vitro and in vivo conditions. Thus, the goal of the present review is to discuss the molecular basis, mechanisms of action, functions, and targets of flavonoids, magnolol, honokiol and traditional antioxidants with the aim of obtaining better results when they are prescribed on aging and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23594291

  7. Mental health inequalities in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents explained by personal social position and family socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mental health inequalities are an increasingly important global problem. This study examined the association between mental health status and certain socioeconomic indicators (personal social position and the socioeconomic status of the family) in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents. Methods Data originate from the WHO-Collaborative cross-national ‘Health Behavior in School-aged Children’ study conducted in Slovenia in 2010 (1,815 secondary school pupils, aged 15). Mental health status was measured by: KIDSCREEN-10, the Strength and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), a life satisfaction scale, and one question about feelings of depression. Socioeconomic position was measured by the socioeconomic status of the family (Family Affluence Scale, perceived material welfare, family type, occupational status of parents) and personal social position (number of friends and the type of school). Logistic regression and a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were performed. Results Girls had 2.5-times higher odds of suffering feelings of depression (p < 0.001), 1.5-times higher odds of low life satisfaction (p = 0.008), and a greater chance of a lower quality of life and a higher SDQ score than boys (p = 0.001). The adolescents who perceived their family’s material welfare as worse had 4-times higher odds (p < 0.001) of a low life satisfaction, a greater chance of a low quality of life, and a higher SDQ score than those who perceived it as better (p < 0.001). Adolescents with no friends had lower KIDSCREEN-10 and higher SDQ scores than those who had more than three friends. Conclusions Despite the fact that Slovenia is among the EU members with the lowest rates of social inequalities, it was found that adolescents with a lower socioeconomic position have poorer mental health than those with a higher socioeconomic position. Because of the financial crisis, we can expect an increase in social inequalities and a greater impact on

  8. Evaluation of the Effect of Passive Smoking on Lactoferrin and AST on 12 - 15 Years Old Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jenabian, Niloofar; Pouramir, Mahdi; Motallebnejad, Mina; Bamdadian, Jale; Rahimi-Rad, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Passive smokers are involuntarily exposed to cigarette or tobacco smoke and as known, inhalation of environmental tobacco smoke is a serious threat. There is little information about the effect of passive smoking on salivary markers and periodontal indices. Objectives: This study investigated the effect of passive smoking on lactoferrin and AST in 12 - 15 years old children and adolescents. Patients and Methods: This case-control analytic correlation type study with no-convenience random sampling method was performed on 160 children aged 12 - 15 who had smokers in their families. The eligible children were divided into two equal groups; 80 cot+ children as case group and 80 cot– children as control group, matched according to age, sex and plaque index. Plaque index was obtained from all subjects. 2 cc unstimulated salivary samples were collected by spitting method. The collected specimens were tested by lactoferrin and AST kits in biochemistry were measured on the day of sampling laboratory. Gingival index Loe and Silness (GI) and Probing Pocket Depth (PPD). Results: Mean and Standard Deviation of PPD and GI was 2.01 ± 0.077 and 1.53 ± 0.055 in experimental group and 1.93 ± 0.073 and 1.49 ± 0.046 in control group respectively (P < 0.001). The Mean and Standard Deviation parameters of lactoferrin and AST, in the experimental group was 38.66 ± 25.15 and 13.45 ± 6.33 and in the control group 10.18 ± 6.82 and 6.53 ± 2.65 group, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Passive smoking can be effective on inflammatory process of periodontal and salivary biomarkers related to inflammation. Lactoferrin was 11 - 104 in case group and 0.5 - 38 in control group. Aspartat aminotransferase in case group was 2.64 - 30.43 and in control group it was 2.16 - 12.02. PMID:26495095

  9. A Look into the National Drought Mitigation Center: Providing 15 Years of Drought Services (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, M. D.; Hayes, M. J.; Knutson, C. L.; Wardlow, B. D.

    2009-12-01

    The National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) was formed in 1995 at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Over the past 15 years, the NDMC has made it a priority to work with various local, state, tribal and federal entities to provide a suite of drought/climate services, with a goal of bringing research to fruition through applications and operations. Through our research and outreach projects, the NDMC has worked to reduce risk to drought by developing several mitigation strategies, monitoring and decision making tools and other services aimed at enhancing our nation’s capacity to cope with drought. Two of the earliest NDMC activities were the creation of a website and assessing drought conditions around the United States. An electronic drought clearinghouse was built in 1995 at drought.unl.edu. The site was designed, and still concentrates, on the concepts of drought monitoring, planning, and mitigation and also serves as a repository of information from around the world. The NDMC’s electronic quarterly newsletter, DroughtScape, disseminates information about all things drought to people across the country. In addition, the NDMC has developed and is home to websites for the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM), Drought Impact Reporter (DIR), and the Vegetation Drought Response Index (VegDRI). In an effort to inform decision makers, the NDMC continually pursues ways to raise the awareness and visibility of drought as one of the most costly hazards we face. This began in the mid-1990s with the creation of a state-based drought impact assessment map that would help lead to the formation of the USDM in 1999 and the DIR in 2005. The NDMC plays a key role in producing the weekly USDM and the monthly North American Drought Monitor (NADM). The USDM was created out of collaborations between the NDMC, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and has quickly become one of the most widely used products in assessing

  10. Age, growth, and natural mortality of schoolmaster (Lutjanus apodus) from the southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Michael L.; Myers, Amanda R.

    2016-01-01

    Ages of schoolmaster (n = 136) from the southeastern Florida coast from 1981–2015 were determined using sectioned sagittal otoliths. Opaque zones were annular, forming March–July (peaking in May–June). Schoolmaster ranged in age from 1–42 years; the largest fish measured 505 mm total length (TL) and was 19 years old. The oldest fish measured 440 mm TL. Estimated body size relationships for schoolmaster were: W = 9.26 × 10−6 TL3.11 (n = 256, r2 = 0.95); W = 2.13 × 10−5 FL2.99 (n = 161, r2 = 0.95); TL = 1.03 FL + 10.36 (n = 143, r2 = 0.99); and FL = 0.96 TL − 8.41 (n = 143, r2 = 0.99), where W = whole weight in g, FL = fork length in mm, and TL in mm. The fitted von Bertalanffy growth equation was: Lt = 482 (1 − e−0.12(t+2.79)) (n = 136). Based on published life history relationships, a point estimate of natural mortality for schoolmaster was M = 0.10, while age-specific estimates of M ranged from 1.57–0.18 for ages 1–42. PMID:27761332

  11. Neuropeptide Y effects on murine natural killer activity: changes with ageing and cAMP involvement.

    PubMed

    De la Fuente, M; Del Río, M; Víctor, V M; Medina, S

    2001-09-15

    Changes in the bidirectional interaction between the nervous and the immune systems have been proposed as a cause of ageing. Neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), could show different effects on immune function with age. In the present work, we have studied the in vitro action of a wide range of NPY concentrations, i.e. from 10(-13) to 10(-7) M, on natural killer (NK) activity, a function which decreases with age. Spleen, axillary nodes, thymus and peritoneum leukocytes from mice of different ages: young (12+/-2 weeks), adult (24+/-2 weeks), mature (50+/-2 weeks) and old (72+/-2 weeks) were used. Stimulation by NPY of NK activity was observed in adult and mature animals in axillary nodes and thymus, and an inhibition in the spleen from young mice. The specificity of the NPY effect on cytotoxic activity was confirmed using a C-terminal fragment of NPY. Furthermore, cAMP levels in leukocytes were found to be decreased by NPY in adult mice, suggesting an involvement of this messenger system in the NK modulation by this neuropeptide.

  12. Age, growth, and natural mortality of yellowfin grouper (Mycteroperca venenosa) from the southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Jennifer C.; Carr, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Ages of yellowfin grouper (n = 306) from the southeastern United States coast from 1979–2014 were determined using sectioned sagittal otoliths. Opaque zones were annular, forming January–June (peaking in February–March). Yellowfin grouper ranged in age from 3 to 31 years; the largest fish measured 1,000 mm fork length (FL). Body size relationships for yellowfin grouper were: W = 1.22 × 10−5 FL3.03 (n = 229, r2 = 0.92); TL = 1.06 FL − 14.53 (n = 60, r2 = 0.99); and FL = 0.93 TL + 18.63 (n = 60, r2 = 0.99), where W = whole weight in grams, FL in mm, and TL = total length in mm. The von Bertalanffy growth equation was: Lt = 958 (1 − e−0.11(t+2.94)) (n = 306). The point estimate of natural mortality for yellowfin grouper was M = 0.14, while age-specific estimates of M ranged from 1.59 to 0.17 for ages 1–31. PMID:26244111

  13. Stress and Self-Concept in 10- to 15-Year-Old School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garton, Alison F.; Pratt, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Results of a study of the relationship between stress and self-concept among adolescents (n=1,482) indicate that there is a small negative relationship between overall self-concept and the frequency and effect of stressful events. Females experience more stress and express it as having a greater impact, while age does not reliably predict…

  14. Natural selection and genital variation: a role for the environment, parasites and sperm ageing?

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Male genitalia are more variable between species (and populations) than other organs, and are more morphologically complex in polygamous compared to monogamous species. Therefore, sexual selection has been put forward as the major explanation of genital variation and complexity, in particular cryptic female choice for male copulatory courtship. As cryptic female choice is based on differences between males it is somewhat paradoxical that there is such low within-species variation in male genitalia that they are a prime morphological identification character for animal species. Processes other than sexual selection may also lead to genitalia variation but they have recently become neglected. Here I focus on pleiotropy and natural selection and provide examples how they link genitalia morphology with genital environments. Pleiotropy appears to be important because most studies that specifically tested for pleiotropic effects on genital morphology found them. Natural selection likely favours certain genital morphology over others in various environments, as well as by reducing re-infection with sexually transmitted diseases or reducing the likelihood of fertilisation with aged sperm. Both pleiotropy and natural selection differ locally and between species so may contribute to local variation in genitalia and sometimes variation between monogamous and polygamous species. Furthermore, the multitude of genital environments will lead to a multitude of genital functions via natural selection and pleiotropy, and may also contribute to explaining the complexity of genitalia.

  15. Inequalities in Nutrition between Cambodian Women over the Last 15 Years (2000–2014)

    PubMed Central

    Greffeuille, Valérie; Sophonneary, Prak; Laillou, Arnaud; Gauthier, Ludovic; Hong, Rathmony; Hong, Rathavuth; Poirot, Etienne; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine; Wieringa, Frank; Berger, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the trends over four nationally representative Demographic Health Surveys (2000, 2005, 2010, and 2014) of the nutritional status of women of reproductive age in Cambodia and to assess the main factors of inequality with regards to nutrition. The prevalence of undernutrition and over-nutrition evolved in opposite trends from 2000 to 2014, with a significant decrease in underweight and a significant increase in overweight women. This results in a shift, with overweight prevalence in women being higher than underweight for the first time in 2014. Anemia was constantly high and still affected 45% of women in 2014. Multivariate analysis showed that age, wealth index, maternal education, number of children, year of survey, and anemia were contributing factors for being underweight. Being overweight was positively related to increase in age, wealth index, number of children, and year of survey; and negatively related to anemia and increase in education level. The risk of anemia was higher in the poorest households and for less-educated women and women living in rural areas. Consequently, policies should target the most vulnerable women, especially the youngest, and support integrated interventions in the health, social, and agriculture sectors to reduce inequalities in nutrition between women. PMID:27104556

  16. Inequalities in Nutrition between Cambodian Women over the Last 15 Years (2000-2014).

    PubMed

    Greffeuille, Valérie; Sophonneary, Prak; Laillou, Arnaud; Gauthier, Ludovic; Hong, Rathmony; Hong, Rathavuth; Poirot, Etienne; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine; Wieringa, Frank; Berger, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the trends over four nationally representative Demographic Health Surveys (2000, 2005, 2010, and 2014) of the nutritional status of women of reproductive age in Cambodia and to assess the main factors of inequality with regards to nutrition. The prevalence of undernutrition and over-nutrition evolved in opposite trends from 2000 to 2014, with a significant decrease in underweight and a significant increase in overweight women. This results in a shift, with overweight prevalence in women being higher than underweight for the first time in 2014. Anemia was constantly high and still affected 45% of women in 2014. Multivariate analysis showed that age, wealth index, maternal education, number of children, year of survey, and anemia were contributing factors for being underweight. Being overweight was positively related to increase in age, wealth index, number of children, and year of survey; and negatively related to anemia and increase in education level. The risk of anemia was higher in the poorest households and for less-educated women and women living in rural areas. Consequently, policies should target the most vulnerable women, especially the youngest, and support integrated interventions in the health, social, and agriculture sectors to reduce inequalities in nutrition between women. PMID:27104556

  17. Cretaceous magmatism in the High Canadian Arctic: Implications for the nature and age of Alpha Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bono, Richard; Tarduno, John; Singer, Brad

    2013-04-01

    Cretaceous magmatism in the High Arctic, best expressed on Axel Heiberg and Ellesmere Island, can provide clues to the nature and age of the adjacent Alpha Ridge, which is in turn a key to understanding the tectonic evolution of the Arctic Ocean. Although the incorporation of some continental crust cannot be excluded, the prevailing view is that Alpha Ridge is dominantly thickened oceanic crust, analogous to oceanic plateaus of the Pacific and Indian Ocean. Together with the on-land volcanic exposures, Alpha Ridge composes the High Arctic Large Igneous Province (LIP), but the physical processes responsible for the magmatism remain unclear. Here we focus on two volcanic formations found on the Canadian Arctic margin. The Strand Fiord Formation is composed of a series of classic continental flood basalt flows, and represents the most voluminous expression of volcanism that has survived erosion. These basalts yield a 40Ar/39Ar age of ~95 Ma (Tarduno et al., Science, 1998) but this comes from the distant edge of the flood basalt exposures. The Hansen Point Volcanics consist of felsic and mafic rocks; previous age assignments range from the Maastrichtian (on the basis of palynomorphs, Falcon-Lang et al., Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 2004) to 80 Ma (Rb/Sr isochron, Estrada and Henjes-Kunst, Z. dt. Geol. Ges, 2004). Here we report new 40Ar/39Ar radioisotopic and paleomagnetic data from the Hansen Point Volcanics. In contrast to the latest Cretaceous/Paleogene dates, we find ages of ~95 Ma and 88-90 Ma. Because of the proximity of the landward extension of Alpha Ridge to Hansen Point, these new ages suggest that volcanism that contributed to the construction of Alpha Ridge may have extended over at least a 7 million interval (although it could have occurred in pulses). We will discuss the implications of these new data for candidate mantle processes that could have been responsible for the emplacement of Alpha Ridge and the High Arctic LIP.

  18. Fatal Passenger Vehicle Crashes with At Least 1 Driver Younger than 15 Years: A Fatality Analysis Reporting System Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Larry; Plessinger, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Context: A small number of fatalities continue to occur due to motor vehicle crashes on highways in which at least 1 passenger vehicle (automobile, van, or small truck) is driven by a child younger than 15 years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to extend previous work suggesting that such crashes occur frequently in the Southern states and…

  19. Differential diagnosis of double site intussusception in childhood: a 15-year-old girl presenting with bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Joseph; Wright, Naomi Jane; Kufeji, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain in a teenage girl is common; however, thorough history and examination can often distinguish a more rare or sinister diagnosis. We present a case of a 15-year-old girl presenting with abdominal pain, who was subsequently diagnosed with double intussusception secondary to her previously unrecognised Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS). PMID:26581705

  20. The Campus Environmental Management System Cycle in Practice: 15 Years of Environmental Management, Education and Research at Dalhousie University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Amelia

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To challenge the deliberate strategy approach of the environmental management system (EMS) cycle, and offer a model based on both the practical reality experienced at Dalhousie University and emergent strategy theory. Also, to share some of the lessons learned in the 15 years of environmental management at Dalhousie University.…

  1. Primary internal carotid artery aneurysm in a 15-year-old male: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Daniel; Sarac, Timur; Lorenz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Extracranial internal carotid artery aneurysms are a rare entity in the adult population. Very little information is known in the pediatric population. We present a case of a 15-year-old male with an isolated internal carotid artery aneurysm and a review of the literature.

  2. Individuality and Contextual Influences on Drug Dependence: A 15-Year Prospective Longitudinal Study of Adolescents from Harlem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Brown, Elaine N.; Finch, Stephen J.; Brook, David W.

    2012-01-01

    In this 15-year longitudinal study the authors investigated individual and contextual factors that predispose adolescents from a disadvantaged urban area to drug dependence in adulthood. Adolescents were recruited from schools serving East Harlem in New York City. Of the 838 participants followed to adulthood, 59% were women, 55% were African…

  3. Financial Literacy of 15-Year-Olds: Results from PISA 2012. Data Point. NCES 2014-102

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Patrick; Kelly, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This Data Point uses data from the 2012 administration of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) financial literacy assessment. PISA is an international assessment that measures 15-year-old students' reading, mathematics, and science literacy and, in 2012, general problem solving and financial literacy. PISA is coordinated by…

  4. What Can Influence Students' Environmental Attitudes? Results from a Study of 15-Year-Old Students in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Hebel, Florence; Montpied, Pascale; Fontanieu, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the environmental attitudes (EA) in the population of 15-year-old French students and, to check if the French student population presents similar EA categorization as described in the different models in the literature (e.g. the Model of Ecological Values, Wiseman & Bogner 2003). The second aim of…

  5. The Interest-Driven Pursuits of 15 Year Olds: "Sparks" and Their Association with Caring Relationships and Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Eliyahu, Adar; Rhodes, Jean E.; Scales, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the characteristics of adolescents' deep interests or "sparks," the role of relationships in supporting the development of sparks, and whether having a spark was associated with positive developmental outcomes. Participants included 1,860 15 years olds from across the United States who participated in the…

  6. Socratic Teaching Is Not Teaching, but Direct Transmission Is: Notes from 13 to 15-Year Olds' Conceptions of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikva, Judith Bar

    2010-01-01

    We studied what 13-15-year-olds believe teaching's components are. Thirty-six children viewed two films: direct transmission (DT) and Socratic teaching (ST) and a third film of a non-teaching conversation (C). We investigated the participants' understanding of teaching's components and the role of intentionality in teaching. All children judged…

  7. Impact of Research Training Environment and Holland Personality Type: A 15-Year Follow-Up of Research Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallinckrodt, Brent; Gelso, Charles J.

    2002-01-01

    Ratings of the research training environment (RTE) and Holland personality type from 325 counseling psychology students who participated in G. M. Royalty, C. J. Gelso, B. Mallinckrodt, and K. Garrett's (1986) study were examined as predictors of the students' research productivity 15 years later. Graduates' research productivity was determined by…

  8. The Incentive Grant Approach in Higher Education: A 15 Year Record. Institute for Educational Leadership Reports: Nine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Martin

    The incentive grant approach in higher Education is a resource allocation strategy that may have significant positive impact on educational performance. This document covers: (1) the incentive grant approach to resource allocation; (2) the evolution during the past 15 years of types of incentive grant programs and the contrasting roles played by…

  9. Facing the Future: A Focus on Mathematical Literacy among Australian 15-Year-Old Students in PISA 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Sue; Cresswell, John; De Bortoli, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is an initiative of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in Paris. The overall aim of PISA is to measure how well 15-year-olds approaching the end of their compulsory schooling are prepared for meeting the challenges they will face in their lives beyond school.…

  10. Natural exposure of coastal river otters to mercury: relation to age, diet, and survival.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, M; Duffy, L K; Blundell, G M; Bowyer, R T

    2001-09-01

    We evaluated effects of location (i.e., Jackpot Bay, a naturally contaminated site, and Herring Bay, reference site), diet as determined by stable isotopes, and age on mercury concentrations in individual river otters (Lontra canadensis) from Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA. We also investigated the effects of mercury accumulation on survival of river otters from these two locations. Our results indicated that mercury concentrations in fishes from Jackpot Bay were significantly higher than those in fishes from Herring Bay and those in pelagic fishes. In addition, a predominant intertidal fish diet in both areas influenced the accumulation of mercury concentrations in otters. Concentrations of mercury in fur of river otters from Jackpot Bay were significantly higher than those of animals from Herring Bay. Nonetheless, we did not detect significant differences in survival between otters inhabiting the two areas, suggesting that this natural contamination was not high enough to impair survival. Our ability to investigate the effects of various factors such as location, diet composition, and age on mercury accumulation and subsequent survival of individuals offers an example for a link between individual-based captive studies and population-level field investigations.

  11. Conservative surgery and radiotherapy for stage I/II breast cancer using lung density correction: 10-year and 15-year results

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Lori J. . E-mail: ljpierce@umich.edu; Griffith, Kent A.; Hayman, James A.; Douglas, Kathye R.; Lichter, Allen S.

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) planning for breast cancer using lung density correction improves dose homogeneity. Its use obviates the need for a medial wedge, thus reducing scatter to the opposite breast. Although lung density correction is used at many centers in planning for early-stage breast cancer, long-term results of local control and survival have not been reported. Since 1984, we have used lung density correction for dose calculations at the University of Michigan. We now present our 10-year and 15-year results. Methods and Materials: The records of 867 patients with Stage I/II breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and RT with or without systemic therapy were reviewed. Tangential fields delivering 45-50 Gy to the whole breast calculated using lung density correction were used. A boost was added in 96.8% of patients for a total median dose of 61.8 Gy. Results: With a median follow-up of 6.6 years (range, 0.2-18.9 years), 5-, 10-, and 15-year actuarial rates of in-breast tumor recurrence as only first failure were 2.2%, 3.6%, and 5.4%, respectively. With surgical salvage, the 15-year cumulative rate of local control was 99.7%. Factors that significantly predicted for increased rate of local recurrence in multivariate analysis were age {<=} 35 years, hazard ratio 4.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-13.9) p = 0.004; negative progesterone receptor status, hazard ratio 6.8 (95% CI, 2.3-20.3) p = < 0.001; negative estrogen receptor status, hazard ratio 4.0 (95% CI, 1.5-11.1) p = 0.007; and lack of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy, hazard ratio 7.7 (95% CI, 1.7-33.3) p = 0.008. Relapse-free survival rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 84.6%, 70.8%, and 55.9%, respectively; breast cancer-specific survival rates were 94.4%, 90.5%, and 86.9%, respectively; and corresponding estimates for overall survival were 89.7%, 75.7%, and 61.3%. Conclusions: Use of lung density correction was associated with high rates of local control, relapse-free survival, breast

  12. Predictors of fixed orthodontic treatment in 15-year-old adolescents in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Spencer, A J; Allister, J H; Brennan, D S

    1995-12-01

    An understanding of the determinants of the provision of fixed orthodontic treatment would be beneficial in the planning of any system aimed at rationalising supply. The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine those factors which were predictive of the provision of fixed orthodontic treatment in adolescents. Baseline data, at age 13 years, on oral health, the history of orthodontic consultation and interceptive orthodontic care, a dental appearance score (DAI), socio-demographic characteristics and self and parental perceptions of both dental appearance and need for fixed orthodontic treatment were obtained from 2793 adolescents under the care of the South Australian School Dental Service who had not undergone fixed orthodontic treatment. Data on the orthodontic care provided to these adolescents in the ensuing 2 years were collected. At the end of the 24-month period 433 adolescents (15.5%) had undergone fixed orthodontic treatment. Significant bivariate associations were found between the provision of fixed orthodontic treatment and the DAI score, sex of the adolescent, familial history of fixed orthodontic treatment, income, private insurance, orthodontic consultation and interceptive orthodontic care before the age of 13 years and self and parental perceptions of both dental appearance and the need for fixed orthodontic treatment. Logistic regression was used to produce a predictive model of fixed orthodontic treatment. The model explained 30.2% of the variance, with a specificity of 0.94, a sensitivity of 0.49 and a hit rate of 0.84%. Odds ratios greater than one were found for the DAI score, private insurance, females, self and parental perception of need, higher incomes and orthodontic consultation and interceptive orthodontic care before the age of 13 years. PMID:8681517

  13. Pediatric Exposure to Drugs of Abuse by Hair Testing: Monitoring 15 Years of Evolution in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Pichini, Simona; García-Algar, Oscar; Alvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Mortali, Claudia; Gottardi, Massimo; Svaizer, Fiorenza; Pacifici, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Hair testing is a useful tool to investigate the prevalence of unsuspected chronic exposure to drugs of abuse in pediatric populations and it has been applied to three different cohorts of children from Barcelona, Spain along fifteen years to evaluate eventual changes in this exposure. Children were recruited from three independent studies performed at Hospital del Mar (Barcelona, Spain) and approved by the local Ethics Committee. Hair samples were collected from the first 187 children cohort (around 4 years of age) in 1998, from the second 90 children cohort (1.5–5 years of age) in 2008 and from the third 114 children cohort (5–14 years of age) in 2013. Hair samples were analysed for the presence of opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and cannabis by validated methodologies using gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Familiar sociodemographics and eventual consumption of drugs of abuse by parents, and caregivers were recorded. Hair samples from 24.6% children in 1998 were positive for any drug of abuse (23.0% cocaine), 25.5% in 2008 (23.3% cocaine), and 28.1% in 2013 (20.1% cocaine and 11.4% cannabis). In none of the cohorts, parental sociodemographics were associated with children exposure to drugs of abuse. The results of the three study cohorts demonstrated a significant prevalence of unsuspected pediatric exposure to drugs of abuse which mainly involved cocaine maintained along fifteen years in Barcelona, Spain. We recommend to be aware about unsuspected passive exposure to drugs of abuse in general population and to use general or selected hair screening to disclose exposure to drugs of abuse in children from risky environments to provide the basis for specific social and health interventions. PMID:25153461

  14. Pediatric exposure to drugs of abuse by hair testing: monitoring 15 years of evolution in Spain.

    PubMed

    Pichini, Simona; García-Algar, Oscar; Alvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Mortali, Claudia; Gottardi, Massimo; Svaizer, Fiorenza; Pacifici, Roberta

    2014-08-01

    Hair testing is a useful tool to investigate the prevalence of unsuspected chronic exposure to drugs of abuse in pediatric populations and it has been applied to three different cohorts of children from Barcelona, Spain along fifteen years to evaluate eventual changes in this exposure. Children were recruited from three independent studies performed at Hospital del Mar (Barcelona, Spain) and approved by the local Ethics Committee. Hair samples were collected from the first 187 children cohort (around 4 years of age) in 1998, from the second 90 children cohort (1.5-5 years of age) in 2008 and from the third 114 children cohort (5-14 years of age) in 2013. Hair samples were analysed for the presence of opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and cannabis by validated methodologies using gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Familiar sociodemographics and eventual consumption of drugs of abuse by parents, and caregivers were recorded. Hair samples from 24.6% children in 1998 were positive for any drug of abuse (23.0% cocaine), 25.5% in 2008 (23.3% cocaine), and 28.1% in 2013 (20.1% cocaine and 11.4% cannabis). In none of the cohorts, parental sociodemographics were associated with children exposure to drugs of abuse. The results of the three study cohorts demonstrated a significant prevalence of unsuspected pediatric exposure to drugs of abuse which mainly involved cocaine maintained along fifteen years in Barcelona, Spain. We recommend to be aware about unsuspected passive exposure to drugs of abuse in general population and to use general or selected hair screening to disclose exposure to drugs of abuse in children from risky environments to provide the basis for specific social and health interventions.

