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Sample records for 15-year study period

  1. Gingival proliferative lesions in children and adolescents in Brazil: A 15-year-period cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    daSilva, Fabiana Caroline; Piazzetta, Cleto Mariosvaldo; Torres-Pereira, Cassius Carvalho; Schussel, Juliana Lucena; Amenábar, José Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies assessing the prevalence of oral lesions in children and adolescents, particularly in gingiva are scarce in the literature. The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of gingival proliferative lesions based on clinical and histopathological diagnoses in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: A review of clinical charts of children and adolescents aged between 0 and 18 years old, admitted to the Oral Medicine Outpatient Unit, of Universidade Federal do Paraná, for 15 years (1994–2009) was performed. Results: Six hundred and sixty-nine out of 5,129 patients treated during this period were aged between 0 and 18 years old, and 45 of these had gingival lesions. The largest number of lesions was observed between 11 and 16 years old. The majority of the patients were referred by Curitiba's public health system. Pyogenic granuloma was the most frequent lesion (19 = 42.2%), followed by peripheral giant cell lesion (11 = 24.4%), gingival fibromatosis (10 = 22.2%), and peripheral ossifying fibroma (5 = 11.1%). Conclusion: Gingival proliferative lesions can show similar clinical characteristics. Appropriate clinical and histopathological diagnoses are necessary to guide the healthcare professional to establish the adequate treatment and to estimate the risk of recurrence. PMID:27041840

  2. The Relation between Occupational Sitting and Mental, Cardiometabolic, and Musculoskeletal Health over a Period of 15 Years – The Doetinchem Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Picavet, H. Susan J.; Pas, L. Willemijn; van Oostrom, Sandra H.; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Proper, Karin I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Sedentary behaviors are reported to impose health risks. Since occupational exposure is a major proportion of total sedentary time, we studied the association between occupational sitting and a number of health problems. Methods From the longitudinal Doetinchem Cohort Study, we selected those working at baseline with complete data (n = 1,509). Participants were examined four times at 5 year-intervals between 1993 and 2012. We characterized occupational sitting as follows: 1) stable sitters and stable non sitters over a 15-year period, based on job characteristics and (2) having a job with a low, moderate or high amount of sitting, based on tertiles of self-reported number of hours per week of occupational sitting, measured at wave 5. Linear and logistic regression models were used. Outcomes were self-reported mental health, low-back or upper extremity pain, and objectively measured cardiometabolic health (overweight, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia). Results Compared to stable non sitters, a lower risk of chronic upper extremity pain was observed for stable sitters (OR 0.75, 95% CI: 0.57; 1.00) as well as for those in the two upper tertiles for hours of occupational sitting (>4 hr/wk) (OR 0.65; 95%CI 0.50–0.86). For the other health outcomes studied, no significant associations were found with occupational sitting. Conclusion Our findings do not support the hypothesis that occupational sitting is associated with health problems. The finding that occupational sitting is associated with less upper extremity pain might be due to the association of occupational sitting with less physical load. PMID:26752695

  3. Within-person reproducibility of red blood cell mercury over a 10- to 15-year period among women in the Nurses' Health Study II.

    PubMed

    Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Roberts, Andrea L; Nielsen, Flemming; Tworoger, Shelley S; Grandjean, Philippe; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2016-01-01

    Most epidemiologic studies of methylmercury (MeHg) health effects rely on a single measurement of a MeHg biomarker to assess long-term exposures. Long-term reproducibility data are, therefore, needed to assess the reliability of a single measure to reflect long-term exposures. In this study, we assessed within-person reproducibility of red blood cell (RBC) mercury (Hg), a marker of methyl-mercury, over 10-15 years in a sample of 57 women. Fifty-seven women from the Nurses' Health Study II provided two blood samples 10-15-years apart (median: 12 years), which were analyzed for mercury levels in the red blood cells (B-Hg*). To characterize within-person reproducibility, we estimated correlation and intraclass correlation coefficients (r and ICC) across the two samples. Further, we compared different prediction models, including variables on fish and seafood consumption, for B-Hg* at the first sample, using leave-one-out cross-validation to assess predictive ability. Overall, we observed strong correlations over 10-15 years (r=0.69), as well as a high ICC (0.67; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.79). Fish and seafood consumption reported concurrently with the first B-Hg* sample accounted for 26.8% of the variability in that B-Hg*, giving a correlation of r=0.52. Despite decreasing B-Hg* levels over time, we observed strong correlations and high ICC estimates across B-Hg* measured 10-15 years apart, suggesting good relative within-person stability over time. Our results indicate that a single measurement of B-Hg* likely is adequate to represent long-term exposures. PMID:25492240

  4. Children Treated for Nocturnal Enuresis: Characteristics and Trends over a 15-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Kushnir, Baruch; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal Enuresis (NE) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders and has significant negative psychosocial impact on the child and family. Objective: To assess the characteristics of children with NE and trends over a 15-year period. Methods: The study included 18,677 children [11,205 (60%) boys and 7,472 (40%) girls] referred…

  5. A descriptive and follow-up study of 40 parricidal patients hospitalized in a French secure unit over a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Raymond, S; Léger, A S; Lachaux, B

    2015-01-01

    Parricide is rare and represents 3% of all homicides in France, and 4% of resolved homicides in North America. Consequently, related international literature is sparse, especially concerning the evolution of offenders, and most studies concern small samples or anecdotal cases. We wished to identify the main characteristics of parricidal subjects and their victims, and to assess the socioclinical evolution of the offenders after the assault. To this end, we first studied the sociodemographic, clinical and forensic characteristics of all parricidal patients admitted to France's Henri Colin secure unit between 1996 and 2010 (40 patients). We also assessed the evolution of the 36 patients who had left the secure unit, using questionnaires sent to the psychiatric hospitals where the patients were transferred. We found most offenders to be men (97.5%), with a mean age of 28 years, who were mostly single, unemployed, living with the victim prior to the assault (77.5%), and with a history of psychiatric disorder (72.5%). The population of offenders also displayed an overrepresentation of schizophrenia (87.5%), significant toxic exposure and criminal or violent history. Some patients had attempted suicide before or right after the offense. The assault was mostly committed in the parent's house with an edged weapon, and was characterized by brutality and lack of premeditation. Precipitating factors included substance use and cessation of psychotropic medication. Matricide was more frequent than patricide. At the time of this study, half of the parricidal patients were working or attending therapeutic activities, and most were actively keeping in contact with their family, living as compliant outpatients with no signs of violent behavior. The results of our study on 40 parricidal patients are consistent with data in the literature. With regard to sample evolution, family and community reintegration was relatively effective considering the seriousness of the offense. Several

  6. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period*

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  7. Patch-test results in children and adolescents: systematic review of a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Dulcilea Ferraz; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade

    2016-02-01

    The number of studies on patch-test results in children and adolescents has gradually increased in recent years, thus stimulating reviews. This paper is a systematic review of a 15-year period devoted to studying the issue. Variations pertaining to the number and age groups of tested children and/or adolescents, the number of subjects with atopy/atopic dermatitis history, the quantity, type and concentrations of the tested substances, the test technique and type of data regarding clinical relevance, must all be considered in evaluating these studies, as they make it harder to formulate conclusions. The most common allergens in children were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, lanolin and neomycin. In adolescents, they were nickel, thimerosal, cobalt, fragrance, potassium dichromate, and Myroxylon pereirae. Knowledge of this matter aids health professionals in planning preventive programs aimed at improving children's quality of life and ensuring that their future prospects are not undermined. PMID:26982781

  8. Hemoptysis workup before embolization: single-center experience with a 15-year period follow-up.

    PubMed

    de Gregorio, Miguel A; Medrano, Joaquin; Laborda, Alicia; Higuera, Teresa

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this work was to present our experience in arterial embolization in the endovascular treatment of massive hemoptysis and remark on the importance of the workup before embolization. We present some clinical aspects to keep in mind before carrying out a bronchial embolization in a patient with severe hemoptysis. The main causes of hemoptysis are presented, as well as diagnosis means and the most important therapeutic procedures aimed to stabilize the patient who will undergo a bronchial arterial embolization. Likewise, we present our own experience with 401 patients with over a 15-year period of follow-up. PMID:18572140

  9. The WIYN Open Cluster Study: A 15-Year Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, Robert D.; WOCS Collaboration

    2013-06-01

    The WIYN 3.5m telescope combines large aperture, wide field of view and superb image quality. The WIYN consortium includes investigators in numerous areas of open cluster research. The combination spawned the WIYN Open Cluster Study (WOCS) over a decade ago, with the goals of producing 1) comprehensive photometric, astrometric and spectroscopic data for new fundamental open clusters and 2) addressing key astrophysical problems with these data. The set of core WOCS open clusters spans age and metallicity. Low reddening, solar proximity and richness were also desirable features in selecting core open clusters. More than 50 WIYN Open Cluster Study papers have been published in refereed journals. Highlights include: deep and wide-field photometry of NGC 188, NGC 2168 (M35), and NGC 6819 (WOCS I, II, XI and LII); deep and wide-field proper-motion studies of the old open clusters NGC 188, NGC 2682 (M67) and NGC 6791 (WOCS XVII, XXXIII and XLVI); comprehensive radial-velocity surveys of NGC 188, NGC 2168 and NGC 6819 (WOCS XXXII, XXIV, and XXXVIII); metallicity and lithium abundances in NGC 2168 (WOCS V); comprehensive definition of the hard-binary populations of NGC 188 and NGC 2168 (WOCS XXII and XLVIII); rotation period distributions in NGC 1039 (M34) and NGC 2168 (WOCS XXXV, XLIII, and XLV); study of chromospheric activity in NGC 2682 (WOCS XVIII); photometric variability surveys in NGC 188 and NGC 2682 (IX and XV); new Bayesian techniques for determination of cluster parameters (WOCS XXIII); a new infrared age-diagnostic for open clusters (WOCS XL); theoretical studies of stellar rotation (WOCS XIII and XIV); sophisticated N-body simulations of NGC 188 (WOCS LI); and the discovery of a high binary frequency and white dwarf companions among NGC 188 blue stragglers. While the WIYN 3.5m telescope remains at its heart, today the WIYN Open Cluster Study collaboration extends beyond both the WIYN observatory and consortium, and continues as a vital and productive

  10. Perinatal statistics of a 15-year period in the Central Region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Sobaih, Badr H; Al-Shebly, Mashael M.

    2013-01-01

    Perinatal statistics are one of the most essential outcome indicators used by many developed countries in order to evaluate perinatal services provided to newborns. In this retrospective study, we collected 15 years of perinatal data at King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in order to determine stillbirth and other mortality rates in our institute and compare them with international figures. A total of 58,073 babies were evaluated. Data were collected from maternal and neonatal registry books and from perinatal mortality and morbidity meeting reports between 1994 and 2008. Data were entered and analyzed using Microsoft Office Excel 2007. The stillbirth rate was 11.7/1000, early neonatal death rate was 3.4/1000, perinatal mortality rate (PMR) was 14.9/1000, and corrected PMR was 11.9/1000. Our rates were not significantly different from those of North American and European ones. We noticed a dramatic reduction in the corrected PMR in the last 3 years of the study because of greater advancement in perinatal and neonatal care. Our mortality rates were comparable to the North American and European rates which may reflect the quality of perinatal care provided in our institute. PMID:27493354

  11. Investigating Sexual Abuse: Findings of a 15-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…

  12. Non-neoplastic salivary gland lesions: a 15-year study.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Harsh; Tahlan, Anita; Mundi, Irneet; Punia, R P S; Dass, Arjun

    2011-08-01

    The spectrum of salivary gland lesions is wide and the relative incidence of neoplastic versus non-neoplastic lesions is variable in different studies. A series of non-neoplastic salivary gland lesions is reviewed to analyze their spectrum and their relative frequency. This is a retrospective study of salivary gland excisions and biopsies received in our department from January 1994 to December 2008. Routine hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of all the salivary gland excisions and biopsies received were analyzed. Of the 393 salivary gland excisions and biopsies received, 216 cases were reported as non-neoplastic (55%) and formed our study group; 177 (45%) were neoplastic. Non-neoplastic lesions were more frequent in major salivary glands (65.7%) and submandibular gland was the most commonly involved (66.2%). Lip was the most frequent site (81.7%) for minor salivary gland lesions. Inflammation was the predominant pathological finding (49.5%), of which non-specific chronic sialadenitis constituted the majority (86.9%). Sialolithiasis was present in 22 cases (20.6%); all of these cases were of non-specific chronic sialadenitis. Cysts were second in frequency (36.6%), of which mucocele was the most common (54.5%). There were 5.6% cases of benign lympho-epithelial lesions, while normal salivary gland tissue was seen in 6.5% cases. Non-neoplastic salivary gland diseases are more common than neoplastic diseases and have a wide disease spectrum. PMID:21170719

  13. Pattern of acute poisonings in children below 15 years--a study from Mangalore, South India.

    PubMed

    Ram, Pradhum; Kanchan, Tanuj; Unnikrishnan, B

    2014-07-01

    Acute poisoning in children is a problem ubiquitous in distribution and is an important paediatric emergency. The present research was aimed to study the pattern and outcome of childhood poisoning under the age of 15 years at a tertiary care centre in South India to characterize the problem of acute paediatric poisoning among the children in different age group in the region. Medical records of all poisoning patients admitted during 2010 and 2011 were reviewed, and the information relating to the sociodemographic and clinical profile of the patients was recorded. Acute poisoning was reported in 81 children aged below 15 years during the study period. 50.6% were boys (n = 41) and 49.4% girls (n = 40). The mean age of the study sample was 6.8 years. Mean age was observed to be higher in females than males. The maximum number of cases were observed in the below 5 years age group (n = 45). A male predominance was evident in the below 5 years age group, while a female predominance in the age group between 10 and 15 years. Kerosene (n = 23, 28.4%) and organophosphate compounds (n = 16, 19.8%) were the most common agents responsible for poisoning in children. The majority of the poisoning cases were reported to the hospital within 12 h of the incident (n = 65, 83.3%). The mortality in paediatric poisoning was observed to be 7.4%. The majority of the children (n = 68, 84.0%) recovered, while seven patients had left the hospital against medical advice (8.6%). The study reports agrochemicals and hydrocarbons to be the most commonly implicated agents in paediatric poisoning. The cause of paediatric poisonings varies in different age groups and hence, preventive strategies should be planned accordingly. PMID:24931857

  14. Reanalysis of archived IMPROVE PM2.5 samples previously analyzed over a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Hyslop, Nicole P; Trzepla, Krystyna; White, Warren H

    2012-09-18

    The IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments) network has collected airborne particulate matter (PM) samples at locations throughout the United States since 1988. These samples have been analyzed for elemental content using analytical methods that evolved over the years. Changes in analytical methods sometimes introduced shifts in reported concentrations that are evident in the historical record. We sought to illuminate the effects of methodological changes by reanalyzing archived samples with current methods. To test the feasibility of this approach, the 15-year archive of PM samples from Great Smoky Mountains National Park was selected for reanalysis as a single analytical batch using a common protocol and calibration. Comparisons of the reanalyses and original analyses indicate that concentrations of all but one measured element, Br, remained stable on the filters over years of storage. The agreement between the two analyses varied with element and original measurement method. For elements measured well above their contemporary detection limits - S, K, Ca, Fe, and Zn - the reanalysis established that method changes had limited impacts on reported concentrations, generally <10%. For elements originally measured near their detection limits, reanalysis confirmed the presence of discontinuities in the data record, many of which were previously recognized and documented as method-related. PMID:22913377

  15. Malaysia family-planning centers strive to maintain gains won in 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Roemer, R

    1968-09-12

    Family planning in Malaysia is discussed. Family planning began in Malaysia about 15 years ago through the efforts of voluntary family Planning Associations in the various Malay states. In 1966 the Malaysian Parliament passed the National Family Planning Act setting up the National FAmily Planning Board to formulate policies and methods for the promotion and spread of family planning knowledge and practice on the grounds of health of mothers and children and welfare of the family. In 1967, the board set a target of 40,000 new acceptors of family planning and 90% of the target was reached. This represents 3% of the child-bearing married women aged 15-49. The target for 1968 of 65,000 new acceptors is being achieved. A survey of acceptors is to be carried out from December 1968 to April 1969 to ascertain how many women who accepted family planning continue to practice it. Malaysia's crude birth rate declined from 46.2 in 1957 to 37.3 in 1966 before the government program was instituted. Abortion attempts have been frequent. The main method of contraception used is oral contraceptives. According to a 1957 survey, 31% of the married women in the metropolitan areas and 2% of rural women were using contraception. Presently, in Malaysia there is a need to: 1) train personnel to provide services, 2) inform and motivate families to accept family planning, 3) continue a broad educational program, 4) reform Malaysia's antiquated abortion law, and 5) integrate family planning services more fully into the general health services of the country. PMID:12229348

  16. Fifty cases of late prosthetic valve endocarditis: improvement in prognosis over a 15 year period.

    PubMed

    Leport, C; Vilde, J L; Bricaire, F; Cohen, A; Pangon, B; Gaudebout, C; Valere, P E

    1987-07-01

    The clinical course, prognostic factors, and management of 50 cases of late prosthetic valve endocarditis, occurring more than two months after valve replacement, were reviewed. Twenty nine cases that presented from 1971 to 1980 were compared with 21 cases that presented from 1981 to 1985. Apart from an appreciable decrease in the frequency of neurological complications between the first period (38%) and the second period (10%) no differences in clinical or bacteriological features were seen. Seventeen (59%) of the 29 cases in the earlier period and four (19%) of the 21 cases in the later period died. The rationale for antimicrobial treatment was similar during both periods. Cardiac surgery was performed in eight of 29 cases between 1971 and 1980 and in 11 of 21 between 1981 and 1985; the mean (SD) time between diagnosis of endocarditis and operation was 28 (19) days and 43 (44) days respectively. Six of the eight cases operated on in the first period died as did two of the 11 operated on in the second period. Twenty seven of the 29 cases presenting between 1971 and 1980 were treated with anticoagulants--either warfarin (15 of 27) or heparin sodium (12 of 27). Sixteen of the 21 cases presenting later were given anticoagulants and 15 of these cases were given heparin sodium. Control of anticoagulation was inadequate in nine of the 27 cases treated with anticoagulants during the first period and in only two of 16 treated during the second period. During the first treatment period neurological complications were more frequent when control of anticoagulation was inadequate. PMID:3620245

  17. Clinicopathological analysis of salivary gland tumors over a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Artur Cunha; Nör, Felipe; Meurer, Luise; Salvadori, Gabriela; Souza, Lélia Batista de; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Salivary gland tumors (SGT) are rare neoplasms that generate interest due to their histopathological diversity and clinical behavior. The aims of the present study were to investigate clinicopathological aspects of SGTs diagnosed at a tertiary health center and compare the findings with epidemiological data from different geographic locations. Cases of tumor in the head and neck region at a single health center in the period between 1995 and 2010 were reviewed. Patient gender, age and ethnic group as well as anatomic location, histological type and clinical behavior of the tumor were recorded. Availability of complete information about these aspects was considered the inclusion criteria. Descriptive statistical analysis of the data was performed using the frequencies of categorical variables. Among the 2168 cases of tumors in the head and neck region, 243 (11.20%) cases were diagnosed in the salivary glands, 109 of which met the inclusion criteria: 85 (78%) benign tumors and 24 (22%) malignant tumors. Mean patient age was 46.47 years. The female gender accounted for 56 cases (51.4%) and the male gender accounted for 53 (48.3%). The major salivary glands were affected more (75.2%) than the minor glands. The most frequent benign and malignant SGTs were pleomorphic adenoma (81.2%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (58.3%), respectively. In conclusion, pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma are the most frequent benign and malignant lesions, respectively. Comparing the present data with previous studies on SGTs, one may infer that some demographic characteristics and the predominance of malignant tumors vary in different geographic regions. PMID:26676198

  18. Sea Ice Monitoring Using Quikscat & Ascat Scatterometers during the Last 15-Year Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard-Ardhuin, F.

    2014-12-01

    Microwave sensors onboard polar orbit satellites are commonly used for sea ice monitoring at high latitude : radiometers are routinely used for this application and scatterometers have also shown they can contribute significantly to it. Since 1991, numerous scatterometers data at C and Ku-bands are available since ERS-1 with NSCAT, QuikSCAT, OSCAT, HY, and ASCAT sensors. In this presentation, we will show how the recent QuikSCAT and ASCAT sensors could be used to build 15-year observation data time series for sea ice monitoring for both Arctic and Antarctic areas. Backscatter data enable to discriminate sea ice from open ocean areas, in particular scatterometers are useful to detect new ice, even at the early stage of growth which is not possible using radiometers. Backscatter data from scatterometer can also be used for sea ice type detection (first year from multi-year sea ice in the Arctic), results and differences between C-band and Ku-band sensors results will be presented. Moreover, sea ice displacement maps can be built in central Arctic from backscatter data, examples will be shown using the merging of scatterometer and radiometer data. We will see in this presentation that Antarctic sea ice displacement maps can also be inferred. From these displacement maps, mean sea surface currents can be estimated. In this presentation we will also focus on the benefit of the use of the two ASCAT sensors that are presently available (onboard MetOp-A -since 2007 and -B, since 2012), in particular for the Antarctic area. This presentation will enhance i) the need of scatterometer data for sea ice application with many examples of the inferred parameters in particular from the U.S. QuikSCAT/SeaWinds and the E.U. MetOp/ASCATs scatterometers ii) the need of the continuity of scatterometers missions and iii) the benefit of the combination of sensors and datasets (scatterometers, scatterometers with radiometers) for a long-term observation of the polar areas. These data are

  19. Semen Analysis in Cancer Patients Referred for Sperm Cryopreservation before Chemotherapy over a 15-Year Period in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Ja Yoon; Park, Nam Cheol; Jeon, Tae Gyeong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the demographics and semen parameters of males with cancer who banked their sperm prior to chemotherapy. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective study of 66 cases referred for sperm banking prior to initiation of chemotherapy over a 15-year period (1999~2014). Patients who had previously received cancer treatment including chemotherapy or radiotherapy were not included in this study. Results We studied a total of 66 cancer patients referred for cryopreservation of sperm prior to chemotherapy. The mean age of the patients at the time of banking was 32.0±7.9 years (range, 19~58 years). The types of cancer were testicular cancer (31 cases, 47.0%), non-Hodgkin's disease (10 cases, 15.1%), Hodgkin's disease (5 cases, 7.6%), leukemia (8 cases, 12.1%), gastrointestinal malignancy (5 cases, 7.6%), and musculoskeletal malignancy (5 cases, 7.6%). There were significant differences in sperm concentration and viability among the various types of cancer, but no significant difference in semen volume or sperm motility and morphology. Conclusions In this study we found that sperm quality could decrease even before chemotherapy. Because chemotherapy can also negatively affect spermatogenesis, sperm cryopreservation prior to treatment should be strongly recommended for cancer patients of reproductive age. PMID:25927057

  20. Defining emergency department episodes by severity and intensity: A 15-year study of Medicare beneficiaries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Episodes of Emergency Department (ED) service use among older adults previously have not been constructed, or evaluated as multi-dimensional phenomena. In this study, we constructed episodes of ED service use among a cohort of older adults over a 15-year observation period, measured the episodes by severity and intensity, and compared these measures in predicting subsequent hospitalization. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of the prospective cohort study entitled the Survey on Assets and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD). Baseline (1993) data on 5,511 self-respondents ≥70 years old were linked to their Medicare claims for 1991-2005. Claims then were organized into episodes of ED care according to Medicare guidelines. The severity of ED episodes was measured with a modified-NYU algorithm using ICD9-CM diagnoses, and the intensity of the episodes was measured using CPT codes. Measures were evaluated against subsequent hospitalization to estimate comparative predictive validity. Results Over 15 years, three-fourths (4,171) of the 5,511 AHEAD participants had at least 1 ED episode, with a mean of 4.5 episodes. Cross-classification indicated the modified-NYU severity measure and the CPT-based intensity measure captured different aspects of ED episodes (kappa = 0.18). While both measures were significant independent predictors of hospital admission from ED episodes, the CPT measure had substantially higher predictive validity than the modified-NYU measure (AORs 5.70 vs. 3.31; p < .001). Conclusions We demonstrated an innovative approach for how claims data can be used to construct episodes of ED care among a sample of older adults. We also determined that the modified-NYU measure of severity and the CPT measure of intensity tap different aspects of ED episodes, and that both measures were predictive of subsequent hospitalization. PMID:20565949

  1. The Asset-Burden Paradox of Giftedness: A 15-Year Phenomenological, Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2012-01-01

    A 15-year phenomenological case study of an exceptional female from age 15 through 30 was focused on exploring the subjective experience of development during adolescence and young adulthood, with attention to how giftedness and context interacted. The main focus became her response to trauma, which was revealed early in the study. Data, including…

  2. Hospitalization Incidence, Mortality, and Seasonality of Common Respiratory Viruses Over a Period of 15 Years in a Developed Subtropical City

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Paul K.S.; Tam, Wilson W.S.; Lee, Tsz Cheung; Hon, Kam Lun; Lee, Nelson; Chan, Martin C.W.; Mok, Hing Yim; Wong, Martin C.S.; Leung, Ting Fan; Lai, Raymond W.M.; Yeung, Apple C.M.; Ho, Wendy C.S.; Nelson, E. Anthony S.; Hui, David S.C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Information on respiratory viruses in subtropical region is limited. Incidence, mortality, and seasonality of influenza (Flu) A/B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus (ADV), and parainfluenza viruses (PIV) 1/2/3 in hospitalized patients were assessed over a 15-year period (1998–2012) in Hong Kong. Male predominance and laterally transversed J-shaped distribution in age-specific incidence was observed. Incidence of Flu A, RSV, and PIV decreased sharply from infants to toddlers; whereas Flu B and ADV increased slowly. RSV conferred higher fatality than Flu, and was the second killer among hospitalized elderly. ADV and PIV were uncommon, but had the highest fatality. RSV, PIV 2/3 admissions increased over the 15 years, whereas ADV had decreased significantly. A “high season,” mainly contributed by Flu, was observed in late-winter/early-spring (February–March). The “medium season” in spring/summer (April–August) was due to Flu and RSV. The “low season” in late autumn/winter (October–December) was due to PIV and ADV. Seasonality varied between viruses, but predictable distinctive pattern for each virus existed, and temperature was the most important associating meteorological variable. Respiratory viruses exhibit strong sex- and age-predilection, and with predictable seasonality allowing strategic preparedness planning. Hospital-based surveillance is crucial for real-time assessment on severity of new variants. PMID:26579810

  3. A 15-year warranty period for asymptomatic individuals without coronary artery calcium: a prospective follow-up of 9715 individuals

    PubMed Central

    Valenti, Valentina; Hartaigh, Bríain ó; Heo, Ran; Cho, Iksung; Schulman-Marcus, Joshua; Gransar, Heidi; Truong, Quynh A.; Shaw, Leslee J.; Knapper, Joseph; Kelkar, Anita A.; Sandesara, Pratik; Lin, Fay Y.; Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Callister, Tracy Q.; Min, James K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine long-term prognosis of a zero coronary artery calcium (CAC) score among asymptomatic individuals and its associated warranty period. Background Emerging evidence supports CAC=0 as a favorable cardiovascular short-to-intermediate term prognostic factor. Methods 9715 individuals undergoing CAC imaging were stratified by age, Framingham risk score (FRS) and Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) categories and followed for a mean of 14.6 (12.9–16.8) years. Cox regression, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and net reclassification information (NRI) were used to assess all-cause mortality, discrimination and reclassification of CAC=0 compared with FRS and NCEP ATP III, respectively. A warranty period was pre-defined as <1% annual mortality rate. Vascular age was estimated by linear regression. Results Among 4864 individuals with baseline CAC=0 (mean age 52.1±10.8 years; 57.9% male), 229 deaths occurred. The warranty period of CAC=0 was almost 15 years for individuals at low and intermediate risk with no significant differences regarding age and gender. CAC=0 was associated with a vascular age of 1, 10, 20, and 30 years below chronologic age for individuals between 50–59, 60–69, 70–79, and ≥80 years, respectively. CAC score was the strongest predictor of death (HR 2.67, 95% CI 2.29–3.11) that enabled discrimination and consistent reclassification beyond FRS (AUC 0.71 vs. 0.64, p<0.001) and NCEP ATP III (AUC 0.72 vs. 0.64, p<0.001). Conclusions CAC=0 confers a 15-year warranty period against mortality among individuals at low-to-intermediate risk, which is unaffected by age or gender. Furthermore, in individuals considered at high-risk by clinical risk scores the presence of CAC=0 confers better survival than in individuals at low-to-intermediate risk but with any CAC. PMID:26189116

  4. Traumatic brain injury in children in Denmark: a national 15-year study.

    PubMed

    Engberg, A; Teasdale, T W

    1998-02-01

    Demographic trends are reported concerning three types of traumatic brain injury (concussions, cranial fractures, and intracranial contusions/haemorrhages) among children in Denmark of ages up to and including 14 years, for a fifteen year period from 1979 through 1993. The data were derived from a national computer-based hospitalization register and include 49,594 children, of whom 60% were boys and 89% had suffered a concussion. Virtually all injuries were the result of accidents. A major finding was that there has been a general decline in the incidence of traumatic brain injuries, especially for boys from 5 to 14 years old, suggesting a degree of success in preventive measures, particularly regarding road safety. The incidence of fatal cases of intracranial contusions/haemorrhages approximately halved over the 15 year period. However, as a proportion of all diagnosed cases, mortality from intracranial contusions/haemorrhages remained fairly constant at about 22%, perhaps because there have been no markedly successful innovations in acute care. Among children surviving a intracranial contusions/haemorrhages, rather considerable numbers were found to have been awarded disability pension at ages under 30. PMID:9556176

  5. Locus of Control: Relation to Schizophrenia, to Recovery, and to Depression and Psychosis - A 15-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Harrow, Martin; Hansford, Barry G.; Astrachan-Fletcher, Ellen B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The present prospectively designed 15-year longitudinal research was conducted to study whether locus of control is linked to diagnosis, to major symptoms, to functioning and recovery, and to personality for schizophrenia patients, depressive patients, and patients with other major disorders. Procedure The research studied 128 patients from the Chicago Follow-up Study at the acute phase and reassessed them 5 times over a 15-year period. Patients were evaluated on locus of control, global outcome, recovery, premorbid developmental achievements, psychosis, diagnosis, depression, and personality variables. Results 1.) After the acute phase, schizophrenia patients were not more external than other diagnostic groups. 2.) Internality is associated with increased recovery in schizophrenia (p<.05). 3.) A more external locus of control was related to depression (p=.01). 4.) The relationship between externality and psychosis was significant (p<.05). Conclusions In severe psychiatric disorders a more external locus of control is not specific to schizophrenia and after the acute phase is not associated with one particular diagnostic group. A more external locus of control is related to fewer periods of recovery, to both depressed mood and psychosis, and to various aspects of personality (p<.05). PMID:19573929

  6. Marine mammal strandings and environmental changes: a 15-year study in the St. Lawrence ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Truchon, Marie-Hélène; Measures, Lena; L'Hérault, Vincent; Brêthes, Jean-Claude; Galbraith, Peter S; Harvey, Michel; Lessard, Sylvie; Starr, Michel; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994-2008; n = 1,193) and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice) to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have increased since 1994. Poor ice conditions observed during the same period may have affected marine mammals either directly, by modulating the availability of habitat for feeding and breeding activities, or indirectly, through changes in water conditions and marine productivity (krill abundance). For most species (75%, n = 6 species), a low volume of ice was correlated with increasing frequency of stranding events (e.g. R(2)adj = 0.59, hooded seal, Cystophora cristata). This likely led to an increase in seal mortality during the breeding period, but also to increase habitat availability for seasonal migratory cetaceans using ice-free areas during winter. We also detected a high frequency of stranding events for mysticete species (minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and resident species (beluga, Delphinapterus leucas), correlated with low krill abundance since 1994. Positive NAO indices were positively correlated with high frequencies of stranding events for resident and seasonal migratory cetaceans, as well as rare species (R(2)adj = 0.53, 0.81 and 0.34, respectively). This contrasts with seal mass stranding numbers, which were negatively correlated with a positive NAO index. In addition, an unusual multiple species mortality event (n = 114, 62% of total annual mortality) in 2008 was caused by a harmful algal bloom. Our findings provide an empirical baseline in understanding marine mammal survival when faced with climatic variability. This is a promising

  7. Marine Mammal Strandings and Environmental Changes: A 15-Year Study in the St. Lawrence Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Truchon, Marie-Hélène; Measures, Lena; L’Hérault, Vincent; Brêthes, Jean-Claude; Galbraith, Peter S.; Harvey, Michel; Lessard, Sylvie; Starr, Michel; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the effects of climatic variability on marine mammals is challenging due to the complexity of ecological interactions. We used general linear models to analyze a 15-year database documenting marine mammal strandings (1994–2008; n = 1,193) and nine environmental parameters known to affect marine mammal survival, from regional (sea ice) to continental scales (North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO). Stranding events were more frequent during summer and fall than other seasons, and have increased since 1994. Poor ice conditions observed during the same period may have affected marine mammals either directly, by modulating the availability of habitat for feeding and breeding activities, or indirectly, through changes in water conditions and marine productivity (krill abundance). For most species (75%, n = 6 species), a low volume of ice was correlated with increasing frequency of stranding events (e.g. R2adj = 0.59, hooded seal, Cystophora cristata). This likely led to an increase in seal mortality during the breeding period, but also to increase habitat availability for seasonal migratory cetaceans using ice-free areas during winter. We also detected a high frequency of stranding events for mysticete species (minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and resident species (beluga, Delphinapterus leucas), correlated with low krill abundance since 1994. Positive NAO indices were positively correlated with high frequencies of stranding events for resident and seasonal migratory cetaceans, as well as rare species (R2adj = 0.53, 0.81 and 0.34, respectively). This contrasts with seal mass stranding numbers, which were negatively correlated with a positive NAO index. In addition, an unusual multiple species mortality event (n = 114, 62% of total annual mortality) in 2008 was caused by a harmful algal bloom. Our findings provide an empirical baseline in understanding marine mammal survival when faced with climatic variability. This is a promising

  8. The dental specialties related articles published in Medical Journal Armed Forces India from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Thorakkal

    2015-12-01

    There is a paucity of information about the dental specialties related articles published in the Medical Journal Armed Forces India (MJAFI). This study aimed to audit the dental specialities related articles published in MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period. Bibliometric analysis of sixty issues of MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 were performed using web-based search. The articles published were analyzed for type of article and topic of individual dental specialities. The articles published were also evaluated to identify whether the study was an Armed Forces Medical Research Committee Project or funded research project or not. Out of the total 118 published articles related to dental specialities, original articles (55) and case reports (49) contribute the major share. The highest number of dental specialities related articles was published in 2009 with 16, followed by 2010 with 13 and 2011 with 11 and the least published year was 2013 with 3 articles. Regarding the relationship with dental specialities, the maximum number of published articles were related to oral medicine and radiology (56) followed by oral and maxillofacial surgery (49), orthodontics (23) and prosthodontics (17). Among the articles published in MJAFI, maxillofacial injuries (11) followed by orthodontic treatment (8) and craniofacial deformities (8) form the major attraction of the contributors. Among the 118 dental speciality articles, there were only 4 Armed Forces Medical Research Committee Project articles and 19 funded research project articles. An equal distribution of articles related to clinical dentistry and nonclinical dentistry is maintained for the MJAFI from 2000 to 2014 over a 15-year period. PMID:26858474

  9. CD4 Dynamics over a 15 Year-Period among HIV Controllers Enrolled in the ANRS French Observatory

    PubMed Central

    Boufassa, Faroudy; Saez-Cirion, Asier; Lechenadec, Jérome; Zucman, David; Avettand-Fenoel, Véronique; Venet, Alain; Rouzioux, Christine; Delfraissy, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    Background There are few large published studies of HIV controllers with long-term undetectable viral load (VL). We describe the characteristics and outcomes of 81 French HIV controllers. Methods and Results HIV controllers were defined as asymptomatic, antiretroviral-naïve persons infected ≥10 years previously, with HIV-RNA <400 copies/mL in >90% of plasma samples. All available CD4 and VL values were collected at enrolment. Mixed-effect linear models were used to analyze CD4 cell count slopes since diagnosis. HIV controllers represented 0.31% of all patients managed in French hospitals. Patients infected through intravenous drug use were overrepresented (31%) and homosexual men were underrepresented (26% of men) relative to the ANRS SEROCO cohort of subjects diagnosed during the same period. HIV controllers whose VL values were always below the detection limit of the assays were compared with those who had rare “blips” (<50% of VL values above the detection limit) or frequent blips (>50% of VL values above the detection limit). Estimated CD4 cell counts at HIV diagnosis were similar in the three groups. CD4 cell counts remained stable after HIV diagnosis in the “no blip” group, while they fell significantly in the two other groups (−0.26√CD4 and −0.28√CD4/mm3/year in the rare and frequent blip groups, respectively). No clinical, immunological or virological progression was observed in the no blip group, while 3 immunological and/or virological events and 4 cancers were observed in the blip subgroups. Conclusions Viral blips in HIV controllers are associated with a significant decline in CD4 T cells and may be associated with an increased risk of pathological events, possibly owing to chronic inflammation/immune activation. PMID:21533035

  10. Homicidal deaths in the Western suburbs of Paris: a 15-year-study.

    PubMed

    Cros, Jérôme; Alvarez, Jean-Claude; Sbidian, Emilie; Charlier, Philippe; Lorin de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy

    2012-12-01

    The aim of our study was to analyze the homicide pattern in the Western suburbs of Paris and its evolution between 1994 and 2008. All autopsy reports regarding homicides from the period January 1, 1994, to December 31, 2008, were retrospectively reviewed. Five hundred eleven homicide cases were selected of 4842 autopsy cases. The following data were recorded: assailants and victims characteristics, crime scene location, homicide motive, cause of death, and victim's postmortem toxicological results. Homicide rate steadily declined over the period at the exception of the number of homicide-suicide per year, which remained constant. Homicide victims remained unidentified after medicolegal investigations in 2% of the cases. Child and elder homicide cases represented, respectively, 10.7% and 8.2% of the cases. Offenders were male in 88% of the cases. Male and female assailants showed distinct homicide patterns: females were involved more frequently in familial quarrel and child abuse. They never killed a stranger and committed homicide exclusively in a private place with a predominance of sharp weapons. Males, in contrast, assaulted almost equally a stranger or an acquaintance, often in a public place with a predominance of firearm. Victim knew the assailant(s) in 57% of the cases. Homicides mostly took place at the residence of the assailant or the victim. Homicide motive was clearly determined in 71% of the cases. Argument was the most common motive in 44% of the cases. Sexual assault was rarely found (10 cases). Gunshot wounds were the most common cause of death (37%), followed by stab wounds (27%), blunt trauma (19%), and asphyxia (13%). A decrease of gunshot wounds as a cause of death was found over the studied period. Alcohol was the most common toxic detected in blood of the victim, in 48.5% of the cases when toxicological results were available. Blood alcohol concentration ranged from 1 to 500 mg/dL with a mean value of 150 mg/dL. PMID:22922553

  11. Fatal Passenger Vehicle Crashes with At Least 1 Driver Younger than 15 Years: A Fatality Analysis Reporting System Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Larry; Plessinger, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Context: A small number of fatalities continue to occur due to motor vehicle crashes on highways in which at least 1 passenger vehicle (automobile, van, or small truck) is driven by a child younger than 15 years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to extend previous work suggesting that such crashes occur frequently in the Southern states and…

  12. What Can Influence Students' Environmental Attitudes? Results from a Study of 15-Year-Old Students in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Hebel, Florence; Montpied, Pascale; Fontanieu, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the environmental attitudes (EA) in the population of 15-year-old French students and, to check if the French student population presents similar EA categorization as described in the different models in the literature (e.g. the Model of Ecological Values, Wiseman & Bogner 2003). The second aim of…

  13. Individuality and Contextual Influences on Drug Dependence: A 15-Year Prospective Longitudinal Study of Adolescents from Harlem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; Lee, Jung Yeon; Brown, Elaine N.; Finch, Stephen J.; Brook, David W.

    2012-01-01

    In this 15-year longitudinal study the authors investigated individual and contextual factors that predispose adolescents from a disadvantaged urban area to drug dependence in adulthood. Adolescents were recruited from schools serving East Harlem in New York City. Of the 838 participants followed to adulthood, 59% were women, 55% were African…

  14. Factors influencing the decision about orthodontic treatment. A longitudinal study among 11- and 15-year-olds and their parents.

    PubMed

    Birkeland, K; Katle, A; Løvgreen, S; Bøe, O E; Wisth, P J

    1999-01-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the attitude towards orthodontic treatment among 11-(T1) and 15-year-old children (T2) and their parents, to present the distribution of referral rate and treatment uptake by a treatment need index assessed at T1 and to elucidate factors influencing the decision about orthodontic treatment in the period from T1 to T2. A group of 359 children and their parents answered separate questionnaires at T1, and 293 families responded to a follow-up study 4 years later. For the clinical examination, 224 children participated after exclusion of children in active treatment. The dental study casts were assessed by the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). The mean referral rate was 56%, with a variation from 40% to 71% among different dental clinics. About 44% of the children had completed or were undergoing orthodontic treatment at T2. No significant sex differences among referred and treated children were discovered. Aesthetic motives were the most frequently reported subjective reason for orthodontic care. The untreated group expressed diminishing treatment desire in the follow-up period. The logistic regression analysis selected Dental Health Component (DHC) grades as a strong predictor for treatment uptake, followed by parents' concern and attitude to braces, while the 11-year-olds' own orthodontic concern was less significant. Children in the untreated group with late treatment decisions (T2) were best predicted by Aesthetic Component (AC) changes from T1 to T2. The results indicate that dentists play a key role in determining orthodontic treatment levels. High referral rates secured low risk of denying care to some patients. Treatment decision may be guided by the orthodontist. However, individual variation in attitude and desire influence treatment uptake even among children with great need. PMID:10546413

  15. Does Breastfeeding Protect Against Substantiated Child Abuse and Neglect? A 15-Year Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Strathearn, Lane; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Najman, Jake M.; O'Callaghan, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Child maltreatment is associated with multiple adverse developmental outcomes in children. Surprisingly, the most frequently reported perpetrator is the biological mother. Understanding early relationship factors that may help prevent maltreatment is of utmost importance. We explored whether breastfeeding may protect against maternally-perpetrated child maltreatment. Methods 7223 Australian mother-infant pairs were followed prospectively over 15 years. In 6621 cases (91.7%), the duration of breastfeeding was analyzed with respect to child maltreatment (including neglect, physical abuse and emotional abuse), based on substantiated child protection agency reports. Multinomial logistic regression was used to compare no maltreatment with non-maternal and maternally-perpetrated maltreatment, and to adjust for confounding in 5890 cases with complete data (81.5%). Potential confounders included sociodemographic factors, pregnancy wantedness, substance abuse during pregnancy, postpartum employment, attitudes regarding infant caregiving, and symptoms of anxiety or depression. Results Of 512 children with substantiated maltreatment reports, over 60% experienced at least one episode of maternally-perpetrated abuse or neglect (4.3% of cohort). The odds ratio (OR) for maternal maltreatment increased as breastfeeding duration decreased, with the odds of maternal maltreatment in non-breastfed children 4.8 times the odds for children breastfed 4 or more months (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 3.3−6.9). After adjusting for confounding, the odds for non-breastfed infants remained 2.6 times higher (95% CI 1.7−3.9), with no association seen between breastfeeding and non-maternal maltreatment. Maternal neglect was the only maltreatment subtype independently associated with breastfeeding duration (adjusted OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.1−7.0). Conclusion Among other factors, breastfeeding may also help to protect against maternally-perpetrated child maltreatment, particularly child

  16. Early Childhood Caries and Caries Experience in Permanent Dentition: A 15-year Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Jordan, A Rainer; Becker, Natascha; Jöhren, Hans-Peter; Zimmer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, caries of young people has been declining since the late 1980s, while the prevalence of early childhood caries has remained steady. Data from a number of regional studies suggest a current prevalence between 10% and 15%. However, there is a dearth of longitudinal observational study data on the risk of caries in the permanent teeth of persons who as children had to undergo comprehensive treatment for caries under intubation general anesthesia. The aim of this study was to compare caries experience in the permanent teeth of patients who had to undergo surgical treatment under general anesthesia as a result of non-compliance with caries treatment in early childhood with the experience of patients who did not develop caries at a young age. Analysis of the data revealed that severe caries experience during early childhood resulted in a more severe caries experience during adulthood (difference: 14.8 DMFS; p = 0.001). This increase in caries experience applied to both untreated and treated carious surfaces, and was also apparent in relation to tooth extractions. When compared with persons whose first teeth had been caries-free, patients with severe childhood caries experience tended to show poorer dental hygiene in relation to smooth (p < 0.06) and interproximal (p < 0.04) surfaces. Patients who had been non-compliant as young children were not found to suffer from dental anxiety as young adults. Patients in the treatment and control groups differed with regard to dental health. Aside from being statistically relevant, these differences also have implications for clinical dental practice. PMID:26915485

  17. Early childhood precursors for eating problems in adolescence: a 15-year longitudinal community study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This longitudinal community study investigated the role of individual risk factors in early childhood (before age five) for the development of eating problems in adolescence. Nine hundred twenty-one mothers completed the first questionnaire when their child was 1.5 years old, and again when their child was 2.5 (n = 784) and 4.5 (n = 737) years old. Three hundred seventy-three of these children completed the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) when they were 16 years old. Results Mother-rated early childhood sleep problems (assessed before the age of five) predicted self-rated eating problems in adolescents, with gender, birth weight, and a number of early childhood internal and environmental factors controlled. Unexpectedly, early childhood eating problems were not associated with later eating problems. Conclusions The possible role of sleep in the development of eating problems needs further investigation. In particular, mediating mechanisms should be studied more closely. PMID:24999414

  18. Herpes zoster as a risk factor for osteoporosis: A 15-year nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chieh-Hsin; Chai, Chee-Yin; Tung, Yi-Ching; Lu, Ying-Yi; Su, Yu-Feng; Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Tzou, Rong-Dar; Lin, Chih-Lung

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of osteoporosis in patients with herpes zoster (HZ) infection using a nationwide population-based dataset. The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was used to compare data between 11,088 patients aged 20 to 49 years diagnosed with HZ during 1996 to 2010 and a control group of 11,088 patients without HZ. Both cohorts were followed up until the end of 2010 to measure the incidence of osteoporosis. Cox proportional-hazards regression and Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to calculate hazard ratio and cumulative incidences of osteoporosis, respectively. The overall risk of osteoporosis was 4.55 times greater in the HZ group than in the control group (2.48 vs. 0.30 per 1000 person-years, respectively) after adjusting for age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and related comorbidities. Compared with controls, patients with HZ and subsequent postherpetic neuralgia had a 4.76-fold higher likelihood of developing osteoporosis (95% confidence interval: 2.44-9.29), which was a statistically significant difference (P <0.001). Osteoporosis risk factors included female gender, age, advanced Charlson Comorbidity Index, depression, and postherpetic neuralgia. This study identified HZ is associated with an increased osteoporosis risk. Further evaluation of the value of bone mineral density test in detecting osteoporosis after HZ may be suggested. HZ vaccination could also be evaluated to lower the incidence of HZ and possibly subsequent osteoporosis. Physicians should be alerted to this association to improve early identification of osteoporosis in patients with HZ. PMID:27336887

  19. Prenatal Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Acids and Serum Testosterone Concentrations at 15 Years of Age in Female ALSPAC Study Participants

    PubMed Central

    Calafat, Antonia M.; Marcus, Michele; Jaakkola, Jouni J.K.; Lashen, Hany

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) or to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) increases mouse and human peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor alpha (PPARα) subtype activity, which influences lipid metabolism. Because cholesterol is the substrate from which testosterone is synthesized, exposure to these substances has the potential to alter testosterone concentrations. Objectives We explored associations of total testosterone and sex hormone–binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations at age 15 years with prenatal exposures to PFOS, PFOA, perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluoronanoic acid (PFNA) in females. Methods Prenatal concentrations of the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were measured in serum collected from pregnant mothers at enrollment (1991–1992) in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The median gestational age when the maternal blood sample was obtained was 16 weeks (interquartile range, 11–28 weeks). Total testosterone and SHBG concentrations were measured in serum obtained from their daughters at 15 years of age. Associations between prenatal PFAAs concentrations and reproductive outcomes were estimated using linear regression models (n = 72). Results Adjusted total testosterone concentrations were on average 0.18-nmol/L (95% CI: 0.01, 0.35) higher in daughters with prenatal PFOS in the upper concentration tertile compared with daughters with prenatal PFOS in the lower tertile. Adjusted total testosterone concentrations were also higher in daughters with prenatal concentrations of PFOA (β = 0.24; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.43) and PFHxS (β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.35) in the upper tertile compared with daughters with concentrations in the lower tertile. We did not find evidence of associations between PFNA and total testosterone or between any of the PFAAs and SHBG. Conclusions Our findings were based on a small study sample and should be interpreted with caution. However, they suggest that prenatal

  20. The characteristics of head wounds inflicted by "humane killer" (captive-bolt gun)--a 15-year study.

    PubMed

    Simic, Milan; Draskovic, Dragan; Stojiljkovic, Goran; Vukovic, Radenko; Budimlija, Zoran M

    2007-09-01

    The "humane killer" or captive-bolt gun, is the tool/weapon widely used in meat industry and private farmer households for slaughtering animal stock. Out of 17,250 autopsies performed at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Novi Sad during the 15-year period (1991-2005), 29 cases of suicides and two homicides were committed by captive-bolt pistols. Wounds inflicted by captive-bolt guns have specific morphological features, distinctive from wounds made by other kinds of hand firearms. Selected features of the captive-bolt wounds (punched round entrance and a double pattern of smoke soiling) depend on distance and angle of instrument at the time of firing. Autopsy findings were compared with an experimental model consisting of 20 domestic pigs. Obtained results confirmed that the appearance of the entrance hole and soot deposits, along with differences in shape, location, extent, and density of soot blackening, could be useful in identification of weapon, direction of discharge, shooting distance, and angle of the muzzle to the frontal and sagittal planes of the head at the moment of fire. PMID:17767661

  1. Assessment of the Dietary Intake of Schoolchildren in South Africa: 15 Years after the First National Study

    PubMed Central

    Steyn, Nelia; Eksteen, Gabriel; Senekal, Marjanne

    2016-01-01

    There has not been a national dietary study in children in South Africa since 1999. Fortification of flour and maize meal became mandatory in October 2003 to address micronutrient deficiencies found in the national study in 1999. The purpose of this review was to identify studies done after 1999 in schoolchildren, 6–15 years old, in order to determine whether dietary intakes reflected improvements in micronutrients, namely: iron, zinc, vitamin A, folate, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and niacin. An electronic and hand search was done to identify all studies complying with relevant inclusion criteria. The search yielded 10 studies. Overall, there is a paucity of dietary studies which have included the fortified nutrients; only four, of which only one, reported on all micronutrients; making it difficult to determine whether fortification has improved the micronutrient intake of schoolchildren. This is further complicated by the fact that different dietary methods were used and that studies were only done in three of the nine provinces and thus are not generalizable. The results of these studies clearly point to the importance of doing a national study on the dietary intake of schoolchildren in order to confirm the outcomes of the fortification process. PMID:27548214

  2. Assessment of the Dietary Intake of Schoolchildren in South Africa: 15 Years after the First National Study.

    PubMed

    Steyn, Nelia; Eksteen, Gabriel; Senekal, Marjanne

    2016-01-01

    There has not been a national dietary study in children in South Africa since 1999. Fortification of flour and maize meal became mandatory in October 2003 to address micronutrient deficiencies found in the national study in 1999. The purpose of this review was to identify studies done after 1999 in schoolchildren, 6-15 years old, in order to determine whether dietary intakes reflected improvements in micronutrients, namely: iron, zinc, vitamin A, folate, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and niacin. An electronic and hand search was done to identify all studies complying with relevant inclusion criteria. The search yielded 10 studies. Overall, there is a paucity of dietary studies which have included the fortified nutrients; only four, of which only one, reported on all micronutrients; making it difficult to determine whether fortification has improved the micronutrient intake of schoolchildren. This is further complicated by the fact that different dietary methods were used and that studies were only done in three of the nine provinces and thus are not generalizable. The results of these studies clearly point to the importance of doing a national study on the dietary intake of schoolchildren in order to confirm the outcomes of the fortification process. PMID:27548214

  3. Dental pain among 10–15 year old children attending oral health promoting schools: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Saheer, Abdul; Kousalya, Pallavi Swami; Raju, Rekha; Gubbihal, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dental pain is a major public health problem and one of the consequences of oral diseases which requires significant adjustments in life management leading to decreased quality of life. Objective: To assess prevalence of dental pain and its impact on daily life and to explore its relationship with oral health behavior and clinical oral status among 10-15 year old school children attending oral health promoting schools. Method: This cross sectional study was conducted in 6 schools serving low -middle socio economic strata in Bangalore, India. A total of 1237 children were surveyed for history of dental pain during past 3 month. Participants who reported dental pain completed self-reported oral health behaviour and Child dental pain questionnaire. Clinical oral examination included assessment of dental caries, periodontal status. Data was analyzed using t - test, Chi-square test, ANOVA and Regression Analysis. Results: Prevalence of dental pain was 15.6% (n = 194). Among children with pain, 17%, 43% and 40% reported mild, moderate and severe pain. Impact on daily activities was reported by 66%. Mean DMFT and DMFS was 1.80 and 2.11 Mean deft and defs was 2.47 and 3.41. Multiple logistic regression revealed that severity and impact of dental pain was associated with gender, frequency of tooth brushing, consumption of sweets and deciduous dental caries experience. Conclusion: Prevalence of Dental pain is associated with brushing behavior, consumption of sweets and deciduous dental caries experience, showing need for further attention to these conditions and a need to strengthen preventive and therapeutic dental services. PMID:26942112

  4. Quality of fixed prosthodontics after 15 years.

    PubMed

    Glantz, P O; Nilner, K; Jendresen, M D; Sundberg, H

    1993-08-01

    Interviews and/or clinical examinations by means of the California Dental Association quality evaluation system were carried out in a group of persons who had received extensive restorative treatments with fixed partial dentures 15 years before this study. The studied group consisted of 77 persons who agreed to participate from an original group of 150 persons selected at random from the Swedish Dental Insurance System records. Of the original group 20 had died, 17 were not traceable or not able to participate for medical reasons, and 36 declined to participate. Thirty-two per cent of the recorded reconstructions had been lost, and 8% partially lost during the 15-year period. Thirty-five per cent of the reconstructions were rated as Satisfactory, whereas the remaining ones had mixed clinical quality ratings. Failures and Not Acceptable quality ratings were found to be caused mainly by fractures, loss of retention, and/or dental caries. PMID:8237309

  5. Toxin Levels and Profiles in Microalgae from the North-Western Adriatic Sea—15 Years of Studies on Cultured Species

    PubMed Central

    Pistocchi, Rossella; Guerrini, Franca; Pezzolesi, Laura; Riccardi, Manuela; Vanucci, Silvana; Ciminiello, Patrizia; Dell’Aversano, Carmela; Forino, Martino; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Tartaglione, Luciana; Milandri, Anna; Pompei, Marinella; Cangini, Monica; Pigozzi, Silvia; Riccardi, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The Northern Adriatic Sea is the area of the Mediterranean Sea where eutrophication and episodes related to harmful algae have occurred most frequently since the 1970s. In this area, which is highly exploited for mollusk farming, the first occurrence of human intoxication due to shellfish consumption occurred in 1989, nearly 10 years later than other countries in Europe and worldwide that had faced similar problems. Until 1997, Adriatic mollusks had been found to be contaminated mostly by diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins (i.e., okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) that, along with paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (i.e., saxitoxins), constitute the most common marine biotoxins. Only once, in 1994, a toxic outbreak was related to the occurrence of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in the Adriatic coastal waters. Moreover, in the past 15 years, the Adriatic Sea has been characterized by the presence of toxic or potentially toxic algae, not highly widespread outside Europe, such as species producing yessotoxins (i.e., Protoceratium reticulatum, Gonyaulax spinifera and Lingulodinium polyedrum), recurrent blooms of the potentially ichthyotoxic species Fibrocapsa japonica and, recently, by blooms of palytoxin-like producing species of the Ostreopsis genus. This review is aimed at integrating monitoring data on toxin spectra and levels in mussels farmed along the coast of the Emilia-Romagna region with laboratory studies performed on the species involved in the production of those toxins; toxicity studies on toxic or potentially toxic species that have recently appeared in this area are also reviewed. Overall, reviewed data are related to: (i) the yessotoxins producing species P. reticulatum, G. spinifera and L. polyedrum, highlighting genetic and toxic characteristics; (ii) Adriatic strains of Alexandrium minutum, Alexandrium ostenfeldii and Prorocentrum lima whose toxic profiles are compared with those of strains of different geographic origins; (iii) F

  6. Neonatal clinical screening of the hip in the diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip: a 15-year prospective longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Mace, J; Paton, R W

    2015-02-01

    Over a 15-year prospective period, 201 infants with a clinically unstable hip at neonatal screening were subsequently reviewed in a 'one stop' clinic where they were assessed clinically and sonographically. Their mean age was 1.62 weeks (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35 to 1.89). Clinical neonatal hip screening revealed a sensitivity of 62% (mean, 62.6 95%CI 50.9 to 74.3), specificity of 99.8% (mean, 99.8, 95% CI 99.7 to 99.8) and positive predictive value (PPV) of 24% (mean, 26.2, 95% CI 19.3 to 33.0). Static and dynamic sonography for Graf type IV dysplastic hips had a 15-year sensitivity of 77% (mean, 75.8 95% CI 66.9 to 84.6), specificity of 99.8% (mean, 99.8, 95% CI 99.8 to 99.8) and a PPV of 49% (mean, 55.1, 95% CI 41.6 to 68.5). There were 36 infants with an irreducible dislocation of the hip (0.57 per 1000 live births), including six that failed to resolve with neonatal splintage. Most clinically unstable hips referred to a specialist clinic are female and stabilise spontaneously. Most irreducible dislocations are not identified from this neonatal instability group. There may be a small subgroup of females with instability of the hip which may be at risk of progression to irreducibility despite early treatment in a Pavlik harness. A controlled study is required to assess the value of neonatal clinical screening programmes. PMID:25628293

  7. Temporal Changes in BEXSERO® Antigen Sequence Type Associated with Genetic Lineages of Neisseria meningitidis over a 15-Year Period in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Mowlaboccus, Shakeel; Perkins, Timothy T.; Smith, Helen; Sloots, Theo; Tozer, Sarah; Prempeh, Lydia-Jessica; Tay, Chin Yen; Peters, Fanny; Speers, David; Keil, Anthony D.; Kahler, Charlene M.

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is the causative agent of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). The BEXSERO® vaccine which is used to prevent serogroup B disease is composed of four sub-capsular protein antigens supplemented with an outer membrane vesicle. Since the sub-capsular protein antigens are variably expressed and antigenically variable amongst meningococcal isolates, vaccine coverage can be estimated by the meningococcal antigen typing system (MATS) which measures the propensity of the strain to be killed by vaccinated sera. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) which identifies the alleles of the antigens that may be recognised by the antibody response could represent, in future, an alternative estimate of coverage. In this study, WGS of 278 meningococcal isolates responsible for 62% of IMD in Western Australia from 2000–2014 were analysed for association of genetic lineage (sequence type [ST], clonal complex [cc]) with BEXSERO® antigen sequence type (BAST) and MATS to predict the annual vaccine coverage. A hyper-endemic period of IMD between 2000–05 was caused by cc41/44 with the major sequence type of ST-146 which was not predicted by MATS or BAST to be covered by the vaccine. An increase in serogroup diversity was observed between 2010–14 with the emergence of cc11 serogroup W in the adolescent population and cc23 serogroup Y in the elderly. BASTs were statistically associated with clonal complex although individual antigens underwent antigenic drift from the major type. BAST and MATS predicted an annual range of 44–91% vaccine coverage. Periods of low vaccine coverage in years post-2005 were not a result of the resurgence of cc41/44:ST-146 but were characterised by increased diversity of clonal complexes expressing BASTs which were not predicted by MATS to be covered by the vaccine. The driving force behind the diversity of the clonal complex and BAST during these periods of low vaccine coverage is unknown, but could be due to immune selection and inter

  8. Family- and School-Related Factors in 9- to 15-Year-Olds Predicting Educational Attainment in Adulthood: A Prospective 27-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Merjonen, Paivi; Leino, Mare; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This prospective longitudinal study examined several selected family- and school-related factors simultaneously in order to investigate the importance of well known and less examined predictors of educational attainment. Method: The participants were 844 (486 girls) nine-, 12-, and 15-years old comprehensive school students. Family-…

  9. Caries incidence and lesion progression from adolescence to young adulthood: a prospective 15-year cohort study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mejàre, I; Stenlund, H; Zelezny-Holmlund, C

    2004-01-01

    The objectives were (1) to assess caries development, including the incidence and rate of lesion progression, in a Swedish cohort from adolescence to young adulthood and (2) to compare the caries incidence rates in adolescents with those of young adults. The original material consisted of 536 children aged 11-13 years at baseline. This cohort had been followed through annual bitewing radiographs to 21-22 years of age. In 1998-1999, 250 of these individuals were re-examined at the age of 26-27, and the new caries data were added to the original data. The results showed that fewer new enamel lesions developed on approximal surfaces during young adulthood than during adolescence; the caries incidence rates for enamel lesions decreased from 4.3 in the age group 12-15 years to 2.7 new caries lesions/100 surface-years in the age group 20-27 years. The same applied to the rate of lesion progression, where the corresponding values from the enamel-dentin border to the outer dentin were 32.5 for the youngest and 10.9 new lesions/100 surface-years for the oldest age group. The caries incidence of outer dentin lesions on approximal surfaces was low but increased from 0.2 in the age group 12-15 years to 0.9 new outer dentin lesions/100 surface-years in the age group 20-27 years. The incidence rates varied considerably between different tooth surfaces. Also for occlusal surfaces, fewer new dentin lesions developed during young adulthood than during adolescence; the incidence was 2.0 new dentin lesions/100 surface-years in the youngest age group and 0.7 during young adulthood. At the age of 13, the proportion of DFS of occlusal surfaces predominated over DFS of approximal surfaces but at the age of 26-27 the proportions of occlusal and approximal DFS were almost equal. PMID:14767170

  10. Species-Specific Responses of Corals to Bleaching Events on Anthropogenically Turbid Reefs on Okinawa Island, Japan, over a 15-year Period (1995–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Hongo, Chuki; Yamano, Hiroya

    2013-01-01

    Coral bleaching, triggered by elevated sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) has caused a decline in coral cover and changes in the abundances of corals on reefs worldwide. Coral decline can be exacerbated by the effects of local stressors like turbidity, yet some reefs with a natural history of turbidity can support healthy and resilient coral communities. However, little is known about responses of coral communities to bleaching events on anthropogenically turbid reefs as a result of recent (post World War II) terrestrial runoff. Analysis of region-scale coral cover and species abundance at 17–20 sites on the turbid reefs of Okinawa Island (total of 79 species, 30 genera, and 13 families) from 1995 to 2009 indicates that coral cover decreased drastically, from 24.4% to 7.5% (1.1%/year), subsequent to bleaching events in 1998 and 2001. This dramatic decrease in coral cover corresponded to the demise of Acropora species (e.g., A. digitifera) by 2009, when Acropora had mostly disappeared from turbid reefs on Okinawa Island. In contrast, Merulinidae species (e.g., Dipsastraea pallida/speciosa/favus) and Porites species (e.g., P. lutea/australiensis), which are characterized by tolerance to thermal stress, survived on turbid reefs of Okinawa Island throughout the period. Our results suggest that high turbidity, influenced by recent terrestrial runoff, could have caused a reduction in resilience of Acropora species to severe thermal stress events, because the corals could not have adapted to a relatively recent decline in water quality. The coral reef ecosystems of Okinawa Island will be severely impoverished if Acropora species fail to recover. PMID:23565291

  11. Characteristics of Children and Adolescents in the Dutch National in- and Outpatient Mental Health Service for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Youth over a Period of 15 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gent, Tiejo; Goedhart, Arnold W.; Treffers, Philip D. A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study socio-demographic, deafness-related and diagnostic characteristics of hearing impaired children and adolescents referred to a national mental health service for deaf and hard of hearing children and adolescents were examined. Socio-demographic and diagnostic characteristics were compared to corresponding characteristics of hearing…

  12. Reduction of the ages at diagnosis and operation of biliary atresia in Taiwan: A 15-year population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jen-Shyang; Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Lu, Chin-Li; Lee, Hung-Chang; Yeung, Chun-Yan; Chan, Wai-Tao

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To describe the ages at diagnosis and operation of biliary atresia (BA) and its incidence over a 15-year period in Taiwan. METHODS: This was a population-based cohort study. BA cases were identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database based on the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code of BA 751.61 plus Kasai operation (ICD-9 procedure code 51.37) or liver transplantation (LT, ICD-9 procedure code 50.5). The patients’ characteristics including sex, age at diagnosis, age at receiving Kasai operation and age at receiving LT were compared among three birth cohorts: (1) 1997 to 2001; (2) 2002 to 2006; and (3) 2007 to 2011. RESULTS: There were a total of 540 BA cases (275 females) with an incidence of 1.62 per 10000 live births. No seasonality of BA was noted. The mean ages at diagnosis of three cohorts were 57.9, 55.6 and 52.6 d. A linear regression model demonstrated a decreasing trend of the mean age at diagnosis (1.27 d per year). The proportion of BA cases that received the Kasai operation within 60 d of age increased from 76% to 81%. A total of 189 (35%) BA patients underwent LT. The mean age at LT was reduced from 3-year-old to 1-year-old. The rates of LT were 25.6% and 32.3% in patients who received the Kasai operation within 60 d or after 60 d of age, respectively. All patients who did not undergo a Kasai operation eventually required LT. CONCLUSION: The ages at diagnosis and operation in BA cases have decreased over time. Kasai operation performed at younger age reduces the need for LT. The incidence of BA in Taiwan fluctuates, but without certain trend. PMID:26673041

  13. Geophysical studies of the recent 15-year eruptive cycle at Poás Volcano, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rymer, H.; Cassidy, J.; Locke, C. A.; Barboza, M. V.; Barquero, J.; Brenes, J.; Van der Laat, R.

    2000-04-01

    The recent eruptive cycle at Poás Volcano was notable for the dramatic disappearance and subsequent reappearance of the summit crater lake. This cycle consisted of discrete phases of activity associated with a range of geophysical and geochemical signatures that illustrate the relative value of the various techniques for identifying precursory phenomena. Intrusive episodes in 1980 and 1986-1989 at Poás were preceded by A-type seismicity. Magma rose close to the surface on both occasions but the focus shifted from the dome (1980), when the lake remained stable, to the crater lake (1986-1989). The 1986-1989 event, which culminated in the complete loss of the crater lake and explosive eruptions, was characterised by concurrent increases in micro-gravity (on the southern crater floor), B-type seismicity and lake temperature and by changes in lake geochemistry. The calculated mass of magma intruded in this period is far too small to account for the observed increase in surface heat flux and subsequent loss of the lake; we suggest that a series of magma-filled dendritic conduits intruded beneath the lake facilitated enhanced heat and gas flux from a deeper magma feeder body. A model is envisaged where brittle fracture of the magma carapace at about 500 m depth allows magma to rise up through the conduit system beneath the crater and to fall again or solidify in situ when pressure drops. Whilst active, this process transfers heat and gas upwards driven by the convection of buoyant, volatile-rich magma displacing colder, relatively volatile-poor magma. As magma pressure from below decreases, the link between the deeper magma feeder and the upper conduit system is broken and the hydrothermal system resumes its role of cooling the magma feeder. The role of the lake as a physical and chemical buffer to the volcanic system was clearly demonstrated when its disappearance in 1989 was accompanied by enhanced eruptive activity and gas emissions with considerable local

  14. Children's Sexual Thinking: A Comparative Study of Children Aged 5 to 15 Years in Australia, North America, Britain and Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Ronald; Goldman, Juliette

    The purpose of this cross-national descriptive study is to measure the extent of children's sexual knowledge and sexual understanding at various ages and to identify what processes of thought children use in trying to explain biological functions and the phenomena of their own bodies as they grow and change. Sexual thinking is defined as thinking…

  15. Violence, Bullying and Academic Achievement: A Study of 15-Year-Old Adolescents and Their School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Ida Frugard; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated academic achievement among adolescents exposed to violence, sexual abuse and bullying. Moreover, we sought to determine the individual and contextual influence of the adolescents' school environment in terms of bullying, classmate relationships and teacher support on academic achievement. Finally, we wished to…

  16. Saccadic Eye Movements in Normal Children from 8 to 15 Years of Age: A Developmental Study of Visuospatial Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Randal G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study used saccadic eye movements to assess visuospatial attention in 53 normal children (ages 8-15). Saccadic latency, the ability to suppress extraneous saccades during fixation, and the ability to inhibit task-provoked anticipatory saccades all improved with age. Developmental patterns varied by task. Analyses of age-related changes may be…

  17. Medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding: A 15-year nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chueh-Ling; Wu, Cheng-Kun; Shi, Hon-Yi; Tai, Wei-Chen; Liang, Chih-Ming; Yang, Shih-Cheng; Wu, Keng-Liang; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Chuah, Seng-Kee

    2016-07-01

    Acute variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis is related to high mortality and medical expenses. The purpose of present studies was to analyze the medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding among patients with cirrhosis and potential influencing clinical factors.A total of 151,863 patients with cirrhosis with International Classification of Diseases-9 codes 456.0 and 456.20 were analyzed from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2010. Time intervals were divided into three phases for analysis as T1 (1996-2000), T2 (2001-2005), and T3 (2006-2010). The endpoints were prevalence, length of hospital stay, medical expenses, and mortality rate.Our results showed that more patients were <65 years (75.6%) and of male sex (78.5%). Patients were mostly from teaching hospitals (90.8%) with high hospital volume (50.9%) and high doctor service load (51.1%). The prevalence of acute esophageal variceal bleeding and mean length of hospital stay decreased over the years (P < 0.001), but the overall medical expenses increased (P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed that older age, female sex, Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) score >1, patients from teaching hospitals, and medium to high or very high patient numbers were independent factors for longer hospital stay and higher medical expenses. Aged patients, female sex, increased CCI score, and low doctor service volume were independent factors for both in-hospital and 5-year mortality. Patients from teaching hospitals and medium to high or very high service volume hospitals were independent factors for in-hospital mortality, but not 5-year mortality.Medical expenses in treating acute esophageal variceal bleeding increased despite the decreased prevalence rate and length of hospital stay in Taiwan. Aged patients, female sex, patients with increased CCI score from teaching hospitals, and medium to high or very high patient numbers were

  18. Lifestyle counseling for type 2 diabetes risk reduction in Dutch primary care: results of the APHRODITE study after 0.5 and 1.5 years.

