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Sample records for 155mm guns skyline

  1. Finite element thermal analysis of 155-mm projectile exudtion inside a hot gun tube.

    SciTech Connect

    Kan, Yih-Renn; Shelton, Timothy R.

    2003-05-01

    The high firing rates of new and developing cannons create higher operating temperatures than projectiles experience. Higher temperatures in-bore bring the possibility of high explosive exudation from chambered shells during misfire, hang-fire, or hold-fire. The development of a finite element thermal model to predict high explosive exudation inside a hot gun tube brings an improved level of insight to existing physical test results. The MI98 towed howitzer and M107 155-mm shell are modeled to compare to physical test results from Morales 1997 and Zimmerman 1980. During creation of the model special focus is taken to simulate the heat flow between the contact of the rotating band and cannon wall. A strong correlation between test results and model is seen with both reports and validates the model setup. Model results suggest that time to exudation predicted by Morales and Zimmerman may be too conservative.

  2. A Comparison between Experiment and Simulation for Concept VIC regenerative Liquid Propellant Guns. 3. 155 mm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    and size of the droplets define a surface area for propellant combustion, and all droplets bum according to a pressure - dependent , linear surface...Regenerative Liquid Propellant Gun, End of Stroke .................. 5 4 Experimental Chamber Pressure . Round 17 - Gage D138 (line) and G age D 33 (dot...Damper Gage ........................................ 12 7 Liquid Pressure and Chamber Pressure - Round 17 (line). Liquid Pressure From Model W ith

  3. 8. Engineering Drawing of Panama Gun Mount by U.S. Engineering ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Engineering Drawing of Panama Gun Mount by U.S. Engineering Office, San Francisco, California - Fort Funston, Panama Mounts for 155mm Guns, Skyline Boulevard & Great Highway, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 10. Detail of map showing Battery Davis and Panama Gun ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail of map showing Battery Davis and Panama Gun Mounts at right, by U.S. Engineering Office, San Francisco, California, August 5, 1934. - Fort Funston, Panama Mounts for 155mm Guns, Skyline Boulevard & Great Highway, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. Excalibur Precision 155mm Projectiles (Excalibur)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-366 Excalibur Precision 155mm Projectiles (Excalibur) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget...Program Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be

  6. Residues from Live Fire Detonations of 155-mm Howitzer Rounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    tests were conducted on an ice- and snow-covered range, which allowed us to sample the residues on an explosives- free surface and to visually...manufacturing impurity in RDX. We selected 155-mm rounds for testing because they are one of the top five most commonly used rounds in the U.S. arsenal...Delta River is a large anastomosing river with a cobble and gravel flood plain characterized, in winter, by intermixed ice and cobble bars. Although

  7. TNT particle size distributions from detonated 155-mm howitzer rounds.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Susan; Hewitt, Alan; Lever, James; Hayes, Charlotte; Perovich, Laura; Thorne, Phil; Daghlian, Chuck

    2004-04-01

    To achieve sustainable range management and avoid or minimize environmental contamination, the Army needs to know the amount of explosives deposited on ranges from different munitions and how these are degraded and transported under different geological and climatic conditions. The physical form of the deposited explosives has a bearing on this problem, yet the shapes and size distributions of the explosive particles remaining after detonations are not known. We collected residues from 8 high-order and 6 low-order non-tactical detonations of TNT-filled 155-mm rounds. We found significant variation in the amount of TNT scattered from the high-order detonations, ranging from 0.00001 to 2% of the TNT in the original shell. All low-order detonations scattered percent-level amounts of TNT. We imaged thousands of TNT particles and determined the size, mass and surface-area distributions of particles collected from one high-order and one low-order detonation. For the high-order detonation, particles smaller than 1 mm contribute most of the mass and surface area of the TNT scattered. For the low-order detonation, most of the scattered TNT mass was in the form of un-heated, centimeter-sized pieces whereas most of the surface area was again from particles smaller than 1 mm. We also observed that the large pieces of TNT disintegrate readily, giving rise to many smaller particles that can quickly dissolve. We suggest picking up the large pieces of TNT before they disintegrate to become point sources of contamination.

  8. Design and performance of a parachute recovery system to recover 155-mm- and 8-inch-diameter artillery shells

    SciTech Connect

    Waye, D.E.; Peterson, C.W.; Botner, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    A parachute recovery system has been developed and demonstrated for the recovery of 155-mm- and 8-inch-diameter artillery shells. The recovery system functions after being subjected to gun launch accelerations of up to 18,000 g's axially and up to 400,000 rad/sec/sup 2/ radially. The parachute is deployed while the shell is still spinning at about 250 revolutions per second. To deploy the parachute while the shell is spinning, a double-swivel system was developed. The deployment signal for the recovery system is provided by an electronic timer. Over 250 tests have been performed on both the 155-mm- and 8-inch-diameter artillery shell. Impact velocities are between 100 and 120 feet per second. The latest version of the recovery systems has been proven to be over 95% successful for the recovery of 8-inch-diameter artillery shells and over 85% successful for the recovery of 155-mm-diameter artillery shells.

  9. XM898 Projectile 155-mm SADARM Packaging Design and Engineering Test Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    AD-A264 522,_ _ _ _ ADlit, lit ý~l’ll 1`111 U AD-E402 414 Technical Report ARAED-TR-93004 XM898 PROJECTILE 155-mm SADARM PACKAGING DESIGN AND...April 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS XM898 PROJECTILE 155-mm SADARM PACKAGING DESIGN AND ENGINEERING TEST REPORT 6. AUTHOR(S) Mark P

  10. Yawsonde Testing of Concepts for the 155mm Intermediate Volatility Agent Projectile

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    155mm intermediate volatility agent ( IVA ) system were tested at Dugway Proving Ground, UT, on 2 December 1981. Two launch conditions were fired: Charge...intermediate volatility agent ( IVA ) canister configurations were flight tested on 2 December 1981 at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), Utah. Two launch conditions...testing of 155mm IVA configurations was conducted at DPG between 1972-1976.1𔃼𔃽’’+𔃿𔄀𔄁 These tests did not address the flight 1. Geovge Tvavevs and C

  11. Comparison of 155-mm Gun Tube Heat Input with Solventless and Solvent Propellant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    minimal effect of the wear reducing additive in this charge. Variations 3 and 4 were the solventless charges with flash reducers of KNO3 or K2SO4...3 Commander Naval Weapons Center Commandant ATN: Code 388, C. F. Price US Army Command and General Code 3895, T. Parr Staff College Information...Technology School of Aerospace Engineering Universal Propulsion Company ATTN: B.T. Zim ATN: H. J. McSpadden E. Price Black Canyon Stage I W.C. Strahle

  12. Programs for skyline planning.

    Treesearch

    Ward W. Carson

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes four computer programs for the logging engineer's use in planning log harvesting by skyline systems. One program prepares terrain profile plots from maps mounted on a digitizer; the other programs prepare load-carrying capability and other information for single and multispan standing skylines and single span running skylines. In general, the...

  13. Skyline Harvesting in Appalachia

    Treesearch

    J. N. Kochenderfer; G. W. Wendel

    1978-01-01

    The URUS, a small standing skyline system, was tested in the Appalachian Mountains of north-central West Virginia. Some problems encountered with this small, mobile system are discussed. From the results of this test and observation of skyline systems used in the western United States, the authors suggest some machine characteristics that would be desirable for use in...

  14. Laser diode illuminator for night vision on-board a 155-mm artillery shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Y.; Christnacher, F.

    2003-09-01

    Having shown the feasibility of passive daytime observation on board of a 155mm gyrostabilized artillery shell, the French-German Research Institute of Saint-Louis (ISL) has started working on projectile boarded night vision systems. Laser illumination was preferred over the use of passive IR imaging mainly for reasons of detector performance and cost. The active imaging system designed for artillery shells will have to undergo accelerations of the order of 15000 g. It will begin the observation of the target area about 1000 m before impact and transmit the images to the ground station before its destruction. A laser illuminator with a peak power of 1 kW before beam shaping and a pulse duration of 50 μs with a repetition rate of 25Hz has been developed for this application. It is based on a laser diode stack emitting at 800nm. A special atten-tion has been given to the beam shaping operation. The beam divergence closely matches the field of view of the imaging optic and has a constant and homogeneous intensity profile over the target. Other fundamental criteria have also been taken into account, such as a compact size, simplicity and low cost, without losing the efficiency of the collimator. A prototype of the active imaging system with a field of view of 10° has been built, tested and validated on the ground. Integration of the illuminator into a 155 mm shell has begun.

