Balantekin, Katherine N.; Birch, Leann L.; Savage, Jennifer S.
Objective The objectives were to identify and predict patterns of weight control behavior in 15 year old (yo) girls and to examine weight control group differences in energy intake. Method Subjects included 166 girls assessed every 2 years (ys) from age 5 to 15. Latent class analysis was used to identify patterns of weight control behaviors. Antecedent variables (e.g. inhibitory control at 7ys), and concurrent variables (e.g. BMI and dietary intake at 15ys) were included as predictors. Assessments were a combination of survey, interview, and laboratory measures. Results LCA identified four classes of weight control behaviors, Non-dieters (26%), and three dieting groups: Lifestyle (16%), Dieters (43%), and Extreme Dieters (17%). Levels of restraint, weight concerns, and dieting frequency increased across groups, from Non-dieters to Extreme Dieters. BMI at 5ys and inhibitory control at 7ys predicted weight control group at 15ys; e.g. with every one-point decrease in inhibitory control, girls were twice as likely to be Extreme Dieters than Non-dieters. Girls in the Extreme Dieters group were mostly classified as under-reporters, and had the lowest self-reported intake, but ate significantly more in the laboratory. Discussion Among 15yo girls, “dieting” includes a range of both healthy and unhealthy behaviors. Risk factors for membership in a weight control groups are present as early as 5ys. Patterns of intake in the laboratory support the view that lower reported energy intake by Extreme Dieters is likely due under-reporting as an intent to decrease intake, not actual decreased intake. PMID:26284953
Guszkowska, Monika; Rychta, Tadeusz
Study aim: To determine the relations between the general and physical education-specific achievement motivation, and physical fitness of adolescent girls. Material and methods: A group of 52 girls aged 15 years were studied by applying two questionnaires: P-O scale of Widerszal-Bazyl for evaluating the general achievement motivation and Nishida's…
Youn, Ji-Seok; Kwon, Ji-Won; Kim, Byoung-Ju
Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is a very rare disease that is characterized by acute febrile respiratory failure, diffuse bilateral infiltrates on chest X-ray, and eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in the absence of infection. We present the case of a 15-year-old girl diagnosed with smoking-induced acute eosinophilic pneumonia. A previously healthy young girl with a 1-day history of fever presented with cough, dyspnea, and diffuse bilateral infiltrates on chest X-ray. She had started smoking only 3 weeks before presentation. She was diagnosed by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid tests and lung biopsy and dramatically improved after steroid treatment. We emphasize that acute eosinophilic pneumonia must be considered when acute pneumonia does not respond to broad-spectrum antibiotics. Effective treatment and prompt institution of therapy can obviate unnecessary morbidity and mortality. PMID:20358030
Brasseur, Benoit; Dahan, Karin; Beauloye, Véronique; Blétard, Noella; Chantrain, Christophe; Dupont, Sophie; Guarin, Jean-Luc; Vermylen, Christiane; Brichard, Bénédicte
A 15-year-old girl with adenomatous polyposis coli gene (APC) mutation and brain tumor-polyposis syndrome developed an unusual succession of cervicocephalic tumors (medulloblastoma, meningeal low-grade myxoid tumor, and papillary thyroid carcinoma), at the age of 5, 9, and 15 years, respectively. We discuss the genetic profile of the thyroid tumor in which a large somatic deletion of APC gene was found and the physiopathology of thyroid carcinoma in patients with germline APC mutation. We also point out the uncommon phenotype in this young girl with early multiple neoplasias and the difficulties of management of such familial adenomatous polyposis patients with occurrence of extracolonic cancers that require the use of potential trigger agents as radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
Tural Kara, Tugce; Ozdemir, Halil; Fitoz, Suat; Ciftci, Ergin; Ince, Erdal
Pelvic osteomyelitis is a rare infection. Ilium, ischium, pubis and acetabulum are commonly affected sites. Pelvic radiography, pelvic magnetic resonance and scintigraphy are useful imaging techniques for diagnosis. However, diagnoses should be confirmed with bone biopsy from the lesion. Sometimes diagnosis is delayed because of deep localization of infection site. Here in, we report a 15-year-old girl with left groin pain who was diagnosed as pelvic osteomyelitis one month after initial symptoms. Patient was successfully treated with antibiotics for 8 weeks. In conclusion, although pelvic osteomyelitis is an unusual infection in childhood, it should be considered as differential diagnoses of pain in groin, hips, thigh, abdomen and spine. If diagnosis is suspicious, empiric treatment should be started quickly, because it will be possible to achieve satisfactory clinical results with effective treatment.
Kajfasz, Piotr; Bartoszcze, Michał; Borkowski, Piotr Karol; Basiak, Wojciech
A 15-year-old girl was admitted to our Department with cutaneous lesion resembling black eschar. Anamnesis revealed that before getting ill she was wearing pullover made of rough sheep's wool and ornaments made of leather like straps. Cutaneous anthrax was confirmed by identification of B. anthracis in specimens from weeping ulceration, culture from black eschar, thermoprecipitation test, and bioassay on guinea pig. The girl was treated with crystalline Penicillin. She responded well to the therapy and recovered after 28 days. What attracts attention in presented case is the fact that the girl didn't belong to high risk group of human anthrax, which might lead to misdiagnosis. In 1990-1999, Poland there were reported 22 cases of anthrax - it was almost exclusively cutaneous form. In the years following 1999 antrax was reported even less often - in the period 1991-2013 it was recorded a total of 26 cutaneous anthrax cases.
Fox, Andrew; And Others
This study analyzes the effects on 14- and 15-year-old black teenage girls of entering and participating in a specially designed work program. The girls were provided with supports in their work settings, well-defined tasks, supervisors as well as regularly scheduled peer interaction groups led by a young black woman considered to be an…
Ratra, Atul; Wooldridge, Adam; Brindley, George
Osteofibrous dysplasia and adamantinoma are rare lesions of primary benign and malignant bone tumors with an incidence of less than 1%. These lesions arise primarily in long bones with a predilection for the tibia and fibula. Osteofibrous dysplasia is a benign fibro-osseous lesion typically found in children younger than 10 years. Adamantinomas, however, are highly malignant and invasive tumors found predominantly in adult men, with an average age of diagnosis between 20 and 50 years. Debate continues on whether osteofibrous dysplasia and adamantinoma occupy the same disease spectrum. Within the spectrum of pathology lies a rare benign lesion known as osteofibrous dysplasia-like adamantinoma. This intermediate form has the potential to spontaneously regress or transform into a malignant adamantinoma. We report a rare case of an osteofibrous dysplasia-like adamantinoma of the tibia in a 15-year-old girl. The patient was followed with regular 3- to 6-month follow-ups. The lesion remained stable and showed no progression over 2 years. Given the benign nature of osteofibrous dysplasia and osteofibrous dysplasia-like adamantinoma and the malignant nature of adamantinoma, correctly diagnosing the lesion has significant treatment implications. This case report highlights the rarity of this intermediate form and its potential to remain stable. Such lesions can be observed with frequent follow-ups without the need for surgical intervention.
Introduction Macrophage activating syndrome is a severe, potentially life-threatening condition that may accompany Still's disease. It is characterized by fever, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, severe cytopenia, serious liver dysfunction, coagulopathy and neurologic involvement. The principal treatment for patients with this syndrome includes etoposide 150 mg/2 M twice a week for two weeks, dexamethasone 10 mg/2 M for two weeks and cyclosporine 3 mg/kg to 5 mg/kg for a longer period. Cases of relapse of macrophage activating syndrome are relatively rare. Case presentation We describe the case of a 15-year-old Iraqi girl with Still's disease who developed macrophage activating syndrome with acute respiratory distress syndrome that required resuscitation and mechanical ventilation. Following intensive treatment, including high dose steroids and cyclosporine, the patient improved significantly. Two weeks after cyclosporine was discontinued, however, she was readmitted with an acute relapse of macrophage activating syndrome manifested by spiking fever, arthralgias, maculopapular rash and leukocytosis. This time the patient recovered following the reintroduction of treatment with cyclosporine and the addition of mycophenolate mofetil (Cellcept). Conclusion We believe that cyclosporine is a cornerstone for the treatment of Still's disease. We recommend continuing this medication for several weeks following the patient's clinical recovery in order to prevent macrophage activating syndrome relapses. PMID:20062775
Smith, Debbie M; Elander, James
Information is needed about how the effects of socio-economic deprivation on teenage pregnancy are mediated by proximal risk factors, in order to target area-wide and family interventions more effectively. Using a 2x2 factorial design, we tested the separate and interacting effects of area deprivation and family deprivation on six specific proximal risk factors for teenage pregnancy: early sexual activity, life expectations, knowledge and beliefs about contraceptives, attitude to abortion, beliefs about love, and use of local sexual health services. Data were collected from 201 13-15-year-old girls in deprived and non-deprived families living in deprived and more affluent areas of the United Kingdom. Area deprivation significantly increased early sexual activity, and both area and family deprivation significantly reduced life expectations. Significant interactions between area and family deprivation showed that the impact of living in a deprived area depends to some extent on family circumstances, with implications for targeting different types of intervention. Living in a deprived area increased early sexual activity much more markedly among girls in deprived families, so interventions to reduce early sexual activity could target individually deprived girls living in deprived areas. Living in a more affluent area increased life expectations, but only among girls in non-deprived families, so both area-wide and individually targeted interventions would be needed to raise life expectations among girls most at risk of teenage pregnancy.
Inaba, Takako; Fukumura, Yuki; Saito, Tsuyoshi; Yokoyama, Junkichi; Ohba, Shinichi; Arakawa, Atsushi; Yao, Takashi
Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a recently recognized tumor of salivary glands characterized by the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. This tumor is very rare in children and adolescents. We report a case of MASC in a 15-year-old girl, the fifth youngest case so far reported. The patient complained of a left infra-auricular mass that gradually enlarged for a year. Fine-needle aspiration cytology/imprint cytology showed individual tumor cells that had faintly eosinophilic granular cytoplasm with secretion granules sometimes seen adjacent to the tumor cells. These cytological features overlapped between those of zymogen granule-poor acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC) and MASC. In addition to the case report, we present a review of the related literature with a focus on the cytological features of MASC. The differential diagnostic clues are also discussed.
Wiktor, Łukasz; Tomaszewski, Ryszard
The occipital condyle fracture is rare injury of the craniocervical junction. Meningeal spinal cysts are rare tumors of the spinal cord. Depending on location, these lesions may be classified as extradural and subdural, but extradural spinal cysts are more common. We present the case of a 15-year-old girl who suffered from avulsion occipital condyle fracture treated with use of “halo-vest” system. We established that clinical effect after completed treatment is very good. Control MRI evaluation was performed 12 months after removal of “halo-vest” traction, and clinically silent extradural meningeal spinal cysts were detected at the ventral side of the spinal cord in the cervical segment of the spine. Due to clinically silent course of the disease, we decided to use the conservative treatment. The patient remains under control of our department. PMID:26543656
Lee, Kwang Ho; Park, Eun Young; Jung, Sang Woo; Song, Seung Woo; Lim, Hyun Kyo
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome is characterized by mental retardation, atypical facial features, broad thumbs and toes, and scoliosis. Polycystic ovaries are associated with chronic anovulation and abnormal uterine bleeding. A 15-year old female patient was diagnosed with Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome, and had prolonged abnormal uterine bleeding for 2 years, accompanied by a polycystic ovary. As she showed no improvement during hormonal therapy or medical treatment, a hysterectomy was performed to control the bleeding. PMID:27924288
Saumet, L; Damay, A; Jeziorski, E; Cartier, C; Rouleau, C; Margueritte, G; Rodière, M; Segondy, M
Malignant transformation of juvenile-onset recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a rare event and the cases reported have been mainly observed in adults. We report the case of a 15-year-old girl with a history of severe RRP who died of a HPV 11-associated bronchopulmonary squamous cell carcinoma with pericardial invasion. HPV 11 was identified in nasopharyngeal and tracheal papillomas, as well as in the pericardial fluid. HPV 11 isolate was further analyzed by amplification and sequencing of the E1, E2, E4, E6, and E7 genes. Only one amino acid substitution in E4 due to natural polymorphism was observed. Exons 5-9 of the patient's tumor protein 53 (TP53) gene were sequenced and no mutations were identified. This observation confirms that malignant conversion of juvenile-onset RRP associated with HPV 11 to squamous cell carcinoma may arise in children. HPV 11-induced carcinogenesis needs to be further investigated.
Dronkers, Jaap; Kornder, Nils
In this paper, we analyse the gender differences between the educational performance of 15-year-old children of migrants from specific regions of origin countries living in different destination countries with the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009 wave. We study whether this gender difference of migrant pupils deviates…
Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Smith, Sandi; Lowe, John B.; Dennis, Leslie; Andsager, Julie
The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine provides physicians with an opportunity to have conversations with girls about sex and sex-related topics. Current research suggests that these conversations are not happening. This study was designed to assess whether physicians would use the HPV vaccination as an opening to communicate with nine-year-old to…
Jeewa, Aamir; Elias, Barbara A.; McCullum, Elizabeth O.; Denfield, Susan W.; Dreyer, William J.; Adachi, Iki
We describe the case of a teenage girl with anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy who received a HeartWare ventricular assist device and underwent successful device explantation after cardiac recovery. During device support, the patient's cardiac function returned to normal. Twelve months after implantation, we explanted the device via repeat median sternotomy. To close the hole in the left ventricular apex and preserve the sewing ring in case future device support is needed, we used a German-manufactured titanium plug, developed specifically for this purpose. To our knowledge, this is the first use of this plug in the United States. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 11. Left ventricular biopsy specimens at explantation revealed the resolution of previous degenerative sarcomeric changes. Our patient did well clinically; however, recurrent late anthracycline cardiotoxicity might subsequently cause her cardiac function to deteriorate. In this event, our use of the titanium plug to preserve the left ventricular sewing ring would enable easier device replacement than would other explantation options. PMID:28265217
Rostásy, K M; Huppke, P; Beckers, B; Brockmann, K; Degenhardt, V; Wesche, B; König, F; Gärtner, J
Acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN) is a recently described subtype of Guillain-Barré syndrome characterized by acute onset of distal weakness, loss of deep tendon reflexes and sensory symptoms. Electrophysiological studies show mildly reduced nerve conduction velocities combined with a marked reduction of muscle action and sensory nerve action potentials. Here, we report a 15-year-old boy who suffered from severe burning and knife-like pain that increased over a period of three months and resulted in a disrupted sleep pattern and suicidal intentions as well as marked loss of weight. In addition, he developed muscle weakness in his hands and feet. Neurophysiological and histopathological studies revealed AMSAN. Marked improvement of his condition was achieved by treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins, high-dose methylprednisolone, and a combination of gabapentin, antidepressants, and an oral morphine.
Verbert, A; Verbist, J; Peeters, P; Deferm, H; Haenen, L
We report a case of a spontaneous rupture of a right subclavian aneurysm in a 15 year-old patient. This ruptured aneurysm was successfully treated in an endovascular manner by placing a covered stent-graft in the right subclavian artery via right brachial access. Subsequent work-up by skin biopsy and fibroblast culture and by DNA-screening revealed the diagnosis of Ehlers Danlos type IV. Meanwhile, the patient developed twice a spontaneous pneumothorax, treated with thoracoscopic pleurodesis. This article provides a clear overview of the clinical and genetic characteristics of a case of Ehlers Danlos type IV and illustrates the importance of avoiding surgery in patients with connective tissue disease because of the high risk of perioperative complications.
Chapman, Erin M; Ranger, Adrianna; Lee, Donald H; Hammond, Robert R
A 15 year old male presented with hydrocephalus from a tectal mass obstructing the cerebral aqueduct and upper fourth ventricle. The solid-cystic partly enhancing mass proved to be a pigmented pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, the third such example reported. The lesion revealed typical features of a PXA with the unusual addition of intracytoplasmic melanin in select lesional cells. Melanin pigment production is uncommon in glial tumors and of uncertain significance. The present case is recurrence-free one year post-operatively.
Moslehi, Mohammad Ashkan; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi
Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a common incidence in young children. Leeches are rarely reported as FBA at any age. This study describes a 15-year-old female who presented with hemoptysis, hematemesis, coughs, melena, and anemia seven months prior to admission. Chest X-ray showed a round hyperdensity in the right lower lobe. A chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated an area of consolidation and surrounding ground glass opacities in the right lower lobe. Hematological investigations revealed anemia. Finally, bronchoscopy was performed and a 5 cm leech was found within the right B7-8 bronchus and removed by forceps and a Dormia basket. PMID:27752380
Moslehi, Mohammad Ashkan; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi; Adib, Ali
Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a common incidence in young children. Leeches are rarely reported as FBA at any age. This study describes a 15-year-old female who presented with hemoptysis, hematemesis, coughs, melena, and anemia seven months prior to admission. Chest X-ray showed a round hyperdensity in the right lower lobe. A chest computed tomography (CT) demonstrated an area of consolidation and surrounding ground glass opacities in the right lower lobe. Hematological investigations revealed anemia. Finally, bronchoscopy was performed and a 5 cm leech was found within the right B7-8 bronchus and removed by forceps and a Dormia basket.
Kinnunen, Suna; Korkman, Marit; Laasonen, Marja; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka
This study focuses on the development of face recognition in typically developing preschool- and school-aged children (aged 5 to 15 years old, "n" = 611, 336 girls). Social predictors include sex differences and own-sex bias. At younger ages, the development of face recognition was rapid and became more gradual as the age increased up…
Hawton, Keith; Harriss, Louise
Background: Relatively little information is available about the characteristics and long-term outcome of children and adolescents aged under 15 years who present to general hospitals because of deliberate self-harm (DSH). Method: Information was collected on 710 consecutive under-15-year-olds presenting to a general hospital in central England…
Bertolini, Fabrício Melo; Vieira, Rodrigo Barreiros; Oliveira, Lucas Henrique Araujo de; Lasmar, Rodrigo Pace; Junior, Otaviano de Oliveira
This case report presents a 15-year-old football player who was diagnosed with a pubis stress fracture and underwent conservative treatment with satisfactory results. After a review of the literature, the clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment are described. The importance of this paper comes from the rarity of finding reports about this kind of injury in the literature. PMID:27027039
Bodas, A; Pérez-Segura, P; Maluenda, C; Caldés, T; Olivera, E; Díaz-Rubio, E
Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), or Lynch syndrome, dominantly inherited, is characterized by the development of a variety of cancers due to germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes (MMR). This syndrome was diagnosed in a 15-year-old boy because his father and grandmother were also found to have the same kind of cancer. Microsatellite instability prompted a search for germline mutations in the MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 genes. Use of immunohistochemical staining for MMR proteins, genomic sequencing, and deletion studies, evidenced MSH2 axonal deletion. Neoplastic lesions of colon are most often encountered in the adult population but can, on rare occasions, be found in younger patients. We would like to emphasize the importance of suspecting Lynch syndrome and performing genetic studies, even in young patients, when there is a family history of colorectal cancer.
Haase, Anne-Mette; Kelsen, Jens
Collagenous gastritis (CG) is a rare disorder. Two patient groups are known: 1) Children and young adults, presenting with anaemia and abdominal pain, and 2) adults presenting with watery diarrhoea. In the latter group, CG is frequently associated with collagenous colitis and/or coeliac disease. This case concerns a 15-year-old boy with a bleeding ulcer. The biopsies from corpus ventriculi showed a thickened subepithelial collagen band (> 10 micrometres), and the patient was diagnosed with CG. Ulcers are rarely linked to CG. CG should be considered when ulcers are found in children and young adults.
Kovanda, Timothy J; Horn, Eric M
Secondary injury following initial spinal cord trauma is uncommon and frequently attributed to mismanagement of an unprotected cord in the acute time period after injury. Subacute posttraumatic ascending myelopathy (SPAM) is a rare occurrence in the days to weeks following an initial spinal cord injury that is unrelated to manipulation of an unprotected cord and involves 4 or more vertebral levels above the original injury. The authors present a case of SPAM occurring in a 15-year-old boy who sustained a T3-4 fracture-dislocation resulting in a complete spinal cord injury, and they highlight the imaging findings and optimum treatment for this rare event.
Saini, Ashish P; Cyran, Stephen E; Ettinger, Steven M; Pauliks, Linda B
A 15-year-old boy with transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and neonatal arterial switch operation (ASO) presented with complete occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA). Intra-operatively, an intramural left coronary artery was identified. Therefore, since age 7 years he had a series of screening exercise stress tests. At 13 years old, he had 3 to 4 mm ST segment depression in the infero-lateral leads without symptoms. This progressed to 4.2 mm inferior ST segment depression at 15 years old with normal stress echocardiogram. Sestamibi myocardial perfusion scan and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was inconclusive. Therefore, a coronary angiogram was obtained which showed complete occlusion of the LMCA with ample collateralization from the right coronary artery system. This was later confirmed on a computed tomogram (CT) angiogram, obtained in preparation of coronary artery bypass grafting. The case illustrates the difficulty of detecting coronary artery stenosis and occlusion in young patients with rich collateralization. Coronary CT angiogram and conventional angiography were the best imaging modalities to detect coronary anomalies in this adolescent with surgically corrected TGA. Screening CT angiography may be warranted for TGA patients, particularly for those with known coronary anomalies. PMID:27574609
Tian, Benchun; Zhang, Wei; Qian, Ling; Lv, Shuhong; Tian, Xiangyang; Xiong, Guanglian; Yan, Weihong; Zhang, Xinwei; Kann, Laura K.; Riley, Leanne
This paper presents baseline data on health behaviors and protective factors among junior middle school students aged 13-15 years old in China for the purpose of developing priorities, establishing programs and policies for school health and youth health and also establishing trends in the prevalence of these behaviors. The 2003 CHINA GSHS…
Le Hebel, Florence; Montpied, Pascale; Fontanieu, Valérie
The purpose of this study is to investigate the environmental attitudes (EA) in the population of 15-year-old French students and, to check if the French student population presents similar EA categorization as described in the different models in the literature (e.g. the Model of Ecological Values, Wiseman & Bogner 2003). The second aim of…
Lopez, Daniel; Sarac, Timur; Lorenz, Robert
Extracranial internal carotid artery aneurysms are a rare entity in the adult population. Very little information is known in the pediatric population. We present a case of a 15-year-old male with an isolated internal carotid artery aneurysm and a review of the literature.
Çolak, Tuğba Kuru; Apti, Adnan; Dereli, E.Elçin; Özdinçler, Arzu Razak; Çolak, İlker
[Purpose] The present study aimed to find out the scoliosis prevalence 11–15 years old children and to create awareness about scoliosis. [Subjects and Methods] All of the children were assessed using the Adams Forward Bendings Test and a scoliometer. Sagittal plane changes such as kyphosis, lordosis, hypokyphosis, hypolordosis and anterior head tilt were screened. Children with trunk rotation angles (ATR) of 4 degrees or more were suspected of having scoliosis, and were evaluated for a second time for gibbosity height, arm-trunk distance, and ATR. [Results] A total of 2,207 children were screened and the evaluation revealed there were 11 girls (0.49%) with a Cobb angle of 10 degrees and more. The maximum Cobb angle was 43° (right thoracic-left lumbar) and the maximum ATR was 12°. Two children had kyphosis and lordosis, and one had hypokyphosis and was diagnosed as having idiopathic scoliosis. [Conclusion] Families should regularly check their children, even if they are not diagnosed as having scoliosis in school screenings. It is our opinion that our study increased the awareness of the families about scoliosis by screening, brochures and posters. In the future, if school screenings were performed as a routine procedure and scoliotic students were followed over the long term, the actual effectiveness of screening would be able to be detected. PMID:26504296
Genevieve, D; Cormier-Daire, V; Sanlaville, D; Faivre, L; Gosset, P; Allart, L; Picq, M; Munnich, A; Romana, S; de Blois, Mc; Vekemans, M
Pallister-Killian syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies, coarse face, pigmentary skin changes, seizures, severe mental retardation, and the presence of an extra metacentric chromosome i(12p) confined to skin fibroblasts only. Here, we report on an unusual case of i(12p) in a 15-year-old boy presenting with mild mental retardation, minor facial features (long face, prognathism, short neck), normal weight, length, and OFC parameters as well as hyperpigmented streaks. The boy attended normal school until the age of 14 years. Because of hyperpigmented stripes, chromosome analysis was performed on skin fibroblasts. This study showed that 37% of the cells had an additional isochromosome for the short arm of chromosome 12. This observation illustrates the phenotypic variability of i(12p) and emphasizes the importance of skin fibroblasts chromosome analysis in patients with pigmentary skin changes.
Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Cardinal, Bradley J.
This study examined the cardiovascular fitness (CVF, Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run [PACER], number of laps completed) and the prevalence of at risk of overweight (AR) and overweight (OW) among 10-15-year-olds (48% girls) from the following ethnic backgrounds: African American (n = 2,604), Asian-Pacific Islander (n = 3,888),…
Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Merjonen, Paivi; Leino, Mare; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa
Introduction: This prospective longitudinal study examined several selected family- and school-related factors simultaneously in order to investigate the importance of well known and less examined predictors of educational attainment. Method: The participants were 844 (486 girls) nine-, 12-, and 15-years old comprehensive school students. Family-…
Harro, M; Eensoo, D; Kiive, E; Merenäkk, L; Alep, J; Oreland, L; Harro, J
1. The effect of gender, smoking and pubertal development on platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity was described in a randomly selected, large sample of 9- and 15-years old healthy children. 2. Platelet MAO activity was measured in 1129 children by a radioenzymatic method with beta-phenylethylamine as the substrate. Smoking habits were reported in an anonymous questionnaire. Pubertal status was assessed visually using Tanner's stages. 3. Boys, younger children and smokers had significantly lower platelet MAO activity than girls, older children and non-smokers, respectively. Girls in Tanner's stage V for breast and pubic hair development had significantly lower MAO than girls in stage IV. 4. Differences in gender, age, pubertal status and smoking habits must be taken into account if the relationship between platelet MAO activity, personality and psychiatric disorders is studied in children.
Güler, Sertaç Ata; Uğurlu, M. Ümit; Güllüoğlu, Bahadır M.
Phyllodes tumors are large breast tumors representing only 1% of breast neoplasms and are rarely seen in young women. Histologically, phyllodes tumors are classified as benign, borderline, or malignant based on the characteristics of the stroma. Although wide local excision is recommended for the treatment modality, the reoccurrence rate after surgical excision varies between 36% and 65%, with recurrence more likely in those with the tumor at the margins of excision. Our aim was to report -a case in a 15-year-old girl with a 115-mm borderline phyllodes tumor in her left breast mimicking a juvenile fibroadenoma. We presented a 5-year disease-free follow-up after wide local excision with negative margins.
Brito, G N; Santos, T R
Norms for two modalities (normal and stress) of the Bender Gestalt test were developed for the neuropsychological assessment of children in the greater Rio de Janeiro area. For each modality, a measure of performance, a measure of speed and a measure of emotional disturbance were obtained. A total of 398 children (199 males and 199 females), 5 to 15 years old, who were attending a public school in Niterói were the subjects of this study. Analysis of the data revealed that age, but not sex, had a significant effect on performance, but not on speed, in both modalities such that older children made fewer errors than younger children. Also, the number of emotional indicators significantly decreased with age. Additionally, boys needed more time to complete the normal modality than girls, and showed a higher number of emotional indicators in both modalities. The Bender test was found to be valid in the sense that children who had failed at least one grade in school performed worse than those who had not. The number of emotional indicators was shown to be valid since it was significantly correlated with factors such as hyperactivity-conduct problem, and independent functioning, and inattention of the Composite Teacher Rating Scale (Brito GNO and Pinto RCA (1991). Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 13: 417-418). We conclude that the Bender test is valid for use in schoolchildren, and the number of emotional indicators is valid as an index of psychopathology, but sex and age should be considered when using the norms in Brazil.
Naidu, Guntipalli M; Rahamthullah, S A K Uroof; Kopuri, Raj Kumar Chowdary; Kumar, Y Anil; Suman, S V; Balaga, Ramesh Naidu
Background: To assess the Prevalence and self perception of dental fluorosis among 15 - year old school children. Materials & Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted on 840, 15 - year old school children from 12 schools of Prakasam district. After taking informed consent from their parents or legal representatives, an interview was conducted using a pretested questionnaire to collect the data regarding self perception of dental fluorosis, dental behaviour, and source of water and diet and socio demographic characters. Oral examination was done under natural light to score Deans fluorosis index. Statistical test used was chisquare test. Results: Study revealed that 82.04% of the study population were having dental fluorosis. Out of which only 42.3% were aware of the existing situations. 47.90% of boys are aware of dental fluorosis where as 40.50% of girls are aware of dental fluorosis. Fluorosis score in relation to gender is not statistically significant (chisquare (8.796);p=0.117). Conclusion: Dental fluorosis is a public health problem in Kanigiri town. As there was no study conducted in Kanigiri town even though it is one of the severely affected area in our country. Active steps must be taken to De fluoridate the water before distribution to reduce the morbidity associated with dental fluorosis in this area. How to cite this article: Naidu GM, Rahamthullah SA, Kopuri RK, Kumar YA, Suman SV, Balaga RN. Prevalence and self perception of Dental Fluorosis among 15 year old school children in Prakasham district of south India. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(6):67-71. PMID:24453447
Abstract Background Different tobacco and related products, like waterpipe, e-cigarettes, are gaining popularity among adolescents in different countries; the data for Slovenia is currently limited. The purpose of this paper is to present the latest data on the use of different tobacco and related products, with or without flavours, among 15-year old students in Slovenia. Methods Data for 15-year-old students were drawn from 2014 Slovene database of the cross-national survey Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children. The survey sample was selected with stratified two-stage sampling method. The survey was performed in schools with a self-administered web questionnaire. The survey questionnaire included international compulsory, selected optional and national questions, all on a variety of topics related to youth health behaviour. Results 25.2% of 15-year-old students reported current (past 30-day) use of any tobacco related product, mainly cigarettes (93.1% of users), followed by waterpipe (11.7%) and cigars, cigarillos and pipes (9.4%). Exclusive use of unconventional products is low (5.1% of users). 85.5% of users of any product used one product, 48.5% of users used products with flavours. The use of different products, one or more products, and flavoured products was related to gender. Conclusion A comprehensive tobacco control and prevention must address all tobacco and related products. PMID:28289466
OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012
How "green" are 15-year-olds? To what extent do they understand environmental issues? What are the sources of their information about the environment? Can they apply scientific principles and evidence to the world around them? This paper reports that across OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries, around…
Since 2003, Turkey regularly participates in PISA. According to the PISA 2012 results, 15-year-old students in Turkey performed below both OECD countries and participating countries. Defining the relations between students' characteristics and their scientific literacy skills is thought to provide deeper understanding for the nature of this…
Geoghegan, S; Fitzpatrick, J M; McGuire, B; O'Malley, K J; Shaw, C; Fabre, A
We present the case of a 15-year-old girl who presented with polycythemia. CT abdomen revealed an enhancing mass in the upper pole of her left kidney with features suggestive of renal cell carcinoma. She underwent a laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. Histology demonstrated a well circumscribed, focally encapsulated, round blue cell tumour showing areas of microcalcifications and numerous psammoma bodies. Imunostaining showed diffuse positive staining for CD 57. This was consistent with a diagnosis of metanephric adenoma a rare benign epithelial renal tumour.
OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2009
In the past few decades there has been an increasing interest in the different educational experiences, success and eventual outcomes that prevail for males and females. Women often excel at school, however men often earn more and are more likely to hold positions of power in political and economic life. Looking at these inequalities, government…
Golub, Ivan J; Garcia, Roberto A; Wittig, James C
A 15-year-old boy presented with a mass in his right arm after suffering a minor injury playing baseball. He had been diagnosed with a hematoma. There was no other outstanding medical/surgical history. Magnetic resonance images showed a heterogeneous mass arising from the brachialis muscle that mainly enhanced peripherally with extremely scant internal nodular enhancement. Core needle biopsy cells were positive for CD31 and CD34, markers for atypical endothelial cells, as well as MIB-1 and p53. The final diagnosis was an angiosarcoma of the brachialis muscle. Pediatric angiosarcoma, particularly within deep tissue, is exceedingly rare. Histological and immunohistochemical modalities led to the diagnosis. Magnetic resonance images suggested a mass with a large cystic/hemorrhagic space that could have been misconstrued as a hematoma had there been absolutely no nodular or septal enhancement. The patient underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation before undergoing limb-sparing surgery that included resection of the mass with the brachialis muscle and short head of the biceps muscle. Neoadjuvant treatment was deemed successful due to a drastic reduction in the size of the tumor and 95% tumor necrosis. The patient was disease free 2 years postoperatively. There had been no local/systemic recurrences. He was pain free, had normal elbow function, and had returned to playing baseball. It is important to be extremely suspicious when a patient presents with a hemorrhagic, painless, enlarging mass after sustaining minor trauma. A careful and meticulous biopsy must be completed to achieve the correct diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium is recommended for evaluation because these masses can be often misinterpreted as hematomas. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):e545-e548.].
We report a 15-year-old boy with mosaicism for trisomy 18 and normal intelligence. Approximately 50% of his leukocytes are trisomic. This patient represents the sixth report of an individual with trisomy 18 mosaicism and normal intelligence. Those individuals with trisomy 18 mosaicism and normal intelligence need to be advised of increased risks for offspring with chromosome abnormalities and offered the option of prenatal diagnosis for cytogenetic anomalies. 6 refs.
Østevik, Liv; Gunnes, Gjermund; de Souza, Gustavo A; Wien, Tale N; Sørby, Randi
Localized nasal, conjunctival and corneal amyloidosis was diagnosed in a 15-year-old pony with nasal and conjunctival masses and severe dyspnoea. Multiple swellings had been evident in the nostrils for at least two years and had gradually increased in size before presentation due to dyspnoea and exercise intolerance. Surgical debulking of the masses was performed and histological examination revealed large amounts of extracellular, hyaline, eosinophilic, Congo red positive material in the lamina propria of the nasal mucosa. A tentative diagnosis of localized nasal amyloidosis was made. The treatment relieved the clinical signs, however, the nasal masses recurred and bilateral conjunctival, papillary masses developed. The horse was euthanized. Nodular nasal and papillary conjunctival masses consisting of rubbery, grey to yellow tissue were found at necropsy. At the limbus this tissue infiltrated and expanded the cornea. The masses consisted of amyloid and moderate infiltrates of T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes were present in the tissue. No predominance of either cell type was observed and no distinct neoplastic mass could be identified. Ultrastructural examination of the nasal mucosa and cornea confirmed the presence of abundant extracellular deposits of non-branching fibrils ranging from 9-11 nm in diameter consistent with amyloid. Immunohistochemistry of amyloid revealed no labelling for AA amyloid, and no peptides representing serum amyloid A (SAA) were detected by microscopic laser dissection and subsequent mass spectrometry. Peptides from immunoglobulin kappa-like light chains were detected and are suggestive of AL amyloidosis, however the results were inconclusive and a final identification of the amyloid protein could not be made.Nasal amyloidosis is a clinical entity of localized amyloid deposits in the horse. Localized amyloidosis involving the conjunctiva of the horse is previously described in only seven cases and the present case is the first case of
Robertson, W. D.; Van Stempvoort, D. R.; Solomon, D. K.; Homewood, J.; Brown, S. J.; Spoelstra, J.; Schiff, S. L.
SummaryGroundwater contamination from constituents such as NO3-, often occurs where multiple sources are present making source identification difficult. This study examines a suite of major ions and trace organic constituents within a well defined septic system plume in southern Ontario, Canada (Long Point site) for their potential use as wastewater tracers. The septic system has been operating for 20 years servicing a large, seasonal-use campground and tritium/helium age dating indicates that the 200 m long monitored section of the plume is about 15 years old. Four parameters are elevated along the entire length of the plume as follows; the mean electrical conductivity value (EC) in the distal plume zone is 926 μS/cm which is 74% of the mean value below the tile bed, Na+ (14.7 mg/L) is 43%, an artificial sweetener, acesulfame (12.1 μg/L) is 23% and Cl- (71.5 mg/L) is 137%. EC and Cl- appear to be affected by dispersive dilution with overlying background groundwater that has lower EC but has locally higher Cl- as result of the use of a dust suppressant (CaCl2) in the campground. Na+, in addition to advective dilution, could be depleted by weak adsorption. Acesulfame, in addition to the above processes could be influenced by increasing consumer use in recent years. Nonetheless, both Na+ and acesulfame remain elevated throughout the plume by factors of more than 100 and 1000 respectively compared to background levels, and are strong indicators of wastewater impact at this site. EC and Cl- are less useful because their contrast with background values is much less (EC) or because other sources are present (Cl-). Nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, PO43-, K+) and pathogens (Escherichia coli) do not persist in the distal plume zone and are less useful as wastewater indicators here. The artificial sweetener, acesulfame, has persisted at high concentrations in the Long Point plume for at least 15 years (and this timing agrees with tritium/helium-3 dating) and this compound likely
Andreolli, Marco; Lampis, Silvia; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Angelini, Elisa; Vallini, Giovanni
This study represents the first investigation on ecology of endophytic bacteria isolated from 3 and 15 year-old vine stems of Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina. The analysis was performed by means of culture-dependent techniques. The obtained results showed that new grapevine endophytic genera are being discovered. Moreover, Bacilli and Actinobacteria are frequently isolated from 3 year-old plants, whereas Alpha- and Gamma- Proteobacteria classes are more prevalent in the 15 year-old plants. Shannon-Wiener (H) index and analysis of rarefaction curves revealed greater genus richness in young grapevine plants. Furthermore, results evidenced an increase of genotypic group number within specific genera (e.g., Rhizobium and Pantoea). Among isolated strains from 3 and 15 year-old stems, respectively, 34 and 39% produce siderophores; 22 and 15% secrete ammonia; 22 and 21% produce indole-3-acetic acid; 8.7 and 41% solubilize phosphate. Besides, two strains isolated from 15 year-old grapevines showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. Antifungal activity analysis evidenced that two Bacillus strains possess growth antagonistic effect toward all the tested fungal strains. Therefore, the present study extends our knowledge of the diversity of the endophytic bacteria by providing new insights into the complexity of the grapevine microbiome.
Mungas, Dan; Widaman, Keith; Zelazo, Philip David; Tulsky, David; Heaton, Robert K; Slotkin, Jerry; Blitz, David L; Gershon, Richard C
Confirmatory factor analysis was used the evaluate the dimensional structure underlying the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (CB) and the measures chosen to serve as concurrent validity criteria for the NIH Toolbox CB. These results were used to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity of the CB in children ranging from 3 to 15 years of age. Results were evaluated separately for a 3- to 6-year-old group and a 8- to 15-year-old group because different validation measures were used in these age groups. Three distinct dimensions were found for the 3- to 6-year-old group: Vocabulary, Reading, and Fluid Abilities. Five dimensions were found for 8-15 year olds: Vocabulary, Reading, Episodic Memory, Working Memory, and Executive Function/Processing Speed. CB measures and their validation analogues consistently defined common factors in a pattern that broadly supported the convergent and discriminant validity of the CB, but results showed higher intercorrelation and less differentiation of cognitive dimensions in younger than in older children and in older children compared with adults. Age was strongly related to the cognitive dimensions underlying test performance in both groups of children and results are consistent with broader literature showing increasing differentiation of cognitive abilities associated with the rapid brain development that occurs from early childhood into adulthood.
Kalsbeek, H; Kwant, G W; Groeneveld, A; Dirks, O B; van Eck, A A; Theuns, H M
In 1973 the fluoridation of drinking water in the Dutch town of Tiel was discontinued. In order to monitor the effect of this measure, the caries experience in 15-year-old children was investigated annually from 1979 to 1988, both in Tiel and in Culemborg. In the latter town the drinking water had never been fluoridated. The caries data of 15-year-old children examined between 1968 and 1969 in Tiel (children having used fluoridated water from birth) and Culemborg were used as historical controls. In Tiel the mean number of DMFS increased between 1968/69 and 1979/80 from 10.8 to 12.7 (+18%) and decreased to 9.6 (-26%) in the following years; in 1987/88 the mean DMFS was 11% lower than in 1968/69. In Culemborg the mean DMFS score decreased between 1968/69 and 1987/88 from 27.7 to 7.7 (-72%). In 1968/69 the mean DMFS score in Tiel was 61% lower and in 1987/88 17% higher than in Culemborg. The question as to whether water fluoridation would have had an additional effect if it had been continued (presuming the application of existing preventive measures) cannot be answered, as there are no remaining communities with fluoridated water in The Netherlands.
Henriksen, P W; Rayce, S B; Melkevik, O; Due, P; Holstein, B E
More children from lower social backgrounds are physically inactive than those from higher ones. We studied whether bullying was a mediating factor between lower social background and physical inactivity. We also examined the combined effect of low social class and exposure to bullying on physical inactivity. The Danish sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2006 included 6269 schoolchildren in three age groups: 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds from a random sample of 80 schools. The students answered the internationally standardized HBSC questionnaire. The applied definition leaves 4.0% in the category physically inactive. The sex and age-adjusted OR (95% CI) for physical inactivity was 2.10 (1.39-3.18) among students with low social class and unclassifiable 3.53 (2.26-5.53). Exposure to bullying was associated with physical inactivity, sex and age-adjusted OR = 2.39 (1.67-3.41). Exposure to bullying did not explain the association between social class and physical inactivity. The association between social class and physical inactivity was more pronounced among participants also exposed to bullying. In conclusion, there was a significantly increased odds ratio for physical inactivity among students from lower social classes and for students exposed to bullying. There was a combined effect of low social class and bullying on physical inactivity.
