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Sample records for 15-year-old estonian adolescents

  1. Temporal Space Lymphatic Malformation in a 15-Year-Old Adolescent: An Extraordinary Case.

    PubMed

    Igoumenakis, Dimosthenis; Logothetis, Ioannis; Barmpagadaki, Alina; Ieromonachou, Panayotis; Mastorakis, George

    2016-07-01

    Lymphatic malformations-previously called lymphangiomas or cystic hygromas-are regarded as non-malignant primary disorders of the lymphatic system. They appear predominantly in infants and children, with 90 % of cases being diagnosed by the age of 2 years. Also, they constitute an infrequent entity, accounting for 5 % of all benign tumors in infants and children. In adults they are extremely rare. In the present article we present an extraordinary case of a lymphatic malformation that ensued in the temporal area of a 15-year old adolescent.

  2. Temporal Space Lymphatic Malformation in a 15-Year-Old Adolescent: An Extraordinary Case.

    PubMed

    Igoumenakis, Dimosthenis; Logothetis, Ioannis; Barmpagadaki, Alina; Ieromonachou, Panayotis; Mastorakis, George

    2016-07-01

    Lymphatic malformations-previously called lymphangiomas or cystic hygromas-are regarded as non-malignant primary disorders of the lymphatic system. They appear predominantly in infants and children, with 90 % of cases being diagnosed by the age of 2 years. Also, they constitute an infrequent entity, accounting for 5 % of all benign tumors in infants and children. In adults they are extremely rare. In the present article we present an extraordinary case of a lymphatic malformation that ensued in the temporal area of a 15-year old adolescent. PMID:27408452

  3. Reproducibility of a web-based FFQ for 13- to 15-year-old Danish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bjerregaard, Anne A; Tetens, Inge; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I

    2016-01-01

    FFQ are widely used in large-scale studies to assess dietary intake. To aid interpretation of diet-disease associations assessment of validity must be performed. Reproducibility is one aspect of validity focusing on the stability of repeated assessment with the same method which may also reveal problems in instrument design or participant instructions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reproducibility of a web-based FFQ targeting Danish adolescents within the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Data for the present study were obtained from a prospective design nested within the DNBC. Adolescents aged 13 to 15 years old (n 48, 60 % girls) completed the FFQ twice 4 weeks apart. The proportion of adolescents consistently classified into the same tertile according to amount of food intake ranged from 45 % (fish) to 77 % (vegetables), whereas classification into opposite tertiles ranged from 0 % (fruit, oils and dressing) to 15 % (beverages). Overall, no significant differences were observed in intake of food groups or nutrients between the two completions of the FFQ. Mean crude Spearman correlation for all food groups was 0·56 and mean intra-class correlation for all food groups was 0·61. In conclusion, the reproducibility of the FFQ for Danish adolescents was acceptable. The study revealed that adolescents aged 13-15 years seemed capable of recalling consistently overall dietary habits and had some difficulties estimating the frequency of consumption of regularly consumed food items. PMID:26855775

  4. Hearing and loud music exposure in 14-15 years old adolescents.

    PubMed

    Serra, Mario R; Biassoni, Ester C; Hinalaf, María; Abraham, Mónica; Pavlik, Marta; Villalobo, Jorge Pérez; Curet, Carlos; Joekes, Silvia; Yacci, María R; Righetti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent exposure to loud music has become a social and health problem whose study demands a holistic approach. The aims of the current study are: (1) To detect early noise-induced hearing loss among adolescents and establish its relationship with their participation in musical recreational activities and (2) to determine sound immission levels in nightclubs and personal music players (PMPs). The participants consisted in 172 14-15 years old adolescents from a technical high school. Conventional and extended high frequency audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and questionnaire on recreational habits were administered. Hearing threshold levels (HTLs) were classified as: normal (Group 1), slightly shifted (Group 2), and significantly shifted (Group 3). The musical general exposure (MGE), from participation in recreational musical activities, was categorized in low, moderate, and high exposure. The results revealed an increase of HTL in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01), in Group 3 compared with Group 2 (P < 0.05) only in extended high frequency range, in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01). Besides, a decrease in mean global amplitude, reproducibility and in frequencies amplitude in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05) and in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05). A significant difference (P < 0.05) was found in Group 1's HTL between low and high exposure, showing higher HTL in high exposure. The sound immission measured in nightclubs (107.8-112.2) dBA and PMPs (82.9-104.6) dBA revealed sound levels risky for hearing health according to exposure times. It demonstrates the need to implement preventive and hearing health promoting actions in adolescents.

  5. Hearing and loud music exposure in 14-15 years old adolescents.

    PubMed

    Serra, Mario R; Biassoni, Ester C; Hinalaf, María; Abraham, Mónica; Pavlik, Marta; Villalobo, Jorge Pérez; Curet, Carlos; Joekes, Silvia; Yacci, María R; Righetti, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent exposure to loud music has become a social and health problem whose study demands a holistic approach. The aims of the current study are: (1) To detect early noise-induced hearing loss among adolescents and establish its relationship with their participation in musical recreational activities and (2) to determine sound immission levels in nightclubs and personal music players (PMPs). The participants consisted in 172 14-15 years old adolescents from a technical high school. Conventional and extended high frequency audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and questionnaire on recreational habits were administered. Hearing threshold levels (HTLs) were classified as: normal (Group 1), slightly shifted (Group 2), and significantly shifted (Group 3). The musical general exposure (MGE), from participation in recreational musical activities, was categorized in low, moderate, and high exposure. The results revealed an increase of HTL in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01), in Group 3 compared with Group 2 (P < 0.05) only in extended high frequency range, in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01). Besides, a decrease in mean global amplitude, reproducibility and in frequencies amplitude in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05) and in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05). A significant difference (P < 0.05) was found in Group 1's HTL between low and high exposure, showing higher HTL in high exposure. The sound immission measured in nightclubs (107.8-112.2) dBA and PMPs (82.9-104.6) dBA revealed sound levels risky for hearing health according to exposure times. It demonstrates the need to implement preventive and hearing health promoting actions in adolescents. PMID:25209042

  6. Leprosy in children and adolescents under 15 years old in an urban centre in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Selton Diniz; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Natividade, Marcio Santos; Teixeira, Maria Glória

    2016-05-24

    This original study describes the intra-urban distribution of cases of leprosy in residents under 15 years old in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; the study also identifies the environment in which Mycobacterium leprae is being transmitted. The cases were distributed by operational classification, clinical forms, type of contact and the addresses were geo-referenced by neighborhood. Between 2007 and 2011, were reported 145 cases of leprosy in target population living in Salvador, corresponding to detection rates of 6.21, 6.14, 5.58, 5.41 and 6.88/100,000 inhabitants, respectively. The spatial distribution of the disease was focal. Of the 157 neighborhoods of Salvador, 44 (28.6%) notified cases of leprosy and in 22 (50%) of these were detected more than 10 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The infectious forms were found in 40% of cases. Over 90% of cases had been living in Salvador for more than five years. Overall, 52.6% reported having had contact with another infected individual inside the household and 25% in their social circle. In Salvador, M. leprae transmission is established. The situation is a major concern, since transmission is intense at an early age, indicating that this endemic disease is expanding and contacts extend beyond individual households. PMID:27223655

  7. Leprosy in children and adolescents under 15 years old in an urban centre in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Selton Diniz; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Natividade, Marcio Santos; Teixeira, Maria Glória

    2016-01-01

    This original study describes the intra-urban distribution of cases of leprosy in residents under 15 years old in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; the study also identifies the environment in which Mycobacterium leprae is being transmitted. The cases were distributed by operational classification, clinical forms, type of contact and the addresses were geo-referenced by neighborhood. Between 2007 and 2011, were reported 145 cases of leprosy in target population living in Salvador, corresponding to detection rates of 6.21, 6.14, 5.58, 5.41 and 6.88/100,000 inhabitants, respectively. The spatial distribution of the disease was focal. Of the 157 neighborhoods of Salvador, 44 (28.6%) notified cases of leprosy and in 22 (50%) of these were detected more than 10 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The infectious forms were found in 40% of cases. Over 90% of cases had been living in Salvador for more than five years. Overall, 52.6% reported having had contact with another infected individual inside the household and 25% in their social circle. In Salvador, M. leprae transmission is established. The situation is a major concern, since transmission is intense at an early age, indicating that this endemic disease is expanding and contacts extend beyond individual households. PMID:27223655

  8. Predictors of fixed orthodontic treatment in 15-year-old adolescents in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Spencer, A J; Allister, J H; Brennan, D S

    1995-12-01

    An understanding of the determinants of the provision of fixed orthodontic treatment would be beneficial in the planning of any system aimed at rationalising supply. The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine those factors which were predictive of the provision of fixed orthodontic treatment in adolescents. Baseline data, at age 13 years, on oral health, the history of orthodontic consultation and interceptive orthodontic care, a dental appearance score (DAI), socio-demographic characteristics and self and parental perceptions of both dental appearance and need for fixed orthodontic treatment were obtained from 2793 adolescents under the care of the South Australian School Dental Service who had not undergone fixed orthodontic treatment. Data on the orthodontic care provided to these adolescents in the ensuing 2 years were collected. At the end of the 24-month period 433 adolescents (15.5%) had undergone fixed orthodontic treatment. Significant bivariate associations were found between the provision of fixed orthodontic treatment and the DAI score, sex of the adolescent, familial history of fixed orthodontic treatment, income, private insurance, orthodontic consultation and interceptive orthodontic care before the age of 13 years and self and parental perceptions of both dental appearance and the need for fixed orthodontic treatment. Logistic regression was used to produce a predictive model of fixed orthodontic treatment. The model explained 30.2% of the variance, with a specificity of 0.94, a sensitivity of 0.49 and a hit rate of 0.84%. Odds ratios greater than one were found for the DAI score, private insurance, females, self and parental perception of need, higher incomes and orthodontic consultation and interceptive orthodontic care before the age of 13 years. PMID:8681517

  9. Sprint Performance Changes and Determinants in Afro-Caribbean Adolescents Between 13 and 15 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Copaver, Karine Babel; Hertogh, Claude; Hue, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Afro-Caribbean sprinters often reach high performance levels at an early age. Adolescence is a time of morphological and physiological changes. This study was designed to analyze the evolution in parameters of short sprint performance during adolescence in Afro-Caribbean boys, especially the stride number/body height ratio (SN/BH), which is at the interface of technical and morphological factors. Seventy-one 13-year-old boys performed vertical jumps and short sprint races. The races were filmed with a view to determine stride variables. Anthropometric parameters were also measured. The same tests were performed two years later. Body height and SN/BH were the main predictors of sprint performance. The delta of performance was principally explained by stride length and stride number. Although deterioration in technical parameters was expected, the parameters related to body size and stride length were the main sprint performance predictors rather than explosive force. These results could be useful in developing tests to detect sprint potential in youth. PMID:23487285

  10. Unsuccessful suicide attempt of a 15 year old adolescent with ingestion of 5000 mg modafinil.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Gal; Shehadeh, Naim; Pillar, Giora

    2009-08-15

    Modafinil (Provigil) is a wake-promoting drug approved for patients with narcolepsy or other causes of excessive daytime sleepiness. Each pill is 100 to 200 mg; maximal daily dose of modafinil in adults is 400 mg (the medication is not approved by the FDA for children younger than 16 years of age). We report the case of an adolescent who attempted to commit suicide by ingesting 50 pills of modafinil. The medication was prescribed for her mother to treat symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis. Approximately 2 hours following ingestion the patient complained of headache, nausea and abdominal pain. Her ECG demonstrated prolonged QTc interval. Observation for 72 hours revealed 24 hours of inability to sleep, tachycardia, and dyskinesia. There was no deterioration of kidney or liver functions, and no change in complete blood count or blood pressure. PMID:19968017

  11. Socioeconomic and geographic inequalities in adolescent smoking: A multilevel cross-sectional study of 15 year olds in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Levin, K.A.; Dundas, R.; Miller, M.; McCartney, G.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to present socioeconomic and geographic inequalities in adolescent smoking in Scotland. The international literature suggests there is no obvious pattern in the geography of adolescent smoking, with rural areas having a higher prevalence than urban areas in some countries, and a lower prevalence in others. These differences are most likely due to substantive differences in rurality between countries in terms of their social, built and cultural geography. Previous studies in the UK have shown an association between lower socioeconomic status and smoking. The Scottish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study surveyed 15 year olds in schools across Scotland between March and June of 2010. We ran multilevel logistic regressions using Markov chain Monte Carlo method and adjusting for age, school type, family affluence, area level deprivation and rurality. We imputed missing rurality and deprivation data using multivariate imputation by chained equations, and re-analysed the data (N = 3577), comparing findings. Among boys, smoking was associated only with area-level deprivation. This relationship appeared to have a quadratic S-shape, with those living in the second most deprived quintile having highest odds of smoking. Among girls, however, odds of smoking increased with deprivation at individual and area-level, with an approximate dose–response relationship for both. Odds of smoking were higher for girls living in remote and rural parts of Scotland than for those living in urban areas. Schools in rural areas were no more or less homogenous than schools in urban areas in terms of smoking prevalence. We discuss possible social and cultural explanations for the high prevalence of boys' and girls' smoking in low SES neighbourhoods and of girls' smoking in rural areas. We consider possible differences in the impact of recent tobacco policy changes, primary socialization, access and availability, retail outlet density and the home

  12. Socioeconomic and geographic inequalities in adolescent smoking: a multilevel cross-sectional study of 15 year olds in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Levin, K A; Dundas, R; Miller, M; McCartney, G

    2014-04-01

    The objective of the study was to present socioeconomic and geographic inequalities in adolescent smoking in Scotland. The international literature suggests there is no obvious pattern in the geography of adolescent smoking, with rural areas having a higher prevalence than urban areas in some countries, and a lower prevalence in others. These differences are most likely due to substantive differences in rurality between countries in terms of their social, built and cultural geography. Previous studies in the UK have shown an association between lower socioeconomic status and smoking. The Scottish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study surveyed 15 year olds in schools across Scotland between March and June of 2010. We ran multilevel logistic regressions using Markov chain Monte Carlo method and adjusting for age, school type, family affluence, area level deprivation and rurality. We imputed missing rurality and deprivation data using multivariate imputation by chained equations, and re-analysed the data (N = 3577), comparing findings. Among boys, smoking was associated only with area-level deprivation. This relationship appeared to have a quadratic S-shape, with those living in the second most deprived quintile having highest odds of smoking. Among girls, however, odds of smoking increased with deprivation at individual and area-level, with an approximate dose-response relationship for both. Odds of smoking were higher for girls living in remote and rural parts of Scotland than for those living in urban areas. Schools in rural areas were no more or less homogenous than schools in urban areas in terms of smoking prevalence. We discuss possible social and cultural explanations for the high prevalence of boys' and girls' smoking in low SES neighbourhoods and of girls' smoking in rural areas. We consider possible differences in the impact of recent tobacco policy changes, primary socialization, access and availability, retail outlet density and the home

  13. Mental health inequalities in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents explained by personal social position and family socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mental health inequalities are an increasingly important global problem. This study examined the association between mental health status and certain socioeconomic indicators (personal social position and the socioeconomic status of the family) in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents. Methods Data originate from the WHO-Collaborative cross-national ‘Health Behavior in School-aged Children’ study conducted in Slovenia in 2010 (1,815 secondary school pupils, aged 15). Mental health status was measured by: KIDSCREEN-10, the Strength and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), a life satisfaction scale, and one question about feelings of depression. Socioeconomic position was measured by the socioeconomic status of the family (Family Affluence Scale, perceived material welfare, family type, occupational status of parents) and personal social position (number of friends and the type of school). Logistic regression and a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were performed. Results Girls had 2.5-times higher odds of suffering feelings of depression (p < 0.001), 1.5-times higher odds of low life satisfaction (p = 0.008), and a greater chance of a lower quality of life and a higher SDQ score than boys (p = 0.001). The adolescents who perceived their family’s material welfare as worse had 4-times higher odds (p < 0.001) of a low life satisfaction, a greater chance of a low quality of life, and a higher SDQ score than those who perceived it as better (p < 0.001). Adolescents with no friends had lower KIDSCREEN-10 and higher SDQ scores than those who had more than three friends. Conclusions Despite the fact that Slovenia is among the EU members with the lowest rates of social inequalities, it was found that adolescents with a lower socioeconomic position have poorer mental health than those with a higher socioeconomic position. Because of the financial crisis, we can expect an increase in social inequalities and a greater impact on

  14. Evaluation of the Effect of Passive Smoking on Lactoferrin and AST on 12 - 15 Years Old Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jenabian, Niloofar; Pouramir, Mahdi; Motallebnejad, Mina; Bamdadian, Jale; Rahimi-Rad, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Passive smokers are involuntarily exposed to cigarette or tobacco smoke and as known, inhalation of environmental tobacco smoke is a serious threat. There is little information about the effect of passive smoking on salivary markers and periodontal indices. Objectives: This study investigated the effect of passive smoking on lactoferrin and AST in 12 - 15 years old children and adolescents. Patients and Methods: This case-control analytic correlation type study with no-convenience random sampling method was performed on 160 children aged 12 - 15 who had smokers in their families. The eligible children were divided into two equal groups; 80 cot+ children as case group and 80 cot– children as control group, matched according to age, sex and plaque index. Plaque index was obtained from all subjects. 2 cc unstimulated salivary samples were collected by spitting method. The collected specimens were tested by lactoferrin and AST kits in biochemistry were measured on the day of sampling laboratory. Gingival index Loe and Silness (GI) and Probing Pocket Depth (PPD). Results: Mean and Standard Deviation of PPD and GI was 2.01 ± 0.077 and 1.53 ± 0.055 in experimental group and 1.93 ± 0.073 and 1.49 ± 0.046 in control group respectively (P < 0.001). The Mean and Standard Deviation parameters of lactoferrin and AST, in the experimental group was 38.66 ± 25.15 and 13.45 ± 6.33 and in the control group 10.18 ± 6.82 and 6.53 ± 2.65 group, respectively (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Passive smoking can be effective on inflammatory process of periodontal and salivary biomarkers related to inflammation. Lactoferrin was 11 - 104 in case group and 0.5 - 38 in control group. Aspartat aminotransferase in case group was 2.64 - 30.43 and in control group it was 2.16 - 12.02. PMID:26495095

  15. Violence, Bullying and Academic Achievement: A Study of 15-Year-Old Adolescents and Their School Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Ida Frugard; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigated academic achievement among adolescents exposed to violence, sexual abuse and bullying. Moreover, we sought to determine the individual and contextual influence of the adolescents' school environment in terms of bullying, classmate relationships and teacher support on academic achievement. Finally, we wished to…

  16. Coping Strategies and Associations With Depression Among 12- to 15-Year-Old Norwegian Adolescents Involved in Bullying.

    PubMed

    Undheim, Anne Mari; Wallander, Jan; Sund, Anne Mari

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine coping styles among young adolescents involved in bullying, both as victims or aggressors, and the relationships between coping styles and depressive symptom levels. The possible moderating and mediating roles of coping in the relationships between bullying involvement and depression are also investigated. A representative community sample of 2464 adolescents was assessed. Coping styles were measured by the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Analysis of variance and standard linear regression methods were applied. Adolescents being bullied or being aggressive toward others both showed more emotional coping than did noninvolved adolescents (p < 0.001). Being bullied and high emotional, low task, and high avoidant coping styles were independently related to more depressive symptoms. The association between being bullied and depressive symptoms was both moderated and partially mediated by emotional coping. PMID:26828912

  17. Coping Strategies and Associations With Depression Among 12- to 15-Year-Old Norwegian Adolescents Involved in Bullying.

    PubMed

    Undheim, Anne Mari; Wallander, Jan; Sund, Anne Mari

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine coping styles among young adolescents involved in bullying, both as victims or aggressors, and the relationships between coping styles and depressive symptom levels. The possible moderating and mediating roles of coping in the relationships between bullying involvement and depression are also investigated. A representative community sample of 2464 adolescents was assessed. Coping styles were measured by the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Analysis of variance and standard linear regression methods were applied. Adolescents being bullied or being aggressive toward others both showed more emotional coping than did noninvolved adolescents (p < 0.001). Being bullied and high emotional, low task, and high avoidant coping styles were independently related to more depressive symptoms. The association between being bullied and depressive symptoms was both moderated and partially mediated by emotional coping.

  18. Involvement in bullying as predictor of suicidal ideation among 12- to 15-year-old Norwegian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Undheim, Anne Mari; Sund, Anne Mari

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine relationships between bullying and suicidal ideation. A total of 2,464 adolescents in Norway were assessed at two time points, 1 year apart [i.e., at ages 14 (T1) and 15 (T2)], with identical questionnaires. Suicidal ideation was measured by four items including both active and passive suicidal thoughts. ANOVA and standard linear regression methods were applied. Both bullied adolescents and adolescents who were aggressive toward others had significantly higher levels of suicidal ideation (p < 0.001) at age 14 (T1) than noninvolved adolescents. In the group being bullied, girls had higher levels of suicidal ideation than boys did. This was not the case for the group of adolescents who were the aggressors. In cross-sectional multivariate analyses, both being bullied and being aggressive toward others were significant (p < 0.001) predictors of suicidal ideation at age 14 (T1), when gender, age and socioeconomic status, and depressing symptom levels were controlled for. In the controlled longitudinal multivariate analyses, being bullied (p < 0.001) at age 14 (T1) predicted suicidal ideation at age 15 (T2), while aggressiveness toward others did not. Bullied adolescents (both genders) were at risk for suicidal ideation, and having an additional risk if they were depressed. PMID:23361192

  19. Lymphocyte measures in treatment-naïve 13-15-year old adolescents with alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Naude, Celeste E; Bouic, Patrick; Senekal, Marjanne; Kidd, Martin; Ferrett, Helen L; Fein, George; Carey, Paul D

    2011-08-01

    Many adolescents have chronic exposure to hazardous levels of alcohol. This is likely to be a significant predictor of health outcomes, including those related to immunity. We assessed substance use and biochemical immunological parameters in heavy drinking adolescents (meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence) and light/nondrinking control adolescents in Cape Town. Lifetime alcohol dose, measured in standard units of alcohol, was orders of magnitude higher in alcohol-dependent (AD) participants than controls. All adolescent AD had a "weekends-only" style of alcohol consumption. The AD group was chosen to represent relatively "pure" AD, with minimal other drug use and no psychiatric diagnoses. With these narrow parameters in place, we found that AD adolescents were lymphopenic compared with controls, with significantly lower mean numbers of absolute circulating CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T-lymphocytes. On conclusion, we found that adolescent AD individuals with excessive alcohol intake, in a weekend binge-drinking style but without comorbid drug or psychiatric disorders, may be at increased risk of lymphopenia. This alcohol misuse may increase infectious disease susceptibility (including TB and HIV) by reducing immune system capabilities. Complex interactions of alcohol with other documented high-risk activities may further compound health risks. PMID:21624786

  20. Family Affluence and the Eating Habits of 11- to 15-Year-Old Czech Adolescents: HBSC 2002 and 2014

    PubMed Central

    Voráčová, Jaroslava; Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Kalman, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in eating habits have a profound impact on the health of adolescents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate socioeconomic disparities in the eating habits of Czech adolescents and to compare their change between 2002 and 2014. The data from the Czech Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study conducted in 2002 and 2014 was utilized. The Family Affluence Scale (FAS) was used to assess socioeconomic disparities. Higher odds of daily consumption of fruit (2002: OR = 1.67; 2014: OR = 1.70, p < 0.001) and vegetables (2002: OR = 1.54; 2014: OR = 1.48, p < 0.001) were associated with high FAS in both genders. Adolescents with higher FAS were less likely to consume sweets (2002: OR = 0.72, p < 0.05) and more likely to eat breakfast on weekdays (2014: OR = 1.19, p < 0.05). In 2002 and 2014, the data showed lower odds of daily consumption of soft drinks (Low: OR = 0.47; Medium: OR = 0.43; High: OR = 0.41, p < 0.001), fruit (Low: OR = 0.73; Medium: OR = 0.74, p < 0.001; High: OR = 0.75, p < 0.05), sweets (Low: OR = 0.71; Medium: OR = 0.79, p < 0.001) and breakfast on weekends (High: OR = 0.70, p < 0.05), and a higher likelihood of eating breakfast on weekdays (Low: OR = 1.26, p < 0.01; Medium: OR = 1.13, p < 0.05). These findings play an important role in future public measures to improve dietary habits and decrease social inequalities in youth. PMID:27783063

  1. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason Jiunshiou; Ho, ChinYu; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Yeh, Jade Chienyu; deFerranti, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC) of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10) students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989) were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC) to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833-0.857) and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731-0.795). The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile) and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile). Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65-5.17) compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents' height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups. PMID:27389572

  2. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason Jiunshiou; Ho, ChinYu; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Yeh, Jade Chienyu; deFerranti, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC) of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10) students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989) were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC) to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833-0.857) and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731-0.795). The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile) and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile). Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65-5.17) compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents' height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups.

  3. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ho, ChinYu; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Yeh, Jade Chienyu; deFerranti, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC) of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10) students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989) were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC) to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833–0.857) and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731–0.795). The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile) and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile). Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65–5.17) compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents’ height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups. PMID:27389572

  4. Cerebral cortex thickness in 15-year-old adolescents with low birth weight measured by an automated MRI-based method.

    PubMed

    Martinussen, M; Fischl, B; Larsson, H B; Skranes, J; Kulseng, S; Vangberg, T R; Vik, T; Brubakk, A-M; Haraldseth, O; Dale, A M

    2005-11-01

    Infants with low birth weight are at increased risk of perinatal brain injury. Disruption of normal cortical development may have consequences for later motor, behavioural and cognitive development. The aim of this study was to measure cerebral cortical thickness, area and volume with an automated MRI technique in 15-year-old adolescents who had low birth weight. Cerebral MRI for morphometric analysis was performed on 50 very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight adolescents. A novel method of cortical surface models yielded measurements of cortical thickness and area for each subject's entire brain and computed cross-subject statistics based on cortical anatomy. The cortical surface models demonstrated regional thinning of the parietal, temporal and occipital lobes in the VLBW group, whereas regional thickening was demonstrated in the frontal and occipital lobes. The areas of change were greatest in those with the shortest gestational age at birth and lowest birth weight. Cortical surface area and cortical volume were lower in the VLBW than in the Control group. Within the VLBW group, there was an association between surface area and estimation of the intelligence quotient IQ (IQ(est)) and between cortical volume and IQ(est). Furthermore, cortical grey matter as a proportion of brain volume was significantly lower in the VLBW, but not in the SGA group compared with Controls. This observed reorganization of the developing brain offers a unique opportunity to investigate any relationship between changes in cortical anatomy and cognitive and social impairments, and the increase in psychiatric disorders that have been found in VLBW children and adolescents. PMID:16123146

  5. [Suicide attempts by young adolescents: epidemiological characteristics of 517 15-year-old or younger adolescents admitted in French emergency departments].

    PubMed

    Giraud, P; Fortanier, C; Fabre, G; Ghariani, J; Guillermain, Y; Rouviere, N; Chabrol, B; Jouve, J-L; Simeoni, M-C

    2013-06-01

    Adolescents who attempt suicide are a major concern. A growing body of literature seeks to explain this phenomenon and to identify its predictive factors, but relatively little information is available and children and adolescents under 15 years of age who present to general hospitals because of a suicide attempt. This study aimed to describe the demographic, social, medical, and psychological characteristics of a large sample of 517 French adolescents aged not more than 15 years 3 months. A second purpose was to measure observance of psychological care in a 1-year follow-up. Third, we aimed to document the reattempt rate during the follow-up in this population of young adolescents. Following the French official recommendations, a systematic 72-h hospitalization as well as a somatic, social, and psychological assessment was proposed to every suicide attempter after his or her admission to the emergency department. The adolescent was followed for 1 year after the suicide attempt, called the index episode. This follow-up was organized by two physicians, one of whom was not associated with the care of any of the patients. It consisted in seeking regular information as well as organization and/or optimization of the patient's psychological care, which was delivered in dedicated structures for adolescents, in outpatient care by a psychiatrist, or in an adolescent psychiatric inpatient care unit. In case of a repeated suicide attempt or persistence of alarming symptoms, this follow-up was prolonged for 1 more year. Patient data were compiled by experienced clinicians during initial assessment and alongside the 1-year follow-up through patient self-reports, but also through interviews with informants (family members, social professionals) and clinical sources (general practitioner, psychiatrist, etc.). The areas covered were the characteristics of the index episode, those of the population at the time of the index episode, as well as those of the 1-year follow

  6. Anti-Social Behaviour and Police Contact among 13- to 15-Year-Old English Adolescents with and without Mild/Moderate Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eric; Halpin, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the rates of anti-social behaviour (ASB) among adolescents with/without mild/moderate intellectual disability (MMID). To estimate whether any differences could be attributable to differences in exposure to extraneous risk factors. Design: Secondary analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. Methods:…

  7. Chiropractic management using a brain-based model of care for a 15-year-old adolescent boy with migraine headaches and behavioral and learning difficulties: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Kurt W.; Cambron, Jerrilyn

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this report is to describe chiropractic management, using a brain-based model of care, of a teen who had migraine headaches and several social and learning difficulties. Clinical features A 15-year-old adolescent boy with a chronic history of migraines and more than 10 years of learning and behavioral difficulties, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and Tourette syndrome, presented for chiropractic care. Intervention and outcome The patient received spinal manipulation and was given home physical coordination activities that were contralateral to the side of the involved basal ganglia and ipsilateral to the involved cerebellum, along with interactive metronome training. Quantitative changes were noted in neurological soft signs, tests of variables of attention Conners’ Parent Rating Scale, the California Achievement Test, grade point, and reduction of medications. The patient reported qualitative improvements in tics, attention, reading, vision, health, relationships with his peers and his family, and self-esteem. Conclusion The patient with migraine headaches and learning difficulties responded well to the course of chiropractic care. This study suggests that there may be value in a brain-based model of care in the chiropractic management of conditions that are beyond musculoskeletal in nature. PMID:24396330

  8. Talocalcaneal coalition in a 15 year old female basketball player.

    PubMed

    Schenkel, David; Degraauw, Jennifer; Degraauw, Christopher

    2010-12-01

    This case reports an adolescent athlete with activity related chronic bilateral dorsal foot pain and stiffness. A 15 year old competitive female basketball player presented to a chiropractor subsequent to an unsuccessful course of conservative treatment for posterior tibial dysfunction. The patient's plain films were incorrectly read as normal and a CT scan obtained by the radiologist called the findings bilateral osteoarthritis. The patient was awaiting a referral to a rheumatologist at the time of initial consultation with the chiropractor. Examination revealed limited subtalar mobility and review of the images revealed bilateral non-osseous talocalcaneal coalition. The patient was subsequently directed to a pediatric orthopedic surgeon and is scheduled for a resection of the coalition. Primary care practitioners should be aware of this uncommon, but not rare, variable clinical presentation as misdiagnosis and mismanagement could lead to suboptimal patient outcomes. To our knowledge this is the first case report of a patient with tarsal coalition published in chiropractic literature. In addition, this case is the first to report radiographic evidence of chronic mechanical stress to the second metatarsal associated with tarsal coalition.

  9. Deliberate Self-Harm by under-15-Year-Olds: Characteristics, Trends and Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawton, Keith; Harriss, Louise

    2008-01-01

    Background: Relatively little information is available about the characteristics and long-term outcome of children and adolescents aged under 15 years who present to general hospitals because of deliberate self-harm (DSH). Method: Information was collected on 710 consecutive under-15-year-olds presenting to a general hospital in central England…

  10. The Intergenerational Transmission of Voting Intentions in a Multiparty Setting: An Analysis of Voting Intentions and Political Discussion among 15-Year-Old Adolescents and Their Parents in Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooghe, Marc; Boonen, Joris

    2015-01-01

    The intergenerational transmission of political orientations has been the topic of considerable research over the past few decades, but much of the evidence remains limited to two-party systems. In this study, we use data from the first wave of the Parent-Child Socialization Study conducted among 3,426 adolescents and their parents in the Flemish…

  11. Bronchial Leech Infestation in a 15-Year-Old Female

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Mohammad Ashkan; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a common incidence in young children. Leeches are rarely reported as FBA at any age. This study describes a 15-year-old female who presented with hemoptysis, hematemesis, coughs, melena, and anemia seven months prior to admission. Chest X-ray showed a round hyperdensity in the right lower lobe. A chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated an area of consolidation and surrounding ground glass opacities in the right lower lobe. Hematological investigations revealed anemia. Finally, bronchoscopy was performed and a 5 cm leech was found within the right B7-8 bronchus and removed by forceps and a Dormia basket. PMID:27752380

  12. The Interest-Driven Pursuits of 15 Year Olds: "Sparks" and Their Association with Caring Relationships and Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Eliyahu, Adar; Rhodes, Jean E.; Scales, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined the characteristics of adolescents' deep interests or "sparks," the role of relationships in supporting the development of sparks, and whether having a spark was associated with positive developmental outcomes. Participants included 1,860 15 years olds from across the United States who participated in the…

  13. Patterns of Weight Control Behavior among 15 year old Girls

    PubMed Central

    Balantekin, Katherine N.; Birch, Leann L.; Savage, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objectives were to identify and predict patterns of weight control behavior in 15 year old (yo) girls and to examine weight control group differences in energy intake. Method Subjects included 166 girls assessed every 2 years (ys) from age 5 to 15. Latent class analysis was used to identify patterns of weight control behaviors. Antecedent variables (e.g. inhibitory control at 7ys), and concurrent variables (e.g. BMI and dietary intake at 15ys) were included as predictors. Assessments were a combination of survey, interview, and laboratory measures. Results LCA identified four classes of weight control behaviors, Non-dieters (26%), and three dieting groups: Lifestyle (16%), Dieters (43%), and Extreme Dieters (17%). Levels of restraint, weight concerns, and dieting frequency increased across groups, from Non-dieters to Extreme Dieters. BMI at 5ys and inhibitory control at 7ys predicted weight control group at 15ys; e.g. with every one-point decrease in inhibitory control, girls were twice as likely to be Extreme Dieters than Non-dieters. Girls in the Extreme Dieters group were mostly classified as under-reporters, and had the lowest self-reported intake, but ate significantly more in the laboratory. Discussion Among 15yo girls, “dieting” includes a range of both healthy and unhealthy behaviors. Risk factors for membership in a weight control groups are present as early as 5ys. Patterns of intake in the laboratory support the view that lower reported energy intake by Extreme Dieters is likely due under-reporting as an intent to decrease intake, not actual decreased intake. PMID:26284953

  14. Traumatic Dental Injuries Among 12-15-Year-Old-School Children in Panchkula

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Amandeep; Lakhanpal, Manav; Rao, NC; Gupta, Nidhi; Vashisth, Shelja

    2014-01-01

    Background: Traumatic dental injury (TDI) in children and adolescents has become one of the most serious dental public health problems. Despite such a high prevalence of dental trauma, very less attention has been paid to TDI, its etiology, and prevention. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of anterior tooth traumatic dental injuries in 12-15-year-old school children of Panchkula district, India, and to find any correlation with the cause, gender, extent of overbite as well as over-jet, and previous treatment. Patients and Methods: A multistage sample of 12-15-year-old school children (n = 810) in Panchkula district, Haryana, was selected. The children were screened using WHO criteria for oral examination and a trained dental surgeon examined the children. Those with clinical TDI were examined further for the type of traumatic injuries using Elis classification modified by Holland. Overjet and overbite were recorded. After examination, questions regarding the cause of trauma and its treatment were asked. Data were subjected to statistical analysis using the Chi square and Mantel-Haenszel tests by SPSS version 20.0. Results: The results showed that out of 810 children, 86 (10.2 %) had TDI. Males had higher prevalence of trauma than females (P < 0.05). The common cause of trauma was fall (51.11%) followed by sports injuries (41.86%). Enamel-dentin fracture without pulpal involvement was the most common type of trauma and the most frequent involved teeth were maxillary central incisors. A significant association was observed between overjet and overbite and trauma. Only 3.5% of the children affected with trauma had received treatment. Conclusions: The prevalence of traumatic injuries to permanent incisors in 12-15-year-old Panchkula school children was relatively high. TDI was associated with gender, overjet, and lip competence. There was a great unmet treatment need. PMID:25032172

  15. [Chronic fatigue syndrome in a 15-year-old girl].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Caneja Greciano, A; Rodríguez Sosa, J T; Aguilera Albesa, S; Sánchez-Carpintero, R; Soutullo Esperón, C

    2007-07-01

    Fatigue and lack of energy are frequent symptoms in children and adolescents. A diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome should be considered in children and adolescents who complain of chronic fatigue associated with other symptoms without a demonstrable physical cause. Lack of knowledge about this syndrome and late diagnosis may have a negative impact on the normal development of affected children and adolescents. Treatment should be based on a rehabilitation program with cognitive behavioral therapy and a gradual increase in activities.

  16. Coronary artery occlusion after arterial switch operation in an asymptomatic 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Saini, Ashish P; Cyran, Stephen E; Ettinger, Steven M; Pauliks, Linda B

    2016-08-16

    A 15-year-old boy with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and neonatal arterial switch operation (ASO) presented with complete occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA). Intra-operatively, an intramural left coronary artery was identified. Therefore, since age 7 years he had a series of screening exercise stress tests. At 13 years old, he had 3 to 4 mm ST segment depression in the infero-lateral leads without symptoms. This progressed to 4.2 mm inferior ST segment depression at 15 years old with normal stress echocardiogram. Sestamibi myocardial perfusion scan and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was inconclusive. Therefore, a coronary angiogram was obtained which showed complete occlusion of the LMCA with ample collateralization from the right coronary artery system. This was later confirmed on a computed tomogram (CT) angiogram, obtained in preparation of coronary artery bypass grafting. The case illustrates the difficulty of detecting coronary artery stenosis and occlusion in young patients with rich collateralization. Coronary CT angiogram and conventional angiography were the best imaging modalities to detect coronary anomalies in this adolescent with surgically corrected TGA. Screening CT angiography may be warranted for TGA patients, particularly for those with known coronary anomalies.

  17. Coronary artery occlusion after arterial switch operation in an asymptomatic 15-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Ashish P; Cyran, Stephen E; Ettinger, Steven M; Pauliks, Linda B

    2016-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and neonatal arterial switch operation (ASO) presented with complete occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA). Intra-operatively, an intramural left coronary artery was identified. Therefore, since age 7 years he had a series of screening exercise stress tests. At 13 years old, he had 3 to 4 mm ST segment depression in the infero-lateral leads without symptoms. This progressed to 4.2 mm inferior ST segment depression at 15 years old with normal stress echocardiogram. Sestamibi myocardial perfusion scan and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was inconclusive. Therefore, a coronary angiogram was obtained which showed complete occlusion of the LMCA with ample collateralization from the right coronary artery system. This was later confirmed on a computed tomogram (CT) angiogram, obtained in preparation of coronary artery bypass grafting. The case illustrates the difficulty of detecting coronary artery stenosis and occlusion in young patients with rich collateralization. Coronary CT angiogram and conventional angiography were the best imaging modalities to detect coronary anomalies in this adolescent with surgically corrected TGA. Screening CT angiography may be warranted for TGA patients, particularly for those with known coronary anomalies. PMID:27574609

  18. Coronary artery occlusion after arterial switch operation in an asymptomatic 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Saini, Ashish P; Cyran, Stephen E; Ettinger, Steven M; Pauliks, Linda B

    2016-08-16

    A 15-year-old boy with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and neonatal arterial switch operation (ASO) presented with complete occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA). Intra-operatively, an intramural left coronary artery was identified. Therefore, since age 7 years he had a series of screening exercise stress tests. At 13 years old, he had 3 to 4 mm ST segment depression in the infero-lateral leads without symptoms. This progressed to 4.2 mm inferior ST segment depression at 15 years old with normal stress echocardiogram. Sestamibi myocardial perfusion scan and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was inconclusive. Therefore, a coronary angiogram was obtained which showed complete occlusion of the LMCA with ample collateralization from the right coronary artery system. This was later confirmed on a computed tomogram (CT) angiogram, obtained in preparation of coronary artery bypass grafting. The case illustrates the difficulty of detecting coronary artery stenosis and occlusion in young patients with rich collateralization. Coronary CT angiogram and conventional angiography were the best imaging modalities to detect coronary anomalies in this adolescent with surgically corrected TGA. Screening CT angiography may be warranted for TGA patients, particularly for those with known coronary anomalies. PMID:27574609

  19. Achievement Motivation and Physical Fitness of 15-Year Old Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guszkowska, Monika; Rychta, Tadeusz

    2007-01-01

    Study aim: To determine the relations between the general and physical education-specific achievement motivation, and physical fitness of adolescent girls. Material and methods: A group of 52 girls aged 15 years were studied by applying two questionnaires: P-O scale of Widerszal-Bazyl for evaluating the general achievement motivation and Nishida's…

  20. Objectively assessed physical activity and aerobic fitness in a population-based sample of Norwegian 9- and 15-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Kolle, E; Steene-Johannessen, J; Andersen, L B; Anderssen, S A

    2010-02-01

    The present study described current physical activity, determined compliance with physical activity guidelines and assessed aerobic fitness in a nationally representative sample of 9- and 15-year-olds in Norway. In 2005-2006, 2299 children and adolescents were randomly recruited. The participation rate was 89% and 74% among the 9- and 15-year-olds, respectively. Physical activity was assessed objectively by accelerometry, and aerobic fitness was measured directly as peak oxygen uptake during a cycle ergometry test. Boys were more physically active than girls, and 9-year-olds were substantially more active than 15-year-olds. Physical activity was higher during weekdays than weekends, and 9-year-olds were most active during spring. While four out of five children met current physical activity guidelines, only half of the adolescents did. The mean (SD) values for peak VO2 were: 9-year-old boys, 48.2 (7.1) mL/min/kg; 9-year-old girls, 42.9 (6.7) mL/min/kg; and 15-year-old girls 41.1 (6.0) mL/min/kg and 15-year-old boys 51.9 (8.0) mL/min/kg. Because of the high participation rate, this study provides a good description of the physical activity and aerobic fitness in the young population. Finally, girls and adolescents seem appropriate targets when promoting physical activity in order to increase the proportion meeting the recommendations.

  1. Gout in a 15-year-old boy with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Joint pain is a common complaint in pediatrics and is most often attributed to overuse or injury. In the face of persistent, severe, or recurrent symptoms, the differential typically expands to include bony or structural causes versus rheumatologic conditions. Rarely, a child has two distinct causes for joint pain. In this case, an obese 15-year-old male was diagnosed with gout, a disease common in adults but virtually ignored in the field of pediatrics. The presence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) complicated and delayed the consideration of this second diagnosis. Indeed, the absence of gout from this patient’s differential diagnosis resulted in a greater than two-year delay in receiving treatment. The patients’ BMI was 47.4, and he was also mis-diagnosed with osteochondritis dissecans and underwent medical treatment for JIA, assorted imaging studies, and multiple surgical procedures before the key history of increased pain with red meat ingestion, noticed by the patient, and a subsequent elevated uric acid confirmed his ultimate diagnosis. With the increased prevalence of obesity in the adolescent population, the diagnosis of gout should be an important consideration in the differential diagnosis for an arthritic joint in an overweight patient, regardless of age. PMID:24393408

  2. Gout in a 15-year-old boy with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a case study.

    PubMed

    Morris, Hallie; Grant, Kristen; Khanna, Geetika; White, Andrew J

    2014-01-06

    Joint pain is a common complaint in pediatrics and is most often attributed to overuse or injury. In the face of persistent, severe, or recurrent symptoms, the differential typically expands to include bony or structural causes versus rheumatologic conditions. Rarely, a child has two distinct causes for joint pain. In this case, an obese 15-year-old male was diagnosed with gout, a disease common in adults but virtually ignored in the field of pediatrics. The presence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) complicated and delayed the consideration of this second diagnosis. Indeed, the absence of gout from this patient's differential diagnosis resulted in a greater than two-year delay in receiving treatment. The patients' BMI was 47.4, and he was also mis-diagnosed with osteochondritis dissecans and underwent medical treatment for JIA, assorted imaging studies, and multiple surgical procedures before the key history of increased pain with red meat ingestion, noticed by the patient, and a subsequent elevated uric acid confirmed his ultimate diagnosis. With the increased prevalence of obesity in the adolescent population, the diagnosis of gout should be an important consideration in the differential diagnosis for an arthritic joint in an overweight patient, regardless of age.

  3. The Roller-Coaster Years: Raising Your Child through the Maddening yet Magical Middle School Years. A Comprehensive Guide for Parents of 10- to 15-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannetti, Charlene C.; Sagarese, Margaret

    Intended for parents of 10- to 15-year-olds, this book is a guide to mastering the ups and downs of early adolescence. The book draws together the latest information from experts, supported and advised by the National Middle School Association, and insights from surveys of parents, teachers, and the children themselves to cover every facet of the…

  4. Mathematical Literacy of Hong Kong's 15-Year-Old Students in PISA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Ka-Ming Patrick

    2003-01-01

    This article reports the performance of 15-year-old Hong Kong students in mathematical literacy in an international study called PISA 2000, in which Hong Kong has topped the list of 41 participating countries/regions, with a mean score significantly higher than all other countries except Japan and Korea. With the conceptual framework developed by…

  5. PUBIS STRESS FRACTURE IN A 15-YEAR-OLD SOCCER PLAYER

    PubMed Central

    Bertolini, Fabrício Melo; Vieira, Rodrigo Barreiros; Oliveira, Lucas Henrique Araujo de; Lasmar, Rodrigo Pace; Junior, Otaviano de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents a 15-year-old football player who was diagnosed with a pubis stress fracture and underwent conservative treatment with satisfactory results. After a review of the literature, the clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment are described. The importance of this paper comes from the rarity of finding reports about this kind of injury in the literature. PMID:27027039

  6. How "Green" Are Today's 15-Year-Olds? PISA in Focus. No. 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    How "green" are 15-year-olds? To what extent do they understand environmental issues? What are the sources of their information about the environment? Can they apply scientific principles and evidence to the world around them? This paper reports that across OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries, around one in five…

  7. Development of Face Recognition in 5- to 15-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnunen, Suna; Korkman, Marit; Laasonen, Marja; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of face recognition in typically developing preschool- and school-aged children (aged 5 to 15 years old, "n" = 611, 336 girls). Social predictors include sex differences and own-sex bias. At younger ages, the development of face recognition was rapid and became more gradual as the age increased up…

  8. Characteristics of 15-Year-Old Students Predicting Scientific Literacy Skills in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Ergül

    2016-01-01

    Since 2003, Turkey regularly participates in PISA. According to the PISA 2012 results, 15-year-old students in Turkey performed below both OECD countries and participating countries. Defining the relations between students' characteristics and their scientific literacy skills is thought to provide deeper understanding for the nature of this…

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus in a 15-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Hedawoo, J. B.; Nagdeve, N. G.; Sarve, G. N.

    2010-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the lower esophagus is reported because of its rarity. The patient presented with dysphagia for 3 months and weight loss. The case was treated with radical excision, with excellent immediate response. PMID:20975784

  10. The Relationship between Bible Reading and Attitude toward Substance Use among 13-15 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between Bible reading and attitude toward drug use is examined among a sample of 25,888 teenagers, 13-15 year olds, throughout England and Wales. Information about sex, age, personality, belief in God, and church attendance was also considered. The conclusion is that Bible reading makes a small but significant contribution to…

  11. Sudden, unexpected death of a 15-year-old boy due to pancarditis

    PubMed Central

    Osculati, Antonio; Visonà, Silvia Damiana; Ventura, Francesco; Castelli, Francesca; Andrello, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Generally, rheumatic heart disease is, today, sporadic in developed countries, even though it continues to be a major health hazard in the developing ones. It is also a very rare cause of sudden unexpected death. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy who suddenly died at home. Since 3 days he had presented fever and chest pain. The family physician had diagnosed bronchitis and treated the boy with amoxicillin. Methods: Seven hours after death, a forensic autopsy were performed . Before the autopsy, anamnesis and some circumstantial data were collected from the boy's parents. During the autopsy, samples for histological, toxicological and molecular examinations were collected. The samples for the histology (brain, hypophysis, heart and pericardium, lungs, spleen, liver, kidney, adrenal glands) were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded. Each section was stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin. Immunostaining was also performed, with anti-CD 68, anti-CD3, anti-CD 20, anti-myeloperoxidase. Microbiological cultures were performed on cardiac blood, myocardium, pericardial effusion and cerebrospinal fluid samples collected during autopsy. Blood specimens were also processed through PCR, in order to reveal the presence of Enteroviruses, Chickenpox virus, Epstein Barr virus. Also chemical-toxicological examinations for the detection of the main medications and drugs were performed on blood samples. Results: The anamnesis, collected before the autopsy, revealed an acute pharyngitis few weeks before. The autopsy, and the following histological and immunochemical examinations suggested an immunological etiology. The immunohistochemistry, showing a strong positivity of antiCD68 antibodies, integrated with clinical-anamnestic information, leads to hypothesize a rheumatic carditis. Conclusion: In light of this case, at least 3 main messages of great importance for the clinician can be deduced. First, an accurate anamnesis collected by the family physician could have

  12. Dynamic Characteristic Analysis of Spinal Motor Control Between 11- and 15-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Chow, Daniel H; Lau, Newman M

    2016-07-01

    Spinal motor control can provide substantial insight for the causes of spinal musculoskeletal disorders. Its dynamic characteristics however, have not been fully investigated. The objective of this study is to explore the dynamic characteristics of spinal motor control via the fractional Brownian motion mathematical technique. Spinal curvatures and repositioning errors of different spinal regions in 64 children age 11- or 15-years old during upright stance were measured and compared for the effects of age and gender. With the application of the fractional Brownian motion analytical technique to the changes of spinal curvatures, distinct persistent movement behaviors could be determined, which could be interpreted physiologically as open-loop behaviors. Moreover, it was found that the spinal motor control of 15-year-old children was better than that of 11-year-old children with smaller repositioning error and less curvature variability as well as shorter response time and smaller curvature deformation.

  13. Trisomy 18 mosaicism in a 15-year-old boy with normal intelligence and short stature

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-08

    We report a 15-year-old boy with mosaicism for trisomy 18 and normal intelligence. Approximately 50% of his leukocytes are trisomic. This patient represents the sixth report of an individual with trisomy 18 mosaicism and normal intelligence. Those individuals with trisomy 18 mosaicism and normal intelligence need to be advised of increased risks for offspring with chromosome abnormalities and offered the option of prenatal diagnosis for cytogenetic anomalies. 6 refs.

  14. Hamartoma of the urinary bladder in a 15-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Al Shahwani, Noora; Alnaimi, Abdulla Rashid; Ammar, Adham; Al-ahdal, Esra M.

    2016-01-01

    Hamartoma of the bladder is an unusual entity described in only eleven patients to date. It may present as painless hematuria, irritative urinary tract symptoms, or inability to void or it may be diagnosed incidentally. Hamartoma of the bladder may be isolated or occur as part of a syndrome. No isolated bladder hamartoma to date has shown malignant potential. We describe here a bladder hamartoma in a 15-year-old boy. PMID:27274896

  15. A 15-year-old boy with snoring and molar tooth sign.

    PubMed

    El-Kersh, Karim; Senthilvel, Egambaram

    2015-04-01

    A 15-year-old boy presented for evaluation of snoring and sleep-disordered breathing. The parents noted that the patient snored every night and that he had episodes when he stopped breathing, ending with gasping for air. He had no history of sleep walking, night terrors, tongue biting, or seizures. The patient had two healthy siblings, but he had a history of intellectual disability and developmental delay. The patient had a history of adenotonsillectomy. PMID:25846539

  16. Gouty arthritis in a 15-year-old girl with Bartter's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Derakhshan, Nima; Derakhshan, Dorna; Basiratnia, Mitra; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Hashemi, Ghamar; Derakhshan, Ali

    2010-11-01

    A 15-year-old girl, a known case of Bartter's syndrome (BS) for 7 years, developed severe pain in her right knee and right and left ankle. Her older sister had BS and developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) at the age of 14 years. Her serum uric acid was 12.6 mg/dL, 6 months ago, and 15.4 mg/dL in her recent lab data. Hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis are commonly seen in adults with BS, but to our knowledge there is no report of gouty arthritis in pediatric literature.

  17. [Coexistence of Crohn disease and Wegener granulomatosis in a 15-year-old patient].

    PubMed

    Sieczkowska, Agnieszka; Lewandowski, Piotr; Szumera, Małgorzata; Kamińska, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Crohn disease is being diagnosed more and more frequently in children and teenagers. Clinical symptoms are mainly related to the gastrointestinal tract, however there are many reports in the literature about the coexistence of Crohn disease with other autoimmunological disorders such as celiac disease, autoimmune hypothyroidism, systemic lupus erythematosus and Wegener granulomatosis. We report a 15-year-old patient with Crohn disease who also developed Wegener granulomatosis. The presented case illustrates the difficulties in establishing the diagnosis when symptoms of the original disease are superimposed on symptoms of a different disorder. PMID:22516704

  18. Plummer-Vinson syndrome in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Dinler, Gönül; Tander, Burak; Kalayci, Ayhan Gazi; Rizalar, Riza

    2009-01-01

    Plummer-Vinson syndrome presents as a classical triad of dysphagia, iron deficiency anemia and upper esophageal web(s). The syndrome usually occurs in adults, and is rare in childhood. We report a case of this syndrome occurring in a 15-year-old boy. He presented with dysphagia and anemia. Radiological examination showed the presence of webs at the cervical esophagus. The boy was treated with endoscopic balloon dilation and iron supplementation and remains in good general condition six months after the treatment.

  19. [Relapse of bleeding ulcer in a 15 year-old boy with collagenous gastritis].

    PubMed

    Haase, Anne-Mette; Kelsen, Jens

    2012-06-18

    Collagenous gastritis (CG) is a rare disorder. Two patient groups are known: 1) Children and young adults, presenting with anaemia and abdominal pain, and 2) adults presenting with watery diarrhoea. In the latter group, CG is frequently associated with collagenous colitis and/or coeliac disease. This case concerns a 15-year-old boy with a bleeding ulcer. The biopsies from corpus ventriculi showed a thickened subepithelial collagen band (> 10 micrometres), and the patient was diagnosed with CG. Ulcers are rarely linked to CG. CG should be considered when ulcers are found in children and young adults. PMID:22713227

  20. VII. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB): factor structure for 3 to 15 year olds.

    PubMed

    Mungas, Dan; Widaman, Keith; Zelazo, Philip David; Tulsky, David; Heaton, Robert K; Slotkin, Jerry; Blitz, David L; Gershon, Richard C

    2013-08-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis was used the evaluate the dimensional structure underlying the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB) and the measures chosen to serve as concurrent validity criteria for the NIH Toolbox CB. These results were used to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity of the CB in children ranging from 3 to 15 years of age. Results were evaluated separately for a 3- to 6-year-old group and a 8- to 15-year-old group because different validation measures were used in these age groups. Three distinct dimensions were found for the 3- to 6-year-old group: Vocabulary, Reading, and Fluid Abilities. Five dimensions were found for 8-15 year olds: Vocabulary, Reading, Episodic Memory, Working Memory, and Executive Function/Processing Speed. CB measures and their validation analogues consistently defined common factors in a pattern that broadly supported the convergent and discriminant validity of the CB, but results showed higher intercorrelation and less differentiation of cognitive dimensions in younger than in older children and in older children compared with adults. Age was strongly related to the cognitive dimensions underlying test performance in both groups of children and results are consistent with broader literature showing increasing differentiation of cognitive abilities associated with the rapid brain development that occurs from early childhood into adulthood.

  1. Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Depression, Psychological Well-Being and Feeling of Guilt in 7 - 15 Years Old Diabetic Children

    PubMed Central

    Ataie Moghanloo, Vahid; Ataie Moghanloo, Roghayyeh; Moazezi, Mousa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes imposes restrictions on physical, emotional, and social functioning of children and adolescents. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for depression, psychological well-being and feeling of guilt in 7 - 15 years old diabetic children. Patients and Methods: This was a clinical trial with pre-test and post-test design with control group. The study population consisted of 34 participants selected using convenient sampling out of all 7 - 15 years old patients that referred to the Diabetes Association of Tabriz. They were randomly allocated into two equal groups (experimental and control). The experimental group participated in therapy sessions and the control group did not receive any intervention. The research instruments were reynolds child depression scale (RCDS), eysenck feelings of guilt scale and satisfaction with life scale (SWLS). Results: Multivariate covariance analysis (MANCOVA) showed that the treatment was effective on variables of depression, psychological well-being and feeling guilty in 7 - 15 years old diabetic children (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The aforementioned treatment is effective and suggested to be used in other psychosomatic diseases of children. PMID:26396702

  2. Green-laser induced maculopathy in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Yan, William; Chakrabarti, Rahul; Little, Matthew; Carden, Susan M

    2016-06-01

    We report the case a 15-year-old boy who presented with retinopathy caused by a green-diode (class IIIB) laser. The patient was followed over a period of 8 weeks. Visual acuity on day 1 was 6/7.5, with central scotoma in the right eye, and 6/5 in the left eye. Macular optical coherence tomography of the right eye day 1 showed focal subfoveal disruption of the photoreceptor ellipsoid and myoid zones extending through the external limiting membrane to the outer nuclear layer. At week 8, visual acuity was 6/6 right eye and 6/5 in the left eye. Disruption of the ellipsoid and myoid layers, though still present, had improved.

  3. Pelvic osteomyelitis in a 15-year-old girl: case report.

    PubMed

    Tural Kara, Tugce; Ozdemir, Halil; Fitoz, Suat; Ciftci, Ergin; Ince, Erdal

    2016-10-01

    Pelvic osteomyelitis is a rare infection. Ilium, ischium, pubis and acetabulum are commonly affected sites. Pelvic radiography, pelvic magnetic resonance and scintigraphy are useful imaging techniques for diagnosis. However, diagnoses should be confirmed with bone biopsy from the lesion. Sometimes diagnosis is delayed because of deep localization of infection site. Here in, we report a 15-year-old girl with left groin pain who was diagnosed as pelvic osteomyelitis one month after initial symptoms. Patient was successfully treated with antibiotics for 8 weeks. In conclusion, although pelvic osteomyelitis is an unusual infection in childhood, it should be considered as differential diagnoses of pain in groin, hips, thigh, abdomen and spine. If diagnosis is suspicious, empiric treatment should be started quickly, because it will be possible to achieve satisfactory clinical results with effective treatment. PMID:27606666

  4. Isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency in a 15-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Murayama, K; Kimura, M; Yamaguchi, S; Shinka, T; Kodama, K

    1997-06-01

    A 15-year-old girl with a former clinical diagnosis of cerebral palsy was found to have isolated deficiency of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis and enzyme determination. Her symptoms included marked growth retardation from birth, profound mental retardation, tonic seizures, rigospastic quadriplegia with opisthotonic dystonia, gastroesophageal reflux with poor esophageal peristalsis, and recurrent episodes of aspiration pneumonia. Brain MRI revealed marked brain atrophy, involving both the gray and white matter. Although she did not exhibit acute metabolic decompensation or acute encephalopathy, her neurological symptoms continuously worsened. This patient is the oldest among reported cases of MCC deficiency who had symptoms at birth, and this case may have the severest sequelae of the longest known natural course of this inborn error of metabolism.

  5. The endovascular management of recurrent aortic hypoplasia and coarctation in a 15-year-old male.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Andrew B; O'Donnell, Sean D; Gillespie, David L; Rasmussen, Todd E; Johnson, Chatt A; Fox, Charles J; Burklow, Thomas R; Hagler, David J

    2005-03-01

    A 15-year-old male complained of easy fatigability, leg weakness, and pain on exertion with episodes of syncope while playing baseball. His past medical history was significant for aortic coarctation associated with a congenital bovine hypoplastic aortic arch. A recent arteriogram revealed innominate and left common carotid artery stenosis as well as recurrent coarctation. He had previously undergone three Dacron patch aortoplasties. At the age of 7, he underwent a fourth operation for recurrent coarctation and because of extensive scar tissue in the region of his prior procedures, a left subclavian artery-to-descending aortic bypass was performed. An endovascular repair to deal with the recent recurrence was performed because of prior surgical difficulties. Percutaneous balloon-expandable stents were placed in the aortic coarctation, innominate, and the left common carotid arteries. Postprocedure, ankle brachial indices were >1 and the patient remains asymptomatic after 1 year.

  6. Pelvic osteomyelitis in a 15-year-old girl: case report.

    PubMed

    Tural Kara, Tugce; Ozdemir, Halil; Fitoz, Suat; Ciftci, Ergin; Ince, Erdal

    2016-10-01

    Pelvic osteomyelitis is a rare infection. Ilium, ischium, pubis and acetabulum are commonly affected sites. Pelvic radiography, pelvic magnetic resonance and scintigraphy are useful imaging techniques for diagnosis. However, diagnoses should be confirmed with bone biopsy from the lesion. Sometimes diagnosis is delayed because of deep localization of infection site. Here in, we report a 15-year-old girl with left groin pain who was diagnosed as pelvic osteomyelitis one month after initial symptoms. Patient was successfully treated with antibiotics for 8 weeks. In conclusion, although pelvic osteomyelitis is an unusual infection in childhood, it should be considered as differential diagnoses of pain in groin, hips, thigh, abdomen and spine. If diagnosis is suspicious, empiric treatment should be started quickly, because it will be possible to achieve satisfactory clinical results with effective treatment.