  15. System Checkout of the 155-mm Short-Barreled Howitzer Using Telemetry Projectiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    simulations of the interior ballistic performance of weapon systems (Baer and Frankle 1962). Using the experimental performance measured during a gun firing, an...July 1987. Baer, P. G., and J. M. Frankle . "The Simulation of Interior Ballistic Performance of Guns by Digital Computer Program." BRL-TR-1 183, U.S...CA 90401-3297 4 Commander 3 AAI Corporation Dahlgren Division ATTN: J. Hebert Naval Surface Warfare Center J. Frankle ATTN: Code G30, Guns and

  16. Skyline based terrain matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Lance A.

    1990-01-01

    Skyline-based terrain matching, a new method for locating the vantage point of stereo camera or laser range-finding measurements on a global map previously prepared by satellite or aerial mapping is described. The orientation of the vantage is assumed known, but its translational parameters are determined by the algorithm. Skylines, or occluding contours, can be extracted from the sensory measurements taken by an autonomous vehicle. They can also be modeled from the global map, given a vantage estimate from which to start. The two sets of skylines, represented in cylindrical coordinates about either the true or the estimated vantage, are employed as 'features' or reference objects common to both sources of information. The terrain matching problem is formulated in terms of finding a translation between the respective representations of the skylines, by approximating the two sets of skylines as identical features (curves) on the actual terrain. The search for this translation is based on selecting the longest of the minimum-distance vectors between corresponding curves from the two sets of skylines. In successive iterations of the algorithm, the approximation that the two sets of curves are identical becomes more accurate, and the vantage estimate continues to improve. The algorithm was implemented and evaluated on a simulated terrain. Illustrations and examples are included.

  17. Characterization of Atmospheric Emission Produced by Live Gun Firing: Test on the M777 155 mm Howitzer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    Georgia). We also acknowledge M. Yvan Cuillerier from D FHP for his useful help on the selection of sampling methods, for the sampling equipment, and...than is normally required. Briefly, the air is pumped through a 37 mm 0.8 µm GN-4 Metricel membrane (PALL Life Science). The filter is weighed prior...collected on a 0.8 µm polyvinylchloride (PVC) membrane and gaseous samples were collected using a bubbler filled with 15 mL of a 0.1 N potassium

  18. Investigations on Nd:YAG laser welding of 1.55mm thick Al1050A alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Xingbo; Bai Peikang; Guo Juzhu; Hu Jiandong; Shang Tiepin; Wang Qingchao; Chung, T.E.

    1996-12-31

    The paper deals with experimental and theoretical analyses of butt welding of 1.55mm thick Al1050A alloy using a 1kW pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The butt welded joints are investigated for tensile strength and microhardness. Then the authors discuss effects of some main normalized welding parameters on the surface quality of welded seams and penetration depth.

  19. Aerodynamic Characterizations of Asymmetric and Maneuvering 105-, 120-, and 155-mm Fin-Stabilized Projectiles Derived from Telemetry Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    in table 1. Figure 3. The 155-mm airframe. 5 Table 1. Physical properties of projectiles. Projectile (mm) Mass (kg) Axial Inertia...VAPP-8 Aerodynamic Coefficients The aerodynamic coefficients derived for the 10-5mm airframe are shown in figures 14 and 15. Zero-yaw axial force...coefficients ( 0xC ) for VAPP-8 and VAPP-7 agree well. The zero-yaw axial force coefficient increases slightly as Mach number increases. The pitching

  20. Cannon Wear and Erosion Science and Technology Objective Program (STO) 155-mm Projectile Rotating Band/Obturation for Extended Range

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 665 Technical Report ARMET-TR-15001 CANNON WEAR AND EROSION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OBJECTIVE PROGRAM (STO...To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CANNON WEAR AND EROSION SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OBJECTIVE PROGRAM (STO) 155-MM PROJECTILE ROTATING BAND/OBTURATION...Center, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ Cannon Projectile Compatibility program as part of the Cannon Wear and Erosion Science and Technology Objective effort

  1. Wind tunnel investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of a scale model of a D5 bulldozer and an M109 self-propelled 155 mm Howitzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laub, G. H.; Kodani, H. M.

    1974-01-01

    Wind tunnel tests were conducted on a scale model of a D5 bulldozer and an M109 self-propelled 155 MM howitzer to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of these typical externally-suspended heavy lift helicopter cargo configurations. Tests were made over a large range of pitch and yaw attitudes at a nominal Reynolds number per unit length of 1.5 x 10 to the 6th power.

  2. An analysis of running skyline load path.

    Treesearch

    Ward W. Carson; Charles N. Mann

    1971-01-01

    This paper is intended for those who wish to prepare an algorithm to determine the load path of a running skyline. The mathematics of a simplified approach to this running skyline design problem are presented. The approach employs assumptions which reduce the complexity of the problem to the point where it can be solved on desk-top computers of limited capacities. The...

  3. 4. Panama Mount. Note concrete ring and metal rail. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Panama Mount. Note concrete ring and metal rail. Note cliff erosion under foundation at left center. Looking 297° W. - Fort Funston, Panama Mounts for 155mm Guns, Skyline Boulevard & Great Highway, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. A hydraulic assist for a manual skyline lock

    Treesearch

    Cleveland J. Biller

    1977-01-01

    A hydraulic locking mechanism was designed to replace the manual skyline lock on a small standing skyline with gravity carriage. It improved the efficiency of the operation by reducing setup and takedown times and reduced the hazard to the crew.

  5. 48. VIEW OF SKYLINE DRIVE FROM THE ROCKY PEAK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. VIEW OF SKYLINE DRIVE FROM THE ROCKY PEAK OF STONY MAN MOUNTAIN (EL. 4,011). LOOKING NORTHEAST. STONY MAN OVERLOOK VISIBLE IN THE DISTANCE. - Skyline Drive, From Front Royal, VA to Rockfish Gap, VA , Luray, Page County, VA

  6. Adaptation of Skyline for Targeted Lipidomics.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bing; Ahrends, Robert

    2016-01-04

    In response to the urgent need for analysis software that is capable of handling data from targeted high-throughput lipidomics experiments, we here present a systematic workflow for the straightforward method design and analysis of selected reaction monitoring data in lipidomics based on lipid building blocks. Skyline is a powerful software primarily designed for proteomics applications where it is widely used. We adapted this tool to a "Plug and Play" system for lipid research. This extension offers the unique capability to assemble targeted mass spectrometry methods for complex lipids easily by making use of building blocks. With simple yet tailored modifications, targeted methods to analyze main lipid classes such as glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, glycerolipids, cholesteryl-esters, and cholesterol can be quickly introduced into Skyline for easy application by end users without distinct bioinformatics skills. To illustrate the benefits of our novel strategy, we used Skyline to quantify sphingolipids in mesenchymal stem cells. We demonstrate a simple method building procedure for sphingolipids screening, collision energy optimization, and absolute quantification of sphingolipids. In total, 72 sphingolipids were identified and absolutely quantified at the fatty acid scan species level by utilizing Skyline for data interpretation and visualization.