  15. Natural history of obesity in 6,946 women between 50 and 59 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Hartz, A J; Rimm, A A

    1980-01-01

    A health survey of 6946 50-to-59 year-old women of TOPS, an organization for weight reduction, was used to study the natural history of obesity. Weight history was compared for four groups of women divided on the basis of their per cent above ideal body weight (IBW) in their 50s (less than 20%, 20-49%, 50-99% and 100+%). In each of the four groups, the majority of women were not obese by age 20. Sixteen per cent of the women who were 100+% overweight in their 50s were not obese at anytime during their first 30 years of life. Thirty-six per cent of the women who were 50-99% about IBW were not overweight at anytime prior to their 30th birthday. The history of obesity prior to age 30 was not associated with weight gain between the ages of 30 and 50. These data suggest: 1) than there is no critical time for the development of obesity, and 2) that previous weight history is not a dominant factor in determining subsequent weight gain. PMID:7361956

  16. Age-related decline of perforin expression in human cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Rukavina, D; Laskarin, G; Rubesa, G; Strbo, N; Bedenicki, I; Manestar, D; Glavas, M; Christmas, S E; Podack, E R

    1998-10-01

    In this study a flow cytometric technique for detecting cytoplasmic perforin (P) has been used to quantify age-related changes in perforin expression in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). Proportions of P+ lymphocytes increased after birth, but declined rapidly after the age of 70 years. This was true for both T cells and CD16(+) and CD56(+) natural killer (NK) cells. Children showed in addition to high levels of perforin positive CD8(+) cells a much higher proportion of CD4(+)P+ cells than the other age groups. In elderly individuals there was also a highly significant reduction in mean levels of perforin per cell as compared with all other groups (P < .05 to .001). Adult women had consistently higher mean levels of perforin per cell than adult men for all P+ cell phenotypes. Functional tests clearly showed the deficiency in early spontaneous cytotoxic potential of PBL from elderly persons due to relative P deficiency, which can be corrected by stimulation of cytolytic cells with target cells and interleukin-2 (IL-2). The deficiency in cytolytic activity on the contact with target cells may have implications for antiviral and antitumor immunity in elderly persons.

  17. A 15-year series of gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: a population-based study.

    PubMed Central

    Ducreux, M.; Boutron, M. C.; Piard, F.; Carli, P. M.; Faivre, J.

    1998-01-01

    Data from the Registry of Digestive tumours of the Département of Côte d'Or (France) were used to study the characteristics of gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in the 1976-90 period. The mean annual age-standardized incidence rate was 0.94 per 100,000 for men, and 0.54 per 100,000 for women. Incidence varied little during the study period. Overall 5-year survival rate was 34.3 +/- 5.6%. PMID:9472653

  18. Post-laryngectomy voice rehabilitation with voice prosthesis: 15 years experience of the ENT Clinic of University of Catania. Retrospective data analysis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Serra, A; Di Mauro, P; Spataro, D; Maiolino, L; Cocuzza, S

    2015-12-01

    This study reports our 15-year experience, in Sicily, with the use of voice prostheses, analysing the different variables that have influenced the success or failure of speech rehabilitation. The retrospective clinical analysis was carried out by reviewing the clinical histories of 95 patients with laryngeal cancer, in whom a voice prosthesis had been placed by trachea-oesophageal puncture between 1998 and 2013. Age, type of tumour, type of surgery, use of prior radiation therapy, type of puncture, prosthesis used and its duration, number of replacements, complications and causes for prosthetic success or failure were analysed. The results showed a mean of Harrison-Robillard-Schultz (HRS) TEP rating scale of 11.8 in primary TEP and 12.6 in secondary TEP (P =0.613). PORT did not affect overall rehabilitation success. In these patients, the mean HRS rating scale was 11.2, with long-term success of 85% (P =0.582). In patients over 70 years old, long-term success was 82.5%, with 78% in primary and 86% in secondary TEP, the mean HRS was 11.2 in primary and 12 in secondary TEP (P =0.648). In total, long-term success was 87.5%, with 84% in primary and 91% in secondary TEP. The results obtained by retrospective analysis of 15 years of prosthetic rehabilitation in the Sicilian territory highlighted standard rehabilitation, in terms of intra and postoperative complications, fistula related pathology and overall success. PMID:26900247

  19. Post-laryngectomy voice rehabilitation with voice prosthesis: 15 years experience of the ENT Clinic of University of Catania. Retrospective data analysis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Serra, A; Di Mauro, P; Spataro, D; Maiolino, L; Cocuzza, S

    2015-12-01

    This study reports our 15-year experience, in Sicily, with the use of voice prostheses, analysing the different variables that have influenced the success or failure of speech rehabilitation. The retrospective clinical analysis was carried out by reviewing the clinical histories of 95 patients with laryngeal cancer, in whom a voice prosthesis had been placed by trachea-oesophageal puncture between 1998 and 2013. Age, type of tumour, type of surgery, use of prior radiation therapy, type of puncture, prosthesis used and its duration, number of replacements, complications and causes for prosthetic success or failure were analysed. The results showed a mean of Harrison-Robillard-Schultz (HRS) TEP rating scale of 11.8 in primary TEP and 12.6 in secondary TEP (P =0.613). PORT did not affect overall rehabilitation success. In these patients, the mean HRS rating scale was 11.2, with long-term success of 85% (P =0.582). In patients over 70 years old, long-term success was 82.5%, with 78% in primary and 86% in secondary TEP, the mean HRS was 11.2 in primary and 12 in secondary TEP (P =0.648). In total, long-term success was 87.5%, with 84% in primary and 91% in secondary TEP. The results obtained by retrospective analysis of 15 years of prosthetic rehabilitation in the Sicilian territory highlighted standard rehabilitation, in terms of intra and postoperative complications, fistula related pathology and overall success.

  20. Trends in Bone Mineral Density in Young Adults with Cystic Fibrosis over a 15 Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Putman, Melissa S.; Baker, Joshua F.; Uluer, Ahmet; Herlyn, Karen; Lapey, Allen; Sicilian, Leonard; Tillotson, Angela Pizzo; Gordon, Catherine M.; Merkel, Peter A.; Finkelstein, Joel S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Improvements in clinical care have led to increased life expectancy in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) over the past several decades. Whether these improvements have had significant effects on bone health in patients with CF is unclear. Methods This is a cross-sectional study comparing clinical characteristics and bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in adults with CF evaluated in 1995–1999 to age-, race-, and gender matched patients with CF evaluated in 2011–2013 at the same center on calibrated DXA machines. Results The cohorts were similar in terms of age, BMI, pancreatic insufficiency, presence of F508del mutation, and reproductive history. In the most recent cohort, pulmonary function was superior, and fewer patients had vitamin D deficiency or secondary hyperparathyroidism. Areal BMD measures of the PA spine, lateral spine, and distal radius were similarly low in the two cohorts. Conclusions Although pulmonary function and vitamin D status were better in patients in the present-day cohort, areal BMD of the spine was reduced in a significant number of patients and was no different in patients with CF today than in the late 1990s. Further attention to optimizing bone health may be necessary to prevent CF-related bone disease. PMID:25698451

  1. Effects of a prevention program for divorced families on youth cortisol reactivity 15 years later

    PubMed Central

    Luecken, Linda J.; Hagan, Melissa J.; Mahrer, Nicole E.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Sandler, Irwin N.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined whether an empirically-based, randomized controlled trial of a preventive intervention for divorced mothers and children had a long-term impact on offspring cortisol regulation. Design Divorced mothers and children (age 9-12) were randomly assigned to a literature control condition or the 11-week New Beginnings Program (NBP), a family-focused group preventive intervention for mothers and children in newly divorced families. Main Outcome Measures Fifteen years after the trial, offspring salivary cortisol (n=161) was measured before and after a social stress task. Results Multilevel mixed models were used to predict cortisol from internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, group assignment and potential moderators of intervention effects. Across the sample, higher externalizing symptoms were associated with lower cortisol reactivity. There was a significant group by age interaction such that older offspring in the control group had higher reactivity relative to the intervention group, and younger offspring in the control group exhibited a decline across the task relative to younger offspring in the intervention group. Conclusions Preventive interventions for youth from divorced families may have a long-term impact on cortisol reactivity to stress. Results highlight the importance of examining moderators of program effects. PMID:25367835

  2. Neonatal Intestinal Obstruction: A 15 Year Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Rattan, Kamal Nain; Yadav, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Neonatal intestinal obstruction is the most common surgical emergency in a newborn requiring prompt intervention. There are only very few studies done in world regarding pattern of neonatal intestinal obstruction. Aim This study was conducted to see the aetiological spectrum of neonatal intestinal obstruction and to find out the problems and outcome of surgical management. Materials and Methods This study was done retrospectively to include all operated cases of neonatal intestinal obstruction from June 2000 to May 2015 and various factors affecting outcome were analysed. Results A total of 298 newborns were included in the study. Male-female ratio was 1.8:1. Gestational age was variable from 32 to 42 weeks (mean = 37.5 weeks) and birth weight from 1.4 to 3.5kg (mean= 2.25 kg). Mean age of presentation was 6 days with intestinal atresia (49.6%) as the commonest cause. Other causes were Hirschsprung (13%), Malrotation gut (11.7%), Meconium ileus (7.3%), patent VID (5%), duodenal obstruction (4%), duplication cyst (3.7%), obstructed hernia (2.7%) and others (2.7%). Mortality rate was 16.4% with sepsis both pre as well as post operative as the main cause of mortality. Conclusion The morbidity and mortality of neonatal intestinal obstruction has improved over last few years mainly due to antenatal detection, early intervention, meticulous resuscitation before surgery along with good NICU care. PMID:27042546

  3. Can artificial reefs mimic natural reef communities? The roles of structural features and age.

    PubMed

    Perkol-Finkel, S; Shashar, N; Benayahu, Y

    2006-03-01

    In light of the deteriorating state of coral reefs worldwide, the need to rehabilitate marine environments has greatly increased. Artificial reefs (ARs) have been suggested as a tool for reef conservation and rehabilitation. Although successions of AR communities have been thoroughly studied, current understanding of the interactions between artificial and natural reefs (NRs) is poor and a fundamental question still to be answered is that of whether AR communities can mimic adjacent NR communities. We suggest three alternative hypotheses: Neighboring ARs and NRs will (1) achieve a similar community structure given sufficient time; (2) be similar only if they possess similar structural features; (3) always differ, regardless of age or structural features. We examined these hypotheses by comparing the community structure on a 119-year old shipwreck to a neighboring NR. Fouling organisms, including stony and soft corals, sponges, tunicates, sea anemones and hydrozoans were recorded and measured along belt transects. The ahermatypic stony coral Tubastrea micrantha dominated vertical AR regions while the soft corals Nephthea sp. and Xenia sp. dominated both artificial and natural horizontal surfaces. Our results support the second hypothesis, indicating that even after a century an AR will mimic its adjacent NR communities only if it possesses structural features similar to those of the natural surroundings. However, if the two differ structurally, their communities will remain distinct.

  4. Can artificial reefs mimic natural reef communities? The roles of structural features and age.

    PubMed

    Perkol-Finkel, S; Shashar, N; Benayahu, Y

    2006-03-01

    In light of the deteriorating state of coral reefs worldwide, the need to rehabilitate marine environments has greatly increased. Artificial reefs (ARs) have been suggested as a tool for reef conservation and rehabilitation. Although successions of AR communities have been thoroughly studied, current understanding of the interactions between artificial and natural reefs (NRs) is poor and a fundamental question still to be answered is that of whether AR communities can mimic adjacent NR communities. We suggest three alternative hypotheses: Neighboring ARs and NRs will (1) achieve a similar community structure given sufficient time; (2) be similar only if they possess similar structural features; (3) always differ, regardless of age or structural features. We examined these hypotheses by comparing the community structure on a 119-year old shipwreck to a neighboring NR. Fouling organisms, including stony and soft corals, sponges, tunicates, sea anemones and hydrozoans were recorded and measured along belt transects. The ahermatypic stony coral Tubastrea micrantha dominated vertical AR regions while the soft corals Nephthea sp. and Xenia sp. dominated both artificial and natural horizontal surfaces. Our results support the second hypothesis, indicating that even after a century an AR will mimic its adjacent NR communities only if it possesses structural features similar to those of the natural surroundings. However, if the two differ structurally, their communities will remain distinct. PMID:16198411

  5. Antioxidant capacity and light-aging study of HPMC films functionalized with natural plant extract.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Muhammad Javeed; Jacquot, Muriel; Jasniewski, Jordane; Jacquot, Charlotte; Imran, Muhammad; Jamshidian, Majid; Paris, Cédric; Desobry, Stéphane

    2012-08-01

    The aims of this work were to functionalize edible hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films with natural coloring biomolecules having antioxidant capacity and to study their photo-aging stability in the films. HPMC films containing a natural red color compound (NRC) at the level of 1, 2, 3 or 4% (v/v) were prepared by a casting method. A slight degradation of films color was observed after 20 days of continuous light exposure. The antioxidant activity of NRC incorporated films was stable during different steps of film formation and 20 days of dark storage. On the other hand, antioxidant activity of samples stored under light was significantly affected after 20 days. FTIR (Fourier Transformed Infrared) spectroscopy was used to characterize the new phenolic polymeric structures and to study the photo-degradation of films. The results showed a good polymerization phenomenon between NRC and HPMC in polymer matrix giving a natural color to the films. NRC showed an ability to protect pure HPMC films against photo-degradation. This phenomenon was directly proportional to the concentration of NRC.

  6. The Changing Nature of Adult Education in the Age of Transnational Migration: Toward a Model of Recognitive Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Shibao

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the changing nature of adult education in the age of transnational migration and proposes recognitive adult education as an inclusive model that acknowledges and affirms cultural difference and diversity as positive and desirable assets.

  7. Structures and mechanical properties of ECAP processed 7075 AI alloy upon natural aging and T651 treatment.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.; Liao, Xiaozhou; Valiev, R. Z.; Zhu, Y. T.

    2004-01-01

    Equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) processed ultrafine grained (UFG) and coarse grained (CG) 7075 Al alloys were treated by natural aging and T651 temper (annealed at 120 C for 48 h in Ar atmosphere), respectively. Mechanical tests showed that for the UFG sample, the natural aging resulted in the highest strength (the ultimate tensile strength is 720 MPa). In contrast, for the CG sample, the T651 treatment resulted in the higher strength (the ultimate strength is 590 MPa) than the natural aging (530 MPa). Microstructural analyses indicated that the enhanced strength of the T651 treated CG sample was mainly caused by high densities of G-P zones and metastable {eta}{prime} precipitate. The enhanced strength of the naturally aged UFG sample was mainly caused by the high densities of G-P zones and dislocations. Upon T65 1 treatment, the dislocation density of the UFG sample deceased significantly, overcompensating the precipitation strengthening.

  8. Tuberculosis situation among tribal population of Car Nicobar, India, 15 years after intensive tuberculosis control project and implementation of a national tuberculosis programme.

    PubMed Central

    Murhekar, M. V.; Kolappan, C.; Gopi, P. G.; Chakraborty, A. K.; Sehgal, S. C.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the tuberculosis (TB) situation in the tribal community of Car Nicobar island 15 years after the national TB programme was implemented in this area after an intensive phase of TB control in 1986. METHODS: The entire population of Car Nicobar was enumerated through a house-to-house survey. Children aged <14 years were tuberculin tested and read for reaction sizes. Individuals aged >15 years were asked about the presence of chest symptoms (cough, chest pain, and unexplained fever for two weeks or longer and haemoptysis), and sputum samples were collected from patients with chest symptoms. Sputum samples were examined for presence of acid-fast bacilli. FINDINGS: Among the 4,543 children enumerated, 4,351 (95.8%) were tuberculin tested and read. Of the 981 children without bacille Calmette-Guerin scars, 161 (16.4%) were infected with TB. A total of 77 cases who were smear-positive for TB were detected from among 10,570 people aged >15 years; the observed smear-positive case prevalence was 728.5 per 100,000. The standardized prevalence of TB infection, annual risk of TB infection, and prevalence of cases smear-positive for TB were 17.0%, 2.5%, and 735.3 per 100,000, respectively. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of TB infection and smear-positive cases of TB increased significantly between 1986 and 2002. Such escalation took place despite the implementation of the national TB programme on this island, which was preceded by a set of special anti-TB measures that resulted in sputum conversion in a substantially large proportion of the smear-positive cases prevalent in the community. The most likely reason for the increase seems to be the absence of a district TB programme with enough efficiency to sustain the gains made from the one-time initial phase of special anti-TB measures. High risk of transmission of TB infection currently observed on this island calls for a drastic and sustained improvement in TB control measures. PMID:15640919

  9. Unsuccessful suicide attempt of a 15 year old adolescent with ingestion of 5000 mg modafinil.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Gal; Shehadeh, Naim; Pillar, Giora

    2009-08-15

    Modafinil (Provigil) is a wake-promoting drug approved for patients with narcolepsy or other causes of excessive daytime sleepiness. Each pill is 100 to 200 mg; maximal daily dose of modafinil in adults is 400 mg (the medication is not approved by the FDA for children younger than 16 years of age). We report the case of an adolescent who attempted to commit suicide by ingesting 50 pills of modafinil. The medication was prescribed for her mother to treat symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis. Approximately 2 hours following ingestion the patient complained of headache, nausea and abdominal pain. Her ECG demonstrated prolonged QTc interval. Observation for 72 hours revealed 24 hours of inability to sleep, tachycardia, and dyskinesia. There was no deterioration of kidney or liver functions, and no change in complete blood count or blood pressure. PMID:19968017

  10. Clinicopathological analysis of salivary gland tumors over a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Artur Cunha; Nör, Felipe; Meurer, Luise; Salvadori, Gabriela; Souza, Lélia Batista de; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland tumors (SGT) are rare neoplasms that generate interest due to their histopathological diversity and clinical behavior. The aims of the present study were to investigate clinicopathological aspects of SGTs diagnosed at a tertiary health center and compare the findings with epidemiological data from different geographic locations. Cases of tumor in the head and neck region at a single health center in the period between 1995 and 2010 were reviewed. Patient gender, age and ethnic group as well as anatomic location, histological type and clinical behavior of the tumor were recorded. Availability of complete information about these aspects was considered the inclusion criteria. Descriptive statistical analysis of the data was performed using the frequencies of categorical variables. Among the 2168 cases of tumors in the head and neck region, 243 (11.20%) cases were diagnosed in the salivary glands, 109 of which met the inclusion criteria: 85 (78%) benign tumors and 24 (22%) malignant tumors. Mean patient age was 46.47 years. The female gender accounted for 56 cases (51.4%) and the male gender accounted for 53 (48.3%). The major salivary glands were affected more (75.2%) than the minor glands. The most frequent benign and malignant SGTs were pleomorphic adenoma (81.2%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (58.3%), respectively. In conclusion, pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma are the most frequent benign and malignant lesions, respectively. Comparing the present data with previous studies on SGTs, one may infer that some demographic characteristics and the predominance of malignant tumors vary in different geographic regions.

  11. The Prodigies of The Albano Lake During Roman Age and Natural Hazard Assessment At Roma, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funiciello, R.; Giordano, G.; de Rita, D.

    Roma is built just 20 km to the northwest of the Pleistocene Colli Albani volcano, but is believed not exposed to relevant natural hazards, except for the Tiber river flood- ings, and local amplification of seismic waves from distal earthquakes. This belief has generally induced modern historians and geologists to discard as SmythologicalT the & cedil;many references to natural prodigies that are reported by many Roman-age historians. Recent studies have demonstrated that the Albano maar, the youngest volcanic cen- tre of the Colli Albani volcano and presently filled by a 175 m deep lake, protracted its activity to the Holocene triggering several catastrophic lahar events, likely related to lake withdrawal, the deposits of which are exposed to the southwest of Roma and reach its periphery. This finding youngs the history of the volcano and makes it rele- vant to pre-historic settlements, which ScarefullyT avoided the Albano maar slopes up & cedil;to the Bronze age. What is still unknown, though, is whether the lake experienced such fluctuations and overspills during historic times. Several Roman authors such as Ti- tus Livius, Dionigi d'Alicarnasso, Plutarco, Germanico, and many others wrote about the then well known 398 BC prodigious event, when, during the war between Roma and the Etruscan city of Veio, the gods anger caused the sudden rise and overspill of the Albano lake, reported as unrelated to climatic events, and the destructive flooding of the countryside. After that event Romans actually built a tunnel-drain which still operates regulating the lake level at 293 m a.s.l., 70 m below the maar rim elevation. Should those chronicles be truthful, we can join the geologic observation of Holocene lahar deposits from lake withdrawal with historical lake withdrawals, reassessing the natural hazard for the city of Roma under a point of view never explored before. This paper carefully explores the historical credibility of the 398 BC lake overspill event and its

  12. Cosmetic outcome 1-5 years after breast conservative surgery, irradiation and systemic therapy.

    PubMed

    Kelemen, Gyöngyi; Varga, Zoltán; Lázár, György; Thurzó, László; Kahán, Zsuzsanna

    2012-04-01

    The late side-effects of the local therapy of early breast cancer depend on many patient- and therapy-related parameters. We aimed at investigating the factors that influence the cosmetic and functional outcomes among our breast cancer patients after breast-conserving surgery and conformal radiotherapy, with or without adjuvant systemic therapy. A study was made of the association of the cosmetic outcome after a median follow-up time of 2.4 years and the clinical data on 198 patients extracted from a prospectively compiled database. Breast tenderness occurred more frequently among patients ≤50 years old (p < 0.05). Long-term side effects were related to radiotherapy-related factors the most, while no effect of the systemic therapy could be detected. The risk of hyperpigmentation, breast edema and breast fibrosis increased by 18%, 23% and 7%, respectively for every 100 cm(3) increase in the irradiated breast volume, while that of breast edema and breast fibrosis increased by 21% and 12%, respectively for every 10 cm(3) increase in the boost volume. Patients who received a photon boost were significantly more likely to develop breast edema and fibrosis than those who received electrons (p < 0.005). Dose inhomogeneity was related to the volume of the irradiated breast (p = 0.037). Dyspigmentation developed more often among patients older than 50 years, while smoking favoured both dyspigmentation and teleangiectasia. Breast edema was related to dyspigmentation (p = 0.003), fibrosis (p < 0.001) and breast asymmetry (p = 0.032), whereas none of these abnormalities were associated with teleangiectasia. Body image changes were more frequent at a younger age (p < 0.005), while the need to change clothing habits occurred more often at an older age (p < 0.05). Radiotherapy-related parameters appear to exert the greatest effect on the overall cosmetic outcome after breast-conserving surgery and postoperative radiotherapy.

  13. Dental caries in 14- and 15-year-olds in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries remains one of the most common chronic diseases of adolescents. In Australia there have been few epidemiological studies of the caries experience of adolescents with most surveys focusing on children. The New South Wales (NSW) Teen Dental Survey 2010 is the second major survey undertaken by the Centre for Oral Health Strategy. The survey is part of a more systematic and efficient approach to support State and Local Health District dental service planning and will also be used for National reporting purposes. Methods Data for the NSW Teen Dental Survey were collected in 2010 from a random sample of Year 9 secondary school students aged 14 to 15 years from metropolitan and non-metropolitan schools under the jurisdiction of the NSW Department of Education and Training, the Catholic Education Commission and Independent Schools in New South Wales. Nineteen calibrated examiners performed 1269 clinical examinations at a total of 84 secondary schools across NSW. The survey was accompanied by a questionnaire looking at oral health related behaviours, risk factors and the usage of the Medicare Teen Dental Plan. Results 175 schools were contacted, with 84 (48%) accepting the invitation to participate in the study. A total of 5,357 student consent forms and parent information packages were sent out and 1,256 students were examined; leading to a student participation rate of 23%. The survey reported a mean DMFT for 14 and 15 year olds of 1.2 and it was identified that 45.4% of students had an experience of dental caries. Major variations in caries experience reported occurred by remoteness, water fluoridation status, socio-economic status and household income levels. Conclusions The NSW Teen Dental Survey provided state-wide data that will contribute to the national picture on adolescent oral health. The mean DMFT score of 1.2 is similar to the national caries experience data for this age group from the Australian Child Dental Health Survey in 2009

  14. Pregnancy-associated deaths: a 15-year retrospective study and overall review of maternal pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Lydia R; Collins, Kim A

    2006-03-01

    referred for autopsy to the Forensic Section of the Medical University of South Carolina from January 1989 through December 2003. All decedents listed as pregnant or postpartum were analyzed as to maternal age, race, past medical history, previous pregnancies and outcome, prenatal care, gestational age, fetal or neonatal outcome, location of delivery, placental findings, maternal autopsy findings, toxicology, cause of death, manner of death, and fetal or neonatal autopsy findings. The authors present this retrospective study to better determine the factors leading to maternal demise and discuss the autopsy/ancillary techniques useful in determining the cause of death in this challenging area.