  7. Nonossifying fibroma (metaphyseal fibrous defect) of the mandible in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Mannan, Abul Ala; Singh, N Gopendro; Al-Waheeb, Salah; Taher, Taher N; Mohammed, Emad El Din El Din

    2015-06-01

    We describe a rare case of nonossifying fibroma of the mandible in a 15-year-old boy who presented with a left mandibular swelling. Conventional imaging showed an expansile radiolucent lesion involving the angle and the body of the left mandible. The lesion was curetted, and a miniplate was implanted at the excision site. Microscopic examination of the removed specimen revealed a cellular lesion characterized by a proliferation of uniform spindle-shaped cells in a vague but prominent storiform pattern, which represented the classic appearance of nonossifying fibroma. Three months later, radiography detected a fracture of the implantation plate. The area was re-explored with curettage of the soft tissue, which on microscopy demonstrated findings similar to the initial curettage findings. Follow-up radiology revealed satisfactory healing of the jaw, and no further recurrence was seen 2 years after the initial surgery. We present this case to highlight the importance of recognizing nonossifying fibroma in the mandible, which can be easily confused with more common mandibular lesions. PMID:26053991

  8. Caustic Agent Ingestion by a 1.5-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Gharib, Behdad; Mohammadpour, Masoud; Yaghmaie, Bahareh; Sharifzadeh, Meisam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad; Zamani, Fatemeh; Edalatkhah, Rouhollah; Mohsenipour, Reihaneh

    2016-07-01

    We present a case of caustic ingestion by a 1.5-year-old boy. The caustic agent was drain opener which is a strong alkaline substance. Children in Iran and many other countries are still exposed to not "child proof" (child resistant packaging) toxic substance containers. Ingestion of caustic agents may lead to necrosis, perforation, and strictures. Substances that are ingested more frequently are liquid alkali material which causes severe, deep liquefaction necrosis. Common signs and symptoms of caustic agents are vomiting, drooling, refusal to drink, oral burns, stridor, hematemesis, dyspnea, dysphagia and abdominal pain. Even if no oropharyngeal lesion is seen, a significant esophageal injury which can lead to perforation and stricture cannot be ruled out. If abdominal pain or rigidity, substernal, chest or back pain exists, visceral perforation should be considered. The first thing to be checked is airway assessment. A lot of patients should be admitted to intensive care unit, and endoscopic evaluation, surgical intervention, long-term hospitalization, and worsening quality of life or among the complications. Preventive measures especially at the country level and approving proper legislation for obligating the related industries to produce child proof containers for house hold toxic products are the urgent measures to be followed by all of us.

  9. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity: National study of 11- to 15-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O; Due, P; Holstein, B E

    2016-10-01

    More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical inactivity. The Danish sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2006 included 6269 schoolchildren in three age groups: 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from a random sample of 80 schools. The students answered the internationally standardized HBSC questionnaire. The applied definition leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1.67-3.41). Exposure to bullying did not explain the association between social class and physical inactivity. The association between social class and physical inactivity was more pronounced among participants also exposed to bullying. In conclusion, there was a significantly increased odds ratio for physical inactivity among students from lower social classes and for students exposed to bullying. There was a combined effect of low social class and bullying on physical inactivity.

  10. Corneal Thickness Profile and Associations in Chinese Children Aged 7 to 15 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingyan; Zhu, Xiaofeng; He, Xiangui; Lu, Lina; Zhu, Jianfeng; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Corneal thickness (CT) maps of the central (2-mm diameter), para-central (2 to 5-mm diameter), peripheral (5 to 6-mm diameter), and minimum (5-mm diameter) cornea were measured in normal Chinese school children aged 7 to 15 years old using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. Multiple regression analyses were performed to explore the effect of associated factors [age, gender, refraction, axial length and corneal curvature radius (CCR)] on CT and the relationship between central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP). A total of 1228 eyes from 614 children were analyzed. The average CCT was 532.96 ± 28.33 μm for right eyes and 532.70 ±28.45 μm for left eyes. With a 10 μm increase in CCT, the IOP was elevated by 0.37 mm Hg, as measured by noncontact tonometry. The CT increased gradually from the center to the periphery. The superior and superior nasal regions had the thickest CTs, while the thinnest points were primarily located in the inferior temporal cornea. The CCT was associated with CCR (p = 0.008) but not with gender (p = 0.075), age (p = 0.286), axial length (p = 0.405), or refraction (p = 0.985). In the para-central region and the peripheral cornea, increased CT was associated with younger age, male gender, and a flatter cornea. PMID:26751798

  11. Social background, bullying, and physical inactivity: National study of 11- to 15-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O; Due, P; Holstein, B E

    2016-10-01

    More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical inactivity. The Danish sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2006 included 6269 schoolchildren in three age groups: 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from a random sample of 80 schools. The students answered the internationally standardized HBSC questionnaire. The applied definition leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1.67-3.41). Exposure to bullying did not explain the association between social class and physical inactivity. The association between social class and physical inactivity was more pronounced among participants also exposed to bullying. In conclusion, there was a significantly increased odds ratio for physical inactivity among students from lower social classes and for students exposed to bullying. There was a combined effect of low social class and bullying on physical inactivity. PMID:26454139

  12. Caustic Agent Ingestion by a 1.5-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Gharib, Behdad; Mohammadpour, Masoud; Yaghmaie, Bahareh; Sharifzadeh, Meisam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad; Zamani, Fatemeh; Edalatkhah, Rouhollah; Mohsenipour, Reihaneh

    2016-07-01

    We present a case of caustic ingestion by a 1.5-year-old boy. The caustic agent was drain opener which is a strong alkaline substance. Children in Iran and many other countries are still exposed to not "child proof" (child resistant packaging) toxic substance containers. Ingestion of caustic agents may lead to necrosis, perforation, and strictures. Substances that are ingested more frequently are liquid alkali material which causes severe, deep liquefaction necrosis. Common signs and symptoms of caustic agents are vomiting, drooling, refusal to drink, oral burns, stridor, hematemesis, dyspnea, dysphagia and abdominal pain. Even if no oropharyngeal lesion is seen, a significant esophageal injury which can lead to perforation and stricture cannot be ruled out. If abdominal pain or rigidity, substernal, chest or back pain exists, visceral perforation should be considered. The first thing to be checked is airway assessment. A lot of patients should be admitted to intensive care unit, and endoscopic evaluation, surgical intervention, long-term hospitalization, and worsening quality of life or among the complications. Preventive measures especially at the country level and approving proper legislation for obligating the related industries to produce child proof containers for house hold toxic products are the urgent measures to be followed by all of us. PMID:27424019

  13. Bilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty in a 15 Year Old With Skeletal Dysplasia and Open Physes.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jason C; Siqueira, Marcelo B P; Jacob, Paul; Goodwin, Ryan C; Barsoum, Wael K

    2016-05-01

    There are limited reports of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the pediatric population. The use of constrained, stemmed components is particularly unusual in the setting of open physes due to concerns with growth arrest and implant survivorship. The current authors describe a 15-year-old boy with open growth plates and an epiphyseal dysplasia-like condition affecting the knees bilaterally. He had no other significant medical or orthopedic conditions and his genetic workup was negative. He had severe knee pain and a bilateral 40° valgus with severe lateral compartment arthritis. Conservative treatment provided no symptom relief, and the patient had been wheelchair bound for 18 months prior to presentation. Treatment with simultaneous bilateral TKA using cemented, stemmed, and constrained components was undertaken. There were no intraoperative complications, and his final follow-up was at 5.6 years postoperatively. Radiographic evaluation at follow-up showed that components were well placed with no loosening. The patient had pain-free motion and a perfect Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. Based on the review of the literature and the outcomes of this case, the authors believe simultaneous bilateral TKA using cemented, stemmed, and constrained components is a reasonable option for joint reconstruction in the pediatric patient with open physes who also has significant arthritis and deformity not of oncologic origin. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e549-e552.]. PMID:27045485

  14. Corneal Epithelium Thickness Profile in 614 Normal Chinese Children Aged 7–15 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingyan; He, Xiangui; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Lu, Lina; Zhu, Jianfeng; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to describe the values and distribution of corneal epithelium thickness (CET) in normal Chinese school-aged children, and to explore associated factors with CET. CET maps were measured by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) in normal Chinese children aged 7 to 15 years old from two randomly selected schools in Shanghai, China. Children with normal intraocular pressure were further examined for cycloplegic autorefraction, corneal curvature radius (CCR) and axial length. Central (2-mm diameter area), para-central (2- to 5-mm diameter area), and peripheral (5- to 6-mm diameter area) CET in the superior, superotemporal, temporal, inferotemporal, inferior, inferonasal, nasal, superonasal cornea; minimum, maximum, range, and standard deviation of CET within the 5-mm diameter area were recorded. The CET was thinner in the superior than in the inferior and was thinner in the temporal than in the nasal. The maximum CET was located in the inferior zone, and the minimum CET was in the superior zone. A thicker central CET was associated with male gender (p = 0.009) and older age (p = 0.037) but not with CCR (p = 0.061), axial length (p = 0.253), or refraction (p = 0.351) in the multiple regression analyses. CCR, age, and gender were correlated with para-central and peripheral CET. PMID:27004973

  15. [Social stratification and nutritional anthropometry in children under 15 years old La Escalera, Lara State, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Torres-Villanueva, Mario; Dellán-Rodríguez, Graciela; Papale-Centofanti, Jham; Rodríguez, Dioslibeth; Mendoza, Norelis; Berné, Yelitza

    2007-09-01

    Malnutrition is a public health problem for underdeveloped countries. From the 852 million of undernourished estimated by FAO between 2000 and 2002, 815 million belonged to underdeveloped countries, 28 million to countries in transition and 9 million to developed countries. Malnutrition in Venezuela had a 6% raise between 2000 and 2002, when it went from 11% to 17%. This work was done with children under 15 years old from La Escalera, using classic indicators and their combination, relating them with socioeconomic conditions, through the NBI and Graffar Méndez Castellano methods, as to consider the population nutritional profile. The higher prevalence corresponded to normal nutritional values, which oscillated between 55,7% and 80,7% in the 7-14 years old group and the 2-6 years old group, respectively. Malnutrition was found in the under 2 years old group and 7-14 years old group, with values ranging between 12,5 and 41,0% respectively. The least prevalence was found for excess malnutrition. 100% of the families in this study are poor, according to NBI; although the Graffar Mendez Castellano method established that poverty was about 60%, while 40% belonged to a medium-low status. Relating nutritional diagnosis with social stratification and the mother's educational level, three patterns were observed: III, IV and V, prevailing normal diagnosis, followed by malnutrition by deficit and malnutrition by excess, respectively. The predominating mother's educational level corresponded to incomplete high school, followed by analphabetism and the least prevalent has complete basic elementary education. It should be noted that the nutrition deficit was inversely related to the socioeconomic stratification and the mother's educational level.

  16. The Bender Gestalt test for 5- to 15-year old Brazilian children: norms and validity.

    PubMed

    Brito, G N; Santos, T R

    1996-11-01

    Norms for two modalities (normal and stress) of the Bender Gestalt test were developed for the neuropsychological assessment of children in the greater Rio de Janeiro area. For each modality, a measure of performance, a measure of speed and a measure of emotional disturbance were obtained. A total of 398 children (199 males and 199 females), 5 to 15 years old, who were attending a public school in Niterói were the subjects of this study. Analysis of the data revealed that age, but not sex, had a significant effect on performance, but not on speed, in both modalities such that older children made fewer errors than younger children. Also, the number of emotional indicators significantly decreased with age. Additionally, boys needed more time to complete the normal modality than girls, and showed a higher number of emotional indicators in both modalities. The Bender test was found to be valid in the sense that children who had failed at least one grade in school performed worse than those who had not. The number of emotional indicators was shown to be valid since it was significantly correlated with factors such as hyperactivity-conduct problem, and independent functioning, and inattention of the Composite Teacher Rating Scale (Brito GNO and Pinto RCA (1991). Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13: 417-418). We conclude that the Bender test is valid for use in schoolchildren, and the number of emotional indicators is valid as an index of psychopathology, but sex and age should be considered when using the norms in Brazil.

  17. A 15-Year-Old Male Baseball Player With a Mass in the Brachialis Muscle.

    PubMed

    Golub, Ivan J; Garcia, Roberto A; Wittig, James C

    2016-05-01

    A 15-year-old boy presented with a mass in his right arm after suffering a minor injury playing baseball. He had been diagnosed with a hematoma. There was no other outstanding medical/surgical history. Magnetic resonance images showed a heterogeneous mass arising from the brachialis muscle that mainly enhanced peripherally with extremely scant internal nodular enhancement. Core needle biopsy cells were positive for CD31 and CD34, markers for atypical endothelial cells, as well as MIB-1 and p53. The final diagnosis was an angiosarcoma of the brachialis muscle. Pediatric angiosarcoma, particularly within deep tissue, is exceedingly rare. Histological and immunohistochemical modalities led to the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance images suggested a mass with a large cystic/hemorrhagic space that could have been misconstrued as a hematoma had there been absolutely no nodular or septal enhancement. The patient underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation before undergoing limb-sparing surgery that included resection of the mass with the brachialis muscle and short head of the biceps muscle. Neoadjuvant treatment was deemed successful due to a drastic reduction in the size of the tumor and 95% tumor necrosis. The patient was disease free 2 years postoperatively. There had been no local/systemic recurrences. He was pain free, had normal elbow function, and had returned to playing baseball. It is important to be extremely suspicious when a patient presents with a hemorrhagic, painless, enlarging mass after sustaining minor trauma. A careful and meticulous biopsy must be completed to achieve the correct diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium is recommended for evaluation because these masses can be often misinterpreted as hematomas. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e545-e548.].

  18. A 15-Year-Old Male Baseball Player With a Mass in the Brachialis Muscle.

    PubMed

    Golub, Ivan J; Garcia, Roberto A; Wittig, James C

    2016-05-01

    A 15-year-old boy presented with a mass in his right arm after suffering a minor injury playing baseball. He had been diagnosed with a hematoma. There was no other outstanding medical/surgical history. Magnetic resonance images showed a heterogeneous mass arising from the brachialis muscle that mainly enhanced peripherally with extremely scant internal nodular enhancement. Core needle biopsy cells were positive for CD31 and CD34, markers for atypical endothelial cells, as well as MIB-1 and p53. The final diagnosis was an angiosarcoma of the brachialis muscle. Pediatric angiosarcoma, particularly within deep tissue, is exceedingly rare. Histological and immunohistochemical modalities led to the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance images suggested a mass with a large cystic/hemorrhagic space that could have been misconstrued as a hematoma had there been absolutely no nodular or septal enhancement. The patient underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation before undergoing limb-sparing surgery that included resection of the mass with the brachialis muscle and short head of the biceps muscle. Neoadjuvant treatment was deemed successful due to a drastic reduction in the size of the tumor and 95% tumor necrosis. The patient was disease free 2 years postoperatively. There had been no local/systemic recurrences. He was pain free, had normal elbow function, and had returned to playing baseball. It is important to be extremely suspicious when a patient presents with a hemorrhagic, painless, enlarging mass after sustaining minor trauma. A careful and meticulous biopsy must be completed to achieve the correct diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium is recommended for evaluation because these masses can be often misinterpreted as hematomas. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e545-e548.]. PMID:27045482

  19. Expressing communicative intents in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mother-adolescent interactions.

    PubMed

    Tulviste, Tiia; Mizera, Luule; De Geer, Boel

    2004-11-01

    The present article focused on two types of communicative intent (directing behaviour vs. eliciting talk) expressed by mothers and teenagers during everyday family interactions in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mono- and bicultural families. Three monocultural groups consisted of 17 Estonian, 19 Swedish, and 18 Finnish families living in their country of origin; two bicultural and bilingual groups consisted of 18 Estonian and 18 Finnish families residing in Sweden. All the children were between 9;o and 13;0. The results revealed that the Estonian monocultural mothers were highly directive and direct: issuing behavioural directives most frequently and using the highest proportion of imperatives among all samples. Contrary to our expectations, the mothers who tended to be more concerned with controlling their children's behaviour also elicited conversation more frequently from teenagers by using a larger number of information requests. These requests seemed to serve as another form of attempted control over adolescents' behaviour--their communicative behaviour. The Swedish monocultural children were more active in controlling their mothers' behaviour than their counterparts, possibly illustrating the Swedish value of generational equality. PMID:15658746

  20. Persistence of artificial sweeteners in a 15-year-old septic system plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, W. D.; Van Stempvoort, D. R.; Solomon, D. K.; Homewood, J.; Brown, S. J.; Spoelstra, J.; Schiff, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    SummaryGroundwater contamination from constituents such as NO3-, often occurs where multiple sources are present making source identification difficult. This study examines a suite of major ions and trace organic constituents within a well defined septic system plume in southern Ontario, Canada (Long Point site) for their potential use as wastewater tracers. The septic system has been operating for 20 years servicing a large, seasonal-use campground and tritium/helium age dating indicates that the 200 m long monitored section of the plume is about 15 years old. Four parameters are elevated along the entire length of the plume as follows; the mean electrical conductivity value (EC) in the distal plume zone is 926 μS/cm which is 74% of the mean value below the tile bed, Na+ (14.7 mg/L) is 43%, an artificial sweetener, acesulfame (12.1 μg/L) is 23% and Cl- (71.5 mg/L) is 137%. EC and Cl- appear to be affected by dispersive dilution with overlying background groundwater that has lower EC but has locally higher Cl- as result of the use of a dust suppressant (CaCl2) in the campground. Na+, in addition to advective dilution, could be depleted by weak adsorption. Acesulfame, in addition to the above processes could be influenced by increasing consumer use in recent years. Nonetheless, both Na+ and acesulfame remain elevated throughout the plume by factors of more than 100 and 1000 respectively compared to background levels, and are strong indicators of wastewater impact at this site. EC and Cl- are less useful because their contrast with background values is much less (EC) or because other sources are present (Cl-). Nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, PO43-, K+) and pathogens (Escherichia coli) do not persist in the distal plume zone and are less useful as wastewater indicators here. The artificial sweetener, acesulfame, has persisted at high concentrations in the Long Point plume for at least 15 years (and this timing agrees with tritium/helium-3 dating) and this compound likely

  1. PEDOMETER RELIABILITY, VALIDITY AND DAILY ACTIVITY TARGETS AMONG 10- TO 15-YEAR-OLD BOYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aims of this study were to: (1) determine whether the number of pedometer counts recorded by adolescents differs according to the adiposity of the participant or location on the body; (2) assess the accuracy and reliability of pedometers during field activity; and (3) set adolescent pedometer-ba...

  2. Health Behaviors and Protective Factors of School Students Aged 13-15 Years Old in Four Cities of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian, Benchun; Zhang, Wei; Qian, Ling; Lv, Shuhong; Tian, Xiangyang; Xiong, Guanglian; Yan, Weihong; Zhang, Xinwei; Kann, Laura K.; Riley, Leanne

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents baseline data on health behaviors and protective factors among junior middle school students aged 13-15 years old in China for the purpose of developing priorities, establishing programs and policies for school health and youth health and also establishing trends in the prevalence of these behaviors. The 2003 CHINA GSHS…

  3. Differential diagnosis of double site intussusception in childhood: a 15-year-old girl presenting with bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Joseph; Wright, Naomi Jane; Kufeji, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain in a teenage girl is common; however, thorough history and examination can often distinguish a more rare or sinister diagnosis. We present a case of a 15-year-old girl presenting with abdominal pain, who was subsequently diagnosed with double intussusception secondary to her previously unrecognised Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS). PMID:26581705

  4. Primary internal carotid artery aneurysm in a 15-year-old male: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Daniel; Sarac, Timur; Lorenz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Extracranial internal carotid artery aneurysms are a rare entity in the adult population. Very little information is known in the pediatric population. We present a case of a 15-year-old male with an isolated internal carotid artery aneurysm and a review of the literature.

  5. Financial Literacy of 15-Year-Olds: Results from PISA 2012. Data Point. NCES 2014-102

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Patrick; Kelly, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This Data Point uses data from the 2012 administration of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) financial literacy assessment. PISA is an international assessment that measures 15-year-old students' reading, mathematics, and science literacy and, in 2012, general problem solving and financial literacy. PISA is coordinated by…

  6. What Can Influence Students' Environmental Attitudes? Results from a Study of 15-Year-Old Students in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Hebel, Florence; Montpied, Pascale; Fontanieu, Valérie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the environmental attitudes (EA) in the population of 15-year-old French students and, to check if the French student population presents similar EA categorization as described in the different models in the literature (e.g. the Model of Ecological Values, Wiseman & Bogner 2003). The second aim of…

  7. Socratic Teaching Is Not Teaching, but Direct Transmission Is: Notes from 13 to 15-Year Olds' Conceptions of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikva, Judith Bar

    2010-01-01

    We studied what 13-15-year-olds believe teaching's components are. Thirty-six children viewed two films: direct transmission (DT) and Socratic teaching (ST) and a third film of a non-teaching conversation (C). We investigated the participants' understanding of teaching's components and the role of intentionality in teaching. All children judged…

  8. Facing the Future: A Focus on Mathematical Literacy among Australian 15-Year-Old Students in PISA 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Sue; Cresswell, John; De Bortoli, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is an initiative of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in Paris. The overall aim of PISA is to measure how well 15-year-olds approaching the end of their compulsory schooling are prepared for meeting the challenges they will face in their lives beyond school.…

  9. Stress and Self-Concept in 10- to 15-Year-Old School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garton, Alison F.; Pratt, Chris

    1995-01-01

    Results of a study of the relationship between stress and self-concept among adolescents (n=1,482) indicate that there is a small negative relationship between overall self-concept and the frequency and effect of stressful events. Females experience more stress and express it as having a greater impact, while age does not reliably predict…

  10. Working Memory Structure in 10- and 15-Year Old Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual, Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Mariet J.

    2010-01-01

    The validity of Baddeley's working memory model within the typically developing population, was tested. However, it is not clear if this model also holds in children and adolescents with mild to, borderline intellectual disabilities (ID; IQ score 55-85). The main purpose of this study was therefore, to explore the model's validity in this…

  11. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion in a 15-Year-Old Boy with Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Kadayifcilar, Sibel; Eldem, Bora

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To report the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy in a case of branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) in a 15-year-old boy. Methods. We report a 15-year-old boy with sudden loss of vision due to BRAO. Examination included laboratory evaluation for systemic risk factors. Follow-up exams included visual acuity, fundus examination, fundus fluorescein angiography, and visual field testing. HBO therapy was employed for treatment. Results. Medical history was positive for isolated glucocorticoid deficiency. Laboratory evaluation disclosed hyperhomocysteinemia and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutation. The visual acuity 0.05 at presentation improved to 0.8 after 20 days of HBO therapy. There was no change on visual fields. Conclusion. In this pediatric case, HBO therapy was useful in the treatment of BRAO. PMID:25722905

  12. National survey of the oral health of 12- and 15-year-old schoolchildren in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    El-Nadeef, M A I; Al Hussani, E; Hassab, H; Arab, I A

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the first national survey of oral health in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Using WHO criteria, dental caries and fluorosis were recorded in 2651 schoolchildren aged 12 and 15 years, and periodontal disease in those aged 15 years. The prevalence of dental caries in the permanent teeth of 12-year-olds was 54%; the mean DMFT (number of decayed, missing or filled permanent teeth) per child was 1.6. The prevalence of dental caries in 15-year-olds was 65% and the mean DMFT was 2.5. For the UAE as a whole, 70% of 12-year-old schoolchildren had no dental fluorosis and 37% of 15-year-olds had healthy periodontal tissues.

  13. Dental caries in 14- and 15-year-olds in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries remains one of the most common chronic diseases of adolescents. In Australia there have been few epidemiological studies of the caries experience of adolescents with most surveys focusing on children. The New South Wales (NSW) Teen Dental Survey 2010 is the second major survey undertaken by the Centre for Oral Health Strategy. The survey is part of a more systematic and efficient approach to support State and Local Health District dental service planning and will also be used for National reporting purposes. Methods Data for the NSW Teen Dental Survey were collected in 2010 from a random sample of Year 9 secondary school students aged 14 to 15 years from metropolitan and non-metropolitan schools under the jurisdiction of the NSW Department of Education and Training, the Catholic Education Commission and Independent Schools in New South Wales. Nineteen calibrated examiners performed 1269 clinical examinations at a total of 84 secondary schools across NSW. The survey was accompanied by a questionnaire looking at oral health related behaviours, risk factors and the usage of the Medicare Teen Dental Plan. Results 175 schools were contacted, with 84 (48%) accepting the invitation to participate in the study. A total of 5,357 student consent forms and parent information packages were sent out and 1,256 students were examined; leading to a student participation rate of 23%. The survey reported a mean DMFT for 14 and 15 year olds of 1.2 and it was identified that 45.4% of students had an experience of dental caries. Major variations in caries experience reported occurred by remoteness, water fluoridation status, socio-economic status and household income levels. Conclusions The NSW Teen Dental Survey provided state-wide data that will contribute to the national picture on adolescent oral health. The mean DMFT score of 1.2 is similar to the national caries experience data for this age group from the Australian Child Dental Health Survey in 2009

  14. Occult presentation of myotonia congenita in a 15-year-old athlete.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, J; Curl, L A; Kuncl, R W; McFarland, E G

    1999-01-01

    A case of myotonia congenita in an adolescent athlete was presented. Although this is a rare condition unknown to many treating physicians, the key to diagnosis was provocation of the patient's symptoms of muscle "tightening" and "cramping" during sustained exercise. The diagnosis would have been missed in routine office examinations with the patient at rest. The stereotypic generalized myotonic signs and symptoms were provoked after the patient was asked to play 20 minutes of basketball during one of his office evaluations. The provocative or postexercise examination was critical to the diagnosis as the resting office examination was completely normal. The diagnosis was subsequently confirmed by EMG and genetic testing. Myotonia congenita should be considered in the differential diagnosis of athletes with exercise-induced muscle "stiffness" or "cramping," particularly if the course is protracted and initial examinations are unremarkable. A provocative exercise period can be used to make the diagnosis. Once the diagnosis is established, appropriate pharmacologic treatment may improve symptoms and allow return to daily activity without restriction.

  15. Prevalence and self perception of Dental Fluorosis among 15 year old school children in Prakasham district of south India

    PubMed Central

    Naidu, Guntipalli M; Rahamthullah, S A K Uroof; Kopuri, Raj Kumar Chowdary; Kumar, Y Anil; Suman, S V; Balaga, Ramesh Naidu

    2013-01-01

    Background: To assess the Prevalence and self perception of dental fluorosis among 15 - year old school children. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 840, 15 - year old school children from 12 schools of Prakasam district. After taking informed consent from their parents or legal representatives, an interview was conducted using a pretested questionnaire to collect the data regarding self perception of dental fluorosis, dental behaviour, and source of water and diet and socio demographic characters. Oral examination was done under natural light to score Deans fluorosis index. Statistical test used was chisquare test. Results: Study revealed that 82.04% of the study population were having dental fluorosis. Out of which only 42.3% were aware of the existing situations. 47.90% of boys are aware of dental fluorosis where as 40.50% of girls are aware of dental fluorosis. Fluorosis score in relation to gender is not statistically significant (chisquare (8.796);p=0.117). Conclusion: Dental fluorosis is a public health problem in Kanigiri town. As there was no study conducted in Kanigiri town even though it is one of the severely affected area in our country. Active steps must be taken to De fluoridate the water before distribution to reduce the morbidity associated with dental fluorosis in this area. How to cite this article: Naidu GM, Rahamthullah SA, Kopuri RK, Kumar YA, Suman SV, Balaga RN. Prevalence and self perception of Dental Fluorosis among 15 year old school children in Prakasham district of south India. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):67-71. PMID:24453447

  16. Brainstem cavernoma hemorrhage during pregnancy in a 15-year-old: description of a unique neurosurgical approach.

    PubMed

    Ranger, Adrianna M; Chaudhary, Navjot; Avery, Michael; Lownie, Stephen

    2013-10-01

    Cavernous haemangiomas, or cavernous malformations, have been reported during pregnancy, most of which have been either supratentorial or spinal lesions. We encountered a 15-year old pregnant patient with a rapidly progressive and haemorrhagic brainstem cavernous haemangioma. The case presented here describes the history and findings of this patient, as well as the less-commonly utilized technique we used to access the floor of the fourth ventricle via occipital craniotomy for complete macroscopic resection of this lesion, resulting in the gradual return of most of her neurological deficits. PMID:23001930

  17. Bilateral pulmonary emboli after bilateral mastectomy in a 15-year-old boy with hypogonadism: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Piggott, JR; Yazdani, Arjang

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary emboli are rare, yet serious, complications of body contouring surgery. When they occur, they more often follow as complications of long, invasive procedures in adults. The present report details a case of bilateral pulmonary emboli in an obese 15-year-old boy with hypogonadism undergoing bilateral mastectomy for gynecomastia. The diagnosis of bilateral pulmonary emboli was made on the basis of clinical presentation and positive ventilation/perfusion scan. The patient responded well to heparin anticoagulation treatment. The relevance of pediatric obesity, pediatric body contouring surgery and the risk of thromboembolic events in pediatric patients are discussed. PMID:22131848

  18. Control measures to trace ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Melo, Angelita Cristine de; Oliveira, Lílian Ruth Silva de; Froede, Emerson Lopes; Camargos, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This was descriptive study carried out in a medium-sized Brazilian city. In ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis, we assessed compliance with the Brazilian national guidelines for tuberculosis control. We interviewed 43 contacts and their legal guardians. Approximately 80% of the contacts were not assessed by the municipal public health care system, and only 21% underwent tuberculin skin testing. The results obtained with the Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector method suggest that health care teams have a biased attitude toward assessing such contacts and underscore the need for training health professionals regarding tuberculosis control programs.

  19. Control measures to trace ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; de Melo, Angelita Cristine; de Oliveira, Lílian Ruth Silva; Froede, Emerson Lopes; Camargos, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This was descriptive study carried out in a medium-sized Brazilian city. In ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis, we assessed compliance with the Brazilian national guidelines for tuberculosis control. We interviewed 43 contacts and their legal guardians. Approximately 80% of the contacts were not assessed by the municipal public health care system, and only 21% underwent tuberculin skin testing. The results obtained with the Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector method suggest that health care teams have a biased attitude toward assessing such contacts and underscore the need for training health professionals regarding tuberculosis control programs. PMID:26578137

  20. A successful treatment of hypercalcemia with zoledronic acid in a 15-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye-Jin; Choi, Eun-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Severe hypercalcemia in children is a rare medical emergency. We present a case of a 15-year-old boy with hypercalcemia (total calcium level, 14.2 mg/dL) with a normal complete blood count, no circulating blasts in the peripheral blood film, and no other signs of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), including no signs of lymphadenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly. The hypercalcemia was successfully treated with zoledronic acid. As hypercalcemia can be the only presenting symptom of ALL in children, the diagnosis is often delayed. In children presenting with hypercalcemia, malignancies must be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:27462588

  1. Sleep duration and activity levels in Estonian and Swedish children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Labayen, Idoia; Kwak, Lydia; Harro, Jaanus; Oja, Leila; Veidebaum, Toomas; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-10-01

    We aimed to examine the associations of sleep duration with time spent on sedentary, moderate and vigorous activities in children and adolescents. The sample consisted of 2,241 (53.5% girls) Estonian and Swedish children (9-10 years) and adolescents (15-16 years), from the European Youth Heart Study, in 1998-1999. Sleep duration was calculated by the difference between self-reported bedtime and time for getting up on a normal weekday. Sedentary time/physical activity was measured by accelerometry (valid data on 1,462 participants). Adolescents had lower odds than children, and Swedish higher odds than Estonian, of meeting the sleep recommendations (>9 h) (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.17-0.27; and 1.32, 1.07-1.61, respectively). Participants sleeping longer than 10 h spent more time on physical activities (all intensities) and less time on sedentary activities than those sleeping shorter durations (all P < 0.001). The associations with physical activity became non-significant after additional adjustment for age or sexual maturation (Tanner stages), whereas the associations with sedentary time became borderline significant (P = 0.09/0.03, for age and Tanner, respectively). In conclusion, these results do not suggest a link between sleep durations and activity in a relatively large sample of children and adolescents from two European countries. Consequently, the common assumption that physical activity is a mediator in the relationship between short sleep durations and obesity is not supported by our findings.

  2. Nitrites, nitrates and N-nitrosoamines in Estonian cured meat products: intake by Estonian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reinik, M; Tamme, T; Roasto, M; Juhkam, K; Jurtsenko, S; Tenńo, T; Kiis, A

    2005-11-01

    The contents of nitrate, nitrite and N-nitrosoamines in commercial cured meat products on the Estonian market were determined for 2000-01 and 2003-04 as part of the Estonian food safety monitoring programme and the Estonian Science Foundation grant research activities. The maximum permitted levels of residual nitrites and nitrates were not exceeded in the samples analysed. However, a great variation in the content of nitrate, nitrite and N-nitrosoamines was found for all the products. The concentrations of these compounds in domestic cured meat products showed a decrease from year to year. The mean intake of nitrate, nitrite and N-nitrosoamines by Estonian children (n=346) from cured meat products was calculated on the basis of individual intake data. The mean daily intake of nitrates was 1.7 mg, that of nitrites was 0.83 mg and that of N-nitrosoamines was 0.073 microg. In the 2000-01 study, the calculated nitrite intake exceeded the acceptable daily intake by up to 140% for 1-6-year-old children and up to 105% in 2003-04.

  3. Design of a school-based randomized trial to reduce smoking among 13 to 15-year olds, the X:IT study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescent smoking is still highly prevalent in Denmark. One in four 13-year olds indicates that they have tried to smoke, and one in four 15-year olds answer that they smoke regularly. Smoking is more prevalent in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations in Denmark as well as in most Western countries. Previous school-based programs to prevent smoking have shown contrasting results internationally. In Denmark, previous programs have shown limited or no effect. This indicates a need for developing a well-designed, comprehensive, and multi-component intervention aimed at Danish schools with careful implementation and thorough evaluation. This paper describes X:IT, a study including 1) the development of a 3-year school-based multi-component intervention and 2) the randomized trial investigating the effect of the intervention. The study aims at reducing the prevalence of smoking among 13 to 15-year olds by 25%. Methods/Design The X:IT study is based on the Theory of Triadic Influences. The theory organizes factors influencing adolescent smoking into three streams: cultural environment, social situation, and personal factors. We added a fourth stream, the community aspects. The X:IT program comprises three main components: 1) smoke-free school premises, 2) parental involvement including smoke-free dialogues and smoke-free contracts between students and parents, and 3) a curricular component. The study encompasses process- and effect-evaluations as well as health economic analyses. Ninety-four schools in 17 municipalities were randomly allocated to the intervention (51 schools) or control (43 schools) group. At baseline in September 2010, 4,468 year 7 students were eligible of which 4,167 answered the baseline questionnaire (response rate = 93.3%). Discussion The X:IT study is a large, randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of an intervention, based on components proven to be efficient in other Nordic settings. The X:IT study directs

  4. Causes and Associated Factors of Headaches among 5 to 15-year-old Children Referred to a Neurology Clinic in Kashan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    TALEBIAN, Ahmad; SOLTANI, Babak; HAJI REZAEI, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Objective Headaches are common neurologic problems for children and adolescents. They are divided into two types: primary and secondary. Primary headaches include migraines and tension-type as well as comprise the majority of headaches. We detect the causes of headaches and their associations with demographic variables among children and adolescents. Materials & Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 5–15 year-old children with headaches from March 2010 to April 2012 who presented at a pediatric neurology clinic in Kashan, Iran. Diagnosis of headaches was done in accordance with the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Data regarding the type of headache, age, gender, pain severity, aura, family history, and sleep disorder were collected. Results One hundred fourteen children (44 male and 70 female) with headaches were enrolled in the study. The types of headaches were comprised as follows: 67 cases of migraines, 38 cases of tension-type headaches, 2 cases of cluster headaches, and 7 cases of secondary headaches. Pulsating headaches, family history of headaches, insomnia, and pain severity had higher prevalence in migrainous patients. Conclusion Physicians should extend their information gathering about primary and secondary headaches. Sleep disturbances and a family history of headaches were the most important factors associated with migraine headaches. PMID:25767542

  5. Diagnosis and management of sports-related concussion: a 15-year-old athlete with a concussion.

    PubMed

    Zafonte, Ross

    2011-07-01

    Concussion in youth athletes is a growing problem worldwide. During the past decade, significant progress has been made in standardization of the assessment of young athletes, and a growing appreciation of metabolic vulnerability, activity, and cognitive challenges has led to guidelines and suggestions for rest from the field as well as cognitive rest from school. Outcome data have begun to establish groups linked to symptom class, genetics, and sex who are at risk of worse outcomes from concussions. Decisions regarding return to activity are now based on at-rest symptoms, graded increases in activity, and neuropsychological testing. Using the case of Ms X, a 15-year-old otherwise healthy high school student who fell while skiing, evaluation, prognosis, and management of concussion are discussed.

  6. The Adventitia Resection in Treatment of Liver Hydatid Cyst: A Case Report of a 15-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhenhua; Yang, Wei; Yao, Yingmin; Liu, Qingguang

    2014-01-01

    Human hydatid disease is a significant health problem in endemic regions caused by the larval form of Echinococcus granulosus. In this paper, we report a case of liver hydatid cyst. The patient, a 15-year-old boy, presented with a history of intermittent upper abdominal pain of a few-month duration was referred to our hospital for investigation. Computed tomographic scan and laboratory test suggested a hydatid cyst in the right lobe of liver. The adventitia resection of hydatid cyst was smoothly performed as there was a less bloody virtual space between adventitia and outer membrane. Our diagnosis was made using an imaging approach and was confirmed during surgery. We proposed the adventitia resection of hydatid cyst could be safe and easy to perform with low risk of bleeding and bile leakage. PMID:24782939

  7. Retrospective review of the case of cutaneous anthrax-malignant pustule from 1995 in 15-year old girl.

    PubMed

    Kajfasz, Piotr; Bartoszcze, Michał; Borkowski, Piotr Karol; Basiak, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl was admitted to our Department with cutaneous lesion resembling black eschar. Anamnesis revealed that before getting ill she was wearing pullover made of rough sheep's wool and ornaments made of leather like straps. Cutaneous anthrax was confirmed by identification of B. anthracis in specimens from weeping ulceration, culture from black eschar, thermoprecipitation test, and bioassay on guinea pig. The girl was treated with crystalline Penicillin. She responded well to the therapy and recovered after 28 days. What attracts attention in presented case is the fact that the girl didn't belong to high risk group of human anthrax, which might lead to misdiagnosis. In 1990-1999, Poland there were reported 22 cases of anthrax - it was almost exclusively cutaneous form. In the years following 1999 antrax was reported even less often - in the period 1991-2013 it was recorded a total of 26 cutaneous anthrax cases.

  8. A Logistic Regression Analysis of Turkey's 15-Year-Olds' Scoring above the OECD Average on the PISA'09 Reading Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasapoglu, Koray

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate which factors are associated with Turkey's 15-year-olds' scoring above the OECD average (493) on the PISA'09 reading assessment. Collected from a total of 4,996 15-year-old students from Turkey, data were analyzed by logistic regression analysis in order to model the data of students who were split…

  9. Evaluation Efficacy of Ferrous Sulfate Therapy on Headaches of 5-15 Years Old Iron Deficient Children with Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, R; Zare Bidoki, S; Ordooei, M

    2016-01-01

    Background Some researches have shown the association between iron deficiency and migraine headache in adults. The aim of present study was to evaluate efficacy of ferrous sulfate treatment on migraine headaches of 5-15 years old migraineur children with iron deficiency. Materials and Methods In a quasi- experimental study, monthly frequency, severity, duration and disability of headaches of 5-15 years old migraineur children that prophylactic therapy was indicated in them and had iron deficiency who were referred to Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran between 2013 and 2015 and were treated with 2mg/kg/day topiramate plus 4mg/kg/day of ferrous sulfate for three consecutive months, were evaluated and headache characteristics before and after treatment were compared. Results In this study, 98 children with mean age of 9.72±3.19 were evaluated that 31children (31.6%) had iron deficiency. Monthly frequency (22.89±7.18 vs.14.5±4.56, P= 0.02), severity score (8.12± 1.76 vs. 5.03±1.15, P= 0.02) and disability score of headache (38.23±10.7vs. 30.12±7.46, P= 0.03) were more in children with iron deficiency. Iron therapy was effective in decreasing of monthlyfrequency 22.89± 7.18 vs. 10.13±4.51, P = 0.001), severity score (8.12±1.76 vs. 5.11±1.62, P =0.001), duration (2.14±1.23 vs.1.14±1.01, P= 0.001) and disability score of headache (38.23±10.7 vs. 22.87±8.65, P= 0.01). Conclusion In children, iron deficiency increased monthly frequency, severity and disability of migraine headache and ferrous sulfate can be used as a safe and effective drug in migraine prophylaxis. PMID:27222700

  10. Cerebral venous thrombosis associated with homozygous factor V Leiden mutation in a 15-year-old girl of Tunisian origin.

    PubMed

    Salem-Berrabah, Olfa Ben; Fekih-Mrissa, Nejiba; Laayouni, Samy; Gritli, Nasreddine; Mrissa, Ridha

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare disease. It has numerous and complex etiologies. Inherited or acquired prothrombotic states play a key role in the development of this disease, such as factor V G1691A mutation (FV Leiden). A 15-year-old girl presented to the Department of Neurology with a complaint of severe headache with visual blurring. The diagnosis of CVT was not initially suspected because of the patient's condition on presentation. An MRI showed thrombosis in the superior sagittal sinus, confirming venous stroke. Anticardiolipin and antiphospholipid antibodies were assessed. In addition, inherited prothrombotic defects, such as protein C, protein S, and antithrombin deficiencies, and genetic mutations for FV Leiden, prothrombin gene G20210A (FII G20210A), and methyltetrahydrofolate reductase C677T (MTHFR C677T) were studied. All results were unremarkable except for the unique homozygous FV Leiden mutation, which likely contributed to this prothrombotic situation. This study highlights the fact that FV Leiden may play a significant role in the onset of CVT in young patients. PMID:22048515

  11. Scoliosis screening results of primary school students (11-15 years old group) in the west side of Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Çolak, Tuğba Kuru; Apti, Adnan; Dereli, E Elçin; Özdinçler, Arzu Razak; Çolak, İlker

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to find out the scoliosis prevalence 11-15 years old children and to create awareness about scoliosis. [Subjects and Methods] All of the children were assessed using the Adams Forward Bendings Test and a scoliometer. Sagittal plane changes such as kyphosis, lordosis, hypokyphosis, hypolordosis and anterior head tilt were screened. Children with trunk rotation angles (ATR) of 4 degrees or more were suspected of having scoliosis, and were evaluated for a second time for gibbosity height, arm-trunk distance, and ATR. [Results] A total of 2,207 children were screened and the evaluation revealed there were 11 girls (0.49%) with a Cobb angle of 10 degrees and more. The maximum Cobb angle was 43° (right thoracic-left lumbar) and the maximum ATR was 12°. Two children had kyphosis and lordosis, and one had hypokyphosis and was diagnosed as having idiopathic scoliosis. [Conclusion] Families should regularly check their children, even if they are not diagnosed as having scoliosis in school screenings. It is our opinion that our study increased the awareness of the families about scoliosis by screening, brochures and posters. In the future, if school screenings were performed as a routine procedure and scoliotic students were followed over the long term, the actual effectiveness of screening would be able to be detected. PMID:26504296

  12. Concurrent little leaguer's elbow and shoulder in a 15-year-old baseball pitcher and football quarterback.

    PubMed

    Domes, Christopher M; Petering, Ryan C; Chesnutt, James C; Mirarchi, Adam

    2012-01-16

    Little leaguer's elbow and Little leaguer's shoulder are overuse pathologies seen in overhead-throwing athletes. No instance of simultaneously occurring pathologies has been published. A 15-year-old baseball pitcher and football quarterback developed pain in his throwing shoulder and elbow during spring baseball, which partially resolved with several months of rest. During fall football practice, he felt a pop and pain over his medial throwing elbow. Five days after the initial injury, medial elbow tenderness, mild swelling, and decreased range of motion were noted. Radiographs revealed a Salter I avulsion fracture of the medial humeral epicondyle (Little leaguer's elbow) and a periosteal reaction along the lateral aspect of the humeral metadiaphysis with slight widening (Little leaguer's shoulder). Surgical fixation of the medial epicondyle fracture and nonoperative treatment of the shoulder pathology were performed. Two-year follow-up radiographs showed a healed medial epicondylar fracture and resolution of the periosteal reaction of the humeral metadiaphysis. The patient returned to full activity and was starting quarterback for his football team. Biomechanical forces specific to overhead-throwing activities are associated with the development of Little leaguer's elbow and shoulder. Treatments of both pathologies remain controversial, with either initial operative vs nonoperative care. In this patient, a good outcome was achieved with surgical fixation of the elbow fracture and conservative management of the shoulder pathology. Educating coaches and parents on proper throwing technique and pitching limits should be the first step in reducing the occurrence of either pathology in this population.

  13. Cerebral venous thrombosis associated with homozygous factor V Leiden mutation in a 15-year-old girl of Tunisian origin

    PubMed Central

    Salem-Berrabah, Olfa Ben; Fekih-Mrissa, Nejiba; Laayouni, Samy; Gritli, Nasreddine; Mrissa, Ridha

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare disease. It has numerous and complex etiologies. Inherited or acquired prothrombotic states play a key role in the development of this disease, such as factor V G1691A mutation (FV Leiden). A 15-year-old girl presented to the Department of Neurology with a complaint of severe headache with visual blurring. The diagnosis of CVT was not initially suspected because of the patient's condition on presentation. An MRI showed thrombosis in the superior sagittal sinus, confirming venous stroke. Anticardiolipin and antiphospholipid antibodies were assessed. In addition, inherited prothrombotic defects, such as protein C, protein S, and antithrombin deficiencies, and genetic mutations for FV Leiden, prothrombin gene G20210A (FII G20210A), and methyltetrahydrofolate reductase C677T (MTHFR C677T) were studied. All results were unremarkable except for the unique homozygous FV Leiden mutation, which likely contributed to this prothrombotic situation. This study highlights the fact that FV Leiden may play a significant role in the onset of CVT in young patients. PMID:22048515

  14. Dental caries status and oral health practice among 12-15 year old children in Jorpati, Kathmandu.

    PubMed

    Khanal, S; Acharya, J

    2014-09-01

    Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. There has been a decline in dental caries and periodontal disease in developed countries which can be attributed to the implementation of preventive programmes but in developing countries dental diseases are still on the rise. Therefore this cross sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene practices among 12 to 15 years old children. Self administered close ended questionnaires were used to assess the oral hygiene practice. The overall dental caries prevalence was 58.3% and the mean DMFT score was 1.2 (± 1.79) and the deft score was 0.6 (± 1.24). Majority of the children (84.1%) presented with the practice of brushing their teeth once everyday using tooth brush and toothpaste. Regular dental check up was very poor (5.6%) but 77.4% reported that they visited a dentist in case of pain or presence of stains in the teeth. Females (63.4%) and children studying in higher secondary class (74.2%) showed a "good" level of oral hygiene practice than males and children in secondary class respectively. Children having "good" practice presented with "low" dental caries severity. The utilization of dental services was poor in the children, therefore highlighting the necessity to implement preventive programmes is important which would help in reducing the incidence of the dental caries as well as aiding in prompt treatment of dental caries at its initial stages.

  15. Seroprevalence of hepatitis a and associated factors among 1-15 year old children in Eastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Karaman, Serap; Karaman, Kamuran; Kızılyıldız, Baran Serdar; Ceylan, Nesrin; Kaba, Sultan; Parlak, Mehmet; Beger, Burhan; Ceylan, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis A is a common infectious disease during childhood worldwide. Recently, great deal of changes in the epidemiology has been reported. The seroepidemiologic studies of this infection are not sufficient in Eastern region of Turkey. Objective: To investigate the seroprevalence and association with socio-demographic variables of hepatitis A in 1-15 year old children in Van. Patients and Methods: This study was performed on 510 one to fifteen year old children from outpatient pediatric clinics in Yüzüncü Yıl University, Faculty of Medicine during last three months of 2009. Anti-HAV IgG was measured in sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The information about subjects was recorded on standardized forms and a chart review survey was performed. Results: The overall ratio for seropositivity was 54.9%. Statistical significance was found between hepatitis A seroprevalence and age, collective use of domestic items, fresh water resources, localization and type of toilet and the number of households. Conclusion: This study provided the most recent data of seropositivity and revealed the preliminary indication of epidemiological shift in seroprevalence of Hepatitis A virus in a region with high endemicity. PMID:26770581

  16. Effects of mountain beaver management and thinning on 15-year-old Douglas fir growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Dan L; Engeman, Richard M; Farley, James P

    2015-07-01

    We examined 4-year growth of 15-year-old damaged and undamaged Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzesii) after integrating temporary population reductions of mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) with thinning in a pre-commercial hand-planted plantation in western Washington. Five treatment combinations were considered: (1) trapping mountain beavers in an unthinned area, (2) trapping before thinning to 65 trees/ha (160 trees/ac), (3) no trapping and thinning to 65 trees/ha, (4) no trapping and thinning to 146 trees/ha (360 trees/ac), and (5) no trapping and no thinning. Removal of ≥ 90 % of mountain beavers temporarily reduced mountain beaver activity whether the stand was unthinned or thinned. Diameter growth at breast height (dbh) was greater for undamaged trees than for damaged trees in thinned areas. Tree height growth was greatest in trapped areas whether thinned or not. No differences were detected in 4-year survival between trees damaged aboveground and those without aboveground damage, which may be related to undetected root damage to trees without aboveground damage. Basal diameter growth and dbh growth were greatest for areas thinned to 65 trees/ha. Seventy-eight percent of stomachs from mountain beaver trapped in winter contained Douglas fir root or stem materials. Overall, short-term removal of mountain beavers integrated with pre-commercial thinning promoted growth of crop trees.

  17. Effects of mountain beaver management and thinning on 15-year-old Douglas fir growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Dan L; Engeman, Richard M; Farley, James P

    2015-07-01

    We examined 4-year growth of 15-year-old damaged and undamaged Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzesii) after integrating temporary population reductions of mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) with thinning in a pre-commercial hand-planted plantation in western Washington. Five treatment combinations were considered: (1) trapping mountain beavers in an unthinned area, (2) trapping before thinning to 65 trees/ha (160 trees/ac), (3) no trapping and thinning to 65 trees/ha, (4) no trapping and thinning to 146 trees/ha (360 trees/ac), and (5) no trapping and no thinning. Removal of ≥ 90 % of mountain beavers temporarily reduced mountain beaver activity whether the stand was unthinned or thinned. Diameter growth at breast height (dbh) was greater for undamaged trees than for damaged trees in thinned areas. Tree height growth was greatest in trapped areas whether thinned or not. No differences were detected in 4-year survival between trees damaged aboveground and those without aboveground damage, which may be related to undetected root damage to trees without aboveground damage. Basal diameter growth and dbh growth were greatest for areas thinned to 65 trees/ha. Seventy-eight percent of stomachs from mountain beaver trapped in winter contained Douglas fir root or stem materials. Overall, short-term removal of mountain beavers integrated with pre-commercial thinning promoted growth of crop trees. PMID:25772877

  18. Expressing Communicative Intents in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia; Mizera, Luule; De Geer, Boel

    2004-01-01

    The present article focused on two types of communicative intent (directing behaviour vs. eliciting talk) expressed by mothers and teenagers during everyday family interactions in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mono- and bicultural families. Three monocultural groups consisted of 17 Estonian, 19 Swedish, and 18 Finnish families living in their…

  19. Dental pain among 10–15 year old children attending oral health promoting schools: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Saheer, Abdul; Kousalya, Pallavi Swami; Raju, Rekha; Gubbihal, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Dental pain is a major public health problem and one of the consequences of oral diseases which requires significant adjustments in life management leading to decreased quality of life. Objective: To assess prevalence of dental pain and its impact on daily life and to explore its relationship with oral health behavior and clinical oral status among 10-15 year old school children attending oral health promoting schools. Method: This cross sectional study was conducted in 6 schools serving low -middle socio economic strata in Bangalore, India. A total of 1237 children were surveyed for history of dental pain during past 3 month. Participants who reported dental pain completed self-reported oral health behaviour and Child dental pain questionnaire. Clinical oral examination included assessment of dental caries, periodontal status. Data was analyzed using t - test, Chi-square test, ANOVA and Regression Analysis. Results: Prevalence of dental pain was 15.6% (n = 194). Among children with pain, 17%, 43% and 40% reported mild, moderate and severe pain. Impact on daily activities was reported by 66%. Mean DMFT and DMFS was 1.80 and 2.11 Mean deft and defs was 2.47 and 3.41. Multiple logistic regression revealed that severity and impact of dental pain was associated with gender, frequency of tooth brushing, consumption of sweets and deciduous dental caries experience. Conclusion: Prevalence of Dental pain is associated with brushing behavior, consumption of sweets and deciduous dental caries experience, showing need for further attention to these conditions and a need to strengthen preventive and therapeutic dental services. PMID:26942112

  20. Colonic polyposis in a 15 year-old boy: Challenges and lessons from a rural resource-poor area

    PubMed Central

    Kakembo, Nasser; Kisa, Phyllis; Fitzgerald, Tamara; Ozgediz, Doruk; Sekabira, John

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Colorectal polyps usually present with rectal bleeding and are associated with increased risk of colorectal carcinoma. Evaluation and management in resource-poor areas present unique challenges. Presentation of case This 15 year-old boy presented with 9 years of painless rectal bleeding and 2 years of a prolapsing rectal mass after passing stool. He had 3 nephews with similar symptoms. On clinical assessment and initial exam under anesthesia, an impression of a polyposis syndrome was made and a biopsy taken from the mass that revealed inflammatory polyps with no dysplasia. He was identified during a pediatric surgical outreach to a rural area with no endoscopy, limited surgical services, and no genetic testing available, even at a tertiary center. He subsequently had a three-stage proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis with good outcome after referral to a tertiary care center. The surgical specimen showed many polyps scattered through the colon. Discussion In the absence of endoscopic surveillance and diagnostic services including advanced pathology and genetic testing, colorectal polyposis syndromes are a significant challenge if encountered in these settings. Reports from similar settings have not included this surgical treatment, often opting for partial colectomy. Nonetheless, good outcomes can be achieved even given these constraints. The case also illustrates the complexity of untreated chronic pediatric surgical disease in rural resource-poor areas with limited health care access. Conclusion Polyposis syndromes in children present unique challenges in rural resource-poor settings. Good outcomes can be achieved with total proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anastomosis. PMID:27144002

  1. Effectiveness of Peer Group and Conventional Method (Dentist) of Oral Health Education Programme Among 12-15 year Old School Children - A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Abhishek; Raju, Rekha; Bashyam, Mamtha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral Health Education (OHE) in schools is routinely delivered by the dentist. Another approach which can be cost-effective, easily accessible and equally effective is the trained group of peer students. Aim The objective of the present study was to assess and compare the effectiveness of peer–led and conventional method (dentist-led), OHE on oral health status, oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among 12-15 year old government school children in Bengaluru South Zone-I at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Materials and Methods The study population comprised of 450 subjects, 150 each in peer, dentist and control group. At baseline, a pre-tested 14 item questionnaire was used to assess the existing oral health knowledge, attitude and oral hygiene practices of the subjects. Clinical examination included recording of plaque index and gingival index, by a pre-calibrated examiner. OHE was provided by the peer group and dentist (using power-point presentation, chalk and talk presentation, using charts, posters, booklets and tooth brushing demonstration models). Data was analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Chi-square test. Results Both the peer-led and dentist-led OHE intervention were effective in improving oral health knowledge, attitude, oral hygiene practices and oral health status at three and six months when compared to control group. The adolescents in the peer-led group, however, exhibited statistically better oral health behavior than their counterparts in the dentist-led group and control group. Conclusion The two educator-led strategies (peer group and dentist) had a modest effect on the outcome variables included in the study, the results provide some evidence to show that the peer-led strategy may provide a feasible and almost equally effective alternative to the traditional dentist led strategy of oral health education. PMID:27437345

  2. Assessment of Mandibular Movements in 10 to 15 Year-old Patients With and Without Temporomandibular Disorders.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Silvina G; Biondi, Ana M; Fridman, Diana E; Guitelman, Ingrid; Farah, Catalina L

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference values for mandibular movements in 10- to 15-year-olds without dysfunction and compare these values to those in patients of the same age with tempromandibular disorders (TMD) and those found previously in a group of children younger than 11 years old without TMD. Children of both genders who visited the Department of Comprehensive Pediatric Dentistry at Buenos Aires University in 2013 and whose parents or guardians provided consent were evaluated using TMD/RDC by standardized pediatric dentists (Kappa 0.88). Three groups were formed according to diagnostic summary: Group C, without TMD; Group Ia, with myofascial pain, and Group Ib, pain with limited mouth opening. The following variables were analyzed: age, gender and mandibular movements. The sample included 169 patients aged 12.5±1.76 years, of whom 62.36% did not have TMD (C) while 37.27% were diagnosed with muscle disorder (29.58% Ia and 7.69% Ib). For Group C, the following values (in mm) were recorded: maximal unassisted opening: 48.28±6.14; right lateral movement 8.78±2.50; left lateral movement: 9.60±2.64; protrusion: 4.94±2.58 and overbite: 2.98 ± 2.5, with no variation associated to sex, but with differences in the values recorded for all movements compared to those obtained for mixed dentition (p=0.0001). Analysis of mean values for mandibular movements in all 3 groups only revealed differences for maximal unassisted opening (p= 0.0317). With relation to gender, TMD was more frequent in females, with significant differences between Groups C and Ia (p=0.019). In males without dysfunction, average maximal opening was 48.28±6.14mm, with lower values in patients with TMD. Mandibular movements in pediatric patients without TMD showed significant differences according to dentition type and age.

  3. Assessment of Mandibular Movements in 10 to 15 Year-old Patients With and Without Temporomandibular Disorders.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Silvina G; Biondi, Ana M; Fridman, Diana E; Guitelman, Ingrid; Farah, Catalina L

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference values for mandibular movements in 10- to 15-year-olds without dysfunction and compare these values to those in patients of the same age with tempromandibular disorders (TMD) and those found previously in a group of children younger than 11 years old without TMD. Children of both genders who visited the Department of Comprehensive Pediatric Dentistry at Buenos Aires University in 2013 and whose parents or guardians provided consent were evaluated using TMD/RDC by standardized pediatric dentists (Kappa 0.88). Three groups were formed according to diagnostic summary: Group C, without TMD; Group Ia, with myofascial pain, and Group Ib, pain with limited mouth opening. The following variables were analyzed: age, gender and mandibular movements. The sample included 169 patients aged 12.5±1.76 years, of whom 62.36% did not have TMD (C) while 37.27% were diagnosed with muscle disorder (29.58% Ia and 7.69% Ib). For Group C, the following values (in mm) were recorded: maximal unassisted opening: 48.28±6.14; right lateral movement 8.78±2.50; left lateral movement: 9.60±2.64; protrusion: 4.94±2.58 and overbite: 2.98 ± 2.5, with no variation associated to sex, but with differences in the values recorded for all movements compared to those obtained for mixed dentition (p=0.0001). Analysis of mean values for mandibular movements in all 3 groups only revealed differences for maximal unassisted opening (p= 0.0317). With relation to gender, TMD was more frequent in females, with significant differences between Groups C and Ia (p=0.019). In males without dysfunction, average maximal opening was 48.28±6.14mm, with lower values in patients with TMD. Mandibular movements in pediatric patients without TMD showed significant differences according to dentition type and age. PMID:27095624

  4. Trisomy rescue mechanism: the case of concomitant mosaic trisomy 14 and maternal uniparental disomy 14 in a 15-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Balbeur, Samuel; Grisart, Bernard; Parmentier, Benoit; Sartenaer, Daniel; Leonard, Pierre-Emmanuel; Ullmann, Urielle; Boulanger, Sébastien; Leroy, Luc; Ngendahayo, Placide; Lungu-Silviu, Constantin; Lysy, Philippe; Maystadt, Isabelle

    2016-03-01

    Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 (upd(14)mat) is responsible for a Prader-Willi-like syndrome with precocious puberty. Although upd(14) is often hypothesized to result from trisomy rescue mechanism, T14 cell lines are usually not found with postnatal cytogenetic investigations. We report the coexistence of both chromosomal abnormalities in a 15-year-old girl. PMID:27014449

  5. Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run and Body Mass Index among an Ethnically Diverse Sample of 10-15-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the cardiovascular fitness (CVF, Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run [PACER], number of laps completed) and the prevalence of at risk of overweight (AR) and overweight (OW) among 10-15-year-olds (48% girls) from the following ethnic backgrounds: African American (n = 2,604), Asian-Pacific Islander (n = 3,888),…

  6. Family- and School-Related Factors in 9- to 15-Year-Olds Predicting Educational Attainment in Adulthood: A Prospective 27-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Merjonen, Paivi; Leino, Mare; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This prospective longitudinal study examined several selected family- and school-related factors simultaneously in order to investigate the importance of well known and less examined predictors of educational attainment. Method: The participants were 844 (486 girls) nine-, 12-, and 15-years old comprehensive school students. Family-…

  7. Diversity of bacterial endophytes in 3 and 15 year-old grapevines of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina and their potential for plant growth promotion and phytopathogen control.

    PubMed

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Angelini, Elisa; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    This study represents the first investigation on ecology of endophytic bacteria isolated from 3 and 15 year-old vine stems of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina. The analysis was performed by means of culture-dependent techniques. The obtained results showed that new grapevine endophytic genera are being discovered. Moreover, Bacilli and Actinobacteria are frequently isolated from 3 year-old plants, whereas Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria classes are more prevalent in the 15 year-old plants. Shannon-Wiener (H) index and analysis of rarefaction curves revealed greater genus richness in young grapevine plants. Furthermore, results evidenced an increase of genotypic group number within specific genera (e.g., Rhizobium and Pantoea). Among isolated strains from 3 and 15 year-old stems, respectively, 34 and 39% produce siderophores; 22 and 15% secrete ammonia; 22 and 21% produce indole-3-acetic acid; 8.7 and 41% solubilize phosphate. Besides, two strains isolated from 15 year-old grapevines showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. Antifungal activity analysis evidenced that two Bacillus strains possess growth antagonistic effect toward all the tested fungal strains. Therefore, the present study extends our knowledge of the diversity of the endophytic bacteria by providing new insights into the complexity of the grapevine microbiome.

  8. Equity in the Turkish Education System: A Multilevel Analysis of Social Background Influences on the Mathematics Performance of 15-Year-Old Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özdemir, Caner

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to discover the level of equity in the Turkish education system using maths outcomes of 15-year-old students in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) exam. In order to do that, associations between various social background variables and student performance are analysed via multilevel models. Female pupils,…

  9. Assessing Outgroup Prejudice among 13-15-Year-Old Students Attending Catholic and Protestant Secondary Schools in Northern Ireland: An Empirical Enquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Village, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Northern Ireland has been and remains a religiously divided community. This study sets out to examine outgroup prejudice among a sample of 1799 13-15-year-old students attending Catholic or Protestant schools and employs both bivariate analyses and hierarchical modelling to chart the associations between outgroup prejudice and personal factors…

  10. Do Migrant Girls Perform Better than Migrant Boys? Deviant Gender Differences between the Reading Scores of 15-Year-Old Children of Migrants Compared to Native Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronkers, Jaap; Kornder, Nils

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the gender differences between the educational performance of 15-year-old children of migrants from specific regions of origin countries living in different destination countries with the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 wave. We study whether this gender difference of migrant pupils deviates…

  11. University-School Partnerships: Polymer Chemistry Days Run at a University for 14-15 Year Olds and Their Impact on Attitudes to Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, A. J.; Harrison, T. G.; Medley, M. I.; Sellou, L.; Shallcross, K. L.; Croker, S. J.; Williams, S. J.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2010-01-01

    Polymer Chemistry days run by Bristol ChemLabS at the School of Chemistry, University of Bristol for year 10 (14-15 year olds) school students are described. Pre and post questionnaires were analysed to determine the impact on attitudes to science. There was no change in attitudes to the importance of science or practical work in science, but…

  12. Diversity of bacterial endophytes in 3 and 15 year-old grapevines of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina and their potential for plant growth promotion and phytopathogen control.