  7. A framework for installable external tools in Skyline.

    PubMed

    Broudy, Daniel; Killeen, Trevor; Choi, Meena; Shulman, Nicholas; Mani, Deepak R; Abbatiello, Susan E; Mani, Deepak; Ahmad, Rushdy; Sahu, Alexandria K; Schilling, Birgit; Tamura, Kaipo; Boss, Yuval; Sharma, Vagisha; Gibson, Bradford W; Carr, Steven A; Vitek, Olga; MacCoss, Michael J; MacLean, Brendan

    2014-09-01

    Skyline is a Windows client application for targeted proteomics method creation and quantitative data analysis. The Skyline document model contains extensive mass spectrometry data from targeted proteomics experiments performed using selected reaction monitoring, parallel reaction monitoring and data-independent and data-dependent acquisition methods. Researchers have developed software tools that perform statistical analysis of the experimental data contained within Skyline documents. The new external tools framework allows researchers to integrate their tools into Skyline without modifying the Skyline codebase. Installed tools provide point-and-click access to downstream statistical analysis of data processed in Skyline. The framework also specifies a uniform interface to format tools for installation into Skyline. Tool developers can now easily share their tools with proteomics researchers using Skyline. Skyline is available as a single-click self-updating web installation at http://skyline.maccosslab.org. This Web site also provides access to installable external tools and documentation. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Secure Skyline Queries on Cloud Platform.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinfei; Yang, Juncheng; Xiong, Li; Pei, Jian

    2017-04-01

    Outsourcing data and computation to cloud server provides a cost-effective way to support large scale data storage and query processing. However, due to security and privacy concerns, sensitive data (e.g., medical records) need to be protected from the cloud server and other unauthorized users. One approach is to outsource encrypted data to the cloud server and have the cloud server perform query processing on the encrypted data only. It remains a challenging task to support various queries over encrypted data in a secure and efficient way such that the cloud server does not gain any knowledge about the data, query, and query result. In this paper, we study the problem of secure skyline queries over encrypted data. The skyline query is particularly important for multi-criteria decision making but also presents significant challenges due to its complex computations. We propose a fully secure skyline query protocol on data encrypted using semantically-secure encryption. As a key subroutine, we present a new secure dominance protocol, which can be also used as a building block for other queries. Finally, we provide both serial and parallelized implementations and empirically study the protocols in terms of efficiency and scalability under different parameter settings, verifying the feasibility of our proposed solutions.

  9. Secure Skyline Queries on Cloud Platform

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinfei; Yang, Juncheng; Xiong, Li; Pei, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Outsourcing data and computation to cloud server provides a cost-effective way to support large scale data storage and query processing. However, due to security and privacy concerns, sensitive data (e.g., medical records) need to be protected from the cloud server and other unauthorized users. One approach is to outsource encrypted data to the cloud server and have the cloud server perform query processing on the encrypted data only. It remains a challenging task to support various queries over encrypted data in a secure and efficient way such that the cloud server does not gain any knowledge about the data, query, and query result. In this paper, we study the problem of secure skyline queries over encrypted data. The skyline query is particularly important for multi-criteria decision making but also presents significant challenges due to its complex computations. We propose a fully secure skyline query protocol on data encrypted using semantically-secure encryption. As a key subroutine, we present a new secure dominance protocol, which can be also used as a building block for other queries. Finally, we provide both serial and parallelized implementations and empirically study the protocols in terms of efficiency and scalability under different parameter settings, verifying the feasibility of our proposed solutions.

  10. Gun Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mechling, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Biology and the particular gun culture of the United States come together to explain the persistent and powerful attraction of American boys to both real guns and toy guns. The 1990s saw adults begin to conflate "the gun problem" with "the boy problem," sparking attempts (largely failed) to banish toy guns from homes and…

  11. Wire rope research and logging. [Skyline and dragline systems

    SciTech Connect

    Morgenstern, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    The various factors affecting the service life of wire ropes in skyline and dragline systems are discussed: design, geometry, sheave geometry, wear and lubrication, sheave hardness, pickup of small rocks, etc. (DLC)

  12. Overview of buildings with San Francisco skyline in background, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of buildings with San Francisco skyline in background, looking 84 degrees east - Presidio of San Francisco, Enlisted Men's Barracks Type, West end of Crissy Field, between Pearce & Maudlin Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. 3. ENVIRONMENT, FROM NORTH, SHOWING RICHMOND SKYLINE, BRIDGE DECK AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ENVIRONMENT, FROM NORTH, SHOWING RICHMOND SKYLINE, BRIDGE DECK AND ROADWAY, AND NORTH APPROACH - Fifth Street Viaduct, Spanning Bacon's Quarter Branch Valley on Fifth Street, Richmond, Independent City, VA

  14. Gun Safety

    MedlinePlus

    Many U.S. households have guns, but they can cause harm if not handled properly. Here are some things you can do to keep yourself and ... safe: Teach children that they shouldn't touch guns and that if they see a gun, to ...

  15. Excalibur Precision 155mm Projectiles (Excalibur)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Year DAMIR - Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval Dev Est - Development Estimate DoD - Department of Defense DSN - Defense Switched...the Increment Ib First Article Test (FAT) and Initial Operational Test and Evaluation ( IOT &E). Throughout FY 2013, Increment Ib successfully...Pre- IOT &E Live Fire, Sequential Environmental Testing for Safety, Sequential Environmental Testing for Performance, and FAT. These tests have

  16. Familial papular epidermal nevus with "skyline" basal cell layer.

    PubMed

    Brena, Michela; Besagni, Francesca; Boneschi, Vinicio; Tadini, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Papular epidermal nevus with "skyline" basal cell layer (PENS), a novel keratinocytic nevus, has recently been described as a mosaic condition with varying presentations. We herein describe typical PENS lesions, which usually occur sporadically, affecting two members of the same family. The concept of paradominant inheritance is proposed to explain the paradox of occasional transmission of normally sporadically occurring traits.

  17. Skyline Gathers K-12 Together Under One Roof.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Board Journal, 1968

    1968-01-01

    Skyline School is a flexible and economical elementary and high school design for 400 pupils. The library, a large resource center serving all ages, and the administration offices are accented by landscaped courts. There are two instructional material centers per grade grouping of K-6 and 7-12. Grades 1-6 surround the kindergarten, which has…

  18. Skyline Gathers K-12 Together Under One Roof.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School Board Journal, 1968

    1968-01-01

    Skyline School is a flexible and economical elementary and high school design for 400 pupils. The library, a large resource center serving all ages, and the administration offices are accented by landscaped courts. There are two instructional material centers per grade grouping of K-6 and 7-12. Grades 1-6 surround the kindergarten, which has…

  19. Skyline Wide Educational Plan. Final Evaluation Report 1973-1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Robert J.; Allan, Mary Ann

    The purposes of this terminal evaluation report are to determine the extent to which the major goals of the Skyline Wide Educational Plan (SWEP) project were achieved, to evaluate the utility of the products of SWEP studies, and to communicate the results to appropriate audiences. Information relative to four major project components is presented;…

  20. Spectral Skyline Separation: Extended Landmark Databases and Panoramic Imaging.

    PubMed

    Differt, Dario; Möller, Ralf

    2016-09-29

    Evidence from behavioral experiments suggests that insects use the skyline as a cue for visual navigation. However, changes of lighting conditions, over hours, days or possibly seasons, significantly affect the appearance of the sky and ground objects. One possible solution to this problem is to extract the "skyline" by an illumination-invariant classification of the environment into two classes, ground objects and sky. In a previous study (Insect models of illumination-invariant skyline extraction from UV (ultraviolet) and green channels), we examined the idea of using two different color channels available for many insects (UV and green) to perform this segmentation. We found out that for suburban scenes in temperate zones, where the skyline is dominated by trees and artificial objects like houses, a "local" UV segmentation with adaptive thresholds applied to individual images leads to the most reliable classification. Furthermore, a "global" segmentation with fixed thresholds (trained on an image dataset recorded over several days) using UV-only information is only slightly worse compared to using both the UV and green channel. In this study, we address three issues: First, to enhance the limited range of environments covered by the dataset collected in the previous study, we gathered additional data samples of skylines consisting of minerals (stones, sand, earth) as ground objects. We could show that also for mineral-rich environments, UV-only segmentation achieves a quality comparable to multi-spectral (UV and green) segmentation. Second, we collected a wide variety of ground objects to examine their spectral characteristics under different lighting conditions. On the one hand, we found that the special case of diffusely-illuminated minerals increases the difficulty to reliably separate ground objects from the sky. On the other hand, the spectral characteristics of this collection of ground objects covers well with the data collected in the skyline databases