  15. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Feng; Xiong Donghai; Wang Wei; Shen Hui; Xiao Peng; Yang Fang; Recker, Robert R.; Deng Hongwen . E-mail: dengh@umkc.edu

    2006-10-06

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women.

  16. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Xiong, Dong-Hai; Wang, Wei; Shen, Hui; Xiao, Peng; Yang, Fang; Recker, Robert R; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2006-10-01

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values=0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value=0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women. PMID:16919600

  17. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Xiong, Dong-Hai; Wang, Wei; Shen, Hui; Xiao, Peng; Yang, Fang; Recker, Robert R.; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women. PMID:16919600

  18. Primary spinal tumors in childhood: A single institution 15 year experience

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Po-Cheng; Wu, Chieh-Tsai; Jaing, Tang-Her; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Chou, Ming-Liang; Lin, Kuang-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pediatric primary spinal tumors (PST) are fairly uncommon, with little available data regarding incidence and outcomes. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of the 22 consecutive patients less than 18 years old diagnosed with PST between March 1997 and May 2011 and treated at Chang Gung Children Hospital. All patients had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for pre-operative evaluation and operations for PST. The extent of tumor removal was assessed by surgical report by the neurosurgeon or by post-operative MRI if available. Results: Ten of them had intramedullary tumors and 12 had intradural extramedullary tumors. All patients were treated with surgery to the primary site. A total of 15 patients underwent gross total tumor resection and seven patients received post-operative radiotherapy. Five patients received adjuvant chemotherapy for their primary tumor. Fourteen patients (64%) survived from study entry without tumor progression. Conclusions: PST encompassed a diverse group of pathologic entities that differ markedly based on the location and age of the children. Total resection of pediatric PST in children could be performed with acceptable risk and satisfactory long-term results.

  19. Primary spinal tumors in childhood: A single institution 15 year experience

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Po-Cheng; Wu, Chieh-Tsai; Jaing, Tang-Her; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Chou, Ming-Liang; Lin, Kuang-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pediatric primary spinal tumors (PST) are fairly uncommon, with little available data regarding incidence and outcomes. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of the 22 consecutive patients less than 18 years old diagnosed with PST between March 1997 and May 2011 and treated at Chang Gung Children Hospital. All patients had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for pre-operative evaluation and operations for PST. The extent of tumor removal was assessed by surgical report by the neurosurgeon or by post-operative MRI if available. Results: Ten of them had intramedullary tumors and 12 had intradural extramedullary tumors. All patients were treated with surgery to the primary site. A total of 15 patients underwent gross total tumor resection and seven patients received post-operative radiotherapy. Five patients received adjuvant chemotherapy for their primary tumor. Fourteen patients (64%) survived from study entry without tumor progression. Conclusions: PST encompassed a diverse group of pathologic entities that differ markedly based on the location and age of the children. Total resection of pediatric PST in children could be performed with acceptable risk and satisfactory long-term results. PMID:27695552

  20. Sprint Performance Changes and Determinants in Afro-Caribbean Adolescents Between 13 and 15 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Copaver, Karine Babel; Hertogh, Claude; Hue, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Afro-Caribbean sprinters often reach high performance levels at an early age. Adolescence is a time of morphological and physiological changes. This study was designed to analyze the evolution in parameters of short sprint performance during adolescence in Afro-Caribbean boys, especially the stride number/body height ratio (SN/BH), which is at the interface of technical and morphological factors. Seventy-one 13-year-old boys performed vertical jumps and short sprint races. The races were filmed with a view to determine stride variables. Anthropometric parameters were also measured. The same tests were performed two years later. Body height and SN/BH were the main predictors of sprint performance. The delta of performance was principally explained by stride length and stride number. Although deterioration in technical parameters was expected, the parameters related to body size and stride length were the main sprint performance predictors rather than explosive force. These results could be useful in developing tests to detect sprint potential in youth. PMID:23487285

  1. Malignant tumours of the submandibular salivary gland: a 15-year review.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, I G; Malata, C M; McLean, N R; Kelly, C G

    1998-04-01

    Malignant tumours of the submandibular salivary gland are rare, difficult to distinguish clinically from benign disease and often only diagnosed after initial excision of the enlarged gland. In this study of 70 patients (46 male, 24 female) with a mean age of 64 years (range 17-94), and an average duration of symptoms of 3 months, a painless submandibular swelling was the most common presentation. Of the 69 primary tumours, the most frequent histological types were adenoid cystic carcinomas (26 patients, 37%) and carcinoma ex-PSA (18 patients, 26%). One tumour was metastatic in origin, arising from a parotid primary. A total of 65 patients were treated by primary excision of the gland while five patients who presented with advanced disease were treated by radiotherapy alone. Adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy was utilised in 53 (75%) of patients. After a mean follow-up of 5 years, 32 (46%) of patients are still alive. Metastatic disease accounted for 21 deaths (30%). The clinical stage at presentation was the most significant factor predicting survival.

  2. The next 15 years: taking plant-made vaccines beyond proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Dwayne D; Webb, Steven R

    2005-06-01

    Significant potential advantages are associated with the production of vaccines in transgenic plants; however, no commercial product has emerged. An analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for plant-made vaccine technology is provided. The use of this technology for human vaccines will require significant investment and developmental efforts that cannot be supported entirely by the academic sector and is not currently supported financially by industry. A focus on downstream aspects to define potential products, conduct of additional basic clinical testing, and the incorporation of multidisciplinary strategic planning would accelerate the potential for commercialization in this field. Estimates of production cost per dose and volume of production are highly variable for a model vaccine produced in transgenic tomato, and can be influenced by the optimization of many factors. Commercialization of plant-made vaccine technology is likely to be led by the agricultural biotechnology sector rather than the pharmaceutical sector due to the disruptive nature of the technology and the complex intellectual property landscape. The next major milestones will be conduct of a phase II human clinical trial and demonstration of protection in humans. The achievement of these milestones would be accelerated by further basic investigation into mucosal immunity, the codevelopment of oral adjuvants, and the integration of quality control standards and good manufacturing practices for the production of preclinical and clinical batch materials.

  3. The next 15 years: taking plant-made vaccines beyond proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Dwayne D; Webb, Steven R

    2005-06-01

    Significant potential advantages are associated with the production of vaccines in transgenic plants; however, no commercial product has emerged. An analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for plant-made vaccine technology is provided. The use of this technology for human vaccines will require significant investment and developmental efforts that cannot be supported entirely by the academic sector and is not currently supported financially by industry. A focus on downstream aspects to define potential products, conduct of additional basic clinical testing, and the incorporation of multidisciplinary strategic planning would accelerate the potential for commercialization in this field. Estimates of production cost per dose and volume of production are highly variable for a model vaccine produced in transgenic tomato, and can be influenced by the optimization of many factors. Commercialization of plant-made vaccine technology is likely to be led by the agricultural biotechnology sector rather than the pharmaceutical sector due to the disruptive nature of the technology and the complex intellectual property landscape. The next major milestones will be conduct of a phase II human clinical trial and demonstration of protection in humans. The achievement of these milestones would be accelerated by further basic investigation into mucosal immunity, the codevelopment of oral adjuvants, and the integration of quality control standards and good manufacturing practices for the production of preclinical and clinical batch materials. PMID:15877602

  4. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion in a 15-Year-Old Boy with Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Kadayifcilar, Sibel; Eldem, Bora

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy in a case of branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) in a 15-year-old boy. Methods. We report a 15-year-old boy with sudden loss of vision due to BRAO. Examination included laboratory evaluation for systemic risk factors. Follow-up exams included visual acuity, fundus examination, fundus fluorescein angiography, and visual field testing. HBO therapy was employed for treatment. Results. Medical history was positive for isolated glucocorticoid deficiency. Laboratory evaluation disclosed hyperhomocysteinemia and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutation. The visual acuity 0.05 at presentation improved to 0.8 after 20 days of HBO therapy. There was no change on visual fields. Conclusion. In this pediatric case, HBO therapy was useful in the treatment of BRAO. PMID:25722905

  5. Transcatheter arterial embolization for traumatic mesenteric bleeding: a 15-year, single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jong Soo; Shin, Ji Hoon; Ko, Heung-Kyu; Kim, Jong Woo; Yoon, Hyun-Ki

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to assess the safety and effectiveness of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for mesenteric bleeding following trauma. METHODS From 2001 to 2015, 12 patients were referred to our interventional unit for mesenteric bleeding following trauma, based on clinical decisions and computed tomography (CT) images. After excluding one patient with no bleeding focus and one patient who underwent emergency surgery, a total of 10 patients (male:female ratio, 9:1; mean age, 52.1 years) who underwent super selective TAE of visceral arteries were included in this study. Technical and clinical success, complications, and 30-day mortality rate were analyzed. RESULTS In 10 patients who underwent TAE, the types of trauma were motor vehicle collision (n=6), fall (n=2), assault (n=1), and penetrating injury (n=1), and the bleeding arteries were in the pancreaticoduodenal arterial arcade (n=4), jejunal artery (n=3), colic artery (n=2), and sigmoid artery (n=1). N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) (n=2), microcoils (n=2), and combinations of NBCA, microcoils, or gelatin sponge particles (n=6) were used as embolic agents. Technical success was achieved in all 10 patients, with immediate cessation of bleeding. Clinical success rate was 90% (9/10), and all patients were discharged with no further treatment required for mesenteric bleeding. However, one patient showed rebleeding 10 days later and underwent repeated TAE with successful result. There were no TAE-related ischemic complications such as bowel infarction. The 30-day mortality rate was 0%. CONCLUSION Our clinical experience suggests that TAE used to control mesenteric bleeding following trauma is safe and effective as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery. PMID:27306658

  6. Living long and ageing well: is epigenomics the missing link between nature and nurture?

    PubMed

    Rea, Irene Maeve; Dellet, Margaret; Mills, Ken I

    2016-02-01

    Human longevity is a complex trait and increasingly we understand that both genes and lifestyle interact in the longevity phenotype. Non-genetic factors, including diet, physical activity, health habits, and psychosocial factors contribute approximately 50% of the variability in human lifespan with another 25% explained by genetic differences. Family clusters of nonagenarian and centenarian siblings, who show both exceptional age-span and health-span, are likely to have inherited facilitatory gene groups, but also have nine decades of life experiences and behaviours which have interacted with their genetic profiles. Identification of their shared genes is just one small step in the link from genes to their physical and psychological profiles. Behavioural genomics is beginning to demonstrate links to biological mechanisms through regulation of gene expression, which directs the proteome and influences the personal phenotype. Epigenetics has been considered the missing link between nature and nurture. Although there is much that remains to be discovered, this article will discuss some of genetic and environmental factors which appear important in good quality longevity and link known epigenetic mechanisms to themes identified by nonagenarians themselves related to their longevity. Here we suggest that exceptional 90-year old siblings have adopted a range of behaviours and life-styles which have contributed to their ageing-well-phenotype and which link with important public health messages. PMID:26133292

  7. Living long and ageing well: is epigenomics the missing link between nature and nurture?

    PubMed

    Rea, Irene Maeve; Dellet, Margaret; Mills, Ken I

    2016-02-01

    Human longevity is a complex trait and increasingly we understand that both genes and lifestyle interact in the longevity phenotype. Non-genetic factors, including diet, physical activity, health habits, and psychosocial factors contribute approximately 50% of the variability in human lifespan with another 25% explained by genetic differences. Family clusters of nonagenarian and centenarian siblings, who show both exceptional age-span and health-span, are likely to have inherited facilitatory gene groups, but also have nine decades of life experiences and behaviours which have interacted with their genetic profiles. Identification of their shared genes is just one small step in the link from genes to their physical and psychological profiles. Behavioural genomics is beginning to demonstrate links to biological mechanisms through regulation of gene expression, which directs the proteome and influences the personal phenotype. Epigenetics has been considered the missing link between nature and nurture. Although there is much that remains to be discovered, this article will discuss some of genetic and environmental factors which appear important in good quality longevity and link known epigenetic mechanisms to themes identified by nonagenarians themselves related to their longevity. Here we suggest that exceptional 90-year old siblings have adopted a range of behaviours and life-styles which have contributed to their ageing-well-phenotype and which link with important public health messages.

  8. Rapid genetic divergence in response to 15 years of simulated climate change.

    PubMed

    Ravenscroft, Catherine H; Whitlock, Raj; Fridley, Jason D

    2015-11-01

    Genetic diversity may play an important role in allowing individual species to resist climate change, by permitting evolutionary responses. Our understanding of the potential for such responses to climate change remains limited, and very few experimental tests have been carried out within intact ecosystems. Here, we use amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) data to assess genetic divergence and test for signatures of evolutionary change driven by long-term simulated climate change applied to natural grassland at Buxton Climate Change Impacts Laboratory (BCCIL). Experimental climate treatments were applied to grassland plots for 15 years using a replicated and spatially blocked design and included warming, drought and precipitation treatments. We detected significant genetic differentiation between climate change treatments and control plots in two coexisting perennial plant study species (Festuca ovina and Plantago lanceolata). Outlier analyses revealed a consistent signature of selection associated with experimental climate treatments at individual AFLP loci in P. lanceolata, but not in F. ovina. Average background differentiation at putatively neutral AFLP loci was close to zero, and genomewide genetic structure was associated neither with species abundance changes (demography) nor with plant community-level responses to long-term climate treatments. Our results demonstrate genetic divergence in response to a suite of climatic environments in reproductively mature populations of two perennial plant species and are consistent with an evolutionary response to climatic selection in P. lanceolata. These genetic changes have occurred in parallel with impacts on plant community structure and may have contributed to the persistence of individual species through 15 years of simulated climate change at BCCIL. PMID:26311135

  9. Rapid genetic divergence in response to 15 years of simulated climate change.

    PubMed

    Ravenscroft, Catherine H; Whitlock, Raj; Fridley, Jason D

    2015-11-01

    Genetic diversity may play an important role in allowing individual species to resist climate change, by permitting evolutionary responses. Our understanding of the potential for such responses to climate change remains limited, and very few experimental tests have been carried out within intact ecosystems. Here, we use amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) data to assess genetic divergence and test for signatures of evolutionary change driven by long-term simulated climate change applied to natural grassland at Buxton Climate Change Impacts Laboratory (BCCIL). Experimental climate treatments were applied to grassland plots for 15 years using a replicated and spatially blocked design and included warming, drought and precipitation treatments. We detected significant genetic differentiation between climate change treatments and control plots in two coexisting perennial plant study species (Festuca ovina and Plantago lanceolata). Outlier analyses revealed a consistent signature of selection associated with experimental climate treatments at individual AFLP loci in P. lanceolata, but not in F. ovina. Average background differentiation at putatively neutral AFLP loci was close to zero, and genomewide genetic structure was associated neither with species abundance changes (demography) nor with plant community-level responses to long-term climate treatments. Our results demonstrate genetic divergence in response to a suite of climatic environments in reproductively mature populations of two perennial plant species and are consistent with an evolutionary response to climatic selection in P. lanceolata. These genetic changes have occurred in parallel with impacts on plant community structure and may have contributed to the persistence of individual species through 15 years of simulated climate change at BCCIL.

  10. Effect of natural ageing on volume stability of MSW and wood waste incineration residues

    SciTech Connect

    Gori, Manuela; Bergfeldt, Britta; Reichelt, Jürgen; Sirini, Piero

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Natural weathering on BA from MSW and wood waste incineration was evaluated. ► Type of mineral phases, pH and volume stability were considered. ► Weathering reactions effect in improved stability of the materials. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of a study on the effect of natural weathering on volume stability of bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste (MSW) and wood waste incineration. BA samples were taken at different steps of treatment (fresh, 4 weeks and 12 weeks aged) and then characterised for their chemical and mineralogical composition and for volume stability by means of the mineralogical test method (M HMVA-StB), which is part of the German quality control system for using aggregates in road construction (TL Gestein-StB 04). Changes of mineralogical composition with the proceeding of the weathering treatment were also monitored by leaching tests. At the end of the 12 weeks of treatment, almost all the considered samples resulted to be usable without restrictions in road construction with reference to the test parameter volume stability.

  11. Environmentally Driven Increases in Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity in Pima Indians and Non-Pimas in Mexico Over a 15-Year Period: The Maycoba Project

    PubMed Central

    Esparza-Romero, Julian; Valencia, Mauro E.; Urquidez-Romero, Rene; Chaudhari, Lisa S.; Knowler, William C.; Ravussin, Eric; Bennett, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The global epidemics of type 2 diabetes and obesity have been attributed to the interaction between lifestyle changes and genetic predisposition to these diseases. We compared the prevalences of type 2 diabetes and obesity in Mexican Pima Indians, presumed to have a high genetic predisposition to these diseases, to those in their non-Pima neighbors, both of whom over a 15-year period experienced a transition from a traditional to a more modern lifestyle. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and obesity in Mexican Pimas (n = 359) and non-Pima Mexicans (n = 251) were determined in 2010 using methods identical to those used in 1995. RESULTS During this 15-year period, age-adjusted diabetes prevalence was unchanged in Pima men (5.8% in 1995 vs. 6.1% in 2010) yet increased in non-Pima men from 0.0 to 8.6% (P < 0.05). Diabetes prevalence tended to increase in both Pima women (9.4 vs. 13.4%) and non-Pima women (4.8 vs. 9.5%). Age-adjusted prevalence of obesity increased significantly in all groups (6.6 vs. 15.7% in Pima men; 8.5 vs. 20.5% in non-Pima men; 18.9. vs 36.3% in Pima women; 29.5 vs. 42.9% in non-Pima women). CONCLUSIONS Type 2 diabetes prevalence increased between 1995 and 2010 in non-Pima men, and to a lesser degree in women of both groups, but it did not increase in Pima men. Prevalence of obesity increased among Pimas and non-Pimas of both sexes. These changes occurred concomitantly with an environmental transition from a traditional to a more modernized lifestyle. PMID:26246457

  12. A 15-Year Longitudinal Analysis of Trends in Elective Urological Surgery – An Evidence Base for Modernising Medical Careers

    PubMed Central

    Nathaniel, C; Sangar, VK; Payne, SR

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The impact of Modernising Medical Careers on the differential need for consultant urologists and urological surgeons is as yet unknown. This study's aim was to determine what changes there had been in operative urological activity so as to predict the need for urological surgeons in the future. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study of all elective operative urological surgery over a 15-year period was performed. The absolute numbers of patients presenting for different grades of surgery were aggregated and analysed using the Spearman's rank correlation test. RESULTS Aggregated data from 27,839 procedures demonstrated no change in the number of operations (r 0.01; NS) or the number of diagnostic endoscopic procedures (r 0.21; NS) carried out over the study period. There was a decrease in endoscopic surgery related to a 70% reduction in trans-urethral resection of the prostate (TURP) (r −0.89; P = <0.0001) and an increase in ureteroscopic interventions (r 0.82; P = 0.0002) for stone disease. There was no change in the amount of major surgery carried out (r −0.43; NS) over the 15 years. CONCLUSIONS There have been changes to the pattern of surgery urologists have provided over the last 15 years but the need for complex surgical interventions has not altered. This suggests there will be as great a need for operating surgeons in the future, as currently exists. PMID:17346412

  13. The NICHD neonatal research network: changes in practice and outcomes during the first 15 years.

    PubMed

    Fanaroff, Avroy A; Hack, Maureen; Walsh, Michele C

    2003-08-01

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Neonatal Research Network was founded in 1986 to perform trials that, because of their size and complexity, were beyond the scope of a single center and required the expertise and resources of many collaborating centers. This report briefly documents changes in mortality, selected morbidities, and therapies amongst Network centers. The Network registry incorporating perinatal and neonatal data on all infants with a birth weight 501-1500 g cared for at participating centers served as the database. Mortality and selected morbidities were compared for 3 time periods, 1987/1988, (7 centers 1,765 infants, presurfactant); 1993/1994 (12 centers, 4,593 infants, postsurfactant and moderate antenatal corticosteroid utilization); and 1999/2000 (15 centers, 5,848 infants, postsurfactant and widespread corticosteroid use). Detailed outcomes for infants with birth weights between 501 and 800 g, and gestational ages of 23 to 25 weeks are also presented because they dramatically document the changes over time. Mortality for the entire cohort decreased from 23% in 1987/1988 to 17% in 1993/1994 and 14% in 1999/2000. Between 1987/1988 and 1999/2000 mortality prior to discharge, decreased from 66% to 45% for infants weighing 501-750 g; from 34% to 12% for birth weight between 751 to 1000 g, and from 13% to 7% for infants between 1001 and 1500 g. Mortality was higher in boys. Survival free of major morbidity (chronic lung disease/bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis or grade III/IV intraventricular hemorrhage) did not change significantly over time. Since the inception of the Network, multiple births have increased from 18% to 26%; deliveries by Cesarean section from 47% to 57%, and antenatal corticosteroid use increased from 16% to 79%. Surfactant, which was not used prior to 1990, is now given to 57% of the infants, including 87% with birth weights between 501 and 750 g. There have been significant

  14. What do under 15 year old schoolboy rugby union players think about protective headgear?

    PubMed Central

    Finch, C; McIntosh, A; McCrory, P

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—When protective headgear is designed, the attitudes of the intended users needs to be taken into account, as well as safety performance criteria. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the attitudes of schoolboy rugby union players towards protective headgear. Methods—A survey of 140 rugby union players (82.4% response rate) from 10 randomly selected school teams in metropolitan Sydney was conducted at the end of the 1999 playing season. All players were aged 14–16 years. All teams had participated in a trial of headgear during the 1999 season in which six of the teams had been assigned to a headgear trial arm and four teams to a control arm. Players completed a self report questionnaire during a supervised session at school. The questionnaire collected information on recent head injuries, use of protective equipment, and attitudes towards headgear. Results—Some form of protective equipment was always worn by 76.1% of players: 93.6% reported using a mouthguard and 79.3% a helmet/headgear during the 1999 season. The two most important reasons for wearing headgear were related to safety concerns. Players with no recent head/neck injury were more likely to report that they felt safer when wearing headgear (p<0.001) and less likely to cite a previous injury as a motivating factor for wearing headgear (p<0.001) than those who had sustained a recent head/neck injury. Of the players who wore headgear during the 1999 season, 67% said that they played more confidently when they wore headgear, but 63% said that their head was hotter. Few players reported that their head was uncomfortable (15%) or that it was hard to communicate (3%) when they wore headgear. The main reasons for not wearing headgear were related to its design features: uncomfortable (61%) and it was hot (57%). Conclusions—The primary reason cited by players for wearing headgear is safety. Receiving an injury would also motivate non-wearers to wear headgear. Players report that

  15. 200-BP-1 Prototype Hanford Barrier - 15 Years of Performance Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Anderson L.; Link, Steven O.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2009-09-01

    Engineered surface barriers are recognized as a remedial alternative to the removal, treatment and disposal of near-surface contaminants at a variety of waste sites within the DOE complex. One issue impacting their acceptance by stakeholders the use of limited data to predict long-term performance. In 1994, a 2-ha multi-component barrier was constructed over an existing waste disposal site at Hanford using natural materials. Monitoring has been almost continuous for the last 15 yrs and has focused on barrier stability, vegetative cover, plant and animal intrusion, and the components of the water balance, including precipitation, runoff, storage, drainage, and percolation. The total precipitation received from October 1994 through August 2008 was 3311 mm on the northern half (formerly irrigated), and 2638 mm on the southern, non-irrigated half. Water storage in the fine-soil layer shows a cyclic pattern, increasing in the winter and decreasing in the spring and summer to a lower limit of around 100 mm, regardless of precipitation, in response to evapotranspiration. Topographic surveys show the barrier and side slopes to be stable and the pea-gravel admix has proven effective in minimizing erosion through the creation of a desert pavement during deflationary periods. Three runoff events have been observed but the 600-mm design storage capacity has never been exceeded. Total percolation ranged from near zero amounts under the soil-covered plots to over 600 mm under the side slopes. The asphaltic concrete prevented any of this water from reaching the buried waste thereby eliminating the driving force for the contaminant remobilization. Plant surveys show a relatively high coverage of native plants still persists after the initial revegetation although the number of species decreased from 35 in 1994 to 10 in 2009. Ample evidence of insect and small mammal use suggests that the barrier is behaving like a recovering ecosystem. In September 2008, the north half of the

  16. Disaster preparedness of poison control centers in the USA: a 15-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Darracq, Michael A; Clark, Richard F; Jacoby, Irving; Vilke, Gary M; DeMers, Gerard; Cantrell, F Lee

    2014-03-01

    There is limited published literature on the extent to which United States (US) Poison Control Centers (PCCs) are prepared for responding to disasters. We describe PCCs' disaster preparedness activities and compare and contrast these results to those previously reported in the medical literature. We also describe the extent to which PCCs are engaged in disaster and terrorism preparedness planning and other public health roles such as surveillance. An electronic questionnaire was sent via email to the managing directors of the 57 member PCCs of the American Association of Poison Control Centers. Collected data included the population served and number of calls received, extent of disaster preparedness including the presence of a written disaster plan and elements included in that plan, the presence and nature of regular disaster drills, experience with disaster including periods of inability to operate, involvement in terrorism and disaster preparedness/response policy development, and public health surveillance of US PCCs. Descriptive statistics were performed on collected data. Comparisons with the results from a previously published survey were performed. A response was obtained from 40/57 (70 %) PCCs. Each PCC serves a larger population (p < 0.0001) and receives more calls per year (p = 0.0009) than the previous descriptions of PCC preparedness. More centers report the presence of a written disaster plan (p < 0.0001), backup by another center (p < 0.0001), regular disaster drills (p < 0.0001), and comfort with ability to operate in a disaster (p < 0.0001) than previously described. PCCs are involved in disaster (34/40, 85 %) and terrorism (29/40, 73 %) preparedness at the local, state, or federal levels. PCCs (36/40, 90 %) are also involved in public health functions (illness surveillance or answering "after hours" public health calls). Despite an increase in calls received and population served per center as compared to previous

  17. Persistence of antibody response 1.5 years after vaccination using 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in patients with arthritis treated with different antirheumatic drugs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    and higher HAQ and DAS, and had a lower proportion of initial responders to both serotypes. Concomitant anti-TNF treatment and MTX were identified as negative predictors of the persistence of protective antibodies among RA patients (P = 0.024 and P = 0.065, respectively). Only age 65 years or older (P = 0.017) and not antirheumatic treatment was found to be a negative predictor of protective antibodies in patients with SpA. Conclusions After initial increase, 1.5 years after pneumococcal vaccination with 7-valent conjugate vaccine, postvaccination antibody levels decreased significantly, reaching levels before vaccination in this cohort of patients with established arthritis treated with different antirheumatic drugs. MTX and anti-TNF treatment predicted low persistence of protective immunity among patients with RA. To boost antibody response, early revaccination with conjugate vaccine might be needed in patients receiving potent immunosuppressive remedies. Trial registration number EudraCT EU 2007-006539-29 and NCT00828997. PMID:23286772

  18. The effects of surface aging on nanoparticle fate and transport in natural and engineered porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelman, Anjuliee M.