    PubMed

    Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Angelini, Elisa; Vallini, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    This study represents the first investigation on ecology of endophytic bacteria isolated from 3 and 15 year-old vine stems of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina. The analysis was performed by means of culture-dependent techniques. The obtained results showed that new grapevine endophytic genera are being discovered. Moreover, Bacilli and Actinobacteria are frequently isolated from 3 year-old plants, whereas Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria classes are more prevalent in the 15 year-old plants. Shannon-Wiener (H) index and analysis of rarefaction curves revealed greater genus richness in young grapevine plants. Furthermore, results evidenced an increase of genotypic group number within specific genera (e.g., Rhizobium and Pantoea). Among isolated strains from 3 and 15 year-old stems, respectively, 34 and 39% produce siderophores; 22 and 15% secrete ammonia; 22 and 21% produce indole-3-acetic acid; 8.7 and 41% solubilize phosphate. Besides, two strains isolated from 15 year-old grapevines showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. Antifungal activity analysis evidenced that two Bacillus strains possess growth antagonistic effect toward all the tested fungal strains. Therefore, the present study extends our knowledge of the diversity of the endophytic bacteria by providing new insights into the complexity of the grapevine microbiome. PMID:26805617

  13. [Sex education : representations of 13- to 15-year-old junior high school children and slow learners].

    PubMed

    Berger, Dominique; Rochigneux, Jean-Claude; Bernard, Sandie; Morand, Josette; Mougniotte, Alain

    2015-01-01

    In France, the National Education system has attributed an important health and sex education role to its teachers, based on a global and positive vision of sexuality Parents, teachers, public services and specialized resources each have a role to play in sex education for children and adolescents so that each young person can receive an education allowing him or her to enjoy a healthy sexuality. This study investigated the individual representations of sexuality, declared practices and knowledge of junior high schoolchildren and Section d'Enseignement G6n6ral et Professionnel Adapt6 (SEGPA) students, a structure for children with serious learning difficulties. The study methodology was based on administration of questionnaires (n = 524) to the two cohorts concerned. The secondary objective was to compare these two populations and identify the specificities of SEGPA pupils. The conclusions of this study should allow adults in charge of sex education in junior high schools and SEGPA to adapt sex education tools.

  14. Non-sclerotic bone involvement in Erdheim-Chester: PET/CT and MRI findings in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    White, Theresa V; Silvester, Nicholas C; Otero, Hansel J

    2016-08-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare form of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis with multi-organ infiltration that occurs mainly in adults. Pediatric cases are extremely rare. Here we report a case of multisystemic Erdheim-Chester disease in a 15-year-old boy with central nervous system involvement and skeletal findings. Positron emission tomography (PET) and MRI were used to demonstrate characteristic bilateral, symmetrical medullary involvement of the metadiaphyses of long bones in the absence of the classic sclerotic radiographic appearance. This illustrates the potential for earlier diagnosis and visualization of therapeutic response in children.

  15. Non-sclerotic bone involvement in Erdheim-Chester: PET/CT and MRI findings in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    White, Theresa V; Silvester, Nicholas C; Otero, Hansel J

    2016-08-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease is a rare form of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis with multi-organ infiltration that occurs mainly in adults. Pediatric cases are extremely rare. Here we report a case of multisystemic Erdheim-Chester disease in a 15-year-old boy with central nervous system involvement and skeletal findings. Positron emission tomography (PET) and MRI were used to demonstrate characteristic bilateral, symmetrical medullary involvement of the metadiaphyses of long bones in the absence of the classic sclerotic radiographic appearance. This illustrates the potential for earlier diagnosis and visualization of therapeutic response in children. PMID:27028532

  16. Oral health status and treatment needs among 12- and 15-year-old government and private school children in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Shailee, Fotedar; Girish, M. Sogi; Kapil, R. Sharma; Nidhi, Pruthi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the dental caries, periodontal health, and malocclusion of school children aged 12 and 15 years in Shimla city and to compare them in government and private schools. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 12- and 15-year-old children in government and private schools was conducted in Shimla city, Himachal Pradesh, India. A sample of 1011 school children (both males and females) was selected by a two-stage cluster sampling method. Clinical recordings of dental caries and malocclusion were done according to World Health Organization diagnostic criteria 1997. Periodontal health was assessed by Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs index. The data collected was analyzed by SPSS package 13. The statistical tests used were t-test and Chi-square tests. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 32.6% and 42.2% at 12 and 15 years, respectively. At the12 years of age, the mean decayed, missing, filled teeth was 0.62 ± 1.42 and it was 1.06 ± 2.93 at 15 years of age. Females had higher level of caries than males at both the ages. At both ages, mean of decayed teeth was statistically higher in government schools as compared with private schools. Children in government schools had significantly less number of mean filled teeth at both ages as compared with private schools. The healthy component of gingiva was present in higher percentage of children in private schools as compared with government schools at both the age groups. The prevalence of malocclusion among the 12- year-old (58.1%) was more as compared with that among the 15-year-old (53.5%). Conclusion: The caries experience of 12- and 15-year-old children was low but the prevalence of gingivitis and malocclusion was quite high. Effective oral health promotion strategies need to be implemented to improve the oral health of school children further in Shimla city. PMID:24478980

  17. A 15-year-old boy with abdominal pain, growth retardation, and anemia secondary to Helicobacter pylori-associated peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Andrianov, Melissa; Rivera, Edgardo; Azzam, Ruba

    2015-03-01

    A 15-year-old boy with abdominal pain, growth retardation, and symptomatic anemia requiring blood transfusion was seen by a gastroenterologist and found to have a large ulcerated, fungating, and actively bleeding mass in his stomach. Initially, the patient was screened for Helicobacter pylori and found to be negative, so there was concern for malignancy after multiple endoscopic procedures. The patient did not respond to initial ulcer treatment and immediately prior to scheduled partial gastrectomy, additional tissue sections from the initial biopsy were stained for H. pylori and rare positive staining organisms were found. The test was positive, and the patient was started empirically on treatment to which he responded and ultimately recovered fully. Gastrectomy was not performed, and following treatment, the ulcer, anemia, and poor growth resolved.

  18. [Venous sinus thrombosis which occurred during treatment of a 15-years old girl with t cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma - case report].

    PubMed

    Maloney, Eliza; Ociepa, Tomasz; Kamieńska, Elzbieta; Zielezińska, Karolina; Richter, Błazej; Urasiński, Tomasz

    2008-01-01

    Venous thrombosis (VT) is a rare condition in childhood, being usually associated with congenital predisposition or acquired risk factors. The incidence of VT among children with cancer is between 1 and 36%. The highest incidence is among children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, followed by those with lymphoma and solid tumours. Malignancy and/or chemotherapy complications are considered as triggering factors. We report a case of a 15-year-old girl with non-Hodgkin lymphoma who developed generalized seizures during chemotherapy. Head computed tomography revealed right transverse and sagittal sinus thrombosis. Anticoagulation treatment using heparin as well as thrombolytic treatment with recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator (rhtPA) were introduced. The immediate application of rhtPA resulted in recanalisation of initially involved vessels which led to recovery with no neurological deficits. The reported case of severe venous thrombosis suggests that systemic treatment with rhtPA is effective and safe in children with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.

  19. Spontaneous rupture of an aneurysm of the right subclavian artery as a first presentation of Ehlers Danlos syndrome in a 15-year old boy.

    PubMed

    Verbert, A; Verbist, J; Peeters, P; Deferm, H; Haenen, L

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a spontaneous rupture of a right subclavian aneurysm in a 15 year-old patient. This ruptured aneurysm was successfully treated in an endovascular manner by placing a covered stent-graft in the right subclavian artery via right brachial access. Subsequent work-up by skin biopsy and fibroblast culture and by DNA-screening revealed the diagnosis of Ehlers Danlos type IV. Meanwhile, the patient developed twice a spontaneous pneumothorax, treated with thoracoscopic pleurodesis. This article provides a clear overview of the clinical and genetic characteristics of a case of Ehlers Danlos type IV and illustrates the importance of avoiding surgery in patients with connective tissue disease because of the high risk of perioperative complications.

  20. Occipital Condyle Fracture with Accompanying Meningeal Spinal Cysts as a result of Cervical Spine Injury in 15-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Wiktor, Łukasz; Tomaszewski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    The occipital condyle fracture is rare injury of the craniocervical junction. Meningeal spinal cysts are rare tumors of the spinal cord. Depending on location, these lesions may be classified as extradural and subdural, but extradural spinal cysts are more common. We present the case of a 15-year-old girl who suffered from avulsion occipital condyle fracture treated with use of "halo-vest" system. We established that clinical effect after completed treatment is very good. Control MRI evaluation was performed 12 months after removal of "halo-vest" traction, and clinically silent extradural meningeal spinal cysts were detected at the ventral side of the spinal cord in the cervical segment of the spine. Due to clinically silent course of the disease, we decided to use the conservative treatment. The patient remains under control of our department. PMID:26543656

  1. Sudden death of a 15-year-old girl due to fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus-diabetic ketoacidosis induced cerebral edema?

    PubMed

    Dong, Hongmei; Liu, Liang; Zhou, Yiwu; Mu, Jiao; Zhang, Ji

    2014-08-01

    Sudden death from fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus is uncommon in forensic practice. Here we report the sudden death of a 15-year-old girl who presented with vomiting, fever and abdominal pain and died unexpectedly. Postmortem examination showed severe pancreatic islet destruction, cerebral edema and lipid vacuolization of the epithelium of the renal proximal tubules and liver cells. The biochemical analysis in reserved heart blood and vitreous fluid indicated the elevated levels of glucose and ketone bodies and lower glycosylated hemoglobin and C-peptide. The cause of death was attributed to fulminant type 1 diabetes mellitus which led to diabetic ketoacidosis-associated cerebral edema. This report suggested that the histological examination of the pancreas, liver and kidney, insulin immunohistochemistry, as well as biochemical analysis could be useful for the diagnosis of diabetes related death.

  2. “Whisking of ugly tissue”… A surgical management of gingival fibromatosis in a 15-year-old girl: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Siddeshappa, Srinivasa Tenkasale; Deonani, Sushmita; Nagdeve, Sonika; Yeltiwar, Ramreddy Krishnarao

    2015-01-01

    Gingival fibromatosis is a condition characterized by a slow, progressive increase in the gingival tissue that develops as either an isolated disorder or as part of the clinical characteristics of diverse syndrome. The present case report describes a rare case of gingival fibromatosis and its management using scalpel in combination with electrosurgery. A 15-year-old girl patient presented with a chief complaint of gingival overgrowth covering all the surfaces upper and lower teeth. The growth was excised with periodontal knife in combination with electrosurgery under local anesthesia. After 1-year of follow-up, healing was uneventful with no recurrence. Combined technique for the removal of gingival overgrowth represents a unique treatment approach where minimal postoperative bleeding and discomfort were observed. PMID:26097363

  3. Occurrence of dental caries in primary and permanent dentition, oral health status and treatment needs among 12-15 year old school children of Jorpati VDC, Kathmandu.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, N; Acharya, J; Sagtani, A R; Shrestha, R; Shrestha, S

    2014-12-01

    Dental caries occurrence, distribution, oral health status and corresponding treatment needs in 12 - 15 year old children are useful tools for evaluation of oral health. Dental caries status along with its treatment needs was recorded according to World Health Organization (WHO) index (1997) in 366 children from five schools within Jorpati Village Development Committee (VDC), Kathmandu. Dental caries was diagnosed in 156 (42.6%) children, out of which 122 (78.21%) had caries in permanent teeth, 26 (16.67%) had caries in primary teeth, and 8 (5.13%) had caries in both dentition. The age wise distribution of dental caries showed the highest prevalence among 12 year old students (23.8%) and the lowest among 15 year olds (3.8%). Among the female students (177), 43.5% showed presence of dental caries, while the prevalence among male students (179) was 41.8%.Out of the total number of teeth affected by dental caries (336), 273 (81.25%) were permanent teeth and 63 (18.75%) were primary teeth. The intra arch distribution of dental caries in permanent as well as primary dentition was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Restorative treatment (89.38%) was the main need in permanent dentition, and endodontic treatment (60.32%) in primary dentition. Chronologic enamel hypoplasia was found in 14 (3.83%) of the total population, and 62 (16.94%) required oral prophylaxis. These findings are significant as they can initiate further research in this area, which may help establish reliable baseline data for implementation of preventive oral health programs.

  4. Risk factors for acute and overuse sport injuries in Swedish children 11 to 15 years old: What about resistance training with weights?

    PubMed

    Boström, A; Thulin, K; Fredriksson, M; Reese, D; Rockborn, P; Hammar, M L

    2016-03-01

    To determine the 1-year self-reported incidence of overuse and traumatic sport injuries and risk factors for injuries in children participating in a summer sports camp representing seven different sports. 4363 children, 11 to 15 years old participating in a summer camp in seven different sports answered a questionnaire. Injury in this cross-sectional study was defined as a sport-related trauma or overload leading to pain and dysfunction preventing the person from participation in training or competition for at least 1 week. A number of risk factors for injury were investigated such as sex, age, number of hours spent on training in general, and on resistance training with weights. Nearly half [49%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 48-51%] of the participants had been injured as a result of participation in a sport during the preceding year, significantly more boys than girls (53%, 95% CI 50-55% vs 46%, 95% CI 43-48%; P < 0.001). Three factors contributed to increased incidence of sport injuries: age, sex, and resistance training with weights. Time spent on resistance training with weights was significantly associated with sport injuries in a logistic regression analysis. In children age 11 to 15 years, the risk of having a sport-related injury increased with age and occurred more often in boys than in girls. Weight training was the only modifiable risk factor that contributed to a significant increase in the incidence of sport injuries.

  5. "Apraxic dysgraphia" in a 15-year-old left-handed patient: disruption of the cerebello-cerebral network involved in the planning and execution of graphomotor movements.

    PubMed

    Mariën, Peter; de Smet, Eric; de Smet, Hyo Jung; Wackenier, Peggy; Dobbeleir, Andre; Verhoeven, Jo

    2013-02-01

    Apraxic agraphia is a peripheral writing disorder caused by neurological damage. It induces a lack or loss of access to the motor engrams that plan and programme the graphomotor movements necessary to produce written output. The neural network subserving handwriting includes the superior parietal region, the dorsolateral and medial premotor cortex and the thalamus of the dominant hemisphere. Recent studies indicate that the cerebellum may be involved as well. To the best of our knowledge, apraxic agraphia has not been described on a developmental basis. This paper reports the clinical, neurocognitive and (functional) neuroimaging findings of a 15-year-old left-handed patient with an isolated, non-progressive developmental handwriting disorder consistent with a diagnosis of "apraxic dysgraphia". Gross motor coordination problems were objectified as well but no signs of cerebellar, sensorimotor or extrapyramidal dysfunction of the writing limb were found to explain the apraxic phenomena. Brain MRI revealed no supra- and infratentorial damage but quantified Tc-99m-ECD SPECT disclosed decreased perfusion in the anatomoclinically suspected prefrontal and cerebellar brain regions crucially involved in the planning and execution of skilled motor actions. This pattern of functional depression seems to support the hypothesis that "apraxic dysgraphia" might reflect incomplete maturation of the cerebello-cerebral network involved in handwriting. In addition, it is hypothesized that "apraxic dysgraphia" may have to be considered to represent a distinct nosological category within the group of the developmental dyspraxias following dysfunction of the cerebello-cerebral network involved in planned actions.

  6. Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with overweight in a representative sample of 11-15 year olds in France: Results from the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight in children and adolescents is high and overweight is associated with poor health outcomes over short- and long-term. Lifestyle factors can interact to influence overweight. Comprehensive studies linking overweight concomitantly with several demographic and potentially-modifiable lifestyle factors and health-risk behaviours are limited in adolescents - an age-group characterized by changes in lifestyle behaviours and high prevalence of overweight. Thus, the objective of the current study was to examine the association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle variables simultaneously in a representative sample of adolescents. Methods A nationally representative sample of 11-15 year-olds (n = 7154) in France participated as part of the WHO-Collaborative Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Students reported data on their age, height, weight, socio-demographic variables, lifestyle factors including nutrition practices, physical activity at two levels of intensity (moderate and vigorous), sedentary behaviours, as well as smoking and alcohol consumption patterns using standardized HBSC protocols. Overweight (including obesity) was defined using the IOTF reference. The multivariate association of overweight with several socio-demographic and lifestyle factors was examined with logistic regression models. Results The adjusted odds ratios for the association with overweight were: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.37-2.36) for low family affluence; 0.73 (0.60-0.88) for eating breakfast daily; 0.69 (0.56-0.84) for moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA); and 0.71 (0.59-0.86) for vigorous physical activity (VPA). Significant interactions between age and gender as well as television (TV) viewing and gender were noted: for boys, overweight was not associated with age or TV viewing; in contrast, for girls overweight correlated negatively with age and positively with TV viewing. Fruit and vegetable intake, computer

  7. Oral Health Status among 12- and 15-Year-Old Children from Government and Private Schools in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Sukhabogi, JR; Shekar, CBR; Hameed, IA; Ramana, IV; Sandhu, G

    2014-01-01

    Background: The assessment of oral health status of children in government and private schools provide data on the oral health status of children from different socio-economic background. Aim: The aim of the following study is to assess and to compare the oral hygiene status, gingival status and caries experience between children from government and private schools in Andhra Pradesh, India. Subjects and Methods: A combination of cluster and stratified random sampling was employed to select the study participants. Oral hygiene status, gingival status and caries experience was assessed and compared among 12- and 15-year-old children from three government and private schools each. The examination was carried out by three trained and calibrated investigators using a mouth mirror and explorer under natural daylight. Results: A total of 604 children (331 government and 273 private) were examined in the study. The mean oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) was higher among government school children (2.9 [1.1]) compared private school children (0.6 [0.4]). The mean gingival score and mean decayed missing filled teeth were also higher among government school children compared with private school children. A significantly higher number of children in the government schools had poor oral hygiene status, moderate to severe gingivitis and caries experience. Conclusion: The prevalence of oral diseases was relatively less among children from private schools in comparison with those from government schools. Hence, the children from government schools should be given the priority compared with private school children in any school dental health programs planned on a statewide basis. PMID:25364601

  8. Prevalence of underweight, overweight, general and central obesity among 8-15-years old Bulgarian children and adolescents (Smolyan region, 2012-2014).

    PubMed

    Mladenova, Silviya; Andreenko, Emiliya

    2015-06-01

    Objetivo: el objetivo de este trabajo es investigar la distribucion de peso insuficiente, demasiado pesado, la obesidad general y central en 8 ninos bulgaros de 15 anos y adolescentes, a traves del uso de los indices antropometricos BMI y WHtR. Materiales y métodos: el objeto de este estudio son 878 ninos y adolescentes (437 ninos y 441 ninas) de la region de Smolyan, Bulgaria, con edades de 8 a 15 anos. El estudio es transversal y se llevo a cabo en el periodo 2012- 2014. Se miden la altura, el peso y la circunferencia de la cintura, asi como el indice de masa corporal. El sobrepeso y la obesidad se definen de acuerdo con los puntos de corte de BMI, recomendado por la IOTF y desarrollado por Cole et al. (2000:2007). La obesidad central fue definida de acuerdo con los valores discriminatorios de 0,500 de WHtR. Los datos obtenidos fueron analizados por los paquetes de software estadistico STATISTICA 10.0 y SPSS 16. Resultados: el sobrepeso se produce entre el 18,8% de los chicos y el 17,0% de las ninas, y la obesidad entre el 7,6% de los varones y el 3,7% de las chicas. Presentan bajo peso el 8,0% de los chicos y el 10,4% de las chicas. La obesidad central (RCEst ≥ 0.500) se produce en promedio, en el 12,75% de todos los ninos investigados, independientemente de su estado nutricional (16,2% de los varones y el 9,3% de las chicas). Presentan obesidad central (RCEst ≥ 0.500), en promedio, el 2,7% de todos los ninos y ninas con peso normal (n = 96) y un promedio 46,82% de todos los participantes con sobrepeso y con obesidad (n = 205). Con el aumento de riesgo para la salud (RCEst ≥ 0.500) son total de 2,01% (n = 16) de todos los ninos encuestados (n = 793) de las categorias de peso normal. Conclusión: se ha producido un aumento de la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en ninos y adolescentes bulgaros de la region de Smolyan durante mas de una decada. El porcentaje de insuficiencia ponderal entre los ninos, es relativamente alto especialmente entre el grupo de las ninas despues de la pubertad. La obesidad central, asi como su combinacion con el sobrepeso o la obesidad, es mas frecuente en ninos que en ninas.

  9. INFLUENCE OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS, FEEDING AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF 8-15-YEAR-OLD BULGARIAN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS: PRELIMINARY RESULTS.

    PubMed

    Mladenova, Silviya; Andreenko, Emiliya

    2015-12-01

    Objetivo: estudiar el papel de algunos factores socioeconómicos y demográficos, la alimentación y la actividad física en la prevalencia del sobrepeso, la obesidad y la insuficiencia ponderal entre los niños y adolescentes búlgaros. Material y métodos: en la muestra de esta investigación se incluyeron 881 niños y adolescentes de ambos sexos, con edades comprendidas entre 8 y 15 años, que se midieron de forma transversal en el período 2012 - 2014 en las ocho escuelas del gobierno en la región de Smolyan, Bulgaria. De cada niño se midieron la altura y el peso, y se calculó el índice de masa corporal (IMC). La evaluación del estado nutricional se realizó utilizando los puntos de corte del IMC internacional para niños y adolescentes. Mediante el cuestionario se recogió información sobre el nivel educativo de los padres, el número de hijos en la familia, lugar de residencia, nutrición y hábitos de alimentación y actividad física de los niños y adolescentes. Los datos fueron analizados por el software Statistica 10.0. Resultados: existe una relación positiva significativa entre el factor “comer en exceso” y los valores de IMC para ambos sexos, y una relación negativa entre el factor de “frecuencia de comidas” y el IMC para los varones (p < 0,05). Los valores significativamente más altos de IMC se observan entre los niños que comen en exceso en comparación con sus pares, que comen cantidades normales o pequeñas de alimentos (p < 0,05). La obesidad es significativamente más frecuente entre los niños, que comen una o dos veces al día, en comparación con aquellos que tienen tres o más comidas al día (p < 0,05). Conclusión: los resultados preliminares de nuestra investigación muestran que los principales determinantes del sobrepeso, la obesidad y la insuficiencia ponderal entre los niños y adolescentes búlgaros estudiados son los factores relacionados con la alimentación y la conducta alimentaria, en particular “el comer en exceso” para ambos sexos y la “frecuencia de las comidas” para los niños. Falta la influencia distintiva de factores como el nivel de educación de los padres; el lugar de residencia, ciudad o pueblo; el régimen de alimentación diaria y la actividad física sobre el IMC y el estado nutricional de los niños y adolescentes búlgaros investigados.

  10. The Relationship between Denominational Affiliation and Spiritual Health among Weekly-Churchgoing 13- to 15-year-old Adolescents in England and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy

    2008-01-01

    This paper draws on John Fisher's formative definition of spiritual health as comprising good relationships within four domains (the personal, the communal, the environmental and the transcendental) and uses the operationalization of these constructs proposed by Francis and Robbins (2005). Comparisons are made between the responses of five groups…

  11. The Spiritual Revolution and Suicidal Ideation: An Empirical Enquiry among 13- to 15-Year-Old Adolescents in England and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J.

    2009-01-01

    The association between conventional religiosity and suicide inhibition has been well explored and documented since the pioneering work of Durkheim. Commentators like Heelas and Woodhead point to ways in which conventional religiosity is giving way in England and Wales to a range of alternative spiritualities, including renewed interest in…

  12. Parenting 911: How To Safeguard and Rescue Your 10- to 15-Year-Old from Substance Abuse, Depression, Sexual Encounters, Violence, Failure in School, Danger on the Internet, and Other Risky Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giannetti, Charlene C.; Sagarese, Margaret

    Drawing on a national survey of parents, teachers, and students, interviews with a wide range of experts, and the latest research, this book brings parents the information and reassurance they need to identify and handle the crises that can erupt with 10- to 15-year-olds. Specific information and advice are presented for handling some of the most…

  13. Performance of U.S. 15-Year-Old Students in Mathematics, Science, and Reading Literacy in an International Context. First Look at PISA 2012. NCES 2014-024

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Dana; Nord, Christine Winquist; Jenkins, Frank; Chan, Jessica Ying; Kastberg, David

    2013-01-01

    The Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a system of international assessments that allows countries to compare outcomes of learning as students near the end of compulsory schooling. PISA core assessments measure the performance of 15-year-old students in mathematics, science, and reading literacy every 3 years. Coordinated by…

  14. Family structure and breakfast consumption of 11-15 year old boys and girls in Scotland, 1994-2010: a repeated cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The benefits of breakfast during childhood and adolescence have been reported previously though few studies have considered family structure inequalities in breakfast consumption. The proportion of young people living in non-traditional family types has increased in recent years, strengthening the need to describe and monitor the impact of the changing family unit on adolescent breakfast consumption. This study aimed to describe changes in daily breakfast consumption among adolescents in Scotland between 1994 and 2010, while also considering family structure inequalities, and the degree to which these have changed over time. Methods Data from the 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006 and 2010 Scottish Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys were analysed using logistic multilevel regression models for binary outcome variable daily breakfast consumption. Results Daily breakfast consumption among adolescents increased between 1994 and 2010, although there were differences by age and sex. In fact those aged over 14.5 years saw decreases in breakfast consumption, and girls saw significantly larger increases than boys. Daily breakfast consumption was more prevalent among adolescents from 'both parent' families, with lowest prevalence among those from single parent families. Trends in daily breakfast consumption between 1994 and 2010 also varied by family structure. While prevalence of daily breakfast consumption increased among those living with 'both parents', the largest proportion of the population, prevalence decreased over time among adolescents of single parent families, and particularly among those living with their father. Conclusions Family structure inequalities in daily breakfast consumption increased between 1994 and 2010, while breakfast consumption across the population as a whole increased. As the proportion of young people living in an alternative family structure continues to grow it is important to understand why these inequalities have

  15. A Survey of Psychological, Motivational, Family and Perceptions of Physics Education Factors that Explain 15-Year-Old Students' Aspirations to Study Physics in Post-Compulsory English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors that influence 15-year-old students' intentions to study physics post-16, when it is no longer compulsory. The analysis is based on the year 10 (age, 15 years) responses of 5,034 students from 137 England schools as learners of physics during the academic year 2008-2009. Factor analyses uncovered a range of…

  16. Online Estonian Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teral, Maarika; Rammo, Sirje

    2014-01-01

    This presentation focuses on computer-assisted learning of Estonian, one of the lesser taught European languages belonging to the Finno-Ugric language family. Impulses for this paper came from Estonian courses that started in the University of Tartu in 2010, 2011 and 2012. In all the courses the students gain introductory knowledge of Estonian and…

  17. OVERWEIGHT, OBESITY AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG 13-15 YEARS OLD STUDENTS IN THE ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS MEMBER COUNTRIES, 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess overweight or obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries. The analysis included 30,284 school children 13-15 years of age from seven ASEAN members participating in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The overall prevalence of overweight or obesity across seven ASEAN countries (excluding Brunei) was 9.9%, significantly higher in boys (11.5%) than in girls (8.3%). Among eight ASEAN countries, the highest prevalence of overweight or obesity was in Brunei Darus-salam (36.1%), followed by Malaysia (23.7%), and the lowest was in Myanmar (3.4%) and Cambodia (3.7%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that younger age, coming from an upper middle country, never been hungry, and not walking or biking to school were associated with overweight or obesity. In addition, among boys, having three or more servings of vegetables per day and having no close friends, and among girls, having fast foods two or more times per week, been victims of bullying and having peer support were additional factors associated with overweight or obesity. Increased strategies utilizing a number of the risk factors identified are needed to prevent and treat overweight or obesity in adolescents in ASEAN member countries. PMID:27244964

  18. OVERWEIGHT, OBESITY AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS AMONG 13-15 YEARS OLD STUDENTS IN THE ASSOCIATION OF SOUTHEAST ASIAN NATIONS MEMBER COUNTRIES, 2007-2014.

    PubMed

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess overweight or obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries. The analysis included 30,284 school children 13-15 years of age from seven ASEAN members participating in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The overall prevalence of overweight or obesity across seven ASEAN countries (excluding Brunei) was 9.9%, significantly higher in boys (11.5%) than in girls (8.3%). Among eight ASEAN countries, the highest prevalence of overweight or obesity was in Brunei Darus-salam (36.1%), followed by Malaysia (23.7%), and the lowest was in Myanmar (3.4%) and Cambodia (3.7%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that younger age, coming from an upper middle country, never been hungry, and not walking or biking to school were associated with overweight or obesity. In addition, among boys, having three or more servings of vegetables per day and having no close friends, and among girls, having fast foods two or more times per week, been victims of bullying and having peer support were additional factors associated with overweight or obesity. Increased strategies utilizing a number of the risk factors identified are needed to prevent and treat overweight or obesity in adolescents in ASEAN member countries.

  19. Fruit and vegetable intake is associated with frequency of breakfast, lunch and evening meal: cross-sectional study of 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Frequency of eating breakfast, lunch and evening meal as a determinant of fruit and vegetable intake among young people is little studied. We investigated whether irregular meal consumption was associated with fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents. We used separate analyses, and special emphasis was on the potentially modifying effect of sex and age. Methods Data were from the Danish contribution to the international collaborative Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC) in 2002. We used a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional design to study schoolchildren aged 11, 13 and 15 years (n = 3913) selected from a random sample of schools in Denmark. Fruit intake and vegetable intake were measured by a food frequency questionnaire and analyses were conducted using multivariate logistic regression. Results Overall, statistically significant associations were found between irregular breakfast, lunch and evening meal consumption and low frequency of fruit intake and vegetable intake (breakfast: fruit OR = 1.42, vegetables OR = 1.48; lunch: fruit OR = 1.68, vegetables OR = 1.83; evening meal: vegetables OR = 1.70). No association was found for irregular evening meal consumption and low frequency of fruit intake. Analyses stratified by sex showed that the associations between irregular breakfast consumption and both fruit and vegetable intake remained statistically significant only among girls. When analyses were stratified by both sex and age, different patterns appeared. Overall, skipping meals seemed to be a less serious risk factor for low frequency of fruit and vegetable intake among younger participants compared with those who were older. This was especially evident for skipping breakfast. The same tendency was also seen for skipping lunch and evening meal, although the age pattern varied between boys and girls and between fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusion Our results showed that irregular breakfast, lunch and evening meal consumption

  20. Knowledge and Attitude Towards Tobacco Smoking among 13-15 Year-Old School Children in Viet Nam - Findings from GYTS 2014.

    PubMed

    Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Kien, Nguyen Trung; Giang, Kim Bao; Minh, Hoang Van; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that smoking is a learnt behavior, often initiated during adolescence. This paper aims to describe tobacco-related knowledge, attitude and associations among school adolescents aged 13-15 with exposure to anti-smoking information. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Viet Nam, 2014, knowledge was measured through 4 questions about tobacco use, and attitude was assessed through 3 questions on personal, social and environmental aspects. Students giving most anti-tobacco responses to all questions were considered as having correct knowledge or appropriate attitude or both. Access to anti-smoking information was determined by exposure to any media messages on tobacco control during the past 30 days and teaching in school about the danger of tobacco use during the past 12 months. A substantial percentage of students thought that being near others who smoke might be harmful to them and smoking is harmful to health (89.4% and 89.6% respectively). However, only 46.4% reported that it is definitely difficult to quit smoking and 66.9% thought that smoking for only 1 or 2 years, once stopped, is harmful to health. Slightly more than half of the respondents reported appropriate attitude that young smokers have fewer friends than others and smoking makes them less attractive and less comfortable at social events. Noticing anti-smoking messages in the media together with having lessons in school about the dangers of tobacco substantially increased the likelihood of having correct knowledge, appropriate attitude and both. Despite relatively high awareness about smoking harms, effective educational communication is still highly needed to improve the level of comprehensive knowledge and an appropriate attitude regarding tobacco use. PMID:27087181

  1. Daily Emotional States as Reported by Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Reed; Lampman-Petraitis, Claudia

    1989-01-01

    Examined time-sampling reports obtained from 9-15 year olds concerning their emotional states. Findings suggest that the onset of adolescence is not associated with appreciable differences in the variability of emotional states. (RH)

  2. Changes in body composition, hormonal status, and physical fitness in 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old Finnish regional youth soccer players during a two-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Vänttinen, Tomi; Blomqvist, Minna; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2011-12-01

    Vänttinen, T, Blomqvist, M, Nyman, K, and Häkkinen, K. Changes in body composition, hormonal status, and physical fitness in 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old Finnish regional youth soccer players during a two-year follow-up. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3342-3351, 2011-The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in body composition, hormonal status, and physical fitness in 10.8 ± 0.3-year-old (n = 13), 12.7 ± 0.2-year-old (n = 14), and 14.7 ± 0.3-year-old (n = 12) Finnish regional youth soccer players during a 2-year monitoring period and to compare physical fitness characteristics of soccer players with those of age-matched controls (10.7 ± 0.3 years, n = 13; 14.7 ± 0.3 years, n = 10) not participating in soccer. Body composition was measured in terms of height, weight, muscle mass, percentage of body fat, and lean body weight of trunk, legs, and arms. Hormonal status was monitored by concentrations of serum testosterone and cortisol. Physical fitness was measured in terms of sprinting speed, agility, isometric maximal strength (leg extensors, abdominal, back, grip), explosive strength, and endurance. Age-related development was detected in all other measured variables except in the percentage of body fat. The results showed that the physical fitness of regional soccer players was better than that of the control groups in all age groups, especially in cardiovascular endurance (p < 0.01-0.001) and in agility (p < 0.01-0.001). In conclusion, playing in a regional level soccer team seems to provide training adaptation, which is beyond normal development and which in all likelihood leads to positive health effects over a prolonged period of time.

  3. Case study of a 15-year-old boy with McCune-Albright syndrome combined with pituitary gigantism: effect of octreotide-long acting release (LAR) and cabergoline therapy.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Toshihiro; Tsubaki, Junko; Ishizu, Katsura; Jo, Wakako; Ishi, Nobuaki; Fujieda, Kenji

    2008-07-01

    The use of octreotide-LAR and cabergoline therapy has shown great promise in adults with acromegaly; however, the experience in pediatric patients has rarely been reported. We described a clinical course of a 15-year-old boy of McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) with pituitary gigantism. At the age of 8 years, a growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) producing pituitary adenoma was diagnosed at our hospital. He also had multiple fibrous dysplasia, so that he was diagnosed as having MAS. The tumor was partially resected, and GNAS1 gene mutation (R201C) was identified in affected tissues. We introduced octreotide to suppress GH secretion (100 mug 2/day s.c). During therapy with octreotide, IGF-1 and GH levels could not be suppressed and the patient frequently complained of nausea from octreotide treatment. Therefore, the therapy was changed to monthly injections of octreotide-LAR at the age of 12.3 years and was partially effective. However, as defect of left visual field worsened due to progressive left optic canal stenosis, he underwent second neurological decompression of the left optic nerve at 13.4 years of age. After surgery, in addition to octreotide-LAR, cabergoline (0.25 mg twice a month) was started. This regimen normalized serum levels of GH and IGF-1; however, he showed impaired glucose tolerance and gallstones at 15.7 years of age. Therefore, the dose of octreotide-LAR was reduced to 10 mg and the dose of cabergoline increased. This case demonstrated the difficulty of treating pituitary gigantism due to MAS. The use of octreotide-LAR and cabergoline should be considered even in pediatric patients; however, adverse events due to octreotide-LAR must be carefully examined. PMID:18445999

  4. Relationship between Humoral Immune Responses against HPV16, HPV18, HPV31 and HPV45 in 12-15 Year Old Girls Receiving Cervarix® or Gardasil® Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Godi, Anna; Bissett, Sara L.; Miller, Elizabeth; Beddows, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines confer protection against the oncogenic genotypes HPV16 and HPV18 through the generation of type-specific neutralizing antibodies raised against virus-like particles (VLP) representing these genotypes. The vaccines also confer a degree of cross-protection against HPV31 and HPV45, which are genetically-related to the vaccine types HPV16 and HPV18, respectively, although the mechanism is less certain. There are a number of humoral immune measures that have been examined in relation to the HPV vaccines, including VLP binding, pseudovirus neutralization and the enumeration of memory B cells. While the specificity of responses generated against the vaccine genotypes are fairly well studied, the relationship between these measures in relation to non-vaccine genotypes is less certain. Methods We carried out a comparative study of these immune measures against vaccine and non-vaccine genotypes using samples collected from 12–15 year old girls following immunization with three doses of either Cervarix® or Gardasil® HPV vaccine. Results The relationship between neutralizing and binding antibody titers and HPV-specific memory B cell levels for the vaccine genotypes, HPV16 and HPV18, were very good. The proportion of responders approached 100% for both vaccines while the magnitude of these responses induced by Cervarix® were generally higher than those following Gardasil® immunization. A similar pattern was found for the non-vaccine genotype HPV31, albeit at a lower magnitude compared to its genetically-related vaccine genotype, HPV16. However, both the enumeration of memory B cells and VLP binding responses against HPV45 were poorly related to its neutralizing antibody responses. Purified IgG derived from memory B cells demonstrated specificities similar to those found in the serum, including the capacity to neutralize HPV pseudoviruses. Conclusions These data suggest that pseudovirus neutralization should be used as the

  5. The Estonian Deaf Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Kadri

    2010-01-01

    Interest in research on Estonian Sign Language, or eesti viipekeel (EVK), has been increasing. Studies have been conducted on different aspects of EVK, such as ways of expressing time (Trukmann 2006) and color terms (Hollman and Sutrop 2007, Hollman 2008). Moreover, EVK has lately received more attention in legislation. The language obtained an…

  6. Identifying Russian and Finnish Adolescents' Problem Behaviours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemppainen, Ulla; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka; Jokela, Veikko; Pantelejev, Vladimir; Uhanov, Mihail

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to show that a syndrome of problem behaviours, i.e. early substance abuse, school and family problems and sexual promiscuity impairs normal development in adolescence. This comparative study looked for differences in the problem behaviour profiles of 15-year-old adolescents in the Pitkaranta district in Russia…

  7. Nonparent Adult Social Support and Depressive Symptoms among Mexican American and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey-Cannon, Shannon; Pasch, Lauri A.; Tschann, Jeanne M.; Flores, Elena

    2006-01-01

    The notion that nonparent social support buffers the impact of parent depressive symptoms and substance use on adolescent depressive symptoms was tested in 142 Mexican American and 148 European American families with 12- through 15-year-old adolescents. Parent risk factors and adolescent nonparent adult social support were measured at baseline;…

  8. Adolescents' Emotion Regulation Strategies, Self-Concept, and Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Manying; Stright, Anne Dopkins

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among adolescents' emotion regulation strategies (suppression and cognitive reappraisal), self-concept, and internalizing problems using structural equation modeling. The sample consisted of 438 early adolescents (13 to 15 years old) in Taiwan, including 215 boys and 223 girls. For both boys and girls,…

  9. Adolescent Vocational Exploration. Final Evaluation Report 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MAGI Educational Services, Inc., Larchmont, NY.

    The 1985 evaluation of the Adolescent Vocational Exploration Program (AVE) found that this New York State Department of Labor intervention and pre-employment project has been successful in increasing young people's chances of gaining employment and functioning productively in the labor market. Primarily for 14- and 15-year-olds, AVE seeks to…

  10. The Youngest Workers: 14- and 15-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Diane N.

    1981-01-01

    Despite child labor and school attendance laws, approximately 1.6 million young teens held jobs in 1979. The labor force participation rate of girls is fast approaching that of boys, although the latter are employed in more varied occupations. (LRA)

  11. Neighborhood Disorganization, Substance Use, and Violence among Adolescents in Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Juan C.; Robles, Rafaela R.; Colon, Hector M.; Negron, Juan; Matos, Tomas D.; Calderon, Jose; Perez, Olga M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the role of neighborhoods in adolescent violence in poor neighborhoods in San Juan, Puerto Rico. The study is part of a larger longitudinal project examining risk and resilience in adolescents' ages 12 to 15 years old and their caregivers. Using a cross-sectional design, a self-completion questionnaire, and an interviewer…

  12. Differential Exposure and Reactivity to Interpersonal Stress Predict Sex Differences in Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Josephine H.; Eberhart, Nicole K.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that higher rates of depression in adolescent girls are explained by their greater exposure and reactivity to stress in the interpersonal domain in a large sample of 15-year-olds. Findings indicate that adolescent girls experienced higher levels of total and interpersonal episodic stress, whereas boys experienced…

  13. Language Attitudes of Estonian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehala, Martin; Niglas, Katrin

    2006-01-01

    The results of a survey of language attitudes of Estonian secondary school students, ages 15 to 18, are presented, and the implications for the practice of language maintenance are discussed. The survey revealed that Estonian is valued as a token of identity but not much as a commodity in the sense of linguistic economy. It is argued that…

  14. A population genetic characterization of Estonians.

    PubMed

    Heapost, L

    2000-06-01

    This paper discusses the genetic characterization of Estonians on the basis of eight blood group systems, and the traits of PTC tasting and colour blindness in 40 Estonian population samples from various parts of the country. The allele frequencies for the total Estonian population and for the four most different regions are presented. The survey shows genetic heterogeneity within the Estonians; the greatest genetic differences were observed in West-East direction. The West-Islands, West, and North Estonia differ from the other regions (East, South-East, also South-West and Central Estonia--which form a compact cluster). The mean allele frequencies of the Estonians are comparable to those typical for populations from North and East Europe, but the allele frequencies of Estonians are characterized by tendencies in two opposite (western and eastern) directions, like in other Finno-Ugric populations and concerning other anthropological traits. Estonians reveal closest similarities to the nearest neighbouring populations, regardless of their language group. The genetic heterogeneity and antagonistic traits in Estonians seem to be traces of the original genetic structure of Finno-Ugric ancestor populations which were neither Mongoloid nor Caucasoid. PMID:10962711

  15. Psychological Well-Being of Parents with Early Adolescent Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverberg, Susan B.; Steinberg, Laurence

    1990-01-01

    Findings from a study of 129 families with a firstborn child 10 to 15 years old indicated only very modest direct relations between parental well-being and signs of adolescent development, such as pubertal status, mixed-sex social relations, and reasoning skills. Relations were moderated by the strength of parents' orientation toward their work…

  16. Families with Young Adolescents: A Resource List. (Revised Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenzweig, Sue, Comp.; Mineiro, Barbara, Comp.

    This multidisciplinary list, which is designed for professionals working with families of young adolescents, and for parents of 10- to 15-year-olds, consists of two annotated bibliographies citing articles on a range of topics. Section 1 contains 97 entries, including resources likely to be of particular interest to parent educators, guidance…

  17. Family and School Influences on Adolescent Smoking Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiium, Nora; Wold, Bente

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine how influences at home and school interact to predict smoking among adolescents. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from 15-year-old pupils from Norway (n=1,404 in 73 Grade 10 school classes). Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to determine how family and school influences interact to…

  18. Globalization and the "Identity Remix" among Urban Adolescents in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Mrinalini A.; Berry, Ruhi; Gonsalves, Ayesha; Hastak, Yogita; Shah, Mukti; Roeser, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' perceptions of cultural change and identity development during an age of globalization in India. Analyses of data from 1497 Indian, urban, middle-class 12-15-year-olds (46% girls) revealed that these youth were aware of changes in their daily lives due to globalization and evaluated such changes in a pragmatic…

  19. ''I Eat to Be Happy, to Be Strong, and to Live.'' Perceptions of Rural and Urban Adolescents in Cameroon, Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dapi, Leonie N.; Omoloko, Cecile; Janlert, Urban; Dahlgren, Lars; Haglin, Lena

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate factors influencing rural and urban adolescents' food perceptions during a time of nutritional transition in Cameroon, Africa. Design: Qualitative in-depth interviews. Settings: Yaounde urban and Bandja rural areas. Participants: Fifteen adolescents 12 to 15 years old purposely selected from schools in urban and rural…

  20. Do Moral Choices Make Us Feel Good? The Development of Adolescents' Emotions Following Moral Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Keller, Monika; Buchmann, Marlis

    2013-01-01

    Some people believe that making the morally right decision makes people feel good. However, until now, there has been no empirical evidence in support of this belief. In a representative two-wave longitudinal study of 995 15-year-old adolescents followed for 3 years (until the age of 18) in Switzerland, adolescents were asked about their decisions…

  1. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  2. Early Adolescent Sexual Initiation and Physical/Psychological Symptoms: A Comparative Analysis of Five Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Farhat, Tilda; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2010-01-01

    Although most people in developed countries experience sexual initiation during adolescence, little is known about inter-country variability in the psychosocial correlates of early initiation. Population-based samples of 15-year-olds (n = 6,111, 52% female) who participated in the Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children Study (Finland, Scotland,…

  3. How the Adolescent Perceives His Micro-Environment: Some Implications for Geographical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spicer, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses a study which focused on adolescents' perception of their local environment by asking 200 15-year-old students to produce free recall maps of their own local areas. Study results indicate that the individual strives towards an adjustive structuring of his environment to self-perceived societal needs. For journal availability, see SO 505…

  4. Adolescents Who Witness Community Violence: Can Parent Support and Prosocial Cognitions Protect Them from Committing Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookmeyer, Kathryn A.; Henrich, Christopher C.; Schwab-Stone, Mary

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the effects of witnessing violence on committing violence among diverse urban middle school students (11-15 years old) over a 1-year period (N=1,599). It examined parent support and prosocial cognitions as moderators that might interact with one another in buffering adolescents from the effects of witnessing…

  5. The Relationship between Smoker Role Models and Intentions to Smoke among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiium, Nora; Breivik, Kyrre; Wold, Bente

    2006-01-01

    The study examines how adolescents' perceptions of exposure to smoker role models relate to their intentions to smoke, both directly, and indirectly through attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioural control. The data is based on a national representative sample of 15-year-olds (n=1670) in Norway. Path analysis indicates that perceptions of model…

  6. Dimensions of Adolescent Subjective Social Status within the School Community: Description and Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeting, Helen; West, Patrick; Young, Robert; Kelly, Shona

    2011-01-01

    School pupils strive to meet both school-defined and social goals, and the structure of adolescent self-concept is multidimensional, including both academic and non-academic self-perceptions. However, subjective social status within the school community has been represented as a single dimension. Scottish 15-year olds participating in a…

  7. Challenging Times: Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders and Suicidal Behaviours in Irish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Fionnuala; Mills, Carla; Daly, Irenee; Fitzpatrick, Carol

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Against a background of a lack of systematic epidemiological research in Ireland in the area, this study set out to determine prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders, suicidal ideation and intent, and parasuicide in a population of Irish adolescents aged 12-15 years in a defined geographical area. Method: All 12-15-year olds attending…

  8. Family Interactions, Exposure to Violence, and Emotion Regulation: Perceptions of Children and Early Adolescents at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Morris, Amanda Sheffield

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the protective nature of youth reports of family interactions in relation to perceived exposure to violence and anger regulation in 84 children and early adolescents (mean age of 10.5; 7-15 years old) primarily from ethnic minority groups and living in high-risk communities in a large southwestern city. Path analysis and…

  9. "You Can Help People": Adolescents' Views on Engaging Young People in Longitudinal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Spring C. Cooper; Rawsthorne, Margot; Paxton, Karen; Hawke, Catherine; Skinner, S. Rachel; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    We sought to discover adolescents' thoughts about participation in longitudinal research and identify recruitment and retention strategies that were meaningful to them. We conducted seven focus groups with 10-15-year-olds in two large rural centers in New South Wales, Australia, and all focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed, and…

  10. Estonian and Russian Parental Attitudes to Childrearing and Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saar, Aino; Niglas, Katrin

    2001-01-01

    Used Neukater and van der Kooji's parental attitude questionnaire to ask three groups of mothers (Estonian, non-Estonian in Estonia, Russians in Moscow) about their attitudes toward children's education and play. Found that Estonian mothers applied least control and that higher mother education resulted in less child control and instruction. (DLH)

  11. ESTONIAN LITERARY READER. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ORAS, ANTS

    THE BRIEF HISTORICAL SURVEY OF ESTONIAN LITERATURE WHICH INTRODUCES THIS ANTHOLOGY COVERS THE PERIOD FROM THE 18TH CENTURY TO THE PRESENT AND DISCUSSES THE POETS AND WRITERS INCLUDED IN THIS COLLECTION. THE FIRST PART OF THE COLLECTION PRESENTS ESTONIAN FOLK SONGS, IN NORTH ESTONIAN DIALECT, WITH A SHORT EXPLANATORY NOTE ON THE PHONOLOGY AND…

  12. Brief Report: Risky Sexual Behavior of Adolescents in Belgrade--Association with Socioeconomic Status and Family Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Dejana S.; Bjegovic, Vesna M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and family structure with risky sexual behaviors in adolescents. Methods: A total of 1782 15-year-old Belgrade schoolchildren (47.5% boys and 52.5% girls) completed a questionnaire from the WHO study, "Health behavior of schoolchildren." Results:…

  13. The Estimated Impact of Performing Arts on Adolescent Mood within a Community Sample of Mental Health Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Alan; Grieves, Julie; Opp, Dean

    2007-01-01

    In a brief survey, the authors solicited professional opinions regarding the probable impact of performing arts on adolescent mood stability using a hypothetical scenario where 20 moderately depressed 15-year-olds agreed to participate in a high school play, musical, or other singing performance. The results of the survey indicated that clinicians…

  14. Treatment diets in Estonian health care institutions.

    PubMed

    Kiisk, Liidia; Kaarma, Helje; Ots, Mai

    2008-01-01

    New system and nomenclature of diets for Estonian health care institutions have been developed in the university hospital based on theoretical and practical experience obtained over several years of cooperation with medical scientists from different fields of specialization. The nomenclature of diets includes ordinary food and eight groups of diet food with subgroups. The normative values of the basic nutrients are in accordance with the Estonian and Nordic nutritional recommendations. The whole system includes the menus and recipes of nutritional food portions. The system of treatment diets helps to optimize proper nutrition in different departments and organize better patient care. PMID:18791334

  15. Early Vocabulary and Gestures in Estonian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia; Konstabel, Kenn

    2012-01-01

    Parents of 592 children between the age of 0 ; 8 and 1 ; 4 completed the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (ECDI Infant Form). The relationships between comprehension and production of different categories of words and gestures were examined. According to the results of regression modelling the…

  16. The Analysis of Low Accentuation in Estonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asu, Eva Liina; Nolan, Francis

    2007-01-01

    In Estonian, as in a number of other languages, the nuclear pitch accent is often low and level. This paper presents two studies of this phenomenon. The first, a phonetic analysis of carefully structured read sentences shows that low accentuation can also spread to the prenuclear accents in an intonational phrase. The resulting sentence contours…

  17. English in the Estonian Multicultural Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonzari, Lorena

    1999-01-01

    Argues that the spread of English is not closely associated to a discourse of linguistic imperialism, basing the thesis on a case study in Estonia. Surveys of three generations of Estonians indicated that all welcomed English as a means of communications and technology in the modern world, reacting against the imposition of Russian language and…

  18. Digital Game Violence and Direct Aggression in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study of the Roles of Sex, Age, and Parent-Child Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallenius, Marjut; Punamaki, Raija-Leena

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of sex, age, and parent-child communication in moderating the association between digital game violence and direct aggression in a two-year longitudinal study. Finnish 12- and 15-year-old adolescents (N = 316) participated in the follow-up survey. As hypothesized, digital game violence was linked to direct…

  19. "I'll See You on IM, Text, or Call You": A Social Network Approach of Adolescents' Use of Communication Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Cleemput, Katrien

    2010-01-01

    This study explores some possibilities of social network analysis for studying adolescents' communication patterns. A full network analysis was conducted on third-grade high school students (15 year olds, 137 students) in Belgium. The results pointed out that face-to-face communication was still the most prominent way for information to flow…

  20. Transient auditory hallucinations in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Skokauskas, Norbert; Pillay, Devina; Moran, Tom; Kahn, David A

    2010-05-01

    In adolescents, hallucinations can be a transient illness or can be associated with non-psychotic psychopathology, psychosocial adversity, or a physical illness. We present the case of a 15-year-old secondary-school student who presented with a 1-month history of first onset auditory hallucinations, which had been increasing in frequency and severity, and mild paranoid ideation. Over a 10-week period, there was a gradual diminution, followed by a complete resolution, of symptoms. We discuss issues regarding the diagnosis and prognosis of auditory hallucinations in adolescents.

  1. The analysis of low accentuation in Estonian.

    PubMed

    Asu, Eva Liina; Nolan, Francis

    2007-01-01

    In Estonian, as in a number of other languages, the nuclear pitch accent is often low and level. This paper presents two studies of this phenomenon. The first, a phonetic analysis of carefully structured read sentences shows that low accentuation can also spread to the prenuclear accents in an intonational phrase. The resulting sentence contours are used as evidence to evaluate alternative phonological analyses of low accentuation, and H + L* is shown to account best for the data. The second study presents quantitative evidence from fundamental frequency values which supports this phonological analysis. Finally, the distribution of prenuclear pitch accents is discussed. High and low accents can co-occur in an intonational phrase, but only in patterns obeying a specific sequential constraint. A fragment of an intonational grammar for Estonian is presented capturing the observed distributional restrictions. PMID:18330217

  2. Ethnic return migration: an Estonian case.

    PubMed

    Kulu, H

    1998-01-01

    "This article examines return migration during the post World War 2 period of descendants of Estonians who emigrated to Russia at the end of the nineteenth and at the beginning of the twentieth century" The focus is on changing migration patterns over time. "The behavioural norm of Estonians born in the 1910s-1920s has been return migration to Estonia, while the migration behaviour of the 1930s-1940s and the 1950s-1960s generations can be characterized by urbanization in West Siberia. The results give reason to assume that ethnic return migration over a long period depends neither directly nor indirectly on momentary environmental changes, but rather on changes in people's values, habits, identity etc., which in the case of an ethnic minority living outside its historical homeland may be followed generation by generation." (EXCERPT)

  3. [Medical Service of the Estonian Defense Forces].

    PubMed

    Anisimov, A S; Golota, A S; Krassii, A B; Soldatov, E A; Shalakin, R A

    2015-06-01

    The article is a brief description of the current state of the Estonian Defense Forces medical service and is based on the study of the open access foreign sources. At the beginning, the general information about Estonia, its Defense Forces, and their medical service is presented. Then the medical service particular features are described with more detail, namely, the organization of the inpatient and outpatient treatment, medical supply, scientific research, combat medicine, medical staff education and training, medical service personnel income.

  4. ESTONIAN GENERAL READER. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OINAS, FELIX J.

    DESIGNED FOR STUDENTS WHO HAVE COMPLETED "BASIC ESTONIAN" (BY THE SAME AUTHOR), THIS READER CONTAINS SELECTIONS ON A VARIETY OF TOPICS--ESTONIAN FOLKLORE, GEOGRAPHY, ECONOMICS, HISTORY, LITERATURE AND LANGUAGE, ART, MUSIC, SPORTS, PUBLIC HEALTH, AND SCIENCE. THE LANGUAGE AND STYLE OF THE ORIGINAL WORKS HAVE BEEN SOMEWHAT SIMPLIFIED, AND THE…

  5. Cohort Profile: Estonian Biobank of the Estonian Genome Center, University of Tartu.

    PubMed

    Leitsalu, Liis; Haller, Toomas; Esko, Tõnu; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Alavere, Helene; Snieder, Harold; Perola, Markus; Ng, Pauline C; Mägi, Reedik; Milani, Lili; Fischer, Krista; Metspalu, Andres

    2015-08-01

    The Estonian Biobank cohort is a volunteer-based sample of the Estonian resident adult population (aged ≥18 years). The current number of participants-close to 52000--represents a large proportion, 5%, of the Estonian adult population, making it ideally suited to population-based studies. General practitioners (GPs) and medical personnel in the special recruitment offices have recruited participants throughout the country. At baseline, the GPs performed a standardized health examination of the participants, who also donated blood samples for DNA, white blood cells and plasma tests and filled out a 16-module questionnaire on health-related topics such as lifestyle, diet and clinical diagnoses described in WHO ICD-10. A significant part of the cohort has whole genome sequencing (100), genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data (20 000) and/or NMR metabolome data (11 000) available (http://www.geenivaramu.ee/for-scientists/data-release/). The data are continuously updated through periodical linking to national electronic databases and registries. A part of the cohort has been re-contacted for follow-up purposes and resampling, and targeted invitations are possible for specific purposes, for example people with a specific diagnosis. The Estonian Genome Center of the University of Tartu is actively collaborating with many universities, research institutes and consortia and encourages fellow scientists worldwide to co-initiate new academic or industrial joint projects with us.

  6. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    SciTech Connect

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V.; Martins, A.; Pesur, A.; Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H.

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  7. International note: what factors are associated with reading, mathematics, and science literacy of Indian adolescents? A multilevel examination.

    PubMed

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan

    2014-06-01

    A sample of 15-year-olds in India took part in the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) for the first time in 2010. The PISA reading, mathematics, and science literacy scores of Indian adolescents were considerably lower than their counterparts in most PISA participating countries. In order to explore potential reasons for this, the present study, therefore, drawing on data from the fourth cycle of PISA and employing multilevel modeling, examined the relations of student- and school-level factors to reading, mathematics, and science literacy among 4826 15-year-old students from 213 schools in India. Gender, metacognitive learning strategies, students' positive attitudes toward school, and students' positive perceptions of classroom climate were found to be significantly associated with Indian adolescents' performance on the PISA assessment.

  8. Early vocabulary and gestures in Estonian children.

    PubMed

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia; Konstabel, Kenn

    2012-06-01

    Parents of 592 children between the age of 0 ; 8 and 1 ; 4 completed the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (ECDI Infant Form). The relationships between comprehension and production of different categories of words and gestures were examined. According to the results of regression modelling the production of object gestures and gestural routines was positively correlated with the use of all the word categories. Comprehension of common nouns was positively correlated to the production of common nouns and predicates, whereas the comprehension of predicates was negatively correlated to the production of common nouns and social terms. The older the children were the more they produced words from each category. Girls were reported to produce more social terms. First-born children had an advantage over later-born children in the production of common nouns. Maternal educational level was associated with the production of common nouns and predicates. PMID:21878148

  9. Incidental mucocele of the appendix in a 15-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Arrington, David; Jewett, Brent; Sterner, Sarah; Caplan, Michael; Thacker, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Mucocele of the appendix is an exceedingly uncommon pathology in the pediatric population that may present with abdominal pain or represent an incidental finding after routine abdominal imaging. Etiologies may be inflammatory or neoplastic, but all share the commonality of chronic appendiceal obstruction. Early diagnosis is critical for positive long-term outcomes because the operative management will differ from that of a dilated appendix secondary to acute appendicitis.

  10. What do under 15 year old schoolboy rugby union players think about protective headgear?

    PubMed Central

    Finch, C; McIntosh, A; McCrory, P

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—When protective headgear is designed, the attitudes of the intended users needs to be taken into account, as well as safety performance criteria. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the attitudes of schoolboy rugby union players towards protective headgear. Methods—A survey of 140 rugby union players (82.4% response rate) from 10 randomly selected school teams in metropolitan Sydney was conducted at the end of the 1999 playing season. All players were aged 14–16 years. All teams had participated in a trial of headgear during the 1999 season in which six of the teams had been assigned to a headgear trial arm and four teams to a control arm. Players completed a self report questionnaire during a supervised session at school. The questionnaire collected information on recent head injuries, use of protective equipment, and attitudes towards headgear. Results—Some form of protective equipment was always worn by 76.1% of players: 93.6% reported using a mouthguard and 79.3% a helmet/headgear during the 1999 season. The two most important reasons for wearing headgear were related to safety concerns. Players with no recent head/neck injury were more likely to report that they felt safer when wearing headgear (p<0.001) and less likely to cite a previous injury as a motivating factor for wearing headgear (p<0.001) than those who had sustained a recent head/neck injury. Of the players who wore headgear during the 1999 season, 67% said that they played more confidently when they wore headgear, but 63% said that their head was hotter. Few players reported that their head was uncomfortable (15%) or that it was hard to communicate (3%) when they wore headgear. The main reasons for not wearing headgear were related to its design features: uncomfortable (61%) and it was hot (57%). Conclusions—The primary reason cited by players for wearing headgear is safety. Receiving an injury would also motivate non-wearers to wear headgear. Players report that they are more confident and able to tackle harder if they wear headgear, suggesting that a belief in its protective capabilities may influence behaviour. These attitudes need to be addressed in the design of effective headgear as well as in strategies to promote its use. Key Words: headgear; rugby union; schoolboy; prevention; protection; safety PMID:11273968

  11. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Kakugawa, Tomoyuki; Mukae, Hiroshi; Nagata, Towako; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kaida, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Suematsu, Takashi; Kadota, Jun-ichi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2002-11-01

    Giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) is a very uncommon respiratory disease. We report a juvenile patient with GIP aged 15 years. Although he has a negative past history of direct exposure to hard metals, we could not exclude possible exposure in very small amounts through his parents. Microscopic examination of lung biopsy specimen obtained by video-assisted thoracoscopy revealed marked cellular interstitial infiltrates and prominent intraalveolar macrophages as well as giant cells showing cellular cannibalism. Analysis of the biopsied lung tissue for cobalt and tungsten was negative. Clinical symptoms, laboratory, and radiological findings improved markedly after treatment with corticosteroids. To our knowledge, only eleven cases of GIP have been reported in Japan. Although possible exposure to hard metals was identified in 9 of the 11 reported cases, there is no clear dose-dependent relationship with onset and prognosis. The average age at onset was 46.2+/-15.0 years. Our patient is the youngest case of GIP reported in the world. PMID:12487179

  12. Magnetic Field Mental Representations of 14-15 Years Old Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravanis, Konstantinos; Pantidos, Panagiotis; Vitoratos, Evangelos

    2009-01-01

    Children's mental representations about physical concepts and phenomena play a vital role in the learning process. This is confirmed by the data derived from relevant researches which demonstrate that the students formulate incompatible ideas compared with the scientific ones. In this research we investigate the representations of 14-15 years…

  13. Bridges. A Physics Unit for 14/15 Year Old Students. Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utrecht State Univ., (Netherlands).