Santos, Selton Diniz; Penna, Gerson Oliveira; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Natividade, Marcio Santos; Teixeira, Maria Glória
This original study describes the intra-urban distribution of cases of leprosy in residents under 15 years old in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; the study also identifies the environment in which Mycobacterium leprae is being transmitted. The cases were distributed by operational classification, clinical forms, type of contact and the addresses were geo-referenced by neighborhood. Between 2007 and 2011, were reported 145 cases of leprosy in target population living in Salvador, corresponding to detection rates of 6.21, 6.14, 5.58, 5.41 and 6.88/100,000 inhabitants, respectively. The spatial distribution of the disease was focal. Of the 157 neighborhoods of Salvador, 44 (28.6%) notified cases of leprosy and in 22 (50%) of these were detected more than 10 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The infectious forms were found in 40% of cases. Over 90% of cases had been living in Salvador for more than five years. Overall, 52.6% reported having had contact with another infected individual inside the household and 25% in their social circle. In Salvador, M. leprae transmission is established. The situation is a major concern, since transmission is intense at an early age, indicating that this endemic disease is expanding and contacts extend beyond individual households. PMID:27223655
Morris, Hallie; Grant, Kristen; Khanna, Geetika; White, Andrew J
Joint pain is a common complaint in pediatrics and is most often attributed to overuse or injury. In the face of persistent, severe, or recurrent symptoms, the differential typically expands to include bony or structural causes versus rheumatologic conditions. Rarely, a child has two distinct causes for joint pain. In this case, an obese 15-year-old male was diagnosed with gout, a disease common in adults but virtually ignored in the field of pediatrics. The presence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) complicated and delayed the consideration of this second diagnosis. Indeed, the absence of gout from this patient's differential diagnosis resulted in a greater than two-year delay in receiving treatment. The patients' BMI was 47.4, and he was also mis-diagnosed with osteochondritis dissecans and underwent medical treatment for JIA, assorted imaging studies, and multiple surgical procedures before the key history of increased pain with red meat ingestion, noticed by the patient, and a subsequent elevated uric acid confirmed his ultimate diagnosis. With the increased prevalence of obesity in the adolescent population, the diagnosis of gout should be an important consideration in the differential diagnosis for an arthritic joint in an overweight patient, regardless of age.
Mahfouz, Maen; Abu Esaid, Albina
Objective. To measure the distribution of dental caries in a group of Palestinian adolescents. Material and Methods. A sample of 677 individuals of both sexes (411 were females and 266 were males) their ages ranged from 12 to 15 year old randomly selected from schools in northern west bank in Palestine. Clinical examination was performed on all the subjects focusing on the index DMFT, representing the number of teeth that were either decayed, missing or with extraction indicated, or restored. Results. The prevalence of dental caries in the permanent dentition was 54.35% and was the highest in 15 age 75.75% in comparison to the other ages (12, 13, and 14) (40.57%, 41.76%, and 60.47%), respectively. The mean DMFT for the sample was 5.39 ± 2.85525 while the mean DMFT for different age groups (12–15) was 5.52 ± 2.766, 5.58 ± 2.745, 5.23 ± 3.304, and 5.23 ± 2.606, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries was higher in females with DMFT 5.39 ± 2.854 than males with DMFT 5.26 ± 2.891. Conclusion. High prevalent dental caries was found among Palestinian adolescents and higher in females than males. Strict preventive programs should be implemented. Further research with large samples required to include all adolescents from Palestine. PMID:27437445
Sidlauskas, Antanas; Lopatiene, Kristina
The epidemiological data on the prevalence of malocclusion is an important determinant in planning appropriate levels of orthodontic services. The occurrence of occlusal anomalies varies between different countries, ethnic and age groups. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of malocclusion among Lithuanian schoolchildren in the 7-9-, 10-12-, and 13-15-year age groups assessing occlusal morphology. The study included 1681 schoolchildren aged 7-15 years. The crowding, spacing, overbite, overjet, the relationship of the first upper and lower molars according Angle's classification, and posterior crossbite were assessed. The study demonstrated that only 257 children had normal occlusion, and 44 had undergone orthodontic treatment among them. The greatest overjet in the studied contingent was 11 mm, and the negative overjet - 3 mm. The overbite ranged between 0 and 6 mm with a mean of 2.29+/-1.23 mm. Posterior crossbite was recorded in 148 children (8.8%). This study showed that the prevalence of malocclusion among 7-15-year-old Lithuanian schoolchildren is 84.6%. The most common malocclusion was dental crowding. The upper dental arch crowding was registered for 44.1% and lower for 40.3% of all schoolchildren. The class I molar relationship was detected in 68.4% of the subjects, class II - in 27.7%, and class III - in 2.8%.
Litwin, Mieczysław; Jurkiewicz, Elzbieta; Nowak, Katarzyna; Kościesza, Andrzej; Grenda, Ryszard; Malczyk, Katarzyna; Kościesza, Iwona
Autosomal dominant brachydactyly with hypertension is the only form of monogenic hypertension which is not sodium dependent. The disease is characterized by brachydactyly type E, short stature, arterial hypertension and aberrant loop of posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) causing neurovascular conflict. So far the syndrome was described in one family in Turkey and two in Canada. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy who was admitted because of arterial hypertension 160/100 mmHg. He complained also of attacks of bilateral numbness of hands with deterioration of visual field. Examination revealed short stature (156 cm) and bone deformities of hands and feet consistent with brachydactyly type E. Ophthalmoscopy showed mild narrowing of retinal arteries. Serum electrolytes, blood gases, and renal function were normal. Renin activity and aldosterone concentrations were raised, and 24-h urinary excretion of catecholamines and urinary steroid profile were in normal range. Renal Doppler ultrasound was normal, but renal scintigraphy suggested vascular changes in the left kidney. Echocardiographic examination, besides mild left ventricular hypertrophy, was normal. Magnetic resonance angiography (angio-MR) revealed bilateral abnormal PICA loops and neurovascular conflict. Spiral angiotomography of renal arteries revealed narrow additional left renal artery. Both nonconsanguineous parents and younger brother were healthy, with normal height, without bone deformities, and had normal intracranial vessels. Amlodipine and metoprolol were given, and blood pressure lowered to 143/87. Adding rilmenidine gave no effect and enalapril was then added. It led to further improvement in blood pressure control. To our knowledge, this is the first pediatric description of a sporadic form of autosomal dominant brachydactyly with hypertension with abnormalities of brain and renal arteries.
Torres-Villanueva, Mario; Dellán-Rodríguez, Graciela; Papale-Centofanti, Jham; Rodríguez, Dioslibeth; Mendoza, Norelis; Berné, Yelitza
Malnutrition is a public health problem for underdeveloped countries. From the 852 million of undernourished estimated by FAO between 2000 and 2002, 815 million belonged to underdeveloped countries, 28 million to countries in transition and 9 million to developed countries. Malnutrition in Venezuela had a 6% raise between 2000 and 2002, when it went from 11% to 17%. This work was done with children under 15 years old from La Escalera, using classic indicators and their combination, relating them with socioeconomic conditions, through the NBI and Graffar Méndez Castellano methods, as to consider the population nutritional profile. The higher prevalence corresponded to normal nutritional values, which oscillated between 55,7% and 80,7% in the 7-14 years old group and the 2-6 years old group, respectively. Malnutrition was found in the under 2 years old group and 7-14 years old group, with values ranging between 12,5 and 41,0% respectively. The least prevalence was found for excess malnutrition. 100% of the families in this study are poor, according to NBI; although the Graffar Mendez Castellano method established that poverty was about 60%, while 40% belonged to a medium-low status. Relating nutritional diagnosis with social stratification and the mother's educational level, three patterns were observed: III, IV and V, prevailing normal diagnosis, followed by malnutrition by deficit and malnutrition by excess, respectively. The predominating mother's educational level corresponded to incomplete high school, followed by analphabetism and the least prevalent has complete basic elementary education. It should be noted that the nutrition deficit was inversely related to the socioeconomic stratification and the mother's educational level.
Jago, Russell; Watson, Kathleen; Baranowski, Tom; Zakeri, Issa; Yoo, Sunmi; Baranowski, Janice; Conry, Kelly
The aims of this study were to: (1) determine whether the number of pedometer counts recorded by adolescents differs according to the adiposity of the participant or location on the body; (2) assess the accuracy and reliability of pedometers during field activity; and (3) set adolescent pedometer-based physical activity targets. Seventy-eight 11- to 15-year-old Boy Scouts completed three types of activity: walking, fast walking and running. Each type was performed twice. Participants wore three pedometers and one activity monitor during all activities. Participants were divided into groups of normal weight (BMI < 85th percentile) and at risk of being overweight (BMI > or = 85th percentile). Intra-class correlations across the three activities indicated reliability (r = 0.51 - 0.92, P < 0.001). This conclusion was supported by narrow limits of agreement that were within a pre-set range that was practically meaningful. Multivariate analysis of covariance indicated adiposity group differences, but this difference was a function of the increased stature among the larger participants (P < 0.001). Ordinary least-squares regression models and multi-level regression models showed positive associations between the number of pedometer and activity monitor counts recorded by the three groups of participants during all activities (all P < 0.001). The mean number of counts recorded for all participants during the fast walk was 127 counts per minute. In conclusion, the pedometers provided an accurate assessment of adolescent physical activity, and a conservative estimate of 8000 pedometer counts in 60 min is equivalent to 60 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity.
Serra, Mario R; Biassoni, Ester C; Hinalaf, María; Abraham, Mónica; Pavlik, Marta; Villalobo, Jorge Pérez; Curet, Carlos; Joekes, Silvia; Yacci, María R; Righetti, Andrea
Adolescent exposure to loud music has become a social and health problem whose study demands a holistic approach. The aims of the current study are: (1) To detect early noise-induced hearing loss among adolescents and establish its relationship with their participation in musical recreational activities and (2) to determine sound immission levels in nightclubs and personal music players (PMPs). The participants consisted in 172 14-15 years old adolescents from a technical high school. Conventional and extended high frequency audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and questionnaire on recreational habits were administered. Hearing threshold levels (HTLs) were classified as: normal (Group 1), slightly shifted (Group 2), and significantly shifted (Group 3). The musical general exposure (MGE), from participation in recreational musical activities, was categorized in low, moderate, and high exposure. The results revealed an increase of HTL in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01), in Group 3 compared with Group 2 (P < 0.05) only in extended high frequency range, in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.01). Besides, a decrease in mean global amplitude, reproducibility and in frequencies amplitude in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05) and in Group 3 compared with Group 1 (P < 0.05). A significant difference (P < 0.05) was found in Group 1's HTL between low and high exposure, showing higher HTL in high exposure. The sound immission measured in nightclubs (107.8-112.2) dBA and PMPs (82.9-104.6) dBA revealed sound levels risky for hearing health according to exposure times. It demonstrates the need to implement preventive and hearing health promoting actions in adolescents.
Fallah, R; Zare Bidoki, S; Ordooei, M
Background Some researches have shown the association between iron deficiency and migraine headache in adults. The aim of present study was to evaluate efficacy of ferrous sulfate treatment on migraine headaches of 5-15 years old migraineur children with iron deficiency. Materials and Methods In a quasi- experimental study, monthly frequency, severity, duration and disability of headaches of 5-15 years old migraineur children that prophylactic therapy was indicated in them and had iron deficiency who were referred to Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran between 2013 and 2015 and were treated with 2mg/kg/day topiramate plus 4mg/kg/day of ferrous sulfate for three consecutive months, were evaluated and headache characteristics before and after treatment were compared. Results In this study, 98 children with mean age of 9.72±3.19 were evaluated that 31children (31.6%) had iron deficiency. Monthly frequency (22.89±7.18 vs.14.5±4.56, P= 0.02), severity score (8.12± 1.76 vs. 5.03±1.15, P= 0.02) and disability score of headache (38.23±10.7vs. 30.12±7.46, P= 0.03) were more in children with iron deficiency. Iron therapy was effective in decreasing of monthlyfrequency 22.89± 7.18 vs. 10.13±4.51, P = 0.001), severity score (8.12±1.76 vs. 5.11±1.62, P =0.001), duration (2.14±1.23 vs.1.14±1.01, P= 0.001) and disability score of headache (38.23±10.7 vs. 22.87±8.65, P= 0.01). Conclusion In children, iron deficiency increased monthly frequency, severity and disability of migraine headache and ferrous sulfate can be used as a safe and effective drug in migraine prophylaxis. PMID:27222700
Aggarwal, Arun; Ocon, Anthony J; Nibhanipudi, Kumara
Nongestational choriocarcinoma, a rare ovarian tumor, may present in young women with amenorrhea, abdominal distention, and elevated urine human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), all of which may be mistaken for pregnancy. A 15-year-old Hispanic female, who reported no sexual activity, presented with 6 months of amenorrhea, abdominal pain, and progressive abdominal distension. Initially, suspicion of pregnancy was considered. Physical examination was significant for abdominal distension, but no uterine fundus or fetal anatomy could be palpated, and auscultation did not reveal any fetal heart sounds or bruits. Laboratory values showed elevated urine hCG, cancer antigen 125, and cancer antigen 19.9 levels but normal serum hCG level and was inconsistent with pregnancy. Computed tomographic scans revealed a large abdominal heterogeneous mass and pleural effusions. Salpingo-oophorectomy with total omentectomy and inversion appendectomy removed a 21 × 20.5 × 16.5-cm tumor. Pathological testing determined it to be a nongestational choriocarcinoma. This rare tumor is more common in the pediatric adolescent population than in adults. Surgical resection and chemotherapy often result in a positive prognosis. In female adolescent patients presenting with elevated hCG level, amenorrhea, and abdominal distention, choriocarcinoma should be considered, especially in those with no history of sexual activity or before menarche.
Khanal, S; Acharya, J
Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. There has been a decline in dental caries and periodontal disease in developed countries which can be attributed to the implementation of preventive programmes but in developing countries dental diseases are still on the rise. Therefore this cross sectional study was carried out to assess the prevalence of dental caries and oral hygiene practices among 12 to 15 years old children. Self administered close ended questionnaires were used to assess the oral hygiene practice. The overall dental caries prevalence was 58.3% and the mean DMFT score was 1.2 (± 1.79) and the deft score was 0.6 (± 1.24). Majority of the children (84.1%) presented with the practice of brushing their teeth once everyday using tooth brush and toothpaste. Regular dental check up was very poor (5.6%) but 77.4% reported that they visited a dentist in case of pain or presence of stains in the teeth. Females (63.4%) and children studying in higher secondary class (74.2%) showed a "good" level of oral hygiene practice than males and children in secondary class respectively. Children having "good" practice presented with "low" dental caries severity. The utilization of dental services was poor in the children, therefore highlighting the necessity to implement preventive programmes is important which would help in reducing the incidence of the dental caries as well as aiding in prompt treatment of dental caries at its initial stages.
Tak, Mridula; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Sharda, Archana J; Asawa, Kailash; Tak, Aniruddh; Jalihal, Sagar; Kakatkar, Gauri
Objective: The objective of the study is to assess the prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among 12-15 years old school children of Udaipur, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted among 887 subjects aged 12-15 years. The prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs was assessed using dental aesthetic index (World Health Organization, 1997). General information on demographic data was also recorded. Chi-square test, analysis of variance and Scheffe's test were employed for statistical analysis. Results: Malocclusion and orthodontic treatment need was reported among 33.3% of the study subjects. A significant age and gender difference depicting preponderance among younger age group and a male proclivity was experiential. A significant improvement in anterior crowding and largest anterior maxillary irregularity with age was documented. Males had a significantly higher prevalence of anterior crowding, midline diastema and largest anterior maxillary irregularity than females. Conclusions: The prevalence of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among school children of Udaipur city, Rajasthan, India was found to be 33.3%. A significant age and gender difference was observed in prevalence of malocclusion, crowding and largest anterior maxillary irregularity. Midline diastema showed a significant gender difference. The baseline information outlined in the present study can be appropriately utilized for the future planning to meet the orthodontic treatment need among the population. PMID:24966728
Reigstad, Anne; Cengija, Vanja; Lilleby, Vibke; Carlsson, Maria
Introduction. Takayasu arteritis is a rare disease affecting the aorta and its main branches, causing arterial claudication and end-organ ischemia, including stroke. The etiology is unknown but is believed to be autoimmune. An association between Takayasu arteritis and tuberculosis has been suggested, but the possible relation is unclear. Case Presentation. A 15-year-old Somali boy was diagnosed with latent tuberculosis. He had a lesion in the right lung, and both the tuberculin skin test by the Mantoux method and Quantiferon GOLD test turned out positive. After he suffered a cerebral infarct in the right hemisphere, childhood Takayasu arteritis was diagnosed. The diagnosis was based on diagnostic imaging showing a high-grade stenosis of the origin of the right common carotid artery, an occluded common carotid artery on the left side, a circumferential thickening of the vessel walls in the right and left common carotid artery, and laboratory findings with elevated C-reactive protein. Conclusion. Takayasu arteritis is an uncommon cause of stroke. It should however be kept in mind as a cause of cerebrovascular disease, especially in the young. PMID:27965905
Ben-Eliyahu, Adar; Rhodes, Jean E.; Scales, Peter
In this study, we examined the characteristics of adolescents' deep interests or "sparks," the role of relationships in supporting the development of sparks, and whether having a spark was associated with positive developmental outcomes. Participants included 1,860 15 years olds from across the United States who participated in the…
Tikva, Judith Bar
We studied what 13-15-year-olds believe teaching's components are. Thirty-six children viewed two films: direct transmission (DT) and Socratic teaching (ST) and a third film of a non-teaching conversation (C). We investigated the participants' understanding of teaching's components and the role of intentionality in teaching. All children judged…
Gonzales, Patrick; Kelly, Dana
This Data Point uses data from the 2012 administration of the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) financial literacy assessment. PISA is an international assessment that measures 15-year-old students' reading, mathematics, and science literacy and, in 2012, general problem solving and financial literacy. PISA is coordinated by the…
Introduction Mental health inequalities are an increasingly important global problem. This study examined the association between mental health status and certain socioeconomic indicators (personal social position and the socioeconomic status of the family) in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents. Methods Data originate from the WHO-Collaborative cross-national ‘Health Behavior in School-aged Children’ study conducted in Slovenia in 2010 (1,815 secondary school pupils, aged 15). Mental health status was measured by: KIDSCREEN-10, the Strength and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), a life satisfaction scale, and one question about feelings of depression. Socioeconomic position was measured by the socioeconomic status of the family (Family Affluence Scale, perceived material welfare, family type, occupational status of parents) and personal social position (number of friends and the type of school). Logistic regression and a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were performed. Results Girls had 2.5-times higher odds of suffering feelings of depression (p < 0.001), 1.5-times higher odds of low life satisfaction (p = 0.008), and a greater chance of a lower quality of life and a higher SDQ score than boys (p = 0.001). The adolescents who perceived their family’s material welfare as worse had 4-times higher odds (p < 0.001) of a low life satisfaction, a greater chance of a low quality of life, and a higher SDQ score than those who perceived it as better (p < 0.001). Adolescents with no friends had lower KIDSCREEN-10 and higher SDQ scores than those who had more than three friends. Conclusions Despite the fact that Slovenia is among the EU members with the lowest rates of social inequalities, it was found that adolescents with a lower socioeconomic position have poorer mental health than those with a higher socioeconomic position. Because of the financial crisis, we can expect an increase in social inequalities and a greater impact on
Tauchen, Alexander J.; Kueberuwa, Essie; Schiffman, Kenneth; Mudaliar, Kumaran M.; Noland, Shelley S.
A 15-year-old male presented for evaluation of a volar forearm mass that he noticed four years before. The mass was not painful and his main concern was cosmesis. The mass was two centimeters in diameter with a pinpoint central sinus and scant drainage. After excision, the pathology report noted pilosebaceous units and smooth muscle bundles, consistent with an accessory nipple. In addition, the patient had another accessory nipple in the “milk line” on his torso. While accessory nipples and breast tissue have been reported in numerous locations throughout the body, this is the first reported case of an accessory nipple on the forearm. PMID:26783489
Tauchen, Alexander J; Kueberuwa, Essie; Schiffman, Kenneth; Mudaliar, Kumaran M; Noland, Shelley S
A 15-year-old male presented for evaluation of a volar forearm mass that he noticed four years before. The mass was not painful and his main concern was cosmesis. The mass was two centimeters in diameter with a pinpoint central sinus and scant drainage. After excision, the pathology report noted pilosebaceous units and smooth muscle bundles, consistent with an accessory nipple. In addition, the patient had another accessory nipple in the "milk line" on his torso. While accessory nipples and breast tissue have been reported in numerous locations throughout the body, this is the first reported case of an accessory nipple on the forearm.
El-Nadeef, M A I; Al Hussani, E; Hassab, H; Arab, I A
This paper describes the first national survey of oral health in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Using WHO criteria, dental caries and fluorosis were recorded in 2651 schoolchildren aged 12 and 15 years, and periodontal disease in those aged 15 years. The prevalence of dental caries in the permanent teeth of 12-year-olds was 54%; the mean DMFT (number of decayed, missing or filled permanent teeth) per child was 1.6. The prevalence of dental caries in 15-year-olds was 65% and the mean DMFT was 2.5. For the UAE as a whole, 70% of 12-year-old schoolchildren had no dental fluorosis and 37% of 15-year-olds had healthy periodontal tissues.
Shivakumar, KM; Chandu, GN; Shafiulla, MD
Objectives: To assess the severity of malocclusion and orthodontic treatment needs among 12- to 15-year-old school children of Davangere District, India, by using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 1800 12- to 15-year-old school children of Davangere District, Karnataka, India. Talukas (administrative units in some states in India) were considered clusters. Schools were selected using simple random sampling procedures. The 300 study subjects were selected using systematic random sampling procedures. Data consisting of DAI components were recorded pro forma. The collected data were subjected to statistical analysis. The Chi-square test (χ2) was used to compare malocclusion severity. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to compare the changes in DAI scores and the mean DAI scores between age groups. The Z test was used to compare mean DAI scores between the 2 sexes and between children residing in urban and rural areas. Results: Of the 1800 school children examined, 899 (49.9%) were boys and 901 (50.1%) were girls. Most of the children (79.9%) had DAI scores ≤ 25 with no or minor malocclusion requiring no or little treatment, 15.4% had DAI scores of 26–30 with definite malocclusion requiring elective treatment, 4.2% had DAI scores of 31–35 with severe malocclusion requiring highly desirable treatment, and 0.5% had DAI scores ≥ 36 with handicapping malocclusion requiring mandatory treatment. Conclusions: The majority of the children in our study (79.9%) required no or little treatment; 20.1% had definite malocclusion requiring definite orthodontic treatment. PMID:20613919
Jain, Swapnil Kumar; Pushpanjali, K.; Reddy, Satheesh Kumar; Gaikwad, Rahul; Deolia, Shravani
Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the different caries diagnostic thresholds under epidemiological and clinical settings among 7-15 year old school children. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among 7-15 years old school children of Bangalore city. Total 738 children were enrolled in the study. General information was collected regarding oral hygiene practice and personal habits of the schoolchildren. Subsequently, examination was done under both the settings to record Decayed, missing and filled surfaces index for permanent teeth (DMFS) and Decayed, missing and filled surfaces index for deciduous teeth (dmfs) using the World Health Organization (WHO) and WHO + IL criteria. Results: The present study showed that both the settings (clinical and epidemiological) and diagnostic thresholds (WHO and WHO + IL), could influence the detection of carious lesions. Mean Ds under WHO + Initial lesions (IL) criteria (3.92 + 3.49) was nearly double of WHO criteria (1.88 + 2.73,) and the influence observed was more in 14 years of age, where mean Ds under WHO + IL criteria (5.43 + 2.5) which was more than double of WHO criteria (2.02 + 1.9). Conclusion: The choice of a diagnostic threshold (WHO and WHO + IL) and the conditions of examination (epidemiological and clinical) are important for the detection of caries. PMID:24778986
Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Jankiram, Chandrashekar; Jain, Swati; Singh, Khushboo
Objectives Dental caries is the most prevalent dental disease and children are one of the most affected groups. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess the average dental caries prevalence across different WHO index age groups (5, 12 & 15 years) for the past fifteen years. Materials and Methods Literature search was performed electronically in various search engines like google scholar, PubMed, Copernicus, etc. using Dental caries and India as MeSH terms. Articles from the past 15 years reporting on dental caries prevalence and experience in India were searched and this online searching strategy collected and listed 781 articles. After evaluating their titles and abstracts, only 30 articles fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria & were finally selected for complete review and data collection. Five articles which were hand searched were also included. Pooled estimates were calculated for different index age groups and different regions (Northern and Southern) separately with a confidence interval of 95% both for prevalence and experience of dental caries. Results The pooled prevalence of dental caries was found to be highest in 15 year olds followed by 5 and 12 years (62.02%, 48.11% & 43.34% respectively). Weighted mean was also found to be highest for 15 years, followed by 5 and 12 years (2.56±6.508, 2.49±7.78, 1.48±3.292 respectively). Pooled prevalence and weighted mean for the Northernern India region was found to be more in all the index age groups as compared to the Southernern India region. Conclusion More than 40% of the children in India have shown dental caries in both primary and permanent teeth in the past 15 years. Also, Northernern region was found to be more affected by dental caries than Southern region. Since children are seen as the future of the nation, this data could be helpful in the planning of oral health care services by the concerned authorities in the community. PMID:26393229
Boström, A; Thulin, K; Fredriksson, M; Reese, D; Rockborn, P; Hammar, M L
To determine the 1-year self-reported incidence of overuse and traumatic sport injuries and risk factors for injuries in children participating in a summer sports camp representing seven different sports. 4363 children, 11 to 15 years old participating in a summer camp in seven different sports answered a questionnaire. Injury in this cross-sectional study was defined as a sport-related trauma or overload leading to pain and dysfunction preventing the person from participation in training or competition for at least 1 week. A number of risk factors for injury were investigated such as sex, age, number of hours spent on training in general, and on resistance training with weights. Nearly half [49%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 48-51%] of the participants had been injured as a result of participation in a sport during the preceding year, significantly more boys than girls (53%, 95% CI 50-55% vs 46%, 95% CI 43-48%; P < 0.001). Three factors contributed to increased incidence of sport injuries: age, sex, and resistance training with weights. Time spent on resistance training with weights was significantly associated with sport injuries in a logistic regression analysis. In children age 11 to 15 years, the risk of having a sport-related injury increased with age and occurred more often in boys than in girls. Weight training was the only modifiable risk factor that contributed to a significant increase in the incidence of sport injuries.
Parenting 911: How To Safeguard and Rescue Your 10- to 15-Year-Old from Substance Abuse, Depression, Sexual Encounters, Violence, Failure in School, Danger on the Internet, and Other Risky Situations.
Giannetti, Charlene C.; Sagarese, Margaret
Drawing on a national survey of parents, teachers, and students, interviews with a wide range of experts, and the latest research, this book brings parents the information and reassurance they need to identify and handle the crises that can erupt with 10- to 15-year-olds. Specific information and advice are presented for handling some of the most…
Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; de Melo, Angelita Cristine; de Oliveira, Lílian Ruth Silva; Froede, Emerson Lopes; Camargos, Paulo
This was descriptive study carried out in a medium-sized Brazilian city. In ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis, we assessed compliance with the Brazilian national guidelines for tuberculosis control. We interviewed 43 contacts and their legal guardians. Approximately 80% of the contacts were not assessed by the municipal public health care system, and only 21% underwent tuberculin skin testing. The results obtained with the Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector method suggest that health care teams have a biased attitude toward assessing such contacts and underscore the need for training health professionals regarding tuberculosis control programs. PMID:26578137
Kaup, Moritz; Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Scholtz, Jan E; Albrecht, Moritz H; Bucher, Andreas; Frellesen, Claudia; Vogl, Thomas J
Background Computed tomography (CT) low-dose (LD) imaging is used to lower radiation exposure, especially in vascular imaging; in current literature, this is mostly on latest generation high-end CT systems. Purpose To evaluate the effects of reduced tube current on objective and subjective image quality of a 15-year-old 16-slice CT system for pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Material and Methods CTPA scans from 60 prospectively randomized patients (28 men, 32 women) were examined in this study on a 15-year-old 16-slice CT scanner system. Standard CT (SD) settings were 100 kV and 150 mAs, LD settings were 100 kV and 50 mAs. Attenuation of the pulmonary trunk, various anatomic landmarks, and image noise were quantitatively measured; contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) were calculated. Three independent blinded radiologists subjectively rated each image series using a 5-point grading scale. Results CT dose index (CTDI) in the LD series was 66.46% lower compared to the SD settings (2.49 ± 0.55 mGy versus 7.42 ± 1.17 mGy). Attenuation of the pulmonary trunk showed similar results for both series (SD 409.55 ± 91.04 HU; LD 380.43 HU ± 93.11 HU; P = 0.768). Subjective image analysis showed no significant differences between SD and LD settings regarding the suitability for detection of central and peripheral PE (central SD/LD, 4.88; intra-class correlation coefficients [ICC], 0.894/4.83; ICC, 0.745; peripheral SD/LD, 4.70; ICC, 0.943/4.57; ICC, 0.919; all P > 0.4). Conclusion The LD protocol, on a 15-year-old CT scanner system without current high-end hardware or post-processing tools, led to a dose reduction of approximately 67% with similar subjective image quality and delineation of central and peripheral pulmonary arteries. PMID:28286671
Concussion in youth athletes is a growing problem worldwide. During the past decade, significant progress has been made in standardization of the assessment of young athletes, and a growing appreciation of metabolic vulnerability, activity, and cognitive challenges has led to guidelines and suggestions for rest from the field as well as cognitive rest from school. Outcome data have begun to establish groups linked to symptom class, genetics, and sex who are at risk of worse outcomes from concussions. Decisions regarding return to activity are now based on at-rest symptoms, graded increases in activity, and neuropsychological testing. Using the case of Ms X, a 15-year-old otherwise healthy high school student who fell while skiing, evaluation, prognosis, and management of concussion are discussed.
Zhang, X L; Wang, K A
Five investigations through analysis of hospital records on morbidity of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) among children under 15 years old in 14 provinces of China have currently been conducted. In this paper, data from a series of studies published in journals or reported to meetings was combined and analyzed based on Meta-Analysis. Comparisons have been made between AFP, poliomyelitis, Guillian-Barre Syndrome (GBS) and non-polio AFP morbidities and their distributions by age, sex and month. The morbidity rates for these four categories were 1.41, 0.54, 0.55 and 1.05 per 10(5) respectively. An important conclusion drawn from of this study was that the criterion put forward by WHO, reported rate of non-polio AFP should reach over 1.0 per 10(5) among children under 15, can also be used as an indicator for sensitivity evaluation and monitoring of AFP surveillance system in China.
Yee, R; David, J; Khadka, R
The aim of the study was to evaluate the oral cleanliness of school children in the District of Sunsari, Nepal. A multi-stage random sampling oral epidemiological survey was conducted in private and government, urban, rural town and rural village schools in 15 illakas of Sunsari District, Eastern Nepal. A total of 600, 12-13-year-old and 600 15-year-old school children were examined by trained examiners using the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S). The average age-group, debris and calculus index scores were combined to obtain the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S). The mean OHI-S scores were compared and evaluated using the parametric t-test for two independent samples. The mean OHI-S for urban 12-13-year-old school children was 0.98 compared to 1.34 for school children of rural towns and 1.44 for school children of rural villages and these differences in mean OHI-S were statistically significant (P < 0.005). In the 15-year-old age group, urban school children had a mean OHI-S score of 1.00 compared to 1.37 for rural towns and 1.43 for rural villages. The variance in the mean OHI-S scores were statistically significant (P < 0.005). The overall level of cleanliness in the school children surveyed was good. Children of urban schools had the lowest scores followed by school children from rural towns and then rural villages. When the mean OHI-S scores were compared with the DMFT scores, there was an inverse relationship between oral cleanliness and dental caries. Frequency of sugar consumption and the availability and affordability of fluoridated toothpaste may be important factors in the development of dental caries than oral cleanliness.
Moor, I; Pförtner, T K; Lampert, T; Ravens-Sieberer, U; Richter, M
Health is strongly linked to social position. Several studies showed consistent or increasing health inequalities in the last decades. So far, few studies focused on trends in social inequalities in health among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to determine changes in socioeconomic differences in subjective health between 2002 and 2010 of 11- to 15-year-old students in Germany.Data were obtained from the German part of the cross-sectional WHO "Health Behaviour in School-aged Children" survey in 2002 (n=5.221), 2006 (n=6.896) and 2010 (n=4.723). Log binomial regression models were used to assess the extent of inequalities in self-rated health across the survey years. Socioeconomic position was measured using the family affluence scale (FAS) and perceived family wealth.A relatively small improvement in good/excellent self-rated health was observed in both boys and girls from 2002 (85.2%) to 2010 (87%). Despite this improvement, inequalities in self-rated health could be identified for all survey years, regardless of which socioeconomic indicator was used (RR 1.4 up to 1.8). The level of these differences remained virtually unchanged in girls and boys in that time period.The same relationship of family affluence, family wealth and self-rated health has persisted for almost a decade in Germany. Recent strategies could not tackle existing inequalities in self-rated health which indicates an increasing need to develop and implement innovative measures and to intensify efforts of social and health policy.
Karhulahti, T; Ylijoki, H; Rönning, O
The severity of lesions in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) area and their association with age at onset, the various forms of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), and certain serologic tests for rheumatoid factor (RF), antinuclear antibodies (ANA), and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 were determined in 15-yr-old children. The series comprised 121 JRA children, 78 girls and 43 boys, in whom an analysis had recently been made of the relation of TMJ lesions to jaw movement and occlusal status. The mean age at onset was 7.3 yr, the girls contracting JRA earlier than the boys. Also, the girls with lesions in the TMJ area were significantly younger than those with no lesions. TMJ abnormalities were found in 50% of cases with a pauciarticular or systemic onset, but in 72% of those representing the polyarticular subtype. Flattened condyles and grave lesions were equally represented in all subgroups and in both sexes. A crossover from onset type to present diagnosis was found in 30% of the cases, mostly from pauciarticular to polyarthritis, which also increased the risk of TMJ lesions from 50 to 60%. RF, ANA, or HLA-B27 alone did not seem to be associated with a risk of TMJ abnormalities. Maximal opening capacity is more restricted in patients with early onset or a polyarticular mode of JRA. Since the TMJ is affected in more than half of JRA children, regular measurements of maximal movements of the mandible or roentgenologic examinations of the TMJ are essential for their optimal treatment.
Campbell, Dan L; Engeman, Richard M; Farley, James P
We examined 4-year growth of 15-year-old damaged and undamaged Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzesii) after integrating temporary population reductions of mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa) with thinning in a pre-commercial hand-planted plantation in western Washington. Five treatment combinations were considered: (1) trapping mountain beavers in an unthinned area, (2) trapping before thinning to 65 trees/ha (160 trees/ac), (3) no trapping and thinning to 65 trees/ha, (4) no trapping and thinning to 146 trees/ha (360 trees/ac), and (5) no trapping and no thinning. Removal of ≥ 90 % of mountain beavers temporarily reduced mountain beaver activity whether the stand was unthinned or thinned. Diameter growth at breast height (dbh) was greater for undamaged trees than for damaged trees in thinned areas. Tree height growth was greatest in trapped areas whether thinned or not. No differences were detected in 4-year survival between trees damaged aboveground and those without aboveground damage, which may be related to undetected root damage to trees without aboveground damage. Basal diameter growth and dbh growth were greatest for areas thinned to 65 trees/ha. Seventy-eight percent of stomachs from mountain beaver trapped in winter contained Douglas fir root or stem materials. Overall, short-term removal of mountain beavers integrated with pre-commercial thinning promoted growth of crop trees.
Domes, Christopher M; Petering, Ryan C; Chesnutt, James C; Mirarchi, Adam
Little leaguer's elbow and Little leaguer's shoulder are overuse pathologies seen in overhead-throwing athletes. No instance of simultaneously occurring pathologies has been published. A 15-year-old baseball pitcher and football quarterback developed pain in his throwing shoulder and elbow during spring baseball, which partially resolved with several months of rest. During fall football practice, he felt a pop and pain over his medial throwing elbow. Five days after the initial injury, medial elbow tenderness, mild swelling, and decreased range of motion were noted. Radiographs revealed a Salter I avulsion fracture of the medial humeral epicondyle (Little leaguer's elbow) and a periosteal reaction along the lateral aspect of the humeral metadiaphysis with slight widening (Little leaguer's shoulder). Surgical fixation of the medial epicondyle fracture and nonoperative treatment of the shoulder pathology were performed. Two-year follow-up radiographs showed a healed medial epicondylar fracture and resolution of the periosteal reaction of the humeral metadiaphysis. The patient returned to full activity and was starting quarterback for his football team. Biomechanical forces specific to overhead-throwing activities are associated with the development of Little leaguer's elbow and shoulder. Treatments of both pathologies remain controversial, with either initial operative vs nonoperative care. In this patient, a good outcome was achieved with surgical fixation of the elbow fracture and conservative management of the shoulder pathology. Educating coaches and parents on proper throwing technique and pitching limits should be the first step in reducing the occurrence of either pathology in this population.
Tuvblad, Catherine; Bezdjian, Serena; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.
No study has yet examined the genetic and environmental influences on psychopathic personality across different raters and method of assessment. Participants were part of a community sample of male and female twins born between 1990 and 1995. The Child Psychopathy Scale (CPS) and the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) were administered to the twins and their parents when the twins were 14 to 15 years old. The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) was administered and scored by trained testers. Results showed that a one-factor common pathway model was the best fit for the data. Genetic influences explained 69% of the variance in the latent psychopathic personality factor, while non-shared environmental influences explained 31%. Measurement-specific genetic effects accounted for between 9% and 35% of the total variance in each of the measures, except for PCL:YV where all genetic influences were in common with the other measures. Measure-specific non-shared environmental influences were found for all measures, explaining between 17% and 56% of the variance. These findings provide further evidence of the heritability in psychopathic personality among adolescents, although these effects vary across the way in which these traits are measured, in terms of both informant and instrument used. PMID:24796343
Saheer, Abdul; Kousalya, Pallavi Swami; Raju, Rekha; Gubbihal, Radha
Introduction: Dental pain is a major public health problem and one of the consequences of oral diseases which requires significant adjustments in life management leading to decreased quality of life. Objective: To assess prevalence of dental pain and its impact on daily life and to explore its relationship with oral health behavior and clinical oral status among 10-15 year old school children attending oral health promoting schools. Method: This cross sectional study was conducted in 6 schools serving low -middle socio economic strata in Bangalore, India. A total of 1237 children were surveyed for history of dental pain during past 3 month. Participants who reported dental pain completed self-reported oral health behaviour and Child dental pain questionnaire. Clinical oral examination included assessment of dental caries, periodontal status. Data was analyzed using t - test, Chi-square test, ANOVA and Regression Analysis. Results: Prevalence of dental pain was 15.6% (n = 194). Among children with pain, 17%, 43% and 40% reported mild, moderate and severe pain. Impact on daily activities was reported by 66%. Mean DMFT and DMFS was 1.80 and 2.11 Mean deft and defs was 2.47 and 3.41. Multiple logistic regression revealed that severity and impact of dental pain was associated with gender, frequency of tooth brushing, consumption of sweets and deciduous dental caries experience. Conclusion: Prevalence of Dental pain is associated with brushing behavior, consumption of sweets and deciduous dental caries experience, showing need for further attention to these conditions and a need to strengthen preventive and therapeutic dental services. PMID:26942112
Historically, psychotic disorder has been associated with viral infection. Herpes simplex infections and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) among other viral infections have been implicated in psychotic disorder. Of note in this case report is psychotic disorder that occurred following reactivation of herpes simplex infection in a background of mannose-binding lecithin (MBL) deficiency, childhood EBV infection, and severe psychosocial stress. Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality despite advancement in its treatment with intravenous acyclovir. Many studies have reported psychiatric and neurological manifestation of herpes simplex infection following primary or reactivated infection, while others suggest milder clinical course of herpes simplex encephalitis in a background of immunosuppression. Another contributory factor to psychotic disorder in this case is childhood EBV exposure which has been reported to increase the risk of psychosis in adolescence and adulthood. This case report describes a 15-year-old female with MBL deficiency who presented with psychosis caused by reactivated herpes simplex infection and had good clinical recovery. Based on childhood Epstein-Barr virus exposure and psychosis in adolescence (current case), she is at increased risk of psychotic disorder in adulthood, which underscores the importance of long-term monitoring. PMID:28261514
Haji, Faizal Aminmohamed; Boulton, Melfort R; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine
With an incidence of less than 1-3 per million, pediatric aneurysms are rare clinical entities. A traumatic etiology is implicated in a large proportion of these cases, leading to the formation of both 'false' and 'true' aneurysms. These occur most often in the distal circulation, but have also been described in the supraclinoid distal internal carotid artery (ICA). Blood blister aneurysms are also found in this location; however, they have not been described in the pediatric population. We report the case of a 15-year-old male who presented following cranial trauma with diffuse basal subarachnoid hemorrhage and limited additional intracranial pathology. Computed tomography angiography demonstrated a small, 2-mm blister-like aneurysm arising from the dorsal surface of the left supraclinoid ICA at a non-branching site. Despite early endovascular treatment with Guglielmi detachable coils, the lesion continued to grow over subsequent studies, necessitating open surgical clipping. At the time of surgery, gross pathology of the native ICA was observed, raising the possibility of a preexisting blood-blister aneurysm. We review the epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnostic considerations of these lesions. The endovascular and surgical management of these complex non-branching supraclinoid ICA aneurysms is also discussed.