    Nanomaterials will be subjected to various surface transformations in the environment and within water and wastewater treatment systems. A comprehensive understanding of the fate and transport behavior of "aged" nanomaterials in both natural and engineered porous media is required in order to accurately quantify ecological and human health risks. This research sought to (1) evaluate the impact of ultraviolet (UV) light aging on nanoparticle transport in water-saturated porous media; and (2) assess the effects of influent water quality on silver nanoparticle retention and dissolution in ceramic water filters. Additionally, the value of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D) data in nanoparticle fate and transport studies was evaluated by comparing deposition behavior in complementary QCM-D and sand columns experiments. Silver (nAg) and iron oxide nanoparticles exposed to UV light were up to 50% more strongly retained in porous media compared with freshly prepared suspensions due to less negative surface charge and larger aggregate sizes. UV-aged nAg were more prone to dissolution in sand columns, resulting in effluent Ag+ concentrations as high as 1.2 mg/L. In ceramic water filters, dissolution and cation exchange processes controlled silver release into treated water. The use of acidic, high salinity, or high hardness water accelerated oxidative dissolution of the silver coating and resulted in effluent silver concentrations 5-10 times above international drinking water guidelines. Results support the recommendation for a regular filter replacement or silver re-application schedule to ensure ongoing efficacy. Taken in concert, these research findings suggest that oxidative aging of nanomaterial surfaces (either through exposure to UV light or aggressive water chemistries) will alter the fate of nanomaterials in the environment and may decrease the effective lifetime of devices which utilize nanotechnology. Corresponding QCM-D and column experiments revealed that

  19. The Natural History of Insomnia in the Ibadan Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Gureje, Oye; Oladeji, Bibilola Damilola; Abiona, Taiwo; Makanjuola, Victor; Esan, Oluyomi

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine the incidence and risk factors for insomnia among an under-studied population of elderly persons in Sub-Saharan Africa. Setting: Eight contiguous predominantly Yoruba-speaking states in south-west and north-central Nigeria representing about 22% of the national population. Participants: 1307 elderly community-dwelling persons, aged 65 years and older. Measurements: Face-to-face assessment with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3 (CIDI.3) in 2007 and 12 months later in 2008 to determine the occurrence and risk factors of incident and persistent insomnia, defined as syndrome or symptom. Results: The incidence of insomnia syndrome in 2008 at 12 months was 7.97% (95% CI, 6.60–9.60), while that of insomnia symptom was 25.68% (22.68–28.66). Females were at elevated risk for both syndrome and symptom. Among persons with insomnia symptom or syndrome at the baseline, 47.36% (95% CI 43.07–51.68) continued to have it one year later. Decreasing economic status was associated with increasing incidence of insomnia. Persons with chronic medical conditions at baseline were at increased risk for new onset of insomnia. Compared to persons with the lowest body mass index (BMI) (< 18.5), those with higher BMI were at elevated risk for persistence of their insomnia, with those in the obese range (≥ 30) having a 4-fold risk. Conclusions: There is a high incidence and chronicity of insomnia in this elderly population. Persons with chronic health conditions are particularly at risk of new onset as well as persistence of insomnia. Citation: Gureje O; Oladeji BD; Abiona T; Makanjuola V; Esan O. The natural history of insomnia in the Ibadan Study of Ageing. SLEEP 2011;34(7):965-973. PMID:21731147

  20. Cross-age comparisons reveal multiple strategies for lexical ambiguity resolution during natural reading.

    PubMed

    Stites, Mallory C; Federmeier, Kara D; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A L

    2013-11-01

    Eye tracking was used to investigate how younger and older (60 or more years) adults use syntactic and semantic information to disambiguate noun/verb (NV) homographs (e.g., park). In event-related potential (ERP) work using the same materials, Lee and Federmeier (2009, 2011) found that young adults elicited a sustained frontal negativity to NV homographs when only syntactic cues were available (i.e., in syntactic prose); this effect was eliminated by semantic constraints. The negativity was only present in older adults with high verbal fluency. The current study shows parallel findings: Young adults exhibit inflated first fixation durations to NV homographs in syntactic prose, but not semantically congruent sentences. This effect is absent in older adults as a group. Verbal fluency modulates the effect in both age groups: High fluency is associated with larger first fixation effects in syntactic prose. Older, but not younger, adults also show significantly increased rereading of the NV homographs in syntactic prose. Verbal fluency modulates this effect as well: High fluency is associated with a reduced tendency to reread, regardless of age. This relationship suggests a trade-off between initial and downstream processing costs for ambiguity during natural reading. Together the eye-tracking and ERP data suggest that effortful meaning selection recruits mechanisms important for suppressing contextually inappropriate meanings, which also slow eye movements. Efficacy of frontotemporal circuitry, as captured by verbal fluency, predicts the success of engaging these mechanisms in both young and older adults. Failure to recruit these processes requires compensatory rereading or leads to comprehension failures (Lee & Federmeier, 2012).

  1. Cross-age comparisons reveal multiple strategies for lexical ambiguity resolution during natural reading

    PubMed Central

    Stites, Mallory C.; Federmeier, Kara D.; Stine-Morrow, Elizabeth A. L.

    2013-01-01

    Eye-tracking was used to investigate how younger and older (60+) adults use syntactic and semantic information to disambiguate noun/verb (NV) homographs (e.g. park). In event-related potential work using the same materials, Lee and Federmeier (2009, 2011) found that young adults elicited a sustained frontal negativity to NV-homographs when only syntactic cues were available (i.e., in syntactic prose); this effect was eliminated by semantic constraints. The negativity was only present in older adults with high verbal fluency. The current study shows parallel findings: young adults exhibit inflated first fixation durations to NV-homographs in syntactic prose, but not semantically congruent sentences. This effect is absent in older adults as a group. Verbal fluency modulates the effect in both age groups: high fluency is associated with larger first fixation effects in syntactic prose. Older, but not younger, adults also show significantly increased rereading of the NV-homographs in syntactic prose. Verbal fluency modulates this effect as well: high fluency is associated with a reduced tendency to reread, regardless of age. This relationship suggests a tradeoff between initial and downstream processing costs for ambiguity during natural reading. Together, the eye-tracking and ERP data suggest that effortful meaning selection recruits mechanisms important for suppressing contextually inappropriate meanings, which also slow eye movements. Efficacy of fronto-temporal circuitry, as captured by verbal fluency, predicts the success of engaging these mechanisms in both young and older adults. Failure to recruit these processes requires compensatory rereading or leads to comprehension failures (Lee & Federmeier, 2012). PMID:23687920

  2. A Survey of Psychological, Motivational, Family and Perceptions of Physics Education Factors that Explain 15-Year-Old Students' Aspirations to Study Physics in Post-Compulsory English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors that influence 15-year-old students' intentions to study physics post-16, when it is no longer compulsory. The analysis is based on the year 10 (age, 15 years) responses of 5,034 students from 137 England schools as learners of physics during the academic year 2008-2009. Factor analyses uncovered a range of…

  3. Prevalence and severity of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema in 10- to 15-year-old schoolchildren in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Li-Chi; Chen, Yu-Huan; Hsueh, Kai-Chung; Huang, Jing-Long

    2007-03-01

    The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire was distributed through 14 schools and was completed by 11,874 students out of which are parents of 4,167 children aged between 10 and 12 years old and 7,677 older children aged between 13 and 15 years in central Taiwan. The overall cumulative and 12-month prevalence of wheezing, rhinitis, and eczema were 7.4%, 43.0%, and 7.2%, respectively. It was shown that boys had significantly higher prevalence of wheezing and rhinitis (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001) when compared to girls in central Taiwan. The study also found that prevalence rates among younger children with symptoms of wheezing, rhinitis, and recurrent itchy rash in the past 12-month (8.2%, 44.4%, and 8.8%) were higher than that among older children (6.9%, 42.2%, and 6.3%, respectively). In conclusion, boys had significantly higher prevalence of wheezing and rhinitis than girls while younger children tend to have higher prevalence of the disorders than those that are older in age.

  4. The influence of age and genetics on natural resistance to experimentally induced feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Niels C; Liu, Hongwei; Gandolfi, Barbara; Lyons, Leslie A

    2014-11-15

    Naturally occurring feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is usually fatal, giving the impression that immunity to the FIP virus (FIPV) is extremely poor. This impression may be incorrect, because not all cats experimentally exposed to FIPV develop FIP. There is also a belief that the incidence of FIP may be affected by a number of host, virus, and environmental cofactors. However, the contribution of these cofactors to immunity and disease incidence has not been determined. The present study followed 111 random-bred specific pathogen free (SPF) cats that were obtained from a single research breeding colony and experimentally infected with FIPV. The cats were from several studies conducted over the past 5 years, and as a result, some of them had prior exposure to feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) or avirulent FIPVs. The cats were housed under optimized conditions of nutrition, husbandry, and quarantine to eliminate most of the cofactors implicated in FIPV infection outcome and were uniformly challenge exposed to the same field strain of serotype 1 FIPV. Forty of the 111 (36%) cats survived their initial challenge exposure to a Type I cat-passaged field strains of FIPV. Six of these 40 survivors succumbed to FIP to a second or third challenge exposure, suggesting that immunity was not always sustained. Exposure to non-FIP-inducing feline coronaviruses prior to challenge with virulent FIPV did not significantly affect FIP incidence but did accelerate the disease course in some cats. There were no significant differences in FIP incidence between males and females, but resistance increased significantly between 6 months and 1 or more years of age. Genetic testing was done on 107 of the 111 infected cats. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) segregated the 107 cats into three distinct families based primarily on a common sire(s), and resistant and susceptible cats were equally distributed within each family. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on 73 cats that died of FIP

  5. The influence of age and genetics on natural resistance to experimentally induced feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Niels C; Liu, Hongwei; Gandolfi, Barbara; Lyons, Leslie A

    2014-11-15

    Naturally occurring feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is usually fatal, giving the impression that immunity to the FIP virus (FIPV) is extremely poor. This impression may be incorrect, because not all cats experimentally exposed to FIPV develop FIP. There is also a belief that the incidence of FIP may be affected by a number of host, virus, and environmental cofactors. However, the contribution of these cofactors to immunity and disease incidence has not been determined. The present study followed 111 random-bred specific pathogen free (SPF) cats that were obtained from a single research breeding colony and experimentally infected with FIPV. The cats were from several studies conducted over the past 5 years, and as a result, some of them had prior exposure to feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) or avirulent FIPVs. The cats were housed under optimized conditions of nutrition, husbandry, and quarantine to eliminate most of the cofactors implicated in FIPV infection outcome and were uniformly challenge exposed to the same field strain of serotype 1 FIPV. Forty of the 111 (36%) cats survived their initial challenge exposure to a Type I cat-passaged field strains of FIPV. Six of these 40 survivors succumbed to FIP to a second or third challenge exposure, suggesting that immunity was not always sustained. Exposure to non-FIP-inducing feline coronaviruses prior to challenge with virulent FIPV did not significantly affect FIP incidence but did accelerate the disease course in some cats. There were no significant differences in FIP incidence between males and females, but resistance increased significantly between 6 months and 1 or more years of age. Genetic testing was done on 107 of the 111 infected cats. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) segregated the 107 cats into three distinct families based primarily on a common sire(s), and resistant and susceptible cats were equally distributed within each family. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on 73 cats that died of FIP

  6. The Associative Changes in Scutellum Nuclear Content and Morphology with Viability Loss of Naturally Aged and Accelerated Aging Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Zaheer; Yang, Hui; Fu, Yong-Bi

    2016-01-01

    Timely prediction of seed viability loss over long-term storage represents a challenge in management and conservation of ex situ plant genetic resources. However, little attention has been paid to study the process of seed deterioration and seed aging signals under storage. An attempt was made here to investigate morphological and molecular changes in the scutellum and aleurone sections of naturally or artificially aged wheat seeds using TUNEL assay and DAPI staining. Twelve wheat genotypes or samples exposed to natural ageing (NA) or accelerated ageing (AA) were assayed and these samples had germination rates ranging from 11 to 93%. The assayed samples showed substantial changes in scutellum, but not aleurone. The nuclei observed in the majority of the scutellum cells of the NA seed samples of lower germination rates were longer in size and less visible, while the scutellum cell morphology or arrangement remained unchanged. In contrast, longer AA treatments resulted in the loss of scutellum cell structure, collapse of cell layers, and disappearance of honey comb arrangements. These nuclei and structural changes were consistent with the DNA assessments of nuclear alternations for the selected wheat samples. Interestingly, the sample seed germination loss was found to be associated with the reductions in the scutellum nuclear content and with the increases in the scutellum nuclei length to width ratio. These findings are significant for understanding the process of wheat seed deterioration and are also useful for searching for sensitive seed aging signals for developing tools to monitor seed viability under storage. PMID:27729925

  7. Rotary Blood Pumps as Long-Term Mechanical Circulatory Support: A Review of a 15-Year Berlin Experience.

    PubMed

    Hetzer, Roland; Kaufmann MEng, Friedrich; Potapov, Evgenij; Krabatsch, Thomas; Delmo Walter, Eva Maria

    2016-01-01

    This article reports our 15-year single-center experience with rotary blood pumps (RBPs) as long-term mechanical circulatory support (MCS) with emphasis on outcomes. For more than 15-year period, we have used various RBPs as bridge to transplantation or to myocardial recovery. Our group performed the first human implantation worldwide of RBCs, the MicroMed DeBakey ventricular assist device in November 1998 in a patient with end-stage heart failure who was supported for 47 days until his death. Based on this initial experience, we recognized the feasibility of providing long-term support and since then it has been our primary armamentarium in treating patients with heart failure. Between 1987 and September 2013, we have implanted 2208 ventricular assist devices ranging from pulsatile to continuous-flow systems, as short-term, long-term, or permanent support in patients with end-stage heart failure. In total, 1009 RBPs were implanted on 908 patients, and their outcomes are reported here. We have shared some milestones in MCS including the first implantation of Jarvik 2000 on the oldest patient (81-year old) in 2008 and the first worldwide implantation of a biventricular HeartWare. Over time, implantation techniques, anticoagulation, and postoperative care have been modified and individualized. A relevant aspect of our experience has been the incidence of pump thrombosis. This is particularly frustrating because the problem has occurred in the setting of full anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy, guided by strict anticoagulation monitoring. It has become clear to us that the devices are still not perfect. Technical pump failures such as cable breaks also occur, prompting urgent pump exchange, and infection. A 15-year cumulative mortality rate is 46.9%. This report emphasizes that MCS with RBPs has evolved into a routine treatment in heart failure and is a highly feasible option for permanent therapy particularly for elderly patients. PMID:27568128

  8. Rotary Blood Pumps as Long-Term Mechanical Circulatory Support: A Review of a 15-Year Berlin Experience.

    PubMed

    Hetzer, Roland; Kaufmann MEng, Friedrich; Potapov, Evgenij; Krabatsch, Thomas; Delmo Walter, Eva Maria

    2016-01-01

    This article reports our 15-year single-center experience with rotary blood pumps (RBPs) as long-term mechanical circulatory support (MCS) with emphasis on outcomes. For more than 15-year period, we have used various RBPs as bridge to transplantation or to myocardial recovery. Our group performed the first human implantation worldwide of RBCs, the MicroMed DeBakey ventricular assist device in November 1998 in a patient with end-stage heart failure who was supported for 47 days until his death. Based on this initial experience, we recognized the feasibility of providing long-term support and since then it has been our primary armamentarium in treating patients with heart failure. Between 1987 and September 2013, we have implanted 2208 ventricular assist devices ranging from pulsatile to continuous-flow systems, as short-term, long-term, or permanent support in patients with end-stage heart failure. In total, 1009 RBPs were implanted on 908 patients, and their outcomes are reported here. We have shared some milestones in MCS including the first implantation of Jarvik 2000 on the oldest patient (81-year old) in 2008 and the first worldwide implantation of a biventricular HeartWare. Over time, implantation techniques, anticoagulation, and postoperative care have been modified and individualized. A relevant aspect of our experience has been the incidence of pump thrombosis. This is particularly frustrating because the problem has occurred in the setting of full anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy, guided by strict anticoagulation monitoring. It has become clear to us that the devices are still not perfect. Technical pump failures such as cable breaks also occur, prompting urgent pump exchange, and infection. A 15-year cumulative mortality rate is 46.9%. This report emphasizes that MCS with RBPs has evolved into a routine treatment in heart failure and is a highly feasible option for permanent therapy particularly for elderly patients.

  9. Occurrence of dental caries in primary and permanent dentition, oral health status and treatment needs among 12-15 year old school children of Jorpati VDC, Kathmandu.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, N; Acharya, J; Sagtani, A R; Shrestha, R; Shrestha, S

    2014-12-01

    Dental caries occurrence, distribution, oral health status and corresponding treatment needs in 12 - 15 year old children are useful tools for evaluation of oral health. Dental caries status along with its treatment needs was recorded according to World Health Organization (WHO) index (1997) in 366 children from five schools within Jorpati Village Development Committee (VDC), Kathmandu. Dental caries was diagnosed in 156 (42.6%) children, out of which 122 (78.21%) had caries in permanent teeth, 26 (16.67%) had caries in primary teeth, and 8 (5.13%) had caries in both dentition. The age wise distribution of dental caries showed the highest prevalence among 12 year old students (23.8%) and the lowest among 15 year olds (3.8%). Among the female students (177), 43.5% showed presence of dental caries, while the prevalence among male students (179) was 41.8%.Out of the total number of teeth affected by dental caries (336), 273 (81.25%) were permanent teeth and 63 (18.75%) were primary teeth. The intra arch distribution of dental caries in permanent as well as primary dentition was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Restorative treatment (89.38%) was the main need in permanent dentition, and endodontic treatment (60.32%) in primary dentition. Chronologic enamel hypoplasia was found in 14 (3.83%) of the total population, and 62 (16.94%) required oral prophylaxis. These findings are significant as they can initiate further research in this area, which may help establish reliable baseline data for implementation of preventive oral health programs.

  10. Neonatal clinical screening of the hip in the diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip: a 15-year prospective longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Mace, J; Paton, R W

    2015-02-01

    Over a 15-year prospective period, 201 infants with a clinically unstable hip at neonatal screening were subsequently reviewed in a 'one stop' clinic where they were assessed clinically and sonographically. Their mean age was 1.62 weeks (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35 to 1.89). Clinical neonatal hip screening revealed a sensitivity of 62% (mean, 62.6 95%CI 50.9 to 74.3), specificity of 99.8% (mean, 99.8, 95% CI 99.7 to 99.8) and positive predictive value (PPV) of 24% (mean, 26.2, 95% CI 19.3 to 33.0). Static and dynamic sonography for Graf type IV dysplastic hips had a 15-year sensitivity of 77% (mean, 75.8 95% CI 66.9 to 84.6), specificity of 99.8% (mean, 99.8, 95% CI 99.8 to 99.8) and a PPV of 49% (mean, 55.1, 95% CI 41.6 to 68.5). There were 36 infants with an irreducible dislocation of the hip (0.57 per 1000 live births), including six that failed to resolve with neonatal splintage. Most clinically unstable hips referred to a specialist clinic are female and stabilise spontaneously. Most irreducible dislocations are not identified from this neonatal instability group. There may be a small subgroup of females with instability of the hip which may be at risk of progression to irreducibility despite early treatment in a Pavlik harness. A controlled study is required to assess the value of neonatal clinical screening programmes. PMID:25628293

  11. Antibody persistence and immune memory in adults, 15 years after a three-dose schedule of a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine.

    PubMed

    Van Damme, P; Leroux-Roels, G; Crasta, P; Messier, M; Jacquet, J-M; Van Herck, K

    2012-01-01

    A combined hepatitis A and B vaccine is available since 1996. Two separate open-label primary studies evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of this hepatitis A and B vaccine (720 EI.U of HAV and 20 µg of HBsAg) in 306 healthy subjects aged 17-43 years who received three doses of the vaccine following a 0, 1, and 6 months schedule. These subjects were followed up annually for the next 15 years to evaluate long-term persistence of anti-HAV and anti-HBs antibodies. The subjects whose antibody concentrations fell below the cut-offs between Year 11 and Year 15 (anti-HAV: <15 mIU/ml; anti-HBs: <10 mIU/ml) were offered an additional dose of the appropriate monovalent hepatitis A and/or B vaccine. In subjects who received the additional vaccine dose, a blood sample was collected 1 month after vaccination. At the Year 15 time point, all subjects in Study A and Study B were seropositive for anti-HAV antibodies and 89.3% and 92.9% of subjects in the respective studies had anti-HBs antibody concentrations ≥10 mIU/ml. Four subjects (two in each study) received an additional dose of monovalent hepatitis B vaccine and mounted anamnestic responses to vaccination. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported. This study confirms the long-term immunogenicity of the three-dose regimen of the combined hepatitis A and B vaccine, as eliciting long-term persistence of antibodies and immune memory against hepatitis A and B for up to at least 15 years after a primary vaccination.

  12. Highlights in IBD Epidemiology and Its Natural History in the Paediatric Age

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. The number of patients of all age brackets diagnosed with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) has risen dramatically worldwide over the past 50 years. IBD's changing epidemiology suggests that environmental factors play a major role in modifying disease expression. Aim. To review studies carried out worldwide analyzing IBD epidemiology. Methods. A Medline search indicating as keywords “Inflammatory Bowel Disease,” “epidemiology,” “natural history,” “Crohn's Disease,” “Ulcerative Colitis,” and “IBD Unclassified” was performed. A selection of clinical cohort and systematic review studies that were carried out between 2002 and 2013 was reviewed. Studies referring to an earlier date were also considered whenever the data were relevant to our review. Results. The current mean prevalence of IBD in the total population of Western countries is estimated at 1/1,000. The highest prevalence and incidence rates of IBD worldwide are reported from Canada. Just as urbanization and socioeconomic development, the incidence of IBD is rising in China. Conclusions. Multicenter national registers and international networks can provide information on IBD epidemiology and lead to hypotheses about its causes and possible management strategies. The rising trend in the disease's incidence in developing nations suggests that its epidemiological evolution is linked to industrialization and modern Westernized lifestyles. PMID:24454343

  13. Brainstem cavernoma hemorrhage during pregnancy in a 15-year-old: description of a unique neurosurgical approach.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Adrianna M; Chaudhary, Navjot; Avery, Michael; Lownie, Stephen

    2013-10-01

    Cavernous haemangiomas, or cavernous malformations, have been reported during pregnancy, most of which have been either supratentorial or spinal lesions. We encountered a 15-year old pregnant patient with a rapidly progressive and haemorrhagic brainstem cavernous haemangioma. The case presented here describes the history and findings of this patient, as well as the less-commonly utilized technique we used to access the floor of the fourth ventricle via occipital craniotomy for complete macroscopic resection of this lesion, resulting in the gradual return of most of her neurological deficits. PMID:23001930

  14. Bilateral pulmonary emboli after bilateral mastectomy in a 15-year-old boy with hypogonadism: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Piggott, JR; Yazdani, Arjang

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary emboli are rare, yet serious, complications of body contouring surgery. When they occur, they more often follow as complications of long, invasive procedures in adults. The present report details a case of bilateral pulmonary emboli in an obese 15-year-old boy with hypogonadism undergoing bilateral mastectomy for gynecomastia. The diagnosis of bilateral pulmonary emboli was made on the basis of clinical presentation and positive ventilation/perfusion scan. The patient responded well to heparin anticoagulation treatment. The relevance of pediatric obesity, pediatric body contouring surgery and the risk of thromboembolic events in pediatric patients are discussed. PMID:22131848

  15. Control measures to trace ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Melo, Angelita Cristine de; Oliveira, Lílian Ruth Silva de; Froede, Emerson Lopes; Camargos, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This was descriptive study carried out in a medium-sized Brazilian city. In ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis, we assessed compliance with the Brazilian national guidelines for tuberculosis control. We interviewed 43 contacts and their legal guardians. Approximately 80% of the contacts were not assessed by the municipal public health care system, and only 21% underwent tuberculin skin testing. The results obtained with the Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector method suggest that health care teams have a biased attitude toward assessing such contacts and underscore the need for training health professionals regarding tuberculosis control programs.