    PubMed

    Vermunt, Paulina W A; Milder, Ivon E J; Wielaard, Frits; de Vries, Jeanne H M; van Oers, Hans A M; Westert, Gert P

    2011-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the overall effect of the Active Prevention in High-Risk Individuals of Diabetes Type 2 in and Around Eindhoven (APHRODITE) lifestyle intervention on type 2 diabetes risk reduction in Dutch primary care after 0.5 and 1.5 years and to evaluate the variability between general practices. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes (Finnish Diabetes Risk Score ≥13) were randomly assigned into an intervention group (n = 479) or a usual-care group (n = 446). Comparisons were made between study groups and between general practices regarding changes in clinical and lifestyle measures over 1.5 years. Participant, general practitioner, and nurse practitioner characteristics were compared between individuals who lost weight or maintained a stable weight and individuals who gained weight. RESULTS Both groups showed modest changes in glucose values, weight measures, physical activity, energy intake, and fiber intake. Differences between groups were significant only for total physical activity, saturated fat intake, and fiber intake. Differences between general practices were significant for BMI and 2-h glucose but not for energy intake and physical activity. In the intervention group, the nurse practitioners' mean years of work experience was significantly longer in individuals who were successful at losing weight or maintaining a stable weight compared with unsuccessful individuals. Furthermore, successful individuals more often had a partner. CONCLUSIONS Risk factors for type 2 diabetes could be significantly reduced by lifestyle counseling in Dutch primary care. The small differences in changes over time between the two study groups suggest that additional intervention effects are modest. In particular, the level of experience of the nurse practitioner and the availability of partner support seem to facilitate intervention success. PMID:21775759

  19. Antibiotic prescribing of village doctors for children under 15 years with upper respiratory tract infections in rural China: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhixia; Zhan, Xingxin; Zhou, Hongjun; Sun, Fang; Zhang, Heng; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Liu, Qian; Li, Yingxue; Yan, Weirong

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of village doctors regarding the prescribing of antibiotics for children under 15 years with upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in rural China. Twelve focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Xianning, a prefecture-level city in rural China, during December 2014. We conducted 6 FGDs with 35 village doctors, 3 with 13 primary caregivers (11 parents), and 3 with 17 directors of township hospitals, county-level health bureaus, county-level Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or county-level Chinese Food and Drug Administration offices. Audio records of the interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the thematic analysis approach. Participants believed that unnecessary antibiotic prescribing for children under 15 years with The occurrence of URTIs was a problem in village clinics in rural China. The discussions revealed that most of the village doctors had inadequate knowledge and misconceptions about antibiotic use, which was an important factor in the unnecessary prescribing. Village doctors and directors reported that the doctors' fear of complications, the primary caregivers' pressure for antibiotic treatment, and the financial considerations of patient retention were the main factors influencing the decision to prescribe antibiotics. Most of the primary caregivers insisted on antibiotics, even when the village doctors were reluctant to prescribe them, and they preferred to go to see those village doctors who prescribed antibiotics. The interviewees also gave their opinions on what would be the most effective measures for optimizing antibiotic prescriptions; these included educational/training campaigns, strict regulations on antibiotic prescription, and improved supervision. Findings emphasized the need to improve the dissemination of information and training/education, and implement legislation on the rational use of antibiotics. And it also provided

  20. Clinical outcome study and radiological findings of Zweymuller metal on metal total hip arthroplasty. a follow-up of 6 to 15 years.

    PubMed

    Paleochorlidis, Ilias S; Badras, Leonidas S; Skretas, Efstathios F; Georgaklis, Vasilios A; Karachalios, Theofilos S; Malizos, Konstantinos N

    2009-01-01

    We report the clinical and radiological outcome of 99 Zweymuller metal on metal total hip arthroplasties in 84 patients followed up prospectively for a mean period of 9.5 (range, 6-15) years. There were 29 (34.5%) male and 55 (65.5%) female patients with a mean age of 62.85 years (range, 50-70 years) at the time of surgery. All patients had osteoarthritis. One acetabular component and one stem were revised due to aseptic loosening. One femoral stem was revised due to a periprosthetic fracture. HHS score improved from a preoperative mean of 62.56 points (SD 8.87) to a final postoperative follow-up mean of 93.48 (SD 7.7). Cumulative success rate for both implants at 13 years, with aseptic loosening as the end point, was 97.05%, while for both implants at 13 years, with revision for any reason as the end point, it was 91.17%. Satisfactory results were observed with the use of this prosthesis. PMID:20041375

  1. Rheumatic Heart Disease in Kerala: A Vanishing Entity? An Echo Doppler Study in 5–15-Years-Old School Children

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Bigesh; Viswanathan, Sunitha; Koshy, A. George; Gupta, Prabha Nini; Nair, Namita; Thakkar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Background. Early detection of subclinical rheumatic heart disease by use of echocardiography warrants timely implementation of secondary antibiotic prophylaxis and thereby prevents or retards its related complications. Objectives. The objective of this epidemiological study was to determine prevalence of RHD by echocardiography using World Heart Federation criteria in randomly selected school children of Trivandrum. Methods. This was a population-based cross-sectional screening study carried out in Trivandrum. A total of 2060 school children, 5–15 years, were randomly selected from five government and two private (aided) schools. All enrolled children were screened for RHD according to standard clinical and WHF criteria of echocardiography. Results. Echocardiographic examinations confirmed RHD in 5 children out of 146 clinically suspected cases. Thus, clinical prevalence was found to be 2.4 per 1000. According to WHF criteria of echocardiography, 12 children (12/2060) were diagnosed with RHD corresponding to echocardiographic prevalence of 5.83 cases per 1000. As per criteria, 6 children were diagnosed with definite RHD and 6 with borderline RHD. Conclusions. The results of the current study demonstrate that echocardiography is more sensitive and feasible in detecting clinically silent RHD. Our study, the largest school survey of south India till date, points towards declining prevalence of RHD (5.83/1000 cases) using WHF criteria in Kerala. PMID:26451146

  2. Changes in the treatment of acetabular fractures over 15 years: Analysis of 1266 cases treated by the German Pelvic Multicentre Study Group (DAO/DGU).

    PubMed

    Ochs, Björn Gunnar; Marintschev, Ivan; Hoyer, Heike; Rolauffs, Bernd; Culemann, Ulf; Pohlemann, Tim; Stuby, Fabian Maria

    2010-08-01

    series illustrates a nationwide performance in acetabular fracture management. Despite changes in the chosen approaches and an increased surgical frequency, the operative treatment of acetabular fractures of the last 15 years did not lead to an increased reduction quality. Therefore, the rarity and complexity of acetabular fractures demands further specific teaching by experienced acetabular surgeons, scientific research and clinical outcome evaluation. PMID:20451195

  3. Social judgments made by children (10–15 year old) in relation to visible incisors trauma: School-based cross-sectional study in Khartoum state, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Awooda, Elhadi Mohieldin; Ali, Yasmeen Abdul-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dento-alveolar trauma is a very common occurrence in childhood; however, there is a paucity of data about children's judgments in relation to dental status. There is a significant correlation between the children's incisor teeth status and the social judgments made by their peers. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the social attributes of a school child would be influenced by his or her incisor teeth status. Also, it is aimed to determine the judgment between male and female children and different age groups within the same class. Setting and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 178 male and female children from year 5 (age 10–11 years) of primary school and year 2 of secondary school (age 14–15 years) within Khartoum state. Materials and Methods: Students were invited to look at colored photographs of four different children's faces and to make a social judgment about these children's photographs. Using a previously validated child-centered questionnaire, participants rated subjects using a four-point Likert scale for three negative and six positive attributes. Statistical Analysis: Total attribute scores were tested for significant differences, according to whether the subject had visible incisor trauma or not, using t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test with the level of significance set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: Children with visible incisor trauma were given more negative attributes than children without incisor trauma (P = 0.05). Results were similar in both genders and both school years. Younger students within the same class gave more negative attributes toward children with visible incisor trauma than their older peers, with P = 0.04 and P = 0.9 for children aged 10 years and 11 years, respectively. Conclusion: The data confirmed results of previous studies that children with visible incisor trauma are seen more negatively than those without visible incisor trauma. PMID:26539397

  4. Elevated Circulating Osteoprotegerin and Renal Dysfunction Predict 15-Year Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality: A Prospective Study of Elderly Women

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kun; Lim, Ee M.; Bollerslev, Jens; Prince, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Data on the predictive role of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) for cardiovascular (CVD) and all-cause mortality risk have been presented by our group and others. We now present data on the interactions between OPG with stage I to III chronic kidney disease (CKD) for all-cause and CVD mortality. Methods and Results The setting was a 15-year study of 1,292 women over 70 years of age initially randomized to a 5-year controlled trial of 1.2 g of calcium daily. Serum OPG and creatinine levels with complete mortality records obtained from the Western Australian Data Linkage System were available. Interactions were detected between OPG levels and eGFR for both CVD and all-cause mortality (P < 0.05). Compared to participants with eGFR ≥60ml/min/1.73m2 and low OPG, participants with eGFR of <60ml/min/1.73m2 and elevated OPG had a 61% and 75% increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality respectively (multivariate-adjusted HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.27-2.05; P < 0.001 and HR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.22-2.55; P = 0.003). This relationship with mortality was independent of decline in renal function (P<0.05). Specific causes of death in individuals with elevated OPG and stage III CKD highlighted an excess of coronary heart disease, renal failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease deaths (P < 0.05). Conclusion The association between elevated OPG levels with CVD and all-cause mortality was more evident in elderly women with poorer renal function. Assessment of OPG in the context of renal function may be important in studies investigating its relationship with all-cause and CVD mortality. PMID:26222774

  5. Assessment of visual perception in adolescents with a history of central coordination disorder in early life – 15-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Ireneusz M.; Domagalska, Małgorzata; Szopa, Andrzej; Dwornik, Michał; Kujawa, Jolanta; Stępień, Agnieszka; Śliwiński, Zbigniew

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Central nervous system damage in early life results in both quantitative and qualitative abnormalities of psychomotor development. Late sequelae of these disturbances may include visual perception disorders which not only affect the ability to read and write but also generally influence the child's intellectual development. This study sought to determine whether a central coordination disorder (CCD) in early life treated according to Vojta's method with elements of the sensory integration (S-I) and neuro-developmental treatment (NDT)/Bobath approaches affects development of visual perception later in life. Material and methods The study involved 44 participants aged 15-16 years, including 19 diagnosed with moderate or severe CCD in the neonatal period, i.e. during the first 2-3 months of life, with diagnosed mild degree neonatal encephalopathy due to perinatal anoxia, and 25 healthy people without a history of developmental psychomotor disturbances in the neonatal period. The study tool was a visual perception IQ test comprising 96 graphic tasks. Results The study revealed equal proportions of participants (p < 0.05) defined as very skilled (94-96), skilled (91-94), aerage (71-91), poor (67-71), and very poor (0-67) in both groups. These results mean that adolescents with a history of CCD in the neonatal period did not differ with regard to the level of visual perception from their peers who had not demonstrated psychomotor development disorders in the neonatal period. Conclusions Early treatment of children with CCD affords a possibility of normalising their psychomotor development early enough to prevent consequences in the form of cognitive impairments in later life. PMID:23185199

  6. Neonatal Duodenal Obstruction: A 15-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Rattan, Kamal Nain; Singh, Jasbir; Dalal, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Congenital duodenal obstruction is one of the commonest causes of neonatal intestinal obstruction. We are presenting our 15-year experience by analyzing clinical spectrum and outcome in neonates with duodenal obstruction admitted at our center. Material and Methods: The hospital records of all neonates admitted with duodenal obstruction from June 2000 to June 2015 were reviewed. The patient records were analyzed for antenatal diagnosis, age, sex, clinical presentation, diagnosis, associated anomalies, surgical procedures performed; postoperative morbidity and mortality. We excluded from our study malrotation of gut associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia and abdominal wall defects. Results: A total of 81 patients were admitted, out of which 56 were males and 25 were females. Polyhydramnios was detected in 24 (30%) pregnancies. Average birth weight was 2.1±1.0Kg and average gestational age was 38 (SD±1) weeks with 17 (21%) preterm neonates. Presenting features were vomiting in 81(100%) which was bilious in 81% and non-bilious in 19%, epigastric fullness in 56 (69%) and dehydration in 18 (22%) and failure to thrive in 16 (19%). Most common cause of obstruction was duodenal atresia in 38 (46.9%), followed by malrotation of gut in 33 (40.7%), and annular pancreas in 4 cases. Depending upon site of location, infra-ampullary obstruction was the most common in 64 (79%), supra-ampullary in 9 (7.4%) and ampullary 8 neonates. Both duodenal atresia and malrotation of gut was present in 4 cases. X-ray abdomen was most commonly used investigation to confirm the diagnosis. All cases were managed surgically by open laparotomy. Eleven (13.5%) patients died due to sepsis and associated congenital anomalies. Conclusion: Congenital duodenal obstruction most commonly presents in early neonatal period with features of upper GIT obstruction like vomiting and epigastrium fullness as in our series. Early antenatal diagnosis and surgical interventions hold the key in

  7. Temperamental predictors of externalizing problems among boys and girls: a longitudinal study in a high-risk sample from ages 3 months to 15 years.

    PubMed

    Pitzer, Martina; Esser, Guenter; Schmidt, Martin H; Laucht, Manfred

    2009-12-01

    In a high-risk community sample, we examined the role of regulative temperament and emotionality as well as the extent of gender specificity in the development of externalizing problems. 151 boys and 157 girls born at differing degrees of obstetric and psychosocial risk were followed from birth into adolescence. In infancy and childhood, NYLS-derived temperamental characteristics were assessed by a highly structured parent interview and standardized behavioral observations. At age 15 years, externalizing problems were measured by the Child Behavior Checklist. As revealed by multiple linear regression and logistic regression, low regulative abilities predicted adolescent behavioral and attentional problems over and above obstetric and psychosocial risks. Gender specificity was found in the strength of the association rather than in the kind with a stronger long-term prediction from infant and toddler temperament in girls. Compared to regulative abilities, temperament factors describing aspects of mood and fear/withdrawal versus approach tendencies played a minor role in the development of externalizing problems. Findings are discussed in terms of gender-specific risk factors and possible differential developmental trajectories to subtypes of disruptive behavior. PMID:19387718

  8. Development and evaluation of a community immersion program during preclinical medical studies: a 15-year experience at the University of Geneva Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Chastonay, P; Zesiger, V; Klohn, A; Soguel, L; Mpinga, E K; Vu, NV; Bernheim, L

    2013-01-01

    Background Significant changes in medical education have occurred in recent decades because of new challenges in the health sector and new learning theories and practices. This might have contributed to the decision of medical schools throughout the world to adopt community-based learning activities. The community-based learning approach has been promoted and supported by the World Health Organization and has emerged as an efficient learning strategy. The aim of the present paper is to describe the characteristics of a community immersion clerkship for third-year undergraduate medical students, its evolution over 15 years, and an evaluation of its outcomes. Methods A review of the literature and consensus meetings with a multidisciplinary group of health professionals were used to define learning objectives and an educational approach when developing the program. Evaluation of the program addressed students’ perception, achievement of learning objectives, interactions between students and the community, and educational innovations over the years. Results The program and the main learning objectives were defined by consensus meetings among teaching staff and community health workers, which strengthened the community immersion clerkship. Satisfaction, as monitored by a self-administered questionnaire in successive cohorts of students, showed a mean of 4.4 on a five-point scale. Students also mentioned community immersion clerkship as a unique community experience. The learning objectives were reached by a vast majority of students. Behavior evaluation was not assessed per se, but specific testimonies show that students have been marked by their community experience. The evaluation also assessed outcomes such as educational innovations (eg, students teaching other students), new developments in the curriculum (eg, partnership with the University of Applied Health Sciences), and interaction between students and the community (eg, student development of a website for

  9. Spatial and temporal variations of trace element distribution in soils and street dust of an industrial town in NW Spain: 15years of study.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, A; Álvarez, R; De Miguel, E; Charlesworth, S

    2015-08-15

    Extensive spatial and temporal surveys, over 15 years, have been conducted in soil in urban parks and street dusts in one of the most polluted cities in western Europe, Avilés (NW Spain). The first survey was carried out in 1996, and since then monitoring has been undertaken every five years. Whilst the sampling site is a relatively small town, industrial activities (mainly the steel industry and Zn and Al metallurgy) and other less significant urban sources, such as traffic, strongly affect the load of heavy metals in the urban aerosol. Elemental tracers have been used to characterise the influence of these sources on the composition of soil and dust. Although PM10 has decreased over these years as a result of environmental measures undertaken in the city, some of the "industrial" elements still remain in concentrations of concern for example, up to 4.6% and 0.5% of Zn in dust and soil, respectively. Spatial trends in metals such as Zn and Cd clearly reflect sources from the processing industries. The concentrations of these elements across Europe have reduced over time, however the most recent results from Avilés revealed an upward trend in concentration for Zn, Cd, Hg and As. A risk assessment of the soil highlighted As as an element of concern since its cancer risk in adults was more than double the value above which regulatory agencies deem it to be unacceptable. If children were considered to be the receptors, then the risk nearly doubles from this element. PMID:25889548

  10. Early Adolescence: Understanding the 10 to 15 Year Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caissy, Gail A.

    Early adolescence, the period from 10 to 15 years, is a significant transitional period in human development, marking the crossroads between childhood and young adulthood. This book is designed as a guide for parents, teachers, or anyone else who has contact with and who would like to better understand early adolescent children. The chapters in…

  11. Dietary diversity, animal source food consumption and linear growth among children aged 1-5 years in Bandung, Indonesia: a longitudinal observational study.

    PubMed

    Muslimatun, Siti; Wiradnyani, Luh Ade Ari

    2016-07-01

    Dietary diversity involves adequate intake of macronutrient and micronutrient. The inclusion of animal source foods (ASF) in the diet helps prevent multiple nutrient deficiencies and any resultant, linear growth retardation. The objective of the current study was to assess the relationship between dietary diversity, ASF consumption and height-for-age z-score (HAZ) among children aged 12-59 months old across a 1-year observation. This longitudinal observational study without controls was conducted among four age groups: 12-23 months (n 57), 24-35 months (n 56), 36-47 months (n 58) and 48-59 months (n 56). Anthropometry and dietary intake were measured during each of four visits at 16-20-week intervals. The general characteristics and other observations were only collected at baseline and endline. During the year-long study period, approximately 27 % of the children ate a diverse diet (consumed ≥6 out of 9 food groups) according to ≥3 visits. ASF consumption was high, particularly for eggs, poultry, processed meats and liquid milk. Yet, micronutrient intake inadequacy, especially of Zn, Ca, Fe and vitamin A, was highly prevalent. A multivariate regression analysis showed that the consumption of a diverse diet and ASF was not significantly associated with the HAZ at endline, after controlling for demographic characteristics and the baseline HAZ. The consumption of a diverse diet was significantly associated with Ca intake adequacy. Moreover, ASF consumption was significantly associated with adequate intake of protein and micronutrients, particularly vitamin A, Ca and Zn. Thus, the recommendation is to continue and strengthen the promotion of consuming a diverse diet that includes ASF in supporting the linear growth of young children. PMID:26817493

  12. Behavior Disorders and Learning Disabilities over 15 Years in Rural Vermont.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huessy, Hans R.

    Early identification of Minimal Brain Dysfunction (MBD) is now easier, partly as a result of a series of 3 studies made in rural Vermont over a period of 15 years. MBD victims exhibit different behaviors at different ages. "Fidgetiness", a "nuisance" factor, and poor learning are all strong predictors of MBD for children at the 9th grade level.…

  13. A Survey of Psychological, Motivational, Family and Perceptions of Physics Education Factors that Explain 15-Year-Old Students' Aspirations to Study Physics in Post-Compulsory English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors that influence 15-year-old students' intentions to study physics post-16, when it is no longer compulsory. The analysis is based on the year 10 (age, 15 years) responses of 5,034 students from 137 England schools as learners of physics during the academic year 2008-2009. Factor analyses uncovered a range of…

  14. PHENIX: Beyond 15 years of discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, David; Nagle, James L.

    2015-01-12

    The PHENIX experiment at BNL’s Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) was designed to uncover properties of the quark–gluon plasma (QGP) via rare penetrating probes. Over the past 15 years, the collaboration has delivered on its promised measurements, often with exciting results beyond those originally foreseen. That the QGP behaves as a nearly perfect fluid and that non-photonic electrons are substantially suppressed has led to the use of heavy quarks as probes of the medium. The PHENIX silicon vertex detectors are opening a new arena for QGP studies, and the MPC-EX, a novel forward calorimeter with silicon readout, accesses low-x physics via direct photons with unprecedented precision. PHENIX has proposed sPHENIX, a major upgrade using the recently acquired BaBar solenoid and full calorimetric coverage and high rate capabilities. sPHENIX will reconstruct jets and extend observables to higher transverse momentum, where comparisons to results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) heavy-ion program will provide the most insightful. Following the RHIC program, the nuclear physics community has identified an electron ion collider (EIC) as crucial to the next generation of QCD investigations. The BaBar magnet and sPHENIX calorimetry will be an excellent foundation for a new collaborative pursuit of discovery.

  15. PHENIX: Beyond 15 years of discovery

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Morrison, David; Nagle, James L.

    2015-01-12

    The PHENIX experiment at BNL’s Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) was designed to uncover properties of the quark–gluon plasma (QGP) via rare penetrating probes. Over the past 15 years, the collaboration has delivered on its promised measurements, often with exciting results beyond those originally foreseen. That the QGP behaves as a nearly perfect fluid and that non-photonic electrons are substantially suppressed has led to the use of heavy quarks as probes of the medium. The PHENIX silicon vertex detectors are opening a new arena for QGP studies, and the MPC-EX, a novel forward calorimeter with silicon readout, accesses low-x physicsmore » via direct photons with unprecedented precision. PHENIX has proposed sPHENIX, a major upgrade using the recently acquired BaBar solenoid and full calorimetric coverage and high rate capabilities. sPHENIX will reconstruct jets and extend observables to higher transverse momentum, where comparisons to results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) heavy-ion program will provide the most insightful. Following the RHIC program, the nuclear physics community has identified an electron ion collider (EIC) as crucial to the next generation of QCD investigations. The BaBar magnet and sPHENIX calorimetry will be an excellent foundation for a new collaborative pursuit of discovery.« less

  16. PHENIX: Beyond 15 years of discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, David; Nagle, James L.

    2015-03-01

    The PHENIX experiment at BNL's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) was designed to uncover properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) via rare penetrating probes. Over the past 15 years, the collaboration has delivered on its promised measurements, often with exciting results beyond those originally foreseen. That the QGP behaves as a nearly perfect fluid and that non-photonic electrons are substantially suppressed has led to the use of heavy quarks as probes of the medium. The PHENIX silicon vertex detectors are opening a new arena for QGP studies, and the MPC-EX, a novel forward calorimeter with silicon readout, accesses low-x physics via direct photons with unprecedented precision. PHENIX has proposed sPHENIX, a major upgrade using the recently acquired BaBar solenoid and full calorimetric coverage and high rate capabilities. sPHENIX will reconstruct jets and extend observables to higher transverse momentum, where comparisons to results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) heavy-ion program will provide the most insightful. Following the RHIC program, the nuclear physics community has identified an electron ion collider (EIC) as crucial to the next generation of QCD investigations. The BaBar magnet and sPHENIX calorimetry will be an excellent foundation for a new collaborative pursuit of discovery.

  17. The Development of Extraversion and Ability: Analysis of Data from a Large-Scale Longitudinal Study of Children Tested at 10-11 and 14-15 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    Results of analysis of correlations collected by Cookson, following Eysenck and Cookson's study of personality and ability in young people, confirm the finding from previous Cattellian test data that the more intelligent children decline in relative extraversion scores and cast doubt on Eysenck's suggestion that introverts gradually show higher…

  18. Professional School Counseling (PSC) Publication Pattern Review: A Meta-Study of Author and Article Characteristics from the First 15 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Giguere, Monica; Glenn, Kacie; Ciarlone, Hallie

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of articles published in "Professional School Counseling" (PSC) from the first 15 volumes were reviewed in this meta-study. Author characteristics (e.g., sex, employment setting, nation of domicile) and article characteristics (e.g., topic, type, design, sample, sample size, participant type, statistical procedures and…

  19. Changes in dietary pattern in 15 year old adolescents following a 4 month dietary intervention with school breakfast – a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Ask, Anne S; Hernes, Sigrunn; Aarek, Ingebjørg; Johannessen, Gaute; Haugen, Margaretha

    2006-01-01

    Background Few studies on impact of meals served in school have been published. However, implications of school meals are an actual issue of both public and political concern in several countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate if breakfast served in a lower secondary school could improve dietary habits and school performance among the students. Methods All students in 10th grade in a lower secondary school, consisting of two school classes, were invited to participate in a controlled study. The students in one class were offered a free breakfast at the beginning of each school day for 4 months, while the students in the second class were controls. Both classes were educated in the importance of healthy eating, and a data program enabling them to evaluate dietary intake was introduced. The students answered two questionnaires, one on school performance and one short food frequency questionnaire, four weeks before study start and one week after. Body weight and height were measured by the school nurse at the beginning and end of the study. Because of few students in each group, non-parametrical statistic analyses were used. Results All students in the intervention group had breakfast at school during the intervention. One week after the intervention the students in the class who received breakfast had returned to their normal breakfast pattern. In the control group the frequency of a lunch intake had increase, as compared to before study start (p < 0.01). An improved food pattern was seen among the male students in the intervention group, as measured by a healthy eating index after the intervention (p < 0.01). Body Mass Index increased statistically significant in both males and females in the control group (p < 0,01 for males and p < 0.05 for females), but not in the intervention group. Improvement in school performance following school breakfast was not found, but the males in the intervention group reported a significant increase in school

  20. Childhood trajectories of inattention, hyperactivity and oppositional behaviors and prediction of substance abuse/dependence: a 15-year longitudinal population-based study.

    PubMed

    Pingault, J-B; Côté, S M; Galéra, C; Genolini, C; Falissard, B; Vitaro, F; Tremblay, R E

    2013-07-01

    Numerous prospective studies have shown that children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk of long-term substance abuse/dependence. However, there are three important limits to these studies: (a) most did not differentiate the role of hyperactivity and inattention; (b) most did not control for associated behavioral problems; and (c) most did not consider females. Our aim was to clarify the unique and interactive contributions of childhood inattention and hyperactivity symptoms to early adulthood substance abuse/dependence. Behavioral problems of 1803 participants (814 males) in a population-based longitudinal study were assessed yearly between 6 and 12 years by mothers and teachers. The prevalence of substance abuse/dependence at age 21 years was 30.7% for nicotine, 13.4% for alcohol, 9.1% for cannabis and 2.0% for cocaine. The significant predictors of nicotine dependence were inattention (odds ratio (OR): 2.25; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.63-3.11) and opposition (OR: 1.65; 95%: 1.20-2.28). Only opposition contributed to the prediction of cannabis dependence (OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.40-3.87) and cocaine dependence (OR: 2.97; 95% CI: 1.06-8.57). The best behavioral predictor of alcohol abuse/dependence (opposition) was only marginally significant (OR: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.98-1.95). Frequent oppositional behaviors during elementary school were clearly the most pervasive predictors of substance abuse/dependence in early adulthood. The association of childhood ADHD with substance abuse/dependence is largely attributable to its association with opposition problems during childhood. However, inattention remained an important predictor of nicotine dependence, in line with genetic and molecular commonalities between the two phenotypes suggested in the literature. PMID:22733124

  1. Family structure and breakfast consumption of 11-15 year old boys and girls in Scotland, 1994-2010: a repeated cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The benefits of breakfast during childhood and adolescence have been reported previously though few studies have considered family structure inequalities in breakfast consumption. The proportion of young people living in non-traditional family types has increased in recent years, strengthening the need to describe and monitor the impact of the changing family unit on adolescent breakfast consumption. This study aimed to describe changes in daily breakfast consumption among adolescents in Scotland between 1994 and 2010, while also considering family structure inequalities, and the degree to which these have changed over time. Methods Data from the 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006 and 2010 Scottish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys were analysed using logistic multilevel regression models for binary outcome variable daily breakfast consumption. Results Daily breakfast consumption among adolescents increased between 1994 and 2010, although there were differences by age and sex. In fact those aged over 14.5 years saw decreases in breakfast consumption, and girls saw significantly larger increases than boys. Daily breakfast consumption was more prevalent among adolescents from 'both parent' families, with lowest prevalence among those from single parent families. Trends in daily breakfast consumption between 1994 and 2010 also varied by family structure. While prevalence of daily breakfast consumption increased among those living with 'both parents', the largest proportion of the population, prevalence decreased over time among adolescents of single parent families, and particularly among those living with their father. Conclusions Family structure inequalities in daily breakfast consumption increased between 1994 and 2010, while breakfast consumption across the population as a whole increased. As the proportion of young people living in an alternative family structure continues to grow it is important to understand why these inequalities have

  2. The impact of self-reported exposure to whole-body-vibrations on the risk of disability pension among men: a 15 year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Whole-body-vibrations are often associated with adverse health effect but the long term effects are less known. This study investigates the association between occupational exposures to whole-body vibrations, and subsequent transition to disability pension. Methods A total of 4215 male employees were followed up for subsequent disability pension retirement. Exposure to whole-body-vibration was self-reported while new cases of disability pension were retrieved from a national register. Results The hazard ratio (HR) for disability pension retirement among men exposed to whole-body-vibrations was 1.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-2.40) after adjustment for age, smoking habits, BMI, physical job demands and awkward work postures. In our model, with the available explanatory variables, 5.6% of the male disability pension cases were attributable to whole-body-vibrations. Conclusions Exposure to whole-body-vibrations predicts subsequent disability pension retirement. Continued reduction of whole-body-vibrations may reduce the number of new cases of disability pension. PMID:20525268

  3. Surgery for Aortic Root Abscess: A 15-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Sarikaya, Sabit; Ozen, Yucel; Sacli, Hakan; Basaran, Eylul; Yerlikhan, Ozge Altas; Aydin, Ebuzer; Rabus, Murat Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Aortic root abscess is the most severe sequela of infective endocarditis, and its surgical management is a complicated procedure because of the high risk of morbidity and death. Twenty-seven patients were included in this 15-year retrospective study: 21 (77.8%) with native- and 6 (22.2%) with prosthetic-valve endocarditis. The surgical reconstruction of the aortic root consisted of aortic valve replacement in 19 patients (70.4%) with (11) or without (8) a pericardial patch, or total aortic root replacement in 7 patients (25.9%); 5 of the 27 (18.5%) underwent the modified Bentall procedure with the flanged conduit. Only one patient (3.7%) underwent subaortic pericardial patch reconstruction without valve replacement. A total of 7 patients (25.9%) underwent reoperation: 6 with prior valve surgery, and 1 with prior isolated sinus of Valsalva repair. The mean follow-up period was 6.8 ± 3.7 years. There were 6 (22.2%) in-hospital deaths, 3 (11.1%) of which were perioperative, among patients who underwent emergent surgery. Five patients (23.8%) died during follow-up, and the overall survival rates at 1, 5, and 10 years were 70.3% ± 5.8%, 62.9% ± 6.4%, and 59.2% ± 7.2%, respectively. Two of 21 patients (9.5%) underwent reoperation because of paravalvular leakage and early recurrence of infection during follow-up. After complete resection of the perianular abscess, replacement of the aortic root can be implemented for reconstruction of the aortic root, with or without left ventricular outflow tract injuries. Replacing the aortic root with a flanged composite graft might provide the best anatomic fit. PMID:27047281

  4. ASTER 15 years challenging trail on-orbit operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Masakuni; Sakuma, Fumihiro; Tatsumi, Kenji; Inada, Hitomi; Itou, Yoshiyuki; Akagi, Shigeki; Ono, Hidehiko

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is a high-resolution optical sensor system that can observe in a wide region from the visible and near-infrared, the short wavelength infrared to the thermal infrared with 14 spectral bands on board of NASA's Terra spacecraft for Earth Observing System (EOS) "A mission to planet earth." ASTER achieved 5 years mission success on orbit operation normally which is the specified target after launched on December, 1999. And after through 10 years continuous orbit operation, ASTER has still operating the long life observation of extra success to be 15 years in total on December, 2014. As for ASTER instrument that is composed of 3 radiometers; the Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer (VNIR) with 3 bands, the Short Wavelength Infrared Radiometer (SWIR) with 6 bands, the Thermal Infrared Radiometer (TIR) with 5 bands, overall ASTER long life data taken by 15 years onboard operation has been reviewed from the point of view of the health and safety check by Telemetry (TLM) data trend, the function and performance evaluation by observation data trend, the onboard calibration and verification by periodic Calibration(CAL) data trend. As a result, the radiometric degradation of VNIR and TIR and the temperature rise of SWIR detector were identified as significant challenges. The countermeasure plan towards the end of mission was clarified and also the novel lessons learned was verified.

  5. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  6. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto de; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  7. U.S. energy independence in 15 years

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Chris R

    2008-01-01

    Establish U.S. energy independence within 15 years -- This is a enormous systems engineering challenge to thoroughly analyze the present mix of power generation, energy consumption in all sectors such as transportation, industrial, commercial and residential, and devise new technologies to assist the process to independence. At this level, all citizens will be affected, requiring not only effective technologies, but superior cost/benefit ratios and effective free market interactions. With U.S. energy independence, world markets will be influenced. It will be necessary to develop or modify new energy sources, possibly including storage, and adjust or modify energy consumption profiles. Figure 1 shows the expected transition from present-day energy consumption based on both domestic and imported energy. During the 15 year period, the U.S. transitions to energy independence, eliminating imports, and perhaps reduces total energy consumption due to increased efficiency. In the future, U.S. energy consumption is able to grow in accordance with national policies and enhanced domestic capabilities. At the present time, the primary energy import is hydrocarbon products -- primarily oil. Of that imported oil, most of it is used for transportation. In order to reduce the need for imported oil, the U.S. will need to revamp its energy supply and energy consumption mixes. This change in business and usage in the U.S. will require enonnous effort on the part of many organizations and individuals. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) will take the technological lead on this grand challenge. Nearly all directorates, technical, planning and policy capabilities will be brought together and focused on this objective. A simplified chart of the interactions within LANL is shown in Figure 3. Given the enonnous undertaking of U.S. energy independence, the vast engineering, technological and science-based capabilities of LANL will work together performing systems engineering, applied

  8. Towards understanding software: 15 years in the SEL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose

    1990-01-01

    For 15 years, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) at GSFC has been carrying out studies and experiments for the purpose of understanding, assessing, and improving software, and software processes within a production software environment. The SEL comprises three major organizations: (1) the GSFC Flight Dynamics Division; (2) the University of Maryland Computer Science Department; and (3) the Computer Sciences Corporation Flight Dynamics Technology Group. These organizations have jointly carried out several hundred software studies, producing hundreds of reports, papers, and documents: all describing some aspect of the software engineering technology that has undergone analysis in the flight dynamics environment. The studies range from small controlled experiments (such as analyzing the effectiveness of code reading versus functional testing) to large, multiple-project studies (such as assessing the impacts of Ada on a production environment). The key findings that NASA feels have laid the foundation for ongoing and future software development and research activities are summarized.

  9. Radiotherapy Compared to Other Strategies in the Treatment of Stage I/II Follicular Lymphoma: A Study of 404 Patients with a Median Follow-Up of 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Barzenje, Dlawer Abdulla; Kolstad, Arne; Holte, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate outcome for patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) stage I-II treated at a population-based referral institution with a median follow-up of 15 years. Overall and cause-specific survival was compared to that of a sex, age and residency matched individuals from normal population. Material and Methods 404 patients with early stage FL treated between 1980 and 2005 were retrospectively analyzed. Two of three patients had stage I disease. Based on clinical characteristics, first line treatments were radiotherapy (RT) (48% of patients), chemotherapy (CT) (16%), combined chemo-and radiotherapy (CRT) (16%) or observation (OBS) (15%). Survival was modeled with Kaplan-Meier methodology. Multivariate analyses were performed with the Cox model. Results Fifteen years overall survival (OS), progression free survival (PFS) and time to next treatment (TNT) were 50% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 45–55), 42% (95% CI: 36–47) and 48% (95% CI, 42–54), respectively. For patients treated with RT 97% achieved a complete remission, and 15 year OS, PFS and TNT were 57% (95% CI, 50–64), 46% (95% CI, 39–54) and 49% (95% CI, 42–57), respectively. Relapse rate after RT and CRT was 49% and 36%, respectively. Only 2% of patients who received RT or CRT relapsed inside the radiation field and 5% had isolated near-field relapse. No statistical differences were found between treatment groups regarding death from cardiovascular disease or incidence of second cancer. Compared to a matched normal population, non-lymphoma cancer mortality was higher among patients given RT, hazard ratio 1.66 (95% CI: 1.14–2.42; P<0.01). Compared to other treatment modalities, patients selected for observation without treatment did not have inferior outcome. Conclusions A differentiated treatment strategy in early stage FL results in long term survival for the majority of patients. OBS is a valid initial choice for selected patients without lymphoma-related symptoms. PMID:26147646

  10. Teachers as Science Champions: The Legacy of 15 Years of NSF Investment in Science Education Improvement. A Retrospective Study of Bay Area Schools for Excellence in Education (BASEE), Partnership for Student Success in Science (PS[superscript 3]), and Noyce Master Teacher Program (NMTP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heenan, Barbara; Helms, Jenifer V.

    2013-01-01

    Inverness Research has conducted a "legacy study" focusing on a series of philanthropic investments aimed at improving science education in the San Francisco South Bay Area that extended for over 15 years. Roughly nine school districts enjoyed a steady stream of support for science education improvement that began with funding from the…

  11. Altered knee joint neuromuscular control during landing from a jump in 10-15 year old children with Generalised Joint Hypermobility. A substudy of the CHAMPS-study Denmark.

    PubMed

    Junge, Tina; Wedderkopp, Niels; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Søgaard, Karen; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2015-06-01

    Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is considered an intrinsic risk factor for knee injuries. Knee neuromuscular control during landing may be altered in GJH due to reduced passive stability. The aim was to identify differences in knee neuromuscular control during landing of the Single-Leg-Hop-for-Distance test (SLHD) in 25 children with GJH compared to 29 children without GJH (controls), all 10-15years. Inclusion criteria for GJH: Beighton score⩾5/9 and minimum one hypermobile knee. EMG was recorded from the quadriceps, the hamstring and the calf muscles, presented relative to Maximum Voluntary Electrical activity (MVE). There was no difference in jump length between groups. Before landing, GJH had 33% lower Semitendinosus, but 32% higher Gastrocnemius Medialis activity and 39% higher co contraction of the lateral knee muscles, than controls. After landing, GJH had 36% lower Semitendinosus activity than controls, all significant findings. Although the groups performed equally in SLHD, GJH had a Gastrocnemius Medialis dominated neuromuscular strategy before landing, plausibly caused by reduced Semitendinosus activity. Reduced Semitendinosus activity was seen in GJH after landing, but with no compensatory Gastrocnemius Medialis activity. Reduced pre and post-activation of the Semitendinosus may present a risk factor for traumatic knee injuries as ACL ruptures in GJH with knee hypermobility. PMID:25801907

  12. A 15-Year Longitudinal Analysis of Trends in Elective Urological Surgery – An Evidence Base for Modernising Medical Careers

    PubMed Central

    Nathaniel, C; Sangar, VK; Payne, SR

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The impact of Modernising Medical Careers on the differential need for consultant urologists and urological surgeons is as yet unknown. This study's aim was to determine what changes there had been in operative urological activity so as to predict the need for urological surgeons in the future. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study of all elective operative urological surgery over a 15-year period was performed. The absolute numbers of patients presenting for different grades of surgery were aggregated and analysed using the Spearman's rank correlation test. RESULTS Aggregated data from 27,839 procedures demonstrated no change in the number of operations (r 0.01; NS) or the number of diagnostic endoscopic procedures (r 0.21; NS) carried out over the study period. There was a decrease in endoscopic surgery related to a 70% reduction in trans-urethral resection of the prostate (TURP) (r −0.89; P = <0.0001) and an increase in ureteroscopic interventions (r 0.82; P = 0.0002) for stone disease. There was no change in the amount of major surgery carried out (r −0.43; NS) over the 15 years. CONCLUSIONS There have been changes to the pattern of surgery urologists have provided over the last 15 years but the need for complex surgical interventions has not altered. This suggests there will be as great a need for operating surgeons in the future, as currently exists. PMID:17346412

  13. A 15-year exercise program for rheumatoid vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Marley, W P; Santilli, T F

    1998-01-01

    A rare case of rheumatoid vasculitis and responses to a 15-year supervised exercise program. This patient presented with significant impairment in mobility and physical work capacity. His exercise tolerance improved considerably and he benefited emotionally. PMID:9572643

  14. Predicting anthropogenic streambed shifts in Beckley, West Virginia, modeled over 15 years using LANDSAT TM and DEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhardt, Andrew D.

    Anthropogenic change of streambeds in the Beckley, West Virginia watershed region was modeled using Landsat 5 TM satellite data from 1988 and 2003, and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data for 1969 and 2005. Comparing the 15 year land cover changes and the 36 year elevation shifts, and using a modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), in ESRI ArcMap and ERDAS Imagine, a streambed shift model was created. The model predicted land cover and elevation changes for 2018, using inputs from geospatial differencing of 2003 and 1988 land cover as well as 2003 and 1969 DEM data. Further analysis using hydrodynamic differential equations provided in depth information on stream clogging over the 15 year study period.

  15. Overweight among students aged 11–15 years and its relationship with breakfast, area of residence and parents’ education: results from the Italian HBSC 2010 cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The international increase in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents over the past three decades confirms that childhood obesity is a global ‘epidemic’. The World Health Organization considers childhood obesity to be a major public health concern. Childhood obesity is associated with cardiovascular, endocrine, musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal complications, and may have psycho-social consequences. The aim of this paper is to examine overweight (including obesity) prevalence and its association with geographic area of residence, parental education and daily breakfast consumption in Italian students aged 11–15 yrs. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11–15 year old students from 20 Italian Regions (Italian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2010-HBSC) was randomly selected (2,504 schools and 77,113 students). Self-reported anonymous questionnaires, prepared by the international HBSC network, were used to collect the data. BMI was calculated using self-reported weight and height and the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to assess the relationship between the risk of overweight and parental education, area of residence and breakfast consumption in each age group and gender. Results Boys were more likely to be overweight or obese than girls (28.1% vs. 18.9% at 11 yrs-old, 24.8% vs. 16.5% at 13 yrs and 25.4 vs. 11.8% at 15 yrs). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was lower among the older girls. Overweight and obesity rates increased from the North of Italy to the South in both boys and girls and in all age groups. Boys 11-15 yrs living in southern Italy had an OR=2.05 (1.77-2.38) and girls 2.04 (95% CI 1.70-2.44) for overweight (including obesity) compared with those living in the North. Parent’s low educational level and no daily breakfast consumption were also associated with overweight including obesity (p<0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of

  16. Stability and Change in Counseling Psychologists' Identities, Roles, Functions, and Career Satisfaction across 15 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodyear, Rodney K.; Murdock, Nancy; Lichtenberg, James W.; McPherson, Robert; Koetting, Kristin; Petren, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined changes in the profession of counseling psychology by comparing results of similar surveys of Society of Counseling Psychology (SCP) members administered 15 years apart (in 1985 and 2000). The authors found the roles and settings of SCP members were relatively stable across this period but observed that notably fewer…

  17. [Pincoffs-Bard's syndrome in a 15-year old girl].

    PubMed

    Pakulski, C; Pankowski, J; Swiniarski, A; Król-Pakulska, E

    1996-01-01

    A case of primary stomach carcinoma (or Pincoff's-Bard syndrome) with extensive radiologic shadows on chest X-ray and clinical signs of respiratory failure has been presented. The case concerned a 15-year-old girl being diagnosed in several hospital because of pulmonary lesions. The diagnosis was made on a basis of the autopsy. PMID:9162328

  18. 15 Years of Terra MODIS Instrument on-Orbit Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, X.; Salomonson, V.

    2014-12-01

    The first MODIS instrument, launched on-board the NASA EOS Terra spacecraft in December 1999, has successfully operated for nearly 15 years. MODIS observations have significantly contributed to the studies of many geophysical parameters of the earth's system and its changes over time. Dedicated effort made by the MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST) to constantly monitor instrument operation, to calibrate changes in sensor response, to derive and update sensor calibration parameters, and to maintain and improve calibration algorithms has played an extremely important role to assure the quality of MODIS data products. MODIS was developed with overall improvements over its heritage sensors. Its observations are made in 36 spectral bands, covering wavelengths from visible to long-wave infrared. The reflective solar bands (1-19 and 26) are calibrated on-orbit by a solar diffuser (SD) panel and regularly scheduled lunar observations. The thermal emissive bands (20-25 and 27-36) calibration is referenced to an on-board blackbody (BB) source. On-orbit changes in the sensor spectral and spatial characteristics are tracked by a spectroradiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). This paper provides an overview of Terra MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities implemented from launch to present and the status of instrument health and functions. It demonstrates sensor on-orbit performance derived from its telemetry, on-board calibrators (OBC), and lunar observations. Also discussed in this paper are changes in sensor characteristics, corrections applied to maintain level 1B data quality, various challenging issues, and future improvements.

  19. 15 years experience with helium ion radiotherapy for uvealmelanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Joseph R.; D.H. Char, P.L. Petti; Daftarii, K.; Quivey,J.M.; Singh, R.P.; Blakeley, E.A.; Phillips, T.L.

    1997-06-01

    Purpose: To review the long-term experience of helium iontherapy as a therapeutic alternative to enucleation for uveal melanoma,particularly with respect to survival, local control, and morbidity.Methods and Materials: 347 patients with uveal melanoma were treated withheluim ion RT from 1978-1992. A nonrandomized dose-searching study wasundertaken, with doses progressively reduced from 80 GyE in fivefractionsto 48 GyE in four fractions, given in 3-15 days, mean of 7days. Results: Local control was achieved in 96 percent of patients, withno difference in the rate of local control being seen at 80, 70, 60, or50 GyE in five fractions. At the lowest dose level of 48 GyE in fourfractions, the local control rate fell to 87 percent. Fifteen of 347patients (4 percent) had local regrowth in the eye requiring enucleation(12 patients), laser (1 patient) or reirradiation (2 patients). The timeof appearance of local regrowth ranged from 4 months to 5 yearsposttreatment, with 85 percent occurring within 3 years. Of the 347patients, 208 are alive as of May 1, 1997. The median follow up of allpatients is 8.5 years, range 1-17 years. Kaplan-Maier (K-M) survival is80 percent at 5 years, 76 percent at 10 years, and 72 percent at 15 yearsposttreatment. Patients with tumors not involving the ciliary body have a15-year K-M survival of 80 percent. The results for patients whose tumorsinvolved the ciliary body are poor, with a 15-year K-M survival of 43percent. Seventy-five percent of patients with tumors at least 3.0 mmfrom the fovea and optic nerve, and initial ultrasound height less than6.0 mm, retained vision of 20/200 or better posttreatment. Patients withtumors larger than 6 mm in thickness, or with tumors lying close to theoptic nerve or fovea, have a reduced chance of retaining useful vision.The enucleation rate is 19 percent, 3 percent for local failure and 16percent because of complications of the helium RT, particularlyneovascular glaucoma, which occurred in 35 percent of

  20. Mortality According to CD4 Count at Start of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Among HIV-infected Patients Followed for up to 15 Years After Start of Treatment: Collaborative Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    May, Margaret T.; Vehreschild, Jorg-Janne; Trickey, Adam; Obel, Niels; Reiss, Peter; Bonnet, Fabrice; Mary-Krause, Murielle; Samji, Hasina; Cavassini, Matthias; Gill, Michael John; Shepherd, Leah C.; Crane, Heidi M.; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Burkholder, Greer A.; Johnson, Margaret M.; Sobrino-Vegas, Paz; Domingo, Pere; Zangerle, Robert; Justice, Amy C.; Sterling, Timothy R.; Miró, José M.; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. CD4 count at start of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is strongly associated with short-term survival, but its association with longer-term survival is less well characterized. Methods. We estimated mortality rates (MRs) by time since start of ART (<0.5, 0.5–0.9, 1–2.9, 3–4.9, 5–9.9, and ≥10 years) among patients from 18 European and North American cohorts who started ART during 1996–2001. Piecewise exponential models stratified by cohort were used to estimate crude and adjusted (for sex, age, transmission risk, period of starting ART [1996–1997, 1998–1999, 2000–2001], and AIDS and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA at baseline) mortality rate ratios (MRRs) by CD4 count at start of ART (0–49, 50–99, 100–199, 200–349, 350–499, ≥500 cells/µL) overall and separately according to time since start of ART. Results. A total of 6344 of 37 496 patients died during 359 219 years of follow-up. The MR per 1000 person-years was 32.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 30.2–35.5) during the first 6 months, declining to 16.0 (95% CI, 15.4–16.8) during 5–9.9 years and 14.2 (95% CI, 13.3–15.1) after 10 years’ duration of ART. During the first year of ART, there was a strong inverse association of CD4 count at start of ART with mortality. This diminished over the next 4 years. The adjusted MRR per CD4 group was 0.97 (95% CI, .94–1.00; P = .054) and 1.02 (95% CI, .98–1.07; P = .32) among patients followed for 5–9.9 and ≥10 years, respectively. Conclusions. After surviving 5 years of ART, the mortality of patients who started ART with low baseline CD4 count converged with mortality of patients with intermediate and high baseline CD4 counts. PMID:27025828

  1. ASTER system operating achievement for 15 years on orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inada, Hitomi; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Sakuma, Fumihiro; Tatsumi, Kenji; Akagi, Shigeki; Ono, Hidehiko

    2015-10-01

    ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) System is operating more than 15 years since launched on board of NASA's Terra spacecraft in December 1999. ASTER System is composed of 3 radiometers (VNIR (Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer), SWIR (Short-Wave Infrared Radiometer), and TIR (Thermal Infrared Radiometer)), CSP (Common Signal Processor) and MSP (Master Power Supply). This paper describes the ASTER System operating history and the achievement of ASTER System long term operation since the initial checkout operation, the normal operation, and the continuous operation. Through the 15 years operation, ASTER system had totally checked the all subsystems (MPS, VNIR, TIR, SWIR, and CSP) health and safety check using telemetry data trend evaluation, and executed the necessary action. The watch items are monitored as the life control items. The pointing mechanics for VNIR, SWIR and TIR, and the cooler for SWIR and TIR are all operating with any problem for over 15 years. In 2003, ASTER was successfully operated for the lunar calibration. As the future plan, ASTER team is proposing the 2nd lunar calibration before the end of mission.

  2. Surgical treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid tumor: A 15-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lu; Zhang, Xu; Liu, Shan-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to highlight our experience over a 15-year period in dealing with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) due to a parathyroid tumor. Parathyroidectomy is the standard therapy for patients with PHPT. Our study included all patients with PHPT treated by parathyroidectomy at the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, China. Between 1998 and 2013, a total of 107 patients were recruited. Their clinical data, presentation, laboratory examinations, imageological diagnoses and surgical approaches were analyzed retrospectively. Eighty-four cases (78.5%) were followed up. During a median follow-up period of 5.7 years, a total of 80 patients were without recurrence and metastasis. The main symptoms of PHPT patients were palpable neck mass, joint pains and pathological fracture. The high levels of preoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) and serum calcium in PHPT patients decreased to below the normal upper limit within 3 days of surgery. The sensitivity of neck ultrasonography, sestamibi scanning, CT, MRI and the combination of three or four types of test were 86.0%, 90.4%, 80.8%, 79.6% and 96.1%, respectively. A 50% or greater drop in PTH levels within 20 min compared with the highest PTH levels before surgery occurred in 95/107 cases (88.8%). Transient hypocalcemia was the most common surgical complication. The ultrasonography and sestamibi scan is the most effective examination for parathyroid tumor. The 20 min PTH measurement appears to be extremely useful, and avoids unnecessary bilateral exploration. PMID:27602126

  3. Effect of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination without a booster dose on invasive H influenzae type b disease, nasopharyngeal carriage, and population immunity in Kilifi, Kenya: a 15-year regional surveillance study

    PubMed Central

    Hammitt, Laura L; Crane, Rosie J; Karani, Angela; Mutuku, Alex; Morpeth, Susan C; Burbidge, Polly; Goldblatt, David; Kamau, Tatu; Sharif, Shahnaaz; Mturi, Neema; Scott, J Anthony G

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine, delivered as a three-dose series without a booster, was introduced into the childhood vaccination programme in Kenya in 2001. The duration of protection and need for a booster dose are unknown. We aimed to assess vaccine effectiveness, the impact of the vaccine on nasopharyngeal carriage, and population immunity after introduction of conjugate Hib vaccine in infancy without a booster dose in Kenya. Methods This study took place in the Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System (KHDSS), an area of Kenya that has been monitored for vital events and migration every 4 months since 2000. We analysed sterile site cultures for H influenzae type b from children (aged ≤12 years) admitted to the Kilifi County Hospital (KCH) from Jan 1, 2000, through to Dec 31, 2014. We determined the prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage by undertaking cross-sectional surveys in random samples of KHDSS residents (of all ages) once every year from 2009 to 2012, and measured Hib antibody concentrations in five cross-sectional samples of children (aged ≤12 years) within the KHDSS (in 1998, 2000, 2004–05, 2007, and 2009). We calculated incidence rate ratios between the prevaccine era (2000–01) and the routine-use era (2004–14) and defined vaccine effectiveness as 1 minus the incidence rate ratio, expressed as a percentage. Findings 40 482 children younger than 13 years resident in KHDSS were admitted to KCH between 2000 and 2014, 38 206 (94%) of whom had their blood cultured. The incidence of invasive H influenzae type b disease in children younger than 5 years declined from 62·6 (95% CI 46·0–83·3) per 100 000 in 2000–01 to 4·5 (2·5–7·5) per 100 000 in 2004–14, giving a vaccine effectiveness of 93% (95% CI 87–96). In the final 5 years of observation (2010–14), only one case of invasive H influenzae type b disease was detected in a child younger than 5 years. Nasopharyngeal H

  4. Knowledge, attitude and behavioral determinants of tobacco use among 13-15 year old school children

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Romshi; Krishna, Madhusudan; Murali, R.; Shamala, A.; Yalamalli, Maanasi; Kumar, A. Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Background: The epidemic of tobacco use is one of the greatest threats to global health today. Tobacco attributable deaths in India currently range from 800,000 to 900,000 per year. Adolescents are among the most vulnerable group to start tobacco use. Information on tobacco use among the youth is necessary to establish control measures against it. Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitude, and behavioral determinants of tobacco use among high school students (age13–15 years) in Bangalore. Materials and Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 3 weeks in the month of September 2012. A structured, pretested questionnaire was administered randomly to 500 high school students in Bangalore to assess the knowledge, attitude, and behavioral determinants of tobacco use. Results: Majority of the study population [94.4% (472/500)] believed that smoking is definitely harmful to our health. Also, 39.0% of the participants of age 13 years believed that smoking does not help in socializing and 92.2% of study subjects had negative attitude toward starting the habit. Most of them (83.9%) had a negative perception about smokers that they lack confidence. However, less than 1% of the study population had a habit of smoking at this young age. Conclusion: Awareness of the harmful effects of smoking was high among the study population. The study provides insight into the factors to consider while planning adolescent anti-smoking programs in this and similar settings. PMID:26310970

  5. College Daughters' Relationships with Their Fathers: A 15 Year Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Data collected from 1990 until 2004 from 423 college women show that, although the majority felt they had a loving relationship with their fathers, the vast majority felt that the mother-daughter relationship was more communicative, more emotionally intimate, and more comfortable. Daughters and mothers knew one another better and were more…

  6. Lessons Learned After 15 Years of Circumferential Bodylift Surgery.

    PubMed

    Small, Kevin H; Constantine, Ryan; Eaves, Felmont F; Kenkel, Jeffrey M

    2016-06-01

    Circumferential bodylift is a powerful procedure for achieving dramatic and natural body contouring changes in the massive weight loss patient. The care of these patients has raised our awareness of several important issues including safety, nutritional status, skin quality, recurrent laxity, surgical steps, and postoperative scars. Integration of this knowledge with various technical modifications over the last 15 years has improved our care for this cohort. We have not only seen a rise in the number of surgeries performed, but also the development of principles, techniques, and details that the authors feel necessary to share to achieve improved contour and more predictable outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 4: Therapeutic. PMID:26821642

  7. [Pancreatic cystic fibrosis in Mexicans over 15 years of age].

    PubMed

    Quezada, R; Hernandez, N; Sada, E

    1990-01-01

    A better knowledge of cystic fibrosis of the pancreas has contributed to raise the detection of cystic fibrosis in adults. We describe nine Mexican patients older than 15 years with cystic fibrosis. Respiratory symptoms were predominant and they were secondary to bronchiectasis. All patients were infected by mucoid Pseudomona aeruginosa and in some cases, the finding of this microorganism in sputum suggested the diagnosis. In Mexican population the cystyc fibrosis of the pancreas can be found in adult patients, and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic respiratory diseases in adults. PMID:2125356

  8. Development of Face Recognition in 5- to 15-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnunen, Suna; Korkman, Marit; Laasonen, Marja; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of face recognition in typically developing preschool- and school-aged children (aged 5 to 15 years old, "n" = 611, 336 girls). Social predictors include sex differences and own-sex bias. At younger ages, the development of face recognition was rapid and became more gradual as the age increased up…

  9. Impact of school-based oral health education program on oral health of 12 and 15 years old school children

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Vinay Kumar; Sharma, Kapil Rajiv; Luthra, Rajeshwar Prasad; Jhingta, Pravesh; Sharma, Deepak; Justa, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    Background: Health education for the school age child is a specialized field within the broad discipline of education. Oral health education program are educational aspects of any curative, preventive and promotional health activity. Aim: The study has been undertaken to evaluate the impact of oral health education on the status of plaque, gingival health and dental caries among 12 and 15 years old children attending government school in Shimla city. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and seventy six school children participated in the study. The study was conducted over a period of 4 months from May 2010 to August 2010 in Government Senior Secondary School, Sanjauli. Plaque, gingival and caries status was assessed by using Silness and Loe plaque index, Loe and Silness gingival index and WHO modified DMFT index, respectively. Data was analyzed using the software SPSS version 15. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank sum test were used appropriately for statistical comparisons. P value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Overall mean plaque score and gingival score decreased significantly after oral health education irrespective of gender. However, decrease in plaque score among 15 years old female children and gingival scores among 12 and 15 years old female subjects was not significant. Difference in mean caries status was statistically insignificant among all the subjects. Conclusion: Short term oral health education program may be useful in improving oral hygiene and gingival health. Coordinating efforts should be enhanced between school personnel, parents and health professionals to ensure long-term benefits of such program. PMID:24083283

  10. Results of proximal gastric vagotomy over 1-5 years in a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Makey, D A; Tovey, F I; Heald, R J

    1979-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-three underwent proximal gastric vagotomy for duodenal ulceration over a 6-year period. One hundred and fifteen of these have been followed up for 1-5 years. The operative mortality was nil and the result was satisfactory in 91 per cent. The incidence of side effects was small, notably that of dumping being 2.4 per cent and of diarrhoea, 3.6 per cent. Incidence of postoperative heartburn was reduced from 13 per cent to 4 per cent by the introduction of hepatic interposition. The incidence of recurrent ulceration was 5.1 per cent after an average interval of 2 years and that of new gastric ulceration 2.6 per cent after an average of 4 years. There were no recurrent ulcers in those who had peroperative Burge tests, although secretory studies showed no difference between those tested and those not tested. Most recurrences occurred in the earliest cases operated on before Burge testing was introduced and when only 2 cm of the lower oesophagus were exposed. PMID:420970

  11. Evaluation of two stormwater infiltration trenches in central Copenhagen after 15 years of operation.

    PubMed

    Bergman, M; Hedegaard, M R; Petersen, M F; Binning, P; Mark, O; Mikkelsen, P S

    2011-01-01

    Two stormwater infiltration trenches were installed in 1993 in an area in central Copenhagen. The system was monitored continuously for almost three years after establishment, and a small reduction in performance over that time, possibly due to clogging, was noted. A new study was conducted in 2009 to see whether the reduction in performance has continued and to determine how the system performs today. Water levels in the trenches were monitored for almost 4 months, and from this period seven events were selected to analyse the infiltration rate. A comparison with similar analyses on storm sequences from the first 3 years of operation shows that the infiltration has decreased since the establishment of the system 15 years ago. The decrease is statistically significant (p<0.01). A clogging model was fitted to the data and predictions were made for future performance. The results show that the system will discharge around 10 times more annual overflow to the sewers after 100 years of operation compared to the initial volumes, if clogging continues at current rates. This corresponds to 60% of the total runoff from the area. The results show that clogging and proper maintenance are important factors to consider when implementing stormwater infiltration trenches. PMID:21977650

  12. Tuberculous Lymphadenitis in South-Eastern Nigeria; A 15 Years Histopathologic Review (2000-2014)

    PubMed Central

    Ukekwe, FI; Olusina, DB; Banjo, AAF; Akinde, OR; Nzegwu, MA; Okafor, OC; Ocheni, S

    2016-01-01

    Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic has brought about a resurgence in tuberculosis (TB), especially in developing countries. Previous studies on TB lymphadenitis (TBLN) in South-Eastern Nigeria were done before the advent of the HIV pandemic making a review pertinent. Aim: To evaluate the role of TBLN as a cause of superficial lymphadenopathy in the post-HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) era of South-Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a 15 years (2000-2014) retrospective review of all superficial lymph node biopsies (SLNBs) received at the Department of Morbid Anatomy, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku-Ozalla Enugu, Nigeria. Results: One hundred and seventy-two cases of TBLN were identified in this study constituting 14.6% (172/1,180) of SLNBs received at our Hospital's Morbid Anatomy Department during the 15 years period under review. Twenty-eight cases of TBLN were clinically screened for HIV, 23 of which tested positive, representing 82.1% (23/28) of clinically screened cases. Acid fast bacilli demonstration was positive in 15.1% (26/172) of cases using Ziehl-Neelsen stain. 48.8% (84/172) of TBLN cases were males, and 51.2% (88/172) were females with most (22) cases received in 2012 and least (5) cases in 2000. Most TBLN occurred in the 21-25 years age group with a total of 21.5% (37/172) of cases and a male to female ratio of 1:1.5 The most common biopsy site for TBLN was the cervical group followed by the axillary and inguinal groups with 73.8% (127/172), 14% (24/172), and 4.7% (8/172) of cases, respectively. Conclusions: There is a remarkable decline in the prevalence of TB lymphadenitis in South-Eastern Nigeria indicating a change in trend from the pre- to the post-HIV/AIDS era with slightly more females now presenting with TBLN and most TB lymphadenitis patients now presenting with associated HIV/AIDS disease. There is an urgent need to provide modern diagnostic facilities in our medical

  13. Consumption of dairy products and the 15-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Wang, Jie Jin; Burlutsky, George; Rochtchina, Elena; Mitchell, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Habitual consumption of dairy products has been shown to play an important role in the prevention of several chronic diseases. We aimed to prospectively assess the relationship between the change in dairy product consumption (both regular fat and low/reduced fat) and the 15-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the Blue Mountains Eye Study, 2037 participants aged 49 years or above at baseline were re-examined at follow-up in 1997-9, 2002-4 and/or 2007-9. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ, and servings of dairy product consumption calculated. Over the 15-year follow-up, there were 352, 268 and eighty-four incident cases of any, early and late AMD, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, current smoking, white cell count and fish consumption, a significant linear trend (P for trend = 0·003) was observed with decreasing consumption of total dairy foods and the 15-year incidence of late AMD, comparing the lowest v. highest quintile of intake (OR 2·80, 95 % CI 1·21, 3·04). Over the 15 years, decreased consumption of reduced-fat dairy foods was associated with an increased risk of incident late AMD, comparing the lowest to highest quintile of intake (OR 3·10, 95 % CI 1·18, 8·14, P for trend = 0·04). Decreasing total dietary Ca intake over the 15 years was also associated with an increased risk of developing incident late AMD (multivariable-adjusted P for trend = 0·03). A lower consumption of dairy products (regular and low fat) and Ca was independently associated with a higher risk of developing incident late AMD in the long term. Additional cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:24502821

  14. Monitoring the state of vegetation in Hungary using 15 years long MODIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Anikó; Bognár, Péter; Pásztor, Szilárd; Barcza, Zoltán; Timár, Gábor; Lichtenberger, János; Ferencz, Csaba

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring the state and health of the vegetation is essential to understand causes and severity of environmental change and to prepare for the negative effects of climate change on plant growth and productivity. Satellite remote sensing is the fundamental tool to monitor and study the changes of vegetation activity in general and to understand its relationship with the climate fluctuations. Vegetation indices and other vegetation related measures calculated from remotely sensed data are widely used to monitor and characterize the state of the terrestrial vegetation. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) are among the most popular indices that can be calculated from measurements of the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor onboard the NASA EOS-AM1/Terra and EOS-PM1/Aqua satellites (since 1999 and 2002 respectively). Based on the available, 15 years long MODIS data (2000-2014) the vegetation characteristics of Hungary was investigated in our research, primarily using vegetation indices. The MODIS NDVI and EVI (both part of the so-called MOD13 product of NASA) are freely available with a finest spatial resolution of 250 meters and a temporal resolution of 16 days since 2000/2002 (for Terra and Aqua respectively). The accuracy, the spatial resolution and temporal continuity of the MODIS products makes these datasets highly valuable despite of its relatively short temporal coverage. NDVI is also calculated routinely from the raw MODIS data collected by the receiving station of Eötvös Loránd University. In order to characterize vegetation activity and its variability within the Carpathian Basin the area-averaged annual cycles and their interannual variability were determined. The main aim was to find those years that can be considered as extreme according to specific indices. Using archive meteorological data the effects of extreme weather on vegetation activity and growth were investigated with

  15. Parenting Stress and Child Behavior Problems within Families of Children with Developmental Disabilities: Transactional Relations across 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Ashley C.; Mawdsley, Helena P.; Hauser-Cram, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children with developmental disabilities (DD) are at increased risk of experiencing psychological stress compared to other parents. Children’s high levels of internalizing and externalizing problems have been found to contribute to this elevated level of stress. Few studies have considered the reverse direction of effects, however, in families where a child has a DD. The present study investigated transactional relations between child behavior problems and maternal stress within 176 families raising a child with early diagnosed DD. There was evidence of both child-driven and parent-driven effects over the 15-year study period, spanning from early childhood (age 3) to adolescence (age 18), consistent with transactional models of development. Parent-child transactions were found to vary across different life phases and with different domains of behavior problems. PMID:25462487

  16. Subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Kovanda, Timothy J; Horn, Eric M

    2014-09-01

    Secondary injury following initial spinal cord trauma is uncommon and frequently attributed to mismanagement of an unprotected cord in the acute time period after injury. Subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy (SPAM) is a rare occurrence in the days to weeks following an initial spinal cord injury that is unrelated to manipulation of an unprotected cord and involves 4 or more vertebral levels above the original injury. The authors present a case of SPAM occurring in a 15-year-old boy who sustained a T3-4 fracture-dislocation resulting in a complete spinal cord injury, and they highlight the imaging findings and optimum treatment for this rare event. PMID:24905393

  17. Reanalysis of a 15-year Archive of IMPROVE Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyslop, N. P.; White, W. H.; Trzepla, K.