Shenoy Panchmal, Ganesh; Kumar, Vijaya; Jodalli, Praveen S.; Sonde, Laxminarayan
To assess and compare the effect of herbal and fluoride mouth rinses on Streptococcus mutans count and glucan synthesis by Streptococcus mutans and dental caries, a parallel group placebo controlled randomized trial was conducted among 240 schoolchildren (12–15 years old). Participants were randomly divided and allocated into Group I (0.2% fluoride group), Group II (herbal group), and Group III (placebo group). All received 10 ml of respective mouth rinses every fortnight for a period of one year. Intergroup and intragroup comparison were done for Streptococcus mutans count and glucan synthesis by Streptococcus mutans and dental caries. Streptococcus mutans count showed a statistically significant difference between Group I and Group III (p = 0.035) and also between Group II and Group III (p = 0.039). Glucan concentration levels showed a statistically significant difference (p = 0.024) between Group II and Group III at 12th month. Mean DMF scores showed no statistical difference between the three groups (p = 0.139). No difference in the level of significance was seen in the intention-to-treat and per-protocol analysis. The present study showed that both herbal and fluoride mouth rinses, when used fortnightly, were equally effective and could be recommended for use in school-based health education program to control dental caries. Trial registration number is CTRI/2015/08/006070. PMID:28352285
Asogwa, Kenneth; Buabeng, Kwame; Kaur, Amarjit
Historically, psychotic disorder has been associated with viral infection. Herpes simplex infections and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) among other viral infections have been implicated in psychotic disorder. Of note in this case report is psychotic disorder that occurred following reactivation of herpes simplex infection in a background of mannose-binding lecithin (MBL) deficiency, childhood EBV infection, and severe psychosocial stress. Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality despite advancement in its treatment with intravenous acyclovir. Many studies have reported psychiatric and neurological manifestation of herpes simplex infection following primary or reactivated infection, while others suggest milder clinical course of herpes simplex encephalitis in a background of immunosuppression. Another contributory factor to psychotic disorder in this case is childhood EBV exposure which has been reported to increase the risk of psychosis in adolescence and adulthood. This case report describes a 15-year-old female with MBL deficiency who presented with psychosis caused by reactivated herpes simplex infection and had good clinical recovery. Based on childhood Epstein-Barr virus exposure and psychosis in adolescence (current case), she is at increased risk of psychotic disorder in adulthood, which underscores the importance of long-term monitoring.
Mishra, Sandeep Kumar; Paulose, Deepak; Kundra, Pankaj; Parida, Satyen
We present an unusual case of life-threatening hemothorax in a 15-year-old boy following subclavian vein tear during internal jugular vein (IJV) cannulation prior to initiation of surgery (mitral valve replacement). Successful IJV cannulation was done in the third attempt. However, we missed the subclavian tear which occurred during the first two initial attempts as there was no clinical evidence suggestive of it at that point of time. This undiagnosed hemothorax led to hemodynamic decompensation requiring high volume and inotropic support to wean the patient off cardiopulmonary bypass. This unusually high requirement of fluid and inotropes required the surgeon to look for noncardiac causes for the hemodynamic disturbance and he noticed a bulge in the right pleura, which on exploration had approximately 1.5 L of collected blood. It was then retrospectively analyzed that the cause of this hemothorax could have been the undue lateral orientation of the needle during IJV cannulation and the advancement of the dilator to its entire length could have injured the subclavian vein. Here, we also would like to discuss the safety precautions to be taken during the cannulation, like the needle orientation and the length to which the dilator must be advanced for safe central venous cannulation. PMID:26712992
Uvais, N. A.; Sreeraj, V. S.
This is a case report of a 15-year-old girl who presented with redundant clothing. On evaluation, it was found that she had obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and redundant clothing was a symptom of OCD, which has hitherto not been reported. PMID:27011408
Cortese, Silvina G; Biondi, Ana M; Fridman, Diana E; Guitelman, Ingrid; Farah, Catalina L
The aim of this study was to establish reference values for mandibular movements in 10- to 15-year-olds without dysfunction and compare these values to those in patients of the same age with tempromandibular disorders (TMD) and those found previously in a group of children younger than 11 years old without TMD. Children of both genders who visited the Department of Comprehensive Pediatric Dentistry at Buenos Aires University in 2013 and whose parents or guardians provided consent were evaluated using TMD/RDC by standardized pediatric dentists (Kappa 0.88). Three groups were formed according to diagnostic summary: Group C, without TMD; Group Ia, with myofascial pain, and Group Ib, pain with limited mouth opening. The following variables were analyzed: age, gender and mandibular movements. The sample included 169 patients aged 12.5±1.76 years, of whom 62.36% did not have TMD (C) while 37.27% were diagnosed with muscle disorder (29.58% Ia and 7.69% Ib). For Group C, the following values (in mm) were recorded: maximal unassisted opening: 48.28±6.14; right lateral movement 8.78±2.50; left lateral movement: 9.60±2.64; protrusion: 4.94±2.58 and overbite: 2.98 ± 2.5, with no variation associated to sex, but with differences in the values recorded for all movements compared to those obtained for mixed dentition (p=0.0001). Analysis of mean values for mandibular movements in all 3 groups only revealed differences for maximal unassisted opening (p= 0.0317). With relation to gender, TMD was more frequent in females, with significant differences between Groups C and Ia (p=0.019). In males without dysfunction, average maximal opening was 48.28±6.14mm, with lower values in patients with TMD. Mandibular movements in pediatric patients without TMD showed significant differences according to dentition type and age.
Giannetti, Charlene C.; Sagarese, Margaret
Intended for parents of 10- to 15-year-olds, this book is a guide to mastering the ups and downs of early adolescence. The book draws together the latest information from experts, supported and advised by the National Middle School Association, and insights from surveys of parents, teachers, and the children themselves to cover every facet of the…
Francis, Leslie J.; Village, Andrew
Northern Ireland has been and remains a religiously divided community. This study sets out to examine outgroup prejudice among a sample of 1799 13-15-year-old students attending Catholic or Protestant schools and employs both bivariate analyses and hierarchical modelling to chart the associations between outgroup prejudice and personal factors…
This paper aims to discover the level of equity in the Turkish education system using maths outcomes of 15-year-old students in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) exam. In order to do that, associations between various social background variables and student performance are analysed via multilevel models. Female pupils,…
Baldi, Stephane; Jin, Ying; Green, Patricia J.; Herget, Deborah
The Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a system of international assessments administered by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) that measures 15-year-olds' performance in reading literacy, mathematics literacy, and science literacy every 3 years. This report focuses on the performance of U.S.…
Shaw, A. J.; Harrison, T. G.; Medley, M. I.; Sellou, L.; Shallcross, K. L.; Croker, S. J.; Williams, S. J.; Shallcross, D. E.
Polymer Chemistry days run by Bristol ChemLabS at the School of Chemistry, University of Bristol for year 10 (14-15 year olds) school students are described. Pre and post questionnaires were analysed to determine the impact on attitudes to science. There was no change in attitudes to the importance of science or practical work in science, but…
Liu, Ou Lydia
Learning strategies and affective factors could have a profound impact on student standardized mathematics performance. This study investigated gender differences in affective factors, learning strategies, and preferred learning situations, and how these variables affect math achievement of 15 year olds in the United States and Hong Kong on the…
Jha, Abhishek; Raju, Rekha; Bashyam, Mamtha
Introduction Oral Health Education (OHE) in schools is routinely delivered by the dentist. Another approach which can be cost-effective, easily accessible and equally effective is the trained group of peer students. Aim The objective of the present study was to assess and compare the effectiveness of peer–led and conventional method (dentist-led), OHE on oral health status, oral health knowledge, attitude and practices among 12-15 year old government school children in Bengaluru South Zone-I at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Materials and Methods The study population comprised of 450 subjects, 150 each in peer, dentist and control group. At baseline, a pre-tested 14 item questionnaire was used to assess the existing oral health knowledge, attitude and oral hygiene practices of the subjects. Clinical examination included recording of plaque index and gingival index, by a pre-calibrated examiner. OHE was provided by the peer group and dentist (using power-point presentation, chalk and talk presentation, using charts, posters, booklets and tooth brushing demonstration models). Data was analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Chi-square test. Results Both the peer-led and dentist-led OHE intervention were effective in improving oral health knowledge, attitude, oral hygiene practices and oral health status at three and six months when compared to control group. The adolescents in the peer-led group, however, exhibited statistically better oral health behavior than their counterparts in the dentist-led group and control group. Conclusion The two educator-led strategies (peer group and dentist) had a modest effect on the outcome variables included in the study, the results provide some evidence to show that the peer-led strategy may provide a feasible and almost equally effective alternative to the traditional dentist led strategy of oral health education. PMID:27437345
Video games are a favorite leisure-time activity among teenagers worldwide. This study examines cross-national gender differences in reading achievement and video gaming and whether video gaming explains gender differences in reading achievement and differences in performance between paper-based and computer-based reading. We use data from a representative sample of 145,953 students from 26 countries who sat the PISA 2012 assessments and provided self-reports on use of video games. Although boys tend to have poorer results in both the computer-based and the paper-based reading assessments, boys' under achievement is smaller when the assessment is delivered on computer than when it is delivered on paper. Boys underperformance compared to girls in the two reading assessments is particularly pronounced among low-achieving students. Among both boys and girls moderate use of single-player games is associated with a performance advantage. However, frequent engagement with collaborative online games is generally associated with a steep reduction in achievement, particularly in the paper-based test and particularly among low-achieving students. Excessive gaming may hinder academic achievement, but moderate gaming can promote positive student outcomes. In many countries video gaming explains the difference in the gender gap in reading between the paper-based and the computer-based assessments.
Ataie Moghanloo, Vahid; Ataie Moghanloo, Roghayyeh; Moazezi, Mousa
Background: Diabetes imposes restrictions on physical, emotional, and social functioning of children and adolescents. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) for depression, psychological well-being and feeling of guilt in 7 - 15 years old diabetic children. Patients and Methods: This was a clinical trial with pre-test and post-test design with control group. The study population consisted of 34 participants selected using convenient sampling out of all 7 - 15 years old patients that referred to the Diabetes Association of Tabriz. They were randomly allocated into two equal groups (experimental and control). The experimental group participated in therapy sessions and the control group did not receive any intervention. The research instruments were reynolds child depression scale (RCDS), eysenck feelings of guilt scale and satisfaction with life scale (SWLS). Results: Multivariate covariance analysis (MANCOVA) showed that the treatment was effective on variables of depression, psychological well-being and feeling guilty in 7 - 15 years old diabetic children (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The aforementioned treatment is effective and suggested to be used in other psychosomatic diseases of children. PMID:26396702
Undheim, Anne Mari; Sund, Anne Mari
The aim of this study was to examine relationships between bullying and suicidal ideation. A total of 2,464 adolescents in Norway were assessed at two time points, 1 year apart [i.e., at ages 14 (T1) and 15 (T2)], with identical questionnaires. Suicidal ideation was measured by four items including both active and passive suicidal thoughts. ANOVA and standard linear regression methods were applied. Both bullied adolescents and adolescents who were aggressive toward others had significantly higher levels of suicidal ideation (p < 0.001) at age 14 (T1) than noninvolved adolescents. In the group being bullied, girls had higher levels of suicidal ideation than boys did. This was not the case for the group of adolescents who were the aggressors. In cross-sectional multivariate analyses, both being bullied and being aggressive toward others were significant (p < 0.001) predictors of suicidal ideation at age 14 (T1), when gender, age and socioeconomic status, and depressing symptom levels were controlled for. In the controlled longitudinal multivariate analyses, being bullied (p < 0.001) at age 14 (T1) predicted suicidal ideation at age 15 (T2), while aggressiveness toward others did not. Bullied adolescents (both genders) were at risk for suicidal ideation, and having an additional risk if they were depressed.
Dzelalija, B; Petrovec, M; Avsic-Zupanc, T
We report a case involving a 15-year-old girl with atypical, clinically unsuspected cat scratch disease (CSD) presenting as isolated posterior pancreatic duodenal lymphadenitis, fever, and abdominal pain. The serological, abdominal ultrasonographic, and CT findings, as well as clinical and epidemiological data, indicate that B. henselae was likely an etiologic agent of CSD in our patient.
Theurel, Anne; Witt, Arnaud; Malsert, Jennifer; Lejeune, Fleur; Fiorentini, Chiara; Barisnikov, Koviljka; Gentaz, Edouard
The current study investigated the role of congruent visual context information in the recognition of facial emotional expression in 190 participants from 5 to 15years of age. Children performed a matching task that presented pictures with different facial emotional expressions (anger, disgust, happiness, fear, and sadness) in two conditions: with and without a visual context. The results showed that emotions presented with visual context information were recognized more accurately than those presented in the absence of visual context. The context effect remained steady with age but varied according to the emotion presented and the gender of participants. The findings demonstrated for the first time that children from the age of 5years are able to integrate facial expression and visual context information, and this integration improves facial emotion recognition.
Coloe, Jacquelyn; Diamantis, Stephanie; Henderson, Frederick; Morrell, Dean S
SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) syndrome represents a spectrum of various dermatologic and musculoskeletal conditions. Thromboses have infrequently been reported in SAPHO syndrome, most often in the subclavian vein. There have been no reported cases of pulmonary emboli associated with SAPHO. We report a case of a young patient with SAPHO syndrome who later presented with extensive iliofemoral deep vein thromboses and seven pulmonary emboli.
Yotsuyanagi, Takao; Ikeda, Senri; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Sakuraba, Hiroshi; Shoji, Akira; Itoh, Masahiko
Creativity is the most fundamental keyword for engineers to solve the various problems in manufacturing products. This engineering “learning” cannot be achieved without the real experiences, especially by the teens who have the curiosity to know everything. New educational program has been innovated in Miyagi National College of Technology. This new curriculum started as “03C” in 2003. It involves two laboratories for mixed-departments type grouping, which intend to cultivate the creative ability for the 2nd year students in College Course and the 1st year students in Advanced Course as Engineering Design. This paper presents the trial of the new educational program on the cultivating creative ability designed for teen-agers, and discusses the processes in detail, results and further problems. This program will progress still more with continuous improvement of manufacturing subjects in cooperative with educational-industrial complex.
Scichilone, Nicola; Buttacavoli, Maria; Camarda, Gaetana; Marchese, Margherita; Bellia, Maria; Spatafora, Mario
We describe the case of an adolescent who was admitted to the hospital because of sudden occurrence of chest pain, dyspnea and subcutaneous emphysema. On admission, physical examination revealed subcutaneous crepitations in the superior part of the rib cage, and auscultation of the chest showed widespread wheezing. The radiological assessment confirmed the diagnosis of pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax. A follow-up CT scan performed one week after the admission showed almost complete resolution of the radiological alterations. At the following visits, the patient was asymptomatic, but reported to have suffered from frequent episodes of rhinorrea, sneezing, nasal blockage, and sometimes, chest tightness, especially during exposure to pets and/or windy weather. Skin prick testing showed sensitivities to dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and farinae, grass pollen and dog dander. Spirometry documented significant improvement in lung function after short-acting bronchodilator, allowing for the diagnosis of asthma to be made. Although pneumomediastinum may be a complication of various respiratory diseases, including asthma, it has never been reported as the first presentation of underlying bronchial asthma. Herein, the physiopathological mechanisms, the diagnostic procedures and treatment of pneumomediastinum in asthma are discussed. We suggest that the diagnosis of asthma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pneumomediastinum in adolescence.
Voráčová, Jaroslava; Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Kalman, Michal
Socioeconomic inequalities in eating habits have a profound impact on the health of adolescents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate socioeconomic disparities in the eating habits of Czech adolescents and to compare their change between 2002 and 2014. The data from the Czech Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) study conducted in 2002 and 2014 was utilized. The Family Affluence Scale (FAS) was used to assess socioeconomic disparities. Higher odds of daily consumption of fruit (2002: OR = 1.67; 2014: OR = 1.70, p < 0.001) and vegetables (2002: OR = 1.54; 2014: OR = 1.48, p < 0.001) were associated with high FAS in both genders. Adolescents with higher FAS were less likely to consume sweets (2002: OR = 0.72, p < 0.05) and more likely to eat breakfast on weekdays (2014: OR = 1.19, p < 0.05). In 2002 and 2014, the data showed lower odds of daily consumption of soft drinks (Low: OR = 0.47; Medium: OR = 0.43; High: OR = 0.41, p < 0.001), fruit (Low: OR = 0.73; Medium: OR = 0.74, p < 0.001; High: OR = 0.75, p < 0.05), sweets (Low: OR = 0.71; Medium: OR = 0.79, p < 0.001) and breakfast on weekends (High: OR = 0.70, p < 0.05), and a higher likelihood of eating breakfast on weekdays (Low: OR = 1.26, p < 0.01; Medium: OR = 1.13, p < 0.05). These findings play an important role in future public measures to improve dietary habits and decrease social inequalities in youth. PMID:27783063
Hayes, Don; Schell, Randall M; Plunkett, Mark D; Gurley, John C; Hoopes, Charles W
We report on an acute myocardial injury caused by thrombotic emboli during off-pump bilateral sequential lung transplantation in a 15-year-old female patient with end-stage cystic fibrosis. A few minutes after reperfusion of the right (second sequential) allograft, the patient developed hemodynamic collapse, including hypotension, acute akinesis of the anterior and lateral myocardial walls, and severe mitral regurgitation. Thrombus was noted within the left atrium and ventricle on intraoperative transesophageal echocardiogram. After emergent cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass, the patient underwent left cardiac catheterization with AngioJet rheolytic thrombectomy and removal of the clot from the distal left anterior descending coronary artery. Reperfusion was established without the need for stent placement or further intervention. The patient required short-term life support with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
Shrestha, N; Acharya, J; Sagtani, A R; Shrestha, R; Shrestha, S
Dental caries occurrence, distribution, oral health status and corresponding treatment needs in 12 - 15 year old children are useful tools for evaluation of oral health. Dental caries status along with its treatment needs was recorded according to World Health Organization (WHO) index (1997) in 366 children from five schools within Jorpati Village Development Committee (VDC), Kathmandu. Dental caries was diagnosed in 156 (42.6%) children, out of which 122 (78.21%) had caries in permanent teeth, 26 (16.67%) had caries in primary teeth, and 8 (5.13%) had caries in both dentition. The age wise distribution of dental caries showed the highest prevalence among 12 year old students (23.8%) and the lowest among 15 year olds (3.8%). Among the female students (177), 43.5% showed presence of dental caries, while the prevalence among male students (179) was 41.8%.Out of the total number of teeth affected by dental caries (336), 273 (81.25%) were permanent teeth and 63 (18.75%) were primary teeth. The intra arch distribution of dental caries in permanent as well as primary dentition was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Restorative treatment (89.38%) was the main need in permanent dentition, and endodontic treatment (60.32%) in primary dentition. Chronologic enamel hypoplasia was found in 14 (3.83%) of the total population, and 62 (16.94%) required oral prophylaxis. These findings are significant as they can initiate further research in this area, which may help establish reliable baseline data for implementation of preventive oral health programs.
Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Castellanos, Roberto Augusto; Pinheiro, Márcia Farias; de Albuquerque, Silvana Rodrigues; Pinho, Cristina
The aim of this paper was to assess the caries experience of 12- and 15-year-old schoolchildren from public and private schools in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, and to identify the access of children to dental services and the coverage of such services, which might be related to differences between the groups. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 3,313 clinical exams, which followed the WHO (1997) criteria for the diagnosis of dental caries. The analysis was carried out by means of the Student's t test, the chi-square test and analysis of covariance. There were no differences regarding DMFT and frequency of caries-free individuals between public and private schools. However, while F (filled teeth) was the most prevalent component of the index in subjects from private schools, M (missing teeth) was the most common in those from public schools. The access to dental services in the last year was the only variable associated to the differences between both groups. Thus, the importance of access to dental services and social benefits must be pointed out in order to guarantee equity in oral health.
Singh, Aditi; Dhawan, Preeti; Gaurav, Vivek; Rastogi, Pradeep; Singh, Shilpi
Background: To assess the prevalence of dental diseases among 9–15-year-old visually impaired children and find out its impact on their daily activities using the Child-Oral Impact on Daily Performance (C-OIDP) questionnaire in districts of Uttarakhand, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 423 visually impaired institutionalized children between the age group of 9–15 years were included in the study. Stratified random sampling technique was used to obtain the study population. Dental caries was recorded using dmft for primary dentition and DMFT for permanent dentition, traumatic dental injuries were assessed using traumatic dental injury index, and dentofacial anomalies were recorded using Angle's classification of malocclusion. The Hindi braille version of C-OIDP questionnaire was used to gather information regarding oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). Results: There was a high dental caries prevalence of 57.7% in visually impaired children. The prevalence of traumatic dental injuries was 50.6%. Crowding (61.5%) was the most commonly seen dentofacial anomaly and the most commonly perceived oral health problem was toothache. There was less favorable OHRQoL in males as compared to females. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of dental diseases in this group and higher C-OIDP scores suggestive of unfavorable OHRQoL. PMID:28348617
Krisdapong, S; Prasertsom, P; Rattanarangsima, K; Sheiham, A
Dental caries is generally given the highest priority in national oral health services for school-aged populations. Yet, there is no study exploring the impacts on quality of life specifically related to dental caries in national samples of school-aged children. This study assessed prevalence and characteristics of oral impacts attributed to dental caries on quality of life and compared them with overall oral health impacts. In addition, associations of oral impacts attributed to dental caries and dental caries status were investigated. A national representative sample of 1,063 12- and 811 15-year-olds completed a sociodemographic and behavioural questionnaire, and were orally examined and interviewed about oral health-related quality of life using the Child-OIDP or OIDP indexes, respectively. Associations of condition-specific impacts (CS impacts) attributed to dental caries with components of DMF were investigated using χ(2) tests and multivariate logistic regressions. CS impacts attributed to dental caries were reported by nearly half the children and such impacts accounted for half of overall oral impacts from all oral conditions. The majority of impacts were of little intensity and affected only 1-2 daily performances, particularly performances on Eating, Emotional stability and Cleaning teeth. CS impacts were significantly positively associated with number of decayed teeth, and strongly associated with severe decay.
Martin, Catherine A.; Guenthner, Greg; Bingcang, Christopher; Rayens, Mary Kay; Kelly, Thomas H.
Objective This study examined subjective and other behavioral effects of methylphenidate (MPH) among adolescents. Methods Standard abuse liability assessment methods that have been used in adult populations were modified for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) adolescents. MPH effects (0, 0.25 mg/kg) were evaluated under randomized, double-blind conditions in two 5-hour laboratory sessions in 24 (13 female) 11–15 year olds diagnosed with ADHD. Results Repeated measures analysis of covariance indicated significant dose and dose by time interactions on subjective ratings on the modified amphetamine (A) [F (1, 20) = 5.98; p < 0.05; η2 = 0.36], morphine–benzedrine group (MBG) [F (1, 21) = 8.93 p < 0.01; η2 = 0.38] and benzedrine group scale (BG) [F (1, 21) + 13.10 p < 0.01; η2 = 0.37] scales of the Addiction Research Center Inventory; “Hungry” and “How sure are you that you got the medication today?” from the Visual Analogue Scale, the Profile of Mood States Depression scale, performance on the Continuous Performance Task, heart rate and blood pressure, and level of activity. Conclusions This is the first study to document subjective effects of stimulants in adolescents with ADHD that have been associated with drug abuse potential in adults. There are increasing concerns about nontherapeutic stimulant use in adolescents and young adults. Assessing subjective effects of pharmacotherapies for ADHD along with other measures of abuse potential such as drug self-administration may aid in assessing the therapeutic effects and/or risk of medications used in the treatment of ADHD. PMID:17343554
Tilak, Ragini; Kumari, Varsha; Bansal, Manish; Sharma, Taniya; Pandey, Shyam Sunder
A 13-year-old girl presented with multiple painless purulent ulcers with raised borders on the medial aspect of the sole of her right foot associated with inguinal lymphadenopathy for the past 4 years. There was history of local trauma at the site prior to the formation of ulcers. There were no other significant associated signs or symptoms. The patient was initially treated with multiple antibiotics with minimal improvement. Fungal cultures of biopsy specimens demonstrated the presence of colonies of Sporothrix schenckii thus confirming the diagnosis of sporotrichosis. Oral itraconazole at the dose of 100 mg twice daily was initiated with marked response at 4 weeks. This case demonstrated a rare morphological presentation of the lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis as mycetoma. The possible diagnosis of sporotrichosis should be kept in mind in such a clinical presentation not responding to antibiotics. Cutaneous sporotrichosis should be diagnosed and treated as early as possible because untreated cases may disseminate to cause visceral involvement with fatal outcome in immunocompromised patients.
Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.
This paper investigates the factors that influence 15-year-old students' intentions to study physics post-16, when it is no longer compulsory. The analysis is based on the year 10 (age, 15 years) responses of 5,034 students from 137 England schools as learners of physics during the academic year 2008-2009. Factor analyses uncovered a range of…
Kelly, Dana; Nord, Christine Winquist; Jenkins, Frank; Chan, Jessica Ying; Kastberg, David
The Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a system of international assessments that allows countries to compare outcomes of learning as students near the end of compulsory schooling. PISA core assessments measure the performance of 15-year-old students in mathematics, science, and reading literacy every 3 years. Coordinated by…
Kastberg, David; Chan, Jessica Ying; Murray, Gordon
The Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a system of international assessments that allows countries to compare outcomes of learning as students near the end of compulsory schooling. PISA measures the performance of 15-year-old students in science, reading, and mathematics literacy every 3 years. PISA uses the term…
Tan, Sijie; Wang, Jianxiong; Zhang, Yibing; Zhang, Chen
Objective: The study aim was to explore associations between daily physical activity level, cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic syndrome among Chinese children. Design: We conducted a school-based, cross-sectional study. Setting: Participants including 112 boys and 121 girls were recruited from three schools in the urban suburbs of Tianjin…
Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl
The aim of this study was to assess overweight or obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries. The analysis included 30,284 school children 13-15 years of age from seven ASEAN members participating in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) between 2007 and 2013. The overall prevalence of overweight or obesity across seven ASEAN countries (excluding Brunei) was 9.9%, significantly higher in boys (11.5%) than in girls (8.3%). Among eight ASEAN countries, the highest prevalence of overweight or obesity was in Brunei Darus-salam (36.1%), followed by Malaysia (23.7%), and the lowest was in Myanmar (3.4%) and Cambodia (3.7%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that younger age, coming from an upper middle country, never been hungry, and not walking or biking to school were associated with overweight or obesity. In addition, among boys, having three or more servings of vegetables per day and having no close friends, and among girls, having fast foods two or more times per week, been victims of bullying and having peer support were additional factors associated with overweight or obesity. Increased strategies utilizing a number of the risk factors identified are needed to prevent and treat overweight or obesity in adolescents in ASEAN member countries.
Undheim, Anne Mari; Sund, Anne Mari
The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between being bullied and aggressive behavior and self-reported mental health problems among young adolescents. A representative population sample of 2,464 young Norwegian adolescents (50.8% girls) aged 12-15 years was assessed. Being bullied was measured using three items concerning teasing, exclusion, and physical assault. Self-esteem was assessed by Harter's self-perception profile for adolescents. Emotional and behavioral problems were measured by the Moods and Feelings Questionnaire (MFQ) and the youth self-report (YSR). Aggressive behavior was measured by four items from the YSR. One-tenth of the adolescents reported being bullied, and 5% reported having been aggressive toward others during the past 6 months. More of the students being bullied and students being aggressive toward others reported parental divorce, and they showed higher scores on all YSR subscales and on the MFQ questions, and lower scores on the global self-worth subscale (Harter) than students not being bullied or aggressive. A few differences emerged between the two groups being bullied or being aggressive toward others: those who were aggressive showed higher total YSR scores, higher aggression and delinquency scores, and lower social problems scores, and reported higher scores on the social acceptance subscale (Harter) than bullied students. However, because social problems were demonstrated in both the involved groups, interventions designed to improve social competence and interaction skills should be integrated in antibullying programs.
Potocki, Anna; Sanchez, Monique; Ecalle, Jean; Magnan, Annie
This article presents two studies investigating the role of executive functioning in written text comprehension in children and adolescents. In a first study, the involvement of executive functions in reading comprehension performance was examined in normally developing children in fifth grade. Two aspects of text comprehension were…
Ramprasath, Dhurvas Ramlal; Thirunarayanan, Vasudevan; Ezhilmaran, Duraisamy
Introduction: Neglected case of nonunion of fracture both bones forearm with deformity is very difficult to manage. Treatment options are minimal. Identifying such a case in literature is also very rare. One such rare case is discussed here. Case Report: Here, we present a case of a 65-year-old male patient, who was operated 15 years back for fracture both bones forearm, with 3.5 mm dynamic compression plate. Fracture went into nonunion and plate was broken. The patient presented to us 15 years later in August 2013 with nonunion, broken, and loosened implants and varus deformity of 90°. Implants were removed, sequential correction of deformity was done, using external fixators. After deformity correction was achieved, nonunion was managed by modified Boyd’s dual onlay bone graft technique. Conclusion: Modified Boyd’s dual onlay bone graft technique is an effective method in achieving union and restoration of functions, even in patients with resistant nonunion. PMID:28164051
Curran, Jacqueline; Hayward, Jenette; Sellers, Elizabeth; Dean, Heather
This article describes the presentation of 4 adolescent girls who sought medical attention for severe vulvovaginitis and were subsequently found to have type 2 diabetes. Symptomatic vulvovaginitis is rare in adolescent girls, and its presence should alert health care providers to test for underlying hyperglycemia. These 4 girls represent 8.5% of the females with new-onset type 2 diabetes during a 3-year period (2007-2009). The 4 cases fulfilled the current Canadian Diabetes Association screening criteria for type 2 diabetes in youth, yet none of these girls had been screened. These cases highlight the need for better awareness of screening criteria for type 2 diabetes in adolescents. Consideration should be given in clinical practice guidelines to including the presence of unusual or severe infections as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in youth.
Hedayati, Zohreh; Khalafinejad, Fatemeh
Statement of the Problem: The prevalence of overweight and obesity has been increasing markedly in recent years. It may influence growth in pre pubertal children. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether increased Body Mass Index (BMI) is associated with accelerated skeletal maturation and dental maturation in six to fifteen years old orthodontic patients in Shiraz, Iran. Materials and Method: Skeletal maturation and dental development of 95 orthodontic patients (65 females and 30 males), aged 6 to 15 years, were determined. Dental development was assessed using the Demerjian method and skeletal maturation was evaluated by cervical vertebral method as presented by Bacetti. The BMI was determined for each patient. T-test was applied to compare the mean difference between chronologic and dental age among the study groups. A regression model was used to assess the relationship between BMI percentile, skeletal maturation, and dental development. Results: 18.9% of subjects were overweight and obese. The mean differences between dental age and chronologic age were 0.73±1.3 for underweight and normal weight children and 1.8±1.08 for overweight and obese children. These results highlighted the correlation between accelerated dental maturity and increasing BMI percentile (p= 0.002). A new formula was introduced for this relationship. There was not any significant relationship between BMI percentile and skeletal maturation. Conclusion: Children who were overweight or obese had accelerated dental development whereas they did not have accelerated skeletal maturation significantly after being adjusted for age and gender. PMID:25469357
Techer, I.; Boulvais, P.; Bartier, D.; Tinseau, E.
In France, the concept of a geological disposal of high-activity and long-period nuclear wastes requires the use of concrete and cement-bearing materials as building structures or as waste containment packages, in conjunction with clayey barriers (e.g., compacted bentonite as an engineered barrier and/or argillite-type rocks as a geological barrier). Hydrolysis of cementitious phases is however known to produce hyper-alkaline pore fluids with pH ranging from 10 to 13.5 that will be in disequilibrium with the geological setting environment (argillite pore-water pH around 8). The disturbance of clayey rocks in contact with such materials is thus an important task in safety assessment studies of deep geological storage. This concerns the knowledge of mineral / solution paths but also the spatial extent of the alkaline plume into the clayey material. Experimental and modelling approaches were performed this last decade to answer these questions. In addition to these approaches, natural or engineered contexts in which a clayey formation has been in contact with cementitious materials can be considered as analogues of a deep geological storage for the study of argillite /cement interaction. Such contexts can be found in the IRSN Tournemire experimental platform in Aveyron (France). This platform is based on a tunnel, excavated between 1882 and 1886 through Domerian marls and Toarcian argillites, which is dedicated since 1990 to multidisciplinary research programs. In the frameworks of these programs, exploration boreholes were realized from the basement of the tunnel in the 1990 years. The boreholes were then filled with concrete and cement that are presently in contact with the Toarcian argillites for 15-20 years. One of this borehole - DM borehole - was overcored in 2005 in order to collect the Toarcian argillites in contact with the cement and the concrete. Mineralogical, petrographic and microstructural analyses have argued for a clear disturbance of the Toarcian
Introduction Biepicondylar fracture of the elbow is very rare, and to date there have only been three reports of this injury and its treatment in the English scientific literature. This case report evaluates the surgical internal fixation of a biepicondylar fracture of the elbow with an associated dislocation. Case presentation We report the case of a 15-year-old Turkish girl with a biepicondylar fracture dislocation of the left elbow. Open reduction and an internal fixation operation were applied. There were no complications. Conclusion In these injuries, open reduction and internal fixation appear to be a good method to restore elbow stability and function. PMID:22938048
Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.
This paper investigates the characteristics of 15-year-old girls who express an intention to study physics post-16. This paper unpacks issues around within-girl group differences and similarities between boys and girls in survey responses about physics. The analysis is based on the year 10 (age 15 years) responses of 5,034 students from 137 UK…
Collin, Gilles; Ichou, Houria; Charpentier, Charlotte; Bendhafer, Samia; Dumitrescu, Madalina; Allal, Lahcene; Cojocaru, Bogdan; Desfrère, Luc; Descamps, Diane; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Houhou-Fidouh, Nadhira
Background To date, only influenza and RSV testing are recommended for respiratory viruses’ detection in paediatric units. In this study, we described, according to seasons, ages and clinical units, the results obtained in children (<15 years old) by multiplex-PCR (mPCR) tests allowing a quick and wide range detection of all respiratory viruses. These results were also compared with RSV specific detection. Methods All nasopharyngeal mPCR and RSV tests requested by clinicians in our French teaching hospitals group between 2011 and 2014 were retrospectively included. All repeated samples for the same children in the same month were discarded. Results Of the 381 mPCR tests (344 children) performed, 51.4% were positive. Positivity and viral co-infection rates were higher in the 6–36 months old strata (81% and 25%, p<0.0001 and p = 0.04, respectively). Viral distribution showed strong variations across ages. During specific influenza epidemic periods, only 1/39 (2.5%) mPCR tests were positive for influenza and 19/39 (48.7%) for other viruses. During specific RSV epidemic periods, only 8/46 (17.4%) mPCR tests were positive for RSV and 14/46 (30.4%) for other viruses. 477/1529 (31.2%) of RSV immunochromatography-tests were positive. Among the negatives immunochromatography-test also explored by mPCR, 28/62 (31%) were positive for other respiratory viruses. Conclusion This study provides a wide description of respiratory viruses’ distribution among children in hospital settings using mPCR over 3 years. It emphasizes the number of undiagnosed respiratory viruses according to the current diagnosis practice in France and gives a better picture of respiratory viruses identified in hospital settings by mPCR all over the year in France. PMID:28235002
Vänttinen, Tomi; Blomqvist, Minna; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo
Vänttinen, T, Blomqvist, M, Nyman, K, and Häkkinen, K. Changes in body composition, hormonal status, and physical fitness in 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old Finnish regional youth soccer players during a two-year follow-up. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3342-3351, 2011-The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in body composition, hormonal status, and physical fitness in 10.8 ± 0.3-year-old (n = 13), 12.7 ± 0.2-year-old (n = 14), and 14.7 ± 0.3-year-old (n = 12) Finnish regional youth soccer players during a 2-year monitoring period and to compare physical fitness characteristics of soccer players with those of age-matched controls (10.7 ± 0.3 years, n = 13; 14.7 ± 0.3 years, n = 10) not participating in soccer. Body composition was measured in terms of height, weight, muscle mass, percentage of body fat, and lean body weight of trunk, legs, and arms. Hormonal status was monitored by concentrations of serum testosterone and cortisol. Physical fitness was measured in terms of sprinting speed, agility, isometric maximal strength (leg extensors, abdominal, back, grip), explosive strength, and endurance. Age-related development was detected in all other measured variables except in the percentage of body fat. The results showed that the physical fitness of regional soccer players was better than that of the control groups in all age groups, especially in cardiovascular endurance (p < 0.01-0.001) and in agility (p < 0.01-0.001). In conclusion, playing in a regional level soccer team seems to provide training adaptation, which is beyond normal development and which in all likelihood leads to positive health effects over a prolonged period of time.
Tajima, Toshihiro; Tsubaki, Junko; Ishizu, Katsura; Jo, Wakako; Ishi, Nobuaki; Fujieda, Kenji
The use of octreotide-LAR and cabergoline therapy has shown great promise in adults with acromegaly; however, the experience in pediatric patients has rarely been reported. We described a clinical course of a 15-year-old boy of McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) with pituitary gigantism. At the age of 8 years, a growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) producing pituitary adenoma was diagnosed at our hospital. He also had multiple fibrous dysplasia, so that he was diagnosed as having MAS. The tumor was partially resected, and GNAS1 gene mutation (R201C) was identified in affected tissues. We introduced octreotide to suppress GH secretion (100 mug 2/day s.c). During therapy with octreotide, IGF-1 and GH levels could not be suppressed and the patient frequently complained of nausea from octreotide treatment. Therefore, the therapy was changed to monthly injections of octreotide-LAR at the age of 12.3 years and was partially effective. However, as defect of left visual field worsened due to progressive left optic canal stenosis, he underwent second neurological decompression of the left optic nerve at 13.4 years of age. After surgery, in addition to octreotide-LAR, cabergoline (0.25 mg twice a month) was started. This regimen normalized serum levels of GH and IGF-1; however, he showed impaired glucose tolerance and gallstones at 15.7 years of age. Therefore, the dose of octreotide-LAR was reduced to 10 mg and the dose of cabergoline increased. This case demonstrated the difficulty of treating pituitary gigantism due to MAS. The use of octreotide-LAR and cabergoline should be considered even in pediatric patients; however, adverse events due to octreotide-LAR must be carefully examined.
Hlavaty, Leigh; Diaz, Francisco; Sung, LokMan
Takayasu arteritis is a rare disease that expresses chronic, large vessel inflammation. The etiology remains unclear and its presentation depends on the affected arteries. With coronary artery involvement, manifestations range from chest pain and shortness of breath to sudden death. We report a case of a 15-year-old white girl who presented with syncope immediately before passing. On autopsy, all 3 major coronary arteries grossly contained multiple proximal lesions that were consistent with Takayasu arteritis, microscopically. Takayasu arteritis solely affecting multiple coronary arteries is exceedingly rare. This report discusses the significance of coronary involvement in Takayasu arteritis at autopsy and sudden death.
Hanly, J.; de Buitleir, M.; Shaw, K.; Maurer, B.; FitzGerald, M. X.
A 14-year-old girl whose sole presenting features were symptoms of pulmonary embolism, was found to have bi-atrial myxomas. The diagnosis was made preoperatively, and the patient had a successful outcome following elective surgery. The absence of other features such as systemic embolism, atrioventricular valvular obstruction, fever and constitutional symptoms makes this a most unusual case. Right atrial myxoma should be considered in any patient presenting with pulmonary embolism for which there is no obvious source. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6709549
Anakwue, Raphael Chinedu; Chijioke, Chioli; Mbah, Anthony; Onuh, Augustine; Okwara, Christian
We report on a 21-year-old Nigerian girl with toe gangrene, which is one of the most unlikely forms of presentation of antiphospholipid syndrome among Africans. The essence of this case report is to raise awareness that, although antiphospholipid syndrome typically presents in Africans in association with a pregnancy-related event or a neuropathology, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in all African patients with unexplained vasculitis. A high index of suspicion and early treatment will prevent toe amputations and reduce mortality rates.
Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Kunnen, Saskia; van Geert, Paul
This article reports on a 1-year diary study of conflicts between seventeen 15-year-old girls and their mothers assessing (a) within-conflict sequences according to the emotional processes related to a girl's level of self-assertion and perceived control and (b) the relationship between these within-conflict sequences and the level of autonomy.…
Naruto, Takuya; Nakagishi, Yasuo; Mori, Masaaki; Miyamae, Takako; Imagawa, Tomoyuki; Yokota, Shumpei
Hyperimmunoglobulin D and periodic fever syndrome (HIDS) is an autosomal recessive auto-inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent febrile attacks with lymphadenopathy, abdominal distress, skin eruptions and joint involvement. We discuss the case of a 15-year-old Japanese girl who had presented with periodic fever, hepatosplenomegaly and intractable diarrhea from seven weeks of age. At first, undifferentiated autoimmune disorder was suspected, and she was treated with prednisolone and, in turn, with immunosuppressants such as cyclosporine, methotrexate, cyclophosphamide and rituximab or with plasma exchange. However, these trials failed to relieve her symptoms, and so she was transferred to our hospital when she was 15 years old. Her parents and elder brother had no history of recurrent fever, prolonged abdominal pain or diarrhea of unknown origin. The patient had extremely elevated levels of mevalonic aciduria and had homozygosity as a novel mutation in the MVK gene (G326R). Finally, HIDS was diagnosed. She was treated with simvastatin, which resulted in a moderate decrease of the urinary mevalonic acid concentration and good clinical course. This is the first case in which homozygosity for the mutation of the MVK gene has been reported in an Asian patient, and indicated a need for differentiation.
Varalakshmi, B; Doshi, V Vimal; Sivalingam, D; Nambi, Shanthi
Ms. V, a 10-year-old girl was referred to Child Psychiatry Department with complaints of bleeding from eyes for last 3 months. Bleeding was spontaneous, recurrent, painless, and self-limited. History revealed significant Psychological stressors, Temperamental Difficulties and Conflicts with Mother. Mental status examination revealed Depression in Ms. V. During hospital stay, Ms. V developed repeated bleeding episodes. The presence of hemoglobin is confirmed in the bleeding sample. Hematologic investigations and computed tomography brain were normal. Ms. V was started on Sertraline, Propranolol, and Clonazepam. Both Ms. V and her Mother were psycho-educated about the nature of the illness. Ms. V was discharged and under follow-up. This case is reported for the rarity of presentation (bleeding from Eyes) of a childhood Depression.
DONG, LI-QUN; SUN, XIAO-MEI; XIANG, CHENG-FA; WU, JIN; YU, PING
Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer in childhood is not as common in the adult population. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease associated with autoantibodies, and the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid remains controversial. The present study reported a 15-year-old adolescent girl with the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer. With the complexity of the clinical manifestations of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, it can be expressed as not only hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, but also normal thyroid function. The long-term treatment, and for children with thyroid cancer, early diagnosis is particularly difficult. In the present case, the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is primarily based on clinical manifestations, anti-thyroglobulin antibody and anti-thyroid microsomal antibody. The only diagnostic imaging ultrasound was negative. The present study discussed the possible reason and the identification of this unique case of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer. PMID:27330783
Arora, Prerna; Khurana, Nita; Tempe, Anjali
Ovarian mucinous tumors in <15 years old are rare with <50 cases reported till date in the literature. Majority of them are benign or borderline epithelial ovarian tumors with only 12 cases of cystadenocarcinomas reported at a young age. We report a case of mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in 14-year-old girl with metastasis to omentum at the time of presentation. Management of such cases is tricky as conservative approach sparing fertility of the patient is adopted. This case is presented for its rarity and unique presentation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the thirteenth case of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma being reported at a very young age and the first case being reported from Indian subcontinent. Extensive review of the previously published cases in the literature has been done in this study. PMID:28344967
Dong, Li-Qun; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Xiang, Cheng-Fa; Wu, Jin; Yu, Ping
Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer in childhood is not as common in the adult population. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease associated with autoantibodies, and the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid remains controversial. The present study reported a 15-year-old adolescent girl with the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer. With the complexity of the clinical manifestations of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, it can be expressed as not only hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism, but also normal thyroid function. The long-term treatment, and for children with thyroid cancer, early diagnosis is particularly difficult. In the present case, the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is primarily based on clinical manifestations, anti-thyroglobulin antibody and anti-thyroid microsomal antibody. The only diagnostic imaging ultrasound was negative. The present study discussed the possible reason and the identification of this unique case of Hashimoto's thyroiditis with thyroid cancer.
Frković, Sanda Huljev; Durisević, Ivana Tonković; Trcić, Ruzica Lasan; Sarnavka, Vladimir; Gornik, Kristina Crkvenac; Muzinić, Dubravka; Letica, Ljiljana; Barić, Ivo; Begović, Davor
Pallister Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare genetic disorder caused by tetrasomy of the short arm of chromosome 12, revealed usually in mosaic distribution of an extra i (12) (p10) chromosome in fibroblasts. The syndrome presents with a recognizable pattern of findings including pigmentary skin changes, coarse face, high forehead, sparse anterior scalp hair, hypertelorism, seizures and progressive psychomotor developmental delay. It was first described independently by Pallister in 1977 and by Killian and Teschler-Nikola in 1981. We report a case of 21 month old girl with PKS and significant overgrowth. Cytogenetic analysis was performed using the GTG banding technique. The karyotype of cultured lymphocytes was normal. The karyotype from skin fibroblasts was established as mosaic tetrasomy of 12p 47,XX,+i (12) (p10)/46,XX. The origin of the extra marker chromosome was determinated by fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome 12 specific DNA probes confirming that supernumerary marker is chromosome i (12p) in 68% of cells. Despite the excessive postnatal growth we found low serum growth hormone levels and reduced response to pharmacological stimulation test. This is also the first report of a postnatal patient in our country.
Latuśkiewicz-Potemska, Joanna; Zygmunt, Agnieszka; Biernacka-Zielińska, Małgorzata; Stańczyk, Jerzy; Smolewska, Elżbieta
Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a systemic inflammatory disease affecting connective tissue with the underlying autoimmunological mechanism. The core of MCTD is an appearance of symptoms of several other inflammatory diseases of connective tissue - systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic scleroderma, poly- or dermatomyositis, rheumatoid arthritis at the same time, accompanied by a high level of anti-ribonucleoprotein antibodies (anti-U1RNP). The disease was described more than 40 years ago by Sharp et al. During recent years, many efforts to better understand clinical and serological features of MCTD have been made. Diagnosis of MCTD can be difficult. Obligatory international diagnostic criteria are required to be fulfilled. Several versions of such criteria have been proposed, but the most widely used one was described by Kasukawa. There is no consensus about treatment - a choice of drugs depends on symptoms. We present a case of a 10-year-old girl with sclerodactyly and trophic damages of fingers accompanied by symptoms of Raynaud's phenomenon. After an almost 2-year course of the disease, a diagnosis of MCTD has been established.
Talpade, Medha; Talpade, Salil
Early sexual maturation is associated with many high-risk behaviors and a prediction was made that food consumption may contribute to early onset of puberty. A comparison was made between the eating habits of several generations of African-American women. Girls today were found to consume more calcium, grains, and meat then older women did in…
Prokopec, M; Pfeiferová, K; Josífko, M
Ossification of the sesamoid bone of the first finger was studied in left hand-and-wrist X-rays of 296 Czech boys and 272 girls 9 to 15 years old using data collected between 1962 and 1966. The logit and the YES or NO methods were used in treating the data. A sesamoid bone, clearly visible to the naked eye, was considered as positive and when it was not yet visible, as negative. The sesamoid bone was developed in 50 per cent of boys at the age of 13.6 years and in 50 per cent of girls at the age of 11.2 years. This stage preceded the age at onset of menarche in Czech girls by 1.9 years. Boys showed a greater variability (SD = 1.4) than girls (SD = 0.8). Both sexes with clearly visible (ossified) sesamoid bones in their first fingers showed to be, on the average, taller and heavier in comparison with the Czech standard and with those boys and girls of corresponding ages without the sesamoid bone. In contrast to the still continuing secular trend in stature in Czech youths, the age of menarche remained in the last cca 30 years unchanged. In view of the close link between bone age and onset of menarche which remained unchanged for the past 30 years, we may consider our finding as still applicable to present-day adolescents.
Nallamothu, Ranganadh; Kallam, Shanmukha Reddy; Gunturu, Srikanth; Singh, Sukumar; Rachalapally, Vijay Kumar
A 9-year-old girl was referred to a trauma centre with severe head injury. 3D CT scan revealed depressed fracture involving the frontal bone on the right side, right parietal bone, and right superior orbital margin, right lamina papyracea. The frontal table was managed conservatively and open reduction and internal fixation was done for the supraorbital blow in to correct the ocular dystopia. The clinical course, possible mechanism, and management of the patient are discussed.
Junge, Tina; Wedderkopp, Niels; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Søgaard, Karen; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit
Generalised Joint Hypermobility (GJH) is considered an intrinsic risk factor for knee injuries. Knee neuromuscular control during landing may be altered in GJH due to reduced passive stability. The aim was to identify differences in knee neuromuscular control during landing of the Single-Leg-Hop-for-Distance test (SLHD) in 25 children with GJH compared to 29 children without GJH (controls), all 10-15years. Inclusion criteria for GJH: Beighton score⩾5/9 and minimum one hypermobile knee. EMG was recorded from the quadriceps, the hamstring and the calf muscles, presented relative to Maximum Voluntary Electrical activity (MVE). There was no difference in jump length between groups. Before landing, GJH had 33% lower Semitendinosus, but 32% higher Gastrocnemius Medialis activity and 39% higher co contraction of the lateral knee muscles, than controls. After landing, GJH had 36% lower Semitendinosus activity than controls, all significant findings. Although the groups performed equally in SLHD, GJH had a Gastrocnemius Medialis dominated neuromuscular strategy before landing, plausibly caused by reduced Semitendinosus activity. Reduced Semitendinosus activity was seen in GJH after landing, but with no compensatory Gastrocnemius Medialis activity. Reduced pre and post-activation of the Semitendinosus may present a risk factor for traumatic knee injuries as ACL ruptures in GJH with knee hypermobility.
Chung, Bo In
Discusses the successful treatment of echolalia in a 15-year-old girl with Rubinstein-Tabyi syndrome, a congenital anomaly characterized by mental and growth retardation. Intervention included a functional assessment of varied echolalic conditions, provision of a therapeutic environment that minimized echolalic responses, and reinforcement of…
Krishna, K P
This article offers 12 suggestions for improving the protection of sexually victimized children and discusses the extent, form, causes, and consequences of sexual victimization of female children in India. Female victimization includes child marriage, polygamy, rape, incest, and kidnapping for immoral purposes. A female child is victimized from birth to maturity. Girls are born into a secondary status and married off. If her dowry is meager, a girl is subjected to ridicule, criticism, or denigration. The number of prosecuted sex offenses against girls and the number of reported sex offenses increased during 1980-89. However, most sex offenses are unreported. About 63% of rape cases pertain to girls 16-30 years old. Only 18% of rape cases occur among women over age 30. During 1971-89, kidnapping increased by over 79%. Most kidnapping involves girls 3-16 years old and is connected with prostitution, begging, sexual gratification, unemployment, extreme poverty, broken homes, and antisocial surroundings. One study in 1991 found that 48% of adolescent school girls had been molested. Another study in 1985 found that 54.29% of rape victims were 7-16 years old, and 3.27% were under 7 years old. 53.88% were unmarried, and 45.32% were married. Most of the victims were unemployed, dependents, or students. Most rapists are known by the victims. The rapist and the victims tend to come from middle or lower socioeconomic classes. Brother-sister incest is about 5 times more common than father-daughter incest. The literature suggests that children are sexually abused for pleasure or material gain. A current city study found that 15% of prostitutes were under 15 years old; 24.5% were 16-18 years old. Girls enter prostitution through a temple devdasi life, abduction, regular employment, and initiation by parents and brothel keepers. Marriage victimizes girls who marry at an early age or with a poor dowry.
Caissy, Gail A.
Early adolescence, the period from 10 to 15 years, is a significant transitional period in human development, marking the crossroads between childhood and young adulthood. This book is designed as a guide for parents, teachers, or anyone else who has contact with and who would like to better understand early adolescent children. The chapters in…
Davalos, Eric A; Gandhi, Nishant M; Barank, David; Varma, Rajeev K
Gorham-Stout (GS) disease is a rare bone disorder of unknown etiology that is characterized by local proliferation of small vascular or lymphatic channels, resulting in progressive osteolysis and bone resorption. The diagnosis of GS disease is one of exclusion, with radiography and histopathology playing key roles. We describe a 9-year-old girl who presented to us with dyspnea and bone pain. She was found to have a cystic mass of the upper extremity, multiple cystic bone lesions, multiple fractures of different ages, and pleural effusions. We review the radiologic images that helped establish the diagnosis of GS disease.
Moavero, Romina; Cusmai, Raffaella; Roberti, Maria Cristina; Vigevano, Federico; Curatolo, Paolo
A 4-year-old girl who had been born of normal pregnancy and delivery and had an unremarkable family or personal history was referred to a neuropsychiatric department because of the appearance of peculiar nocturnal episodes. Parents described that their child abruptly became stiff during sleep. These episodes usually ranged from 20 to 40 seconds, and after that the child continued to sleep. Initially she presented 1 episode per week, but there was a progressive increase in frequency up to 3 to 4 times per night. The child never presented similar episodes while awake. Her examination revealed some café-au-lait spots, congenital microcephaly (3rd centile) and low stature for the age (10th centile). She did not present any neurologic deficit, but she failed to develop an age-appropriate speech, with a delay in the main language milestones.
Kamilaris, T.C.; DeBold, C.R.; Manolas, K.J.; Hoursanidis, A.; Panageas, S.; Yiannatos, J.
A 15-year-old girl who presented with primary amenorrhea and virilization had an adrenocortical adenoma that secreted predominantly testosterone. To the authors' knowledge, she is the first peripubertal and second youngest patient with a testosterone-secreting adrenal tumor described. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and urinary 17-ketosteroid an 17-hydroxycorticosteroid levels were normal. A tumor was located by a computed tomographic (CT) scan and by uptake of 6-..beta..-(/sup 75/Se) selenomethylnorcholesterol. Microscopic examination of the tumor showed typical features of an adrenocortical adenoma with no histologic features characteristic of Leydig cells. Postoperatively, her hirsutism regressed, she rapidly went through puberty, and regular monthly menstruation started four months later. Finding the source of testosterone in a virilized patient can be difficult. Eleven of the 14 previously described patients with testosterone-secreting adrenal tumors initially underwent misdirected surgery on the ovaries. Review of these cases revealed that results of hormone stimulation and suppression tests are unreliable and that these tumors are usually large. Therefore, CT scanning of the adrenal glands is recommended in all patients suspected of having a testosterone-secreting tumor.
Girls and women with Rett syndrome (RTT) are at increased risk for osteopenia and skeletal fractures. Our objective was to characterize the natural history of bone mineralization in RTT girls and women across their life span and to identify genetic, nutritional, physical, hormonal, or inflammatory ...
Gorsky, M; Raviv, M; Raviv, E
Pemphigus vulgaris, a chronic autoimmune vesiculobullous disease, affects people in their fifth or sixth decade of life. Involvement in adolescence is rare with only about 30 cases reported in the last 35 years. This article presents a case of adolescent pemphigus vulgaris in a 15-year-old girl with oral and skin lesions. The patient has been free of lesions with a maintenance dosage of 10 mg of prednisone every other day. The mean age of the 31 patients, including our patient, was 14 years. Skin involvement was reported in 87% of patients, oral involvement in 87%, and skin and oral lesions in 81% with oral lesions preceding skin lesions. Early diagnosis of adolescent pemphigus vulgaris is important to eliminate or reduce the severity of further intraoral or extraoral involvement. The term adolescent pemphigus vulgaris is suggested when the onset is between 12 and 18 years of age.
Mechelhoff, David; van Noort, Betteke Maria; Weschke, Bernhard; Bachmann, Christian J; Wagner, Christiane; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Winter, Sibylle
Since 2007, more than 600 patients have been diagnosed with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis, with almost 40 % of those affected being children or adolescents. In early phases of the illness, this life-threatening disease is characterized by psychiatric symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, obsessions, hallucinations or delusions. Consequently, a high percentage of patients receive psychiatric diagnoses at first, hindering the crucial early diagnosis and treatment of the anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. We report on a 15-year-old girl initially presenting with pathological eating behaviour and significant weight loss resulting in an (atypical) anorexia nervosa (AN) diagnosis. Her early course of illness, diagnostic process, treatment and short-term outcome are described. This case report aims to raise awareness about the association between anorectic behaviour and anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and highlight the importance of multidisciplinary teams in child and adolescent services.
Cemeroglu, A P; Böber, E; Dündar, B; Büyükgebiz, A
We report a 14 year-old peripubertal girl who presented at our clinic with the primary complaint of delayed puberty. She was asymptomatic except for vague complaints of fatigue. Physical examination was significant for mucosal hyperpigmentation and lack of secondary sexual characteristics. Laboratory evaluation revealed a morning cortisol concentration of <0.1 microg/dl (normal range [n.r.]: 4.3-22.4 microg/dl) and a simultaneous ACTH concentration of 2 pg/ml (n.r. 25-62 pg/ml); FSH 66.8 IU/l (n.r. for age: 1-12.8 IU/l); LH 41.1 IU/l (n.r. for age: 1-12 IU/l); E2 38 pg/ml (n.r. for age: 7-60 pg/ml). She had a flat cortisol response to an ACTH stimulation test. MRI of the pituitary gland failed to reveal a lesion. Plasma renin activity, thyroid function tests, parathyroid hormone, prolactin, IGF-I, IGFBP-3 concentrations and serum electrolytes were normal. However, her urinary sodium concentration was high. She was diagnosed with autoimmune polyglandular endocrinopathy including ovarian failure, adrenal failure and autoimmune anterior hypophysitis presenting as isolated ACTH deficiency. We emphasize that autoimmune etiology should be considered in the differential diagnosis of delayed puberty and ovarian failure and that the presence of other endocrinopathies should be searched for even in asymptomatic patients.
Kasiri, Karam-Ali; Khoshdel, Abolfazl
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most common identifiable cause of serious or life threatening sporadic, endemic encephalitis. Typical HSV encephalitis in patients outside neonatal age is caused by HSV-1. A 23-month-old girl was referred to our hospital with a three-day history of fever, listlessness, slurred speech, and suspicious oesophageal foreign body impaction. Laboratory evaluations showed white blood cell count of 10900 /mm3 with 65% neutrophils. Upper endoscopy revealed diffuse severe ulceration in middle to distal third of oesophagus and no foreign body was found in oesophagus or stomach. Parenteral acyclovir was prescribed for herpes encephalitis in addition to antibiotics for central nervous system infection. Chest X-ray and brain MRI was unremarkable. Lumbar puncture revealed normal protein and glucose with 10 white cell count. She developed a raising liver enzyme tests. Total and direct bilirubin was 1.2 mg/dc and 0.2 mg/dc respectively. Because of neurological symptoms, acyclovir was adopted for our patient from the beginning. The girl did not respond to medication and died after 28 days. Progression of her disease prior to referral appears to contribute to the administered treatment inefficacy. Severe rapid progression of disease prior to referral and potential resistance to acyclovir could cause treatment failure. PMID:26155527
Olejek, Anita; Kellas-Sleczka, Sylwia; Kozak-Darmas, Iwona; Bilska, Anna; Zamłyński, Jacek; Horak, Stanisław; Nowak, Leszek
Vulvovaginitis is the most common cause of gynecological complaints in young girls. Factors which cause vulvovaginitis include, among other things, low level of sexual hormones (hypoestrogenism), the anatomical proximity of the rectum and delicate vulvar skin and vaginal mucosa. Usually vulvovaginitis in young girls is caused by non-specific factors. The aim of the study was to present the most frequent causes of vulvovaginitis in young girls.
Jacobs, Charlotte E.; Kuriloff, Peter J.; Cox, Amanda B.
If educators want to engage girls in learning, they must align teaching practices with girls' specific needs. In a study modeled after Reichert and Hawley's study of boys, the authors learned that lessons with hands-on learning, elements of creativity, multimodal projects, and class discussions all worked to stimulate girls'…
Chatterjee, Krishnarpan; Ghosh, Anirban; Sengupta, Rimi Som
We report the case of a 15-year-old girl who was initially diagnosed to have a striatal toe. Her condition progressed and she later developed clinical features consistent with tetanus. History of blunt trauma to nose was elicited retrospectively. Antimicrobial therapy with metronidazole and both active and passive immunization was started immediately. The patient went on to make a complete recovery. PMID:26933367
Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda
Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…
Kramina, Sandra; Kevere, Laura; Bezborodovs, Nikita; Purvina, Santa; Rozentals, Guntis; Strautmanis, Jurgis; Viksna, Zane
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a disease occurring when antibodies produced by the body's own immune system attack NMDA-type glutamate receptors in the brain. Most anti-NMDAR encephalitis cases are associated with paraneoplastic syndrome. We analyze the case of a 15-year-old girl who was hospitalized in a child psychiatry clinic in Riga, Latvia, with de novo acute polymorphic psychotic disorder gradually progressing to a catatonic state. The patient received antipsychotic and electroconvulsive therapy with no beneficial effect. The council of doctors discussed differential diagnoses of schizophrenia-induced catatonia and the autoimmune limbic encephalitis-induced catatonic condition. When the diagnosis of anti-NMDAR autoimmune encephalitis was finally confirmed by repeated immunological assays (specific immunoglobulin [Ig] G and IgM in her blood serum and cerebrospinal fluid), and a paraneoplastic process was ruled out, she was started on immunomodulating therapy (methylprednisolone, Ig, plasmapheresis, rituximab), which changed the course of her disease. On immunomodulating treatment, her physical and mental health have gradually improved to almost complete reconvalescence. Psychiatrists should consider anti-NMDAR encephalitis as a differential diagnosis in first-episode psychosis patients presenting with disorientation, disturbed consciousness, pronounced cognitive deficits, movement disorder, dysautonomia, or rapid deterioration, and test for specific IgG NR1 autoantibodies, even if there are no specific findings on routine neuroimaging, electroencephalography (EEG), or cerebrospinal fluid tests.
Clark, Lynette M.
This quantitative study examined the science-related attitudes of middle school girls who attended a science-focused mentoring program and those of middle school girls who attended a traditional mentoring program. Theories related to this study include social cognitive theory, cognitive development theory, and possible selves' theory. These theories emphasize social and learning experiences that may impact the science-related attitudes of middle school girls. The research questions examined the science-related attitudes of middle school girls who participate in a science-related mentoring program. The hypotheses suggested that there are significant differences that exist between the attitudes of middle school female participants in a science-related mentoring program and female participants in a traditional mentoring program. The quantitative data were collected through a survey entitled the Test of Science-Related Attitudes (TOSRA) which measures science-related attitudes. The population of interest for this study is 11-15 year old middle school girls of various racial and socio-economic backgrounds. The sample groups for the study were middle school girls participating in either a science-focused mentoring program or a traditional mentoring program. Results of the study indicated that no significant difference existed between the science-related attitudes of middle school girls in a science-related mentoring program and the attitudes of those in a traditional mentoring program. The practical implications for examining the concerns of the study would be further investigations to increase middle school girls' science-related attitudes.
Krauthamer Ewing, E. Stephanie; Levy, Suzanne A.; Boamah-Wiafe, Linda; Kobak, Roger; Diamond, Guy
This paper describes the application of Attachment-Based Family Therapy (ABFT) to the treatment of a 13-year old female adolescent presenting with high risk of suicide, complicated by a history of depression and sexual trauma. The paper begins with an overview of ABFT, including 1) how attachment theory guides treatment; 2) the structure of the clinical model; and 3) the data that provide empirical support. A case example is then presented that exemplifies the primary clinical procedures used to reach therapeutic goals in ABFT, including attachment repair and autonomy/competence promotion. Weekly changes in suicide ideation and depression scores are presented. The paper concludes with a discussion about implications for family-based treatment of suicidal youth. PMID:25329356
Krauthamer Ewing, E Stephanie; Levy, Suzanne A; Boamah-Wiafe, Linda; Kobak, Roger; Diamond, Guy
This article describes the application of Attachment-Based Family Therapy (ABFT) to the treatment of a 13-year-old female adolescent presenting with high risk of suicide, complicated by a history of depression and sexual trauma. The article begins with an overview of ABFT, including (a) how attachment theory guides treatment; (b) the structure of the clinical model; and (c) the data that provide empirical support. A case example is then presented that exemplifies the primary clinical procedures used to reach therapeutic goals in ABFT, including attachment repair and autonomy/competence promotion. Weekly changes in suicide ideation and depression scores are presented. The article concludes with a discussion about implications for family-based treatment of suicidal youth.
Sandow, Barbara; Marks, Ann; Borg, Anne
In most countries the number of girls studying physics, as well female physicists in academic positions, is still low. Active recruitment at all levels is essential to change this situation. In some countries a large proportion of students are female, but career progression is difficult. Highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications is a major approach in attracting girls to physics. This paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from the workshop, Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the Third IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, Seoul, 2008.
Ross, Amy; Paxton, Susan J; Rodgers, Rachel F
To date, effective body image interventions for preadolescent school girls are lacking. The present study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of Y's Girl, a published body image curriculum specifically tailored for preadolescent school girls. A sample of 60 Grade 6 girls with a mean age of 11.25 (range of 11-12) years were allocated either to an intervention or control group and completed baseline and posttest measures of body image, thin-ideal internalization, body comparison, self-esteem, peer factors, and disordered eating. Findings revealed that, compared to the control group, girls receiving the intervention reported improved body image, thin-ideal internalization, body comparisons, and self-esteem at posttest 1 week after the intervention ended. Furthermore, changes in body satisfaction were moderated by initial levels of risk-factors. These findings provide initial support for Y's Girl as an effective, affordable body image intervention for preadolescent girls which can be implemented by teachers.
Riccardello, Gerald J; Barr, Luke K; Bassani, Luigi
The authors report the case of 14-year-old girl with a history of myelomeningocele and previously shunt-treated hydrocephalus who presented with right-sided abdominal pain and subcutaneous emphysema that developed over a 1-week period. A CT scan of the patient's abdomen revealed a retained distal ventriculoperitoneal (VP) catheter with air tracking from the catheter to the upper chest wall. Given the high suspicion of the catheter being intraluminal, an exploratory laparotomy was performed and revealed multiple jejunal perforations. The patient required a partial small-bowel resection and reanastomosis for complete removal of the retained catheter. Six other similar cases of bowel perforation occurring in patients with abandoned VP and subdural-peritoneal shunts have been reported. The authors analyzed these cases with regard to age of presentation, symptomatic presentation, management, morbidity, and mortality. While there was 0% mortality associated with bowel perforation secondary to a retained distal VP catheter, the morbidity was significantly high and included peritonitis and small bowel resection.
Lee, Sun Hee; Oh, Seung Hwan
Hypoglycemia was detected in a 15-year-old girl due to loss of consciousness. She was diagnosed with Graves' disease and was being treated with methimazole for the past 4 months. A paradoxically increased insulin levels was found when she suffered from the hypoglycemic episode. An imaging study showed no mass lesion in the pancreas, and insulin antibodies were found in the serum. She was diagnosed with insulin autoimmune syndrome. Her HLA typing was performed, and it revealed HLA-DRB1 *04:06. The patient was treated with a corticosteroid for 2 months. After discontinuing the steroid, the insulin antibody titer decreased dramatically, and she did not have any episode of hypoglycemia since. This is the first report of insulin autoimmune syndrome in a Korean girl, and we have revealed the connection between HLA type and insulin autoimmune syndrome in Korea. PMID:24904848
Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.
This paper investigates the characteristics of 15-year-old girls who express an intention to study physics post-16. This paper unpacks issues around within-girl group differences and similarities between boys and girls in survey responses about physics. The analysis is based on the year 10 (age 15 years) responses of 5,034 students from 137 UK schools as learners of physics during the academic year 2008-2009. A comparison between boys and girls indicates the pervasiveness of gender issues, with boys more likely to respond positively towards physics-specific constructs than girls. The analysis also indicates that girls and boys who expressed intentions to participate in physics post-16 gave similar responses towards their physics teachers and physics lessons and had comparable physics extrinsic motivation. Girls (regardless of their intention to participate in physics) were less likely than boys to be encouraged to study physics post-16 by teachers, family and friends. Despite this, there were a subset of girls still intending to study physics post-16. The crucial differences between the girls who intended to study physics post-16 and those who did not is that girls who intend to study physics post-16 had higher physics extrinsic motivation, more positive perceptions of physics teachers and lessons, greater competitiveness and a tendency to be less extrovert. This strongly suggests that higher extrinsic motivation in physics could be the crucial underlying key that encourages a subset of girls (as well as boys) in wanting to pursue physics post-16.
Mosca, A L; Callier, P; Leheup, B; Marle, N; Jalloul, M; Coffinet, L; Feillet, F; Valduga, M; Jonveaux, P; Mugneret, F
Constitutional interstitial deletions of 5q are relatively rare and most are poorly characterized cytogenetically. Consequently a definite karyotype-phenotype correlation is difficult to establish. We report on a new case of a girl presenting with an abnormal cry, upslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, anteverted nostrils, microretrognathia, growth retardation, and an adenoid cyst at the base of the tongue. The first suspected diagnosis was cri-du-chat syndrome because of the mewing cry. Standard cytogenetic analyses were interpreted as normal, but FISH studies using the probe of cri-du-chat syndrome with the control probe EGR1 (5q31.2)/D5S23 (Abbott) revealed a 5q31.2 microdeletion which was then confirmed by CGH-array (Abbott). FISH studies using PACs and BACs clones (Rocchi, Italia) enabled us to characterize the breakpoints of the deleted region. Cytogenetic analysis with FISH studies revealed a normal karyotype with normal 5q31 region in both parents. This case is compared with the other cases reported in the literature.
Aldave Becerra, Juan Carlos; Cachay Rojas, Enrique
We report a 3-year-old Peruvian girl, born to non-consanguineous parents. At the age of 8 months, she had a severe pneumonia complicated with empyema that required thoracic drainage and mechanical ventilation. Although no microorganisms were isolated, the patient recovered with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Since that date, she has presented multiple episodes of pneumonia and recurrent episodes of bronchospasm. At 1 year 5 months of age, the patient began with recurrent episodes of oropharyngeal, vaginal, and skin candidiasis, which improved transiently after using oral azole drugs. At 2.5 years of age, she was admitted with lupus-like syndrome, including serositis, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and positive antinuclear (1:80) and dsDNA (1:10) autoantibodies. Available immunologic testing was not contributory. Imaging studies revealed bilateral ethmoidal sinusitis and mild hepatomegaly. Bone marrow analysis did not showed evidence of leukemia or myelodysplasia, while renal biopsy concluded mild mesangial proliferation. Genetic studies revealed a pathogenic heterozygous signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 gain-of-function mutation (WT/P293L). The clinical status and lung function of the patient has worsened progressively. She has not achieved an optimal response to therapy, including high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin, GM-CSF, prophylactic antibiotics and antifungal drugs, so we plan to perform hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:28367431
Chen, Yun-Ju; Yu, Hsin-Hui; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Lau, Yu-Lung; Lee, Wen-I; Chiang, Bor-Luen
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is characterized by periodic fever, cutaneous rash, conjunctivitis, lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, myalgia, and arthralgia. It is a rare autosomal dominant disease and strongly associated with heterozygous mutations in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor super family 1A (TNFRSF1A) gene. It is believed to be more common in Western countries than in Asian countries. Here, we present the case of a 14-year-old girl with periodic fever and abdominal pain with elevation of inflammatory markers for 2 years. After extensive work-up of infectious etiology with negative results, the diagnosis of TRAPS was made although no gene mutations were identified in the TNFRSF1A gene, MVK gene, and NALP3/CIAS1 gene. She had partial clinical response to corticosteroids and immunomodulatory agents. However, the treatment response to TNF-α inhibitor etanercept was dramatic. She has remained symptom free under regular weekly to biweekly etanercept treatment for 2 years. We also reviewed the related literature and summarized the data of 10 Asian cases of TRAPS.
Nelson, Charles; Ponder, Jennifer
The day the Turtle Girls received Montel's adoption papers, piercing screams ricocheted across the school grounds instantaneously and simultaneously--in that moment, each student felt the joy of civic stewardship. Read on to find out how a visit to The Turtle Hospital inspired a group of elementary students to create a club devoted to supporting…
Keshtkari, A.; Dehghani, S. M.; Haghighat, M.; Imanieh, M. H.; Nasimfard, A.; Yousefi, G.; Javaherizadeh, H.
Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a serious complication of solid organ transplantation that occurs due to immunosuppression and other risk factors. PTLD may present with involvement of other organs and with unusual presentation. The presentation is often extranodal (e.g., in the gastrointestinal tract, lung, or the central nervous system). Herein, we report on a 1.5-year-old girl who underwent liver transplantation almost 5 months prior to admission. She was on medications such as tacrolimus and prednisolone. Her presentation was started with symptoms of the upper respiratory infection followed by croupy cough and respiratory distress with no response to usual treatments. She had respiratory arrest during broncoscopy. Therefore, emergency tracheostomy was done. Biopsy from the paratracheal mass revealed large B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (PTLD, monomorphic and high grade). This case presentation shows that persistent upper airway symptoms, particularly stridor and croupy cough, in children who underwent liver transplant should be further evaluated; the physician needs to have a high degree of clinical suspicion for the diagnosis of PTLD in this situation. PMID:26889375
Kumar, Santosh; Bishnoi, Kshitij; Murugavaithianathan, Pragatheeswarane; Panwar, Vikas Kumar
Castleman's disease is a rare, benign lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown origin. Paraneoplastic pemphigus is a common association which presents as oral mucosal ulcerations. Abdominal and retroperitoneal Castleman's disease present either as a localized disease or as a systemic disease. We hereby present a 15-year-old male patient with oral mucosal lesions with localized vague right lower abdominal mass who was diagnosed to have Castleman's disease with paraneoplastic pemphigus which was surgically excised. PMID:27014502
Magno, Cathryn; Kirk, Jackie
This article describes the use of visual methodologies to examine images of girls used by development agencies to portray and promote their work in girls' education, and provides a detailed discussion of three report cover images. It details the processes of methodology and tool development for the visual analysis and presents initial 'readings'…
Abul, Mehtap Haktanir; Tuano, Karen; Healy, C Mary; Vece, Timothy J; Quintanilla, Norma M; Davis, Carla M; Seeborg, Filiz O; Hanson, Imelda Celine
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) outcomes in X-linked severe combined immune deficiency are most effective when performed with patients <3 months of age and without coexisting morbidity, and with donor cells from a matched sibling. Even under such favorable circumstances, outcomes can be suboptimal, and full cellular engraftment may not be complete, which results in poor B or natural killer cell function. Protein losing enteropathies can accompany persistent immune deficiency disorders with resultant low serum globulins (immunoglobulin A [IgA], IgG, IgM) and lymphopenia. Patients with immune disorders acquire infections that can be predicted by their immune dysfunction. Fungal infections are typically noted in neutropenic (congenital or acquired) and T-cell deficient individuals. Coexisting fungal infections are rare, even in hosts who are immunocompromised, and they require careful evaluation. Antifungal treatment may result in drug-drug interactions with significant complications.
Eliasson, Miriam A.; Isaksson, Kerstin; Laflamme, Lucie
Verbal abuse has been identified as a common element in the life of children in school. This paper explores how this discursive practice is used in the construction of masculinities and femininities among children aged 14-15 through observations and interviews in classes in two schools in Stockholm. Verbal abuse, often with sexual content,…
Ravanis, Konstantinos; Pantidos, Panagiotis; Vitoratos, Evangelos
Children's mental representations about physical concepts and phenomena play a vital role in the learning process. This is confirmed by the data derived from relevant researches which demonstrate that the students formulate incompatible ideas compared with the scientific ones. In this research we investigate the representations of 14-15 years old…
Johnston, Patrick J; Kaufman, Jordy; Bajic, Julie; Sercombe, Alicia; Michie, Patricia T; Karayanidis, Frini
Most developmental studies of emotional face processing to date have focused on infants and very young children. Additionally, studies that examine emotional face processing in older children do not distinguish development in emotion and identity face processing from more generic age-related cognitive improvement. In this study, we developed a paradigm that measures processing of facial expression in comparison to facial identity and complex visual stimuli. The three matching tasks were developed (i.e., facial emotion matching, facial identity matching, and butterfly wing matching) to include stimuli of similar level of discriminability and to be equated for task difficulty in earlier samples of young adults. Ninety-two children aged 5-15 years and a new group of 24 young adults completed these three matching tasks. Young children were highly adept at the butterfly wing task relative to their performance on both face-related tasks. More importantly, in older children, development of facial emotion discrimination ability lagged behind that of facial identity discrimination.
Borg, Anne; Sui, Manling
Large regional differences remain in the number of girls studying physics and the number of female physicists in academic positions. While many countries struggle with attracting female students to university studies in physics, climbing the academic ladder is the main challenge for these women. Furthermore, for many female physicists the working climate is not very supportive. The workshop Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the 4th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, South Africa 2011, addressed attitudes among education-seeking teenagers and approaches for attracting young girls to physics through successful recruitment plans, including highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications. The current paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from this workshop.
Based on an interview with Dr. PeiYao Chen, a research analyst with Girls Incorporated, this article explores how the "Girls Study Girls Inc." participatory research project was conducted, what it meant for those involved, and what other programs can learn from it.
Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert
The role of peer harassment in the association between sexual minority status and adolescent risky behavior was examined for 15-year-olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 957). The findings, although exploratory, suggest the importance of gender. For girls, peer harassment was best viewed as a moderator of the link between sexual minority status and increased risky behavior. It intensified an existing association, reflecting the gendered nature of the impact of sexual minority status on the adolescent social context. For boys, peer harassment was primarily a mediator, such that sexual minority status was associated with more risky behavior via elevated harassment, although sexual minority status itself was associated with lower risky behavior overall.
Asil, Kiyasettin; Gunduz, Yasemin; Yaldiz, Can; Aksoy, Yakup Ersel
A 15-year-old female patient with progressive pulsatile exophthalmos caused by intraorbital encephalocele was evaluated with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in our clinic. She had no history of trauma or reconstructive surgery. When she was a little girl, she had undergone surgery for congenital glaucoma on the right eye. On the three-dimensional image of CT, a hypoplasic bone defect was observed in the greater wing of the right sphenoid bone. MRI and CT scan showed herniation through this defect of the arachnoid membrane and protruded cerebral tissue into the right orbita. Intraorbital encephalocele is an important entity that can cause pulsatile exophthalmos and blindness.
Hosny, Hala M.; Kahil, Heba M.
From our national statistics, it is evident that in the population of physicists there are considerably fewer women than men. Our role is to attract girls to physics and thus decrease this gap. The institutional structure in Egypt provides an equal opportunity for girls to study sciences, including physics. It is reckoned that girls refrain from studying physics due to a group of social and economic factors. We will discuss teaching physics at schools and present some ideas to develop it. The media should play a role in placing female physicists in the spotlight. Unfortunately, careers that require intellectual skills are considered men's careers. This necessitates that society changes the way it sees women and trusts more in their skills and talents. We therefore call for the cooperation of governmental and nongovernmental bodies, together with universities and the production sectors involved. This will ultimately lead to enhancing the entrepreneurial projects related to physics and technology on the one hand, and will encourage girls to find challenging opportunities on the other.
This article presents a profile of author Gilda O'Neill and a description of how she became a writer. She left school at 15 after being told by a teacher that "girls like her" never became writers. Now a best-selling author, she hopes her work will inspire others to regain the love of learning they lost at school. She always knew that stories…
This research study explored preadolescent girl-to-girl violence based on the perceptions of the victim at 14 years of age and those of her family. Using a heuristic research design (Moustakas, 1990), this constant comparative analysis of multiple data sources found (a) a clearly delineated progression of girl-to-girl violence, (b) blindness…
Pacheva, Iliyana; Panov, Georgi; Gillberg, Christopher; Neville, Brian
Most patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) suffer from epilepsy, and many have cognitive and behavioral problems like severe intellectual disability, autism, and hyperactivity. Only rare patients with TSC and autism have a normal intelligence quotient. We report a 13-year-old girl with definite TSC who had early-onset severe epilepsy, autistic behavior, and moderate developmental delay. By school age, however, she had normal intelligence; her intelligence quotient was at least 70 based on a Stanford-Binet test that she refused to complete. She showed good reading, writing, and language comprehension skills, and the special abilities of hyperlexia, hypermnesia, and hypercalculia. However, she did not speak. Criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, and her Childhood Autism Rating Scale score of 36 indicated mild to moderate autism. She had severe electroencephalographic abnormalities: hypsarrhythmia, multifocal or generalized epileptiform discharges, and electrical status epilepticus during sleep, with a continuous left temporal focus. Magnetic resonance imaging showed many cortical tubers in all brain lobes, and subependymal nodules. We discuss possible explanations for her lack of speech. Considered as speech apraxia, her mutism could be either a symptom of her TSC or a component of her autism. Another possibility is that long-lasting electrical status epilepticus during sleep led to her autistic behavior and language arrest. Still another possibility is that a disinhibited mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was at the root of all of her neuropsychiatric symptoms.