  16. Control measures to trace ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; de Melo, Angelita Cristine; de Oliveira, Lílian Ruth Silva; Froede, Emerson Lopes; Camargos, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This was descriptive study carried out in a medium-sized Brazilian city. In ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis, we assessed compliance with the Brazilian national guidelines for tuberculosis control. We interviewed 43 contacts and their legal guardians. Approximately 80% of the contacts were not assessed by the municipal public health care system, and only 21% underwent tuberculin skin testing. The results obtained with the Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector method suggest that health care teams have a biased attitude toward assessing such contacts and underscore the need for training health professionals regarding tuberculosis control programs. PMID:26578137

  17. A successful treatment of hypercalcemia with zoledronic acid in a 15-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye-Jin; Choi, Eun-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Severe hypercalcemia in children is a rare medical emergency. We present a case of a 15-year-old boy with hypercalcemia (total calcium level, 14.2 mg/dL) with a normal complete blood count, no circulating blasts in the peripheral blood film, and no other signs of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), including no signs of lymphadenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly. The hypercalcemia was successfully treated with zoledronic acid. As hypercalcemia can be the only presenting symptom of ALL in children, the diagnosis is often delayed. In children presenting with hypercalcemia, malignancies must be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:27462588

  18. 15 Years of CIAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    The first release of the Chandra data analysis system CIAO in the summer of 1999 enabled initial Chandra guest observer science. We continue to extend and improve the CIAO package, supporting both advanced use by experienced X-ray astronomers and simple analysis by novice users. Ongoing recent usability improvements include high level scripts to automate common, repetitive tasks and simplify the data reduction process, and improved support for merging observations that have been split due to thermal constraints. We present these improvements, discuss new documentation threads and present statistics on CIAO downloads and helpdesk usage.

  19. Cultivated Grapevines Represent a Symptomless Reservoir for the Transmission of Hop Stunt Viroid to Hop Crops: 15 Years of Evolutionary Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi-Ito, Yoko; Li, Shi-Fang; Tagawa, Masaya; Araki, Hiroyuki; Goshono, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Shingen; Tanaka, Mayumi; Narita, Masako; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Liu, Sheng-Xue; Shikata, Eishiro; Sano, Teruo

    2009-01-01

    Hop stunt was a mysterious disorder that first emerged in the 1940s in commercial hops in Japan. To investigate the origin of this disorder, we infected hops with natural Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd) isolates derived from four host species (hop, grapevine, plum and citrus), which except for hop represent possible sources of the ancestral viroid. These plants were maintained for 15 years, then analyzed the HpSVd variants present. Here we show that the variant originally found in cultivated grapevines gave rise to various combinations of mutations at positions 25, 26, 54, 193, and 281. However, upon prolonged infection, these variants underwent convergent evolution resulting in a limited number of adapted mutants. Some of them showed nucleotide sequences identical to those currently responsible for hop stunt epidemics in commercial hops in Japan, China, and the United States. Therefore, these results indicate that we have successfully reproduced the original process by which a natural HpSVd variant naturally introduced into cultivated hops was able to mutate into the HpSVd variants that are currently present in commercial hops. Furthermore, and importantly, we have identified cultivated grapevines as a symptomless reservoir in which HSVd can evolve and be transmitted to hop crops to cause epidemics. PMID:20041179

  20. Relationship between Body Mass Index, Skeletal Maturation and Dental Development in 6- to 15- Year Old Orthodontic Patients in a Sample of Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Hedayati, Zohreh; Khalafinejad, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: The prevalence of overweight and obesity has been increasing markedly in recent years. It may influence growth in pre pubertal children. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether increased Body Mass Index (BMI) is associated with accelerated skeletal maturation and dental maturation in six to fifteen years old orthodontic patients in Shiraz, Iran. Materials and Method: Skeletal maturation and dental development of 95 orthodontic patients (65 females and 30 males), aged 6 to 15 years, were determined. Dental development was assessed using the Demerjian method and skeletal maturation was evaluated by cervical vertebral method as presented by Bacetti. The BMI was determined for each patient. T-test was applied to compare the mean difference between chronologic and dental age among the study groups. A regression model was used to assess the relationship between BMI percentile, skeletal maturation, and dental development. Results: 18.9% of subjects were overweight and obese. The mean differences between dental age and chronologic age were 0.73±1.3 for underweight and normal weight children and 1.8±1.08 for overweight and obese children. These results highlighted the correlation between accelerated dental maturity and increasing BMI percentile (p= 0.002). A new formula was introduced for this relationship. There was not any significant relationship between BMI percentile and skeletal maturation. Conclusion: Children who were overweight or obese had accelerated dental development whereas they did not have accelerated skeletal maturation significantly after being adjusted for age and gender. PMID:25469357

  1. Impacts of artificial reservoirs on floristic diversity and plant functional traits in dry forests after 15 years.

    PubMed

    Lopes, S F; Vale, V S; Prado Júnior, J A; Schiavini, I

    2015-08-01

    Dams are of paramount importance to a wide variety of human services and many of their environmental problems are known; however, there are few studies in the world addressing the impacts on the native vegetation previously distant from water bodies which became close to the lakeshore created by a dam. Thus, this paper aims to analyze the responses of a dry forest to a dam after 15 years. For this, 20 random samples of 40 trees were made, 10 close to the lakeshore and 10 distant from it, by applying the central square point method. Close to the dam, we found higher values regarding basal area, number of trees, number of evergreen trees, and zoochoric syndrome, but there were lower values of Shannon's diversity index. Therefore, the impacts of the dam after 15 years caused several changes to the tree community. The greater basal area close to the dam suggests that water deficit during the dry season was decreased and plants have thicker trunks. On the other hand, this sector had much more zoochoric syndrome and a larger number of evergreen trees than plots which are distant from water, suggesting changes with regard to the community's ecological functions. Furthermore, structural floristic data shows that the sector close to the dam is less similar to other deciduous forests within the same geographical region than the sector distant from water, thus providing evidence of the impacts of dams on the tree community.

  2. Duration of immunity following immunization with live measles vaccine: 15 years of observation in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed Central

    Dai, B.; Chen, Z. H.; Liu, Q. C.; Wu, T.; Guo, C. Y.; Wang, X. Z.; Fang, H. H.; Xiang, Y. Z.

    1991-01-01

    The duration of immunity following measles vaccination of 2882 immunized children has been investigated in a closed region of China for 15 years. A total of 1002 of the children were treated as primary immunization subjects, and 1547 as reimmunization subjects. These two cohorts were not in contact with known wild measles virus over the whole observation period, and the results obtained probably reflected the antibody responses to measles vaccine alone. The remaining 333 vaccinees came into contact with wild measles virus, and this permitted evaluation of the protective effect of the measles vaccines tested: 4 children experienced very mild clinical measles, and 329 experienced subclinical infection, including 12 who had had undetectable haemagglutination-inhibition antibodies for 9-10 years. These results indicate that the immunity induced by successful primary immunization may persist for at least 15 years. Within this period, a second dose of vaccine only induces low antibody responses which decrease rapidly to their original levels. This provides strong evidence that the immunity produced by primary immunization is long-lasting. However, there were some indications that reimmunization might produce better effects if live attenuated measles virus were used with a longer interval between doses. PMID:1934235

  3. Locus of Control: Relation to Schizophrenia, to Recovery, and to Depression and Psychosis - A 15-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Harrow, Martin; Hansford, Barry G.; Astrachan-Fletcher, Ellen B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The present prospectively designed 15-year longitudinal research was conducted to study whether locus of control is linked to diagnosis, to major symptoms, to functioning and recovery, and to personality for schizophrenia patients, depressive patients, and patients with other major disorders. Procedure The research studied 128 patients from the Chicago Follow-up Study at the acute phase and reassessed them 5 times over a 15-year period. Patients were evaluated on locus of control, global outcome, recovery, premorbid developmental achievements, psychosis, diagnosis, depression, and personality variables. Results 1.) After the acute phase, schizophrenia patients were not more external than other diagnostic groups. 2.) Internality is associated with increased recovery in schizophrenia (p<.05). 3.) A more external locus of control was related to depression (p=.01). 4.) The relationship between externality and psychosis was significant (p<.05). Conclusions In severe psychiatric disorders a more external locus of control is not specific to schizophrenia and after the acute phase is not associated with one particular diagnostic group. A more external locus of control is related to fewer periods of recovery, to both depressed mood and psychosis, and to various aspects of personality (p<.05). PMID:19573929

  4. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXIII: classification of prostanoid receptors, updating 15 years of progress.

    PubMed

    Woodward, D F; Jones, R L; Narumiya, S

    2011-09-01

    It is now more than 15 years since the molecular structures of the major prostanoid receptors were elucidated. Since then, substantial progress has been achieved with respect to distribution and function, signal transduction mechanisms, and the design of agonists and antagonists (http://www.iuphar-db.org/DATABASE/FamilyIntroductionForward?familyId=58). This review systematically details these advances. More recent developments in prostanoid receptor research are included. The DP(2) receptor, also termed CRTH2, has little structural resemblance to DP(1) and other receptors described in the original prostanoid receptor classification. DP(2) receptors are more closely related to chemoattractant receptors. Prostanoid receptors have also been found to heterodimerize with other prostanoid receptor subtypes and nonprostanoids. This may extend signal transduction pathways and create new ligand recognition sites: prostacyclin/thromboxane A(2) heterodimeric receptors for 8-epi-prostaglandin E(2), wild-type/alternative (alt4) heterodimers for the prostaglandin FP receptor for bimatoprost and the prostamides. It is anticipated that the 15 years of research progress described herein will lead to novel therapeutic entities. PMID:21752876

  5. Effect of river sediment on phosphorus chemistry of similarly aged natural and created wetlands in the Atchafalaya Delta, Louisiana, USA.

    PubMed

    Poach, M E; Faulkner, S P

    2007-01-01

    The goal of wetland creation is to produce an artificial wetland that functions as a natural wetland. Studies comparing created wetlands to similarly aged natural wetlands provide important information about creation techniques and their improvement so as to attain that goal. We hypothesized that differences in sediment phosphorus accretion, deposition, and chemistry between created and natural wetlands in the Atchafalaya Delta, Louisiana, USA were a function of creation technique and natural river processes. Sediment deposition was determined with feldspar marker horizons located in created and natural wetlands belonging to three age classes (<3, 5-10, and 15-20 yr old). Phosphorus fractions were measured in these deposited sediments and in suspended and bedload sediment from the Atchafalaya River. Bedload sediment had significantly lower iron- and aluminum-bound, reductant-soluble, and total phosphorus than suspended sediment due to its high sand percentage. This result indicates that wetlands artificially created in the Atchafalaya Delta using bedload sediment will initially differ from natural wetlands of the same age. Even so, similarities between the mudflat stratum of the <1- to 3-yr-old created wetland and the mudflat stratum of the 15- to 20-yr-old natural wetland support the contention that created wetlands in the Atchafalaya Delta can develop natural characteristics through the deposition of river suspended sediment. Differences between three created wetland strata, the 15- to 20-yr-old willow stratum and the <1- to 3-yr-old willow and mixed marsh strata, and their natural counterparts were linked to design elements of the created wetlands that prevented the direct deposition of the river's suspended sediment.

  6. Effect of river sediment on phosphorus chemistry of similarly aged natural and created wetlands in the Atchafalaya Delta, Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poach, M.E.; Faulkner, S.P.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of wetland creation is to produce an artificial wetland that functions as a natural wetland. Studies comparing created wetlands to similarly aged natural wetlands provide important information about creation techniques and their improvement so as to attain that goal. We hypothesized that differences in sediment phosphorus accretion, deposition, and chemistry between created and natural wetlands in the Atchafalaya Delta, Louisiana, USA were a function of creation technique and natural river processes. Sediment deposition was determined with feldspar marker horizons located in created and natural wetlands belonging to three age classes (<3, 5-10, and 15-20 yr old). Phosphorus fractions were measured in these deposited sediments and in suspended and bedload sediment from the Atchafalaya River. Bedload sediment had significantly lower iron- and aluminum-bound, reductant-soluble, and total phosphorus than suspended sediment due to its high sand percentage. This result indicates that wetlands artificially created in the Atchafalaya Delta using bedload sediment will initially differ from natural wetlands of the same age. Even so, similarities between the mudflat stratum of the <1- to 3-yr-old created wetland and the mudflat stratum of the 15- to 20-yr-old natural wetland support the contention that created wetlands in the Atchafalaya Delta can develop natural characteristics through the deposition of river suspended sediment. Differences between three created wetland strata, the 15- to 20-yr-old willow stratum and the < 1- to 3-yr-old willow and mixed marsh strata, and their natural counterparts were linked to design elements of the created wetlands that prevented the direct deposition of the river's suspended sediment. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  7. OVERWEIGHT, OBESITY AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG 13-15 YEARS OLD STUDENTS IN THE ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS MEMBER COUNTRIES, 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess overweight or obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries. The analysis included 30,284 school children 13-15 years of age from seven ASEAN members participating in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The overall prevalence of overweight or obesity across seven ASEAN countries (excluding Brunei) was 9.9%, significantly higher in boys (11.5%) than in girls (8.3%). Among eight ASEAN countries, the highest prevalence of overweight or obesity was in Brunei Darus-salam (36.1%), followed by Malaysia (23.7%), and the lowest was in Myanmar (3.4%) and Cambodia (3.7%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that younger age, coming from an upper middle country, never been hungry, and not walking or biking to school were associated with overweight or obesity. In addition, among boys, having three or more servings of vegetables per day and having no close friends, and among girls, having fast foods two or more times per week, been victims of bullying and having peer support were additional factors associated with overweight or obesity. Increased strategies utilizing a number of the risk factors identified are needed to prevent and treat overweight or obesity in adolescents in ASEAN member countries. PMID:27244964

  8. OVERWEIGHT, OBESITY AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG 13-15 YEARS OLD STUDENTS IN THE ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS MEMBER COUNTRIES, 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess overweight or obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries. The analysis included 30,284 school children 13-15 years of age from seven ASEAN members participating in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The overall prevalence of overweight or obesity across seven ASEAN countries (excluding Brunei) was 9.9%, significantly higher in boys (11.5%) than in girls (8.3%). Among eight ASEAN countries, the highest prevalence of overweight or obesity was in Brunei Darus-salam (36.1%), followed by Malaysia (23.7%), and the lowest was in Myanmar (3.4%) and Cambodia (3.7%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that younger age, coming from an upper middle country, never been hungry, and not walking or biking to school were associated with overweight or obesity. In addition, among boys, having three or more servings of vegetables per day and having no close friends, and among girls, having fast foods two or more times per week, been victims of bullying and having peer support were additional factors associated with overweight or obesity. Increased strategies utilizing a number of the risk factors identified are needed to prevent and treat overweight or obesity in adolescents in ASEAN member countries.

  9. High folic acid intake reduces natural killer cell cytotoxicity in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Sawaengsri, Hathairat; Wang, Junpeng; Reginaldo, Christina; Steluti, Josiane; Wu, Dayong; Meydani, Simin Nikbin; Selhub, Jacob; Paul, Ligi

    2016-04-01

    Presence of unmetabolized folic acid in plasma, which is indicative of folic acid intake beyond the metabolic capacity of the body, is associated with reduced natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in postmenopausal women ≥50years. NK cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes that are part of the innate immune system critical for surveillance and defense against virus-infected and cancer cells. We determined if a high folic acid diet can result in reduced NK cell cytotoxicity in an aged mouse model. Female C57BL/6 mice (16-month-old) were fed an AIN-93M diet with the recommended daily allowance (1× RDA, control) or 20× RDA (high) folic acid for 3months. NK cytotoxicity was lower in splenocytes from mice fed a high folic acid diet when compared to mice on control diet (P<.04). The lower NK cell cytotoxicity in high folic acid fed mice could be due to their lower mature cytotoxic/naïve NK cell ratio (P=.03) when compared to the control mice. Splenocytes from mice on high folic acid diet produced less interleukin (IL)-10 when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (P<.05). The difference in NK cell cytotoxicity between dietary groups was abolished when the splenocytes were supplemented with exogenous IL-10 prior to assessment of the NK cytotoxicity, suggesting that the reduced NK cell cytotoxicity of the high folic acid group was at least partially due to reduced IL-10 production. This study demonstrates a causal relationship between high folic acid intake and reduced NK cell cytotoxicity and provides some insights into the potential mechanisms behind this relationship.

  10. Bioidentical hormones, menopausal women, and the lure of the "natural" in U.S. anti-aging medicine.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Jennifer R; Flatt, Michael A; Settersten, Richard A

    2015-05-01

    In 2002, the Women's Health Initiative, a large-scale study of the safety of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for women conducted in the United States, released results suggesting that use of postmenopausal HRT increased women's risks of stroke and breast cancer. In the years that followed, as rates of HRT prescription fell, another hormonal therapy rose in its wake: bioidentical hormone replacement therapy (BHRT). Anti-aging clinicians, the primary prescribers of BHRT, tout it as a safe and effective alternative to treat menopausal symptoms and, moreover, as a preventative therapy for age-related diseases and ailments. Through in-depth interviews with 31 U.S.-based anti-aging clinicians and 25 female anti-aging patients, we analyze attitudes towards BHRT. We illustrate how these attitudes reveal broader contemporary values, discourses, and discomforts with menopause, aging, and biomedicine. The attraction to and promise of BHRT is rooted in the idea that it is a "natural" therapy. BHRT is given both biomedical and embodied legitimacy by clinicians and patients because of its purported ability to become part of the body's "natural" processes. The normative assumption that "natural" is inherently "good" not only places BHRT beyond reproach, but transforms its use into a health benefit. The clinical approach of anti-aging providers also plays a role by validating patients' embodied experiences and offering a "holistic" solution to their symptoms, which anti-aging patients see as a striking contrast to their experiences with conventional biomedical health care. The perceived virtues of BHRT shed light on the rhetoric of anti-aging medicine and a deeply complicated relationship between conventional biomedicine, hormonal technologies, and women's bodies.

  11. Effectiveness of Ministry of Internal Affairs Regulation Number 15 Year 2008 about Mainstreaming Gender on Basic Education Level in the East Java, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handayani, Trisakti; Widodo, Wahyu

    2016-01-01

    General purpose of this research are: assessing the implementation of Permendagri no. 15 year 2008 about Gender Mainstreaming on Basic Education Levels in the East Java Province, analyze the problem of the implementation of Permendagri no. 15 year 2008 about Gender Mainstreaming on Basic Education Levels in the East Java Province and analyze the…

  12. Social judgments made by children (10–15 year old) in relation to visible incisors trauma: School-based cross-sectional study in Khartoum state, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Awooda, Elhadi Mohieldin; Ali, Yasmeen Abdul-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dento-alveolar trauma is a very common occurrence in childhood; however, there is a paucity of data about children's judgments in relation to dental status. There is a significant correlation between the children's incisor teeth status and the social judgments made by their peers. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the social attributes of a school child would be influenced by his or her incisor teeth status. Also, it is aimed to determine the judgment between male and female children and different age groups within the same class. Setting and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 178 male and female children from year 5 (age 10–11 years) of primary school and year 2 of secondary school (age 14–15 years) within Khartoum state. Materials and Methods: Students were invited to look at colored photographs of four different children's faces and to make a social judgment about these children's photographs. Using a previously validated child-centered questionnaire, participants rated subjects using a four-point Likert scale for three negative and six positive attributes. Statistical Analysis: Total attribute scores were tested for significant differences, according to whether the subject had visible incisor trauma or not, using t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test with the level of significance set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: Children with visible incisor trauma were given more negative attributes than children without incisor trauma (P = 0.05). Results were similar in both genders and both school years. Younger students within the same class gave more negative attributes toward children with visible incisor trauma than their older peers, with P = 0.04 and P = 0.9 for children aged 10 years and 11 years, respectively. Conclusion: The data confirmed results of previous studies that children with visible incisor trauma are seen more negatively than those without visible incisor trauma. PMID:26539397

  13. Evaluation of the effect of organic pro-degradant concentration in polypropylene exposed to the natural ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagna, L. S.; Catto, A. L.; Rossini, K.; Forte, M. M. C.; Santana, R. M. C.

    2014-05-01

    The production and consumption of plastics in the last decade has recorded a remarkable increase in the scientific and industrial interest in environmentally degradable polymer (EDPs). Polymers wastes are deposited improperly, such as dumps, landfills, rivers and seas, causing a serious problem by the accumulation in the environment. The abiotic processes, like the photodegradation, are the most efficient occurring in the open environmental, where the polymers undergo degradation from the action of sunlight that result from direct exposure to solar radiation, however depend of the type of chemical ageing, which is the principal component of climatic ageing. The subject of this work is to study the influence of concentration of organic pro-degradant (1, 2 and 3 % w/w) in the polypropylene (PP) exposed in natural ageing. PP samples with and without the additive were processed in plates square form, obtained by thermal compression molding (TCM) using a press at 200°C under 2 tons for 5 min, and then were exposed at natural ageing during 120 days. The presence of organic additive influenced on PP degradability, this fact was assessed by changes in the thermal and morphology properties of the samples after 120 days of natural ageing. Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) results of the morphological surface of the modified PP samples showed greater degradation photochemical oxidative when compared to neat PP, due to increase of rugosity and formation of microvoids. PP samples with different pro-degradant concentration under natural ageing presented a degree of crystallinity, obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) increases in comparing the neat PP.

  14. Evaluation of the effect of organic pro-degradant concentration in polypropylene exposed to the natural ageing

    SciTech Connect

    Montagna, L. S. E-mail: andrecatto@terra.com.br E-mail: mmcforte@hotmail.com Catto, A. L. E-mail: andrecatto@terra.com.br E-mail: mmcforte@hotmail.com Rossini, K. E-mail: andrecatto@terra.com.br E-mail: mmcforte@hotmail.com Forte, M. M. C. E-mail: andrecatto@terra.com.br E-mail: mmcforte@hotmail.com Santana, R. M. C. E-mail: andrecatto@terra.com.br E-mail: mmcforte@hotmail.com

    2014-05-15

    The production and consumption of plastics in the last decade has recorded a remarkable increase in the scientific and industrial interest in environmentally degradable polymer (EDPs). Polymers wastes are deposited improperly, such as dumps, landfills, rivers and seas, causing a serious problem by the accumulation in the environment. The abiotic processes, like the photodegradation, are the most efficient occurring in the open environmental, where the polymers undergo degradation from the action of sunlight that result from direct exposure to solar radiation, however depend of the type of chemical ageing, which is the principal component of climatic ageing. The subject of this work is to study the influence of concentration of organic pro-degradant (1, 2 and 3 % w/w) in the polypropylene (PP) exposed in natural ageing. PP samples with and without the additive were processed in plates square form, obtained by thermal compression molding (TCM) using a press at 200°C under 2 tons for 5 min, and then were exposed at natural ageing during 120 days. The presence of organic additive influenced on PP degradability, this fact was assessed by changes in the thermal and morphology properties of the samples after 120 days of natural ageing. Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) results of the morphological surface of the modified PP samples showed greater degradation photochemical oxidative when compared to neat PP, due to increase of rugosity and formation of microvoids. PP samples with different pro-degradant concentration under natural ageing presented a degree of crystallinity, obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) increases in comparing the neat PP.

  15. [Spatial patterns of different age-class individuals in Pinus tabulaeformis forest in Songshan Nature Reserve of Beijing, China].

    PubMed

    Niu, Li-Li; Yu, Xin-Xiao; Yue, Yong-Jie

    2008-07-01

    By the method of point pattern analysis, this paper studied the spatial patterns of different age-class individuals in the Pinus tabulaeformis forest in Songshan Nature Reserve of Beijing, and the spatial association between the individuals. The results showed that there existed greater differences in the densities of different age-class P. tabulaeformis individuals, e.g., age-class I had the density of 15 plants per hectare, while age-class III had the density of 924 plants per hectare. The spatial patterns of different age-class individuals and the spatial association between the individuals had a close relationship with the spatial scale. In the scale of < 40 m, the individuals of all age-classes tended to clump, and there was a stronger spatial association between the individuals of different age-classes. When the scale was larger than 30 m or 40 m, the individuals of all age-classes would disperse randomly, and their spatial association would be weakened greatly. PMID:18839896

  16. Diagnosis and management of sports-related concussion: a 15-year-old athlete with a concussion.

    PubMed

    Zafonte, Ross

    2011-07-01

    Concussion in youth athletes is a growing problem worldwide. During the past decade, significant progress has been made in standardization of the assessment of young athletes, and a growing appreciation of metabolic vulnerability, activity, and cognitive challenges has led to guidelines and suggestions for rest from the field as well as cognitive rest from school. Outcome data have begun to establish groups linked to symptom class, genetics, and sex who are at risk of worse outcomes from concussions. Decisions regarding return to activity are now based on at-rest symptoms, graded increases in activity, and neuropsychological testing. Using the case of Ms X, a 15-year-old otherwise healthy high school student who fell while skiing, evaluation, prognosis, and management of concussion are discussed.