    Bridges and similar constructions are highlighted in this book of guided lessons and activities for secondary school physics students. This program was developed by the Physics Curriculum Development Project under the auspices of the Physics Curriculum Innovation Committee. Contents include: (1) "Introduction" (presenting a rationale for the topic…

  14. A 15-year-old boy with severe combined immunodeficiency, fungal infection, and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Abul, Mehtap Haktanir; Tuano, Karen; Healy, C Mary; Vece, Timothy J; Quintanilla, Norma M; Davis, Carla M; Seeborg, Filiz O; Hanson, Imelda Celine

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) outcomes in X-linked severe combined immune deficiency are most effective when performed with patients <3 months of age and without coexisting morbidity, and with donor cells from a matched sibling. Even under such favorable circumstances, outcomes can be suboptimal, and full cellular engraftment may not be complete, which results in poor B or natural killer cell function. Protein losing enteropathies can accompany persistent immune deficiency disorders with resultant low serum globulins (immunoglobulin A [IgA], IgG, IgM) and lymphopenia. Patients with immune disorders acquire infections that can be predicted by their immune dysfunction. Fungal infections are typically noted in neutropenic (congenital or acquired) and T-cell deficient individuals. Coexisting fungal infections are rare, even in hosts who are immunocompromised, and they require careful evaluation. Antifungal treatment may result in drug-drug interactions with significant complications. PMID:26314823

  15. Traumatic penile amputation in a 15-year-old boy presenting late in northwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Musa, Muhammad Ujudud; Abdulmajid, Umar Farouk; Mashi, Sharfuddeen Abbas; Yunusa, Bashir

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic penile amputation is a serious urological emergency, although rare whenever it happens, there is a need to refer the patient early to urologist within 24 h, with the stump wrapped in saline; unfortunately, our patient presented late and as such could not benefit from penile reimplantation. PMID:27525085

  16. Successful Salvage Chemotherapy with FOLFIRINOX for Recurrent Mixed Acinar Cell Carcinoma and Ductal Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas in an Adolescent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Pfrommer, Sarah; Weber, Achim; Dutkowski, Philipp; Schäfer, Niklaus G.; Müllhaupt, Beat; Bourquin, Jean-Pierre; Breitenstein, Stefan; Pestalozzi, Bernhard C.; Stenner, Frank; Renner, Christoph; D'Addario, Giannicola; Graf, Hans-Jörg; Knuth, Alexander; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Samaras, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic tumors are rare in children and adolescents. Here, we report the case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with a mixed acinar cell carcinoma/ductal adenocarcinoma with blastomatous components. He received multimodal treatment including various chemotherapy regimens and multistep surgery including liver transplantation. Introduction of FOLFIRINOX after relapse repeatedly achieved a durable metabolic and clinical response with good quality of life. PMID:24163668

  17. Successful Salvage Chemotherapy with FOLFIRINOX for Recurrent Mixed Acinar Cell Carcinoma and Ductal Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas in an Adolescent Patient.

    PubMed

    Pfrommer, Sarah; Weber, Achim; Dutkowski, Philipp; Schäfer, Niklaus G; Müllhaupt, Beat; Bourquin, Jean-Pierre; Breitenstein, Stefan; Pestalozzi, Bernhard C; Stenner, Frank; Renner, Christoph; D'Addario, Giannicola; Graf, Hans-Jörg; Knuth, Alexander; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Samaras, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic tumors are rare in children and adolescents. Here, we report the case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with a mixed acinar cell carcinoma/ductal adenocarcinoma with blastomatous components. He received multimodal treatment including various chemotherapy regimens and multistep surgery including liver transplantation. Introduction of FOLFIRINOX after relapse repeatedly achieved a durable metabolic and clinical response with good quality of life. PMID:24163668

  18. Distal femoral osteochondroma masquerading as deep vein thrombosis in an adolescent male.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Mandeep; Kumar, Vishal; Bachhal, Vikas; Bali, Kamal

    2013-12-01

    Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is uncommonly seen in children and adolescents. A distal femoral osteochondroma causing isolated lower limb DVT is even rarer and to our knowledge only four such cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of a solitary distal femoral osteochondroma in a 15-year-old adolescent presenting as isolated DVT. We highlight the potential of coexistence of DVT and osteochondroma in young patients. We also emphasize the importance of timely diagnosis and outline the plan of management when faced with such a rare condition.

  19. Organizational Commitment in Estonian University Libraries: A Review and Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kont, Kate-Riin; Jantson, Signe

    2014-01-01

    The data used in this article is based on the reviewing of relevant literature to provide an overview of the concepts of organizational commitment, job security, and interpersonal relations, as well as on the results of the original online survey, conducted by the article's authors, held in 2012 in Estonian university libraries governed by public…

  20. Estonian Schoolscapes and the Marginalization of Regional Identity in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kara D.

    2005-01-01

    The educational environment in Estonia schools tends to celebrate European and national identities while pushing local identities to the periphery. In this northern Baltic state, the emphasis on using schools to reinforce the Estonian language and national identity takes place in the context of government-supported initiatives to use education…

  1. Estonian Preschool Teachers' Views on Learning in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugaste, Aino; Tuul, Maire; Niglas, Katrin; Neudorf, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    As in many Western countries, children's learning in the curriculum of Estonian Early Childhood Education is seen as a lifelong process, wherein the teacher is primarily a guide to children's active learning. Thus, a child-centred approach to learning is valued in the national curriculum, but our interest was whether this approach is…

  2. Whole mitochondrial genome genetic diversity in an Estonian population sample.

    PubMed

    Stoljarova, Monika; King, Jonathan L; Takahashi, Maiko; Aaspõllu, Anu; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA is a useful marker for population studies, human identification, and forensic analysis. Commonly used hypervariable regions I and II (HVI/HVII) were reported to contain as little as 25% of mitochondrial DNA variants and therefore the majority of power of discrimination of mitochondrial DNA resides in the coding region. Massively parallel sequencing technology enables entire mitochondrial genome sequencing. In this study, buccal swabs were collected from 114 unrelated Estonians and whole mitochondrial genome sequences were generated using the Illumina MiSeq system. The results are concordant with previous mtDNA control region reports of high haplogroup HV and U frequencies (47.4 and 23.7% in this study, respectively) in the Estonian population. One sample with the Northern Asian haplogroup D was detected. The genetic diversity of the Estonian population sample was estimated to be 99.67 and 95.85%, for mtGenome and HVI/HVII data, respectively. The random match probability for mtGenome data was 1.20 versus 4.99% for HVI/HVII. The nucleotide mean pairwise difference was 27 ± 11 for mtGenome and 7 ± 3 for HVI/HVII data. These data describe the genetic diversity of the Estonian population sample and emphasize the power of discrimination of the entire mitochondrial genome over the hypervariable regions.

  3. HIV/AIDS related knowledge among school-going adolescents from the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Boneberger, Anja; Rückinger, Simon; Guthold, Regina; Kann, Laura; Riley, Leanne

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this secondary analysis was to present cross-national data about HIV/AIDS related knowledge among 13- to 15-year-old school-going adolescents from the Middle East and North Africa. Data from 23673 school-going adolescents from seven countries (Jordan, Lebanon, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco, Oman, Tunisia and United Arab Emirates) that undertook the Global School-Based Student Health Survey between 2004 and 2008 were analysed. HIV/AIDS related knowledge varied significantly between countries and gender. Research for this sensitive topic is scarce in this region. In addition, schools could be among the many key players for HIV/AIDS education.

  4. Behavioral Disorder amongst Adolescents Attending Secondary School in Southeast Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Chinawa, J. M.; Manyike, P. C.; Obu, H. A.; Odetunde, O. I.; Aniwada, E. C.; Ndu, I. K.; Chinawa, A. T.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Adolescents are prone to various forms of behavioral problems. These behavioral issues in adolescents can have serious consequences for the adolescents. Objectives. The objectives of the study are to determine the causative factors of adolescent problems and specific manifestations. Methods. Behavioral problems were investigated using a random sampling of adolescents from secondary schools in southeast Nigeria from February to April, 2014. A self-administered questionnaire was developed from Health Kids Colorado Questionnaire. Results. A total of 763 subjects completed the questionnaire. Adolescents who reported to have used tobacco 3 to 5 and 6 to 9 times during the last 30 days are just 3.14% and 3.4%, respectively. Nineteen (2.49%) adolescents claimed that they have had sex before but not in the last 3 months. Adolescents who attempted suicide are from 15 years and peaked at 18. Eighty-three (11%) adolescents who are 15 years old attempted suicide in a year; this peaks at 17 years where 235 (30.8%) committed suicide. Majority of adolescents with behavioral disorder are from the upper class family. Conclusion. This study revealed that adolescents exhibit several forms of behavioral problems. PMID:25276048

  5. Rupturing otherness: becoming Estonian in the context of contemporary Britain.

    PubMed

    Märtsin, Mariann

    2010-03-01

    While identity construction continues to be a widely discussed and researched area in contemporary social sciences, the existing theories have overlooked the importance of understanding why and how identities as semiotic constructions emerge in individuals' consciousness in the flow of their everyday functioning. This article seeks to address this limitation in the theorizing by proposing an alternative conceptualization of identity, according to which identity construction is triggered by rupturing life-experience, which surfaces another perspective and makes the person aware of a possibility to be otherwise or of the reality of being different. Theoretical claims put forward in the paper are drawn from data gathered in a recent study, which explored lived-through experiences of young Estonians, who made study-visits to the United Kingdom. The discussed data will also highlight some interesting aspects in Estonians' self-definition as it is constructed in relation to Eastern-European identity in the context of contemporary Britain. PMID:19943125

  6. The Development of the Estonian National School Mathematics Curriculum in 1990-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afanasjev, Juri; Lepmann, Tiit

    2006-01-01

    The article describes the development of the Estonian school mathematics syllabus in 1990-2005 on the context of changes in the national general education curriculum. The major steps of the development, the background and the main problems are observed: project of the Estonian mathematics syllabus from 1989; first mathematics syllabuses…

  7. Career Management in Transition: HRD Themes from the Estonian Civil Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Christopher J.; Jarvalt, Jane; Metcalfe, Beverley

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To explore, through a case study, some of the key career-related HRD issues that senior managers are currently facing in the Estonian civil service. Design/methodology/approach: Presents primary empirical research into career management in the Estonian civil service since 1991, that is, in the post-Soviet era. The research involved…

  8. Macrostructure in the Narratives of Estonian Children with Typical Development and Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soodla, Piret; Kikas, Eve

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the macrostructure in Estonian children's narratives according to the story grammar (SG) model. The study's aims were to determine whether differences exist in narrative macrostructure between Estonian- and English-speaking children, among typically developed (TD) children, and between children with and without…

  9. Novice Teachers' Perspectives on Mentoring: The Case of the Estonian Induction Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofstrom, Erika; Eisenschmidt, Eve

    2009-01-01

    This study explores Estonian novice teachers' perspectives on relationships with mentors and experiences of mentoring and mentors' tasks during their first year of teaching. The induction year with mentoring as one of the support structures was introduced into Estonian teacher education a few years ago. Experiences indicate that this is a valuable…

  10. The Representation of the Cold War in Three Estonian History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korbits, Keit

    2015-01-01

    The article looks at the discursive strategies different Estonian history textbooks employ to represent the Cold War period, and the "commonsense" ideologies instilled through these representations. The textbooks analysed include two history books dating back to the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic and, for contrast, one written during…

  11. An Uncommon Case of Adolescent Ovarian Teratoma Incarcerated in Inguinal Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Girgenti, Vincenza; Cimador, Marcello; Li Voti, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Mature cystic teratoma is the most frequent benign ovarian neoplastic lesion in adolescents and is generally composed of fully differentiated tissue arising from multipotential three germinal layers. It accounts for approximately 50% of benign ovarian tumors in childhood. Rarely, a bilateral, synchronous, or metachronous presentation can be observed, supporting a conservative approach as the first surgical approach. We report a case of an ovarian mature cystic incarcerated in indirect inguinal hernia in a 15-year-old girl undergoing ovary-sparing surgery. To our knowledge this is the first case of such lesion incarcerated in an inguinal hernia reported in literature. PMID:27525145

  12. Lumbar Chance fracture associated with use of the lap belt restraint in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Walsh, A; Sheehan, E; Walsh, M G

    2003-05-01

    The use of the 2-point seat belt or lap belt in motor vehicles, particularly to restrain young rear seat passengers, remains an issue of some concern. The occurrence of lumbar spinal flexion-distraction injuries in lap belt restrained children and adolescents during road traffic accidents is a well known phenomenon, but is still occurring. High velocity paediatric Chance fractures are frequently associated with significant intra-abdominal trauma. We present the case of a Chance fracture sustained by a 15 year old girl, involved in a motor vehicle collision, while wearing a lap belt. We emphasise the need to develop safer seat belt designs for juvenile car passengers.

  13. Hair dyes and temporary tattoos are a real hazard for adolescents?

    PubMed

    Haluk Akar, H; Adatepe, S; Tahan, F; Solmaz, I

    2014-01-01

    Temporary tattoos, especially those that contain black dyes, have become rampant among teenagers in recent years. Most of these tattoos, in addition to hair dyes include paraphenylenediamine (PPD). PPD is a well-known skin sensitizer, which causes allergic contact dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis skin lesions from PPD are mostly seen as erythema multiforme-like eruption, a bullous contact dermatitis or as an exudative erythema. Herein, we report on our finding on a 15 year-old adolescent female who had been unaware of being previously sensitized to PPD from a black henna tattoo, and angioedema-like reaction which occurred after her first exposure to hair dye.

  14. Avulsion of the iliac crest apophysis: a rare fracture in adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Lambert, M J; Fligner, D J

    1993-07-01

    We report a case of an iliac apophyseal fracture in a 15-year-old boy, sustained while swinging a baseball bat. He presented with right hip pain one hour after the injury occurred. Diagnosis was made on the basis of radiographs of the pelvis. Pelvic avulsion fractures are uncommon injuries, seen almost exclusively in adolescent athletes. The iliac crest is an unusual site of injury for this avulsion fracture. Only one other well-described case of an acute, noncontact fracture of the iliac apophysis with a similar mechanism of injury has been reported.

  15. The role of gender, values, and culture in adolescent bystanders' strategies.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Anni; Tulviste, Tiia

    2015-02-01

    We examined the relationship between adolescent bystanders' strategies for intervening in the bullying-like situation and their gender, values, and cultural origin. The sample consisted of 682 Estonian and Russian-Estonian adolescents (M age = 13.02 years). They were shown a video of a bullying-like situation with a non-intervening adult bystander and asked to describe what they would do if they, instead of the adult, witnessed that situation. Only 10% said that they would not intervene. Girls were more likely than boys to suggest multiple actions. Adolescents who valued conformity were less likely to propose using physical aggression. Doing nothing was less likely suggested by those who placed more importance on conformity and less on power. Estonian adolescents were more likely than their Russian-Estonian peers to suggest finding out what is going on, and less likely to say that they would do nothing. The findings suggest that although most adolescents express willingness to help the victim, they might not actually know how to intervene. PMID:24919991

  16. The role of gender, values, and culture in adolescent bystanders' strategies.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Anni; Tulviste, Tiia

    2015-02-01

    We examined the relationship between adolescent bystanders' strategies for intervening in the bullying-like situation and their gender, values, and cultural origin. The sample consisted of 682 Estonian and Russian-Estonian adolescents (M age = 13.02 years). They were shown a video of a bullying-like situation with a non-intervening adult bystander and asked to describe what they would do if they, instead of the adult, witnessed that situation. Only 10% said that they would not intervene. Girls were more likely than boys to suggest multiple actions. Adolescents who valued conformity were less likely to propose using physical aggression. Doing nothing was less likely suggested by those who placed more importance on conformity and less on power. Estonian adolescents were more likely than their Russian-Estonian peers to suggest finding out what is going on, and less likely to say that they would do nothing. The findings suggest that although most adolescents express willingness to help the victim, they might not actually know how to intervene.

  17. Ego development and ethnic identity formation in rural American Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Newman, Denise L

    2005-01-01

    Ethnic identity development was assessed in the context of ego development in 12- to 15-year-old students from a Southeastern American Indian community. Self-protective was the modal level and was characterized by awareness of ethnic group membership but little exploration or self-reflection. Impulsive adolescents had the least developed ethnic identities and highest levels of interpersonal vulnerability. Conformist adolescents expressed positive feelings about ethnic group affiliation, described relationships as harmonious, but demonstrated moderate social anxiety. Postconformist adolescents had the highest levels of agency, social competence, and identity achievement, but also had high levels of psychological distress and family conflict. Adolescent identity strivings may be understood in context with the level and timing of psychosocial maturity, for which ego development appears a useful marker.

  18. The impact of adults' communication clarity versus communication deviance on adolescents with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Shields, J D; Green, R J; Cooper, B A; Ditton, P

    1995-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that confusing styles of parental communication--"communication deviances" (CD)--are associated with cognitive disorder in offspring. The present study examined the immediate effects of adult communication clarity versus deviance on sixty-one 11- to 15-year-old male and female adolescents with learning disabilities (LD). Subjects were randomly assigned to complete the Rorschach Arrangement Task (RorAT) under conditions of either clear (n = 30) or unclear (n = 31) instructions from an adult. Immediately thereafter, the adolescents were administered a test of abstract thinking--The Twenty Questions Task (TQT). Strategies used to solve the task were assessed. As hypothesized, adolescents in the clear communication condition performed significantly better on the RorAT and used more efficient cognitive strategies on the TQT than did adolescents in the unclear communication condition. A new theory with implications for teaching and parenting is proposed for understanding the influence of adult communication on students with LD.

  19. [Adolescents with cancer: the "Youth Project" at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan].

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Andrea; Veneroni, Laura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Spreafico, Filippo; Terenziani, Monica; Massimino, Maura; Luksch, Roberto; Casanova, Michela; Meazza, Cristina; Polastri, Daniela; Gandola, Lorenza

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents with cancer are a particular group of patients who are less likely to gain access to optimal cancer services at comprehensive cancer Centers: many studies suggest adolescents fare less well than children with the same disease. The paper describes the key issues of the "Youth Project" of the Pediatric Oncology Unit IRCCS Fondazione Istituto Nazionale Tumori in Milan, dedicated to adolescents (over 15 years old) and young adults (up to 25 years old) with solid tumors. This project is a possible clinical and organizational model to address the unique needs of patients in this age group and for bridge the gap in access to care and in recruitment in clinical trials, in clinical and psycho-social management and in curves of healing. The paper also describes the activity of the Adolescent Commission established by the Italian Pediatric Hematology Oncology (AIEOP).

  20. Aggressive Cunninghamella pneumonia in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Malkan, Alpin D; Wahid, Fazal N; Rao, Bhaskar N; Sandoval, John A

    2014-10-01

    Children with hematologic malignancies may be challenged with life-threatening, invasive fungal infections by organisms that would otherwise have a low potential for virulence in healthy hosts. Presented is a case of a 15-year-old adolescent with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia who was receiving steroids and chemotherapy. He developed cough associated with left chest pain with suspicion for fungal pneumonia. He began systemic antifungal therapy, underwent computed tomography of the chest demonstrating a large cavitary lesion (reversed halo sign) in the left lung. Over a 48-hour period the patient clinically deteriorated with worsening pneumonia and required left thoracotomy with nonanatomic pulmonary resection. This case illustrates the aggressive nature of Cunninghamella pneumonia in patients with hematologic malignancies, and the multidisciplinary approach required to have the greatest possible outcome. PMID:25089609

  1. Depression and life satisfaction among European and Confucian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stankov, Lazar

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare adolescents from Europe and Confucian Asia on measures of psychological constructs that reflect either maladjustment or positive outlook on life. Empirical findings are reported based on N = 7,167 secondary school students (15 years old) from Confucian Asia (Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan) and from Europe (Denmark, Finland, Netherlands, Serbia, and Latvia with 2 nationalities-Latvian and Russian). Participants' responses were used to assess several aspects of personality and psychopathology, in addition to well-being, social attitudes, and parental styles. Exploratory factor analysis of these measures produced 4 factors: Depression, Life Satisfaction, Toughness and Modesty. Adolescents from Confucian countries show higher levels of Depression and lower levels of Life Satisfaction in comparison to their European counterparts. The most potent influences on Depression and Life Satisfaction were found to be Toughness and Parental Warmth variables, both of which are, in turn, linked to differences between regions/cultures. PMID:23914959

  2. Depression and life satisfaction among European and Confucian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stankov, Lazar

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare adolescents from Europe and Confucian Asia on measures of psychological constructs that reflect either maladjustment or positive outlook on life. Empirical findings are reported based on N = 7,167 secondary school students (15 years old) from Confucian Asia (Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan) and from Europe (Denmark, Finland, Netherlands, Serbia, and Latvia with 2 nationalities-Latvian and Russian). Participants' responses were used to assess several aspects of personality and psychopathology, in addition to well-being, social attitudes, and parental styles. Exploratory factor analysis of these measures produced 4 factors: Depression, Life Satisfaction, Toughness and Modesty. Adolescents from Confucian countries show higher levels of Depression and lower levels of Life Satisfaction in comparison to their European counterparts. The most potent influences on Depression and Life Satisfaction were found to be Toughness and Parental Warmth variables, both of which are, in turn, linked to differences between regions/cultures.

  3. Testicular measurements and daily sperm output of Tori and Estonian breed stallions.

    PubMed

    Kavak, A; Lundeheim, N; Aidnik, M; Einarsson, S

    2003-06-01

    Evaluation of testicular measurements and daily sperm output (DSO) yields valuable information for predicting the reproductive capacity of stallions. The present study evaluated testicular measurements (height, length, width and circumference) and DSO of eight Tori and eight Estonian breed stallions. One ejaculate of semen was collected daily for 10 subsequent days from each stallion. The gel-free volume of semen was measured with a graduated glass cylinder and the sperm concentration was assessed with a Chorjajev chamber. The volume of gel-free fraction was multiplied by the sperm concentration to give the total number of spermatozoa (TSN). The DSO was calculated as mean TSN of collection on days 8-10 in Tori breed stallions and on days 4-10 in Estonian breed stallions. The DSO of Tori breed stallions was 12.9 x 109 spermatozoa and of Estonian breed stallions 4.5 x 109 spermatozoa (p < 0.001). Testicular measurements (in cm) 1 day after the last semen collection were as follows: left testis- height 7.3, length 10.4 and width 7.3 in Tori breed stallions, and 5.9, 8.1 and 5.9, respectively, in Estonian breed stallions; right testis- height 7.4, length 10.6 and width 7.4 in Tori breed stallions, and 5.5, 7.4 and 5.3, respectively, in Estonian breed stallions. All these testicular measurements were significantly smaller in Estonian than in Tori breed stallions (p < 0.001). Testicular circumference was 45.4 and 35.4 cm in Tori and Estonian breed stallions, respectively (p < 0.001). The testicular circumference was correlated with DSO in both Estonian (p < 0.05) and Tori breed stallions (p = 0.071). The results give us valuable information on the reproductive capacity of Tori and Estonian breed stallions.

  4. Testicular measurements and daily sperm output of Tori and Estonian breed stallions.

    PubMed

    Kavak, A; Lundeheim, N; Aidnik, M; Einarsson, S

    2003-06-01

    Evaluation of testicular measurements and daily sperm output (DSO) yields valuable information for predicting the reproductive capacity of stallions. The present study evaluated testicular measurements (height, length, width and circumference) and DSO of eight Tori and eight Estonian breed stallions. One ejaculate of semen was collected daily for 10 subsequent days from each stallion. The gel-free volume of semen was measured with a graduated glass cylinder and the sperm concentration was assessed with a Chorjajev chamber. The volume of gel-free fraction was multiplied by the sperm concentration to give the total number of spermatozoa (TSN). The DSO was calculated as mean TSN of collection on days 8-10 in Tori breed stallions and on days 4-10 in Estonian breed stallions. The DSO of Tori breed stallions was 12.9 x 109 spermatozoa and of Estonian breed stallions 4.5 x 109 spermatozoa (p < 0.001). Testicular measurements (in cm) 1 day after the last semen collection were as follows: left testis- height 7.3, length 10.4 and width 7.3 in Tori breed stallions, and 5.9, 8.1 and 5.9, respectively, in Estonian breed stallions; right testis- height 7.4, length 10.6 and width 7.4 in Tori breed stallions, and 5.5, 7.4 and 5.3, respectively, in Estonian breed stallions. All these testicular measurements were significantly smaller in Estonian than in Tori breed stallions (p < 0.001). Testicular circumference was 45.4 and 35.4 cm in Tori and Estonian breed stallions, respectively (p < 0.001). The testicular circumference was correlated with DSO in both Estonian (p < 0.05) and Tori breed stallions (p = 0.071). The results give us valuable information on the reproductive capacity of Tori and Estonian breed stallions. PMID:12753547

  5. Prevalence of excessive screen time and associated factors in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Lucena, Joana Marcela Sales; Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Cavalcante, Thaísa Leite Mafaldo; da Silva, Vanessa Araújo; de Farias, José Cazuza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of excessive screen time and to analyze associated factors among adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional school-based epidemiological study with 2874 high school adolescents with age 14-19 years (57.8% female) from public and private schools in the city of João Pessoa, PB, Northeast Brazil. Excessive screen time was defined as watching television and playing video games or using the computer for more than 2 h/day. The associated factors analyzed were: sociodemographic (gender, age, economic class, and skin color), physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents. Results: The prevalence of excessive screen time was 79.5% (95%CI 78.1-81.1) and it was higher in males (84.3%) compared to females (76.1%; p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, adolescent males, those aged 14-15 year old and the highest economic class had higher chances of exposure to excessive screen time. The level of physical activity and nutritional status of adolescents were not associated with excessive screen time. Conclusions: The prevalence of excessive screen time was high and varied according to sociodemographic characteristics of adolescents. It is necessary to develop interventions to reduce the excessive screen time among adolescents, particularly in subgroups with higher exposure. PMID:26298661

  6. Veridicality of self-concept of strength in male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Mirko; Valkanover, Stefan; Conzelmann, Achim

    2013-06-01

    Changes in physical self-concept and veridicality (i.e., the appropriateness of one's self-perceptions to reality) during childhood and adolescence are related to performance in physical fitness, exercise, and global self-esteem, particularly in male adolescents. This cross-sectional study examined the relation between the self-concept of strength and actual strength in groups of male adolescents ages 12 to 15 years. For this purpose, 889 male adolescents (M age = 13.2 yr., SD = 1.0) were questioned about their self-concept of strength, after which a test of strength was carried out. The results showed that the correlation between self-concept of strength and actual strength was higher in older (14- and 15-year-old) than younger (12- and 13-year-old) adolescents. There was a statistically significant association between age group and veridicality, indicating that realistic self-concept is underrepresented among younger, but overrepresented among older adolescents. No association was found between the adolescents' physical activity and veridicality. The consequences for further research on the development of veridicality in the physical domain are discussed. PMID:24175470

  7. Genomic alterations in pulmonary adenocarcinoma in situ in an adolescent patient.

    PubMed

    Salomao, Marcela; Levy, Brynn; Nahum, Odelia; Chen, Jinli; Mansukhani, Mahesh; Borczuk, Alain C

    2014-04-01

    Lung cancer is a rare event in the pediatric and adolescent population. To date, only a few case reports and small case series have been published, and little is known about the risk factors associated with this entity in children and adolescents. We describe a case of adenocarcinoma in situ in a 15-year-old adolescent girl with previous surgical treatment for malignant melanoma. We provide a detailed genomic characterization of this neoplasm by comparative genomic hybridization, genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism array, and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses. We identify chromosomal regions with copy number changes and correlate the corresponding genes within these regions with the available literature in the area.

  8. Morphological characteristics of pelves of estonian holstein and estonian native breed cows from the perspective of calving.

    PubMed

    Nahkur, E; Ernits, E; Jalakas, M; Järv, E

    2011-10-01

    Dystocia is more common in Holstein-Friesian (HF) breed cows than in other dairy breeds. This is often caused by a disproportion between the birth canal of a female animal and the fetus. It is thought that the main determiners of unsuitability are the birth mass of the calf and the shape of the female pelvis. From the perspective of calving the cranial and caudal pelvic apertures are of great significance. This study focuses on pluriparous pelves of the Estonian Native Breed (EN) and the Estonian Holstein Breed (EHF). The longest measurement of the cranial pelvic aperture of an EHF cow is the conjugate diameter. The cranial pelvic aperture narrows slightly ventrally, being shaped like a trapezium with rounded angles. The longest measurement of the caudal aperture is its caudal transverse measurement. The aperture is flattened dorsoventrally. The cranial pelvic aperture of an EN cow is dorsally angular, but more oval ventrally, and is on the whole narrower and higher. By comparison with the EHF cow, the pelvic cavity of the EN cow widens caudally, and the height of the pelvic apertures contributes to ease of calving. It appears that the configuration of the pelvis of an EN cow is similar to the pelvis of the elk (Alces alces). The pelvis of the EHF cow has become unsuitable for easy calving, especially with regard to the caudal aperture.

  9. [Malignant neuroleptic syndrome in a 15-year old girl after a single injection of a high-dose neuroleptic].

    PubMed

    Nielsen, N; Nielsen, N B

    1991-08-01

    The malignant neuroleptic syndrome is a rare and fatal iatrogenic syndrome which requires rapid and effective symptomatic treatment in a somatic hospital, possibly in an intensive care unit. Relatively little medicine (neuroleptics) is employed in child psychiatry and the syndrome is, therefore, rare in child psychiatric departments. A well-defined syndrome is concerned and it is important to be able to recognise and diagnose this.

  10. The integration of visual context information in facial emotion recognition in 5- to 15-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Theurel, Anne; Witt, Arnaud; Malsert, Jennifer; Lejeune, Fleur; Fiorentini, Chiara; Barisnikov, Koviljka; Gentaz, Edouard

    2016-10-01

    The current study investigated the role of congruent visual context information in the recognition of facial emotional expression in 190 participants from 5 to 15years of age. Children performed a matching task that presented pictures with different facial emotional expressions (anger, disgust, happiness, fear, and sadness) in two conditions: with and without a visual context. The results showed that emotions presented with visual context information were recognized more accurately than those presented in the absence of visual context. The context effect remained steady with age but varied according to the emotion presented and the gender of participants. The findings demonstrated for the first time that children from the age of 5years are able to integrate facial expression and visual context information, and this integration improves facial emotion recognition.

  11. Video gaming and gender differences in digital and printed reading performance among 15-year-olds students in 26 countries.

    PubMed

    Borgonovi, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Video games are a favorite leisure-time activity among teenagers worldwide. This study examines cross-national gender differences in reading achievement and video gaming and whether video gaming explains gender differences in reading achievement and differences in performance between paper-based and computer-based reading. We use data from a representative sample of 145,953 students from 26 countries who sat the PISA 2012 assessments and provided self-reports on use of video games. Although boys tend to have poorer results in both the computer-based and the paper-based reading assessments, boys' under achievement is smaller when the assessment is delivered on computer than when it is delivered on paper. Boys underperformance compared to girls in the two reading assessments is particularly pronounced among low-achieving students. Among both boys and girls moderate use of single-player games is associated with a performance advantage. However, frequent engagement with collaborative online games is generally associated with a steep reduction in achievement, particularly in the paper-based test and particularly among low-achieving students. Excessive gaming may hinder academic achievement, but moderate gaming can promote positive student outcomes. In many countries video gaming explains the difference in the gender gap in reading between the paper-based and the computer-based assessments. PMID:26874783

  12. Calibration of Reading Self-Concept and Reading Achievement among 15-Year-Olds: Cultural Differences in 34 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ming Ming; Klassen, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Self-concept is linked to student achievement in many domains. In this study, we examined reading self-concept's (RSC) and RSC calibration accuracy's links to reading achievement across different contexts via multi-level analyses of 34 countries' 158,848 fifteen-year-olds' reading tests and questionnaire responses. Students with higher RSC, higher…

  13. Video gaming and gender differences in digital and printed reading performance among 15-year-olds students in 26 countries.

    PubMed

    Borgonovi, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Video games are a favorite leisure-time activity among teenagers worldwide. This study examines cross-national gender differences in reading achievement and video gaming and whether video gaming explains gender differences in reading achievement and differences in performance between paper-based and computer-based reading. We use data from a representative sample of 145,953 students from 26 countries who sat the PISA 2012 assessments and provided self-reports on use of video games. Although boys tend to have poorer results in both the computer-based and the paper-based reading assessments, boys' under achievement is smaller when the assessment is delivered on computer than when it is delivered on paper. Boys underperformance compared to girls in the two reading assessments is particularly pronounced among low-achieving students. Among both boys and girls moderate use of single-player games is associated with a performance advantage. However, frequent engagement with collaborative online games is generally associated with a steep reduction in achievement, particularly in the paper-based test and particularly among low-achieving students. Excessive gaming may hinder academic achievement, but moderate gaming can promote positive student outcomes. In many countries video gaming explains the difference in the gender gap in reading between the paper-based and the computer-based assessments.

  14. Multi-Disciplinary Type Creativity Education for Students from 15 years old to Bachelor Level in College of Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yotsuyanagi, Takao; Ikeda, Senri; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Sakuraba, Hiroshi; Shoji, Akira; Itoh, Masahiko

    Creativity is the most fundamental keyword for engineers to solve the various problems in manufacturing products. This engineering “learning” cannot be achieved without the real experiences, especially by the teens who have the curiosity to know everything. New educational program has been innovated in Miyagi National College of Technology. This new curriculum started as “03C” in 2003. It involves two laboratories for mixed-departments type grouping, which intend to cultivate the creative ability for the 2nd year students in College Course and the 1st year students in Advanced Course as Engineering Design. This paper presents the trial of the new educational program on the cultivating creative ability designed for teen-agers, and discusses the processes in detail, results and further problems. This program will progress still more with continuous improvement of manufacturing subjects in cooperative with educational-industrial complex.

  15. Catholic Schools and Attitudes toward Religious Diversity: An Empirical Enquiry among 13- to 15-Year-Old Students in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Leslie J.; Village, Andrew; Penny, Gemma; Neil, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Recognition that the United Kingdom has increasingly become a multi-cultural and multi-faith society has raised questions about the place of church schools or schools with a religious character within the state-maintained sector. The issue was given particular focus by the Runnymede Trusts report "Right to divide? Faith schools and community…

  16. Introducing the Astley-Francis Theology of Religions Index: Construct Validity among 13- to 15-Year-Old Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.

    2016-01-01

    The "theology of religions" is concerned with the interpretation and evaluation of the divergent truth-claims and views of salvation that are asserted or implied by different religious traditions. This study proposes a new multi-choice index that distinguishes between six current positions within the theology of religions, characterised…

  17. The integration of visual context information in facial emotion recognition in 5- to 15-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Theurel, Anne; Witt, Arnaud; Malsert, Jennifer; Lejeune, Fleur; Fiorentini, Chiara; Barisnikov, Koviljka; Gentaz, Edouard

    2016-10-01

    The current study investigated the role of congruent visual context information in the recognition of facial emotional expression in 190 participants from 5 to 15years of age. Children performed a matching task that presented pictures with different facial emotional expressions (anger, disgust, happiness, fear, and sadness) in two conditions: with and without a visual context. The results showed that emotions presented with visual context information were recognized more accurately than those presented in the absence of visual context. The context effect remained steady with age but varied according to the emotion presented and the gender of participants. The findings demonstrated for the first time that children from the age of 5years are able to integrate facial expression and visual context information, and this integration improves facial emotion recognition. PMID:27367301

  18. Green at Fifteen? How 15-Year-Olds Perform in Environmental Science and Geoscience in PISA 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Never before have the stakes been so high for the role of science education in shaping how people interact with the environment. Human activities responsible for the production of greenhouse gases, the accumulation of waste, the fragmentation or destruction of ecosystems and the depletion of resources are having a substantial impact on the…

  19. Quantification of biological tissue and construction of patient equivalent phantom (skull and chest) for infants (1-5 years old)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, A. F.; Pina, D. R.; Bacchim Neto, F. A.; Ribeiro, S. M.; Miranda, J. R. A.

    2014-03-01

    Our main purpose in this study was to quantify biological tissue in computed tomography (CT) examinations with the aim of developing a skull and a chest patient equivalent phantom (PEP), both specific to infants, aged between 1 and 5 years old. This type of phantom is widely used in the development of optimization procedures for radiographic techniques, especially in computed radiography (CR) systems. In order to classify and quantify the biological tissue, we used a computational algorithm developed in Matlab ®. The algorithm performed a histogram of each CT slice followed by a Gaussian fitting of each tissue type. The algorithm determined the mean thickness for the biological tissues (bone, soft, fat, and lung) and also converted them into the corresponding thicknesses of the simulator material (aluminum, PMMA, and air). We retrospectively analyzed 148 CT examinations of infant patients, 56 for skull exams and 92 were for chest. The results provided sufficient data to construct a phantom to simulate the infant chest and skull in the posterior-anterior or anterior-posterior (PA/AP) view. Both patient equivalent phantoms developed in this study can be used to assess physical variables such as noise power spectrum (NPS) and signal to noise ratio (SNR) or perform dosimetric control specific to pediatric protocols.

  20. Outside school time: an examination of science achievement and non-cognitive characteristics of 15-year olds in several countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suter, Larry E.

    2016-03-01

    Elementary and secondary students spend more hours outside of class than in formal school and thus have more time for interaction with everyday science. However, evidence from a large international survey, Program of International Student Assessment (PISA) (OECD 2012), found a negative relationship between number of hours attending after-school science and science assessment scores in many countries, raising questions about why. The secondary analysis of the 2006, 2009, and 2012 PISA surveys found that in most Western countries the longer students attended after-school science programs (in a typical week), the lower their PISA standardized science test score, but the higher their positive attitudes toward future science careers, interest in science, and self-confidence in science. Several potential hypotheses for this relationship are examined and rejected. Further analysis of a causal relationship between frequent attendance in after-school programs and student achievement and attitudes should clearly identify the content of the program so that the analysis could distinguish experiences closely related to regular school curricula from the informal science activities that are not. A new analysis also should include carefully designed longitudinal surveys to test the effectiveness of informal experiences on later life choices in career and study. Revision of a Paper prepared for AERA meetings in Chicago, 19 April 2015.

  1. Outside School Time: An Examination of Science Achievement and Non-Cognitive Characteristics of 15-Year Olds in Several Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suter, Larry E.

    2016-01-01

    Elementary and secondary students spend more hours outside of class than in formal school and thus have more time for interaction with everyday science. However, evidence from a large international survey, Program of International Student Assessment (PISA) (OECD 2012), found a negative relationship between number of hours attending after-school…

  2. An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience

    PubMed Central

    Milani, L; Leitsalu, L; Metspalu, A

    2015-01-01

    Milani L, Leitsalu L, Metspalu A (University of Tartu). An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience (Review). J Intern Med 2015; 277: 188–200. The Estonian Biobank and several other biobanks established over a decade ago are now starting to yield valuable longitudinal follow-up data for large numbers of individuals. These samples have been used in hundreds of different genome-wide association studies, resulting in the identification of reliable disease-associated variants. The focus of genomic research has started to shift from identifying genetic and nongenetic risk factors associated with common complex diseases to understanding the underlying mechanisms of the diseases and suggesting novel targets for therapy. However, translation of findings from genomic research into medical practice is still lagging, mainly due to insufficient evidence of clinical validity and utility. In this review, we examine the different elements required for the implementation of personalized medicine based on genomic information. First, biobanks and genome centres are required and have been established for the high-throughput genomic screening of large numbers of samples. Secondly, the combination of susceptibility alleles into polygenic risk scores has improved risk prediction of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and several other diseases. Finally, national health information systems are being developed internationally, to combine data from electronic medical records from different sources, and also to gradually incorporate genomic information. We focus on the experience in Estonia, one of several countries with national goals towards more personalized health care based on genomic information, where the unique combination of elements required to accomplish this goal are already in place. PMID:25339628

  3. Adolescent thriving: the role of sparks, relationships, and empowerment.

    PubMed

    Scales, Peter C; Benson, Peter L; Roehlkepartain, Eugene C

    2011-03-01

    Although most social science research on adolescence emphasizes risks and challenges, an emergent field of study focuses on adolescent thriving. The current study extends this line of inquiry by examining the additive power of identifying and nurturing young people's "sparks," giving them "voice," and providing the relationships and opportunities that reinforce and nourish thriving. A national sample of 1,817 adolescents, all age 15 (49% female), and including 56% white, 17% Hispanic/Latino, and 17% African-American adolescents, completed an online survey that investigated their deep passions or interests (their "sparks"), the opportunities and relationships they have to support pursuing those sparks, and how empowered they feel to make civic contributions (their "voice"). Results consistently supported the hypothesis that linking one's spark with a sense of voice and supportive opportunities and relationships strengthens concurrent outcomes, particularly those reflecting prosociality, during a key developmental transition period. The three developmental strengths also predicted most outcomes to a greater degree than did demographics. However, less than 10 percent of 15-year-olds reported experiencing high levels of all three strengths. The results demonstrate the value of focusing on thriving in adolescence, both to reframe our understanding of this age group and to highlight the urgency of providing adolescents the opportunities and relationships they need to thrive.

  4. A Person-centered Approach to Studying the Linkages among Parent–Child Differences in Cultural Orientation, Supportive Parenting, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms in Chinese American Families

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether supportive parenting mediates relations between parent– child differences in cultural orientation (generational dissonance) and depressive symptoms with a sample of 451 first and second generation Chinese American parents and adolescents (12–15 years old at time 1). Using a person-centered approach, meaningful typologies of cultural orientation were derived for fathers, mothers, and adolescents. Overall, results provided support, though qualified, for the notion that generational dissonance is linked to depressive symptoms through decreased supportive parenting. In general, having a parent with a bicultural profile seemed to be most advantageous if adolescents similarly had a bicultural profile, whereas more American oriented adolescents with more Chinese oriented parents reported the least supportive parenting and most depressive symptoms. Directions for future research and the benefits of using a person-centered approach in research of acculturation and generational dissonance are discussed. PMID:20725611

  5. A Unique Patient Population? Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescent Athletes Versus General, Healthy Adolescent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Kenneth C.; Valier, Alison R. Snyder; Bay, R. Curtis; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich

    2013-01-01

    Context: Normative scores for patient-rated outcome (PRO) instruments are important for providing patient-centered, whole-person care and making informed clinical decisions. Although normative values for the Pediatric Quality of Life Generic Core Scale (PedsQL) have been established in the general, healthy adolescent population, whether adolescent athletes demonstrate similar values is unclear. Objective: To compare PedsQL scores between adolescent athletes and general, healthy adolescent individuals. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Secondary schools. Patients or Other Participants: A convenience sample of 2659 interscholastic athletes (males = 2059, females = 600, age = 15.7 ± 1.1 years) represented the athlete group (ATH), and a previously published normative dataset represented the general, healthy adolescent group (GEN). Intervention(s): All participants completed the PedsQL during 1 testing session. Main Outcome Measure(s): The PedsQL consists of 2 summary scores (total, psychosocial) and 4 subscale scores (physical, emotional, social, school), with higher scores indicating better health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Groups were stratified by age (14, 15, or 16 years old). Independent-samples t tests were conducted to compare between-groups and sex differences. Results: The ATH group scored higher than the GEN group across all ages for total and psychosocial summary scores and for emotional and social functioning subscale scores (P ≤ .005). For physical functioning, scores of the 15-year-old ATH were higher than for their GEN counterparts (P = .001). Both 14- and 15-year-old ATH scored higher than their GEN counterparts for the school functioning subscale (P ≤ .013), but differences between 16-year olds were not significant (P = .228). Male adolescent athletes reported higher scores than female adolescent athletes across all scores (P ≤ .001) except for social functioning (P = .229). Conclusions: Adolescent athletes reported better HRQOL than

  6. Musical Practices and Methods in Music Lessons: A Comparative Study of Estonian and Finnish General Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sepp, Anu; Ruokonen, Inkeri; Ruismäki, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    This article reveals the results of a comparative study of Estonian and Finnish general music education. The aim was to find out what music teaching practices and approaches/methods were mostly used, what music education perspectives supported those practices. The data were collected using questionnaires and the results of 107 Estonian and 50…

  7. Sexual minority status, peer harassment, and adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2012-08-01

    The well-documented higher rates of depression among sexual minority youth are increasingly viewed by developmentalists as a byproduct of the stigmatization of sexual minority status in American society and of the negative impact this stigma has on the processes associated with depression. This study attempted to spur future research by testing Hatzenbuehler's (2009) psychological mediation framework to investigate the ways in which peer harassment related to sexuality puts young people at risk by influencing the cognitive, social, and regulatory factors associated with depression. Analyses of 15 year olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that sexual minority status was largely associated with depressive outcomes via harassment, which was subsequently associated with depression via cognitive and social factors. Results point to various avenues for exploring the importance of the social world and self-concept for the outcomes of sexual minority adolescents in the future.

  8. Adolescent impulsivity and soft drink consumption: The role of parental regulation.

    PubMed

    Melbye, Elisabeth L; Bergh, Ingunn H; Hausken, Solveig E S; Sleddens, Ester F C; Glavin, Kari; Lien, Nanna; Bjelland, Mona

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the process in which impulsivity might influence soft drink consumption in adolescents, addressing potential mediating effects of perceived parental regulation regarding unhealthy eating. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 440 13-15-year-olds in Eastern Norway. The survey questionnaire included measures of impulsivity, six types of maternal and paternal regulation (as perceived by the adolescents), and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Parallel multiple-mediator analyses were performed to reveal potential mediating effects of perceived parental regulatory behaviors on the association between adolescent impulsivity and SSB consumption. Separate models were run for maternal and paternal regulation. Results from our model analyses (both maternal and paternal models) indicated that all the six measured parental regulatory behaviors jointly acted as mediators on the association between adolescent impulsivity and SSB consumption. However, only perceived maternal and paternal legitimacy of regulation showed a unique contribution to the mediated effect. This finding suggests that adolescents' perception of parental legitimate authority is of particular importance in explaining the relationship between impulsivity and unhealthy eating behaviors in adolescents. Future nutrition interventions targeting adolescents and their parents should take personal factors such as adolescents' level of impulsivity into account. Ultimately; what may be an appropriate approach to impulsive individuals and their parents may diverge from what may be an appropriate approach to less impulsive individuals and their parents.

  9. Genetic parameters for milk coagulation properties in Estonian Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Vallas, M; Bovenhuis, H; Kaart, T; Pärna, K; Kiiman, H; Pärna, E

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities and repeatabilities for milk coagulation traits [milk coagulation time (RCT) and curd firmness (E(30))] and genetic and phenotypic correlations between milk yield and composition traits (milk fat percentage and protein percentage, urea, somatic cell count, pH) in first-lactation Estonian Holstein dairy cattle. A total of 17,577 test-day records from 4,191 Estonian Holstein cows in 73 herds across the country were collected during routine milk recordings. Measurements of RCT and E(30) determined with the Optigraph (Ysebaert, Frepillon, France) are based on an optical signal in the near-infrared region. The cows had at least 3 measurements taken during the period from April 2005 to January 2009. Data were analyzed using a repeatability animal model. There was substantial variation in milk coagulation traits with a coefficient of variation of 27% for E(30) and 9% for the log-transformed RCT. The percentage of variation explained by herd was 3% for E(30) and 4% for RCT, suggesting that milk coagulation traits are not strongly affected by herd conditions (e.g., feeding). Heritability was 0.28 for RCT and 0.41 for E(30), and repeatability estimates were 0.45 and 0.50, respectively. Genetic correlation between both milk coagulation traits was negligible, suggesting that RCT and E(30) have genetically different foundations. Milk coagulation time had a moderately high positive genetic (0.69) and phenotypic (0.61) correlation with milk pH indicating that a high pH is related to a less favorable RCT. Curd firmness had a moderate positive genetic (0.48) and phenotypic (0.45) correlation with the protein percentage. Therefore, a high protein percentage is associated with favorable curd firmness. All reported genetic parameters were statistically significantly different from zero. Additional univariate random regression analysis for milk coagulation traits yielded slightly higher average heritabilities of 0.38 and 0

  10. An epidemiological perspective of personalized medicine: the Estonian experience.

    PubMed

    Milani, L; Leitsalu, L; Metspalu, A

    2015-02-01

    The Estonian Biobank and several other biobanks established over a decade ago are now starting to yield valuable longitudinal follow-up data for large numbers of individuals. These samples have been used in hundreds of different genome-wide association studies, resulting in the identification of reliable disease-associated variants. The focus of genomic research has started to shift from identifying genetic and nongenetic risk factors associated with common complex diseases to understanding the underlying mechanisms of the diseases and suggesting novel targets for therapy. However, translation of findings from genomic research into medical practice is still lagging, mainly due to insufficient evidence of clinical validity and utility. In this review, we examine the different elements required for the implementation of personalized medicine based on genomic information. First, biobanks and genome centres are required and have been established for the high-throughput genomic screening of large numbers of samples. Secondly, the combination of susceptibility alleles into polygenic risk scores has improved risk prediction of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and several other diseases. Finally, national health information systems are being developed internationally, to combine data from electronic medical records from different sources, and also to gradually incorporate genomic information. We focus on the experience in Estonia, one of several countries with national goals towards more personalized health care based on genomic information, where the unique combination of elements required to accomplish this goal are already in place.

  11. History of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective.

    PubMed

    Allik, Jüri

    2007-11-01

    A short review of the development of experimental psychology from an Estonian perspective is presented. The first rector after the reopening of the University of Dorpat (Tartu) in 1802, Georg Friedrich Parrot (1767-1852) was interested in optical phenomena which he attempted to explain by introducing the concept of unconscious inferences, anticipating a similar theory proposed by Herman von Helmholtz 20 years later. One of the next rectors, Alfred Wilhelm Volkmann (1800-1878) was regarded by Edwin Boring as one of the founding fathers of the experimental psychology. Georg Wilhelm Struve (1793-1864) played an essential part in solving the problem of personal equations. Arthur Joachim von Oettingen (1836-1920) developed a theory of music harmony, which stimulated his student Wilhelm Friedrich Ostwald (1853-1932) to study colour harmony. Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926), the founder of modern psychiatry, is by far the most important experimental psychologist who has worked in Estonia. His successor Wladimir von Tchisch (1855-1922), another student of Wilhelm Wundt, continued Kraepelin's work in experimental psychology. The lives of Wolfgang Köhler (1887-1967), who was born in Reval (Tallinn), and Oswald Külpe (1862-1915), who graduated from the University of Dorpat, extended the link between the history of experimental psychology and Estonia. Karl Gustav Girgensohn (1875-1925), the founder of the Dorpat School of the psychology of religion, stretched the use of experimental methods to the study of religious experience.

  12. [Contraception and adolescence].

    PubMed

    Amate, P; Luton, D; Davitian, C

    2013-06-01

    The mean age of first sexual intercourse is still around 17 in France, but a lot of teenagers are concerned by contraception before, with approximately 25% of sexually active 15-year-old girls. The contraceptive method must take into consideration some typical features of this population, as sporadic and non-planned sexual activity, with several sexual partners in a short period of time. In 2004, the "Haute Autorité de santé" has recommended, as first-line method, combined oral contraceptive (COC) pills, in association with male condoms. Copper-containing intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCD) and etonogestrel-containing subcutaneous implant have been suggested but not recommended. However, oral contraceptive pill, as a user-based method, carries an important typical-use failure rate, because remembering taking a daily pill, and dealing with stop periods, may be challenging. Some easier-to-use method should be kept in mind, as 28-day COC packs, transdermal contraceptive patches, and vaginal contraceptive rings. Moreover, American studies have shown that long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARC), i.e. IUCD and implant, have many advantages for teenagers: very effective, safe, invisible. They seem well-fitted for this population, with high satisfaction and continuation rates, as long as side effects are well explained. Thus, LARC methods should be proposed more widely to teenagers. Anyway, before prescribing a contraceptive method, it is important to determine the specific situation of every teenager, to let them choose the method that they consider as appropriate in their own case, and to think about the availability of the chosen method. It is necessary to explain how to handle mistakes or misses with user-based contraceptive methods, and emergency contraception can be anticipated and prescribed in advanced provision. The use of male condoms should be encouraged for adolescents, with another effective contraceptive method, in order to reduce the high risk

  13. The possibility of compensation for damages in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life. An Estonian perspective.

    PubMed

    Sõritsa, Dina; Lahe, Janno

    2014-04-01

    While case law in cases of wrongful conception, wrongful birth and wrongful life is completely missing in Estonia, this article is aimed at providing possible solutions under Estonian law to some of the legally complex problems that these cases contain. Through the analysis of Estonian, German and U.S. legal literature and case law, the article is mainly focused on proposing some solutions to the legal problems concerning compensable damage, but also explains the Estonian legal framework of the contractual and delictual basis for compensation for the damages. The application of several grounds for the possibility of limiting the compensation in the afore-mentioned cases are analysed.

  14. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents: factorial invariance and latent mean differences across gender and age in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ingles, Candido J; La Greca, Annette M; Marzo, Juan C; Garcia-Lopez, Luis J; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M

    2010-12-01

    Little is known about the factorial invariance across gender and age for self-report measures of social anxiety in adolescence. This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) across gender and age groups in 1570 Spanish adolescents (54% girls), ranging in age from 14 to 17 years. Equality of factor structures was compared using multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. Measurement invariance for the correlated three-factor model of the SAS-A was found across gender and age samples. Analyses of latent mean differences revealed that girls exhibited higher means than boys on two SAS-A subscales, Fear of Negative Evaluation and Social Avoidance and Distress-New (SAD-New). In addition, on the SAD-New subscale, the structured means significantly diminished from 14-year olds to 16- and 17-year olds and from 15-year olds to 17-year olds. Findings are discussed in terms of the use of the SAS-A with Spanish adolescents.

  15. The relation between family socioeconomic trajectories from childhood to adolescence and dental caries and associated oral behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Marco Aurélio; Peres, Karen Glazer; de Barros, Aluísio Jardim Dornellas; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the influence of family socioeconomic trajectories from childhood to adolescence on dental caries and associated behaviours. Design Population‐based birth cohort. Setting Representative sample of the population of subjects born in 1982 in Pelotas, Brazil. Participants Adolescents (n = 888) aged 15 years old were dentally examined and interviewed. Main outcome measures Dental caries index (DMFT), care index (F/DMFT), tooth brushing, flossing and pattern of dental services use. Main results Adolescents who were always poor showed, in general, a worse pattern of dental caries, whereas adolescents who never were poor had a better pattern of dental caries. Adolescents who had moved from poverty in childhood to non‐poverty in adolescence and those who had moved from non‐poverty in childhood to poverty in adolescence had similar dental pattern to those who were always poor except for the pattern of dental services use, which was higher in the first group. In all groups girls had fewer carious teeth, better oral hygiene habits and higher dental services use than boys. Conclusion Poverty in at least one stage of the lifespan has a harmful effect on dental caries, oral behaviours and dental services use. Belonging to upwardly mobile families between childhood and adolescence only contributed to improved dental care. PMID:17234873

  16. Sequencing and annotated analysis of an Estonian human genome.

    PubMed

    Lilleoja, Rutt; Sarapik, Aili; Reimann, Ene; Reemann, Paula; Jaakma, Ülle; Vasar, Eero; Kõks, Sulev

    2012-02-01

    In present study we describe the sequencing and annotated analysis of the individual genome of Estonian. Using SOLID technology we generated 2,449,441,916 of 50-bp reads. The Bioscope version 1.3 was used for mapping and pairing of reads to the NCBI human genome reference (build 36, hg18). Bioscope enables also the annotation of the results of variant (tertiary) analysis. The average mapping of reads was 75.5% with total coverage of 107.72 Gb. resulting in mean fold coverage of 34.6. We found 3,482,975 SNPs out of which 352,492 were novel. 21,222 SNPs were in coding region: 10,649 were synonymous SNPs, 10,360 were nonsynonymous missense SNPs, 155 were nonsynonymous nonsense SNPs and 58 were nonsynonymous frameshifts. We identified 219 CNVs with total base pair coverage of 37,326,300 bp and 87,451 large insertion/deletion polymorphisms covering 10,152,256 bp of the genome. In addition, we found 285,864 small size insertion/deletion polymorphisms out of which 133,969 were novel. Finally, we identified 53 inversions, 19 overlapped genes and 2 overlapped exons. Interestingly, we found the region in chromosome 6 to be enriched with the coding SNPs and CNVs. This study confirms previous findings, that our genomes are more complex and variable as thought before. Therefore, sequencing of the personal genomes followed by annotation would improve the analysis of heritability of phenotypes and our understandings on the functions of genome.

  17. Use of coals for cocombustion with Estonian shale oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Zaichenko, M. N.; Melnikov, D. A.; Vereshetin, V. A.; Attikas, Raivo

    2016-03-01

    The article reports the results of investigation into the possibility of using off-design coals as an additional fuel in connection with predicted reduction in the heat of combustion of shale oil and more stringent environmental regulations on harmful emissions. For this purpose, a mathematical model of a TP-101 boiler at the Estonian Power Plant has been constructed and verified; the model describes the boiler's current state. On the basis of the process flow chart, the experience of operating the boiler, the relevant regulations, and the environmental requirement criteria for evaluation of the equipment operation in terms of reliability, efficiency, and environmental safety have been developed. These criteria underlie the analysis of the calculated operating parameters of the boiler and the boiler plant as a whole upon combustion with various shale-oil-to-coal ratios. The computational study shows that, at the minimal load, the normal operation of the boiler is ensured almost within the entire range of the parts by the heat rate of coal. With the decreasing load on the boiler, the normal equipment operation region narrows. The basic limitation factors are the temperature of the steam in the superheater, the temperature of the combustion products at the furnace outlet and the flow rate of the combustion air and flue gases. As a result, the parts by heat rate of lignite and bituminous coal have been determined that ensure reliable and efficient operation of the equipment. The efficiency of the boiler with the recommended lignite-to-coal ratio is higher than that achieved when burning the design shale oil. Based on the evaluation of the environmental performance of the boiler, the necessary additional measures to reduce emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere have been determined.

  18. Estonian Vocational Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education for Students with Special Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Richard; Kaikkonen, Leena; Koiv, Kristi

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from research conducted with two samples of teachers from Estonian Vocational Schools. The first sample comprised a group of teachers who had received professional development directly related to the management of students with special educational needs in vocational education settings. Their attitudes and…

  19. Comprehension and Production of Noun Compounds by Estonian Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padrik, Marika; Tamtik, Merli

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined how 12 Estonian-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 60 children with normal speech development (ND) comprehended compound nouns with differing sequence of the components (first task) and how they produced compound nouns to label genuine and accidental categories by using analogy (second task) and…

  20. Conceptions of Finnish and Estonian Pre-School Teachers' Goals in Their Pedagogical Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niikko, Anneli; Ugaste, Aino

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the conceptions of the Finnish and Estonian pre-school teachers' goals, and the achievement of these goals in their pedagogical work. The study consisted of 60 (30 from each country) interviews with pre-school teachers. The interview data was analyzed phenomenographically. The findings showed that children…

  1. Orthographic Depth and Spelling Acquisition in Estonian and English: A Comparison of Two Diverse Alphabetic Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viise, Neva M.; Richards, Herbert C.; Pandis, Meeli

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the link between the orthographic transparency of a language and the ease or difficulty of acquiring spelling proficiency in that language. The two languages compared are English, with a highly irregular sound-to-print correspondence, and Estonian, a Finno-Ugric language that has one of the most highly regular…

  2. Identifying the Problems That Finnish and Estonian Teachers Encounter in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugaste, Aino; Niikko, Anneli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe Finnish and Estonian preschool teachers' thoughts on the problems they encounter in their pedagogical work in the preschool context. The study involved interviews with 80 preschool teachers (40 in each country). The theoretical framework of the study is based on quality as a pedagogical phenomenon, whereby…

  3. The 2011 Estonian High School Language Reform in the Context of Critical Language Policy and Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerrett, Delaney Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to situate Estonian language use and policy within the emerging field of critical language policy and planning (CLPP) by investigating the discourses that frame linguistic behaviour. This done by way of an analysis of a series of interviews carried out with key actors in language policy in Estonia. The discourses framing language…

  4. Changes in Estonian General Education from the Collapse of the Soviet Union to EU Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krull, Edgar; Trasberg, Karmen

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces and discusses the nature and development of Estonian system of general education in the period of last thirty years. The main focus is paid on the changes resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union and the period of integration leading up to EU entry. Also changes in other spheres of education and social life are…

  5. Assessing Estonian Mothers' Involvement in Their Children's Education and Trust in Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Peets, Katlin; Niilo, Airi

    2011-01-01

    Questionnaires assessing mothers' involvement in children's education and their trust in teachers were developed for the usage in Estonian kindergartens and elementary schools. The scales were adapted based on the questionnaires by Fantuzzo and colleagues (parental involvement) and Adams and Christenson (trust). Mothers of 454 kindergarten…

  6. Estonian Language Competencies for Peace Corps Volunteers in the Republic of Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ets, Tiina K.