  1. Spectral Skyline Separation: Extended Landmark Databases and Panoramic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Differt, Dario; Möller, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from behavioral experiments suggests that insects use the skyline as a cue for visual navigation. However, changes of lighting conditions, over hours, days or possibly seasons, significantly affect the appearance of the sky and ground objects. One possible solution to this problem is to extract the “skyline” by an illumination-invariant classification of the environment into two classes, ground objects and sky. In a previous study (Insect models of illumination-invariant skyline extraction from UV (ultraviolet) and green channels), we examined the idea of using two different color channels available for many insects (UV and green) to perform this segmentation. We found out that for suburban scenes in temperate zones, where the skyline is dominated by trees and artificial objects like houses, a “local” UV segmentation with adaptive thresholds applied to individual images leads to the most reliable classification. Furthermore, a “global” segmentation with fixed thresholds (trained on an image dataset recorded over several days) using UV-only information is only slightly worse compared to using both the UV and green channel. In this study, we address three issues: First, to enhance the limited range of environments covered by the dataset collected in the previous study, we gathered additional data samples of skylines consisting of minerals (stones, sand, earth) as ground objects. We could show that also for mineral-rich environments, UV-only segmentation achieves a quality comparable to multi-spectral (UV and green) segmentation. Second, we collected a wide variety of ground objects to examine their spectral characteristics under different lighting conditions. On the one hand, we found that the special case of diffusely-illuminated minerals increases the difficulty to reliably separate ground objects from the sky. On the other hand, the spectral characteristics of this collection of ground objects covers well with the data collected in the skyline

  2. Department of Defense/Department of Energy joint demilitarization technology demonstration program-executive summary of phase I demonstrations-detonation of conventional weapons: 155-mm high-explosive M107 projectiles

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, B.E., LLNL

    1998-07-01

    Four experiments were executed from December 1996 through March 1997 within X-tunnel--the contained underground facility at the Department of Energy`s Nevada Test Site (NTS). These are the first large-scale detonation experiments performed in a contained environment with sampling of the effluents. These experiments, conducted under the direction of the U.S. Army Defense Ammunition Center in Savanna, Illinois, determined the detonation products from 155-mm, high-explosive (HE) M107 projectiles, destroying 6, 24, 24, and 60 projectiles, respectively. These tests were the first phase of a series designed to examine the environmental effects of open burn/open detonation (OB/OD). The tests included performing continuous sampling with online analysis of chamber gas and discrete sampling with offline analysis of bulk gases, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs), metals, and particulates. In addition to these routine measurements, the application of a tunable diode laser (TDL) for measuring bulk gases and a real-time particle analysis instrument was demonstrated in the underground chamber. A series of three rocket motor burn experiments immediately followed these experiments (see the companion to this report, ``Executive Summary of Phase II Demonstrations: The Low-Pressure Rocket Motor Burns in X-Tunnel``). As the first in a series, the data presented here should be considered preliminary. However, several tentative conclusions may be drawn from these detonation experiments: (1) The emissions of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulated materials were found only in trace levels. (2) In general, metals detected in the residue and particulate samples were dominated by metals already present in the chamber and concrete. (3) There were no releases of metals that exceeded current regulatory limits.

  3. A Skyline Plugin for Pathway-Centric Data Browsing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degan, Michael G.; Ryadinskiy, Lillian; Fujimoto, Grant M.; Wilkins, Christopher S.; Lichti, Cheryl F.; Payne, Samuel H.

    2016-11-01

    For targeted proteomics to be broadly adopted in biological laboratories as a routine experimental protocol, wet-bench biologists must be able to approach selected reaction monitoring (SRM) and parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) assay design in the same way they approach biological experimental design. Most often, biological hypotheses are envisioned in a set of protein interactions, networks, and pathways. We present a plugin for the popular Skyline tool that presents public mass spectrometry data in a pathway-centric view to assist users in browsing available data and determining how to design quantitative experiments. Selected proteins and their underlying mass spectra are imported to Skyline for further assay design (transition selection). The same plugin can be used for hypothesis-driven data-independent acquisition (DIA) data analysis, again utilizing the pathway view to help narrow down the set of proteins that will be investigated. The plugin is backed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Biodiversity Library, a corpus of 3 million peptides from >100 organisms, and the draft human proteome. Users can upload personal data to the plugin to use the pathway navigation prior to importing their own data into Skyline.

  4. A Skyline Plugin for Pathway-Centric Data Browsing

    SciTech Connect

    Degan, Michael G.; Ryadinskiy, Lillian; Fujimoto, Grant M.; Wilkins, Christopher S.; Lichti, Cheryl F.; Payne, Samuel H.

    2016-08-16

    For targeted proteomics to be broadly adopted in biological laboratories as a routine experimental protocol, wet-bench biologists must be able to approach SRM assay design in the same way they approach biological experimental design. Most often, biological hypotheses are envisioned in a set of protein interactions, networks and pathways. We present a plugin for the popular Skyline tool that presents public mass spectrometry data in a pathway-centric view to assist users in browsing available data and determining how to design quantitative experiments. Selected proteins and their underlying mass spectra are imported to Skyline for further assay design (transition selection). The same plugin can be used for hypothesis-drive DIA data analysis, again utilizing the pathway view to help narrow down the set of proteins which will be investigated. The plugin is backed by the PNNL Biodiversity Library, a corpus of 3 million peptides from >100 organisms, and the draft human proteome. Users can upload personal data to the plugin to use the pathway navigation prior to importing their own data into Skyline.

  5. Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)

  6. Gun Control, Gun Ownership, and Suicide Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1988-01-01

    Explored relationship between the extent of gun ownership and the strictness of gun control laws to suicide and homicide rates in the nine major geographic regions of the United States. Found gun ownership, rather than the strictness of gun control laws, was the strongest correlate of the rates of suicide and homicide by guns. (Author)

  7. Skyline Utah fuel dedicates unit-train loadout facility

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.

    1985-11-01

    This article describes the opening of the new Skyline unit-train facility near Scofield, Utah to begin delivering on a 20-year contract calling for the delivery of 750,000 tpy of low-sulfur steam coal. Coal is reclaimed from the silos at a rate of 6,000 tph. A unit train, consisting of up to 100 cars can be loaded in less than two hours by one operator. Rail cars are constructed of aluminum to extend life and increase storage capacity. A control console tracks coal flow for sampling and batching and weighing in the loading building above the tracks.

  8. Spectrometer gun

    DOEpatents

    Waechter, D.A.; Wolf, M.A.; Umbarger, C.J.

    1981-11-03

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun is described that includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  9. Spectrometer gun

    DOEpatents

    Waechter, David A.; Wolf, Michael A.; Umbarger, C. John

    1985-01-01

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  10. The SKYTOWER and SKYMOBILE programs for locating and designing skyline harvest units.

    Treesearch

    R.H. Twito; R.J. McGaughey; S.E. Reutebuch

    1988-01-01

    PLANS, a software package for integrated timber-harvest planning, uses digital terrain models to provide the topographic data needed to fit harvest and transportation designs to specific terrain. SKYTOWER and SKYMOBILE are integral programs in the PLANS package and are used to design the timber-harvest units for skyline systems. SKYTOWER determines skyline payloads and...

  11. Skyline: an open source document editor for creating and analyzing targeted proteomics experiments

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Brendan; Tomazela, Daniela M.; Shulman, Nicholas; Chambers, Matthew; Finney, Gregory L.; Frewen, Barbara; Kern, Randall; Tabb, David L.; Liebler, Daniel C.; MacCoss, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Skyline is a Windows client application for targeted proteomics method creation and quantitative data analysis. It is open source and freely available for academic and commercial use. The Skyline user interface simplifies the development of mass spectrometer methods and the analysis of data from targeted proteomics experiments performed using selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Skyline supports using and creating MS/MS spectral libraries from a wide variety of sources to choose SRM filters and verify results based on previously observed ion trap data. Skyline exports transition lists to and imports the native output files from Agilent, Applied Biosystems, Thermo Fisher Scientific and Waters triple quadrupole instruments, seamlessly connecting mass spectrometer output back to the experimental design document. The fast and compact Skyline file format is easily shared, even for experiments requiring many sample injections. A rich array of graphs displays results and provides powerful tools for inspecting data integrity as data are acquired, helping instrument operators to identify problems early. The Skyline dynamic report designer exports tabular data from the Skyline document model for in-depth analysis with common statistical tools. Availability: Single-click, self-updating web installation is available at http://proteome.gs.washington.edu/software/skyline. This web site also provides access to instructional videos, a support board, an issues list and a link to the source code project. Contact: brendanx@u.washington.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:20147306

  12. Water gun vs air gun: A comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, D.R.; Detrick, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    The water gun is a relatively new marine seismic sound source that produces an acoustic signal by an implosive rather than explosive mechanism. A comparison of the source characteristics of two different-sized water guns with those of conventional air guns shows the the water gun signature is cleaner and much shorter than that of a comparable-sized air gun: about 60-100 milliseconds (ms) for an 80-in3. (1.31-liter (I)) water gun compared with several hundred ms for an 80-in3. (1.31-1) air gun. The source spectra of water guns are richer in high frequencies (>200 Hz) than are those of air guns, but they also have less energy than those of air guns at low frequencies. A comparison between water gun and air gun reflection profiles in both shallow (Long Island Sound)-and deep (western Bermuda Rise)-water settings suggests that the water gun offers a good compromise between very high resolution, limited penetration systems (e.g. 3.5-kHz profilers and sparkers) and the large volume air guns and tuned air gun arrays generally used where significant penetration is required. ?? 1984 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  13. Tuned air gun array

    SciTech Connect

    Ruehle, W.H.