  17. Tinnitus as an early indicator of permanent hearing loss. A 15 year longitudinal study of noise exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Griest, S E; Bishop, P M

    1998-07-01

    A retrospective study was designed to evaluate tinnitus (ringing or other sounds in the ears or head) as a potential early indicator of permanent hearing loss in a population of noise exposed workers. Data were examined from 91 male employees working in environments with noise levels ranging from 8 hour time weighted averages of 85 to 101 dBA over a period of 15 years. Results of annual audiometric testing were obtained as part of an ongoing hearing conservation program conducted since 1971 by ESCO Corporation, a steel foundry located in the Portland, Oregon metropolitan area. Results indicate the prevalence of tinnitus increases more than two and one half times for workers experiencing maximum threshold shifts > or = 15 decibels in hearing level (dBHL). Results also provide evidence that reports of tinnitus at the time of annual audiometric testing may be useful in identifying workers at greater risk for developing significant shifts in hearing thresholds. PMID:9748912

  18. Direct adhesive pin-retained restorations for severely worn dentition treatment: a 1.5-year follow-up report.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Camila Lima; Gonçalves, Thais Marques Simek Vega; Santos, Ícaro Leite dos; Barros, Michel Silva; Araújo, Nubia Rafaela Ribeiro; Cury, Altair Antoninha Del Bel

    2014-01-01

    Excessive occlusal surface wear can result in occlusal disharmony, functional and esthetic impairment. As a therapeutic approach, conventional single crowns have been proposed, but this kind of treatment is complex, highly invasive and expensive. This case report describes the clinical outcomes of an alternative minimally invasive treatment based on direct adhesive-pin retained restorations. A 64-year-old woman with severely worn dentition, eating problems related to missing teeth and generalized tooth hypersensitivity was referred for treatment. Proper treatment planning based on the diagnostic wax-up simulation was used to guide the reconstruction of maxillary anterior teeth with direct composite resin over self-threading dentin pins. As the mandibular remaining teeth were extremely worn, a tooth-supported overdenture was installed. A stabilization splint was also used to protect the restorations. This treatment was a less expensive alternative to full-mouth rehabilitation with positive esthetic and functional outcomes after 1.5 years of follow-up.

  19. Stable isotope analysis of a newly established macrofaunal food web 1.5 years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    PubMed

    Han, Eunah; Park, Hyun Je; Bergamino, Leandro; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Choy, Eun Jung; Yu, Ok Hwan; Lee, Tae Won; Park, Heung-Sik; Shim, Won Joon; Kang, Chang-Keun

    2015-01-15

    We examined trophic relationships in a newly established community 1.5 years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill on the west coast of Korea. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in consumers and their potential food sources were compared between the oil-spill site and reference site, located 13.5 km from the oil-spill spot. The isotopic mixing model and a novel circular statistics rejected the influx of petrogenic carbon into the community and identified spatial consistencies such as the high contributions of microphytobenthos, food-chain length, and the isotopic niche of each feeding guild between sites. We suggested that high level of trophic plasticity and the prevalence of omnivory of consumers may promote the robustness of food web against the oil contamination. Furthermore, we highlighted the need of holistic approaches including different functional groups to quantify changes in the food web structure and assess the influence of different perturbations including oil spill.

  20. International Conference on Population and Development at 15 Years: Achieving Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights for All?

    PubMed Central

    Roseman, Mindy Jane

    2010-01-01

    Sexual and reproductive health remains the contentious concept it was at the 1994 United Nations International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held in Cairo, Egypt. In light of the recent 15-year review of ICPD, we suggest several areas where advocates, practitioners, and researchers can inform future progress for sexual and reproductive health. These include the following: improving measurement and accountability related to the evidence base for sexual and reproductive health, indicators of program success, and the tracking of resource flows; creating and renewing alliances to strengthen advocacy; and employing new resource mobilization strategies. Given the 20-year goals established at ICPD, now is the time to move toward finally achieving the sexual and reproductive health and rights agenda. PMID:20075310

  1. The Adventitia Resection in Treatment of Liver Hydatid Cyst: A Case Report of a 15-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhenhua; Yang, Wei; Yao, Yingmin; Liu, Qingguang

    2014-01-01

    Human hydatid disease is a significant health problem in endemic regions caused by the larval form of Echinococcus granulosus. In this paper, we report a case of liver hydatid cyst. The patient, a 15-year-old boy, presented with a history of intermittent upper abdominal pain of a few-month duration was referred to our hospital for investigation. Computed tomographic scan and laboratory test suggested a hydatid cyst in the right lobe of liver. The adventitia resection of hydatid cyst was smoothly performed as there was a less bloody virtual space between adventitia and outer membrane. Our diagnosis was made using an imaging approach and was confirmed during surgery. We proposed the adventitia resection of hydatid cyst could be safe and easy to perform with low risk of bleeding and bile leakage. PMID:24782939

  2. Late outcome of very severe blunt head trauma: a 10-15 year second follow-up.

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, I V

    1984-01-01

    Forty patients with very severe blunt head trauma (post-traumatic amnesia greater than or equal to 1 month) were initially examined at an average of 4.5 months after the injury. The patients were visited in their homes 2.5 years and 10-15 years after the accident and questionnaires were presented to patients, relatives and/or staff. Though physical impairment, dysarthria and defects of memory remained severe in many cases, the psychosocial sequelae presented the most serious problems. Permanent changes in personality and emotion were reported in two thirds and were especially frequent among the youngest patients. The worse overall outcome was seen in cases with severe brainstem involvement or anterior lesions or both. In spite of the great frequency of deficits long-term improvement of functional state was common and several regained at least some work capacity. PMID:6707671

  3. Individuality and contextual influences on drug dependence: a 15-year Prospective longitudinal study of adolescents from Harlem.

    PubMed

    Brook, Judith S; Lee, Jung Yeon; Brown, Elaine N; Finch, Stephen J; Brook, David W

    2012-01-01

    In this 15-year longitudinal study the authors investigated individual and contextual factors that predispose adolescents from a disadvantaged urban area to drug dependence in adulthood. Adolescents were recruited from schools serving East Harlem in New York City. Of the 838 participants followed to adulthood, 59% were women, 55% were African American, and 45% were Puerto Rican. Self-report data were obtained on externalizing and internalizing problems, substance use, and contextual influences across adolescence and young adulthood. Drug dependence was assessed in adulthood. Multivariate logistic regressions of drug dependence were performed on the whole sample and separately by gender. Each of the domains was associated with adult drug dependence. Although mean gender differences were found, most associations of risk factors with drug dependence did not vary significantly by gender. Treating externalizing and internalizing problems, reducing substance use, and providing coping skills for adverse contextual influences in adolescence and young adulthood may reduce the likelihood of becoming drug dependent in adulthood.

  4. Retrospective review of the case of cutaneous anthrax-malignant pustule from 1995 in 15-year old girl.

    PubMed

    Kajfasz, Piotr; Bartoszcze, Michał; Borkowski, Piotr Karol; Basiak, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl was admitted to our Department with cutaneous lesion resembling black eschar. Anamnesis revealed that before getting ill she was wearing pullover made of rough sheep's wool and ornaments made of leather like straps. Cutaneous anthrax was confirmed by identification of B. anthracis in specimens from weeping ulceration, culture from black eschar, thermoprecipitation test, and bioassay on guinea pig. The girl was treated with crystalline Penicillin. She responded well to the therapy and recovered after 28 days. What attracts attention in presented case is the fact that the girl didn't belong to high risk group of human anthrax, which might lead to misdiagnosis. In 1990-1999, Poland there were reported 22 cases of anthrax - it was almost exclusively cutaneous form. In the years following 1999 antrax was reported even less often - in the period 1991-2013 it was recorded a total of 26 cutaneous anthrax cases.

  5. Identification of ageing-associated naturally occurring peptides in human urine

    PubMed Central

    Nkuipou-Kenfack, Esther; Bhat, Akshay; Klein, Julie; Jankowski, Vera; Mullen, William; Vlahou, Antonia; Dakna, Mohammed; Koeck, Thomas; Schanstra, Joost P.; Zürbig, Petra; Rudolph, Karl L.; Schumacher, Björn; Pich, Andreas; Mischak, Harald

    2015-01-01

    To assess normal and pathological peptidomic changes that may lead to an improved understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying ageing, urinary peptidomes of 1227 healthy and 10333 diseased individuals between 20 and 86 years of age were investigated. The diseases thereby comprised diabetes mellitus, renal and cardiovascular diseases. Using age as a continuous variable, 116 peptides were identified that significantly (p < 0.05; |ρ|≥0.2) correlated with age in the healthy cohort. The same approach was applied to the diseased cohort. Upon comparison of the peptide patterns of the two cohorts 112 common age-correlated peptides were identified. These 112 peptides predominantly originated from collagen, uromodulin and fibrinogen. While most fibrillar and basement membrane collagen fragments showed a decreased age-related excretion, uromodulin, beta-2-microglobulin and fibrinogen fragments showed an increase. Peptide-based in silico protease analysis was performed and 32 proteases, including matrix metalloproteinases and cathepsins, were predicted to be involved in ageing. Identified peptides, predicted proteases and patient information were combined in a systems biology pathway analysis to identify molecular pathways associated with normal and/or pathological ageing. While perturbations in collagen homeostasis, trafficking of toll-like receptors and endosomal pathways were commonly identified, degradation of insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins was uniquely identified in pathological ageing. PMID:26431327

  6. Identification of ageing-associated naturally occurring peptides in human urine.

    PubMed

    Nkuipou-Kenfack, Esther; Bhat, Akshay; Klein, Julie; Jankowski, Vera; Mullen, William; Vlahou, Antonia; Dakna, Mohammed; Koeck, Thomas; Schanstra, Joost P; Zürbig, Petra; Rudolph, Karl L; Schumacher, Björn; Pich, Andreas; Mischak, Harald

    2015-10-27

    To assess normal and pathological peptidomic changes that may lead to an improved understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying ageing, urinarypeptidomes of 1227 healthy and 10333 diseased individuals between 20 and 86 years of age were investigated. The diseases thereby comprised diabetes mellitus, renal and cardiovascular diseases. Using age as a continuous variable, 116 peptides were identified that significantly (p < 0.05; |ρ|≥0.2) correlated with age in the healthy cohort. The same approach was applied to the diseased cohort. Upon comparison of the peptide patterns of the two cohorts 112 common age-correlated peptides were identified. These 112 peptides predominantly originated from collagen, uromodulin and fibrinogen. While most fibrillar and basement membrane collagen fragments showed a decreased age-related excretion, uromodulin, beta-2-microglobulin and fibrinogen fragments showed an increase. Peptide-based in silico protease analysis was performed and 32 proteases, including matrix metalloproteinases and cathepsins, were predicted to be involved in ageing. Identified peptides, predicted proteases and patient information were combined in a systems biology pathway analysis to identify molecular pathways associated with normal and/or pathological ageing. While perturbations in collagen homeostasis, trafficking of toll-like receptors and endosomal pathways were commonly identified, degradation of insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins was uniquely identified in pathological ageing. PMID:26431327

  7. Antibiotic prescribing of village doctors for children under 15 years with upper respiratory tract infections in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhixia; Zhan, Xingxin; Zhou, Hongjun; Sun, Fang; Zhang, Heng; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Liu, Qian; Li, Yingxue; Yan, Weirong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of village doctors regarding the prescribing of antibiotics for children under 15 years with upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in rural China. Twelve focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Xianning, a prefecture-level city in rural China, during December 2014. We conducted 6 FGDs with 35 village doctors, 3 with 13 primary caregivers (11 parents), and 3 with 17 directors of township hospitals, county-level health bureaus, county-level Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or county-level Chinese Food and Drug Administration offices. Audio records of the interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the thematic analysis approach. Participants believed that unnecessary antibiotic prescribing for children under 15 years with The occurrence of URTIs was a problem in village clinics in rural China. The discussions revealed that most of the village doctors had inadequate knowledge and misconceptions about antibiotic use, which was an important factor in the unnecessary prescribing. Village doctors and directors reported that the doctors’ fear of complications, the primary caregivers’ pressure for antibiotic treatment, and the financial considerations of patient retention were the main factors influencing the decision to prescribe antibiotics. Most of the primary caregivers insisted on antibiotics, even when the village doctors were reluctant to prescribe them, and they preferred to go to see those village doctors who prescribed antibiotics. The interviewees also gave their opinions on what would be the most effective measures for optimizing antibiotic prescriptions; these included educational/training campaigns, strict regulations on antibiotic prescription, and improved supervision. Findings emphasized the need to improve the dissemination of information and training/education, and implement legislation on the rational use of antibiotics. And it

  8. The age, nature and likely genesis of the Cambrian Khantaishir arc, Lake Zone, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janoušek, Vojtěch; Jiang, Yingde; Schulmann, Karel; Buriánek, David; Hanžl, Pavel; Lexa, Ondrej; Ganchuluun, Turbat; Battushig, Altanbaatar

    2014-05-01

    /metasomatized mantle domain or, more likely, originated by remelting of a juvenile metabasic crust, presumably by the advected heat from the voluminous mantle-derived melts. The single gabbro yielded two zircon populations, 521 ± 6 Ma (avg. 238U-206Pb age, 3 grains) and 538 ± 3 Ma (8 grains). The zircons contain both components distinguished in the more felsic samples (ɛHf = +4 to +13), compatible with the field evidence for the presence of several generations of the basic magmas, as well as magma mixing/mingling between contrasting magma batches. Taken together, our data provide an evidence for a Cambrian (c.520-495 Ma) magmatic-arc activity in the Khantaishir Range. The lack of significant zircon inheritance and rather primitive ɛHfvalues (all > +3) imply that the arc was not funded on mature continental crust. On the contrary, a key role was played by depleted-mantle derived magmas, perhaps with some recycling of a juvenile metabasic crust. Financial support: Grant Agency of the CR (P210/12/2205), Ministry of Education of the CR (LK11202) and Hong Kong Research Council (HKU705311P and HKU704712P). Ridolfi et al. 2010. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 160, 45-66. Sengör et al. 1993. Nature 364, 299-307.

  9. Editorial: subjective perceptions of memory functioning in old age - nature, correlates, and developmental trajectories.

    PubMed

    Hülür, Gizem; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Subjective memory complaints are often used as diagnostic criteria for several neurocognitive disorders. Although a number of studies have examined subjective memory and its associations with memory functioning in adulthood and old age, it is still an open question whether subjective perceptions of one's memory indicate actual memory functioning or whether they are rather derived from factors other than memory, such as depressive symptoms. The studies in this special section examine subjective perceptions of memory functioning and their associations with objectively measured memory performance in general and in clinical populations. The four articles adopt cross-sectional and longitudinal methodologies and offer key insights into the nature, correlates, and developmental trajectories of subjective memory. To begin with, the studies compiled in this special section demonstrate that changes in subjective memory perceptions are indeed associated with changes in memory performance [Zimprich and Kurtz, this issue, pp. 223-231], but the size of associations between levels of and changes in subjective memory and memory performance is in part modulated by personality characteristics and depressive symptoms [Hülür et al., this issue, pp. 232-240]. Second, the studies compiled here show that factors other than memory are also closely associated with memory perceptions, including functional health as well as domain-general and health-specific control beliefs [Luszcz et al., this issue, pp. 241-250]. Third, the study by Thompson et al. [this issue, pp. 251-257] shows that self- and informant-reports of retrospective and prospective memory difficulties are not associated with performance-based measures and does not sufficiently differentiate between healthy controls and patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment or dementia. In our editorial, we put these findings in perspective and discuss implications for research and practice. To extend our knowledge, we conclude by

  10. Age and nature of deposits on the submarine flanks of Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion Island)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lénat, Jean-François; Boivin, Pierre; Deniel, Catherine; Gillot, Pierre-Yves; Bachèlery, Patrick; Fournaise 2 Team

    2009-07-01

    Debris-avalanche deposits are by far the most extensive and voluminous formations in the submarine domain around Reunion Island. 21 sites sampled offshore of Piton de la Fournaise were studied. All the dredged rocks have a volcanic origin and often consist of blocks buried in a finer-grained matrix. Both massive and vesiculated samples were found, but only rare fragments of pillow lavas were encountered. All the lavas are basalts with variable amounts of olivine. A few plagioclase-bearing basalts were also found. These lithologies are known among Piton de la Fournaise subaerial lavas. A set of fresh samples representing the various rock types was further studied. The microscopic characteristics of these lavas confirm their great similarity with lavas from the subaerial volcano. Major elements show that all the submarine lavas are transitional basalts, with compositions very similar to those of Piton de la Fournaise subaerial lavas. The petrological and geochemical similarity of the dredged samples with Piton de la Fournaise subaerial lavas indicates that they belong to this volcano. The sulfur contents of the dredged samples and of various subaerial lavas from Piton de la Fournaise were determined on whole rocks. The results suggest that massive or slightly vesiculated dredged lavas (0.005-0.010 wt.% S) probably correspond to the internal parts of slowly cooled and subaerially degassed lava flows. The dredged pillow lavas display sulfur contents (0.013-0.020 wt.% S) similar to those of the external parts of recent subaerial lavas. This indicates that they were primarily degassed in the atmosphere, as also suggested by noble gases data, or in shallow water. Only one dredged sample has a relatively high S content (0.034 wt.%) suggesting that it may have been an early lava of a subaerial eruption or a lava directly emplaced under water, though at shallow depth. Thus, both the nature of the dredged samples and their sulfur contents indicate that these lavas were

  11. Fruit and vegetable intake is associated with frequency of breakfast, lunch and evening meal: cross-sectional study of 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Frequency of eating breakfast, lunch and evening meal as a determinant of fruit and vegetable intake among young people is little studied. We investigated whether irregular meal consumption was associated with fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents. We used separate analyses, and special emphasis was on the potentially modifying effect of sex and age. Methods Data were from the Danish contribution to the international collaborative Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC) in 2002. We used a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional design to study schoolchildren aged 11, 13 and 15 years (n = 3913) selected from a random sample of schools in Denmark. Fruit intake and vegetable intake were measured by a food frequency questionnaire and analyses were conducted using multivariate logistic regression. Results Overall, statistically significant associations were found between irregular breakfast, lunch and evening meal consumption and low frequency of fruit intake and vegetable intake (breakfast: fruit OR = 1.42, vegetables OR = 1.48; lunch: fruit OR = 1.68, vegetables OR = 1.83; evening meal: vegetables OR = 1.70). No association was found for irregular evening meal consumption and low frequency of fruit intake. Analyses stratified by sex showed that the associations between irregular breakfast consumption and both fruit and vegetable intake remained statistically significant only among girls. When analyses were stratified by both sex and age, different patterns appeared. Overall, skipping meals seemed to be a less serious risk factor for low frequency of fruit and vegetable intake among younger participants compared with those who were older. This was especially evident for skipping breakfast. The same tendency was also seen for skipping lunch and evening meal, although the age pattern varied between boys and girls and between fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusion Our results showed that irregular breakfast, lunch and evening meal consumption

  12. A Network-Based Approach on Elucidating the Multi-Faceted Nature of Chronological Aging in S. cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Borklu Yucel, Esra; Ulgen, Kutlu O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cellular mechanisms leading to aging and therefore increasing susceptibility to age-related diseases are a central topic of research since aging is the ultimate, yet not understood mechanism of the fate of a cell. Studies with model organisms have been conducted to ellucidate these mechanisms, and chronological aging of yeast has been extensively used as a model for oxidative stress and aging of postmitotic tissues in higher eukaryotes. Methodology/Principal Findings The chronological aging network of yeast was reconstructed by integrating protein-protein interaction data with gene ontology terms. The reconstructed network was then statistically “tuned” based on the betweenness centrality values of the nodes to compensate for the computer automated method. Both the originally reconstructed and tuned networks were subjected to topological and modular analyses. Finally, an ultimate “heart” network was obtained via pooling the step specific key proteins, which resulted from the decomposition of the linear paths depicting several signaling routes in the tuned network. Conclusions/Significance The reconstructed networks are of scale-free and hierarchical nature, following a power law model with γ  =  1.49. The results of modular and topological analyses verified that the tuning method was successful. The significantly enriched gene ontology terms of the modular analysis confirmed also that the multifactorial nature of chronological aging was captured by the tuned network. The interplay between various signaling pathways such as TOR, Akt/PKB and cAMP/Protein kinase A was summarized in the “heart” network originated from linear path analysis. The deletion of four genes, TCB3, SNA3, PST2 and YGR130C, was found to increase the chronological life span of yeast. The reconstructed networks can also give insight about the effect of other cellular machineries on chronological aging by targeting different signaling pathways in the linear path analysis

  13. From Flavr Savr Tomatoes to Stem Cell Therapy: Young People's Understandings of Gene Technology, 15 Years on

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Jenny

    2012-08-01

    This paper explores knowledge and understanding of basic genetics and gene technologies in school students who have been taught to a `science for all' National Curriculum and compares 482 students in 1995 (gene technology was a new and rapidly developing area of science with potential to impact on everyday life; the first cohort of students had been taught to the National Curriculum for Science) with 154 students in 2011 (genomics had replaced gene technology as a rapidly developing area of science with potential to impact on everyday life; science as a core subject within the National Curriculum was well established). These studies used the same questions, with the same age group (14-16) across the same (full) ability range; in addition the 2011 sample were asked about stem cells, stem cell technology and epigenetics. Students in 2011 showed: better knowledge of basic genetics but continuing difficulty in developing coherent explanatory frameworks; a good understanding of the nature of stem cells but no understanding of the process by which such cells become specialised; better understanding of different genetic technologies but also a wider range of misunderstandings and confusions (both between different genetic technologies and with other biological processes); continuing difficulty in evaluating potential veracity of short `news' items but greater awareness of ethical issues and the range of factors (including knowledge of genetics) which could be drawn on when justifying a view or coming to a decision. Implications for a `science for all' curriculum are considered.

  14. Improvement of symptoms of aging in males by a preparation LEOPIN ROYAL containing aged garlic extract and other five of natural medicines - comparison with traditional herbal medicines (Kampo).

    PubMed

    Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Kitamura, Tadaichi; Yamada, Daisuke; Nomiya, Akira; Niimi, Aya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Tohru; Enomoto, Yutaka; Kume, Haruki; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Homma, Yukio

    2014-06-01

    "LEOPIN ROYAL®" (LER), a non-prescription health-promoting medication in Japan, is a preparation containing six natural medicines, namely, aged garlic extract, ginseng, oriental bezoar, velvet antler, cuscuta seed and epimedium herb. To determine the effect of LER on symptoms of aging in males, we conducted an open-labeled, randomized clinical trial using Kampo (mainly kamishoyosan) as a control. Forty-nine male patients (age, 62.7 (SD 11.8) years) with mild or more pronounced symptoms of aging were enrolled and randomly assigned to the LER (n = 24) or Kampo group (n = 25) for 6 months. The Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scale and the International Index of Erectile Function with 5 questions (IIEF-5) were tested at baseline, and after 3 and 6 months of administration of the medications. In the AMS scale, the somatic and psychological sub-scores and total score decreased depending on the time course in both groups. However, the decrease in the slope of the LER group was greater than that of the Kampo group. There was a significant difference between the groups and the group and month interaction (G × M), as revealed by a linear mixed model analysis (p < 0.05). The IIEF-5 score increased in the LER group (p = 0.02 with regard to G × M). In conclusion, the present results indicate that LER is possibly superior to mainly kamishoyosan on the rate of improvement of symptoms of aging, including erectile dysfunction, in males. PMID:24844765

  15. What can long-lived mutants tell us about mechanisms causing aging and lifespan variation in natural environments?

    PubMed

    Briga, Michael; Verhulst, Simon

    2015-11-01

    Long-lived mutants of model organisms have brought remarkable progress in our understanding of aging mechanisms. However, long-lived mutants are usually maintained in optimal standardized laboratory environments (SLEs), and it is not obvious to what extent insights from long-lived mutants in SLEs can be generalized to more natural environments. To address this question, we reviewed experiments that compared the fitness and lifespan advantage of long-lived mutants relative to wild type controls in SLEs and more challenging environments in various model organisms such as yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster and the mouse Mus musculus. In competition experiments over multiple generations, the long-lived mutants had a lower fitness relative to wild type controls, and this disadvantage was the clearest when the environment included natural challenges such as limited food (N=6 studies). It is well known that most long-lived mutants have impaired reproduction, which provides one reason for the fitness disadvantage. However, based on 12 experiments, we found that the lifespan advantage of long-lived mutants is diminished in more challenging environments, often to the extent that the wild type controls outlive the long-lived mutants. Thus, it appears that information on aging mechanisms obtained from long-lived mutants in SLEs may be specific to such environments, because those same mechanisms do not extend lifespan in more natural environments. This suggests that different mechanisms cause variation in aging and lifespan in SLEs compared to natural populations.