    2013-12-01

    The IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments) network monitors aerosol concentrations at 170 remote sites throughout the United States. Twenty-four-hour filter samples of particulate matter are collected every third day and analyzed for chemical composition. About 30 of the sites have operated continuously since 1988, and the sustained data record (http://views.cira.colostate.edu/web/) offers a unique window on regional aerosol trends. All elemental analyses have been performed by Crocker Nuclear Laboratory at the University of California in Davis, and sample filters collected since 1995 are archived on campus. The suite of reported elements has remained constant, but the analytical methods employed for their determination have evolved. For example, the elements Na - Mn were determined by PIXE until November 2001, then by XRF analysis in a He-flushed atmosphere through 2004, and by XRF analysis in vacuum since January 2005. In addition to these fundamental changes, incompletely-documented operational factors such as detector performance and calibration details have introduced variations in the measurements. Because the past analytical methods were non-destructive, the archived filters can be re-analyzed with the current analytical systems and protocols. The 15-year sample archives from Great Smoky Mountains, Mount Rainier, and Point Reyes National Parks were selected for reanalysis. The agreement between the new analyses and original determinations varies with element and analytical era (Figure 1). Temporal trends for some elements are affected by these changes in measurement technique while others are not (Figure 2). Figure 1. Repeatability of analyses for sulfur and vanadium at Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Each point shows the ratio of mass loadings determined by the original analysis and recent reanalysis. Major method distinctions are indicated at the top. Figure 2. Trends, based on Thiel-Sen regression, in lead concentrations

  18. Patterns of Weight Control Behavior among 15 year old Girls

    PubMed Central

    Balantekin, Katherine N.; Birch, Leann L.; Savage, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objectives were to identify and predict patterns of weight control behavior in 15 year old (yo) girls and to examine weight control group differences in energy intake. Method Subjects included 166 girls assessed every 2 years (ys) from age 5 to 15. Latent class analysis was used to identify patterns of weight control behaviors. Antecedent variables (e.g. inhibitory control at 7ys), and concurrent variables (e.g. BMI and dietary intake at 15ys) were included as predictors. Assessments were a combination of survey, interview, and laboratory measures. Results LCA identified four classes of weight control behaviors, Non-dieters (26%), and three dieting groups: Lifestyle (16%), Dieters (43%), and Extreme Dieters (17%). Levels of restraint, weight concerns, and dieting frequency increased across groups, from Non-dieters to Extreme Dieters. BMI at 5ys and inhibitory control at 7ys predicted weight control group at 15ys; e.g. with every one-point decrease in inhibitory control, girls were twice as likely to be Extreme Dieters than Non-dieters. Girls in the Extreme Dieters group were mostly classified as under-reporters, and had the lowest self-reported intake, but ate significantly more in the laboratory. Discussion Among 15yo girls, “dieting” includes a range of both healthy and unhealthy behaviors. Risk factors for membership in a weight control groups are present as early as 5ys. Patterns of intake in the laboratory support the view that lower reported energy intake by Extreme Dieters is likely due under-reporting as an intent to decrease intake, not actual decreased intake. PMID:26284953

  19. Radiation-Induced Sarcoma: A 15-Year Experience in a Single Large Tertiary Referral Center

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Su; Chang, Ji Hyun; Choi, Noorie; Kim, Han-Soo; Han, Ilkyu; Moon, Kyung Chul; Kim, Il Han; Kim, Hak Jae

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to report on the incidence and the experience in management of radiation-induced sarcoma (RIS) at a large single center in Korea for 15 years. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the sarcoma registry of a large institution from January 2000 to April 2014. Results Out of the 3,674 patients listed in the registry, 33 patients (0.9%) diagnosed with RIS were identified. The median latency of RIS was 12.1 years. The number of cases of RIS increased from four cases in the years 2000-2003 to 14 cases in the years 2012-2014. The most common histology was osteosarcoma (36.4%). The median follow-up period was 23.1 months, the median overall survival (OS) of all patients was 2.9 years, and their 5-year survival rate was 44.7%. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed association of the age at diagnosis (p=0.01) and the treatment aim (p=0.001) with the OS. The median OS and the 5-year survival rate of patients treated with curative surgery (n=19) were 9.6 years and 65%, respectively, and of the conservatively treated patients, 0.7 years and 0% (n=14). Re-irradiation was delivered to nine patients, and radiation toxicity was observed in five patients. Conclusion In this study, RIS accounted for 0.9% of the cases of sarcoma, with increasing incidence. Despite the association of curative resection with increased survival, it could be applied to only 58% of the patients. Considering the limited treatment options for RIS, conduct of a genetic study to identify the underlying mechanism of RIS is needed. PMID:27004955

  20. Dynamic Characteristic Analysis of Spinal Motor Control Between 11- and 15-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Chow, Daniel H; Lau, Newman M

    2016-07-01

    Spinal motor control can provide substantial insight for the causes of spinal musculoskeletal disorders. Its dynamic characteristics however, have not been fully investigated. The objective of this study is to explore the dynamic characteristics of spinal motor control via the fractional Brownian motion mathematical technique. Spinal curvatures and repositioning errors of different spinal regions in 64 children age 11- or 15-years old during upright stance were measured and compared for the effects of age and gender. With the application of the fractional Brownian motion analytical technique to the changes of spinal curvatures, distinct persistent movement behaviors could be determined, which could be interpreted physiologically as open-loop behaviors. Moreover, it was found that the spinal motor control of 15-year-old children was better than that of 11-year-old children with smaller repositioning error and less curvature variability as well as shorter response time and smaller curvature deformation. PMID:26314089

  1. REOPERATION FOR INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION IN TWIST1 CONFIRMED SAETHRE-CHOTZEN SYNDROME: A 15 YEAR REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Roger H; Ul-Haq, Ehtesham; Wilkie, Andrew OM; Jayamohan, Jayaratnam; Richards, Peter G; Johnson, David; Lester, Tracy; Wall, Steven A

    2009-01-01

    Background Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS) is a syndromic craniosynostosis defined by a genetic mutation affecting the TWIST1 gene on chromosome 7p21. SCS is typically associated with uni- or bi-coronal synostosis, eyelid ptosis, dysmorphic external ears and other variable facial and limb abnormalities. Surgical management of the craniosynostosis addresses the calvarial deformity and may relieve or reduce risk of intracranial hypertension. The aim of this study was to assess surgical intervention, with particular consideration of reoperation rate for intracranial hypertension, in SCS patients. Method A retrospective casenote analysis was performed on all patients with a confirmed TWIST1 gene abnormality, who attended the Oxford Craniofacial Unit over a 15-year period. Each patient’s mutation and clinical features were recorded. Surgical intervention and sequelae were examined in greater detail. Results Thirty-four patients with genetically confirmed SCS were identified. All had craniosynostosis (bicoronal 76%, unicoronal 18%, bicoronal and sagittal 6%), and the majority had eyelid ptosis, low frontal hairline and external ear anomalies. Thirty-one cases had received surgical intervention. Nine of 26 patients (35%) with minimum 12 month follow-up after primary intervention, and 8 of 19 patients (42%) with minimum 5 year follow-up, developed intracranial hypertension necessitating secondary calvarial surgery. Conclusions Despite standard surgical intervention, patients with SCS have a high rate (35 - 42%) of recurrent intracranial hypertension necessitating further surgical expansion. All patients with either bicoronal synostosis or unicoronal synostosis with syndromic features, should be screened for TWIST1 mutations as this confers a greater risk than non-syndromic synostosis of the same sutures. Regular follow-up of SCS patients throughout the childhood years is essential. PMID:19483581

  2. ASTER VNIR 15 years growth to the standard imaging radiometer in remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, Masaru; Inada, Hitomi; Kikuchi, Masakuni; Sakuma, Fumihiro

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer (VNIR) is the remote sensing equipment which has 3 spectral bands and one along-track stereoscopic band radiometer. ASTER VNIR's planned long life design (more than 5 years) is successfully achieved. ASTER VNIR has been imaging the World-wide Earth surface multiband images and the Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM). VNIR data create detailed world-wide maps and change-detection of the earth surface as utilization transitions and topographical changes. ASTER VNIR's geometric resolution is 15 meters; it is the highest spatial resolution instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft. Then, ASTER VNIR was planned for the geometrical basis map makers in Terra instruments. After 15-years VNIR growth to the standard map-maker for space remote-sensing. This paper presents VNIR's feature items during 15-year operation as change-detection images , DEM and calibration result. VNIR observed the World-wide Earth images for biological, climatological, geological, and hydrological study, those successful work shows a way on space remote sensing instruments. Still more, VNIR 15 years observation data trend and onboard calibration trend data show several guide or support to follow-on instruments.

  3. 200-BP-1 Prototype Hanford Barrier -- 15 Years of Performance Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Anderson L.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Link, Steven O.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2011-09-30

    Monitoring is an essential component of engineered barrier system design and operation. A composite capacitive cover, including a capillary break and an evapotranspiration (ET) barrier at the Hanford Site, is generating data that can be used to help resolve these issues. The prototype Hanford barrier was constructed over the 216-B-57 Crib in 1994 to evaluate surface-barrier constructability, construction costs, and physical and hydrologic performance at the field scale. The barrier has been routinely monitored between November 1994 and September 1998 as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) treatability test of barrier performance for the 200 BP 1 Operable Unit. Since FY 1998, monitoring has focused on a more limited set of key water balance, stability, and biotic parameters. In FY 2009, data collection was focused on: (1) water-balance monitoring, consisting of precipitation, runoff, soil moisture storage, and drainage measurements with evapotranspiration calculated by difference; (2) stability monitoring, consisting of asphalt-layer-settlement, basalt-side-slope-stability, and surface-elevation measurements; (3) vegetation dynamics; and (4) animal use. September 2009 marked 15 years since the start of monitoring and the collection of performance data. This report describes the results of monitoring activities during the period October 1, 2008, through September 30, 2009, and summarizes the 15 years of performance data collected from September 1994 through September 2009.

  4. Studying the Nazi Period: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Students should be taught how to make well-reasoned and analytic judgments about the Nazis. The process of arriving at judgments about the Nazi period should be characterized by a factual knowledge of the Nazi era within a general historical knowledge of the period, sympathy, and an open mind. (RM)

  5. [Voiding dysfunction in children aged five to 15 years].

    PubMed

    Karaklajić, Dragana; Peco-Antić, Amira

    2004-01-01

    Voiding dysfunction in children was analyzed in 91 patients in a period from January 1st to October 1st 1998. Most of the patients had functional voiding disorder (92.31%), and only 7.69% manifested monosymptomatic night enuresis. The number of girls was bigger in the group of patients with voiding dysfunction while the boys were predominant in the group with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. More than a half of children with functional voiding disorder had repeated urinal infections (58.23%), incontinence (93.49%), need for urgent voiding (68.13%), and vesicoureteral reflux (47.61%). The most common type of voiding dysfunction was urge syndrome/urge incontinence. The incidence of dysfunctional voiding disorder was more often in children with scaring changes of kidney which were diagnosed by static scintigraphy. PMID:15794052

  6. The Long Journey of TCL1 Transgenic Mice: Lessons Learned in the Last 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Pekarsky, Yuri; Drusco, Alessandra; Kumchala, Prasanthi; Croce, Carlo M.; Zanesi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The first transgenic mouse of the TCL1 oncogene was described more than 15 years ago, and since then, the overexpression of the gene in T- and B-cells in vivo has been extensively studied to reveal the molecular details in the pathogenesis of some lymphocytic leukemias. This review discusses the main features of the original TCL1 models and the different lines of research successively developed with particular attention to genetically compound mice and the therapeutic applications in drug development. PMID:25700368

  7. Resected tumours of the sublingual gland: 15 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tung-Tsun; Chou, Yu-Fu; Wen, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Peir-Rong

    2016-07-01

    Sublingual gland tumours are rare, and we have evaluated the clinical features and prognosis of patients treated at a tertiary medical centre in eastern Taiwan. We retrospectively reviewed the cases of nine patients with sublingual gland tumours that were resected from December 1993 to November 2008, four of whom were men and five women. The median (range) age at diagnosis was 52 (39-63) years. Seven had malignant tumours, of which adenoid cystic carcinoma was the most common. All patients with malignant tumours had neck dissections, and four had cervical lymph node metastases. The incidence of lymph node metastases was much higher in patients with advanced primary tumours (T1/2 compared with T3/4: one out of three compared with three out of four). All patients with malignant tumours were given adjuvant radiotherapy. There were no local failures. One patient had regional recurrence in the neck and had a successful further resection. Three patients developed distant metastases, and two died during the follow-up period. Our results suggest that radical resection with postoperative radiotherapy offers adequate local and regional control for malignant sublingual gland tumours. Neck dissection is beneficial, especially for T3/4 disease. PMID:27062437

  8. Reproducibility of a web-based FFQ for 13- to 15-year-old Danish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bjerregaard, Anne A; Tetens, Inge; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2016-01-01

    FFQ are widely used in large-scale studies to assess dietary intake. To aid interpretation of diet-disease associations assessment of validity must be performed. Reproducibility is one aspect of validity focusing on the stability of repeated assessment with the same method which may also reveal problems in instrument design or participant instructions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reproducibility of a web-based FFQ targeting Danish adolescents within the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Data for the present study were obtained from a prospective design nested within the DNBC. Adolescents aged 13 to 15 years old (n 48, 60 % girls) completed the FFQ twice 4 weeks apart. The proportion of adolescents consistently classified into the same tertile according to amount of food intake ranged from 45 % (fish) to 77 % (vegetables), whereas classification into opposite tertiles ranged from 0 % (fruit, oils and dressing) to 15 % (beverages). Overall, no significant differences were observed in intake of food groups or nutrients between the two completions of the FFQ. Mean crude Spearman correlation for all food groups was 0·56 and mean intra-class correlation for all food groups was 0·61. In conclusion, the reproducibility of the FFQ for Danish adolescents was acceptable. The study revealed that adolescents aged 13-15 years seemed capable of recalling consistently overall dietary habits and had some difficulties estimating the frequency of consumption of regularly consumed food items. PMID:26855775

  9. Advanced Stage, Increased Lactate Dehydrogenase, and Primary Site, but Not Adolescent Age (≥ 15 Years), Are Associated With an Increased Risk of Treatment Failure in Children and Adolescents With Mature B-Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Results of the FAB LMB 96 Study

    PubMed Central

    Cairo, Mitchell S.; Sposto, Richard; Gerrard, Mary; Auperin, Anne; Goldman, Stanton C.; Harrison, Lauren; Pinkerton, Ross; Raphael, Martine; McCarthy, Keith; Perkins, Sherrie L.; Patte, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Adolescents (age 15 to 21 years) compared with younger children with mature B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) have been historically considered to have an inferior prognosis. We therefore analyzed the impact of age and other diagnostic factors on the risk of treatment failure in children and adolescents treated on the French-American-British Mature B-Cell Lymphoma 96 (FAB LMB 96) trial. Patients and Methods Patients were divided by risk: group A (limited), group B (intermediate), and group C (advanced), as previously described. Prognostic factors analyzed for event-free survival (EFS) included age (< 15 v ≥ 15 years), stage (I/II v III/IV), primary site, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), bone marrow/CNS (BM/CNS) involvement, and histology (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma v mediastinal B-cell lymphoma v Burkitt lymphoma or Burkitt-like lymphoma). Results The 3-year EFS for the whole cohort was 88% ± 1%. Age was not associated as a risk factor for increased treatment failure in either univariate analysis (P = .15) or multivariate analysis (P = .58). Increased LDH (≥ 2 × upper limit of normal [ULN] v < 2 × ULN), primary site, and BM-positive/CNS-positive disease were all independent risk factors associated with a significant increase in treatment failure rate (relative risk, 2.0; P < .001, P < .012, and P < .001, respectively). Conclusion LDH level at diagnosis, mediastinal disease, and combined BM-positive/CNS-positive involvement are independent risk factors in children with mature B-cell NHL. Future studies should be developed to identify specific therapeutic strategies (immunotherapy) to overcome these risk factors and to identify the biologic basis associated with these prognostic factors in children with mature B-cell NHL. PMID:22215753

  10. Oral cavity rare lesions: 15 years case histories

    PubMed Central

    BARTULI, F.N.; LUCIANI, F.; CARDONI, G.; MUZZI, F.; CADDEO, F.; OTTRIA, L.; ARCURI, C.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives. Oral cavity rare diseases include a various group of uncommon morbid conditions. For this reason they are often called “orphan diseases”, as they are not interesting for research and the description of their natural history is not easy. The aim of our study is to analyze the prevalence and the distribution of oral cavity rare diseases in order to increase their knowledge and allow a fast therapeutic approach. Methods and material. 3144 patients took part to our study, they were choosen according to specific criteria and included in a experimental program; they all were prepared for oral biopsy surgery at Fatebenefratelli Hospital - Tor Vergata University of Rome. Following the results of the histological diagnosis, patients have been grouped. Results. From 1996 to 2010, we observed 1635 men and 1509 women, average age was 53 years, higher for women (55y.) and lower for men (52y.). Conclusions. Nevertheless the low level of accordance and the difficulty in description of natural history of diseases reported in literature, we can conclude that, according to our study the onset of rare diseases shows a percentage of appearing statistically significant. PMID:23277869

  11. Community-acquired intracranial suppurative infections: A 15-year report

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırmak, Taner; Gedik, Habip; Şimşek, Funda; Kantürk, Arzu

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of patients with intracranial suppurative infection (ISI) by review of clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings. Methods: The data collected from all patients who had been diagnosed with ISI and followed up at the Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology Department of the study site between 1998 and 2013 were reviewed. Results: Of the 23 ISI patients identified, the mean age was 38.21 ± 12.61 years (range: 19–67 years, median: 34) and mean symptom duration was 22.25 ± 20.22 days. Headache was the most common symptom, the frontal lobe the most common localization of ISI, and mastoiditis due to chronic suppurative otitis media the most common source of infection causing ISI. Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas spp., Peptostreptococcus spp., Enterococcus avium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, and Toxoplasma gondii were isolated from the specimens collected from 6 (37.5%) of the 16 patients who underwent invasive procedures. Of these 16 patients, 2 underwent craniotomy, 12 burr hole aspiration, and 2 stereotactic biopsy. The rate of recurrence was 0% and the rates of sequelae and fatality were both 8%. Conclusions: ISI should be considered in male patients presenting with headache and neurological signs and symptoms, whether with or without fever, on admission for early diagnosis and provision of timely, adequate therapy and, if required, surgical intervention to reduce mortality and sequelae rates. PMID:25317357

  12. Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance of Helicobacter pylori in the last 15 years in West Poland.

    PubMed

    Karpiński, Tomasz M; Andrzejewska, Ewa; Eder, Piotr; Linke, Krzysztof; Szkaradkiewicz, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Increasing resistance to drugs represents a serious problem in treatment of infections with Helicobacter pylori, providing cause of frequent therapeutic failures. Present study aimed at analysis of changes in resistance of H. pylori to antibiotics in West Poland within the recent 15 years. 108 strains of H. pylori were analysed, isolated from gastric mucosa of adult patients. Group 1 involved 66 strains isolated in years of 1998/1999. Group 2 comprised 42 isolates obtained in years of 2013/2014. Susceptibility to amoxicillin (AMX), clarithromycin (CL), tetracycline (TC) and metronidazole (MTZ) was determined by E-test (AB Biodisc). All strains on both studied groups were susceptible to AMX. In group 1 all strains proved to be susceptible to TC, while 9% and 36% of tested strains were resistant to CL and MTZ, respectively. By contrast, in group 2, 31% and 83% of strains were resistant to CL and MTZ, respectively. In parallel, 14% strains were found to be resistant to TC (according to EUCAST interpretations). In West Poland, within recent 15 years a dramatic increase was noted in H. pylori strains resistant to metronidazole. In parallel, a significant increase was noted in proportion of strains resistant to clarithromycin. PMID:26551571

  13. Increased Incidence of Early Onset Colorectal Cancer in Arizona: A Comprehensive 15-year Analysis of the Arizona Cancer Registry

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Hassan; Pandit, Viraj; DiGiovanni, Ryan M.; Ohlson, Eric; Gruessner, Angelika C.; Jandova, Jana; Nfonsam, Valentine N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate and analyze the incidence of early-onset colorectal cancer in Arizona, using the Arizona Cancer Registry. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with colorectal cancer reported in the Arizona Cancer Registry from 1995-2010. Outcome measure: incidence of CRC in patients younger than 50 years. Results 39,623 cases of colorectal cancer were reported to the Arizona Cancer Registry during a period of 15 years. Overall, there was a 17% decrease in the incidence of CRC. However, there was a 23% increase in incidence among patients in the age group 10-50. During the same time period, 15% and 41% increase in the incidence of colon and rectal cancer was observed, respectively. The most significant increase (102%) in overall CRC incidence was seen in the age group 10-29. The highest increase (110%) in incidence of colon cancer was observed in the same age group, while the most significant increase in incidence rates (225%) of rectal cancer was seen in the age group 30-34. Conclusion Although there is an overall decrease in incidence of colorectal cancer in Arizona, alarming increase in incidence of early-onset CRC was observed; mirroring the national trends.

  14. Teaching, Practice, Feedback: 15 years of COMPASS science communication training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeley, L.; Smith, B.; McLeod, K.; English, C. A.; Baron, N.

    2014-12-01

    COMPASS is focused on helping scientists build the skills and relationships they need to effectively participate in public discourse. Founded in 2001 with an emphasis on ocean science, and since expanding to a broader set of environmental sciences, we have advised, coached, and/or trained thousands of researchers of all career stages. Over the years, our primary work has notably shifted from needing to persuade scientists why communication matters to supporting them as they pursue the question of what their communication goals are and how best to achieve them. Since our earliest forays into media promotion, we have evolved with the state of the science communication field. In recent years, we have adapted our approach to one that facilitates dialogue and encourages engagement, helps scientists identify the most relevant people and times to engage, tests our own assumptions, and incorporates relevant social science as possible. In this case study, we will discuss more than a decade of experience in helping scientists find or initiate and engage in meaningful conversations with journalists and policymakers.

  15. Pulse Pressure Magnifies the Effect of COMT Val158Met on 15 Years Episodic Memory Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Ninni; Lavebratt, Catharina; Sundström, Anna; Fischer, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether a physiological marker of cardiovascular health, pulse pressure (PP), and age magnified the effect of the functional COMT Val158Met (rs4680) polymorphism on 15-years cognitive trajectories [episodic memory (EM), visuospatial ability, and semantic memory] using data from 1585 non-demented adults from the Betula study. A multiple-group latent growth curve model was specified to gauge individual differences in change, and average trends therein. The allelic variants showed negligible differences across the cognitive markers in average trends. The older portion of the sample selectively age-magnified the effects of Val158Met on EM changes, resulting in greater decline in Val compared to homozygote Met carriers. This effect was attenuated by statistical control for PP. Further, PP moderated the effects of COMT on 15-years EM trajectories, resulting in greater decline in Val carriers, even after accounting for the confounding effects of sex, education, cardiovascular diseases (diabetes, stroke, and hypertension), and chronological age, controlled for practice gains. The effect was still present after excluding individuals with a history of cardiovascular diseases. The effects of cognitive change were not moderated by any other covariates. This report underscores the importance of addressing synergistic effects in normal cognitive aging, as the addition thereof may place healthy individuals at greater risk for memory decline. PMID:26973509

  16. Pulse Pressure Magnifies the Effect of COMT Val(158)Met on 15 Years Episodic Memory Trajectories.

    PubMed

    Persson, Ninni; Lavebratt, Catharina; Sundström, Anna; Fischer, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether a physiological marker of cardiovascular health, pulse pressure (PP), and age magnified the effect of the functional COMT Val(158)Met (rs4680) polymorphism on 15-years cognitive trajectories [episodic memory (EM), visuospatial ability, and semantic memory] using data from 1585 non-demented adults from the Betula study. A multiple-group latent growth curve model was specified to gauge individual differences in change, and average trends therein. The allelic variants showed negligible differences across the cognitive markers in average trends. The older portion of the sample selectively age-magnified the effects of Val(158)Met on EM changes, resulting in greater decline in Val compared to homozygote Met carriers. This effect was attenuated by statistical control for PP. Further, PP moderated the effects of COMT on 15-years EM trajectories, resulting in greater decline in Val carriers, even after accounting for the confounding effects of sex, education, cardiovascular diseases (diabetes, stroke, and hypertension), and chronological age, controlled for practice gains. The effect was still present after excluding individuals with a history of cardiovascular diseases. The effects of cognitive change were not moderated by any other covariates. This report underscores the importance of addressing synergistic effects in normal cognitive aging, as the addition thereof may place healthy individuals at greater risk for memory decline. PMID:26973509

  17. Studies of Long Period Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, M.; Hełminiak, K. G.; Konacki, M.

    2015-07-01

    The survey of long period eclipsing binaries from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) catalog aims at searching for and characterizing subgiants and red giants in double-lined detached binary systems. Absolute physical and orbital parameters are presented based on radial velocities from high-quality optical spectra obtained with the following telescope/instrument combinations: 8.2 m Subaru/HDS, ESO 3.6 m/HARPS, 1.9 m Radcliffe/GIRAFFE, CTIO 1.5 m/CHIRON, and 1.2 m Euler/CORALIE. Photometric data from ASAS, SuperWASP, and the Solaris Project were also used. We discuss the derived uncertainties for the individual masses and radii of the components (better than 3% for several systems), as well as results from the spectral analysis performed for components of systems whose spectra we disentangled.

  18. [15 years insurance statistics of incidents and accident types of combat sports injuries of the Rhineland-Pfalz Federal Sports Club].

    PubMed

    Raschka, C; Parzeller, M; Banzer, W

    1999-03-01

    The primary intention of this study is the grouping of sports accidents, being described by the athletes in their own words in a classification system of specific accident classes with regard to specific motions and topography. The investigation is based on the data of the sports insurance Gerling-Konzern during a 15-year period in Rhineland Palatinate (1981-1995). The study is based on the insurance documents and clinical protocols if available. 137 accident protocols were related to this 15-year period including weight lifting (n = 1) and martial arts (n = 136). Listed in hierarchical order we received the following results: judo (n = 47), karate (n = 44), wrestling (n = 22), taekwondo (n = 9), boxing (n = 7), ju-jutsu (n = 5), fencing (n = 1) and aikido (n = 1). In accordance to accident types there were no sex related differences. As special preventive measures we suggest the use of protective mouthguards and solid glasses, proprioceptive training and physiological taping for knee, ankle and elbow joints. PMID:10407960

  19. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of 19 games…

  20. In-School Neighborhood Youth Corps. 14/15 Year-Old Black Teenage Girl Project, Memphis, Tennessee. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Andrew; And Others

    This study analyzes the effects on 14- and 15-year-old black teenage girls of entering and participating in a specially designed work program. The girls were provided with supports in their work settings, well-defined tasks, supervisors as well as regularly scheduled peer interaction groups led by a young black woman considered to be an…

  1. The Interest-Driven Pursuits of 15 Year Olds: "Sparks" and Their Association with Caring Relationships and Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Eliyahu, Adar; Rhodes, Jean E.; Scales, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the characteristics of adolescents' deep interests or "sparks," the role of relationships in supporting the development of sparks, and whether having a spark was associated with positive developmental outcomes. Participants included 1,860 15 years olds from across the United States who participated in the…

  2. X-ray emission from interacting wind massive binaries: A review of 15 years of progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauw, Gregor; Nazé, Yaël

    2016-09-01

    Previous generations of X-ray observatories revealed a group of massive binaries that were relatively bright X-ray emitters. This was attributed to emission of shock-heated plasma in the wind-wind interaction zone located between the stars. With the advent of the current generation of X-ray observatories, the phenomenon could be studied in much more detail. In this review, we highlight the progress that has been achieved in our understanding of the phenomenon over the last 15 years, both on theoretical and observational grounds. All these studies have paved the way for future investigations using the next generation of X-ray satellites that will provide crucial information on the X-ray emission formed in the innermost part of the wind-wind interaction.

  3. Once Annealed Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene Exhibits Low Wear at 9 to 15 Years.

    PubMed

    D'Antonio, James; Capello, William N; Ramakrishnan, Rama

    2016-05-01

    A once annealed highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) was introduced in 1998. Concerns regarding its long-term performance and oxidative resistance exist because of the presence of retained free radicals. The authors studied 48 patients with 50 hip implants having an average age of 62 years. They were followed for 9 to 15 years. The purpose of this study was to determine linear wear rate and the incidence of osteolysis and/or mechanical failure. At an average follow-up of 12.2 years, the annual linear wear rate was 0.018 mm (SD, 0.024 mm). No mechanical failures or osteolysis have been found to date. The clinical performance of this HXLPE continues to meet expectations despite the presence of free radicals. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e565-e571.]. PMID:27088350

  4. Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

  5. Deliberate Self-Harm by under-15-Year-Olds: Characteristics, Trends and Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawton, Keith; Harriss, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Background: Relatively little information is available about the characteristics and long-term outcome of children and adolescents aged under 15 years who present to general hospitals because of deliberate self-harm (DSH). Method: Information was collected on 710 consecutive under-15-year-olds presenting to a general hospital in central England…

  6. Association of caesarean delivery with child adiposity from age 6 weeks to 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Blustein, Jan; Attina, Teresa; Liu, Mengling; Ryan, Andrew M.; Cox, Laura M.; Blaser, Martin J.; Trasande, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess associations of caesarean section with body mass from birth through adolescence. Design Longitudinal birth cohort study, following subjects up to 15 years of age. Setting and Participants Children born in 1991–1992 in Avon, UK who participated in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children [ALSPAC] (n = 10,219). Outcome measures Primary outcome: standardized measures of body mass (weight-for length z-scores at 6 weeks, 10, and 20 months; and Body Mass Index [BMI] z-scores at 38 months, 7, 9, 11, and 15 years). Secondary outcome: Categorical overweight or obese (BMI >= 85th percentile) for age and gender, at 38 months, 7, 9, 11, and 15 years. Results Of the 10,219 children, 926 (9.06%) were delivered by caesarean section. Those born by caesarean had lower birth weights than those born vaginally (−46.1g, 95% CI: 14.6 to 77.6 g; p = 0.004). In mixed multivariable models adjusting for birth weight, gender, parental body mass, family sociodemographics, gestational factors and infant feeding patterns, caesarean delivery was consistently associated with increased adiposity, starting at six weeks (+0.11 SD units, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.18; p=0.005), through age 15 (BMI z-score increment + 0.10 SD units, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.198; p=0.042). By age 11 caesarean–delivered children had 1.83 times the odds of overweight or obesity (95% CI: 1.24 to 2.70; p=0.002). When the sample was stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy weight, the association among children born of overweight/obese mothers was strong and long-lasting. In contrast, evidence of an association among children born of normal weight mothers was weak. Conclusion Caesarean delivery is associated with increased body mass in childhood and adolescence. Research is needed to further characterize the association in children of normal weight women. Additional work is also needed to understand the mechanism underlying the association, which may involve relatively enduring changes in the intestinal

  7. A Periodical Use Study at Children's Hospital of Michigan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joan M. B.

    A periodicals use study was conducted in the Medical Library of Children's Hospital, a pediatric teaching hospital, during the six month period from September 1, 1967 to February 29, 1968. Results of the study showed that the three kinds of periodical use--circulation, reading room use, and interlibrary loan--have similar but not identical…

  8. Use of the "Mental Health Inventory - 5" with Portuguese 10-15 years old.

    PubMed

    Marques, Susana C; Pais-Ribeiro, José Luis; Lopez, Shane J

    2011-05-01

    The present study describes the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Mental Health Inventory-5 for use with young adolescents. A sample of 367 Portuguese students (aged 10-15 years) completed the Portuguese-language versions of Mental Health Inventory-5 (MHI-5; Berwick et al., 1991), Children's Hope Scale (CHS; Snyder et al., 1997), Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS; Huebner, 1991a), and Global Self-Worth Sub-scale (Harter, 1985). Analysis of readability, reliability (internal consistency and 1-year stability), factor structure, and criterion-related validity suggested that the MHI-5 can be appropriately used in this age group. Implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21568203

  9. Maturation and Diversity of the VRC01-Antibody Lineage over 15 Years of Chronic HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xueling; Zhang, Zhenhai; Schramm, Chaim A; Joyce, M Gordon; Kwon, Young Do; Zhou, Tongqing; Sheng, Zizhang; Zhang, Baoshan; O'Dell, Sijy; McKee, Krisha; Georgiev, Ivelin S; Chuang, Gwo-Yu; Longo, Nancy S; Lynch, Rebecca M; Saunders, Kevin O; Soto, Cinque; Srivatsan, Sanjay; Yang, Yongping; Bailer, Robert T; Louder, Mark K; Mullikin, James C; Connors, Mark; Kwong, Peter D; Mascola, John R; Shapiro, Lawrence

    2015-04-23

    HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies develop in most HIV-1-infected individuals, although highly effective antibodies are generally observed only after years of chronic infection. Here, we characterize the rate of maturation and extent of diversity for the lineage that produced the broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01 through longitudinal sampling of peripheral B cell transcripts over 15 years and co-crystal structures of lineage members. Next-generation sequencing identified VRC01-lineage transcripts, which encompassed diverse antibodies organized into distinct phylogenetic clades. Prevalent clades maintained characteristic features of antigen recognition, though each evolved binding loops and disulfides that formed distinct recognition surfaces. Over the course of the study period, VRC01-lineage clades showed continuous evolution, with rates of ∼2 substitutions per 100 nucleotides per year, comparable to that of HIV-1 evolution. This high rate of antibody evolution provides a mechanism by which antibody lineages can achieve extraordinary diversity and, over years of chronic infection, develop effective HIV-1 neutralization. PMID:25865483

  10. [The evolution and structure of morbidity from extrarespiratory tuberculosis in the last 15 years in Romania].

    PubMed

    Didilescu, C; Ibraim, E; Lugoji, D; Chiotan, D

    1992-01-01

    Though in comparison with the overall lethality of tuberculosis the extra-respiratory localizations of the disease showed a markedly less weight than the respiratory ones during the past 15 years (12.8% in 1975 and 6.7% in 1989), this pathology chapter is still essential due to the diversity of Tb forms and localizations. The annual average rate of the decrease in extra-respiratory tuberculosis incidence was of 4.8% between 1975-1989, so the incidence value reached 4.2%000 at the end of the last year of study. Just like 15 years ago, in 1989 the extra-respiratory tuberculosis incidence was dominated by the localizations on the peripheral lymph nodes (1.2%000), on bones and joints (1.0%000), urogenital apparatus (0.7%000), meninges and central nervous system (0.5%000). The prevalence of patients with extra-respiratory Tb localizations was gradually diminished so that only 3415 cases were registered in the IIIrd group of the active case-index in 1989 (13,524 in 1975). More than half of the number of deaths through extra-respiratory tuberculosis were still due to tuberculous meningitis, particularly in children aged 0-4 years (82% of deaths in 1989). A further diminution up to a total elimination of extra-respiratory Tb localizations (still about 1,000 new cases a year) can be reached only by a restriction and liquidation at the same time of both primary and secondary pulmonary tuberculoses. PMID:1299408

  11. The 15-Year Evolution of the Thoracoscopic Anterior Release: Does It Still Have a Role?

    PubMed Central

    Arunakul, Rattalerk; Peterson, Alex; Bartley, Carrie E.; Cidambi, Krishna R.; Varley, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective. Purpose To determine how the indications for anterior thoracoscopic release and fusion have evolved over time. Overview of Literature Anterior release was commonly performed to correct severe spinal deformities before the advent of pedicle screw fixation. The thoracoscopic approach significantly reduced the morbidity, as compared to open thoracotomy procedures. Methods We reviewed charts and radiographs of pediatric spinal deformity patients who underwent thoracoscopic release/fusion for their deformity from 1994 to 2008. Indications for the thoracoscopic procedure were assigned to one of the following categories: hyperkyphosis, large/stiff scoliosis, crankshaft prevention, and 'other'. We analysed indications grouped in 3-year intervals to determine how the indications for this procedure evolved over the past 15 years. Results One hundred and thirty-eight patients (mean age, 15 years; range, 2-28 years) underwent the procedure, with 160 identified indications. The frequency of thoracoscopic anterior release/fusion decreased after peaking in the years 2000-2002. Initially, hyperkyphosis was the most frequent indication (15/33, 45%; 1994-1996), but declined to an intermittent indication since 2006. The use of thoracoscopy to prevent crankshaft has also declined, but remains an indication for the most immature cases (2/17, 12%; 2006-2008). Severe or rigid scoliosis is currently the most common indication for thoracoscopic release/fusion at our center (11/17, 65%; 2006-2008). Conclusions The indications for a thoracoscopic anterior release/fusion has evolved with our increased understanding of this procedure and improved posterior fixation with pedicle screw instrumentation. Thoracoscopy in select spinal deformity patients still has an important role despite its less frequent use, as compared to the past decade. PMID:26240714

  12. Pulmonary hypertension and pregnancy: The experience of a tertiary institution over 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Monagle, John; Manikappa, Shashikanth; Ingram, Brendan; Malkoutzis, Vangy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in pregnancy is associated with a high maternal mortality and morbidity and has been found to be as high as 30-56%. Aim: To review the management of such patients in a tertiary center over a 15 year period, as the current literature consists of a few case reports, a few small case series and 2 meta-analyses. Materials and Methods: A review of all patients admitted to our institution for management of PH in pregnancy between 1994 and February 2009 was undertaken. Cases were identified from the high-risk pregnancy database within the department of anesthesia and from the hospital medical records. Severity of PH, type of PH, NYHA functional status at presentation and delivery, mode of delivery, peripartum monitoring and APGAR scores were noted. Patients were reviewed by a multidisciplinary team and management planned accordingly. Results: 19 eligible patients were identified. Patients who were significantly sick due to their PH were aggressively managed during pregnancy. Overall there was an improvement in NYHA functional status at the time of delivery. Epidural analgesia and anesthesia for labor and operatively delivery seem to be the ideal choice. Conclusion: Multidisciplinary approach is a key to the successful management of these patients. Secondary PH results in higher morbidity and mortality, in particular, older the age higher the maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:25849682

  13. [Coexistence of Jarcho-Levin syndrome, syringomyelia and osteoporosis in 15 years old boy].

    PubMed

    Torbus, Onufry; Jachimowicz, Magdalena; Pieta, Marcin; Głowacki, Jan; Karczewska, Krystyna; Skrzelewski, Stanisław

    2002-01-01

    Autosomally inherited Jarcho-Levin syndrome is an illness leading to death usually in the foetal, neonatal or infantile period or in early childhood. The children rarely survive to the age of adolescence. Hardly 130 cases of the syndrome were described up to now. There are two types of the syndrome: milder spondylocostal dysplasia (SCD) and more severe spondylothoracic dysplasia (STD)--the proper Jarcho-Levin syndrome. The authors present a case of coexistence of Jarcho-Levin syndrome with syringomyelia and osteoporosis in a 15 years old boy. His disease manifested itself in developmental anomaly of structure and segmentation of vertebrae, occult cervicothoracic spina bifida and characteristic crablike deformation of thorax. These anomalies led to kyphoscoliosis and considerable shortening of trunk as well as to the growth which increased the proportions of limbs length to the trunk and body height. The syndrome was accompanied by the syringomyelia in C5-Th1 segment and osteoporotic skeleton with significantly decreased bone density (in the L2-4 segment Z = -5.17). According to the best of our knowledge the presented case is the first description of the coexistence of Jarcho-Levin syndrome, syringomyelia and osteoporosis in world literature. The anomaly diagnosed as STD has also the features of SCD. The verification of the classification principles of Jarcho-Levin syndrome may take place in future basing on bigger number of observation and on genetics development. PMID:12715362

  14. ALH84001: The Key to Unlocking Secrets About Mars-15 Years and Counting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, D. S.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    From the December 27, 1984 discovery of ALH84001, and its subsequent identification as a sample of Mars in 1993, mystery and debate has surrounded the meteorite [1]. With the realization that the ALH84001 sample was a orthopyroxenite and one of the oldest SNC meteorites (approx.4.09 Ga) [2] available to study, important and critical information about the Martian hydrosphere and atmosphere along with the early history and evolution of the planet could be obtained by studying the unique carbonate globules (approx.3.9 Ga) in the sample [3]. The initial work showed the carbonate globules were deposited within fractures and cracks in the host-orthopyroxene by low-temperature aqueous fluids [4]. Ideas that the carbonates were formed at temperatures [5] approaching 800 C were ruled out by later experiments [6]. The 1996 announcement by McKay et al. [7] that ALH84001 contained features which could be interpreted as having a biogenic origin generated considerable excitement and criticism. The NASA Administrator Dan Golden said the 1996 ALH84001 announcement saved NASAs Mars planetary exploration program and injected $6 billion dollars over five years into the scientific research and analysis efforts [8]. All of the original four lines of evidence for possible biogenic features within ALH84001 offered by McKay et al. have withstood the test of time. Criticism has been directed at the interpretation of the 1996 analytical data. Research has expanded to other SNC meteorites. Despite the numerous attacks on the ideas, the debate continues after 15 years. The 2009 paper by Thomas-Keprta et al. [9] on the origins of a suite of magnetites within the ALH84001 has offered strong arguments that some of the magnetites can only be formed by biogenic processes and not from thermal decomposition or shock events which happened to the meteorite. NASA s Astrobiology Institute was formed from the foundation laid by the ALH84001 hypothesis of finding life beyond the Earth. The strong

  15. Micronutrient interventions on cognitive performance of children aged 5-15 years in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Khor, Geok Lin; Misra, Snigdha

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 200 million young children worldwide fail to reach their potential in cognitive development owing to undernutrition. Numerous studies have assessed the effects of micronutrient supplementation on growth and cognitive development in infants, toddlers and preschoolers. However, micronutrient interventions on the cognitive performance of older children are limited. This article seeks to provide an update on micronutrient interventions and cognitive outcomes among children aged 5-15 years in developing countries. A total of 13 randomized controlled trials published since 2000 were identified. Majority of these studies assessed the effects of micronutrient-fortified foods on various domains of cognitive function. Among key micronutrients assessed were iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A. This review found a lack of consistency in the impact of micronutrient supplementation on intelligence, long term mental functions and school examination grades of the children. A beneficial effect of micronutrient supplementation on short term memory was more consistently reported. Overall, the evidence from this review for the impact of micronutrients on cognitive performance in older children remains equivocal. In light of the growing interest on the influence of nutrition on cognition, it is important that culturally-appropriate and sufficiently sensitive assessment tools be used for measuring the desired cognitive outcomes that are most likely to be affected by the nutrients under study. PMID:23017305

  16. Morphology of palatal rugae patterns among 5-15 years old children

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Vilvanathan Prabu; John, John Baby; Stalin, Ariudinambi; Priya, Geetha; Abuthagir, Abdul Kareem Syed

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: “The fibers running anteroposteriorly within the core and in concentric curves across the base of each ruga” determine their orientation and forms. The varying shapes of palatal rugae can be attributed to the fact that rugae develop as localized regions of epithelial proliferation and thickening. Fibroblasts and collagen fibers then accumulate in the connective tissue beneath the thickened epithelium and assume distinct orientation. Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the morphology, gender difference of rugae pattern in 5-15 year old children. Materials and Methods: The various diagnostic dental stone cast available in Department of Pedodontics were analyzed by the method based on Thomas and Kotze classification in 1983. Results: There was a female prediction in the total count and primary rugae pattern. Comparing the shapes of rugae both in male and female study models showed a predominance in wave shape followed by cure. No circular pattern was observed in the study population. No statistical difference in the direction and unification of rugae among males and females. Conclusion: The fingerprint-like uniqueness of rugae to each individual has become accepted as a possible aid to person identification. This may help narrow the field for identification and give results in conjunction with the other methods such as visual, fingerprints, and dental characteristics in forensic sciences. PMID:23946575

  17. A Logistic Regression Analysis of Turkey's 15-Year-Olds' Scoring above the OECD Average on the PISA'09 Reading Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasapoglu, Koray

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate which factors are associated with Turkey's 15-year-olds' scoring above the OECD average (493) on the PISA'09 reading assessment. Collected from a total of 4,996 15-year-old students from Turkey, data were analyzed by logistic regression analysis in order to model the data of students who were split…

  18. Tackling malnutrition: a systematic review of 15-year research evidence from INDEPTH health and demographic surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Samuelina S.; Nyide, Bongiwe; Soura, Abdramane Bassiahi; Kahn, Kathleen; Weston, Mark; Sankoh, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Background Nutrition is the intake of food in relation to the body's dietary needs. Malnutrition results from the intake of inadequate or excess food. This can lead to reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity. Objective To perform a systematic review to assess research conducted by the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health (INDEPTH) of health and demographic surveillance systems (HDSSs) over a 15-year period on malnutrition, its determinants, the effects of under and over nutrition, and intervention research on malnutrition in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods Relevant publication titles were uploaded onto the Zotero research tool from different databases (60% from PubMed). Using the keywords ‘nutrition’, ‘malnutrition’, ‘over and under nutrition’, we selected publications that were based only on data generated through the longitudinal HDSS platform. All titles and abstracts were screened to determine inclusion eligibility and full articles were independently assessed according to inclusion/exclusion criteria. For inclusion in this study, papers had to cover research on at least one of the following topics: the problem of malnutrition, its determinants, its effects, and intervention research on malnutrition. One hundred and forty eight papers were identified and reviewed, and 67 were selected for this study. Results The INDEPTH research identified rising levels of overweight and obesity, sometimes in the same settings as under-nutrition. Urbanisation appears to be protective against under-nutrition, but it heightens the risk of obesity. Appropriately timed breastfeeding interventions were protective against malnutrition. Conclusions Although INDEPTH has expanded the global knowledge base on nutrition, many questions remain unresolved. There is a need for more investment in nutrition research in LMICs in order to

  19. Leprosy in children and adolescents under 15 years old in an urban centre in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Selton Diniz; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Natividade, Marcio Santos; Teixeira, Maria Glória

    2016-05-24

    This original study describes the intra-urban distribution of cases of leprosy in residents under 15 years old in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; the study also identifies the environment in which Mycobacterium leprae is being transmitted. The cases were distributed by operational classification, clinical forms, type of contact and the addresses were geo-referenced by neighborhood. Between 2007 and 2011, were reported 145 cases of leprosy in target population living in Salvador, corresponding to detection rates of 6.21, 6.14, 5.58, 5.41 and 6.88/100,000 inhabitants, respectively. The spatial distribution of the disease was focal. Of the 157 neighborhoods of Salvador, 44 (28.6%) notified cases of leprosy and in 22 (50%) of these were detected more than 10 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The infectious forms were found in 40% of cases. Over 90% of cases had been living in Salvador for more than five years. Overall, 52.6% reported having had contact with another infected individual inside the household and 25% in their social circle. In Salvador, M. leprae transmission is established. The situation is a major concern, since transmission is intense at an early age, indicating that this endemic disease is expanding and contacts extend beyond individual households. PMID:27223655

  20. Leprosy in children and adolescents under 15 years old in an urban centre in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Selton Diniz; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Natividade, Marcio Santos; Teixeira, Maria Glória

    2016-01-01

    This original study describes the intra-urban distribution of cases of leprosy in residents under 15 years old in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; the study also identifies the environment in which Mycobacterium leprae is being transmitted. The cases were distributed by operational classification, clinical forms, type of contact and the addresses were geo-referenced by neighborhood. Between 2007 and 2011, were reported 145 cases of leprosy in target population living in Salvador, corresponding to detection rates of 6.21, 6.14, 5.58, 5.41 and 6.88/100,000 inhabitants, respectively. The spatial distribution of the disease was focal. Of the 157 neighborhoods of Salvador, 44 (28.6%) notified cases of leprosy and in 22 (50%) of these were detected more than 10 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The infectious forms were found in 40% of cases. Over 90% of cases had been living in Salvador for more than five years. Overall, 52.6% reported having had contact with another infected individual inside the household and 25% in their social circle. In Salvador, M. leprae transmission is established. The situation is a major concern, since transmission is intense at an early age, indicating that this endemic disease is expanding and contacts extend beyond individual households. PMID:27223655

  1. Iron status of schoolchildren (6–15 years) and associated factors in rural Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ayogu, Rufina N. B.; Okafor, Adaobi M.; Ene-Obong, Henrietta N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Schoolchildren are vulnerable to anaemia because of their higher iron need to meet the demands of puberty and adolescence. Objective The survey determined the haemoglobin levels of schoolchildren aged 6–15 years and the factors affecting their haemoglobin status. Design Data were obtained through a cross sectional survey of 450 randomly selected schoolchildren in Ede-Oballa, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. Ninety were selected for clinical examination, biochemical tests, and nutrient intake study. Haemoglobin, malaria, and stool analysis were carried out by the cyanmethaemoglobin, thin blood film, and wet mount direct methods, respectively. Iron intake was determined by a three-day weighed food intake. Results Results showed that the schoolchildren had pallor (35.6%), brittle hair (31.1%), koilonychia (2.2%), oedema (4.4%) and sore/smooth tongue (7.8%). The children also had malaria (58.9%) and Entamoeba histolytica (42.2%), hookworm (36.7%), tapeworm (35.6%), whipworm (34.5%), and roundworm (27.9%) infestations. Iron intake was inadequate (<100% of recommended nutrient intake) for most of the children. The mean haemoglobin levels of the schoolchildren were low. The 6–9, 10–12, and 13–15 year olds had 9.0, 9.1, and 9.3 g/dl, respectively. Most (85.5%) of them had anaemia. Moderate anaemia was prevalent in 62.2%. Severe anaemia affected the 6–9 year olds more. Malaria (P<0.001), Entamoeba histolytica (P<0.01), hookworm (P<0.05), tapeworm (P<0.01), and whipworm (P<0.001) caused significant reduction in haemoglobin level. Age (b=1.284, P<0.05), birth order (b=−0.629, P<0.01), frequency of illness attack (b=−1.372, P<0.01), household size (b=−0.526, P<0.05), and frequency of skipping breakfast (b=−1.542, P<0.001) were factors that influenced the haemoglobin status of the children. Conclusion The schoolchildren had poor iron status as a result of consumption of plant sources of iron with low bioavailability, parasitic infections, birth order

  2. Persistence of artificial sweeteners in a 15-year-old septic system plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, W. D.; Van Stempvoort, D. R.; Solomon, D. K.; Homewood, J.; Brown, S. J.; Spoelstra, J.; Schiff, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    SummaryGroundwater contamination from constituents such as NO3-, often occurs where multiple sources are present making source identification difficult. This study examines a suite of major ions and trace organic constituents within a well defined septic system plume in southern Ontario, Canada (Long Point site) for their potential use as wastewater tracers. The septic system has been operating for 20 years servicing a large, seasonal-use campground and tritium/helium age dating indicates that the 200 m long monitored section of the plume is about 15 years old. Four parameters are elevated along the entire length of the plume as follows; the mean electrical conductivity value (EC) in the distal plume zone is 926 μS/cm which is 74% of the mean value below the tile bed, Na+ (14.7 mg/L) is 43%, an artificial sweetener, acesulfame (12.1 μg/L) is 23% and Cl- (71.5 mg/L) is 137%. EC and Cl- appear to be affected by dispersive dilution with overlying background groundwater that has lower EC but has locally higher Cl- as result of the use of a dust suppressant (CaCl2) in the campground. Na+, in addition to advective dilution, could be depleted by weak adsorption. Acesulfame, in addition to the above processes could be influenced by increasing consumer use in recent years. Nonetheless, both Na+ and acesulfame remain elevated throughout the plume by factors of more than 100 and 1000 respectively compared to background levels, and are strong indicators of wastewater impact at this site. EC and Cl- are less useful because their contrast with background values is much less (EC) or because other sources are present (Cl-). Nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, PO43-, K+) and pathogens (Escherichia coli) do not persist in the distal plume zone and are less useful as wastewater indicators here. The artificial sweetener, acesulfame, has persisted at high concentrations in the Long Point plume for at least 15 years (and this timing agrees with tritium/helium-3 dating) and this compound likely

  3. Positive parenting mitigates the effects of poor self-regulation on BMI trajectories from age 4 to 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Lauren E.; Francis, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine whether parenting style moderated the effects of delay of gratification on BMI trajectories from age 4 to 15 years. Methods Longitudinal data were analyzed on 778 children drawn from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, neglectful) was created from measures of mothers’ sensitivity and expectations for self-control when children were age 4 years. Self-regulation was also measured at 4 years using a well-known delay of gratification protocol. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight at each time point. Mixed modeling was used to test the interaction of parenting styles and ability to delay gratification on BMI trajectories from 4 to 15 years. Results There was a significant interaction effect of parenting and ability to delay on BMI growth from 4 to 15 years for boys. Boys who had authoritarian mothers and failed to delay gratification had a significantly steeper rate of growth in BMI from childhood through adolescence than children in any other parenting x delay group. Conclusions Authoritative and permissive parenting styles were protective against more rapid BMI gains for boys who could not delay gratification. Ability to delay gratification was protective against BMI gains for boys who had parents with authoritarian or neglectful parenting styles. PMID:23977874

  4. Do Deterrence and Social-Control Theories Predict Driving after Drinking 15 years after a DWI Conviction?

    PubMed Central

    Lapham, Sandra C.; Todd, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study investigates the utility of deterrence and social-control theories for prospective prediction of driving-while-impaired (DWI) outcomes of first-time DWI offenders. Method The sample consisted of a subset of 544 convicted first-time DWI offenders (n = 337 females) who were interviewed 5 and 15 years after referral to a screening program in Bernalillo County, New Mexico. Variables collected at the 5-year (initial) interview were used in structural equation models to predict past 3-months, self-reported DWI at the 15-year follow-up (follow-up) interview. These variables represented domains defined by deterrence and social-control theories of DWI behavior, with one model corresponding to deterrence theory and one to social-control theory. Results Both models fit the data. DWI jail time was positively related to perceived enforcement, which was negatively but not significantly related to self-reported DWI. Neither jail time for DWI nor perceived likelihood of arrest was linearly related to self-reported DWI at follow-up. Interactions between jail time and prior DWI behavior indicated relatively weaker associations between initial and 15-year DWI for those reporting more jail time. Conclusion Our prospective study demonstrated that for this convicted DWI offender cohort, classic formulations of deterrence and social-control theories did not account for DWI. However, results suggest that punishment may decrease the likelihood of DWI recidivism. PMID:22269495

  5. Duration of immunity following immunization with live measles vaccine: 15 years of observation in Zhejiang Province, China.

    PubMed Central

    Dai, B.; Chen, Z. H.; Liu, Q. C.; Wu, T.; Guo, C. Y.; Wang, X. Z.; Fang, H. H.; Xiang, Y. Z.

    1991-01-01

    The duration of immunity following measles vaccination of 2882 immunized children has been investigated in a closed region of China for 15 years. A total of 1002 of the children were treated as primary immunization subjects, and 1547 as reimmunization subjects. These two cohorts were not in contact with known wild measles virus over the whole observation period, and the results obtained probably reflected the antibody responses to measles vaccine alone. The remaining 333 vaccinees came into contact with wild measles virus, and this permitted evaluation of the protective effect of the measles vaccines tested: 4 children experienced very mild clinical measles, and 329 experienced subclinical infection, including 12 who had had undetectable haemagglutination-inhibition antibodies for 9-10 years. These results indicate that the immunity induced by successful primary immunization may persist for at least 15 years. Within this period, a second dose of vaccine only induces low antibody responses which decrease rapidly to their original levels. This provides strong evidence that the immunity produced by primary immunization is long-lasting. However, there were some indications that reimmunization might produce better effects if live attenuated measles virus were used with a longer interval between doses. PMID:1934235

  6. Corneal Epithelium Thickness Profile in 614 Normal Chinese Children Aged 7–15 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingyan; He, Xiangui; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Lu, Lina; Zhu, Jianfeng; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to describe the values and distribution of corneal epithelium thickness (CET) in normal Chinese school-aged children, and to explore associated factors with CET. CET maps were measured by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) in normal Chinese children aged 7 to 15 years old from two randomly selected schools in Shanghai, China. Children with normal intraocular pressure were further examined for cycloplegic autorefraction, corneal curvature radius (CCR) and axial length. Central (2-mm diameter area), para-central (2- to 5-mm diameter area), and peripheral (5- to 6-mm diameter area) CET in the superior, superotemporal, temporal, inferotemporal, inferior, inferonasal, nasal, superonasal cornea; minimum, maximum, range, and standard deviation of CET within the 5-mm diameter area were recorded. The CET was thinner in the superior than in the inferior and was thinner in the temporal than in the nasal. The maximum CET was located in the inferior zone, and the minimum CET was in the superior zone. A thicker central CET was associated with male gender (p = 0.009) and older age (p = 0.037) but not with CCR (p = 0.061), axial length (p = 0.253), or refraction (p = 0.351) in the multiple regression analyses. CCR, age, and gender were correlated with para-central and peripheral CET. PMID:27004973

  7. Externalizing Behavior and Substance Use Related Problems at 15 Years in Prenatally Cocaine Exposed Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Min, Meeyoung O.; Minnes, Sonia; Lang, Adelaide; Weishampel, Paul; Short, Elizabeth J.; Yoon, Susan; Singer, Lynn T.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on externalizing behavior and substance use related problems at 15 years of age was examined. Participants consisted of 358 adolescents (183 PCE, 175 non-cocaine exposed (NCE)), primarily African-American and of low socioeconomic status, prospectively enrolled in a longitudinal study from birth. Regression analyses indicated that the amount of PCE was associated with higher externalizing behavioral problems (β=.15, p=.02). Adolescents with PCE were also 2.8 times (95% CI=1.38–5.56) more likely to have substance use related problems than their NCE counterparts. No differences between PCE adolescents in non-kinship adoptive or foster care (n=44) and PCE adolescents in maternal/relative care (n=139) were found in externalizing behavior or in the likelihood of substance use related problems. Findings demonstrate teratologic effects of PCE persisting into adolescence. PCE is a reliable marker for the potential development of problem behaviors in adolescence, including substance use related problems. PMID:24636687

  8. Mutational analysis of Greek patients with suspected hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP): a 15-year experience.

    PubMed

    Karadima, Georgia; Koutsis, Georgios; Raftopoulou, Maria; Karletidi, Karolina-Maria; Zambelis, Thomas; Karandreas, Nikolaos; Panas, Marios

    2015-06-01

    There has been limited information from population studies regarding the overall frequency of the common 1.5-Mb 17p11.2 deletion and even scarcer data regarding the overall frequency of PMP22 micromutations in patients with a clinical suspicion of hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). We have analysed 100 consecutive Greek patients referred for HNPP genetic testing over a 15-year period to our Neurogenetics Unit in Athens, a reference centre for all regions of Greece. All patients were screened for the 1.5-Mb deletion and a selected subgroup of deletion-negative patients for PMP22 micromutations. Mutation-positive and mutation-negative patients were compared for various clinical parameters. In total, 54 mutation-positive patients were identified. In index cases, the deletion frequency was 47.8%, and the PMP22 micromutation frequency was 2.2%. Within mutation-positive patients, the common deletion represented 95.7% and PMP22 micromutations 4.3% of cases. Two previously reported PMP22 micromutations (c.364_365delCC and c.79-2A>G) were detected. HNPP index cases had a 2.8-1 male-to-female ratio, similar to mutation-negative patients. A typical phenotype (recurrent or isolated palsies) was present in 82.4% of symptomatic HNPP cases, significantly higher than mutation-negative patients. Sensitivity of proposed electrophysiological diagnostic criteria for HNPP was calculated at 95.7% and specificity at 80.5%. In conclusion, the common HNPP deletion accounts for ∼50% and PMP22 micromutations for ∼2% of cases in a large consecutive cohort of patients with suspected HNPP. The mutational and phenotypic spectrum of HNPP is similar in the Greek population compared with other populations. Proposed electrophysiological diagnostic criteria perform satisfactorily in everyday clinical practice. PMID:26110377

  9. Behavioural early-life exposures and body composition at age 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Leary, S D; Lawlor, D A; Davey Smith, G; Brion, M J; Ness, A R

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated associations between some early-life exposures and later obesity, but most have used body mass index in childhood or adulthood as the outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate whether early-life exposures were associated with directly measured fat and lean mass in adolescence. Subjects/Methods: This study used data on 4750 mother–offspring pairs, collected as a part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, Bristol, UK between 1991 and 1992; associations between behavioural exposures occurring from conception up to 5 years of age (maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding, age at introduction to solids, dietary patterns and physical inactivity during early childhood) and offspring body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at ~15 years were assessed. Results: After full adjustment for potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy, having a junk food diet and spending more time watching television in early childhood were all associated with higher fat mass at age 15, whereas maternal smoking, having a healthy diet and playing computer games more frequently in early childhood were all associated with a higher lean mass at age 15. Associations with paternal smoking were generally weaker for both fat and lean mass, but as there was no strong statistical evidence for maternal vs paternal differences, confounding by social factors rather than a direct effect of maternal smoking cannot be ruled out. Early feeding was not associated with fat or lean mass at age 15. Conclusions: This study does not provide compelling evidence for associations between most early-life factors and body composition in adolescence. However, possible associations with dietary patterns and physical inactivity in early childhood require further investigation in other cohorts that have direct measurements of adolescent body composition. PMID:25664839

  10. A study of the light curve periodic behavior of quasar 3C 345.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiong; Xie, Guangzhong; Bai, Jinming

    All the data for the B band of the quasar 3C 345, presented in twenty-one publications and dating back to 1896, have been compiled to be a light curve. Altogether 1642 values are available. Using Jurkevich's method, the authors have found a period of 10.1±0.8 years (or 21.8±1.5 years) for the outbursts in 3C 345. Based on this period, one can predict that the next outburst should be at its maximum around January 2002.

  11. Dental Caries Scenario Among 5, 12 and 15-Year-old Children in India- A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Jankiram, Chandrashekar; Jain, Swati; Singh, Khushboo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Dental caries is the most prevalent dental disease and children are one of the most affected groups. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess the average dental caries prevalence across different WHO index age groups (5, 12 & 15 years) for the past fifteen years. Materials and Methods Literature search was performed electronically in various search engines like google scholar, PubMed, Copernicus, etc. using Dental caries and India as MeSH terms. Articles from the past 15 years reporting on dental caries prevalence and experience in India were searched and this online searching strategy collected and listed 781 articles. After evaluating their titles and abstracts, only 30 articles fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria & were finally selected for complete review and data collection. Five articles which were hand searched were also included. Pooled estimates were calculated for different index age groups and different regions (Northern and Southern) separately with a confidence interval of 95% both for prevalence and experience of dental caries. Results The pooled prevalence of dental caries was found to be highest in 15 year olds followed by 5 and 12 years (62.02%, 48.11% & 43.34% respectively). Weighted mean was also found to be highest for 15 years, followed by 5 and 12 years (2.56±6.508, 2.49±7.78, 1.48±3.292 respectively). Pooled prevalence and weighted mean for the Northernern India region was found to be more in all the index age groups as compared to the Southernern India region. Conclusion More than 40% of the children in India have shown dental caries in both primary and permanent teeth in the past 15 years. Also, Northernern region was found to be more affected by dental caries than Southern region. Since children are seen as the future of the nation, this data could be helpful in the planning of oral health care services by the concerned authorities in the community. PMID:26393229

  12. How "Green" Are Today's 15-Year-Olds? PISA in Focus. No. 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    How "green" are 15-year-olds? To what extent do they understand environmental issues? What are the sources of their information about the environment? Can they apply scientific principles and evidence to the world around them? This paper reports that across OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries, around one in five…

  13. The Relationship between Bible Reading and Attitude toward Substance Use among 13-15 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between Bible reading and attitude toward drug use is examined among a sample of 25,888 teenagers, 13-15 year olds, throughout England and Wales. Information about sex, age, personality, belief in God, and church attendance was also considered. The conclusion is that Bible reading makes a small but significant contribution to…

  14. PUBIS STRESS FRACTURE IN A 15-YEAR-OLD SOCCER PLAYER

    PubMed Central

    Bertolini, Fabrício Melo; Vieira, Rodrigo Barreiros; Oliveira, Lucas Henrique Araujo de; Lasmar, Rodrigo Pace; Junior, Otaviano de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents a 15-year-old football player who was diagnosed with a pubis stress fracture and underwent conservative treatment with satisfactory results. After a review of the literature, the clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment are described. The importance of this paper comes from the rarity of finding reports about this kind of injury in the literature. PMID:27027039

  15. PUBIS STRESS FRACTURE IN A 15-YEAR-OLD SOCCER PLAYER.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Fabrício Melo; Vieira, Rodrigo Barreiros; Oliveira, Lucas Henrique Araujo de; Lasmar, Rodrigo Pace; Junior, Otaviano de Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    This case report presents a 15-year-old football player who was diagnosed with a pubis stress fracture and underwent conservative treatment with satisfactory results. After a review of the literature, the clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment are described. The importance of this paper comes from the rarity of finding reports about this kind of injury in the literature. PMID:27027039

  16. 29 CFR 570.33 - Prohibited occupations for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited occupations for minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.33 Section 570.33 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age...

  17. Characteristics of 15-Year-Old Students Predicting Scientific Literacy Skills in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Ergül

    2016-01-01

    Since 2003, Turkey regularly participates in PISA. According to the PISA 2012 results, 15-year-old students in Turkey performed below both OECD countries and participating countries. Defining the relations between students' characteristics and their scientific literacy skills is thought to provide deeper understanding for the nature of this…

  18. 15-Year Enrollment and WSCH Forecast: California Community Colleges Chancellor's Office 1996 Forecast Using Statewide Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    In January 1996, the Chancellor's Office of the California Community Colleges prepared a 15-year forecast of enrollment and weekly student contact hours (WSCH) using an econometric model that analyzes real (i.e., price-adjusted) costs facing students, real operating budget expenditures of colleges, population and unemployment projections, and…

  19. Five Years of Tamoxifen Continues to Benefit Women 15 Years after Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    In a large randomized clinical trial, women with early-stage breast cancer who received 5 years of adjuvant treatment with tamoxifen had better outcomes up to 15 years after the start of treatment than those who received 2 years of tamoxifen therapy.

  20. Placement from a Community-Based Mental Retardation Program: A 15-Year Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalock, Robert L.; Genung, Tom L.

    1993-01-01

    Eighty-five persons with developmental disabilities who had been placed into independent housing and competitive employment 15 years previously were evaluated. Two primary groups emerged: 19% in and 59% not in mental retardation/developmental disability services. The two groups were compared on social and support networks, lifestyle, quality of…

  1. Hearing and loud music exposure in 14-15 years old adolescents.

    PubMed

    Serra, Mario R; Biassoni, Ester C; Hinalaf, María; Abraham, Mónica; Pavlik, Marta; Villalobo, Jorge Pérez; Curet, Carlos; Joekes, Silvia; Yacci, María R; Righetti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent exposure to loud music has become a social and health problem whose study demands a holistic approach. The aims of the current study are: (1) To detect early noise-induced hearing loss among adolescents and establish its relationship with their participation in musical recreational activities and (2) to determine sound immission levels in nightclubs and personal music players (PMPs). The participants consisted in 172 14-15 years old adolescents from a technical high school. Conventional and extended high frequency audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and questionnaire on recreational habits were administered. Hearing threshold levels (HTLs) were classified as: normal (Group 1), slightly shifted (Group 2), and significantly shifted (Group 3). The musical general exposure (MGE), from participation in recreational musical activities, was categorized in low, moderate, and high exposure. The results revealed an increase of HTL in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01), in Group 3 compared with Group 2 (P < 0.05) only in extended high frequency range, in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01). Besides, a decrease in mean global amplitude, reproducibility and in frequencies amplitude in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05) and in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05). A significant difference (P < 0.05) was found in Group 1's HTL between low and high exposure, showing higher HTL in high exposure. The sound immission measured in nightclubs (107.8-112.2) dBA and PMPs (82.9-104.6) dBA revealed sound levels risky for hearing health according to exposure times. It demonstrates the need to implement preventive and hearing health promoting actions in adolescents. PMID:25209042

  2. ALH84001: The Key to Unlocking Secrets About Mars-15 Years and Counting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.

    2011-01-01

    From the December 27, 1984 discovery of ALH84001, and its subsequent identification as a sample of Mars in 1993, mystery and debate has surrounded the meteorite. With the realization that the ALH84001 sample was a orthopyroxenite and one of the oldest SNC meteorites (4.09 Ga) available to study, important and critical information about the Martian hydrosphere and atmosphere along with the early history and evolution of the planet could be obtained by studying the unique carbonate globules (3.9 Ga) in the sample. The initial work showed the carbonate globules were deposited within fractures and cracks in the host-orthopyroxene by low-temperature aqueous fluids. Ideas that the carbonates were formed at temperatures approaching 800oC were ruled out by later experiments. The 1996 announcement by McKay et al. that ALH84001 contained features which could be interpreted as having a biogenic origin generated considerable excitement and criticism. The NASA Administrator Dan Golden said the 1996 ALH84001 announcement saved NASA s Mars planetary exploration program and injected $6 billion dollars over five years into the scientific research and analysis efforts. All of the original four lines of evidence for possible biogenic features within ALH84001 offered by McKay et al. have withstood the test of time. Criticism has been directed at the interpretation of the 1996 analytical data. Research has expanded to other SNC meteorites. Despite the numerous attacks on the ideas, the debate continues after 15 years. The 2009 paper by Thomas-Keprta et al. on the origins of a suite of magnetites within the ALH84001 has offered strong arguments that some of the magnetites can only be formed by biogenic processes and not from thermal decomposition or shock events which happened to the meteorite. NASA s Astrobiology Institute was formed from the foundation laid by the ALH84001 hypothesis of finding life beyond the Earth. The strong astrobiology outreach programs have expanded because of

  3. SU-E-T-639: A Study On the Response of 2D Array Detector for VMAT Delivery for a Period of Two Years

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Syam; George, Anu

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the 2D array for radiation response for a period of 2 years. Methods: 45 VMAT plans already treated and quality assured before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year were selected for the study. Quality assurances of the plans were done using 2D array combined with Octavius phantom. Verification plans were recalculated without changing any parameters in Eclipse 10.0 TPS using the AAA algorithm. Response of 2D array to the plans treated before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year where evaluated. The results were analyzed using the Gamma analysis method with the standard gamma passing criteria of 3mm distance to agreement (DTA) and 3% dose difference (DD). Results: All the plans evaluated passed the gamma analysis with a percentage greater than 95, except for three cases. Higher gamma passing criteria where observed for all the analyzed plans, when analysis done before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year. The standard deviation of ± 1.38, ± 1.40,± 0.97 where observed between the plans when verification plans did before 2 years, 1.5 years and 1 year respectively. Same set of plans shows a standard deviation of ± 0.70, ± 1.36, and ± 1.18, when analysis done recently. A significance difference in response of the array when analysis done recently for the verification plans treated and quality assured before 2 years.This indicates a slightly reduced response of 2D array towards radiation response as the array gets older. Conclusion: It is found that 2D array shows a reduced response against radiation detection over a period of years. An onsite calibration of the instrument is recommended before the measurements. A dose correction factor can be applied if necessary to the results if the radiation response and efficiency of the array is very poor.

  4. A 15-year Climatology of Deep Stratosphere-troposphere Exchange With A Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, P.; Stohl, A.; Forster, C.; Eckhardt, S.

    Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange (STE) is a key element of the global atmospheric circulation, impacting on mean atmospheric chemistry budgets in both stratosphere and troposphere. A comprehensive study of deep STE, based on ECMWF global at- mospheric re-analysis data, has been carried out for the EU-project STACCATO with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART. The model was initialised with half a million particles, distributed randomly throughout the atmosphere, and inte- grated continually for 15 years, providing the basis for a climatology of STE, showing its typical timescales, seasonality, and spatial and interannual variability. A major ad- vantage of FLEXPART is enabling one to distinguish between short-term STE, during which air parcels rapidly return to the stratosphere, and deep and/or long-term STE, in which air parcels have subsequently long residence times in the troposphere, thus having a greater impact on atmospheric chemistry. STE distributions relate closely to global circulation features. Stratospheric intrusions occur most frequently in the mid- latitude storm track regions. Much of this air returns to the stratosphere within synop- tic timescales. The more deeply intruded air which remains is subsequently imbedded into the large-scale meridional circulation, resulting in the greatest proportion of old stratospheric air in the tropics and the polar boundary layer, as revealed by age spec- tra. Circulation anomalies (eg. NAO) influence the tropospheric distribution of young stratospheric air in particular. Concentrations of stratospheric air in the troposphere show a distinct winter maximum for deep STE intrusions, especially for cases of rapid descent. The often quoted 'spring maximum' of STE, typically derived by just fo- cussing on cross-tropopause fluxes, applies only in the upper troposphere and thus to shallow STE events alone. Cross-tropopause mass flux is shown to be an inadequate measure for many aspects of STE.

  5. Nutritional status, biological maturation and cardiorespiratory fitness in Azorean youth aged 11–15 years

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sex and individual differences in biological maturity status can influence height, weight, and body fat. Thus, the rigorous control of these variables seems necessary for estimating overweight and obesity in adolescents. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and over-fatness in Azorean adolescents and to examine the contributions of chronological age, sex, estimated maturity status, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) to the risk of overweight and obesity and over-fatness. Methods The sample comprised 1,206 youth aged 11–15 years (626 boys and 580 girls) from the Azores Islands, Portugal. Body mass, stature, and skinfolds (triceps and subscapular) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and percent fat was predicted from skinfolds. Age- and sex-specific IOTF cut-off values of the BMI defined nutritional status. Biological maturation was estimated as present height expressed as a percentage of predicted adult (mature) stature. The CRF was analyzed from the 20-m shuttle run test. Results The total prevalence rates of overweight/obesity and over-fatness were of 31% and 27%, respectively. Low CRF (unfit) and being average and advanced in maturity status were positively and significantly associated with overweight/obesity and with risk of being over-fatness in both sexes. Conclusions High prevalence rates of overweight/obesity and over-fatness were identified in Azorean youth, and low CRF and advanced biological maturation were positively associated with overweight/obesity and over-fatness in our sample of adolescents. PMID:23697718

  6. Natural course of schizophrenic disorders: a 15-year followup of a Dutch incidence cohort.

    PubMed

    Wiersma, D; Nienhuis, F J; Slooff, C J; Giel, R

    1998-01-01

    Data are presented on the 15-year natural course of schizophrenia and other nonaffective functional psychoses in a cohort of 82 first-contact cases from a circumscribed area in the Netherlands. The subjects were suffering from functional psychosis with International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnoses 295, 297, or 298.3-9 (broad definition of schizophrenia) on entry. Standardized assessments of psychopathology, psychological impairments, negative symptomatology, social disability, and use of mental healthcare were used. The study reveals a pattern of chronicity and relapses with a high risk of suicide: Two-thirds of the subjects had at least one relapse and after each relapse 1 of 6 subjects did not remit from the episode; 1 of 10 committed suicide; and 1 of 7 had at least one episode with affective psychotic symptoms that started on average 6 years after the onset of the schizophrenic disorder. Diagnoses were reclassified in five patients, according to DSM-III-R criteria for a bipolar disorder. The predictive power--in terms of time in psychosis and in partial or full remission--of demographic, illness, and treatment variables at onset of the illness was very limited. Insidious onset and delays in mental health treatment are risk factors that predict a longer duration of first or subsequent episodes. The importance of mental health treatment in regard to outcome is probably subject to change because an early warning and intervention strategy could prevent further damage and deterioration. Our data support the need for an adequate relapse prevention program as a priority for our mental health services. PMID:9502547

  7. A 15 year legacy of cloud and atmosphere observations in Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupe, M.

    2012-12-01

    For the past 15 years, the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has operated the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) atmospheric observatory in Barrow, Alaska. Barrow offers many valuable perspectives on the Arctic environment that complement observations at lower latitudes. Unique features of the Arctic region include cold and dry atmospheric conditions, strong annual variability in sun light, a seasonally high-reflective surface, and persistent clouds that involve mixed-phase processes. ARM's ultimate objective with its flagship observatory at the northernmost point in U.S. territory is to provide measurements that can be used to improve the understanding of these atmospheric physical and radiative properties and processes such that they can be better represented in climate models. The NSA is the most detailed and long-lasting cloud-radiation-atmosphere observatory in the Arctic, providing continuous, sophisticated measurements of climate-relevant parameters. Instrument suites include active radars and lidars at various frequencies, passive radiometers monitoring radiation in microwave, infrared, visible and ultraviolet wavelengths, meteorological towers, and sounding systems. Together these measurements are used to characterize many of the important properties of clouds, aerosols, atmospheric radiation, dynamics, thermodynamics, and the surface. The coordinated nature of these measurements offers important multi-dimensional insight into many fundamental processes linking these different elements of the climate system. Moreover, the continuous operations of the facility support these observations over the full diurnal cycle and in all seasons of the year. This presentation will highlight a number of important studies and key findings that have been facilitated by the NSA observations during the first 15 years in operation. Some of these include: a thorough documentation of clouds, their occurrence frequency, phase, microphysical

  8. Community-acquired Legionella pneumophila pneumonia: a single-center experience with 214 hospitalized sporadic cases over 15 years.

    PubMed

    Viasus, Diego; Di Yacovo, Silvana; Garcia-Vidal, Carolina; Verdaguer, Ricard; Manresa, Frederic; Dorca, Jordi; Gudiol, Francesc; Carratalà, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila has been increasingly recognized as a cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and an important public health problem worldwide. We conducted the present study to assess trends in epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical features, treatment, and outcomes of sporadic community-acquired L. pneumophila pneumonia requiring hospitalization at a university hospital over a 15-year period (1995-2010). Among 3934 nonimmunosuppressed hospitalized patients with CAP, 214 (5.4%) had L. pneumophila pneumonia (16 cases were categorized as travel-associated pneumonia, and 21 were part of small clusters). Since the introduction of the urinary antigen test, the diagnosis of L. pneumophila using this method remained stable over the years (p = 0.42); however, diagnosis by means of seroconversion and culture decreased (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). The median age of patients with L. pneumophila pneumonia was 58.2 years (SD 13.8), and 76.4% were male. At least 1 comorbid condition was present in 119 (55.6%) patients with L. pneumophila pneumonia, mainly chronic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and chronic pulmonary disease. The frequency of older patients (aged >65 yr) and comorbidities among patients with L. pneumophila pneumonia increased over the years (p = 0.06 and p = 0.02, respectively). In addition, 100 (46.9%) patients were classified into high-risk classes according to the Pneumonia Severity Index (groups IV-V). Twenty-four (11.2%) patients with L. pneumophila pneumonia received inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy at hospital admission. Compared with patients who received appropriate empirical antibiotic, patients who received inappropriate therapy more frequently had acute onset of illness (p = 0.004), pleuritic chest pain (p = 0.03), and pleural effusion (p = 0.05). The number of patients who received macrolides decreased over the study period (p < 0.001), whereas the number of patients who received levofloxacin increased (p < 0.001). No

  9. Control measures to trace ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; de Melo, Angelita Cristine; de Oliveira, Lílian Ruth Silva; Froede, Emerson Lopes; Camargos, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This was descriptive study carried out in a medium-sized Brazilian city. In ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis, we assessed compliance with the Brazilian national guidelines for tuberculosis control. We interviewed 43 contacts and their legal guardians. Approximately 80% of the contacts were not assessed by the municipal public health care system, and only 21% underwent tuberculin skin testing. The results obtained with the Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector method suggest that health care teams have a biased attitude toward assessing such contacts and underscore the need for training health professionals regarding tuberculosis control programs. PMID:26578137

  10. Retrospective review of the case of cutaneous anthrax-malignant pustule from 1995 in 15-year old girl.

    PubMed

    Kajfasz, Piotr; Bartoszcze, Michał; Borkowski, Piotr Karol; Basiak, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl was admitted to our Department with cutaneous lesion resembling black eschar. Anamnesis revealed that before getting ill she was wearing pullover made of rough sheep's wool and ornaments made of leather like straps. Cutaneous anthrax was confirmed by identification of B. anthracis in specimens from weeping ulceration, culture from black eschar, thermoprecipitation test, and bioassay on guinea pig. The girl was treated with crystalline Penicillin. She responded well to the therapy and recovered after 28 days. What attracts attention in presented case is the fact that the girl didn't belong to high risk group of human anthrax, which might lead to misdiagnosis. In 1990-1999, Poland there were reported 22 cases of anthrax - it was almost exclusively cutaneous form. In the years following 1999 antrax was reported even less often - in the period 1991-2013 it was recorded a total of 26 cutaneous anthrax cases. PMID:25848786

  11. Trisomy 18 mosaicism in a 15-year-old boy with normal intelligence and short stature

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-08

    We report a 15-year-old boy with mosaicism for trisomy 18 and normal intelligence. Approximately 50% of his leukocytes are trisomic. This patient represents the sixth report of an individual with trisomy 18 mosaicism and normal intelligence. Those individuals with trisomy 18 mosaicism and normal intelligence need to be advised of increased risks for offspring with chromosome abnormalities and offered the option of prenatal diagnosis for cytogenetic anomalies. 6 refs.

  12. Type IV congenital laryngeal web: Case report and 15 year follow up.

    PubMed

    Sorichetti, Brendan; Moxham, John P; Kozak, Frederick K

    2016-01-01

    A five day old patient with mild VACTERL syndrome had repair of a type IV congenital laryngeal web with successful decannulation 76 days later. Voice and respiratory outcome is good with follow up 15 years later. This case presents a rare clinical finding of a type IV laryngeal web successfully repaired with a keel and subsequent long term follow up during an era when it was suggested that repair be delayed until 18 months of age at the earliest. PMID:26954872

  13. Phase II TPDCV protocol for pediatric low-grade hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas: 15-year update

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Kavita K.; Squire, Sarah; Lamborn, Kathleen; Banerjee, Anuradha; Gupta, Nalin; Wara, William M.; Prados, Michael D.; Berger, Mitchel S.

    2010-01-01

    To report long-term results for children with low-grade hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas treated on a phase II chemotherapy protocol. Between 1984 and 1992, 33 children with hypothalamic/chiasmatic LGGs received TPDCV chemotherapy on a phase II prospective trial. Median age was 3.0 years (range 0.3–16.2). Twelve patients (36%) underwent STRs, 14 (42%) biopsy only, and seven (21%) no surgery. Twenty patients (61%) had pathologic JPAs, nine (27%) grade II gliomas, and four (12%) no surgical sampling. Median f/u for surviving patients was 15.2 years (range 5.3–20.7); 20 of the 23 surviving patients had 14 or more years of follow-up. Fifteen-year PFS and OS were 23.4 and 71.2%, respectively. Twenty-five patients progressed, of whom 13 are NED, two are AWD, and 10 have died. All children who died were diagnosed and first treated at age three or younger. Age at diagnosis was significantly associated with relapse and survival (P = 0.004 for PFS and P = 0.037 for OS). No PFS or OS benefit was seen with STR versus biopsy/no sampling (P = 0.58 for PFS, P = 0.59 for OS). For patients with JPAs and WHO grade II tumors, the 15-year PFS was 18.8 and 22.2% (P = 0.95) and 15-year OS was 73.7 and 55.6% (P = 0.17), respectively. Upfront TPDCV for children with hypothalamic/chiasmatic LGGs resulted in 15-year OS of 71.2% and 15-year PFS of 23.4%. No survival benefit is demonstrated for greater extent of resection. Age is a significant prognostic factor for progression and survival. PMID:20221671

  14. Phase II TPDCV protocol for pediatric low-grade hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas: 15-year update.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Kavita K; Squire, Sarah; Lamborn, Kathleen; Banerjee, Anuradha; Gupta, Nalin; Wara, William M; Prados, Michael D; Berger, Mitchel S; Haas-Kogan, Daphne A

    2010-10-01

    To report long-term results for children with low-grade hypothalamic/chiasmatic gliomas treated on a phase II chemotherapy protocol. Between 1984 and 1992, 33 children with hypothalamic/chiasmatic LGGs received TPDCV chemotherapy on a phase II prospective trial. Median age was 3.0 years (range 0.3-16.2). Twelve patients (36%) underwent STRs, 14 (42%) biopsy only, and seven (21%) no surgery. Twenty patients (61%) had pathologic JPAs, nine (27%) grade II gliomas, and four (12%) no surgical sampling. Median f/u for surviving patients was 15.2 years (range 5.3-20.7); 20 of the 23 surviving patients had 14 or more years of follow-up. Fifteen-year PFS and OS were 23.4 and 71.2%, respectively. Twenty-five patients progressed, of whom 13 are NED, two are AWD, and 10 have died. All children who died were diagnosed and first treated at age three or younger. Age at diagnosis was significantly associated with relapse and survival (P = 0.004 for PFS and P = 0.037 for OS). No PFS or OS benefit was seen with STR versus biopsy/no sampling (P = 0.58 for PFS, P = 0.59 for OS). For patients with JPAs and WHO grade II tumors, the 15-year PFS was 18.8 and 22.2% (P = 0.95) and 15-year OS was 73.7 and 55.6% (P = 0.17), respectively. Upfront TPDCV for children with hypothalamic/chiasmatic LGGs resulted in 15-year OS of 71.2% and 15-year PFS of 23.4%. No survival benefit is demonstrated for greater extent of resection. Age is a significant prognostic factor for progression and survival. PMID:20221671

  15. A 15-year-old boy with snoring and molar tooth sign.

    PubMed

    El-Kersh, Karim; Senthilvel, Egambaram

    2015-04-01

    A 15-year-old boy presented for evaluation of snoring and sleep-disordered breathing. The parents noted that the patient snored every night and that he had episodes when he stopped breathing, ending with gasping for air. He had no history of sleep walking, night terrors, tongue biting, or seizures. The patient had two healthy siblings, but he had a history of intellectual disability and developmental delay. The patient had a history of adenotonsillectomy. PMID:25846539

  16. Retroviruses and retroelements in diseases and in gene therapy: 15 years later.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The past 15 years opened new avenues for retrovirus and retroelement research. Not surprisingly, they stemmed from essential knowledge collected in the past, which remains the ground of the present and therefore should be remembered. However, a short supplement of new break-through discoveries and ideas should be recollected. Using selected examples of recent works, I tried to extend and supplement my original article published in Folia Biologica (1996). PMID:21943326

  17. Hamartoma of the urinary bladder in a 15-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Al Shahwani, Noora; Alnaimi, Abdulla Rashid; Ammar, Adham; Al-ahdal, Esra M.

    2016-01-01

    Hamartoma of the bladder is an unusual entity described in only eleven patients to date. It may present as painless hematuria, irritative urinary tract symptoms, or inability to void or it may be diagnosed incidentally. Hamartoma of the bladder may be isolated or occur as part of a syndrome. No isolated bladder hamartoma to date has shown malignant potential. We describe here a bladder hamartoma in a 15-year-old boy. PMID:27274896

  18. Increasing numbers of nonaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in the last 15 years: antithrombotic medication as reason and prognostic factor?

    PubMed

    Konczalla, Juergen; Kashefiolasl, Sepide; Brawanski, Nina; Senft, Christian; Seifert, Volker; Platz, Johannes

    2016-06-01

    OBJECT Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is usually caused by a ruptured intracranial aneurysm, but in some patients no source of hemorrhage can be detected. More recent data showed increasing numbers of cases of spontaneous nonaneurysmal SAH (NASAH). The aim of this study was to analyze factors, especially the use of antithrombotic medications such as systemic anticoagulation or antiplatelet agents (aCPs), influencing the increasing numbers of cases of NASAH and the clinical outcome. METHODS Between 1999 and 2013, 214 patients who were admitted to the authors' institution suffered from NASAH, 14% of all patients with SAH. Outcome was assessed according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 6 months. Risk factors were identified based on the outcome. RESULTS The number of patients with NASAH increased significantly in the last 15 years of the study period. There was a statistically significant increase in the rate of nonperimesencephalic (NPM)-SAH occurrence and aCP use, while the proportion of elderly patients remained stable. Favorable outcome (mRS 0-2) was achieved in 85% of cases, but patients treated with aCPs had a significantly higher risk for an unfavorable outcome. Further analysis showed that elderly patients, and especially the subgroup with a Fisher Grade 3 bleeding pattern, had a high risk for an unfavorable outcome, whereas the subgroup of NPM-SAH without a Fisher Grade 3 bleeding pattern had a favorable outcome, similar to perimesencephalic (PM)-SAH. CONCLUSIONS Over the years, a significant increase in the number of patients with NASAH has been observed. Also, the rate of aCP use has increased significantly. Risk factors for an unfavorable outcome were age > 65 years, Fisher Grade 3 bleeding pattern, and aCP use. Both "PM-SAH" and "NPM-SAH without a Fisher Grade 3 bleeding pattern" had excellent outcomes. Patients with NASAH and a Fisher Grade 3 bleeding pattern had a significantly higher risk for an unfavorable outcome and death. Therefore, for further

  19. 15 years of zooming in and zooming out: Developing a new single scale national active fault database of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, William; Langridge, Robert; Villamor, Pilar; Litchfield, Nicola; Van Dissen, Russ; Townsend, Dougal; Lee, Julie; Heron, David; Lukovic, Biljana

    2014-05-01

    In New Zealand, we are currently reconciling multiple digital coverages of mapped active faults into a national coverage at a single scale (1:250,000). This seems at first glance to be a relatively simple task. However, methods used to capture data, the scale of capture, and the initial purpose of the fault mapping, has produced datasets that have very different characteristics. The New Zealand digital active fault database (AFDB) was initially developed as a way of managing active fault locations and fault-related features within a computer-based spatial framework. The data contained within the AFDB comes from a wide range of studies, from plate tectonic (1:500,000) to cadastral (1:2,000) scale. The database was designed to allow capture of field observations and remotely sourced data without a loss in data resolution. This approach has worked well as a method for compiling a centralised database for fault information but not for providing a complete national coverage at a single scale. During the last 15 years other complementary projects have used and also contributed data to the AFDB, most notably the QMAP project (a national series of geological maps completed over 19 years that include coverage of active and inactive faults at 1:250,000). AFDB linework and attributes was incorporated into this series but simplification of linework and attributes has occurred to maintain map clarity at 1:250,000 scale. Also, during this period on-going mapping of active faults has improved upon these data. Other projects of note that have used data from the AFDB include the National Seismic Hazard Model of New Zealand and the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The main goal of the current project has been to provide the best digital spatial representation of a fault trace at 1:250,000 scale and combine this with the most up to date attributes. In some areas this has required a simplification of very fine detailed data and in some cases new mapping to provide a complete coverage

  20. Study for elevator cage position during the braking period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungureanu, M.; Crăciun, I.; Bănică, M.; Dăscălescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    An important problem in order to study an elevator cage position for its braking period is to establish a correlation between the studies in the fields of mechanics and electric. The classical approaches to establish the elevator kinematic parameters are position, velocity and acceleration, but the last studies performed in order to determine the positioning performed by introducing supplementary another parameter - the jerk- which is derived with respect to time of acceleration. Thus we get a precise method for cage motion control for third-order trajectory planning.

  1. Pattern of malignancies in children <15 years of age reported in Hadhramout Cancer Registry, Yemen between 2002 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Jawass, Mazin A.; Al-Ezzi, Jalil I.; Gouth, Hanan S. Bin; Bahwal, Saleh A.; Bamatraf, Fawzia F.; Ba’amer, Abubakir A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the patterns of childhood cancers in Hadhramout Sector, Yemen between January 2002 and December 2014. Methods: This descriptive retrospective study was based on secondary data from Hadhramout Cancer Registry, Hadhramout, Yemen. All Yemeni children under age of 15 years, who were diagnosed with cancer were included. The International Childhood Cancer Classification system was used to categorize cancer types. Results: A total of 406 childhood cancers of both gender <15 years of age were reported. These represented 8.5% of all cases registered. The mean age was 7.34 ± 4.18 years. There were 240 males (59.1%) and 166 females (40.9%) with a male to female ratio of 1.4:1. Calculated incidence of cancer in children in this population is 1.9 per 100,000. The predominant age group was 5-9 years (35%) followed by 10-14 years (33.7%), and 0-4 years group (31%). The most common group of malignancies were hematological malignancies accounting for 47% of cases, followed by nervous system malignancies (15%). The most frequently reported cancer types were lymphoma (24%), leukemia (23%), carcinoma (13.1%), and central nervous system (CNS) tumors (11.6%). Conclusions: There is a lower frequency of childhood cancer in Hadhramout Sector when compared with developed countries. The most common cancers among children were lymphoma, leukemia, carcinoma, and CNS tumors. PMID:27146613

  2. Assessment of Intima-Media Thickness in Healthy Children Aged 1 to 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Baroncini, Liz Andréa Villela; Sylvestre, Lucimary de Castro; Filho, Roberto Pecoits

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been shown to be increased in children and adolescents with traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease, compared with those of healthy children. Objective To assess the influence of sex, age and body mass index (BMI) on the CIMT in healthy children and adolescents aged 1 to 15 years. Methods A total of 280 healthy children and adolescents (males, n=175; mean age, 7.49±3.57 years; mean BMI, 17.94±4.1 kg/m2) were screened for CIMT assessment. They were divided into 3 groups according to age: GI, 1 to 5 years [n=93 (33.2%); males, 57; mean BMI, 16±3 kg/m2]; GII, 6 to 10 years [n=127 (45.4%); males, 78; mean BMI, 17.9±3.7 kg/m2], and GIII, 11 to 15 years [n=60 (21.4%); males, 40; mean BMI, 20.9±4.5 kg/m2]. Results There was no significant difference in CIMT values between male and female children and adolescents (0.43±0.06 mm vs. 0.42±0.05 mm, respectively; p=0.243). CIMT correlated with BMI neither in the total population nor in the 3 age groups according to Pearson correlation coefficient. Subjects aged 11 to 15 years had the highest CIMT values (GI vs. GII, p=0.615; GI vs. GIII, p=0.02; GII vs. GIII, p=0.004). Conclusions CIMT is constant in healthy children younger than 10 years, regardless of sex or BMI. CIMT increases after the age of 10 years. PMID:26959401

  3. [Health surveillance in a steel making industry with electric arc furnace: 15 years of experience].

    PubMed

    Corti, P

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the results of health surveillance carried out in an electric steel mill for 15 years. We have analyzed the trend of audiometry, spirometry and main indicators of exposure to chemical risk: serum lead, urinary OH-pyrene, erythrocyte ZPP, and the results of risk assessment of stress work related. The analyses of the trend of audiometry, spirometry and biological monitoring shows an important improving in the working environment due to the progressive automation of production steps in the course of several years, consistent and correct use of DPI, information and training. PMID:23405576

  4. Temporal Space Lymphatic Malformation in a 15-Year-Old Adolescent: An Extraordinary Case.

    PubMed

    Igoumenakis, Dimosthenis; Logothetis, Ioannis; Barmpagadaki, Alina; Ieromonachou, Panayotis; Mastorakis, George

    2016-07-01

    Lymphatic malformations-previously called lymphangiomas or cystic hygromas-are regarded as non-malignant primary disorders of the lymphatic system. They appear predominantly in infants and children, with 90 % of cases being diagnosed by the age of 2 years. Also, they constitute an infrequent entity, accounting for 5 % of all benign tumors in infants and children. In adults they are extremely rare. In the present article we present an extraordinary case of a lymphatic malformation that ensued in the temporal area of a 15-year old adolescent. PMID:27408452

  5. Valproic acid-induced pancreatitis in a 15-year-old boy with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Veri, Kadi; Uibo, Oivi; Talvik, Inga; Talvik, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced acute pancreatitis is a rare condition in childhood, and information about the incidence of valproic acid-induced acute pancreatitis in the pediatric population is scarce. In this clinical case, we report a first documented pediatric case of valproic acid-induced pancreatitis in Estonia. A 15-year-old boy with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy developed acute pancreatitis after 2-month therapy with valproic acid. The symptoms of pancreatitis subsided within 1 week after the discontinuation of treatment with valproic acid. Acute pancreatitis should be suspected in any pediatric patient with gastrointestinal symptoms during valproate treatment. PMID:24823930

  6. A Summer School for High School students: a 15 years experience.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamorano, Nelson

    2004-03-01

    During the last 15 years we have been offering a summer course (usually lasting four weeks) to interested high school students. In this work we summarizes its evolution, mainly of the physics course, during these years. The summer school started with 45 students for a physics course, and now we have 4000 students applying to the different subjects offered. In the physics course, we have offered, from the very beginning, a numerical complement to the students, where we use maple, excel and Interactive Physics. Starting from this experience we have derived to winter school for younger students and collective experiments like measuring the Earth radious using the Eratosthenes method.

  7. [Coexistence of Crohn disease and Wegener granulomatosis in a 15-year-old patient].

    PubMed

    Sieczkowska, Agnieszka; Lewandowski, Piotr; Szumera, Małgorzata; Kamińska, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Crohn disease is being diagnosed more and more frequently in children and teenagers. Clinical symptoms are mainly related to the gastrointestinal tract, however there are many reports in the literature about the coexistence of Crohn disease with other autoimmunological disorders such as celiac disease, autoimmune hypothyroidism, systemic lupus erythematosus and Wegener granulomatosis. We report a 15-year-old patient with Crohn disease who also developed Wegener granulomatosis. The presented case illustrates the difficulties in establishing the diagnosis when symptoms of the original disease are superimposed on symptoms of a different disorder. PMID:22516704

  8. Endoscopic Removal of a Nitinol Mesh Stent from the Ureteropelvic Junction after 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Smrkolj, Tomaž; Šalinović, Domagoj

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of a patient with a large stone encrusted on a nitinol mesh stent in the ureteropelvic junction. The stent was inserted in the year 2000 after failure of two pyeloplasty procedures performed due to symptomatic ureteropelvic junction stenosis. By combining minimally invasive urinary stone therapies—extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, semirigid ureterorenoscopy with laser lithotripsy, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy—it was possible to completely remove the encrusted stone and nitinol mesh stent that was implanted for 15 years, rendering the patient symptom and obstruction free. PMID:26697258

  9. Geodetic reference systems for long period studies in earth physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    A simple system of reference axes is defined for possible use in high precision geodetic studies over long periods of time for programs in earth physics. The proposed system is based on the gravitational and dynamic characteristics of the axis of rotation and the earth's center of mass as defined instantaneously at a given epoch. Techniques are outlined for its continuous representation over time intervals of significance for studies in earth physics. The relationship between the proposed system and the representation of extra-terrestrial objects using the celestial sphere concept is also discussed.

  10. Energy balance in rainfed herbaceous crops in a semiarid environment for a 15-year experiment. 2. Impact of crop rotations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, M. C.; Moreno, M. M.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Meco, R.

    2012-04-01

    Energy balances in agriculture production have been widely studied since the 1970s. Researchers have performed detailed energy balances for different crops and farm management systems all over the world in attempts to assess the efficiency and environmental impact of production systems. This work is part of a larger study assessing the effects of three farming systems (conventional, conservation with zero tillage, and organic) and four barley-based crop rotations (barley followed by fallow [B-F], barley in rotation with vetch for hay production [B-V] or sunflower [B-S], and barley monoculture [B-B]), on the energy balance of crop production under the semi-arid conditions over a 15 year period. However, the present work is focused on the crop rotation effect, so farming systems and years are averaged. Experiments were conducted at "La Higueruela" Experimental Farm (4°26' W, 40°04' N, altitude 450 m) (Spanish National Research Council, Santa Olalla, Toledo, central Spain). The climate is semi-arid Mediterranean, with an average seasonal rainfall of 480 mm irregularly distributed. The rotations were simultaneously duplicated to have all phases of each rotation present every year. Results were expressed with respect to one hectare and year for a complete rotation. The energy balance method used required the identification and quantification of all the inputs and outputs implied, and the conversion to energy values by corresponding coefficients. The parameters considered were (i) energy inputs (EI) (diesel, machines, fertilizers, herbicides, seeds) (ii) energy outputs (EO) (energy in the harvested biomass), (iii) net energy produced (NE) (EI - EO), (iv) the energy output/input ratio (O/I), and (v) energy productivity (EP) (Crop yield/EI). Total EI varied from 6.19 GJ ha-1 year-1 for B-F to 11.7 GJ ha-1 year-1 for B-B, that indicates that the energy requirements of barley monoculture (B-B) are almost double those when a fallow period is included in the rotation

  11. Coronary artery occlusion after arterial switch operation in an asymptomatic 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Saini, Ashish P; Cyran, Stephen E; Ettinger, Steven M; Pauliks, Linda B

    2016-08-16

    A 15-year-old boy with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and neonatal arterial switch operation (ASO) presented with complete occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA). Intra-operatively, an intramural left coronary artery was identified. Therefore, since age 7 years he had a series of screening exercise stress tests. At 13 years old, he had 3 to 4 mm ST segment depression in the infero-lateral leads without symptoms. This progressed to 4.2 mm inferior ST segment depression at 15 years old with normal stress echocardiogram. Sestamibi myocardial perfusion scan and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was inconclusive. Therefore, a coronary angiogram was obtained which showed complete occlusion of the LMCA with ample collateralization from the right coronary artery system. This was later confirmed on a computed tomogram (CT) angiogram, obtained in preparation of coronary artery bypass grafting. The case illustrates the difficulty of detecting coronary artery stenosis and occlusion in young patients with rich collateralization. Coronary CT angiogram and conventional angiography were the best imaging modalities to detect coronary anomalies in this adolescent with surgically corrected TGA. Screening CT angiography may be warranted for TGA patients, particularly for those with known coronary anomalies. PMID:27574609

  12. Coronary artery occlusion after arterial switch operation in an asymptomatic 15-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Ashish P; Cyran, Stephen E; Ettinger, Steven M; Pauliks, Linda B

    2016-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and neonatal arterial switch operation (ASO) presented with complete occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA). Intra-operatively, an intramural left coronary artery was identified. Therefore, since age 7 years he had a series of screening exercise stress tests. At 13 years old, he had 3 to 4 mm ST segment depression in the infero-lateral leads without symptoms. This progressed to 4.2 mm inferior ST segment depression at 15 years old with normal stress echocardiogram. Sestamibi myocardial perfusion scan and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was inconclusive. Therefore, a coronary angiogram was obtained which showed complete occlusion of the LMCA with ample collateralization from the right coronary artery system. This was later confirmed on a computed tomogram (CT) angiogram, obtained in preparation of coronary artery bypass grafting. The case illustrates the difficulty of detecting coronary artery stenosis and occlusion in young patients with rich collateralization. Coronary CT angiogram and conventional angiography were the best imaging modalities to detect coronary anomalies in this adolescent with surgically corrected TGA. Screening CT angiography may be warranted for TGA patients, particularly for those with known coronary anomalies. PMID:27574609

  13. Nonfatal bathroom injuries among persons aged ≥15 years--United States, 2008.

    PubMed

    2011-06-10

    In 2008, approximately 21.8 million persons aged ≥15 years sustained nonfatal, unintentional injuries, resulting in approximately $67.3 billion in lifetime medical costs. Information about where injuries occur is limited, but bathrooms commonly are believed to be a particularly hazardous location. To investigate this assumption, CDC analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of emergency departments (EDs) to describe the incidence and circumstances of nonfatal injuries in bathrooms (in any setting) among persons aged ≥15 years in the United States. This report describes the results of that investigation, which found that, based on 3,339 cases documented in the 2008 National Electronic Surveillance System All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) database, an estimated 234,094 nonfatal bathroom injuries were treated in U.S. EDs. Injury rates increased with age, and most injuries (81.1%) were caused by falls. All persons, but especially older adults, should be aware of bathroom activities that are associated with a high risk for injury and of environmental modifications that might reduce that risk. PMID:21659980

  14. Nonmodular flexible press-fit cup in primary total hip arthroplasty: 15-year followup.

    PubMed

    Berli, Bernhard J; Ping, Gu; Dick, Walter; Morscher, Erwin W

    2007-08-01

    The key rationale for a nonmodular flexible press-fit cup was to maximize long-term stability with a cementless, porous metal-coated cup that is low in stiffness (no metal shell) and to achieve fixation solely through biradial eccentricity between the cup and the acetabular cavity. We asked whether the promising results achieved at 5 and 10 years would be maintained at 15 years. We reviewed 261 patients who received the first 280 Morscher Press-Fit Cups. One hundred twenty patients (126 hips) died. One hundred one patients (112 hips) had a clinical and radiographic followup after a minimum of 13.5 years (mean, 14.7 years; range, 13.5-17.0 years). Twenty-four patients with 26 hips were clinically examined or interviewed by telephone. Three of the 101 patients were lost to followup. We judged the results excellent or good in 96% of the hips. The 15-year overall survivorship was 95.3% and with the end point of aseptic loosening, the survivorship was 97.5%. Wear was greater in cups with an inclination greater than 45 degrees and in metal-polyethylene pairings compared with ceramic-polyethylene pairings. This cup design performs well over the long term. PMID:17415011

  15. High aerosol acidity despite declining atmospheric sulfate concentrations over the past 15 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Rodney J.; Guo, Hongyu; Russell, Armistead G.; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-04-01

    Particle acidity affects aerosol concentrations, chemical composition and toxicity. Sulfate is often the main acid component of aerosols, and largely determines the acidity of fine particles under 2.5 μm in diameter, PM2.5. Over the past 15 years, atmospheric sulfate concentrations in the southeastern United States have decreased by 70%, whereas ammonia concentrations have been steady. Similar trends are occurring in many regions globally. Aerosol ammonium nitrate concentrations were assumed to increase to compensate for decreasing sulfate, which would result from increasing neutrality. Here we use observed gas and aerosol composition, humidity, and temperature data collected at a rural southeastern US site in June and July 2013 (ref. ), and a thermodynamic model that predicts pH and the gas-particle equilibrium concentrations of inorganic species from the observations to show that PM2.5 at the site is acidic. pH buffering by partitioning of ammonia between the gas and particle phases produced a relatively constant particle pH of 0-2 throughout the 15 years of decreasing atmospheric sulfate concentrations, and little change in particle ammonium nitrate concentrations. We conclude that the reductions in aerosol acidity widely anticipated from sulfur reductions, and expected acidity-related health and climate benefits, are unlikely to occur until atmospheric sulfate concentrations reach near pre-anthropogenic levels.

  16. An Investigation of Factors Affecting Gender Differences in Standardized Math Performance: Results from U.S. and Hong Kong 15 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ou Lydia

    2009-01-01

    Learning strategies and affective factors could have a profound impact on student standardized mathematics performance. This study investigated gender differences in affective factors, learning strategies, and preferred learning situations, and how these variables affect math achievement of 15 year olds in the United States and Hong Kong on the…

  17. Assessing Outgroup Prejudice among 13-15-Year-Old Students Attending Catholic and Protestant Secondary Schools in Northern Ireland: An Empirical Enquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Village, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Northern Ireland has been and remains a religiously divided community. This study sets out to examine outgroup prejudice among a sample of 1799 13-15-year-old students attending Catholic or Protestant schools and employs both bivariate analyses and hierarchical modelling to chart the associations between outgroup prejudice and personal factors…

  18. Strategies for reducing exposure to indoor air pollution from household burning of solid fuels: effects on acute lower respiratory infections in children under the age of 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Havens, Deborah; Jary, Hannah R; Patel, Latifa B; Chiume, Msandeni E; Mortimer, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: This study aims to assess the effects of intervention strategies that reduce exposure to household air pollution from burning solid fuels on episodes of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in children under the age of 15 years.

  19. Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run and Body Mass Index among an Ethnically Diverse Sample of 10-15-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the cardiovascular fitness (CVF, Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run [PACER], number of laps completed) and the prevalence of at risk of overweight (AR) and overweight (OW) among 10-15-year-olds (48% girls) from the following ethnic backgrounds: African American (n = 2,604), Asian-Pacific Islander (n = 3,888),…

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Selected Variables of 12-to-15 Year Old Males in Special Education and the Juvenile Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair-Blake, Leslie C.

    2010-01-01

    This study identified and compared selected variables of 12-15-year-old African American young men in special education programs and the juvenile justice system. A majority of African American young men who are placed in special education programs are also involved with the juvenile justice system. Through personal observations, interviews with…

  1. Do Migrant Girls Perform Better than Migrant Boys? Deviant Gender Differences between the Reading Scores of 15-Year-Old Children of Migrants Compared to Native Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronkers, Jaap; Kornder, Nils

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the gender differences between the educational performance of 15-year-old children of migrants from specific regions of origin countries living in different destination countries with the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 wave. We study whether this gender difference of migrant pupils deviates…

  2. Fifteen Years of Collaborative Innovation and Achievement: NASA Nebraska Space Grant Consortium 15-Year Program Performance and Results Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaaf, Michaela M. (Editor); Bowen, Brent D.; Fink, Mary M.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.; Avery Shelly; Calamaio, Caprice; Carstenson, Larry; Dugan, James; Farr, Lynne; Farritor, Shane

    2003-01-01

    This 15-year evaluation serves as a summary document highlighting the numerous and complete successes of the Nebraska Space Grant Program. Innovation has been highlighted through significant new endeavors during this 5-year period, such as placement of students and faculty at NASA Centers and the expansion of NSGC Native American Outreach Programs. While the last national program evaluation resulted in Nebraska s ranking as the top Capability Enhancement Consortium, and 5th best overall, Nebraska felt there was room for significant growth and development. This has been validated through the recent competitive attainment of Designated Grant status and has allowed for the exploration of new initiatives, as well as the expansion of already successful programs. A comprehensive strategic planning effort has involved all Nebraska representative entities and has guided Nebraska Space Grant through the evaluation period, providing a basis for continual advancement. Nebraska rigorously employs evaluation techniques to ensure that stated outcomes and metrics are achieved and that weaknesses are identified and corrected. With this coordinated approach, Nebraska expects that the next 5 years will yield new opportunities for significant achievement. Nebraska Space Grant will embrace new national endeavors, including the integration of Pender Public Schools -Nebraska s NASA Explorer School, geospatial initiatives, and the National Student Satellite Program.

  3. Energy balance in rainfed herbaceous crops in a semiarid environment for a 15-year experiment. 1. Impact of farming systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, M. M.; Moreno, C.; Lacasta, C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Meco, R.

    2012-04-01

    During the last years, agricultural practices have led to increase yields by means of the massive consumption on non-renewable fossil energy. However, the viability of a production system does not depend solely on crop yield, but also on its efficiency in the use of available resources. This work is part of a larger study assessing the effects of three farming systems (conventional, conservation with zero tillage, and organic) and four barley-based crop rotations (barley monoculture and in rotation with vetch, sunflower and fallow) on the energy balance of crop production under the semi-arid conditions over a 15 year period. However, the present work is focused on the farming system effect, so crop rotations and years are averaged. Experiments were conducted at "La Higueruela" Experimental Farm (4°26' W, 40°04' N, altitude 450 m) (Spanish National Research Council, Santa Olalla, Toledo, central Spain). The climate is semi-arid Mediterranean, with an average seasonal rainfall of 480 mm irregularly distributed and a 4-month summer drought period. Conventional farming included the use of moldboard plow for tillage, chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Conservation farming was developed with zero tillage, direct sowing and chemical fertilizers and herbicides. Organic farming included the use of cultivator and no chemical fertilizers or herbicides. The energy balance method used required the identification and quantification of all the inputs and outputs implied, and the conversion to energy values by corresponding coefficients. The parameters considered were (i) energy inputs (EI) (diesel, machines, fertilizers, herbicides, seeds) (ii) energy outputs (EO) (energy in the harvested biomass), (iii) net energy produced (NE) (EI - EO), (iv) the energy output/input ratio (O/I), and (v) energy productivity (EP) (Crop yield/EI). EI was 3.0 and 3.5 times higher in conservation (10.4 GJ ha-1 year-1) and conventional (11.7 GJ ha-1 year-1) than in organic farming (3.41 GJ ha-1

  4. The impact of private use of PCV7 in 2009 and 2010 on serotypes and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae carried by young children in Portugal: Comparison with data obtained since 1996 generating a 15-year study prior to PCV13 introduction.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Sónia; Félix, Sofia; Valente, Carina; Simões, Alexandra S; Tavares, Débora A; Almeida, Sónia T; Paulo, Ana C; Brito-Avô, António; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Sá-Leão, Raquel

    2016-03-29

    In Portugal, the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was not introduced in the national immunization plan but was commercially available between 2001 and 2010. We studied serotype distribution and antibiotic susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae carried by children in 2009 and 2010. Vaccination with PCV7 was extracted from children's immunization bulletins and information on recent antimicrobial consumption was obtained through a questionnaire. For comparison, we included data from previous studies conducted since 1996: 1996-1999, 2001-2003, 2006-2007. Pneumococci were isolated from nasopharyngeal samples of 1092 children up to six years old attending day-care in an urban area. Among these, 76% (819/1070) were vaccinated and 62% (677/1092) carried pneumococci. In 2009-2010, serotype replacement was extensive. Carriage of PCV7 serotypes was 4.9% and 5.8%, in 2009 and 2010, respectively, with the majority being of serotype 19F (carried by 4.3% and 4.6% of all participants, respectively). Colonization by serotype 19F was associated with vaccine status (7.7% (19/248) of non-vaccinees vs. 3.5% (29/818) of PCV7-vaccinees, p=0.010). Carriage of serotype 19A was high in 2009 and 2010 (8.6% of all participants) consistent with values already observed in 2007; carriage of serotype 6A was <1% (10/1092), indicating a major decline after 2007 (5.8% or 31/538, p<0.001). Non-vaccine serotypes increased and serotype 6C became the most frequently carried serotype in 2010 (11.2% (54/481)). High-level resistance to penicillin (MIC ≥2mg/L) showed a decreasing trend (p<0.001), whereas resistance to both penicillin and erythromycin increased (p<0.001) and was detected in 15-20% of all isolates in 2009-2010, most of which were non-vaccine serotypes. Antimicrobial use decreased over time (p<0.001). In conclusion, widespread private use of PCV7 has impacted on colonization leading to near elimination of all PCV7 serotypes except for serotype 19F. Antimicrobial consumption

  5. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels among U.S. Youth Aged 12-15 Years: United States, 1999-2004 and 2012

    MedlinePlus

    ... the National Technical Information Service NCHS Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels Among U.S. Youth Aged 12–15 Years: United ... of girls aged 12–15 years had adequate levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. Overall, 42.2% of youth ...

  6. Diversity of bacterial endophytes in 3 and 15 year-old grapevines of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina and their potential for plant growth promotion and phytopathogen control.

    PubMed

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Angelini, Elisa; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    This study represents the first investigation on ecology of endophytic bacteria isolated from 3 and 15 year-old vine stems of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina. The analysis was performed by means of culture-dependent techniques. The obtained results showed that new grapevine endophytic genera are being discovered. Moreover, Bacilli and Actinobacteria are frequently isolated from 3 year-old plants, whereas Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria classes are more prevalent in the 15 year-old plants. Shannon-Wiener (H) index and analysis of rarefaction curves revealed greater genus richness in young grapevine plants. Furthermore, results evidenced an increase of genotypic group number within specific genera (e.g., Rhizobium and Pantoea). Among isolated strains from 3 and 15 year-old stems, respectively, 34 and 39% produce siderophores; 22 and 15% secrete ammonia; 22 and 21% produce indole-3-acetic acid; 8.7 and 41% solubilize phosphate. Besides, two strains isolated from 15 year-old grapevines showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. Antifungal activity analysis evidenced that two Bacillus strains possess growth antagonistic effect toward all the tested fungal strains. Therefore, the present study extends our knowledge of the diversity of the endophytic bacteria by providing new insights into the complexity of the grapevine microbiome. PMID:26805617

  7. A novel periodic boundary condition for computational hemodynamics studies.

    PubMed

    Bahramian, Fereshteh; Mohammadi, Hadi

    2014-07-01

    In computational fluid dynamics models for hemodynamics applications, boundary conditions remain one of the major issues in obtaining accurate fluid flow predictions. For major cardiovascular models, the realistic boundary conditions are not available. In order to address this issue, the whole computational domain needs to be modeled, which is practically impossible. For simulating fully developed turbulent flows using the large eddy simulation and dynamic numerical solution methods, which are very popular in hemodynamics studies, periodic boundary conditions are suitable. This is mainly because the computational domain can be reduced considerably. In this study, a novel periodic boundary condition is proposed, which is based on mass flow condition. The proposed boundary condition is applied on a square duct for the sake of validation. The mass-based condition was shown to obtain the solution in 15% less time. As such, the mass-based condition has two decisive advantages: first, the solution for a given Reynolds number can be obtained in a single simulation because of the direct specification of the mass flow, and second, simulations can be made more quickly. PMID:25015666

  8. The price of a 15-year delay in diagnosis of Sheehan's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Rohan; Buch, Varun; Makwana, Mitesh

    2016-01-01

    We describe a case of a 48-year-old woman who presented with a 15-year history of recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia and hyponatremia leading to altered behavior and generalized seizures. She underwent full clinical assessment, endocrine tests, and a pituitary magnetic resonance scan that showed pananterior hypopituitarism secondary to postpartum pituitary necrosis (Sheehan's syndrome). She was commenced on appropriate hormone replacement therapy, which led to significant improvement in lethargy, anorexia, muscle weakness, and episodes of hypoglycemia. In addition to the alleviation of her physical symptoms, she experienced a significant improvement in her psychological well-being and reduction in hospital visits. This case illustrates the impact of delay in diagnosis of an easily treatable medical condition and its socioeconomic implications, especially for the population of a developing country like India. PMID:27034575

  9. Pelvic osteomyelitis in a 15-year-old girl: case report.

    PubMed

    Tural Kara, Tugce; Ozdemir, Halil; Fitoz, Suat; Ciftci, Ergin; Ince, Erdal

    2016-10-01

    Pelvic osteomyelitis is a rare infection. Ilium, ischium, pubis and acetabulum are commonly affected sites. Pelvic radiography, pelvic magnetic resonance and scintigraphy are useful imaging techniques for diagnosis. However, diagnoses should be confirmed with bone biopsy from the lesion. Sometimes diagnosis is delayed because of deep localization of infection site. Here in, we report a 15-year-old girl with left groin pain who was diagnosed as pelvic osteomyelitis one month after initial symptoms. Patient was successfully treated with antibiotics for 8 weeks. In conclusion, although pelvic osteomyelitis is an unusual infection in childhood, it should be considered as differential diagnoses of pain in groin, hips, thigh, abdomen and spine. If diagnosis is suspicious, empiric treatment should be started quickly, because it will be possible to achieve satisfactory clinical results with effective treatment. PMID:27606666

  10. 15-Year blast furnace campaign concept for the reline of blast furnace C at Iscor

    SciTech Connect

    Noska, T.G.L.

    1995-07-01

    Since the 1970`s, when blast furnace campaigns of 3 to 5 years were experienced at the Vanderbijlpark Works, consequent improvements of cooling and refractory concepts as well as the development of a hot guniting practice for belly and lower shaft resulted in campaigns of 10 years and more. Having mastered the problems in belly and lower shaft, the furnace hearth became the ultimate limit and two hearth breakouts were experienced in the last 5 years in South Africa. After analyzing the causes for these breakouts, the requirements for a hearth refractory design, aimed at a 15-year plus campaign life, were formulated. A refractory design concept, which satisfies these requirements were developed based on European, American and Japanese philosophies.

  11. [Treatment of patients with clinical stage III and IV nonseminomas-- 15 years' experience].

    PubMed

    Base, J

    1991-12-01

    At the Urological Clinic in Hradec Králové in 1975-1989 a total of 182 patients with germ cell tumours of the testis--nonseminomas were treated. Of these patients 37 were in stage III-IV (20%). In 27 (72.9%) initial chemotherapy was administered, since 1980 combined with cisplatinum, as outlined. In 20 patients also revision of retroperitoneal nodes (54%) was made, to 19 patients adjuvant chemotherapy was administered (5th and 6th cycle). In 12 patients irradiation was indicated (32.4%). Histological examination of the preparation removed from the retroperitoneum was implemented in 15 patients: in four a vital tumour was revealed, in two a mature teratoma and in nine fibrosis or necrosis of a metastatic tumour was found. In seven patient a relapse of the disease occurred, 14 patients survive for 1-15 years. Twenty-three patients died. PMID:1822636

  12. Fulminant limb and retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis in a 15-year-old girl with Fanconi anaemia.

    PubMed

    O'Regan, Kevin; O'Mahony, Edward; MacEneaney, Peter; Fitzgerald, Edward; Maher, Michael M

    2009-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon soft-tissue infection in children that carries a high mortality rate. We present a 15-year-old girl with chronic pancytopenia secondary to Fanconi anaemia who developed extensive NF of the lower limb, which unfortunately resulted in a fatal outcome. Immunodeficiency is a known risk factor for the development of this condition. The findings in this case demonstrate that patients with Fanconi anaemia may be susceptible to NF and that the clinical course may be more aggressive due to underlying immunosuppression. Prompt diagnosis of NF is vital in order to initiate appropriate treatment and to optimize patient outcome. Radiological investigation demonstrated extensive soft-tissue gas and destruction affecting the entire lower limb, abdominal wall and retroperitoneum, which led to timely definitive diagnosis and management. PMID:19547962

  13. Mosquito Surveillance for 15 Years Reveals High Genetic Diversity Among West Nile Viruses in Israel.

    PubMed

    Lustig, Yaniv; Hindiyeh, Musa; Orshan, Laor; Weiss, Leah; Koren, Ravit; Katz-Likvornik, Shiri; Zadka, Hila; Glatman-Freedman, Aharona; Mendelson, Ella; Shulman, Lester M

    2016-04-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) is endemic in Israel and has been the cause of several outbreaks in recent years. In 2000, a countrywide mosquito survey was established to monitor WNV activity and characterize viral genotypes in Israel. We analyzed data from 7135 pools containing 277 186 mosquitoes collected over the past 15 years and, here, report partial sequences of WNV genomes obtained from 102 of the 336 positive mosquito pools. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that cluster 4 and the Mediterranean and Eastern European subtypes of cluster 2 within WNV lineage 1 circulated in Israel, as did WNV lineage 2, highlighting a high genetic diversity of WNV genotypes in our region. As a major crossroads for bird migration between Africa and Eurasia and with a long history of human infection, Israel serves as a resource hub for WNV in Africa and Eurasia and provides valuable information on WNV circulation in these regions. PMID:26597260

  14. A 15-year-old girl with fever and abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Molly; Patel DeZure, Chandani; Cordova, Jonathan; Lo, Andrea; Azzam, Ruba

    2015-03-01

    We present a case of a previously healthy 15-year-old girl with fever, right lower quadrant pain, and hip pain. Her history was notable for a recent laparoscopic appendectomy that was complicated by the development of intraabdominal abscesses. She reported normal bowel movements and good appetite on a regular diet, although she did endorse a recent 5-kg weight loss. Further investigation and examination revealed a diagnosis of Crohn's disease with recurrent psoas muscle abscess as the etiology of her pain and fevers. Psoas abscess is a rare complication of Crohn's disease, and vague presenting symptoms may complicate its diagnosis. This case demonstrates the importance of maintaining a broad differential diagnosis when treating a child presenting with abdominal pain and fever. PMID:25806729

  15. A 15-year-old Girl with an Asymmetric Hemitruncal Fat Distribution: Hemihyperthrophy or Hemiatrophy?

    PubMed Central

    van der Velpen, Inge; van Pinxteren-Nagler, Evelyn; Mouës-Vink, Chantal M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: A 15-year-old girl presented to the pediatrician with complaints of excessive fat distribution on the right side and breast asymmetry. At age 2, she had undergone a left-sided nephrectomy because of a stage III Wilms tumor using a transverse cut supraumbilical approach, followed by systemic chemotherapy and local radiotherapy. In the case of trunk asymmetry, it is questionable which side is deviant. The asymmetry may be an expression of isolated hemihyperthrophy, syndromal hemihypertrophy related to the Wilms tumor, or an expression of left-sided hemiatrophy as a late consequence of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or surgery. Late clinical manifestations of childhood cancer treatment are difficult to distinguish from other independent diseases but must be considered as explanations for new onset of symptoms in adolescents. PMID:27200246

  16. The integration of visual context information in facial emotion recognition in 5- to 15-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Theurel, Anne; Witt, Arnaud; Malsert, Jennifer; Lejeune, Fleur; Fiorentini, Chiara; Barisnikov, Koviljka; Gentaz, Edouard

    2016-10-01

    The current study investigated the role of congruent visual context information in the recognition of facial emotional expression in 190 participants from 5 to 15years of age. Children performed a matching task that presented pictures with different facial emotional expressions (anger, disgust, happiness, fear, and sadness) in two conditions: with and without a visual context. The results showed that emotions presented with visual context information were recognized more accurately than those presented in the absence of visual context. The context effect remained steady with age but varied according to the emotion presented and the gender of participants. The findings demonstrated for the first time that children from the age of 5years are able to integrate facial expression and visual context information, and this integration improves facial emotion recognition. PMID:27367301

  17. Assessment of Dental Maturity of Children Aged 7-15 Years Using Demirjian Method in a Selected Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Abesi, F; Haghanifar, S; Sajadi, P; Valizadeh, A; Khafri, S

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problems: Dental age can be estimated on the basis of the tooth mineralization level during the developmental process of the teeth. Among various radiological methods reported for the dental age determination in children, Demirjian method is widely used. Purpose: To evaluate the applicability of Demirjian method in age estimation of the children aged 7-15 years in Babol, a northern city of Iran. Materials and Method: A cross sectional study was performed on the panoramic radiographs of 168 individuals with 7-15 years old. Maturation of the seven permanent teeth on the left side of the mandible was determined according to the crown and root development stages; described by Demirjian method. The mean of the dental age (DA) according to the Demirjian was compared to the mean of chronological age (CA). Data were collected and analyzed using SPSS, V18. P-values<0.05 were considered significance. Results: The mean and the SD of CA was 11.06±2.29 (boys: 11.08±2.31, girls: 11.03±2.28). The mean and the SD of DA was 11.44±2.85 (boys: 11.81±2.93, girls: 11.08±2.73) and the mean and the SD of DA minus CA for all of the children were 0.38±1.24 (boys: 0.72±1.2, girls: 0.05±1.21). Also, t-Test analysis showed the differences of the mean value of the estimated - chronological age difference was statistically significant between the boys and the girls group (p< 0.001). Conclusion: Considering the determined differences between estimated dental age and chronological age in this study; Demirjian method can be applicable for estimation of dental age in girls and boys before their puberty in northern of Iran. PMID:24724140

  18. Antibiotic prescribing of village doctors for children under 15 years with upper respiratory tract infections in rural China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhixia; Zhan, Xingxin; Zhou, Hongjun; Sun, Fang; Zhang, Heng; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Liu, Qian; Li, Yingxue; Yan, Weirong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of village doctors regarding the prescribing of antibiotics for children under 15 years with upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in rural China. Twelve focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Xianning, a prefecture-level city in rural China, during December 2014. We conducted 6 FGDs with 35 village doctors, 3 with 13 primary caregivers (11 parents), and 3 with 17 directors of township hospitals, county-level health bureaus, county-level Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or county-level Chinese Food and Drug Administration offices. Audio records of the interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using the thematic analysis approach. Participants believed that unnecessary antibiotic prescribing for children under 15 years with The occurrence of URTIs was a problem in village clinics in rural China. The discussions revealed that most of the village doctors had inadequate knowledge and misconceptions about antibiotic use, which was an important factor in the unnecessary prescribing. Village doctors and directors reported that the doctors’ fear of complications, the primary caregivers’ pressure for antibiotic treatment, and the financial considerations of patient retention were the main factors influencing the decision to prescribe antibiotics. Most of the primary caregivers insisted on antibiotics, even when the village doctors were reluctant to prescribe them, and they preferred to go to see those village doctors who prescribed antibiotics. The interviewees also gave their opinions on what would be the most effective measures for optimizing antibiotic prescriptions; these included educational/training campaigns, strict regulations on antibiotic prescription, and improved supervision. Findings emphasized the need to improve the dissemination of information and training/education, and implement legislation on the rational use of antibiotics. And it

  19. Experimental study of periodic flow effects on spanwise vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Molina, Cruz Daniel; Lopez Sanchez, Erick Javier; Ruiz Chavarria, Gerardo; Medina Ovando, Abraham

    2014-11-01

    We present an experimental study about the spanwise vortex produced in a flow going out of a channel in shallow waters. This vortex travels in front of the dipole. The velocity field measurement was done using the PIV technique, and DPIVsoft (https://www.irphe.fr/ ~meunier/) was used for data processing. In this case the flow has a periodic forcing to simulate ocean tides. The experiment was conducted in a channel with variable width and the measurements were made using three different values of the aspect ratio width-depth. We present results of the position, circulation of this spanwise vortex and the flow inversion effect. The change of flow direction modify the intensity of the vortex, but it does not destroy it. The vertical components of the velocity field contributes particle transport. G. Ruiz Chavarria, E. J. Lopez Sanchez and C. D. Garcia Molina acknowledge DGAPA-UNAM by support under project IN 116312 (Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos).

  20. Studies of the Lower Ionosphere using Artificial Periodic Irregularities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhmetieva, Nataliya V.; Egerev, Mikhael N.; Tolmacheva, Ariadna V.; Vyakhirev, Valeriy D.

    Artificial periodic irregularities (API) created in the ionosphere plasma are used for the iono-sphere diagnostics. We present a new applications of API technique for experimental studies of the electron density in the lower ionosphere, atmospheric waves and sporadic E-layers. The applications are based on the new so-called two-frequency method of the API creation. The main results of the ionosphere studies carried out in 2006-2009 by the API technique using SURA heating facility are presented. API are formed in the field of a powerful standing radio wave produced by interference of the incident wave and reflected one by the ionosphere (V.V. Belikovich, E.A. Benediktov, N.V. Bakhmet'eva, A.V. Tolmacheva, Ionospheric Research by Means of Artificial Periodic Irregularities-Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany. 2002. Copernicus GmbH. ISBN 3-936586-03-9). The spatial period of the irregular structure is equal to the standing wavelength Λ or the one-half the powerful wavelength λ/2. Ionosphere diagnostics is carried out in the API relaxation (or decay) stage by their sounding of probing radio pulses. The two frequency method bases upon the API creation and the scattering of the probe waves from API at two different frequencies i.e., having different spatial periods of the quasi periodic struc-ture. In the E -region of the ionosphere API are formed as a result of the diffusion redistribution of the ionosphere plasma in the field of the powerful wave. Relaxation of the periodic structure is specified by the ambipolar diffusion process. The API relaxation time is τ = (K 2 Da )-1 where K = 2π/Λ and Da is the ambipolar diffusion rate. It means that API having different spatial scales destroys with different time scales τ . The API spatial scale depends on the refractive in-dex n that is determined by the electron density N. It is shown the ratio of API relaxation times θ at two frequencies f1 and f2 , measured at the same heights, is connected with the frequencies ratio and the

  1. 15 Years of Ocean Education and Outreach Activities by the College of Exploration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuddenham, P.; Bishop, K.

    2012-04-01

    Since 1997 the College of Exploration has created ocean related interactive and engaging online and onsite education and outreach programs that have reached over 15,000 particpants in over 30 countries. Partners and funders have included in the USA the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF), National Geographic, and many others. In the UK the Natural Environment Research Council and the National Oceanography Center, and in Europe Portugal's Ciencia Viva. The first online and onsite program was in partnership with the now Bermuda Institute for Ocean Sciences. With funding from NSF the project took the online Bermuda Atlanic Time Series (BATS) dataset and made it more accessible to teachers and students in a custom spreadsheet with easier to use macros and graphs. Online training and workshops helped teachers learn more about using BATS in the classroom. The next project in 1998 in partnership with the University of Southern California Sea Grant was an online workshop on El Nino. This was one of the first teacher professional development projecs offered online. Scientists with expertise in El Nino were able to meet and discuss with teachers. Over the past 15 years there have numerous programs, workshops and activities on topics such as Autosub Under Ice, Ocean Exploration then,now and the future, Ocean Observing Systems, Harmful Algal Blooms, Coral Reefs, and much more. These will be summarized. Every activity has been evaluated and assessed. The cumulative results of these evaluations will be presented along with the results of a recent survey of all participants over the past 15 years. Since 2002 the College of Exploration has played a key role in the development and promotion of the Ocean Literacy campaign, an effort to bring innovative approaches to promoting the ocean in K-12 education as well integrating the ocean into national standards and curriculum and promoting the ocean to the general public. A

  2. Studying Short-Period Comets and Long-Period Comets Detected by WISE/NEOWISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Emily A.; Fernández, Yanga R.; Bauer, James M.; Stevenson, Rachel; Mainzer, Amy K.; Grav, Tommy; Masiero, Joseph; Walker, Russell G.; Lisse, Carey M.

    2014-11-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission surveyed the sky in four infrared wavelength bands (3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22-micron) between January 2010 and February 2011 [1, 2]. During the mission, WISE serendipitously observed 160 comets, including 21 newly discovered objects. About 89 of the comets observed by WISE displayed a significant dust tail in the 12 and 22-micron (thermal emission) bands, showing a wide range of activity levels and dust morphology. Since the observed objects are a mix of both long-period comets (LPCs) and short-period comets (SPCs), differences in their activity can be used to better understand the thermal evolution that each of these populations has undergone. For the comets that displayed a significant dust tail, we have estimated the sizes and ages of the particles using dynamical models based on the Finson-Probstein method [3, 4]. For a selection of 40 comets, we have then compared these models to the data using a novel tail-fitting method that allows the best-fit model to be chosen analytically rather than subjectively. For comets that were observed multiple times by WISE, the dust tail particle properties were estimated separately, and then compared. We find that the dust tails of both LPCs and SPCs are primarily comprised of ~mm to cm sized particles, which were the result of emission that occurred several months to several years prior to the observations. The LPCs nearly all have strong dust emission close to the comet's perihelion distance, and the SPCs mostly have strong dust emission close to perihelion, but some have strong dust emission well before perihelion. Acknowledgments: This publication makes use of data products from (1) WISE, which is a joint project of UCLA and JPL/Caltech, funded by NASA; and (2) NEOWISE, which is a project of JPL/Caltech, funded by the Planetary Science Division of NASA. EK was supported by a NASA Earth and Space Sciences Fellowship. RS gratefully acknowledges support from the NASA

  3. [The paternal constellation: a pilot study in prenatal period.].

    PubMed

    Cupa, D; Riazuelo-Deschamps, H

    2001-01-01

    In a research where the authors had argued that some maternal prenatal representations concerning the infant had a decisive impact on precocious interactions (Cupa et al., 1992), they have asked in parallel, what was the weight on these very same interactions of paternal representations during pregnancy, knowing that in this specific period psychic reorganization of the father are profound (Bouchard-Godard, 1976; Cupa et al., 1997). If, in the intertwining of the two theoretical fields where the authors situate their work, being that of psychoanalysis and developmental psychology, there is a an important literature on the father, results and contribution allow to appreciate the impact of studies on the father during pregnancy and present theoretical points of reference of the authors' hypotheses. The presentation of the following study is that of a comparative longitudinal research carried out from the 7th month of pregnancy to 9 months after birth. It appeared indeed to the authors that in order to explore simultaneously the two representational universes and to observe the effects on the triadic interactions, this type of methodology was the most relevant. The results proposed in the last part, only concern the analysis of paternal representations. PMID:18253593

  4. 15 years slow deformation in and around Lake Vänern (SW Sweden) deduced from repeated GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilfouroushan, Faramarz; Hodacs, Peter; Talbot, Christopher; Koyi, Hemin; Sjöberg, Lars

    2013-04-01

    In this contribution, we present the new geodetic velocity and strain rate fields obtained from GPS surveys around Lake Vänern in southwestern Sweden during the period 1997-2012. The lake Vänern is a graben bounded to the east and west by main N-S striking faults, whereas ENE-WSW striking faults define its northern and southern boundaries. The Värmland GPS network, was setup to monitor the ongoing slow deformation in and around this lake due to tectonic and Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) processes in Fennoscandia. This network straddles the Protogine and the Mylonite zones and covers one of the most active seismic zones of Sweden. We use GAMIT-GLOBK software to process the past GPS data, collected in October 1997, and the new GPS data, collected in October 2010, 2011 and 2012. We also integrate our local network with the SWEPOS (Swedish Permanent GPS network) and IGS (International GNSS Service) stations to better constrain the velocity fields in ITRF2008 and Eurasia-fixed reference frames. The preliminary results obtained from campaign-mode measurements between 1997 and 2011 shows that the eastern part of the network, located on the eastern side of the NS trending Mylonite zone, is deforming relatively faster than the western part. In the eastern part, the overall extensional components trending NW-SE with local variations are observed. To constrain better these preliminary results, we will add the new campaign data collected in October 2012 to the 1997-2011 solutions and present new deformation maps. The 15 years long observation period (1997-2012) can better constrain sub-mm/yr horizontal crustal shortening or extension rates in Sweden, more specifically around Lake Vänern.

  5. Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Poterico, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15–49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children <5y. We employed the WHO BMI-age standardized curves for teenagers between 15–19y. In women >19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Results We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001), wasting (p<0.001), and stunting (p<0.001) in children under 5y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001), however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%). Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001); with higher reduction in urban (↓43%) than in rural children (↓24%). BMI in women aged 15–19 years increased (p<0.001) across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19y. Conclusion Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions—undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia—considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies

  6. Nonossifying fibroma (metaphyseal fibrous defect) of the mandible in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Mannan, Abul Ala; Singh, N Gopendro; Al-Waheeb, Salah; Taher, Taher N; Mohammed, Emad El Din El Din

    2015-06-01

    We describe a rare case of nonossifying fibroma of the mandible in a 15-year-old boy who presented with a left mandibular swelling. Conventional imaging showed an expansile radiolucent lesion involving the angle and the body of the left mandible. The lesion was curetted, and a miniplate was implanted at the excision site. Microscopic examination of the removed specimen revealed a cellular lesion characterized by a proliferation of uniform spindle-shaped cells in a vague but prominent storiform pattern, which represented the classic appearance of nonossifying fibroma. Three months later, radiography detected a fracture of the implantation plate. The area was re-explored with curettage of the soft tissue, which on microscopy demonstrated findings similar to the initial curettage findings. Follow-up radiology revealed satisfactory healing of the jaw, and no further recurrence was seen 2 years after the initial surgery. We present this case to highlight the importance of recognizing nonossifying fibroma in the mandible, which can be easily confused with more common mandibular lesions. PMID:26053991

  7. Analysis of Seismic Activity of the last 15 Years Nearby Puerto Rico and Caribbean Region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Torres-Ortíz, D. M.; Fernández-Heredia, A. I.; Martínez-Cruzado, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    An earthquake catalog of the seismicity occurred during the last 15 years in the Caribbean region, nearby the vicinity of Puerto Rico Island (PRI) was compiled in order to capture the big picture of the regional seismic activity ratio and in particular at the epicentral regions of several historical and instrumentally recorded (during 2008-20015) large to moderate magnitude earthquakes occurred nearby PRI in onshore and offshore, which include the M6.4 earthquake of 01/13/2014, the largest earthquake recorded instrumentally nearby PRI. From the point of view of joint temporal-spatial distribution of epicenters, episodic temporal-spatial seismic activity is clearly seen as temporal-spatial concentrations during certain time intervals in different regions. These localized concentrations of epicenters that occur during certain time intervals in well localized/concentrated regions may suggest "seismic gaps" that shows no regular time interval, neither spatial pattern. In the epicentral region of the M6.4 01/13/2014 earthquake and the historical Mona Passage M7.5 earthquake of 10/11/1918, episodic concentrations in time and space of small magnitude earthquakes epicenters is evident, however do not show temporal pattern. Preliminary results of statistical analysis of an ongoing research in terms of the parameter b (Gutenberg-Richter relationship), and the Omori's law with the aim to relate the tectonic framework of the region (or sub-regions) such as structural heterogeneity stress are here presented/discussed.

  8. Corneal Thickness Profile and Associations in Chinese Children Aged 7 to 15 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingyan; Zhu, Xiaofeng; He, Xiangui; Lu, Lina; Zhu, Jianfeng; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Corneal thickness (CT) maps of the central (2-mm diameter), para-central (2 to 5-mm diameter), peripheral (5 to 6-mm diameter), and minimum (5-mm diameter) cornea were measured in normal Chinese school children aged 7 to 15 years old using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Multiple regression analyses were performed to explore the effect of associated factors [age, gender, refraction, axial length and corneal curvature radius (CCR)] on CT and the relationship between central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP). A total of 1228 eyes from 614 children were analyzed. The average CCT was 532.96 ± 28.33 μm for right eyes and 532.70 ±28.45 μm for left eyes. With a 10 μm increase in CCT, the IOP was elevated by 0.37 mm Hg, as measured by noncontact tonometry. The CT increased gradually from the center to the periphery. The superior and superior nasal regions had the thickest CTs, while the thinnest points were primarily located in the inferior temporal cornea. The CCT was associated with CCR (p = 0.008) but not with gender (p = 0.075), age (p = 0.286), axial length (p = 0.405), or refraction (p = 0.985). In the para-central region and the peripheral cornea, increased CT was associated with younger age, male gender, and a flatter cornea. PMID:26751798

  9. Decompressive craniectomy and early cranioplasty in a 15-year-old boy with N. meningitidis meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Hoehne, Julius; Friedrich, Monika; Brawanski, Alexander; Melter, Michael; Schebesch, Karl-Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intracranial hypertension is a well-known life-threatening complication of bacterial meningitis. Investigations on decompressive craniectomy after failure of conservative management are scarce, but this surgical treatment should be considered and performed expeditiously, as it lowers the intracranial pressure and improves brain tissue oxygenation. Early cranioplasty can further aid the rehabilitation. Case Description: A 15-year-old boy was admitted to our emergency department because of sudden onset of neurologic decline and consecutive loss of consciousness. Clinical examination and imaging showed elevated intracranial pressure, leading to the suspected diagnosis of meningitis. Intracranial pressure monitoring was installed, but the initiated conservative management failed. Finally, the patient underwent bilateral decompressive craniectomy. The microbiological test showed growth of Neisseria meningitidis. After full neurologic recovery, cranioplasty with two CAD/CAM titanium implants was conducted successfully. Conclusions: This unique report shows that decompressive craniotomy with duroplasty may be a crucial therapeutic approach in bacterial meningitis with refractory increased intracranial pressure and brainstem compression. Early cranioplasty with a patient-specific implant allowed the early and full reintegration of the patient. PMID:25883850

  10. The ABJS Nicolas Andry Award: Tissue engineering of bone and ligament: a 15-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Laurencin, Cato T; Khan, Yusuf; Kofron, Michele; El-Amin, Saadiq; Botchwey, Edward; Yu, Xiaojun; Cooper, James A

    2006-06-01

    Musculoskeletal repair is a major challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. The burden of repair is compounded by supply constraints and morbidity associated with autograft and allograft tissue. We report 15 years of research regarding tissue engineering and biological substitutes for bone and ligaments. Our approach has focused on biomaterial selection, scaffold development, cell selection, cell/material interaction, and growth factor delivery. We have extensively tested poly(ester), poly(anhydride), poly(phosphazene) derivatives, and composite materials using biocompatibility, degradation, and mechanical analyses for bone and ligament tissue engineering. We have developed novel three-dimensional matrices with a pore structure and mechanical properties similar to native tissue. We also have reported on the attachment, growth, proliferation, and differentiation of cells cultured on several scaffolds. Through extensive molecular analysis, in vitro culture condition analysis, and in vivo evaluation, our findings provide new methods of bone tissue regeneration using three-dimensional tissue engineered scaffolds, bioactive bone cement composite materials, and three-dimensional tissue engineered scaffolds for ligament regeneration. PMID:16741478

  11. Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994): in memoriam, 15 years later.