    This guide is designed for Estonian language training of Peace Corps workers in Estonia, is intended for use in a competency-based language training program, and reflects daily communication needs in that context. It consists of 52 lessons, each addressing a specific language competency, organized in 14 topical units. An introductory section gives…

  7. A Cross-Cultural Study of Collectivism: A Comparison of American, Estonian, and Russian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Realo, Anu; Allik, Juri

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the theory that collectivism consists of at least three subtypes focused on the relations with family, peers, and society using a cross-cultural sample from the United States, Estonia, and Russia. Finds that the Estonian sample was the least collectivistic within the three subtypes and the Russian samples were the most collectivistic.…

  8. Tiger in Focus--A National Survey of ICT in Estonian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toots, Anu; Laanpere, Mart

    2004-01-01

    Estonia has not participated in international studies of ICT in education, nor have there been any similar studies at the national level up until the year 2000. The first survey of ICT in Estonian schools was conducted after completion of the national school computerization programme called Tiger Leap. This paper focuses on the targeted responses…

  9. Composition of Estonian Infants' Expressive Lexicon According to the Adaptation of CDI/Words and Gestures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schults, Astra; Tulviste, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    The growth rate and the composition of expressive lexicon was studied in a sample of 903 infants between the age of 0;8 and 1;4 whose parents completed the Estonian adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory-Words and Gestures. As expected, older children had on average larger vocabularies compared to younger children.…

  10. Estonian Science and Non-Science Students' Attitudes towards Mathematics at University Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldo, Indrek; Reiska, Priit

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the attitudes and beliefs towards studying mathematics by university level students. A total of 970 randomly chosen, first year, Estonian bachelor students participated in the study (of which 498 were science students). Data were collected using a Likert-type scale questionnaire and analysed with a respect to field of…

  11. On the Acquisition of Estonian. Papers and Reports on Child Language Development No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vihman, Marilyn May

    The speech of a 2-year-old monolingual Estonian child was studied over a period of six months. The child's initial and medial consonants and clusters were examined and charted to highlight her difficulties. Stops and nasals were easier than fricatives and sonorants; by 1 year 7 months the labials were essentially mastered; fricatives were more…

  12. Consumer Socialisation and Value Orientations among Estonian and Chinese Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waerdahl, Randi; Kalmus, Veronika; Keller, Margit

    2011-01-01

    This paper asks if Estonian and Chinese tweens' access to pocket money influences their brand valuation, as well as value orientations in the context of perceived peer popularity and personal well-being. Surveys conducted in autumns 2006 (China n = 188) and 2007 (Estonia n = 111) show an inherent cultural resistance among tweens in both countries…

  13. Somatotype in 6-11-year-old Italian and Estonian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, A R; Semproli, S; Jürimäe, J; Toselli, S; Claessens, A L; Jürimäe, T; Brasili, P

    2008-01-01

    The study of somatotypes can contribute to the understanding of variability in human body build. The aim of this study was to compare the somatotypes of Italian and Estonian schoolchildren in order to evaluate factors that might lead to variability in somatotypes. The sample consisted of 762 Italian and 366 Estonian children aged 6-11 years. They were somatotyped by the Heath-Carter anthropometric method. Data on organised extra-curricular physical activity and hours of weekly training were also collected. One-way ANOVA was used to evaluate country-related variations of somatotype in each age/sex group, while factorial ANOVA was used to test the influence of country and organised physical activity on the variability of the anthropometric characteristics and somatotype components. There are significant differences in mean somatotypes between the Italian and Estonian children in many age classes and a different constitutional trend in children from the two different countries is observed. The Italian children are more endomorphic and less mesomorphic and ectomorphic than the Estonian children. On the other hand, it emerges from factorial ANOVA, that the somatotype components do not present significant variations related to organised physical activity and to the interaction between the country of origin and sport practice. Moreover, the results of the forward stepwise discriminant analyses show that mesomorphy is the best discriminator between the two countries, followed by ectomorphy. Our findings suggest that the observed differences between Italian and Estonian children could be related mainly to country rather than to the practice of organised physical activity in the two countries.

  14. The contribution of the Estonian Soil Sciences Society to the science, society and education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossner, Helis; Reintam, Endla; Astover, Alar; Shanskiy, Merrit

    2015-04-01

    Predecessor of todays Estonian Soil Science Society was Estonian Branch of All-Union Soil Society of Soil Scientist which acted from 1957 to 1991. In 1957-1964 Estonian Branch was leaded by prof. Osvald Hallik and in 1964-1991 by prof. Loit Reintam. After re-independence of Estonia in 1991 the society acted in informal way and was leaded by prof. L. Reintam. Non-profit organization "Estonian Soil Science Society" was officially (re)established in 10.23.2009. Estonian Soil Science Society (ESSS) is aimed to: • coordinate collaboration between institutions and individuals intrested of soil science, conservation and sustainable use of soils; • promoting soil science education and research, raising awareness of publicity on topics relating to soils in Estonia; • cooperation between local and foreign unions and associations. In recent years the ESSS had managed to reunite the number of soil scientist from different research institutions of Estonia and of related institutions. Also, the ESSS had provided numerous of materials based on later scientific findings. One of most important activity leaded by ESSS is the organizing Soil Day in Estonia with relevant seminar, where the speakers are sharing latest information with target group (researchers, teachers, policy makers, farmers, students etc.). In a frames of Soil Day the Soil of the Year is selected for Estonia. In 2015, the soil of the year is Leptosol. For current, International Year of the Soil ESSS had planned numerous activities to introduce the importance of soils to wider audience. In current presentation we would like to share the soil science researchers experience through- out the decades of soil science research in Estonia, show our latest findings and designed activities for the International Year of SOIL.

  15. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness. PMID:18811793

  16. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness.

  17. Callous unemotional traits in children with disruptive behavior disorder: Predictors of developmental trajectories and adolescent outcomes.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Pietro; Lochman, John E; Manfredi, Azzurra; Milone, Annarita; Nocentini, Annalaura; Pisano, Simone; Masi, Gabriele

    2016-02-28

    The present study investigated trajectories of Callous Unemotional (CU) traits in youth with Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnosis followed-up from childhood to adolescence, to explore possible predictors of these trajectories, and to individuate adolescent clinical outcomes. A sample of 59 Italian referred children with Disruptive Behavior Disorder (53 boys and 6 girls, 21 with Conduct Disorder) was followed up from childhood to adolescence. CU traits were assessed with CU-scale of the Antisocial Process Screening Device-parent report. Latent growth curve models showed that CU traits are likely to decrease linearly from 9 to 15 years old, with a deceleration in adolescence (from 12 to 15). There was substantial individual variability in the rate of change of CU traits over time: patients with a minor decrease of CU symptoms during childhood were at increased risk for severe behavioral problems and substance use into adolescence. Although lower level of socio-economic status and lower level of parenting involvement were associated to elevated levels of CU traits at baseline evaluation, none of the considered clinical and environmental factors predicted the levels of CU traits. The current longitudinal research suggests that adolescent outcomes of Disruptive Behavior Disorder be influenced by CU traits trajectories during childhood. PMID:26791396

  18. Periodontal status among adolescents in Georgia. A pathfinder study

    PubMed Central

    Margvelashvili, Vladimer; Bilder, Leon; Kalandadze, Manana; Tsintsadze, Nino; Machtei, Eli E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the present pathfinder study was to screen and map the periodontal status of Georgian population in accordance with the guidelines of the World Health Organization for population based surveys. Methods. During 2012, a pathfinder study was conducted to collect this data. For the periodontal portion of the study, 15-year-old school children were examined in the capital city of Tbilisi as well as in two other large cities and 4 smaller villages. All participants were examined by a trained dental team in a classroom using a dental mirror and a periodontal probe. Periodontal examination included plaque scores, calculus scores, probing depth measurements and bleeding on probing. These measurements were recorded for the Ramfjord index teeth. Results. A total of 397 15-year-old participants were examined in this pathfinder study. There were 240 females (60.45%) and 157 males (39.55%). Of the total participants 196 (49.37%) were urban adolescents while 201 (50.63%) were from rural communities. Mean probing depth was 3.34 ± 0.57 mm with a range of 1 to 10 mm; a relatively high proportion (34.26%) of these subjects presented with at least one site with pockets of 5 mm or deeper. Males presented with greater plaque, calculus and probing depths than females. When urban and rural populations were compared, urban participants presented with more plaque, probing depths and bleeding on probing. Greater pocket depths were found to be related to the presence of plaque calculus and bleeding on probing. Conclusions. Overall, rather high incidences of periodontal pockets ≥ 5 mm were detected in this population. This data should serve to prepare further more detailed epidemiological studies that will serve to plan and implement prevent and treat strategies for periodontal diseases in Georgia and also help make manpower decisions. PMID:24109543

  19. Periodontal status among adolescents in Georgia. A pathfinder study.

    PubMed

    Levin, Liran; Margvelashvili, Vladimer; Bilder, Leon; Kalandadze, Manana; Tsintsadze, Nino; Machtei, Eli E

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of the present pathfinder study was to screen and map the periodontal status of Georgian population in accordance with the guidelines of the World Health Organization for population based surveys. Methods. During 2012, a pathfinder study was conducted to collect this data. For the periodontal portion of the study, 15-year-old school children were examined in the capital city of Tbilisi as well as in two other large cities and 4 smaller villages. All participants were examined by a trained dental team in a classroom using a dental mirror and a periodontal probe. Periodontal examination included plaque scores, calculus scores, probing depth measurements and bleeding on probing. These measurements were recorded for the Ramfjord index teeth. Results. A total of 397 15-year-old participants were examined in this pathfinder study. There were 240 females (60.45%) and 157 males (39.55%). Of the total participants 196 (49.37%) were urban adolescents while 201 (50.63%) were from rural communities. Mean probing depth was 3.34 ± 0.57 mm with a range of 1 to 10 mm; a relatively high proportion (34.26%) of these subjects presented with at least one site with pockets of 5 mm or deeper. Males presented with greater plaque, calculus and probing depths than females. When urban and rural populations were compared, urban participants presented with more plaque, probing depths and bleeding on probing. Greater pocket depths were found to be related to the presence of plaque calculus and bleeding on probing. Conclusions. Overall, rather high incidences of periodontal pockets ≥ 5 mm were detected in this population. This data should serve to prepare further more detailed epidemiological studies that will serve to plan and implement prevent and treat strategies for periodontal diseases in Georgia and also help make manpower decisions.

  20. Utility of the AUDIT for screening adolescents for problematic alcohol use in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Fairlie, Anne M; Sindelar, Holly A; Eaton, Cheryl A; Spirito, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    The emergency department is a setting conducive to screening adolescents for problematic alcohol use, who can then be targeted for further evaluation and intervention. This study examined the utility of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) as a screening measure for identifying young adolescents in an urban emergency department (ED). Adolescents (13-17 years old) who presented to the ED were screened as part of a larger study. A total of 859 adolescents, who denied alcohol use prior to their ED visit were administered the AUDIT. Of the 500 younger adolescents (13-15 years old), approximately 4% (n=22) were classified as AUDIT-positive using a cut-score of four or greater. Of the 359 older adolescents (16-17 years old), almost 19% (n=67) were classified as AUDIT-positive. The ability of shorter versions of the AUDIT to identify AUDIT-positive adolescents (as classified by the 10-item AUDIT using a cut-score of four or greater) was also explored. Since the adolescents in the current study were not alcohol-positive at the time of the ED visit, they would likely have been missed by biochemical alcohol screening alone. Screening procedures that employ the AUDIT may be most efficient when adapted for the specific adolescent age group (younger versus older), thus identifying the highest number of adolescents who should be targeted for intervention. Lowering the recommended adult cut-scores on the shorter versions of the AUDIT appears necessary to identify adolescents who may benefit from intervention or referral.

  1. [Health-related quality of life and mental health of children and adolescents in Germany: results from the German HBSC Study 2006-2010].

    PubMed

    Ravens-Sieberer, U; Ottova, V; Hillebrandt, D; Klasen, F

    2012-07-01

    With medical advances, acute -disease in childhood and adolescence could be substantially reduced, thus shifting the focus towards chronic and mental health problems. Currently there is a lack of studies on trends in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and mental well-being and their determinants in the context of children's and adolescents' environment (e. g., family, school). The aim of this paper is to describe the trend in HRQoL in children and adolescents from 2006 to 2010 and to analyse factors associated with HRQoL and mental well-being of children and adolescents.Results are based on the German sample (11-, 13- and 15-year-old school children) of the international WHO Study from the 2006 (n=6 896) and 2010 (n=4 723) surveys. HRQoL was assessed by means of KIDSCREEN-10. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a screening instrument for mental health problems, was used as an indicator of mental health. Logistic regressions were performed to analyse the effects of covariates on HRQoL as well as on mental health problems.HRQoL remained fairly stable between 2006 and 2010 for both boys and girls. Approximately 85% of the school children report a high or normal HRQoL, whereby girls indicate a lower HRQoL than boys. Overall, 14,3% of the pupils show signs of mental health problems. The model results show that poor communication with parents, spending little time with friends, lack of perceived support from classmates and a negative attitude towards school are negatively associated with mental health.The majority of children and adolescents report a high HRQoL over time. The fact that every 7th 11- to 15-year-old shows signs of mental health problems raises concern and suggests that addressing mental health problems needs to gain more priority in public health measures. PMID:22836889

  2. [Health-related quality of life and mental health of children and adolescents in Germany: results from the German HBSC Study 2006-2010].

    PubMed

    Ravens-Sieberer, U; Ottova, V; Hillebrandt, D; Klasen, F

    2012-07-01

    With medical advances, acute -disease in childhood and adolescence could be substantially reduced, thus shifting the focus towards chronic and mental health problems. Currently there is a lack of studies on trends in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and mental well-being and their determinants in the context of children's and adolescents' environment (e. g., family, school). The aim of this paper is to describe the trend in HRQoL in children and adolescents from 2006 to 2010 and to analyse factors associated with HRQoL and mental well-being of children and adolescents.Results are based on the German sample (11-, 13- and 15-year-old school children) of the international WHO Study from the 2006 (n=6 896) and 2010 (n=4 723) surveys. HRQoL was assessed by means of KIDSCREEN-10. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a screening instrument for mental health problems, was used as an indicator of mental health. Logistic regressions were performed to analyse the effects of covariates on HRQoL as well as on mental health problems.HRQoL remained fairly stable between 2006 and 2010 for both boys and girls. Approximately 85% of the school children report a high or normal HRQoL, whereby girls indicate a lower HRQoL than boys. Overall, 14,3% of the pupils show signs of mental health problems. The model results show that poor communication with parents, spending little time with friends, lack of perceived support from classmates and a negative attitude towards school are negatively associated with mental health.The majority of children and adolescents report a high HRQoL over time. The fact that every 7th 11- to 15-year-old shows signs of mental health problems raises concern and suggests that addressing mental health problems needs to gain more priority in public health measures.

  3. Breakfast consumption and cognitive function in adolescent schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Simon B; Bandelow, Stephan; Nevill, Mary E

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the effects of breakfast consumption on cognitive function, mood and blood glucose concentration in adolescent schoolchildren. With the institution's ethical advisory committee approval, 96 adolescents (12 to 15 years old) completed two randomly assigned trials (one following breakfast consumption and one following breakfast omission), scheduled 7 days apart. Cognitive function tests (visual search test, Stroop test and Sternberg paradigm), a mood questionnaire and a finger prick blood sample (in a subgroup of 60 participants) were completed immediately following breakfast and 120 min after the baseline measures. Following breakfast consumption, accuracy on the more complex level of the visual search test was higher than following breakfast omission (p=0.021). Similarly, accuracy on the Stroop test was better maintained across the morning following breakfast consumption when compared to breakfast omission (p=0.022). Furthermore, responses on the Sternberg paradigm were quicker later in the morning following breakfast consumption, particularly on the more complex levels (p=0.012). Breakfast consumption also produced higher self-report energy and fullness, lower self-report tiredness and hunger and higher blood glucose concentrations (all p<0.0005). Overall, the findings of the present study suggest that breakfast consumption enhances cognitive function in an adolescent population when compared to breakfast omission. PMID:21439306

  4. [SURPS French version validation in a Quebec adolescent population].

    PubMed

    Castonguay-Jolin, Laura; Perrier-Ménard, Eveline; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Garel, Patricia; Séguin, Jean R; Conrod, Patricia J

    2013-09-01

    Objective: The Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) has been developed to screen personality risk factors for substance misuse. This scale assesses 4 high-risk personality traits using a 23-item, self-report questionnaire. SURPS helps guiding targeted approaches to prevention of substance abuse and misuse. It has been validated in the United Kingdom, English Canada, Sri Lanka, and China. This study aims to validate this scale in a sample of French-speaking adolescents from Quebec as well as its sensitivity in a clinical sample of adolescents. Method: Two hundred two 15-year-old youths from a community sample completed a French version of SURPS as well as other measures of personality and substance use. This study reports the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the scale, as well as a factor analysis of items. Further, 40 youths (mean age 15.7 years) from a clinical population completed SURPS and their scores were compared with those of the community sample. Results: SURPS French translation has good internal consistency and demonstrated a 4-factor structure very similar to the original scale. The 4 subscales show good concurrent validity, and 3 of the subscales were found to correlate with measures of substance use. Finally, 95% of the clinical sample was identified at high risk for substance misuse according to SURPS cut-off scores. Conclusion: SURPS French translation seems to be a valid and sensitive scale that can be used in a French-speaking adolescent population from Quebec.

  5. Atrial fibrillation in a healthy adolescent after heavy smoking of contraband cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Ozyilmaz, Isa; Ozyilmaz, Sinem; Tosun, Oyku; Tola, Hasan Tahsin; Saygi, Murat; Ergul, Yakup

    2015-08-01

    The use of contraband cigarettes is a serious public health problem. We present a case of atrial fibrillation in a healthy adolescent suspected to be caused by smoking contraband cigarettes. A 15-year-old man was admitted to our emergency department experiencing syncope and palpitations. He was a cigarette smoker, but he had never smoked any illicit tobacco products before. He had finished a pack of counterfeit cigarettes (20 pieces) in 1.5 h. His electrocardiogram showed atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response and irregular RR intervals. The patient had no history of alcohol use, surgery, palpitations, hypertension, chronic bronchitis, or any infectious diseases. His atrial fibrillation was converted to a normal sinus rhythm after the cardioversion treatment. Our patient was discharged from the pediatric cardiology service and advised to quit smoking cigarettes, strictly warning against illicit tobacco products. In conclusion, intensive smoking of counterfeit cigarettes may lead to occurrences of atrial fibrillation.

  6. Outcomes and intentions in children's, adolescents', and adults' second- and third-party punishment behavior.

    PubMed

    Gummerum, Michaela; Chu, Maria T

    2014-10-01

    Theories of morality maintain that punishment supports the emergence and maintenance of moral behavior. This study investigated developmental differences in the role of outcomes and the violator's intentions in second-party punishment (where punishers are victims of a violation) and third-party punishment (where punishers are unaffected observers of a violation). Four hundred and forty-three adults and 8-, 12-, and 15-year-olds made choices in mini-ultimatum games and newly-developed mini-third-party punishment games, which involved actual incentives rather than hypothetical decisions. Adults integrated outcomes and intentions in their second- and third-party punishment, whereas 8-year-olds consistently based their punishment on the outcome of the violation. Adolescents integrated outcomes and intentions in second- but not third-party punishment.

  7. Coping styles and strategies: a comparison of adolescent students with and without learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Firth, Nola; Greaves, Daryl; Frydenberg, Erica

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared the results of a coping measure completed by 98 seventh through ninth grade students who were assessed as having learning disabilities with published means from the general Australian student population. The Adolescent Coping Scale was the measure used. The results suggested higher use by students aged 12 to 13 years who had learning disabilities of an overall nonproductive coping style and in particular of the nonproductive strategies of ignoring the problem and not coping. Although there was no difference in overall productive or nonproductive coping style for 14- to 15-year-olds, the students in this age group who had learning disabilities reported higher use of the strategies of not coping and ignoring the problem. These findings are discussed in relation to a need for interventions that give students who have learning disabilities strategies that address the risk of a passive coping style. PMID:20023178

  8. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma in an adolescent girl: A case report

    PubMed Central

    DONG, LI-QUN; SUN, XIAO-MEI; XIANG, CHENG-FA; WU, JIN; YU, PING

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer in childhood is not as common in the adult population. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease associated with autoantibodies, and the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid remains controversial. The present study reported a 15-year-old adolescent girl with the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer. With the complexity of the clinical manifestations of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, it can be expressed as not only hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, but also normal thyroid function. The long-term treatment, and for children with thyroid cancer, early diagnosis is particularly difficult. In the present case, the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is primarily based on clinical manifestations, anti-thyroglobulin antibody and anti-thyroid microsomal antibody. The only diagnostic imaging ultrasound was negative. The present study discussed the possible reason and the identification of this unique case of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer. PMID:27330783

  9. Seroprevalence of past dengue virus infection among children and adolescents in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Ang, Li Wei; Cutter, Jeffery; James, Lyn; Goh, Kee Tai

    2015-12-01

    We conducted a pediatric seroprevalence study of dengue virus (DENV) infection in Singapore, a dengue endemic city-state. Residual sera from 1,200 Singapore residents aged 1-17 years seen in two hospitals between 2008 and 2010 were tested for anti-DENV IgG antibodies. The overall seroprevalence was 10.4% (95%CI: 8.7-12.1%). There had been a marked decline in seroprevalence in the 15-19-year age group over the last three decades, while the prevalence in the 1-5-year olds (12.6%) was significantly higher than that of the 1996-1997 pediatric survey (0.8%). The overall dengue seroprevalence in children and adolescents remained low.

  10. Outcomes and intentions in children's, adolescents', and adults' second- and third-party punishment behavior.

    PubMed

    Gummerum, Michaela; Chu, Maria T

    2014-10-01

    Theories of morality maintain that punishment supports the emergence and maintenance of moral behavior. This study investigated developmental differences in the role of outcomes and the violator's intentions in second-party punishment (where punishers are victims of a violation) and third-party punishment (where punishers are unaffected observers of a violation). Four hundred and forty-three adults and 8-, 12-, and 15-year-olds made choices in mini-ultimatum games and newly-developed mini-third-party punishment games, which involved actual incentives rather than hypothetical decisions. Adults integrated outcomes and intentions in their second- and third-party punishment, whereas 8-year-olds consistently based their punishment on the outcome of the violation. Adolescents integrated outcomes and intentions in second- but not third-party punishment. PMID:24997554

  11. Sexual attraction and psychological adjustment in Dutch adolescents: coping style as a mediator.

    PubMed

    Bos, Henny; van Beusekom, Gabriël; Sandfort, Theo

    2014-11-01

    This study examined whether feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) in 12- to 15-year-old Dutch adolescents were related to psychological health (self-esteem and psychological distress) and whether this relation was mediated by coping styles and moderated by biological sex. Data were collected from 1,546 high school students (802 boys and 744 girls; M age = 13.57 years) by means of standardized measurements. SSA was found to predict lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of psychological distress. Further analyses showed that passive coping style partly mediated these associations. This mediation was not moderated by biological sex. The findings suggest that in understanding and addressing mental health disparities between sexual minorities and heterosexual youth attention should be paid to intrapersonal psychological factors such as coping styles.

  12. Low dose quetiapine in the treatment of an adolescent with somnambulism: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gill, Jesjeet Singh; Pillai, Subash Kumar; Koh, Ong Hui; Jambunathan, Stephen Thevanathan

    2011-06-01

    Somnambulism or sleepwalking is a sleep disorder of arousal. Compared to in adults, pediatric and adolescent sleep disorders is still under-researched and poorly described. We report the successful use of low dose quietiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, in the treatment of a 15-year-old Indian male who presented with significant somnambulism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of quetiapine for the treatment of somnambulism in the literature. The presence of high voltage delta waves in sleepwalkers has been offered as a possible explanation for the patho-physiology of sleepwalking Quetiapine has been reported to decrease brain delta activity, and we postulate that this may be the mechanism on how it was beneficial for our patient. PMID:21748939

  13. Adolescent muscle dysmorphia and family-based treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Murray, Stuart B; Griffiths, Scott

    2015-04-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that the prevalence of male body dissatisfaction and muscle dysmorphia is rising. To date, however, there is no published evidence on the efficacy of treatments for muscle dysmorphia. We present the case of a 15-year-old boy who met full diagnostic criteria for muscle dysmorphia, whose symptoms were treated into remission with eating disorder-focused, family-based treatment. The age of this patient fell within the time period in which symptoms of muscle dysmorphia are most likely to develop and this case represents the first published case report of family-based treatment for muscle dysmorphia in this age group. Thus, this case report has important implications for clinicians considering treatment options for presentations of muscle dysmorphia when first presenting in adolescence. Implications for the development of treatment guidelines for muscle dysmorphia and for the diagnostic debate surrounding muscle dysmorphia are also discussed. PMID:24554557

  14. Low dose quetiapine in the treatment of an adolescent with somnambulism: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gill, Jesjeet Singh; Pillai, Subash Kumar; Koh, Ong Hui; Jambunathan, Stephen Thevanathan

    2011-06-01

    Somnambulism or sleepwalking is a sleep disorder of arousal. Compared to in adults, pediatric and adolescent sleep disorders is still under-researched and poorly described. We report the successful use of low dose quietiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, in the treatment of a 15-year-old Indian male who presented with significant somnambulism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of quetiapine for the treatment of somnambulism in the literature. The presence of high voltage delta waves in sleepwalkers has been offered as a possible explanation for the patho-physiology of sleepwalking Quetiapine has been reported to decrease brain delta activity, and we postulate that this may be the mechanism on how it was beneficial for our patient.

  15. Sex differences in the recognition of emotional prosody in late childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Takashi X; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2011-09-01

    We examined sex-related differences in the ability to recognize emotional prosody in late childhood (9-12 year olds) and adolescence (13-15 year olds) in relation to salivary testosterone levels. In order to examine both the accuracy and the sensitivity in labeling emotional prosody expressions, five intensities (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%) for each of three emotion categories were used as stimuli. Totals of 25 male and 22 female children and 28 male and 28 female adolescents were tested on their recognition of happy, angry and sad prosody at the different intensities. The results showed that adolescent females were more sensitive to happy and sad prosody than males but not to angry prosody, whereas there were no sex-related differences in emotional prosody in late childhood for any of the emotional categories. Furthermore, salivary testosterone levels were higher in males than females in adolescence, but not in late childhood, suggesting that the sex differences for emotional prosody recognition emerges in adolescence during which testosterone levels become higher in males than females.

  16. Validation of the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics questionnaire (Pidaq) in Spanish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Montiel-Company, José M.; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of PIDAQ for application in adolescents. Study Design: The questionnaire was translated, cross-culturally adapted and completed by 627 adolescents (366 12-year-olds and 261 15-year-olds). The adolescents were also examined by 4 examiners who had been calibrated against a gold standard and relative to each other (Kappa >0.85) in determining treatment need with the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) DHC and AC components. Results: Cronbach´s alpha of the translated PIDAQ was 0.90. The 23 items of the questionnaire were divided into four domains that explained 60% of the variance. The test-retest reliability of the questionnaire was 0.93. Discriminant validity revealed a significant association between the scores for the questionnaire and its subscales or domains and those for the DAI, IOTN-DHC and IOTN-AC treatment need indices. Adolescents with orthodontic treatment need scored higher in the questionnaires. Conclusions: The results show that the Spanish version of PIDAQ has a very similar internal structure and psychometric properties to those of the original questionnaire and demonstrate its validity for use with Spanish adolescents. Key words:Orthodontics, epidemiology, quality of life, malocclusion. PMID:23229257

  17. Field of genes: the politics of science and identity in the Estonian Genome Project.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Amy L

    2004-04-01

    This case study of the Estonian Genome Project (EGP) analyses the Estonian policy decision to construct a national human gene bank. Drawing upon qualitative data from newspaper articles and public policy documents, it focuses on how proponents use discourse to link the EGP to the broader political goal of securing Estonia's position within the Western/European scientific and cultural space. This dominant narrative is then situated within the analytical notion of the "brand state", which raises potentially negative political consequences for this type of market-driven genomic research. Considered against the increasing number of countries engaging in gene bank and/or gene database projects, this analysis of Estonia elucidates issues that cross national boundaries, while also illuminating factors specific to this small, post-Soviet state as it enters the global biocybernetic economy.

  18. [Tobacco consumption in pre-adolescent and adolescent school children in Spain: gender differences].

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Ramón; López Pérez, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the prevalence of tobacco consumption among pre-adolescent and adolescent school children in Spain at the start of the 21st century. The data were collected within the framework of the "Estilos de Vida de los Adolescentes Escolarizados" (EVAE) project, a nationwide cross-sectional study on the lifestyles of adolescent school children. In this study, a random sample of 8429 students aged from 10 to 18 years old (49.9% boys and 50.1% girls) was selected. The school children filled in an anonymous questionnaire in their classrooms. Among the 12-year-old age group, there are a significantly higher number of boys than girls who have ever smoked tobacco. Figures are higher for girls in the 14-year-old or older age groups. Between the 12 and the 14-year-old age groups, there is an increase of 40 percentage points for girls who have ever smoked tobacco. The prevalence of daily smoking exceeds 10% among the 14-year-old or older age groups, with significantly higher rates for girls than for boys among the 15-year-old group and older students. Among the 17-year-old group, 25% of boys and 35% of girls report that they smoke daily. The recent experience of Spain and other countries shows that it is possible to significantly reduce the prevalence of tobacco consumption among school children within a few years. The primary prevention of tobacco consumption among adolescents can be highly effective and should constitute a priority for the health system, the education system and other sectors involved. PMID:18173098

  19. Level of knowledge and sources of information about the rheumatoid arthritis in Estonian patients.

    PubMed

    Põlluste, Kaja; Kallikorm, Riina; Lember, Margus

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this paper was to find out how many patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) know about several aspects of disease, to explain the associations between the level of self-rated knowledge and patients' background and health status and to compare the importance of the main sources of information. A random sample (n = 1,259) of adult Estonian RA patients was selected from the Estonian Health Insurance Fund Database. The patients completed a self-administered questionnaire, which included information about their socio-demographic and disease characteristics, use of health services, information about the disease, and sources of information. Regression analysis was used to calculate the associations between the independent variables and level of self-rated knowledge about several aspects of RA. The results of the study indicated that the self-reported ratings of knowledge about the disease in Estonian RA patients were rather low. Health professionals were mentioned as the primary sources of information, but the longer disease history and more frequent use of health services as considerable predictors of higher ratings of knowledge refer to role of personal experience in obtaining knowledge about the disease as well.

  20. HIV testing and counselling in Estonian prisons, 2012 to 2013: aims, processes and impacts.

    PubMed

    Kivimets, K; Uuskula, A

    2014-11-27

    We present data from an observational cohort study on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention and control measures in prisons in Estonia to assess the potential for HIV transmission in this setting. HIV testing and retesting data from the Estonian prison health department were used to estimate HIV prevalence and incidence in prison. Since 2002, voluntary HIV counselling and testing has routinely been offered to all prisoners and has been part of the new prisoners health check. At the end of 2012, there were 3,289 prisoners in Estonia, including 170 women: 28.5% were drug users and 15.6% were infected with HIV. Of the HIV-positive inmates, 8.3% were newly diagnosed on prison entry. In 2012, 4,387 HIV tests (including retests) were performed in Estonian prisons. Among 1,756 initially HIV-negative prisoners who were in prison for more than one year and therefore tested for HIV twice within 12 months (at entry and annual testing), one new HIV infection was detected, an incidence of 0.067 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.025–5.572). This analysis indicates low risk of HIV transmission in Estonian prisons. Implementation of HIV management interventions could impact positively on the health of prisoners and the communities to which they return.

  1. Height Connections and Land Uplift Rates in West-Estonian Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jürgenson, H.; Liibusk, A.; Kall, T.

    2012-04-01

    Land uplift rates are largest in the western part of Estonia. The uplift is due to post-glacial rebound. In 2001-2011, the Estonian national high-precision levelling network was completely renewed and levelled. This was the third precise levelling campaign in the re-gion. The first one had taken place before the Second World War and the second one in the 1950s. The Estonian mainland was connected with the two largest islands (Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) in the west-Estonian archipelago using the water level monitoring (hydrody-namic levelling) method. Three pairs of automatic tide gauges were installed on opposite coasts of each waterway. The tide gauges were equipped with piezoresistive pressure sen-sors. This represented the first use of such kind of equipment in Estonia. The hydrodynamic levelling series span up to two calendar years. Nevertheless, the obtained hydrodynamic levelling results need to be additionally verified using alternative geodetic methods. The obtained results were compared with the previous high-precision levelling data from the 1960s and 1970s. As well, the new Estonian gravimetric geoid model and the GPS survey were used for GPS-levelling. All the three methods were analyzed, and the preliminary results coincided within a 1-2 cm margin. Additionally, the tide gauges on the mainland and on both islands were connected using high-precision levelling. In this manner, three hydrodynamic and three digital levelling height differences formed a closed loop with the length of 250 km. The closing error of the loop was less than 1 cm. Finally, the Fennoscandian post-glacial rebound was determined from repeated levelling as well as from repeated GPS survey. The time span between the two campaigns of the first-order GPS survey was almost 13 years. According to new calculations, the relative land uplift rates within the study area reached up to +2 mm/year. This is an area with a rela-tively small amount of input data for the Nordic models. In addition, a

  2. Adolescent socio-economic and school-based social status, health and well-being

    PubMed Central

    Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Studies of adults and adolescents suggest subjective socio-economic status (SES) is associated with health/well-being even after adjustment for objective SES. In adolescence, objective SES may have weaker relationships with health/well-being than at other life stages; school-based social status may be of greater relevance. We investigated the associations which objective SES (residential deprivation and family affluence), subjective SES and three school-based subjective social status dimensions (“SSS-peer”, “SSS-scholastic” and “SSS-sports”) had with physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger among 2503 Scottish 13–15 year-olds. Associations between objective SES and health/well-being were weak and inconsistent. Lower subjective SES was associated with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress, lower SSS-peer with increased psychological distress but reduced anger, lower SSS-scholastic with increased physical symptoms, psychological distress and anger, and lower SSS-sports with increased physical symptoms and psychological distress. Associations did not differ by gender. Objective and subjective SES had weaker associations with health/well-being than did school-based SSS dimensions. These findings underline the importance of school-based SSS in adolescence, and the need for future studies to include a range of school-based SSS dimensions and several health/well-being measures. They also highlight the need for a focus on school-based social status among those working to promote adolescent health/well-being. PMID:25306408

  3. Case Report: Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome in an adolescent presenting with Chronic Daily Headache

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Suzy Mascaro

    2014-01-01

    Background: Classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by skin hyperextensibility, skin fragility as well as joint hypermobility. EDS has been associated with psychiatric disorders, fatigue, dizziness, musculoskeletal pain, and stomach pain that are common complaints associated with adolescent chronic daily headache (CDH). This case report discusses an adolescent who presents with CDH and is subsequently diagnosed with EDS based upon the presenting symptoms for headache including syncope and chronic musculoskeletal pain as well as a history of hypermobility. Case Description: A 15-year-old female presented to an outpatient headache clinic with a 10-year history of headache, which had become daily over the past 3 months and awakened her in the middle of the night. Past history also revealed chronic musculoskeletal pain, syncope, fatigue, and hypermobility of joints. Subsequent referral to a geneticist confirmed mild classic EDS. Conclusion: Along with the major manifestation of EDS, other signs and symptoms that characterize this disorder include musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, dizziness/vertigo, depression, and anxiety, which are often associated with CDH in adolescents. Clinicians treating CDH need to be aware of the major clinical manifestations of EDS as well as the other signs and symptoms that characterize both of these chronic pain disorders. An understanding of this syndrome will lead not only to a diagnosis of EDS but also initiation of a treatment plan specific for an adolescent with CDH and EDS. PMID:25506506

  4. The effects of age, sex, and hormones on emotional conflict-related brain response during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cservenka, Anita; Stroup, Madison L; Etkin, Amit; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2015-10-01

    While cognitive and emotional systems both undergo development during adolescence, few studies have explored top-down inhibitory control brain activity in the context of affective processing, critical to informing adolescent psychopathology. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain response during an Emotional Conflict (EmC) Task across 10-15-year-old youth. During the EmC Task, participants indicated the emotion of facial expressions, while disregarding emotion-congruent and incongruent words printed across the faces. We examined the relationships of age, sex, and gonadal hormones with brain activity on Incongruent vs. Congruent trials. Age was negatively associated with middle frontal gyrus activity, controlling for performance and movement confounds. Sex differences were present in occipital and parietal cortices, and were driven by activation in females, and deactivation in males to Congruent trials. Testosterone was negatively related with frontal and striatal brain response in males, and cerebellar and precuneus response in females. Estradiol was negatively related with fronto-cerebellar, cingulate, and precuneus brain activity in males, and positively related with occipital response in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of age, sex, and sex steroids during an emotion-cognition task in adolescents. Further research is needed to examine longitudinal development of emotion-cognition interactions and deviations in psychiatric disorders in adolescence.

  5. Swiss adolescents' and adults' perceptions of cannabis use: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Menghrajani, P; Klaue, K; Dubois-Arber, F; Michaud, P-A

    2005-08-01

    Few studies have attempted to investigate the nature of adolescents' and adults' conceptions and perceptions of cannabis use. Our objectives were to explore adolescent and adult perception of use and misuse of cannabis, and their opinions and beliefs about the current legal context and preventive strategies. We used focus group discussions with four categories of stakeholders: younger (12-15 year old) adolescents, older (16-19 year old) adolescents, parents of teenagers and professionals working with young people. In some areas (legal framework, role of the media, importance of early preventive interventions), we found consensual attitudes and beliefs across the four groups of participants. In all four groups, participants did not have any consensual vision of the risks of cannabis use or the definition of misuse. In the area of the prevention of cannabis use/misuse, while parents focused on the potential role of professionals and the media, thus minimizing their own educational and preventive role, professionals stressed the importance of parental control and education. Within the Swiss context, we conclude there exists an urgent need for information and clarification of the issues linked with cannabis use and misuse directed at parents and professionals. PMID:15572435

  6. Cancer and Anorexia Nervosa in the Adolescence: A Family-Based Systemic Intervention

    PubMed Central

    De Benedetta, Gabriella; Bolognini, Ida; D'Ovidio, Silvia; Pinto, Antonello

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Anorexia nervosa is difficult to diagnose in cancer patients since weight loss, aversion for food, and eating disturbances are frequent in patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Nevertheless, efforts are mandatory to recognize and manage this condition which may occur also in cancer patients with a special regard to adolescents. Methods. Through the clinical history of Anna, a 15-year-old adolescent with advanced cancer, we describe the effectiveness of a family-based systemic intervention to manage anorexia nervosa occurring in concomitance to osteosarcoma. Results. Through a two-year psychotherapy period involving different techniques applied to the whole family such as family genogram, family collage, and sculpture of family time, Anna was relieved from her condition. Conclusions. Upon early diagnosis and appropriate treatment, anorexia nervosa can be effectively approached in adolescent cancer patients. The presence of a life-threatening medical condition such as cancer may provide motivation for a patient to control disordered eating behavior in the context of an appropriate family-based systemic intervention. The general frame of anorexia occurring in cancer-bearing adolescents is reviewed and discussed. PMID:22295193

  7. How neighborhood structural and institutional features can shape neighborhood social connectedness: a multilevel study of adolescent perceptions.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Michela; Vieno, Alessio; Santinello, Massimo; Perkins, Douglas D

    2013-06-01

    According to the norms and collective efficacy model, the levels of social connectedness within a local community are a function of neighborhood structural characteristics, such as socioeconomic status and ethnic composition. The current work aims to determine whether neighborhood structural and institutional features (neighborhood wealth, percentage of immigrants, population density, opportunities for activities and meeting places) have an impact on different components of neighborhood social connectedness (intergenerational closure, trust and reciprocity, neighborhood-based friendship and personal relationships with neighbors). The study involved a representative sample of 389 early and middle adolescents aged 11-15 years old, coming from 31 Italian neighborhoods. Using hierarchical linear modeling, our findings showed that high population density, ethnic diversity, and physical and social disorder might represent obstacles for the creation of social ties within the neighborhood. On the contrary, the presence of opportunities for activities and meeting places in the neighborhood was associated with higher levels of social connectedness among residents.

  8. Reciprocal prospective associations between disordered eating and other psychological problems in a community sample of Swedish adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Viborg, Njördur; Wångby-Lundh, Margit; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Disordered eating and its associations with psychological difficulties and body satisfaction were prospectively studied in a community sample of 13-15 year old adolescent girls (N=428). General psychological difficulties (including hyperactivity-inattention) and lower levels of body satisfaction at T1 were found to predict disordered eating at follow-up one year later (T2). Furthermore, reciprocal associations were found between disordered eating and psychological difficulties (but not body dissatisfaction) so that disordered eating at T1 predicted general psychological difficulties (including hyperactivity-inattention) at T2. The results support the notion of a vicious interplay between disordered eating and other subclinical psychological problems, which may represent a potential mechanism for the development of clinically significant eating disorders. It is suggested that it could be important to identify these kinds of bidirectional processes at an early stage, in order to prevent further developments of clinical forms of psychopathology. PMID:24411769

  9. Loneliness and Ethnic Composition of the School Class: A Nationally Random Sample of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Katrine Rich; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Rubin, Mark; Jervelund, Signe Smith; Lasgaard, Mathias; Walsh, Sophie; Stevens, Gonneke G W J M; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2016-07-01

    Loneliness is a public health concern that increases the risk for several health, behavioral and academic problems among adolescents. Some studies have suggested that adolescents with an ethnic minority background have a higher risk for loneliness than adolescents from the majority population. The increasing numbers of migrant youth around the world mean growing numbers of heterogeneous school environments in many countries. Even though adolescents spend a substantial amount of time at school, there is currently very little non-U.S. research that has examined the importance of the ethnic composition of school classes for loneliness in adolescence. The present research aimed to address this gap by exploring the association between loneliness and three dimensions of the ethnic composition in the school class: (1) membership of ethnic majority in the school class, (2) the size of own ethnic group in the school class, and (3) the ethnic diversity of the school class. We used data from the Danish 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey: a nationally representative sample of 4383 (51.2 % girls) 11-15-year-olds. Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed that adolescents who did not belong to the ethnic majority in the school class had increased odds for loneliness compared to adolescents that belonged to the ethnic majority. Furthermore, having more same-ethnic classmates lowered the odds for loneliness. We did not find any statistically significant association between the ethnic diversity of the school classes and loneliness. The study adds novel and important findings to how ethnicity in a school class context, as opposed to ethnicity per se, influences adolescents' loneliness. PMID:26861709

  10. Estimates and distribution of body mass index in a sample of Malaysian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Zalilah, M S; Mirnalini, K; Khor, G L; Merlin, A; Bahaman, A S; Norimah, K

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to report on the estimates and distribution of body mass index in a sample of Malaysian adolescents. The study utilized a cross-sectional design and multi-stage random sampling of secondary schools to select 5 urban and 9 rural schools in Kedah and Penang. A total of 6555 male and female adolescents (11-15 years old) of Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups were measured for weights and heights for body mass index calculation. Information on household demographic and socioeconomic were obtained from parents through self-administered questionnaires. Analyses of body mass index distribution by location, ethnicity, gender and age were conducted using Chi-square test of SPSS 11.5. More of the rural (12.1%) and urban (19.4%) adolescents were underweight and overweight, respectively. While in all ethnic, gender and age groups, rural adolescents were more likely to be underweight, more of the urban adolescents were overweight. The prevalence of underweight was highest among the Indians (19.2%) and lowest in Chinese (7.2%). The prevalence of overweight in the three ethnic groups was in the range of 18-19%. More male than female adolescents were underweight (15% vs 7.8%) and overweight (19.5% vs 16.7%). Consistent patterns were also observed across location, ethnic and age groups. As age increased, the prevalence of overweight decreased across the ethnic and gender groups. The reported findings can serve as current reference on body mass index distribution of Malaysian adolescents and a basis for future efforts in health and nutrition interventions for Malaysian children and adolescents. PMID:16708734

  11. [Changes in adolescents' alcohol drinking in the time of accession to European Union: Polish and Lithuanian experiences].

    PubMed

    Supranowicz, Piotr; Wysocki, Mirosław J; Berzanskytez, Ausra; Valinteliene, Rolanda

    2006-01-01

    The greatest increase in the late nineties in adolescent's alcohol consumption in Europe were in the countries that were candidates for European Union. The aim of the papers is: 1) to examine the changes of adolescent's alcohol drinking in fife-year period preceding the accession of Poland to European Union and 2) to compare regular alcohol drinking and attitude toward alcohol drinking among Polish and Lithuanian adolescents. The surveys in 1999 and 2004 in Warsaw junior secondary schools and in 2004 in Vilnius junior secondary schools were carried out, and the data from 14-15 years old adolescents were obtained. The analysis confirmed significant increase in frequency of alcohol consumption as well as in more positive attitude toward usefulness of alcohol drinking. This process took place more dynamically among girls. The comparison of Warsaw and Vilnius samples showed that Lithuanian girls were more likely to drink alcohol regularly and Lithuanian adolescents were more likely to access higher the usefulness of alcohol drinking for coping with everyday troubles. The findings were widely discussed in respect to other studies and changes in alcohol control policy.

  12. Partnership for the heart. German-Estonian health project for the treatment of congenital heart defects in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Friedrich; Schierbaum, Clausjürgen; Konertz, Wolfgang; Schneider, Martin; Kern, Hartmut; Int, Eve; Tael, Kristi; Siigur, Urmas; Kleinfeld, Klaus; Bühlmeyer, Konrad; Fotuhi, Parwis; Winter, Stefan Frank

    2005-08-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) occur in 8 per 1000 live births. If they remain untreated, 70-80% of these patients die in early childhood. With modern diagnostic and treatment procedures, 90% of these patients reach adulthood. Within 8 years following reunification of Germany, it was possible to improve treatment for CHD in former East Germany to West German standards. Based on the experience gained in this process, a plan for improvement of care of Estonian patients with CHD was developed and implemented in the German-Estonian project, "Partnership for the Heart". The main elements of the project were (1) the training of Estonian physicians in Germany, (2) training courses conducted by German and Estonian specialists in Estonia and (3) use of telemedicine for consultation on a continuous basis. During the project 15 Estonian patients underwent cardiac surgery and/or catheter interventions performed by a joint team of German and Estonian specialists. The infant mortality due to CHD in Estonia fell by 28% during the project period. Key techniques of cardiac surgery are now being employed in Estonia without outside support, indicating the success of the training program and the long-term improvements to cardiac health care in Estonia. The total project costs were 314,252 Euro (euro), which is 50% lower than the estimated cost of treating the 15 patients abroad in Western Europe. The structure of "Partnership for the Heart" and the modified self-sufficiency model of medical care have not only produced results for Estonia but can be taken as a template for future bilateral health projects with other transition countries and for other fields of medical specialisation, and thus might aid a European health policy.

  13. Not Early Drinking but Early Drunkenness Is a Risk Factor for Problem Behaviors Among Adolescents from 38 European and North American Countries

    PubMed Central

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Rossow, Ingeborg; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Bogt, Tom Ter; Kokkevi, Anna; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have reported that the earlier the age at first drink (AFDrink) the higher the later drinking levels and related problems. However, unless adolescents proceed into drunkenness, it is unclear why consuming small quantities at early age should lead to later problems. This study investigates the link between AFDrink and problem behaviors (smoking, cannabis use, injuries, fights, and low academic performance) among 15-year-olds who did and did not proceed into drunkenness. Among those with drunkenness experience, we tested whether AFDrink predicted problem behaviors over and above the age at first drunkenness (AFDrunk). Methods Multilevel structural equation models were estimated based on a sample of 44,801 alcohol-experienced 15-year-olds from 38 North American and European countries and regions who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children cross-national survey. Results Overall, there was a significant association between AFDrink and all 5 problem behaviors. However, this was the case only among those with drunkenness experiences but not among those never drunk. Among the former, AFDrunk was a strong predictor for all 5 problem behaviors, but time from first drink to first drunk did not predict problem behaviors. Conclusions Not early alcohol initiation but early drunkenness was a risk factor for various adolescent problem behaviors at the age of 15, that is, there was not consistent relationship for the time before the first drunkenness (i.e., since first drinking). Besides targeting early drinking, particular efforts are needed to impede early drunkenness to prevent associated harm in adolescence and beyond. PMID:23240610

  14. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  15. The influence of paternal and maternal drinking patterns within two-partner families on the initiation and development of adolescent drinking.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Koning, Ina M; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E E; Van der Vorst, Haske; Engels, Rutger C M E; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2012-11-01

    As it is still unclear to what extent parental drinking is a predictor of children's alcohol use, we tested the association of specific paternal and maternal drinking patterns with both initiation and development of adolescent alcohol use. Longitudinal data (four annual measurements) of parent-child dyads (N=2319) have been used. Parental drinking patterns have been identified using latent class analysis. The association of parental drinking patterns with the initiation and development of 12-15 year olds' drinking have been examined with latent growth curve modeling. Only two out of six parental drinking patterns were related to adolescent drinking. That is, having a heavy drinking father or two heavy episodic drinking parents particularly predicts early and heavier adolescent drinking. When controlled for parenting behaviors and background variables, such as adolescent gender, age and socioeconomic status (SES), these findings remained significant. Interaction analyses revealed that the influence of parental heavy (episodic) drinking differs across gender and is especially strong among adolescents with lower SES. Thus, parental heavy (episodic) drinking, and not so much the frequency of drinking, predicts the initiation and development of alcohol consumption in their offspring. Parents and professionals must be aware that parental heavy drinking affects their offspring, particularly adolescents with lower SES, resulting in earlier and heavier drinking among this high-risk group.

  16. Spatial patterns of soil organic carbon stocks in Estonian arable soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suuster, Elsa; Astover, Alar; Kõlli, Raimo; Roostalu, Hugo; Reintam, Endla; Penu, Priit

    2010-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) determines ecosystem functions, influencing soil fertility, soil physical, chemical and biological properties and crop productivity. Therefore the spatial pattern of SOC stocks and its appropriate management is important at various scales. Due to climate change and the contribution of carbon store in the soils, the national estimates of soil carbon stocks should be determined. Estonian soils have been well studied and mapped at a scale 1:10,000. Previous studies have estimated SOC stocks based on combinations of large groups of Estonian soils and the mean values of the soil profile database, but were not embedded into the geo-referenced databases. These studies have estimated SOC stocks of Estonian arable soils 122.3 Tg. Despite of available soil maps and databases, this information is still very poorly used for spatial soil modelling. The aim of current study is to assess and model spatial pattern of SOC stocks of arable soils on a pilot area Tartu County (area 3089 sq km). Estonian digital soil map and soil monitoring databases are providing a good opportunity to assess SOC stocks at various scales. The qualitative nature of the initial data from a soil map prohibits any straightforward use in modelling. Thus we have used several databases to construct models and linkages between soil properties that can be integrated into soil map. First step was to reorganize the soil map database (44,046 mapping units) so it can be used as an input to modelling. Arable areas were distinguished by a field layer of Agricultural Registers and Information Board, which provides precise information of current land use as it is the basis of paying CAP subsidies. The estimates of SOC content were found by using the arable land evaluation database of Tartu from the Estonian Land Board (comprising 950 sq km and 31,226 fields), where each soil type was assessed separately and average SOC content grouped by texture was derived. SOC content of epipedon varies in

  17. Field trial on glucose-induced insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein and Estonian Red dairy cows in two herds

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Insulin secretion and tissue sensitivity to insulin is considered to be one of the factors controlling lipid metabolism post partum. The objective of this study was to compare glucose-induced blood insulin and metabolite responses in Estonian Holstein (EH, n = 14) and Estonian Red (ER, n = 14) cows. Methods The study was carried out using the glucose tolerance test (GTT) performed at 31 ± 1.9 days post partum during negative energy balance. Blood samples were obtained at -15, -5, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min relative to infusion of 0.15 g/kg BW glucose and analysed for glucose, insulin, triglycerides (TG), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), cholesterol and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). Applying the MIXED Procedure with the SAS System the basal concentration of cholesterol, and basal concentration and concentrations at post-infusion time points for other metabolites, area under the curve (AUC) for glucose and insulin, clearance rate (CR) for glucose, and maximum increase from basal concentration for glucose and insulin were compared between breeds. Results There was a breed effect on blood NEFA (P < 0.05) and a time effect on all metabolites concentration (P < 0.01). The following differences were observed in EH compared to ER: lower blood insulin concentration 5 min after glucose infusion (P < 0.05), higher glucose concentration 20 (P < 0.01) and 30 min (P < 0.05) after infusion, and higher NEFA concentration before (P < 0.01) and 5 min after infusion (P < 0.05). Blood TG concentration in ER remained stable, while in EH there was a decrease from the basal level to the 40th min nadir (P < 0.01), followed by an increase to the 60th min postinfusion (P < 0.01). Conclusion Our results imply that glucose-induced changes in insulin concentration and metabolite responses to insulin differ between EH and ER dairy cows. PMID:20089161

  18. Modernizing the Estonian farmhouse, redefining the family, 1880s-1930s.

    PubMed

    L'Heureux, Marie-Alice

    2010-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, the transition from a Baltic-German-controlled manor-and-serf economy to individually owned farmsteads transformed all aspects of life including the spatial organization and form of farmhouses in the western provinces of Tsarist Russia. Agricultural experts and social reformers discussed how to update the traditional threshing-room dwelling house (rehielamu) into a healthy dwelling for successful farmers and, after the Estonian War of Independence, for new settlers. Using material culture such as contemporary plans, I show that changing household relationships, in addition to economic and technological factors, helped to transform the ancient rehielamu into a modern dwelling. PMID:21280384

  19. Modernizing the Estonian farmhouse, redefining the family, 1880s-1930s.

    PubMed

    L'Heureux, Marie-Alice

    2010-01-01

    In the nineteenth century, the transition from a Baltic-German-controlled manor-and-serf economy to individually owned farmsteads transformed all aspects of life including the spatial organization and form of farmhouses in the western provinces of Tsarist Russia. Agricultural experts and social reformers discussed how to update the traditional threshing-room dwelling house (rehielamu) into a healthy dwelling for successful farmers and, after the Estonian War of Independence, for new settlers. Using material culture such as contemporary plans, I show that changing household relationships, in addition to economic and technological factors, helped to transform the ancient rehielamu into a modern dwelling.

  20. Umbilical cord blood transplantation in hematologic diseases in patients over 15 years old: long-term experience at the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, P; Nervi, B; Bertin, P; Poggi, H; Lagos, M; Selman, C; Pizarro, I; Jara, V; Wiestruck, A; Barriga, F

    2013-01-01

    Most patients who require a sibling stem cell transplantation do not have a matched donor. In our experience, only 1/3 patients have a matched unrelated donor (MUD); therefore, the majority of the patients will require umbilical cord blood (UCB). Patients treated for hematologic diseases with UCB transplants were included. UCB selection and conditioning regimens were performed according to the Minnesota group. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, infection prevention, and patient care were performed according to institutional guidelines. We analyzed patients and graft demography, neutrophil and platelet recovery, chimerism kinetics, GVHD incidence, overall (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and transplant-related mortality (TRM). We included 29 patients with a median age of 34.8 years (range 15-55). Eighteen were male and the median weight was 72.6 kg (range 54-100). Nineteen patients had acute leukemia. Myeloablative (MA) conditioning was used in 27 patients. Seventeen received double UCB (DUCB) grafts. Median total nucleated cell (10(7)/kg) was 4.2 (range 3.9-4.9) and 4.4 (range 2.8-6.3) for single UCB (SUCB) and DUCB transplants, respectively. Median time for neutrophil engraftment was 24.7 (range 14-43) and 25.8 days (range 14-52) after SUCB and DUCB transplants, respectively. Median time for platelet engraftment was 147 (range 30-516) and 81 days (range 37-200) after SUCB and DUCB transplants, respectively. All the patients receiving MA conditioning had >95% chimerism shortly after transplant. Cumulative incidence of grades II-IV and III-IV acute GVHD was 41% and 20%, respectively. Localized chronic GVHD was seen in 14% of the patients. Median follow-up was 16.7 months (range 1-63). Five-year OS and PFS were 38% and 39%, respectively. One-year TRM was 42%. UCB transplantation is associated with potential cure of hematologic malignancies and our results are similar to other series. Studies are needed to decrease mortality and improve immune reconstitution.

  1. Social judgments made by children (10–15 year old) in relation to visible incisors trauma: School-based cross-sectional study in Khartoum state, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Awooda, Elhadi Mohieldin; Ali, Yasmeen Abdul-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dento-alveolar trauma is a very common occurrence in childhood; however, there is a paucity of data about children's judgments in relation to dental status. There is a significant correlation between the children's incisor teeth status and the social judgments made by their peers. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the social attributes of a school child would be influenced by his or her incisor teeth status. Also, it is aimed to determine the judgment between male and female children and different age groups within the same class. Setting and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 178 male and female children from year 5 (age 10–11 years) of primary school and year 2 of secondary school (age 14–15 years) within Khartoum state. Materials and Methods: Students were invited to look at colored photographs of four different children's faces and to make a social judgment about these children's photographs. Using a previously validated child-centered questionnaire, participants rated subjects using a four-point Likert scale for three negative and six positive attributes. Statistical Analysis: Total attribute scores were tested for significant differences, according to whether the subject had visible incisor trauma or not, using t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test with the level of significance set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: Children with visible incisor trauma were given more negative attributes than children without incisor trauma (P = 0.05). Results were similar in both genders and both school years. Younger students within the same class gave more negative attributes toward children with visible incisor trauma than their older peers, with P = 0.04 and P = 0.9 for children aged 10 years and 11 years, respectively. Conclusion: The data confirmed results of previous studies that children with visible incisor trauma are seen more negatively than those without visible incisor trauma. PMID:26539397

  2. Can Gender Differences in Educational Performance of 15-Year-Old Migrant Pupils Be Explained by Societal Gender Equality in Origin and Destination Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dronkers, Jaap; Kornder, Nils

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to explain the differences between reading and math scores of migrants' children (8430 daughters and 8526 sons) in 17 OECD destination countries, coming from 45 origin countries or regions, using PISA 2009 data. In addition to the societal gender equality levels of the origin and destination countries (the gender…

  3. Prior Knowledge Base of Constellations and Bright Stars among Non-Science Majoring Undergraduates and 14-15 Year Old Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintz, Eric G.; Hintz, Maureen L.; Lawler, M. Jeannette

    2015-01-01

    As part of an effort to improve students' knowledge of constellations and bright stars in an introductory level descriptive astronomy survey course, we measured the baseline knowledge that students bring to the class and how their score evolve over the course of the semester. This baseline is needed by the broader astronomy education research…

  4. The Sustainable Development of the London 2012 Olympic Park: A Real Controversy? 11- to 15-Year-Old Students' Perspectives Right from the Scene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amos, Ruth; Robertson, Helen

    2012-01-01

    In the midst of challenges facing school science education in providing students with authentic learning experiences aimed at development of important life skills for future citizens, a project at the London 2012 Olympic Park is providing a unique opportunity for urban field visits in the built environment. The Field Studies Council is bringing…

  5. An immunohistochemical study in a fatal case of acute interstitial pneumonitis (Hamman-Rich syndrome) in a 15-year-old boy presenting as sudden death.

    PubMed

    Turillazzi, Emanuela; Di Donato, Sabina; Neri, Margherita; Riezzo, Irene; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2007-11-15

    Acute interstitial pneumonitis (AIP), also known as Hamman-Rich syndrome, is a distinct type of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia affecting patients of both genders without pre-existing lung diseases. We describe the case of a fulminant form of AIP and discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms of AIP with reference to the histological pattern. A 15-year-previously-healthy male boy presented to the Hospital with a 6-day history of malaise, fever and cough. The clinical prodromes were followed by the acute onset of increasing shortness of breath rapidly progressing in acute respiratory failure. Chest X-ray demonstrated bilateral diffuse airspace opacification; the high resolution CT confirmed the presence of bilateral, symmetric diffuse ground-glass attenuation. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit, but died after few hours. An autopsy was performed within 24h. The histological examination of lung specimens showed a pattern of diffuse alveolar damage. immunohistochemical, microbiological and toxicological tests were also carried out. The clinical presentation, the histological findings and the exclusion of infective, traumatic, toxic and metabolic causes of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) allowed us to conclude that the boy was affected by AIP. In conclusion, AIP is a diagnosis of exclusion. It has a mortality rate ranging about 50%, despite mechanical ventilation. In fatal cases of AIP diagnosis can be based on clinical presentation, radiological, histological and microbiological findings and can be further confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis.

  6. Relationship between Body Mass Index, Skeletal Maturation and Dental Development in 6- to 15- Year Old Orthodontic Patients in a Sample of Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Hedayati, Zohreh; Khalafinejad, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: The prevalence of overweight and obesity has been increasing markedly in recent years. It may influence growth in pre pubertal children. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether increased Body Mass Index (BMI) is associated with accelerated skeletal maturation and dental maturation in six to fifteen years old orthodontic patients in Shiraz, Iran. Materials and Method: Skeletal maturation and dental development of 95 orthodontic patients (65 females and 30 males), aged 6 to 15 years, were determined. Dental development was assessed using the Demerjian method and skeletal maturation was evaluated by cervical vertebral method as presented by Bacetti. The BMI was determined for each patient. T-test was applied to compare the mean difference between chronologic and dental age among the study groups. A regression model was used to assess the relationship between BMI percentile, skeletal maturation, and dental development. Results: 18.9% of subjects were overweight and obese. The mean differences between dental age and chronologic age were 0.73±1.3 for underweight and normal weight children and 1.8±1.08 for overweight and obese children. These results highlighted the correlation between accelerated dental maturity and increasing BMI percentile (p= 0.002). A new formula was introduced for this relationship. There was not any significant relationship between BMI percentile and skeletal maturation. Conclusion: Children who were overweight or obese had accelerated dental development whereas they did not have accelerated skeletal maturation significantly after being adjusted for age and gender. PMID:25469357

  7. Assessing Physicians' Intentions to Talk about Sex when They Vaccinate Nine-Year-Old to 15-Year-Old Girls against HPV

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Smith, Sandi; Lowe, John B.; Dennis, Leslie; Andsager, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine provides physicians with an opportunity to have conversations with girls about sex and sex-related topics. Current research suggests that these conversations are not happening. This study was designed to assess whether physicians would use the HPV vaccination as an opening to communicate with nine-year-old to…

  8. Associations between Objectively Measured Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome in 12- to 15-Year-Old Tianjin City Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Sijie; Wang, Jianxiong; Zhang, Yibing; Zhang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study aim was to explore associations between daily physical activity level, cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic syndrome among Chinese children. Design: We conducted a school-based, cross-sectional study. Setting: Participants including 112 boys and 121 girls were recruited from three schools in the urban suburbs of Tianjin…

  9. Sr, C and O isotopes as markers of alkaline disturbances in the Toarcian argillites of the Tournemire experimental platform (France). Case of a 15-years old engineered analogue.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techer, I.; Boulvais, P.; Bartier, D.; Tinseau, E.