Whyte, Michael P; Wenkert, Deborah; McAlister, William H; Novack, Deborah V; Nenninger, Angie R; Zhang, Xiafang; Huskey, Margaret; Mumm, Steven
Dysosteosclerosis (DSS), an extremely rare dense bone disease, features short stature and fractures and sometimes optic atrophy, cranial nerve palsy, developmental delay, and failure of tooth eruption in infancy or early childhood consistent with osteopetrosis (OPT). Bone histology during childhood shows unresorbed primary spongiosa from deficient osteoclast action. Additionally, there is remarkable progressive flattening of all vertebrae and, by adolescence, paradoxical metaphyseal osteopenia with thin cortical bone. Reports of consanguinity indicate autosomal recessive inheritance, yet more affected males than females suggest X-linked recessive inheritance. We investigated a nonconsanguineous girl with DSS. Osteosclerosis was discovered at age 7 months. Our studies, spanning ages 11 to 44 months, showed weight at approximately 50th percentile, and length diminishing from approximately 30th percentile to –2.3 SD. Head circumference was +4 SD. The patient had frontal bossing, blue sclera, normal teeth, genu valgum, and unremarkable joints. Radiographs showed orbital and facial sclerosis, basilar thickening, bone-in-bone appearance of the pelvis, sclerotic long bone ends, and fractures of ribs and extremities. Progressive metaphyseal widening occurred as vertebrae changed from ovoid to flattened and became beaked anteriorly. A hemogram was normal. Consistent with OPT, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations reflected dietary calcium levels. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and TRACP-5b were subnormal. The iliac crest contained excessive primary spongiosa and no osteoclasts. No mutations were identified in the splice sites or exons for the genes encoding chloride channel 7, T-cell immune regulator 1, OPT-associated transmembrane protein 1, and monocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and its receptor C-FMS, ANKH, OPG, RANK, and RANKL. Genomic copy-number microarray was unrevealing. Hence, DSS is a distinctive OPT of unknown etiology featuring
McTigue, Kathleen M.; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Moore, Charity G.; Cohen, Elan D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf; Kuller, Lewis H.
Objective To understand the incidence and persistence of severe obesity (≥1.2× 95th BMI percentile-for-age) in girls across the transition to adolescence, and map developmental trajectories of adolescent severe obesity in a high-risk sample. Methods We examined ten years of prospectively collected data from a population sample of urban girls (n=2,226; 53% African American, aged 7–10 in 2003–2004). We determined severe obesity prevalence and incidence by age. Logistic regression evaluated for secular trend in the association between age and severe obesity prevalence. Unconditional latent growth curve models (LGCMs) compared BMI development through the adolescence transition between girls with severe obesity versus healthy BMI. Results Severe obesity prevalence was 8.3% at age 7–10 and 10.1% at age 16–19 (white: 5.9%; African American: 13.2%; p<0.001). Age-specific prevalence increased more rapidly among the latest-born, versus earliest-born, girls (p=0.034). Incidence was 1.3% to 2.4% annually. When we compared 12–15 year-old girls with severe obesity versus healthy BMI, average body weight was already distinct 5 years earlier (16.5 kg versus 25.7 kg; p<0.001) and the BMI difference between groups increased annually. LCGMs between ages 7–10 and 11–14 indicated an increase of 3.32 kg/m2 in the healthy-BMI group and 8.50 kg/m2 in the severe obesity group, a 2.6-fold difference. Conclusions Youth-onset severe obesity warrants particular concern in urban girls due to high prevalence and an increasing secular prevalence trend. Late childhood and early adolescence may represent a key developmental window for prevention and treatment, but is too late to prevent youth-onset severe obesity entirely. PMID:26509122
The views and experiences of girls in two co-educational mathematics classrooms in which computers were regularly used were researched. Data were collected by observation and videotaping of lessons, questionnaire, and interviews of students and the teachers. In this paper case studies of six girls are presented. Their `stories' reveal a diversity of experiences and views and multiple gender identities. High achieving girls persisted as "outsiders within," other girls "backed off", and exceptional girls challenged gender stereotypes. Implications for social justice in mathematics in the age of the super highway are discussed.
... Content Article Body The fact that many more boys than girls are diagnosed with ADHD—at a ... many parents and teachers that ADHD is a “boys’ disorder” that rarely occurs in girls. In fact, ...
Patiroglu, Turkan; Akar, H Haluk; Gilmour, Kimberly; Ozdemir, M Akif; Bibi, Shahnaz; Henriquez, Frances; Burns, Siobhan O; Unal, Ekrem
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a heterogeneous group of inherited defects involving the development of T- and/or B-lymphocytes. We report a female with atypical severe combined immunodeficiency caused by a novel homozygous mutation at cDNA position 2290 (c.2290C > T) in exon 2 of the RAG1 gene. The patient presented with bronchopneumonia, pyoderma gangrenosum (PG), pancytopenia and splenomegaly. She presented to us with pancytopenia and splenomegaly at the age of 11. Her condition was complicated by PG on left lower ankle at the age of 12. She experienced bronchopneumonia at the age of 15. She was diagnosed with RAG1 deficiency at the age of 16. Her immunological presentation included leucopenia and diminished number of B cells.
It is no longer possible to consider the raping of girls as an isolated atrocity of war. In Uganda, guerrilla forces have kidnapped 6000-10,000 children and have forced the "most desirable" girls to become "wives" of warlords. Girls who manage to escape are deeply traumatized and suffer ill health as well as possible social ostracism. In refugee camps, recognition that adolescent girls face special risks of rape and of engaging in the informal prostitution that may expose them to HIV/AIDS has led to the introduction of new measures to increase female security. Families in refugee camps in Burundi and Somalia protect female honor by submitting their daughters to very early marriage, which also abuses the girls' rights. Girls conscripted to military groups are forced to transport materials, cook, or help loot villages. In conditions of war, even girls who remain at home protected by their families must assume extra responsibilities, especially if men go off to fight leaving women with the agricultural and livestock burdens. Girls will be the first children withdrawn from school to help keep the household afloat. Girls and women are also expected to tend those wounded by the very war that destroys the health care services that are vital to meet women's reproductive needs. Efforts are being made to identify rape as a specific war crime, and these efforts should be extended to the kidnapping and forced recruitment of children into combat roles. Moral codes must be reestablished, even if they are only nominal at present.
Ginorio, Angela B.; Fournier, Janice; Frevert, Katie
The rural girls in science program presented a comprehensive model of the entire scientific process. National Science Foundation funded a program, which targeted girls in rural schools serving American Indian or Latina, who are less fortunate than American students of Washington State.
Choi, Hae-Won; Lee, Yeoun Joo; Oh, Seak Hee; Kim, Kyung Mo; Ryu, Jeong-Min; Lee, Beom Hee; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Yoo, Han-Wook
Hereditary fructose intolerance is an autosomal recessive disorder that is caused by a deficiency in fructose-1-phosphate aldolase (Aldolase B). Children can present with hypoglycemia, jaundice, elevated liver enzymes and hepatomegaly after intake of dietary fructose. Long-term intake of fructose in undiagnosed patients can result in hepatic failure or renal failure. We experienced a case of hereditary fructose intolerance presenting as recurrent hepatitis-like episodes. Detailed evaluation of her dietary habits revealed her avoidance of sweetened foods and fruits. Genetic analysis of ALDOB revealed that she is a homozygote for a novel frameshifting mutation c[758_759insT]+[758_759insT] (p.[val25 3fsX24]+[val253fsX24]). This report is the first of a Korean patient diagnosed with hereditary fructose intolerance using only molecular testing without undergoing intravenous fructose tolerance test or enzyme assay.
This article examines some of the performance outcomes from a practised-based research project that took place with adolescent girls attending an after-school drama club. Participants experimented with slapstick humour in a series of workshops, before presenting their own devised physical comedy performance for a live audience. Comic performances…
This pamphlet provides guidelines for parents in encouraging their daughters to participate in and enjoy athletic activities. Brief discussions are presented on: (1) the value of sport; (2) girls' needs at different age levels; (3) guidelines for supportive behavior; (4) special needs of the female athlete; (5) parent/child/coach relationship; (6)…
Mori, Mari; Goldstein, Jennifer; Young, Sarah P; Bossen, Edward H; Shoffner, John; Koeberl, Dwight D
Complex III deficiency due to a MT-CYB mutation has been reported in patients with myopathy. Here, we describe a 15-year-old boy who presented with metabolic acidosis, ketotic hypoglycemia and carnitine deficiency. Electron transport chain analysis and mitochondrial DNA sequencing on muscle tissue lead to the eventual diagnosis of complex III deficiency. This case demonstrates the critical role of muscle biopsies in a myopathy work-up, and the clinical efficacy of supplement therapy.
Mori, Mari; Goldstein, Jennifer; Young, Sarah P.; Bossen, Edward H.; Shoffner, John; Koeberl, Dwight D.
Complex III deficiency due to a MT-CYB mutation has been reported in patients with myopathy. Here, we describe a 15-year-old boy who presented with metabolic acidosis, ketotic hypoglycemia and carnitine deficiency. Electron transport chain analysis and mitochondrial DNA sequencing on muscle tissue lead to the eventual diagnosis of complex III deficiency. This case demonstrates the critical role of muscle biopsies in a myopathy work-up, and the clinical efficacy of supplement therapy. PMID:26937408
Coleman, Kathleen A.
The paper reviews music therapy, the educational background of music therapists, music therapy's various settings, and its use as an intervention with girls with Rett Syndrome. Sample music therapy programs for three girls (aged 5, 14, and 20 years) with Rett Syndrome are presented. The sample programs provide: student descriptions; the girls'…
Lamb, Sharon; Farmer, Kaelin M.; Kosterina, Elena; Lambe Sariñana, Susan; Plocha, Aleksandra; Randazzo, Renee
Building on qualitative research about sexualisation by media and culture and the impact on girls' development, in this article we present a discourse analysis of three focus groups of teen girls of colour and of diverse ethnicities asked to talk about sexiness. We focus on the ways the girls both support and resist hegemonic discourses about…
Hamed, Heather; Reyes, Jazmin; Moceri, Dominic C.; Morana, Laura; Elias, Maurice J.
The authors describe a program implemented in Red Bank Middle School in New Jersey to help at-risk, minority middle school girls realize their leadership potential. The GLO (Girls Leading Outward) program was developed by the Developing Safe and Civil Schools Project at Rutgers University and is facilitated by university students. Selected middle…
... hips and breasts than when you were a little girl. Expect Lots of Body Changes Your body makes ... wonder when you will get your period. Usually girls get their period about 2 years after their ... (this is what could happen with unprotected sex), the egg may plant itself into this uterus ...
Underwood, Marion K.
Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy…
Morris, Monique W.
Statistics show that black girls in U.S. K-12 public schools are overrepresented among students who face disciplinary approaches (such as suspensions) that exclude or even criminalize them. Morris explains how black girls face conditions that make them vulnerable to a phenomenon she calls "school to confinement pathways"--conditions like…
Zhang, Kaili Chen; Wu, Deirdra I-Hwey
This paper provides a trans-cultural perspective of emotional/behavioral difficulties and a brief overview of the subculture of today's young adolescent girls. Features of successful alternative education services provided at a Singapore girls' home are also presented. This paper concludes with a consideration of implications for teachers and…
Media provides a material site for girls' identity formation and presents conflicting images of femininity, which challenge young women's self-expression and physicality development. The "problem" with girls' physicality has not been resolved, but rather complicated by discourses of new femininities in sport, fitness and health promoted…
Mukhopadhyay, K K
This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.
OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2009
Never before have the stakes been so high for the role of science education in shaping how people interact with the environment. Human activities responsible for the production of greenhouse gases, the accumulation of waste, the fragmentation or destruction of ecosystems and the depletion of resources are having a substantial impact on the…
Strom, Ida Frugard; Thoresen, Siri; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete
Objectives: This study investigated academic achievement among adolescents exposed to violence, sexual abuse and bullying. Moreover, we sought to determine the individual and contextual influence of the adolescents' school environment in terms of bullying, classmate relationships and teacher support on academic achievement. Finally, we wished to…
Meylan, C M P; Cronin, J B; Oliver, J L; Hopkins, W G; Contreras, B
To investigate how maturity status modifies the effects of strength training and detraining on performance, we subjected 33 young men to 8 weeks of strength training twice per week followed by 8 weeks without training. Changes in performance tests were analyzed in three maturity groups based on years from/to age of predicted peak height velocity (PHV): pre-PHV (-1.7 ± 0.4 years; n = 10), mid-PHV (-0.2 ± 0.4 years; n = 11), and post-PHV (1.0 ± 0.4 years; n = 12). Mean training effects on one repetition maximum strength (3.6-10.0%), maximum explosive power (11-20%), jump length (6.5-7.4%), and sprint times (-2.1% to -4.7%) ranged from small to large, with generally greater changes in mid- and post-PHV groups. Changes in force-velocity relationships reflected generally greater increases in strength at faster velocities. In the detraining period, the pre-PHV group showed greatest loss of strength and power, the post-PHV group showed some loss of sprint performance, but all groups maintained or improved jump length. Strength training was thus generally less effective before the growth spurt. Maintenance programs are needed for most aspects of explosive performance following strength training before the growth spurt and for sprint speed after the growth spurt.
Chiu, Ming Ming; Klassen, Robert M.
Self-concept is linked to student achievement in many domains. In this study, we examined reading self-concept's (RSC) and RSC calibration accuracy's links to reading achievement across different contexts via multi-level analyses of 34 countries' 158,848 fifteen-year-olds' reading tests and questionnaire responses. Students with higher RSC, higher…
Suter, Larry E.
Elementary and secondary students spend more hours outside of class than in formal school and thus have more time for interaction with everyday science. However, evidence from a large international survey, Program of International Student Assessment (PISA) (OECD 2012), found a negative relationship between number of hours attending after-school science and science assessment scores in many countries, raising questions about why. The secondary analysis of the 2006, 2009, and 2012 PISA surveys found that in most Western countries the longer students attended after-school science programs (in a typical week), the lower their PISA standardized science test score, but the higher their positive attitudes toward future science careers, interest in science, and self-confidence in science. Several potential hypotheses for this relationship are examined and rejected. Further analysis of a causal relationship between frequent attendance in after-school programs and student achievement and attitudes should clearly identify the content of the program so that the analysis could distinguish experiences closely related to regular school curricula from the informal science activities that are not. A new analysis also should include carefully designed longitudinal surveys to test the effectiveness of informal experiences on later life choices in career and study. Revision of a Paper prepared for AERA meetings in Chicago, 19 April 2015.
Francis, Leslie J.; Village, Andrew; Penny, Gemma; Neil, Peter
Recognition that the United Kingdom has increasingly become a multi-cultural and multi-faith society has raised questions about the place of church schools or schools with a religious character within the state-maintained sector. The issue was given particular focus by the Runnymede Trusts report "Right to divide? Faith schools and community…
Berger, Dominique; Rochigneux, Jean-Claude; Bernard, Sandie; Morand, Josette; Mougniotte, Alain
In France, the National Education system has attributed an important health and sex education role to its teachers, based on a global and positive vision of sexuality Parents, teachers, public services and specialized resources each have a role to play in sex education for children and adolescents so that each young person can receive an education allowing him or her to enjoy a healthy sexuality. This study investigated the individual representations of sexuality, declared practices and knowledge of junior high schoolchildren and Section d'Enseignement G6n6ral et Professionnel Adapt6 (SEGPA) students, a structure for children with serious learning difficulties. The study methodology was based on administration of questionnaires (n = 524) to the two cohorts concerned. The secondary objective was to compare these two populations and identify the specificities of SEGPA pupils. The conclusions of this study should allow adults in charge of sex education in junior high schools and SEGPA to adapt sex education tools.
Astley, Jeff; Francis, Leslie J.
The "theology of religions" is concerned with the interpretation and evaluation of the divergent truth-claims and views of salvation that are asserted or implied by different religious traditions. This study proposes a new multi-choice index that distinguishes between six current positions within the theology of religions, characterised…
Cauzinille-Marmeche, E.; Mathieu, J.
Identified and formalized were two distinct learning strategies employed by 120 children between 7 and 15 years of age who played a simple, computerized board game. "Hexapawn" is played by moving pawns in turn on a 3 x 3 grid, in order to be the first to reach the opponent's starting line or block the opponent. The computer always moved…
Suter, Larry E.
Elementary and secondary students spend more hours outside of class than in formal school and thus have more time for interaction with everyday science. However, evidence from a large international survey, Program of International Student Assessment (PISA) (OECD 2012), found a negative relationship between number of hours attending after-school…
Heisler, M; Rasekh, Z; Iacopino, V
Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) conducted a study in early 1998 to assess the health and human rights conditions of Afghan women and girls living under the Taliban regime in Kabul. This paper highlights the concerns and experiences of adolescent girls in Kabul, includes a brief overview of the political situation in Afghanistan and Taliban policies toward women and girls, and presents findings from interviews with adolescent girls and women with adolescent daughters. It concludes with a discussion of current international standards for the protection of women's and girls' rights and the crucial role of health professionals in helping defend these rights.
For the past two summers, I have run an NSF-funded residential camp for girls ages 14-17. This camp is designed to stimulate girls' interest in science by building on their interest in automobiles. The girls spend half the day in hands-on work with cars at Morrisville State College. The other half of the day is dedicated to laboratory exercises at Colgate University that have been designed to help girls learn the science behind the operation of cars. While it is impossible to assess the long-range impact of this program after only two years, the results seem promising. I will discuss the camp program, with particular emphasis on the laboratory experiments that have been developed, which could easily be incorporated into standard high school or college laboratories.
This contribution gives an overview over 40 years of girls-work in Germany. It highlights certain topics and theoretical implications and emphasises especially the realisation of queer theory and deconstructivism in the last 10 years. (Contains 4 notes.)
Heyman, Cory; Brush, Lorie; Provasnik, Stephen; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan
Access to quality education is a problem for all rural children in Peru, but especially for rural girls, who complete primary school at far lower rates than other Peruvian children. In 1998, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity (GEA) in Peru, also known as New Horizons for Girls' Education, which aims to increase girls' completion of…
Kennedy, Carolyn L.
This book was written to help Girl Scout leaders prepare themselves and the girls with whom they work to enjoy outdoor experiences together. It complements the age-level handbook and leaders' guide, and training provided by the local Girl Scout council. The book contains nine chapters. The first chapter lists age-level characteristics of girls,…
Studies on the effect of only-child status on girls' education indicate that the only-child policy has had an unintended consequence of engendering a child-centered culture with a strong belief and shared interest among the urban community in educating the only-child regardless of the child's sex. As the distribution of education by sex is…
Waldron, Linda M.
This article uses a race-class-gender intersectional approach to analyze qualitative interviews with girls at two public high schools to better understand a common perception that "girls are worse" when it comes to school fights. Several different understandings of why girls fight emerged from the data. On one hand, girls' perception of…
Graves, Kelly N; Sentner, Annette; Workman, Jean; Mackey, Wanda
In response to the public health epidemic of teenage pregnancy, the present study investigated a new, gender-specific, school-based approach to adolescent pregnancy prevention for middle school girls called Smart Girls Life Skills Training(©) (Smart Girls). Participants included 854 students (633, experimental group; 221, control group) across three time points to assess change in social sexuality expectations, personal/self sexuality expectations, perceived susceptibility, and parent-adolescent communication. Girls who received the Smart Girls curriculum increased their personal/self sexuality expectations and improved some aspects of their parent-adolescent communication compared to control group participants. The evaluation provides initial evidence that Smart Girls is at least partially effective at changing personal/self sexuality expectations and parent-adolescent communication for middle school girls. Implications, recommendations, and next steps for school-based teen pregnancy prevention programs are offered.
Pokhrel, S M; Badu, B P; Lavaju, P; Shrestha, B G; Pant, A R; Agarwal, M
The pleomorphic adenoma of lacrimal gland presents as a painless, progressive, slowly growing supero-temporal swelling with variable proptosis. This tumor is usually found in adults and extremely rare in teenage. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy with pleomorphic adenoma of lacrimal gland which mimicked pseudotumor of orbit due to its presentation as an orbital inflammatory disease and the age distribution. Neuroimaging also suggested pseudotumor and oral steroid was started. But, there was no improvement on steroids and ultrasound guided Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) was performed which suggested Pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland. En-bloc excision of the mass through antero-lateral orbitotomy was done with satisfactory final outcome The histopathological evaluation was consistent with pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland.
Chen, Peiyao; Weiss, Faedra Lazar; Nicholson, Heather Johnston
Between 2004 and 2007, Girls Incorporated conducted research about the experience of five affiliates from different parts of the United States as they engaged with girls in Girls Study Girls Inc., a participatory evaluation project that explored the meaning and impact of Girls Inc. environments and uncovered ways such environments can be improved. We describe the context and motivation for using participatory action research [PAR] in Girls Inc. environments and discuss the relevance and importance of PAR for organizations that empower girls and young women. We explain the process of training and engaging Girls Inc. members in research, discuss the effectiveness of Girls Study Girls Inc. as an evaluation strategy, and conclude this article with lessons learned and recommendations for using PAR in evaluating youth development programs.
Gunduz, Yasemin; Yaldiz, Can; Aksoy, Yakup Ersel
A 15-year-old female patient with progressive pulsatile exophthalmos caused by intraorbital encephalocele was evaluated with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in our clinic. She had no history of trauma or reconstructive surgery. When she was a little girl, she had undergone surgery for congenital glaucoma on the right eye. On the three-dimensional image of CT, a hypoplasic bone defect was observed in the greater wing of the right sphenoid bone. MRI and CT scan showed herniation through this defect of the arachnoid membrane and protruded cerebral tissue into the right orbita. Intraorbital encephalocele is an important entity that can cause pulsatile exophthalmos and blindness. PMID:25674346
Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.
This paper explores the factors that are associated in England with 15-year-old students' intentions to study physics after the age of 16, when it is no longer compulsory. Survey responses were collated from 5,034 year 10 students as learners of physics during the academic year 2008-2009 from 137 England secondary schools. Our analysis uses individual items from the survey rather than constructs (aggregates of items) to explore what it is about physics teachers, physics lessons and physics itself that is most correlated with intended participation in physics after the age of 16. Our findings indicate that extrinsic material gain motivation in physics was the most important factor associated with intended participation. In addition, an item-level analysis helped to uncover issues around gender inequality in physics educational experiences which were masked by the use of construct-based analyses. Girls' perceptions of their physics teachers were similar to those of boys on many fronts. However, despite the encouragement individual students receive from their teachers being a key factor associated with aspirations to continue with physics, girls were statistically significantly less likely to receive such encouragement. We also found that girls had less positive experiences of their physics lessons and physics education than did boys.
Rossiter, E. J. R.; Callaghan, C.
Following a literature review on Rett's Syndrome, a case study is presented of a 15-year-old girl with normal development during the first months of life followed by manifestation of behavior abnormalities and deterioration of intellectual level. The child's medical history and the mother's description of the girl's development are included.…
Denner, Jill; Bean, Steve; Martinez, Jacob
This article describes the Girl Game Company's involvement in teaching Latina girls to design and program computer games while building a network of support to help them pursue IT courses and careers. Afterschool programs like the Girl Game Company can fill an important gap by providing opportunities for underserved youth to build IT fluency. A…
In this article, I draw on Judith Butler's notion of performativity to investigate the role of digital technologies in processes of gendered subjectification (or "girling") in elite girls' education. Elite girls' schooling is a site where the potential of digital technologies in mediating student-led constructions and explorations of…
School violence is not gender-exclusive to boys; girls are also capable of violence. Research shows that girl-to-girl violence stems from competition for male attention and tends to be relational in nature, which typically takes the form of social alienation, spreading of rumors, and otherwise manipulating the victim's peer group. By proactively…
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Ormerod, M. B.; And Others
Secondary school students' attitudes toward science or the sciences were determined with specially constructed scales and from records relating to student enrollment in science courses. Emphasis is placed on factors which influence girls to enroll in physical science courses vs biological science courses. (SA)
Harris, Janice H.
Uses fairy tale of the goose girl to explain administrative behaviors designed to keep well-intentioned, misguided females away from the action. Notes that in administration it is necessary to be more assertive, that one must recognize the differences between the demands and privileges of the administrative and nonadministrative tasks. (NB)
Three years ago, the San Diego Zoo embarked on a new crusade--to introduce opportunities in the scientific realm to a small, diverse population of girls at a local inner-city, low-income junior high school. Researchers from the National Council for Research on Women found that mentoring programs and the opportunity to perform active science are…
Prior to a teaching assignment at Miyazaki Women's Junior College in 1993, the author accepted a 6-month contract to teach in the women's high school of the Miyazaki Educational Institute. In this article, she shares her first-day experience with a class of fifteen Miyazaki Girls' High School freshmen on their first lesson, a question-and-answer…
The GO-GIRL Program is a unique project, characterized by its ability to bring together pivotal elements within a youth-intervention program and foster collaboration between university and local communities in large and moderate-size urban areas through service learning. Designed to bolster the social-skill development, educational outcomes, and…
A "networking" processing pioneered by the Committee for the Concerns of Women in New England Colleges and Universities, which is establishing a New Girl network to compete with and eventually mesh with the Old Boy system, is described. Lobbying and conference efforts of HERS (Higher Education Resource Services) are reported. (LBH)
This book contains full instructions for making 14 costumes for girls to fit any sizes up to about 147 cm (4 feet 10 inches) in height. All the garments can be made to fit any child's individual measurements without the need of complicated pattern pieces. Simple basic shapes such as rectangles and circles are used for the patterns and the only…
Warburton, Edward C.
In the past decade, much has been written about threats to boys' and girls' healthy participation in dance. This Viewpoints essay considers some of the causes and proposed remedies, which focus almost exclusively on the roles and responsibilities of dance educators and administrators. I suggest that what is missing from recent research,…
The present study was undertaken to compare the scientific temper of high and low achieving adolescent girl students. Random sampling technique was used to draw the sample from various high schools of District Srinagar. The sample for the present study consisted of 120 school going adolescent girls (60 high and 60 low achievers). Data was…
Curriculum Review, 2008
A new website is helping girls who doubt their athletic abilities: www.ihategymclass.com. The website encourages girls through articles and an advice column, where girls can bring issues related to sports that they might be embarrassed to take to peers or a physical education teacher. Website founder Heather E. Schwartz says she wanted to reach…
Graber, Julia A.; Sontag, Lisa M.
The psychosocial impact of puberty on changes in girls' feelings about their bodies and their sexuality is discussed. We present a model of girls' sexuality development that incorporates puberty, self, and peer systems. (Contains 2 figures.)
Carter, Rona; Jaccard, James; Silverman, Wendy K.; Pina, Armando A.
Using an "at-risk" sample of African American girls, the present study examined the link between girls' retrospective reports of pubertal timing, girls' perceived relative pubertal timing, and their behavioral and emotional problems as rated by the girls themselves (N = 102; 11-17 years), as well as teachers and parents. Structural equation…
Bartsch, Ingrid; Snow, Eleanour; Bell, Susan
Presents the planning, implementation, and assessment of a four-week summer program entitled Florida Education in Geology and Ecology: FLEDGE-ling Camp for Girls. Exit surveys and follow-up interviews proved that girls learned most from field and hands-on activities. Outcomes included a change in view of science and scientists and an increase in…
Brown, Lyn Mikel
Challenging conventional characterization of teenage girlhood as a wasteland of depression, low self-esteem, and passive victimhood, this book presents accounts of young girls showing how their voices are shaped and constrained by socioeconomic class. Based on a year-long study involving conversations with white adolescent girls from the working…
Vedul-Kjelsås, Vigdis; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Sigmundsson, Hermundur
By using the Movement Assessment Battery (MABC), the present study investigated possible gender differences in several tasks of motor competence in children. The sample included 67 Norwegian sixth-grade children (Girls N?=?29; Boys?=?39). Boys' performance exceeds that of girls in ball skills and in one of the balance skills. No differences were…
This book presents recent research-based information about educationally relevant gender-related differences between girls and boys and how they are taught and perceived in society. The book offers practical suggestions on how to avoid trammeling either girls or boys, how to overcome negative aspects of gender-stereotyping, and how to maximize…
Fidler, Merrie A.
This presentation provides an historical sketch of the All-American Girls' Baseball League (AAGBBL). The League was created in 1942 as the All-American Girls' Softball League, by Philip K. Wrigley. He initiated the League as a non-profit organization governed by a board of three trustees. Mr. Wrigley's basic motivation for creating the AAGSBL was…
National Vocational Guidance Association, Washington, DC.
Selections from papers given at a 1973 workshop held at Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina, are presented. Seventy-nine participants gathered to search out new insights into the changing world of girls and women. A forword by Carl McDaniels and an introduction by Thelma Lennon precede the 12 papers, which include: (1) Historical…
Lockheed, Marlaine E.; Frakt, Steven B.
Indicates that although computer science has been free of male domination, the stereotype of computers as male machines is emerging with increasing growth in microcomputer use by children. Factors that account for this development and some strategies teachers can adopt to equalize computer use by boys and girls are presented. (MBR)
Curriculum Review, 2009
The most recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (2003-2004) revealed that approximately 18% of children 6-to-19 years old are overweight. The Beacon Street Girls brand was specifically designed to entertain while providing healthy role models and positive messages. This article presents a study that tested whether an…
Harris, Mary G.
Interviews with 21 present and former female gang members illustrate the lives of Mexican American girls in the gang milieu of the San Fernando Valley (Los Angeles, California). Gang structure, activities, and reasons for joining are discussed, along with the gang as a source of support. (SLD)
Stoet, Gijsbert; Bailey, Drew H; Moore, Alex M; Geary, David C
Despite international advancements in gender equality across a variety of societal domains, the underrepresentation of girls and women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related fields persists. In this study, we explored the possibility that the sex difference in mathematics anxiety contributes to this disparity. More specifically, we tested a number of predictions from the prominent gender stratification model, which is the leading psychological theory of cross-national patterns of sex differences in mathematics anxiety and performance. To this end, we analyzed data from 761,655 15-year old students across 68 nations who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Most importantly and contra predictions, we showed that economically developed and more gender equal countries have a lower overall level of mathematics anxiety, and yet a larger national sex difference in mathematics anxiety relative to less developed countries. Further, although relatively more mothers work in STEM fields in more developed countries, these parents valued, on average, mathematical competence more in their sons than their daughters. The proportion of mothers working in STEM was unrelated to sex differences in mathematics anxiety or performance. We propose that the gender stratification model fails to account for these national patterns and that an alternative model is needed. In the discussion, we suggest how an interaction between socio-cultural values and sex-specific psychological traits can better explain these patterns. We also discuss implications for policies aiming to increase girls' STEM participation.
Choate, Laura Hensley
Because body image dissatisfaction is such a pervasive problem in adolescent girls, school counselors need to develop effective prevention programs in this area. In this article, a model to promote girls' body image resilience is presented. The model identifies five protective factors that contribute to girls' abilities to resist sociocultural…
Willemsen, Laura Wangsness; DeJaeghere, Joan
Literature on schooling in Africa often frames sexual relationships as threatening girls' educational participation, health, and general well-being. Schooling practices aimed at sheltering girls reflect the prevalence of discourses emphasising danger and abstinence. This article presents the case of one all-girls school in Tanzania which provides…
Lipschitz, Deborah S.; Mayes, Linda M.; Rasmusson, Ann M.; Anyan, Walter; Billingslea, Eileen; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Southwick, Steven M.
Objective: To assess baseline and modulated acoustic startle responses in adolescent girls with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Twenty-eight adolescent girls with PTSD and 23 healthy control girls were recruited for participation in the study. Acoustic stimuli were bursts of white noise of 104 dB presented biaurally through…
Provasnik, Stephen; Brush, Lorie; Heyman, Cory; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan
Guatemala's school completion rates are among the lowest in Latin America and are particularly low in rural indigenous areas ravaged by 36 years of civil conflict. In 1997, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity, known as Proyecto Global in Guatemala, to increase the percentage of girls who complete fifth grade, especially in rural areas and…
Feminist researchers in psychology and education have been theorizing about the kind of sexuality girls ought to have. They are not afraid to investigate morality and what makes a good life. While they explore the meaning and cultural context of girls' sexual development, the good sexual life they describe may be an elusive ideal that, in the end,…
Jaffee, Lynn; Bergeron, Suzie
This article is the final report on a study of adolescent girls which explored the relationship between physical activity and self-esteem. Two earlier phases of the study collected data on girls aged 9 to 12 years (n=76) and aged 12 to 17 years (n=67). A questionnaire explored: (1) confidence and perceived competence; (2) sports and activity…
This article explores some of the issues that have given rise to the perception of an increase in aggressive behaviour by females. It asserts that merely comparing girls' behaviour with that of boys, especially the claim that "girls are behaving like boys", trivialises the very real issues associated with females and aggression. This paper will…
Background The purpose of this study was to examine the association between muscular fitness (MF), assessed by 2 components of Fitnessgram test battery, the Curl-Up and Push-Ups tests and the metabolic risk score among adolescent girls. Methods A total of 229 girls (aged 12-15 years old) comprised the sample of this study. Anthropometric data (height, body mass, waist circumference) were collected. Body mass index (BMI) was also calculated. Muscular strength was assessed taking into account the tests that comprised the FITNESSGRAM test battery, i.e. the curl-up and the push-up. Participants were then categorized in one of 3 categories according the number of tests in which they accomplished the scores that allow them to be classified in health or above health zone. The blood pressure [BP], fasting total cholesterol [TC], low density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], high density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], triglycerides [TG], glucose, and a metabolic risk score (MRS) were also examined. Physical Activity Index (PAI) was obtained by questionnaire. Results Higher compliance with health-zone criteria (good in the 2 tests), adjusted for age and maturation, were positive and significantly (p ≤ 0.05) associated with height (r = 0.19) and PAI (r = 0.21), while a significant but negative association was found for BMI (r = -0.12); WC (r = -0.19); TC (r = -0.16); TG (r = -0.16); LDL (r = -0.16) and MRS (r = -0.16). Logistic regression showed that who were assigned to MF fittest group were less likely (OR = 0.27; p = 0.003) to be classified overweight/obese and less likely (OR = 0.26; p = 0.03) to be classified as having MRS. This last association was also found for those whom only performed 1 test under the health zone (OR = 0.23; p = 0.02). Conclusions Our data showed that low strength test performance was associated with increased risk for obesity and metabolic risk in adolescent girls even after adjustment for age and maturation. PMID:20573222
Stricker, T; Navratil, F; Sennhauser, F
This retrospective study evaluated the clinical features and findings in bacterial cultures and in microscopic examination of vaginal secretions in 80 prepubertal girls, aged 2–12 years, with vulvovaginitis. Vaginal secretions were obtained directly from the vagina with a sterile catheter carefully inserted into the vagina. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated in 36% of cases. In 59% of these cases the isolated pathogen was group A ß-haemolytic streptococcus. Candida was not found in any of the patients. The finding of leucocytes in vaginal secretions as an indicator for growth of pathogenic bacteria had a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 59%. Antimicrobial treatment should therefore be based on bacteriological findings of vaginal secretions and not on the presence of leucocytes alone. PMID:12651758
Discusses gendered-discourse in the foreign language classroom. Presents research suggesting that boys do not necessarily always dominate and that girls create learning opportunities for themselves and are able to utilize those provided by the teacher. (Author/VWL)
Kuperminc, Gabriel P; Thomason, Jessica; DiMeo, Michelle; Broomfield-Massey, Kimberley
The past two decades have seen a transformation in youth programming toward a comprehensive positive youth development (YD) framework. Cool Girls, Inc., a YD program, focuses on improving girls' life chances by promoting positive behaviors and attitudes in multiple domains. These include self-concept, academic orientation, future orientation, and healthy behaviors. The present study uses a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent comparison group design to examine short-term effects of participation in Cool Girls, Inc. on multiple indicators of each of these domains. Participants were predominately African American and included 86 program participants and 89 comparisons in grades 4-8. Self-report questionnaires were administered at pretest (September-October) and posttest (April-May) of the 2005-2006 academic school year. We hypothesized that program participants would show improvements across domains of self-concept, academic orientation, future orientation, and healthy behavior. Relative to comparisons, program participants experienced gains in scholastic competence, hope for the future, and physical activity. Cool Girls participants with a mentor experienced significant gains in social acceptance and body image relative to other Cool Girls and were more than four times as likely to have expectations of avoiding drug use in the future. The role of mentoring as well as the study's practical significance, strengths, and limitations are discussed.
Rees, Chris A; Long, Katelyn N; Gray, Bobbi; West, Joshua H; Chanani, Sheila; Spielberg, Freya; Crookston, Benjamin T
Adolescent girls in India carry a disproportionate burden of health and social risks; girls that do not finish secondary education are more likely to have an earlier age of sexual initiation, engage in risky sexual behavior, and consequentially be at greater risk of dying from pregnancy-related causes. This paper presents a comparison of girls in school and girls not in school from 665 participants in rural West Bengal, India. The social cognitive theory (SCT), a comprehensive theoretical model, was used as a framework to describe the personal, behavioral, and environmental factors affecting the lives of these adolescent girls. There were significant differences between girls in and out of school in all three categories of the SCT; girls in school were more likely to have heard of sexually transmitted diseases or infections than girls not in school (p<0.0001). Girls in school were also more likely than girls not in school to boil water before drinking (p=0.0078), and girls in school lived in dwellings with 2.3 rooms on average, whereas girls not in school lived in dwellings with only 1.7 rooms (p<0.0001). Indian adolescent girls who are not in school are disadvantaged both economically and by their lack of health knowledge and proper health behaviors when compared with girls who are still in school. In addition, to programs to keep girls in school, efforts should also be made to provide informal education to girls not in school to improve their health knowledge and behaviors.
Summary A 15-year-old female patient presented to the emergency room with vomiting and abdominal pain. She had two similar attacks in the previous three months both of them were diagnosed as pancreatitis in two different hospitals. On admission, her serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were very high. CT scan revealed left inferior parathyroid adenoma. Investigations to rule out possible multiple endocrine neoplasia were all negative. The patient was managed by intravenous fluids and furosemide to lower her serum calcium level. Then, left inferior parathyroidectomy was done. Postoperatively, the patient had hungry bone syndrome with severe hypocalcaemia and was managed by intravenous calcium infusion for five days in the intensive care unit. Later, she was kept on oral calcium and vitamin D supplementation. She became symptom-free and her serum calcium improved gradually. PMID:26604950
Park, Youngah; Yoon, Jin-Hee
The Women's Committee of the Korean Physical Society organized physics camps during the summers of 2002, 2003, and 2004 for high school girls. The camps give the girls an opportunity to meet and interact with working physicists and enhance smart-girl networking. About 40 students in 10 teams visited excellent laboratories in universities and research institutes located in diverse areas of the country. The girls explored the work going on in each laboratory for a few days and participated in some basic experiments when possible. Afterward they gathered at the on-site camp for oral and poster presentations about what they learned and what they did in the laboratories they visited. Their presentations were evaluated and prizes awarded for outstanding teams. These camps were successful in terms of attracting many enthusiastic girl students and enhancing their interest in physics. The camps also showed the Korean physics community the importance of this kind of activity. To attract many girl students from various regions of the country, the Korean Physical Society co-organized the physics camp with the WISE (Women in Science and Engineering) Center, which has a network system for girl students interested in science and mathematics. The 2004 KPS-ASML-WISE Physics camp was supported by the ASML Foundation in the Netherlands.
Hilton, Sheena; Fleming, Bonnie
Girls' Science Investigations (GSI) New Haven is a program which aims at encouraging middle school girls to pursue careers in science. To accomplish this goal, each day at GSI features a different area of science; ``the material world,'' ``the chemical world,'' and ``the electromagnetic world'' are examples of the sessions held during the past two years. Every session features a short explanation of the science topic given by a volunteer and a variety of hands-on activities, which allow the girls to experiment with and absorb the concepts presented in the short presentations. Activities are selected based on their ability to visualize the concepts under study. The education philosophy of GSI is that if the students have the opportunity to perform science experiments themselves, rather than just watching others do it, and enjoy performing these experiments, then the students will be more confident in their ability to succeed in a scientific field. Thus, in addition to encouraging girls to learn as much science as they can, the volunteers work to ensure that the girls enjoy the program as well. By giving the girls the opportunity to explore science in a fun and exciting way, the girls begin to see themselves as capable of becoming scientists and are more inclined to pursue science in the future.
A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.
Presents the views and experiences of six girls in two co-educational mathematics classrooms in which computers were regularly used. Indicates a diversity of experiences and views and multiple gender identities. Discusses implications for social justice in mathematics in the age of the information super highway. (Author/KHR)
Kekelis, Linda S.; Ancheta, Rebecca Wepsic; Heber, Etta; Countryman, Jeri
In this article, we explore an understudied dimension of girls' single-sex education - how social relationships and racial diversity impact the educational environment for girls, and how teachers may best address these concerns. Findings are presented from a 3-year qualitative study of girls' experiences in a single-sex technology program. Girls valued the all-girls aspect of the programs, and friendships formed the foundation of their social experiences. Girls' friendship groups influenced their experiences and eventually their success in the after school technology programs. When friendship groups were observed to be racially homogeneous, they created challenges for including and supporting a racially diverse student membership. Our responses to the challenges that cultural differences and tensions present are outlined, along with recommendations for helping girls bridge these differences.