    1983-05-10

    The present invention provides a method for determining the spacing and size of air guns in a tuned air gun array. Volume ratios are calculated based upon a predetermined maximum volume for any individual air gun. The volumes are cross-referenced to spacings for optimum air gun interaction. The resulting air gun array operates as a broadband high-energy point source.

  14. Depression Gun POD.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A depression gun pod for detachable connection to an aircraft stores suspension rack, the pod having a gun and having a gun mount providing for...compact configuration within the pod when the gun is in a forward firing position and which rigidly support the gun as it moves in depression and azimuth.

  15. Using GIS to promote Skyline Wilderness Park in Rapid City, SD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastman, A.; Mannel, S.

    2005-12-01

    Skyline Drive Wilderness Park is a 150-acre open space in Rapid City, South Dakota. The Wilderness Park is located along a sandstone ridge or hogback, which bisects the urban sprawl. Skyline Drive Wilderness Park is a natural meeting place of the Ponderosa Pine forests of the Black Hills and the mixed-grass prairie of western South Dakota. A campaign to save Skyline Drive Wilderness Park began in 1994, when members of the Skyline Drive Preservation Committee grew concerned about the number of new homes being built on Skyline Drive. There are concerns about the long-term ecologic sustainability of Skyline Drive Wilderness Park, which is why this and other monitoring projects are proposed for 2005 and 2006. Development of a GIS database will allow us to collect and analyze data in a meaningful way. This GIS database is needed to begin a series of interrelated research projects, proposed for 2005-2006 that will address questions about the ecologic changes resulting from the urbanization of Skyline Drive. These projects include: a 1: 1,000 topographic survey of the Wilderness Park to identify microhabitat features, creation and maintenance of a herbarium, a breeding bird fidelity study, and establishment of bat-habitat through the installation of bat-houses.

  16. Encyclopedia of Gun Control and Gun Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utter, Glenn H.

    This reference volume provides information on gun control and gun rights, including resources on the debate surrounding the Second Amendment and individuals and organizations focused on gun issues, along with statutes, court cases, events, and publications surrounding this current topic. Highlighted are the important organizations and their…

  17. Gun ownership and social gun culture.

    PubMed

    Kalesan, Bindu; Villarreal, Marcos D; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro

    2016-06-01

    We assessed gun ownership rates in 2013 across the USA and the association between exposure to a social gun culture and gun ownership. We used data from a nationally representative sample of 4000 US adults, from 50 states and District of Columbia, aged >18 years to assess gun ownership and social gun culture performed in October 2013. State-level firearm policy information was obtained from the Brady Law Center and Injury Prevention and Control Center. One-third of Americans reported owning a gun, ranging from 5.2% in Delaware to 61.7% in Alaska. Gun ownership was 2.25-times greater among those reporting social gun culture (PR=2.25, 95% CI 2.02 to 2.52) than those who did not. In conclusion, we found strong association between social gun culture and gun ownership. Gun cultures may need to be considered for public health strategies that aim to change gun ownership in the USA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Encyclopedia of Gun Control and Gun Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utter, Glenn H.

    This reference volume provides information on gun control and gun rights, including resources on the debate surrounding the Second Amendment and individuals and organizations focused on gun issues, along with statutes, court cases, events, and publications surrounding this current topic. Highlighted are the important organizations and their…

  19. ION GUN

    DOEpatents

    Dandl, R.A.

    1961-10-24

    An ion gun is described for the production of an electrically neutral ionized plasma. The ion gun comprises an anode and a cathode mounted in concentric relationship with a narrow annulus between. The facing surfaces of the rear portions of the anode and cathode are recessed to form an annular manifold. Positioned within this manifold is an annular intermediate electrode aligned with the an nulus between the anode and cathode. Gas is fed to the manifold and an arc discharge is established between the anode and cathode. The gas is then withdrawn from the manifold through the annulus between the anode and cathode by a pressure differential. The gas is then ionized by the arc discharge across the annulus. The ionized gas is withdrawn from the annulus by the combined effects of the pressure differential and a collimating magnetic field. In a 3000 gauss magnetic field, an arc voltage of 1800 volts, and an arc current of 0.2 amp, a plasma of about 3 x 10/sup 11/ particles/cc is obtained. (AEC)

  20. ELECTRON GUN

    DOEpatents

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1960-04-01

    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  1. 185. WASHINGTON SKYLINE ACROSS POTOMAC RIVER FROM L.B.J. MEMORIAL PARK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    185. WASHINGTON SKYLINE ACROSS POTOMAC RIVER FROM L.B.J. MEMORIAL PARK LOOKING NORTH EAST. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  2. Skyline Query Processing in Sensor Network Based on Data Centric Storage

    PubMed Central

    Song, Seokil; Kwak, Yunsik; Lee, Seokhee

    2011-01-01

    Data centric storages for sensor networks have been proposed to efficiently process multi-dimensional range queries as well as exact matches. Usually, a sensor network does not process only one type of the query, but processes various types of queries such as range queries, exact matches and skyline queries. Therefore, a sensor network based on a data centric storage for range queries and exact matches should process skyline queries efficiently. However, existing algorithms for skyline queries have not considered the features of data centric storages. Some of the data centric storages store similar data in sensor nodes that are placed on geographically similar locations. Consequently, all data are ordered in a sensor network. In this paper, we propose a new skyline query processing algorithm that exploits the above features of data centric storages. PMID:22346642

  3. The Gun Dispute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the debate over gun ownership and gun control in the United States, focusing on the historic place of guns in U.S. society. The current national mood is more receptive than ever to restricting and regulating adolescent access to guns in light of recent school shootings. (SLD)

  4. The Gun Dispute.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the debate over gun ownership and gun control in the United States, focusing on the historic place of guns in U.S. society. The current national mood is more receptive than ever to restricting and regulating adolescent access to guns in light of recent school shootings. (SLD)

  5. Gun Sales. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Minimal federal regulations on firearm sales have facilitated the proliferation of guns, gun owners, and gun dealers in the United States. This fact sheet offers data on the growing number of firearm dealers, the relative ease of obtaining and keeping a license to sell guns from the Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the lack of…

  6. Geometry-Based Distributed Spatial Skyline Queries in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Song, Baoyan; Wang, Junlu; Zhang, Li; Wang, Ling

    2016-03-29

    Algorithms for skyline querying based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been widely used in the field of environmental monitoring. Because of the multi-dimensional nature of the problem of monitoring spatial position, traditional skyline query strategies cause enormous computational costs and energy consumption. To ensure the efficient use of sensor energy, a geometry-based distributed spatial query strategy (GDSSky) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the paper presents a geometry-based region partition strategy. It uses the skyline area reduction method based on the convex hull vertices, to quickly query the spatial skyline data related to a specific query area, and proposes a regional partition strategy based on the triangulation method, to implement distributed queries in each sub-region and reduce the comparison times between nodes. Secondly, a sub-region clustering strategy is designed to group the data inside into clusters for parallel queries that can save time. Finally, the paper presents a distributed query strategy based on the data node tree to traverse all adjacent sensors' monitoring locations. It conducts spatial skyline queries for spatial skyline data that have been obtained and not found respectively, so as to realize the parallel queries. A large number of simulation results shows that GDSSky can quickly return the places which are nearer to query locations and have larger pollution capacity, and significantly reduce the WSN energy consumption.