  16. Testing evolutionary models of senescence in a natural population: age and inbreeding effects on fitness components in song sparrows

    PubMed Central

    Keller, L.F; Reid, J.M; Arcese, P

    2008-01-01

    Mutation accumulation (MA) and antagonistic pleiotropy (AP) have each been hypothesized to explain the evolution of ‘senescence’ or deteriorating fitness in old age. These hypotheses make contrasting predictions concerning age dependence in inbreeding depression in traits that show senescence. Inbreeding depression is predicted to increase with age under MA but not under AP, suggesting one empirical means by which the two can be distinguished. We use pedigree and life-history data from free-living song sparrows (Melospiza melodia) to test for additive and interactive effects of age and individual inbreeding coefficient (f) on fitness components, and thereby assess the evidence for MA. Annual reproductive success (ARS) and survival (and therefore reproductive value) declined in old age in both sexes, indicating senescence in this short-lived bird. ARS declined with f in both sexes and survival declined with f in males, indicating inbreeding depression in fitness. We observed a significant age×f interaction for male ARS (reflecting increased inbreeding depression as males aged), but not for female ARS or survival in either sex. These analyses therefore provide mixed support for MA. We discuss the strengths and limitations of such analyses and therefore the value of natural pedigreed populations in testing evolutionary models of senescence. PMID:18211879

  17. Influences of Natural Menopause on Psychological Characteristics and Symptoms of Middle-Aged Healthy Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Karen A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated psychological and symptom consequences of natural menopause in longitudinal study of 541 initially premenopausal healthy women. Findings 3 years later from 101 menopausal women and control group of 101 premenopausal women revealed that natural menopause led to few changes in psychological characteristics, with only decline in…

  18. Influence of the nature and age of cover crop residues on the sorption of three pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassigneul, Ana; Alletto, Lionel; Chuette, Delphine; Le Gac, Anne-Laure; Hatier, Jules; Etievant, Veronique; Bergheaud, Valérie; Baumberger, Stéphanie; Méchin, Valérie; Justes, Eric; Benoit, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    , turnip rape, phacelia) to 206 ± 45 L/Kg (red clover); and glyphosate was the less adsorbed, with Kd values ranging from 1 ± 1 L/Kg (oat, red clover) to 9 ± 1 L/Kg (phacelia) at day 0. Differences between pesticides were expected considering the hydrophobicity of these molecules. Adsorption of the three pesticides increased with decomposition time (up to sevenfold for glyphosate on oat), and was negatively correlated with C/N ratio (-0.73<ρ<-0.89, p<0.001) and positively with the lignin fraction of the residue in decomposition (0.54<ρ<0.85, p<0.05). The correlation between adsorption and wettability was slight and not significant, except for glyphosate on oat and turnip rape (ρ=-0.99 and ρ=-0.62, p<0.05 respectively), leading to the assumption of the contribution of other factors than biochemical composition in wettability. This study highlighted that the nature and level of decomposition of cover crop at the soil surface influenced the mobility of pesticides as it was observed in decomposing mulch of crop residues (Aslam et al., 2013). As a result, the type of cover crop and the changes of cover crop residues composition during decomposition in field may control differently the movement of non-ionic pesticides compared to ionic compounds such as glyphosate, largely used in conservation agriculture practices. Keywords : Cover crops ; Glyphosate ; S-metolachlor ; Epoxiconazole ; Mulch; Sorption ; Biochemical composition References Alletto L., Benoit P., Justes E., Coquet Y. 2012. Effects of tillage and fallow period management on the fate of the herbicide isoxaflutole in an irrigated continuous-maize field. Agriculture, Ecosystems Environment, 153, 40- 49. http://dx.doi:10.1016/j.agee.2012.03.002 Alletto L., Benoit P., Coufignal M., Bergheaud V., Dumény V., Longueval D., Barriuso E. 2013. Sorption and mineralization of S-metolachlor in 51 fields cultivated with conservation tillage. Soil Tillage Research 128, 97-103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2012

  19. Influence of the nature and age of cover crop residues on the sorption of three pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassigneul, Ana; Alletto, Lionel; Chuette, Delphine; Le Gac, Anne-Laure; Hatier, Jules; Etievant, Veronique; Bergheaud, Valérie; Baumberger, Stéphanie; Méchin, Valérie; Justes, Eric; Benoit, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    , turnip rape, phacelia) to 206 ± 45 L/Kg (red clover); and glyphosate was the less adsorbed, with Kd values ranging from 1 ± 1 L/Kg (oat, red clover) to 9 ± 1 L/Kg (phacelia) at day 0. Differences between pesticides were expected considering the hydrophobicity of these molecules. Adsorption of the three pesticides increased with decomposition time (up to sevenfold for glyphosate on oat), and was negatively correlated with C/N ratio (-0.73<ρ<-0.89, p<0.001) and positively with the lignin fraction of the residue in decomposition (0.54<ρ<0.85, p<0.05). The correlation between adsorption and wettability was slight and not significant, except for glyphosate on oat and turnip rape (ρ=-0.99 and ρ=-0.62, p<0.05 respectively), leading to the assumption of the contribution of other factors than biochemical composition in wettability. This study highlighted that the nature and level of decomposition of cover crop at the soil surface influenced the mobility of pesticides as it was observed in decomposing mulch of crop residues (Aslam et al., 2013). As a result, the type of cover crop and the changes of cover crop residues composition during decomposition in field may control differently the movement of non-ionic pesticides compared to ionic compounds such as glyphosate, largely used in conservation agriculture practices. Keywords : Cover crops ; Glyphosate ; S-metolachlor ; Epoxiconazole ; Mulch; Sorption ; Biochemical composition References Alletto L., Benoit P., Justes E., Coquet Y. 2012. Effects of tillage and fallow period management on the fate of the herbicide isoxaflutole in an irrigated continuous-maize field. Agriculture, Ecosystems Environment, 153, 40- 49. http://dx.doi:10.1016/j.agee.2012.03.002 Alletto L., Benoit P., Coufignal M., Bergheaud V., Dumény V., Longueval D., Barriuso E. 2013. Sorption and mineralization of S-metolachlor in 51 fields cultivated with conservation tillage. Soil Tillage Research 128, 97-103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2012

  20. Cementless total hip replacement without femoral osteotomy in patients with severe developmental dysplasia of the hip: minimum 15-year clinical and radiological results.

    PubMed

    Imbuldeniya, A M; Walter, W L; Zicat, B A; Walter, W K

    2014-11-01

    We describe the clinical and radiological results of cementless primary total hip replacement (THR) in 25 patients (18 women and seven men; 30 THRs) with severe developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Their mean age at surgery was 47 years (23 to 89). In all, 21 hips had Crowe type III dysplasia and nine had Crowe type IV. Cementless acetabular components with standard polyethylene liners were introduced as close to the level of the true acetabulum as possible. The modular cementless S-ROM femoral component was used with a low resection of the femoral neck. A total of 21 patients (25 THRs) were available for review at a mean follow-up of 18.7 years (15.8 to 21.8). The mean modified Harris hip score improved from 46 points pre-operatively to 90 at final follow up (p < 0.001). A total of 15 patients (17 THRs; 57%) underwent revision of the acetabular component at a mean of 14.6 years (7 to 20.8), all for osteolysis. Two patients (two THRs) had symptomatic loosening. No patient underwent femoral revision. Survival with revision of either component for any indication was 81% at 15 years (95% CI 60.1 to 92.3), with 21 patients at risk. This technique may reduce the need for femoral osteotomy in severe DDH, while providing a good long-term functional result. PMID:25371455

  1. Clinical outcome study and radiological findings of Zweymuller metal on metal total hip arthroplasty. a follow-up of 6 to 15 years.

    PubMed

    Paleochorlidis, Ilias S; Badras, Leonidas S; Skretas, Efstathios F; Georgaklis, Vasilios A; Karachalios, Theofilos S; Malizos, Konstantinos N

    2009-01-01

    We report the clinical and radiological outcome of 99 Zweymuller metal on metal total hip arthroplasties in 84 patients followed up prospectively for a mean period of 9.5 (range, 6-15) years. There were 29 (34.5%) male and 55 (65.5%) female patients with a mean age of 62.85 years (range, 50-70 years) at the time of surgery. All patients had osteoarthritis. One acetabular component and one stem were revised due to aseptic loosening. One femoral stem was revised due to a periprosthetic fracture. HHS score improved from a preoperative mean of 62.56 points (SD 8.87) to a final postoperative follow-up mean of 93.48 (SD 7.7). Cumulative success rate for both implants at 13 years, with aseptic loosening as the end point, was 97.05%, while for both implants at 13 years, with revision for any reason as the end point, it was 91.17%. Satisfactory results were observed with the use of this prosthesis. PMID:20041375

  2. Aluminum and silica in drinking water and the risk of Alzheimer's disease or cognitive decline: findings from 15-year follow-up of the PAQUID cohort.

    PubMed

    Rondeau, Virginie; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Commenges, Daniel; Helmer, Catherine; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2009-02-15

    The authors examined associations between exposure to aluminum or silica from drinking water and risk of cognitive decline, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease among elderly subjects followed for 15 years (1988-2003). They actively searched for incident cases of dementia among persons aged 65 years or over living in 91 civil drinking-water areas in southern France. Two measures of exposure to aluminum were assessed: geographic exposure and individual exposure, taking into account daily consumption of tap water and bottled water. A total of 1,925 subjects who were free of dementia at baseline and had reliable water assessment data were analyzed. Using random-effects models, the authors found that cognitive decline with time was greater in subjects with a higher daily intake of aluminum from drinking water (>or=0.1 mg/day, P=0.005) or higher geographic exposure to aluminum. Using a Cox model, a high daily intake of aluminum was significantly associated with increased risk of dementia. Conversely, an increase of 10 mg/day in silica intake was associated with a reduced risk of dementia (adjusted relative risk =0.89, P=0.036). However, geographic exposure to aluminum or silica from tap water was not associated with dementia. High consumption of aluminum from drinking water may be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Association between normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need among 12- to 15-year-old students in Shiraz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Momeni Danaei, Shahla; Salehi, Parisa

    2010-10-01

    Self-perception of dental attractiveness is an important factor affecting orthodontic treatment need. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need and to evaluate the influence of gender and socioeconomic background such as family size, parental education and father's employment. The subjects were 900 male and female junior high school students (450 males, 450 females) aged 12-15 years, from four districts in the city of Shiraz, Iran. The participants were asked to complete a questionnaire and then underwent a dental examination. Normative treatment need was assessed clinically using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Statistical analysis was undertaken using t- and chi-squared tests. There was no statistically significant correlation between DAI scores and demographics. The results showed a significant correlation between DAI scores and a subject's awareness of malocclusion and their satisfaction with dental appearance. There were no differences between genders concerning the questionnaire data. The results suggest that the DAI score might reflect a self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment.

  4. Causes and Associated Factors of Headaches among 5 to 15-year-old Children Referred to a Neurology Clinic in Kashan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    TALEBIAN, Ahmad; SOLTANI, Babak; HAJI REZAEI, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Objective Headaches are common neurologic problems for children and adolescents. They are divided into two types: primary and secondary. Primary headaches include migraines and tension-type as well as comprise the majority of headaches. We detect the causes of headaches and their associations with demographic variables among children and adolescents. Materials & Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 5–15 year-old children with headaches from March 2010 to April 2012 who presented at a pediatric neurology clinic in Kashan, Iran. Diagnosis of headaches was done in accordance with the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Data regarding the type of headache, age, gender, pain severity, aura, family history, and sleep disorder were collected. Results One hundred fourteen children (44 male and 70 female) with headaches were enrolled in the study. The types of headaches were comprised as follows: 67 cases of migraines, 38 cases of tension-type headaches, 2 cases of cluster headaches, and 7 cases of secondary headaches. Pulsating headaches, family history of headaches, insomnia, and pain severity had higher prevalence in migrainous patients. Conclusion Physicians should extend their information gathering about primary and secondary headaches. Sleep disturbances and a family history of headaches were the most important factors associated with migraine headaches. PMID:25767542

  5. Survival up to 5–15 years in young women following genital sparing radical cystectomy and neobladder: oncological outcome and quality of life. Single–surgeon and single–institution experience

    PubMed Central

    Elganozoury, Hossam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This is an observational retrospective study utilising long term patient follow–up for 15 years to determine the survival and quality of life in women (age range 20–54 years) after having been treated for carcinoma of the bladder by radical cystectomy with preservation of genital organs. Material and methods The study included 13 female patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder treated with genital sparing radical cystectomy during the period of 1995 until 2006. They had orthotopic ileal neobladder. Follow–up included recurrence–free survival, metastases–free survival, overall survival, continence, and sexual function. Results Genital sparing cystectomy was done in 13 women. Seven women were between the ages of 20–37, and 6 women were aged 38–54. Overall survival of 10–15 years was 61.53%, survival from 5 to 9 years was 38.46%. The procedure was done in 9 women with a muscle–invasive tumor of stage T2– T3a. Non–muscle invasive T1 tumor was present in four patients. Quality of life was assessed by continence, which was good in 10/13 patients. Three women needed CIC. Sexual function was tested by female sexual function index >20–30 and was scored at 84.61%. Conclusions The study provides evidence of safety and efficacy of radical cystectomy with sparing of genital organs in women aged 20 to 54 with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Oncological outcome for 5–15 years was good; continence and sexual function were good. This procedure should be considered when surgical approach appears to be feasible. The limitation of our findings is the small sample size of this case series. PMID:26251729

  6. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ho, ChinYu; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Yeh, Jade Chienyu; deFerranti, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC) of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10) students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989) were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC) to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833–0.857) and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731–0.795). The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile) and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile). Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65–5.17) compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents’ height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups. PMID:27389572

  7. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason Jiunshiou; Ho, ChinYu; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Yeh, Jade Chienyu; deFerranti, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC) of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10) students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989) were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC) to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833-0.857) and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731-0.795). The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile) and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile). Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65-5.17) compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents' height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups. PMID:27389572

  8. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason Jiunshiou; Ho, ChinYu; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Yeh, Jade Chienyu; deFerranti, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC) of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10) students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989) were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC) to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833-0.857) and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731-0.795). The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile) and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile). Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65-5.17) compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents' height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups.

  9. Sarcopenia, obesity, and natural killer cell immune senescence in aging: altered cytokine levels as a common mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Charles T; Quinn, LeBris S

    2012-08-01

    Human aging is characterized by both physical and physiological frailty. A key feature of frailty, sarcopenia is the age-associated decline in skeletal muscle mass, strength, and endurance that characterize even the healthy elderly. Increases in adiposity, particularly in visceral adipose tissue, are almost universal in aging individuals and can contribute to sarcopenia and insulin resistance by increasing levels of inflammatory cytokines known collectively as adipokines. Aging also is associated with declines in adaptive and innate immunity, known as immune senescence, which are risk factors for cancer and all-cause mortality. The cytokine interleukin-15 (IL-15) is highly expressed in skeletal muscle tissue and declines in aging rodent models. IL-15 inhibits fat deposition and insulin resistance, is anabolic for skeletal muscle in certain situations, and is required for the development and survival of natural killer (NK) lymphocytes. We review the effect that adipokines and myokines have on NK cells, with special emphasis on IL-15. We posit that increased adipokine and decreased IL-15 levels during aging constitute a common mechanism for sarcopenia, obesity, and immune senescence.

  10. Characterization of fresh and aged natural ingredients used in historical ointments by molecular spectroscopic techniques: IR, Raman and fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, L; Riedo, C; Baraldi, C; Nevin, A; Gamberini, M C; D'Andrea, C; Chiantore, O; Goidanich, S; Toniolo, L

    2011-10-01

    Natural organic materials used to prepare pharmaceutical mixtures including ointments and balsams have been characterized by a combined non-destructive spectroscopic analytical approach. Three classes of materials which include vegetable oils (olive, almond and palm tree), gums (Arabic and Tragacanth) and beeswax are considered in this study according to their widespread use reported in ancient recipes. Micro-FTIR, micro-Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies have been applied to fresh and mildly thermally aged samples. Vibrational characterization of these organic compounds is reported together with tabulated frequencies, highlighting all spectral features and changes in spectra which occur following artificial aging. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy has been shown to be particularly useful for the assessment of changes in oils after aging; spectral difference between Tragacanth and Arabic gum could be due to variations in origin and processing of raw materials. Analysis of these materials using non-destructive spectroscopic techniques provided important analytical information which could be used to guide further study.

  11. Cerebral cortex thickness in 15-year-old adolescents with low birth weight measured by an automated MRI-based method.

    PubMed

    Martinussen, M; Fischl, B; Larsson, H B; Skranes, J; Kulseng, S; Vangberg, T R; Vik, T; Brubakk, A-M; Haraldseth, O; Dale, A M

    2005-11-01

    Infants with low birth weight are at increased risk of perinatal brain injury. Disruption of normal cortical development may have consequences for later motor, behavioural and cognitive development. The aim of this study was to measure cerebral cortical thickness, area and volume with an automated MRI technique in 15-year-old adolescents who had low birth weight. Cerebral MRI for morphometric analysis was performed on 50 very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight age births (SGA, birth weight <10th percentile at term) and 58 control adolescents. A novel method of cortical surface models yielded measurements of cortical thickness and area for each subject's entire brain and computed cross-subject statistics based on cortical anatomy. The cortical surface models demonstrated regional thinning of the parietal, temporal and occipital lobes in the VLBW group, whereas regional thickening was demonstrated in the frontal and occipital lobes. The areas of change were greatest in those with the shortest gestational age at birth and lowest birth weight. Cortical surface area and cortical volume were lower in the VLBW than in the Control group. Within the VLBW group, there was an association between surface area and estimation of the intelligence quotient IQ (IQ(est)) and between cortical volume and IQ(est). Furthermore, cortical grey matter as a proportion of brain volume was significantly lower in the VLBW, but not in the SGA group compared with Controls. This observed reorganization of the developing brain offers a unique opportunity to investigate any relationship between changes in cortical anatomy and cognitive and social impairments, and the increase in psychiatric disorders that have been found in VLBW children and adolescents. PMID:16123146

  12. Prevalence of Tuberculosis among Veterans, Military Personnel and their Families in East Azerbaijan Province Violators of the last 15 Years.

    PubMed

    Azad Aminjan, Maboud; Moaddab, Seyyed Reza; Hosseini Ravandi, Mohammad; Kazemi Haki, Behzad

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays in the world, tuberculosis is the second largest killer of adults after HIV. Due to the location of presidios that is mostly located in hazardous zones soldiers and army personnel are considered high risk, therefore we decided to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis status in this group of people. This was a cross-sectional descriptive research that studied the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in soldiers and military personnel in the last 15 years in tuberculosis and lung disease research center at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The statistical population consisted of all the soldiers and military personnel. The detection method in this study was based on microscopic examination following Ziehl-Neelsen Stain and in Leuven Stein Johnson culturing. Descriptive statistics was used for statistical analysis and statistical values less than 0.05 were considered significant. By review information in this center since the 1988-2013 with 72 military personnel suffering from tuberculosis, it was revealed that among them 30 women, 42 men, 14 soldiers, 29 family members, and 29 military personnel are pointed. A significant correlation was found between TB rates among military personnel and their families. Although in recent years, the national statistics indicate a decline of tuberculosis, but the results of our study showed that TB is still a serious disease that must comply with the first symptoms of tuberculosis in military personnel and their families that should be diagnosed as soon as possible.

  13. Cerebral venous thrombosis associated with homozygous factor V Leiden mutation in a 15-year-old girl of Tunisian origin.

    PubMed

    Salem-Berrabah, Olfa Ben; Fekih-Mrissa, Nejiba; Laayouni, Samy; Gritli, Nasreddine; Mrissa, Ridha

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare disease. It has numerous and complex etiologies. Inherited or acquired prothrombotic states play a key role in the development of this disease, such as factor V G1691A mutation (FV Leiden). A 15-year-old girl presented to the Department of Neurology with a complaint of severe headache with visual blurring. The diagnosis of CVT was not initially suspected because of the patient's condition on presentation. An MRI showed thrombosis in the superior sagittal sinus, confirming venous stroke. Anticardiolipin and antiphospholipid antibodies were assessed. In addition, inherited prothrombotic defects, such as protein C, protein S, and antithrombin deficiencies, and genetic mutations for FV Leiden, prothrombin gene G20210A (FII G20210A), and methyltetrahydrofolate reductase C677T (MTHFR C677T) were studied. All results were unremarkable except for the unique homozygous FV Leiden mutation, which likely contributed to this prothrombotic situation. This study highlights the fact that FV Leiden may play a significant role in the onset of CVT in young patients. PMID:22048515

  14. Scoliosis screening results of primary school students (11-15 years old group) in the west side of Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Çolak, Tuğba Kuru; Apti, Adnan; Dereli, E Elçin; Özdinçler, Arzu Razak; Çolak, İlker

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to find out the scoliosis prevalence 11-15 years old children and to create awareness about scoliosis. [Subjects and Methods] All of the children were assessed using the Adams Forward Bendings Test and a scoliometer. Sagittal plane changes such as kyphosis, lordosis, hypokyphosis, hypolordosis and anterior head tilt were screened. Children with trunk rotation angles (ATR) of 4 degrees or more were suspected of having scoliosis, and were evaluated for a second time for gibbosity height, arm-trunk distance, and ATR. [Results] A total of 2,207 children were screened and the evaluation revealed there were 11 girls (0.49%) with a Cobb angle of 10 degrees and more. The maximum Cobb angle was 43° (right thoracic-left lumbar) and the maximum ATR was 12°. Two children had kyphosis and lordosis, and one had hypokyphosis and was diagnosed as having idiopathic scoliosis. [Conclusion] Families should regularly check their children, even if they are not diagnosed as having scoliosis in school screenings. It is our opinion that our study increased the awareness of the families about scoliosis by screening, brochures and posters. In the future, if school screenings were performed as a routine procedure and scoliotic students were followed over the long term, the actual effectiveness of screening would be able to be detected. PMID:26504296

  15. [Publishing--weighty characteristic of scientific productivity (analysis of scientific publications of 15-years period since Chernobyl catastrophe)].

    PubMed

    Bebeshko, V H; Bazyka, D A; Chumak, A A; Zapisochnyĭ, O Z

    2003-01-01

    We have carried out a complex analysis of scientific reports of the RCRM for the last 15-years since Chernobyl holocaust. One may notice considerable growth of circulation and quality coefficient of publication of scientific research. The tendency shape of the publications over a period of 1986-2001 looks like a straight line and dynamics of references on RCRM publications--an exponential curve. Degree of scientific effort connected with priority directions of the RCRM considerably exceed similar indices in the world. Studies of immunological and hematological irradiation effects, radiation shielding of population, radiation impact on a fetus and offspring are being carried out most intensively nowadays. The article highlights the innovations in the work of the center as a leading part of the research of the RCRM closely tied with the Chernobyl tragedy and its medical consequences, urgent need to improve and develop methodical and directive documents to make better health care management of Ukrainian people suffered from Chernobyl disaster. The above-mentioned consequences and accumulated experience of their resolution having global character, are not only important for Ukraine, but also have an international value.

  16. Concurrent little leaguer's elbow and shoulder in a 15-year-old baseball pitcher and football quarterback.

    PubMed

    Domes, Christopher M; Petering, Ryan C; Chesnutt, James C; Mirarchi, Adam

    2012-01-16

    Little leaguer's elbow and Little leaguer's shoulder are overuse pathologies seen in overhead-throwing athletes. No instance of simultaneously occurring pathologies has been published. A 15-year-old baseball pitcher and football quarterback developed pain in his throwing shoulder and elbow during spring baseball, which partially resolved with several months of rest. During fall football practice, he felt a pop and pain over his medial throwing elbow. Five days after the initial injury, medial elbow tenderness, mild swelling, and decreased range of motion were noted. Radiographs revealed a Salter I avulsion fracture of the medial humeral epicondyle (Little leaguer's elbow) and a periosteal reaction along the lateral aspect of the humeral metadiaphysis with slight widening (Little leaguer's shoulder). Surgical fixation of the medial epicondyle fracture and nonoperative treatment of the shoulder pathology were performed. Two-year follow-up radiographs showed a healed medial epicondylar fracture and resolution of the periosteal reaction of the humeral metadiaphysis. The patient returned to full activity and was starting quarterback for his football team. Biomechanical forces specific to overhead-throwing activities are associated with the development of Little leaguer's elbow and shoulder. Treatments of both pathologies remain controversial, with either initial operative vs nonoperative care. In this patient, a good outcome was achieved with surgical fixation of the elbow fracture and conservative management of the shoulder pathology. Educating coaches and parents on proper throwing technique and pitching limits should be the first step in reducing the occurrence of either pathology in this population.

  17. Fifteen Years of Collaborative Innovation and Achievement: NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 15-Year Program Performance and Results Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaaf, Michaela M. (Editor); Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Avery Shelly; Calamaio, Caprice; Carstenson, Larry; Dugan, James; Farr, Lynne; Farritor, Shane

    2003-01-01

    This 15-year evaluation serves as a summary document highlighting the numerous and complete successes of the Nebraska Space Grant Program. Innovation has been highlighted through significant new endeavors during this 5-year period, such as placement of students and faculty at NASA Centers and the expansion of NSGC Native American Outreach Programs. While the last national program evaluation resulted in Nebraska s ranking as the top Capability Enhancement Consortium, and 5th best overall, Nebraska felt there was room for significant growth and development. This has been validated through the recent competitive attainment of Designated Grant status and has allowed for the exploration of new initiatives, as well as the expansion of already successful programs. A comprehensive strategic planning effort has involved all Nebraska representative entities and has guided Nebraska Space Grant through the evaluation period, providing a basis for continual advancement. Nebraska rigorously employs evaluation techniques to ensure that stated outcomes and metrics are achieved and that weaknesses are identified and corrected. With this coordinated approach, Nebraska expects that the next 5 years will yield new opportunities for significant achievement. Nebraska Space Grant will embrace new national endeavors, including the integration of Pender Public Schools -Nebraska s NASA Explorer School, geospatial initiatives, and the National Student Satellite Program.