    2009-04-01

    In France, the concept of a geological disposal of high-activity and long-period nuclear wastes requires the use of concrete and cement-bearing materials as building structures or as waste containment packages, in conjunction with clayey barriers (e.g., compacted bentonite as an engineered barrier and/or argillite-type rocks as a geological barrier). Hydrolysis of cementitious phases is however known to produce hyper-alkaline pore fluids with pH ranging from 10 to 13.5 that will be in disequilibrium with the geological setting environment (argillite pore-water pH around 8). The disturbance of clayey rocks in contact with such materials is thus an important task in safety assessment studies of deep geological storage. This concerns the knowledge of mineral / solution paths but also the spatial extent of the alkaline plume into the clayey material. Experimental and modelling approaches were performed this last decade to answer these questions. In addition to these approaches, natural or engineered contexts in which a clayey formation has been in contact with cementitious materials can be considered as analogues of a deep geological storage for the study of argillite /cement interaction. Such contexts can be found in the IRSN Tournemire experimental platform in Aveyron (France). This platform is based on a tunnel, excavated between 1882 and 1886 through Domerian marls and Toarcian argillites, which is dedicated since 1990 to multidisciplinary research programs. In the frameworks of these programs, exploration boreholes were realized from the basement of the tunnel in the 1990 years. The boreholes were then filled with concrete and cement that are presently in contact with the Toarcian argillites for 15-20 years. One of this borehole - DM borehole - was overcored in 2005 in order to collect the Toarcian argillites in contact with the cement and the concrete. Mineralogical, petrographic and microstructural analyses have argued for a clear disturbance of the Toarcian argillites close to the cement-concrete contact. These data are detailed in another session of this meeting (Techer et al., ERE6 session). In order to precise the spatial extent of the disturbances and to discuss the nature of the responsible fluids, a systematic chemical and isotopic study was performed focusing on the Sr, C and O isotopes known to be very good markers of alkaline fluids percolation (Fourcade et al. 2006). Four studied levels were selected according to their location on the DM overcore and the nature of the cementitious material in contact to the argillites: -155 cm level (DM155) and -180 cm level (DM180) where argillites were in contact with a 1.5 to 3 cm thick concrete; -245 cm level (DM245) and -300 cm level (DM300) where the cementitious material was represented by a fine grained Portland cement 2 to 5 cm thick. Samples of the cementitious materials were collected at each level. Argillites were sampled perpendicularly to the cement-concrete contact with a continuous sampling every 2 to 5 mm millimeters (P1). Micro-fissures developed perpendicularly to the cement-concrete contact were opened and infilling secondary minerals were collected by scrap as a function of the distance to the cement-concrete (P3). Along P1 and P3, no significant variation of the carbonates d18O isotopic values was observed in the argillites. On the opposite d13C and 87Sr/86Sr values of these minerals changed significantly in the direct contact with the cement-concrete over a distance of 15 to 25 mm. Beyond this distance, argillites were again well bedded and showed values similar to those measured in a reference sample. Negative d13C values measured in the disturbed zone and close to those encountered in the cement and the concrete argued for a perturbation induced by an alkaline solution. 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios showed a progressive evolution in the disturbed zone, with increasing trends towards the cementitious material. Thanks to complementary Sr elementary contents measurements, these intermediate data were explained by the precipitation of secondary carbonates from fluids generated by the cement and/or the concrete alteration. The imprint of these secondary phases, and thus the spatial extent of the alkaline fluids into the clayey material were observed over 25 mm along P3 (along discontinuities) and over 15 mm along P1 (in the matrix). References Fourcade S., Techer I., Boulvais P., Elie M., Trotignon L., Vandamme D. (2007) Cementation of a clayey sediment by alkaline fluids released by combustion-produced cements: I. isotopic (C,O) and paleomagnetic study of the Khushaym Matruk natural analogue (Central Jordan). Applied Geochemistry - Applied Geochemistry, 2007, doi:10.1016/j.apgeochem.2007.02.012. Techer et al., this meeting, ERE6 session

  10. Association between normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need among 12- to 15-year-old students in Shiraz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Momeni Danaei, Shahla; Salehi, Parisa

    2010-10-01

    Self-perception of dental attractiveness is an important factor affecting orthodontic treatment need. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need and to evaluate the influence of gender and socioeconomic background such as family size, parental education and father's employment. The subjects were 900 male and female junior high school students (450 males, 450 females) aged 12-15 years, from four districts in the city of Shiraz, Iran. The participants were asked to complete a questionnaire and then underwent a dental examination. Normative treatment need was assessed clinically using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Statistical analysis was undertaken using t- and chi-squared tests. There was no statistically significant correlation between DAI scores and demographics. The results showed a significant correlation between DAI scores and a subject's awareness of malocclusion and their satisfaction with dental appearance. There were no differences between genders concerning the questionnaire data. The results suggest that the DAI score might reflect a self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment.

  11. Sr, C and O isotopes as markers of alkaline disturbances in the Toarcian argillites of the Tournemire experimental platform (France). Case of a 15-years old engineered analogue.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Techer, I.; Boulvais, P.; Bartier, D.; Tinseau, E.

    2009-04-01

    In France, the concept of a geological disposal of high-activity and long-period nuclear wastes requires the use of concrete and cement-bearing materials as building structures or as waste containment packages, in conjunction with clayey barriers (e.g., compacted bentonite as an engineered barrier and/or argillite-type rocks as a geological barrier). Hydrolysis of cementitious phases is however known to produce hyper-alkaline pore fluids with pH ranging from 10 to 13.5 that will be in disequilibrium with the geological setting environment (argillite pore-water pH around 8). The disturbance of clayey rocks in contact with such materials is thus an important task in safety assessment studies of deep geological storage. This concerns the knowledge of mineral / solution paths but also the spatial extent of the alkaline plume into the clayey material. Experimental and modelling approaches were performed this last decade to answer these questions. In addition to these approaches, natural or engineered contexts in which a clayey formation has been in contact with cementitious materials can be considered as analogues of a deep geological storage for the study of argillite /cement interaction. Such contexts can be found in the IRSN Tournemire experimental platform in Aveyron (France). This platform is based on a tunnel, excavated between 1882 and 1886 through Domerian marls and Toarcian argillites, which is dedicated since 1990 to multidisciplinary research programs. In the frameworks of these programs, exploration boreholes were realized from the basement of the tunnel in the 1990 years. The boreholes were then filled with concrete and cement that are presently in contact with the Toarcian argillites for 15-20 years. One of this borehole - DM borehole - was overcored in 2005 in order to collect the Toarcian argillites in contact with the cement and the concrete. Mineralogical, petrographic and microstructural analyses have argued for a clear disturbance of the Toarcian argillites close to the cement-concrete contact. These data are detailed in another session of this meeting (Techer et al., ERE6 session). In order to precise the spatial extent of the disturbances and to discuss the nature of the responsible fluids, a systematic chemical and isotopic study was performed focusing on the Sr, C and O isotopes known to be very good markers of alkaline fluids percolation (Fourcade et al. 2006). Four studied levels were selected according to their location on the DM overcore and the nature of the cementitious material in contact to the argillites: -155 cm level (DM155) and -180 cm level (DM180) where argillites were in contact with a 1.5 to 3 cm thick concrete; -245 cm level (DM245) and -300 cm level (DM300) where the cementitious material was represented by a fine grained Portland cement 2 to 5 cm thick. Samples of the cementitious materials were collected at each level. Argillites were sampled perpendicularly to the cement-concrete contact with a continuous sampling every 2 to 5 mm millimeters (P1). Micro-fissures developed perpendicularly to the cement-concrete contact were opened and infilling secondary minerals were collected by scrap as a function of the distance to the cement-concrete (P3). Along P1 and P3, no significant variation of the carbonates d18O isotopic values was observed in the argillites. On the opposite d13C and 87Sr/86Sr values of these minerals changed significantly in the direct contact with the cement-concrete over a distance of 15 to 25 mm. Beyond this distance, argillites were again well bedded and showed values similar to those measured in a reference sample. Negative d13C values measured in the disturbed zone and close to those encountered in the cement and the concrete argued for a perturbation induced by an alkaline solution. 87Sr/86Sr isotopic ratios showed a progressive evolution in the disturbed zone, with increasing trends towards the cementitious material. Thanks to complementary Sr elementary contents measurements, these intermediate data were explained by the precipitation of secondary carbonates f

  12. Prevalence and severity of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema in 10- to 15-year-old schoolchildren in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Li-Chi; Chen, Yu-Huan; Hsueh, Kai-Chung; Huang, Jing-Long

    2007-03-01

    The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire was distributed through 14 schools and was completed by 11,874 students out of which are parents of 4,167 children aged between 10 and 12 years old and 7,677 older children aged between 13 and 15 years in central Taiwan. The overall cumulative and 12-month prevalence of wheezing, rhinitis, and eczema were 7.4%, 43.0%, and 7.2%, respectively. It was shown that boys had significantly higher prevalence of wheezing and rhinitis (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001) when compared to girls in central Taiwan. The study also found that prevalence rates among younger children with symptoms of wheezing, rhinitis, and recurrent itchy rash in the past 12-month (8.2%, 44.4%, and 8.8%) were higher than that among older children (6.9%, 42.2%, and 6.3%, respectively). In conclusion, boys had significantly higher prevalence of wheezing and rhinitis than girls while younger children tend to have higher prevalence of the disorders than those that are older in age.

  13. Does Performance in Digital Reading Relate to Computer Game Playing? A Study of Factor Structure and Gender Patterns in 15-Year-Olds' Reading Literacy Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmusson, Maria; Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    Data from a Swedish PISA-sample were used (1) to identify a digital reading factor, (2) to investigate gender differences in this factor (if found), and (3) to explore how computer game playing might relate to digital reading performance and gender. The analyses were conducted with structural equation modeling techniques. In addition to an overall…

  14. Proficiency Assessment of Male Volleyball Teams of the 13-15-Year Age Group at Estonian Championships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Meelis; Stamm, Raini; Koskel, Sade

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: Assessment of feasibility of using own computer software "Game" at competitions. Material and methods: The data were collected during Estonian championships in 2006 for male volleyball teams of the 13-15-years age group (n = 8). In all games, the performance of both teams was recorded in parallel with two computers. A total of 19 games…

  15. The Anonymity of Catalan and the Authenticity of Estonian: Two Paths for the Development of Medium-Sized Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Catalan and Estonian can be considered "medium-sized" languages with some key common features that allow us to analyze the evolution of the two cases comparatively. Firstly, other formerly hegemonic languages (Spanish and Russian, respectively) have historically minoritized them. Secondly, the political equilibrium has now changed in such a way…

  16. Nitrates and nitrites in vegetables and vegetable-based products and their intakes by the Estonian population.

    PubMed

    Tamme, T; Reinik, M; Roasto, M; Juhkam, K; Tenno, T; Kiis, A

    2006-04-01

    The content of nitrates were determined in 1,349 samples of vegetables and ready-made food in 2003-2004 as a part of the Estonian food safety monitoring programme and the Estonian Science Foundation grant research activities. The results of manufacturers' analyses carried out for internal monitoring were included in the study. The highest mean values of nitrates were detected in dill, spinach, lettuce and beet root. The mean concentrations were 2,936, 2,508, 2,167 and 1,446 mg kg(-1), respectively. The content of nitrites in samples was lower than 5 mg kg(-1). In total, the mean intake of nitrates by the Estonian population was 58 mg day(-1). The mean content of nitrates in vegetable-based infant foods of Estonian origin was 88 mg kg(-1). The average daily intake of nitrates by children in the age group of 4-6 years was 30 mg. The infants' average daily intake of nitrates from consumption of vegetable-based foods was 7.8 mg.

  17. The Teacher as the Main Factor Influencing the Welfare of a Child at School: Perspectives from Estonian Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiko, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a larger study that examined the expectations and experiences of Estonian parents related to preparation for school, factors influencing the choice of the school, and school troubles and joys. This article focuses on the part of the study concerning the families' expectations for schools and teachers, and on the real…

  18. Supervision and Early Career Work Experiences of Estonian Humanities Researchers under the Conditions of Project-Based Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eigi, Jaana; Põiklik, Pille; Lõhkivi, Endla; Velbaum, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    We analyze a series of interviews with Estonian humanities researchers to explore topics related to the beginning of academic careers and the relationships with supervisors and mentors. We show how researchers strive to have meaningful relationships and produce what they consider quality research in the conditions of a system that is very strongly…

  19. Radium isotopes in Estonian groundwater: measurements, analytical correlations, population dose and a proposal for a monitoring strategy.

    PubMed

    Forte, M; Bagnato, L; Caldognetto, E; Risica, S; Trotti, F; Rusconi, R

    2010-12-01

    In some areas of Estonia, groundwater contains a significant number of natural radionuclides, especially radium isotopes, which may cause radiation protection concern depending on the geological structure of the aquifer. Indeed, the parametric value of 0.1 mSv y⁻¹ for the total indicative dose established by European Directive 98/83/EC, adopted as a limit value in Estonian national legislation, is often exceeded. A Twinning Project between Estonia and Italy was carried out within the framework of the Estonian Transition Facility Programme, sponsored by the European Union. Its aims were to assess the radiological situation of Estonian groundwater and related health consequences. The first step was a study of Estonian aqueducts and the population served by them, and a thorough analysis of the radiological database for drinking water, from which the relevant effective doses for the population were obtained. Particular attention was devoted to doses to children and infants. Correlations between the chemical parameters were investigated, in order to suggest the best possible analytical approach. Lastly, a monitoring strategy, i.e. sampling points and sampling frequencies, was proposed.

  20. Exploring Constructivist Social Learning Practices in Aiding Russian-Speaking Teachers to Learn Estonian: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiilo, Tatjana; Kutsar, Dagmar

    2012-01-01

    Based on appreciative inquiry and threshold concepts from an intercultural learning perspective, the article makes insights into the constructivist social learning practice of Estonian language learning amongst Russian-speaking teachers in Estonia. The application of educational action research methodology, more specifically that of Bridget…

  1. Normal weight estonian prepubertal boys show a more cardiovascular-risk-associated adipose tissue distribution than austrian counterparts.

    PubMed

    Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J; Moeller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Saar, Meeli; Tafeit, Erwin; Kaimbacher, Petra; Kruschitz, Renate; Weghuber, Daniel; Schnedl, Wolfgang J; Mangge, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Risk phenotypes for cardiovascular disease (CVD) differ markedly between countries, like the reported high difference in CVD mortality in Austria and Estonia. Hitherto, the goal of this study was to find out risk profiles in body fat distribution yet present in childhood, paving the way for later clinical end points. Methods. he subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) distribution patterns in 553 Austrian (A) and Estonian (E) clinically healthy normal weight boys aged 11.1 (±0.8) years were analysed. We applied the patented optical device Lipometer which determines the individual subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top). Results. Total body fat did not differ significantly between E and A boys. A discriminant analysis using all Lipometer data, BMI, and the total body fat (TBF) yielded 84.6% of the boys correctly classified in Estonians and Austrians by 9 body sites. A factor analysis identified the SAT distribution of E as critically similar to male adult patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Conclusions. We show in normal weight Estonian boys a highly significant decreased fat accumulation on the lower body site compared to age matched Austrian males. This SAT-Top phenotype may play an important role for the increased cardiovascular risk seen in the Estonian population.

  2. Normal Weight Estonian Prepubertal Boys Show a More Cardiovascular-Risk-Associated Adipose Tissue Distribution than Austrian Counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra J.; Moeller, Reinhard; Horejsi, Renate; Jürimäe, Toivo; Jürimäe, Jaak; Mäestu, Jarek; Purge, Priit; Saar, Meeli; Tafeit, Erwin; Kaimbacher, Petra; Kruschitz, Renate; Weghuber, Daniel; Schnedl, Wolfgang J.; Mangge, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Risk phenotypes for cardiovascular disease (CVD) differ markedly between countries, like the reported high difference in CVD mortality in Austria and Estonia. Hitherto, the goal of this study was to find out risk profiles in body fat distribution yet present in childhood, paving the way for later clinical end points. Methods. he subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) distribution patterns in 553 Austrian (A) and Estonian (E) clinically healthy normal weight boys aged 11.1 (±0.8) years were analysed. We applied the patented optical device Lipometer which determines the individual subcutaneous adipose tissue topography (SAT-Top). Results. Total body fat did not differ significantly between E and A boys. A discriminant analysis using all Lipometer data, BMI, and the total body fat (TBF) yielded 84.6% of the boys correctly classified in Estonians and Austrians by 9 body sites. A factor analysis identified the SAT distribution of E as critically similar to male adult patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Conclusions. We show in normal weight Estonian boys a highly significant decreased fat accumulation on the lower body site compared to age matched Austrian males. This SAT-Top phenotype may play an important role for the increased cardiovascular risk seen in the Estonian population. PMID:24555148

  3. University Language Policies and Language Choice among Ph.D. Graduates in Estonia: The (Unbalanced) Interplay between English and Estonian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The role of English as a global language and its consequences for the internationalization of higher education are matters that have increasingly drawn the attention of researchers from different fields of language and communication. In this paper, an overview of the situation in Estonia is presented. The Estonian context has not previously been…

  4. Concern or confidence? Adolescents' identity capital and future worry in different school contexts.

    PubMed

    Tikkanen, Jenni

    2016-01-01

    This present study investigated the roles identity capital and school's socio-economic status have on adolescent worry about future education, employment, and social status. The 354 participants were 14- to 15-year-old students from affluent (56.8%) and disadvantaged (43.2%) Finnish lower secondary schools. Structural equation modelling was used to test the hypothesis that a higher level of family-related identity capital is connected to a lower level of future worry, and that this connection is mediated through intrapersonal forms of identity capital, specifically academic self-concept and general self-efficacy. Adolescent future worry was also examined across school status with an independent samples t-test. The findings suggest that, in the relatively equal societal context in Finland, adolescents are rather confident about their future education, employment, and social status regardless of the socio-economic status of the school they attend, and when their level of identity capital is high the future worry decreases further.

  5. Prevalence of Periodontal Bone Loss in Brazilian Adolescents through Interproximal Radiography

    PubMed Central

    de Toledo, Benedicto Egbert Corrêa; Barroso, Eliane Marçon; Martins, Alex Tadeu; Zuza, Elizangela Partata

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to verify the prevalence of alveolar bone loss in Brazilian adolescents through the interproximal X-rays analysis. Methods. Bilateral and standardized interproximal (bitewing) X-rays were performed in 15-year-old adolescents (n = 326), and the processing of films and measurements of alveolar bone levels were accomplished by a single examiner. A distance between the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) and the alveolar bone crest more than 2 mm was considered as periodontal bone loss. Results. The results showed percentage of bone loss of 10.4% with predominance of horizontal defects (8.9%) over the vertical types (1.5%). It was verified higher individual distribution of one lesion (67.6%) than two (26.5%) or three lesions (5.6%), and higher occurrence was detected in men (14.95) than in women (8.21). Conclusion. It can be concluded that the interproximal radiography was an efficient method for the detection of alveolar bone loss, revealing low prevalence in adolescents and predominance of horizontal bone defects. PMID:23056048

  6. [HBSC Study as an Instrument for Health Reporting among Children and Adolescents - Potential and Limitations].

    PubMed

    Bucksch, J; Hilitzer, U; Gohres, H; Kolip, P

    2016-07-01

    Prevention and health promotion have to target children and adolescents. Health reporting significantly contributes to assess the needs in terms of intervention planning in children and adolescents and to plan interventions of the highest priority. In Germany, reporting on children and adolescent's health takes place at federal, federal state and regional levels. Health reporting is based on surveys or monitoring, official statistics or on other data provided by institutions and stakeholders in the health system. The nationally representative Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey under the auspices of the WHO - which has been conducted every 4 years since 1982, is a further database in Germany that is representative for the 11-15-year olds girls and boys from general educational schools. In this paper, the HBSC survey will be located within the canon of the German health reporting system. A special emphasis is to describe the potential and limitations of HBSC study for health reporting and to highlight the additional value for health reporting in Germany.

  7. Cortical thickness predicts the first onset of major depression in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Foland-Ross, Lara C; Sacchet, Matthew D; Prasad, Gautam; Gilbert, Brooke; Thompson, Paul M; Gotlib, Ian H

    2015-11-01

    Given the increasing prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder and recent advances in preventative treatments for this disorder, an important challenge in pediatric neuroimaging is the early identification of individuals at risk for depression. We examined whether machine learning can be used to predict the onset of depression at the individual level. Thirty-three never-disordered adolescents (10-15 years old) underwent structural MRI. Participants were followed for 5 years to monitor the emergence of clinically significant depressive symptoms. We used support vector machines (SVMs) to test whether baseline cortical thickness could reliably distinguish adolescents who develop depression from adolescents who remained free of any Axis I disorder. Accuracies from subsampled cross-validated classification were used to assess classifier performance. Baseline cortical thickness correctly predicted the future onset of depression with an overall accuracy of 70% (69% sensitivity, 70% specificity; p=0.021). Examination of SVM feature weights indicated that the right medial orbitofrontal, right precentral, left anterior cingulate, and bilateral insular cortex contributed most strongly to this classification. These findings indicate that cortical gray matter structure can predict the subsequent onset of depression. An important direction for future research is to elucidate mechanisms by which these anomalies in gray matter structure increase risk for developing this disorder. PMID:26315399

  8. Concern or confidence? Adolescents' identity capital and future worry in different school contexts.

    PubMed

    Tikkanen, Jenni

    2016-01-01

    This present study investigated the roles identity capital and school's socio-economic status have on adolescent worry about future education, employment, and social status. The 354 participants were 14- to 15-year-old students from affluent (56.8%) and disadvantaged (43.2%) Finnish lower secondary schools. Structural equation modelling was used to test the hypothesis that a higher level of family-related identity capital is connected to a lower level of future worry, and that this connection is mediated through intrapersonal forms of identity capital, specifically academic self-concept and general self-efficacy. Adolescent future worry was also examined across school status with an independent samples t-test. The findings suggest that, in the relatively equal societal context in Finland, adolescents are rather confident about their future education, employment, and social status regardless of the socio-economic status of the school they attend, and when their level of identity capital is high the future worry decreases further. PMID:26559012

  9. The effects of resistance training on explosive strength indicators in adolescent basketball players.

    PubMed

    Santos, Eduardo J A M; Janeira, Manuel A A S

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a lower- and upper-body 10-week in-season resistance training program on explosive strength development in young basketball players. Twenty-five adolescent male athletes, aged 14-15 years old, were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; n = 15) and a control group (CG; n = 10). The subjects were assessed at baseline and after training for squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), Abalakov test, drop jump, and seated medicine ball throw (MBT). The EG showed significant increases (p < 0.05) in all the variable scores. Conversely, the CG significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in SJ, CMJ, and Abalakov test scores and significantly increased in the results of MBT test (p < 0.05). The groups were similar on pretest, but significant differences (p < 0.05) occurred on posttest in all the variables. The results of this study show that a 10-week in-season resistance training program with moderate volume and intensity loads increased vertical jump and MBT performance in adolescent male basketball players. Coaches should know that such a short resistance training program specifically designed for young basketball players induce increased explosivity levels, which are essential to a better basketball performance, with no extra overload on adolescents' skeletal muscle development.

  10. Detection and genetic characterization of relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi in Estonian ticks.

    PubMed

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Järvekülg, Lilian; Fomenko, Natalya; Golovljova, Irina

    2012-01-01

    During the years 2008-2010 I. ricinus and I. persulcatus ticks were collected from 64 sites in mainland Estonia and on the island Saaremaa. Presence of B. miyamotoi was found in 0.9% (23/2622) of ticks. The prevalence in I. persulcatus and I. ricinus ticks differed significantly, 2.7% (15/561) and 0.4% (8/2061), respectively. The highest prevalence rates were in found South-Eastern Estonia in an area of I. persulcatus and I. ricinus sympatry and varied from 1.4% (1/73) to 2.8% (5/178). Co-infections with B. burgdorferi s.l. group spirochetes and tick-borne encephalitis virus were also revealed. Genetic characterization of partial 16S rRNA, p66 and glpQ genes demonstrated that Estonian sequences belong to two types of B. miyamotoi and cluster with sequences from Europe and the European part of Russia, as well as with sequences from Siberia, Asia and Japan, here designated as European and Asian types, respectively. Estonian sequences of the European type were obtained from I. ricinus ticks only, whereas the Asian type of B. miyamotoi was shown for both tick species in the sympatric regions.

  11. Herd factors influencing oocyst production of Eimeria and Cryptosporidium in Estonian dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Viltrop, Arvo; Järvis, Toivo

    2009-10-01

    Cryptosporidium and Eimeria are intestinal parasites which are sensitive to the surroundings, behaviour and well-being of their host. In the present study, a range of factors related to farm management systems, environment, housing and herd characteristics were investigated with regard to alterations in oocyst excretion in cattle, using a mixed-effects model. Information and samples for three age categories were obtained from 45 Estonian dairy farms, located in 15 counties. Leaving the calf with the mother after birth reduced the risk of shedding higher levels of Cryptosporidium (OR = 0.20) and Eimeria (OR = 0.68) oocysts in all animals. The calves younger than 3 months kept on farms housing at least 150 animals had less risk (OR = 0.39) of producing higher numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts. A somewhat lower infection level was observed in 3- to 12-month-old animals housed in separate buildings (OR = 0.64). The chance of shedding higher levels of Eimeria doubled (OR = 2.27) in cattle older than a year in case a vacancy period was used before replacing animals in pens and tripled (OR = 2.94) when the relative humidity exceeded 75% in the cowshed. Winter reduced the odds (OR = 0.25) of shedding Eimeria oocysts in the oldest animals compared to the fall season. Simple changes in handling and housing of cattle may produce a positive effect on controlling coccidian infections in Estonian dairy herds.

  12. Linking a population biobank with national health registries-the estonian experience.

    PubMed

    Leitsalu, Liis; Alavere, Helene; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Leego, Erkki; Metspalu, Andres

    2015-04-16

    The Estonian population-based biobank, with 52,000 participants' genetic and health data, is the largest epidemiological cohort in the Baltic region. Participants were recruited through a network of medical professionals throughout Estonia (population 1.34 million). Unique legislation as well as a broad consent form give the Estonian Genome Center, a research institute of the University of Tartu, permission to re-contact participants and to retrieve participants' data from national registries and databases. In addition to two re-contacting projects to update the health data of participants, extensive clinical characterizations have been retrieved from national registries and hospital databases regularly since 2010. Acquiring data from electronic health records and registries has provided a means to update and enhance the database of the Genome Center in a timely manner and at low cost. The resulting database allows a wide spectrum of genomic and epidemiological research to be conducted with the aim of benefitting public health. Future plans include linking the genome center database with the national health information system through X-road and exchanging data in real time, as well as using the genetic data and the technical infrastructure available for piloting personalized medicine in Estonia.

  13. Intestinal lactoflora in Estonian and Norwegian patients with antibiotic associated diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Sepp, Epp; Stšepetova, Jelena; Smidt, Imbi; Rätsep, Merle; Kõljalg, Siiri; Lõivukene, Krista; Mändar, Reet; Jaanimäe, Liis; Löhr, Iren H; Natås, Olav B; Naaber, Paul

    2011-12-01

    The disruption of intestinal microbiota is an important risk factor for the development of Clostridium difficile caused antibiotic associated diarrhea (AAD). The role of intestinal lactoflora in protection against C. difficile is unclear. Fecal samples (n = 74) from AAD patients were investigated for C. difficile and lactobacilli by culture and real-time PCR. Lactobacilli were identified by enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) and sequencing of 16S rRNA. In C. difficile negative cases we found somewhat higher counts of intestinal Lactobacilli (5.02 vs. 2.15 CFU log(10)/g; p = 0.053) by culture and more frequently Lactobacillus plantarum (33.3% vs. 9.4%; p = 0.03) as compared with positive ones. Results of total counts of lactobacilli comparing Estonian and Norwegian samples were conflicting by culture and PCR. We found higher colonization of Norwegian AAD patients with L. plantarum (21% vs. 5%, p = 0.053) and Estonians with Lactobacillus gasseri (19% vs. 2%, p = 0.023). Particular lactobacilli (e.g. L. plantarum) may have a role in protection against C. difficile, whereas the meaning of total counts of lactobacilli remains questionable. In different persons and nations, different lactobacilli species may have a protective role against C. difficile. PMID:21549208

  14. Detection and Genetic Characterization of Relapsing Fever Spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi in Estonian Ticks

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Järvekülg, Lilian; Fomenko, Natalya; Golovljova, Irina

    2012-01-01

    During the years 2008–2010 I. ricinus and I. persulcatus ticks were collected from 64 sites in mainland Estonia and on the island Saaremaa. Presence of B. miyamotoi was found in 0.9% (23/2622) of ticks. The prevalence in I. persulcatus and I. ricinus ticks differed significantly, 2.7% (15/561) and 0.4% (8/2061), respectively. The highest prevalence rates were in found South-Eastern Estonia in an area of I. persulcatus and I. ricinus sympatry and varied from 1.4% (1/73) to 2.8% (5/178). Co-infections with B. burgdorferi s.l. group spirochetes and tick-borne encephalitis virus were also revealed. Genetic characterization of partial 16S rRNA, p66 and glpQ genes demonstrated that Estonian sequences belong to two types of B. miyamotoi and cluster with sequences from Europe and the European part of Russia, as well as with sequences from Siberia, Asia and Japan, here designated as European and Asian types, respectively. Estonian sequences of the European type were obtained from I. ricinus ticks only, whereas the Asian type of B. miyamotoi was shown for both tick species in the sympatric regions. PMID:23251652

  15. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Early Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Clinical Anxiety: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Jeffrey J.; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Alessandri, Michael; Fujii, Cori; Renno, Patricia; Laugeson, Elizabeth; Piacentini, John C.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Arnold, Elysse; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinically elevated anxiety is a common, impairing feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A modular CBT program designed for preteens with ASD, Behavioral Interventions for Anxiety in Children with Autism (BIACA; Wood et al., 2009), was enhanced and modified to address the developmental needs of early adolescents with ASD and clinical anxiety. Method Thirty-three adolescents (11–15 years old) were randomly assigned to 16 sessions of CBT or an equivalent waitlist period. The CBT model emphasized exposure, challenging irrational beliefs, and behavioral supports provided by caregivers, as well as numerous ASD-specific treatment elements. Independent evaluators, parents, and adolescents rated symptom severity at baseline and post-treatment/post-waitlist. Results In intent-to-treat analyses, the CBT group outperformed the waitlist group on independent evaluators’ ratings of anxiety severity on the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) and 79% of the CBT group met Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale criteria for positive treatment response at posttreatment, as compared to only 28.6% of the waitlist group. Group differences were not found for diagnostic remission or questionnaire measures of anxiety. However, parent-report data indicated that there was a positive treatment effect of CBT on autism symptom severity. Conclusions The CBT manual under investigation, enhanced for early adolescents with ASD, yielded meaningful treatment effects on the primary outcome measure (PARS), although additional developmental modifications to the manual are likely warranted. Future studies examining this protocol relative to an active control are needed. PMID:25526831

  16. Cognitive behavioral therapy for early adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and clinical anxiety: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jeffrey J; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Alessandri, Michael; Fujii, Cori; Renno, Patricia; Laugeson, Elizabeth; Piacentini, John C; De Nadai, Alessandro S; Arnold, Elysse; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    Clinically elevated anxiety is a common, impairing feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A modular CBT program designed for preteens with ASD, Behavioral Interventions for Anxiety in Children with Autism (BIACA; Wood et al., 2009) was enhanced and modified to address the developmental needs of early adolescents with ASD and clinical anxiety. Thirty-three adolescents (11-15 years old) were randomly assigned to 16 sessions of CBT or an equivalent waitlist period. The CBT model emphasized exposure, challenging irrational beliefs, and behavioral supports provided by caregivers, as well as numerous ASD-specific treatment elements. Independent evaluators, parents, and adolescents rated symptom severity at baseline and posttreatment/postwaitlist. In intent-to-treat analyses, the CBT group outperformed the waitlist group on independent evaluators' ratings of anxiety severity on the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) and 79% of the CBT group met Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale criteria for positive treatment response at posttreatment, as compared to only 28.6% of the waitlist group. Group differences were not found for diagnostic remission or questionnaire measures of anxiety. However, parent-report data indicated that there was a positive treatment effect of CBT on autism symptom severity. The CBT manual under investigation, enhanced for early adolescents with ASD, yielded meaningful treatment effects on the primary outcome measure (PARS), although additional developmental modifications to the manual are likely warranted. Future studies examining this protocol relative to an active control are needed.

  17. Cognitive behavioral therapy for early adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and clinical anxiety: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jeffrey J; Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Alessandri, Michael; Fujii, Cori; Renno, Patricia; Laugeson, Elizabeth; Piacentini, John C; De Nadai, Alessandro S; Arnold, Elysse; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A

    2015-01-01

    Clinically elevated anxiety is a common, impairing feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A modular CBT program designed for preteens with ASD, Behavioral Interventions for Anxiety in Children with Autism (BIACA; Wood et al., 2009) was enhanced and modified to address the developmental needs of early adolescents with ASD and clinical anxiety. Thirty-three adolescents (11-15 years old) were randomly assigned to 16 sessions of CBT or an equivalent waitlist period. The CBT model emphasized exposure, challenging irrational beliefs, and behavioral supports provided by caregivers, as well as numerous ASD-specific treatment elements. Independent evaluators, parents, and adolescents rated symptom severity at baseline and posttreatment/postwaitlist. In intent-to-treat analyses, the CBT group outperformed the waitlist group on independent evaluators' ratings of anxiety severity on the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale (PARS) and 79% of the CBT group met Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale criteria for positive treatment response at posttreatment, as compared to only 28.6% of the waitlist group. Group differences were not found for diagnostic remission or questionnaire measures of anxiety. However, parent-report data indicated that there was a positive treatment effect of CBT on autism symptom severity. The CBT manual under investigation, enhanced for early adolescents with ASD, yielded meaningful treatment effects on the primary outcome measure (PARS), although additional developmental modifications to the manual are likely warranted. Future studies examining this protocol relative to an active control are needed. PMID:25526831

  18. The Cross-cultural Utility of Foreign- and Locally-derived Normative Data for Three WHO-endorsed Neuropsychological Tests for South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ferrett, Helen L.; Thomas, Kevin G. F.; Tapert, Susan F.; Carey, Paul D.; Conradie, Simone; Cuzen, Natalie L.; Stein, Dan J.; Fein, George

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of neuropsychological tests may be hampered by confounding sociodemographic factors and by using inappropriate normative data. We investigated these factors in three tests endorsed by the World Health Organization: the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT), the Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT), and the WHO/UCLA version of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). In a sample of 12-15-year-old, Afrikaans- and English-speaking adolescents from the Cape Town region of South Africa, analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) demonstrated that quality of education was the sociodemographic factor with the biggest influence on test performance, and that age also significantly influenced GPT and CCTT performance. Based on those findings, we provide appropriately stratified normative data for the age group in question. Comparisons between diagnostic interpretations made using foreign normative data versus those using the current local data demonstrate that it is imperative to use appropriately stratified normative data to guard against misinterpreting performance. PMID:24526566

  19. The cross-cultural utility of foreign- and locally-derived normative data for three WHO-endorsed neuropsychological tests for South African adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ferrett, Helen L; Thomas, Kevin G F; Tapert, Susan F; Carey, Paul D; Conradie, Simone; Cuzen, Natalie L; Stein, Dan J; Fein, George

    2014-06-01

    Interpretation of neuropsychological tests may be hampered by confounding sociodemographic factors and by using inappropriate normative data. We investigated these factors in three tests endorsed by the World Health Organization: the Grooved Pegboard Test (GPT), the Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT), and the WHO/UCLA version of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). In a sample of 12-15-year-old, Afrikaans- and English-speaking adolescents from the Cape Town region of South Africa, analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) demonstrated that quality of education was the sociodemographic factor with the biggest influence on test performance, and that age also significantly influenced GPT and CCTT performance. Based on those findings, we provide appropriately stratified normative data for the age group in question. Comparisons between diagnostic interpretations made using foreign normative data versus those using the current local data demonstrate that it is imperative to use appropriately stratified normative data to guard against misinterpreting performance. PMID:24526566

  20. Serological description of Estonian patients with Lyme disease, a comparison with control sera from endemic and non-endemic areas.

    PubMed

    Kisand, Kai E; Utt, Meeme; Kisand, Kalle V; Prükk, Tiina; Uibo, Raivo

    2004-04-01

    Serological tests for Lyme disease are mostly not well standardized and cases of misinterpretation of test results by clinicians are rather common. The diagnostic value of serologic tests may also depend on the seroepidemiological situation of the population. The aim of the study was to compare the immunoblot pattern of Lyme borreliosis patients and control sera from endemic and non-endemic regions and to identify the most suitable interpretation criteria for our immunoblot test. Serum samples of 24 Estonian patients with Lyme disease, 12 sera from patients with tick-borne encephalitis, 40 Estonian control sera, and sera from 50 Laplanders from North Sweden where people usually never come into contact with ticks were tested for IgG antibodies to Borrelia. Sonicated lysate of Borrelia afzelii (strain ACA1) was used in immunoblot as source of antigens. In our test system the following interpretation criteria gave the specificity of 96% for Estonian population: > or = 1 band from p58, p21, p17 and p14 plus > or = 2 bands from p83/100, p39, p34, p30 and p25; or > or = 4 bands from p83/100, p39, p34, p30 and p25. The comparison of Estonian controls with Laplanders showed that subclinical infections with Borrelia are rather common in Estonia. Also the rate of other infections, giving rise to cross-reactive antibodies, may be more frequent in Estonians. The frequent reactions with Borrelia antigens in a healthy population complicate the serodiagnosis of Lyme disease.

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Test the Effectiveness of an Immersive 3D Video Game for Anxiety Prevention among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Hanneke; Malmberg, Monique; Lobel, Adam; Engels, Rutger C M E; Granic, Isabela

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent anxiety is debilitating, the most frequently diagnosed adolescent mental health problem, and leads to substantial long-term problems. A randomized controlled trial (n = 138) was conducted to test the effectiveness of a biofeedback video game (Dojo) for adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety. Adolescents (11-15 years old) were randomly assigned to play Dojo or a control game (Rayman 2: The Great Escape). Initial screening for anxiety was done on 1,347 adolescents in five high schools; only adolescents who scored above the "at-risk" cut-off on the Spence Children Anxiety Survey were eligible. Adolescents' anxiety levels were assessed at pre-test, post-test, and at three month follow-up to examine the extent to which playing Dojo decreased adolescents' anxiety. The present study revealed equal improvements in anxiety symptoms in both conditions at follow-up and no differences between Dojo and the closely matched control game condition. Latent growth curve models did reveal a steeper decrease of personalized anxiety symptoms (not of total anxiety symptoms) in the Dojo condition compared to the control condition. Moderation analyses did not show any differences in outcomes between boys and girls nor did age differentiate outcomes. The present results are of importance for prevention science, as this was the first full-scale randomized controlled trial testing indicated prevention effects of a video game aimed at reducing anxiety. Future research should carefully consider the choice of control condition and outcome measurements, address the potentially high impact of participants' expectations, and take critical design issues into consideration, such as individual- versus group-based intervention and contamination issues. PMID:26816292

  2. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Test the Effectiveness of an Immersive 3D Video Game for Anxiety Prevention among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Scholten, Hanneke; Malmberg, Monique; Lobel, Adam; Engels, Rutger C M E; Granic, Isabela

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent anxiety is debilitating, the most frequently diagnosed adolescent mental health problem, and leads to substantial long-term problems. A randomized controlled trial (n = 138) was conducted to test the effectiveness of a biofeedback video game (Dojo) for adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety. Adolescents (11-15 years old) were randomly assigned to play Dojo or a control game (Rayman 2: The Great Escape). Initial screening for anxiety was done on 1,347 adolescents in five high schools; only adolescents who scored above the "at-risk" cut-off on the Spence Children Anxiety Survey were eligible. Adolescents' anxiety levels were assessed at pre-test, post-test, and at three month follow-up to examine the extent to which playing Dojo decreased adolescents' anxiety. The present study revealed equal improvements in anxiety symptoms in both conditions at follow-up and no differences between Dojo and the closely matched control game condition. Latent growth curve models did reveal a steeper decrease of personalized anxiety symptoms (not of total anxiety symptoms) in the Dojo condition compared to the control condition. Moderation analyses did not show any differences in outcomes between boys and girls nor did age differentiate outcomes. The present results are of importance for prevention science, as this was the first full-scale randomized controlled trial testing indicated prevention effects of a video game aimed at reducing anxiety. Future research should carefully consider the choice of control condition and outcome measurements, address the potentially high impact of participants' expectations, and take critical design issues into consideration, such as individual- versus group-based intervention and contamination issues.

  3. Adolescent with Tourette Syndrome and Bipolar Disorder: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Young-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Tourette syndrome consists of multiple motor tics and one or more vocal tics. Psychopathology occurs in approximately 90% of Tourette syndrome patients, with attention-deficit/hyperactivity, mood, and obsessive-compulsive disorders being common. Additionally, Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder may be related in some individuals. However, it is unclear why bipolar disorder may be overrepresented in Tourette syndrome patients, and more research is needed. Herein, we report the case of a 15-year-old boy diagnosed with both Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder, whose symptoms improved with aripiprazole, atomoxetine, and valproate. The patient was diagnosed with Tourette syndrome at 8 years of age when he developed tics and experienced his first depressive episode. The patient had a poor response to a variety of antidepressants and anti-tic medications. A combination of valproate and aripiprazole stabilized both the patient's tics and mood symptoms. It is important to assess individuals with Tourette syndrome for other disorders, including bipolar disorder. The treatment of children and adolescents with both Tourette syndrome and bipolar disorder is an important clinical issue. PMID:25598829

  4. Complications in the Treatment of Adolescent Clavicle Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Luo, T. David; Ashraf, Ali; Larson, A. Noelle; Stans, Anthony A.; Shaughnessy, William J.; McIntosh, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    The authors’ study evaluates the complications associated with the treatment of clavicle fractures in adolescents. During the study period, 153 clavicle fractures occurred in patients between the ages of 14 and 17 years who were treated at the authors’ center, of which 23 (15.0%) were treated surgically. Compared to the fractures treated nonoperatively, the surgical fractures had greater shortening (mean, 2.0 vs 0.9 cm; P<.001) and were more likely to be comminuted (65.2% vs 23.1%; P<.001). Complications occurred in 21.7% of fractures treated surgically. One delayed union occurred in the nonoperative cohort, but no other complications or patients who required clavicular osteotomy for malunion. Pediatric fellowship-trained orthopedic surgeons treated 78 displaced fractures, resulting in 8 (10.3%) surgeries. Nonpediatric orthopedic specialists treated 46 displaced fractures, 15 (32.6%) of which were treated operatively (P=.0035). FigureA 15-year-old boy sustained a comminuted clavicle fracture from playing football. Preoperative radiograph showing significant clavicle shortening and a vertical fragment. PMID:25901621

  5. Cannabis consumption initiation among adolescents: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Anna; Ariza, Carles; Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Nebot, Manel

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate factors related to initiation of cannabis consumption among adolescents. A questionnaire was administered to 2043 14-15-year-olds from Barcelona who were followed-up and re-interviewed after 15 months. A bivariate analysis was performed to identify the factors associated with consumption, and multivariate logistic regression was carried out to model cannabis initiation. Among matched students, 23.7% of non-users at baseline had started to consume 15 months later (23.0% boys and 24.2% girls). Among those who had reported occasional cannabis use, 30.3% reported consumption during the previous month at the follow-up survey. Factors associated with cannabis initiation among boys and girls were smoking, risky alcohol use and intention to consume cannabis. Among boys, other associated factors were frequenting bars or discotheques and not having organized activities in leisure time. Among girls, another risk factor for initiation was having cannabis-using friends. Cannabis initiation was facilitated by legal drug use, favorable attitudes and context-related variables. These results highlight the role of behavioral and contextual variables and support the importance of reinforcing social skills in preventive programs.

  6. Chronic neglected irreducible atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Padalkar, Pravin

    2016-01-01

    Atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF) is a rare condition and delayed diagnosis. We report a case of chronic neglected atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation in adolescence child that was treated by serial skull traction followed by posterior fusing by method pioneered by Goel et al. A 15-year-old male presented with signs of high cervical myelopathy 2 years after trauma to neck childhood. There was upper cervical kyphosis, direct tenderness over C2 spinous process, atrophy of both hand muscles with weakness in grip strength. Reflexes in upper and lower extremities were exaggerated. Imaging showed Type 3 (Fielding and Hawkins) rotatory atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD). Treatment options available were 1. Staged anterior Transoral release & reduction followed by posterior fusion described by Govender and Kumar et al, 2. Posterior open reduction of joint and fusion, 3. Occipitocervical fusion with decompression. Our case was AARF presented to us with almost 2-year post injury. Considering complications associated with anterior surgery and posterior open reduction, we have opted for closed reduction by serially applying weight to skull traction under closed neurological monitoring. We have serially increased weight up to 15 kg over a period of 1 week before. We have achieved some reduction which was confirmed by traction lateral radiographs and computerized axial tomography scan. Residual subluxation corrected intra-operatively indirectly by using reduction screws in Goel et al. procedure. Finally performed for C1-C2 fusion to take care of Instability. We like to emphasis here role of closed reduction even in delayed and neglected cases. PMID:27630481

  7. Chronic neglected irreducible atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Padalkar, Pravin

    2016-01-01

    Atlantoaxial rotatory fixation (AARF) is a rare condition and delayed diagnosis. We report a case of chronic neglected atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation in adolescence child that was treated by serial skull traction followed by posterior fusing by method pioneered by Goel et al. A 15-year-old male presented with signs of high cervical myelopathy 2 years after trauma to neck childhood. There was upper cervical kyphosis, direct tenderness over C2 spinous process, atrophy of both hand muscles with weakness in grip strength. Reflexes in upper and lower extremities were exaggerated. Imaging showed Type 3 (Fielding and Hawkins) rotatory atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD). Treatment options available were 1. Staged anterior Transoral release & reduction followed by posterior fusion described by Govender and Kumar et al, 2. Posterior open reduction of joint and fusion, 3. Occipitocervical fusion with decompression. Our case was AARF presented to us with almost 2-year post injury. Considering complications associated with anterior surgery and posterior open reduction, we have opted for closed reduction by serially applying weight to skull traction under closed neurological monitoring. We have serially increased weight up to 15 kg over a period of 1 week before. We have achieved some reduction which was confirmed by traction lateral radiographs and computerized axial tomography scan. Residual subluxation corrected intra-operatively indirectly by using reduction screws in Goel et al. procedure. Finally performed for C1-C2 fusion to take care of Instability. We like to emphasis here role of closed reduction even in delayed and neglected cases.

  8. Behavioral impulsivity and risk-taking trajectories across early adolescence in youths with and without family histories of alcohol and other drug use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Donald M.; Lake, Sarah L.; Mathias, Charles W.; Ryan, Stacy R.; Bray, Bethany C.; Charles, Nora E.; Acheson, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Background Youths with family histories of alcohol and other drug use disorders (FH+) are at increased susceptibility for developing substance use disorders relative to those without such histories (FH−). This vulnerability may be related to impaired adolescent development of impulse control and elevated risk-taking. However, no previous studies have prospectively examined impulse control and risk-taking in FH+ youth across adolescence. Methods A total of 386 pre-adolescents (305 FH+, 81 FH−; ages 10–12) with no histories of regular alcohol or other drug use were compared on behavioral measures of impulsivity including delay discounting, response initiation (Immediate Memory Task), response inhibition impulsivity (GoStop Impulsivity Paradigm), and risk-taking (Balloon Analogue Risk Task-Youth). Youths completed these laboratory tasks every 6 months, allowing for examination of 10–15 year olds. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to characterize the development of impulse control and risk-taking as shown in performance of these tasks throughout adolescence. Results We found that: (1) FH+ youths had increased levels of delay discounting and response inhibition impulsivity at study entry; (2) regardless of FH status, all youths had relatively stable delay discounting across time, improvements in response inhibition and response initiation impulsivity, and increased risk-taking; and (3) although FH+ youths had increased response inhibition impulsivity at pre-adolescence, these differences were negligible by mid-adolescence. Conclusions Heightened delay discounting in FH+ pre-adolescents coupled with normal adolescent increases in risk-taking may contribute to their increased susceptibility towards problem substance use in adolescence. PMID:26173617

  9. User Preferences for Improving the Estonian National e-Prescription Service.

    PubMed

    Parv, Liisa; Monkman, Helen; Laus, Raimo

    2015-01-01

    National e-Prescription services are becoming more common in Europe. While enhancing communication between levels of health care, few solutions have demonstrated enhanced quality of care and patient safety benefits. The article presents the results of a project to map the user needs the Estonian national e-prescription service. A survey was conducted among primary care physicians (PCPs) to inquire about their needs in the medication management process. The results showed that PCPs lacked a medication management tool to support patient care across different care settings. A mockup for the national service was developed based on the survey results. The medication management tool features a visual presentation of a patient's medication list and includes decision support functions for allergies and potential interactions. This mockup will be used to further investigate the needs of PCPs as well as other care providers in the medication management process.

  10. Toxicity of Water Accommodated Fractions of Estonian Shale Fuel Oils to Aquatic Organisms.

    PubMed

    Blinova, Irina; Kanarbik, Liina; Sihtmäe, Mariliis; Kahru, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Estonia is the worldwide leading producer of the fuel oils from the oil shale. We evaluated the ecotoxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of two Estonian shale fuel oils ("VKG D" and "VKG sweet") to aquatic species belonging to different trophic levels (marine bacteria, freshwater crustaceans and aquatic plants). Artificial fresh water and natural lake water were used to prepare WAFs. "VKG sweet" (lower density) proved more toxic to aquatic species than "VKG D" (higher density). Our data indicate that though shale oils were very toxic to crustaceans, the short-term exposure of Daphnia magna to sub-lethal concentrations of shale fuel oils WAFs may increase the reproductive potential of survived organisms. The weak correlation between measured chemical parameters (C10-C40 hydrocarbons and sum of 16 PAHs) and WAF's toxicity to studied species indicates that such integrated chemical parameters are not very informative for prediction of shale fuel oils ecotoxicity.

  11. Comprehension and production of noun compounds by Estonian children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Padrik, Marika; Tamtik, Merli

    2009-05-01

    The authors examined how 12 Estonian-speaking children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 60 children with normal speech development (ND) comprehended compound nouns with differing sequence of the components (first task) and how they produced compound nouns to label genuine and accidental categories by using analogy (second task) and sentence transformation (third task). The results demonstrated that children with SLI were capable of producing compound nouns for genuine categories, but avoided production of compounds to label objects in temporary juxtapositions. However, by comparison with the control group, SLI children differed statistically significantly in terms of both the number of correct answers and the pattern of mistakes. In the cases when compound nouns were expected to be produced by transforming sentences, the results of SLI children were considerably lower than those of their peers. The results of this study support the idea that children with SLI experience difficulties related to processing linguistic information. PMID:19399667

  12. Probing the perceptual and cognitive underpinnings of braille reading. An Estonian population study.

    PubMed

    Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Männamaa, Mairi; Ghesquière, Pol

    2012-01-01

    Similar to many sighted children who struggle with learning to read, a proportion of blind children have specific difficulties related to reading braille which cannot be easily explained. A lot of research has been conducted to investigate the perceptual and cognitive processes behind (impairments in) print reading. Very few studies, however, have aimed for a deeper insight into the relevant perceptual and cognitive processes involved in braille reading. In the present study we investigate the relations between reading achievement and auditory, speech, phonological and tactile processing in a population of Estonian braille reading children and youngsters and matched sighted print readers. Findings revealed that the sequential nature of braille imposes constant decoding and effective recruitment of phonological skills throughout the reading process. Sighted print readers, on the other hand, seem to switch between the use of phonological and lexical processing modes depending on the familiarity, length and structure of the word. PMID:22522195

  13. Probing the perceptual and cognitive underpinnings of braille reading. An Estonian population study.

    PubMed

    Veispak, Anneli; Boets, Bart; Männamaa, Mairi; Ghesquière, Pol

    2012-01-01

    Similar to many sighted children who struggle with learning to read, a proportion of blind children have specific difficulties related to reading braille which cannot be easily explained. A lot of research has been conducted to investigate the perceptual and cognitive processes behind (impairments in) print reading. Very few studies, however, have aimed for a deeper insight into the relevant perceptual and cognitive processes involved in braille reading. In the present study we investigate the relations between reading achievement and auditory, speech, phonological and tactile processing in a population of Estonian braille reading children and youngsters and matched sighted print readers. Findings revealed that the sequential nature of braille imposes constant decoding and effective recruitment of phonological skills throughout the reading process. Sighted print readers, on the other hand, seem to switch between the use of phonological and lexical processing modes depending on the familiarity, length and structure of the word.

  14. Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-tier clinical diagnostic test: Estonian experience

    PubMed Central

    Žilina, Olga; Teek, Rita; Tammur, Pille; Kuuse, Kati; Yakoreva, Maria; Vaidla, Eve; Mölter-Väär, Triin; Reimand, Tiia; Kurg, Ants; Õunap, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) is now established as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for fast and accurate detection of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We present our experience with using CMA for postnatal and prenatal diagnosis in Estonian patients during 2009–2012. Since 2011, CMA is on the official service list of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund and is performed as the first-tier cytogenetic test for patients with DD/ID, MCA or ASD. A total of 1191 patients were analyzed, including postnatal (1072 [90%] patients and 59 [5%] family members) and prenatal referrals (60 [5%] fetuses). Abnormal results were reported in 298 (25%) patients, with a total of 351 findings (1–3 per individual): 147 (42%) deletions, 106 (30%) duplications, 89 (25%) long contiguous stretches of homozygosity (LCSH) events (>5 Mb), and nine (3%) aneuploidies. Of all findings, 143 (41%) were defined as pathogenic or likely pathogenic; for another 143 findings (41%), most of which were LCSH, the clinical significance remained unknown, while 61 (18%) reported findings can now be reclassified as benign or likely benign. Clinically relevant findings were detected in 126 (11%) patients. However, the proportion of variants of unknown clinical significance was quite high (41% of all findings). It seems that our ability to detect chromosomal abnormalities has far outpaced our ability to understand their role in disease. Thus, the interpretation of CMA findings remains a rather difficult task requiring a close collaboration between clinicians and cytogeneticists. PMID:24689080

  15. Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-tier clinical diagnostic test: Estonian experience.

    PubMed

    Zilina, Olga; Teek, Rita; Tammur, Pille; Kuuse, Kati; Yakoreva, Maria; Vaidla, Eve; Mölter-Väär, Triin; Reimand, Tiia; Kurg, Ants; Ounap, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) is now established as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for fast and accurate detection of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We present our experience with using CMA for postnatal and prenatal diagnosis in Estonian patients during 2009-2012. Since 2011, CMA is on the official service list of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund and is performed as the first-tier cytogenetic test for patients with DD/ID, MCA or ASD. A total of 1191 patients were analyzed, including postnatal (1072 [90%] patients and 59 [5%] family members) and prenatal referrals (60 [5%] fetuses). Abnormal results were reported in 298 (25%) patients, with a total of 351 findings (1-3 per individual): 147 (42%) deletions, 106 (30%) duplications, 89 (25%) long contiguous stretches of homozygosity (LCSH) events (>5 Mb), and nine (3%) aneuploidies. Of all findings, 143 (41%) were defined as pathogenic or likely pathogenic; for another 143 findings (41%), most of which were LCSH, the clinical significance remained unknown, while 61 (18%) reported findings can now be reclassified as benign or likely benign. Clinically relevant findings were detected in 126 (11%) patients. However, the proportion of variants of unknown clinical significance was quite high (41% of all findings). It seems that our ability to detect chromosomal abnormalities has far outpaced our ability to understand their role in disease. Thus, the interpretation of CMA findings remains a rather difficult task requiring a close collaboration between clinicians and cytogeneticists.

  16. Eimeria and Cryptosporidium in Estonian dairy farms in regard to age, species, and diarrhoea.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Viltrop, Arvo; Raaperi, Kerli; Järvis, Toivo

    2009-12-23

    Eimeria and Cryptosporidium are among the most common bovine parasites in the world, but little is known about them in Estonia. Basic field research is needed to gain insight into pathogen dynamics, providing knowledge for veterinarians and research. A survey of 45 Estonian dairy farms in 15 counties was carried out between 2006 and 2007. Three age groups: <3, 3-12, and >12 months old animals were sampled. Collected faeces were examined by quantitative flotation and Ziehl-Neelsen contrast staining, and species examined morphologically. Selected samples containing Cryptosporidium were additionally examined by polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) and sequencing to determine genotypes. Twelve species of Eimeria were identified, seven previously unknown in Estonia. Main species in samples were E. bovis (30%), E. zuernii (23%), and E. ellipsoidalis (14%). All herds were infected and animals aged 3-12 months were more commonly infected with Eimeria oocysts (63%) than any other group. Calves <3 months shed most oocyst, but high counts were rare. A negative association (slope=-0.16, p<0.001) was found between the number of animals infected with Eimeria and the age category. Cryptosporidium were detected in 84% of the farms, and C. andersoni and C. parvum were successfully identified. Though prevalences of Cryptosporidium in the age groups were similar to the sample prevalence (30%) an increase in the infections was found with increasing age (p<0.001). Higher diarrhoea scores were negatively associated with Eimeria spp. infection (slope=-0.08, p<0.05), whereas Cryptosporidium could not be associated with the presence of diarrhoea. Frequent low intensity infections of animals in all age groups with both parasites apply a constant stress on the animals with impact on health and production. The Estonian results are different compared to available studies in regard of: older animals commonly being infected, finding of modest oocyst counts, and distribution of Eimeria species.

  17. [The resistance status of gastrointestinal strongyles against anthelmintics in three Estonian sheep flocks].

    PubMed

    Anupöld, Ann Mari; Hinney, Barbara; Joachim, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Poor efficacy of anthelmintic drugs in sheep due to infections with resistant gastrointestinal strongyles is reported worldwide. The aim of this pilot study was to gain an insight into the current situation of anthelmintic efficacy in Estonian sheep flocks. From September to November 2012, faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT) were carried out in three Estonian sheep farms, evaluating the efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin. Individual faecal samples were taken at the day of treatment and 10 to 14 days later and examined by a modified McMaster technique. Anthelmintic treatment was carried out with ivermectin (Bimectin 10 mg/ml, Bimeda Chemicals Export) subcutaneously with a dose rate of 0.2 mg/kg of body weight in the IVM group (n = 20 animals/farms 1 and 2; n = 5 for farm 3) or albendazol (Endospec 10%, Bimeda Chemicals Export) orally in the dose of 5 mg/kg of body weight in the ALB group (n = 20 animals/ farm); animals in the control group (n = 20 animals for farms 1 and 3, n = 18 for farm 2) were left untreated. The FECRT was carried out according to the WAAVP guidelines. On farm 1 the efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin was reduced with 66% and 65% FECR, respectively. With a FECR of 26% the results of farm 2 showed a pronounced albendazole resistance while ivermectin was still sufficiently efficient (99% reduction). Farm 3 showed nearly 100% efficacy of albendazole and ivermectin, but earlier problems with high endoparasite burden and mortality may indicate a possible developing albendazole resistance which could not be detected with the FECRT yet. The results of this study show that in Estonia resistance against benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones does occur, indicating that close countrywide monitoring is advisable.

  18. Low perceived social support predicts later depression but not social phobia in middle adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Väänänen, Juha-Matti; Marttunen, Mauri; Helminen, Mika; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu

    2014-01-01

    Social phobia and depression are common and highly comorbid disorders in adolescence. There is a lack of studies on possible psychosocial shared risk factors for these disorders. The current study examined if low social support is a shared risk factor for both disorders among adolescent girls and boys. This study is a part of the Adolescent Mental Health Cohort Study's two-year follow-up. We studied cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of perceived social support with social phobia, depression, and comorbid social phobia and depression among girls and boys. The study sample consisted of 2070 15-year-old adolescents at baseline. Depression was measured by the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory, social phobia by the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN), and perceived social support by the Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (PSSS-R). Girls reported higher scores on the PSSS-R than boys in total scores and in friend and significant other subscales. Cross-sectional PSSS-R scores were lower among adolescents with social phobia, depression, and comorbid disorder than among those without these disorders. Low PSSS-R total score and significant other subscale were risk factors for depression among both genders, and low support from friends among girls only. Low perceived social support from any source was not a risk factor for social phobia or comorbid social phobia and depression. As conclusion of the study, low perceived social support was a risk factor for depression, but not a shared risk factor for depression and social phobia. Interventions enhancing perceived social support should be an important issue in treatment of depression. PMID:25750832

  19. Decrease in adolescent cannabis use from 2002 to 2006 and links to evenings out with friends in 31 European and North America countries and regions

    PubMed Central

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Fotiou, Anastasios; ter Bogt, Tom; Kokkevi, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare adolescent cannabis use between 2002 and 2006 and to investigate links to the frequency of evenings spent out with friends. Design and setting: National representative samples of 31 mostly European and North American countries and regions as part of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study were analyzed by means of χ2-tests, t-test, and logistic regression analysis. Participants: 93,297 15-year old students. Outcome measure: Cannabis use in the last 12 month in relation to the mean frequency of evenings out with friends per week. Results: A decrease in the prevalence of cannabis use was found in most of the 31 participating countries and regions. The most marked decreases were found in England, Portugal, Switzerland, Slovenia, and Canada. Increases occurred only in Estonia, Lithuania, Malta, and among Russian girls. The more frequently adolescents reported going out with their friends in the evenings the more likely they were to report using cannabis. This link was consistent for boys and girls and across survey years. Across countries, changes in the mean frequency of evenings spent out were strongly linked to changes in cannabis use prevalence. Conclusion: The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that by going out less frequently in the evenings with friends adolescents had fewer opportunities to obtain and use cannabis. Future research is needed to learn more about the nature of evenings out with friends and related factors that might explain changes in adolescent cannabis use over time. PMID:19188643

  20. Pseudonephritis is associated with high urinary osmolality and high specific gravity in adolescent soccer players.

    PubMed

    Van Biervliet, Stephanie; Van Biervliet, Jean Pierre; Watteyne, Karel; Langlois, Michel; Bernard, Dirk; Vande Walle, Johan

    2013-08-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of exercise on urine sediment in adolescent soccer players. In 25 15-year-old (range 14.4-15.8 yrs) athletes, urinary protein, osmolality and cytology were analyzed by flow cytometry and automated dipstick analysis before (T(0)), during (T(1)), and after a match (T(2)). All athletes had normal urine analysis and blood pressure at rest, tested before the start of the soccer season. Fifty-eight samples were collected (T(0): 20, T(1): 17, T(2): 21). Proteinuria was present in 20 of 38 samples collected after exercise. Proteinuria was associated with increased urinary osmolality (p < .001) and specific gravity (p < .001). Hyaline and granular casts were present in respectively 8 of 38 and 8 of 38 of the urinary samples after exercise. The presence of casts was associated with urine protein concentration, osmolality, and specific gravity. This was also the case for hematuria (25 of 38) and leucocyturia (9 of 38). Squamous epithelial cells were excreted in equal amounts to white and red blood cells. A notable proportion of adolescent athletes developed sediment abnormalities, which were associated with urinary osmolality and specific gravity.