    PubMed

    Notturno, Mark Amadeus

    2009-12-01

    September 17th, 2009 marks the 15th anniversary of Sir Karl Popper's death. Popper was an outspoken champion of critical rationalism, and a constant critic of authoritarian tendencies in science and society. He was also one of the spiritual founders of this journal and served on its first editorial advisory board. Popper was recognized around the world as one of the 20th century's greatest philosophers of science and one of its most articulate and influential critics of Marxism and closed society. When he died, the contemporary wisdom among professional philosophers was that his philosophy was generally right-but somehow obsolete. Some commentators said that it was now obvious that scientific theories cannot be shown to be true. Others said that we had witnessed the end of history and that his critique of closed societies, while no doubt important in its day, had been fully assimilated into Western thinking and still had meaning, if at all, only for the democracies in transition that were trying to emerge from the former Soviet Union. But 15 years after his death, a look at science and society around the world gives us good reason to remember his philosophy. PMID:19819080

  12. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Kakugawa, Tomoyuki; Mukae, Hiroshi; Nagata, Towako; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kaida, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Suematsu, Takashi; Kadota, Jun-ichi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2002-11-01

    Giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) is a very uncommon respiratory disease. We report a juvenile patient with GIP aged 15 years. Although he has a negative past history of direct exposure to hard metals, we could not exclude possible exposure in very small amounts through his parents. Microscopic examination of lung biopsy specimen obtained by video-assisted thoracoscopy revealed marked cellular interstitial infiltrates and prominent intraalveolar macrophages as well as giant cells showing cellular cannibalism. Analysis of the biopsied lung tissue for cobalt and tungsten was negative. Clinical symptoms, laboratory, and radiological findings improved markedly after treatment with corticosteroids. To our knowledge, only eleven cases of GIP have been reported in Japan. Although possible exposure to hard metals was identified in 9 of the 11 reported cases, there is no clear dose-dependent relationship with onset and prognosis. The average age at onset was 46.2+/-15.0 years. Our patient is the youngest case of GIP reported in the world. PMID:12487179

  13. Caustic Agent Ingestion by a 1.5-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Gharib, Behdad; Mohammadpour, Masoud; Yaghmaie, Bahareh; Sharifzadeh, Meisam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad; Zamani, Fatemeh; Edalatkhah, Rouhollah; Mohsenipour, Reihaneh

    2016-07-01

    We present a case of caustic ingestion by a 1.5-year-old boy. The caustic agent was drain opener which is a strong alkaline substance. Children in Iran and many other countries are still exposed to not "child proof" (child resistant packaging) toxic substance containers. Ingestion of caustic agents may lead to necrosis, perforation, and strictures. Substances that are ingested more frequently are liquid alkali material which causes severe, deep liquefaction necrosis. Common signs and symptoms of caustic agents are vomiting, drooling, refusal to drink, oral burns, stridor, hematemesis, dyspnea, dysphagia and abdominal pain. Even if no oropharyngeal lesion is seen, a significant esophageal injury which can lead to perforation and stricture cannot be ruled out. If abdominal pain or rigidity, substernal, chest or back pain exists, visceral perforation should be considered. The first thing to be checked is airway assessment. A lot of patients should be admitted to intensive care unit, and endoscopic evaluation, surgical intervention, long-term hospitalization, and worsening quality of life or among the complications. Preventive measures especially at the country level and approving proper legislation for obligating the related industries to produce child proof containers for house hold toxic products are the urgent measures to be followed by all of us. PMID:27424019

  14. Survey of Neurological Disorders in Children Aged 9-15 Years in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rashmi; Bhave, Anupama; Bhargava, Roli; Agarwal, G G

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of neurological disorders in resource-poor settings, although likely to be high, is largely unexplored. The prevalence and risk factors for neurological disorders, including epilepsy and intellectual, motor, vision, and hearing deficits, in children aged 9 to 15 years in the community were investigated. A new instrument was developed, validated, and used in a 2-stage community survey for neurological disorders in Lucknow, India. Screen-positives and random proportion of screen-negatives were validated using predefined criteria. Prevalence of different neurological disorders was calculated by weighted proportions. Of 6431 children screened, 221 were positive. A total of 214 screen-positives and 251 screen-negatives were validated. Prevalence of neurological disorders was 31.3 per 1000 children of this age group (weighted 95% confidence interval = 16.5, 46.4). The final model for risk factors included age, mud house, delayed cry at birth, and previous head injury. The prevalence of neurological disorders is high in this region. Predictors of neurological disorders are largely modifiable. PMID:26428662

  15. Dental Caries Prevalence among 12–15 Year Old Palestinian Children

    PubMed Central

    Mahfouz, Maen; Abu Esaid, Albina

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To measure the distribution of dental caries in a group of Palestinian adolescents. Material and Methods. A sample of 677 individuals of both sexes (411 were females and 266 were males) their ages ranged from 12 to 15 year old randomly selected from schools in northern west bank in Palestine. Clinical examination was performed on all the subjects focusing on the index DMFT, representing the number of teeth that were either decayed, missing or with extraction indicated, or restored. Results. The prevalence of dental caries in the permanent dentition was 54.35% and was the highest in 15 age 75.75% in comparison to the other ages (12, 13, and 14) (40.57%, 41.76%, and 60.47%), respectively. The mean DMFT for the sample was 5.39 ± 2.85525 while the mean DMFT for different age groups (12–15) was 5.52 ± 2.766, 5.58 ± 2.745, 5.23 ± 3.304, and 5.23 ± 2.606, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries was higher in females with DMFT 5.39 ± 2.854 than males with DMFT 5.26 ± 2.891. Conclusion. High prevalent dental caries was found among Palestinian adolescents and higher in females than males. Strict preventive programs should be implemented. Further research with large samples required to include all adolescents from Palestine.

  16. Exposure to secondhand smoke among students aged 13-15 years--worldwide, 2000-2007.

    PubMed

    2007-05-25

    Breathing secondhand smoke (SHS) causes heart disease and lung cancer in adults and increased risks for sudden infant death syndrome, acute respiratory infections, middle-ear disease, worsened asthma, respiratory symptoms, and slowed lung growth in children. No risk-free level of exposure to SHS exists. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), initiated in 1999 by the World Health Organization (WHO), the Canadian Public Health Association, and CDC includes questions related to tobacco use, including exposure to SHS. This report examines data collected from 137 jurisdictions (i.e., countries and territories) during 2000-2007, presents estimates of exposure to SHS at home and in places other than the home among students aged 13-15 years who had never smoked, and examines the association between exposure to SHS and susceptibility to initiating smoking. GYTS data indicated that nearly half of never smokers were exposed to SHS at home (46.8%), and a similar percentage were exposed in places other than the home (47.8%). Never smokers exposed to SHS at home were 1.4-2.1 times more likely to be susceptible to initiating smoking than those not exposed. Students exposed to SHS in places other than the home were 1.3-1.8 times more likely to be susceptible to initiating smoking than those not exposed. As part of their comprehensive tobacco-control programs, countries should take measures to create smoke-free environments in all indoor public places and workplaces. PMID:17522587

  17. 15 Years of Oceanography in the Azores: From Oceanographic Cruises to an Integrated Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juliano, M. F.; Alves, M.; Simões, A.; Rodeia, J.

    2006-07-01

    Oceanographic research in the Azores has only started 15 years ago. Nevertheless, it has been possible to evolve from the typical "research cruise approach" to a more versatile and integrated approach, that has proofed to be further rewarding and adequate for the size and resources of the group. The Azorean Oceanographers have participated and conducted several research cruises since 1990, and anticipating the importance of correlating in situ data with satellite data has lead us to plan the last of these, so that there was a coincidence of transects, moorings and satellite ground tracks. On the other hand, the group has invested in data processing and merging hydrological historical data with the results from the above mentioned oceanographic cruises, creating a hydrological database for the whole Atlantic Ocean. Also, through the application of a novel methodology and approach, the group has contributed to a new vision of the currents systems in the South Atlantic Ocean, namely with the newly found St. Helena Current, the congener of the Azores Current. As a result of this continued shift in methodology, the group is now using an integrated approach where field data, model output and processed altimeter data are merged to produce operational oceanography products, such as sea state charts and daily oceanic current charts.

  18. Ozone crisis: The 15 year evolution of a sudden global emergency

    SciTech Connect

    Roan, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    Sharon L. Roan, a science journalist, has written an informative and insightful account of how stratospheric ozone depletion has come to be recognized as a global environmental issue of critical importance. Starting with the analytical work of Rowland and Molina in the early 1970s - their findings first identified chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) release as a threat to the ozone layer - Roan traces in a lively and highly readable fashion the ensuing 15 years of scientific research and debate, political controversy, industrial skepticism and tactics, and, finally, a reasonable degree of international consensus. The author recounts some of the milestones in the ozone story, with settings as varied as university laboratories, industrial meetings, congressional hearings, scientific expeditions to the Antarctic and Arctic, and the series of international negotiating sessions culminating in the Montreal Protocol in 1987. But, as Roan states, the ozone issue remains very much unfinished; even the 50-percent CFC reduction mandated by the Montreal agreement is believed to be wholly inadequate now. Evidence of a more rapid ozone depletion than was earlier estimated suggests that a total CFC ban is the only defensible response. Dealing with the economic burden such a ban may impose on poor countries is a policy challenge that will also confront the United States if we restrict carbon dioxide emissions to mitigate greenhouse warming.

  19. DNA analysis of neonatal human remains wrapped and kept in a vinyl bag for 15 years.

    PubMed

    Minaguchi, Kiyoshi; Hanaoka, Yoichi; Maruyama, Sayaka; Nonaka, Iku; Kajiwara, Masahiro; Takagi, Tetsuya; Sato, Yoshinobu

    2003-03-01

    DNA analysis of a newborn baby wrapped and kept in a vinyl bag for 15 years was performed. DNA isolated from the femur and humerus was used to determine the sex and kinship between the infant and the putative parents. Amplification of mtDNA, ABO, HLA, CST3, CST5, VWA, D12S66, D21S11, CSF1PO, TPOX, THO1 and 10Y polymorphisms and the amelogenin gene was carried out. Several mtDNA types were obtained, suggesting that the sample was contaminated by exogenous DNAs. One of the DNA samples obtained from the femur showed an identical mtDNA sequence to that of the mother except for one site, and this pattern was also found in another DNA sample. None of our laboratory personnel had that type, so we thought it was possible that this sample contained the target DNA. However, maternity was denied by the CST3 polymorphism. Finally, we concluded that the sample had been contaminated with exogenous DNA before we started to examine the body. Although it is difficult to determine the sources of this contamination, PCR amplification from highly degraded DNA is very sensitive to such contamination, and we must be even more careful in DNA analysis of such samples than in that of not so severely degraded specimens. PMID:12935584

  20. University of the seas, 15 years of oceanographic schools on board of the Marion Dufresne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaize, Bruno; Deverchere, Jacques; Leau, Hélène; Graindorge, David

    2015-04-01

    Since the first University at Sea, proposed by two French Universities (Brest and Bordeaux) in 1999, the R/V Marion Dufresne, in collaboration with the French Polar institute (IPEV), has welcome 12 oceanographic schools. The main objective of this educational and scientific program is to stimulate the potential interest of highly graduated students in scientific fields dealing with oceanography, and to broaden exchanges with foreign universities, strengthening a pool of excellence at a high international scientific level. It is a unique opportunity for the students to discover and to be involved in the work in progress of collecting scientific data on board of a ship, and to attend international research courses given by scientists involved in the cruise program. They also experience the final task of the scientific work by presenting their own training results, making posters on board, and writing a cruise report. For some University at Sea, students had also updated a daily journal, available on internet, hosted by the main institutions involved (as IPEV or EPOC, Bordeaux University). All this work is done in English, a common language to all the participants. An overview of these 15 years background experience will be presented, underlying the financial supports used, the logistic on board, as well as all the benefits acquiered by all former students, now in permanent positions in different international institutions.

  1. Periodic quantum chemical studies on anhydrous and hydrated acid clinoptilolite.

    PubMed

    Valdiviés Cruz, Karell; Lam, Anabel; Zicovich-Wilson, Claudio M

    2014-08-01

    Periodic quantum chemistry methods as implemented in the crystal09 code were considered to study acid clinoptilolite (HEU framework type), both anhydrous and hydrated. The most probable location of acid sites and water molecules together with other structural details has been the object of particular attention. Calculations were performed at hybrid and pristine DFT levels of theory with a VDZP quality basis set in order to compare performances. It arises that PBE0 provides the best agreement with experimental data as concerns structural features and the most stable Al distribution in the framework. The role of the water molecule distribution in the stability of the systems, the most probable structure that they induce in the material, and their eventual influence on further chemical modification processes, such as dealumination, are discussed in detail. Results show that, apart from the usually considered interactions of water molecules with the zeolite framework, that is, a H-bond with Brönsted acid sites and coordination with framework Al as Lewis ones, it is necessary to consider cooperation of other weaker effects so as to fully understand the hydration effect in this kind of materials. PMID:24730675

  2. Management of the Class III malocclusion treated with maxillary expansion, facemask therapy and corrective orthodontic. A 15-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    de ALMEIDA, Renato Rodrigues; ALESSIO, Luiz Eduardo; de ALMEIDA-PEDRIN, Renata Rodrigues; de ALMEIDA, Marcio Rodrigues; PINZAN, Arnaldo; VIEIRA, Luiz Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    The facial growth of Class III malocclusion worsens with age, in this case, the early orthopedic treatment, providing facial balance, modifying the maxillofacial growth and development. A 7.6-year old boy presented with Class III malocclusion associated with anterior crossbite; the mandible was shifted to the right and the maxilla had a transversal deficiency. Rapid maxillary expansion followed by facemask therapy was performed, to correct the anteroposterior relationship and improve the facial profile. The patient was followed for a 15-year period, after completion of the treatment, and stability was observed. Growing patients should be monitored following their treatment, so as to prevent malocclusion relapse. PMID:25760273

  3. Comparison of anxiety levels associated with noise in the dental clinic among children of age group 6-15 years.

    PubMed

    Muppa, Radhika; Bhupatiraju, Prameela; Duddu, Mahesh; Penumatsa, Narendra Varma; Dandempally, Arthi; Panthula, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Fear or anxiety due to noise produced in the dental clinic is rated third among the reasons to avoid dental visits. The aim of the present study was to determine anxiety levels associated with noise in a dental clinic. The study was done using a survey questionnaire containing 10 questions and was divided into two parts. The first part included demographic information such as name, age, gender, and school; the second half included questions regarding patient's feelings toward noise in the dental clinic and its possible link to dental anxiety. Two-hundred and fifty children and adolescents of age group 6-15 years participated in the study. Results of the study showed that 50% of females, 29% males avoided a visit to the dentist because of anxiety and fear, 38% subjects of age group 6-11 years reported that sound of the drill makes them uncomfortable, followed by having to wait in the reception area. Gender gap was also observed with more females feeling annoyed than males on the 1-10 annoyance level scale. More than 60% felt "annoyed" to "extremely annoyed" by noise in the dental clinic. 45% of subjects preferred watching television to cope with such noise. This study concludes that the noise produced in dental clinic is anxiety provoking and significantly contributes to avoidance of dental treatment and the best way opted by the majority of subjects to overcome this anxiety was audiovisual distraction method. PMID:23689302

  4. CCD Photometric Study and Period Investigation of AH Tauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Fu-Yuan; Xiao, Ting-Yu; Yu, Yun-Xia

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we present new CCD photometric observations of AH Tauri in the R band observed in 2006 at the Yunnan Observatory. Two new times of light minima were derived from these observations. We modeled the light curves using the 2003 version of the Wilson-Devinney program. The results show that the variations of the light curves can be expained by a cool spot on the primary star. The fill-out factor is about 6.6%, indicating that AH Tauri is a shallow-contact system. The mass ratio was determined to be about 0.505. In addition, the orbital period variations of AH Tauri were investigated based on all of the photoelectric and CCD light minimum times, including our two new data. It was found that the orbital period exhibits a possible periodic variation with a period of {P}{mod}=54.62\\(+/- 0.20) years and a secular period decrease of {dP}/{dt}=-(1.823+/- 0.215)× {10}-7 {days} {{yr}}-1. Since AH Tauri is an overcontact solar-like system, we discuss three mechanisms of the mass transfer, the light-time effect of the third body, and magnetic activity responsible for the orbital period changes.

  5. Quasi-periodic VLF emissions with short-period modulation and their relationship to whistlers: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titova, Elena; Demekhov, Andrei; Kozlovsky, Alexander; Manninen, Jyrki; Pasmanik, Dmitry

    We study properties of quasiperiodic (QP) VLF emissions recorded on December 24, 2011 during the VLF campaign in Northern Finland. The main attention is paid to interrelationships between different characteristic periods in the QP spectra. In particular, we analyze regular variations in the QP repetition intervals (1 - 10 min) during the event from 15:30 to 22 UT, their changes during substorms, and short periodic (several-second) modulation observed within separate QP elements. We explained the variations of periods of QP emissions in terms of the model of auto-oscillation regime of the cyclotron instability in the magnetosphere. During the considered event lasting about 7 hours we observed a regular increase in the time intervals between the QP elements. We relate this increase with weakening of the magnetospheric source of energetic electrons. Significant variations in the QP period occurred during substorms. These variations can be due to a substorm-related increase in the energetic-electron flux and/or due to the precipitation of these electrons into the ionosphere which changes the reflection coefficient of VLF waves. We analyze the fine structure of QP element spectra and reveal the periods related to the time scales of guided propagation of whistler-mode waves along the magnetic field line, which suggests that ducted propagation regime took place for the QP emissions. The periods were about 6--9 s for frequencies 3.5--1.2 kHz respectively, which was similar to the period of almost simultaneously observed two-hop whistlers In the low-frequency part of QP spectra periodic emissions with меньшими periods of about 3 s were observed. Analysis of fine structure of QP elements shows that their formation is affected by both linear effects (i.e., group-velocity dispersion) and nonlinear effects related

  6. Evaluation Efficacy of Ferrous Sulfate Therapy on Headaches of 5-15 Years Old Iron Deficient Children with Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, R; Zare Bidoki, S; Ordooei, M

    2016-01-01

    Background Some researches have shown the association between iron deficiency and migraine headache in adults. The aim of present study was to evaluate efficacy of ferrous sulfate treatment on migraine headaches of 5-15 years old migraineur children with iron deficiency. Materials and Methods In a quasi- experimental study, monthly frequency, severity, duration and disability of headaches of 5-15 years old migraineur children that prophylactic therapy was indicated in them and had iron deficiency who were referred to Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran between 2013 and 2015 and were treated with 2mg/kg/day topiramate plus 4mg/kg/day of ferrous sulfate for three consecutive months, were evaluated and headache characteristics before and after treatment were compared. Results In this study, 98 children with mean age of 9.72±3.19 were evaluated that 31children (31.6%) had iron deficiency. Monthly frequency (22.89±7.18 vs.14.5±4.56, P= 0.02), severity score (8.12± 1.76 vs. 5.03±1.15, P= 0.02) and disability score of headache (38.23±10.7vs. 30.12±7.46, P= 0.03) were more in children with iron deficiency. Iron therapy was effective in decreasing of monthlyfrequency 22.89± 7.18 vs. 10.13±4.51, P = 0.001), severity score (8.12±1.76 vs. 5.11±1.62, P =0.001), duration (2.14±1.23 vs.1.14±1.01, P= 0.001) and disability score of headache (38.23±10.7 vs. 22.87±8.65, P= 0.01). Conclusion In children, iron deficiency increased monthly frequency, severity and disability of migraine headache and ferrous sulfate can be used as a safe and effective drug in migraine prophylaxis. PMID:27222700

  7. A 15-Year-Old Male Baseball Player With a Mass in the Brachialis Muscle.

    PubMed

    Golub, Ivan J; Garcia, Roberto A; Wittig, James C

    2016-05-01

    A 15-year-old boy presented with a mass in his right arm after suffering a minor injury playing baseball. He had been diagnosed with a hematoma. There was no other outstanding medical/surgical history. Magnetic resonance images showed a heterogeneous mass arising from the brachialis muscle that mainly enhanced peripherally with extremely scant internal nodular enhancement. Core needle biopsy cells were positive for CD31 and CD34, markers for atypical endothelial cells, as well as MIB-1 and p53. The final diagnosis was an angiosarcoma of the brachialis muscle. Pediatric angiosarcoma, particularly within deep tissue, is exceedingly rare. Histological and immunohistochemical modalities led to the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance images suggested a mass with a large cystic/hemorrhagic space that could have been misconstrued as a hematoma had there been absolutely no nodular or septal enhancement. The patient underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation before undergoing limb-sparing surgery that included resection of the mass with the brachialis muscle and short head of the biceps muscle. Neoadjuvant treatment was deemed successful due to a drastic reduction in the size of the tumor and 95% tumor necrosis. The patient was disease free 2 years postoperatively. There had been no local/systemic recurrences. He was pain free, had normal elbow function, and had returned to playing baseball. It is important to be extremely suspicious when a patient presents with a hemorrhagic, painless, enlarging mass after sustaining minor trauma. A careful and meticulous biopsy must be completed to achieve the correct diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium is recommended for evaluation because these masses can be often misinterpreted as hematomas. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e545-e548.]. PMID:27045482

  8. Survey of rehabilitation support for children 0–15 years in a rural part of Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Gona, Joseph K.; Odera-Mung’ala, Victor; Newton, Charles R.; Geere, Jo-Anne; Hong, Chia Swee; Hartley, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Information regarding the nature, availability and distribution of rehabilitation services for children with disabilities across developing countries is scarce, and data that do exist are of variable quality. If planning and development are to progress, information about service provision is vital. The aim was to establish the scope and nature of rehabilitation support available to children with disabilities (0–15 years) and their families in rural Kenya. Method A comprehensive sample comprising service provision in the health and special education sectors was established. Non-governmental and community-based organisations were also included. A survey of rehabilitation services was conducted through examination of service-related documentation and key informant interviews with the heads of services. Results Rehabilitation comprised hospital-based occupational therapy, physiotherapy and orthopaedic technology; and seven special education establishments plus an education assessment resource centre. There was one non-government organisation and one community-based organisation relevant to children with disabilities. Activities focused on assessment, diagnosis and raising community awareness. Provision was challenged by inadequate staffing, resources and transport. Government funding was supplemented variously by donations and self-sufficiency initiatives. Rehabilitation approaches appeared to be informed by professional background of practitioner, rather than the needs of child. Service documentation revealed use of inconsistent recording methods. Conclusions The data highlight the challenges of rehabilitation, demanding greater investment in personnel and their training, more material resources, improved access to the community and better recording mechanisms. Implications for Rehabilitation There needs to be greater investment in rehabilitation provision in developing countries. Consideration of community-based initiatives is required to support better

  9. Clustered Tuberculosis in a Low-Burden Country: Nationwide Genotyping through 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, A. B.; Kok-Jensen, A.; Bygbjerg, I. C.; Andersen, P. H.; Thomsen, V. O.; Kamper-Jørgensen, M.; Lillebaek, T.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has proved to be a powerful tool in tuberculosis surveillance, epidemiology, and control. Based on results obtained through 15 years of nationwide IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) genotyping of M. tuberculosis cases in Denmark, a country on the way toward tuberculosis elimination, we discuss M. tuberculosis transmission dynamics and point to areas for control interventions. Cases with 100% identical genotypes (RFLP patterns) were defined as clustered, and a cluster was defined as cases with an identical genotype. Of 4,601 included cases, corresponding to 76% of reported and 97% of culture-verified tuberculosis cases in the country, 56% were clustered, of which 69% were Danes. Generally, Danes were more often in large clusters (≥50 persons), older (mean age, 45 years), and male (male/female ratio, 2.5). Also, Danes had a higher cluster frequency within a 2-year observation window (60.8%), and higher clustering rate of new patterns over time, compared to immigrants. A dominant genotype, cluster 2, constituted 44% of all clustered and 35% of all genotyped cases. This cluster was primarily found among Danish males, 30 to 59 years of age, often socially marginalized, and with records of alcohol abuse. In Danes, cluster 2 alone was responsible for the high cluster frequency level. Immigrants had a higher incidence of clustered tuberculosis at a younger age (0 to 39 years). To achieve tuberculosis elimination in Denmark, high-risk transmission environments, like the cluster 2 enviornment in Danes, and specific transmission chains in immigrants in the capital area, e.g., homeless/socially marginalized Somalis/Greenlanders, often with alcohol abuse, must be targeted, including groups with a high risk of reactivation. PMID:22675129

  10. Citation Analysis of the Croatian Medical Journal: the First 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kovačić, Nataša; Huić, Mirjana; Ivaniš, Ana

    2008-01-01

    The Croatian Medical Journal (CMJ) is a bimonthly scientific journal, publishing mostly original articles. It is indexed in the Index Medicus/MEDLINE, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, and the Science Citation Index – expanded. Since the CMJ’s 15th anniversary in 2007, our aim has been to assess the importance of the journal through its impact factor (IF) and immediacy index, with a particular focus placed on the proportion of self-citations. According the Web of Knowledge database, the current official IF for CMJ is 0.825, ranking it at the 62nd place out of 103 journals within the Thomson Scientific category “Medicine – General and Internal.” The exclusion of self-citations resulted in a small decrease in the journal’s rank – to 66th place. According to the Web of Science database, the predicted CMJ IF in 2007 is between 1.024 and 1.125, showing a clear increase. The immediacy index of the CMJ is continuously low, with a high contribution of self-citations, implying that articles published in the CMJ require more time to be cited, and that their topics are of particular interest to the journal's readers and contributors. Self-citations contributed significantly to the IF in the first few years after the journal was established. The proportion of independent citations progressively increased, and of all the citations included in the IF in 2007, almost 70% were fully independent. Some of these citations were from articles published in journals with IF higher than 5. Taken together, our data suggest that CMJ has significantly improved its citation data during the last 15 years, confirming that a quality-oriented editorial policy in a small peripheral journal may result in a truly increased international visibility. PMID:18293451

  11. Plant reestablishment 15 years after the debris avalanche at Mount St Helens, Washington.

    PubMed

    Dale, Virginia H; Adams, Wendy M

    2003-09-01

    Vegetation has slowly reestablished on the debris avalanche deposit in the 15 years after the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens that created a 60-km(2) debris avalanche, the largest landslide in recorded history. There has been a gradual increase in species richness and cover, but only 61% of the species present on the mountain before the eruption have established on the debris avalanche deposit. Plant cover averages 38% and is extremely patchy. Life form composition changed over successional time, because part of the avalanche deposit was invaded by introduced plant species aerially seeded to reduce erosion, the site offers the opportunity to compare successional processes occurring with and without introduced species. Long-term recovery trends and effects of nonnative species on succession are important to understand since plant reestablishment practices often rely on nonnative species for enhancing vegetation recovery of denuded sites along road sides, strip mines, or other human-generated clearing. Fifteen years after the eruption and 10 years since the invasion by introduced species, plots invaded by nonnative species had greater vegetation cover and more native plant richness than plots that were not inundated. Significantly greater mortality of conifers occurred in the plots dominated by introduced species shortly after the invasion of those species, but no difference in conifer mortality occurred in the last 5 years. Even so, the plots dominated by introduced species still have fewer conifer trees. Thus, the short-term pulse of conifer mortality after the invasion of introduced species may have long-term effects on the recovery of the dominant vegetation. It will likely be decades before there is 100% plant cover on the debris avalanche deposit and a century or more before full recovery of the vegetation system. PMID:12922064

  12. Population Based National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey among Adults (>15 Years) in Pakistan, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Qadeer, Ejaz; Fatima, Razia; Yaqoob, Aashifa; Tahseen, Sabira; Ul Haq, Mahboob; Ghafoor, Abdul; Asif, Muhammad; Straetemans, Masja; Tiemersma, Edine W.

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) amongst the adult population in 2010–2011 in Pakistan. Method A nationwide cross-sectional survey with multistage cluster sampling was conducted among adults (≥15 years) in 95 clusters in 2010–2011. All consenting participants were screened for cough and by chest X-ray. Participants with presumptive TB submitted two sputum samples for smear microscopy, culture, and molecular testing if needed. The TB prevalence estimates were adjusted for missing data and the cluster design. Result Of 131,329 eligible individuals, 105,913 (81%) participated in the survey, of whom 10,471 (9.9%) were eligible for sputum examination. We found 341 bacteriologically positive TB cases of whom 233 had sputum smear-positive TB. The adjusted prevalence estimates for smear and bacteriologically positive TB were 270/100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 217–323), and 398/100,000 (95% CI 333–463), respectively. Only 61% of the diagnosed TB cases screened positive on symptoms (cough >2wks), whereas the other TB cases were detected based on X-ray abnormalities. The TB prevalence increased with age and was 1.8 times higher among men than women. The prevalence-to-notification ratio of smear-positive TB was 3.1 (95% CI 2.5–3.7), was higher among men than women, and increased with age. Conclusion Our data suggest that there is under-detection and/or -notification of TB, especially among men and elderly. TB control should be strengthened specifically in these risk groups. X-ray examination should be combined with symptom screening to enhance case detection. PMID:26863617

  13. Needle Exchange and the HIV Epidemic in Vancouver: Lessons Learned from 15 years of research

    PubMed Central

    Hyshka, Elaine; Strathdee, Steffanie; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    During the mid-1990s, Vancouver experienced a well characterized HIV outbreak among injection drug users (IDU) and many questioned how this could occur in the presence of a high volume needle exchange program (NEP). Specific concerns were fuelled by early research demonstrating that frequent needle exchange program attendees were more likely to be HIV positive than those who attended the NEP less frequently. Since then, some have misinterpreted this finding as evidence that NEPs are ineffective or potentially harmful. In light of continuing questions about the Vancouver HIV epidemic, we review 15 years of peer-reviewed research on Vancouver’s NEP to describe what has been learned through this work. Our review demonstrates that: 1) NEP attendance is not causally associated with HIV infection, 2) frequent attendees of Vancouver’s NEP have higher risk profiles which explain their increased risk of HIV seroconversion, and 3) a number of policy concerns, as well as the high prevalence of cocaine injecting contributed to the failure of the NEP to prevent the outbreak. Additionally, we highlight several improvements to Vancouver’s NEP that contributed to declines in syringe sharing and HIV incidence. Vancouver’s experience provides a number of important lessons regarding NEP. Keys to success include refocusing the NEP away from an emphasis on public order objectives by separating distribution and collection functions, removing syringe distribution limits and decentralizing and diversifying NEP services. Additionally, our review highlights the importance of context when implementing NEPs, as well as ongoing evaluation to identify factors that constrain or improve access to sterile syringes. PMID:22579215

  14. Seroprevalence of hepatitis a and associated factors among 1-15 year old children in Eastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Karaman, Serap; Karaman, Kamuran; Kızılyıldız, Baran Serdar; Ceylan, Nesrin; Kaba, Sultan; Parlak, Mehmet; Beger, Burhan; Ceylan, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis A is a common infectious disease during childhood worldwide. Recently, great deal of changes in the epidemiology has been reported. The seroepidemiologic studies of this infection are not sufficient in Eastern region of Turkey. Objective: To investigate the seroprevalence and association with socio-demographic variables of hepatitis A in 1-15 year old children in Van. Patients and Methods: This study was performed on 510 one to fifteen year old children from outpatient pediatric clinics in Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Medicine during last three months of 2009. Anti-HAV IgG was measured in sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The information about subjects was recorded on standardized forms and a chart review survey was performed. Results: The overall ratio for seropositivity was 54.9%. Statistical significance was found between hepatitis A seroprevalence and age, collective use of domestic items, fresh water resources, localization and type of toilet and the number of households. Conclusion: This study provided the most recent data of seropositivity and revealed the preliminary indication of epidemiological shift in seroprevalence of Hepatitis A virus in a region with high endemicity. PMID:26770581

  15. Prevalence of Tuberculosis among Veterans, Military Personnel and their Families in East Azerbaijan Province Violators of the last 15 Years.

    PubMed

    Azad Aminjan, Maboud; Moaddab, Seyyed Reza; Hosseini Ravandi, Mohammad; Kazemi Haki, Behzad

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays in the world, tuberculosis is the second largest killer of adults after HIV. Due to the location of presidios that is mostly located in hazardous zones soldiers and army personnel are considered high risk, therefore we decided to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis status in this group of people. This was a cross-sectional descriptive research that studied the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis in soldiers and military personnel in the last 15 years in tuberculosis and lung disease research center at Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The statistical population consisted of all the soldiers and military personnel. The detection method in this study was based on microscopic examination following Ziehl-Neelsen Stain and in Leuven Stein Johnson culturing. Descriptive statistics was used for statistical analysis and statistical values less than 0.05 were considered significant. By review information in this center since the 1988-2013 with 72 military personnel suffering from tuberculosis, it was revealed that among them 30 women, 42 men, 14 soldiers, 29 family members, and 29 military personnel are pointed. A significant correlation was found between TB rates among military personnel and their families. Although in recent years, the national statistics indicate a decline of tuberculosis, but the results of our study showed that TB is still a serious disease that must comply with the first symptoms of tuberculosis in military personnel and their families that should be diagnosed as soon as possible. PMID:26615379

  16. CCD photometric study and period investigation of V508 Oph

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Fu-Yuan; Yu, Yun-Xia; Xiao, Ting-Yu

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, new CCD photometric observations of V508 Oph obtained in 2009 and 2010 at the Xinglong Observatory are presented. From the new observations, six new times of minimum light were derived. The light curves were analyzed by using the 2003 version of the Wilson–Devinney program. It is found that the asymmetric light curves can be modeled by a hot spot on the secondary component. The degree of overcontact is 15.4%, implying that the system is a shallow-contact binary. Combining the new times of minimum light with the photoelectric and CCD data compiled from the database, we investigate its orbital period. The results show that the orbital period may be undergoing multiple changes: a long-term decrease at a rate of dP/dt=−(1.502±0.063)×10{sup −7} days year{sup −1}, and a small periodic variation with a period of 24.27(±0.34) years. Since V508 Oph is an overcontact system and both components are late-type stars, we discuss the possible connection between the mass transfer, magnetic activity, the third body, and the orbital period changes.

  17. Linking the isotopic composition of monthly precipitation, cave drip water and tree ring cellulose - 15 years of monitoring and data-model comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labuhn, Inga; Genty, Dominique; Daux, Valérie; Bourges, François; Hoffmann, Georg

    2013-04-01

    The isotopic composition of proxies used for palaeoclimate reconstruction, like tree ring cellulose or speleothem calcite, is controlled to a large extent by the isotopic composition of precipitation. In order to calibrate and interpret these proxies in terms of climate, it is necessary to study water isotopes in rainfall and their link with the proxies' source water. We present 10 to 15-year series of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes in monthly precipitation from three sites in the south of France, along with corresponding REMOiso model simulations, a monitoring of cave drip water from two of these sites (Villars cave in the south-west and Chauvet cave in the south-east), as well as measurements of oxygen isotopes in tree ring cellulose from oak trees growing in the same area. The isotopic composition of monthly precipitation at the three sites displays a typical annual cycle. At the south-west sites, under Atlantic influence, the interannual variability is much more pronounced during the winter months than during the summer, whereas the south-eastern Mediterranean site shows the same variability throughout the year. The model simulations are able to reproduce the annual cycle of monthly precipitation δ18O as well as the intra-seasonal variability. Compared to the data, however, the modelled average isotopic values and the seasonal amplitude are overestimated. Correlations between temperature and precipitation δ18O are generally weak at all our sites, on both the monthly and the annual scale, even when using temperature averages weighted by the amount of precipitation. Consequently, a proxy which is controlled by the δ18O of precipitation cannot be directly interpreted in terms of temperature in this region. The isotopic composition of cave drip water in both caves remains stable throughout the monitoring period. By calculating different weighted averages of precipitation δ18O for time periods ranging from months to years, we demonstrate that the cave drip

  18. Online teaching and learning in oceanography: A look back at 15 years of undergraduate general education (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D.

    2013-12-01

    Online courses in higher education have garnered a growing presence in the popular media, yet misperceptions abound. Consequently, a retrospective examination of the evolution of an online oceanography class, first offered to undergraduates at the San Jose State University in the fall semester of 1998, may be especially relevant to the development of future efforts in this field. Since that initial offering, the development of the course, involving the creation of virtual field experiences whereby students take on the role of practicing research oceanographers, has been supported through several awards from the National Science Foundation, principally the Division of Undergraduate Education and the Geoscience Directorate. The online material, organized into expeditions, which focus on the nature of scientific discovery, has evolved over time from a static graphics and text-based format to include video, largely available through YouTube, and animations that take advantage of social media, all to highlight contemporary ocean research. To sustain the project beyond NSF funding, the course has been offered throughout the academic year, and in winter and summer special sessions, to more the 4000 students over the 15 year period since its initial offering. The materials have always been openly available through the course website (http://oceansjsu.com) to institutions throughout the world, long in advance of current MOOC movement. Just as the course format, and available content, have evolved, so have the students enrolled in the class, which now more closely mirror the university student body as a whole. Future efforts in course development should span multi-campus university systems to take advantage of the collective scientific expertise available and to leverage the effort across a larger number of courses and disciplines.

  19. Variability of OH rotational temperatures on time scales from hours to 15 years by kinetic temperature variations, emission layer changes, and non-LTE effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Rotational temperatures derived from hydroxyl (OH) line emission are frequently used to study atmospheric temperatures at altitudes of about 87 km. While the measurement only requires intensities of a few bright lines of an OH band, the interpretation can be complicated. Ground-based temperatures are averages for the entire, typically 8 km wide emission layer. Variations in the rotational temperature are then caused by changes of the kinetic temperature and the OH emission profile. The latter can also be accompanied by differences in the layer-averaged efficiency of the thermalisation of the OH rotational level populations. Since this especially depends on the frequency of collisions with O_2, which is low at high altitudes, the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) contribution to the measured temperatures can be significant and variable. In order to understand the impact of the different sources of OH rotational temperature variations from time scales of hours to a solar cycle, we have studied spectra from the astronomical echelle spectrographs X-shooter and UVES located at Cerro Paranal in Chile. While the X-shooter data spanning 3.5 years allowed us to measure temperatures for 25 OH and two O_2 bands, the UVES spectra cover no more than 10 OH bands simultaneously but a period of about 15 years. These data have been complemented by kinetic temperature and OH and O_2 emission profiles from the multi-channel radiometer SABER on the TIMED satellite. Taking the O_2 and SABER kinetic temperatures as reference and considering the different band-dependent emission profiles, we could evaluate the contribution of non-LTE effects to the measured OH rotational temperatures depending on line set, band, and time. Non-LTE contributions are significant for most bands and can exceed 10 K. The amplitudes of their average nocturnal and seasonal variation are of the order of 1 to 2 K.

  20. Cerebral venous thrombosis associated with homozygous factor V Leiden mutation in a 15-year-old girl of Tunisian origin.

    PubMed

    Salem-Berrabah, Olfa Ben; Fekih-Mrissa, Nejiba; Laayouni, Samy; Gritli, Nasreddine; Mrissa, Ridha

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare disease. It has numerous and complex etiologies. Inherited or acquired prothrombotic states play a key role in the development of this disease, such as factor V G1691A mutation (FV Leiden). A 15-year-old girl presented to the Department of Neurology with a complaint of severe headache with visual blurring. The diagnosis of CVT was not initially suspected because of the patient's condition on presentation. An MRI showed thrombosis in the superior sagittal sinus, confirming venous stroke. Anticardiolipin and antiphospholipid antibodies were assessed. In addition, inherited prothrombotic defects, such as protein C, protein S, and antithrombin deficiencies, and genetic mutations for FV Leiden, prothrombin gene G20210A (FII G20210A), and methyltetrahydrofolate reductase C677T (MTHFR C677T) were studied. All results were unremarkable except for the unique homozygous FV Leiden mutation, which likely contributed to this prothrombotic situation. This study highlights the fact that FV Leiden may play a significant role in the onset of CVT in young patients. PMID:22048515

  1. Scoliosis screening results of primary school students (11-15 years old group) in the west side of Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Çolak, Tuğba Kuru; Apti, Adnan; Dereli, E Elçin; Özdinçler, Arzu Razak; Çolak, İlker

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to find out the scoliosis prevalence 11-15 years old children and to create awareness about scoliosis. [Subjects and Methods] All of the children were assessed using the Adams Forward Bendings Test and a scoliometer. Sagittal plane changes such as kyphosis, lordosis, hypokyphosis, hypolordosis and anterior head tilt were screened. Children with trunk rotation angles (ATR) of 4 degrees or more were suspected of having scoliosis, and were evaluated for a second time for gibbosity height, arm-trunk distance, and ATR. [Results] A total of 2,207 children were screened and the evaluation revealed there were 11 girls (0.49%) with a Cobb angle of 10 degrees and more. The maximum Cobb angle was 43° (right thoracic-left lumbar) and the maximum ATR was 12°. Two children had kyphosis and lordosis, and one had hypokyphosis and was diagnosed as having idiopathic scoliosis. [Conclusion] Families should regularly check their children, even if they are not diagnosed as having scoliosis in school screenings. It is our opinion that our study increased the awareness of the families about scoliosis by screening, brochures and posters. In the future, if school screenings were performed as a routine procedure and scoliotic students were followed over the long term, the actual effectiveness of screening would be able to be detected. PMID:26504296

  2. Dental plaque, caries prevalence and gingival conditions of 14-15-year-old schoolchildren in Jerash District, Jordan.

    PubMed

    El-Qaderi, S S; Quteish Ta'ani, D

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate oral hygiene, gingival condition and dental caries prevalence in 14-15-year-old school children in Jerash District, Northern Jordan. Twenty schools (10 male and 10 female schools) with 1362 children of eighth and ninth grades were randomly selected and incorporated in this study. All participants had dental examinations for oral hygiene, gingival condition and dental caries experience using the Silness and Löe Plaque Index (PI), Löe and Silness Gingival Index (GI), and decayed (D), missing (M) and filled (F) teeth (DMFT) and surface (DMFS) codes respectively. The results showed that males had significant lower plaque but significantly higher gingival scores than females (P < 0.001). About 24% of children were caries-free. The proportions of children with one, two or three decayed teeth were between 10% and 18%. Slight non-significant variations between males and females were observed in regard to DMFT/S and their components (P < 0.05). It is concluded that significant gender variations were noted in PI and GI scores but not in DMFT/S or their components. However, the values of these clinical scores were lower than those results previously reported in northern Jordan. PMID:16958744

  3. Multi-Directional Sprinting and Acceleration Phase in Basketball and Handball Players Aged 14 and 15 Years.

    PubMed

    Popowczak, Marek; Rokita, Andrzej; Struzik, Artur; Cichy, Ireneusz; Dudkowski, Andrzej; Chmura, Paweł

    2016-10-01

    An important role in handball and basketball is played by ability to accelerate and ability to repeat multiple sprints. The aim of the study was to assess level of ability in multi-directional sprinting and running time over the first 5 m of the 30 m sprint in 93 basketball and handball players (46 boys and 47 girls) aged 14 to 15 years. The attempts were also made to find the relationships between the time of a 5-m run to evaluate initial acceleration phase and multi-directional sprinting evaluated using Five-Time Shuttle Run To Gates Test Statistical analysis revealed no important differences in times of 5-m runs and times of multi-directional sprinting between groups with different ages, genders, and sports specialties. Furthermore, no significant correlations were found based on Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between times of 5-m run and multi-directional sprinting in the most of subgroups studied. PMID:27565172

  4. Scoliosis screening results of primary school students (11–15 years old group) in the west side of Istanbul

    PubMed Central

    Çolak, Tuğba Kuru; Apti, Adnan; Dereli, E.Elçin; Özdinçler, Arzu Razak; Çolak, İlker

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to find out the scoliosis prevalence 11–15 years old children and to create awareness about scoliosis. [Subjects and Methods] All of the children were assessed using the Adams Forward Bendings Test and a scoliometer. Sagittal plane changes such as kyphosis, lordosis, hypokyphosis, hypolordosis and anterior head tilt were screened. Children with trunk rotation angles (ATR) of 4 degrees or more were suspected of having scoliosis, and were evaluated for a second time for gibbosity height, arm-trunk distance, and ATR. [Results] A total of 2,207 children were screened and the evaluation revealed there were 11 girls (0.49%) with a Cobb angle of 10 degrees and more. The maximum Cobb angle was 43° (right thoracic-left lumbar) and the maximum ATR was 12°. Two children had kyphosis and lordosis, and one had hypokyphosis and was diagnosed as having idiopathic scoliosis. [Conclusion] Families should regularly check their children, even if they are not diagnosed as having scoliosis in school screenings. It is our opinion that our study increased the awareness of the families about scoliosis by screening, brochures and posters. In the future, if school screenings were performed as a routine procedure and scoliotic students were followed over the long term, the actual effectiveness of screening would be able to be detected. PMID:26504296

  5. Lessons learnt from the 15 years experience of the French case in the field of HLLL waste

    SciTech Connect

    Ouzounian, G.

    2007-07-01

    Year 2006 has been marked in France by the vote in the Parliament of the Planning Act of 28 June, 2006, concerning the sustainable management of radioactive materials and waste. This vote was the achievement of a 15 years research programme performed as required by the previous Research Law of 1991, also known as the Bataille Law, from the name of Christian Bataille, MP, who drafted it and monitored its enforcement as a member of the Parliamentary Office for Scientific and Technological Assessment (Office Parlementaire d'Evaluation des Choix Scientifiques et Techniques - OPECST). At that time a stepwise approach to siting was introduced in the process. It included the study of several alternatives to the geological disposal of long lived high level radioactive waste. Those alternatives have been thoroughly studied and assessed before the Government decided to submit the bill to the Parliament. Experience has been gained not only on the scientific and technical aspects, but also in the field of decision making process, also called now governance. However, not only the results of the research programme were decisive in preparing the bill, but also of major importance were the industrial experience of ANDRA and the rigorous programme management along all those years. Main lessons learnt from the experience are given in this paper. (authors)

  6. Contemporary Management of Penile Cancer: Greater than 15-Year MSKCC Experience

    PubMed Central

    Moses, Kelvin A.; Winer, Andrew; Sfakianos, John P.; Poon, Stephen A.; Kent, Matthew; Bernstein, Melanie; Russo, Paul; Dalbagni, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Penile cancer is a rare malignancy, and few guidelines are available to define treatment paradigms. For greater understanding of the natural history of surgically treated penile cancer, we analyzed experience at our institution. Materials and Methods Using an institutional database, we identified 127 patients treated for squamous cell carcinoma of the penis from 1995 – 2011. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Survival data were compared using the log-rank test. The difference in risk of cancer-specific death by lymph node status and histological grade was determined by univariate Cox regression analysis. Results Five-year CSS for pTis, pT1, pT2, and pT3/4 was 100%, 84% (95% CI 58%-95%), 54% (95% CI 33%-71%), and 54% (95% CI 25%-76%), respectively (P ≤ .005). Three-year CSS for patients with N0, N+, and Nx disease was 90% (95% CI 47%-99%), 65% (95% CI 47%-79%), and 86% (95% CI 73%-93%), respectively (P = .03). The receipt of neoadjuvant chemotherapy did not change per 5 year period over the 16 years of our study. Median follow-up was 2.8 years. Conclusions Penile cancer patients with advanced disease had poor survival. Tumor stage and nodal status were significant predictors of CSS. Penis-sparing approaches may be considered for most patients; however, pathological stage and grade dictate the management and ultimate outcome. Further studies are necessary to clarify the benefits of chemotherapy in this disease. PMID:24775572

  7. Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Depression, Psychological Well-Being and Feeling of Guilt in 7 - 15 Years Old Diabetic Children

    PubMed Central

    Ataie Moghanloo, Vahid; Ataie Moghanloo, Roghayyeh; Moazezi, Mousa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes imposes restrictions on physical, emotional, and social functioning of children and adolescents. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for depression, psychological well-being and feeling of guilt in 7 - 15 years old diabetic children. Patients and Methods: This was a clinical trial with pre-test and post-test design with control group. The study population consisted of 34 participants selected using convenient sampling out of all 7 - 15 years old patients that referred to the Diabetes Association of Tabriz. They were randomly allocated into two equal groups (experimental and control). The experimental group participated in therapy sessions and the control group did not receive any intervention. The research instruments were reynolds child depression scale (RCDS), eysenck feelings of guilt scale and satisfaction with life scale (SWLS). Results: Multivariate covariance analysis (MANCOVA) showed that the treatment was effective on variables of depression, psychological well-being and feeling guilty in 7 - 15 years old diabetic children (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The aforementioned treatment is effective and suggested to be used in other psychosomatic diseases of children. PMID:26396702

  8. a Comparative Study of Sfxts and Long-Period Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasano, Makoto; Enoto, Teruaki; Makishima, Kazuo; Yamada, Shinya; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Yuasa, Takayuki

    2012-07-01

    Super-giant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs), composed of super-giant stars and highly magnetized neutron stars, are characterized by a rather low luminosity in quiescence and very drastic flares. However, these features are also observed, at least to some extent, from other types of HMXBs, including in particular binary pulsars with long pulse periods (>1000 sec). Through wide-band spectroscopy with Suzaku, we aim at a comparison between SFXTs and long-period pulsars, with particular emphasis on the possibility that both have strong magnetic fields. So far, several SFXTs were observed with Suzaku, including IGR J16195-4945 in particular. We re-analyze the archival Suzaku data of this object, obtained on 2006 September 20 for 39 ksec. As reported by Morris et al. (2009), a prominent flare lasting for 10 ksec was recorded in the XIS (1- 10 keV) and HXD (12 - 40 keV) data. We found that the absorbing column density remained the same within ~10 % during the flare. Moreover, the flare was accompanied by weakening or broadening of the fluorescent Fe-K line. These results are inconsistent with the popular SFXT scenario that clumpy stellar winds occur flares. Instead, they prefer an alternative scenario of ``magnetic gating", which assumes the neutron star like magnetars Using Suzaku, we also analyzed the long-period pulsar 4U0114+65 on 2011 July 11 for 100 ksec. The XIS and the HXD detected clear flaring behavior. the known period of ˜10,000 sec which is indicative of strong magnetic field like magnetars was observed. We obtained spectra, with a clear fluorescent Fe-K line, over a very broad (1-100 keV) band From these results, we compare properties of SFXTs and long period pulsars, and discuss their possible relations to magnetars.

  9. Tobacco use among students aged 13–15 years in Greece: the GYTS project

    PubMed Central

    Kyrlesi, Athina; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Warren, Charles W; Kremastinou, Jeni; Papastergiou, Panagiotis; Jones, Nathan R; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2007-01-01

    Background Data on the prevalence of tobacco use among teenagers in Greece are limited. We examined the prevalence of smoking among middle-school students in Greece using the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). Methods The Global Youth Tobacco Survey was implemented in Greece during the academic year 2004 – 2005 by the University of Thessaly and the National School of Public Health. Data were collected using the GYTS self-administered anonymous questionnaire, which was distributed by specifically trained field workers to a nationally representative sample of middle-school students aged 13–15 years (through randomly selected schools and classes), randomly selected through a two-stage cluster sample design. Data processing and statistical analyses were performed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Results About one third of the students 32.1% (29.4 – 35.0) reported that they had tried tobacco in the past, while 16.2% (14.3 – 18.4) reported being current users of tobacco products. In addition, 1 in 4 of ever smokers reported that they began smoking before the age of 10 years old. Almost 1 in 5 never smokers reported being susceptible to initiate smoking in the next year and about 89.8% (88.3 – 91.1) of the respondents were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke in their homes and 94.1% (93.2 – 94.9) in public places. Finally, a strikingly high number of students 95% (89.5 – 97.7) reported that they were able to buy their own cigarettes without restrictions. Conclusion The results of the GYTS show that the prevalence of smoking in middle-school children is alarmingly high in Greece. Smoking among young people constitutes a significant problem that is destined to worsen in the absence of any comprehensive efforts focused on strict anti-smoking legislation, policies and tobacco control interventions targeting children at a young age. PMID:17207291

  10. Sudden, unexpected death of a 15-year-old boy due to pancarditis

    PubMed Central

    Osculati, Antonio; Visonà, Silvia Damiana; Ventura, Francesco; Castelli, Francesca; Andrello, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Generally, rheumatic heart disease is, today, sporadic in developed countries, even though it continues to be a major health hazard in the developing ones. It is also a very rare cause of sudden unexpected death. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy who suddenly died at home. Since 3 days he had presented fever and chest pain. The family physician had diagnosed bronchitis and treated the boy with amoxicillin. Methods: Seven hours after death, a forensic autopsy were performed . Before the autopsy, anamnesis and some circumstantial data were collected from the boy's parents. During the autopsy, samples for histological, toxicological and molecular examinations were collected. The samples for the histology (brain, hypophysis, heart and pericardium, lungs, spleen, liver, kidney, adrenal glands) were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded. Each section was stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin. Immunostaining was also performed, with anti-CD 68, anti-CD3, anti-CD 20, anti-myeloperoxidase. Microbiological cultures were performed on cardiac blood, myocardium, pericardial effusion and cerebrospinal fluid samples collected during autopsy. Blood specimens were also processed through PCR, in order to reveal the presence of Enteroviruses, Chickenpox virus, Epstein Barr virus. Also chemical-toxicological examinations for the detection of the main medications and drugs were performed on blood samples. Results: The anamnesis, collected before the autopsy, revealed an acute pharyngitis few weeks before. The autopsy, and the following histological and immunochemical examinations suggested an immunological etiology. The immunohistochemistry, showing a strong positivity of antiCD68 antibodies, integrated with clinical-anamnestic information, leads to hypothesize a rheumatic carditis. Conclusion: In light of this case, at least 3 main messages of great importance for the clinician can be deduced. First, an accurate anamnesis collected by the family physician could have

  11. Psychopathology and attrition in the Baltimore ECA 15-year follow-up 1981-1996.

    PubMed

    Badawi, M A; Eaton, W W; Myllyluoma, J; Weimer, L G; Gallo, J

    1999-02-01

    Predictors of non-response were investigated in a 15-year follow-up (1981-1996) of 3,481 individuals in a probability sample from the household population of East Baltimore. Demographics (age, sex, race, education, marital status, and unemployment), household factors (living arrangements, household income, household size, and number of children), cultural variables (ancestral ethnicity and foreign language), social variables (social support and networks, committing felony, carrying a weapon, using an alias, and wandering), health factors (physical illness, health insurance, medical assistance, Medicare, receiving disability benefits, social security, and welfare), interviewer's observation, and psychopathologic variables (mental disorders, suicide behavior, comorbidity, and drug use) were collected at baseline in 1981 and in 1982, then linked to follow-up data between 1993 and 1996. A tracing process involving mail, phone, criss-cross directories, motor vehicle administration records, a commercial credit bureau, the state criminal justice system, hospital records, the US National Death Index, and field tracing were used to locate the original sample. A total of 3,066 respondents of the original sample (88.1%) were traced. Non-response was categorized into Sample Mortality (that part of the original sample that died during follow-up), Sample Loss (that part of the original sample that survived but could not be found) and Refusal (that part of the original sample that survived and was found but refused to participate). Stratified analysis and adjusted multiple logistic regression modeling found sample mortality and sample loss were strongly influenced by individual and household variables and by psychopathology. Sample mortality was influenced by specific mental disorders or conditions as mania, drug abuse/dependency, antisocial personality, cognitive impairment, alcohol abuse/dependency, phobia, drug use (except PCP), and comorbidity. Household factors protective

  12. Optical Studies of 20 Longer-Period Cataclysmic Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorstensen, John R.; Peters, Christopher S.; Skinner, Julie N.

    2010-11-01

    We obtained time-series radial-velocity spectroscopy of 20 cataclysmic variable stars, with the aim of determining orbital periods Porb. All of the stars reported here prove to have Porb > 3.5 h. For 16 of the stars, these are the first available period determinations, and for the remaining four (V709 Cas, AF Cam, V1062 Tau, and RX J2133 + 51), we use new observations to improve the accuracy of previously published periods. Most of the targets are dwarf novae, without notable idiosyncrasies. Of the remainder, three (V709 Cas, V1062 Tau, and RX J2133 + 51) are intermediate polars (DQ Her stars); one (IPHAS 0345) is a secondary-dominated system without known outbursts, similar to LY UMa; one (V1059 Sgr) is an old nova; and two others (V478 Her and V1082 Sgr) are long-period novalike variables. The stars with new periods are IPHAS 0345 (0.314 days) V344 Ori (0.234 days) VZ Sex (0.149 days) NSVS 1057 + 09 (0.376 days) V478 Her (0.629 days) V1059 Sgr (0.286 days) V1082 Sgr (0.868 days) FO Aql (0.217 days) V587 Lyr (0.275 days) V792 Cyg (0.297 days) V795 Cyg (0.181 days) V811 Cyg (0.157 days) V542 Cyg (0.182 days) PQ Aql (0.247 days) V516 Cyg (0.171 days) and VZ Aqr (0.161 days). Noteworthy results on individual stars are as follows. We see no indication of the underlying white dwarf star in V709 Cas, as has been previously claimed; based on the nondetection of the secondary star, we argue that the system is farther away that had been thought and the white dwarf contribution is probably negligible. V478 Her had been classified as an SU UMa-type dwarf nova, but this is incompatible with the long orbital period we find. We report the first secondary-star velocity curve for V1062 Tau. In V542 Cyg, we find a late-type contribution that remains stationary in radial velocity, yet the system is unresolved in a direct image, suggesting that it is a hierarchical triple system. Based on observations obtained at the MDM Observatory, operated by Dartmouth College, Columbia

  13. Farm machinery injuries: the 15-year experience at an urban joint trauma center system in a rural state.

    PubMed

    Jawa, Randeep S; Young, David H; Stothert, Joseph C; Yetter, Diane; Dumond, Robbie; Shostrom, Valerie K; Cemaj, Samuel; Rautiainen, Risto H; Mercer, David W

    2013-01-01

    Farm machinery is a major source of injury. The objective of this study is to characterize the incidence, injury characteristics, and outcomes of patients admitted with farm machinery injuries (FMIs) to an urban joint trauma system in a rural state. A retrospective 15-year review of the trauma registries of the two trauma centers that function as a single state-designated Level I joint trauma center system was conducted. There were 65 admissions for FMIs at hospital A and 41 at hospital B; this represents under 0.4% of total trauma admissions. The patients ranged in age from 2 to 87 years. At hospital A, 89% of admitted patients sustained extremity injuries, 16% sustained torso trauma, 92% required surgical intervention, and the mortality rate was 0%. At hospital B, 60% of admitted patients sustained extremity injuries, 36.6% of patients sustained torso trauma, 63% required surgical intervention, and the mortality rate was 14.6%. Tractor-related injuries were responsible for 17% of admissions at hospital A and 69% at hospital B. Of the six fatalities, five were tractor related. The data demonstrate that FMIs affect people in nearly all decades of life. FMIs at the two hospitals had differing injury characteristics and outcomes, in large part secondary to the differing frequency of tractor-related injuries. FMIs frequently required surgical intervention. PMID:23540300

  14. The heritability of psychopathic personality in 14- to 15-year-old twins: a multirater, multimeasure approach.

    PubMed

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Bezdjian, Serena; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A

    2014-09-01

    Until now, no study has examined the genetic and environmental influences on psychopathic personality across different raters and method of assessment. Participants were part of a community sample of male and female twins born between 1990 and 1995. The Child Psychopathy Scale and the Antisocial Process Screening Device were administered to the twins and their parents when the twins were 14-15 years old. The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) was administered and scored by trained testers. Results showed that a 1-factor common pathway model was the best fit for the data. Genetic influences explained 69% of the variance in the latent psychopathic personality factor, while nonshared environmental influences explained 31%. Measurement-specific genetic effects accounted for between 9% and 35% of the total variance in each of the measures, except for PCL:YV, where all genetic influences were in common with the other measures. Measure-specific nonshared environmental influences were found for all measures, explaining between 17% and 56% of the variance. These findings provide further evidence of the heritability in psychopathic personality among adolescents, although these effects vary across the ways in which these traits are measured, in terms of both informant and instrument used. PMID:24796343

  15. Reaching for Objects or Asking for Them: Distance Estimation in 7- to 15-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Scorolli, Claudia; Daprati, Elena; Nico, Daniele; Borghi, Anna M

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine if, in children, subjective perception of space is modulated by the experience of reaching distal objects by means of tools and verbal labels. We presented 7-15-year-old participants with objects located in the near and far space, and in the threshold area between these spaces (border space). Before and after a training session, separate groups of participants estimated objects' location by providing a verbal estimation of their distance (n = 12) or by rolling a toy car to match their location (motor-based estimation; n = 16). The training session required interaction with the targets (i.e., actively experiencing the perceived distance) and included use of a rake or a linguistic label when far objects were involved. A control condition in which training implied use of a short, ineffective tool was also tested (n = 6). Results showed that verbal estimations were not affected by the training phase (p > .05). In contrast, training modulated motor-based estimations relative to border space. Specifically, maximal distance of toy car displacements was reduced following all kinds of training (p < .01). These results indicate that, similarly to adults, the boundary between near and far space is not fixed in children and that both active tool use and verbal labels can modulate this uncertain boundary. PMID:26313161

  16. The American Burn Association/Shriners Hospitals for Children Burn Outcomes Program: a progress report at 15 years.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Ronald G; Liang, Matthew H; Lee, Austin F; Kazis, Lewis E

    2012-09-01

    The American Burn Association and the Shriners Hospitals for Children Outcomes Program has been in development for more than 15 years. Many of the tools and important findings are described in this special issue of The Journal of Trauma. This unique program in outcomes research introduces a model for outcome assessments from the patient-centered perspective with a cohort of 1,140 children with burn injury after hospitalization for up to 4 years. The findings represent a fundamental contribution to the field of burn care for monitoring outcomes from the perspective of the parent or child/adolescent. The Multi-Center Benchmarking Study of four burn centers serve as a model for collecting empiric scientific data on the variation and the expected trajectories of recovery in the most important domains of patient outcomes and can inform clinical decisions and the conduct of health service research. The dramatic progress in survival of children with severe burn injury and other advances in burn management can now move into a new phase of understanding the most cost-effective components of this care. PMID:22929544

  17. The Heritability of Psychopathic Personality in 14 to 15 year Old Twins: A Multi-Rater, Multi-Measure Approach

    PubMed Central

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Bezdjian, Serena; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    No study has yet examined the genetic and environmental influences on psychopathic personality across different raters and method of assessment. Participants were part of a community sample of male and female twins born between 1990 and 1995. The Child Psychopathy Scale (CPS) and the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) were administered to the twins and their parents when the twins were 14 to 15 years old. The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) was administered and scored by trained testers. Results showed that a one-factor common pathway model was the best fit for the data. Genetic influences explained 69% of the variance in the latent psychopathic personality factor, while non-shared environmental influences explained 31%. Measurement-specific genetic effects accounted for between 9% and 35% of the total variance in each of the measures, except for PCL:YV where all genetic influences were in common with the other measures. Measure-specific non-shared environmental influences were found for all measures, explaining between 17% and 56% of the variance. These findings provide further evidence of the heritability in psychopathic personality among adolescents, although these effects vary across the way in which these traits are measured, in terms of both informant and instrument used. PMID:24796343

  18. Prostate cancer incidence in men with self-reported prostatitis after 15 years of follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Vaarala, Markku H.; Mehik, Aare; Ohtonen, Pasi; Hellström, Pekka A.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy exists regarding a possible association between prostatitis and prostate cancer. To further evaluate the incidence of prostate cancer following prostatitis, a study of prostate cancer incidence in a cohort of Finnish men was performed. The original survey evaluating self-reported prostatitis was conducted in 1996–1997. A database review was conducted focusing on prostate cancer diagnoses in the cohort. In 2012, there were 13 (5.2%) and 27 (1.8%) prostate cancer cases among men with (n=251) and without (n=1,521) prostatitis symptoms, respectively. There were no significant differences in age, primary therapy distribution, prostate-specific antigen levels, Gleason score, clinical T-class at the time of prostate cancer diagnosis, or time lag between the original survey and prostate cancer diagnosis. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of prostate cancer was 1.16 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.62–1.99] and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.29–0.64) among men with and without prostatitis symptoms, respectively. After 15 years of follow-up subsequent to self-reported prostatitis, no evident increase in incidence of prostate cancer was detected among Finnish men with prostatitis symptoms. The higher percentage of prostate cancer among men with prostatitis symptoms appears to be due to coincidentally low SIR of prostate cancer among men without prostatitis symptoms, and may additionally be due to increased diagnostic examinations. Further research is required to confirm this speculation.

  19. Alumina on alumina versus metal on conventional polyethylene: a randomized clinical trial with 9 to 15 years follow-up.

    PubMed

    Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Rivière, Charles; Lavigne, Martin; Lavoie, Pauline; Alghamdi, Ahmed; Duval, Nicolas

    2013-04-01

    We report the long-term results of a randomized clinical trial that compares, in total hip arthroplasty in a young population, metal-on-conventional polyethylene and alumina-on-alumina ceramic bearings. One hundred and forty hips in 116 patients were randomized. Re-operation, revision rate, clinical scores, and radiological signs of osteolysis and loosening were compared at average follow-up of 123 (9-15) years. At final FU, 107 hips were available for clinical evaluation. Eight (11.6%) revisions were performed in the polyethylene group versus 1 (1.4%) in the ceramic group (p = 0.017). All revisions in the polyethylene group were related to bearing wear: 4 for aseptic loosening with severe osteolysis, 1 for polyethylene induced compressive granulomatous tumor, and 3 for severe liner wear. The only revised case from the ceramic group was secondary to mechanical stem loosening. Mean annual polyethylene wear was 0.19mm/year; wear was not measurable in the ceramic group. Our study confirms, in the long-term, the superiority of ceramic-on-ceramic pairing in comparison to metal-on-conventional polyethylene and supports their use in young, active patients. PMID:23821970

  20. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis. A single fiber electromyographic study.

    PubMed

    De Grandis, D; Fiaschi, A; Tomelleri, G; Orrico, D

    1978-06-01

    The neurophysiological findings obtained with standard electromyography (EMG) and single fiber EMG (SFEMG) in a case of hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HoPP) are reported. During the period between paralytic attacks the only abnormalities consisted of scanty fibrillation potentials and, with SFEMG, a fiber density increase. In the first stage of an induced paralytic attack the most striking feature was decrease in fiber density, slight increase in jitter with several blocks. These results indicate a failure of the membrane surface to propagate an action potential. In some fibers the block is likely to be permanent, thus explaining the decrease in fiber density. The jitter increase is due to a slight abnormality at the synaptic site or to a variation in the propagation velocity of the muscle fiber. PMID:690662

  1. [Setting-up an epidemiological monitoring system of mortality by trauma in children under 15 years of age in metropolitan France].

    PubMed

    Lasbeur, L; Thélot, B

    2014-11-01

    In metropolitan France in 2009, trauma was the leading cause of death among children under 15 years of age: 459 deaths (source CépiDc), with 236 deaths by home and leisure injuries (HLI). These rough mortality data do not describe the circumstances of the trauma responsible for the death. The "Fatal home and leisure injury among children under 15 years old-MAC-15" feasibility study was set up in 2009 in France in the following regions: Île-de-France, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, and Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur. The main objective of the survey was to understand exactly how these accidents occurred and determine their risk factors. Its secondary objectives were to test the feasibility and analyze the possibility of extending and/or scaling up the monitoring of these deaths. Case reporting was made through death certificates, contacts with regional health agencies, and media surveillance. A detailed record was completed by the medical certifier. In 2009, 76 HLI-related deaths in under 15-year-old children were identified by the survey in the three regions. The victims were mostly boys. The most common cause of death was drowning, followed by suffocation, falls, and fires. The survey contributed to precisely determining the risk factors of HLIs in children and, most often, to identifying the cause responsible for the fatal accident. The feasibility conclusions of this survey are positive, data collection is effective and practicable, and its quality and exhaustiveness were demonstrated. Implementation of the "detailed analyses of the deaths by trauma among children under 15 years old" survey is proposed. This survey will be extended to all deaths by trauma among children in Metropolitan France. PMID:25267189

  2. The clinical outcome of minimally invasive Phase 3 Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: a 15-year follow-up of 1000 UKAs.