A study of girls' Internet usage collected data from 1,246 girls aged 13-18 via focus groups, personal journals, and surveys. Many girls didn't know how to react to situations like pornography or sexual harassment in chat room conversations. Girls wanted proactive involvement from adults, not just prohibitive advice, on navigating the Internet.…
Müller, Amanda Cecilie; Jakobsen, Marianne Antonius; Barington, Torben; Vaag, Allan Arthur; Grunnet, Louise Groth; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads
Male microchimerism, the presence of a small number of male cells, in women has been attributed to prior pregnancies. However, male microchimerism has also been reported in women with only daughters, in nulliparous women and prepubertal girls suggesting that other sources of male microchimerism must exist. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence of male microchimerism in a cohort of healthy nulliparous Danish girls aged 10-15 y using DNA extracted from cells from whole blood (buffy coats) and report the association with potential sources of male cells. A total of 154 girls were studied of which 21 (13.6%) tested positive for male microchimerism. There was a tendency that girls were more likely to test positive for male microchimerism if their mothers previously had received transfusion, had given birth to a son or had had a spontaneous abortion. Furthermore, the oldest girls were more likely to test positive for male microchimerism. However, less than half of microchimerism positivity was attributable to these factors. In conclusion, data suggest that male microchimerism in young girls may originate from an older brother either full born or from a discontinued pregnancy or from transfusion during pregnancy. We speculate that sexual intercourse may be important but other sources of male cells likely exist in young girls.
Pope, Michell; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye Z
Using semi-structured interviews, we explored African American maternal caregivers' and their adolescent girls' (N=25 dyads) perceptions about the adolescent's body using Grounded Theory. Caregivers and adolescent girls (Mage=13.42) were asked what the adolescent girls liked most/least about their bodies and how peers and media may affect adolescent girls' perceptions. While some adolescent girls reported overall body satisfaction, others described features they would like to change. Belief in God, body acceptance, and appreciation for average/moderate features helped the adolescent girls maintain their positive body image. The body-related messages that adolescent girls received from caregivers and peers included compliments, pressure to lose weight, teasing, and advice. Adolescent girls also reported being either influenced by or skeptical of the images presented in the media. Programs that promote caregiver-adolescent communication about body perceptions and that build on the adolescent girls' media skepticism may prove useful for their health-related attitudes and behaviors.
The characters, in little girl style, who more and more often appear in advertisements, glossy magazines, television programs and megastores, and who can be encountered in the streets of many cities, are not the product of an ephimerous fashion dictated by the logic of the market. They come from far away, disquieting and erotic, and have crossed all the cultures of the western world, fascinating and disconcerting the soul with their power of seduction. They are the nymphs of Greek mythology, and not even the gods were able to resist them, knowing very well that their bodies are a place of knowledge that could lead to insanity. The paradox of the nymph is that possessing her means being possessed. After an overview of the myth of possession by nymphs, the author discusses certain illustrious figures of western culture of the 19th and 20th century possessed by a nymph: Aby Warburg, Martin Heidegger, Carl Gustav Jung, Henrik Ibsen and Emil Cioran. In all of them the possession by a nymph unfolded in keeping with the myth: intellectual fervor was common to all, insanity in Warburg, rapacious egotism in Heidegger and Jung, and a metamorphosis of Weltanshaung in Ibsen and Cioran. Nonetheless, they all, in their encounter with a nymph, laid bare their multifaceted identities, the muddy depths and the "heart of darkness" of their souls.
Steese, Stephanie; Dollette, Maya; Phillips, William; Hossfeld, Elizabeth; Matthews, Gail; Taormina, Giovanna
The Girls' Circle is a support group for adolescent girls developed by Beth Hossfeld and Giovanna Taormina as a unique program that addresses the needs of girls by focusing on increasing connections, building empathic skills, and developing resiliency. The present study evaluates the effectiveness of the Girls' Circle intervention on improving…
Sitler, Helen Collins
In a montage of genres, Helen Collins Sitler illuminates the subtle yet powerful, often detrimental messages we send to girls that silence their public and private voices and diminish their opportunities to question and learn.
... a girl to be surprised by her first menstrual cycle, not knowing what is happening or why. Remember, ... physical exercises or medication. Discuss hygiene related to menstrual cycles. Be certain your daughter has the supplies she ...
Kang, Min Jae; Yang, Seung
Purpose As metabolic complication and polycystic ovarian syndrome due to childhood obesity is rising, the role of hyperandrogenemia (HA) and hyperinsulinism is receiving attention. The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of obvious HA according to pubertal status and to find potential etiologic determinants of HA in Korean obese (OB) girls. Methods We analyzed 91 girls aged 6–17 years (prepuberty, n=54; puberty, n=37). Each girl was classified as being either normal weight (NW) or OB. Anthropometric measurements were obtained and blood test was performed early in the morning after at least 8 hours of fasting to measure glucose, insulin, total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicular-stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone. Results The plasma levels of free testosterone (FT) and DHEAS were markedly higher in OB girls compared to NW girls in puberty (FT, P=0.009; DHEAS, P=0.046) but not in prepuberty (FT, P=0.183; DHEAS, P=0.052). Hyperinsulinemia and high homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values were found regardless of pubertal status in OB girls. The significant related factor to HA in puberty was the body mass index Z-score (P=0.003). But HOMA-IR, LH, and progesterone levels were not relevant to HA in pubertal girls. Conclusion OB prepubertal girls did not show HA in the present study but they should be regularly monitored because they already had hyperinsulinemia. OB pubertal girls had significant HA and hyperinsulinemia, and obesity per se was the most important factor for HA. PMID:28164075
Richards, Gill; Posnett, Carol
This study explores girls' aspirations for their future. The context was an ex-coalmining area where concerns had been raised by the local authority about the levels of girls' achievement. The focus of the research was the views of Year 6 girls as they prepared for their transition to secondary school and Year 11 girls as they prepared for their…
Dudova, Iva; Kocourkova, Jana; Koutek, Jiri
Eating disorders frequently occur in conjunction with autism spectrum disorders, posing diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. The comorbidity of anorexia nervosa and Asperger syndrome is a significant clinical complication and has been associated with a poorer prognosis. The authors are presenting the cases of an eleven-year-old girl and a five-and-a-half-year-old girl with comorbid eating disorders and Asperger syndrome. PMID:26170676
Dudova, Iva; Kocourkova, Jana; Koutek, Jiri
Eating disorders frequently occur in conjunction with autism spectrum disorders, posing diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. The comorbidity of anorexia nervosa and Asperger syndrome is a significant clinical complication and has been associated with a poorer prognosis. The authors are presenting the cases of an eleven-year-old girl and a five-and-a-half-year-old girl with comorbid eating disorders and Asperger syndrome.
Erchul, William P.; Scott, Susan Smith
This case study concerns an attempt to help a 15-year-old with the completion of written assignments and the development of time management and study skills. The document first presents the problem of the girl, Lisa, who could not complete longer written assignments due to an obsessive-compulsive anxiety disorder. The relevant history to the case…
Stein, L.A.R.; Clair, Mary; Rossi, Joseph; Martin, Rosemarie; Cancilliere, Mary Kathryn; Clarke, Jennifer G.
Objective While work has been conducted on gender differences to inform gender-specific programming, relatively little work has been done regarding racial and ethnic differences among incarcerated and detained girls in particular. This is an important gap, considering gender, race and ethnicity may be important factors in responding to the needs of incarcerated and detained girls within the Risk-Needs-Responsivity (RNR) model. We hypothesize girls will show relatively more pathology than boys, and that White girls will show relatively more pathology as compared to girls of other groups. Implications of findings for services delivery and policy are presented. Methods Data were collected on N=657 youth using structured interview and record review. Analyses included χ2 and t-tests. Results As compared to boys, girls were older at first arrest yet younger during most lock-up, received poorer grades, experienced more family difficulty, and more were lesbian/bisexual. As compared to minority girls, White girls began hard drugs at a younger age, had more conduct disorder symptoms, and more frequently experienced parental difficulty and abuse. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Age-appropriate programming that addresses family difficulty and sexuality is needed for girls. As compared to White girls, re-entry planning may more readily rely on family support for minority girls. Systems should consider use of actuarial methods in order to reduce bias in making placement decisions. PMID:25180525
Despite international advancements in gender equality across a variety of societal domains, the underrepresentation of girls and women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related fields persists. In this study, we explored the possibility that the sex difference in mathematics anxiety contributes to this disparity. More specifically, we tested a number of predictions from the prominent gender stratification model, which is the leading psychological theory of cross-national patterns of sex differences in mathematics anxiety and performance. To this end, we analyzed data from 761,655 15-year old students across 68 nations who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Most importantly and contra predictions, we showed that economically developed and more gender equal countries have a lower overall level of mathematics anxiety, and yet a larger national sex difference in mathematics anxiety relative to less developed countries. Further, although relatively more mothers work in STEM fields in more developed countries, these parents valued, on average, mathematical competence more in their sons than their daughters. The proportion of mothers working in STEM was unrelated to sex differences in mathematics anxiety or performance. We propose that the gender stratification model fails to account for these national patterns and that an alternative model is needed. In the discussion, we suggest how an interaction between socio-cultural values and sex-specific psychological traits can better explain these patterns. We also discuss implications for policies aiming to increase girls’ STEM participation. PMID:27100631
Dittmar, Helga; Halliwell, Emma; Ive, Suzanne
The ubiquitous Barbie doll was examined in the present study as a possible cause for young girls' body dissatisfaction. A total of 162 girls, from age 5 to age 8, were exposed to images of either Barbie dolls, Emme dolls (U.S. size 16), or no dolls (baseline control) and then completed assessments of body image. Girls exposed to Barbie reported…
Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison E.
Between the ages of 10 and 15, increases in depression among girls result in a rate that is twice as high as the rate of depression in boys. This sex difference remains throughout early and middle adulthood. Prior to early adolescence, there is essentially no sex difference in the rate of depression. The aim of the present review is to examine whether the preadolescent period is a time during which precursors to depression in girls can be identified. First, existing areas of research on explaining sex differences in depression, including cognitive and affiliative style and the socialization of emotion, are reviewed. Second, the hypothesis that for some girls, preadolescent precursors to depression take the form of excessive empathy, compliance and regulation of negative emotions is articulated. Third, ways of building on existing models by including the proposed preadolescent precursors are proposed. Finally, approaches to testing the hypotheses that individual differences in these domains during preadolescence may explain later individual differences in adolescent onset depression are explored. PMID:15984082
Adelowo, Olufemi; Nwankwo, Madu; Olaosebikan, Hakeem
Juvenile dermatomyositis is an autoimmune connective tissue disease occurring in children less than 16 years old. It is part of a heterogeneous group of muscle diseases called idiopathic Iiflammatory myopathies. It had previously been reported in black Africans resident in UK. However, there is no documented case reported from Africa. The index sign of heliotrope rashes is often difficult to visualise in the black skin. An 11-year-old Nigerian girl presenting with clinical, laboratory and histopathological features of juvenile dermatomyositis is presented here. It is hoped that this case will heighten the index of suspicion of this condition among medical practitioners in Africa.
Barton, Susan O'brien
During the high school years, when many students first have some choice in course selection, research indicates that girls choose to enroll in more math and science courses, take more advanced placement courses, and take more honors courses in English, biology, chemistry, mathematics, and foreign languages than ever before. Yet, not only are boys more likely to take all of the three core science courses (biology, chemistry, and physics), boys enroll in advanced placement physics approximately three times as often as do girls. This study examines the perceptions, attitudes, and aspirations of thirty high school girls enrolled in senior-level science electives in an attempt to understand their high school science course choices, and what factors were influencing them. This is a qualitative investigation employing constructivist grounded theory methods. There are two main contributions of this study. First, it presents a new conceptual and analytical framework to investigate the problem of why some high school girls do not enroll in physics coursework. This framework is grounded in the data and is comprised of three existing feminist perspectives along the liberal/radical continuum of feminist thought. Second, this study illuminates a complex set of reasons why participants avoided high school physics (particularly advanced placement physics) coursework. These reasons emerged as three broad categories related to: (a) a lack of connectedness with physics curriculum and instruction; (b) prior negative experiences with physics and math classroom climates; and (c) future academic goals and career aspirations. Taken together, the findings of this study indicate that the problem of high school girls and physics enrollment---particularly advanced placement physics enrollment---is a problem that cannot be evaluated or considered from one perspective.
BACKGROUND: This paper presents reliability and validity analyses of physical activity-related psychosocial questionnaires completed by 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls at baseline and follow-up assessments of pilot intervention studies in the Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Study (GEMS)....
Ramirez, P; Nervi, B; Bertin, P; Poggi, H; Lagos, M; Selman, C; Pizarro, I; Jara, V; Wiestruck, A; Barriga, F
Most patients who require a sibling stem cell transplantation do not have a matched donor. In our experience, only 1/3 patients have a matched unrelated donor (MUD); therefore, the majority of the patients will require umbilical cord blood (UCB). Patients treated for hematologic diseases with UCB transplants were included. UCB selection and conditioning regimens were performed according to the Minnesota group. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, infection prevention, and patient care were performed according to institutional guidelines. We analyzed patients and graft demography, neutrophil and platelet recovery, chimerism kinetics, GVHD incidence, overall (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and transplant-related mortality (TRM). We included 29 patients with a median age of 34.8 years (range 15-55). Eighteen were male and the median weight was 72.6 kg (range 54-100). Nineteen patients had acute leukemia. Myeloablative (MA) conditioning was used in 27 patients. Seventeen received double UCB (DUCB) grafts. Median total nucleated cell (10(7)/kg) was 4.2 (range 3.9-4.9) and 4.4 (range 2.8-6.3) for single UCB (SUCB) and DUCB transplants, respectively. Median time for neutrophil engraftment was 24.7 (range 14-43) and 25.8 days (range 14-52) after SUCB and DUCB transplants, respectively. Median time for platelet engraftment was 147 (range 30-516) and 81 days (range 37-200) after SUCB and DUCB transplants, respectively. All the patients receiving MA conditioning had >95% chimerism shortly after transplant. Cumulative incidence of grades II-IV and III-IV acute GVHD was 41% and 20%, respectively. Localized chronic GVHD was seen in 14% of the patients. Median follow-up was 16.7 months (range 1-63). Five-year OS and PFS were 38% and 39%, respectively. One-year TRM was 42%. UCB transplantation is associated with potential cure of hematologic malignancies and our results are similar to other series. Studies are needed to decrease mortality and improve immune reconstitution.
Mladenova, Silviya; Andreenko, Emiliya
Objetivo: estudiar el papel de algunos factores socioeconómicos y demográficos, la alimentación y la actividad física en la prevalencia del sobrepeso, la obesidad y la insuficiencia ponderal entre los niños y adolescentes búlgaros. Material y métodos: en la muestra de esta investigación se incluyeron 881 niños y adolescentes de ambos sexos, con edades comprendidas entre 8 y 15 años, que se midieron de forma transversal en el período 2012 - 2014 en las ocho escuelas del gobierno en la región de Smolyan, Bulgaria. De cada niño se midieron la altura y el peso, y se calculó el índice de masa corporal (IMC). La evaluación del estado nutricional se realizó utilizando los puntos de corte del IMC internacional para niños y adolescentes. Mediante el cuestionario se recogió información sobre el nivel educativo de los padres, el número de hijos en la familia, lugar de residencia, nutrición y hábitos de alimentación y actividad física de los niños y adolescentes. Los datos fueron analizados por el software Statistica 10.0. Resultados: existe una relación positiva significativa entre el factor “comer en exceso” y los valores de IMC para ambos sexos, y una relación negativa entre el factor de “frecuencia de comidas” y el IMC para los varones (p < 0,05). Los valores significativamente más altos de IMC se observan entre los niños que comen en exceso en comparación con sus pares, que comen cantidades normales o pequeñas de alimentos (p < 0,05). La obesidad es significativamente más frecuente entre los niños, que comen una o dos veces al día, en comparación con aquellos que tienen tres o más comidas al día (p < 0,05). Conclusión: los resultados preliminares de nuestra investigación muestran que los principales determinantes del sobrepeso, la obesidad y la insuficiencia ponderal entre los niños y adolescentes búlgaros estudiados son los factores relacionados con la alimentación y la conducta alimentaria, en particular “el comer en exceso” para ambos sexos y la “frecuencia de las comidas” para los niños. Falta la influencia distintiva de factores como el nivel de educación de los padres; el lugar de residencia, ciudad o pueblo; el régimen de alimentación diaria y la actividad física sobre el IMC y el estado nutricional de los niños y adolescentes búlgaros investigados.
A study investigated aspects of the problem of at-risk youth aged 9-15 in the public schools. Focuses were compulsory attendance education; school programs; demographics; developmental characteristics; patterns of behavior leading to academic success or failure; academic achievement; and school/community efforts. Evidence showed that compulsory…
Deljo, Emsudina; Babacic, Rafeta; Meskovic, Belma; Grabus, Jasmina
Introduction: Periodontal diseases are becoming ever growing problem, not only for stomatology, but also for medicine overall, as the final result from this disease is loss of the teeth. The main cause for the emergence of the periodontal disease is bacterial activity from dental plaque. CPI index / Community Periodontal Index is recommended from the World Health Organization for epidemiological research, and for its application, graded probe WHO for periodontal tissue, which on the top has a ball with radius of 0.5mm, is essential. The purpose of the research: The purpose of the research was to determine the status of periodontal tissue for the sixth, seventh and eighth-grade students, and to examine if continuous education about oral hygiene has a direct impact on the change on the value of CPI-index. The examinees and methods: The examinees and methods of research: during the research 300 schoolchildren (1994, 1995 and 1996 generations, (100 schoolchildren of each generation)) were examined, and these were split into three groups. In the first group, there was no education, in the second group at the beginning of the research a session was held on proper tooth - brushing and importance of oral hygiene and in the third group continuous sessions were held in the period of six months, as per pre-determined timetable (i.e. at the beginning, after seven days, after one month, after three months). The schoolchildren were examined and their CPI - index was determined at the beginning and the end of the research. The result: The result of the research has been shown in a tabular and graphic form. For the schoolchildren, where there was a continuous education about the importance of the oral hygiene, the values of CPI - index have significantly changed. Conclusion: The status of periodontal tissue for the sixth-, seventh and eighth-grade schoolchildren is unacceptable, but the continuous education about the importance of the oral hygiene is giving very good results in the prevention of emergence of oral diseases. PMID:23408145
Rasmusson, Maria; Åberg-Bengtsson, Lisbeth
Data from a Swedish PISA-sample were used (1) to identify a digital reading factor, (2) to investigate gender differences in this factor (if found), and (3) to explore how computer game playing might relate to digital reading performance and gender. The analyses were conducted with structural equation modeling techniques. In addition to an overall…
Emerson, Eric; Halpin, Sarah
Objectives: To describe the rates of anti-social behaviour (ASB) among adolescents with/without mild/moderate intellectual disability (MMID). To estimate whether any differences could be attributable to differences in exposure to extraneous risk factors. Design: Secondary analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. Methods:…
Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J.
The association between conventional religiosity and suicide inhibition has been well explored and documented since the pioneering work of Durkheim. Commentators like Heelas and Woodhead point to ways in which conventional religiosity is giving way in England and Wales to a range of alternative spiritualities, including renewed interest in…
Hintz, Eric G.; Hintz, Maureen L.; Lawler, M. Jeannette
As part of an effort to improve students' knowledge of constellations and bright stars in an introductory level descriptive astronomy survey course, we measured the baseline knowledge that students bring to the class and how their score evolve over the course of the semester. This baseline is needed by the broader astronomy education research…
Francis, Leslie J.; Robbins, Mandy
This paper draws on John Fisher's formative definition of spiritual health as comprising good relationships within four domains (the personal, the communal, the environmental and the transcendental) and uses the operationalization of these constructs proposed by Francis and Robbins (2005). Comparisons are made between the responses of five groups…
Mladenova, Silviya; Andreenko, Emiliya
Objetivo: el objetivo de este trabajo es investigar la distribucion de peso insuficiente, demasiado pesado, la obesidad general y central en 8 ninos bulgaros de 15 anos y adolescentes, a traves del uso de los indices antropometricos BMI y WHtR. Materiales y métodos: el objeto de este estudio son 878 ninos y adolescentes (437 ninos y 441 ninas) de la region de Smolyan, Bulgaria, con edades de 8 a 15 anos. El estudio es transversal y se llevo a cabo en el periodo 2012- 2014. Se miden la altura, el peso y la circunferencia de la cintura, asi como el indice de masa corporal. El sobrepeso y la obesidad se definen de acuerdo con los puntos de corte de BMI, recomendado por la IOTF y desarrollado por Cole et al. (2000:2007). La obesidad central fue definida de acuerdo con los valores discriminatorios de 0,500 de WHtR. Los datos obtenidos fueron analizados por los paquetes de software estadistico STATISTICA 10.0 y SPSS 16. Resultados: el sobrepeso se produce entre el 18,8% de los chicos y el 17,0% de las ninas, y la obesidad entre el 7,6% de los varones y el 3,7% de las chicas. Presentan bajo peso el 8,0% de los chicos y el 10,4% de las chicas. La obesidad central (RCEst ≥ 0.500) se produce en promedio, en el 12,75% de todos los ninos investigados, independientemente de su estado nutricional (16,2% de los varones y el 9,3% de las chicas). Presentan obesidad central (RCEst ≥ 0.500), en promedio, el 2,7% de todos los ninos y ninas con peso normal (n = 96) y un promedio 46,82% de todos los participantes con sobrepeso y con obesidad (n = 205). Con el aumento de riesgo para la salud (RCEst ≥ 0.500) son total de 2,01% (n = 16) de todos los ninos encuestados (n = 793) de las categorias de peso normal. Conclusión: se ha producido un aumento de la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en ninos y adolescentes bulgaros de la region de Smolyan durante mas de una decada. El porcentaje de insuficiencia ponderal entre los ninos, es relativamente alto especialmente entre el grupo de las ninas despues de la pubertad. La obesidad central, asi como su combinacion con el sobrepeso o la obesidad, es mas frecuente en ninos que en ninas.
Dronkers, Jaap; Kornder, Nils
In this paper, we attempt to explain the differences between reading and math scores of migrants' children (8430 daughters and 8526 sons) in 17 OECD destination countries, coming from 45 origin countries or regions, using PISA 2009 data. In addition to the societal gender equality levels of the origin and destination countries (the gender…
Momeni Danaei, Shahla; Salehi, Parisa
Self-perception of dental attractiveness is an important factor affecting orthodontic treatment need. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between normative and self-perceived orthodontic treatment need and to evaluate the influence of gender and socioeconomic background such as family size, parental education and father's employment. The subjects were 900 male and female junior high school students (450 males, 450 females) aged 12-15 years, from four districts in the city of Shiraz, Iran. The participants were asked to complete a questionnaire and then underwent a dental examination. Normative treatment need was assessed clinically using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Statistical analysis was undertaken using t- and chi-squared tests. There was no statistically significant correlation between DAI scores and demographics. The results showed a significant correlation between DAI scores and a subject's awareness of malocclusion and their satisfaction with dental appearance. There were no differences between genders concerning the questionnaire data. The results suggest that the DAI score might reflect a self-perceived need for orthodontic treatment.
Francis, Leslie J.; Gibson, Harry M.
Describes a study that was conducted to investigate the influence of age, sex, social class, and religion on total television viewing time and program preferences among a large sample of Scottish secondary school students. Four main program types are examined, i.e., soap, sport, light entertainment, and current awareness. (50 references) (LRW)
Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Kien, Nguyen Trung; Giang, Kim Bao; Minh, Hoang Van; Hai, Phan Thi; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh
Studies have shown that smoking is a learnt behavior, often initiated during adolescence. This paper aims to describe tobacco-related knowledge, attitude and associations among school adolescents aged 13-15 with exposure to anti-smoking information. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Viet Nam, 2014, knowledge was measured through 4 questions about tobacco use, and attitude was assessed through 3 questions on personal, social and environmental aspects. Students giving most anti-tobacco responses to all questions were considered as having correct knowledge or appropriate attitude or both. Access to anti-smoking information was determined by exposure to any media messages on tobacco control during the past 30 days and teaching in school about the danger of tobacco use during the past 12 months. A substantial percentage of students thought that being near others who smoke might be harmful to them and smoking is harmful to health (89.4% and 89.6% respectively). However, only 46.4% reported that it is definitely difficult to quit smoking and 66.9% thought that smoking for only 1 or 2 years, once stopped, is harmful to health. Slightly more than half of the respondents reported appropriate attitude that young smokers have fewer friends than others and smoking makes them less attractive and less comfortable at social events. Noticing anti-smoking messages in the media together with having lessons in school about the dangers of tobacco substantially increased the likelihood of having correct knowledge, appropriate attitude and both. Despite relatively high awareness about smoking harms, effective educational communication is still highly needed to improve the level of comprehensive knowledge and an appropriate attitude regarding tobacco use.
It is no secret that many girls seem disinterested in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), but strategies for building their interest are sometimes elusive. Because STEM career paths are not always perceived as "natural" for women, educators do no't always push their female students to explore these educational areas. As a…
National Coalition of Hispanic Health and Human Services Organizations.
In 1998, a series of focus groups was held to explore the factors that promote resilience among Hispanic girls. At least 4 focus groups, composed of no less than 6 and no more than 15 participants, were conducted at each of the 6 urban sites. In spite of the variations in Hispanic subgroup membership of the focus group participants, the findings…
Walters, Randall; Bowen, Denise J
Girls presenting with lower abdominal pain have a broad differential diagnosis. Transabdominal ultrasound should be performed in all girls presenting in the ED with lower abdominal pain. If ovarian torsion is suspected, surgical intervention should be initiated quickly to preserve the viability of the ovary.
Naher, B S; Shahid, A T; Khan, K A; Nargis, S; Hoque, M M
A 5 year old girl hailing from Keraniganj, presented with the complaints of fever, periumbilical pain and vomiting. In vomitus, Fasciolopsis buski worm in adult form was identified by naked eye examination. In stool, ova of Fasciolopsis buski were also observed under microscope. Clinically she was pale and had hepatomegaly. Microcytic hypochromic anaemia with normal liver function test was found on lab investigation. She was diagnosed as a case of Fasciolopsiasis and treated with Praziquantel and on follow up visit she was found to be free of symptom.
Sasidharan, P K; Prasanth Varghese, C; Sandeep, P; Sreejith, R; Shaan, Mohammed; Shiji, P V; Satish, H; Feroz, M
Haemophagocytic syndrome is a life-threatening systemic illness characterized by an uncontrolled inflammatory response. Patients present with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice and liver dysfunction, neurological manifestations and often pancytopenla. Bone marrow, lymph node, hepatic or splenic biopsy shows macrophages with Ingested blood cells or their precursors. Laboratory markers include elevated triglycerides and ferritin, low fibrinogen with normal or low erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Familial haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an autosomal recessive disorder. Secondary haemophagocytic syndrome results from infections, malignancy and collagen vascular disorders. We describe a young girl with primary haemophagocytic syndrome.
McKnight, Megan E.; Culotta, Vincent P.
Research examining neuropsychological profiles of girls with Asperger's disorder (AD) is sparse. In this study, we sought to characterize neurocognitive profiles of girls with AD compared to girls with learning disabilities (LD). Two groups of school-age girls referred for neuropsychological assessment participated in the study. A total of 23…
Academy for Educational Development, 2009
Mentoring girls is a challenge. Girls will come to mentors with hard questions and great hope. Mentoring is about building trust over a long period of time. If a mentor cares about the girls and follows through with the promises that he or she makes to them, a mentor will be successful in helping them to improve their lives. This "Guide"…
van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf
Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.
While girls and women in Laos are not the target of strong discriminatory practices, they are at a higher risk of dropping out of school and never attending school. Specific components have been developed within educational policies and strategies to address needs of and concerns for girls and women. Reasons that girls and women lack access to…
In this reprint of an article published in 1978, the role of women in society and its impact on gifted girls is discussed. It is argued that gender stereotypes work against gifted girls and that the women's movement has helped gifted girls develop a new image and concept of womanhood. (CR)
Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA. Women's Educational Equity Act Dissemination Center.
This document contains learning activities to help middle school girls begin the career planning process and resist gender-role stereotyping. The activities are designed for individuals and/or groups of girls either in classroom settings or in organizations such as Girl Scouts and 4-H Clubs. A total of 30 activities are organized into 4 sections…
Engle, Yuna; Kasser, Tim
Girls often idolize male celebrities, but this phenomenon has been studied little. The authors therefore assessed celebrity idolization among 142 junior high school girls and found that girls who strongly idolized a male celebrity had more experience dating, reported secure and preoccupied attachments to same-age boys, and were rated higher in…
Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Duax, Jeanne; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf
Objective: To examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms, the overlap between caregiver and child report, the association between depression and anxiety, and the relationship between symptoms of depression and impairment in young girls. Method: Participants in the Pittsburgh Girls Study, a community sample of 2,451 girls aged 5-8 years old and…
Experience is necessary but not sufficient to cause girls to envision a future career in computing. This study investigated the experiences and attitudes of girls who had taken three years of mandatory computer science classes in an all-girls setting in middle school, measured at the end of eighth grade. The one third of participants who were open…
Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara
Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed that stereotype threat impaired girls' performance on math tasks among students from kindergarten through 2nd grade. Moreover, mothers' but not fathers' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderated girls' vulnerability to stereotype threat: performance of girls whose mothers strongly rejected the gender stereotype about math did not decrease under stereotype threat. These findings are important because they point to the role of mothers' beliefs in the development of girls' vulnerability to the negative effects of gender stereotypes about math.
Hirsch, Barton J.; Roffman, Jennifer G.; Deutsch, Nancy L.; Flynn, Cathy A.; Loder, Tondra L.; Pagano, Maria E.
The challenges of early adolescence are intensified for girls of color who live in disadvantaged urban communities. One response to the needs of these girls comes from the Boys & Girls Clubs of America (BGCA), a youth development organization that has a long-standing presence in inner-city neighborhoods. A gender equity initiative designed to strengthen programming for minority girls at a BGCA affiliate in a major urban center was examined. Drawing on initial qualitative findings, a conceptual framework is presented for understanding the ways in which the clubs can affect urban early adolescent girls’ self-esteem. Several strategic choices confronting this initiative then are considered. The authors emphasize the creation of a “home place” that enables the development of self via organizational responsiveness to girls’ voices, strong bonds between girls and staff, adaptive peer friendship cliques, and the development of programs that fuse the interests of girls and adult staff. PMID:23565020
Design Patterns are now a 15 year old thought experiment. And today, for many, Design Patterns have become part of the standard development lexicon. This talk looks back to the origin of Design Patterns and how they evolved since their initial description. I will then show patterns in action in the context of the Eclipse and Jazz platforms. Finally, I will discuss how the Design Patterns from the book can be refactored towards a Design Pattern 2.0 version.
Alroughani, Raed; Thussu, Anil; Guindi, Raouf T.
Variants of Guillain-Barre syndrome such as Bickerstaff encephalitis and Miller-Fisher syndrome have been reported. We report a 15-year-old boy who presented, after a prodromal illness, with 3-day progressive limb weakness, diplopia, and acute urinary retention. Clinically, he had horizontal gaze-evoked and upbeat nystagmus, bilateral extensor plantars in addition to quadriparesis and areflexia. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine was unremarkable and cerebral spinal fluid analysis showed lymphocytic pleocytosis. Nerve conduction study revealed symmetrical axonal neuropathy. Anti-GQ1b antibody was positive. A combination of IV methylprednisone followed by IVIg was instituted which led to remarkable clinical recovery. This case underpins the importance of recognizing atypical presentations of acute autonomic dysfunction and central nervous system features such as nystagmus, which may be associated with anti-GQ1b antibody syndrome. Features mimicking myelitis and brainstem encephalitis may pose diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma among the treating physicians. PMID:26487925
Zheng, Kewen; Xie, Yi; Li, Hanzhong
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a condition resulting from the kidney's impaired response to circulating antidiuretic hormone (ADH), leading to polydipsia and polyuria. Urinary tract dilatation caused by NDI is a rare situation. Here, we report a case of congenital NDI presented with bilateral hydronephrosis.A 15-year-old boy complaining a history of intermittent fever was admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital. He voided 10 to 15 L of urine daily. Radiographic examination revealed severe dilatation of bilateral renal pelvis, ureter, and bladder. Urinalysis shows hyposthenuria.He was diagnosed NDI since born. Transient insertion of a urethral catheter helped to relieve fever. Medical therapy of hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride was prescribed and effective.Dilatation of urinary tract caused by diabetes insipidus is rare, but may be present in severe condition. Therefore, it is crucial for clinicians to perform early treatment to avoid impairment of renal function.
Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.
Identity and literacy development are two critical processes shaping the life trajectories of adolescents. Identity development in particular can present unique issues for Black adolescent girls, who are positioned in ways to negotiate their identity(ies) when presented with hegemonic language and representations of what is beauty and what is…
Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Jia, Xinshan; Li, Jessica Chi-Mei; Lee, Tak-Yan
Transactional sex through so-called compensated dating in adolescent girls is a problem in need of public concern. Compensated dating typically involves the use of information communication technology to advertise, search, bargain, and eventually arrange for transactional sex. The technology enables the sexual partners to maintain privacy and secrecy in transactional sex. Such secrecy necessitates the girls' disclosure about their life experiences in order to address the concern. The disclosure is the focus of the present qualitative study of 27 girls practicing the dating in Hong Kong, China. Based on the disclosure, the study presents a grounded theory that epitomizes engagement in compensated dating by referential choice. Such a referential choice theory unravels that choice with reference to the family push and social norms sustains the engagement. Meanwhile, the choice rests on expectancy and reinforcement from experiential learning about compensated dating. The theory thus implies ways to undercut the engagement through diverting the referential choice of the dating.
Nussbaum, A.R.; Lebowitz, R.L.
When an interlabial mass is seen on physical examination in a little girl, there is often confusion about its etiology, its implications, and what should be done next. Five common interlabial masses, which superficially are strikingly similar, include a prolapsed ectopic ureterocele, a prolapsed urethra, a paraurethral cyst, hydro(metro)colpos, and rhabdomyosarcoma of the vagina (botryoid sarcoma). A prolapsed ectopic ureterocele occurs in white girls as a smooth mass which protrudes from the urethral meatus so that urine exits circumferentially. A prolapsed urethra occurs in black girls and resembles a donut with the urethral meatus in the center. A paraurethral cyst is smaller and displaces the meatus, so that the urinary stream is eccentric. Hydro(metro)colpos from hymenal imperforation presents as a smooth mass that fills the vaginal introitus, as opposed to the introital grapelike cluster of masses of botryoid sarcoma. Recommendations for efficient imaging are presented.
Experience is necessary but not sufficient to cause girls to envision a future career in computing. This study investigated the experiences and attitudes of girls who had taken three years of mandatory computer science classes in an all-girls setting in middle school, measured at the end of eighth grade. The one third of participants who were open to computing career were compared to the two thirds were not. Girls open to a computing career had higher interest and confidence in computing, had more social support for computing, and saw themselves as more like a computer scientist than girls who did not want a computing career.
Sikanić-Dugić, Nives; Pustisek, Nives; Hirsl-Hećej, Vlasta; Lukić-Grlić, Amarela
The aim of the study was to define the most common causes, symptoms and clinical features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, and to evaluate treatment success depending on the causative agent involved. The study included 115 girls aged 2-8 (mean 4.8) years, presenting with vulvovaginitis to the Outpatient Clinic for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Zagreb Children's Hospital, between September 2006 and July 2007. Medical history data were obtained from parents. Vaginal samples were collected for microbiological culture by using cotton-tipped swabs moistened with saline. All samples were referred to microbiology laboratory, where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Selective and non-selective media were used. Of 115 study patients, 43 (37.4%) had received antibiotic therapy more than one month prior to their visit to the Clinic, mainly for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common presenting symptom was increased vaginal discharge usually noticed on the pants or diaper, found in 26 of 115 (22.6%) patients, followed by vulvar redness in 16 (13.9%), burning in seven (6.1%), itching in the vulvovaginal area in seven (6.1%), soreness in six (5.2%), odor in three (2.6%) patients, and two or more of these symptoms in another 50 (43.5%) patients. Fifty-nine of 115 children had normal clinical finding on gynecologic examination. Among the remaining 56 children, the most common finding was erythema observed in 19, vaginal discharge in ten, and a combination of discharge and erythema in 13 patients. Of 115 study patients, causative agents were isolated from vaginal culture in 38 (33%) cases. Of these, 21 grew group A beta hemolytic streptococcus, five patients Haemophilus influenzae, three Escherichia coli, two Enterococcus spp., and one each Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 31 of these 38 patients, except for those cases where intestinal bacteria and
Background Young African American girls have a high risk of obesity. Online behavior change programs promoting healthy diet and physical activity are convenient and may be effective for reducing disparities related to obesity. This report presents the protocol guiding the design and evaluation of a culturally and developmental appropriate online obesity prevention program for young African American girls. Methods/Design The Butterfly Girls and the Quest for Founder’s Rock is an 8-episode online program delivered as an animated, interactive comic. The program promotes healthy diet and physical activity and is specifically designed for 8–10 year old African American girls. Girls, parents, and community representatives provided formative feedback on cultural relevance and developmental appropriateness. A three-group (treatment, comparison, wait-list control) randomized design (n = 390 parent/child dyads) is employed, with child as the unit of assignment. Change in body mass index is the primary outcome; change in fruit and vegetable consumption, water, and physical activity are secondary outcomes. Data collection occurs at baseline, approximately 3 months after baseline (i.e., completion of the online program), and approximately three months later (i.e., maintenance assessment). Two dietary recalls are collected at each data collection period by trained interviewers using the Nutrient Data System for Research (NDSR 2012) system. Physical activity is objectively measured by seven days of accelerometry. Psychosocial and process data are also collected. Girls in the treatment and comparison groups will be interviewed at post 1 to obtain information on personal reactions to the program. Discussion This research will develop and evaluate the efficacy of an online program for reducing obesity risk among girls at risk of obesity and related diseases. Online programs offer the potential for wide dissemination, thus reducing disparities related to obesity. Trial
This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological.
Joseph, Hanna Bar; Reznik, Ilya; Mester, Roberto
In the last two decades the incidence of adolescent suicides has been very high (though it has been on the decrease in the U.S.A. over the last four years), giving rise to a multitude of empirical and theoretical studies. The extensive knowledge that has accumulated regarding adolescent suicidal behavior has led to a more differentiated attitude. Many studies try to clarify specific needs, motivations and the conceptualization of death and suicide in various adolescent subgroups (minorities, females, homosexuals), thereby enabling more specific and exact methods of evaluation, prevention and intervention. Adolescent girls' suicidal behavior is different in many aspects from boys' suicidal behavior: Girls mortality rate from suicide is a 3-5 times lower rate than boys, but their attempted suicide rate is four to hundreds time higher. Girls suicide mainly by drugs and their suicide is mainly in reaction to interpersonal difficulties. Their motivation is often a cry for help. The comorbidity of suicide and depression is much higher for adolescent girls than boys. These differences generate a different understanding and separate treatment strategies. Two theoretical approaches that may explain the profile which characterizes suicidal girls will be presented. One has a psychological developmental context, and the other a social cultural context. Implications for specific prevention measures include legal action on pack sizes of analgesics, compulsory registration of attempted suicide and more gender specific treatment and prevention programs.
Keenan, K; Shaw, D
A developing body of research suggests that there are few sex differences in the rate and severity of problem behavior in early childhood, but clear sex differences emerge at about 4 years of age. The authors explore 2 hypotheses to further the understanding of emerging sex differences in problem behavior across the first 5 years of life. The first posits that the change in girls' problem behavior from infancy to school entry represents a channeling of early problem behavior into predominantly internalizing problems as a result of socialization. The second hypothesis is that the change in girls' early problem behavior during the preschool period results from the more rapid biological, cognitive, and social-emotional development of girls relative to boys. The authors review research on the influence of parents, teachers, and peers on girls' behavior from infancy to preschool regarding the first hypothesis, whereas they review studies of sex differences in developmental processes to test the second. They find moderate support for both hypotheses and present a comprehensive theory of girls' developmental psychopathology that integrates social and developmental influences.
This article reports findings from a study in which 26 girls aged 12- to 13-years-old took part in workshops at a specialist ICT center connected to a school in inner-city London. The girls explored and discussed fashion as presented online, and they produced their own interactive fashion design webpages, making decisions about body shapes, types…
Murphy, Melissa M.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.
The present study focuses on math and related skills among 32 girls with fragile X (n = 14) or Turner (n = 18) syndrome during late elementary school. Performance in each syndrome group was assessed relative to Full Scale IQ-matched comparison groups of girls from the general population (n = 32 and n = 89 for fragile X syndrome and Turner…
This dissertation presents the construction and development of a thesis that investigates links between discourses of gender and the production of writing by girls at primary school. The research took place over three years in a one-teacher rural school in country Victoria (Australia). The girls were aged from four to twelve. The research…
Canales, Antonio Fco.