  1. Welfare state regimes, health and health inequalities in adolescence: a multilevel study in 32 countries.

    PubMed

    Richter, Matthias; Rathman, Katharina; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Zambon, Alessio; Boyce, William; Hurrelmann, Klaus

    2012-07-01

    Comparative research on health and health inequalities has recently started to establish a welfare regime perspective. The objective of this study was to determine whether different welfare regimes are associated with health and health inequalities among adolescents. Data were collected from the 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children' study in 2006, including 11- to 15-year-old students from 32 countries (N = 141,091). Prevalence rates and multilevel logistic regression models were calculated for self-rated health (SRH) and health complaints. The results show that between 4 per cent and 7 per cent of the variation in both health outcomes is attributable to differences between countries. Compared to the Scandinavian regime, the Southern regime had lower odds ratios for SRH, while for health complaints the Southern and Eastern regime showed high odds ratios. The association between subjective health and welfare regime was largely unaffected by adjusting for individual socioeconomic position. After adjustment for the welfare regime typology, the country-level variations were reduced to 4.6 per cent for SRH and to 2.9 per cent for health complaints. Regarding cross-level interaction effects between welfare regimes and socioeconomic position, no clear regime-specific pattern was found. Consistent with research on adults this study shows that welfare regimes are important in explaining variations in adolescent health across countries.

  2. Early Adolescent Sexual Initiation and Physical/Psychological Symptoms: A Comparative Analysis of Five Nations

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Tilda; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic

    2010-01-01

    Although most people in developed countries experience sexual initiation during adolescence, little is known about inter-country variability in the psychosocial correlates of early initiation. Population-based samples of 15-year-olds (n = 6,111, 52% female) who participated in the Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children Study (Finland, Scotland, France and Poland, 1997/1998) or the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (United States, 1996) self-reported sexual intercourse experience and physical (headaches, trouble sleeping) or psychological (unhappiness, loneliness, sadness, moodiness) symptoms. Analyses were conducted stratified by gender. Sexual initiation prevalence and symptoms scores varied significantly across nations. In adjusted models, sexual initiation was not related to symptoms among boys in any nation, but significantly positively related to symptoms among girls in Poland and the US. Results support variability by gender and nation in the relationship between adolescents’ sexual initiation and physical/psychological symptoms. Empirically investigating specific features of national contexts that generate these differences should be explored further. PMID:20333456

  3. Validation of the Short Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder Screener (SOCS) in children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Jiménez, Tíscar; Ortiz, Ana G.; Moreno, Elena; Lázaro, Luisa; Godoy, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Background The Short Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder Screener (SOCS) is recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence as a suitable and validated screening tool for 11- to 15-year olds. Despite its excellent sensitivity and specificity in detecting obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), it has limitations. Aims To empirically examine whether the SOCS is suitable for assessing OCD symptoms across a wide age range of children and adolescents and to provide new data about its psychometric properties. Method Participants were 94 patients (9–19 years) with OCD, and 880 healthy controls. Results The results supported the SOCS’ unidimensional factor structure and metric invariance across samples. It showed good reliability in terms of internal consistency and temporal stability. Furthermore, it had significantly high correlations with other OCD measures and an acceptable sensitivity and specificity for detecting OCD. Conclusions The SOCS is a brief screening tool suitable for detecting OCD in children and adolescents. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703719

  4. Family affluence, school and neighborhood contexts and adolescents' civic engagement: a cross-national study.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Michela; Vieno, Alessio; Perkins, Douglas D; Santinello, Massimo; Elgar, Frank J; Morgan, Antony; Mazzardis, Sonia

    2012-09-01

    Research on youth civic engagement focuses on individual-level predictors. We examined individual- and school-level characteristics, including family affluence, democratic school social climate and perceived neighborhood social capital, in their relation to civic engagement of 15-year-old students. Data were taken from the 2006 World Health Organization Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey. A sample of 8,077 adolescents in 10th grade from five countries (Belgium, Canada, Italy, Romania, England) were assessed. Multilevel models were analyzed for each country and across the entire sample. Results showed that family affluence, democratic school climate and perceived neighborhood social capital positively related to participation in community organizations. These links were stronger at the aggregate contextual than individual level and varied by country. Canadian youth participated most and Romanian youth least of the five countries. Gender predicted engagement in two countries (girls participate more in Canada, boys in Italy). Findings showed significant contributions of the social environment to adolescents' engagement in their communities.

  5. Co-ordinated structural and functional covariance in the adolescent brain underlies face processing performance.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel Joel; Mareček, Radek; Grosbras, Marie-Helene; Leonard, Gabriel; Pike, G Bruce; Paus, Tomáš

    2016-04-01

    Our ability to process complex social cues presented by faces improves during adolescence. Using multivariate analyses of neuroimaging data collected longitudinally from a sample of 38 adolescents (17 males) when they were 10, 11.5, 13 and 15 years old, we tested the possibility that there exists parallel variations in the structural and functional development of neural systems supporting face processing. By combining measures of task-related functional connectivity and brain morphology, we reveal that both the structural covariance and functional connectivity among 'distal' nodes of the face-processing network engaged by ambiguous faces increase during this age range. Furthermore, we show that the trajectory of increasing functional connectivity between the distal nodes occurs in tandem with the development of their structural covariance. This demonstrates a tight coupling between functional and structural maturation within the face-processing network. Finally, we demonstrate that increased functional connectivity is associated with age-related improvements of face-processing performance, particularly in females. We suggest that our findings reflect greater integration among distal elements of the neural systems supporting the processing of facial expressions. This, in turn, might facilitate an enhanced extraction of social information from faces during a time when greater importance is placed on social interactions.

  6. Sequential avulsions of the tibial tubercle in an adolescent basketball player.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying Chieh; Chao, Ying-Hao; Lien, Fang-Chieh

    2010-05-01

    Tibial tubercle avulsion is an uncommon fracture in physically active adolescents. Sequential avulsion of tibial tubercles is extremely rare. We reported a healthy, active 15-year-old boy who suffered from left tibial tubercle avulsion fracture during a basketball game. He received open reduction and internal fixation with two smooth Kirschner wires and a cannulated screw, with every effort to reduce the plate injury. Long-leg splint was used for protection followed by programmed rehabilitation. He recovered uneventfully and returned to his previous level of activity soon. Another avulsion fracture happened at the right tibial tubercle 3.5 months later when he was playing the basketball. From the encouragement of previous successful treatment, we provided him open reduction and fixation with two small-caliber screws. He recovered uneventfully and returned to his previous level of activity soon. No genu recurvatum or other deformity was happening in our case at the end of 2-year follow-up. No evidence of Osgood-Schlatter disease or osteogenesis imperfecta was found. Sequential avulsion fractures of tibial tubercles are rare. Good functional recovery can often be obtained like our case if we treat it well. To a physically active adolescent, we should never overstate the risk of sequential avulsion of the other leg to postpone the return to an active, functional life.

  7. Estonian waterworks treatment plants: clearance of residues, discharge of effluents and efficiency of removal of radium from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Trotti, F; Caldognetto, E; Forte, M; Nuccetelli, C; Risica, S; Rusconi, R

    2013-12-01

    Considerable levels of radium were detected in a certain fraction of the Estonian drinking water supply network. Some of these waterworks have treatment systems for the removal of (mainly) iron and manganese from drinking water. Three of these waterworks and another one equipped with a radium removal pilot plant were examined, and a specific study was conducted in order to assess the environmental compatibility of effluents and residues produced in the plants. (226)Ra and (228)Ra activity concentrations were analysed in both liquid (backwash water) and solid (sand filter and sediment) materials to evaluate their compliance, from the radiological point of view, with current Estonian legislation and international technical documents that propose reference levels for radium in effluents and residues. Also with regard to water treatment by-products, a preliminary analysis was done of possible consequences of the transposition of the European Basic Safety Standards Draft into Estonian law. Radium removal efficiency was also tested in the same plants. Iron and manganese treatment plants turned out to be scarcely effective, whilst the radium mitigation pilot plant showed a promising performance.

  8. Pharmacopoieal quality of non-expired and expired nifedipine formulations from Estonian and Russian Federation medicinal products market.

    PubMed

    Teder, Kersti; Pepeloshev, Andrei; Matto, Vallo; Meos, Andres

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacopoeial quality of non-expired and expired nifedipine tablets of the same batches purchased from the Estonian and Russian Federation medicinal product markets was evaluated. The IR spectroscopy, HPLC analysis for quantitative content and purity of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), and dissolution test techniques were applied. In the experiments with non-expired nifedipine tablets, in all Estonian (n = 8, label claims 10, 20, and 40 mg) and Russian Federation (n = 4, label claim 10 mg) registered formulations the API was identified and quantified as nifedipine in amounts set by the European Pharmacopoeia and without exceeding the tolerance limits for the impurities. The dissolution rate was variable but all 10 and 20 mg non-expired nifedipine tablets released at least 80% of API in 12 h. The expiration of the nifedipine tablets led to somewhat increased dissolution rate while only traces of the nifedipine degradation products were discovered in the dissolution medium. In conclusion, our present study shows that with minor variations the Estonian and Russian Federation registered nifedipine tablets are comparable, the API preserves well beyond the expiration date but the expired nifedipine tablets may release the API faster than the non-expired tablets.

  9. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Test the Effectiveness of an Immersive 3D Video Game for Anxiety Prevention among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Scholten, Hanneke; Malmberg, Monique; Lobel, Adam; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Granic, Isabela

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent anxiety is debilitating, the most frequently diagnosed adolescent mental health problem, and leads to substantial long-term problems. A randomized controlled trial (n = 138) was conducted to test the effectiveness of a biofeedback video game (Dojo) for adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety. Adolescents (11–15 years old) were randomly assigned to play Dojo or a control game (Rayman 2: The Great Escape). Initial screening for anxiety was done on 1,347 adolescents in five high schools; only adolescents who scored above the “at-risk” cut-off on the Spence Children Anxiety Survey were eligible. Adolescents’ anxiety levels were assessed at pre-test, post-test, and at three month follow-up to examine the extent to which playing Dojo decreased adolescents’ anxiety. The present study revealed equal improvements in anxiety symptoms in both conditions at follow-up and no differences between Dojo and the closely matched control game condition. Latent growth curve models did reveal a steeper decrease of personalized anxiety symptoms (not of total anxiety symptoms) in the Dojo condition compared to the control condition. Moderation analyses did not show any differences in outcomes between boys and girls nor did age differentiate outcomes. The present results are of importance for prevention science, as this was the first full-scale randomized controlled trial testing indicated prevention effects of a video game aimed at reducing anxiety. Future research should carefully consider the choice of control condition and outcome measurements, address the potentially high impact of participants’ expectations, and take critical design issues into consideration, such as individual- versus group-based intervention and contamination issues. PMID:26816292

  10. Adolescent images of adolescence.

    PubMed

    Falchikov, N

    1989-06-01

    This study examines the extent to which a group of Scottish adolescents are influenced by negative images of adolescence present in our culture, and investigates their self-image by means of a Q sort. Forty 15- and 16-year-old school students took part in the study, half of whom were female. Half of the sample were staying on at school to take higher examinations, the other half being school leavers. Eleven factors emerged from the analysis, the first six of which met the criterion that distinguishes common factors. Participants defining common factors were re-interviewed, and their responses to factor interpretations noted. Little evidence was found to suggest that adolescents are influenced by newspaper images. Some descriptions hint at conflict, while others do not. If the results of the present study were to be replicated, a more pluralistic view of adolescence may be required.

  11. Socioeconomic position, macroeconomic environment and overweight among adolescents in 35 countries

    PubMed Central

    Due, P; Damsgaard, MT; Rasmussen, M; Holstein, BE; Wardle, J; Merlo, J; Currie, C; Ahluwalia, N; Sørensen, TIA; Lynch, J

    2012-01-01

    Objective It is important to understand levels and social inequalities in childhood overweight within and between countries. This study examined prevalence and social inequality in adolescent overweight in 35 countries, and associations with macroeconomic factors. Design International cross-sectional survey in national samples of schools. Subjects A total of 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds from 35 countries in Europe and North America in 2001–2002 (N = 162 305). Measurements The main outcome measure was overweight based on self-reported height and weight (body mass index cut-points corresponding to body mass index of 25 kg/m2 at the age of 18 years). Measures included family and school affluence (within countries), and average country income and economic inequality (between countries). Results There were large variations in adolescent overweight, from 3.5% in Lithuanian girls to 31.7% in boys from Malta. Prevalence of overweight was higher among children from less affluent families in 21 of 24 Western and 5 of 10 Central European countries. However, children from more affluent families were at higher risk of overweight in Croatia, Estonia and Latvia. In Poland, Lithuania, Macedonia and Finland, girls from less affluent families were more overweight whereas the opposite was found for boys. Average country income was associated with prevalence and inequality in overweight when considering all countries together. However, economic inequality as measured by the Gini coefficient was differentially associated with prevalence and socioeconomic inequality in overweight among the 23-high income and 10-middle income countries, with a positive relationship among the high income countries and a negative association among the middle income countries. Conclusion The direction and magnitude of social inequality in adolescent overweight shows large international variation, with negative social gradients in most countries, but positive social gradients, especially for boys, in some

  12. [Smoking initiation and watching television, video, DVD among adolescents in Poland].

    PubMed

    Kowalewska, Anna; Mazur, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between smoking initiation and the time spent watching TV, video, DVD by adolescents 11, 13, and 15-year-old in Poland. The research was conducted in 2010 as a part of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: A WHO Collaborative Cross-national Study (HBSC) in a sample of 4751 students, using a standard, international HBSC questionnaire. It was found that there is a relationship between smoking attempts made by the young people and time spent watching TV during weekdays. In the analyzes using logistic regression combined variable relating to the time to watch TV on weekdays and weekends was used. Nearly a quarter of respondents (24.3%) were qualified to the group of adolescents spending too much time in front of the screen. Age was the strongest predictor of smoking onset. Between 11 and 13 years of age the risk of taking the first cigarette increased three times, and between 11 and 15 years of age more than seven times. Relative risk of smoking attempts related to gender and frequency of watching television, video or DVD was both equal to 1.5. In smoking prevention focused on adolescents it is should be better to pay more attention on constructive leisure time activities, and the role of parents in shaping pro-health attitudes. This is particularly important in the initial stages of schooling, when to develop and enhance the psychosocial competences as a the protective factor of risk taking behaviors among adolescents. PMID:23421048

  13. Can a school based programme in a natural environment reduce BMI in overweight adolescents?

    PubMed

    Slaney, Graham; Salmon, Jo; Weinstein, Philip

    2012-07-01

    Current levels of obesity amongst adolescents may be largely attributed to changes in environmental exposures that place vulnerable youth at risk, yet few studies have incorporated environmental approaches to normalising Body Mass Index (BMI). Our hypothesis is that a live-in school based programme in a natural environment can reduce the BMI of overweight children. The pilot study therefore explores the effects of such a programme on the BMI of adolescents in rural Victoria, Australia. Year 9 students (15 year olds, N = 1021) at a rural school with a physically demanding, 10-month, live-in outdoor programme had their BMIs measured at the beginning and end of the programme. Their observed BMI at the end of the programme was compared to expected BMI (based on adjustment of their initial BMI to account for normal growth using international standards). Participation in the programme reduced the BMI of boys who were in the normal to obese range (χ(2) = 8.57, p = 0.014), but not in girls. For the overweight and obese boys BMI decreased by up to 2.5 kg/m(2). These results suggests that school based environmental interventions may be effective in reducing obesity in adolescents, supporting our hypothesis. Our study is limited by its opportunistic observational nature, but it nevertheless suggests that such a live-in school programme in a natural environment may provide a valuable addition to the list of interventions available to combat the obesity epidemic. Although the programme reduced BMI in boys, the equivocal data for girls means that even an intensive programme such as this struggles to achieve a significant change in BMI across all obese adolescents. Our study nevertheless supports the need for further investigation of the possible contribution of school based programmes in natural environments to interventions to fight the obesity epidemic--because there is no magic bullet. PMID:22534485

  14. Adolescent Socioeconomic and School-Based Social Status, Smoking, and Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Relationships between subjective social status (SSS) and health-risk behaviors have received less attention than those between SSS and health. Inconsistent associations between school-based SSS and smoking or drinking might be because it is a single measure reflecting several status dimensions. We investigated how adolescent smoking and drinking are associated with “objective” socioeconomic status (SES), subjective SES, and three dimensions of school-based SSS. Methods Scottish 13–15 years-olds (N = 2,503) completed questionnaires in school-based surveys, providing information on: “objective” SES (residential deprivation, family affluence); subjective SES (MacArthur Scale youth version); and three school-based SSS dimensions (“SSS-peer”, “SSS-scholastic” and “SSS-sports”). We examined associations between each status measure and smoking (ever and weekly) and drinking (ever and usually five or more drinks) and investigated variations according to gender and age. Results Smoking and heavier drinking were positively associated with residential deprivation; associations with family affluence and subjective SES were weak or nonexistent. Both substances were related to each school-based SSS measure, and these associations were equally strong or stronger than those with deprivation. Although SSS-peer was positively associated with both smoking and (especially heavier) drinking, SSS-scholastic and SSS-sports were negatively associated with both substances. There were no gender differences in the associations and few according to age. Conclusions Subjective school-based status has stronger associations with adolescent smoking and drinking than “objective” or subjective SES. However, different dimensions of school-based status relate to adolescent smoking and drinking in opposing directions, meaning one measure based on several dimensions might show inconsistent relationships with adolescent substance use. PMID:26095407

  15. [Puberty-delaying hormone therapy in adolescents with gender identity disorder].

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Mikiya

    2013-01-01

    The guideline for the treatment of people with gender identity disorder (GID) of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology was revised in January 2012. The guideline eased restrictions for the endocrine treatment of transsexual adolescents. A medical specialist can start treating transsexual adolescents at the age of 15 after the diagnosis of GID. It recommends that transsexual adolescents (Tanner stage 2 [mainly 12-13 years of age]) are treated by endocrinologists to suppress puberty with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists until the age of 15 years old, after which cross-sex hormones may be given. Female-to-male transsexuals do not necessarily want to start androgen therapy before presenting female secondary sexual characteristics because androgen can easily stop menstruation, cause beard growth, and lower the voice. On the contrary, male-to-female transsexuals want to start estrogen therapy before presenting male secondary sexual characteristics because estrogen cannot alter the beard and low voice. It is important to identify children with gender dysphoria in school and help them receive medical advice. However, approximately half of school teachers think that children with gender dysphoria are very rare and they do not know of the notification from Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, JAPAN, which aims to help children with gender dysphoria. The revision of the guideline for the treatment of transsexual people and endocrine treatment of transsexual adolescents by medical specialists may prevent them from attempting suicide, being depressive, and refusing to attend school. Furthermore, the treatment may help avoid mental disorders, aid being employed with the desired sexuality, and, subsequently, getting married and having children.

  16. [Smoking initiation and watching television, video, DVD among adolescents in Poland].

    PubMed

    Kowalewska, Anna; Mazur, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between smoking initiation and the time spent watching TV, video, DVD by adolescents 11, 13, and 15-year-old in Poland. The research was conducted in 2010 as a part of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: A WHO Collaborative Cross-national Study (HBSC) in a sample of 4751 students, using a standard, international HBSC questionnaire. It was found that there is a relationship between smoking attempts made by the young people and time spent watching TV during weekdays. In the analyzes using logistic regression combined variable relating to the time to watch TV on weekdays and weekends was used. Nearly a quarter of respondents (24.3%) were qualified to the group of adolescents spending too much time in front of the screen. Age was the strongest predictor of smoking onset. Between 11 and 13 years of age the risk of taking the first cigarette increased three times, and between 11 and 15 years of age more than seven times. Relative risk of smoking attempts related to gender and frequency of watching television, video or DVD was both equal to 1.5. In smoking prevention focused on adolescents it is should be better to pay more attention on constructive leisure time activities, and the role of parents in shaping pro-health attitudes. This is particularly important in the initial stages of schooling, when to develop and enhance the psychosocial competences as a the protective factor of risk taking behaviors among adolescents.

  17. Adolescent Television Viewing and Belief in Vampires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emyr; Robbins, Mandy; Picton, Laura

    2006-01-01

    A total of 1133 13-15-year-old pupils in six secondary schools in South Wales were invited to complete questions concerning vampire belief and amount of television watching. The data demonstrate that belief in vampires was positively associated with higher levels of television watching.

  18. The role of behavioural factors in explaining socio-economic differences in adolescent health: a multilevel study in 33 countries.

    PubMed

    Richter, Matthias; Erhart, Michael; Vereecken, Carine A; Zambon, Alessio; Boyce, William; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2009-08-01

    Attempts to describe and explain socio-economic differences in health have mainly focused on adults. Little is known about the mechanisms of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and health in adolescence including inconsistent findings between SES and health among young people. Data were derived from representative samples of 13 and 15-year-old students in 33 European and North American countries (n=97,721) as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2001/2002. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to investigate socio-economic differences in self-rated health among adolescents and the contribution of health-related behaviours to the explanation of such differences. Odds ratios of self-rated health by family affluence were calculated before and after adjustment for behavioural factors (tobacco smoking, physical activity, television use, breakfast intake, consumption of fruits and vegetables). On average, adolescents from low affluent families had an odds ratio for low self-rated health of 1.84 for boys and 1.80 for girls, compared to those from high affluent families. The majority of behavioural factors were significantly associated with family affluence in all countries and explained part of the relationship between self-rated health and family affluence. Smoking, physical activity and breakfast consumption showed the largest independent effect on health. The present study suggests that behavioural factors in early adolescence partly account for the association between self-rated health and socio-economic status. Prevention programmes should target unhealthy behaviours of adolescents from lower socio-economic groups to help prevent future life-course disadvantages in terms of health and social inequalities.

  19. Lumbar Thrust Manipulation and Exercise for the Treatment of Mechanical Low Back Pain in Adolescents: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Walston, Zachary; Yake, Dale

    2016-05-01

    Study Design Case series. Background Low back pain (LBP) is an increasing problem in health care. The evidence for the use of spinal manipulative therapy to treat pediatric patients with LBP is minimal. The treatment of pediatrics with manual therapy, particularly spinal manipulation, is controversial within the medical community, primarily with respect to adverse events. The purpose of this case series was to illustrate the feasibility and safety of lumbar manipulation plus exercise in the adolescent population with mechanical LBP. Case Description Three patients-a 13-year-old adolescent girl, 15-year-old adolescent girl, and 13-year-old adolescent boy-were treated in an outpatient physical therapy setting for mechanical LBP. All 3 patients were assessed using a lumbar manipulation clinical prediction rule and treated with sidelying lumbar manipulation and exercise. Outcomes Patients were treated for a total of 10 to 14 visits over a course of 8 to 9 weeks. Pain (measured by a numeric pain-rating scale) and disability (measured by the modified Oswestry Disability Index) improved to 0/10 and 0%, respectively, in each patient. No adverse reactions to manipulation were reported. Discussion The results of this case series describe the use of lumbar thrust manipulation and exercise for the treatment of mechanical LBP in adolescents. The positive results indicate that lumbar manipulation may be a safe adjunct therapy. Further studies, including randomized controlled trials, are needed to determine effectiveness. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(5):391-398. Epub 6 Apr 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6366.

  20. The role of behavioural factors in explaining socio-economic differences in adolescent health: a multilevel study in 33 countries.

    PubMed

    Richter, Matthias; Erhart, Michael; Vereecken, Carine A; Zambon, Alessio; Boyce, William; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2009-08-01

    Attempts to describe and explain socio-economic differences in health have mainly focused on adults. Little is known about the mechanisms of the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and health in adolescence including inconsistent findings between SES and health among young people. Data were derived from representative samples of 13 and 15-year-old students in 33 European and North American countries (n=97,721) as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2001/2002. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to investigate socio-economic differences in self-rated health among adolescents and the contribution of health-related behaviours to the explanation of such differences. Odds ratios of self-rated health by family affluence were calculated before and after adjustment for behavioural factors (tobacco smoking, physical activity, television use, breakfast intake, consumption of fruits and vegetables). On average, adolescents from low affluent families had an odds ratio for low self-rated health of 1.84 for boys and 1.80 for girls, compared to those from high affluent families. The majority of behavioural factors were significantly associated with family affluence in all countries and explained part of the relationship between self-rated health and family affluence. Smoking, physical activity and breakfast consumption showed the largest independent effect on health. The present study suggests that behavioural factors in early adolescence partly account for the association between self-rated health and socio-economic status. Prevention programmes should target unhealthy behaviours of adolescents from lower socio-economic groups to help prevent future life-course disadvantages in terms of health and social inequalities. PMID:19540029

  1. Symptoms of anxiety and depression in Estonian medical students with sleep problems.

    PubMed

    Eller, Triin; Aluoja, Anu; Vasar, Veiko; Veldi, Marlit

    2006-01-01

    High emotional stress in medical students has been observed in many studies. Our aim in this article was to assess the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety and depression among Estonian medical students and to find relationships between sleep complaints and emotional symptoms. The study group consisted of 413 medical students, ages 19-33 years, at the University of Tartu. Each was asked to complete two questionnaires: the Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q), containing 28 questions, and the Questionnaire on Sleep and Daytime Habits, with 25 questions. The anxiety and depression subscales from the EST-Q were applied. From the study group, 21.9% students had symptoms of anxiety, and 30.6% had symptoms of depression. The frequency of anxiety and depressive symptoms was higher in females. In regression and multiple regression analysis, we determined which sleep problems were related to emotional symptoms. The associations were different for men and women. In women, anxiety remained significantly related to waking up because of nightmares and feeling tired in the morning; depressive symptoms were related to difficulties in getting to sleep at night, waking up because of nightmares and nocturnal eating habits, daytime sleepiness, and sleepiness during school lessons. In men, significant relations were clear only for depression: difficulties in falling asleep at night before an exam and subjective sleep quality. The study demonstrated that a high percentage of medical students had emotional symptoms. We found that some sleep problems indicated underlying symptoms of anxiety and depression.

  2. Reported contraceptive use, risk behaviours and STIs among military conscripts in Estonian defence forces.

    PubMed

    David Parker, R; Regier, Michael D; Widmeyer, Joseph; Honaker, John; Rüütel, Kristi

    2015-10-01

    Limited research exists on sexually transmitted infection (STI) and risk behaviour among military personnel. Published research on condom use and types of contraceptives used yield mixed results, yet, the perception that military members are at higher risk for STIs remains. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to measure factors such as condom use, contraceptive methods, and risky behaviours (i.e. drug use and sex with commercial sex workers) and investigate differences between ethnic groups, where culture could influence behaviour. Data were collected from a recruited population of 584 male, military conscripts in northeastern Europe. Using multinomial logistic regression models, statistically significant findings include an interaction between the use of contraceptive methods of Russians with casual partners and ethnicity, with higher odds of effective methods used among Estonians with regular partners (OR = 8.13) or casual partners (OR = 11.58) and Russians with regular partners (OR = 4.98). Effective contraceptive methods used less frequently with casual partners by ethnic Russians is important in providing education and risk reduction services to young, male conscripts. These findings may be used as a baseline to inform health education and STI prevention programmes tailored to military members in Eastern Europe in the absence of other published studies.

  3. Help-seeking for emotional problems in major depression : findings of the 2006 Estonian health survey.

    PubMed

    Kleinberg, Anne; Aluoja, Anu; Vasar, Veiko

    2013-08-01

    To study help-seeking among the general population and people with major depression. 12-month help-seeking for emotional problems was assessed in a cross-sectional 2006 Estonian Health Survey. Non-institutionalized individuals aged 18-84 years (n = 6,105) were interviewed. A major depressive episode was assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The factors associated with help-seeking, received help, and health service use were analyzed. The prevalence of 12-month help-seeking for emotional symptoms was 4.8%. The rate of 12-month help-seeking in the depressed sample was 34.1%. Depressed people used non-mental health services 1.5-3 times more than non-depressed persons even when adjusted for the chronic somatic disorder. Only one third of depressed persons sought help, which was most of all associated with severity of depression. Underdiagnosis and undertreatment of depression leads to an increased use of expensive but non-specific health services by depressed persons.

  4. The effect of local speaking rate on the perception of quantity in Estonian.

    PubMed

    Traunmüller, Hartmut; Krull, Diana

    2003-01-01

    The Estonian language with its elaborate system of contrasts in quantity, whose essentials are described in the paper, is used to investigate human perception of distinctive contrasts in the duration of vowels, consonants and larger units. In the experiments reported, the speaking rate of a preceding or following syllable was manipulated in addition to that of a target V, C or VC sequence that carried a quantity distinction in disyllabic words. The results confirmed that the second syllable in such words, in particular the duration of its vowel, serves as a reference, but they showed segments of additional syllables to contribute in the same direction. The results provided no support for ascribing quantity to any larger units than phonetic segments. Speech rate effects of similar magnitude have been observed in Japanese, while effects of the same kind were found to be smaller in Dutch. These differences may be linked with the functions durational contrasts have in the different languages. It appears that listeners have to adapt more fully to variations in the local speaking rate when there are no additional cues and the functional load of quantity distinctions is high. PMID:14571060

  5. Reported contraceptive use, risk behaviours and STIs among military conscripts in Estonian defence forces.

    PubMed

    David Parker, R; Regier, Michael D; Widmeyer, Joseph; Honaker, John; Rüütel, Kristi

    2015-10-01

    Limited research exists on sexually transmitted infection (STI) and risk behaviour among military personnel. Published research on condom use and types of contraceptives used yield mixed results, yet, the perception that military members are at higher risk for STIs remains. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to measure factors such as condom use, contraceptive methods, and risky behaviours (i.e. drug use and sex with commercial sex workers) and investigate differences between ethnic groups, where culture could influence behaviour. Data were collected from a recruited population of 584 male, military conscripts in northeastern Europe. Using multinomial logistic regression models, statistically significant findings include an interaction between the use of contraceptive methods of Russians with casual partners and ethnicity, with higher odds of effective methods used among Estonians with regular partners (OR = 8.13) or casual partners (OR = 11.58) and Russians with regular partners (OR = 4.98). Effective contraceptive methods used less frequently with casual partners by ethnic Russians is important in providing education and risk reduction services to young, male conscripts. These findings may be used as a baseline to inform health education and STI prevention programmes tailored to military members in Eastern Europe in the absence of other published studies. PMID:25324351

  6. CO2 mineral sequestration in oil-shale wastes from Estonian power production.

    PubMed

    Uibu, Mai; Uus, Mati; Kuusik, Rein

    2009-02-01

    In the Republic of Estonia, local low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel--Estonian oil-shale--is used as a primary energy source. Combustion of oil-shale is characterized by a high specific carbon emission factor (CEF). In Estonia, the power sector is the largest CO(2) emitter and is also a source of huge amounts of waste ash. Oil-shale has been burned by pulverized firing (PF) since 1959 and in circulating fluidized-bed combustors (CFBCs) since 2004-2005. Depending on the combustion technology, the ash contains a total of up to 30% free Ca-Mg oxides. In consequence, some amount of emitted CO(2) is bound by alkaline transportation water and by the ash during hydraulic transportation and open-air deposition. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility of improving the extent of CO(2) capture using additional chemical and technological means, in particular the treatment of aqueous ash suspensions with model flue gases containing 10-15% CO(2). The results indicated that both types of ash (PF and CFBC) could be used as sorbents for CO(2) mineral sequestration. The amount of CO(2) captured averaged 60-65% of the carbonaceous CO(2) and 10-11% of the total CO(2) emissions.

  7. CO2 mineral sequestration in oil-shale wastes from Estonian power production.

    PubMed

    Uibu, Mai; Uus, Mati; Kuusik, Rein

    2009-02-01

    In the Republic of Estonia, local low-grade carbonaceous fossil fuel--Estonian oil-shale--is used as a primary energy source. Combustion of oil-shale is characterized by a high specific carbon emission factor (CEF). In Estonia, the power sector is the largest CO(2) emitter and is also a source of huge amounts of waste ash. Oil-shale has been burned by pulverized firing (PF) since 1959 and in circulating fluidized-bed combustors (CFBCs) since 2004-2005. Depending on the combustion technology, the ash contains a total of up to 30% free Ca-Mg oxides. In consequence, some amount of emitted CO(2) is bound by alkaline transportation water and by the ash during hydraulic transportation and open-air deposition. The goal of this study was to investigate the possibility of improving the extent of CO(2) capture using additional chemical and technological means, in particular the treatment of aqueous ash suspensions with model flue gases containing 10-15% CO(2). The results indicated that both types of ash (PF and CFBC) could be used as sorbents for CO(2) mineral sequestration. The amount of CO(2) captured averaged 60-65% of the carbonaceous CO(2) and 10-11% of the total CO(2) emissions. PMID:18793821

  8. Bilateral parotid enlargement due to malnutrition under the influence of the media in an adolescent in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Mieliauskaite, Diana; Venalis, Algirdas; Graziene, Vida; Kirdaite, Gailute

    2007-07-01

    The elimination of censorship for the media in post-communist countries in transition has contributed to increases in the prevalence of several medical problems. Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the messages conveyed through the media, which influence their perceptions and behaviour. We describe a case of bilateral parotid enlargement due to malnutrition under the influence of self-prescribed diet in an adolescent. A 15-year-old girl reported to our institution under suspicion of Sjögren's syndrome for medical advice. Two months ago she developed persistent bilateral parotid enlargement and a dry mouth. Her medical history revealed a weight loss due to "self-prescribed" reduce diet. Social questioning clarified high use of the media and influence on the body concept and self image. On extra oral examination, a diffuse parotid enlargement was seen bilaterally. The examination of the mouth showed a low moisture level of the intraoral mucosa. The unstimulated whole salivary flow rate was 2 ml in 15 min. Laboratory findings evidenced anemia (107 g/l). The serum albumin concentration indicated a reduced level (28 g/l). Search for antinuclear antibodies, anti-SSA antibodies, anti-SSB, -Sm, -RNP and anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies was negative. Evaluation for antibodies against hepatitis C, cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infection and HIV rendered negative results. A histopathologic examination of labial salivary gland biopsy revealed a picture of sialoadenosis. From the above investigations, a diagnosis of sialoadenosis due to malnutrition was made. PMID:17198741

  9. Fruits and vegetables consumption and associated factors among in-school adolescents in five Southeast Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2012-10-11

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of fruits and vegetable consumption and associated factors among Southeast Asian in-school adolescents. Data were collected by self-report questionnaire from nationally representative samples (total 16,084) of school children aged 13 to 15 years in five Southeast Asian countries. Overall, 76.3% of the 13 to 15 year-olds had inadequate fruits and vegetables consumptions (less than five servings per day); 28% reported consuming fruits less than once per day and 13.8% indicated consuming vegetables less than once per day. In multivariable analysis, lack of protective factors and being physically inactive were associated with inadequate fruits and vegetable consumption, and sedentary behaviour and being overweight was protective of inadequate fruits and vegetable consumption. The results stress the need for intervention programmes aimed at increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, targeting proximal factors such as the family environment and distal factors by aiming at integrating other risk factors such as physical activity into health promotion among adolescents.

  10. Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptics Scale short form (SWN-K): reliability and validity in an Estonian speaking sample

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Subjective Well-Being Under Neuroleptic Treatment Scale short form (SWN-K) is a self-rating scale developed to measure mentally ill patients' well-being under the antipsychotic drug treatment. This paper reports on adaptation and psychometric properties of the instrument in an Estonian psychiatric sample. Methods In a naturalistic study design, 124 inpatients or outpatients suffering from the first psychotic episode or chronic psychotic illness completed the translated SWN-K instrument. Item content analysis, internal consistency analysis, exploratory principal components analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis were used to construct the Estonian version of the SWN-K (SWN-K-E). Additionally, socio-demographic and clinical data, observer-rated psychopathology, medication side effects, daily antipsychotic drug dosages, and general functioning were assessed at two time points, at baseline and after a 29-week period; the associations of the SWN-K-E scores with these variables were explored. Results After having selected 20 items for the Estonian adaptation, the internal consistency of the total SWN-K-E was 0.93 and the subscale consistencies ranged from 0.70 to 0.80. Good test–retest reliabilities were observed for the adapted scale scores, with the correlation of the total score over about 6 months being r = 0.70. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the presence of a higher-order factor (general well-being) and five first-order factors (mental functioning, physical functioning, social integration, emotional regulation, and self-control); the model fitted the data well. The results indicated a moderate-high correlations r = 0.54 between the SWN-K-E total score and the evaluation how satisfied patients were with their lives in generally. No significant correlations were found between the overall subjective well-being score and age, severity of the psychopathology, drug adverse effects, or prescribed drug dosage. Conclusion Taken together, the

  11. Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorders in Caucasian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tecco, Simona; Crincoli, Vito; Di Bisceglie, Beatrice; Saccucci, Matteo; Macrĺ, Monica; Polimeni, Antonella; Festa, Felice

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of the signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in a population of children and adolescents. TMD signs and symptoms were recorded in 1134 subjects (593 males and 541 females; age range 5-15 years), divided into various groups according to the: (i) Angle dental class; (ii) presence and type of crossbite; (iii) gender; and (iv) age (ages 5-11 and 12-15 years). The percentages of signs and symptoms were compared using the chi2-test to determine the differences among the groups for the rates of TMD symptoms, bruxism, joint sounds, deviation during opening, reduced opening/lateral/protrusive movements, and myofascial pain. Subjects who were 12-15 years old showed a significantly higher prevalence of myofascial pain than those who were 5-11 years old (chi2 = 4.263; p < 0.05). Females showed a significantly higher prevalence of myofascial pain than males (chi2 = 3.882; p < 0.05). Subjects with posterior, unilateral crossbite showed a significantly higher prevalence of TMD symptoms (chi2 = 33.877; p < 0.001) and reduction of functional movements (chi2 = 10.800; p < 0.05) than those with no crossbite, or with anterior or posterior bilateral crossbite. TMD's signs and symptoms seem to be associated to some definite characteristics of the patient, such as female gender, young age, and presence of posterior unilateral crossbite.

  12. Adolescent peer interaction and trait surgency weaken medial prefrontal cortex responses to failure

    PubMed Central

    Santesso, Diane L.; Willoughby, Teena; Reker, Dana L.; Campbell, Kelly; Chalmers, Heather; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent risk taking has been known to increase in the presence of peers. We hypothesized that peer interaction reduces the activation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that is required for self-regulation of reward-driven behavior. We also expected that mPFC activity would be reduced more in those with greater surgency, a composite trait of behavioral approach, sensation seeking and positive affect. In our study, 20 15-year-old boys played a simulated driving video game alone and in the presence of peers who were encouraged to call out advice while we recorded the feedback-related negativity (FRN) event-related potential in response to an impending car crash. FRN amplitude was reduced both as a function of peer presence and increased surgency. More importantly, we also calculated intracerebral current source density at the time of the FRNs, and found that both greater surgency and peer presence are associated with reduced activity specifically in the mPFC. Riskier performance resulting in more car crashes resulted from the presence of peers only as an interaction with surgency, this interaction being related strongly to reduced activity in the ventromedial PFC. PMID:21208989

  13. Changes in Alcohol Behaviour among Adolescents in North-West Russia between 1995 and 2004

    PubMed Central

    Verho, Anastasiya; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    Background. Among Russian adults, alcohol consumption with binge drinking was high and increased during past decades. Little is known regarding adolescents' drinking. The present study investigates changes in alcohol-related behaviour among Russian youth between 1995 and 2004. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the 15-year-old youths from all schools in Pitkäranta, Republic of Karelia, Russia. In 1995, 385 students participated (response 95%), in 2004—395 (response 85%). Results. The proportion of abstainers decreased: boys from 26% to 13% (P = 0.002), girls from 23% to 12% (P = 0.007). The age of first alcohol consumption decreased among both genders. First alcohol drinking with friends increased among boys from 65% to 79% (P = 0.031), among girls from 49% to 70% (P = 0.001). Weekly drinking increased: boys from 13% to 28% (P < 0.001), girls from 6% to 15% (P = 0.001). The prevalence on inebriation increased among girls from 45% to 60% (P = 0.012), beer consumption from 8% to 21% (P = 0.006) by 2004. Gender differences were less prominent in 2004. Conclusion. Negative changes: early drinking initiation and more frequent alcohol consumption were observed among Russian youth by 2004. Regular monitoring, effective policy measures, and health education are necessary to prevent further increase in alcohol consumption and subsequent burden of alcohol-related diseases in Russia. PMID:23056064

  14. Individual differences in trait motivational reactivity influence children and adolescents' responses to pictures of taboo products.

    PubMed

    Lang, Annie; Lee, Sungkyoung

    2014-09-01

    This study examined how children and adolescents respond to pictures of products whose use, for them, is socially or legally restricted (e.g., beer, liquor, cigarettes). It was theorized and found that these pictures, referred to as taboo, elicit an automatic motivational activation whose direction and intensity are influenced by age and individual differences in defensive system activation. Results show that 11-12-year-old children demonstrate primarily aversive responses to taboo products, 13-15-year-old children have less aversive responses, and 16-17-year-old children have mixed appetitive and aversive motivational responses. Further, those with high defensive system activation show larger aversive and smaller appetitive responses across the age groups. These results suggest that placing pictures of these products in prevention messages may work for the prevention goal of reduced experimentation and risk in younger children but against the prevention goal for the older children who may be more likely to be exposed to opportunities for experimentation and use.

  15. Experimental But Not Sex Differences of a Mental Rotation Training Program on Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rodán, Antonio; Contreras, María José; Elosúa, M. Rosa; Gimeno, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of visuospatial processing in areas related to the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) disciplines, where there is still a considerable gap in the area of sex differences, the interest in the effects of visuospatial skills training continues to grow. Therefore, we have evaluated the visuospatial improvement of adolescents after performing a computerized mental rotation training program, as well as the relationship of this visuospatial ability with other cognitive, emotional factors and those factors based on the experience with videogames. The study, which was performed on students aged 14 and 15 years old, showed a significant improvement in this visuospatial skill for a training group (n = 21) compared to a control group (n = 24). Furthermore, no significant sex differences were obtained for spatial ability or for any of the other tasks evaluated, either before or after training. Regarding the relationship between skills, a significant correlation between experience with video games and spatial ability was found, as well as between mathematical reasoning and intelligence and with spatial ability in the initial phase for the total sample. These findings are discussed from a cognitive point of view and within the current sociocultural context, where the equal use of new technologies could help reduce the visuospatial gap between sexes. PMID:27462290

  16. Early Sexual Debut and Associated Factors among In-school Adolescents in Six Caribbean Countries

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, K; Pengpid, S

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This report examines early sexual debut (< age 15 years) among 15-year old in-school adolescents in six Caribbean countries. Subjects and Methods: The total sample included 9948 school children aged primarily 13–16 years from nationally representative samples from six Caribbean countries. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between early sexual debut and substance use, unintentional injuries and violence, mental distress, physical activity, protective factors and socio-economic status variables. Results: Approximately one-fourth of the sample (26.9%) had experienced sexual debut before age 15 years, 37.2% among boys and 16.9% among girls. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, it was found that male gender, substance use (smoking and alcohol use), having been in a physical fight in the past 12 months, sedentary behaviour, truancy and lack of parental or guardian attachment were associated with early sexual debut. Conclusion: This study found a high prevalence of early sexual debut. The risk factors identified were consistent with the Problem Behaviour Theory, which can be incorporated into broader sexual health promotion programmes. PMID:26624586

  17. Experimental But Not Sex Differences of a Mental Rotation Training Program on Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rodán, Antonio; Contreras, María José; Elosúa, M Rosa; Gimeno, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Given the importance of visuospatial processing in areas related to the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) disciplines, where there is still a considerable gap in the area of sex differences, the interest in the effects of visuospatial skills training continues to grow. Therefore, we have evaluated the visuospatial improvement of adolescents after performing a computerized mental rotation training program, as well as the relationship of this visuospatial ability with other cognitive, emotional factors and those factors based on the experience with videogames. The study, which was performed on students aged 14 and 15 years old, showed a significant improvement in this visuospatial skill for a training group (n = 21) compared to a control group (n = 24). Furthermore, no significant sex differences were obtained for spatial ability or for any of the other tasks evaluated, either before or after training. Regarding the relationship between skills, a significant correlation between experience with video games and spatial ability was found, as well as between mathematical reasoning and intelligence and with spatial ability in the initial phase for the total sample. These findings are discussed from a cognitive point of view and within the current sociocultural context, where the equal use of new technologies could help reduce the visuospatial gap between sexes. PMID:27462290

  18. A cross-national profile of bullying and victimization among adolescents in 40 countries

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Wendy; Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya; Dostaler, Suzanne; Hetland, Jorn; Simons-Morton, Bruce; Molcho, Michal; de Mato, Margarida Gaspar; Overpeck, Mary; Due, Pernille; Pickett, William

    2009-01-01

    Objectives (1) To compare the prevalence of bullying and victimization among boys and girls and by age in 40 countries. (2) In 6 countries, to compare rates of direct physical, direct verbal, and indirect bullying by gender, age, and country. Methods Cross-sectional self-report surveys including items on bullying and being bullied were obtained from nationally representative samples of 11, 13 and 15 year old school children in 40 countries, N = 202,056. Six countries (N = 29,127 students) included questions about specific types of bullying (e. g., direct physical, direct verbal, indirect). Results Exposure to bullying varied across countries, with estimates ranging from 8.6 % to 45.2 % among boys, and from 4.8 % to 35.8 % among girls. Adolescents in Baltic countries reported higher rates of bullying and victimization, whereas northern European countries reported the lowest prevalence. Boys reported higher rates of bullying in all countries. Rates of victimization were higher for girls in 29 of 40 countries. Rates of victimization decreased by age in 30 of 40 (boys) and 25 of 39 (girls) countries. Conclusion There are lessons to be learned from the current research conducted in countries where the prevalence is low that could be adapted for use in countries with higher prevalence. PMID:19623475

  19. 'Rules' for boys, 'guidelines' for girls: Gender differences in symptom reporting during childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Alice; Sweeting, Helen; Hunt, Kate

    2010-02-01

    The emergence of higher reported morbidity in females compared with males is a feature of adolescent health in a large proportion of the world's industrialised countries. In this paper, qualitative data from twenty-five single-sex focus groups (90 participants in total) conducted with 10-, 13-, and 15-year olds in two Scottish schools is used to explore whether symptom reporting is influenced by perceived societal gender- and age-related expectations and the social context of symptom experiences. The degree to which these factors can help explain quantitative evidence of increases in gender differences in symptom reporting during adolescence is also examined. Accounts suggested gender-related expectations act as strict 'rules' for boys and less prohibitive 'guidelines' for girls. An unexpected finding was the extent of similarity between these 'rules' and 'guidelines'. Both boys and girls presented themselves as pressured to react to symptoms in stoic, controlled and independent ways, particularly when in the company of their peers, and both perceived that boys and girls could incur negative consequences if seen to have physical (e.g. stomach ache) or, especially, psychological symptoms (e.g. feeling like crying). These qualitative findings do not suggest that girls are simply more willing than boys to report their symptoms as they get older, which is one potential explanation for the quantitative evidence of increasing gender differences in symptom reporting in adolescence. Rather, the findings suggest a need to highlight both the potentially damaging effects of gender stereotypes which make boys reluctant to seek help for physical and, particularly, psychological symptoms, and the misconception that girls are not similarly reluctant to report illness. PMID:19931962

  20. A window of opportunity: referral of adolescents to the hospital Child Protection Team.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Saralee; Chen, Wendy; Stoffman, Nava; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2008-01-01

    The arrival of an adolescent at the hospital provides a window of opportunity to help those exposed to abuse or neglect, by looking beyond the presenting symptom. The Child Protection Team (CPT) assesses cases of suspected abuse or neglect (SCAN) referred by hospital staff. As adolescents pose a particular array of presentations, this study assessed their socio-demographic features and characteristics of hospitalization in order to improve procedures for identifying SCAN. The study group included all 674 referrals of 10-17-year-olds to the CPT from 1991-2007. Their files were abstracted and demographics compared to similarly-aged Emergency Department (ED) admissions. Different patterns were found by gender and age group. The youngest group (10-13 years) included a higher rate of boys than girls (47.9% vs. 27.6%), and among the oldest (16-17 years) the rate of girls was higher (31.9% vs 15.8%). Comparison with all ED admissions indicated a lower rate of younger girls and a higher rate of 14-15-year-old girls in the study group. The study group also had a higher rate of immigrants (12.8% vs. 4.7%). The most frequent reason for arrival at the hospital was suicidal behavior (30.9%). Older age was related to fewer arrivals for trauma/burn and more suicidal behavior. In 83.1% of the referrals, reports were made to welfare authorities and/or police. The suspicion in 64.2% of the referrals was emotional abuse or physical/emotional neglect; in 18.8%, physical and/or sexual abuse was suspected. The older groups had lower rates of physical and/or sexual abuse and higher rates of emotional abuse or physical/emotional neglect. This study highlights the importance of age-by-gender analysis and understanding of the differential susceptibility of early, middle and late adolescence to SCAN.

  1. Food intake response to exercise and active video gaming in adolescents: effect of weight status.

    PubMed

    Chaput, J P; Tremblay, A; Pereira, B; Boirie, Y; Duclos, M; Thivel, D

    2016-02-14

    Although a few data are available regarding the impact of video games on energy intake (EI) in lean adolescents, there is no evidence on the effect of passive and active video gaming on food intake in both lean and obese youth. It is also unknown whether isoenergetic active video games and exercise differently affect food consumption in youth. In all, twelve lean and twelve obese adolescent boys (12-15 years old) had to complete four 1-h sessions in a cross-over design study: control (CON; sitting), passive video game (PVG; boxing game on Xbox 360), active video game (AVG; boxing game on Xbox Kinect 360) and exercise (EX; cycling). The exercise and active video game activities were designed to generate the same energy expenditure (EE). EE was measured using a K4b2 portable indirect calorimeter. Ad libitum food intake and appetite sensations were assessed following the sessions. AVG and EX-EE were significantly higher in obese participants and significantly higher compared with PVG and CON in both groups. Obese participants significantly ate more than lean ones in all four conditions (P<0·001). EI did not differ between conditions in obese participants (CON: 4935 (SD 1490) kJ; PVG: 4902 (SD 1307) kJ; AVG: 4728 (SD 1358) kJ; EX: 4643 (SD 1335) kJ), and was significantly lower in lean participants after EX (2847 (SD 577) kJ) compared with PVG (3580 (SD 863) kJ) and AVG (3485 (SD 643) kJ) (P<0·05). Macronutrient intake was not significantly different between the groups or conditions. Hunger was significantly higher and satiety was lower in obese participants but no condition effect was observed. Overall, moderate-intensity exercise provides better effect on energy balance than an isoenergetic hour of active video gaming in lean adolescent boys by dually affecting EE and EI. PMID:26596899

  2. Is Participation in Organized Leisure-Time Activities Associated with School Performance in Adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Sigmundova, Dagmar; Sirucek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Organized leisure-time activities (OLTA) have been identified as a context suitable for improvement of school performance. This study aimed to assess the associations between participation in OLTA and school engagement, school-related stress, academic achievement and whether these associations differ by specific pattern of OLTA participation, gender and age. Furthermore, it assessed whether OLTA participants are more likely to acquire support for schoolwork from outside the family. Methods The sample concerned 10,483 adolescents (49.2% boys) aged 11, 13 and 15 from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children data collection in 2014 in the Czech Republic. Logistic regressions adjusted for gender and age were used to analyse the associations between participation in OLTA and four education-related outcomes. Results Participation in OLTA was associated with higher school engagement, lower levels of school-related stress and better academic achievement regardless of gender and age. The strongest associations were observed for adolescents involved in various types of OLTA concurrently, with odds ratios ranging from 1.34 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17–1.54) for lower school-related stress to 1.97 (95% CI 1.73–2.25) for above-average academic achievement. OLTA participants were also more likely to have a non-familial person to help them with schoolwork, though this association was weaker in 15-year-olds. Conclusion Youth involvement in OLTA is linked to general better school performance and attachment to school. Adolescents participating in more activities at the same time have the best school performance. PMID:27073841

  3. Food intake response to exercise and active video gaming in adolescents: effect of weight status.

    PubMed

    Chaput, J P; Tremblay, A; Pereira, B; Boirie, Y; Duclos, M; Thivel, D

    2016-02-14

    Although a few data are available regarding the impact of video games on energy intake (EI) in lean adolescents, there is no evidence on the effect of passive and active video gaming on food intake in both lean and obese youth. It is also unknown whether isoenergetic active video games and exercise differently affect food consumption in youth. In all, twelve lean and twelve obese adolescent boys (12-15 years old) had to complete four 1-h sessions in a cross-over design study: control (CON; sitting), passive video game (PVG; boxing game on Xbox 360), active video game (AVG; boxing game on Xbox Kinect 360) and exercise (EX; cycling). The exercise and active video game activities were designed to generate the same energy expenditure (EE). EE was measured using a K4b2 portable indirect calorimeter. Ad libitum food intake and appetite sensations were assessed following the sessions. AVG and EX-EE were significantly higher in obese participants and significantly higher compared with PVG and CON in both groups. Obese participants significantly ate more than lean ones in all four conditions (P<0·001). EI did not differ between conditions in obese participants (CON: 4935 (SD 1490) kJ; PVG: 4902 (SD 1307) kJ; AVG: 4728 (SD 1358) kJ; EX: 4643 (SD 1335) kJ), and was significantly lower in lean participants after EX (2847 (SD 577) kJ) compared with PVG (3580 (SD 863) kJ) and AVG (3485 (SD 643) kJ) (P<0·05). Macronutrient intake was not significantly different between the groups or conditions. Hunger was significantly higher and satiety was lower in obese participants but no condition effect was observed. Overall, moderate-intensity exercise provides better effect on energy balance than an isoenergetic hour of active video gaming in lean adolescent boys by dually affecting EE and EI.

  4. The Baltic Klint beneath the central Baltic Sea and its comparison with the North Estonian Klint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuuling, Igor; Flodén, Tom

    2016-06-01

    Along its contact with the Baltic Shield, the margin of the East European Platform reveals a well-developed, flooded terraced relief. The most striking and consistent set of escarpments at the contact of the Lower Palaeozoic calcareous and terrigenous rocks, known as the Baltic Klint (BK), extends from northwest of Russia to the Swedish island of Öland. Marine seismic reflection profiling in 1990-2004 revealed the central Baltic Sea Klint (BSK) section in detail and enabled comparison of its geology/geomorphology with a classical klint-section onshore, namely the North Estonian Klint (NEK). The conception of the BK onshore, which is based on the land-sea separating terraced relief in northern Estonia, is not fully applicable beneath the sea. Therefore, we consider that the BSK includes the entire terraced Cambrian outcrop. We suggest the term "Baltic Klint Complex" to include the well-terraced margin of the Ordovician limestone outcrop, which is weakly developed in Estonia. Because of a steady lithological framework of the bedrock layers across the southern slope of the Fennoscandian Shield, the central BSK in the western and the NEK in the eastern part of the Baltic Homocline have largely identical morphologies. The North Estonian Ordovician limestone plateau with the calcareous crest of the BK extends across the central Baltic Sea, whereas morphological changes/variations along the Klint base occur due to the east-westerly lithostratigraphic/thickness changes in the siliciclastic Cambrian sequence. The verge of the NEK, located some 30-50 m above sea level, starts to drop in altitude as its east-westerly course turns to northeast-southwest in western Estonia. Further westwards, the BK shifts gradually into southerly deepening (0.1-0.2°) layers as its crest drops to c. 150 m below sea level (b.s.l.) near Gotska Sandön. This course change is accompanied by a considerable decrease in thickness of the platform sedimentary cover, as below the central Baltic Sea the

  5. Serological Evidence of Exposure to Globally Relevant Zoonotic Parasites in the Estonian Population

    PubMed Central

    Viltrop, Arvo; Neare, Kädi; Hütt, Pirje; Golovljova, Irina; Tummeleht, Lea; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2016-01-01

    We investigated Estonian population and its selected subgroups for serological evidence of exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides, Echinococcus spp., Taenia solium, Toxocara canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella spiralis. Serum samples from 999 adults representing general population, 248 children aged 14–18, 158 veterinarians, 375 animal caretakers, and 144 hunters were tested for specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against the selected parasites using commercial enzyme immunoassays (ELISA). Sera yielding positive or twice grey zone Echinococcus spp, T. solium, T. canis, and T. spiralis results were subjected to western blot (WB) analysis. In the general population, based on the ELISA results, the A. lumbricoides seroprevalence was 12.7%, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 3.3%, T. solium seroprevalence was 0.7%, T. canis seroprevalence was 12.1%, T. gondii seroprevalence was 55.8%, and T. spiralis seroprevalence was 3.1%. Ascaris lumbricoides seroprevalences were higher in children and in animal caretakers than in the general population, and T. canis seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. Compared with the general population, Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was higher in children. By contrast, T. gondii seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers, and lower in children, than in the general population. In the general population, the WB-confirmed Echinococcus spp. seroprevalence was 0.5%, T. solium cysticercosis seroprevalence was 0.0%, Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was 14.5%, and Trichinella spp. seroprevalence was 2.7%. WB-confirmed Toxocara spp. seroprevalence was higher in animal caretakers than in the general population. We found serological evidence of exposure to zoonotic parasites in all tested groups. This calls for higher awareness of zoonotic parasitic infections in Estonia. PMID:27723790

  6. Characterization of the vaginal micro- and mycobiome in asymptomatic reproductive-age Estonian women.

    PubMed

    Drell, Tiina; Lillsaar, Triin; Tummeleht, Lea; Simm, Jaak; Aaspõllu, Anu; Väin, Edda; Saarma, Ivo; Salumets, Andres; Donders, Gilbert G G; Metsis, Madis

    2013-01-01

    The application of high-throughput sequencing methods has raised doubt in the concept of the uniform healthy vaginal microbiota consisting predominantly of lactobacilli by revealing the existence of more variable bacterial community composition. As this needs to be analyzed more extensively and there is little straightforward data regarding the vaginal mycobiome of asymptomatic women we aimed to define bacterial and fungal communities in vaginal samples from 494 asymptomatic, reproductive-age Estonian women. The composition of the vaginal microbiota was determined by amplifying bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) regions and subsequently sequencing them using 454 Life Sciences pyrosequencing. We delineated five major bacterial community groups with distinctive diversity and species composition. Lactobacilli were among the most abundant bacteria in all groups, but also members of genus Gardnerella had high relative abundance in some of the groups. Microbial diversity increased with higher vaginal pH values, and was also higher when a malodorous discharge was present, indicating that some of the women who consider themselves healthy may potentially have asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV). Our study is the first of its kind to analyze the mycobiome that colonizes the healthy vaginal environment using barcoded pyrosequencing technology. We observed 196 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), including 16 OTUs of Candida spp., which is more diverse than previously recognized. However, assessing true fungal diversity was complicated because of the problems regarding the possible air-borne contamination and bioinformatics used for identification of fungal taxons as significant proportion of fungal sequences were assigned to unspecified OTUs.

  7. Occupational irritants and asthma: an Estonian cross-sectional study of 34,000 adults.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Orianne; Laurent, Emeline; Bousquet, Jean; Metspalu, Andres; Milani, Lili; Kauffmann, Francine; Le Moual, Nicole

    2014-09-01

    Occupational exposures make important contributions to asthma morbidity. The role of low/moderate level irritant exposures remains unclear. We aimed to determine which occupational exposures are associated with asthma in an eastern European country with low asthma prevalence. The Estonian Genome Center of University of Tartu collected data from 50 077 adults in 2002-2011. Asthma was assessed through a questionnaire regarding diagnosed diseases, current health status and medication. Exposures to 22 agents during the current and longest held jobs were estimated using an asthma-specific job-exposure matrix. Analyses included 34 015 subjects (aged 18-65 years, 67.0% females), of which 1209 (3.6%) reported asthma (608 with physician-confirmed diagnosis). After adjusting for age, sex and smoking habits, lifetime occupational exposure to known asthmagens (20.4%) was significantly associated with physician-diagnosed asthma (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.03-1.59), especially high molecular weight agents (flour: OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.31-4.27; animals: OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.00-2.60). Exposure to low/moderate levels of irritants (17.4%) was associated with physician-diagnosed asthma (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.48-2.37). More pronounced associations were observed in subjects reporting current treated asthma. Beyond confirming the effect of known asthmagens (which are well-known, mostly from observations in western countries), the results provide evidence for a role of low/moderate exposure to irritants. This finding, observed in a country with a low prevalence of asthma and atopy, provides new insight into the understanding of asthma heterogeneity.

  8. Characterization of the Vaginal Micro- and Mycobiome in Asymptomatic Reproductive-Age Estonian Women

    PubMed Central

    Drell, Tiina; Lillsaar, Triin; Tummeleht, Lea; Simm, Jaak; Aaspõllu, Anu; Väin, Edda; Saarma, Ivo; Salumets, Andres; Donders, Gilbert G. G.; Metsis, Madis

    2013-01-01

    The application of high-throughput sequencing methods has raised doubt in the concept of the uniform healthy vaginal microbiota consisting predominantly of lactobacilli by revealing the existence of more variable bacterial community composition. As this needs to be analyzed more extensively and there is little straightforward data regarding the vaginal mycobiome of asymptomatic women we aimed to define bacterial and fungal communities in vaginal samples from 494 asymptomatic, reproductive-age Estonian women. The composition of the vaginal microbiota was determined by amplifying bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal internal transcribed spacer-1 (ITS-1) regions and subsequently sequencing them using 454 Life Sciences pyrosequencing. We delineated five major bacterial community groups with distinctive diversity and species composition. Lactobacilli were among the most abundant bacteria in all groups, but also members of genus Gardnerella had high relative abundance in some of the groups. Microbial diversity increased with higher vaginal pH values, and was also higher when a malodorous discharge was present, indicating that some of the women who consider themselves healthy may potentially have asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV). Our study is the first of its kind to analyze the mycobiome that colonizes the healthy vaginal environment using barcoded pyrosequencing technology. We observed 196 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), including 16 OTUs of Candida spp., which is more diverse than previously recognized. However, assessing true fungal diversity was complicated because of the problems regarding the possible air-borne contamination and bioinformatics used for identification of fungal taxons as significant proportion of fungal sequences were assigned to unspecified OTUs. PMID:23372716

  9. Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Design Register-based cohort study. Setting Estonia. Participants An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Methods Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Results Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. Conclusions No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. PMID:24833681

  10. Estimation of the economical effects of Eimeria infections in Estonian dairy herds using a stochastic model.

    PubMed

    Lassen, Brian; Ostergaard, Søren

    2012-10-01

    In this study, a stochastic predictive model stimulating a constant infection pressure of Eimeria was used to estimate production outcome, economic, and effects of treatment decisions in a dairy herd of 100 cows. The intestinal parasite cause problems mainly in calves, and is known to have long term effects on the growth rate, and in severe cases can result in mortalities. Due to the inconspicuous nature of the parasite, the clinical signs and sub-clinical manifestations it may produce can be overlooked. Acquired data from literature and Estonian dairy farms were implemented in the SimHerd IV model to simulate three scenarios of symptomatic treatment: no calves treated (NT), default estimate of the current treatment strategy (DT), and all calves treated (AT). Effects of metaphylactic treatment were studied as a lowering of the infection pressure. Delay in the age for beginning of insemination of heifers was the effect with the largest economic impact on the gross margin, followed by calf mortality and reduction in growth rate. Large expenses were associated with the introduction of replacement heifers and feeding of heifers as a result of the delay in reaching a specific body weight at calving. Compared to the control scenarios, with no effects and treatments of Eimeria, dairy farmers were estimated to incur annual losses ranging 8-9% in the balanced income. Providing metaphylactic drugs resulted in an increased gross margin of 6-7%. Purchase of new heifers compensated for some production losses that would otherwise have enhanced expenses related to Eimeria. The simulation illustrates how effects of Eimeria infections can have long lasting impact on interacting management factors. It was concluded that all three simulated symptomatic treatment regimes provided only small economic benefits if they were applied alone and not in combination with lowering of infection pressure.