    PubMed

    Pandit, H; Hamilton, T W; Jenkins, C; Mellon, S J; Dodd, C A F; Murray, D W

    2015-11-01

    There have been concerns about the long-term survival of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). This prospective study reports the 15-year survival and ten-year functional outcome of a consecutive series of 1000 minimally invasive Phase 3 Oxford medial UKAs (818 patients, 393 men, 48%, 425 women, 52%, mean age 66 years; 32 to 88). These were implanted by two surgeons involved with the design of the prosthesis to treat anteromedial osteoarthritis and spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee, which are recommended indications. Patients were prospectively identified and followed up independently for a mean of 10.3 years (5.3 to 16.6). At ten years, the mean Oxford Knee Score was 40 (standard deviation (sd) 9; 2 to 48): 79% of knees (349) had an excellent or good outcome. There were 52 implant-related re-operations at a mean of 5.5 years (0.2 to 14.7). The most common reasons for re-operation were arthritis in the lateral compartment (2.5%, 25 knees), bearing dislocation (0.7%, seven knees) and unexplained pain (0.7%, seven knees). When all implant-related re-operations were considered as failures, the ten-year rate of survival was 94% (95% confidence interval (CI) 92 to 96) and the 15-year survival rate 91% (CI 83 to 98). When failure of the implant was the endpoint the 15-year survival was 99% (CI 96 to 100). This is the only large series of minimally invasive UKAs with 15-year survival data. The results support the continued use of minimally invasive UKA for the recommended indications. PMID:26530651

  3. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in children: 15 years experience.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jianyong; Ding, Wenhong; Xiao, Yanyan; Jin, Mei; Zhang, Guizhen; Cheng, Pei; Han, Ling

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to illustrate the experience of treating children with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA). The clinical data for 19 children with ALCAPA admitted to Beijing Anzhen Hospital from August 1993 to June 2009 were reviewed. According to the data, 47.4% (9/19) of the patients had a misdiagnosis of endocardial fibroelastosis, and 15.8% (3/19) had a misdiagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy. Electrocardiography showed abnormal Q waves with T wave inversion in leads I, avL, and V4-V6 of 18 patients, especially in lead avL. The ratio of proximal right coronary artery diameter to aotic root diameter exceeded 0.20 for 15 of 16 patients. Apical ventricular aneurysm or aneurysmal dilation (52.6%,10/19), enhanced echogenicity of papillary muscles (84.2%, 16/19), and increased coronary collaterals (78.9%, 15/19) were detected frequently during echocardiography. A total of 18 patients underwent cardiac surgery including left coronary artery (LCA) ligation for 1 patient (5.6%), LCA ligation plus coronary artery bypass grafting for 1 patient (5.6%), Takeuchi operation for 7 patients (38.9%), and LCA reimplantation for 9 patients (50.0%). Five patients died in the hospital, and the remainder were asymptomatic during a follow-up period of 6 to 166 months. Their abnormal Q waves gradually regressed, and left ventricular systolic function and size returned to normal with alleviation of mitral insufficiency. The clinical features of ALCAPA are helpful for determining an accurate diagnosis. This anomaly can be treated successfully by several types of operations with good prognosis. PMID:20976445

  4. A Look into the National Drought Mitigation Center: Providing 15 Years of Drought Services (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, M. D.; Hayes, M. J.; Knutson, C. L.; Wardlow, B. D.

    2009-12-01

    The National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC) was formed in 1995 at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Over the past 15 years, the NDMC has made it a priority to work with various local, state, tribal and federal entities to provide a suite of drought/climate services, with a goal of bringing research to fruition through applications and operations. Through our research and outreach projects, the NDMC has worked to reduce risk to drought by developing several mitigation strategies, monitoring and decision making tools and other services aimed at enhancing our nation’s capacity to cope with drought. Two of the earliest NDMC activities were the creation of a website and assessing drought conditions around the United States. An electronic drought clearinghouse was built in 1995 at drought.unl.edu. The site was designed, and still concentrates, on the concepts of drought monitoring, planning, and mitigation and also serves as a repository of information from around the world. The NDMC’s electronic quarterly newsletter, DroughtScape, disseminates information about all things drought to people across the country. In addition, the NDMC has developed and is home to websites for the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM), Drought Impact Reporter (DIR), and the Vegetation Drought Response Index (VegDRI). In an effort to inform decision makers, the NDMC continually pursues ways to raise the awareness and visibility of drought as one of the most costly hazards we face. This began in the mid-1990s with the creation of a state-based drought impact assessment map that would help lead to the formation of the USDM in 1999 and the DIR in 2005. The NDMC plays a key role in producing the weekly USDM and the monthly North American Drought Monitor (NADM). The USDM was created out of collaborations between the NDMC, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and has quickly become one of the most widely used products in assessing

  5. Dryland crop sequence and tillage influences on soil water storage: First 15 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management practices and cropping systems have greatly changed over the past half century. In the northern Great Plains, soil water storage during the non-crop period of annual cropping systems helps to stabilize crop yields. Our objectives were to determine the influences of six crop sequences an...

  6. 200-BP-1 Prototype Hanford Barrier - 15 Years of Performance Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Anderson L.; Link, Steven O.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2009-09-01

    Engineered surface barriers are recognized as a remedial alternative to the removal, treatment and disposal of near-surface contaminants at a variety of waste sites within the DOE complex. One issue impacting their acceptance by stakeholders the use of limited data to predict long-term performance. In 1994, a 2-ha multi-component barrier was constructed over an existing waste disposal site at Hanford using natural materials. Monitoring has been almost continuous for the last 15 yrs and has focused on barrier stability, vegetative cover, plant and animal intrusion, and the components of the water balance, including precipitation, runoff, storage, drainage, and percolation. The total precipitation received from October 1994 through August 2008 was 3311 mm on the northern half (formerly irrigated), and 2638 mm on the southern, non-irrigated half. Water storage in the fine-soil layer shows a cyclic pattern, increasing in the winter and decreasing in the spring and summer to a lower limit of around 100 mm, regardless of precipitation, in response to evapotranspiration. Topographic surveys show the barrier and side slopes to be stable and the pea-gravel admix has proven effective in minimizing erosion through the creation of a desert pavement during deflationary periods. Three runoff events have been observed but the 600-mm design storage capacity has never been exceeded. Total percolation ranged from near zero amounts under the soil-covered plots to over 600 mm under the side slopes. The asphaltic concrete prevented any of this water from reaching the buried waste thereby eliminating the driving force for the contaminant remobilization. Plant surveys show a relatively high coverage of native plants still persists after the initial revegetation although the number of species decreased from 35 in 1994 to 10 in 2009. Ample evidence of insect and small mammal use suggests that the barrier is behaving like a recovering ecosystem. In September 2008, the north half of the

  7. Litigation in National Health Service oral and maxillofacial surgery: review of the last 15 years.

    PubMed

    Gulati, A; Herd, M K; Nimako, M; Anand, R; Brennan, P A

    2012-07-01

    Litigation claims are increasing in medicine but we know of little detailed analysis of those published concerning oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS) despite information being freely available from the NHS Litigation Authority (NHSLA) under the Freedom of Information Act. We obtained information from the NHSLA on clinical and non-clinical negligence claims in OMFS from April 1995 to August 2010, and analysed the data with outcomes and a further breakdown of subspecialty. During the period 318 claims relating to OMFS were registered. As expected, because of the high volume of patients treated, the highest number of claims related to dentoalveolar surgery and minor oral surgery. The total amount paid out was in excess of £5 million, and the highest claim (more than £300,000) during the period was for misdiagnosis of an oral cancer. Litigation in OMFS is increasing, as is the number of cases that necessitate compensation by the NHSLA. We discuss the trends and implications. PMID:21788098

  8. Brief Screening Instrument of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder for Children and Adolescents 7-15 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, AiZhong; Tan, Hongzhuan; Zhou, Jia; Li, Shuoqi; Yang, Tubao; Sun, Zhenqiu; Wen, Shi Wu

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to develop a brief screening instrument of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for young victims of natural disasters. Data were derived from flood victims in 1998 and 1999 in Hunan, China. A representative population sample of 6,852 subjects 7-15 years of age was selected. Among them, 6,073 (88.6%) were…

  9. The Relationship between Psychological Health and Attitude toward Christianity among Pupils Aged 11 to 15 Years in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Burton, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Advocates of the secularization thesis describe radical decline in the significance of the Christian tradition among young people in England. In this context, a sample of 5,808 pupils age 11 to 15 years provided data about their religious identity and practice and completed the short-form Revised Junior Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (as a…

  10. 29 CFR 570.33 - Occupations that are prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Occupations that are prohibited to minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.33 Section 570.33 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of...

  11. The Incentive Grant Approach in Higher Education: A 15 Year Record. Institute for Educational Leadership Reports: Nine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkelstein, Martin

    The incentive grant approach in higher Education is a resource allocation strategy that may have significant positive impact on educational performance. This document covers: (1) the incentive grant approach to resource allocation; (2) the evolution during the past 15 years of types of incentive grant programs and the contrasting roles played by…

  12. Financial Literacy of 15-Year-Olds: Results from PISA 2012. Data Point. NCES 2014-102

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Patrick; Kelly, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This Data Point uses data from the 2012 administration of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) financial literacy assessment. PISA is an international assessment that measures 15-year-old students' reading, mathematics, and science literacy and, in 2012, general problem solving and financial literacy. PISA is coordinated by…

  13. Life-Course Transitions, Social Class, and Gender: A 15-Year Perspective of the Lived Lives of Canadian Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andres, Lesley; Adamuti-Trache, Maria

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, through the theoretical lens of life-course research and reproduction theory, we employ 15 years of longitudinal data from the British Columbia, Canada "Paths on Life's Way" project to examine the extent to which educational and career pathways of this cohort of 1988 high school graduates are gendered, individualized, prolonged,…

  14. 29 CFR 570.31 - Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FR 28448, May 20, 2010. The employment of minors between 14 and 16 years of age in the occupations... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.31 Secretary's... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.31 Section 570.31 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued)...

  15. Health Behaviors and Protective Factors of School Students Aged 13-15 Years Old in Four Cities of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Benchun; Zhang, Wei; Qian, Ling; Lv, Shuhong; Tian, Xiangyang; Xiong, Guanglian; Yan, Weihong; Zhang, Xinwei; Kann, Laura K.; Riley, Leanne

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents baseline data on health behaviors and protective factors among junior middle school students aged 13-15 years old in China for the purpose of developing priorities, establishing programs and policies for school health and youth health and also establishing trends in the prevalence of these behaviors. The 2003 CHINA GSHS…

  16. Differential diagnosis of double site intussusception in childhood: a 15-year-old girl presenting with bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Joseph; Wright, Naomi Jane; Kufeji, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain in a teenage girl is common; however, thorough history and examination can often distinguish a more rare or sinister diagnosis. We present a case of a 15-year-old girl presenting with abdominal pain, who was subsequently diagnosed with double intussusception secondary to her previously unrecognised Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS). PMID:26581705

  17. The Campus Environmental Management System Cycle in Practice: 15 Years of Environmental Management, Education and Research at Dalhousie University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Amelia

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To challenge the deliberate strategy approach of the environmental management system (EMS) cycle, and offer a model based on both the practical reality experienced at Dalhousie University and emergent strategy theory. Also, to share some of the lessons learned in the 15 years of environmental management at Dalhousie University.…

  18. Red star over the red planet - Soviets plan 15-year series of Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Andrew; Bulloch, Chris

    The unmanned-spacecraft mission schedule announced by the Soviet Space Rsearch Institute for the 1988-2002 period begins with the use of orbiters to map the entire planet and a detailed investigation of Phobos. It then proceeds to detailed on-site investigations of selected areas, using landers that will deploy surface rovers, free-floating balloons, and surface penetrators. The ultimate medium-term objective is the return of soil and rock samples to earth for detailed analysis. All of these missions will involve invitations for foreign participation; some non-Soviet experiments are currently being integrated into the Phobos probes.

  19. Low-Temperature Aging Kinetics of a 15-Year Old Water-Quenched U-6wt.% Nb Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, L; Zhou, J

    2007-10-30

    } {approx} 0.5 nm) of modulation for the spinodal ordering, as illustrated in Fig. 2. Since the Nb modulation for the spinodal ordering can occur within the unit cell of {alpha}{double_prime} phase through the nearest jumps of atoms along the [001] direction, the degree of long-range order (S) increases from 0 to 0.16 as a result of the Nb modulation, as illustrated in Fig. 3. As we accelerated the ordering transformation by thermal heating a 15-year old alloy at 200 C, decomposition of the {alpha}{double_prime}{sub po} phase into {alpha} (U) and a fully ordered {alpha}{sub o} (U{sub 3}Nb) phase occurred, as shown in Fig. 4. Figure 5 shows the results of microhardness measurement and TEM analysis of the microstructural evolution in the 15-old alloy samples thermally heated at 200 C. Here, it can be clearly seen that the {alpha}{double_prime}{sub po} phase with a swirl-shape feature of antiphase boundaries (APBs) vanishes upon heating with the formation of U{sub 3}Nb precipitates, which gives rise to the increase of microhardness (precipitation hardening). Figure 6 shows the changes of tensile properties of the 15-old alloy thermally heated at 200 C. It can be readily seen that in addition to the increase of tensile strength (precipitation hardening), the ductility reduces from {approx}40% to {approx}14% after heating for 96 hours. In view of these adverse changes in tensile properties upon aging, we accordingly pursued a precipitation kinetics study on the 15-year old WQ-U6Nb alloy in order to develop an empirical time-temperature-transformation model for predicting the remaining lifetime of the WQ-U6Nb alloy in the stockpile.

  20. Prevalence of the developmental defects of the enamel in children aged 12–15 years in Kollam district

    PubMed Central

    Ravindran, Rathy; Saji, Ajish M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: To determine the prevalence of developmental defects of enamel in children aged 12–15 years in Kollam district and to examine the etiological factors associated with the developmental defects of the enamel (DDE). Materials and Methods: A total of 2,500 children from 10 urban and 10 rural schools were examined using modified DDE criteria for recording enamel defects. Ten index permanent teeth were screened for the DDE. Results: The overall prevalence of the DDE was found to be 32% and the prevalence is higher in urban schools (34.3%) compared to rural schools (29.6%). The most common tooth affected by the defect was maxillary right lateral incisor (P = 28.6%) and the tooth least affected was maxillary right first premolar (P = 3%). The most common deformity was demarcated opacities (P = 28.76%) and the least common deformity was combination of diffuse opacities and hypoplasia and combination of demarcated, diffuse opacities, and hypoplasia (P = 0%). There was a very high significant association between DDE and the mothers’ pregnancy age, illness during pregnancy for mother, medication taken during pregnancy by mother, prematurity of birth, intubation done during prematurity, birth weight, systemic illness during the first 5 years of life, intake of drugs or chemicals during the first 5 years of life, nutritional status, and trauma or infection on deciduous teeth and dental caries. Conclusions: The study population showed a prevalence of 32% and very high significant association between perinatal, natal, and postnatal etiological factors. It indicates the need for educating the population about the risk factors for the DDE. PMID:27011929

  1. The JPL ASTER Volcano Archive: the development and capabilities of a 15 year global high resolution archive of volcano data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linick, J. P.; Pieri, D. C.; Sanchez, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    The physical and temporal systematics of the world's volcanic activity is a compelling and productive arena for the exercise of orbital remote sensing techniques, informing studies ranging from basic volcanology to societal risk. Comprised of over 160,000 frames and spanning 15 years of the Terra platform mission, the ASTER Volcano Archive (AVA: http://ava.jpl.nasa.gov) is the world's largest (100+Tb) high spatial resolution (15-30-90m/pixel), multi-spectral (visible-SWIR-TIR), downloadable (kml enabled) dedicated archive of volcano imagery. We will discuss the development of the AVA, and describe its growing capability to provide new easy public access to ASTER global volcano remote sensing data. AVA system architecture is designed to facilitate parameter-based data mining, and for the implementation of archive-wide data analysis algorithms. Such search and analysis capabilities exploit AVA's unprecedented time-series data compilations for over 1,550 volcanoes worldwide (Smithsonian Holocene catalog). Results include thermal anomaly detection and mapping, as well as detection of SO2 plumes from explosive eruptions and passive SO2 emissions confined to the troposphere. We are also implementing retrospective ASTER image retrievals based on volcanic activity reports from Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) and the US Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA). A major planned expansion of the AVA is currently underway, with the ingest of the full 1972-present LANDSAT, and NASA EO-1, volcano imagery for comparison and integration with ASTER data. Work described here is carried out under contract to NASA at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory as part of the California Institute of Technology.

  2. Zinc status in HIV infected Ugandan children aged 1-5 years: a cross sectional baseline survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Low concentrations of serum zinc have been reported in HIV infected adults and are associated with disease progression and an increased risk of death. Few studies have been conducted in HIV infected children in Africa. We determined serum zinc levels and factors associated with zinc deficiency in HIV infected Ugandan children. Methods We measured the baseline zinc status of 247 children aged 1-5 years enrolled in a randomised trial for multiple micronutrient supplementation at paediatric HIV clinics in Uganda (http://ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00122941). Zinc status was determined using inductively coupled atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES). Clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared among zinc deficient (zinc < 10.0 μmol/L) and non deficient children. Logistic regression was used to determine predictors of low serum zinc. Results Of the 247 children, 134 (54.3%) had low serum zinc (< 10.0 μmol/L). Of the 44 children on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), 13 (29.5%) had low zinc compared to 121/203 (59.6%) who were not on HAART. Overall, independent predictors of low zinc were fever (OR 2.2; 95%CI 1.1 - 4.6) and not taking HAART (OR 3.7; 95%CI 1.8 - 7.6). Conclusion Almost two thirds of HAART naïve and a third of HAART treated HIV infected children were zinc deficient. Increased access to HAART among HIV infected children living in Uganda might reduce the prevalence of zinc deficiency. PMID:20858275

  3. Astronomy Over the Former Soviet Territory: 15 Years after the USSR Disintegration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkarev, N. G.

    2006-08-01

    During the post-Soviet period, the main infrastructure of astronomy over the territory of FSU was kept saved, in spite of dramatic decreasing of financial support. The overall situation in FSU astronomy is stable. In Latvia, the 32-m radio-dish is put into working order that allows it's joining VLBI programs and handed over to the Venspils University. In Russia, all the three 32-meter radio dishes of the QUASAR VLBI system are put in operation, as well as the 2-m telescope with a high-resolution spectrograph (up to resolution R≈500000) and the horizontal solar telescope (R= 320000) of the Russian-Ukrainian Observatory on Peak Terskol (Caucasus, altitude 3100 m). But the situation with the observatory is worrying, because of the regional authorities attempt to privatize its infrastructure. The process of equipping a number of CIS (including Russian) observatories with CCD-cameras is in progress. To solve the staff problems Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan have begun to prepare national specialists in astronomy and Baltic States, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia, Ukraine continue to prepare astronomers. Teaching of astronomy at schools is obligatory in Ukraine and Baltic Countries only. To maintain a "common astronomical space" Eurasian Astronomical Society (EAAS) continues the program of reduced-price subscription to Russian-language astronomical journals and magazines over the territory of FSU, organization of international conferences and Olympiads for school students, lectures for school teachers and planetarium lecturers, etc.

  4. Fatal violence among children under 15 years in four cities of South Africa, 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Prinsloo, Megan; Laubscher, Ria; Neethling, Ian; Bradshaw, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    Homicide rates for South African children were estimated at double the global average in 2000. This article presents a secondary data analysis of the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System (NIMSS), with full coverage in four major metropolitan cities. Child homicide rates for 2001-2005 were calculated within the 0-4, 5-9 and 10-14 year age groups. The homicide rates were similar to the global pattern, with higher rates for boys, and among children aged 0-4 years than for older children. Poisson regression, accounting for city level clustering, was used to investigate age, sex and period effects in the homicide rate. The model indicated that the gender difference was more marked in the 10-14 year age groups (RR = 2.17; 95% CI 1.97-2.38) than in the 5-9 year (RR = 1.43; 95% CI 1.27-1.62) with the 0-4 year age group in-between (RR = 1.80; 95% CI 1.55-2.10). These data confirm previous observations that fatal violence among children is a public health concern, but, given the high rates of homicide among South African adults and other competing public health problems, it is difficult to motivate for action to address the issue of violence against children. Nonetheless, there are sufficient indications that efforts to reduce childhood violence are urgently needed. PMID:22166056

  5. Dimensions and aspects of longing: age and gender differences in Swedish 9-, 12-, and 15-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Holm, O

    2001-07-01

    Longing can be defined as a secondary emotion, as a blend of the primary emotions of love and sadness. There are several possible dimensions and aspects of longing (O. Holm, 1999). Both age and gender differences are well documented in earlier research on other emotions. In the present investigation, 122 girls and 120 boys, ages 9, 12, and 15 years, in compulsory school in Sweden, answered a questionnaire about dimensions and aspects of their own longing. The results showed both age and gender differences. Girls, especially in the 15-year-old group, experienced longing significantly more than boys. The results were interpreted as generally in accordance with what is known from earlier research on other emotions. PMID:11728061

  6. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion in a 15-Year-Old Boy with Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Kadayifcilar, Sibel; Eldem, Bora

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy in a case of branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) in a 15-year-old boy. Methods. We report a 15-year-old boy with sudden loss of vision due to BRAO. Examination included laboratory evaluation for systemic risk factors. Follow-up exams included visual acuity, fundus examination, fundus fluorescein angiography, and visual field testing. HBO therapy was employed for treatment. Results. Medical history was positive for isolated glucocorticoid deficiency. Laboratory evaluation disclosed hyperhomocysteinemia and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutation. The visual acuity 0.05 at presentation improved to 0.8 after 20 days of HBO therapy. There was no change on visual fields. Conclusion. In this pediatric case, HBO therapy was useful in the treatment of BRAO. PMID:25722905

  7. [A 15-year-old adolescent presenting both Madelung deformity with Vickers' ligament and additional palmaris profundus muscle].

    PubMed

    Spies, C K; Hahn, P; Leclère, F M; Unglaub, F

    2014-06-01

    The palmaris profundus muscle is a rare entity which has been mentioned in association with nerve compressions. Madelung deformity is based both on an osteochondral lesion of the distal radial physis and often on the Vickers' ligament which originates around the lunate and inserts proximally in the radial physis. A 15-year-old right-handed female adolescent suffered from symptomatic left-sided Madelung deformity with Vickers' ligament and additional palmaris profundus muscle. PMID:24573910

  8. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Patients With Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenomas: Results From a 15-Year Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, Bruce E. Cochran, Joseph; Natt, Neena; Brown, Paul D.; Erickson, Dana; Link, Michael J.; Garces, Yolanda I.; Foote, Robert L.; Stafford, Scott L.; Schomberg, Paula J.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and complications of stereotactic radiosurgery for patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFA). Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective review of 62 patients with NFA undergoing radiosurgery between 1992 and 2004, of whom 59 (95%) underwent prior tumor resection. The median treatment volume was 4.0 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.8-12.9). The median treatment dose to the tumor margin was 16 Gy (range, 11-20). The median maximum point dose to the optic apparatus was 9.5 Gy (range, 5.0-12.6). The median follow-up period after radiosurgery was 64 months (range, 23-161). Results: Tumor size decreased for 37 patients (60%) and remained unchanged for 23 patients (37%). Two patients (3%) had tumor growth outside the prescribed treatment volume and required additional treatment (fractionated radiation therapy, n = 1; repeat radiosurgery, n 1). Tumor growth control was 95% at 3 and 7 years after radiosurgery. Eleven (27%) of 41 patients with normal (n = 30) or partial (n = 11) anterior pituitary function before radiosurgery developed new deficits at a median of 24 months after radiosurgery. The risk of developing new anterior pituitary deficits at 5 years was 32%. The 5-year risk of developing new anterior pituitary deficits was 18% for patients with a tumor volume of {<=}4.0 cm{sup 3} compared with 58% for patients with a tumor volume >4.0 cm{sup 3} (risk ratio 4.5; 95% confidence interval = 1.3-14.9, p = 0.02). No patient had a decline in visual function. Conclusions: Stereotactic radiosurgery is effective in the management of patients with residual or recurrent NFA, although longer follow-up is needed to evaluate long-term outcomes. The primary complication is hypopituitarism, and the risk of developing new anterior pituitary deficits correlates with the size of the irradiated tumor.

  9. [15-year results following implantation of a stem type AML hip prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Schwerter, K; Meyenberg, A; Sander, K; Layher, F; Roth, A

    2013-06-01

    The trend in arthroplasty of the hip joint to implement new models is partly based on theoretical considerations. In order to verify to which extent the philosophy of individual models is ultimately successful, the presentation of long-term results is required. In the years 1991 and 1992, 433 patients with primary implantation of an uncemented total hip replacement in primary coxarthrosis with a stem type AML (anatomic medullary locking) were treated surgically. 283 of them got a cementless cup type Duraloc. In 311 (71.8 %) patients the mean survival rate of the prosthesis could be determined at a mean follow-up of 15.5 years. 145 (33.5 %) patients were followed up completely both clinically and radiologically. Radiographically, the stem position, changes of the periprosthetic bone of the stem and the cup, as well as the wear of the cups were examined. The cumulative survival rate of the AML stem after 15.5 years was 97.5 %, of the Duraloc cup 88.2 %. The clinical results of the hip scores according to Harris and Merle d'Aubigné were good and excellent and patient satisfaction was very high. There was no relationship between stem position, stress shielding and surrounding lyses at the femur and the acetabulum and survival of stem or cup. There was no correlation between inlay wear and survival of the Duraloc cup. A subsiding of the stem in 2 cases had no effect on the clinical symptoms and quality of life. The press-fit implanted AML stem and the Duraloc cup revealed very good results during the investigation period. Like other implants, the survival rate is limited at the presented implant mainly by the cup. PMID:23696163

  10. WWC Quick Review of the Article "Effects of Social Development Intervention in Childhood 15 Years Later"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The selected study examined the long-term effects of the "Seattle Social Development Project (SSDP)," an elementary-school-based intervention designed to improve students' social skills and engagement. The study analyzed data on about 600 young adults who had been students in 15 public elementary schools serving high-crime areas in Seattle,…

  11. Alcohol misuse in Greece: a 15-year experience from a specialized outpatient service.

    PubMed

    Pomini, V; Mellos, L; Paparrigopoulos, T; Liappas, J

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use in Greece is traditionally diffused among its population. According to general population surveys, three out of four Greeks aged 12-64 referred to alcohol consumption during the last year and 10% reported at least one episode of alcohol abuse during the last month. Furthermore, the large majority of young people aged 13-18 reported lifetime use of alcohol and 14.8% of them reported more than three episodes of alcohol abuse during the last month. Apparently, cultural factors have influenced the pattern of alcohol consumption and the ensuing alcohol-related problems during the last two decades. The "Athena" Service is an outpatient therapeutic unit for the management of substance misusers and their families. It is a specialized abstinence-oriented service that does not administer substance substitutes; mental health professionals of the service work as a multidisciplinary team. Motivational approaches, individual cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy and family interventions of a systemic orientation are the principal therapeutic techniques applied. Adjunctive medication is prescribed whenever mild to moderate concomitant psychopathology is detected. Support measures such as provisional use of medication, use of antagonistic agents or brief hospitalization can be provided if deemed necessary. No strict time limits are applied regarding treatment duration and discharge from the program. During the period 1998-2013, a total of 1511 individuals with alcohol-related problems addressed the service. The changing pattern of substance misuse over the last fifteen years can be summarized as follows: (a) there is a gradually increasing number of women misusing substances; (b) there is an increasing proportion of young adults reporting multi-substance use with concurrent psychiatric disorders; (c) there is an increasing proportion of young adults regularly using/misusing substances; (d) there is a decreasing proportion of middle-aged individuals presenting with

  12. A 15-year global biogeochemical reanalysis with ocean colour data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, David; Barciela, Rosa

    2013-04-01

    A continuous global time-series of remotely sensed ocean colour observations is available from 1997 to the present day. However coverage is incomplete, and limited to the sea surface. Models are therefore required to provide full spatial coverage, and to investigate the relationships between physical and biological variables and the carbon cycle. Data assimilation can then be used to constrain models to fit the observations, thereby combining the advantages of both sources of information. As part of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative (ESA-CCI), we assimilate chlorophyll concentration derived from ocean colour observations into a coupled physical-biogeochemical model. The data assimilation scheme (Hemmings et al., 2008, J. Mar. Res.; Ford et al., 2012, Ocean Sci.) uses the information from the observations to update all biological and carbon cycle state variables within the model. Global daily reanalyses have been produced, with and without assimilation of merged ocean colour data provided by GlobColour, for the period September 1997 to August 2012. The assimilation has been shown to significantly improve the model's representation of chlorophyll concentration, at the surface and at depth. Furthermore, there is evidence of improvement to the representation of pCO2, nutrients and zooplankton concentration compared to in situ observations. We use the results to quantify recent seasonal and inter-annual variability in variables including chlorophyll concentration, air-sea CO2 flux and alkalinity. In particular, we explore the impact of physical drivers such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the model's representation of chlorophyll and the carbon cycle, and the pros and cons of the model reanalyses compared to observation-based climatologies. Furthermore, we perform a comparison between the GlobColour product and an initial version of a new merged product being developed as part of the ESA-CCI. Equivalent year-long hindcasts are

  13. Duration of rubella immunity induced by two-dose measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination. A 15-year follow-up in Finland.

    PubMed

    Davidkin, I; Peltola, H; Leinikki, P; Valle, M

    2000-07-15

    A national two-dose vaccination program with a combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR-II) vaccine was introduced in Finland, in 1982, immunizing children at the ages of 14-18 months and 6 years. Antibody levels were determined from serial samples from a group of originally 350 children during 15 years. The latest samples were taken 15.5 years after the first vaccination and 70% of the children could still be reached. The aim of this study was to determine the kinetics of rubella antibodies induced by the MMR-II vaccine in these individuals. Rubella antibodies were analyzed from three different cohorts: Group I seronegative children (n=166) vaccinated at 14-18 months and 6 years, Group II seronegative children (n=139) and Group III seropositive children (n=16) vaccinated at 6 and 11-13 years. Samples collected 0-9 years after vaccination were analyzed by hemolysis-in-gel (HIG) and later samples by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) techniques. The primary vaccination induced 100% seropositivity in vaccinees with a mean zone diameter of 10 (+/-1.3), 10.2 (+/-1.1) and 11.5 (+/-0.9) mm, in Groups I, II and III, respectively. The seropositivity rate was still high at 15 years, 99%, 100% and 100% with the geometric mean titer 23, 46 and 105 IU/ml, respectively. At 15 years, antibody levels <15 IU/ml which is the suggested protective level, were found in 31, 9 and 0% of children in Groups I, II and III, respectively. Because almost a third of the individuals in Group I now, at the age of 17 years, had low levels of rubella antibodies, it is possible that rubella infections may re-emerge during pregnancy. A careful surveillance including serological follow-up is therefore very important. PMID:10856790

  14. New times of minimum and a period study for GO Cygni

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Douglas S.; Louth, Howard

    1990-01-01

    Times of minimum derived from photometry obtained in 1963, 1967, 1978, and 1979 are presented. With these and previously published times, the period is studied. A constant period increase (quadratic ephemeris) represents most of the times but there was a period decrease in 1934 and possibly in 1984. A 50-year magnetic cycle is discussed.

  15. A Study of Periodical Literature Searching at an Urban Research Library: Problems and Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Kevin

    Patron use of periodical indexes at an urban academic research library was studied over a 7-week period in the summer of 1982. A total of 98 patrons were interviewed on a random basis as they used various periodical and newspaper indexes. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on citation elements, the methods patrons use to locate…

  16. Mental health inequalities in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents explained by personal social position and family socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mental health inequalities are an increasingly important global problem. This study examined the association between mental health status and certain socioeconomic indicators (personal social position and the socioeconomic status of the family) in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents. Methods Data originate from the WHO-Collaborative cross-national ‘Health Behavior in School-aged Children’ study conducted in Slovenia in 2010 (1,815 secondary school pupils, aged 15). Mental health status was measured by: KIDSCREEN-10, the Strength and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), a life satisfaction scale, and one question about feelings of depression. Socioeconomic position was measured by the socioeconomic status of the family (Family Affluence Scale, perceived material welfare, family type, occupational status of parents) and personal social position (number of friends and the type of school). Logistic regression and a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were performed. Results Girls had 2.5-times higher odds of suffering feelings of depression (p < 0.001), 1.5-times higher odds of low life satisfaction (p = 0.008), and a greater chance of a lower quality of life and a higher SDQ score than boys (p = 0.001). The adolescents who perceived their family’s material welfare as worse had 4-times higher odds (p < 0.001) of a low life satisfaction, a greater chance of a low quality of life, and a higher SDQ score than those who perceived it as better (p < 0.001). Adolescents with no friends had lower KIDSCREEN-10 and higher SDQ scores than those who had more than three friends. Conclusions Despite the fact that Slovenia is among the EU members with the lowest rates of social inequalities, it was found that adolescents with a lower socioeconomic position have poorer mental health than those with a higher socioeconomic position. Because of the financial crisis, we can expect an increase in social inequalities and a greater impact on

  17. Trends in HIV-1 prevalence and risk behaviours over 15 years in a rural population in Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mmbaga, Elia J; Hussain, Akhtar; Leyna, Germana H; Holm-Hansen, Carol; Mnyika, Kagoma S; Sam, Noel E; Klouman, Elise; Klepp, Knut-Inge

    2007-01-01

    Background Monitoring dynamics in HIV-1 infection and risk behaviours is important in evaluating, adjusting and scaling up prevention programmes. The objective of this study was to estimate trends in the prevalence of HIV-1 infection and risk behaviours over 15 years in a rural village population in Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania using repeated population-based cross-sectional surveys. Methods Four rounds of HIV-1 sero-epidemiological and behavioural surveys were completed during 1991 to 2005 in the study village. House-to-house registrations of people aged 15–44 years with an address in the village were conducted before each survey. All consenting individuals were then interviewed for pertinent risk behaviours and tested for HIV-1 seropositivity. Results Participation proportions ranged from 73.0% to 79.1%. Overall, age and sex-adjusted HIV-1 prevalence increased from 3.2% in 1991 to 5.6 % in 2005 (relative increase 75.0%; ptrend < 0.001). The increase was significant for both men and women (ptrends < 0.001) and more evident among women aged 35–44 years (2.0% to 13.0%, ptrend < 0.001). Among participants aged 15–24 years a decrease in number of sexual partners was observed with a corresponding stable HIV-1 prevalence. Participants aged 25–44 years continued to report multiple sexual partners, and this was corroborated with increased HIV-1 prevalence trend (4.0% to 9.0%, ptrends < 0.001). Among men aged 25–44 years and women aged 15–24 years significant increases in condom use were observed (ptrend < 0.01). Conclusion The HIV-1 prevalence seems to have increased among older participants but remained stable among younger participants. Encouraging trends toward safer sex practices were observed among young participants, while only modest behavioural changes were seen among the older participants. Prevention efforts in rural areas need to be intensified and to address people of all ages. PMID:17939856

  18. From basic research to biological treatments: psoriasis publications over the past 15 years.

    PubMed

    Pavlovsky, L; Mimouni, F B; Hodak, E; David, M; Mimouni, D

    2009-07-01

    In the past few decades, great progress has been made in psoriasis research, culminating with the development of new, biological treatments. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that there is a linear increase in psoriasis publications over time. We evaluated all PubMed articles from 1 January 1993 to 31 December 2007. We categorized the search into basic science, traditional therapy and new biological treatments. We used regression analysis to determine the effect of year of publication upon number of publications of each type. There was a significant quadratic increase in the number of all types of psoriasis publications, with basic science-related publications being greatest, followed by relevant clinical publications. We conclude that better understanding of psoriasis immunopathology has led to a significant yearly increase in clinical studies, contributing approximately 60% of studies in the entire field of dermatology reports. PMID:19438559

  19. Neonatal Intestinal Obstruction: A 15 Year Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Rattan, Kamal Nain; Yadav, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Neonatal intestinal obstruction is the most common surgical emergency in a newborn requiring prompt intervention. There are only very few studies done in world regarding pattern of neonatal intestinal obstruction. Aim This study was conducted to see the aetiological spectrum of neonatal intestinal obstruction and to find out the problems and outcome of surgical management. Materials and Methods This study was done retrospectively to include all operated cases of neonatal intestinal obstruction from June 2000 to May 2015 and various factors affecting outcome were analysed. Results A total of 298 newborns were included in the study. Male-female ratio was 1.8:1. Gestational age was variable from 32 to 42 weeks (mean = 37.5 weeks) and birth weight from 1.4 to 3.5kg (mean= 2.25 kg). Mean age of presentation was 6 days with intestinal atresia (49.6%) as the commonest cause. Other causes were Hirschsprung (13%), Malrotation gut (11.7%), Meconium ileus (7.3%), patent VID (5%), duodenal obstruction (4%), duplication cyst (3.7%), obstructed hernia (2.7%) and others (2.7%). Mortality rate was 16.4% with sepsis both pre as well as post operative as the main cause of mortality. Conclusion The morbidity and mortality of neonatal intestinal obstruction has improved over last few years mainly due to antenatal detection, early intervention, meticulous resuscitation before surgery along with good NICU care. PMID:27042546

  20. Working Memory Structure in 10- and 15-Year Old Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual, Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Mariet J.

    2010-01-01

    The validity of Baddeley's working memory model within the typically developing population, was tested. However, it is not clear if this model also holds in children and adolescents with mild to, borderline intellectual disabilities (ID; IQ score 55-85). The main purpose of this study was therefore, to explore the model's validity in this…

  1. PEDOMETER RELIABILITY, VALIDITY AND DAILY ACTIVITY TARGETS AMONG 10- TO 15-YEAR-OLD BOYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aims of this study were to: (1) determine whether the number of pedometer counts recorded by adolescents differs according to the adiposity of the participant or location on the body; (2) assess the accuracy and reliability of pedometers during field activity; and (3) set adolescent pedometer-ba...

  2. A Horizontal Approach to School Transitions: A Lesson Learned from Finnish 15-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhalto, Kirsi; Soini, Tiina

    2010-01-01

    Various school transitions provide both challenges and opportunities for pupils. The ways in which pupils cope with these transitions can have a significant impact on their everyday lives and futures. This study focuses on exploring the kinds of transitions pupils face during their comprehensive school path. The aim is to gain a better…

  3. Should Women Younger Than 40 Years of Age With Invasive Breast Cancer Have a Mastectomy?: 15-Year Outcomes in a Population-Based Cohort

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Jeffrey Q.; Truong, Pauline T.; Olivotto, Ivo A.; Olson, Robert; Coulombe, Genevieve; Keyes, Mira; Weir, Lorna; Gelmon, Karen; Bernstein, Vanessa; Woods, Ryan; Speers, Caroline; Tyldesley, Scott

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Optimal local management for young women with early-stage breast cancer remains controversial. This study examined 15-year outcomes among women younger than 40 years treated with breast-conserving surgery plus whole-breast radiation therapy (BCT) compared with those treated with modified radical mastectomy (MRM). Methods and Materials: Women aged 20 to 39 years with early-stage breast cancer diagnosed between 1989 and 2003 were identified in a population-based database. Primary outcomes of breast cancer–specific survival (BCSS), overall survival (OS) and secondary outcomes of local relapse–free survival (LRFS), locoregional relapse–free survival (LRRFS), and distant relapse–free survival (DRFS) were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods and compared between BCT and MRM cohorts using log-rank tests. A planned subgroup analysis was performed on patients considered “ideal” for BCT (ie, T1N0, negative margins and no extensive ductal carcinoma in situ) and in whom local therapy may have the largest impact on survival because of low systemic risk. Results: 965 patients were identified; 616 had BCT and 349 had MRM. The median follow-up time was 14.4 years (range, 8.4-23.3 years). Overall, 15-year rates of BCSS (76.0% vs 74.1%, P=.62), OS (74.2% vs 73.0%, P=.75), LRFS (85.4% vs 86.5%, P=.95), LRRFS (82.2% vs 81.6%, P=.61), and DRFS (74.4% vs 71.6%, P=.40) were similar between the BCT and MRM cohorts. In the “ideal” for BCT subgroup, there were 219 BCT and 67 MRM patients with a median follow-up time of 15.5 years. The 15-year BCSS (86.1% vs 82.9%, P=.57), OS (82.6% vs 82.9%, P=.89), LRFS (86.2% vs 84.2%, P=.50), LRRFS (83.1% vs 78.3%, P=.24), and DRFS (84.8% vs 79.1%, P=.17) were similar in the BCT and MRM cohorts. Conclusions: This population-based analysis with long-term follow-up confirmed that women younger than 40 years treated with BCT had similar 15-year outcomes compared with MRM. Young age alone is not a contraindication to BCT.

  4. Trends in the Prevalence of Morbid and Severe Obesity in Australian Children Aged 7-15 Years, 1985-2012

    PubMed Central

    Garnett, Sarah P.; Baur, Louise A.; Jones, Aimee M. D.; Hardy, Louise L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Children with severe obesity have greater risk of adverse health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess trends in the prevalence of morbid and severe obesity in Australian children between 1985 and 2012. Methods Secondary analysis of four national Australian cross-sectional surveys of measured height/weight in 7–15 year olds: Australian Health and Fitness Survey 1985 (n = 8,486), National Nutrition Survey 1995 (n = 1,541), the National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2007 (n = 2,585) and the National Health Survey 2012 (n = 2,940). International Obesity Taskforce cut-point was used for morbid obesity (equivalent to a BMI ≥35kg/m2 at age 18 years). Severe obesity class 2 was defined as BMI ≥120% and <140% of the 95th percentile of the CDC 2000 growth charts or a BMI ≥35 and <40, and severe obesity class 3 as BMI ≥140% of the 95th percentile or a BMI ≥40. Results Between 1985 and 2012 the prevalence of morbid obesity increased from 0.2% to 1.8%, class 2 severe obesity from 0.3% to 2.0%, and class 3 from 0.1% to 0.5%. Children with morbid obesity represented 11.3% of children with obesity in 1985 and increased to 22.5% in 2012 (P = 0.005). Children with severe obesity represented 19.3% of children with obesity in 1985 and increased to 32.0% in 2012 (P = 0.016). The greatest increase was observed between 1995 and 2007. The proportion of children who were classified as morbidly or severely obese was not significantly different between 2007 and 2012, nor was it significantly different between age and sex groups. Conclusion Prevalence of morbid and severe obesity among children is low, but has significantly increased between 1985 and 2012. In contrast to overweight and obese children, children with morbid obesity require tertiary intervention. Failure to treat these children will have significant implications for the individual child and community. PMID:27171503

  5. Assessment of Mandibular Movements in 10 to 15 Year-old Patients With and Without Temporomandibular Disorders.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Silvina G; Biondi, Ana M; Fridman, Diana E; Guitelman, Ingrid; Farah, Catalina L

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference values for mandibular movements in 10- to 15-year-olds without dysfunction and compare these values to those in patients of the same age with tempromandibular disorders (TMD) and those found previously in a group of children younger than 11 years old without TMD. Children of both genders who visited the Department of Comprehensive Pediatric Dentistry at Buenos Aires University in 2013 and whose parents or guardians provided consent were evaluated using TMD/RDC by standardized pediatric dentists (Kappa 0.88). Three groups were formed according to diagnostic summary: Group C, without TMD; Group Ia, with myofascial pain, and Group Ib, pain with limited mouth opening. The following variables were analyzed: age, gender and mandibular movements. The sample included 169 patients aged 12.5±1.76 years, of whom 62.36% did not have TMD (C) while 37.27% were diagnosed with muscle disorder (29.58% Ia and 7.69% Ib). For Group C, the following values (in mm) were recorded: maximal unassisted opening: 48.28±6.14; right lateral movement 8.78±2.50; left lateral movement: 9.60±2.64; protrusion: 4.94±2.58 and overbite: 2.98 ± 2.5, with no variation associated to sex, but with differences in the values recorded for all movements compared to those obtained for mixed dentition (p=0.0001). Analysis of mean values for mandibular movements in all 3 groups only revealed differences for maximal unassisted opening (p= 0.0317). With relation to gender, TMD was more frequent in females, with significant differences between Groups C and Ia (p=0.019). In males without dysfunction, average maximal opening was 48.28±6.14mm, with lower values in patients with TMD. Mandibular movements in pediatric patients without TMD showed significant differences according to dentition type and age. PMID:27095624

  6. 15 years of upper tropospheric relative humidity in-situ measurements by the MOZAIC programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neis, Patrick; Smit, Herman G. J.; Alteköster, Lukas; Rohs, Susanne; Wahner, Andreas; Spichtinger, Peter; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Water vapour is a major parameter in weather prediction and climate research. However, the interaction between water vapour in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere (UT/LS) and tropopause dynamics are not well understood. Furthermore, the knowledge about potential trends and feedback mechanisms of upper troposphere/lower stratosphere water vapour is low because of the large variability of observations and relatively short data records. A continuous measurement of upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) is still difficult because the abundance of UTH is highly variable on spatial and temporal scales, which cannot be resolved, neither by the global radiosondes network nor by satellites. Since 1994, UTH data with high spatial and temporal resolution are provided by the in-situ measurements aboard civil passenger aircraft from the MOZAIC/IAGOS-programme (www.iagos.org). The measurement system is based on a capacitive hygrometer with a simultaneous temperature measurement installed in a conventional Rosemount housing. In recent studies the MOZAIC Capacitive Hygrometer (MCH) and its improved successor IAGOS Capacitive Hygrometer (ICH) are compared against research-grade water vapour instruments during airborne field studies. The qualification of the Capacitive Hygrometer for the use in long-term observation programmes is successfully demonstrated and the continuation of high data quality is confirmed for the transition from MCH to ICH. After the reanalysis of the relative humidity data from 1994 to 2009, this extensive and unique data set is examined by criteria of continuity, homogeneity and quantity of data coverage, to identify global regions suitable for UTH climatology and trend analyses. For the identified target regions time series and climatologies of, e.g., relative humidity with respect to ice, temperature, and absolute humidity are investigated. First results of this study will be presented.

  7. A 15-year climatology of wind pattern impacts on surface ozone in Houston, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souri, Amir Hossein; Choi, Yunsoo; Li, Xiangshang; Kotsakis, Alexander; Jiang, Xun

    2016-06-01

    Houston is recognized for its large petrochemical industrial facilities providing abundant radicals for tropospheric ozone formation. Fortunately, maximum daily 8-h average (MDA8) surface ozone concentrations have declined in Houston (- 0.6 ± 0.3 ppbv yr- 1) during the summers (i.e., May to September) of 2000 to 2014, possibly due to the reductions in precursor emissions by effective control policies. However, it is also possible that changes in meteorological variables have affected ozone concentrations. This study focused on the impact of long-term wind patterns which have the highest impact on ozone in Houston. The analysis of long-term wind patterns can benefit surface ozone studies by 1) providing wind patterns that distinctly changed ozone levels, 2) investigating the frequency of patterns and the respective changes and 3) estimating ozone trends in specific wind patterns that local emissions are mostly involved, thus separating emissions impacts from meteorology to some extent. To this end, the 900-hPa flow patterns in summers of 2000 to 2014 were clustered in seven classes (C1-C7) by deploying an unsupervised partitioning method. We confirm the characteristics of the clusters from a backward trajectory analysis, monitoring networks, and a regional chemical transport model simulation. The results indicate that Houston has experienced a statistically significant downward trend (- 0.6 ± 0.4 day yr- 1) of the cluster of weak easterly and northeasterly days (C4), when the highest fraction of ozone exceedances (MDA8 > 70 ppbv) occurred. This suggests that the reduction in ozone precursors was not the sole reason for the decrease in ozone exceedance days (- 1.5 ± 0.6 day yr- 1). Further, to examine the efficiency of control policies intended to reduce the amount of ozone, we estimated the trend of MDA8 ozone in C4 and C5 (weak winds) days when local emissions are primarily responsible for high ambient ozone levels. Both C4 and C5 show a large reduction in the

  8. 15 Years of Microstate Research in Schizophrenia - Where Are We? A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Kathryn; Diaz Hernandez, Laura; Baenninger, Anja; Koenig, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients show abnormalities in a broad range of task demands. Therefore, an explanation common to all these abnormalities has to be sought independently of any particular task, ideally in the brain dynamics before a task takes place or during resting state. For the neurobiological investigation of such baseline states, EEG microstate analysis is particularly well suited, because it identifies subsecond global states of stable connectivity patterns directly related to the recruitment of different types of information processing modes (e.g., integration of top-down and bottom-up information). Meanwhile, there is an accumulation of evidence that particular microstate networks are selectively affected in schizophrenia. To obtain an overall estimate of the effect size of these microstate abnormalities, we present a systematic meta-analysis over all studies available to date relating EEG microstates to schizophrenia. Results showed medium size effects for two classes of microstates, namely, a class labeled C that was found to be more frequent in schizophrenia and a class labeled D that was found to be shortened. These abnormalities may correspond to core symptoms of schizophrenia, e.g., insufficient reality testing and self-monitoring as during auditory verbal hallucinations. As interventional studies have shown that these microstate features may be systematically affected using antipsychotic drugs or neurofeedback interventions, these findings may help introducing novel diagnostic and treatment options. PMID:26955358

  9. Severe convection features in the Amazon Basin: a TRMM-based 15-year evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira Nunes, Ana; Silva Dias, Maria; Anselmo, Evandro; Rodriguez, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall in the Amazon Basin is very heterogeneous, mainly because the area encompassed is quite large. Among the systems responsible for rainfall, some stand out as extreme storm events. This study presents a criterion for identifying potentially severe convection in the Amazon region from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) database, specifically from Precipitation Features (PF) - 1998-2012 - generated and stored by the University of Utah. The seasonal and spatial distributions are similar to distributions of Mesoscale Convective Systems already catalogued in previous studies based on GOES satellite images. The seasons with the highest number of cases are austral spring, winter, and fall. With the Amazon region divided into six subregions and cases accumulated by quarter (JFM, AMJ, JAS, OND) the south of the Amazon subregion (SA) accounts for the largest number of cases with the OND quarter with higher occurrence and the lowest in AMJ. Different diurnal cycles of potentially severe convection are observed across the region with the more western areas, closer to the Andes, favoring nighttime cases, especially in the austral spring and summer. The diurnal cycle of the number of the most extreme cases is more pronounced than the diurnal cycle when a large collection of deep convection cases are included.

  10. 15 Years of Microstate Research in Schizophrenia – Where Are We? A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Kathryn; Diaz Hernandez, Laura; Baenninger, Anja; Koenig, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients show abnormalities in a broad range of task demands. Therefore, an explanation common to all these abnormalities has to be sought independently of any particular task, ideally in the brain dynamics before a task takes place or during resting state. For the neurobiological investigation of such baseline states, EEG microstate analysis is particularly well suited, because it identifies subsecond global states of stable connectivity patterns directly related to the recruitment of different types of information processing modes (e.g., integration of top-down and bottom-up information). Meanwhile, there is an accumulation of evidence that particular microstate networks are selectively affected in schizophrenia. To obtain an overall estimate of the effect size of these microstate abnormalities, we present a systematic meta-analysis over all studies available to date relating EEG microstates to schizophrenia. Results showed medium size effects for two classes of microstates, namely, a class labeled C that was found to be more frequent in schizophrenia and a class labeled D that was found to be shortened. These abnormalities may correspond to core symptoms of schizophrenia, e.g., insufficient reality testing and self-monitoring as during auditory verbal hallucinations. As interventional studies have shown that these microstate features may be systematically affected using antipsychotic drugs or neurofeedback interventions, these findings may help introducing novel diagnostic and treatment options. PMID:26955358

  11. Insulin Aspart in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus: 15 Years of Clinical Experience.

    PubMed

    Hermansen, Kjeld; Bohl, Mette; Schioldan, Anne Grethe

    2016-01-01

    Limiting excessive postprandial glucose excursions is an important component of good overall glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that insulin aspart, which is structurally identical to regular human insulin except for the replacement of a single proline amino acid with an aspartic acid residue, has a more physiologic time-action profile (i.e., reaches a higher peak and reaches that peak sooner) than regular human insulin. As expected with this improved pharmacokinetic profile, insulin aspart demonstrates a greater glucose-lowering effect compared with regular human insulin. Numerous randomized controlled trials and a meta-analysis have also demonstrated improved postprandial control with insulin aspart compared with regular human insulin in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, as well as efficacy and safety in children, pregnant patients, hospitalized patients, and patients using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Studies have demonstrated that step-wise addition of insulin aspart is a viable intensification option for patients with type 2 diabetes failing on basal insulin. Insulin aspart has shown a good safety profile, with no evidence of increased receptor binding, mitogenicity, stimulation of anti-insulin antibodies, or hypoglycemia compared with regular human insulin. In one meta-analysis, there was evidence of a lower rate of nocturnal hypoglycemia compared with regular human insulin and, in a trial that specifically included patients with a history of recurrent hypoglycemia, a significantly lower rate of severe hypoglycemic episodes. The next generation of insulin aspart (faster-acting insulin aspart) is being developed with a view to further improving on these pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties. PMID:26607485

  12. Pediatric Exposure to Drugs of Abuse by Hair Testing: Monitoring 15 Years of Evolution in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Pichini, Simona; García-Algar, Oscar; Alvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Mortali, Claudia; Gottardi, Massimo; Svaizer, Fiorenza; Pacifici, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Hair testing is a useful tool to investigate the prevalence of unsuspected chronic exposure to drugs of abuse in pediatric populations and it has been applied to three different cohorts of children from Barcelona, Spain along fifteen years to evaluate eventual changes in this exposure. Children were recruited from three independent studies performed at Hospital del Mar (Barcelona, Spain) and approved by the local Ethics Committee. Hair samples were collected from the first 187 children cohort (around 4 years of age) in 1998, from the second 90 children cohort (1.5–5 years of age) in 2008 and from the third 114 children cohort (5–14 years of age) in 2013. Hair samples were analysed for the presence of opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and cannabis by validated methodologies using gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Familiar sociodemographics and eventual consumption of drugs of abuse by parents, and caregivers were recorded. Hair samples from 24.6% children in 1998 were positive for any drug of abuse (23.0% cocaine), 25.5% in 2008 (23.3% cocaine), and 28.1% in 2013 (20.1% cocaine and 11.4% cannabis). In none of the cohorts, parental sociodemographics were associated with children exposure to drugs of abuse. The results of the three study cohorts demonstrated a significant prevalence of unsuspected pediatric exposure to drugs of abuse which mainly involved cocaine maintained along fifteen years in Barcelona, Spain. We recommend to be aware about unsuspected passive exposure to drugs of abuse in general population and to use general or selected hair screening to disclose exposure to drugs of abuse in children from risky environments to provide the basis for specific social and health interventions. PMID:25153461

  13. Pediatric exposure to drugs of abuse by hair testing: monitoring 15 years of evolution in Spain.

    PubMed

    Pichini, Simona; García-Algar, Oscar; Alvarez, Airam-Tenesor; Mercadal, Maria; Mortali, Claudia; Gottardi, Massimo; Svaizer, Fiorenza; Pacifici, Roberta

    2014-08-01

    Hair testing is a useful tool to investigate the prevalence of unsuspected chronic exposure to drugs of abuse in pediatric populations and it has been applied to three different cohorts of children from Barcelona, Spain along fifteen years to evaluate eventual changes in this exposure. Children were recruited from three independent studies performed at Hospital del Mar (Barcelona, Spain) and approved by the local Ethics Committee. Hair samples were collected from the first 187 children cohort (around 4 years of age) in 1998, from the second 90 children cohort (1.5-5 years of age) in 2008 and from the third 114 children cohort (5-14 years of age) in 2013. Hair samples were analysed for the presence of opiates, cocaine, amphetamines, and cannabis by validated methodologies using gas or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Familiar sociodemographics and eventual consumption of drugs of abuse by parents, and caregivers were recorded. Hair samples from 24.6% children in 1998 were positive for any drug of abuse (23.0% cocaine), 25.5% in 2008 (23.3% cocaine), and 28.1% in 2013 (20.1% cocaine and 11.4% cannabis). In none of the cohorts, parental sociodemographics were associated with children exposure to drugs of abuse. The results of the three study cohorts demonstrated a significant prevalence of unsuspected pediatric exposure to drugs of abuse which mainly involved cocaine maintained along fifteen years in Barcelona, Spain. We recommend to be aware about unsuspected passive exposure to drugs of abuse in general population and to use general or selected hair screening to disclose exposure to drugs of abuse in children from risky environments to provide the basis for specific social and health interventions. PMID:25153461

  14. A 15-Year Climatology of North Atlantic Tropical Cyclones. Part I: Size Parameters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimball, Sytske K.; Mulekar, Madhuri S.

    2004-09-01

    The extended best-track (EBT) dataset combines the information contained in the tropical cyclone best-track dataset with measurements of tropical cyclone “size parameters.” These parameters include the radii of the eye (REYE), maximum winds (RMW), gale-force winds (or size; 17.5 m s-1; R17), damaging-force winds (25.7 m s-1; R26), hurricane-force winds (32.9 m s-1; R33), and the outermost closed isobar (ROCI). The latest update of this dataset, to be used in this study for a size parameter climatology, contains the size parameters for North Atlantic tropical cyclones from 1988 to 2002. Such a climatology has not yet been established in this basin. Most of the results of this North Atlantic study agree with documented tropical cyclone theory and results from similar studies of northwest Pacific tropical cyclones. This provides confidence that the observations of the size parameters in the dataset are reliable. Furthermore, data west and east of 55°W (the boundary beyond which no aircraft observations are made) are compared. Some differences occur in some of the size parameters, but the sample west of 55°W is significantly larger and displays a greater spread. This provides confidence that the total dataset may not be affected by the nonaircraft data east of 55°W. The spatial and temporal distribution of the size parameters is investigated. The radii of gale-force (R17), damaging-force (R26), and hurricane-force (R33) winds tend to increase as storms move poleward and westward. North of 40°N, R33 and R26 decrease, while R17 increases. This is a reflection of storm weakening after recurvature. Gulf of Mexico storms have larger ROCIs but smaller eyes, R33s, R26s, and R17s than North Atlantic storms between 50° and 80°W. Gulf systems tend to form in the gulf instead of moving into this area from the Atlantic. Gulf incipient systems are likely to be tropical upper-tropospheric trough (TUTT) cells or monsoon trough features from the eastern Pacific instead of

  15. The Landscape of Inappropriate Laboratory Testing: A 15-Year Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Ming; Ding, Eric L.; Theisen-Toupal, Jesse; Whelan, Julia; Arnaout, Ramy

    2013-01-01

    Background Laboratory testing is the single highest-volume medical activity and drives clinical decision-making across medicine. However, the overall landscape of inappropriate testing, which is thought to be dominated by repeat testing, is unclear. Systematic differences in initial vs. repeat testing, measurement criteria, and other factors would suggest new priorities for improving laboratory testing. Methods A multi-database systematic review was performed on published studies from 1997–2012 using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Over- vs. underutilization, initial vs. repeat testing, low- vs. high-volume testing, subjective vs. objective appropriateness criteria, and restrictive vs. permissive appropriateness criteria, among other factors, were assessed. Results Overall mean rates of over- and underutilization were 20.6% (95% CI 16.2–24.9%) and 44.8% (95% CI 33.8–55.8%). Overutilization during initial testing (43.9%; 95% CI 35.4–52.5%) was six times higher than during repeat testing (7.4%; 95% CI 2.5–12.3%; P for stratum difference <0.001). Overutilization of low-volume tests (32.2%; 95% CI 25.0–39.4%) was three times that of high-volume tests (10.2%; 95% CI 2.6–17.7%; P<0.001). Overutilization measured according to restrictive criteria (44.2%; 95% CI 36.8–51.6%) was three times higher than for permissive criteria (12.0%; 95% CI 8.0–16.0%; P<0.001). Overutilization measured using subjective criteria (29.0%; 95% CI 21.9–36.1%) was nearly twice as high as for objective criteria (16.1%; 95% CI 11.0–21.2%; P = 0.004). Together, these factors explained over half (54%) of the overall variability in overutilization. There were no statistically significant differences between studies from the United States vs. elsewhere (P = 0.38) or among chemistry, hematology, microbiology, and molecular tests (P = 0.05–0.65) and no robust statistically significant trends over time. Conclusions The landscape of overutilization varies

  16. Highlights and discoveries of the Cosmic Dust Analyser (CDA) during its 15 years of exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srama, R.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Kempf, S.; Postberg, F.; Albin, T.; Auer, S.; Altobelli, N.; Beckmann, U.; Bugiel, S.; Burton, M.; Economou, T.; Fliege, K.; Grande, M.; Gruen, E.; Guglielmino, M.; Hillier, J. K.; Schilling, A.; Schmidt, J.; Seiss, M.; Spahn, F.; Sterken, V.; Trieloff, M.

    2014-04-01

    The interplanetary space probe Cassini/Huygens reached Saturn in July 2004 after seven years of cruise phase. Today, the German-lead Cosmic Dust Analyser (CDA) is operated continuously for 10 years in orbit around Saturn. During the cruise phase CDA measured the interstellar dust flux at one AU distance from the Sun, the charge and composition of interplanetary dust grains and the composition of the Jovian nanodust streams. The first discovery of CDA related to Saturn was the measurement of nanometer sized dust particles ejected by its magnetosphere to interplanetary space with speeds higher than 100 km/s. Their origin and composition was analysed and an their dynamical studies showed a strong link to the conditions of the solar wind plasma flow. A recent surprising result was, that stream particles stem from the interior of Enceladus. Since 2004 CDA measured millions of dust impacts characterizing the dust environment of Saturn. The instrument showed strong evidence for ice geysers located at the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus in 2005. Later, a detailed compositional analysis of the salt-rich water ice grains in Saturn's E ring system lead to the discovery of liquid water below the icy crust connected to an ocean at depth feeding the icy jets. CDA was even capable to derive a spatially resolved compositional profile of the plume during close Enceladus flybys. A determination of the dust-magnetosphere interaction and the discovery of the extended E ring allowed the definition of a dynamical dust model of Saturn's E ring describing the observed properties. The measured dust density profiles in the dense E ring revealed geometric asymmetries. Cassini performed shadow crossings in the ring plane and dust grain charges were measured in shadow regions delivering important data for dust-plasma interaction studies. In the last years, dedicated measurement campaigns were executed by CDA to monitor the flux of interplanetary and interstellar dust particles reaching

  17. Synthesis of Findings from 15?years of Educational Reform in Thailand: Lessons on Leading Educational Change in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Philip; Bryant, Darren A.

    2013-01-01

    The past two decades have been a period of active education reform throughout much of the world, and East Asia is no exception. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of empirical studies of educational reform in Thailand where an ambitious educational reform law was adopted in 1999. The purpose is to identify lessons learned about…

  18. Custom Cementless Stem Improves Hip Function in Young Patients at 15-year Followup

    PubMed Central

    Flecher, Xavier; Pearce, Oliver; Parratte, Sebastien; Aubaniac, Jean-Manuel

    2009-01-01

    THA in young patients is challenging regarding restoration and survival because patients are young, active, and tend to have disturbed anatomy. We asked whether a three-dimensional custom cementless stem could restore hip function, decrease osteolysis and wear, and enhance stem survival in young patients. We retrospectively reviewed 212 patients (233 hips) younger than 50 years (mean, 40 years) at a followup of 5 to 16 years (mean, 10 years). The Merle D’Aubigné-Postel and Harris hip scores improved at last followup. No thigh pain was recorded for any of the patients; 187 of the 212 patients (88%) had full activity recovery, 206 had full range of motion, and 151 had a score greater than 80 points for all five categories of the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome score. Five patients had femoral osteolysis not associated with pain. With revision for any reason as an end point, the survivorship was 87% (range, 77%–97%) at 15 years, and considering stem revision only, the survivorship was 93% (confidence interval, 90%–97%) at 15 years. Our data compare favorably with those from series using standard cementless stems at the same followup with a high percentage of patients achieving functional restoration and a low rate of complications. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19690930

  19. Sprint Performance Changes and Determinants in Afro-Caribbean Adolescents Between 13 and 15 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Copaver, Karine Babel; Hertogh, Claude; Hue, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Afro-Caribbean sprinters often reach high performance levels at an early age. Adolescence is a time of morphological and physiological changes. This study was designed to analyze the evolution in parameters of short sprint performance during adolescence in Afro-Caribbean boys, especially the stride number/body height ratio (SN/BH), which is at the interface of technical and morphological factors. Seventy-one 13-year-old boys performed vertical jumps and short sprint races. The races were filmed with a view to determine stride variables. Anthropometric parameters were also measured. The same tests were performed two years later. Body height and SN/BH were the main predictors of sprint performance. The delta of performance was principally explained by stride length and stride number. Although deterioration in technical parameters was expected, the parameters related to body size and stride length were the main sprint performance predictors rather than explosive force. These results could be useful in developing tests to detect sprint potential in youth. PMID:23487285

  20. [Surgical treatment of concomitant strabism in children younger than 15 years. Results 6 weeks after surgery].

    PubMed

    Haugen, O H; Støle, M P

    1995-02-20

    In order to evaluate the short-term results we carried out a retrospective study on 104 children who had been operated on in 1993 for concomitant convergent (n = 74) and divergent (n = 30) strabismus. Six weeks after the operation an alignment within 0-10 delta was achieved in 64% of the convergent children and 44% of the divergent children. When we evaluated the subgroups of children with convergent strabismus we found a postoperative alignment within 0-10 delta in 54% of the patients with strabismus from before six months of age (infantile esotropia), and in 93% of the children in whom the strabismus was present from after two years of age. In the total material we could demonstrate an improvement in binocular function in 17%. Based on a total evaluation we consider that 80% obtained a good postoperative result. We believe that continual, computer-based evaluation of the strabismus patients would be a valuable tool to further improve our results. PMID:7900114

  1. Onsets and codas in 1.5-year-olds’ word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Swingley, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Previous tests of toddlers’ phonological knowledge of familiar words using word recognition tasks have examined syllable onsets but not word-final consonants (codas). However, there are good reasons to suppose that children’s knowledge of coda consonants might be less complete than their knowledge of onset consonants. To test this hypothesis, the present study examined 14- to 21-month-old children’s knowledge of the phonological forms of familiar words by measuring their comprehension of correctly-pronounced and mispronounced instances of those words using a visual fixation task. Mispronunciations substituted onset or coda consonants. Adults were tested in the same task for comparison with children. Children and adults fixated named targets more upon hearing correct pronunciations than upon hearing mispronunciations, whether those mispronunciations involved the word’s initial or final consonant. In addition, detailed analysis of the timing of adults’ and children’s eye movements provided clear evidence for incremental interpretation of the speech signal. Children’s responses were slower and less accurate overall, but children and adults showed nearly identical temporal effects of the placement of phonological substitutions. The results demonstrate accurate encoding of consonants even in words children cannot yet say. PMID:20126290

  2. Inequalities in Nutrition between Cambodian Women over the Last 15 Years (2000-2014).

    PubMed

    Greffeuille, Valérie; Sophonneary, Prak; Laillou, Arnaud; Gauthier, Ludovic; Hong, Rathmony; Hong, Rathavuth; Poirot, Etienne; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine; Wieringa, Frank; Berger, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the trends over four nationally representative Demographic Health Surveys (2000, 2005, 2010, and 2014) of the nutritional status of women of reproductive age in Cambodia and to assess the main factors of inequality with regards to nutrition. The prevalence of undernutrition and over-nutrition evolved in opposite trends from 2000 to 2014, with a significant decrease in underweight and a significant increase in overweight women. This results in a shift, with overweight prevalence in women being higher than underweight for the first time in 2014. Anemia was constantly high and still affected 45% of women in 2014. Multivariate analysis showed that age, wealth index, maternal education, number of children, year of survey, and anemia were contributing factors for being underweight. Being overweight was positively related to increase in age, wealth index, number of children, and year of survey; and negatively related to anemia and increase in education level. The risk of anemia was higher in the poorest households and for less-educated women and women living in rural areas. Consequently, policies should target the most vulnerable women, especially the youngest, and support integrated interventions in the health, social, and agriculture sectors to reduce inequalities in nutrition between women. PMID:27104556

  3. Inequalities in Nutrition between Cambodian Women over the Last 15 Years (2000–2014)

    PubMed Central

    Greffeuille, Valérie; Sophonneary, Prak; Laillou, Arnaud; Gauthier, Ludovic; Hong, Rathmony; Hong, Rathavuth; Poirot, Etienne; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine; Wieringa, Frank; Berger, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the trends over four nationally representative Demographic Health Surveys (2000, 2005, 2010, and 2014) of the nutritional status of women of reproductive age in Cambodia and to assess the main factors of inequality with regards to nutrition. The prevalence of undernutrition and over-nutrition evolved in opposite trends from 2000 to 2014, with a significant decrease in underweight and a significant increase in overweight women. This results in a shift, with overweight prevalence in women being higher than underweight for the first time in 2014. Anemia was constantly high and still affected 45% of women in 2014. Multivariate analysis showed that age, wealth index, maternal education, number of children, year of survey, and anemia were contributing factors for being underweight. Being overweight was positively related to increase in age, wealth index, number of children, and year of survey; and negatively related to anemia and increase in education level. The risk of anemia was higher in the poorest households and for less-educated women and women living in rural areas. Consequently, policies should target the most vulnerable women, especially the youngest, and support integrated interventions in the health, social, and agriculture sectors to reduce inequalities in nutrition between women. PMID:27104556

  4. Transcatheter arterial embolization for traumatic mesenteric bleeding: a 15-year, single-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jong Soo; Shin, Ji Hoon; Ko, Heung-Kyu; Kim, Jong Woo; Yoon, Hyun-Ki

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to assess the safety and effectiveness of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for mesenteric bleeding following trauma. METHODS From 2001 to 2015, 12 patients were referred to our interventional unit for mesenteric bleeding following trauma, based on clinical decisions and computed tomography (CT) images. After excluding one patient with no bleeding focus and one patient who underwent emergency surgery, a total of 10 patients (male:female ratio, 9:1; mean age, 52.1 years) who underwent super selective TAE of visceral arteries were included in this study. Technical and clinical success, complications, and 30-day mortality rate were analyzed. RESULTS In 10 patients who underwent TAE, the types of trauma were motor vehicle collision (n=6), fall (n=2), assault (n=1), and penetrating injury (n=1), and the bleeding arteries were in the pancreaticoduodenal arterial arcade (n=4), jejunal artery (n=3), colic artery (n=2), and sigmoid artery (n=1). N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) (n=2), microcoils (n=2), and combinations of NBCA, microcoils, or gelatin sponge particles (n=6) were used as embolic agents. Technical success was achieved in all 10 patients, with immediate cessation of bleeding. Clinical success rate was 90% (9/10), and all patients were discharged with no further treatment required for mesenteric bleeding. However, one patient showed rebleeding 10 days later and underwent repeated TAE with successful result. There were no TAE-related ischemic complications such as bowel infarction. The 30-day mortality rate was 0%. CONCLUSION Our clinical experience suggests that TAE used to control mesenteric bleeding following trauma is safe and effective as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery. PMID:27306658

  5. Rapid genetic divergence in response to 15 years of simulated climate change.

    PubMed

    Ravenscroft, Catherine H; Whitlock, Raj; Fridley, Jason D

    2015-11-01

    Genetic diversity may play an important role in allowing individual species to resist climate change, by permitting evolutionary responses. Our understanding of the potential for such responses to climate change remains limited, and very few experimental tests have been carried out within intact ecosystems. Here, we use amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) data to assess genetic divergence and test for signatures of evolutionary change driven by long-term simulated climate change applied to natural grassland at Buxton Climate Change Impacts Laboratory (BCCIL). Experimental climate treatments were applied to grassland plots for 15 years using a replicated and spatially blocked design and included warming, drought and precipitation treatments. We detected significant genetic differentiation between climate change treatments and control plots in two coexisting perennial plant study species (Festuca ovina and Plantago lanceolata). Outlier analyses revealed a consistent signature of selection associated with experimental climate treatments at individual AFLP loci in P. lanceolata, but not in F. ovina. Average background differentiation at putatively neutral AFLP loci was close to zero, and genomewide genetic structure was associated neither with species abundance changes (demography) nor with plant community-level responses to long-term climate treatments. Our results demonstrate genetic divergence in response to a suite of climatic environments in reproductively mature populations of two perennial plant species and are consistent with an evolutionary response to climatic selection in P. lanceolata. These genetic changes have occurred in parallel with impacts on plant community structure and may have contributed to the persistence of individual species through 15 years of simulated climate change at BCCIL. PMID:26311135

  6. 15 Years Of Ecuadorian-French Research Along The Ecuadorian Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charvis, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Ecuadorian segment of the Nazca/South America subduction zone is an outstanding laboratory to study the seismic cycle. Central Ecuador where the Carnegie ridge enters the subduction marks a transition between a highly coupled segment that hosted one of the largest seismic sequence during the 20thcentury and a ~1200-km long weakly coupled segment encompassing southern Ecuador and northern Peru. A shallow dipping subduction interface and a short trench-coast line distance ranging from 45 to 80 km, together with La Plata Island located only 33 km from the trench axis, allow to document subduction processes in the near field with an exceptional resolution. Since 2000, a close cooperation between the Institute of Geophysics (Quito), INOCAR (Oceanographic Institute of the Ecuadorian Navy) with French groups allowed us to conduct up to 6 marine geophysics cruises to survey the convergent margin and jointly develop dense GPS and seismological networks. This fruitful collaboration now takes place in the framework of an International Joint Laboratory "Earthquakes and Volcanoes in the Northern Andes" (LMI SVAN), which eases coordinating research projects and exchanges of Ecuadorian and French scientists and students. This long-term investigation has already provided a unique view on the structure of the margin, which exhibits a highly variable subduction channel along strike. It allowed us to evidence the contrast between creeping and coupled segments of subduction at various scale, and the existence of large continental slivers whose motion accommodates the obliquity of the Nazca/South America convergence. Finally, we could evidence the first Slow Slip Events (SSE) that oppositely to most SSE documented so far, are accompanied with intense micro-seismicity. The recent support of the French National Research Agency and the Ecuadorian Agency for Sciences and Technology (Senescyt) will enable us to integrate the already obtained results, in an attempt to develop an

  7. Conceptualizing learning for sustainability through environmental assessment: critical reflections on 15 years of research

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, A. John Diduck, Alan Fitzpatrick, Patricia

    2008-10-15

    Numerous scholars are now directing their attention to the education and learning implications of participatory resource and environmental governance because of the potential implications of these for generating the social mobilization necessary to achieve sustainability trajectories. Our work, and that of other researchers, establishes that public participation in environmental assessment (EA) provides fertile ground for considering the intricacies of governance as they relate to participation, and for examining the education and learning implications of participation. Since EA law requires in many cases that public voices be part of the decision process, it has resulted in the creation of fascinating, state-sanctioned, deliberative spaces for civic interactions. Our purpose here is to share, and build upon, a framework that conceptualizes the relationships among participation, education, learning and sustainability in an EA context. We do so by considering findings from studies we have undertaken on participation in EA in Canada since the early 90's. Our approach was interactive and collaborative. We each considered in detail the key results of our earlier work as they relate to education, learning and EA process design. The findings illuminate aspects of the conceptual framework for which there is considerable empirical evidence, such as the link between meaningful participation and critical education and the diversity of individual learning outcomes associated with public participation in EA. The findings also highlight those parts of the framework for which the empirical evidence is relatively sparse, such as the range of possible social learning outcomes, their congruence with sustainability criteria, and the roles of monitoring and cumulative and strategic assessments in shaping EA into an adaptive, learning system.