  18. Cerebral venous thrombosis associated with homozygous factor V Leiden mutation in a 15-year-old girl of Tunisian origin

    PubMed Central

    Salem-Berrabah, Olfa Ben; Fekih-Mrissa, Nejiba; Laayouni, Samy; Gritli, Nasreddine; Mrissa, Ridha

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare disease. It has numerous and complex etiologies. Inherited or acquired prothrombotic states play a key role in the development of this disease, such as factor V G1691A mutation (FV Leiden). A 15-year-old girl presented to the Department of Neurology with a complaint of severe headache with visual blurring. The diagnosis of CVT was not initially suspected because of the patient's condition on presentation. An MRI showed thrombosis in the superior sagittal sinus, confirming venous stroke. Anticardiolipin and antiphospholipid antibodies were assessed. In addition, inherited prothrombotic defects, such as protein C, protein S, and antithrombin deficiencies, and genetic mutations for FV Leiden, prothrombin gene G20210A (FII G20210A), and methyltetrahydrofolate reductase C677T (MTHFR C677T) were studied. All results were unremarkable except for the unique homozygous FV Leiden mutation, which likely contributed to this prothrombotic situation. This study highlights the fact that FV Leiden may play a significant role in the onset of CVT in young patients. PMID:22048515

  19. Dental caries status and oral health practice among 12-15 year old children in Jorpati, Kathmandu.

    PubMed

    Khanal, S; Acharya, J

    2014-09-01

    Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. There has been a decline in dental caries and periodontal disease in developed countries which can be attributed to the implementation of preventive programmes but in developing countries dental diseases are still on the rise. Therefore this cross sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene practices among 12 to 15 years old children. Self administered close ended questionnaires were used to assess the oral hygiene practice. The overall dental caries prevalence was 58.3% and the mean DMFT score was 1.2 (± 1.79) and the deft score was 0.6 (± 1.24). Majority of the children (84.1%) presented with the practice of brushing their teeth once everyday using tooth brush and toothpaste. Regular dental check up was very poor (5.6%) but 77.4% reported that they visited a dentist in case of pain or presence of stains in the teeth. Females (63.4%) and children studying in higher secondary class (74.2%) showed a "good" level of oral hygiene practice than males and children in secondary class respectively. Children having "good" practice presented with "low" dental caries severity. The utilization of dental services was poor in the children, therefore highlighting the necessity to implement preventive programmes is important which would help in reducing the incidence of the dental caries as well as aiding in prompt treatment of dental caries at its initial stages.

  20. Overview of the MISSE 7 Polymers and Zenith Polymers Experiments After 1.5 Years of Space Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Grace T.; deGroh, Kim, K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Haloua, Athena; Imka, Emily C.; Mitchell, Gianna G.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE 7), two experiments called the Polymers Experiment and the Zenith Polymers Experiment were flown on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) and exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment for 1.5 years. The Polymers Experiment contained 47 samples, which were flown in a ram or wake flight orientation. The objectives of the Polymers Experiment were to determine the LEO atomic oxygen erosion yield (Ey, volume loss per incident oxygen atoms, given in cu cm/atom) of the polymers, and to determine if atomic oxygen erosion of high and low ash containing polymers is dependent on fluence. The Zenith Polymers Experiment was flown in a zenith flight orientation. The primary objective of the Zenith Polymers Experiment was to determine the effect of solar exposure on the erosion of fluoropolymers. Kapton H (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) was flown in each experiment for atomic oxygen fluence determination. This paper provides an introduction to both the MISSE 7 Polymers Experiment and the MISSE 7 Zenith Polymers Experiment, and provides initial erosion yield results.

  1. Maturation and Diversity of the VRC01-Antibody Lineage over 15 Years of Chronic HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xueling; Zhang, Zhenhai; Schramm, Chaim A; Joyce, M Gordon; Kwon, Young Do; Zhou, Tongqing; Sheng, Zizhang; Zhang, Baoshan; O'Dell, Sijy; McKee, Krisha; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Longo, Nancy S; Lynch, Rebecca M; Saunders, Kevin O; Soto, Cinque; Srivatsan, Sanjay; Yang, Yongping; Bailer, Robert T; Louder, Mark K; Mullikin, James C; Connors, Mark; Kwong, Peter D; Mascola, John R; Shapiro, Lawrence

    2015-04-23

    HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies develop in most HIV-1-infected individuals, although highly effective antibodies are generally observed only after years of chronic infection. Here, we characterize the rate of maturation and extent of diversity for the lineage that produced the broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01 through longitudinal sampling of peripheral B cell transcripts over 15 years and co-crystal structures of lineage members. Next-generation sequencing identified VRC01-lineage transcripts, which encompassed diverse antibodies organized into distinct phylogenetic clades. Prevalent clades maintained characteristic features of antigen recognition, though each evolved binding loops and disulfides that formed distinct recognition surfaces. Over the course of the study period, VRC01-lineage clades showed continuous evolution, with rates of ∼2 substitutions per 100 nucleotides per year, comparable to that of HIV-1 evolution. This high rate of antibody evolution provides a mechanism by which antibody lineages can achieve extraordinary diversity and, over years of chronic infection, develop effective HIV-1 neutralization. PMID:25865483

  2. Treatment of choledochal cyst in a pediatric population. A single institution experience of 15-years. Case series

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Baez, Hector; Coello-Ramírez, Pedro; Ixtabalán-Escalante, Eddy Mizraím; Sotelo-Anaya, Eduardo; Gallo-Morales, Mariana; Cordero-Estrada, Eduardo; Sainz-Escarrega, Victor Hugo; Ploneda-Valencia, César Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Background Choledochal cyst (CC) is a rare congenital anomaly of the bile duct that approximately 75% of the patients are diagnosed in childhood. Without a standardized surgical procedure for the biliary reconstruction, we present our experience over the last 15 years and show the differences between the biliary reconstructions techniques in our population. Methods We did a retrospective hospital archive search for patients admitted to the pediatric surgery department with the diagnosis of a choledochal cyst from January 2000 to June 2015. Results We found 15 patients, of which, 1 was excluded because of missing data from the hospital record. Of the remaining 14, eight had hepaticojejunal (HY) anastomosis in Roux-en-Y, with a 25% rate of complications; six had hepatoduodenal (HD) anastomosis with a rate of complications of 16.6%. The average hospital length of stay in the group of HD vs. HY was 14 ± 1.6-days vs. 19 ± 8.2-days respectively. Discussion There are no standardized surgical reconstruction techniques of the biliary tract after the CC excision, there is literature that supports the biliary reconstruction with an HY and an HD without a distinct advantage over one or the other. Conclusion: In our series HD anastomosis represents a safe procedure with fewer complications than HY. PMID:26900456

  3. Neurocognitive dysfunction and psychosocial outcome in patients with bipolar I disorder at 15-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Burdick, K. E.; Goldberg, J. F.; Harrow, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Despite increasing interest in cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder, little is known about its impact on functional outcome relative to affective symptoms. Method A total of 33 bipolar I subjects were evaluated at index hospitalization and prospectively followed up 15 years later. Affective symptoms, cognition, global functioning, work, and social adjustment were assessed at follow-up and analyzed by linear regression. Results Global functional impairment was significantly associated with poor performance on a cognitive measure of processing speed (WAIS Digit Symbol). Digit symbol performance also was the sole significant predictor of social functioning. Neither symptom severity nor course of illness features significantly contributed to global and social functioning. In contrast, verbal learning deficits, recent depression, and lifetime hospitalizations all were independently associated with work disability. Conclusion Processing speed is robustly associated with social and global functioning in bipolar disorder. Poor work functioning is significantly related to subsyndromal depression, course of illness, and verbal learning deficits. Cognitive and mood symptoms warrant consideration as independent determinants of functioning in patients with bipolar disorder many years after an index manic episode. PMID:20637012

  4. Effects of mountain beaver management and thinning on 15-year-old Douglas fir growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Dan L; Engeman, Richard M; Farley, James P

    2015-07-01

    We examined 4-year growth of 15-year-old damaged and undamaged Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzesii) after integrating temporary population reductions of mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) with thinning in a pre-commercial hand-planted plantation in western Washington. Five treatment combinations were considered: (1) trapping mountain beavers in an unthinned area, (2) trapping before thinning to 65 trees/ha (160 trees/ac), (3) no trapping and thinning to 65 trees/ha, (4) no trapping and thinning to 146 trees/ha (360 trees/ac), and (5) no trapping and no thinning. Removal of ≥ 90 % of mountain beavers temporarily reduced mountain beaver activity whether the stand was unthinned or thinned. Diameter growth at breast height (dbh) was greater for undamaged trees than for damaged trees in thinned areas. Tree height growth was greatest in trapped areas whether thinned or not. No differences were detected in 4-year survival between trees damaged aboveground and those without aboveground damage, which may be related to undetected root damage to trees without aboveground damage. Basal diameter growth and dbh growth were greatest for areas thinned to 65 trees/ha. Seventy-eight percent of stomachs from mountain beaver trapped in winter contained Douglas fir root or stem materials. Overall, short-term removal of mountain beavers integrated with pre-commercial thinning promoted growth of crop trees.

  5. Assessment of the Dietary Intake of Schoolchildren in South Africa: 15 Years after the First National Study

    PubMed Central

    Steyn, Nelia; Eksteen, Gabriel; Senekal, Marjanne

    2016-01-01

    There has not been a national dietary study in children in South Africa since 1999. Fortification of flour and maize meal became mandatory in October 2003 to address micronutrient deficiencies found in the national study in 1999. The purpose of this review was to identify studies done after 1999 in schoolchildren, 6–15 years old, in order to determine whether dietary intakes reflected improvements in micronutrients, namely: iron, zinc, vitamin A, folate, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and niacin. An electronic and hand search was done to identify all studies complying with relevant inclusion criteria. The search yielded 10 studies. Overall, there is a paucity of dietary studies which have included the fortified nutrients; only four, of which only one, reported on all micronutrients; making it difficult to determine whether fortification has improved the micronutrient intake of schoolchildren. This is further complicated by the fact that different dietary methods were used and that studies were only done in three of the nine provinces and thus are not generalizable. The results of these studies clearly point to the importance of doing a national study on the dietary intake of schoolchildren in order to confirm the outcomes of the fortification process. PMID:27548214

  6. Vocations as a source of identity: reciprocal relations between Big Five personality traits and RIASEC characteristics over 15 years.

    PubMed

    Wille, Bart; De Fruyt, Filip

    2014-03-01

    Although work is a core part of life, the direction of influence from personality to work has typically been conceived as only unidirectional. The present study aims to contribute to the literature by considering reciprocal relations between personality and occupational characteristics, drawing on current perspectives from personality psychology (i.e., the social investment principle) and using a well-established framework to conceptualize career development (i.e., Holland's RIASEC theory). For this purpose, a longitudinal cohort of college alumni (N = 266) was tracked across a substantial and significant period in their professional career. Big Five personality traits and RIASEC occupational characteristics were assessed at the career start and 15 years later when their careers had unfolded. A combination of observed and latent variable analyses were used to disentangle the longitudinal and reciprocal relations between traits and occupational characteristics. Our results indicate that personality shapes and is shaped by our vocational experiences, suggesting that work can be a source of identity. The implications for theory and research on personality in the industrial and organizational literature are discussed alongside a number of practical implications for organizational and counseling settings.

  7. Effects of mountain beaver management and thinning on 15-year-old Douglas fir growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Dan L; Engeman, Richard M; Farley, James P

    2015-07-01

    We examined 4-year growth of 15-year-old damaged and undamaged Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzesii) after integrating temporary population reductions of mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) with thinning in a pre-commercial hand-planted plantation in western Washington. Five treatment combinations were considered: (1) trapping mountain beavers in an unthinned area, (2) trapping before thinning to 65 trees/ha (160 trees/ac), (3) no trapping and thinning to 65 trees/ha, (4) no trapping and thinning to 146 trees/ha (360 trees/ac), and (5) no trapping and no thinning. Removal of ≥ 90 % of mountain beavers temporarily reduced mountain beaver activity whether the stand was unthinned or thinned. Diameter growth at breast height (dbh) was greater for undamaged trees than for damaged trees in thinned areas. Tree height growth was greatest in trapped areas whether thinned or not. No differences were detected in 4-year survival between trees damaged aboveground and those without aboveground damage, which may be related to undetected root damage to trees without aboveground damage. Basal diameter growth and dbh growth were greatest for areas thinned to 65 trees/ha. Seventy-eight percent of stomachs from mountain beaver trapped in winter contained Douglas fir root or stem materials. Overall, short-term removal of mountain beavers integrated with pre-commercial thinning promoted growth of crop trees. PMID:25772877

  8. X-ray Sources in the Magellanic Clouds: analysis of 15 Years of XMM-Newton and Chandra Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Laycock, S.; Christodoulou, D.; Drake, J.; Fingerman, S.; Hong, J.; Zezas, A.; Antoniou, V.; Coe, M.; Ho, W.

    2016-06-01

    Using ˜160 XMM-Newton, ˜180 Chandra, and all weekly RXTE observations, we have generated a comprehensive library of the known pulsars in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC, LMC). We classify various pulsar properties in the range of log L_{X}=32-38 erg s^{-1} and incorporate related parameters in theoretical models. With the high time-resolution data of the EPIC and Chandra cameras and the latest calibration files and software, our 15 year pipeline generates a suite of useful products for each pulsar detection: event lists, high time-resolution light curves, periodograms, spectra, and complete histories of the dot{P}, the pulse fraction, etc., in the broad, soft (0.2-2 keV), and hard (2-12 keV) energy bands. After combining the observations from these telescopes, we found that 15 pulsars are clearly spinning up and another 15 pulsars are distinctly spinning down. We also used the faintest and brightest sources to map out the propeller line and the Eddington line, respectively. We compared the observed pulse profiles to geometric models of X-ray emission in order to constrain the physical parameters of the pulsars. We are preparing a public release of this library so that it can be used by other groups as well.

  9. Assessment of the Dietary Intake of Schoolchildren in South Africa: 15 Years after the First National Study.

    PubMed

    Steyn, Nelia; Eksteen, Gabriel; Senekal, Marjanne

    2016-01-01

    There has not been a national dietary study in children in South Africa since 1999. Fortification of flour and maize meal became mandatory in October 2003 to address micronutrient deficiencies found in the national study in 1999. The purpose of this review was to identify studies done after 1999 in schoolchildren, 6-15 years old, in order to determine whether dietary intakes reflected improvements in micronutrients, namely: iron, zinc, vitamin A, folate, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and niacin. An electronic and hand search was done to identify all studies complying with relevant inclusion criteria. The search yielded 10 studies. Overall, there is a paucity of dietary studies which have included the fortified nutrients; only four, of which only one, reported on all micronutrients; making it difficult to determine whether fortification has improved the micronutrient intake of schoolchildren. This is further complicated by the fact that different dietary methods were used and that studies were only done in three of the nine provinces and thus are not generalizable. The results of these studies clearly point to the importance of doing a national study on the dietary intake of schoolchildren in order to confirm the outcomes of the fortification process. PMID:27548214

  10. Lessons learnt from the 15 years experience of the French case in the field of HLLL waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ouzounian, G.

    2007-07-01

    Year 2006 has been marked in France by the vote in the Parliament of the Planning Act of 28 June, 2006, concerning the sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste. This vote was the achievement of a 15 years research programme performed as required by the previous Research Law of 1991, also known as the Bataille Law, from the name of Christian Bataille, MP, who drafted it and monitored its enforcement as a member of the Parliamentary Office for Scientific and Technological Assessment (Office Parlementaire d'Evaluation des Choix Scientifiques et Techniques - OPECST). At that time a stepwise approach to siting was introduced in the process. It included the study of several alternatives to the geological disposal of long lived high level radioactive waste. Those alternatives have been thoroughly studied and assessed before the Government decided to submit the bill to the Parliament. Experience has been gained not only on the scientific and technical aspects, but also in the field of decision making process, also called now governance. However, not only the results of the research programme were decisive in preparing the bill, but also of major importance were the industrial experience of ANDRA and the rigorous programme management along all those years. Main lessons learnt from the experience are given in this paper. (authors)

  11. Step-wise kinetics of natural physical ageing in arsenic selenide glasses.

    PubMed

    Golovchak, R; Kozdras, A; Balitska, V; Shpotyuk, O

    2012-12-19

    The long-term kinetics of physical ageing at ambient temperature is studied in Se-rich As-Se glasses using the conventional differential scanning calorimetry technique. It is analysed through the changes in the structural relaxation parameters occurring during the glass-to-supercooled liquid transition in the heating mode. Along with the time dependences of the glass transition temperature (T(g)) and partial area (A) under the endothermic relaxation peak, the enthalpy losses (ΔH) and calculated fictive temperature (T(F)) are analysed as key parameters, characterizing the kinetics of physical ageing. The latter is shown to have step-wise character, revealing some kinds of subsequent plateaus and steep regions. A phenomenological description of physical ageing in the investigated glasses is proposed on the basis of an alignment-shrinkage mechanism and first-order kinetic equations.

  12. Aging in the Natural World: Comparative Data Reveal Similar Mortality Patterns Across Primates

    PubMed Central

    Bronikowski, Anne M.; Altmann, Jeanne; Brockman, Diane K.; Cords, Marina; Fedigan, Linda M.; Pusey, Anne; Stoinski, Tara; Morris, William F.; Strier, Karen B.; Alberts, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    Human senescence patterns—late onset of mortality increase, slow mortality acceleration, and exceptional longevity—are often described as unique in the animal world. Using an individual-based data set from longitudinal studies of wild populations of seven primate species, we show that contrary to assumptions of human uniqueness, human senescence falls within the primate continuum of aging; the tendency for males to have shorter life spans and higher age-specific mortality than females throughout much of adulthood is a common feature in many, but not all, primates; and the aging profiles of primate species do not reflect phylogenetic position. These findings suggest that mortality patterns in primates are shaped by local selective forces rather than phylogenetic history. PMID:21393544

  13. A Logistic Regression Analysis of Turkey's 15-Year-Olds' Scoring above the OECD Average on the PISA'09 Reading Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasapoglu, Koray

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate which factors are associated with Turkey's 15-year-olds' scoring above the OECD average (493) on the PISA'09 reading assessment. Collected from a total of 4,996 15-year-old students from Turkey, data were analyzed by logistic regression analysis in order to model the data of students who were split…

  14. Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Christina T.L.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K.; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Arnold, Alice M.; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nalls, Michael A.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G.; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S.; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M.; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Press, Michael F.; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F.; Taylor, Herman A.; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K.; Harris, Tamara B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H.; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W.; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA. PMID:24493794

  15. Nature, Nurture, and Age in Language Acquisition: The Case of Speech Perception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wode, Henning

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews the research on speech perception and reassesses the contribution of innate capacities versus external stimulation in conjunction with age in first- and second-language acquisition. A developmental model of speech perception is then discussed in relation to neonatal auditory perception. (Contains 86 references.) (MDM)

  16. Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Chen, Christina T L; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K; Andrews, Jeanette S; Arnold, Alice M; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E; Kerr, Kathleen F; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K; Musani, Solomon K; Nalls, Michael A; Raffel, Leslie J; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L; Goodarzi, Mark O; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L; Olshan, Andrew F; Press, Michael F; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F; Taylor, Herman A; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K; Harris, Tamara B; Henderson, Brian E; Kardia, Sharon L R; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G; Zonderman, Alan B; Cupples, L Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2014-06-15

    Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA.

  17. [Suicide attempts by young adolescents: epidemiological characteristics of 517 15-year-old or younger adolescents admitted in French emergency departments].

    PubMed

    Giraud, P; Fortanier, C; Fabre, G; Ghariani, J; Guillermain, Y; Rouviere, N; Chabrol, B; Jouve, J-L; Simeoni, M-C

    2013-06-01

    Adolescents who attempt suicide are a major concern. A growing body of literature seeks to explain this phenomenon and to identify its predictive factors, but relatively little information is available and children and adolescents under 15 years of age who present to general hospitals because of a suicide attempt. This study aimed to describe the demographic, social, medical, and psychological characteristics of a large sample of 517 French adolescents aged not more than 15 years 3 months. A second purpose was to measure observance of psychological care in a 1-year follow-up. Third, we aimed to document the reattempt rate during the follow-up in this population of young adolescents. Following the French official recommendations, a systematic 72-h hospitalization as well as a somatic, social, and psychological assessment was proposed to every suicide attempter after his or her admission to the emergency department. The adolescent was followed for 1 year after the suicide attempt, called the index episode. This follow-up was organized by two physicians, one of whom was not associated with the care of any of the patients. It consisted in seeking regular information as well as organization and/or optimization of the patient's psychological care, which was delivered in dedicated structures for adolescents, in outpatient care by a psychiatrist, or in an adolescent psychiatric inpatient care unit. In case of a repeated suicide attempt or persistence of alarming symptoms, this follow-up was prolonged for 1 more year. Patient data were compiled by experienced clinicians during initial assessment and alongside the 1-year follow-up through patient self-reports, but also through interviews with informants (family members, social professionals) and clinical sources (general practitioner, psychiatrist, etc.). The areas covered were the characteristics of the index episode, those of the population at the time of the index episode, as well as those of the 1-year follow

  18. Long-term assessment of natural attenuation: statistical approach on soils with aged PAH contamination.

    PubMed

    Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Chenot, Elodie-Denise; Masfaraud, Jean-François; Schwartz, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    Natural attenuation processes valorization for PAH-contaminated soil remediation has gained increasing interest from site owners. A misunderstanding of this method and a small amount of data available does not encourage its development. However, monitored natural attenuation (MNA) offers a valuable, cheaper and environmentally friendly alternative to more classical options such as physico-chemical treatments (e.g., chemical oxidation, thermal desorption). The present work proposes the results obtained during a long-term natural attenuation assessment of historically contaminated industrial soils under real climatic conditions. This study was performed after a 10 year natural attenuation period on 60 off-ground lysimeters filled with contaminated soils from different former industrial sites (coking industry, manufactured gas plants) whose initial concentration of PAH varied between 380 and 2,077 mg kg(-1). The analysed parameters included leached water characterization, soil PAH concentrations, evaluation of vegetation cover quality and quantity. Results showed a good efficiency of the PAH dissipation and limited transfer of contaminants to the environment. It also highlighted the importance of the fine soil fractions in controlling PAH reactivity. PAH dissipation through water leaching was limited and did not present a significant risk for the environment. This PAH water concentration appeared however as a good indicator of overall dissipation rate, thereby illustrating the importance of pollutant availability in predicting its degradation potential.

  19. HLW Return from France to Germany - 15 Years of Experience in Public Acceptance and Technical Aspects - 12149

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Wilhelm

    2012-07-01

    Since in 1984 the national reprocessing concept was abandoned the reprocessing abroad was the only existing disposal route until 1994. With the amendment of the Atomic Energy Act in 2001 spent fuel management changed completely since from 1 June 2005 any delivery of spent fuel to reprocessing plants was prohibited and the direct disposal of spent fuel became mandatory. Until 2005 the total amount of spent fuel to be reprocessed abroad added up to 6080 t HM, 5309 t HM thereof in France. The waste generated from reprocessing - alternatively an equivalent amount of radioactive material - has to be returned to the country of origin according to the commercial contracts signed between the German utilities and COGEMA, now AREVA NC, in France and BNFL, now INS in UK. In addition the German and the French government exchanged notes with the obligation of both sides to enable and support the return of reprocessing residues or equivalents to Germany. The return of high active vitrified waste from La Hague to the interim storage facility at Gorleben was demanding from the technical view i. e. the cask design and the transport. Unfortunately the Gorleben area served as a target for nuclear opponents from the first transport in 1996 to the latest one in 2011. The protection against sabotage of the railway lines and mass protests needed highly improved security measures. In France and Germany special working forces and projects have been set up to cope with this extraordinary situation. A complex transport organization was established to involve all parties in line with the German and French requirements during transport. The last transport of vitrified residues from France has been completed successfully so far thus confirming the efficiency of the applied measures. Over 15 years there was and still is worldwide no comparable situation it is still unique. Summing up, the exceptional project handling challenge that resulted from the continuous anti-nuclear civil disobedience in

  20. Dental pain among 10–15 year old children attending oral health promoting schools: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Saheer, Abdul; Kousalya, Pallavi Swami; Raju, Rekha; Gubbihal, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dental pain is a major public health problem and one of the consequences of oral diseases which requires significant adjustments in life management leading to decreased quality of life. Objective: To assess prevalence of dental pain and its impact on daily life and to explore its relationship with oral health behavior and clinical oral status among 10-15 year old school children attending oral health promoting schools. Method: This cross sectional study was conducted in 6 schools serving low -middle socio economic strata in Bangalore, India. A total of 1237 children were surveyed for history of dental pain during past 3 month. Participants who reported dental pain completed self-reported oral health behaviour and Child dental pain questionnaire. Clinical oral examination included assessment of dental caries, periodontal status. Data was analyzed using t - test, Chi-square test, ANOVA and Regression Analysis. Results: Prevalence of dental pain was 15.6% (n = 194). Among children with pain, 17%, 43% and 40% reported mild, moderate and severe pain. Impact on daily activities was reported by 66%. Mean DMFT and DMFS was 1.80 and 2.11 Mean deft and defs was 2.47 and 3.41. Multiple logistic regression revealed that severity and impact of dental pain was associated with gender, frequency of tooth brushing, consumption of sweets and deciduous dental caries experience. Conclusion: Prevalence of Dental pain is associated with brushing behavior, consumption of sweets and deciduous dental caries experience, showing need for further attention to these conditions and a need to strengthen preventive and therapeutic dental services. PMID:26942112