  7. Geometry-Based Distributed Spatial Skyline Queries in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Song, Baoyan; Wang, Junlu; Zhang, Li; Wang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Algorithms for skyline querying based on wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been widely used in the field of environmental monitoring. Because of the multi-dimensional nature of the problem of monitoring spatial position, traditional skyline query strategies cause enormous computational costs and energy consumption. To ensure the efficient use of sensor energy, a geometry-based distributed spatial query strategy (GDSSky) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the paper presents a geometry-based region partition strategy. It uses the skyline area reduction method based on the convex hull vertices, to quickly query the spatial skyline data related to a specific query area, and proposes a regional partition strategy based on the triangulation method, to implement distributed queries in each sub-region and reduce the comparison times between nodes. Secondly, a sub-region clustering strategy is designed to group the data inside into clusters for parallel queries that can save time. Finally, the paper presents a distributed query strategy based on the data node tree to traverse all adjacent sensors’ monitoring locations. It conducts spatial skyline queries for spatial skyline data that have been obtained and not found respectively, so as to realize the parallel queries. A large number of simulation results shows that GDSSky can quickly return the places which are nearer to query locations and have larger pollution capacity, and significantly reduce the WSN energy consumption. PMID:27043563

  8. Simulated visual homing in desert ant natural environments: efficiency of skyline cues.

    PubMed

    Basten, Kai; Mallot, Hanspeter A

    2010-05-01

    Desert ants, foraging in cluttered semiarid environments, are thought to be visually guided along individual, habitual routes. While other navigational mechanisms (e.g. path integration) are well studied, the question of how ants extract reliable visual features from a complex visual scene is still largely open. This paper explores the assumption that the upper outline of ground objects formed against the sky, i.e. the skyline, provides sufficient information for visual navigation. We constructed a virtual model of the ant's environment. In the virtual environment, panoramic images were recorded and adapted to the resolution of the desert ant's complex eye. From these images either a skyline code or a pixel-based intensity code were extracted. Further, two homing algorithms were implemented, a modified version of the average landmark vector (ALV) model (Lambrinos et al. Robot Auton Syst 30:39-64, 2000) and a gradient ascent method. Results show less spatial aliasing for skyline coding and best homing performance for ALV homing based on skyline codes. This supports the assumption of skyline coding in visual homing of desert ants and allows novel approaches to technical outdoor navigation.

  9. Guns and Violence. Current Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Henny H., Ed.

    This book focuses on gun violence and gun control, presenting both sides of arguments about firearms ownership and gun control. Each of five chapters poses a question about gun control and provides answers for both sides of the question. The following essays are included: (1) "Gun Violence Is Becoming an Epidemic" (Bob Herbert); (2) "Gun Violence…

  10. Guns and Violence. Current Controversies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Henny H., Ed.

    This book focuses on gun violence and gun control, presenting both sides of arguments about firearms ownership and gun control. Each of five chapters poses a question about gun control and provides answers for both sides of the question. The following essays are included: (1) "Gun Violence Is Becoming an Epidemic" (Bob Herbert); (2) "Gun Violence…

  11. ORELA electron guns

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, O.W.; Lewis, T.A.

    1981-09-01

    The most recent information concerning the production and performance of ORELA electron guns is presented. Included are descriptions of procedures for gun fabrication, cathode conditioning and high voltage processing. Highlights of the performance characteristics are also included.

  12. Gun Safety (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... though guns are featured in many television shows, video games, computer games, and movies, it's important to know ... could only happen on TV, in movies, or video games. A real gun is never a toy, and ...

  13. Whose guns are stolen? The epidemiology of Gun theft victims.

    PubMed

    Hemenway, David; Azrael, Deborah; Miller, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    Gun theft is an important source of guns used by criminals. Yet no empirical work has focused on the characteristics of gun owners that distinguish those who have had their guns stolen from those who have not. In this study, we examine the demographics and behavioral characteristics of gun owners who report having had a gun stolen. Data come from a nationally representative probability-based online survey conducted in April 2015, with a linked follow-up survey in November 2015 that asked gun owners about any theft of their guns in the past 5 years. Of 1,604 gun-owning respondents, 2.4% (95% CI 1.6,3.6) reported that one or more guns had been stolen, with a mean number of guns stolen per theft of 1.5 (95% CI 1.0,2.0]. Risk factors for having a gun stolen were owning 6 or more guns, owning guns for protection, carrying a gun in the past month, storing guns unsafely, and living in the South region of the United States. The South accounts for 37% of US households, 43% of gun owners, and two-thirds of all gun thefts. We estimate that there are approximately 250,000 gun theft incidents per year, with about 380,000 guns stolen. We find that certain types of gun owners-who own many guns, who carry guns, and who do not store guns safely-are at higher risk to have their guns stolen. Tracing data show that states in the South are exporters of crime guns used in other states. Our survey results find that the majority of guns stolen in the US come from the South.

  14. Inverse determination of heat flux into a gun barrel using temperature sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, Jonathan A.; Jablonski, Melissa N.

    2017-05-01

    A mathematical model is developed to describe the thermal response of a temperature sensor located within a gun barrel, which accounts for the time-constant of the sensor and a measurement bias. The model is inversely solved to estimate the total heat flux applied to the bore surface as well as the transient history of the applied heat flux for a given thermal response of a temperature sensor. A parametric study is conducted to determine the influence of sensor time-constant, sensor location within the gun barrel, and measurement bias on the accuracy of the estimated heat flux as applied to a 155mm gun barrel. It is found that the accuracy of the estimated heat flux improves as the time-constant of the sensor decreases, the sensor is located closer to the bore surface, and the measurement bias decreases. A regression model is provided to estimate that accuracy and it is shown how a typical thermocouple would perform at various locations through the thickness of the gun barrel.

  15. 155-MM Artillery Rearm Module 2, Unicharge. Phase 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    provided for AM-II/Ui has two 300-a geerators mad fur 12 volt 100 amp-hr bmtteries). Te electric voltage and current data was obtained as the various...8217e- 32 a23 2 0 09 co c 10 U)c "a 0 -0~ -C0 M- V i* o 0 0 0 0 (Uo z CC0c CL cm cc ~kR 𔃺~ 4 18 0L cc C.. o E 0) c o 0 80 0I U cEcc .2 mg CaD OEa. IL E...I S 3% .pI be Ioff -I,- 43 c d W3 zU 0 0. 0 hi M~c U, 2.S oc LUU 0 w j. 44" c-n CD - 0 d D 0 v8 Nl I z ILF L) jr) - z0 Ld r- L I 45 III %two4 uie

  16. Visualization Techniques Applied to 155-mm Projectile Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    EnSight has the ability to read in certain common CAD data formats (.OBJ, .STL); however, the ability to align portions of the computational mesh with...firings. Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets. 49(6):1120–1130. 3. Dassault Systèmes SOLIDWORKS Corp. SolidWorks User Manual, Waltham, MA, 2010. 4. Metacomp

  17. Variations in Manufacturing Processes 155 mm Combustible Cartridge Case

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    number) Spiral wrap Talc Accretion Molded Combustibility Felting Tensile strength Nitrocellulose formulation Adhesive bonding Resin Wood cellulose ’M...preform and pressing techniques that were employed during the past century in the manufacture of three dimensional shapes from wood cellulose fibers... Kraft fibers is added to the water. 3. The mixture is beaten until the desired freeness is at- tained. 4. A measured amount of nitrocellulose fibers is

  18. Survey of SRF guns

    SciTech Connect

    Belomestnykh, S.

    2011-07-25

    Developing Superconducting RF (SRF) electron guns is an active field with several laboratories working on different gun designs. While the first guns were based on elliptic cavity geometries, Quarter Wave Resonator (QWR) option is gaining popularity. QWRs are especially well suited for producing beams with high charge per bunch. In this talk we will describe recent progress in developing both types of SRF guns. SRF guns made excellent progress in the last two years. Several guns generated beams and one, at HZDR, injected beam into an accelerator. By accomplishing this, HZDR/ELBE gun demonstrated feasibility of the SRF gun concept with a normal-conducting Cs{sub 2}Te cathode. The cathode demonstrated very good performance with the lifetime of {approx}1 year. However, for high average current/high bunch charge operation CsK{sub 2}Sb is preferred as it needs green lasers, unlike UV laser for the Cs{sub 2}Te, which makes it easier to build laser/optics systems. Other high QE photocathodes are being developed for SRF guns, most notably diamond-amplified photocathode. Several QWR guns are under development with one producing beam already. They are very promising for high bunch charge operation. The field is very active and we should expect more good results soon.