  8. Nuclear-cytoplasmic PARP-1 expression as an unfavorable prognostic marker in lymph node‑negative early breast cancer: 15-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Donizy, Piotr; Pietrzyk, Grazyna; Halon, Agnieszka; Kozyra, Cyprian; Gansukh, Tserenchunt; Lage, Hermann; Surowiak, Pawel; Matkowski, Rafal

    2014-04-01

    PARP-1 plays an important role in DNA damage repair and maintaining genome integrity by repairing DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) by base excision repair (BER). The aim of the present study was to examine the expression of PARP-1 in breast cancer (BC) patients and to assess the relationship between the subcellular localization of this protein and clinicopathological characteristics. The reactivity of PARP-1 was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in a homogeneous group of 83 stage II ductal BC patients with a 15-year follow-up. Immunostaining of PARP-1 was also evaluated in 4 human BC cell lines and resistance prediction profile for 11 anticancer agents was performed using 3 models of drug-resistant cell lines. Nuclear-cytoplasmic expression (NCE) was associated with shorter overall survival, which was not statistically significant during the 10-year follow-up but became statistically significant after 10 years of observation, during the 15-year follow-up (P=0.015). Analysis performed in subgroups of patients with (N+) and without (N-) nodal metastases showed that NCE was associated with poor clinical outcome in N- patients (P=0.017). Multivariate analysis confirmed a significant impact of NCE on unfavorable prognosis in N- early BC. The presence of PARP-1 NCE may be a new potential unfavorable prognostic factor in lymph node- negative early BC. PMID:24535158

  9. Risk factors for acute and overuse sport injuries in Swedish children 11 to 15 years old: What about resistance training with weights?

    PubMed

    Boström, A; Thulin, K; Fredriksson, M; Reese, D; Rockborn, P; Hammar, M L

    2016-03-01

    To determine the 1-year self-reported incidence of overuse and traumatic sport injuries and risk factors for injuries in children participating in a summer sports camp representing seven different sports. 4363 children, 11 to 15 years old participating in a summer camp in seven different sports answered a questionnaire. Injury in this cross-sectional study was defined as a sport-related trauma or overload leading to pain and dysfunction preventing the person from participation in training or competition for at least 1 week. A number of risk factors for injury were investigated such as sex, age, number of hours spent on training in general, and on resistance training with weights. Nearly half [49%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 48-51%] of the participants had been injured as a result of participation in a sport during the preceding year, significantly more boys than girls (53%, 95% CI 50-55% vs 46%, 95% CI 43-48%; P < 0.001). Three factors contributed to increased incidence of sport injuries: age, sex, and resistance training with weights. Time spent on resistance training with weights was significantly associated with sport injuries in a logistic regression analysis. In children age 11 to 15 years, the risk of having a sport-related injury increased with age and occurred more often in boys than in girls. Weight training was the only modifiable risk factor that contributed to a significant increase in the incidence of sport injuries. PMID:25727791

  10. Post-laryngectomy voice rehabilitation with voice prosthesis: 15 years experience of the ENT Clinic of University of Catania. Retrospective data analysis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Serra, A; Di Mauro, P; Spataro, D; Maiolino, L; Cocuzza, S

    2015-12-01

    This study reports our 15-year experience, in Sicily, with the use of voice prostheses, analysing the different variables that have influenced the success or failure of speech rehabilitation. The retrospective clinical analysis was carried out by reviewing the clinical histories of 95 patients with laryngeal cancer, in whom a voice prosthesis had been placed by trachea-oesophageal puncture between 1998 and 2013. Age, type of tumour, type of surgery, use of prior radiation therapy, type of puncture, prosthesis used and its duration, number of replacements, complications and causes for prosthetic success or failure were analysed. The results showed a mean of Harrison-Robillard-Schultz (HRS) TEP rating scale of 11.8 in primary TEP and 12.6 in secondary TEP (P =0.613). PORT did not affect overall rehabilitation success. In these patients, the mean HRS rating scale was 11.2, with long-term success of 85% (P =0.582). In patients over 70 years old, long-term success was 82.5%, with 78% in primary and 86% in secondary TEP, the mean HRS was 11.2 in primary and 12 in secondary TEP (P =0.648). In total, long-term success was 87.5%, with 84% in primary and 91% in secondary TEP. The results obtained by retrospective analysis of 15 years of prosthetic rehabilitation in the Sicilian territory highlighted standard rehabilitation, in terms of intra and postoperative complications, fistula related pathology and overall success. PMID:26900247

  11. Period Studies of 79 Eccentric Eclipsing Binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, K.; Kang, Y. W.; Lee, C.-U.

    2014-08-01

    We present period studies for seventy-nine eclipsing binaries in the Large Magellanic Cloud. New times of minimum light were derived from the data obtained by the EROS, OGLE-II and OGLE-III surveys. Nineteen stars of the seventy-nine stars show period variation were confirmed. All of the systems were studied by means of an O-C diagram analyses. Nine systems show apsidal motion, six systems show parabola, and four systems show sinusoidal period variations, respectively.

  12. Touch Imprint Cytology and Stereotactically-Guided Core Needle Biopsy of Suspicious Breast Lesions: 15-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Fasching, P. A.; Bani, M. R.; Lux, M. P.; Jud, S.; Rauh, C.; Bayer, C.; Wachter, D. L.; Hartmann, A.; Beckmann, M. W.; Uder, M.; Loehberg, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Stereotactically-guided core needle biopsies (CNB) of breast tumours allow histological examination of the tumour without surgery. Touch imprint cytology (TIC) of CNB promises to be useful in providing same-day diagnosis for counselling purposes and for planning future surgery. Having addressed the issue of accuracy of immediate microscopic evaluation of TIC, we wanted to re-examine the usefulness of this procedure in light of the present health care climate of cost containment by incorporating the surgical 15-year follow-up data and outcome. Patients and Methods: From January until December 1996 we performed TIC in core needle biopsies of 173 breast tumours in 169 patients, consisting of 122 malignant and 51 benign tumours. Histology of core needle biopsies was proven by surgical histology in all malignant and in 5 benign tumours. Surgical breast biopsy was not performed in 46 patients with 46 benign lesions, as the histological result from the core needle biopsy and the result of the TIC were in agreement with the suspected diagnosis from the complementary breast diagnostics. A 15-year follow-up of these patients followed in 2013 and follow-up data was collected from 40 women. Results: In the 15-year follow-up of the 40 benign lesions primarily confirmed using CNB and TIC, a diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and accuracy of 100 % was found. Conclusion: TIC and stereotactically guided CNB showed excellent long-term follow-up in patients with benign breast lesions. The use of TIC to complement CNB can therefore provide immediate cytological diagnosis of breast lesions. PMID:26855442

  13. Increased Frequency of CD4 and CD8 Regulatory T Cells in Individuals under 15 Years with Multibacillary Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Camila; Gonçalves, Heitor Sá; Cabral, Paula Brito; Pinto, Helena Câmara; Pinto, Maria Isabel Moraes; Câmara, Lilia Maria Carneiro

    2013-01-01

    Background Leprosy is a chronic disease, caused by Mycobacterium leprae, which poses a serious public health problem worldwide. Its high incidence in people under 15 years old in Ceará state, Brazil, reflects the difficulty of its control. The spectrum of clinical manifestations is associated with the immune response developed, with the Th1 and Th2 responses being related to the paucibacillary and multibacillary forms, respectively. Regulatory T cells (Treg), which can suppress Th1 and Th2 response, have received special attention in the literature and have been associated with development of chronic infections. However, their role in leprosy in individuals under 15 years old has not yet been elucidated. We evaluated the frequency of CD4+/CD8+CD25highFOXP3+ and CD4+/CD8+CD25highFOXP3high cells in leprosy patients and household contacts, in both cases under 15 years old. Methodology/Principal Findings PBMC from 12 patients and 17 contacts were cultured for 72 hours with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 (activators) or with activators associated with total sonicated fraction of M. leprae. After culture, the frequency of CD4+/CD8+ Treg was identified by flow cytometry. Cells stimulated by activators and antigen from multibacillary patients showed Treg frequencies almost two times that of the contacts: CD4+FOXP3+ (21.93±8.43 vs. 13.79±8.19%, p = 0.0500), CD4+FOXP3high (10.33±5.69 vs. 5.57±4.03%, p = 0.0362), CD8+FOXP3+ (13.88±9.19 vs. 6.18±5.56%, p = 0.0230) and CD8+FOXP3high (5.36±4.17 vs. 2.23±2.68%, p = 0.0461). Furthermore, the mean fluorescence intensity of FOXP3 in Treg was higher in multibacillary patients than in the contacts. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation of the bacillary index and number of lesions with the frequency of all Treg evaluated in patients. Conclusions/Significance We have demonstrated for the first time that multibacillary leprosy patients under 15 years old have greater CD4+ and CD8+ Treg frequencies and these

  14. A successful treatment of hypercalcemia with zoledronic acid in a 15-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye-Jin; Choi, Eun-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Severe hypercalcemia in children is a rare medical emergency. We present a case of a 15-year-old boy with hypercalcemia (total calcium level, 14.2 mg/dL) with a normal complete blood count, no circulating blasts in the peripheral blood film, and no other signs of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), including no signs of lymphadenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly. The hypercalcemia was successfully treated with zoledronic acid. As hypercalcemia can be the only presenting symptom of ALL in children, the diagnosis is often delayed. In children presenting with hypercalcemia, malignancies must be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:27462588

  15. Pulmonary Atypical Carcinoid Tumor in a 15-Year-Old Girl: a Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Geramizadeh, Bita; Reza Foroutan, Hamid; Shokripour, Mansoureh; Reza Dehghanian, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Primary pulmonary neoplasms in children are very rare, and because of their rarity, delays in diagnosis and treatment are common. Bronchial typical carcinoid accounts for 80% of primary malignant tumors, but, there are less than 40 proven cases in children reported in literature. Atypical carcinoids (AC) are the least common type of pulmonary carcinoids among children and to the best of our knowledge less than 10 cases have been reported in the English literature so far. Herein we present an extremely rare case of AC in a 15-year-old child and review the previously reported and published cases of pulmonary AC in pediatric age group. PMID:24179657

  16. Brainstem cavernoma hemorrhage during pregnancy in a 15-year-old: description of a unique neurosurgical approach.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Adrianna M; Chaudhary, Navjot; Avery, Michael; Lownie, Stephen

    2013-10-01

    Cavernous haemangiomas, or cavernous malformations, have been reported during pregnancy, most of which have been either supratentorial or spinal lesions. We encountered a 15-year old pregnant patient with a rapidly progressive and haemorrhagic brainstem cavernous haemangioma. The case presented here describes the history and findings of this patient, as well as the less-commonly utilized technique we used to access the floor of the fourth ventricle via occipital craniotomy for complete macroscopic resection of this lesion, resulting in the gradual return of most of her neurological deficits. PMID:23001930

  17. 15 Years of CIAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    The first release of the Chandra data analysis system CIAO in the summer of 1999 enabled initial Chandra guest observer science. We continue to extend and improve the CIAO package, supporting both advanced use by experienced X-ray astronomers and simple analysis by novice users. Ongoing recent usability improvements include high level scripts to automate common, repetitive tasks and simplify the data reduction process, and improved support for merging observations that have been split due to thermal constraints. We present these improvements, discuss new documentation threads and present statistics on CIAO downloads and helpdesk usage.

  18. Utilization of critical periods during development to study the effects of low levels of environmental agents

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L. B.

    1980-01-01

    Careful definition of critical periods in the development of selected characters can result in experimental systems that may be highly useful in studying risk at low levels of exposure. Three examples are presented. Epidemiological investigations can lose much of their value unless critical periods are known for the end points being studied.

  19. Persistence of antibody response 1.5 years after vaccination using 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in patients with arthritis treated with different antirheumatic drugs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to explore the persistence of an antibody response 1.5 years after vaccination with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or spondyloarthropathy (SpA) treated with different antirheumatic drugs. Methods Of 505 patients initially recruited, data on current antirheumatic treatment and blood samples were obtained from 398 (79%) subjects after mean (SD, range) 1.4 (0.5; 1 to 2) years. Antibody levels against pneumococcal serotypes 23F and 6B were analyzed by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Original treatment groups were as follows: (a) RA receiving methotrexate (MTX); (b) RA taking anti-TNF monotherapy; (c) RA taking anti-TNF+MTX; (d) SpA with anti-TNF monotherapy; (e) SpA taking anti-TNF+MTX; and (f) SpA taking NSAID/analgesics. Geometric mean levels (GMLs; 95% CI) and proportion (percentage) of patients with putative protective antibody levels ≥1 mg/L for both serotypes, calculated in different treatment groups, were compared with results 4 to 6 weeks after vaccination. Patients remaining on initial treatment were included in the analysis. Possible predictors of persistence of protective antibody response were analysed by using logistic regression analysis. Results Of 398 patients participating in the 1.5-year follow up, 302 patients (RA, 163, and SpA, 139) had unchanged medication. Compared with postvaccination levels at 1.5 years, GMLs for each serotype were significantly lower in all groups (P between 0.035 and <0.001; paired-sample t test), as were the proportions of patients with protective antibody levels for both serotypes (P < 0.001; χ2 test). Higher prevaccination antibody levels for both serotypes 23F and 6B were associated with better persistence of protective antibodies (P < 0.001). Compared with patients with protective antibody levels at 1.5 years, those not having protective antibody levels were older, more often women, had longer disease duration

  20. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXIII: classification of prostanoid receptors, updating 15 years of progress.

    PubMed

    Woodward, D F; Jones, R L; Narumiya, S

    2011-09-01

    It is now more than 15 years since the molecular structures of the major prostanoid receptors were elucidated. Since then, substantial progress has been achieved with respect to distribution and function, signal transduction mechanisms, and the design of agonists and antagonists (http://www.iuphar-db.org/DATABASE/FamilyIntroductionForward?familyId=58). This review systematically details these advances. More recent developments in prostanoid receptor research are included. The DP(2) receptor, also termed CRTH2, has little structural resemblance to DP(1) and other receptors described in the original prostanoid receptor classification. DP(2) receptors are more closely related to chemoattractant receptors. Prostanoid receptors have also been found to heterodimerize with other prostanoid receptor subtypes and nonprostanoids. This may extend signal transduction pathways and create new ligand recognition sites: prostacyclin/thromboxane A(2) heterodimeric receptors for 8-epi-prostaglandin E(2), wild-type/alternative (alt4) heterodimers for the prostaglandin FP receptor for bimatoprost and the prostamides. It is anticipated that the 15 years of research progress described herein will lead to novel therapeutic entities. PMID:21752876

  1. Effectiveness of Ministry of Internal Affairs Regulation Number 15 Year 2008 about Mainstreaming Gender on Basic Education Level in the East Java, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handayani, Trisakti; Widodo, Wahyu

    2016-01-01

    General purpose of this research are: assessing the implementation of Permendagri no. 15 year 2008 about Gender Mainstreaming on Basic Education Levels in the East Java Province, analyze the problem of the implementation of Permendagri no. 15 year 2008 about Gender Mainstreaming on Basic Education Levels in the East Java Province and analyze the…

  2. A Study of the Orbital Periods of Deeply Eclipsing SW Sextantis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, D.

    2012-06-01

    Results are presented of a five-year project to study the orbital periods of eighteen deeply eclipsing novalike cataclysmic variables, collectively known as SW Sextantis stars, by combining new measurements of eclipse times with published measurements stretching back in some cases over fifty years. While the behavior of many of these binary systems is consistent with a constant orbital period, it is evident that in several cases this is not true. Although the time span of these observations is relatively short, evidence is emerging that the orbital periods of some of these stars show cyclical variation with periods in the range 10-40 years. The two stars with the longest orbital periods, V363 Aur and BT Mon, also show secular period reduction with rates of -6.6 x 10-8 days/year and -3.3 x 10-8 days/year. New ephemerides are provided for all eighteen stars to facilitate observation of future eclipses.

  3. Sensitive periods differentiate processing of open- and closed-class words: an ERP study of bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Weber-Fox, C; Neville, H J

    2001-12-01

    The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that neural processes for language are heterogeneous in their adaptations to maturation and experience. This study examined whether the neural processes for open- and closed-class words are differentially affected by delays in second-language immersion. In English, open-class words primarily convey referential meaning, whereas closed-class words are primarily related to grammatical information in sentence processing. Previous studies indicate that event-related brain potentials (ERPs) elicited by these word classes display nonidentical distributions and latencies, show different developmental time courses, and are differentially affected by early language experience in Deaf individuals. In this study, ERPs were recorded from 10 monolingual English speakers and 53 Chinese-English bilingual speakers who were grouped according to their age of immersion in English: 1-3, 4-6, 7-10, 11-13, and >15 years of age. Closed-class words elicited an N280 that was largest over left anterior electrode sites for all groups. However, the peak latency was later (>35 ms) in bilingual speakers immersed in English after 7 years of age. In contrast, the latencies and distributions of the N350 elicited by open-class words were similar in all groups. In addition, the N400, elicited by semantic anomalies (open-class words that violated semantic expectation), displayed increased peak latencies for only the later-learning bilingual speakers (>11 years). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that language subprocesses are differentially sensitive to the timing of second-language experience. PMID:11776369

  4. Late outcome of very severe blunt head trauma: a 10-15 year second follow-up.

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, I V

    1984-01-01

    Forty patients with very severe blunt head trauma (post-traumatic amnesia greater than or equal to 1 month) were initially examined at an average of 4.5 months after the injury. The patients were visited in their homes 2.5 years and 10-15 years after the accident and questionnaires were presented to patients, relatives and/or staff. Though physical impairment, dysarthria and defects of memory remained severe in many cases, the psychosocial sequelae presented the most serious problems. Permanent changes in personality and emotion were reported in two thirds and were especially frequent among the youngest patients. The worse overall outcome was seen in cases with severe brainstem involvement or anterior lesions or both. In spite of the great frequency of deficits long-term improvement of functional state was common and several regained at least some work capacity. PMID:6707671

  5. [A case of allergic granulomatosis and angiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome) in a 15-year-old girl].

    PubMed

    Fujita, Kazue; Yamato, Kenji; Kurihara, Takeyuki; Osaki, Kohichi; Ohba, Hideo; Nakamura, Junichi; Okimoto, Niro

    2004-09-01

    A 15-year-old girl with a 6-month history of bronchial asthma was admitted to our hospital because of fever, dyspnea, weight loss, dysesthesia, muscle weakness, gait disturbance and purpuric rash. In addition, leukocytosis, hypereosinophilia and elevation of CRP were observed. Chest radiograph and computed tomography on admission showed non-segmental patchy air-space consolidation in both lung fields. Skin biopsy was performed and the pathologic diagnosis was necrotizing arteritis with eosinophilic infiltration. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed eosinophilic pneumonia. From the clinical course, laboratory data and pathologic findings, the diagnosis of allergic granulomatosis and angiitis (Churg-Strauss syndrome) was made. Following the skin and lung biopsies, intravenous pulse corticosteroid and oral prednisolone treatment was started and her clinical findings improved. Angiitis with allergic granulomatosis is a vasculitis that is found in adults. This is an extremely rare and interesting case of angiitis with allergic granulomatosis in childhood. PMID:15500154

  6. Thyroglossal duct cyst carcinoma: diagnostic and management considerations in a 15-year-old with a large submental mass.

    PubMed

    Seow-En, Isaac; Loh, Amos Hong Pheng; Lian, Derrick Wen Quan; Nah, Shireen Anne

    2015-01-01

    A 15-year old boy presented with a 2-year history of a painless slowly enlarging submental neck mass. Head and neck imaging showed a multicystic mass with a central solid component that was closely applied to the hyoid bone. Core needle biopsy under general anaesthesia revealed a papillary thyroid neoplasm. The mass was resected and frozen section histology confirmed papillary carcinoma. Intraoperatively, enlarged cervical lymph nodes were palpable. Bilateral neck dissections and total thyroidectomy with parathyroid reimplantation were performed. On histological examination, the thyroid gland was not involved. The patient recovered uneventfully from the surgery and is planned for radioactive iodine therapy and thyroxine suppression, with subsequent follow-up with serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroglobulin for surveillance. We review the literature and discuss challenges in the diagnosis and surgical management of this rare entity in the paediatric age group. PMID:26150648

  7. International Conference on Population and Development at 15 Years: Achieving Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights for All?

    PubMed Central

    Roseman, Mindy Jane

    2010-01-01

    Sexual and reproductive health remains the contentious concept it was at the 1994 United Nations International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held in Cairo, Egypt. In light of the recent 15-year review of ICPD, we suggest several areas where advocates, practitioners, and researchers can inform future progress for sexual and reproductive health. These include the following: improving measurement and accountability related to the evidence base for sexual and reproductive health, indicators of program success, and the tracking of resource flows; creating and renewing alliances to strengthen advocacy; and employing new resource mobilization strategies. Given the 20-year goals established at ICPD, now is the time to move toward finally achieving the sexual and reproductive health and rights agenda. PMID:20075310

  8. Multimodal physiotherapeutic management for stage-IV osteitis pubis in a 15-year old soccer athlete: a case report.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, P; Nagarajan, M; Ramli, Ayiesah

    2012-01-01

    Osteitis pubis among soccer athletes is a disabling painful condition and it is difficult to manage without integrating a multimodal treatment approach. There is limited scientific evidence on the effectiveness of exercise in treating Osteitis pubis especially when it progress to a chronic painful condition. The purpose of this case report is to discuss the successful multimodal physiotherapeutic management for a 15-year old soccer athlete diagnosed with stage-IV Osteitis pubis. Land and water based active core muscle strengthening exercises, Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques (PNF) and Manual Therapy are some of the essential components incorporated in multimodal intervention approach with emphasis to water based strength and endurance training exercises. The athlete was able to make progress to a successful recovery from his chronic painful condition and accomplished the clearly established clinical outcomes during each phase of rehabilitation. PMID:23220803

  9. Stable isotope analysis of a newly established macrofaunal food web 1.5 years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill.

    PubMed

    Han, Eunah; Park, Hyun Je; Bergamino, Leandro; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Choy, Eun Jung; Yu, Ok Hwan; Lee, Tae Won; Park, Heung-Sik; Shim, Won Joon; Kang, Chang-Keun

    2015-01-15

    We examined trophic relationships in a newly established community 1.5 years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill on the west coast of Korea. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in consumers and their potential food sources were compared between the oil-spill site and reference site, located 13.5 km from the oil-spill spot. The isotopic mixing model and a novel circular statistics rejected the influx of petrogenic carbon into the community and identified spatial consistencies such as the high contributions of microphytobenthos, food-chain length, and the isotopic niche of each feeding guild between sites. We suggested that high level of trophic plasticity and the prevalence of omnivory of consumers may promote the robustness of food web against the oil contamination. Furthermore, we highlighted the need of holistic approaches including different functional groups to quantify changes in the food web structure and assess the influence of different perturbations including oil spill. PMID:25467873

  10. The effects of marine sand and gravel extraction on the sediment composition and macrofaunal community of a commercial dredging site (15 years post-dredging).

    PubMed

    Waye-Barker, Georgia A; McIlwaine, Paul; Lozach, Sophie; Cooper, Keith M

    2015-10-15

    A prediction that faunal recovery of a marine aggregate extraction site subjected to high dredging intensity was likely to take 15-20 years was investigated. Samples were collected at the high dredging intensity site and two reference sites in 2011 (15 years post-dredging). Results indicated that the high site had similar sediment characteristics to the reference sites by 2011. Macrofaunal data analyses showed no difference between the values of all calculated univariate measures (abundance, number of taxa, biomass and evenness) between the high and reference sites. Multivariate analyses found that the macrofaunal community at the high site was comparable to those of the reference sites by 2011. Overall, the results supported the predicted recovery time. The findings of the study suggest that persistent physical impacts prolonged the biological recovery of the high site. PMID:26254881

  11. Influence of behavioral determinants on deviation of body mass index among 12-15 years old school children of Panchkula

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Amandeep; Rao, Nanak Chand; Gupta, Nidhi; Vashisth, Shelja; Lakhanpal, Manav

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the body mass index (BMI) and factors related to BMI in 12-15 years old adolescents attending school in the Panchkula district of Haryana, India. METHODS: Our multistage sampling method enrolled 810 adolescents. Demographic data and dietary history data over 5 days were recorded. Height and weight were measured to calculate BMI, which was further categorized according to the World Health Organization classification system. Diet was analysed using the Nizel criteria and socioeconomic status (SES) was assessed using Prasad’s socioeconomic classification. The chi-squared test and analysis of variance test were performed, and a multinomial regression analysis was performed to find significant correlates with BMI. RESULTS: The prevalences of underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity were 13.6, 58.4, 22.7, and 5.3%, respectively. The prevalence of both overweight and obesity was higher among males than that among females. The overall food group, nutrient, sweet, and oral health diet scores were higher among overweight and obese adolescents. Adolescents attending public school were 2.62 times more likely than private school adolescents were to be underweight. Private school adolescents were 2.08 times more likely than public school adolescents were to be overweight. Those with a high SES, vegetarians, and those aged 15 years were highly likely to be obese. CONCLUSIONS: We found 41.6% of these adolescents to have a BMI that deviated from the norm. Important factors related with BMI were age, gender, socioeconomic score, mean daily diet score, and the type of school. PMID:25266420

  12. Are Seminar Periods Supportive of the Professional Development of Social Studies Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Selçuk Besir; Dogan, Soner; Atasoy, Turgay

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the efficiency of the seminar periods intended for contributing to the professional development of social studies teachers based on their own perspectives. This study adopts a qualitative approach and is carried out in the form of a case study. Among the purposeful sampling methods, the criteria sample…

  13. Hybrid computational phantoms of the 15-year male and female adolescent: Applications to CT organ dosimetry for patients of variable morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, two classes of the computational phantoms have been developed for dosimetry calculation: (1) stylized (or mathematical) and (2) voxel (or tomographic) phantoms describing human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and three-dimensional labeled voxel matrices, respectively. Mathematical surface equations in stylized phantoms provide flexibility in phantom design and alteration, but the resulting anatomical description is, in many cases, not very realistic. Voxel phantoms display far better anatomical realism, but they are limited in terms of their ability to alter organ shape, position, and depth, as well as body posture. A new class of computational phantoms—called hybrid phantoms—takes advantage of the best features of stylized and voxel phantoms—flexibility and anatomical realism, respectively. In the current study, hybrid computational phantoms representing reference 15-year male and female body anatomy and anthropometry are presented. For the male phantom, organ contours were extracted from the University of Florida (UF) 14-year series B male voxel phantom, while for the female phantom, original computed tomography (CT) data from two 14-year female patients were used. Polygon mesh models for the major organs and tissues were reconstructed for nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface modeling. The resulting NURBS∕polygon mesh models representing body contour and internal anatomy were matched to anthropometric data and reference organ mass data provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), respectively. Finally, two hybrid 15-year male and female phantoms were completed where a total of eight anthropometric data categories were matched to standard values within 4% and organ masses matched to ICRP data within 1% with the exception of total skin. To highlight the flexibility of the hybrid phantoms, 10th and 90th weight percentile 15-year male and

  14. Hybrid computational phantoms of the 15-year male and female adolescent: Applications to CT organ dosimetry for patients of variable morphometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2008-06-15

    Currently, two classes of the computational phantoms have been developed for dosimetry calculation: (1) stylized (or mathematical) and (2) voxel (or tomographic) phantoms describing human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and three-dimensional labeled voxel matrices, respectively. Mathematical surface equations in stylized phantoms provide flexibility in phantom design and alteration, but the resulting anatomical description is, in many cases, not very realistic. Voxel phantoms display far better anatomical realism, but they are limited in terms of their ability to alter organ shape, position, and depth, as well as body posture. A new class of computational phantoms - called hybrid phantoms - takes advantage of the best features of stylized and voxel phantoms - flexibility and anatomical realism, respectively. In the current study, hybrid computational phantoms representing reference 15-year male and female body anatomy and anthropometry are presented. For the male phantom, organ contours were extracted from the University of Florida (UF) 14-year series B male voxel phantom, while for the female phantom, original computed tomography (CT) data from two 14-year female patients were used. Polygon mesh models for the major organs and tissues were reconstructed for nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface modeling. The resulting NURBS/polygon mesh models representing body contour and internal anatomy were matched to anthropometric data and reference organ mass data provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), respectively. Finally, two hybrid 15-year male and female phantoms were completed where a total of eight anthropometric data categories were matched to standard values within 4% and organ masses matched to ICRP data within 1% with the exception of total skin. To highlight the flexibility of the hybrid phantoms, 10th and 90th weight percentile 15-year male and

  15. Scoring system for the diagnosis of tuberculosis in indigenous children and adolescents under 15 years of age in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil *

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Sandra Christo; Marques, Ana Maria Campos; de Oliveira, Roselene Lopes; da Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the process of diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis in smear-negative indigenous children and adolescents under 15 years of age with the modified Brazilian National Ministry of Health Scoring System (mBNMH-SS). METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study involving 49 indigenous patients under 15 years of age with tuberculosis, treated between 2007 and 2010 in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. RESULTS: Of the 49 patients, 27 (56%) were under 5 years of age, 33 (67%) had symptoms suggestive of tuberculosis, 24 (49%) were underweight, and 36 (73.5%) had been BCG vaccinated. The tuberculin skin test was positive in 28 patients (57%), 18 (64%) of whom had an induration ≥ 10 mm. Chest X-rays were performed in 37 (76%) of the patients, 31 (84%) of whom had only one chest X-ray taken. Among those 37 patients, the radiological findings were suggestive of tuberculosis in 16 (43%), infiltration/condensation in 10 (27%), and normal in 4 (11%). The Indigenous Health Care Teams made the diagnosis in 31 (63%) of the cases, using the original BNMH-SS in only 14 (45%). We calculated the mBNMH-SS scores for 30 (61%) of the 49 patients. Among the 30 cases scored, a diagnosis of tuberculosis was found to be highly likely, possible, and unlikely in 16 (53%), 11 (37%), and 3 (10%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of highly likely and possible diagnoses was consistent with the standard proportion of cases diagnosed by the teams (90%), demonstrating the epidemiological applicability of the mBNMH-SS for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in the indigenous population, within the scenario of the health care provided. PMID:23503490

  16. The thin and medium filters of the EPIC camera on-board XMM-Newton: measured performance after more than 15 years of operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbera, Marco; Gastaldello, Fabio; Sciortino, Luisa; Agnello, Simonpietro; Buscarino, Gianpiero; Collura, Alfonso; La Palombara, Nicola; Cicero, Ugo Lo; Sartore, Nicola; Tiengo, Andrea; Varisco, Salvatore; Venezia, Anna Maria

    2016-08-01

    After more than 15 years of operation of the EPIC camera on board the XMM-Newton X-ray observatory, we have reviewed the status of its Thin and Medium filters. We have selected a set of Thin and Medium back-up filters among those still available in the EPIC consortium and have started a program to investigate their status by different laboratory measurements including: UV/VIS transmission, Raman scattering, X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy. Furthermore, we have investigated the status of the EPIC flight filters by performing an analysis of the optical loading in the PN offset maps to gauge variations in the optical and UV transmission. We both investigated repeated observations of single optically bright targets and performed a statistical analysis of the extent of loading versus visual magnitude at different epochs. We report the results of the measurements conducted up to now. Most notably, we find no evidence for change in the UV/VIS transmission of the back-up filters in ground tests spanning a 2 year period and we find no evidence for change in the optical transmission of the thin filter of the EPIC-pn camera from 2002 to 2012. We point out some lessons learned for the development and calibration programs of filters for X-ray detectors in future Astronomy missions.

  17. Spectral and Temporal Properties of the Ultraluminous X-Ray Pulsar in M82 from 15 years of Chandra Observations and Analysis of the Pulsed Emission Using NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brightman, Murray; Harrison, Fiona; Walton, Dominic J.; Fuerst, Felix; Hornschemeier, Ann; Zezas, Andreas; Bachetti, Matteo; Grefenstette, Brian; Ptak, Andrew; Tendulkar, Shriharsh; Yukita, Mihoko

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery by Bachetti et al. of a pulsar in M82 that can reach luminosities of up to 1040 erg s-1, a factor of ˜100 times the Eddington luminosity for a 1.4 M⊙ compact object, poses a challenge for accretion physics. In order to better understand the nature of this source and its duty cycle, and in light of several physical models that have been subsequently published, we conduct a spectral and temporal analysis of the 0.5-8 keV X-ray emission from this source from 15 years of Chandra observations. We analyze 19 ACIS observations where the point-spread function (PSF) of the pulsar is not contaminated by nearby sources. We fit the Chandra spectra of the pulsar with a power-law model and a disk blackbody model, subjected to interstellar absorption in M82. We carefully assess for the effect of pile-up in our observations, where four observations have a pile-up fraction of >10%, which we account for during spectral modeling with a convolution model. When fitted with a power-law model, the average photon index when the source is at high luminosity (LX > 1039 erg s-1) is Γ = 1.33 ± 0.15. For the disk blackbody model, the average temperature is Tin = 3.24 ± 0.65 keV, the spectral shape being consistent with other luminous X-ray pulsars. We also investigated the inclusion of a soft excess component and spectral break, finding that the spectra are also consistent with these features common to luminous X-ray pulsars. In addition, we present spectral analysis from NuSTAR over the 3-50 keV range where we have isolated the pulsed component. We find that the pulsed emission in this band is best fit by a power-law with a high-energy cutoff, where Γ = 0.6 ± 0.3 and {E}{{C}}={14}-3+5 keV. While the pulsar has previously been identified as a transient, we find from our longer-baseline study that it has been remarkably active over the 15-year period, where for 9/19 (47%) observations that we analyzed, the pulsar appears to be emitting at a luminosity in excess of

  18. 76 FR 27287 - Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... of Study and request for comments for the Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait (75 FR 68568... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 167 Port Access Route Study: In the Bering Strait; Extension of Comment...: In the Bering Strait. In this action, USCG is providing notice that the public comment period...

  19. Pore-network study of the characteristic periods in the drying of porous materials.

    PubMed

    Yiotis, Andreas G; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N; Stubos, Athanassios K; Yortsos, Yannis C

    2006-05-15

    We study the periods that develop in the drying of capillary porous media, particularly the constant rate (CRP) and the falling rate (FRP) periods. Drying is simulated with a 3-D pore-network model that accounts for the effect of capillarity and buoyancy at the liquid-gas interface and for diffusion through the porous material and through a boundary layer over the external surface of the material. We focus on the stabilizing or destabilizing effects of gravity on the shape of the drying curve and the relative extent of the various drying periods. The extents of CRP and FRP are directly associated with various transition points of the percolation theory, such as the breakthrough point and the main liquid cluster disconnection point. Our study demonstrates that when an external diffusive layer is present, the constant rate period is longer. PMID:16359693

  20. 1.5-year AOD observations at the Navarino Environmental Observatory (NEO), in Messinia-S. Greece (Eastern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Gratsea, Myrto; Amiridis, Vassilis; Zerefos, Christos; Andreae, Meinrat

    2013-04-01

    Ground-based observations of the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at the newly operated Navarino Environmental Observatory (NEO), in Messinia-S. Greece (Eastern Mediterranean), are analysed in this work. NEO is a cooperation between Stockholm University, the Academy of Athens and TEMES S.A., dedicated to research and education on the climate and environment of the Mediterranean region. Measurements were acquired with a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer at five wavelengths. The temporal variability characteristics of the AOD and the Angstroem exponent will be investigated in order to retrieve the major sources of aerosols over the area in conjunction with back-trajectory analyses. The relation between columnar properties of aerosols and in-situ measurements, will be additionally studied during the intensive campaign ARGON (Aerosol and TRace Gases Observational Campaign at NEO). The ARGON campaign took place in the period 7 June - 12 July 2012 at NEO premises in Costa Navarino, Messinia. In addition to the routine aerosol, trace gases and radiometric measurements at NEO, extra instrumentation was operated for the monitoring of NOx (NO and NO2), CO and PM10, for the first time in the area. A PM10 sampler was used for the collection of 24h atmospheric samples on quartz filters for further in vitro chemical analyses. Finally, a LIDAR system on board of the new van type mobile lab of the Academy of Athens was deployed for the scanning of the vertical profile of aerosol in the atmosphere during the period of measurements.

  1. Changes in body composition, hormonal status, and physical fitness in 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old Finnish regional youth soccer players during a two-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Vänttinen, Tomi; Blomqvist, Minna; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2011-12-01

    Vänttinen, T, Blomqvist, M, Nyman, K, and Häkkinen, K. Changes in body composition, hormonal status, and physical fitness in 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old Finnish regional youth soccer players during a two-year follow-up. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3342-3351, 2011-The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in body composition, hormonal status, and physical fitness in 10.8 ± 0.3-year-old (n = 13), 12.7 ± 0.2-year-old (n = 14), and 14.7 ± 0.3-year-old (n = 12) Finnish regional youth soccer players during a 2-year monitoring period and to compare physical fitness characteristics of soccer players with those of age-matched controls (10.7 ± 0.3 years, n = 13; 14.7 ± 0.3 years, n = 10) not participating in soccer. Body composition was measured in terms of height, weight, muscle mass, percentage of body fat, and lean body weight of trunk, legs, and arms. Hormonal status was monitored by concentrations of serum testosterone and cortisol. Physical fitness was measured in terms of sprinting speed, agility, isometric maximal strength (leg extensors, abdominal, back, grip), explosive strength, and endurance. Age-related development was detected in all other measured variables except in the percentage of body fat. The results showed that the physical fitness of regional soccer players was better than that of the control groups in all age groups, especially in cardiovascular endurance (p < 0.01-0.001) and in agility (p < 0.01-0.001). In conclusion, playing in a regional level soccer team seems to provide training adaptation, which is beyond normal development and which in all likelihood leads to positive health effects over a prolonged period of time. PMID:21921822

  2. Spontaneous re-eruption of a permanent maxillary central incisor after 15 years of ankylosis--a case report.

    PubMed

    Schott, Timm Cornelius; Engel, Eva; Göz, Gernot

    2012-06-01

    Intrusion injuries are considered among the most severe forms of dental trauma, potentially leading to ankylosis as a late consequence. In 1991, a 7-year-old boy suffered a traumatic intrusion leading to an infraposition of tooth 21 along with its immobility. Based on the clinical findings, including bright-sounding percussion testing, disappearance of the periodontal space and a failed attempt at orthodontic movement, a diagnosis of ankylosis was made. Following prosthetic restoration of the infrapositioned tooth, spontaneous re-eruption occurred 15 years later. With the help of a partial multibracket appliance, the tooth could be adjusted to occlusal level and was then restored to the patient's satisfaction. Radiographically, it was demonstrated that extrusion of the tooth had been accompanied by a significant gain in local alveolar bone volume. While a wait-and-see strategy cannot be recommended as a treatment option following ankylosis, considering that spontaneous re-eruption after several years is an extremely rare finding, elucidating the mechanisms at work in spontaneous re-eruption at a cellular level might create an opportunity for iatrogenic triggering of re-eruption, thus paving the way to new forms of therapy. PMID:21790990

  3. The Thai HIV/AIDS epidemic at 15 years: sustained needle sharing among southern Thai drug injectors.

    PubMed

    Perngmark, Pajongsil; Vanichseni, Suphak; Celentano, David D

    2008-01-01

    To explore perceptions and attitudes towards needle sharing among clinic-based injecting drug abusers (IDUs) at a drug-treatment clinic in Hat Yai City, Songkla Province, Southern Thailand. Qualitative methods were used to gather data, including: in-depth interviews with 17 active IDUs and with three nurses, participant observation, review of the IDUs' files, and validation after interview completion to ensure data triangulation. A form of comparative content analysis, including thematic analysis, was used for data analysis. After 15 years of the Thai HIV/AIDS epidemic, most southern Thai IDUs still occasionally engaged in needle sharing although they reported reductions in sharing frequency. Withdrawal symptoms and craving were most commonly cited as compelling reasons to share. Misconceptions about how to determine "healthy" from the "sick" was another key factor underlying sharing. Pooling money for drugs (with subsequent cost-savings) was given priority over purchasing new needles/syringes among disadvantaged IDUs. Receiving HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT), however, promotes reduced sharing. Our findings suggest that southern Thai IDUs remain at high risk of acquiring HIV infection, primarily through needle sharing. Harm reduction strategies, such as, providing VCT to all IDUs and promoting needle exchange programs might be beneficial approaches to curbing the rapid spread of HIV. PMID:17870252

  4. X-ray Sources in the Magellanic Clouds: analysis of 15 Years of XMM-Newton and Chandra Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Laycock, S.; Christodoulou, D.; Drake, J.; Fingerman, S.; Hong, J.; Zezas, A.; Antoniou, V.; Coe, M.; Ho, W.

    2016-06-01

    Using ˜160 XMM-Newton, ˜180 Chandra, and all weekly RXTE observations, we have generated a comprehensive library of the known pulsars in the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC, LMC). We classify various pulsar properties in the range of log L_{X}=32-38 erg s^{-1} and incorporate related parameters in theoretical models. With the high time-resolution data of the EPIC and Chandra cameras and the latest calibration files and software, our 15 year pipeline generates a suite of useful products for each pulsar detection: event lists, high time-resolution light curves, periodograms, spectra, and complete histories of the dot{P}, the pulse fraction, etc., in the broad, soft (0.2-2 keV), and hard (2-12 keV) energy bands. After combining the observations from these telescopes, we found that 15 pulsars are clearly spinning up and another 15 pulsars are distinctly spinning down. We also used the faintest and brightest sources to map out the propeller line and the Eddington line, respectively. We compared the observed pulse profiles to geometric models of X-ray emission in order to constrain the physical parameters of the pulsars. We are preparing a public release of this library so that it can be used by other groups as well.

  5. Overview of the MISSE 7 Polymers and Zenith Polymers Experiments After 1.5 Years of Space Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Grace T.; deGroh, Kim, K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Haloua, Athena; Imka, Emily C.; Mitchell, Gianna G.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 7 (MISSE 7), two experiments called the Polymers Experiment and the Zenith Polymers Experiment were flown on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) and exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment for 1.5 years. The Polymers Experiment contained 47 samples, which were flown in a ram or wake flight orientation. The objectives of the Polymers Experiment were to determine the LEO atomic oxygen erosion yield (Ey, volume loss per incident oxygen atoms, given in cu cm/atom) of the polymers, and to determine if atomic oxygen erosion of high and low ash containing polymers is dependent on fluence. The Zenith Polymers Experiment was flown in a zenith flight orientation. The primary objective of the Zenith Polymers Experiment was to determine the effect of solar exposure on the erosion of fluoropolymers. Kapton H (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) was flown in each experiment for atomic oxygen fluence determination. This paper provides an introduction to both the MISSE 7 Polymers Experiment and the MISSE 7 Zenith Polymers Experiment, and provides initial erosion yield results.

  6. Effects of mountain beaver management and thinning on 15-year-old Douglas fir growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Dan L; Engeman, Richard M; Farley, James P

    2015-07-01

    We examined 4-year growth of 15-year-old damaged and undamaged Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzesii) after integrating temporary population reductions of mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) with thinning in a pre-commercial hand-planted plantation in western Washington. Five treatment combinations were considered: (1) trapping mountain beavers in an unthinned area, (2) trapping before thinning to 65 trees/ha (160 trees/ac), (3) no trapping and thinning to 65 trees/ha, (4) no trapping and thinning to 146 trees/ha (360 trees/ac), and (5) no trapping and no thinning. Removal of ≥ 90 % of mountain beavers temporarily reduced mountain beaver activity whether the stand was unthinned or thinned. Diameter growth at breast height (dbh) was greater for undamaged trees than for damaged trees in thinned areas. Tree height growth was greatest in trapped areas whether thinned or not. No differences were detected in 4-year survival between trees damaged aboveground and those without aboveground damage, which may be related to undetected root damage to trees without aboveground damage. Basal diameter growth and dbh growth were greatest for areas thinned to 65 trees/ha. Seventy-eight percent of stomachs from mountain beaver trapped in winter contained Douglas fir root or stem materials. Overall, short-term removal of mountain beavers integrated with pre-commercial thinning promoted growth of crop trees. PMID:25772877

  7. Orofacial granulomatosis affecting lip and gingiva in a 15-year-old patient: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Monika; Singh, Nootan; Patne, Shashikant; Singh, Satyendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Orofacial granulomatosis (OFG) is a rare disorder affecting the orofacial region, and clinically characterized by diffuse, nontender, soft to firm, painless swelling restricted to one or both lips and intraoral sites such as tongue, gingiva and buccal mucosa. Histologically, OFG is characterized by noncaseating granulomatous inflammation. The early diagnosis of OFG is essential for the better prognosis of the lesion. Delay in diagnosis of OFG results into formation of indurated and permanent swelling of the lip that not only compromises esthetic appearance but also causes impairment in function such as speaking and eating. Early diagnosis of OFG is challenging to the health care professionals due to clinical and histological resemblance to other chronic granulomatous disorders. Thus, dentists may act as a first person to diagnose the lesion and play an important role in the multidisciplinary treatment of granulomatous disorders. Here, we present a case of OFG affecting lips and gingiva in a 15-year-old patient without any identifiable systemic or local causes. PMID:25821385

  8. Treatment of choledochal cyst in a pediatric population. A single institution experience of 15-years. Case series

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Baez, Hector; Coello-Ramírez, Pedro; Ixtabalán-Escalante, Eddy Mizraím; Sotelo-Anaya, Eduardo; Gallo-Morales, Mariana; Cordero-Estrada, Eduardo; Sainz-Escarrega, Victor Hugo; Ploneda-Valencia, César Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Background Choledochal cyst (CC) is a rare congenital anomaly of the bile duct that approximately 75% of the patients are diagnosed in childhood. Without a standardized surgical procedure for the biliary reconstruction, we present our experience over the last 15 years and show the differences between the biliary reconstructions techniques in our population. Methods We did a retrospective hospital archive search for patients admitted to the pediatric surgery department with the diagnosis of a choledochal cyst from January 2000 to June 2015. Results We found 15 patients, of which, 1 was excluded because of missing data from the hospital record. Of the remaining 14, eight had hepaticojejunal (HY) anastomosis in Roux-en-Y, with a 25% rate of complications; six had hepatoduodenal (HD) anastomosis with a rate of complications of 16.6%. The average hospital length of stay in the group of HD vs. HY was 14 ± 1.6-days vs. 19 ± 8.2-days respectively. Discussion There are no standardized surgical reconstruction techniques of the biliary tract after the CC excision, there is literature that supports the biliary reconstruction with an HY and an HD without a distinct advantage over one or the other. Conclusion: In our series HD anastomosis represents a safe procedure with fewer complications than HY. PMID:26900456

  9. Study of periodic motions of a satellite with a magnetic damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadov, Y. A.; Teterin, A. D.

    1979-01-01

    The motion of a satellite with a magnetic damper in the plane of a circular polar orbit is studied. The asymptotics of periodic solutions are constructed for a satellite close to axisymmetric and the radius of convergence is evaluated for the power series obtained. In a broad range of values of parameters, a periodic solution is obtained by numerical integration of equations of motion of the satellite. The asymptotics of a bifurcated curve obtained (the curve on which origin of a pair of periodic solutions occurs) in the space of the parameters agrees well with the results of numerical computation with all physical values of these parameters. A breakdown is made of the space of the initial data of phase variables in the field of effect of different types of periodic motion.

  10. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ho, ChinYu; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Yeh, Jade Chienyu; deFerranti, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC) of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10) students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989) were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC) to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833–0.857) and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731–0.795). The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile) and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile). Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65–5.17) compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents’ height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups. PMID:27389572

  11. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason Jiunshiou; Ho, ChinYu; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Yeh, Jade Chienyu; deFerranti, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC) of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10) students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989) were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC) to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833-0.857) and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731-0.795). The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile) and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile). Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65-5.17) compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents' height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups. PMID:27389572

  12. New Light Curves and Period Studies of V502 OPH W UMA System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awadalla, Nabil S.

    NEW LIGHT CURVES AND PERIOD STUDIES OF V502 OPH W UMa SYSTEM N.S.Awadalla National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics( NRIAG ) Helwan Cairo EGYPT New BVR photoelectric observations of the W UMa eclipsing binary system V502 Oph have been presented and analyzed. The geometric and physical elements of the system have been obtained and compared to the previous results. The classification of the system concerning the sub-type of the W UMa binary has been studied as well as its evolution stage. Its period variation in a view of the light time effect has been examin

  13. HLW Return from France to Germany - 15 Years of Experience in Public Acceptance and Technical Aspects - 12149

    SciTech Connect

    Graf, Wilhelm

    2012-07-01

    Since in 1984 the national reprocessing concept was abandoned the reprocessing abroad was the only existing disposal route until 1994. With the amendment of the Atomic Energy Act in 2001 spent fuel management changed completely since from 1 June 2005 any delivery of spent fuel to reprocessing plants was prohibited and the direct disposal of spent fuel became mandatory. Until 2005 the total amount of spent fuel to be reprocessed abroad added up to 6080 t HM, 5309 t HM thereof in France. The waste generated from reprocessing - alternatively an equivalent amount of radioactive material - has to be returned to the country of origin according to the commercial contracts signed between the German utilities and COGEMA, now AREVA NC, in France and BNFL, now INS in UK. In addition the German and the French government exchanged notes with the obligation of both sides to enable and support the return of reprocessing residues or equivalents to Germany. The return of high active vitrified waste from La Hague to the interim storage facility at Gorleben was demanding from the technical view i. e. the cask design and the transport. Unfortunately the Gorleben area served as a target for nuclear opponents from the first transport in 1996 to the latest one in 2011. The protection against sabotage of the railway lines and mass protests needed highly improved security measures. In France and Germany special working forces and projects have been set up to cope with this extraordinary situation. A complex transport organization was established to involve all parties in line with the German and French requirements during transport. The last transport of vitrified residues from France has been completed successfully so far thus confirming the efficiency of the applied measures. Over 15 years there was and still is worldwide no comparable situation it is still unique. Summing up, the exceptional project handling challenge that resulted from the continuous anti-nuclear civil disobedience in

  14. Evaluating Trends in Historical PM2.5 Element Concentrations by Reanalyzing a 15-Year Sample Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyslop, N. P.; White, W. H.; Trzepla, K.

    2014-12-01

    The IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments) network monitors aerosol concentrations at 170 remote sites throughout the United States. Twenty-four-hour filter samples of particulate matter are collected every third day and analyzed for chemical composition. About 30 of the sites have operated continuously since 1988, and the sustained data record (http://views.cira.colostate.edu/web/) offers a unique window on regional aerosol trends. All elemental analyses have been performed by Crocker Nuclear Laboratory at the University of California in Davis, and sample filters collected since 1995 are archived on campus. The suite of reported elements has remained constant, but the analytical methods employed for their determination have evolved. For example, the elements Na - Mn were determined by PIXE until November 2001, then by XRF analysis in a He-flushed atmosphere through 2004, and by XRF analysis in vacuum since January 2005. In addition to these fundamental changes, incompletely-documented operational factors such as detector performance and calibration details have introduced variations in the measurements. Because the past analytical methods were non-destructive, the archived filters can be re-analyzed with the current analytical systems and protocols. The 15-year sample archives from Great Smoky Mountains (GRSM), Mount Rainier (MORA), and Point Reyes National Parks (PORE) were selected for reanalysis. The agreement between the new analyses and original determinations varies with element and analytical era. The graph below compares the trend estimates for all the elements measured by IMPROVE based on the original and repeat analyses; the elements identified in color are measured above the detection limit more than 90% of the time. The trend estimates are sensitive to the treatment of non-detect data. The original and reanalysis trends are indistinguishable (have overlapping confidence intervals) for most of the well-detected elements.

  15. Colonic polyposis in a 15 year-old boy: Challenges and lessons from a rural resource-poor area

    PubMed Central

    Kakembo, Nasser; Kisa, Phyllis; Fitzgerald, Tamara; Ozgediz, Doruk; Sekabira, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Colorectal polyps usually present with rectal bleeding and are associated with increased risk of colorectal carcinoma. Evaluation and management in resource-poor areas present unique challenges. Presentation of case This 15 year-old boy presented with 9 years of painless rectal bleeding and 2 years of a prolapsing rectal mass after passing stool. He had 3 nephews with similar symptoms. On clinical assessment and initial exam under anesthesia, an impression of a polyposis syndrome was made and a biopsy taken from the mass that revealed inflammatory polyps with no dysplasia. He was identified during a pediatric surgical outreach to a rural area with no endoscopy, limited surgical services, and no genetic testing available, even at a tertiary center. He subsequently had a three-stage proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis with good outcome after referral to a tertiary care center. The surgical specimen showed many polyps scattered through the colon. Discussion In the absence of endoscopic surveillance and diagnostic services including advanced pathology and genetic testing, colorectal polyposis syndromes are a significant challenge if encountered in these settings. Reports from similar settings have not included this surgical treatment, often opting for partial colectomy. Nonetheless, good outcomes can be achieved even given these constraints. The case also illustrates the complexity of untreated chronic pediatric surgical disease in rural resource-poor areas with limited health care access. Conclusion Polyposis syndromes in children present unique challenges in rural resource-poor settings. Good outcomes can be achieved with total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anastomosis. PMID:27144002

  16. Sleep, daily activity rhythms and postpartum mood: A longitudinal study across the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Krawczak, Elizabeth M; Minuzzi, Luciano; Simpson, William; Hidalgo, Maria Paz; Frey, Benicio N

    2016-01-01

    Women with a diagnosis of bipolar and major depressive disorders are at higher risk to develop postpartum depression. The primary objective of this longitudinal study was to determine whether daily activity rhythms and sleep parameters differ between women with and without a history of a mood disorder across the perinatal period. A secondary objective was to determine whether changes in these parameters were associated with postpartum mood. In total, 33 women were included in this study, 15 of which had a history of a mood disorder (high-risk group) and 18 who did not (low-risk group). Sleep and daily rhythms were assessed subjectively and objectively during the third trimester (≥26 weeks gestation) and again at 6-12 weeks postpartum. Mood was also assessed at both time points. Women in the high-risk group showed greater subjective daily rhythms and sleep disturbances across the perinatal period. Objective sleep efficiency was worse in the high-risk group in the postpartum period. Changes in both subjective daily rhythms and objective sleep efficiency were predictive of changes in depressive symptoms across the perinatal period. These findings encourage the development of preventative therapeutics to ensure circadian rhythm and sleep stability throughout the perinatal period. PMID:27097327

  17. U.S. Virtual School Trial Period and Course Completion Policy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Abigail; Barbour, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Variation in policies virtual schools use to calculate course completion and retention rates impacts the comparability of these quality metrics. This study surveyed 159 U.S. virtual schools examining the variability in trial period and course completion policies--two policies that affect course completion rates. Of the 86 respondents, almost 70%…

  18. A New Method for Studying the Periodic System Based on a Kohonen Neural Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, David Zhekai

    2010-01-01

    A new method for studying the periodic system is described based on the combination of a Kohonen neural network and a set of chemical and physical properties. The classification results are directly shown in a two-dimensional map and easy to interpret. This is one of the major advantages of this approach over other methods reported in the…

  19. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--TIME-ACTIVITY DIARY QUESTIONNAIRE DATA (ALL MONITORING PERIODS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set includes responses for 249 participants with a total of 428 time-activity diaries. Some participants were studied for more than one monitoring period. The Time Diary and Activity Questionnaire was used for collecting data on detailed (daily) time and location inform...

  20. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--FOLLOW-UP QUESTIONNAIRE DATA (ALL MONITORING PERIODS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set includes responses for 249 participants with a total of 444 follow-up questionnaires. Some participants were studied for more than one monitoring period. The Follow-up Questionnaire was used to provide information on relatively infrequent (e.g., less than daily) ac...

  1. 15 years of SO2 measurements at Popocatépetl volcano: from individual COSPEC measurements to real-time mini-DOAS-network measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado Granados, Hugo; Cárdenas González, Lucio; Alvarez Nieves, José Manuel

    2010-05-01

    On December 21, 1994, Popocatépetl Volcano (PV) started to erupt explosively with a series of vulcanian-type events with large emissions of gas. The activity remained explosive along 1995 with a period of quiescence from August 1995 to early March 1996. On March 5, 1996 the volcano resumed the eruptive activity (vulcanian in nature) and on March 25 the eruptive style changed to effusive. The first lava dome was partially destroyed on April 30, 1996. Up to 2001, at least 12 lava domes were extruded and destroyed. Until December 2009, PV continues producing lava domes, and destroying them with vulcanian explosions. Here, a summary of the SO2 emissions at PV during the last 15 years is presented. Work on PV's gas emissions started in early 1994. Initially, on February 1st 1994, SO2 emissions were 16 kg/s measured with a correlation spectrometer (COSPEC). Gas emissions prior to the eruption were of a magmatic signature, and with a similar order-of-magnitude as emissions during the first year of eruption (10s-100s kg/ s). The values during the period between August 1995 and early March 1996 were ~9 kg/s in average (maximum of ~19 kg/s, and a minimum of ~1 kg/s). After 1996 the order-of-magnitude raised to an average of ~130 kg/s. SO2 emissions have had a high variability through time the maximum value was measured on December 13, 2000 (~2000 kg/s). Within the framework of the NOVAC (Network for the Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change) project 4 mini-DOAS instruments have been deployed at PV, all stations acquire spectra in real-time and send the data to the receiving station at CENAPRED in Mexico City where data is collected for immediate evaluation of the volcanic activity. Automatically, data is also sent to a server in Chalmers University for archiving and other uses. Data is post-processed at CENAPRED and UNAM and a database is being built since 2005. These measurements allow to estimate SO2 emissions in real-time and in a more accurate way. The network

  2. Quasiperiodic VLF emissions with short-period modulation and their relationship to whistlers: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manninen, J.; Demekhov, A. G.; Titova, E. E.; Kozlovsky, A. E.; Pasmanik, D. L.

    2014-05-01

    We study properties of quasiperiodic (QP) VLF emissions recorded on 24 December 2011 during the VLF campaign in northern Finland. The main attention is paid to interrelationships between different characteristic periods in the QP spectra. In particular, we analyze regular variations in the QP repetition intervals (1-10 min) during the event from 15:30 to 22 UT, their changes during substorms, and short periodic (several second) modulation observed within separate QP elements. We explained the variations of periods of QP emissions in terms of the model of auto-oscillation regime of the cyclotron instability in the magnetosphere. During the considered event lasting about 7 h we observed a regular increase in the time intervals between the QP elements. We relate this increase with weakening of the magnetospheric source of energetic electrons. Significant variations in the QP period occurred during substorms. These variations can be due to a substorm-related increase in the energetic-electron flux and/or due to the precipitation of these electrons into the ionosphere which changes the reflection coefficient of VLF waves. We analyze the fine structure of QP element spectra and reveal the periods related to the time scales of guided propagation of whistler mode waves along the magnetic field line, which suggests that ducted propagation regime took place for the QP emissions. The periods were about 6-9 s for frequencies 1.2-4 kHz, respectively, which was similar to the period of almost simultaneously observed two-hop whistlers. In the low-frequency part of QP spectra periodic emissions with shorter periods of about 3 s were observed. Analysis of fine structure of QP elements shows that their formation is affected by both linear effects (i.e., group-velocity dispersion) and quasi-linear effects related to the modification of the energetic electron distribution function. It allows us to observe the transition from purely linear to quasi-linear regime of wave

  3. Doubly periodic structure for the study of inhomogeneous bulk fermion matter with spatial localizations

    SciTech Connect

    Vantournhout, Klaas; Jachowicz, Natalie; Ryckebusch, Jan

    2011-09-15

    We present a method that offers perspectives to perform fully antisymmetrized simulations for inhomogeneous bulk fermion matter. The technique bears resemblance to classical periodic boundary conditions, using localized single-particle states. Such localized states are an ideal tool to discuss phenomena where spatial localization plays an important role. The antisymmetrization is obtained introducing a doubly periodic structure in the many-body fermion wave functions. This results in circulant matrices for the evaluation of expectation values, leading to a computationally tractable formalism to study fully antisymmetrized bulk fermion matter. We show that the proposed technique is able to reproduce essential fermion features in an elegant and computationally advantageous manner.

  4. Study on the Geomagnetic Short Period Variations of the Northwestern Yunnan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Y.; Li, Q.; Cai, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Northwestern Yunnan is located in the interaction area between the Eurasian plate and the India plate. This area has been the ideal place for the research of continental dynamics and the prediction for risk region of strong earthquake for its complex tectonic environment and frequent seismic activity. Therefore the study on the geomagnetic short period variations is of great significance in the exploration of deep electrical structure, analysis of the seismic origin and deep geodynamics in the Northwestern Yunnan of China . This paper is based on the geomagnetic data from the magnetometer array with 8 sites built in the northwestern Yunnan to explore the deep electrical structure by the method of geomagnetic depth sounding. Firstly, we selected a total of 183 geomagnetic short period events at the range of 6min to 120min period. And we found a north northwest dividing line, of which two sides has the opposite value in the vertical component variation amplitude, which indicates the obvious conductivity anomaly underground. Secondly, the contour maps of the ratio of vertical component and horizontal component variation amplitude ΔZ/ΔH in different periods reflects the changes of a high conductivity belt's direction and position. In addition, the induction arrows maps within the period of 2 - 256min also shows that on the two sides of the dividing line the induction vectors deviate from each other, and the amplitude and direction of vectors varies with periods regularly. In the light of this, we infer that a high conductivity belt probably exists, which stretches from the deep crust to uppermost mantle and changes with depth constantly with the reference of magnetotelluric sounding. In the end of this paper, the staggered grid finite difference method is used to model the simplified three-dimensional high conductivity anomaly, and the result shows magnetic field distributions are consistent with the observed geomagnetic short period variations characteristics in

  5. Work-home interface stress: an important predictor of emotional exhaustion 15 years into a medical career.

    PubMed

    Hertzberg, Tuva Kolstad; Rø, Karin Isaksson; Vaglum, Per Jørgen Wiggen; Moum, Torbjørn; Røvik, Jan Ole; Gude, Tore; Ekeberg, Øivind; Tyssen, Reidar

    2016-03-28

    The importance of work-home interface stress can vary throughout a medical career and between genders. We studied changes in work-home interface stress over 5 yr, and their prediction of emotional exhaustion (main dimension of burn-out), controlled for other variables. A nationwide doctor cohort (NORDOC; n=293) completed questionnaires at 10 and 15 yr after graduation. Changes over the period were examined and predictors of emotional exhaustion analyzed using linear regression. Levels of work-home interface stress declined, whereas emotional exhaustion stayed on the same level. Lack of reduction in work-home interface stress was an independent predictor of emotional exhaustion in year 15 (β=-0.21, p=0.001). Additional independent predictors were reduction in support from colleagues (β=0.11, p=0.04) and emotional exhaustion at baseline (β=0.62, p<0.001). Collegial support was a more important predictor for men than for women. In separate analyses, significant adjusted predictors were lack of reduction in work-home interface stress among women, and reduction of collegial support and lack of reduction in working hours among men. Thus, change in work-home interface stress is a key independent predictor of emotional exhaustion among doctors 15 yr after graduation. Some gender differences in predictors of emotional exhaustion were found. PMID:26538002

  6. Work-home interface stress: an important predictor of emotional exhaustion 15 years into a medical career

    PubMed Central

    HERTZBERG, Tuva Kolstad; RØ, Karin Isaksson; VAGLUM, Per Jørgen Wiggen; MOUM, Torbjørn; RØVIK, Jan Ole; GUDE, Tore; EKEBERG, Øivind; TYSSEN, Reidar

    2015-01-01

    The importance of work-home interface stress can vary throughout a medical career and between genders. We studied changes in work-home interface stress over 5 yr, and their prediction of emotional exhaustion (main dimension of burn-out), controlled for other variables. A nationwide doctor cohort (NORDOC; n=293) completed questionnaires at 10 and 15 yr after graduation. Changes over the period were examined and predictors of emotional exhaustion analyzed using linear regression. Levels of work-home interface stress declined, whereas emotional exhaustion stayed on the same level. Lack of reduction in work-home interface stress was an independent predictor of emotional exhaustion in year 15 (β=−0.21, p=0.001). Additional independent predictors were reduction in support from colleagues (β=0.11, p=0.04) and emotional exhaustion at baseline (β=0.62, p<0.001). Collegial support was a more important predictor for men than for women. In separate analyses, significant adjusted predictors were lack of reduction in work-home interface stress among women, and reduction of collegial support and lack of reduction in working hours among men. Thus, change in work-home interface stress is a key independent predictor of emotional exhaustion among doctors 15 yr after graduation. Some gender differences in predictors of emotional exhaustion were found. PMID:26538002

  7. Causes and Associated Factors of Headaches among 5 to 15-year-old Children Referred to a Neurology Clinic in Kashan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    TALEBIAN, Ahmad; SOLTANI, Babak; HAJI REZAEI, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Objective Headaches are common neurologic problems for children and adolescents. They are divided into two types: primary and secondary. Primary headaches include migraines and tension-type as well as comprise the majority of headaches. We detect the causes of headaches and their associations with demographic variables among children and adolescents. Materials & Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 5–15 year-old children with headaches from March 2010 to April 2012 who presented at a pediatric neurology clinic in Kashan, Iran. Diagnosis of headaches was done in accordance with the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Data regarding the type of headache, age, gender, pain severity, aura, family history, and sleep disorder were collected. Results One hundred fourteen children (44 male and 70 female) with headaches were enrolled in the study. The types of headaches were comprised as follows: 67 cases of migraines, 38 cases of tension-type headaches, 2 cases of cluster headaches, and 7 cases of secondary headaches. Pulsating headaches, family history of headaches, insomnia, and pain severity had higher prevalence in migrainous patients. Conclusion Physicians should extend their information gathering about primary and secondary headaches. Sleep disturbances and a family history of headaches were the most important factors associated with migraine headaches. PMID:25767542

  8. Study of the period changes in SW Dor, an RR Lyrae type star with Blazhko effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdnikov, L. N.; Kniazev, A. Y.; Dambis, A. K.; Kravtsov, V. V.; Sefako, R.