  11. The Estonian study of Chernobyl cleanup workers: I. Design and questionnaire data

    SciTech Connect

    Tekkel, M.; Rahu, M.; Veidebaum, T.

    1997-05-01

    Nearly 2% of the male population of Estonia aged 20-39 years were sent to Chernobyl to assist in the cleanup activities after the reactor accident. A cohort of 4,833 cleanup workers was assembled based on multiple and independent sources of information. Information obtained from 3,704 responses to a detailed questionnaire indicated that 63% of the workers were sent to Chernobyl in 1986; 54% were of Estonian and 35% of Russian ethnicity; 72% were married, and 1,164 of their 5,392 children were conceived after the Chernobyl disaster. The workers were less educated than their counterparts than their counterparts in the general population of Estonia, and only 8.5% had attended university. Based on doses entered in workers records, the mean dose was 11 cGy, with only 1.4% over 25 cGy. Nearly 85% of the workers were sent as part of military training activities, and more than half spent in excess of 3 months in the Chernobyl area. Thirty-six percent of the workers reported having worked within the immediate vicinity of the accident site; 11.5% worked on the roofs near the damaged reactor, clearing the highly radioactive debris. The most commonly performed task was the removal and burial of topsoil (55% of the workers). Potassium iodide was given to over 18% of the men. The study design also incorporates biological indicators of exposure based on the glycophorin A mutational assay of red blood cells and chromosome translocation analyses of lymphocytes; record linkage with national cancer registry and mortality registry files to determine cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality; thyroid screening examinations with ultrasound and fine-needle biopsy; and cryopreserved white blood cells and plasma for future molecular studies. Comprehensive studies of Chernobyl cleanup workers have potential to provide a new information about cancer risks due to protracted exposures to ionizing radiation. 21 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs.

  12. Wild Estonian and Russian sea trout (Salmo trutta) in Finnish coastal sea trout catches: results of genetic mixed-stock analysis.

    PubMed

    Koljonen, Marja-Liisa; Gross, Riho; Koskiniemi, Jarmo

    2014-12-01

    For responsible fisheries management of threatened species, it is essential to know the composition of catches and the extent to which fisheries exploit weak wild populations. The threatened Estonian, Finnish and Russian sea trout populations in the Gulf of Finland are targets of mixed-stock fisheries. The fish may originate from rivers with varying production capacities, from different countries, and they may also have either a wild or hatchery origin. In order to resolve the composition of Finnish coastal sea trout catches, we created a standardized baseline dataset of 15 DNA microsatellite loci for 59 sea trout populations around the Gulf of Finland and tested its resolution for mixed-stock analysis of 1372 captured fish. The baseline dataset provided sufficient resolution for reliable mixture analysis at regional group level, and also for most of the individual rivers stocks. The majority (76-80%) of the total catch originated from Finnish sea trout populations, 6-9% came from Russian and 12-15% from Estonian populations. Nearly all Finnish trout in the catch were of hatchery origin, while the Russian and Estonian trout were mostly of wild origin. The proportion of fish in the Finnish catches that originated from rivers with natural production was at least one fifth (22%, 19-23%). Two different spotting patterns were observed among the captured trout, with a small and sparsely spotted form being markedly more common among individuals of Russian (28%) and Estonian origin (22%) than among fish assigned to a Finnish origin (0.7%).

  13. Personality traits measured by the Swedish universities Scales of Personality: factor structure and position within the five-factor model in an Estonian sample.

    PubMed

    Aluoja, Anu; Voogne, Helina; Maron, Eduard; Gustavsson, J Petter; Võhma, Ulle; Shlik, Jakov

    2009-01-01

    The study aims to test the reliability and validity of the Estonian version of the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP), and to characterize the position of the SSP-measured traits within the basic personality dimensions of the five-factor model. A total of 529 participants completed the Estonian version of the SSP. A subsample of 197 persons completed the SSP together with the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). The internal consistency of the SSP scales was satisfactory. Principal component analysis yielded three factors representing neuroticism, aggression and disinhibition. The factor solution obtained in the Estonian sample was similar to the original SSP study in the Swedish normative sample. NEO-PI-R Neuroticism had highest correlations with SSP neuroticism factor scales. Extraversion had strongest relationship with adventure seeking and low detachment. Agreeableness correlated positively with SSP social desirability and negatively to aggression-irritability scales. Conscientiousness facet Deliberation correlated with Impulsiveness. The Estonian SSP showed acceptable reliability and validity, which confirms that SSP is applicable in different social and cultural background. The SSP measures traits that correspond to the major personality models. The SSP characterizes three broad dimensions of personality, namely neuroticism, disinhibition and aggression, which are useful in assessment of personality correlates of mental disorders.

  14. Changes in Learning Process Caused by the Implementation of ICT in Education in Estonian In-Service and Pre-Service Teachers Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luik, Piret; Kukemelk, Hasso

    2008-01-01

    The current paper reports on a qualitative study examining in-service and pre-service teachers perceptions about changes in the learning process caused by the involvement of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) in Estonian schools. Based on five in-service and five pre-service teachers' interviews, findings indicate some positive, some…

  15. Puolin ja toisin: Suomalais-virolaista kielentutkimusta. AFinLAn vuosikirja 1998 (On Both Sides: Finnish-Estonian Research on Language. AFinLA Yearbook 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luukka, Minna-Riitta, Ed.; Salla, Sigrid, Ed.; Dufva, Hannele, Ed.

    The papers included in this yearbook of the Finnish Society of Applied Linguistics (AFinLA) were presented at the 1998 AFinLA conference "Linguistics and Finland: Crossing the Gulf." Papers are in Finnish, Estonian, or English, but all have accompanying English abstracts. The topics discussed in the papers include the following: speed and accuracy…

  16. Attitudes of Academic Staff towards Their Own Work and towards External Evaluation, from the Perspective of Self-Determination Theory: Estonian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the attitudes of academic staff towards their own work as well as towards external evaluations. The study was based on (1) an analysis of assessment reports of institutional accreditations conducted by the Estonian Quality Agency for Higher and Vocational Education and (2) self-determination theory on…

  17. The Estonian Self-Consciousness Scale and its relation to the five-factor model of personality.

    PubMed

    Realo, A; Allik, J

    1998-02-01

    The Self-Consciousness Scale (SCS), developed by Fenigstein, Scheier, and Buss (1975), was adapted to the Estonian language. In general, the results supported the 3-factor structure of the SCS. However, many items in the subscales did not load as expected. A 26-item modified scale, the Estonian SCS (ESCS), is presented. A joint factor analysis of the ESCS and the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) scales led to a 5-factor solution, where all the factors that emerged were identified as the Big Five personality dimensions, the ESCS subscales loading most significantly on 3 of these factors: Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), and Openness to Experience (O). Correlation analysis revealed a pattern of correlations, characterized by the strongest associations between Social Anxiety and E (r = -.77), Public Self-Consciousness (PubSC) and N (r = .40), and Private Self-Consciousness (PrivSC) and O (r = .34), which quite well corresponds to the pattern of correlations that was reported for the original versions of the SCS and the NEO-PI (Zuckerman, Kuhlman, Joireman, Teta, & Kraft, 1993). We can conclude that all the SCS subscales can be sufficiently well interpreted in terms of the Big Five model of personality dimensions--PrivSC and PubSC appear to describe some variations of the Big Five themes that are not fully elaborated by the NEO-PI rather than being completely independent domains of individual differences. PMID:9615427

  18. The Estonian Self-Consciousness Scale and its relation to the five-factor model of personality.

    PubMed

    Realo, A; Allik, J

    1998-02-01

    The Self-Consciousness Scale (SCS), developed by Fenigstein, Scheier, and Buss (1975), was adapted to the Estonian language. In general, the results supported the 3-factor structure of the SCS. However, many items in the subscales did not load as expected. A 26-item modified scale, the Estonian SCS (ESCS), is presented. A joint factor analysis of the ESCS and the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI) scales led to a 5-factor solution, where all the factors that emerged were identified as the Big Five personality dimensions, the ESCS subscales loading most significantly on 3 of these factors: Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), and Openness to Experience (O). Correlation analysis revealed a pattern of correlations, characterized by the strongest associations between Social Anxiety and E (r = -.77), Public Self-Consciousness (PubSC) and N (r = .40), and Private Self-Consciousness (PrivSC) and O (r = .34), which quite well corresponds to the pattern of correlations that was reported for the original versions of the SCS and the NEO-PI (Zuckerman, Kuhlman, Joireman, Teta, & Kraft, 1993). We can conclude that all the SCS subscales can be sufficiently well interpreted in terms of the Big Five model of personality dimensions--PrivSC and PubSC appear to describe some variations of the Big Five themes that are not fully elaborated by the NEO-PI rather than being completely independent domains of individual differences.

  19. The effects of age, gender, hopelessness, and exposure to violence on sleep disorder symptoms and daytime sleepiness among adolescents in impoverished neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Umlauf, Mary Grace; Bolland, Anneliese C; Bolland, Kathleen A; Tomek, Sara; Bolland, John M

    2015-02-01

    Although sleep problems are associated with negative outcomes among adolescents, studies have not focused on sleep disorder symptoms among adolescents living in impoverished neighborhoods and how sleep problems may be related to two factors common in those environments: hopelessness and exposure to violence. This study used data from the longitudinal Mobile Youth Survey (MYS; N = 11,838, 49% female, 93% African-American) to examine trajectories of sleep problems by age (10-18 years) among impoverished adolescents as a function of gender, feelings of hopelessness, and exposure to violence. The results indicate that sleep problems associated with traumatic stress decline with age, with four notable distinctions. First, the steepest decline occurs during the early adolescent years. Second, the rate of decline is steeper for males than for females. Third, exposure to violence impedes the rate of decline for all adolescents, but more dramatically for females than for males. Fourth, the rate of decline is smallest for adolescents with feelings of hopelessness who also had been exposed to violence. To explore the generalizability of these results to other types of sleep disorders, we analyzed cross-sectional data collected from a subsample of 14- and 15-year-old MYS participants (N = 263, 49% female, 100% African-American) who completed a sleep symptoms questionnaire. Four results from the cross-sectional analysis extend the findings of the longitudinal analysis. First, the cross-sectional results showed that symptoms of apnea, insomnia, nightmares, and restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movement disorder (RLS/PLMD), as well as daytime sleepiness, increase as a function of hopelessness. Second, symptoms of insomnia, RLS, and nightmares, as well as daytime sleepiness, increase as function of exposure to violence. Third, symptoms of insomnia and RLS/PLMD are greater under conditions of combined hopelessness and exposure to violence than for either condition alone

  20. Dual growth of adolescent smoking and drinking: evidence for an interaction between the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) A118G polymorphism and sex.

    PubMed

    Kleinjan, Marloes; Poelen, Evelien A; Engels, Rutger C M E; Verhagen, Maaike

    2013-11-01

    Smoking and alcohol use often co-occur during adolescence, but little is known about the codevelopment of these substances. In the search for etiological factors that help to explain the development of adolescent substance use patterns, studies have revealed substantial heritability for both alcohol use and smoking. In this regard, the µ-opioid receptor gene (OPRM1, chromosome 6q24-q25) has been linked to both substances. This study examined the predictive relationships between initial level and growth of smoking and drinking in 311 early adolescents (13-15 years old) over a 4-year period. In addition, the effects of the A118G polymorphism of the OPRM1 gene on the initial values and the development over time of alcohol use and smoking were assessed. Finally, as prevalence and heritability estimates for both alcohol- and smoking-related behaviors differ between males and females, OPRM1 by sex interactions were tested. We found that high initial levels of early adolescent alcohol consumption were related to a stronger increase in smoking levels over time. In contrast, high initial levels of smoking were not related to growth of alcohol use. No main OPRM1 effects were found, but sex-specificity of the gene was found for smoking development. Male A-allele carriers showed a faster development in smoking behavior, whereas in females, the G-allele led to a faster development in smoking. Thus, in addition to high levels of alcohol as a risk factor for the development of smoking behavior, sex-specific effects exist for OPRM1, which may additionally have consequences for the development of adolescent smoking.

  1. Is educational differentiation associated with smoking and smoking inequalities in adolescence? A multilevel analysis across 27 European and North American countries.

    PubMed

    Rathmann, Katharina; Moor, Irene; Kunst, Anton E; Dragano, Nico; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Elgar, Frank J; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Kannas, Lasse; Baška, Tibor; Richter, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to determine whether educational differentiation (i.e. early and long tracking to different school types) relate to socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent smoking. Data were collected from the WHO-Collaborative 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC)' study 2005/2006, which included 48,025 15-year-old students (Nboys = 23,008, Ngirls = 25,017) from 27 European and North American countries. Socioeconomic position was measured using the HBSC family affluence scale. Educational differentiation was determined by the number of different school types, age of selection, and length of differentiated curriculum at the country-level. We used multilevel logistic regression to assess the association of daily smoking and early smoking initiation predicted by family affluence, educational differentiation, and their interactions. Socioeconomic inequalities in both smoking outcomes were larger in countries that are characterised by a lower degree of educational differentiation (e.g. Canada, Scandinavia and the United Kingdom) than in countries with higher levels of educational differentiation (e.g. Austria, Belgium, Hungary and The Netherlands). This study found that high educational differentiation does not relate to greater relative inequalities in smoking. Features of educational systems are important to consider as they are related to overall prevalence in smoking and smoking inequalities in adolescence.

  2. Is educational differentiation associated with smoking and smoking inequalities in adolescence? A multilevel analysis across 27 European and North American countries.

    PubMed

    Rathmann, Katharina; Moor, Irene; Kunst, Anton E; Dragano, Nico; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Elgar, Frank J; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Kannas, Lasse; Baška, Tibor; Richter, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to determine whether educational differentiation (i.e. early and long tracking to different school types) relate to socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent smoking. Data were collected from the WHO-Collaborative 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC)' study 2005/2006, which included 48,025 15-year-old students (Nboys = 23,008, Ngirls = 25,017) from 27 European and North American countries. Socioeconomic position was measured using the HBSC family affluence scale. Educational differentiation was determined by the number of different school types, age of selection, and length of differentiated curriculum at the country-level. We used multilevel logistic regression to assess the association of daily smoking and early smoking initiation predicted by family affluence, educational differentiation, and their interactions. Socioeconomic inequalities in both smoking outcomes were larger in countries that are characterised by a lower degree of educational differentiation (e.g. Canada, Scandinavia and the United Kingdom) than in countries with higher levels of educational differentiation (e.g. Austria, Belgium, Hungary and The Netherlands). This study found that high educational differentiation does not relate to greater relative inequalities in smoking. Features of educational systems are important to consider as they are related to overall prevalence in smoking and smoking inequalities in adolescence. PMID:27214054

  3. Severe Multisensory Speech Integration Deficits in High-Functioning School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Their Resolution During Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Foxe, John J.; Molholm, Sophie; Del Bene, Victor A.; Frey, Hans-Peter; Russo, Natalie N.; Blanco, Daniella; Saint-Amour, Dave; Ross, Lars A.

    2015-01-01

    Under noisy listening conditions, visualizing a speaker's articulations substantially improves speech intelligibility. This multisensory speech integration ability is crucial to effective communication, and the appropriate development of this capacity greatly impacts a child's ability to successfully navigate educational and social settings. Research shows that multisensory integration abilities continue developing late into childhood. The primary aim here was to track the development of these abilities in children with autism, since multisensory deficits are increasingly recognized as a component of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotype. The abilities of high-functioning ASD children (n = 84) to integrate seen and heard speech were assessed cross-sectionally, while environmental noise levels were systematically manipulated, comparing them with age-matched neurotypical children (n = 142). Severe integration deficits were uncovered in ASD, which were increasingly pronounced as background noise increased. These deficits were evident in school-aged ASD children (5–12 year olds), but were fully ameliorated in ASD children entering adolescence (13–15 year olds). The severity of multisensory deficits uncovered has important implications for educators and clinicians working in ASD. We consider the observation that the multisensory speech system recovers substantially in adolescence as an indication that it is likely amenable to intervention during earlier childhood, with potentially profound implications for the development of social communication abilities in ASD children. PMID:23985136

  4. Dynamics of organic carbon stock of Estonian arable and grassland peat soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauer, Karin; Tammik, Kerttu; Penu, Priit

    2016-04-01

    Peat soils represent globally a major reserve of soil organic carbon (SOC). Estimation of changes in SOC stocks is important for understanding soil carbon sequestration and dynamics of greenhouse gas emissions. The aim of this study was to estimate the SOC stock of Estonian agricultural peat soils and SOC stock change depending on land use type (arable land and long-term grasslands (over 5 years)). The soils were classified as Histosols according to WRB classification. Generally the arable land was used for growing cereals, oilseed rape, legumes and used as ley in crop rotation. The main technique of soil cultivation was ploughing. During 2002-2015 the soil samples of 0-20 cm soil layer (one average soil sample per 1-5 ha) were collected. The SOC content was measured by NIRS method. The SOC stock was calculated by assuming that soil mean bulk density is 0.3 g cm-3. The SOC stock change in arable land was estimated during 3-13 years (N=91) and in grassland 4-13 year (N=163). The average SOC content of peat soils varied from 150.6 to 549.0 mg g-1. The initial SOC stock of arable land was 271.3 t ha-1 and of grassland 269.3 t ha-1. The SOC stock declined in arable peat soils faster (-2.57 t ha-1 y-1) compared to the changes in grassland peat soils (-0.67 t ha-1 y-1). According to the length of the study period the SOC stock change per year varied from -5.14 to 6.64 t ha-1 y-1 in grasslands and from -14.78 to 0.83 t ha-1 y-1 in arable land, although there was no clear relationship between the SOC stock change and the length of the study period. More detailed information about the properties of agricultural land and land use history is needed to analyse the causes of the SOC stock changes in agricultural peat soils. However, from the current research we can conclude that the SOC stock of arable and grassland peat soils is declining during the cultivation. These decreases are important to specify when considering the role of peat soils in atmospheric greenhouse gas

  5. Towards The Operational Oceanographic Model System In Estonian Coastal Sea, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kõuts, T.; Elken, J.; Raudsepp, U.

    An integrated system of nested 2D and 3D hydrodynamic models together with real time forcing data asquisition is designed and set up in pre-operational mode in the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Sea. Along the Estonian coast, implicit time-stepping 3D models are used in the deep bays and 2D models in the shallow bays with ca 200 m horizontal grid step. Specific model setups have been verified by in situ current measurements. Optimum configuration of initial parameters has been found for certain critical locations, usually ports, oil terminals, etc. Operational system in- tegrates also section of historical database of most important hydrologic parameters in the region, allowing use of certain statistical analysis and proper setup of initial conditions for oceanographic models. There is large variety of applications for such model system, ranging from environmental impact assessment at local coastal sea pol- lution problems to forecast of offshore blue algal blooms. Most probable risk factor in the coastal sea engineering is oil pollution, therefore current operational model sys- tem has direct custom oriented output the oil spill forecast for critical locations. Oil spill module of the operational system consist the automatic weather and hydromet- ric station (distributed in real time to internet) and prognostic model of sea surface currents. System is run using last 48 hour wind data and wind forecast and estimates probable oil deposition areas on the shoreline under certain weather conditions. Cal- culated evolution of oil pollution has been compared with some real accidents in the past and there was found good agreement between model and measurements. Graphi- cal user interface of oil spill model is currently installed at location of port authorities (eg. Muuga port), so in case of accidents it could be used in real time supporting the rescue operations. In 2000 current pre-operational oceanographic model system has been sucessfully used to

  6. How many steps/day are enough? for children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, public health physical activity guidelines include special emphasis on populations of children (typically 6-11 years) and adolescents (typically 12-19 years). Existing guidelines are commonly expressed in terms of frequency, time, and intensity of behaviour. However, the simple step output from both accelerometers and pedometers is gaining increased credibility in research and practice as a reasonable approximation of daily ambulatory physical activity volume. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to review existing child and adolescent objectively monitored step-defined physical activity literature to provide researchers, practitioners, and lay people who use accelerometers and pedometers with evidence-based translations of these public health guidelines in terms of steps/day. In terms of normative data (i.e., expected values), the updated international literature indicates that we can expect 1) among children, boys to average 12,000 to 16,000 steps/day and girls to average 10,000 to 13,000 steps/day; and, 2) adolescents to steadily decrease steps/day until approximately 8,000-9,000 steps/day are observed in 18-year olds. Controlled studies of cadence show that continuous MVPA walking produces 3,300-3,500 steps in 30 minutes or 6,600-7,000 steps in 60 minutes in 10-15 year olds. Limited evidence suggests that a total daily physical activity volume of 10,000-14,000 steps/day is associated with 60-100 minutes of MVPA in preschool children (approximately 4-6 years of age). Across studies, 60 minutes of MVPA in primary/elementary school children appears to be achieved, on average, within a total volume of 13,000 to 15,000 steps/day in boys and 11,000 to 12,000 steps/day in girls. For adolescents (both boys and girls), 10,000 to 11,700 may be associated with 60 minutes of MVPA. Translations of time- and intensity-based guidelines may be higher than existing normative data (e.g., in adolescents) and therefore will be more difficult to achieve (but not

  7. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Campylobacter spp. Isolated from Broiler Chicken Meat of Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian Origin at Estonian Retail Level and from Patients with Severe Enteric Infections in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Mäesaar, M; Kramarenko, T; Meremäe, K; Sõgel, J; Lillenberg, M; Häkkinen, L; Ivanova, M; Kovalenko, K; Hörman, A; Hänninen, M-L; Roasto, M

    2016-03-01

    The resistance patterns of Campylobacter spp. isolated from retail broiler chicken meat originating either from Estonia, Lithuania or Latvia collected in Estonia were determined. Additionally, in collaboration with the laboratories of several Estonian hospitals, antimicrobial susceptibility patterns were determined for Campylobacter isolates from patients with severe Campylobacter enteric infections. The isolates were identified at the species level by the PCR method. Respectively, 88.8% of the isolates were C. jejuni, and 11.2% were C. coli. In total, 126 Campylobacter isolates of broiler chicken meat and human origin were tested for minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) with the broth microdilution VetMIC(TH) method (National Veterinary Institute; Uppsala, Sweden) for a total of six antimicrobials. Resistance to one or more antimicrobials was detected in 62 (63.3%) of Campylobacter broiler chicken meat isolates and in 20 (71.4%) of human-origin isolates. Large proportions of the broiler chicken meat isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (60.2%). Multidrug resistance (i.e. to three or more unrelated antimicrobials) was detected in five (5.1%) C. jejuni isolates. Among the human isolates, 20 (71.4%) were resistant to fluoroquinolones, and two (7.1%) C. jejuni isolates exhibited multidrug resistance. The chicken meat isolates of Estonian origin were the most susceptible. However, a high proportion of fluoroquinolone-resistant C. jejuni isolates were found in Latvian and Lithuanian products. The results of this study indicate that the problems caused by the inappropriate use of antimicrobials extend beyond the country in which a food originates; therefore, both domestic and international interventions and agreements are required to implement common policies on antimicrobial usage and to minimize the emergence of Campylobacter drug resistance.

  8. Adolescent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ippolito, Jacy, Ed.; Steele, Jennifer L., Ed.; Samson, Jennifer F., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Adolescent Literacy" initially appeared as a special issue of the "Harvard Educational Review". It explores key issues and debates in the adolescent literacy crisis, the popular use of cognitive strategies, and disciplinary and content-area literacy. Also examined are alternative forms of literacy, afterschool interventions, new instruction…

  9. Adolescent Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to outline notable alterations occurring in the adolescent brain, and consider potential ramifications of these developmental transformations for public policy and programs involving adolescents. Methods Developmental changes in the adolescent brain obtained from human imaging work are reviewed, along with results of basic science studies. Results Adolescent brain transformations include both progressive and regressive changes that are regionally specific and serve to refine brain functional connectivity. Along with still maturing inhibitory control systems that can be overcome under emotional circumstances, the adolescent brain is associated with sometimes elevated activation of reward-relevant brain regions, whereas sensitivity to aversive stimuli may be attenuated. At this time, the developmental shift from greater brain plasticity early in life to the relative stability of the mature brain is still tilted more towards plasticity than seen in adulthood, perhaps providing an opportunity for some experience-influenced sculpting of the adolescent brain. Conclusions Normal developmental transformations in brain reward/aversive systems, areas critical for inhibitory control, and regions activated by emotional, exciting and stressful stimuli may promote some normative degree of adolescent risk-taking. These findings have a number of potential implications for public policies and programs focused on adolescent health and well-being. PMID:23332574

  10. Positively Adolescent!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Believes that music teachers should reassess their views toward adolescent behavior in the music classroom by learning to see their behavior in a positive light. Describes teaching strategies that build on four adolescent behaviors: (1) desire for peer acceptance; (2) abundant energy; (3) love of fun; and (4) limited time-managing skills. (CMK)

  11. Contextual and individual assessment of dental pain period prevalence in adolescents: a multilevel approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite evidence that health and disease occur in social contexts, the vast majority of studies addressing dental pain exclusively assessed information gathered at individual level. Objectives To assess the association between dental pain and contextual and individual characteristics in Brazilian adolescents. In addition, we aimed to test whether contextual Human Development Index is independently associated with dental pain after adjusting for individual level variables of socio-demographics and dental characteristics. Methods The study used data from an oral health survey carried out in São Paulo, Brazil, which included dental pain, dental exams, individual socioeconomic and demographic conditions, and Human Development Index at area level of 4,249 12-year-old and 1,566 15-year-old schoolchildren. The Poisson multilevel analysis was performed. Results Dental pain was found among 25.6% (95%CI = 24.5-26.7) of the adolescents and was 33% less prevalent among those living in more developed areas of the city than among those living in less developed areas. Girls, blacks, those whose parents earn low income and have low schooling, those studying at public schools, and those with dental treatment needs presented higher dental-pain prevalence than their counterparts. Area HDI remained associated with dental pain after adjusting for individual level variables of socio demographic and dental characteristics. Conclusions Girls, students whose parents have low schooling, those with low per capita income, those classified as having black skin color and those with dental treatment needs had higher dental pain prevalence than their counterparts. Students from areas with low Human Development Index had higher prevalence of dental pain than those from the more developed areas regardless of individual characteristics. PMID:20707920

  12. Three-dimensional quantification of facial symmetry in adolescents using laser surface scanning.

    PubMed

    Djordjevic, Jelena; Toma, Arshed M; Zhurov, Alexei I; Richmond, Stephen

    2014-04-01

    Laser scanning is a non-invasive method for three-dimensional assessment of facial morphology and symmetry. The aim of this study was to quantify facial symmetry in healthy adolescents and explore if there is any gender difference. Facial scans of 270 subjects, 123 males and 147 females (aged 15.3 ± 0.1 years, range 14.6-15.6), were randomly selected from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Facial scans were processed and analysed using in-house developed subroutines for commercial software. The surface matching between the original face and its mirror image was measured for the whole face, upper, middle, and lower facial thirds. In addition, 3 angular and 14 linear parameters were measured. The percentage of symmetry of the whole face was significantly lower in males (53.49 ± 10.73 per cent) than in females (58.50 ± 10.27 per cent; P < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in the amount of symmetry among facial thirds within each gender (P > 0.05). Average values of linear parameters were less than 1 mm and did not differ significantly between genders (P > 0.05). One angular parameter showed slight lip line asymmetry in both genders. Faces of male 15-year-old adolescents were less symmetric than those of females, but the difference in the amount of symmetry, albeit statistically significant, may not be clinically relevant. Upper, middle, and lower thirds of the face did not differ in the amount of three-dimensional symmetry. Angular and linear parameters of facial symmetry did not show any gender difference.

  13. The Effects of 17 Weeks of Ballet Training on the Autonomic Modulation, Hormonal and General Biochemical Profile of Female Adolescents.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Carla Cristiane; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer; Soares-Caldeira, Lúcio Flávio; Dos Santos Oliveira, Ricardo; de Paula Ramos, Solange; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo

    2015-09-29

    This study aimed to examine the alterations in physiological and biochemical markers, after 17 weeks of ballet training in high level ballet dancers. Twenty four female ballet dancers from 12 to 15 years old took part in the study. The study followed 17 weeks of ballet training and analyzed changes in body composition, the autonomic nervous system and biochemical variables before and after (post) training. The internal training load was obtained using the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) method, calculated as the mean weekly session-RPE, monotony and strain. After 17 weeks of training there were significant increases in body mass, height, lean body mass, total protein, urea, hemoglobin concentration, testosterone and thyroxine. During this period, decreases in relative body fat, uric acid, red blood cells, C-reactive protein, and ferritin were also found. After the training period, the autonomic modulation demonstrated significant positive alterations, such as increases in parasympathetic related indices. Based on the results obtained we concluded that ballet training led to improvements in body composition and autonomic modulation. In general hematological and biochemical variables demonstrated that the training did not have adverse effects on the health state of the adolescents.

  14. The Effects of 17 Weeks of Ballet Training on the Autonomic Modulation, Hormonal and General Biochemical Profile of Female Adolescents.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Carla Cristiane; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer; Soares-Caldeira, Lúcio Flávio; Dos Santos Oliveira, Ricardo; de Paula Ramos, Solange; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo

    2015-09-29

    This study aimed to examine the alterations in physiological and biochemical markers, after 17 weeks of ballet training in high level ballet dancers. Twenty four female ballet dancers from 12 to 15 years old took part in the study. The study followed 17 weeks of ballet training and analyzed changes in body composition, the autonomic nervous system and biochemical variables before and after (post) training. The internal training load was obtained using the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) method, calculated as the mean weekly session-RPE, monotony and strain. After 17 weeks of training there were significant increases in body mass, height, lean body mass, total protein, urea, hemoglobin concentration, testosterone and thyroxine. During this period, decreases in relative body fat, uric acid, red blood cells, C-reactive protein, and ferritin were also found. After the training period, the autonomic modulation demonstrated significant positive alterations, such as increases in parasympathetic related indices. Based on the results obtained we concluded that ballet training led to improvements in body composition and autonomic modulation. In general hematological and biochemical variables demonstrated that the training did not have adverse effects on the health state of the adolescents. PMID:26555850

  15. Temporal stability of network centrality in control and default mode networks: Specific associations with externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sato, João Ricardo; Biazoli, Claudinei Eduardo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Gadelha, Ary; Crossley, Nicolas; Satterthwaite, Theodore D; Vieira, Gilson; Zugman, André; Picon, Felipe Almeida; Pan, Pedro Mario; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Anés, Mauricio; Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Del'aquilla, Marco Antonio Gomes; Amaro, Edson; McGuire, Philip; Lacerda, Acioly L T; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca

    2015-12-01

    Abnormal connectivity patterns have frequently been reported as involved in pathological mental states. However, most studies focus on "static," stationary patterns of connectivity, which may miss crucial biological information. Recent methodological advances have allowed the investigation of dynamic functional connectivity patterns that describe non-stationary properties of brain networks. Here, we introduce a novel graphical measure of dynamic connectivity, called time-varying eigenvector centrality (tv-EVC). In a sample 655 children and adolescents (7-15 years old) from the Brazilian "High Risk Cohort Study for Psychiatric Disorders" who were imaged using resting-state fMRI, we used this measure to investigate age effects in the temporal in control and default-mode networks (CN/DMN). Using support vector regression, we propose a network maturation index based on the temporal stability of tv-EVC. Moreover, we investigated whether the network maturation is associated with the overall presence of behavioral and emotional problems with the Child Behavior Checklist. As hypothesized, we found that the tv-EVC at each node of CN/DMN become more stable with increasing age (P < 0.001 for all nodes). In addition, the maturity index for this particular network is indeed associated with general psychopathology in children assessed by the total score of Child Behavior Checklist (P = 0.027). Moreover, immaturity of the network was mainly correlated with externalizing behavior dimensions. Taken together, these results suggest that changes in functional network dynamics during neurodevelopment may provide unique insights regarding pathophysiology.

  16. The Effects of 17 Weeks of Ballet Training on the Autonomic Modulation, Hormonal and General Biochemical Profile of Female Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Carla Cristiane; Goldberg, Tamara Beres Lederer; Soares-Caldeira, Lúcio Flávio; dos Santos Oliveira, Ricardo; de Paula Ramos, Solange; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the alterations in physiological and biochemical markers, after 17 weeks of ballet training in high level ballet dancers. Twenty four female ballet dancers from 12 to 15 years old took part in the study. The study followed 17 weeks of ballet training and analyzed changes in body composition, the autonomic nervous system and biochemical variables before and after (post) training. The internal training load was obtained using the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) method, calculated as the mean weekly session-RPE, monotony and strain. After 17 weeks of training there were significant increases in body mass, height, lean body mass, total protein, urea, hemoglobin concentration, testosterone and thyroxine. During this period, decreases in relative body fat, uric acid, red blood cells, C-reactive protein, and ferritin were also found. After the training period, the autonomic modulation demonstrated significant positive alterations, such as increases in parasympathetic related indices. Based on the results obtained we concluded that ballet training led to improvements in body composition and autonomic modulation. In general hematological and biochemical variables demonstrated that the training did not have adverse effects on the health state of the adolescents. PMID:26555850

  17. The effects of "decelerated" rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction on a hyperelastic female adolescent: a case study.

    PubMed

    Hardin, J A; Voight, M L; Blackburn, T A; Canner, G C; Soffer, S R

    1997-07-01

    Current concepts in postoperative anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction management include participation in an "accelerated" rehabilitation program. There are no published reports examining the effects of accelerated or conservative rehabilitation on subjects with generalized ligamentous hyperelasticity. The purpose of this case study was to examine the effects of a conservative or "decelerated" rehabilitation program on the functional outcome of a hyperelastic female adolescent athlete following ACL reconstruction. The subject was a 15-year-old female basketball player who sustained a unilateral ACL tear and underwent subsequent ACL reconstruction using a patellar tendon autograft. The subject immediately began participation in a "decelerated" rehabilitation program in which the intensity and rate of progression was decelerated, emphasizing a prolonged period of maximum graft protection. Progress was objectively quantified with a battery of diagnosis-specific tests at scheduled intervals. Results at 52 weeks postoperative revealed normal range of motion, proprioception, balance, knee stability, quadriceps strength, hamstring strength, and subjective assessment values, and only a 4.0% deficit in functional scores. Our results suggest a "decelerated" rehabilitation program may be appropriate for the population with generalized ligamentous hyperelasticity by yielding excellent functional results without compromising the integrity of the graft and, ultimately, knee stability.

  18. Effects of reduced training and detraining on upper and lower body explosive strength in adolescent male basketball players.

    PubMed

    Santos, Eduardo J A M; Janeira, Manuel A A S

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the effects of detraining and of a reduced training program on upper- and lower-body explosive strength in adolescent male basketball players. To study this, 15 subjects, aged 14 to 15 years old, were randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 following groups: reduced training (RT; n = 8) and detraining (DTR; n = 7). The participants were assessed on squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), Abalakov test (ABA), depth jump (DJ), mechanical power (MP), and medicine ball throw (MBT) after a 10-week in-season complex training program (T0) and at the end of 4 (T4), 8 (T8), 12 (T12), and 16 (T16) weeks of detraining and of the reduced training periods. Both groups showed maintenance of explosive strength values and statistical similarity between them whatever the moment of evaluation. In conclusion, 16 weeks of detraining or of reduced training allow for the maintenance of the gains previously achieved by the application of a 10-week in-season complex training program. However, the lack of differences between detraining and reduced training leads to the conclusion that regular basketball practice can sustain by itself the previously achieved explosive strength gains, considering its mainly explosive characteristics.

  19. Analysis of adolescents' beliefs about the outcome of using dental floss and drinking non-sugared mineral water.

    PubMed

    Astrøm, A N; Rise, J

    1996-06-01

    Using an expectancy value approach, personal and normative beliefs about the outcome of using dental floss and drinking non-sugared mineral water were studied in a sample of 970 15-year-old adolescents in the county of Hordaland in Norway. The data stem from a survey performed in October 1992. A detailed analysis of these beliefs provides information about which of them should be targeted in a persuasive communication directed at changing behavior. The adolescents evaluated six outcomes of each behavior in terms of how much they wanted or feared them, and rated the probability of each outcomes happening. The adolescents also rated the probability that four significant referents would approve the performance of each behavior and how much they valued the approval of each referent. Subjects with relatively strong and relatively weak intentions to use dental floss and to drink non-sugared mineral water (intenders and non-intenders) were compared with respect to their scores on each measure. A one-way analysis of variance showed consistent differences between intenders and non-intenders. Intenders were more likely to believe that the specified behaviors would result in positive outcomes and they evaluated these outcomes as more desirable than non-intenders. Intenders believed their referens, in particular dentists and parents, to be more concerned about whether or not to perform the specified behaviors than non-intenders. The most promising candidates for persuasive communication among behavioral beliefs with respect to the specified behaviors appeared to be reduced tooth decay and several non, health beliefs in terms of immediate social and sensory concerns. PMID:8871022

  20. Individual and work-related risk factors for musculoskeletal pain: a cross-sectional study among Estonian computer users

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Occupational use of computers has increased rapidly over recent decades, and has been linked with various musculoskeletal disorders, which are now the most commonly diagnosed occupational diseases in Estonia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain (MSP) by anatomical region during the past 12 months and to investigate its association with personal characteristics and work-related risk factors among Estonian office workers using computers. Methods In a cross-sectional survey, the questionnaires were sent to the 415 computer users. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire from 202 computer users at two universities in Estonia. The questionnaire asked about MSP at different anatomical sites, and potential individual and work related risk factors. Associations with risk factors were assessed by logistic regression. Results Most respondents (77%) reported MSP in at least one anatomical region during the past 12 months. Most prevalent was pain in the neck (51%), followed by low back pain (42%), wrist/hand pain (35%) and shoulder pain (30%). Older age, right-handedness, not currently smoking, emotional exhaustion, belief that musculoskeletal problems are commonly caused by work, and low job security were the statistically significant risk factors for MSP in different anatomical sites. Conclusions A high prevalence of MSP in the neck, low back, wrist/arm and shoulder was observed among Estonian computer users. Psychosocial risk factors were broadly consistent with those reported from elsewhere. While computer users should be aware of ergonomic techniques that can make their work easier and more comfortable, presenting computer use as a serious health hazard may modify health beliefs in a way that is unhelpful. PMID:24884911

  1. Composite β-κ-casein genotypes and their effect on composition and coagulation of milk from Estonian Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Vallas, M; Kaart, T; Värv, S; Pärna, K; Jõudu, I; Viinalass, H; Pärna, E

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of composite β-κ-CN genotypes on milk coagulation and composition traits, and on the additive genetic variation of these traits in Estonian Holstein dairy cattle. A total of 23,970 milk samples, repeated measurements from the first to third lactation from 2,859 Estonian Holstein cows from 78 herds across the country, were analyzed for milk yield, milk fat and protein percentages, somatic cell count, and milk coagulation properties (milk coagulation time and curd firmness). Each cow had at least 3 measurements per lactation. Two single-trait random regression animal models were fitted for the traits studied. The first model considered fixed effects of year-season of sampling and year-season of calving, calving age (nested within lactation), sample age (only for milk coagulation traits) and days in milk, and random herd, additive genetic, and permanent environmental effects. The animal and permanent environmental effects were modeled over the lactation period by using Legendre polynomials. The second model had the additional fixed β-κ-casein effect in the form of a third-order Legendre polynomial. The 2 most frequent β-κ-casein composite genotypes were A2A2AA and A1A2AA, both with prevalence greater than 20%. Percentages of the remaining 31 genotypes were less than 8%, including 20 genotypes with percentages less than 1%. The β-κ-casein genotype-specific lactation curves were significantly different for milk coagulation traits and milk protein percentage. The B variant of κ-casein showed a favorable effect on both milk coagulation traits, whereas the IB haplotype had an increasing effect on curd firmness and protein percentage. Inclusion of the β-κ-casein genotype effects in the model resulted in decreases in the mean additive genetic variations for milk coagulation time and curd firmness of 12.9 and 51.1%, respectively.

  2. A survey of parentally reported sleep health disorders in estonian 8–9 year old children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pediatric sleep research is rather new in Estonia. There has not been a comprehensive study of age specific sleep disorders in Estonian children. The aim of this study was to investigate sleep disorders in a sample of Estonian second grade children. We hypothesized that: • Children with low BMI are as susceptible to SDB as are children with high BMI. • Under weight children are susceptible to residual SDB after adenotonsillectomy. • Parasomnias present with SDB in children. • Excessive day time sleepiness is a significant symptom which leads parents to suspect sleep disorders in their child. Methods A retrospective questionnaire based survey was used to analyze factors influencing sleep, parasomnias, daytime sleepiness, and sleep disordered breathing (SDB). 1065 Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) packets were distributed by post to randomly selected parents of second grade students; 703 (66%) subjects were included in the study group; each parent/guardian participant had one second grade child. Descriptive statistics were used to compare characteristics of SDB symptomatic and healthy children. We used logistic regression to analyze factors influencing sleep and parasomnias in relation to SDB severity. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI were used to estimate relative risk. Results Parents of children with SDB complaints seem to pay attention to sleep disorders especially when a child is suffering from excessive day time sleepiness. Parasomnias are present simultaneously with SDB and tend to worsen in relation to more severe SDB complaints. Many underweight children have SDB symptoms after adenotonsillectomy. Conclusion SDB symptoms are found in both overweight and underweight children. Both groups should be observed, especially in terms of the current focus on overweight children. Careful follow up after SDB treatment is necessary in case of under and overweight children. Parental suspicions regarding SDB are noticeably higher in cases of

  3. Stages of Adolescence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  4. Trends from 2002 to 2010 in Daily Breakfast Consumption and its Socio-Demographic Correlates in Adolescents across 31 Countries Participating in the HBSC Study

    PubMed Central

    Lazzeri, Giacomo; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Niclasen, Birgit; Pammolli, Andrea; Vereecken, Carine; Rasmussen, Mette; Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Kelly, Colette

    2016-01-01

    Breakfast is often considered the most important meal of the day and children and adolescents can benefit from breakfast consumption in several ways. The purpose of the present study was to describe trends in daily breakfast consumption (DBC) among adolescents across 31 countries participating in the HBSC survey between 2002 to 2010 and to identify socio-demographic (gender, family affluence and family structure) correlates of DBC. Cross-sectional surveys including nationally representative samples of 11–15 year olds (n = 455,391). Multilevel logistic regression analyses modeled DBC over time after adjusting for family affluence, family structure and year of survey. In all countries, children in two-parent families were more likely to report DBC compared to single parent families. In most countries (n = 19), DBC was associated with family affluence. Six countries showed an increase in DBC (Canada, Netherland, Macedonia, Scotland, Wales, England) from 2002. A significant decrease in DBC from 2002 was found in 11 countries (Belgium Fr, France, Germany, Croatia, Spain, Poland, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania and Norway), while in 5 countries (Portugal, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Sweden) no significant changes were seen. Frequency of DBC among adolescents in European countries and North America showed a more uniform pattern in 2010 as compared to patterns in 2002. DBC increased significantly in only six out of 19 countries from 2002 to 2010. There is need for continued education and campaigns to motivate adolescents to consume DBC. Comparing patterns across HBSC countries can make an important contribution to understanding regional /global trends and to monitoring strategies and development of health promotion programs. PMID:27027743

  5. Trends from 2002 to 2010 in Daily Breakfast Consumption and its Socio-Demographic Correlates in Adolescents across 31 Countries Participating in the HBSC Study.

    PubMed

    Lazzeri, Giacomo; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Niclasen, Birgit; Pammolli, Andrea; Vereecken, Carine; Rasmussen, Mette; Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Kelly, Colette

    2016-01-01

    Breakfast is often considered the most important meal of the day and children and adolescents can benefit from breakfast consumption in several ways. The purpose of the present study was to describe trends in daily breakfast consumption (DBC) among adolescents across 31 countries participating in the HBSC survey between 2002 to 2010 and to identify socio-demographic (gender, family affluence and family structure) correlates of DBC. Cross-sectional surveys including nationally representative samples of 11-15 year olds (n = 455,391). Multilevel logistic regression analyses modeled DBC over time after adjusting for family affluence, family structure and year of survey. In all countries, children in two-parent families were more likely to report DBC compared to single parent families. In most countries (n = 19), DBC was associated with family affluence. Six countries showed an increase in DBC (Canada, Netherland, Macedonia, Scotland, Wales, England) from 2002. A significant decrease in DBC from 2002 was found in 11 countries (Belgium Fr, France, Germany, Croatia, Spain, Poland, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania and Norway), while in 5 countries (Portugal, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Sweden) no significant changes were seen. Frequency of DBC among adolescents in European countries and North America showed a more uniform pattern in 2010 as compared to patterns in 2002. DBC increased significantly in only six out of 19 countries from 2002 to 2010. There is need for continued education and campaigns to motivate adolescents to consume DBC. Comparing patterns across HBSC countries can make an important contribution to understanding regional /global trends and to monitoring strategies and development of health promotion programs. PMID:27027743

  6. Describing temporal variability of the mean Estonian precipitation series in climate time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, P.; Kärner, O.

    2009-04-01

    Applicability of the random walk type models to represent the temporal variability of various atmospheric temperature series has been successfully demonstrated recently (e.g. Kärner, 2002). Main problem in the temperature modeling is connected to the scale break in the generally self similar air temperature anomaly series (Kärner, 2005). The break separates short-range strong non-stationarity from nearly stationary longer range variability region. This is an indication of the fact that several geophysical time series show a short-range non-stationary behaviour and a stationary behaviour in longer range (Davis et al., 1996). In order to model series like that the choice of time step appears to be crucial. To characterize the long-range variability we can neglect the short-range non-stationary fluctuations, provided that we are able to model properly the long-range tendencies. The structure function (Monin and Yaglom, 1975) was used to determine an approximate segregation line between the short and the long scale in terms of modeling. The longer scale can be called climate one, because such models are applicable in scales over some decades. In order to get rid of the short-range fluctuations in daily series the variability can be examined using sufficiently long time step. In the present paper, we show that the same philosophy is useful to find a model to represent a climate-scale temporal variability of the Estonian daily mean precipitation amount series over 45 years (1961-2005). Temporal variability of the obtained daily time series is examined by means of an autoregressive and integrated moving average (ARIMA) family model of the type (0,1,1). This model is applicable for daily precipitation simulating if to select an appropriate time step that enables us to neglet the short-range non-stationary fluctuations. A considerably longer time step than one day (30 days) is used in the current paper to model the precipitation time series variability. Each ARIMA (0

  7. Breast milk cytokine and IgA composition differ in Estonian and Swedish mothers-relationship to microbial pressure and infant allergy.

    PubMed

    Tomicić, Sara; Johansson, Git; Voor, Tiia; Björkstén, Bengt; Böttcher, Malin Fagerås; Jenmalm, Maria C

    2010-10-01

    The immune system of the neonate is influenced by maternal immunity during pregnancy and lactation. An altered microbial exposure, possibly underlying the increase of allergic diseases in affluent societies, may affect maternal breast milk immune composition. Secretory IgA (SIgA), IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, IFN-[gamma], TGF-[beta]1, and TGF-[beta]2 were analyzed with ELISA in colostrum and 1-mo mature milk from mothers from Estonia (n = 39) and Sweden (n = 60), the two geographically adjacent countries with different living conditions and allergy incidence. The IL-10 and IFN-[gamma] levels were higher in colostrum from Estonian than Swedish mothers, whereas the opposite was true for TGF-[beta]2. In mature milk, higher SIgA and IFN-[gamma] levels but lower TGF-[beta]1 and TGF-[beta]2 levels were observed in Estonian than Swedish mothers. Interestingly, in Sweden but not Estonia, the TGF-[beta]1 and TGF-[beta]2 levels correlated inversely with environmental endotoxin concentrations, whereas positive correlations to microbial load were observed for IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-[gamma]. High colostral IL-13 levels were associated with allergic sensitization during infancy in Sweden. In conclusion, Estonian mothers have lower breast milk levels of TGF-[beta], particularly TGF-[beta]2, but higher levels of SIgA, IL-10, and IFN-[gamma] than Swedish mothers, possibly because of differences in microbial load.

  8. A Family Systems Approach for Preventing Adolescent Runaway Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coco, E. Lane; Courtney, Linda J.

    1998-01-01

    Utilizes a family therapy approach to restructure family relationships in order to prevent further runaway behavior of a 15-year-old Mexican-American female. The approach involves a family interview, genogram, and family therapy. The Family Satisfaction Scale was administered to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach. (Author/MKA)

  9. Dialect, Power and Politics: Standard English and Adolescent Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Jude

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the official requirement for the promotion of standard English using Bourdieu's concepts of the production and reproduction of legitimate language. It explores the political drive behind the demand for this standard dialect in England and, through a survey on the views of fifty-two 14 and 15 year olds, analyses the impact that…

  10. Flyboy: Using the Arts and Theater to Assist Suicidal Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.; Buttignol, Margie; Diamond, C. T. Patrick

    2005-01-01

    This article integrates story and the form of qualitative methodology known as arts-based inquiry. The authors use this approach to provide a case study of Kal, a 15-year-old boy who had unsuccessfully attempted to end his life by "flying" off his apartment balcony. The paper begins with orientation to the background of this case and to arts-based…

  11. Adolescent immunization.

    PubMed

    Handal, G A

    2000-06-01

    The dramatic improvements achieved in the control of vaccine-preventable diseases in children have only been shared partially by adolescents and young adults, as today several million adolescents are not receiving the full complement of vaccines recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). This article discusses the reasons for this problem and the tools to bridge this gap. In particular, medical societies and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend a close assessment of the adolescentís immunization status between 11 and 12 years of age, inclusion of school immunization, and providing missing immunizations at any opportunity. The article also addresses other vaccines recommended for groups of adolescents with special needs, reporting information, and provides an update on the vaccines of the future.

  12. Adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Grant, L M; Demetriou, E

    1988-12-01

    The consequences of adolescent sexual behavior are an enormous burden both for the adolescent and society. The problem is not that teens are sexually active but rather that they have little preparation and guidance in developing responsible sexual behavior. Developmentally, adolescents reach physical maturity before they are cognitively able to appreciate the consequences of their behavior. A teenager's primary source of information regarding sexuality is his or her peer group, all of whom are experiencing and reinforcing the same behaviors. The family, the major socializer of other behaviors, is not as powerful a force in shaping responsible sexual behavior because of parental discomfort with sex education and sexual discussions. This is the result of a social milieu in which sex is frequently portrayed but rarely linked with responsible behavior or accurate, nonjudgmental information. The pediatric practitioner is in an ideal position to intervene in these dynamics. In the office, the practitioner can provide accurate sexual information to both parents and adolescents, support parental-child communication on sexual issues, and provide appropriate services or referral. In the community, the practitioner can advocate for school-based sex education as well as act as an information resource. Finally, the practitioner can advocate for the health care needs for adolescents on a national level, supporting legislation that provides adolescents with information and access to services necessary to make responsible sexual decisions.

  13. Loneliness and health risk behaviours among Russian and U.S. adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background For some adolescents feeling lonely can be a protracted and painful experience. It has been suggested that engaging in health risk behaviours such as substance use and sexual behaviour may be a way of coping with the distress arising from loneliness during adolescence. However, the association between loneliness and health risk behaviour has been little studied to date. To address this research gap, the current study examined this relation among Russian and U.S. adolescents. Methods Data were used from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a school-based survey conducted in 2003. A total of 1995 Russian and 2050 U.S. students aged 13–15 years old were included in the analysis. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between loneliness and substance use, sexual risk behaviour, and violence. Results After adjusting for demographic characteristics and depressive symptoms, loneliness was associated with a significantly increased risk of adolescent substance use in both Russia and the United States. Lonely Russian girls were significantly more likely to have used marijuana (odds ratio [OR]: 2.28; confidence interval [CI]: 1.17–4.45), while lonely Russian boys had higher odds for past 30-day smoking (OR, 1.87; CI, 1.08–3.24). In the U.S. loneliness was associated with the lifetime use of illicit drugs (excepting marijuana) among boys (OR, 3.09; CI, 1.41–6.77) and with lifetime marijuana use (OR, 1.79; CI, 1.26–2.55), past 30-day alcohol consumption (OR, 1.80; CI, 1.18–2.75) and past 30-day binge drinking (OR, 2.40; CI, 1.56–3.70) among girls. The only relation between loneliness and sexual risk behaviour was among Russian girls, where loneliness was associated with significantly higher odds for ever having been pregnant (OR, 1.69; CI: 1.12–2.54). Loneliness was not associated with violent behaviour among boys or girls in either country. Conclusion Loneliness is associated with adolescent health risk behaviour among boys and

  14. Adolescent loneliness.

    PubMed

    Williams, E G

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the phenomenon of loneliness in delinquent adolescents with regard to types of delinquency offenses committed, demographic characteristics, and personality characteristics in the areas of interpersonal needs for inclusion, control, and affection. The types of delinquency offenses were categorized as burglary, runaway, drugs, assault, and incorrigible. The demographic variables examined were age, sex, race, family rank or birth order, family structure in terms of parental presence, family income level, religion, and geographic locale. A sample of 98 adolescents was obtained from juvenile detention facilities in three metropolitan areas in the United States. Subjects ranged in age from 12 to 18. Subjects were asked to complete the Loneliness Questionnaire as a self-reported measure of loneliness. Subjects also provided information about themselves relative to demographic characteristics and completed the FIRO-B Questionnaire, which measured interpersonal needs for inclusion, control, and affection. The results revealed no significant differences with regard to any of the demographic variables when the effect of each was considered alone. However, there was a significant effect on loneliness by income when considered jointly with other demographic variables. Adolescents from the middle income group expressed more loneliness than those from the upper and lower income groups. No significant differences were observed with regard to personality characteristics related to interpersonal needs for inclusion and affection, but delinquent adolescents with medium to high needs for control indicated significantly more feelings of loneliness than delinquent adolescents with low needs for control.

  15. Validation of the Italian Version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire for Adolescents by A. Lancry and Th. Arbault.

    PubMed

    Cavallera, Guido Maria; Boari, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to validate the Italian version of the Morningness-Eveningness questionnaire for adolescents by Lancry and Arbault. The Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire by Lancry and Arbault was translated from French into Italian by using forward-backward translation. Students aged 11-15 years old were enrolled from two schools in Milan (Italia). Validation of the questionnaire was performed in subsequent phases. A pre-test was given to 66 students aged 11-15 years (males 57.4%, females 42.6%) from a convenience sample. Syntactic aspects of the pre-test were improved, and the questionnaire in a revised version was re-administered to 292 students of same age (males 43.8%, females 54.1%) from a convenience sample. Factor analysis was performed on pre-test data, using the principal component method accounting for Morningness-Eveningness. Problematic items possibly uncorrelated with the extracted factor were identified, and reliability produced a Cronbach's Alpha close to 0.7. In the test phase factor analysis was performed using the principal component method. Based on reliability analyses, we excluded a number of items because of their low performance, giving rise to a Cronbach's Alpha of 0.819. Pearson product-moment external correlations between Morningness-Eveningness disposition and temperament, behavioral, and cognitive aspects were evaluated. A factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha and concurrent validity coefficients with disposition, behavior, and cognition, were performed, suggesting potential reliability and validity. The questionnaire is a useful and relevant tool for measuring Morningness-Eveningness disposition in adolescents, which has seldom been investigated with adequate psychometric instruments. PMID:26354147

  16. Validation of the Italian Version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire for Adolescents by A. Lancry and Th. Arbault

    PubMed Central

    Cavallera, Guido M.; Boari, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to validate the Italian version of the Morningness-Eveningness questionnaire for adolescents by Lancry and Arbault. Material/Methods The Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire by Lancry and Arbault was translated from French into Italian by using forward-backward translation. Students aged 11–15 years old were enrolled from two schools in Milan (Italia). Validation of the questionnaire was performed in subsequent phases. A pre-test was given to 66 students aged 11–15 years (males 57.4%, females 42.6%) from a convenience sample. Syntactic aspects of the pre-test were improved, and the questionnaire in a revised version was re-administered to 292 students of same age (males 43.8%, females 54.1%) from a convenience sample. Results Factor analysis was performed on pre-test data, using the principal component method accounting for Morningness-Eveningness. Problematic items possibly uncorrelated with the extracted factor were identified, and reliability produced a Cronbach’s Alpha close to 0.7. In the test phase factor analysis was performed using the principal component method. Based on reliability analyses, we excluded a number of items because of their low performance, giving rise to a Cronbach’s Alpha of 0.819. Pearson product-moment external correlations between Morningness-Eveningness disposition and temperament, behavioral, and cognitive aspects were evaluated. Conclusions A factor analysis, Cronbach’s alpha and concurrent validity coefficients with disposition, behavior, and cognition, were performed, suggesting potential reliability and validity. The questionnaire is a useful and relevant tool for measuring Morningness-Eveningness disposition in adolescents, which has seldom been investigated with adequate psychometric instruments. PMID:26354147

  17. Predictors and patterns of cigarette and smokeless tobacco use among adolescents in 32 Countries, 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Agaku, Israel T.; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A.; Vardavas, Constantine I.; Connolly, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE This study compared data from 32 countries to assess predictors and patterns of cigarette and smokeless tobacco (SLT) use among students aged 13–15 years old. METHODS Data from the 2007–2008 Global Youth Tobacco Surveys were analyzed for students aged 13–15 years in 31 countries located in all six WHO regions. In addition, the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey was analyzed for U.S. students aged 13–15 years. Country-specific prevalence of current smoking, current SLT use, and concurrent use patterns were assessed. RESULTS The national prevalence of current cigarette smoking among students aged 13–15 years ranged from 1.8% (Rwanda) to 32.9% (Latvia) whereas current SLT use ranged from 1.1% (Montenegro) to 14.4% (Lesotho). In the U.S. and most European countries surveyed, current smoking prevalence was significantly higher than SLT prevalence, in contrast to patterns observed in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Also, in most of the surveyed countries outside of Europe and the U.S., SLT use among girls was as common as their use of cigarettes, and not significantly different from use by boys. When compared to U.S. adolescents, the odds of SLT use were highest among African adolescents (aOR=3.98; 95%CI: 2.19–7.24) followed by those in the South-East Asian region (aOR=2.76; 95%CI: 1.38–5.53). CONCLUSIONS Region specific patterns of tobacco use were noticed. Furthermore it is alarming that in several LMICs, the prevalence of SLT use among females did not differ from that among males, suggesting the possibility of a future shared burden of disease between both males and females. PMID:24060573

  18. Perceived problems with computer gaming and internet use among adolescents: measurement tool for non-clinical survey studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Existing instruments for measuring problematic computer and console gaming and internet use are often lengthy and often based on a pathological perspective. The objective was to develop and present a new and short non-clinical measurement tool for perceived problems related to computer use and gaming among adolescents and to study the association between screen time and perceived problems. Methods Cross-sectional school-survey of 11-, 13-, and 15-year old students in thirteen schools in the City of Aarhus, Denmark, participation rate 89%, n = 2100. The main exposure was time spend on weekdays on computer- and console-gaming and internet use for communication and surfing. The outcome measures were three indexes on perceived problems related to computer and console gaming and internet use. Results The three new indexes showed high face validity and acceptable internal consistency. Most schoolchildren with high screen time did not experience problems related to computer use. Still, there was a strong and graded association between time use and perceived problems related to computer gaming, console gaming (only boys) and internet use, odds ratios ranging from 6.90 to 10.23. Conclusion The three new measures of perceived problems related to computer and console gaming and internet use among adolescents are appropriate, reliable and valid for use in non-clinical surveys about young people’s everyday life and behaviour. These new measures do not assess Internet Gaming Disorder as it is listed in the DSM and therefore has no parity with DSM criteria. We found an increasing risk of perceived problems with increasing time spent with gaming and internet use. Nevertheless, most schoolchildren who spent much time with gaming and internet use did not experience problems. PMID:24731270

  19. Validation of the Italian Version of the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire for Adolescents by A. Lancry and Th. Arbault.

    PubMed

    Cavallera, Guido Maria; Boari, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to validate the Italian version of the Morningness-Eveningness questionnaire for adolescents by Lancry and Arbault. The Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire by Lancry and Arbault was translated from French into Italian by using forward-backward translation. Students aged 11-15 years old were enrolled from two schools in Milan (Italia). Validation of the questionnaire was performed in subsequent phases. A pre-test was given to 66 students aged 11-15 years (males 57.4%, females 42.6%) from a convenience sample. Syntactic aspects of the pre-test were improved, and the questionnaire in a revised version was re-administered to 292 students of same age (males 43.8%, females 54.1%) from a convenience sample. Factor analysis was performed on pre-test data, using the principal component method accounting for Morningness-Eveningness. Problematic items possibly uncorrelated with the extracted factor were identified, and reliability produced a Cronbach's Alpha close to 0.7. In the test phase factor analysis was performed using the principal component method. Based on reliability analyses, we excluded a number of items because of their low performance, giving rise to a Cronbach's Alpha of 0.819. Pearson product-moment external correlations between Morningness-Eveningness disposition and temperament, behavioral, and cognitive aspects were evaluated. A factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha and concurrent validity coefficients with disposition, behavior, and cognition, were performed, suggesting potential reliability and validity. The questionnaire is a useful and relevant tool for measuring Morningness-Eveningness disposition in adolescents, which has seldom been investigated with adequate psychometric instruments.

  20. Contraceptive counseling for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Potter, Julia; Santelli, John S

    2015-11-01

    The majority of adolescents become sexually active during their teenage years, making contraceptive counseling an important aspect of routine adolescent healthcare. However, many healthcare providers express discomfort when it comes to counseling adolescents about contraceptive options. This Special Report highlights the evidence supporting age-appropriate contraceptive counseling for adolescents and focuses on best practices for addressing adolescents' questions and concerns about contraceptive methods.