  19. Harvesting costs and environmental impacts associated with skyline yarding shelterwood harvests and thinning in Appalachian hardwoods

    Treesearch

    J. E. Baumgras; C. B. LeDoux; J. R. Sherar

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the potential for moderating the visual impact and soil disturbance associated with timber harvesting on steep-slope hardwood sites, thinning and shelterwood harvests were conducted with a skyline yarding system. Operations were monitored to document harvesting production, residual stand damage, soil disturbance, and visual quality. Yarding costs for...

  20. Hardwood silviculture and skyline yarding on steep slopes: economic and environmental impacts

    Treesearch

    John E. Baumgras; Chris B. LeDoux

    1995-01-01

    Ameliorating the visual and environmental impact associated with harvesting hardwoods on steep slopes will require the efficient use of skyline yarding along with silvicultural alternatives to clearcutting. In evaluating the effects of these alternatives on harvesting revenue, results of field studies and computer simulations were used to estimate costs and revenue for...

  1. Tree damage from skyline logging in a western larch/Douglas-fir stand

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Benson; Michael J. Gonsior

    1981-01-01

    Damage to shelterwood leave trees and to understory trees in shelterwood and clearcut logging units logged with skyline yarders was measured, and related to stand conditions, harvesting specifications, and yarding system-terrain interactions. About 23 percent of the marked leave trees in the shelterwood units were killed in logging, and about 10 percent had moderate to...

  2. Toyota/Skyline Technical Education Network. Cooperative Demonstration Program. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skyline Coll., San Bruno, CA.

    A joint project was conducted between Toyota Motor Sales and Skyline College (in the San Francisco, California, area) to create an automotive technician training program that would serve the needs of working adults. During the project, a model high technology curriculum suitable for adults was developed, the quality of instruction available for…

  3. Interior of southeast gun chamber (labeled "Gun Turret No. Two), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of southeast gun chamber (labeled "Gun Turret No. Two), showing gun mounting pad, wall rings, small niche, and opening to outside - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Battery Adair, Princeton Place, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. Carbon nanotube electron gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  5. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  6. Carbon plasma gun

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, C.W. Jr.; Zagar, D.M.; Mills, G.S.; Humphries, S. Jr.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1980-12-01

    A family of plasma guns supplying highly ionized carbon plasma is described. The guns are simple and inexpensive to construct and are pulsed by small capacitor banks of a few hundred joules. The output consists of 10/sup 17/--10/sup 18/ multiply ionized carbon ions traveling at about 10/sup 7/ cm/s. Neutral output is very low and arrives well after the ionized carbon. The guns and pulsers are very reliable.

  7. An Energy-Efficient Skyline Query for Massively Multidimensional Sensing Data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Wei, Wei; Deng, Qingxu; Liu, Wei; Song, Houbing

    2016-01-09

    Cyber physical systems (CPS) sense the environment based on wireless sensor networks. The sensing data of such systems present the characteristics of massiveness and multi-dimensionality. As one of the major monitoring methods used in in safe production monitoring and disaster early-warning applications, skyline query algorithms are extensively adopted for multiple-objective decision analysis of these sensing data. With the expansion of network sizes, the amount of sensing data increases sharply. Then, how to improve the query efficiency of skyline query algorithms and reduce the transmission energy consumption become pressing and difficult to accomplish issues. Therefore, this paper proposes a new energy-efficient skyline query method for massively multidimensional sensing data. First, the method uses a node cut strategy to dynamically generate filtering tuples with little computational overhead when collecting query results instead of issuing queries with filters. It can judge the domination relationship among different nodes, remove the detected data sets of dominated nodes that are irrelevant to the query, modify the query path dynamically, and reduce the data comparison and computational overhead. The efficient dynamic filter generated by this strategy uses little non-skyline data transmission in the network, and the transmission distance is very short. Second, our method also employs the tuple-cutting strategy inside the node and generates the local cutting tuples by the sub-tree with the node itself as the root node, which will be used to cut the detected data within the nodes of the sub-tree. Therefore, it can further control the non-skyline data uploading. A large number of experimental results show that our method can quickly return an overview of the monitored area and reduce the communication overhead. Additionally, it can shorten the response time and improve the efficiency of the query.

  8. An Energy-Efficient Skyline Query for Massively Multidimensional Sensing Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Wei, Wei; Deng, Qingxu; Liu, Wei; Song, Houbing

    2016-01-01

    Cyber physical systems (CPS) sense the environment based on wireless sensor networks. The sensing data of such systems present the characteristics of massiveness and multi-dimensionality. As one of the major monitoring methods used in in safe production monitoring and disaster early-warning applications, skyline query algorithms are extensively adopted for multiple-objective decision analysis of these sensing data. With the expansion of network sizes, the amount of sensing data increases sharply. Then, how to improve the query efficiency of skyline query algorithms and reduce the transmission energy consumption become pressing and difficult to accomplish issues. Therefore, this paper proposes a new energy-efficient skyline query method for massively multidimensional sensing data. First, the method uses a node cut strategy to dynamically generate filtering tuples with little computational overhead when collecting query results instead of issuing queries with filters. It can judge the domination relationship among different nodes, remove the detected data sets of dominated nodes that are irrelevant to the query, modify the query path dynamically, and reduce the data comparison and computational overhead. The efficient dynamic filter generated by this strategy uses little non-skyline data transmission in the network, and the transmission distance is very short. Second, our method also employs the tuple-cutting strategy inside the node and generates the local cutting tuples by the sub-tree with the node itself as the root node, which will be used to cut the detected data within the nodes of the sub-tree. Therefore, it can further control the non-skyline data uploading. A large number of experimental results show that our method can quickly return an overview of the monitored area and reduce the communication overhead. Additionally, it can shorten the response time and improve the efficiency of the query. PMID:26761010

  9. Remotely controlled spray gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, William C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A remotely controlled spray gun is described in which a nozzle and orifice plate are held in precise axial alignment by an alignment member, which in turn is held in alignment with the general outlet of the spray gun by insert. By this arrangement, the precise repeatability of spray patterns is insured.

  10. Guns at College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Matthew; Hemenway, David; Wechsler, Henry

    1999-01-01

    Surveyed undergraduate students nationwide concerning firearm possession. About 3.5% possessed working firearms. Students with guns were more likely to be male, White, or Native American; binge drink; live off-campus; and live with a spouse or significant other. Students with guns were more likely to engage in activities that put themselves and…

  11. Guns at College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Matthew; Hemenway, David; Wechsler, Henry

    1999-01-01

    Surveyed undergraduate students nationwide concerning firearm possession. About 3.5% possessed working firearms. Students with guns were more likely to be male, White, or Native American; binge drink; live off-campus; and live with a spouse or significant other. Students with guns were more likely to engage in activities that put themselves and…

  12. LX-04 Violence Measurements-Steven Tests Impacted by Projectiles Shot from a Howitzer Gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidester, Steven K.; Vandersall, Kevin S.; Switzer, Lori L.; Tarver, Craig M.

    2006-07-01

    Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton A by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 170-300 m/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic microphones, and high-speed photography characterized the level of high explosive reaction violence. A detonation in this velocity range was not observed and when comparing these results (and the Susan test results) with that of other HMX based explosives, LX-04 has a more gradual reaction violence slope as the impact velocity increases. The high binder content (15%) of the LX-04 explosive is believed to be the key factor to the lower level of violence.

  13. LX-04 VIOLENCE MEASUREMENTS- STEVEN TESTS IMPACTED BY PROJECTILES SHOT FROM A HOWITZER GUN

    SciTech Connect

    Chidester, S K; Vandersall, K S; Switzer, L L; Tarver, C M

    2005-07-18

    Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton A by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 170-300 m/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic microphones, and high-speed photography characterized the level of high explosive reaction violence. A detonation in this velocity range was not observed and when comparing these results (and the Susan test results) with that of other HMX based explosives, LX-04 has a more gradual reaction violence slope as the impact velocity increases. The high binder content (15%) of the LX-04 explosive is believed to be the key factor to the lower level of violence.