    2016-09-01

    In 2012-2014 we acquired 1569 CCD BVIc frames for the RR Lyrae type variable SW Dor with the 76-cm telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) and 1-m telescopes of Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope network (LCOGT). Our observations showed a large scatter in the resulting phased light curve, especially near maximum brightness, which allowed us to reveal the Blazhko effect with a period of ˜80.9d. To study the pulsation period changes, we used all the available observations including the 1299 magnitude estimates from the digitized plate library of Harvard University (the DASCH project), which allowed us to construct the O-C diagram spanning a 125-year long time interval and discover for the first time at least three abrupt changes of the pulsation period.

  9. A study of a plume induced separation shock wave, including effects of periodic plume unsteadiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doughty, J. O.

    1976-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to study the flow field in which separation is caused by an expanding plume, with emphasis on effects associated with periodic unsteadiness in the plume. The separation shock was photographed with high speed motion pictures, from which mean shock position and excursion data were reported. Pressure fluctuations were measured beneath the separation shock. A response of the separation shock to plume periodic unsteadiness was identified, and the magnitude of a corresponding transfer function was defined. Small harmonic effects in plume response to periodic unsteadiness were noted. The stabilizing effect of a lateral surface protuberance near the separation shock wave was investigated. The protuberance configuration was a lateral circular cylinder, and various diameters, all less than the boundary layer thickness, were employed.

  10. Do periodic arm movements during sleep exist in healthy subjects? A polysomnographic study

    PubMed Central

    Gabelia, David; Mitterling, Thomas; Högl, Birgit; Wenning, Gregor K.; Frauscher, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite several polysomnographic studies on periodic leg movements (PLM) in healthy sleep, data on the prevalence and characteristics of periodic arm movements (PAM) in normal subjects are lacking. We aimed to investigate PAM and their association with PLM during wakefulness and sleep in healthy subjects. Methods Ninety-one participants underwent video-polysomnography according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine 2007 criteria. In addition to standard electromyographic registration, data for both flexor digitorum superficialis muscles were recorded. Results Sixty-two subjects (68.1%) had a PAM index during wakefulness >5/h (median PAM index during wakefulness, 8.8/h; range, 0–77). Seven subjects (7.7%) had a PAM index >5/h during sleep (median PAM index during sleep, 0.7/h; range, 0–47.4). In 14% of cases, PAM during wakefulness were coincident with PLM during wakefulness. During sleep, this coincidence was not evident. The correlation between PAM and PLM was weak to moderate (during wakefulness: Spearman's ρ = 0.576, P < 0.001; during sleep: Spearman's ρ = 0.222, P = 0.036). Conclusion In healthy subjects, PAM occur predominantly during wakefulness with no apparent true periodicity. In contrast to classical PLM, some PAM may not present a true periodic phenomenon, but rather random voluntary movements meeting the wide range of periodicity criteria for PLM. PMID:25037838

  11. Hypomania spectrum disorder in adolescence: a 15-year follow-up of non-mood morbidity in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated whether adolescents with hypomania spectrum episodes have an excess risk of mental and physical morbidity in adulthood, as compared with adolescents exclusively reporting major depressive disorder (MDD) and controls without a history of adolescent mood disorders. Methods A community sample of adolescents (N = 2 300) in the town of Uppsala, Sweden, was screened for depressive symptoms. Both participants with positive screening and matched controls (in total 631) were diagnostically interviewed. Ninety participants reported hypomania spectrum episodes (40 full-syndromal, 18 with brief episode, and 32 subsyndromal), while another 197 fulfilled the criteria for MDD without a history of a hypomania spectrum episode. A follow up after 15 years included a blinded diagnostic interview, a self-assessment of personality disorders, and national register data on prescription drugs and health services use. The participation rate at the follow-up interview was 71% (64/90) for the hypomania spectrum group, and 65.9% (130/197) for the MDD group. Multiple imputation was used to handle missing data. Results The outcomes of the hypomania spectrum group and the MDD group were similar regarding subsequent non-mood Axis I disorders in adulthood (present in 53 vs. 57%). A personality disorder was reported by 29% of the hypomania spectrum group and by 20% of the MDD group, but a statistically significant difference was reached only for obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (24 vs. 14%). In both groups, the risk of Axis I disorders and personality disorders in adulthood correlated with continuation of mood disorder. Prescription drugs and health service use in adulthood was similar in the two groups. Compared with adolescents without mood disorders, both groups had a higher subsequent risk of psychiatric morbidity, used more mental health care, and received more psychotropic drugs. Conclusions Although adolescents with hypomania spectrum episodes and

  12. A study on the effect of exclusion period on the suicidal risk among the insured.

    PubMed

    Yip, Paul S F; Chen, Feng

    2014-06-01

    An exclusion period (usually from 12 months to 2 years) is usually found in life insurance policies as a precautionary measure to prohibit people from insuring their lives with the intent to kill themselves shortly thereafter. Several studies have been conducted to investigate the effect of exclusion periods on the risk of suicide among the insured in the US and Australia. However, while Hong Kong has experienced an increase in the number of suicides among the insured, little is known about the dynamic between the exclusion period and suicide in Asia. Here we make use of death claims data from one of the major life insurance companies in Hong Kong to ascertain the impact of a 12-month exclusion period on suicide risk. We also use utility functions derived from economic theory to better understand individual choices regarding suicide among the insured. More specifically, we sought to determine whether there is a greater risk of suicide immediately following the 12-month exclusion period. We also examined whether the risk of suicide claims was higher than that of other non-suicidal claims. The study period for this investigation was from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2011, during which time there were 1935 claims based on 1243 deaths. Of these, 197 were suicide-related claims for 106 suicide deaths. The mean number of life policies held by suicidal claimants and non-suicidal claimants was 1.6 and 1.4, respectively. The average/median size of the claims (total payment made on all policies held by the insured life) was HK$665,800/426,600 and HK$497,700/276,200 for suicidal and non-suicidal deaths, respectively. The policy lifetime of the claims, or the number of days from policy issuance to suicide occurrence, ranged from 38 to 7561 days, with a mean of 2209 days, a median of 1941 days, and a standard deviation of 1544 days. The peak density of suicide claims occurred on day 1039 of the policy. Our results revealed that suicide claims tend to occur earlier than other

  13. Study of modeling aspects of long period fiber grating using three-layer fiber geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Amit

    2015-03-01

    The author studied and demonstrated the various modeling aspects of long period fiber grating (LPFG) such as the core effective index, cladding effective index, coupling coefficient, coupled mode theory, and transmission spectrum of the LPFG using three-layer fiber geometry. Actually, there are two different techniques used for theoretical modeling of the long period fiber grating. The first technique was used by Vengsarkar et al who described the phenomenon of long-period fiber gratings, and the second technique was reported by Erdogan who revealed the inaccuracies and shortcomings of the original method, thereby providing an accurate and updated alternative. The main difference between these two different approaches lies in their fiber geometry. Venserkar et al used two-layer fiber geometry which is simple but employs weakly guided approximation, whereas Erdogan used three-layer fiber geometry which is complex but also the most accurate technique for theoretical study of the LPFG. The author further discussed about the behavior of the transmission spectrum by altering different grating parameters such as the grating length, ultraviolet (UV) induced-index change, and grating period to achieve the desired flexibility. The author simulated the various results with the help of MATLAB.

  14. Measuring rotation periods of solar-like stars using TIGRE. A study of periodic CaII H+K S-index variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempelmann, A.; Mittag, M.; Gonzalez-Perez, J. N.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Schröder, K. P.; Rauw, G.

    2016-02-01

    Context. The rotation period of a star is a key parameter both for the stellar dynamo that generates magnetic fields as well as for stellar differential rotation. Aims: We present the results from the first year of monitoring a sample of solar-like stars by the TIGRE facility in Guanajuato (Mexico), which will study rotation in solar analogs. Methods: TIGRE is an automatically operating 1.2 m telescope equipped with an Échelle spectrograph with a spectral resolution of 20 000, which covers a spectral range of between 3800 and 8800 Å. A main task is the monitoring the stellar activity of cool stars, mainly in the emission cores of the CaII H and K lines. We observed a number of stars with a sampling between 1-3 days over one year. Results: A total number of 95 stars were observed between August 1 2013 and July 31 2014, the total number of spectra taken for this program was appoximately 2700. For almost a third of the sample stars the number of observations was rather low (less than 20), mainly because of bad weather. Fifty-four stars show a periodic signal but often with low significance. Only 24 stars exhibit a significant period. We interpret these signals as stellar rotation. For about half of them the rotation periods were already previously known, in which case our period measurements are usually in good agreement with the literature values. Besides the periodic signals, trends are frequently observed in the time series. Conclusions: TIGRE is obviously able to detect stellar rotation periods in the CaII H+K emission cores when the time series contains a sufficient number of data points. However, this is frequently not achievable during the wet summer season in Guanajuato. Hence, future estimates of rotation periods will concentrate on stars that are observable during the winter season from October until April.

  15. Association between normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need among 12- to 15-year-old students in Shiraz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Momeni Danaei, Shahla; Salehi, Parisa

    2010-10-01

    Self-perception of dental attractiveness is an important factor affecting orthodontic treatment need. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need and to evaluate the influence of gender and socioeconomic background such as family size, parental education and father's employment. The subjects were 900 male and female junior high school students (450 males, 450 females) aged 12-15 years, from four districts in the city of Shiraz, Iran. The participants were asked to complete a questionnaire and then underwent a dental examination. Normative treatment need was assessed clinically using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Statistical analysis was undertaken using t- and chi-squared tests. There was no statistically significant correlation between DAI scores and demographics. The results showed a significant correlation between DAI scores and a subject's awareness of malocclusion and their satisfaction with dental appearance. There were no differences between genders concerning the questionnaire data. The results suggest that the DAI score might reflect a self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment. PMID:20106996

  16. OVERWEIGHT, OBESITY AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG 13-15 YEARS OLD STUDENTS IN THE ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS MEMBER COUNTRIES, 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess overweight or obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries. The analysis included 30,284 school children 13-15 years of age from seven ASEAN members participating in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The overall prevalence of overweight or obesity across seven ASEAN countries (excluding Brunei) was 9.9%, significantly higher in boys (11.5%) than in girls (8.3%). Among eight ASEAN countries, the highest prevalence of overweight or obesity was in Brunei Darus-salam (36.1%), followed by Malaysia (23.7%), and the lowest was in Myanmar (3.4%) and Cambodia (3.7%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that younger age, coming from an upper middle country, never been hungry, and not walking or biking to school were associated with overweight or obesity. In addition, among boys, having three or more servings of vegetables per day and having no close friends, and among girls, having fast foods two or more times per week, been victims of bullying and having peer support were additional factors associated with overweight or obesity. Increased strategies utilizing a number of the risk factors identified are needed to prevent and treat overweight or obesity in adolescents in ASEAN member countries. PMID:27244964

  17. Occupational skin diseases from 1997 to 2004 at the Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Northern Norway (UNN): an investigation into the course and treatment of occupational skin disease 10–15 years after first consultations with a dermatologist

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Rosemarie; Dotterud, Lars Kåre

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We investigate the impact of occupational skin disease consultations among outpatients at the Dermatological Department, University Hospital, Northern Norway. Study design From 1997 until 2004, 386 patients with occupational skin disease were examined and given advice on skin care, skin disease treatment, skin protection in further work, and on the legal rights of patients with this disease. Ten to fifteen years later, we wanted to look at these patients in terms of their work situation, the current status of their disease, the help they received from the labour offices, and their subjective quality of life. Material and methods In the autumn of 2011 until the spring of 2012, a number of the patients examined in the period from 1997 to 2004 were selected and sent a questionnaire, which they were asked to answer and return, regarding their work situation and the progress and current status of their occupational disease. Results A total of 153 (77%) patients answered the questionnaire; 71% of these patients were still in work, and further 15% had old-age retired, 13% were working until then; 16% had retired early because of disability; 54% had changed jobs because of their occupational skin disease; 86% of the patients indicated that the skin disease had improved since our previous investigation. Conclusions Our investigation into patients with occupational skin disease documented that the majority of patients who had received professional dermatological consultation and intervention offers were still in the labour market and had good control of their skin disease 10–15 years later. We discovered that 71% of the patients were still employed. 13% had remained in work until they became old age pensioners. Only 16% dropped out of work because of disability. These high percentages may indicate that our intervention has contributed positively to patients’ work conditions and the course of their skin disease. PMID:27172061

  18. Quality of Life among Iranian Infertile Women in Postmenopausal Period: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Montazeri, Ali; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Infertility has a significant impact on a women's quality of life (QOL). Infertile women face with physical and mental challenges during their postmenopausal period. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the QOL among Iranian infertile women in the postmenopausal period using a valid and reliable instrument. Methods In this cross-sectional study both snowball and social networking methods were used for sampling. Two demographic and QOL questionnaire were used for data collection. The QOL questionnaire includes 41 items which measure the QOL in five dimensions: socioeconomic, mental health, religiousness, physical health and future imagining. Data analyzed was carried out in IBM SPSS ver. 20.0 using descriptive statistic, χ2 test, and Fisher test. A P value of 0.01 or less was considered significant. Results Overall 211 eligible participants were studied. Some participants obtained full score on socioeconomic, religiousness, physical health and future imagining dimensions of QOL but none on the mental health dimension of the QOL. Only, 6.6% of study participants have a good QOL. There was a significant relationship between age and financial provider whit status of QOL. Conclusion Most Iranian infertile women in the postmenopausal period have poor or moderate QOL. Therefore, improving the QOL among these women should be considered. PMID:27617245

  19. A study of the shortest-period planets found with Kepler

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Rappaport, Saul; Winn, Joshua N.; Kotson, Michael C.; Levine, Alan; Mellah, Ileyk El E-mail: sar@mit.edu E-mail: ileyk@apc.univ-paris7.fr

    2014-05-20

    We present the results of a survey aimed at discovering and studying transiting planets with orbital periods shorter than one day (ultra-short-period, or USP, planets), using data from the Kepler spacecraft. We computed Fourier transforms of the photometric time series for all 200,000 target stars, and detected transit signals based on the presence of regularly spaced sharp peaks in the Fourier spectrum. We present a list of 106 USP candidates, of which 18 have not previously been described in the literature. This list of candidates increases the number of planet candidates with orbital periods shorter than about six hours from two to seven. In addition, among the objects we studied, there are 26 USP candidates that had been previously reported in the literature which do not pass our various tests. All 106 of our candidates have passed several standard tests to rule out false positives due to eclipsing stellar systems. A low false positive rate is also implied by the relatively high fraction of candidates for which more than one transiting planet signal was detected. By assuming these multi-transit candidates represent coplanar multi-planet systems, we are able to infer that the USP planets are typically accompanied by other planets with periods in the range 1-50 days, in contrast with hot Jupiters which very rarely have companions in that same period range. Another clear pattern is that almost all USP planets are smaller than 2 R {sub ⊕}, possibly because gas giants in very tight orbits would lose their atmospheres by photoevaporation when subject to extremely strong stellar irradiation. Based on our survey statistics, USP planets exist around approximately (0.51 ± 0.07)% of G-dwarf stars, and (0.83 ± 0.18)% of K-dwarf stars.

  20. A Study of the Shortest-period Planets Found with Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Rappaport, Saul; Winn, Joshua N.; Kotson, Michael C.; Levine, Alan; El Mellah, Ileyk

    2014-05-01

    We present the results of a survey aimed at discovering and studying transiting planets with orbital periods shorter than one day (ultra-short-period, or USP, planets), using data from the Kepler spacecraft. We computed Fourier transforms of the photometric time series for all 200,000 target stars, and detected transit signals based on the presence of regularly spaced sharp peaks in the Fourier spectrum. We present a list of 106 USP candidates, of which 18 have not previously been described in the literature. This list of candidates increases the number of planet candidates with orbital periods shorter than about six hours from two to seven. In addition, among the objects we studied, there are 26 USP candidates that had been previously reported in the literature which do not pass our various tests. All 106 of our candidates have passed several standard tests to rule out false positives due to eclipsing stellar systems. A low false positive rate is also implied by the relatively high fraction of candidates for which more than one transiting planet signal was detected. By assuming these multi-transit candidates represent coplanar multi-planet systems, we are able to infer that the USP planets are typically accompanied by other planets with periods in the range 1-50 days, in contrast with hot Jupiters which very rarely have companions in that same period range. Another clear pattern is that almost all USP planets are smaller than 2 R ⊕, possibly because gas giants in very tight orbits would lose their atmospheres by photoevaporation when subject to extremely strong stellar irradiation. Based on our survey statistics, USP planets exist around approximately (0.51 ± 0.07)% of G-dwarf stars, and (0.83 ± 0.18)% of K-dwarf stars.

  1. Retrospective study of recession of four horizontal rectus muscle in periodic alternating nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Mimura, Osamu; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Kimura, Naoki; Kimura, Akiko; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Periodic alternating nystagmus (PAN) is a spontaneous horizontal nystagmus observed in disorders of the central nervous system. Patients with congenital PAN complain of oscillating vision at high rates. Medication is the first-choice treatment for PAN; however, clinicians still seek better therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of recession of four horizontal rectus muscle (R-FHR) in patients with congenital PAN. Patients and methods This study reports a retrospective case series of ten patients (seven males and three females; mean age 24.4±10.9) with congenital PAN who underwent R-FHR between 2007 and 2012, which was performed by the same surgeon at the Hyogo College of Medicine. Patients were evaluated for complications, recession amount, deviation angle, eye movements including a nystagmus amplitude, and visual acuity during pre- and post-operative periods. Results Pre-operatively, patients complained of oscillating vision, abnormal head posture, esotropia, and congenital superior oblique palsy. Post-operatively, changes from the previous observations of nystagmus amplitudes and abnormal head posture demonstrated a complete reversal in all patients. In addition, visual acuity determined with a Snellen chart improved in two patients. However, esotropia occurred in three patients who underwent additional strabismus surgery 2 days after R-FHR. R-FHR was particularly effective in eight patients who pre-operatively had periodic oscillating vision with a regular pattern of periodic nystagmus. Conclusion We demonstrated that ten patients with congenital PAN had improved vision following R-FHR, indicating that R-FHR was an effective procedure, especially in patients suffering PAN with periodic oscillating vision. PMID:25525330

  2. Self-consistent simulation studies of periodically focused intense charged-particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Jameson, R. A.

    1995-09-01

    A self-consistent two-dimensional model is used to investigate intense charged-particle beam propagation through a periodic solenoidal focusing channel, particularly in the regime in which there is a mismatch between the beam and the focusing channel. The present self-consistent studies confirm that mismatched beams exhibit nonlinear resonances and chaotic behavior in the envelope evolution, as predicted by an earlier envelope analysis [C. Chen and R. C. Davidson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2195 (1994)]. Transient effects due to emittance growth are studied, and halo formation is investigated. The halo size is estimated. The halo characteristics for a periodic focusing channel are found to be qualitatively the same as those for a uniform focusing channel. A threshold condition is obtained numerically for halo formation in mismatched beams in a uniform focusing channel, which indicates that relative envelope mismatch must be kept well below 20% to prevent space-charge-dominated beams from developing halos.

  3. A study on characteristics of Methane emission from a periodically irrigated paddy field in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakikuromaru, N.; Iwata, T.; Yagi, K.

    2014-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is generated by organic matter decomposition in the anaerobic soil. Paddy field is one of the most important eco-system in monsoon Asia. It is said that about 10% of CH4sources is paddy fields (IPCC AR4, 2007). In this study, methane emission from a single-rice crop field was estimated by long-term micrometeorological measurements. Methane emission was calculated by the aerodynamic gradient technique from January 2011 to August 2014. Intermittent water management was carried out during cultivation period at the observational site, HCH, located in Okayama, Japan. 3-days flood and 4-days drained condition were regularly repeated from late-June to early October. Seasonal variations of CH4flux for irrigation term from 2011 to 2013 were shown in Fig.1. Remarkably large fluxes were shown at early stage of irrigation term in 2011.It seemed to be caused by the relatively longer flooded condition that the first flooded period was 20 days. Flux in 2012 was smaller than in other year through the entire irrigation period. Rapid rise in flux for early August and gradual decrease between late August and September were shown in 2013. Fluxes under drained condition showed larger emission than under flooded condition. Cumulative CH4 emissions during cultivated period from 2011 to 2013 were estimated 15.7, 8.6, and 12.9 gC/m2, respectively.

  4. 10-15 years of GST monitoring over mountain permafrost in Switzerland: Indicators for driving forces for permafrost evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staub, Benno; Delaloye, Reynald; Hilbich, Christin; Lambiel, Christophe; Nötzli, Jeannette; Völksch, Ingo

    2013-04-01

    different landform types (e.g. debris mantled terrain, talus slopes, rock glaciers, ice-cored moraines, push moraines), the topographical context (e.g. exposure to wind and solar radiation, remobilization of snow by avalanches) and regional aspects (e.g. precipitation events, timing and duration of the insulating snow cover). GST anomalies, indices and derivatives are analyzed over a large data set (~15 field sites) provided by the PERMOS network and different institutions within the SNF Sinergia project «The Evolution of Mountain Permafrost in Switzerland» (TEMPS, 2011-2014). First results show that GST anomalies observed during the past 10 to 15 years show largest disparities for different types of landforms and topographical contexts (because of modified snow cover dynamics). Despite of the complex and highly variable pattern of precipitation in the Swiss Alps, regional differences in GST anomalies remain remarkable small. These findings implicate that future permafrost monitoring based on GST does not necessarily depend on a dense network with a high number of field sites, but should cover at least one suitable spot per region with a variety of different topographical contexts.

  5. The study of periodic changes in altitude of the satellite permanent stations of the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babiy, Lyubov; Tretyak, Kornyliy; Smirnova, Olha; Kulchyckiy, Andriy

    2013-04-01

    The following investigations were implemented in order to study the period of harmonic oscillations of time series of permanent GNSS stations, which are caused by various geophysical factors. A database of daily time series had been created for 111 permanent stations, there observations were running for at least 3 years. Permanent stations cover the latitudinal zone within +600 to -600. Algorithm and program for processing time series and determination of the optimal harmonic functions were developed. Kinematics model of the satellite station is described by the following equation h = at+b+c*cos(t-t0-n*p)+s*sin(t-t0-n*p), where a,b - coefficients of regression equation of linear displacement of station; c,s - harmonic coefficients, t-t0 - time observations at the station, n - number of periods of oscillation p, which fit in the interval t-t0. Presented equation was calculated at each epoch of observations for each station and coefficients a, b, c, s were determined by the method of least squares. On database 60 stations were selected for the study. The criterion for selection was the availability of clearly specified minimum of function of standard deviation of approximate curve from measurement results depending on the duration of the period of oscillations. From the analysis of created database it can be argued that harmonic oscillations of permanent stations depend on geographic station location and location of satellite receivers. According to results of processing it was defined that amplitude of periodical oscillations is changing in the bounds from 2.0 mm till 10.2 mm; period - from 348.9 days till 392,7 days. The largest amplitudes of function of harmonic oscillations are on the permanent stations that are in the heart of the continent, and the smallest amplitudes are on the stations placed along the coastline and on the islands, which apparently due to the capacity of the Earth's crust. It should be noted that the maximums of oscillation amplitudes of

  6. Importance of migrants infected with Onchocerca volvulus in west African river valleys protected by 14 to 15 years of Simulium control.

    PubMed

    De Sole, G; Remme, J

    1991-06-01

    A study was done to determine the importance of human migration from non-controlled endemic onchocerciasis foci to the river valleys that have been protected for the past 14 to 15 years by the vector control operations of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in West Africa. The aim of the study was to assess the contribution of migrants to the prevalence and intensity of infection in villages from 5 major river valleys and their potential role in causing relapse of transmission once the vector is allowed to return. In Burkina Faso the migrant population varied from 0.0% to 18.1% of the village population, and averaged 4.9%. Migrants accounted only for 0.6% of the population in Ghanaian and Ivorian villages along the Black Volta river. The prevalence of infection was significantly higher in migrants (8.2%) than in non migrants (1.1%) in the surveyed villages in Burkina Faso, and 1.5% of migrants had infections with more than 16 microfilariae per snip as against 0.2% of non migrants. Nearly all infected migrants came from the south of the Côte d'Ivoire. The study shows that human migration has caused the importation of Onchocerca volvulus from non-controlled areas. However, the epidemiological importance of this phenomenon is limited because of the very small number of infected migrants per village while two-third of the infected migrants are believed to be infected with the less pathogenic forest strain of the parasite. Because migration patterns changes geographically and over time similar studies will be continued on a regular basis. PMID:1654591

  7. Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus detection by Polymerase Chain Reaction and their relation to dental caries in 12 and 15 year-old schoolchildren in Valencia (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Acedo, Mateo; Montiel-Company, José M.; Dasí-Fernández, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus and the association of the two in a random sample (n=614) of the child population of the region of Valencia (Spain). Saliva samples were analyzed by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to study the relation of these bacteria to caries prevalence and the DMFT index. The prevalence of S. mutans was 35.4% at age 12 and 22.9% at age 15, that of S. sobrinus 18.9% and 8.4% and that of the S. mutans-S. sobrinus association 18.2% and 6.8% respectively. At both 12 and 15 years of age, the caries prevalence rates were lower in the Streptococcus-free group of children (37.6% and 48.5% respectively) and higher in the S.mutans-only group (67.3% and 74.0%). At the age of 12, the DMFT index was significantly higher in the mutans-only carriers (2.1) than in the Streptococcus-free and S. mutans-S. sobrinus association groups (both 0.9). At the age of 15, the DMFT index was significantly higher in the S. mutans-S. sobrinus association (3.71) and mutans-only (3.1) carrier groups than in the Streptococcus-free group (1.4). Determination of S. mutans and S. sobrinus by real-time quantitative PCR can provide valuable information for caries risk assessment in epidemiological studies. Key words:Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, polymerase chain reaction, dental caries, cross-sectional studies. PMID:23722138

  8. Statistical study on magnetotail lobe waves with period 40 - 600 s observed by Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Tielong; Volwerk, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Ultra low frequency (ULF) waves play an important role in energy transport and dissipation in the magnetosphere. In this paper, 263 waves with period 40 - 150 s and 161 waves with period 150 - 600 s in the Earth's magnetotail lobe have been studied by using Cluster data from years 2001 to 2009. Our findings are as follows: (1) 90% of the wave amplitudes with period 40 - 150 s are below ~0.25 nT for transverse components, and ~0.16 nT for compressional component; The amplitudes of longer period waves are somewhat larger; For waves with period 150 - 600 s, 90% of the wave amplitudes are below ~0.36 nT and ~0.39 nT for transverse and compressional components, respectively. (2) Waves within 40 - 150 s prefer to occur in the lobe region close to the plasma sheet, while waves within 150 - 600 s can be observed throughout the lobe region; (3) The amplitudes of lobe waves and AE index are weakly correlated; However, we find that amplitudes tend to be larger when the AE index is larger; (4) Amplitudes also tend to be larger when the solar wind velocity, the solar wind dynamic pressure or its variations (∆PSW) is larger; The correlation coefficient between amplitudes of waves within 150 - 600 s and ∆PSW is up to ~0.58. We suggest that both dynamic pressure in the plasma sheet boundary layer or plasma sheet (inner source) and solar wind conditions (outer source) can contribute to the generation of lobe ULF waves; Waves within 40 - 150 s are effected more by inner source; ∆PSW is more associated with compressional waves within 150 - 600 s than that within 40 - 150 s.

  9. Simultaneous quantification of crocetin esters and picrocrocin changes in Chinese saffron by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector during 15 years of storage

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Yingpeng; Yan, Yongqiu; Zhu, Xingyi; Liu, Ruoxi; Gong, Feng; Zhang, Ling; Wang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background: Saffron, which is made up of the dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L., has been successfully cultivated in China since 1970s and Zhejiang province is now the largest producing area in China, but the contents of crocetin esters and picrocrocin in saffron from Zhejiang province has not been determined simultaneously by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and changes of these constituents in Chinese saffron during storage for years has not been studied. Object: To establish a simple method quantification of the five main compounds including picrocrocin and four crocetin esters in saffron from main producing areas of China and study the influence of storage time on the changes of saffron constituents. Materials and Methods: A simple, sensitive, and accurate HPLC method was developed for simultaneous determination of five major active components in saffron and eight samples which collected from the same farm of Zhejiang province in different years were analyzed. Results: The correlation coefficient values (R2 > 0.9997) indicated good correlations between the investigated compounds’ concentrations and their peak areas within the test ranges. The limits of quantification and detection of the five compounds were 0.53–2.76 μg/mL and 0.11–0.77 μg/mL, respectively. The recoveries ranged from 94.67% to 101.31%, and the overall relative standard deviations for intra-day and inter-day were lower than 3.49%. The method was applied to study the changes of crocetin esters and picrocrocin contents in saffron samples during 15 years of storage. The losses of crocetin esters and picrocrocin in saffron with 1 -year storage were 52.2% and 54.3%, respectively. The trend then declined during subsequent storage. Conclusion: The developed method can be applied to the intrinsic quality control of saffron. PMID:26246729

  10. Effectiveness of Peer Group and Conventional Method (Dentist) of Oral Health Education Programme Among 12-15 year Old School Children - A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Abhishek; Raju, Rekha; Bashyam, Mamtha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral Health Education (OHE) in schools is routinely delivered by the dentist. Another approach which can be cost-effective, easily accessible and equally effective is the trained group of peer students. Aim The objective of the present study was to assess and compare the effectiveness of peer–led and conventional method (dentist-led), OHE on oral health status, oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among 12-15 year old government school children in Bengaluru South Zone-I at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Materials and Methods The study population comprised of 450 subjects, 150 each in peer, dentist and control group. At baseline, a pre-tested 14 item questionnaire was used to assess the existing oral health knowledge, attitude and oral hygiene practices of the subjects. Clinical examination included recording of plaque index and gingival index, by a pre-calibrated examiner. OHE was provided by the peer group and dentist (using power-point presentation, chalk and talk presentation, using charts, posters, booklets and tooth brushing demonstration models). Data was analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Chi-square test. Results Both the peer-led and dentist-led OHE intervention were effective in improving oral health knowledge, attitude, oral hygiene practices and oral health status at three and six months when compared to control group. The adolescents in the peer-led group, however, exhibited statistically better oral health behavior than their counterparts in the dentist-led group and control group. Conclusion The two educator-led strategies (peer group and dentist) had a modest effect on the outcome variables included in the study, the results provide some evidence to show that the peer-led strategy may provide a feasible and almost equally effective alternative to the traditional dentist led strategy of oral health education. PMID:27437345

  11. Using linked educational attainment data to reduce bias due to missing outcome data in estimates of the association between the duration of breastfeeding and IQ at 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Cornish, Rosie P; Tilling, Kate; Boyd, Andy; Davies, Amy; Macleod, John

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most epidemiological studies have missing information, leading to reduced power and potential bias. Estimates of exposure-outcome associations will generally be biased if the outcome variable is missing not at random (MNAR). Linkage to administrative data containing a proxy for the missing study outcome allows assessment of whether this outcome is MNAR and the evaluation of bias. We examined this in relation to the association between infant breastfeeding and IQ at 15 years, where a proxy for IQ was available through linkage to school attainment data. Methods: Subjects were those who enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in 1990–91 (n = 13 795), of whom 5023 had IQ measured at age 15. For those with missing IQ, 7030 (79%) had information on educational attainment at age 16 obtained through linkage to the National Pupil Database. The association between duration of breastfeeding and IQ was estimated using a complete case analysis, multiple imputation and inverse probability-of-missingness weighting; these estimates were then compared with those derived from analyses informed by the linkage. Results: IQ at 15 was MNAR—individuals with higher attainment were less likely to have missing IQ data, even after adjusting for socio-demographic factors. All the approaches underestimated the association between breastfeeding and IQ compared with analyses informed by linkage. Conclusions: Linkage to administrative data containing a proxy for the outcome variable allows the MNAR assumption to be tested and more efficient analyses to be performed. Under certain circumstances, this may produce unbiased results. PMID:25855709

  12. A Study of Heliospheric Modulation and Periodicities of Galactic Cosmic Rays During Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Partha; Kudela, K.; Moon, Y.-J.

    2016-02-01

    Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) are energetic, charged particles coming from outside the solar system. These particles encounter an outward-moving turbulent solar wind with cyclic magnetic-field fluctuations when entering the heliosphere. This causes convection and diffusion in the heliosphere. The GCR counts detected by the ground-based neutron-monitor stations show intensity changes with a fluctuation of ˜ 11 years and are anti-correlated with the sunspot numbers with some time lags. GCRs experience various types of modulation from different solar activity features and are important components of space weather. The previous solar cycle, Cycle 23, has shown anomalous behavior with a prolonged deep minimum, which was characterized by a record-setting high Galactic cosmic-ray flux observed at Earth. Solar Cycle 24 started much later than expected and progressed sluggishly toward its maxima. In this paper, we study the heliospheric modulation and intermediate-term periodicities of GCRs during the ascending phase of Cycle 24. We utilize simultaneous solar, interplanetary plasma, magnetic field, and geomagnetic activity data including the tilt angle of the heliospheric current sheet, and we study their relation with GCRs. The wavelet power spectrum of GCRs exhibits the presence of a variety of prominent short- and mid-term periodicities including the well-known Rieger and quasi-biennial periodicities. Possible explanations of the observed results are discussed in the light of numerical models.

  13. On Flowfield Periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade. Part 1; Experimental Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; McFarland, E. R.; Chima, R. V.; Wood, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive study to improve flow uniformity and periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade is presented here. The results are reported in two independent parts dealing with the experimental approach and the analytical approach. The first part, the Experimental Study, focuses first on the data sets acquired in this facility in the past and explains several discrepancies, particularly the questions of actual flow incidence and cascade back pressure levels. Next, available means for control and modifications of the cascade flowfield, boundary layer bleed and tailboard settings are presented in detail. This is followed by experimental data sets acquired in modified test facility configurations that were based on analytical predictions of the cascade flowfield. Finally, several important conclusions about improving the cascade flowfield uniformity and blade load periodicity are summarized. The important conclusions are: (1) boundary layer bleed does not improve the cascade flow periodicity; (2) tunnel wall contours must be carefully matched to the expected shape of cascade streamlines; (3) actual flow incidence for each cascade configuration rather must be measured instead of relying on the tunnel geometry; and (4) the current cascade configuration exhibits a very high blade load uniformity over six blades from blade #2 to blade #7, and the facility is now ready for unsteady pressure data acquisition.

  14. Study of Ocean Response to Periodic and Constant Volcanic Radiative Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogar, M.; Stenchikov, G. L.

    2013-12-01

    It is known that volcanic radiative impacts could produce long-term perturbations of the ocean heat content. In this study we systematically compare the effect of periodic volcanic forcing with an equivalent time-average radiative cooling. One could expect that a sporadic strong cooling should initiate more vigorous vertical mixing of the upper ocean layer and therefore cools the ocean more effectively than a uniform radiative forcing. However, the long-term simulations show that on average the ocean heat content responses to periodic and constant forcings are almost identical. To better understand this controversy we conducted two sets of parallel simulations, the first one with uniform volcanic forcing and the second one with periodic volcanic forcing with 10 and 50 years repeating cycle using Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Coupled Model CM2.1. We found that average perturbations of surface temperature, precipitation, ocean heat content, and sea level rise in both sets of simulations are similar but responses of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation are significantly different, which explains the differences in the relaxation processes. These findings could be important for ocean initialization in long-tern climate studies and for geoengineering applications.

  15. Studies of short-period comets on the eve of Rosetta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozuelos, F. J.; Moreno, F.; Aceituno, F.; Casanova, V.; Sota, A.; López-Moreno, J. J.; Cometas-Obs Team

    2015-05-01

    We present an extended study of the dust environment of a sample of short-period comets and their dynamical history. With this aim, we characterized the dust tails when the comets are active, and we make a statistical study to determine their dynamical evolution. The targets selected were 22P/Kopff, 30P/Reinmuth 1, 78P/Gehrels 2, 81P/Wild 2, 103P/Hartley 2, 115P/Maury, 118P/Shoemaker-Levy 4, 123P/West-Hartley, 157P/Tritton, 185P/Petriew, P/2011 W2 (Rinner).

  16. Experimental study of effect of stenosis geometry on pressure loss for periodic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselý, Ondřej; Nováková, Ludmila; Adamec, Josef

    2016-03-01

    A stenosis is a narrowing in a tubular organ. In medicine, vessel stenosis poses health risk for people. In the last work, experimental investigation of pressure loss coefficient for varying stenosis eccentricity and shape for steady flow were performed. In this work, experimental investigation of pressure loss for varying stenosis eccentricity and shape under periodic flow were performed. Four models of different geometry were studied, two models are axisymmetric stenoses and two models are eccentric stenoses. All models were stenosis of 75% area reduction. The periodic flow, generated by a controllable pump, has sinus shape in an inlet. The measuring range of medium Reynolds number was from 500 to 1500, range of ratio between an amplitude and medium flow rate was from 0.2 to 0.6 and range of frequency was from 0.2 to 1 Hz. The pressure loss for each conditions was quantified by mean value, amplitude and phase shift against flow rate.

  17. Spectroscopic studies of wood fossils from the Crato Formation, Cretaceous Period.

    PubMed

    da Silva, J H; Freire, P T C; Abagaro, B T O; Silva, J A F; Saraiva, G D; de Lima, F J; Barros, O A; Bantim, R A; Saraiva, A A F; Viana, B C

    2013-11-01

    In this work we study two types of wood fossils (Gymnosperms, Araucariaceae) from the Crato Formation of Araripe Basin in Brazil, from the Cretaceous Period. The samples were characterized by Raman and infrared spectroscopies, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained by different techniques showed that although the rocks surrounding the fossils have predominantly the same constitution - calcite - however, the formation processes of these types of wood fossils are quite different. One of the fossils, denominated as light wood, is predominantly composed of gypsum, while the other fossil, the dark wood, is rich in amorphous carbon, possibly the kerogen type. Implications relative to the environment where the plants lived millions years ago are also given. Finally, the results highlight the constitution of one of the most important paleontological sites of the Cretaceous Period in the South America. PMID:23856041

  18. Use of PIXE analysis technique for the study of Beirut amphora production in the Roman period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumié, M.; Waksman, S. Y.; Nsouli, B.; Reynolds, P.; Lemaı̂tre, S.

    2004-01-01

    Ion Beam Analysis techniques were developed and utilized for applications in the domain of archeology at the accelerator laboratory of the Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission. The characterization of Beirut kiln materials, mainly amphorae ceramics from the Roman period, was done using PIXE technique. In two runs with 1 and 3 MeV protons, we measured 20 major and trace elements. Consequently, a classification based on the elemental composition and on multivariate statistical techniques of some 70 ceramic objects was obtained providing the first step of a Lebanese database for future studies. Furthermore, the analysis of carrot amphorae found in Gaul (south of France) showed that some of them were of Beirut products and hence emphasized the role of Beirut city in the Mediterranean trade in the Roman period.

  19. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period

    PubMed Central

    Black, Randi A.; Krawczel, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Pasture and freestall systems offer benefits and consequences during lactation but have not been investigated during the dry period. The effect of pasture or confined systems during the dry period on behaviour and milk quality was investigated. Freestall housing resulted in more resting behaviour and less locomotor activity during the dry period compared to pastured cows. At calving, freestall housed cows performed fewer lying bouts and less locomotor activity compared to pastured cows. Pasture resulted in less aggression around feeding but high respiration rates during peak heat times. Pasture during the dry period altered lying behavior, reduced feed bunk aggression and increased heat stress behaviors. Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls (n = 14) or pasture (n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows

  20. Serum eosinophil cationic protein measurements in the management of perennial and periodic asthma: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    de Blay, F; Purohit, A; Stenger, R; Gries, P; Hamberger, C; David, B; Frossard, N; Pauli, G

    1998-03-01

    We performed a prospective study in order: 1) to determine whether a correlation could be found between serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels and clinical and functional status in perennial asthmatics during a 5 month prospective study; and 2) to evaluate the relationship between allergic exposure and ECP levels in periodic asthmatics. Two groups of asthmatic patients were selected: a group of acutely ill perennial asthmatics and a group of periodic asthmatics. The acutely ill perennial asthmatics (n=22, mean age=39.4 yrs) were included on the basis of hospitalization for acute asthma. At the end of the hospitalization, there was a 5 month follow-up of clinical, functional and medication scores, as well as eosinophil counts and ECP levels. The periodic asthmatic group was composed of asthmatics sensitized to birch and tree pollens (n=10, mean age=33.8 yrs). The same measurement were performed on this group, before, during and after the pollen season. Under corticosteroid treatment in the acutely ill patients, there was a significant decrease in serum ECP levels between the first day of hospitalization and the day of discharge (mean: 23.2 microg x L(-1) and 9.5 microg x L(-1), respectively; p=0.006). No correlation was found between the clinical status, functional status and serum ECP levels during the 5 month follow-up. A significant increase in ECP levels was found in periodic asthmatics during the pollen season. Our results suggest that serum eosinophil cationic protein is a useful marker of allergen exposure and of acute asthma treatment. This could be of importance in the prevention and follow-up of allergic asthma; the value of serum eosinophil cationic protein measurements in the day-to-day management of adult asthmatics needs to be further clarified. PMID:9596108

  1. Critical periods after stroke study: translating animal stroke recovery experiments into a clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Dromerick, Alexander W.; Edwardson, Matthew A.; Edwards, Dorothy F.; Giannetti, Margot L.; Barth, Jessica; Brady, Kathaleen P.; Chan, Evan; Tan, Ming T.; Tamboli, Irfan; Chia, Ruth; Orquiza, Michael; Padilla, Robert M.; Cheema, Amrita K.; Mapstone, Mark E.; Fiandaca, Massimo S.; Federoff, Howard J.; Newport, Elissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Seven hundred ninety-five thousand Americans will have a stroke this year, and half will have a chronic hemiparesis. Substantial animal literature suggests that the mammalian brain has much potential to recover from acute injury using mechanisms of neuroplasticity, and that these mechanisms can be accessed using training paradigms and neurotransmitter manipulation. However, most of these findings have not been tested or confirmed in the rehabilitation setting, in large part because of the challenges in translating a conceptually straightforward laboratory experiment into a meaningful and rigorous clinical trial in humans. Through presentation of methods for a Phase II trial, we discuss these issues and describe our approach. Methods: In rodents there is compelling evidence for timing effects in rehabilitation; motor training delivered at certain times after stroke may be more effective than the same training delivered earlier or later, suggesting that there is a critical or sensitive period for strongest rehabilitation training effects. If analogous critical/sensitive periods can be identified after human stroke, then existing clinical resources can be better utilized to promote recovery. The Critical Periods after Stroke Study (CPASS) is a phase II randomized, controlled trial designed to explore whether such a sensitive period exists. We will randomize 64 persons to receive an additional 20 h of upper extremity therapy either immediately upon rehab admission, 2–3 months after stroke onset, 6 months after onset, or to an observation-only control group. The primary outcome measure will be the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) at 1 year. Blood will be drawn at up to 3 time points for later biomarker studies. Conclusion: CPASS is an example of the translation of rodent motor recovery experiments into the clinical setting; data obtained from this single site randomized controlled trial will be used to finalize the design of a Phase III trial. PMID

  2. School-Based Reproductive Health and Safety Education for Students Aged 12-15 Years in UNESCO's (2009) "International Technical Guidance"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Collier-Harris, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    Globally, adolescents aged 12-15 years are making sexual and reproductive decisions of profound significance for their future, often based on misguided, inadequate or dangerously wrong information. Very few countries provide evidential and comprehensive education about puberty, sexuality, and reproductive health and safety to children and young…

  3. The High Performance of Dutch and Flemish 15-Year-Old Native Pupils: Explaining Country Differences in Math Scores between Highly Stratified Educational Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prokic-Breuer, Tijana; Dronkers, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to explain the high scores of 15-year-old native pupils in The Netherlands and Flanders by comparing them with the scores of pupils in countries with the same highly stratified educational system: Wallonia, the German "Lander," the Swiss German cantons, and Austria. We use the data from the Programme for International Pupil…

  4. Trisomy rescue mechanism: the case of concomitant mosaic trisomy 14 and maternal uniparental disomy 14 in a 15-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Balbeur, Samuel; Grisart, Bernard; Parmentier, Benoit; Sartenaer, Daniel; Leonard, Pierre-Emmanuel; Ullmann, Urielle; Boulanger, Sébastien; Leroy, Luc; Ngendahayo, Placide; Lungu-Silviu, Constantin; Lysy, Philippe; Maystadt, Isabelle

    2016-03-01

    Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 (upd(14)mat) is responsible for a Prader-Willi-like syndrome with precocious puberty. Although upd(14) is often hypothesized to result from trisomy rescue mechanism, T14 cell lines are usually not found with postnatal cytogenetic investigations. We report the coexistence of both chromosomal abnormalities in a 15-year-old girl. PMID:27014449

  5. Maternal Jail Time, Conviction, and Arrest as Predictors of Children's 15-Year Antisocial Outcomes in the Context of a Nurse Home Visiting Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Poehlmann, Julie; Donelan-McCall, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Data from the Nurse-Family Partnership intervention program were analyzed to compare the "selection" versus "unique" effects of maternal jail time on adolescent antisocial and health risk outcomes. Data from 320 women and their firstborn children were available from the prenatal, birth, and 15-year assessments. Consistent with a selection…

  6. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.35 Section 570.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors...

  7. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.35 Section 570.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors...

  8. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.35 Section 570.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors...

  9. 29 CFR 570.35 - Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hours of work and conditions of employment permitted for minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.35 Section 570.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors...

  10. Equity in the Turkish Education System: A Multilevel Analysis of Social Background Influences on the Mathematics Performance of 15-Year-Old Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özdemir, Caner

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to discover the level of equity in the Turkish education system using maths outcomes of 15-year-old students in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) exam. In order to do that, associations between various social background variables and student performance are analysed via multilevel models. Female pupils,…

  11. The Roller-Coaster Years: Raising Your Child through the Maddening yet Magical Middle School Years. A Comprehensive Guide for Parents of 10- to 15-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannetti, Charlene C.; Sagarese, Margaret

    Intended for parents of 10- to 15-year-olds, this book is a guide to mastering the ups and downs of early adolescence. The book draws together the latest information from experts, supported and advised by the National Middle School Association, and insights from surveys of parents, teachers, and the children themselves to cover every facet of the…

  12. University-School Partnerships: Polymer Chemistry Days Run at a University for 14-15 Year Olds and Their Impact on Attitudes to Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, A. J.; Harrison, T. G.; Medley, M. I.; Sellou, L.; Shallcross, K. L.; Croker, S. J.; Williams, S. J.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2010-01-01

    Polymer Chemistry days run by Bristol ChemLabS at the School of Chemistry, University of Bristol for year 10 (14-15 year olds) school students are described. Pre and post questionnaires were analysed to determine the impact on attitudes to science. There was no change in attitudes to the importance of science or practical work in science, but…

  13. Highlights from PISA 2009: Performance of U.S. 15-Year-Old Students in Reading, Mathematics, and Science Literacy in an International Context. NCES 2011-004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischman, Howard L.; Hopstock, Paul J.; Pelczar, Marisa P.; Shelley, Brooke E.

    2010-01-01

    The Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) is an international assessment that measures the performance of 15-year-olds in reading literacy, mathematics literacy, and science literacy. Coordinated by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), an intergovernmental organization of 34 member countries, PISA was…

  14. Developing Young Researchers: 15 Years of Authentic Science Experiences for K-12 with NASA's S'COOL Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, L. H.; Crecelius, S.; Rogerson, T.; Lewis, P. M.; Moore, S.; Madigan, J. J.; Deller, C.; Taylor, J.

    2012-12-01

    In late 1996, members of the Atmospheric Science Directorate at NASA's Langley Research Center decided that there had to be a better way to share the excitement of our research than black and white, text-heavy Fact Sheets. We invited a group of local teachers to a half-day session on Center to help guide an improved approach. We suggested a variety of approaches to them, and asked for feedback. They were eager for anything other than black and white Fact Sheets! Fortunately, one local middle school science teacher took us up on the offer to stick around and talk over lunch. In that conversation, she said that anything that would connect the science her kids studied in the classroom to the outside world - especially to NASA! - would be very motivating to her students. From that conversation was born the Students' Cloud Observations On-Line (S'COOL Project), now a nearly 16-year experiment in K-12 science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) engagement. S'COOL is the Education and Public Outreach (EPO) arm of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project, and involves K-12 students as a source of ground truth for satellite cloud retrievals. It was designed from the beginning as a 2-way project, with communication of information from the students to NASA, but also from NASA back to the students. With technology evolution since the project began, we have continued to enhance this focus on 2-way interaction. S'COOL involves students with observation skills, math skills (to compute cloud cover from multiple observers or convert units), geography skills (locating their school on a map and comparing to satellite imagery), and exposes them to cutting edge engineering in the form of a series of NASA satellites. As a priority Earth Observing Instrument, CERES currently flies on Terra, Aqua and NPP, with an additional instrument in development for JPSS. Students are involved in occasional Intensive Observing Periods (as with the launch of NPP), and are

  15. Causes of death among detainees: a statistical study on the casework of the Forensic Medicine Institute in Cluj-Napoca during the period 2000–2014

    PubMed Central

    GHERMAN, CRISTIAN; CHIROBAN, OVIDIU

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims The detainees’ right to healthcare is granted by laws, in accordance with EU directives and recommendations to which our country has consented. Prison population is a particularly vulnerable and marginalized group characterized by mortality rates different from the general population. This study aims at providing a picture of the causes of death, quality of healthcare and measures needed to reduce the number of in-prison deaths, including legal medicine expertise in view of sentence postponement/interruption. Methods The present paper is based on the statistical analysis of in-prison deaths casework recorded at the Forensic Medicine Institute of Cluj-Napoca and provided by territorially subordinated counties forensic services. The data collected cover over 15 years (2000–2014), a period long enough for significant retrospective statistical analysis. Results The total number of deaths among the inmates was 113, the majority of male sex (110). Distribution by age groups shows a greater incidence among inmates aged 50 to 59 years (32 cases, 28.31%), followed by those in their 40s’ (30 cases, 26.54%) and 30s’ (25 cases, 22.12%). The most frequent pathological causes of death were cardiovascular (53 cases) followed by tumors (26 cases) and infectious diseases. A significant number of deaths were due to violent causes (14 cases-12,38%). Conclusions Special problems are raised by the high number of deaths among prisoners, especially at a young age, while the high frequency of violent deaths from self- or non-self-inflicted traumatic causes requires supervision, monitoring and continuous analysis. Despite recent improvements, healthcare in prisons still poses some problems, mainly regarding diagnosis and treatment of heart diseases, neurosurgery and cancer. PMID:26609263

  16. The transfer of comets from parabolic orbits to short-period orbits: Numerical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, J. A.; Gallardo, T.

    1994-01-01

    The transfer process of long-period (LP) comets from parabolic orbits to short-period (SP) orbits is studied numerically for small perihelion distances (q less than 2 AU) and for perihelia in the Jupiter's zone (4 less than q less than 5.2 AU). Two different numerical approaches are used. For q less than 2 AU, it is shown that the inclination distribution of a population of LP comets with initial random orientations of their orbital planes (i.e. a sinusoidal distribution of i) evolves toward a flatter distribution by the combination of two dynamical effects. When the number of passages is limited by physical causes, less comets in retrograde orbits are found to reach evolved states owing to their slower evolution. This can explain the depletion of retrograde comets among the observed old LP comets (200 less than P less than 1000 yr) and intermediate-period (IP) comets (20 less than P less than 200 yr) with q less than 2 AU, which suggests average physical lifetimes of about 300-500 revolutions for comets moving through the LP path. For q less than 2 AU the probability of capture of a LP comet into an IP orbit is found to be about 0.01 when an upper limit of 400 revolutions is considered. This gives a steady-state population of intermediate-period comets of the Halley type with q less than 2 AU of approximately equal 300 members. Long-period comets evolving in the Jupiter's zone (4 less than q less than 5.2 AU) from an initial population of randomly oriented, parabolic comets reach the intermediate-period stage with an inclination distribution already biased toward direct orbits without considering physical losses. This is due to the stronger dependence of the typical energy change on the inclination, which results in a much lower transfer probability for retrograde orbits. Randomly-oriented LP comets captured in SP orbits, either from the small-q zone or from the Jupiter's zone, show dynamical properties that do not match the observed ones. There are also serious

  17. Applying Data-mining techniques to study drought periods in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belda, F.; Penades, M. C.

    2010-09-01

    Data-mining is a technique that it can be used to interact with large databases and to help in the discovery relations between parameters by extracting information from massive and multiple data archives. Drought affects many economic and social sectors, from agricultural to transportation, going through urban water deficit and the development of modern industries. With these problems and drought geographical and temporal distribution it's difficult to find a single definition of drought. Improving the understanding of the knowledge of climatic index is necessary to reduce the impacts of drought and to facilitate quick decisions regarding this problem. The main objective is to analyze drought periods from 1950 to 2009 in Spain. We use several kinds of information, different formats, sources and transmission mode. We use satellite-based Vegetation Index, dryness index for several temporal periods. We use daily and monthly precipitation and temperature data and soil moisture data from numerical weather model. We calculate mainly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) that it has been used amply in the bibliography. We use OLAP-Mining techniques to discovery of association rules between remote-sensing, numerical weather model and climatic index. Time series Data- Mining techniques organize data as a sequence of events, with each event having a time of recurrence, to cluster the data into groups of records or cluster with similar characteristics. Prior climatological classification is necessary if we want to study drought periods over all Spain.

  18. On Flowfield Periodicity in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade. Part 2; Numerical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, Rodrick V.; McFarland, Eric R.; Wood, Jerry R.; Lepicovsky, Jan

    2000-01-01

    The transonic flutter cascade facility at NASA Glenn Research Center was redesigned based on a combined program of experimental measurements and numerical analyses. The objectives of the redesign were to improve the periodicity of the cascade in steady operation, and to better quantify the inlet and exit flow conditions needed for CFD predictions. Part I of this paper describes the experimental measurements, which included static pressure measurements on the blade and endwalls made using both static taps and pressure sensitive paints, cobra probe measurements of the endwall boundary layers and blade wakes, and shadowgraphs of the wave structure. Part II of this paper describes three CFD codes used to analyze the facility, including a multibody panel code, a quasi-three-dimensional viscous code, and a fully three-dimensional viscous code. The measurements and analyses both showed that the operation of the cascade was heavily dependent on the configuration of the sidewalls. Four configurations of the sidewalls were studied and the results are described. For the final configuration, the quasi-three-dimensional viscous code was used to predict the location of mid-passage streamlines for a perfectly periodic cascade. By arranging the tunnel sidewalls to approximate these streamlines, sidewall interference was minimized and excellent periodicity was obtained.

  19. Vector method for studying the second-harmonic-generation light derived from complex periodic ferroelectric domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhihong; Yang, Xiangbo; Wang, Zhenyu

    2010-05-01

    In this Letter, in order to overcome the disadvantages of controlling the second-harmonic-generation (SHG) light derived from the traditional one-dimensional (1D) periodic ferroelectric domains we propose a kind of so-called complex periodic ferroelectric structure (CPFS), which unit cell is composed of even layers of positive and negative domains arranged alternatively following aperiodic sequence. It is found that comparing with the traditional periodic structure, CPFS cannot offer more reciprocal vector compensations for the mismatching phase, but CPFS may provide larger effective nonlinear coefficients (ENCs) in high-order quasi-phase-matching (QPM) and possesses advantages of the amplitude modulation for SHG peaks. In this Letter we study CPFS by use of vector method (VM), where the contribution to ENC for each domain or each unit cell will be treated as a vector and the QPM condition for CPFS and the modulation effect of aperiodic unit cells have been obtained. Without any Fourier transformation VM treats the grating function in real space and will be very convenient and intuitive. Both VM and CPFS would possess potential applications in the field of SHG investigations.

  20. Should Age-Period-Cohort Studies Return to the Methodologies of the 1970s?

    PubMed Central

    Masters, Ryan K.; Yang, Y. Claire; Powers, Daniel A.; Zheng, Hui; Land, Kenneth C.

    2015-01-01

    Social scientists have recognized the importance of age-period-cohort (APC) models for half a century, but have spent much of this time mired in debates about the feasibility of APC methods. Recently, a new class of APC methods based on modern statistical knowledge has emerged, offering potential solutions. In 2009, Reither, Hauser and Yang used one of these new methods – hierarchical APC (HAPC) modeling – to study how birth cohorts may have contributed to the U.S. obesity epidemic. They found that recent birth cohorts experience higher odds of obesity than their predecessors, but that ubiquitous period-based changes are primarily responsible for the rising prevalence of obesity. Although these findings have been replicated elsewhere, recent commentaries by Bell and Jones call them into question – along with the new class of APC methods. Specifically, Bell and Jones claim that new APC methods do not adequately address model identification and suggest that “solid theory” is often sufficient to remove one of the three temporal dimensions from empirical consideration. They also present a series of simulation models that purportedly show how the HAPC models estimated by Reither et al. (2009) could have produced misleading results. However, these simulation models rest on assumptions that there were no period effects, and associations between period and cohort variables and the outcome were perfectly linear. Those are conditions under which APC models should never be used. Under more tenable assumptions, our own simulations show that HAPC methods perform well, both in recovering the main findings presented by Reither et al. (2009) and the results reported by Bell and Jones. We also respond to critiques about model identification and theoretically-imposed constraints, finding little pragmatic support for such arguments. We conclude by encouraging social scientists to move beyond the debates of the 1970s and toward a deeper appreciation for modern APC

  1. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period.

    PubMed

    Black, Randi A; Krawczel, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls ( n = 14) or pasture ( n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows calved in pasture. After calving, all cows were commingled in a pen identical to the freestall housing treatment. Cows housed in freestalls laid down for longer during far-off and close-up periods, had fewer lying bouts during the calving period and took fewer steps throughout the study period when compared to pastured cows. Freestall housed cows experienced more displacements after feeding than did pastured cows. Respiration rates increased with an increasing temperature humidity index, more in pastured cows than in freestall housed cows. Pastured cows altered their lying behaviour and activity, suggesting a shift in time budget priorities between pastured and confined dry cows. Pastured cows also experienced less aggression

  2. Exposure to Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in U.S. Children 12–15 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Kate; Webster, Thomas F.; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Weinberg, Janice; Vieira, Verónica M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) have been widely used in consumer products. Exposures in the United States and in world populations are widespread. PFC exposures have been linked to various health impacts, and data in animals suggest that PFCs may be potential developmental neurotoxicants. Objectives We evaluated the associations between exposures to four PFCs and parental report of diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods Data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2000 and 2003–2004 for children 12–15 years of age. Parental report of a previous diagnosis by a doctor or health care professional of ADHD in the child was the primary outcome measure. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS) levels were measured in serum samples from each child. Results Parents reported that 48 of 571 children included in the analysis had been diagnosed with ADHD. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for parentally reported ADHD in association with a 1-μg/L increase in serum PFOS (modeled as a continuous predictor) was 1.03 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01–1.05]. Adjusted ORs for 1-μg/L increases in PFOA and PFHxS were also statistically significant (PFOA: OR = 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01–1.23; PFHxS: OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02–1.11), and we observed a nonsignificant positive association with PFNA (OR = 1.32; 95% CI, 0.86–2.02). Conclusions Our results, using cross-sectional data, are consistent with increased odds of ADHD in children with higher serum PFC levels. Given the extremely prevalent exposure to PFCs, follow-up of these data with cohort studies is needed. PMID:20551004

  3. Cerebral cortex thickness in 15-year-old adolescents with low birth weight measured by an automated MRI-based method.

    PubMed

    Martinussen, M; Fischl, B; Larsson, H B; Skranes, J; Kulseng, S; Vangberg, T R; Vik, T; Brubakk, A-M; Haraldseth, O; Dale, A M

    2005-11-01

    Infants with low birth weight are at increased risk of perinatal brain injury. Disruption of normal cortical development may have consequences for later motor, behavioural and cognitive development. The aim of this study was to measure cerebral cortical thickness, area and volume with an automated MRI technique in 15-year-old adolescents who had low birth weight. Cerebral MRI for morphometric analysis was performed on 50 very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight

  4. Building a 15-Year Cloud Climatology using Lidar in Space Observations: CALIOP and CloudSat now, EarthCARE next.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverdy, M.; Chepfer, H.; Donovan, D. P.; Noel, V.; Marchand, R.; Cesana, G.; Hoareau, C.; Chiriaco, M.; Bastin, S.

    2014-12-01

    Today, the CALIOP lidar and CloudSat radar have collected more than seven years of observations, and willhopefully still operate in 2016, after the EarthCARE-ATLID/CPR launch. Lidars and Radars in space providecutting edge information on the detailed vertical structure of clouds: a key element for both the evaluation ofthe description of clouds in climate models, and the survey of the clouds inter-annual evolution in variousclimatic conditions (El Nino, variation of North Atlantic Oscillations, polar regions, etc). For this purpose,the observations collected by CALIOP and by ATLID as well as CloudSat and EarthCARE CPR need to bemerged into a long-term (15 years) cloud climatology. Here, we examine the possibility of building such a climatology, with the aim of defining its accuracy andrelevance for cloud inter-annual studies. We examine the differences between the instruments (wavelengths,satellite's altitudes, telescope fields of view, multiple scattering processes, spatial resolutions) and theirability to detect the same clouds consistently. Then, we define a set of cloud detection thresholds for ATLID,CALIOP, CloudSat and EarthCARE-CPR and test against synthetic cloud scenes (cirrus and shallowcumulus) over small areas (about 200km) produced by a lidar and radar instrument simulator (ECSIM)running on Large Eddy Simulations. Doing so, we verify that the fourth instruments will be able to detect thesame clouds despite their differences (e.g. their sensitivities to noise). Finally, we use the COSP lidar andradar simulator to predict the global scale cloud cover that ATLID, CALIOP, CloudSat and EarthCARE CPRwould observe if they were overflying the same atmosphere predicted by a GCM. Our results suggest that amerged CALIOP/ATLID and CloudSat/CPR cloud climatology could be to be useful for clouds inter-annualstudies, if the post-launch sensitivity of EarthCARE instruments is in line with what is predicted today.

  5. Cost-benefit analysis of a preventive intervention for divorced families: reduction in mental health and justice system service use costs 15 years later.

    PubMed

    Herman, Patricia M; Mahrer, Nicole E; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Porter, Michele M; Jones, Sarah; Sandler, Irwin N

    2015-05-01

    This cost-benefit analysis compared the costs of implementing the New Beginnings Program (NBP), a preventive intervention for divorced families to monetary benefits saved in mental healthcare service use and criminal justice system costs. NBP was delivered when the offspring were 9-12 years old. Benefits were assessed 15 years later when the offspring were young adults (ages 24-27). This study estimated the costs of delivering two versions of NBP, a single-component parenting-after-divorce program (Mother Program, MP) and a two-component parenting-after-divorce and child-coping program (Mother-Plus-Child Program, MPCP), to costs of a literature control (LC). Long-term monetary benefits were determined from actual expenditures from past-year mental healthcare service use for mothers and their young adult (YA) offspring and criminal justice system involvement for YAs. Data were gathered from 202 YAs and 194 mothers (75.4 % of families randomly assigned to condition). The benefits, as assessed in the 15th year after program completion, were $1630/family (discounted benefits $1077/family). These 1-year benefits, based on conservative assumptions, more than paid for the cost of MP and covered the majority of the cost of MPCP. Because the effects of MP versus MPCP on mental health and substance use problems have not been significantly different at short-term or long-term follow-up assessments, program managers would likely choose the lower-cost option. Given that this evaluation only calculated economic benefit at year 15 and not the previous 14 (nor future years), these findings suggest that, from a societal perspective, NBP more than pays for itself in future benefits. PMID:25382415

  6. Physicians' views of periodic abstinence methods: a study in four countries.

    PubMed

    Snowden, R; Kennedy, K I; Leon, F; Orense, V C; Perera, H W; Phillips, R; Askew, I; Flynn, A; Severy, L J

    1988-01-01

    A study of the knowledge, perceptions, and behavioral intentions of physicians regarding periodic abstinence (PA) methods was undertaken in Mauritius, Peru, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. Most respondents considered PA to be useful, although even the PA providers prescribed mainly non-PA methods. Detailed knowledge of PA methods was not evident, but most physicians were willing to initiate general discussion about PA with patients. Physicians favored methods perceived as "scientific" and "modern," which primarily prevent pregnancy and secondarily avoid other health risks. When carefully presented as "scientific" and "modern," methods presented to medical audiences may find acceptance and be more likely to result in referral. PMID:3176094

  7. A study of periodicities and recurrences in solar activity and cosmic ray modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attolini, M. R.; Cecchini, S.; Galli, M.

    1985-01-01

    The 154d periodicity was found in the cosmic ray intensity (RE) vs Flares, and some other peaks of coherency in the RC vs aa sub I, that when interpreted as aliased values, might correspond to recurring interplanetary magnetic field structures and solar wind streams. It cannot be excluded, however, that some of the correspondence with aa are of terrestrial origin. This study cannot be considered exhaustive due to the fact that other solar variables, such as polar hole size, are possibly correlated to cosmic ray intensities. However, the number of observations is small so that the interpretation of the results is very difficult.

  8. Studying Jupiter-Family Comets and Long Period Comets Detected by WISE/NEOWISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, E. A.; Fernandez, Y.; Bauer, J. M.; Mainzer, A.; Walker, R. G.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Lisse, C.; Meech, K. J.; Cutri, R. M.; McMillan, R. S.; Tholen, D. J.; Wright, E.

    2011-10-01

    The WISE mission surveyed the sky in four infrared wavelength bands from Jan. 2010 to Feb. 2011. By covering the entire sky, WISE serendipitously observed a large number of active comets. We will present preliminary results from the analysis of several Jupiter-family comets and long period comets (listed in Table 1). The analysis will characterize various properties of each body, including dust production rate, grain properties, nucleus size estimates, albedo constraints, and constraints of the CO/CO2 gas emission. Several of these objects were also observed as part of the Spitzer SEPPCoN program, allowing comparisons to be made between these two studies.

  9. Puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders: a review of human and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Klump, Kelly L

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Puberty is one of the most frequently discussed risk periods for the development of eating disorders. Prevailing theories propose environmentally mediated sources of risk arising from the psychosocial effects (e.g., increased body dissatisfaction, decreased self-esteem) of pubertal development in girls. However, recent research highlights the potential role of ovarian hormones in phenotypic and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. The goal of this paper is to review data from human and animal studies in support of puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders and evaluate the evidence for hormonal contributions. Data are consistent in suggesting that both pubertal status and pubertal timing significantly impact risk for most eating disorders in girls, such that advanced pubertal development and early pubertal timing are associated with increased rates of eating disorders and their symptoms in both cross-sectional and longitudinal research. Findings in boys have been much less consistent and suggest a smaller role for puberty in risk for eating disorders in boys. Twin and animal studies indicate that at least part of the female-specific risk is due to genetic factors associated with estrogen activation at puberty. In conclusion, data thus far support a role for puberty in risk for eating disorders and highlight the need for additional human and animal studies of hormonal and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. PMID:23998681

  10. Studies of FCAPT uvby Photometry of mCP Stars with Period04

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adelman, Saul Joseph; Jones Dukes, Robert

    2015-08-01

    We present differential Stromgren uvby observations of a few magnetic Chemically Peculiar (mCP) Stars from the Four College Automated Photometric Telescope to illustrate some interesting results found using Period04. Without an observer monitoring the weather, quality control depends on a several part process of closely inspecting the data. For each star we found a preliminary rotation period from the periodograms of the 4 filters and then used the accompanying non-linear least square tool to refine it. Next we repeated the analysis on the residuals from the fit to determine other periods. Usually we found the higher harmonics for those stars with non-sinusoidal light curves. In at least two cases there were low frequency terms.These high quality datasets usually have a greater number of yearly values obtained over more observing seasons than published studies. Stromgren intermediate bandwidth filters have mean wavelengths of λ3500 for u, λ4410 for v, λ4650 for b, and λ5470 for y with halfwidths of 300, 190, 180, and 230 Angstroms, respectively. The v and y values are often affected by broad, continuum features centered near λ4200 and λ5200.The mCP stars have non-aligned rotation and magnetic axes with emergent energy distributions, abundances, and magnetic field strengths being functions of photospheric position. Most have dipolar magnetic fields. Hydrodynamical processes, including radiative diffusion and gravitational settling, act in the radiative envelope to modify the elemental abundances relative to solar values. When such a star rotates, a distant observer often can see photometric, spectrum, and/or magnetic variability. Detecting one of these types of variability for a star with a mCP spectral classification means that it also varies in the other two ways which may not be easy to detect.Some particularly interesting results includeHD 5797 whose v variation is unique in having both the smallest amplitude and an apparent period one-half the period

  11. Case study: Nutrition and training periodization in three elite marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Stellingwerf, Trent

    2012-10-01

    Laboratory-based studies demonstrate that fueling (carbohydrate; CHO) and fluid strategies can enhance training adaptations and race-day performance in endurance athletes. Thus, the aim of this case study was to characterize several periodized training and nutrition approaches leading to individualized race-day fluid and fueling plans for 3 elite male marathoners. The athletes kept detailed training logs on training volume, pace, and subjective ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for each training session over 16 wk before race day. Training impulse/load calculations (TRIMP; min × RPE = load [arbitrary units; AU]) and 2 central nutritional techniques were implem