The present article examines the situation of girls in Spanish academic secondary education during the first Francoism. It outlines the measures introduced by the Franco Regime that maintained the traditional access for girls to the same academic curriculum followed by boys, although in separate schools. Later, it examines the various projects put…
Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia
Preventing adolescent pregnancy is a national research priority that has had limited success. In the present study, the authors examined whether Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to intervention services as usual (group care [GC]) decreased pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls mandated to out-of-home care. Girls (13-17…
Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad; Khan, Zebun Nisa
Education is accepted as an important tool for human development in all dimensions of life, it is at same level of significance for boys and girls. Despite this recognition, girls are one of the most vulnerable groups, deprived of education by various socio-cultural, economical and political reasons. The present study is a perceptual study, which…
Rose, Amanda J.; Swenson, Lance P.; Robert, Christopher
Girls' and boys' peer relationships are thought to have unique strengths and weaknesses. However, developmentalists have done a better job of identifying strengths of girls' friendships than boys' friendships. The present research was aimed at better understanding boys' friendship strengths. The study focused on the frequency with which youth (N =…
Selimbegovic, Leila; Chatard, Armand; Mugny, Gabriel
A study was conducted to explore expert influence as a possible way to encourage girls' mobility towards math- and science-related careers. High school students were exposed to an expert source presenting "scientific evidence" that contrary to stereotype, girls are better than boys in all subject domains. Beliefs related to stereotype…
Corbett, Christianne; Hill, Catherine; St. Rose, Andresse
This report presents a comprehensive look at girls' educational achievement during the past 35 years, paying special attention to the relationship between girls' and boys' progress. Analyses of results from national standardized tests, such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and the SAT and ACT college entrance examinations,…
Trinidad, Gucci; Patel, Deepa; Shear, Linda; Goh, Peishi; Quek, Yin Kang; Tan, Chen Kee
This paper presents case studies of two teachers at Crescent Girl's School (an all-girls high school in Singapore) who implemented strategies learned through a teacher professional development program called 21st Century Learning Design (21CLD). Policymakers often state requirements for teachers to focus on 21st century (21C) competencies without…
This research investigated the presentation and content of magazines targeted at preschool-aged girls in Japan to analyse what gender patterns or gendered behaviours were encouraged and how the readers reacted to the media discourse. There were 13 magazines published in 2013 in Japan. Seven of them catered to girls, three to boys and three to both…
This study aimed to investigate the effect of recreational activities on self-esteem development of girls in adolescence. For this purpose, a total of 20 girls in adolescence period took part in the present study. Recreational activities program included bowling, patenga, orienteering, basketball, volleyball, badminton, ping-pong, dance, fun…
Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Warren, Michelle P.
The present investigation examines mediated pathways from pubertal development to changes in depressive affect and aggression. Participants were 100 white girls who were between the ages of 10 and 14 (M=12.13, SD=0.80); girls were from well-educated, middle-to upper-middle class families, and attended private schools in a major northeastern urban…
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the reasons why girls and young women smoke, drink and use drugs, and what increases or lowers their risk of substance abuse. It demonstrates that certain key risk factors for substance abuse are unique to girls and young women and pose a greater threat to them than to boys and young men. This…
Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara
Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed…
Gurian, Michael; Henley, Patricia
This book focuses on brain-based research to explore why boys and girls learn differently and how educators and parents can use that information to create the ultimate early childhood, elementary, or secondary classroom for both boys and girls. Part 1 of the book presents research findings from three primary points of view: (1) neurological and…
In a study on anemia in adolescent girls living in slum areas, 105 girls, aged 10 to 18, participated in qualitative (focus group discussions; open ended, in depth interviews) and quantitative (structured survey and hemoglobin estimation) research activities before and after intervention. Perceptions of mothers were also surveyed. The qualitative methods were used on selected subsamples in order to represent all age and ethnic groups and geographic areas of the slum. Quantitative methods were used on all 105 girls. The prevalence of anemia was 98%. The patterns of responses were similar for the focus groups, interviews, and surveys. Mothers and their daughters believed the girls were healthy (" one who ate well, worked without tiring easily and did not fall sick often"). There was no major connection made between menstruation and health, or between present and future health. Most of the girls were unaware of the Gujarati term for anemia, pandurog, which is used in awareness campaigns. The girls described symptoms (weakness = kamshakti) associated with anemia and knew these could be remedied with green leafy vegetables, fruit, milk, meat, tonics from the doctor, and iron tablets (shakti ni goli). Based on these results, a puppet show, using local terms and events, was developed that covered the causes, symptoms, treatment, and prevention of anemia. The term, pandurog, was introduced and reinforced. The girls were encouraged to have their blood tested and to take iron tablets. The hemoglobin levels of the girls were taken after the show and after an iron supplement program lasting three months. Compliance with the supplementation program was monitored biweekly. Group discussions with flash cards reinforced the information in the puppet show. Results from the last hemoglobin level showed a significant increase; however, the prevalence of anemia was 87%. About half of the girls consumed at least 60% of the tablets; one-fifth consumed 80%. Forgetfulness and fasting
Schwartz, Shepard; Edden, Yair; Orkin, Boris; Erlichman, Matityahu
A perforated peptic ulcer in a child is a rare entity. Severe abdominal pain in an ill-appearing child with a rigid abdomen and possibly with signs of shock is the typical presenting feature of this life-threatening complication of peptic ulcer disease. We present a case of a 14.5-year-old adolescent girl who developed abdominal and shoulder pain that resolved after 1 day. She was then completely well for 2 days until the abdominal and shoulder pain recurred. On examination, she appeared well, but in pain. A chest radiograph revealed a large pneumoperitoneum. She underwent emergent laparoscopic omental patch repair of a perforated ulcer on the anterior wall of her stomach. Result of a urea breath test to detect Helicobacter pylori was negative. The differential diagnosis of pneumoperitoneum in children is discussed, as are childhood perforated peptic ulcer in general, and the unique clinical features present in this case in particular.
Lanzo, Erin; Monge, Maria; Trent, Maria
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in adolescent girls that has both reproductive and metabolic implications. Patients with PCOS typically present to their pediatrician for evaluation of menstrual irregularity and/or signs of hyperandrogenism, such as hirsutism and acne. The diagnosis of PCOS is made by clinical symptoms and laboratory evaluation. Because of the long-term health consequences that can accompany the disorder, pediatricians should consider PCOS in their initial evaluation of menstrual irregularity. Lifestyle modification is the cornerstone of treatment for girls with PCOS; however, hormonal medication such as oral contraceptive pills and insulin-sensitizing agents are useful and effective adjuncts to therapy. The goals of treatment for girls with PCOS are to improve clinical manifestations of the disorder, health-related quality of life, and long-term health outcomes.
Pope, Carl E.; And Others
This report presents findings and recommendations resulting from the evaluation of programs implemented in 15 cities by the Boys and Girls Clubs of America. These programs were implemented to distribute variations on the "Weed and Seed" program and its provision of crime and drug prevention programs. The overall goal of Weed and Seed was…
Batz, Katrin; Wittler, Sebastian; Wilde, Matthias
Only few psychological differences between the sexes can be proven empirically. Presented here is a study about learning in the extracurricular environment of a zoological garden during a school excursion with particular regard to the differences between boys and girls. In the main focus are, hereby, motivational and cognitive levels of the…
This article presents a review on "Defining deviance: sex, science, and delinquent girls, 1890-1960," by Michael A. Rembis. This is the first book by Michael A. Rembis, an Associate Professor and Director of the Center for Disability Studies at the University of Buffalo. Drawing on thousands of case files from the Illinois State Training School in…
The paper presents findings from a survey of 720 respondents: 240 Roma parents, 240 Roma boys and 240 Roma girls between 12 and 25 years of age. The subjects were from various regions of Bulgaria and were members of different ethnic groups. The main goal of the survey was to study the current attitudes that Roma communities hold regarding an…
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.
This report presents the results of a meeting of education officials from Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan, and Thailand to discuss the promotion of primary education for girls and other disadvantaged groups in developing Asian countries. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, discussing the goals and results of the meeting. Chapter…
Fernandez, deKoven Pelton; Astuto, Terry A.
What would a school that is responsive to the needs of girls look like? This paper presents findings of a study that sought to synthesize research and commentaries that develop, articulate, or use a feminist critique. It also attempted to identify a set of feminist thought and action to serve as building blocks of an alternative structure for…
Turner, Mary Ann
This guide was developed to assist with the problems of organization and administration of girls' interscholastic sports programs. Guidelines are presented for the following: (a) a statement of basic principles, (b) a constitution, (c) league bylaws, (d) operating codes, (e) conduct of contests, (f) archery, (g) badminton, (h) basketball, (i)…
de Bruyn, Eddy H.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.
The present study explored the heterogeneous nature of popularity by investigating subgroups of popular girls (N = 365) in their first year of secondary school (mean age = 13.05). Cluster analysis revealed the presence of five subgroups based upon sociometric popularity (i.e., those considered "likeable" by peers) and consensual popularity (i.e.,…
A study examined the issues and experiences of 89 women teachers, head teachers, and girls in and out of school in two contrasting Ghanaian cultural contexts. Data were collected via life history interviews, analyzed, and presented around three domains: culture of the home; relationship between culture and the economy, and culture of the school.…
Budden, S S
This is a presentation and discussion of clinical and laboratory data obtained on 13 girls with Rett syndrome, a progressive neurological disorder. The condition is thought to be far more prevalent than earlier reported. Family history in one patient showed presence of abnormal hand movements, increasing spasticity and psychomotor retardation in a paternal great grandaunt who died at 7 years. In the absence of chromosomal or biochemical markers, the characteristic disorder of hand movements can be used to distinguish this entity from other mental retardation, cerebral palsy and autism conditions. This report addresses the uniformity of clinical expression and highlights the differences between autism and Rett syndrome. Precocious puberty and respiratory alkalosis were not found in our patients. Feeding disorders were commonly present, and are often difficult to manage. The importance of diagnosis is emphasized as it influences long term management.
Young African American girls have a high risk of obesity. Online behavior change programs promoting healthy diet and physical activity are convenient and may be effective for reducing disparities related to obesity. This report presents the protocol guiding the design and evaluation of a culturally ...
Zhang, Kaili Chen; Choo, Andrew; Lim, Liping
This article presents factors that place girls at risk of delinquency and offending as well as the patterns in juvenile delinquency trends for females in Singapore. The authors also describe Singapore's overall structure of services for young offenders and the current status of alternative education programmes for young women engaged in delinquent…
Guillette, Elizabeth A.; Conard, Craig; Lares, Fernando; Aguilar, Maria Guadalupe; McLachlan, John; Guillette, Louis J.
In several human populations, the age at which female breast development begins is reported to have declined over the last five decades. Much debate has occurred over whether this reported decline has actually occurred and what factors contribute to it. However, geographical patterns reflecting earlier developmental onset in some human populations suggest environmental factors influence this phenomenon. These factors include interactions between genetic makeup, nutrition, and possible cumulative exposure to estrogens, both endogenous as well as environmental beginning during in utero development. We examined the onset of breast development in a group of peripubertal girls from the Yaqui Valley of Sonora, Mexico. We observed that girls from valley towns, areas using modern agricultural practices, exhibited larger breast fields than those of girls living in the foothills who exhibited similar stature [e.g., weight, height, body mass index (BMI)], and genetic background. Further, girls from valley towns displayed a poorly defined relationship between breast size and mammary gland development, whereas girls from the Yaqui foothills, where traditional ranching occurs, show a robust positive relationship between breast size and mammary size. The differences noted were obtained by a medically based exam involving morphometric analysis and palpation of tissues, in contrast to visual staging alone. In fact, use of the Tanner scale, involving visual staging of breast development for puberty, detected no differences between the study populations. Mammary tissue, determined by palpation, was absent in 18.5% of the girls living in agricultural areas, although palpable breast adipose tissue was present. No relationship was seen between mammary diameter and weight or BMI in either population. These data suggest that future in-depth studies examining mammary tissue growth and fat deposition in breast tissue are required if we are to understand environmental influences on these
Teitelman, Anne M.; Bevilacqua, Amanda W.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet
Background: Women and adolescent girls bear a significant burden of the global HIV pandemic. Both behavioral and biomedical prevention approaches have been shown to be effective. In order to foster the most effective combination HIV-prevention approaches for women and girls, it is imperative to understand the unique biological, social, and structural considerations that increase vulnerability to acquiring HIV within this population. Primary Study Objective: The purpose of this article is to propose novel ideas for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention for women and adolescent girls. The central argument is that we must transcend unilevel solutions for HIV prevention toward comprehensive, multilevel combination HIV prevention packages to actualize personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention. Our hope is to foster transnational dialogue among researchers, practitioners, educators, and policy makers toward the actualization of the proposed recommendations. Methods: We present a commentary organized to review biological, social, and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV acquisition among women and adolescent girls. The overview is followed by recommendations to curb HIV rates in the target population in a sustainable manner. Results: The physiology of the lower female reproductive system biologically increases HIV risk among women and girls. Social (eg, intimate partner violence) and structural (eg, gender inequality) factors exacerbate this risk by increasing the likelihood of viral exposure. Our recommendations for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention are to (1) create innovative mechanisms for personalized HIV risk—reduction assessments; (2) develop mathematical models of local epidemics; (3) prepare personalized, evidence-based combination HIV risk—reduction packages; (4) structure gender equity into society; and (5) eliminate violence (both physical and structural) against women and girls. Conclusions: Generalized programs and
Theran, Sally A; Newberg, Emily M; Gleason, Tracy R
We examined aspects of adolescent girls' parasocial interactions in the context of typical development. Parasocial interactions are defined as symbolic, one-sided quasi-interactions between a viewer and a media figure. In total, 107 adolescent girls were examined; 94% reported engaging in parasocial interactions to some degree. Preoccupied attachment style predicted the degree of involvement in and emotional intensity of parasocial interactions. Results suggest that parasocial interactions are characteristic of girls with preoccupied attachment, but are also part of normative development.
Ramos, Mary M; Green, Dan; Booker, John; Nelson, Anna
Little data exist on dating violence experienced by immigrant Hispanic adolescents. The present study examined the relationships between immigration status, language spoken at home, and dating violence experienced by Hispanic adolescent girls in New Mexico. Data from the 2007 New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Surveys were analyzed. Adjusted logistic regression analyses were conducted among the full sample of Hispanic females (N = 3,412) and among strata based on immigration status. Immigrant Hispanic girls were as likely as non-immigrant Hispanic girls to have experienced dating violence in the prior year (P = 0.93). Among immigrant Hispanic girls, those who were Non-English-dominant were one-fourth as likely to have experienced dating violence as those immigrant girls who were English-dominant (aOR 0.27 [95% CI 0.08-0.87]). Among US-born Hispanic girls, those who were Non-English-dominant were less likely to have experienced dating violence; however, this value did not reach statistical significance (aOR 0.65 [95% CI 0.33-1.27]). Past sexual experience was a significant risk factor for dating violence for US-born Hispanic girls (aOR 4.99 [95% CI 3.18-7.83]) but not for immigrant Hispanic girls (aOR 1.66 [95% CI 0.63-4.43]). Immigrant status was not found to be protective against dating violence for New Mexico Hispanic girls. However, those immigrant girls who were less acculturated in terms of language used at home were found to have only a quarter of the risk of dating violence as those more acculturated. The use of heritage language by immigrant Hispanic girls may be a protective factor against dating violence. Further studies are indicated to confirm this finding.
Rozie-Battle, Judith L
The research on the psychosocial development of African American girls is limited. Information that is available focuses on teen pregnancy and health issues such as nutrition and physical activity. African American girls are facing challenges, including poverty, crime, poor self-esteem, and peer pressure. Despite some of the negative characteristics attributed to African American girls, many are achieving some success. Policy makers and service providers need to recognize the resiliency and unique needs of African American girls and develop services that ensure their needs are being fully met.
DeVore, Edna; Harman, Pamela; Girl Scouts of the USA; Girl Scouts of Northern California; University of Arizona; Astronomical Society of the Pacific; Aires Scientific
Girl Scout Stars aims to enhance STEM experiences for Girl Scouts in grades K-12. New space science badges are being created for every Girl Scout level. Using best practices, we engage girls and volunteers with the fundamental STEM concepts that underpin our human quest to explore the universe. Through early and sustained exposure to the people and assets of NASA and the excitement of NASA’s Mission, they explore STEM content, discoveries, and careers. Today’s tech savvy Girl Scout volunteers prefer just-in-time materials and asynchronous learning. The Volunteer Tool Kit taps into the wealth of NASA's online materials for the new space science badges. Training volunteers supports troop activities for the younger girls. For older girls, we enhance Girl Scout summer camp activities, support in-depth experiences at Univ. of Arizona’s Astronomy Camp, and “Destination” events for the 2017 total solar eclipse. We partner with the Night Sky Network to engage amateur astronomers with Girl Scouts. Univ. of Arizona also leads Astronomy Camp for Girl Scout volunteers. Aires Scientific leads eclipse preparation and summer sessions at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for teams of volunteers, amateur astronomers and older Girl Scouts.There are 1,900,000 Girl Scouts and 800,000 volunteers in the USA. During development, we work with the Girl Scouts of Northern California (50,000 girl members and 31,000 volunteers) and expand across the USA to 121 Girl Scout councils over five years. SETI Institute leads the space science educators and scientists at Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Univ. of Arizona, and Aires Scientific. Girl Scouts of the USA leads dissemination of Girl Scout Stars with support of Girl Scouts of Northern California. Through professional development of Girl Scout volunteers, Girl Scout Stars enhances public science literacy. Girl Scout Stars supports the NASA Science Mission Directorate Science Education Objectives and NASA’s STEM Engagement and
Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika
Despite widespread public concern about the early sexualization of young girls, as yet there has been little empirical examination of potential negative effects. In the present study a sample of 300 6-9 year-old girls completed individual interviews assessing exposure to sexualized media, internalization of sexualized messages (measured via preference for sexualized clothing), and body image attitudes (body esteem, body dissatisfaction). Exposure to sexualized media was found to be correlated with internalization of sexualization messages, itself correlated with negative body image. The findings provide preliminary evidence that sexualized messages appear to be internalized by very young girls which, in turn, has negative implications for how they feel about their bodies.
Groen, Yvonne; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Oliver
Objective Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience many peer interaction problems and are at risk of peer rejection and victimisation. Although many studies have investigated problematic peer functioning in children with ADHD, this research has predominantly focused on boys and studies investigating girls are scant. Those studies that did examine girls, often used a male comparison sample, disregarding the inherent gender differences between girls and boys. Previous studies have highlighted this limitation and recommended the need for comparisons between ADHD females and typical females, in order to elucidate the picture of female ADHD with regards to problematic peer functioning. The aim of this literature review was to gain insight into peer functioning difficulties in school-aged girls with ADHD. Methods PsychINFO, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature comparing school-aged girls with ADHD to typically developing girls (TDs) in relation to peer functioning. The peer relationship domains were grouped into ‘friendship’, ‘peer status’, ‘social skills/competence’, and ‘peer victimisation and bullying’. In total, thirteen studies were included in the review. Results All of the thirteen studies included reported that girls with ADHD, compared to TD girls, demonstrated increased difficulties in the domains of friendship, peer interaction, social skills and functioning, peer victimization and externalising behaviour. Studies consistently showed small to medium effects for lower rates of friendship participation and stability in girls with ADHD relative to TD girls. Higher levels of peer rejection with small to large effect sizes were reported in all studies, which were predicted by girls’ conduct problems. Peer rejection in turn predicted poor social adjustment and a host of problem behaviours. Very high levels of peer victimisation were present in girls with ADHD with large effect sizes
Lebofsky, Larry A.; Higgins, M. L.; McCarthy, D. W.; Lebofsky, N. R.
In 2003, the University of Arizona's (UA) NIRCam E/PO team (NASA James Webb Space Telescope) and the Sahuaro Girl Scout Council began a long-term collaboration to bring astronomy activities and concepts to Girl Scout leaders, staff, and volunteers and, in turn, to their councils and girls, i.e., to train the trainers. Nationally, our goal is to reach leaders in all councils. To date, this program has reached nearly 200 adults from 39 councils nationwide (plus Guam and Korea), bringing together leaders, UA graduate students, and NIRCam scientists and educators to experience Arizona's dark skies. Locally, our goal is to provide Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) education to girls of all ages throughout southern Arizona. To accomplish this in astronomy, we have additional ongoing collaborations with the Planetary Science Institute, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, and, most recently with the Amphitheater School District. One of the programs that we have been recently emphasizing is Family Science and Astronomy Nights. These programs can be run at our local Girl Scout facility or can be incorporated into programs that we are running in local schools. Our near-term goal is to provide a series of interconnected activities that can be done in classrooms, in afterschool programs, as part of the Family Science and Astronomy Nights, or in summer astronomy camps. Our long-term goal is to empower girls ultimately to become leaders who are excited about the night sky and can take lead roles presenting activities and facilitating astronomy nights. Our poster will display a variety of the activities we have refined and developed through this progam: scale models of the Solar System and beyond, classifying Solar System objects, a portable human orrery, observing the night sky with and without telescopes, constellation transformations, and constellation sorting cards.NIRCam E/PO website: http://zeus.as.arizona.edu/ dmccarthy/GSUSA
Are teenage girls being left behind in the technology race? According to author and professor Lesley Farmer, teenage girls are not embracing technology and all of its potential impact on their futures. In "Teen Girls and Technology", Farmer explores the developmental issues of teen girls, including the reality of girls and tech as it now stands.…
Owens, Laurence; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip
Because children and young teenagers usually associate in same-sex groups, psychological research concerned with adolescent aggression has often concentrated on within-sex relationships. However, during adolescence, boys and girls increasingly interact socially. This paper reports a study of boy-to-girl aggression as perceived by girls, boys and…
Hawkins, Stephanie R.; Graham, Phillip W.; Williams, Jason; Zahn, Margaret A.
According to data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, from 1991 to 2000, arrests of girls increased more (or decreased less) than arrests of boys for most types of offenses. By 2004, girls accounted for 30 percent of all juvenile arrests. However, questions remain about whether these trends reflect an actual increase in girls' delinquency or…
Girls' bullying is more subtle and less physical than that perpetrated by boys; however, it can be just as powerful, and the emotional repercussions of bullying among girls can be more destructive and longer lasting than the effects of more obvious forms of bullying. Teachers report that quarrels between girls are far more time-consuming and…
Examines data on same-sex relations in girls' reform schools, noting the invisibility of gay and lesbian lives in most educational research. Discusses difficulties with terminology, institutional efforts to curb girls' relationships and sexual behavior, the girls' creation of an alternative family structure, love letters, and interracial…
This article examines the recently released "Girl Rising" film and associated campaign to analyze how the guarantee that girls' education is panacea for local, national and global solutions is sedimented through affective logics. I view Girl Rising as a curriculum inclusive of the film, accompanying packaged lesson plans for educators,…
This paper looks at the ways in which the gendered social construction of the "popular girl" infuses girls' ideas as to their role models: those representing who they would like to be when they "grow up". It will look at the ways in which the gendered characteristics that are seen to be of most value to girls (often embodied by "celebrities" such…
Svender, Jenny; Larsson, Hakan; Redelius, Karin
What does it mean to promote girls' participation in sports and which girls are seen as needing support? In this article we focus a government-financed sports venture and scrutinize the frames governing what is possible to say about girls and their participation in sports. By analyzing project applications from local sport clubs we investigate how…
Vaca, M; Guadalupe, I; Erazo, S; Tinizaray, K; Chico, M E; Cooper, P J; Hay, P
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common clinical syndrome, but data are scarce on the BV prevalence in tropical regions among sexually active and virgin adolescents. To estimate the prevalence of BV among adolescent girls in an Ecuadorian coastal town, girls were asked to complete a questionnaire on risk factors for BV and vaginal samples were examined. Bacterial vaginosis was present in 31.5% of 213 girls, and the prevalence was similar in self-reported virgin and sexually active girls (OR 1.06, 95% CI, 0.51-2.21, P = 0.88), although the power of this analysis was limited. The prevalence of BV was high among Ecuadorian adolescent girls, and did not appear to be associated with sexual activity.
Nowak, Ashley E. P.
This thesis presents a qualitative case study of enrollment and retention considerations at Louise's Farm School (LFS) in Palmer, Alaska, with a focus on how gender is performed in this domain. Interviews with 25 students, 12 parents, and 14 instructors revealed the enrollment decision-making process, identifying constraints to and enablers of girls' participation. Findings included three primary factors as greatly influencing girls' enrollment: (1) mothers' backgrounds; (2) mothers' knowledge of and the misperceptions regarding outcomes of LFS programing; and (3) girls' interest in LFS curriculum. Findings also exposed differences in mothers' and instructors' expectations for the educative development of girls and boys, suggesting that there is greater pressure on girls to perform academically while boys are expected to need greater space for physical expression.
Young, G D; Wilson, J F
The purpose of our study was to examine whether girls and boys show patterns of problem-solving ability similar to those attributed by Kimura in 1992 to women and men, respectively. Subjects were 28 girls and 24 boys, aged 5-11 years, who were tested individually on matching ability, spatial memory, and ideational fluency, tasks on which women reportedly outperform men. No significant gender differences in these problem-solving abilities were found. On ideational fluency, the youngest girls were seven times more likely than young boys to give whimsical responses, but older girls were then times less likely than older boys to give whimsical responses. These results suggest that the patterns of visuospatial problem-solving abilities that Kimura ascribed to women and men are not present in preadolescent girls and boys.
Higher levels of girls and women's participation in targeted areas are widely apparent, particularly in affluent and middle-class sites. Here, we report on research with young middle and upper middle-class high school girls successfully enrolled in non-traditional advanced placement (AP) courses in mathematics, science, and computer programming in…
Marván, María Luisa; Vacio, Angeles; Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela
Most women experience changes surrounding the start of menstruation. These changes are influenced by sociocultural context. Consequently, certain changes are more pronounced in some cultures than in others. Girls enter menarche with a clear set of paramenstrual expectations that may alter their menstrual cycle-related experiences when they become postmenarcheal. This study explored expectations concerning the paramenstrual changes of 1,173 premenarcheal girls living in rural and urban areas of Mexico. In accordance with the findings of studies conducted in other countries, Mexican premenarcheal girls associate menstruation with a set of mostly negative expectations. A comparison of the results from urban and rural girls revealed that urban girls expected negative paramenstrual changes more, while rural ones expected positive changes more. These differences suggest that the cultures in which girls are brought up have an impact on their expectations. Urban girls are more exposed to media which present a picture of menses as a debilitating event, while rural girls link menses with health because it is associated with the ability to have children.
Goyal, Tarang; Varshney, Anupam; Bakshi, S K
With the estimated global burden of TB being 8.8 million incident cases and 1.1 million deaths from TB in HIV-negative cases and additional 0.35 million deaths in HIV-associated cases,1 the total number of cutaneous TB cases ( < 1-2 % of total cases) becomes significant. With the WHO setting up public-private mix partnerships and a millenium development goal of a 50% reduction in the total number of incident cases, the case detection and reporting of unusual cutaneous TB cases becomes very important. We present a case of lupus vulgaris in a young girl with rapid progression of a large plaque with hypertrophic features in the periphery. The case is unusual due to its rapid progression, unusual site and extensive giant form which have never been reported previously.
Williams, Amy E.; Heitkemper, Margaret; Self, Mariella M.; Czyzewski, Danita I.; Shulman, Robert J.
Endogenous pain-inhibition is often deficient in adults with chronic pain conditions including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It is unclear whether deficiencies in pain-inhibition are present in young children with IBS. The present study compared endogenous pain-inhibition, somatic pain threshold, and psychosocial distress in young girls with IBS versus controls. Girls with IBS did not show significant endogenous pain-inhibition of heat pain-threshold during a cold-pressor task in contrast to controls who had significant pain-inhibition. Girls with IBS did not differ from peers on measures of somatic pain but had more symptoms of depression, somatization, and anxiety than controls. When psychological variables were included as covariates the difference in pain-inhibition was no longer significant, although poor achieved power limits interpretation of these results. Higher-order cognitive processes including psychological variables may be contributing to observed pain-inhibition. In girls with IBS, pain-inhibition was positively related to the number of days without a bowel movement. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate deficiencies of endogenous pain-inhibition in young children with IBS. Findings have implications for better understanding of onset and maintenance of IBS and other chronic pain conditions. PMID:23685184
Leaper, Campbell; Brown, Christia Spears
This study investigated predictors of adolescent girls' experiences with sexism and feminism. Girls (N = 600; M = 15.1 years, range = 12-18), of varied socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, completed surveys of personal experiences with sexual harassment, academic sexism (regarding science, math, and computer technology), and athletics. Most girls…
Kahle, Jane Butler
This report describes a 9-month project, conducted in seven states, during which teaching strategies and teacher attitudes which successfully encouraged girls in science were observed, described, and analyzed. Biology, taken by over 80 percent of high school students, was the course selected for observation; if girls are turned off to science in…
Monkman, Karen; Hoffman, Lisa
Girls' education has been a focus of international development policy for several decades. The discursive framing of international organizations' policy initiatives relating to girls' education, however, limits the potential for discussing complex gender issues that affect the possibilities for gender equity. Because discourse shapes our…
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.
The impact of enlightened policies and incentives designed to increase girls' enrollment and achievement in education has been marginal in Nepal. Ministry of Education (MOE) goals aimed at increasing girls' participation include increasing the enrollment rate, opening early childhood development centers, promoting recruitment of at least one…
Gholson, Maisie; Martin, Danny B.
By taking an intersectional and emic view to studying a group of African American girls in a third-grade class, we attempted to capture the complexity of mathematics learning for these girls. Traditionally, children's social networks in school are framed as external to mathematics content learning. Our preliminary analyses of student interviews…
Peled, Einat; Cohavi, Ayelet
Objective: The aim of this qualitative research was to understand how runaway girls perceive the processes involved in leaving home and the meaning they attribute to it. Method: Findings are based on in-depth interviews with 10 Israeli girls aged 13-17 with a history of running away from home. Results: The meaning of running away as it emerged…
Chetcuti, Deborah A.; Kioko, Beriter
This study investigated girls' attitudes towards science in Kenya. It was carried out with 120 girls from four secondary schools in the Eastern province of Kenya. These were an urban single-sex (SS) and co-educational (Co-Ed) school and a rural SS and Co-Ed school. Different schools were chosen in order to explore whether there are any differences…
This publication discusses the development of girls and women within a hierarchical power structure and the effects on their self-esteem and performance. It describes the differences between girls' and boys' learning styles and educational experiences, which have differential effects on self-esteem and performance, particularly in mathematics and…
This book portrays San Ildefonso Pueblo on the east bank of the Rio Grande river in New Mexico through the lives of Sonja, age 10, and her sister Desiree, age 8. Growing up in San Ildefonso Pueblo, the girls enjoy the same activities as other American girls, such as basketball, cheerleading, playing video games, and sending e-mail. But they also…
John, Vaughn M.
Why do educated girls and women constitute a danger in some societies and for this face extreme danger in their educational endeavours? This article argues that historical and contemporary educational discrimination of girls and women is the hallmark of a violently patriarchal society, and this stubborn injustice is exacerbated under conditions of…
Cultural and socioeconomic barriers to girls' and women's education are reflected in the female literacy rate, average wage, and girls' enrollment, dropout, attainment, and participation rates in formal education. Development of national education has been given top priority in the Indonesian national development. The education system is organized…
As a result of intensive advocacy, girls' and women's education is a developmental priority in India. Availability of international development assistance for basic education and women's education has gone up significantly. Government and donor perceptions of gender issues in education and the importance of reaching out to girls to achieve the…
This digest reviews current research on girls' delinquent and violent behavior, the factors contributing to it, and effective programming strategies to prevent it. Girls are more involved in violent crime than they were a decade ago. Their murder rate is up 64%, although status offenses (offenses only because the perpetrator is a minor) continue…
The New Hampshire Alliance of Boys & Girls Clubs has come a long way since the inception of the state's first Club in Manchester more than 100 years ago. The goal of the Boys & Girls Clubs of America is to provide youth with programs and services that allow them to realize their full potential as productive members of society. State and…
This book examines the worlds and practices of school girls who participate in violent activities, but who are not involved with the juvenile justice system, members of gangs, or a visible minority group. It provides an understanding of where the violent school girl stands in relation to her nonviolent female peers, and her violent and nonviolent…
Hall, Horace R.; Brown-Thirston, Andrea
"Understanding Teenage Girls: Culture, Identity and Schooling" focuses on a range of social phenomenon that impact the lives of adolescent females of color. The authors highlight the daily challenges that African-American, Chicana, and Puerto Rican teenage girls face with respect to peer and family influences, media stereotyping, body image,…
Mahone, E. Mark; Wodka, Ericka L.
Since boys are more commonly diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) than girls, the majority of theories and published research studies of ADHD have been based on samples comprised primarily (or exclusively) of boys. While psychosocial impairment in girls with ADHD is well established, the neuropsychological and…
Davis, Danné E.
"The Jessie Books" are a seven-book series complete with a dedicated website. Each book features a 5-year-old girl named Jessie who happens to live in a city with her two moms. Each book features Jessie as an ordinary young girl engaging in familiar, life-enriching activities. Across "The Jessie Books," the community of…
Single-sex educational environments can create young women who are engaged, active leaders. Girls receive differential treatment in combined-sex education environments. Girls often do not receive the encouragement or instruction to assume leadership. I want to identify the elements of single-sex education that foster female leadership and consider…
US Agency for International Development, 2016
USAID's commitment to empowering adolescent girls to reach their full potential is reflected in the Agency's larger efforts to achieve gender equality and women's empowerment. The Agency holds decades of experience leading advances for greater gender equality and empowerment that benefit adolescent girls; however, these activities have not been…
D'Allesandro, Lou; Wool, Michael; McKenzie, Mary Alice
Boys & Girls Clubs of America count 4,000 community-based clubs serving more than 4 million young people through membership and community outreach. They provide a safe place to spend time during non-school hours and the summer as an alternative to the streets or being home alone--a place to play, have fun and learn. Boys & Girls Clubs…
The author examines (1) sport as a medium for attitude learning, (2) achievement as an attitude to be modified in girls, and (3) educational sport as a teaching model through which achievement attitudes in elementary school girls can be affected. Sport is seen as an ideal mechanism for attitude change since it has all the characteristics of a…
Research shows that girls tend to lose interest in science and math as they move through the education pipeline--a retreat that often begins during middle school. Summer science camps can be part of reversing that trend, some say. Academic camps are on the rise across the country, including ones to get adolescent girls excited about the…
Bettis, Pam; Roe, Mary F.
In this qualitative study, the authors merge two bodies of previously separated scholarship: (1) a socio-cultural understanding of adolescent girls in light of the shifting meaning of ideal girlhood, and (2) the participation and success of adolescent girls in school-based literacy activities. They apply these fields of inquiry to explore the…
Elisberg, Joan; Elisberg Sue
This article consists of black and white photographs of girls ages 13-17 doing things that interest them: carpentry, basketball, pottery, camera work, etc. The photographs are accompanied by the girls' thoughts on what they will do as future women, and what it means to be a woman. (Author/RM)
Stomfay-Stitz, Aline; Wheeler, Edyth
This column of Childhood Education focuses on middle school girls. Cyberbullying has emerged as a new, insidious, and harmful way of getting back at an individual girl who may be "different" or disliked for a physical or social trait. Cyberbullying has been described as "willful and repeated harm inflicted through the medium of electronic text"…
Savage, Shari L.
At the publication of Vladimir Nabokov's controversial novel "Lolita" (1958), the author insisted that a girl never appear on the cover. This discourse analysis of 185 "Lolita" book covers, most of which feature a girl, considers the genealogy of "Lolita" in relation to representation, myth, and tacit knowledge…
It's no secret that fewer and fewer women are entering computer science fields. Attracting high school girls to computer science is only part of the solution. Retaining them while they are in higher education or the workforce is also a challenge. To solve this, there is a need to show girls that computer science is a wide-open field that offers…
Pajer, Kathleen; Chung, Jessica; Leininger, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Gardner, William; Yeates, Keith
A study was conducted to determine whether neuropsychological function is poorer in girls with conduct disorder (CD) than in girls without any psychiatric disorder. It is concluded that girls with CD had deficits in several areas of neuropsychological function.
Desrosiers, Alethea; Miller, Lisa
This study examines the possibility that relational spirituality may be inversely associated with the relatively higher rates of adolescent depression found in girls as compared with boys. Subjects were 615 adolescents, representing a diverse range of religious, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Overall spirituality and depression were measured using The Brief-Multidimensional Measure of Religiosity/Spirituality and the Beck Depression Inventory, respectively. Overall, both level of depression and level of relational spirituality were higher in girls as compared with boys. Regression analyses conducted independently for boys and girls revealed that daily spiritual experiences, forgiveness, and religious coping were associated with less-depressive symptomatology exclusively in girls. This pattern in the findings suggests that uniquely in girls, depression may be associated with disruptions in a relational form of spirituality.
Singh, Zora; Sethi, Gurmeet Kaur
Introduction Menarcheal age is the age at which menstruation begins. Menarcheal age is regarded as a sensitive indicator of physical, biological and psychological environment. Aim 1) To determine the menarcheal age and to examine the relationship between current age at menarche with anthropometric measures in Punjabi bania girls. 2) To develop maturity standards for Bania girls. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional survey was carried out on 200 bania girls at the age of onset of menarche. Menarcheal data was obtained by status quo method by asking about whether menarche has been experienced or not. In the present survey adolescent girls were interviewed with the help of pre-designed questionnaire. Statistical analysis was carried out in SPSS software, version 16.0. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used for correlation studies. Results A total of 200 Punjabi bania girls were examined in the study. The median age of onset of menarche in these girls was 12.3 years. Menarcheal age was positively associated with bi-acromial width, bi-iliac width and arm span. Conclusion The present research has revealed secular trend in the age of onset of menarche as indicated by median age of 12.3 years in Bania girls. The bi-acromial width, bi-iliac width and arm span were also correlated with the age of menarche. PMID:28050402
This article describes the status of the girl child among tribes in India. Tribes have son preference but do not discriminate against girls by female infanticide or sex determination tests. Girls do not inherit land, but they are not abused, hated, or subjected to rigid social norms. Girls are not veiled and are free to participate in dancing and other recreational programs. There is no dowry on marriage. The father of the bridegroom pays a brideprice to the father of the girl. Widowed or divorced women are free to marry again. Daughters care for young children, perform housework, and work in the field with their brothers. In the tribal village of Choti Underi girls were not discriminated against in health and nutrition, but there was a gender gap in education. Both girls and boys were equally exposed to infection and undernourishment. Tribals experience high rates of infant and child mortality due to poverty and its related malnutrition. Child labor among tribals is a way of life for meeting the basic needs of the total household. A recent report on tribals in Rajasthan reveals that 15-20% of child labor involved work in mines that were dangerous to children's health. Girl children had no security provisions or minimum wages. Tribal children were exploited by human service agencies. Child laborers were raped. Government programs in tribal areas should focus on improving living conditions for children in general. Special programs for girls are needed for providing security in the workplace and increasing female educational levels. More information is needed on the work burden of tribal girls that may include wage employment as well as housework.
Wehr, Heather; Tum, Silvia Ester
Adolescent Maya girls are among the most vulnerable, marginalized sub-populations in Guatemala, a country that is largely young, indigenous and poor. Adolescent Maya girls have limited access to secondary schooling, opportunities to work or earn an income, and sexual and reproductive health information and services. This article explores the extent to which adolescent Maya girls are able to adopt what they have learned in a community-based skills-building and sex education programme in isolated rural, indigenous Guatemalan communities. This is presented through an interview between the authors, who met and worked together in the Population Council's programme Abriendo Oportunidades (Opening Opportunities) for girls aged 8-19 years. The interview discusses what can be done so that indigenous adolescents not only obtain the sexual health information they need, but develop the skills to make decisions, communicate with their peers and parents, and exercise their rights. Much culturally and linguistically sensitive work must be done, using a community-based participatory approach, so that young people who do want to use condoms for protection or contraceptive methods not only have access to the methods, but the support of their families and communities, and government-sponsored sex education programmes, to use them.
Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald; DeVore, Edna; Harman, Pamela; Reaching Stars Team
This year, the University of Arizona is conducting its first two Leadership Workshops for Girl Scout adult leaders. These workshops are being supported by a five-year NASA Collaborative Agreement, Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (www.seti.org/GirlScoutStars), through the SETI Institute in collaboration with the University of Arizona, Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA), the Girl Scouts of Northern California, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, and Aries Scientific, Inc. These workshops are an outgrowth of Astronomy Camp for Girl Scout Leaders, a 14-year "Train the Trainer" program funded by NASA through the James Webb Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) education and outreach team. We are continuing our long-term relationship with all Girl Scout Councils to engage girls and young women not only in science and math education, but also in the astronomical and technological concepts relating to NASA's scientific mission. Our training aligns with the GSUSA Journey: It's Your Planet-Love It! and introduces participants to some of the activities that are being developed by the Girl Scout Stars team for GSUSA's new space science badges for all Girl Scout levels being developed as a part of Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts.The workshops include hands-on activities in basic astronomy (night sky, stars, galaxies, optics, telescopes, etc.) as well as some more advanced concepts such as lookback time and the expansion of the Universe. Since the inception of our original Astronomy Camp in 2003, our team has grown to include nearly 280 adult leaders, staff, and volunteers from over 79 Councils in 43 states and the District of Columbia so they can, in turn, teach young women essential concepts in astronomy, the night sky environment, applied math, and engineering. Our workshops model what astronomers do by engaging participants in the process of science inquiry, while equipping adults to host astronomy-related programs with
Seki, M; Takizawa, T; Suzuki, S; Shimizu, T; Shibata, H; Ishii, T; Hasegawa, T; Suzuki, N
We report a 48-year-old Japanese woman with phenylketonuria (PKU) who presented with severe neurological symptoms more than 30 years after discontinuation of dietary treatment. She was diagnosed with PKU at 6-years-old and was treated with a phenylalanine restricted diet until she was 15 years old. When she was 48-years-old she started having difficulty walking. After several months, she presented with severe disturbance of consciousness and was admitted. She was diagnosed as having neurological complications associated with PKU. We observed temporal changes in her laboratory data, brain MRI and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan findings. Brain MRI on T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted images revealed high intensity lesions in her bilateral frontal lobes and 123I-IMP SPECT showed marked and diffuse hypoperfusion in the bilateral cerebrum and cerebellum. After the resumption of dietary treatment, serum phenylalanine concentrations immediately decreased to the normal range. However, her neurological symptoms took longer to improve. We also found no clear temporal association between MRI findings and clinical severity. SPECT abnormalities showed marked improvement after treatment. It is well known that PKU patients who discontinue the dietary restriction from their childhood develop minor neurological impairments. However, PKU patients with late-onset severe neurological symptoms are very rare. To our knowledge, this is the first report regarding SPECT findings of PKU patients with late-onset severe neurological deterioration.
Sutherland, Rebecca; Hodge, Antoinette; Bruck, Susan; Costley, Debra; Klieve, Helen
More boys than girls are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder; however, there are conflicting findings about whether they differ in their presentation. This study involved a survey of parents of school-aged children on the autism spectrum (171 parents of girls and 163 parents of boys) that was distributed via social media. The surveys provided insights regarding the characteristics of boys and girls (as perceived by parents) as well as some demographic information. There were very few differences reported regarding communication and social strengths and difficulties of boys and girls with autism. No differences were reported in the number of boys and girls on the autism spectrum with special interests or repetitive behaviours; however, significant differences were found in the types of special interests with boys and girls showing generally interests along traditional gender lines. Qualitative analysis of open comments indicated that some parents of girls on the autism spectrum described their daughter as trying to hide or mask her difficulties more but no parents of boys on the spectrum described this phenomenon.
Johnson, Paula Denise
This qualitative study sought to determine how girls perceived factors that contribute to their success in science programs designed to maximize their achievement. The sample consisted of 20 students in 9th and 12th grades attending a school of choice. Respondents were interviewed using a structured interview protocol. The National Council for Research on Women study (Thom, 2001) found that girls are more successful in math and science programs that incorporate a cooperative, hands-on approach than in programs that stress competition and individual learning. This finding was supported by this study among 20 high school girls in a school whose mission is to improve the access of girls who study and choose careers in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) disciplines. Related studies on the subject of the underrepresentation of girls and women in science and related disciplines raise the question why so few girls choose STEM careers. Qualitative inductive analysis was used to discover critical themes that emerged from the data. The initial results were presented within the context of the following five themes: (1) learning styles, (2) long-term goals, (3) subject matter, (4) classroom climate/environment, and (5) evaluation. After further analysis, the researcher found that factors cited by the girls as contributing to their success in science programs specifically designed to maximize their achievement were: (a) cooperative learning, (b) a custom-tailored curriculum, and (c) positive influences of mentors.
Adam, B S; Livingston, R
All means of exploring the psychological and environmental antecedents of murder by a child should be used toward preventing lethal outcomes in future. The authors present the case of a ten year old girl who killed her sister with details of the sisters' relationship, the perpetrator's psychological characteristics and the family situation. Sibling-rivalry, family stressors, and the perpetrator's compulsive and narcissistic traits and preoccupation with a violent television fantasy are discussed. A literature review and suggestions for future research are provided.
Khan, Salma; Khan, Momna; Rafique, Sadia
Juvenile fibroadenoma accounts for 4% of the total fibroadenomas. Giant juvenile fibroadenoma is found in only 0.5% of all fibroadenomas. The authors report a 10-year girl presenting with progressive enlargement of both breasts for one year. Based on clinical findings and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC), a diagnosis of bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas of breast was made. She underwent bilateral lumpectomy with breast conservation and made uneventful postoperative recovery.
Raczkowski, Jan W; Daniszewska, Barbara; Paradecka, Anna
Trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome - ES) is the second most common trisomy. It occurs in 1/3 000 to 1/8 000 births. ES is a cause of numerous developmental disorders and malformations. The median life span of children with ES is about 2 weeks and only 5%-10% will survive their first year of life. The report presents a case of a 6-year-old girl with ES.
Leaper, Campbell; Brown, Christia Spears
This study investigated predictors of adolescent girls' experiences with sexism and feminism. Girls (N = 600; M = 15.1 years, range = 12-18), of varied socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, completed surveys of personal experiences with sexual harassment, academic sexism (regarding science, math, and computer technology), and athletics. Most girls reported sexual harassment (90%), academic sexism (52%), and athletic sexism (76%) at least once, with likelihood increasing with age. Socialization influences and individual factors, however, influenced likelihood of all three forms of sexism. Specifically, learning about feminism and gender-conformity pressures were linked to higher perceptions of sexism. Furthermore, girls' social gender identity (i.e., perceived gender typicality and gender-role contentedness) and gender-egalitarian attitudes were related to perceived sexism.
Dearing, Eric; Casey, Beth M.; Ganley, Colleen M.; Tillinger, Miriam; Laski, Elida; Montecillo, Christine
The present study addressed girls' (N=127) early numerical and spatial reasoning skills, within the context of a critical environment in which these cognitive skills develop, namely their homes. Specifically, proximal links between distal family socioeconomic conditions and first-grade girls' arithmetic and spatial skills were examined (mean…
The present article explores discourses surrounding the bodies of Black women and girls as they engage the meanings of Black womanhood in (American) society in an afterschool setting. Drawing on Black and hip hop feminisms, African American literacies, and critical discourse perspectives, the author analyzes two young girls' narratives, which…
In recognition of the profound benefits of children's engagement with their rights, this article presents an experiential account of how Bolivian adolescent indigenous girls discover, articulate, experience, and advocate human rights. This study explores adolescent girls' demonstrations of empowerment, agency, resistance, and solidarity as part of…
This document presents a summary of a national telephone survey that examined messages sent to adolescent girls (ages 10 to 17) across 6 types of media most heavily used by adolescent girls: television, movies, magazines, music videos, television commercials, and magazine advertisements. The study asked what messages are sent about gender…
Willer, Erin K.
Social aggression, including behaviors such as gossip and friendship manipulation, can be damaging to girls' individual and relational well-being. As a result, the purpose of the present dissertation study was to test a narrative sense-making metaphor intervention with middle schools girls experiencing social aggression in order to facilitate…
Ewart, Craig K.; And Others
Describes effective methods for identifying and recruiting high risk African American ninth-grade girls to measure their fitness and assess the impact of fitness training on blood pressure. A multistage step test for fitness assessment in such girls is presented. The "Project Heart" aerobics class and control groups are described. (SM)
Oliver, Kimberly L.; Lalik, Rosary.
This book examines how four adolescent girls constructed the meaning of their bodies, discussing oppression and resistance, voice and silence, and girls' desires to be seen and heard for who they are as they experience themselves individually and socially. It presents the struggles of two educational researchers trying to create ethical research…
Silverthorn, P; Frick, P J
Recent research has suggested that there are two distinct trajectories for the development of antisocial behavior in boys: a childhood-onset pathway and an adolescent-onset pathway. After reviewing the limited available research on antisocial girls, we propose that this influential method of conceptualizing the development of severe antisocial behavior may not apply to girls without some important modifications. Antisocial girls appear to show many of the correlates that have been associated with the childhood-onset pathway in boys, and they tend to show impaired adult adjustment, which is also similar to boys in the childhood-onset pathway. However, antisocial girls typically show an adolescent-onset to their antisocial behavior. We have proposed that these girls show a third developmental pathway which we have labeled the "delayed-onset" pathway. This model rests on the assumption that many of the putative pathogenic mechanisms that contribute to the development of antisocial behavior in girls, such as cognitive and neuropsychological deficits, a dysfunctional family environment, and/or the presence of a callous and unemotional interpersonal style, may be present in childhood, but they do not lead to severe and overt antisocial behavior until adolescence. Therefore, we propose that the delayed-onset pathway for girls is analogous to the childhood-onset pathway in boys and that there is no analogous pathway in girls to the adolescent-onset pathway in boys. Although this model clearly needs to be tested in future research, it highlights the need to test the applicability of current theoretical models for explaining the development of antisocial behavior in girls.
Mosatche, Harriet S.; And Others
This document is designed to help Girl Scout leaders understand the maturation of girls and how to assist the girls in their development. The information and activities described in this booklet are designed to help girls see themselves in a positive way, understand some of the forces that influence them as they develop, and cope with the stresses…
This report assesses the current situation of girls' participation in elementary education, suggesting approaches that may help increase girls' retention. It reviews research findings and conventional wisdom on constraints affecting girls' schooling and examines initiatives that have attempted to increase girls' retention. Chapter 1,…
Brown, Lyn Mikel; Gilligan, Carol
A study explored girls' development and its implication for the psychology of women. From 1986-1990, nearly 100 girls between the ages of 7 and 18 at the Laurel School for Girls in Cleveland, Ohio, were interviewed. Most of the girls were from middle- or upper-middle-class families (80%), although some were scholarship students from working-class…
Bryant, Louise Stevens
The Girl Scouts, a national organization, is open to any girl who expresses her desire to join and voluntarily accepts the promise and the laws. The object of the Girl Scouts is to bring to all girls the opportunity for group experience outdoor life, and to learn through work, but more by play, to serve their community. Patterned after the Girl…
Kusimo, Patricia S.
This paper examines the interests, perceptions, and participation of 16 African American girls in a program designed to improve girls' persistence in science, mathematics, and technology (SMT). The girls are among 33 African American and 73 total original participants in "Rural and Urban Images: Voices of Girls in Science, Mathematics, and…
Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Naghshbandi, Jafar; Simon, James H S; Rotstein, Ilan
Radicular groove is an anatomical malformation that often causes severe periodontal defects. Treatments of such an anomaly present a clinical challenge to the operator. Presented is a case of successful treatment of radicular groove associated with a maxillary lateral incisor of a 15-year-old girl. A combination of endodontics, intentional replantation, and Emdogain therapy was used. At 4-year follow-up, the patient was comfortable and complete resolution of the periapical pathology was evident.
Chetcuti, Deborah A.; Kioko, Beriter
This study investigated girls' attitudes towards science in Kenya. It was carried out with 120 girls from four secondary schools in the Eastern province of Kenya. These were an urban single-sex (SS) and co-educational (Co-Ed) school and a rural SS and Co-Ed school. Different schools were chosen in order to explore whether there are any differences in attitudes in SS and Co-Ed schools and in schools in rural and urban areas. The methodology included the use of both questionnaires and focus group interviews. The main aim was to gain insight into the extent and depth of students' attitudes towards science. The findings of the study showed that the majority of Kenyan girls who participated in the study have a favourable attitude towards science. Girls in SS schools were found to have a more favourable attitude than those in Co-Ed schools, while girls in rural area schools were found to find science more relevant than those in urban schools. It emerged from this study that the attitudes of Kenyan girls are influenced by their perceptions of the relevance of science, enjoyment of studying science, perceptions of the suitability of science for a career, and their perceptions of subject difficulty.
Baker, Dale; Leary, Rosemary
The purpose of this study was to try to determine what influences girls to choose science. Forty girls were interviewed in Grades 2, 5, 8, 11 using a semistructured protocol. The interview focused on feelings about science, science careers, peer and parental support, and how science is taught. To determine whether their responses were based on gender, each girl was asked to respond to questions as if she were a boy. The girls were highly self-confident and positive about science. All of the girls took a strong equity position and asserted that women can and should do science. The girls liked learning science in an interactive social context rather than participating in activities that isolated them such as independent reading, writing, or note taking. Those who chose science careers were drawn to them because of strong affective experiences with a loved one and a desire to help. The interviews were analyzed through the framework of women's affective and psychological needs.Received: 15 July 1993; Revised: 23 May 1994;
Steese, Stephanie; Dollette, Maya; Phillips, William; Hossfeld, Elizabeth; Matthews, Gail; Taormina, Giovanna
The Girls' Circle is a support group for adolescent girls developed by Beth Hossfeld and Giovanna Taormina as a unique program that addresses the needs of girls by focusing on increasing connections, building empathic skills, and developing resiliency. The present study evaluates the effectiveness of the Girls' Circle intervention on improving social support, body image, locus of control, self-efficacy, and self-esteem. Sixty-three girls from 9 support groups (comprising 5 to 15 girls each) across the United States completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale, the Nowicki-Strickland Personal Reaction Survey, Schwarzer's General Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale both before and after the 10-week Girls' Circle program. Results revealed a significant increase in social support, body image, and self-efficacy after completion of the program.
Svanemyr, Joar; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Raj, Anita; Travers, Ellen; Sundaram, Lakshmi
Over the past few years the issue of child marriage has received growing political and programmatic attention. In spite of some progress in a number of countries, global rates have not declined over the past decade. Knowledge gaps remain in understanding trends, drivers and approaches to ending child marriage, especially to understand what is needed to achieve results on a large scale. This commentary summarizes the outcomes of an Expert Group Meeting organized by World Health Organization to discuss research priorities on Ending Child Marriage and Supporting Married Girls. It presents research gaps and recommends priorities for research in five key areas; (i) prevalence and trends of child marriage; (ii) causes of child marriage (iii) consequences of child marriage; (iv) efforts to prevent child marriage; (v) efforts to support married girls.
Gender identity disorder in girls is reported far less frequently than in boys. The analysis of a six-year-old adopted girl with gender identity disorder is presented to show the importance of the mother-infant relationship and of parental, especially maternal, attitudes toward gender in the normal development of gender identity and gender role definition. This child's unusual history included a late adoption, with clear evidence of separation trauma, and the ongoing influence of maternal infertility. Her symptoms of gender identity disorder appeared before her second birthday and were well established by three years of age. The analysis, from age six to thirteen, achieved a better adaptation to her gender. Her masculine strivings gradually became incorporated into an essentially feminine orientation.
This article discusses the flaws in India's legislation dealing with female children and equality, marriage age, rape, adoption, child care, and inheritance. India's national policies treat children as commodities and not human beings with their own rights. The best interests of a child are not generally served in a manner that advances their welfare. Exploitation of children for labor and sexual abuse of children is widespread. Only some children have such basic needs met as education, nutrition, food, health, clothing, shelter. Children are defined by the UN as human beings below the age of 18 years. However, in India the Constitution protects only children younger than 14 in employment. The prostitution act protects children younger than 16. The juvenile justice protects girls under the age of 18 years and boys under the age of 16 years. Hindus recognize inheritance of family property only for sons. This custom contributes to the abortion of female fetuses. The practice of equal protection under the law has enough loopholes to safeguard the interests of masculine patriarchal values, norms, and structure. The Act of Marriage does not deal directly with the issue of validity and only recommends a suitable age of marriage. Women can seek divorce on the grounds she was too young to marry only if the marriage occurred before the age of 15 years. Sexual intercourse with a woman under 16 years old is rape, with or without her consent. However, in practice men receive a lesser punishment for rape if the woman is his own wife and not under 12 years of age. The rape must be reported within a year of its occurrence. India's laws penalize the adults involved in child marriages, but the Hindu Marriage Act punishes only the parties married, including the child. Marriage registration is not compulsory. India's protective laws distinguish between prostitutes and men who use prostitutes, husbands versus wives in fidelity disputes, married versus unmarried or "unchaste" women
Educated women are more productive, more confident, marry later, use family planning, and have healthier children. There are an estimated 600 million illiterate women in the world, which is double the number of male illiterates. Improvements have been made in the past 10 years in educating girls. Current figures indicate that 65% of girls and 78% of boys enter primary school in developing countries vs. 20% and 11%, respectively, 10 years earlier. 37% of girls and 48% of boys are in secondary schools. An additional 56 million girls need to be enrolled in order to achieve parity with boys. The education of girls in Africa has suffered setbacks in the past decade due to economic recession. Primary school enrollment fell from 80% of eligible children in 1980 to 76% in 1986. Many countries are having difficulty keeping pace with population growth and educating more girls. There are many factors which interfere with girls' schooling: shortages of schools, lack of educational materials, cost of schools or educational materials, girl's status in society, competition with other household chores, child labor, time schedules of classes, flexibility of schools in allowing dropping in and out of school, lack of the appropriate kind of resources, distance to schools, lack of sanitation, and values emphasizing "respectability" rather than autonomy. Many countries are using innovative solutions to these difficulties. For example, in Bangladesh, Liberia, Morocco, and Tanzania, schools are "double shift" where classes are conducted in the morning, in the afternoon, and sometimes again in the evening for adult education. Communities and shanty towns are constructing their own crude buildings as schools close to home. However, in Egypt school construction is not the only answer; 400 new primary schools were opened and male enrollment increased from 90% to 100% and female enrollment rose to 74%. In Nigeria, cost of books and uniforms prevents many from attending. Poor families must be
In many countries, girls are discriminated against in nutrition, education, health care, and other areas, to the detriment of their personal development. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) concerned with promoting women's rights have come to regard the problem of girls' rights as very serious. Attention to girls in the past was focused on adolescent pregnancy or on social problems such as violence or child prostitution. But in the view of the NGOs, gender equity will be impossible to achieve as long as discrimination against girls continues. In addition, limiting the opportunities of girls will inevitably limit their potential contributions to society. The UN General Assembly in September 1989 approved the Convention on the Rights of Children, the principal goals of which were to eliminate malnutrition, preventable diseases, and illiteracy. The World Conference on Children in 1990 was attended by representatives of over 150 countries, who specified concrete goals. Measurable progress has occurred. UNICEF estimates, for example, that 2.5 million fewer children died on 1996 than in 1990, but it is probable that over half of the children in Latin America and the Caribbean live in poverty. In 1990, nearly 1 million children under age 5 in the region died of preventable diseases, and some 7 million were estimated to be malnourished, 1 million seriously. Infant mortality rates indicate that most countries of the region have improved their health status, but the rate has apparently increased in Haiti, Bolivia, and Peru. The Pan American Health Organization and the Demographic and Health Surveys have accumulated data indicating that excess mortality has occurred among girls 1-4 years old in at least 9 countries of the region. Some evidence suggests that health care is less likely to be sought for girls than boys. Domestic violence and sexual abuse are a serious problem for girls and women, but many countries continue to avoid the issue. The 1993 UN Declaration of Human
Jean, Rosenie Thelus; Bondy, Melissa L.; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Forman, Michele R.
Mexican American (MA) girls are entering puberty earlier than in the past, yet few studies have explored the perceptions surrounding puberty among this group. We conducted separate focus groups for fathers, mothers, and daughters aged 6 to 12 years to explore perceptions of body image, pubertal development, communications, and sources of puberty-related information in MA participants. Our results revealed parental concerns about daughters’ weight and pubertal development, as well as differences in their communication with their daughters. Although both parents willingly discussed pubertal issues concerning their daughters, mothers had a more active role in conveying pubertal information to daughters. Among the girls, there was a gap in knowledge about the pubertal process between the younger and older girls. Our findings present opportunities and challenges for addressing obesity as a pubertal risk factor in MA girls; however, more studies are needed to understand family beliefs and sociocultural dynamics surrounding puberty in MAs. PMID:19690203
Harris, Danielle Arlanda; Malone, Stephanie
Returning to the community upon release from custody is a difficult process to navigate, and there are scant resources available to juvenile female offenders, in particular. Comprehensive wraparound aftercare and mentor services are a central component of successful community reentry, and the well-established unique characteristics of juvenile girls make it necessary to create programs catered specifically to them. The present study employed a case study design to describe and evaluate the Art of Yoga Project's Mentor Program. Eight girls and their mentors were followed for a period of 12 months after the girls' release from custody. Preliminary results from qualitative content analysis suggest that the program was valuable for the girls who participated.
Ginorio, Angela B.; Huston, Michelle; Frevert, Katie; Seibel, Jane Bierman
The Rural Girls in Science (RGS) program was developed to foster the interest in science, engineering, and mathematics among rural high school girls in the state of Washington. Girls served include American Indians, Latinas, and Whites. This article provides an overview of the program and its outcomes not only for the participants (girls, teachers, counselors, and schools) but the researchers. Lessons learned from and about the participants are presented, and lessons learned from the process are discussed to illustrate how RGS moved from a focus on individuals to a focus on the school. The initial guiding concepts (self-esteem and scientific pipeline) were replaced by “possible selves” and our proposed complementary concepts: science-affirming and affirming science education.
Changes in participation and achievement patterns mark a turning point for girls in schooling and place female empowerment squarely in the public domain. Using data from a longitudinal study of girls, this paper looks at female empowerment by exploring the relationship between the production of female subjectivity and the processes operating in…
Gardner, Christie; Epkins, Catherine C.
Background: Rumination and anxiety sensitivity are posited cognitive vulnerabilities in the development and/or maintenance of depression and anxiety and have only been examined separately in youth. Objective: We examined the relation between rumination and anxiety sensitivity in girls, after controlling for other girl, maternal, and parenting…
In this article, the author describes a Seattle-based nonprofit organization, Powerful Voices, designed to help girls realize their dreams, engage their communities, and shape a better world. One among many efforts to address the equity gap for girls of color, Powerful Voices intertwines gender- and race-specific practices with evidence-based…
Holmes, Stephanie; Redmond, Adrienne; Thomas, Julie; High, Karen
Current data suggest fewer females than males continue to be interested in engineering and that this gender gap is first evidenced during middle school years. One might expect that female engineering role models would encourage adolescent girls to pursue future careers in engineering and thereby increase the girls' interests in and attitudes…
Lee, Kyeong Hwa; Sriraman, Bharath
In this longitudinal study of two gifted Korean girls, experiences with early admittance into a gifted program are charted alongside their family and societal experiences that ultimately influenced their career choices in nonmathematical fields. The 8-year-long qualitative study involved extensive interviews with the two gifted girls and their…
Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Thomason, Jessica; DiMeo, Michelle; Broomfield-Massey, Kimberley
The past two decades have seen a transformation in youth programming toward a comprehensive positive youth development (YD) framework. Cool Girls, Inc., a YD program, focuses on improving girls' life chances by promoting positive behaviors and attitudes in multiple domains. These include self-concept, academic orientation, future orientation, and…
McGuire, Elaine M.
Argues that teachers and librarians can have a positive influence on the lives of young girls by complimenting their reading choices and search strategies rather than just their shoes and hairdos. Discusses books dealing with beauty, clothes, media stereotypes, women in sports, sexuality, and recommended reading for girls. (PEN)
Sensoy, Ozlem; Marshall, Elizabeth
Deborah Ellis's "The Breadwinner" is a popular young adult novel about Muslim girls. In this paper, we offer an analysis of the representation of Muslim girls and women in the book as well as responses from undergraduate students enrolled in a children's literature course to these constructions. Building on the work of postcolonial feminism…
Koonce, Jacqueline B.
Current research suggests that it is imperative for researchers and educators to pay more attention to the needs of African American adolescent girls and how their race and gender affect schooling (Fordham, 1993; Morris, 2007). The purpose of this study was to highlight the lived experiences of two African American adolescent girls when they used…
Relationships between girls and women have typically been explored through the lexicon of "friendship" or, where there is a presence of sexual desire, "lesbian". This article suggests the complexity and impact of female (same-sex) sociality, and its relationship to heteronormativity and power dynamics between girls and women…
Roizenblatt, J; Peduti Cunha, L A
The authors present a case of a 15-year-old girl with Leber's congenital amaurosis with associated nephronophthisis. The main findings in this case are: congenital blindness; enophthalmos; photophobia; nystagmus; keratoconus; cataracts; pigmentary degeneration in the fundus of both eyes; progressive uremia with absence of hematuria, proteinuria, pyuria, and glycosuria; low urinary density, normal lipidic profile; osteoporosis; absence of edema; polydipsia; polyuria; and a history of consanguinity between her parents. Tranmission of this entity allows an autosomal recessive pattern.
In Bangladesh, 100 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have worked with the government to create approximately 52,000 nonformal schools for children who have never attended school or have dropped out. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) alone has 34,000 nonformal education centers. The BRAC program has been particularly effective at increasing educational opportunities for girls, and BRAC is a major implementing agency of the agreement forged by the International Labor Organization and the UN Children's Fund with the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers Export Association, which gives about 10,000 former child garment workers a meager stipend allowing them to study instead of work. BRAC, the Grameen Bank, and several other NGOs are also developing alternative income-generating methods to compete with the exploitative working conditions suffered by impoverished girls. BRAC now has more than a million students enrolled each year, 700,000 of whom are girls. Students participate in special condensed courses in classes that average 33 pupils (20 must be girls). Gender sensitivity is incorporated at every level. BRAC also relies on community participation in running the schools, and the flexible hours and imaginative curriculum have resulted in very high attendance rates. Government actions (making primary education compulsory and tripling education expenditure) have also resulted in increased primary enrollment while special programs seek to increase the number of girls in secondary schools.
Tissot, A.; Dorn, L.D.; Rotenstein, D.; Rose, S.R.; Sontag-Padilla, L.M.; Jillard, C.L.; Witchel, S.F.; Berga, S.L.; Loucks, T.L.; Beers, S.R.
Contemporary research indicates that brain development occurs during childhood and into early adulthood, particularly in certain regions. A critical question is whether premature or atypical hormone exposures impact brain development (e.g., structure) or function (e.g., neuropsychological functioning). The current study enrolled 40 girls (aged 6–8 years) diagnosed with premature adrenarche (PA) and a comparison group of 36 girls with on-time maturation. It was hypothesized that girls with PA would demonstrate lower IQ and performance on several neuropsychological tasks. The potential for a sexually dimorphic neuropsychological profile in PA was also explored. No significant univariate or multivariate group differences emerged for any neuropsychological instrument. However, effect size confidence intervals contained medium-sized group differences at the subscale level. On-time girls performed better on verbal, working memory, and visuospatial tasks. Girls with PA showed improved attention, but not a sexually dimorphic profile. These results, though preliminary, suggest that premature maturation may influence neuropsychological functioning. PMID:22114879
Schinke, Steven P.; Fang, Lin; Cole, Kristin C.
This study tested a computerized gender-specific, parent-involvement intervention program grounded in family interaction theory and aimed at preventing substance use among adolescent girls. Following program delivery and 1 year later, girls randomly assigned to the intervention arm improved more than girls in a control arm on variables associated with reduced risks for substance use, including communication with their mothers, knowledge of family rules about substance use, awareness of parental monitoring of their discretionary time, non-acceptance of peer substance use, problem-solving skills, and ability to refuse peer pressure to use substances. Relative to control-arm girls, those in the intervention arm also reported less 30-day use of alcohol and marijuana and lower intentions to smoke, drink, and take illicit drugs in the future. Girls’ mothers in the intervention arm reported greater improvements after the program and relative to control-arm mothers in their communication with their daughters, establishment of family rules about substance use, and monitoring of their daughters’ discretionary time. Study findings lend support to the potential of gender-specific, parent-involvement, and computerized approaches to preventing substance use among adolescent girls. PMID:19632053
Butler, Amy C
To identify prospectively measured risk factors of sexual assault (SA) among girls age 17 and younger. The data come from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and are derived from interviews with 1,087 girls, their primary caregivers, and household heads. The data were collected from the girls' first year of life through their early twenties. Factors measured during childhood were used to predict whether the girls experienced a subsequent first sexual assault before the age of 18. Prospectively measured risk factors associated with subsequent child SA included the absence of one or both parents, maternal education less than college, family income below 400% of the federal poverty threshold, low caregiver warmth, child internalizing and externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, low achievement scores, and having been classified by their school as needing special education. Girls with behavioral health problems and learning challenges are at heightened risk for sexual assault. Research on behavioral health consequences of SA should control for preexisting SA risk factors to more accurately estimate the impact of child SA on subsequent behavioral health.
Peled, Einat; Lugasi, Reut
The phenomenon of girls in prostitution poses great challenges to professionals who work with adolescent girls at risk and in distress. Prostitution is socially stigmatized and seen as something shameful. However, current theory and research show adolescent girls in prostitution to be victims of violence, exploitation and trauma. This naturalistic qualitative study examined the views of 15 social workers at six Adolescent Girls Treatment Units in Israel on prostitution and on adolescent girls in prostitution. Data was collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The participants struggled to link the term "prostitution" with the adolescent girls in their care. The findings explore the source this perceived conflict, and its manifestation in the participants' professional intervention with the girls. The discussion examines the participants' professional discourse about adolescent girls in prostitution, and offers explanations for their difficulty in associating the adolescent girls in their care with prostitution.
Folkesson, Lisa; Riva, Roberto; Östberg, Viveca; Lindfors, Petra
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, including its regulation of cortisol, is central to bodily functioning and salivary cortisol is a commonly used biomarker that reflects the functioning of the HPA axis. However, knowledge of diurnal cortisol rhythms in healthy adolescents is limited and few studies have examined patterns in midadolescent girls and boys across single and aggregate cortisol measures. To fill this gap, the present study investigated single and aggregate cortisol measures reflecting diurnal rhythms in 14 to 16-year-old girls and boys. Self-administered salivary samples from 79 girls and 42 boys were collected during two schooldays at four timepoints: (a) immediately at awakening, (b) 30 min after waking up, (c) 60 min after waking up, and (d) at 8:00 p.m. Additionally, diary data including time of awakening, sampling times, and other potential confounders were analyzed. As for single measures, both girls and boys exhibited a typical diurnal cortisol profile with high levels in the morning that decreased throughout the day. However, girls had higher morning cortisol than did boys with significant differences at time of awakening, and at 30 and 60 min postawakening. For the aggregate measures, girls had a larger total level of cortisol in terms of cortisol awakening response (CARG ), area under the curve (AUCG ), and rise over run (slopeawake to last ), while no differences emerged for reactivity measures. Taken together, these findings suggest differences in single and aggregate cortisol measures between midadolescent girls and boys. Such differences in diurnal cortisol between pubertal girls and boys may play a role for the differential health trajectories typically found among adult women and men.
Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy
It is widely accepted that the sexualization of girls has increased markedly over time. The overall aim of the present study was to offer a description of the behaviours of young girls, with a particular focus on potentially sexualized behaviours and appearance concern. A sample of 815 mothers of 4-10 year-old girls completed a questionnaire about a range of behaviours exhibited by their daughters, in addition to measures of their own self-objectification and material concern. It was found that many girls engaged with teen culture and used a variety of beauty products, but few exhibited more overtly sexualized behaviours. Involvement with teen culture, using beauty products, attention to clothes, and personal grooming were all associated with the measure of appearance concern, as were maternal self-objectification and material concern. It was concluded that young girls do engage in 'grown up' behaviours and that such engagement is not benign for their development.
Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L.
Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed. PMID:23412952
Araki, Kaori; Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L
Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed.
Plowey, Edward D; Vogel, Hannes; Yeom, Kristen W; Jung, Henry; Chao, Kevin; Edwards, Michael S B
Glial cysts of the pineal gland can frequently be found in adults and children, but only rarely do they enlarge to become clinically relevant. We report a unique presentation of a pineal cyst in the midbrain tectum of a 16-month-old girl who initially presented with ptosis and strabismus. Preoperative imaging studies and intraoperative findings revealed no continuity between the tectal cyst and the pineal gland proper. We surmise that this tectal pineal cyst may have arisen from duplicated pineal gland tissue.
This article discusses the forms of sexual abuse of female children and the psychosocial impact on the well-being of girls in India. Child sexual abuse statistics reveal an estimated 50% of girls being sexually abused before the age of 15 years. Girl children are abused and then are made to feel personally responsible, guilty, or persecuted. Girls are threatened with violence if they tell about the sexual abuse. Pregnancies arising from sexual abuse result in shame and early marriage. Male children are also abused but they are not made to feel punished. Child sexual abuse is technically any sexual activity (rape, fondling of genitalia, masturbation, forced oral sex, sodomy, or vaginal penetration) that is committed by someone in a position of authority, power, or trust over the child or by a stranger. The World Health Organization estimates that 1 in 10 children worldwide is sexually abused. Rape within the family is particularly difficult for the victim. In almost 60% of rape cases, the victim was unwilling to report the name of the abuser. Families remain silent about sexual offenses in order to protect the family image. Mothers remain silent if the abuser is the father, which interferes with a child's relationship to both parents. Sexual abuse can result in bed wetting, nightmares, sleep disorders, depression, anxiety, running away from home, multiple personality disorders, precocious sexual behavior, or sexual inhibition and low self-esteem. Parental responses tend to be inappropriate discipline or ignoring it. Children may experience flashbacks or other long-term effects. Girls who experience sexual abuse once tend to be more vulnerable to abuse in adult life. Healing is slow and systematic. The first aim is to restore a girl's ability to say no and to teach her to protect herself. Healing is about removing guilt and resolution of the conflict between blame and the grossness of the violation.
Morrow, C. A.; Fuller, L.
The Space Science Institute engaged Denver area astronomers in collaboration with the Girl Scouts - Mile Hi Council to plan, implement, and evaluate workshops on astronomy and Mars exploration for Junior Girl Scouts (ages 9-11) and their Troop Leaders. We designed a workshop for the Scouts that would enable them to earn their Sky Watch badge. In addition we implemented a workshop for Troop Leaders who want to implement badge-related space science activities within their troops. This talk (or poster) will report on our experiences and lessons learned in these workshops. Our work was supported by the NASA IDEAS program.
In Africa, the education of girls has varied with the history and development of countries. For instance, botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have higher enrollment of girls than boys, and in Nigeria the dropout rate for boys is higher than for girls. In Mozambique, girl's education is dependent on matrilineal or patrilineal family structure, urban or rural location, or religious preference. These and many other factors interfere with girl's access, survival, performance, and achievement in school. Strategies generally involve 1) improving access and increasing enrollment, 2) increasing survival in the school system, and 3) improving the quality of the learning environment. Most African countries are involved with the first strategy, but problems remain in selecting the appropriate age to begin school, retaining students and teachers, lowering absenteeism, providing adequate and appropriate teaching materials for students, and other factors that discourage female attendance. Solutions have involved establishing book banks and cardboard box libraries as a supplement to classroom learning. Gender stereotypes in curriculum materials are being introduced which show females in a positive and prominent way. In Zambia, an in-service training program aims to develop positive teacher attitudes toward girls, toward their work, and toward pupil's work. Program efforts in Kenya are attempting to educate parents about the importance of keeping their daughters in school, and about issues related to population, health, education, and a healthy environment. Traditional practices such as female circumcision, childhood marriages, early pregnancy, and nutritional taboos are discouraged. There are 43 district coordinators who conduct seminars and workshops to spread information to communities and households. Other countries are engaged in village meetings and workshops to persuade parents to examine their own interpersonal interaction with their daughters and the impact on their
Birmingham, Daniel J.
School science continues to fail to engage youth from non-dominant communities (Carlone, Huan-Frank & Webb, 2011). However, recent research demonstrates that informal science learning settings support both knowledge gains and increased participation in science among youth from non-dominant communities (Dierking, 2007; Falk et al., 2007; HFRP, 2010). Despite the success, little is known about how teachers can learn from informal science practices to support student engagement in science. In this study, I examine the impact informal science experiences has for the teaching and learning of science in school contexts. This study is focused on eliciting girls' stories of informal science learning experiences and sharing these stories with science teachers to examine what they notice and make meaning of in connection with their classroom practices (van Es & Sherin, 2002). I co-constructed cases of informal science experiences with middle school females who participate in an after school science program in an urban area. These cases consisted of the girls' written stories, their explicit messages to science teachers, examples of actions taken when investigating community based science issues and transcripts of conversations between the girls and researchers. These cases were shared with local science teachers in order to investigate what they "notice" (van Es & Sherin, 2002) regarding girls' participation in informal science learning, how they make meaning of youths' stories and whether the stories influence their classroom practices. I found that the girls' use their cases to share experiences of how, where and why science matters, to express hope for school science and to critique stereotypical views that young, female, students of color from lower SES backgrounds are not interested or capable of making contributions to scientific investigations. Additionally, I found that teachers noticed powerful messages within and across the girls' cases. The messages include; 1
Aronson, Paul L; Mistry, Rakesh D
Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism that commonly presents as hyperammonemia in neonates. We present a case of a 2-year-old girl who was referred to a pediatric emergency department for evaluation of hepatitis, an uncommon presentation of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. Recognition of late presentations of this disease is important for survival and neurological outcome.
Since January 1992, 9 exhibits have been constructed by the SciTech Clubs for Girls, which involved 63 girls, ages 10 to 14. These exhibits are: Bubble Shapes by the St. Charles Cadette Girl Scout Troop No. 109. Density Games by the South Elgin Cadette Girl Scout Troop No. 132. Electric Fleas by the Warrenville Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 305. Energy vs. Power by the Aurora Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 242. The Organ Pipe by the Bartlett Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 107. Ohm`s Law by the Geneva Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 401. What is Gravity by the Pilsen YMCA girls. Insulation at Work by the Algonquin Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 303. Series vs. Parallel by the Leland Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 50. The report is a description of each exhibit and the group that built the exhibit. Each group had a minimum of 10 hours of contact time at SciTech with the SciTech Clubs for Girls Program Coordinator. All mentors are female. Each exhibit building experience includes a trip to the hardware store to purchase supplies. After the exhibit is complete, the girls receive certificates of achievement and a SciTech Club Patch.
Objective: To describe the clinical presentation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in women and girls and factors influencing proper diagnosis and treatment. Data Sources: A PubMed search was conducted in April 9, 2012 for English-language publications from the previous 10 years. Search terms included attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, and AD/HD combined with gender, girls, females, women, continuity, discontinuity, gap, treatment, untreated, and lack of treatment. Study Selection/Data Extraction: A total of 41 articles were reviewed for relevance. Reference lists from relevant articles were reviewed for additional publications; sources known to the authors were also included. Results: Attitudes about ADHD among individuals with ADHD and knowledgeable informants (families, teachers, colleagues) vary on the basis of the diagnosed individual’s gender. The ADHD prevalence rates are higher among boys than girls. A low index of clinical suspicion exists for girls; their presentation is considered “subthreshold” because inattentiveness is more prominent than hyperactivity/impulsivity. Females with ADHD may develop better coping strategies than males to mask their symptoms. Lastly, anxiety and depression, common comorbidities in female patients with ADHD, can lead to missed or misdiagnosis. If not properly diagnosed and treated, girls with ADHD experience the same negative consequences as boys, including poor academic performance and behavioral problems. Unique issues related to hormonal effects on ADHD expression and treatment response are also experienced by women and girls. Conclusions: Accurate ADHD diagnosis in women and girls requires establishing a symptom history and an understanding of its gender-specific presentation. Coexisting anxiety and depression are prominent in female patients with ADHD; satisfactory academic achievement should not rule out an ADHD diagnosis. PMID:25317366
Burger, Carol J.
Describes several strategies principals can use to improve girls' confidence in using computer and information technology, such as making technology instruction "girl friendly," stressing active and cooperative learning, and demonstrating the positive impact of technology on society. (PKP)
Hoskins, Marie L.; Mathieson, Lindsay C.
A lifespace has to do with how selves are mediated by combining multiple cultural symbols to construct an identity in the world. The authors cite examples from media texts, as well as from a narrative study conducted with 10 adolescent girls in a treatment program for eating disorders, that illustrate the importance of practitioners considering…
Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2010
High school girls are bored, disengaged, and stressed in science classes, according to preliminary results of a study led by Northern Illinois University researchers Jennifer Schmidt and M. Cecil Smith. The two professors in the College of Education's Department of Leadership, Educational Psychology, and Foundations studied 244 high school…
Ride, Sally K.
Encouraging students' interest in science has never been more important. Science plays a greater role in everyones lives than ever before, and students who have a solid foundation in science are prepared to pursue a wide range of opportunities in high school, college, and the workplace. Yet many students--particularly girls and students from…
Grabara, Malgorzata; Hadzik, Andrzej
Study aim: To assess body posture of young female volleyball players in relation to their untrained mates. Material and methods: A group of 42 volleyball players and another of 43 untrained girls, all aged 13-16 years were studied with respect to their body posture indices by using computer posturography. Spinal angles and curvatures were…
Ackerman, Xanthe Scharff; Scott, Kaitlyn
After more than 25 years of research on girls' education, it is widely accepted among economists that investing in this area is one of, if not the most, effective development interventions. This research, as well as global advocacy and recent world events--including Malala Yousafzai winning the Nobel Peace Prize and the #Bringbackourgirls campaign…
Putnam, Frank W.; And Others
This study assessed the relationships among hypnotizability, clinical dissociation and traumatic antecedents in 54 sexually abused girls, ages 6 to 15 years, and 51 matched controls. There were no significant differences in hypnotizability between abuse and control subjects. However, in the abuse group, highly hypnotizable subjects were…
Examines the texts of 12 historians with access to educational directives produced by the Victorian Department of Education since the 1850s to determine the effects of curricular requirements on female enrollment in mathematics courses. Argues that girls were prohibited from taking arithmetic and mathematics because of other curricular…