  14. Rarefaction wave gun propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathe, Eric Lee

    A new species of gun propulsion that dramatically reduces recoil momentum imparted to the gun is presented. First conceived by the author on 18 March 1999, the propulsion concept is explained, a methodology for the design of a reasonable apparatus for experimental validation using NATO standard 35mm TP anti-aircraft ammunition is developed, and the experimental results are presented. The firing results are juxtaposed by a simple interior ballistic model to place the experimental findings into a context within which they may better be understood. Rarefaction wave gun (RAVEN) propulsion is an original contribution to the field of armament engineering. No precedent is known, and no experimental results of such a gun have been published until now. Recoil reduction in excess of 50% was experimentally achieved without measured loss in projectile velocity. RAVEN achieves recoil reduction by means of a delayed venting of the breech of the gun chamber that directs the high enthalpy propellant gases through an expansion nozzle to generate forward thrust that abates the rearward momentum applied to the gun prior to venting. The novel feature of RAVEN, relative to prior recoilless rifles, is that sufficiently delayed venting results in a rarefaction wave that follows the projectile though the bore without catching it. Thus, the projectile exits the muzzle without any compromise to its propulsion performance relative to guns that maintain a sealed chamber.

  15. Papular epidermal nevus with "skyline" basal cell layer (PENS) with extracutaneous findings.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Díaz, Eloy; Gonzalvo, Pablo; Colmenero, Isabel; Requena, Luis; Hernández-Martín, Angela; Torrelo, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Papular epidermal nevus with "skyline" basal cell layer (PENS), a variant of epidermal nevus, was recently described in otherwise normal children. We describe herein a patient with multiple, typical PENS lesions associated with peculiar facies, bilateral Achilles tendon shortening, and mild psychomotor delay. The association of PENS with extracutaneous manifestations suggests the possibility of a new type of epidermal nevus syndrome, for which we propose the term PENS syndrome.

  16. Teen Suicide and Guns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Issues Listen Text Size Email Print Share Teen Suicide and Guns Page Content Article Body Protect Your ... thinking of a passing problem, not the outcome! Teen Suicide—A Big Problem Suicide is one of the ...

  17. High Velocity Gas Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.

  18. Gun control saves lives.

    PubMed

    Matzopoulos, Richard

    2016-05-19

    Reducing firearm mortality by means of stricter gun control is one of the most important short- to medium-term measures to address the burden of violence in South Africa, while longer-term interventions and policy measures take effect.

  19. Gun Safety (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... home. In the United States, there is great debate over gun control. No one seems to agree ... KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- ...

  20. High Velocity Gas Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.

  1. RF Gun Optimization Study

    SciTech Connect

    A. S. Hofler; P. Evtushenko; M. Krasilnikov

    2007-08-01

    Injector gun design is an iterative process where the designer optimizes a few nonlinearly interdependent beam parameters to achieve the required beam quality for a particle accelerator. Few tools exist to automate the optimization process and thoroughly explore the parameter space. The challenging beam requirements of new accelerator applications such as light sources and electron cooling devices drive the development of RF and SRF photo injectors. RF and SRF gun design is further complicated because the bunches are space charge dominated and require additional emittance compensation. A genetic algorithm has been successfully used to optimize DC photo injector designs for Cornell* and Jefferson Lab**, and we propose studying how the genetic algorithm techniques can be applied to the design of RF and SRF gun injectors. In this paper, we report on the initial phase of the study where we model and optimize gun designs that have been benchmarked with beam measurements and simulation.

  2. Keeping Naval Guns Ready

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    maritime routes and the global economy . This protection depends on keeping these forward naval ships ready, par- ticularly their guns and ammunition...April 2016 22 Between 1990 and 2014, the world economy doubled, rising from $35 trillion to $75 trillion, lifting billions of people out of poverty...lanes, which is very vital to the global economy . The readiness of these guns is tied to naval regional mainte- nance centers and NSWC IHEODTD’s in

  3. Gun Control Legislation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-27

    Heller decision, passed a bill that would have further overturned provisions of the District’s gun laws. In the 111th Congress, pro-gun Members of the...Senate amended the DC voting rights bill (S. 160) with similar language and passed that bill . While attempts were made to end the impasse and revive...the voting rights bill (see H.R. 157), these efforts were unsuccessful, as Members supporting DC voting rights were unwilling to risk passage of

  4. Electromagnetic configurations of rail guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fat'yanov, O. V.; Ostashev, V. E.; Lopyrev, A. N.; Ul'Yanov, A. V.

    1993-06-01

    Some problems associated with the electromagnetic acceleration of macrobodies in a rail gun are examined. An approach to the design of rail gun configurations is proposed, and some basic rail gun schemes are synthesized. The alternative rail gun schemes are compared in terms of electrode potential and stability of the electrode gap with respect to parasitic current shunting. The effect of the ohmic resistance of the electrodes and of the additional magnetization field on the spatial structure of the discharge in the rail gun channel is discussed. A classification of rail gun modifications is presented.

  5. Exploring skyline for both MS(E) -based label-free proteomics and HRMS quantitation of small molecules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shanshan; Chen, Xin; Yan, Zhihui; Qin, Shanshan; Xu, Jinhua; Lin, Jianping; Yang, Cheng; Shui, Wenqing

    2014-02-01

    The MS(E) (where MS(E) is low energy (MS) and elevated energy (E) mode of acquisition) acquisition method commercialized by Waters on its Q-TOF instruments is regarded as a unique data-independent fragmentation approach that improves the accuracy and dynamic range of label-free proteomic quantitation. Due to its special format, MS(E) acquisition files cannot be independently analyzed with most widely used open-source proteomic software specialized for processing data-dependent acquisition files. In this study, we established a workflow integrating Skyline, a popular and versatile peptide-centric quantitation program, and a statistical tool DiffProt to fulfill MS(E) -based proteomic quantitation. Comparison with the vendor software package for analyzing targeted phosphopeptides and global proteomic datasets reveals distinct advantages of Skyline in MS(E) data mining, including sensitive peak detection, flexible peptide filtering, and transparent step-by-step workflow. Moreover, we developed a new procedure such that Skyline MS1 filtering was extended to small molecule quantitation for the first time. This new utility of Skyline was examined in a protein-ligand interaction experiment to identify multiple chemical compounds specifically bound to NDM-1 (where NDM is New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1), an antibiotics-resistance target. Further improvement of the current weaknesses in Skyline MS1 filtering is expected to enhance the reliability of this powerful program in full scan-based quantitation of both peptides and small molecules.

  6. Injury risk of nonpowder guns.

    PubMed

    Laraque, Danielle

    2004-11-01

    Nonpowder guns (ball-bearing [BB] guns, pellet guns, air rifles, paintball guns) continue to cause serious injuries to children and adolescents. The muzzle velocity of these guns can range from approximately 150 ft/second to 1200 ft/second (the muzzle velocities of traditional firearm pistols are 750 ft/second to 1450 ft/second). Both low- and high-velocity nonpowder guns are associated with serious injuries, and fatalities can result from high-velocity guns. A persisting problem is the lack of medical recognition of the severity of injuries that can result from these guns, including penetration of the eye, skin, internal organs, and bone. Nationally, in 2000, there were an estimated 21840 (coefficient of variation: 0.0821) injuries related to nonpowder guns, with approximately 4% resulting in hospitalization. Between 1990 and 2000, the US Consumer Product Safety Commission reported 39 nonpowder gun-related deaths, of which 32 were children younger than 15 years. The introduction of high-powered air rifles in the 1970s has been associated with approximately 4 deaths per year. The advent of war games and the use of paintball guns have resulted in a number of reports of injuries, especially to the eye. Injuries associated with nonpowder guns should receive prompt medical management similar to the management of firearm-related injuries, and nonpowder guns should never be characterized as toys.

  7. Electrification and Electric Guns,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-03

    1657-83F/203 N Si FIE FG2/ f i l l ’ I g u I 12 . 8 l . 11111.2 I.UJ M Lfl 00 FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIVISION 0 .N ELECTRIFICATION AND ELECTRIC GUNS by A.A...available. i I Accessiton For I ’IS op:" I (31odes ELECTRIFICATION AND ELECTRIC GUNS DI t pe:i c A. A. Kr’vProf. Th .~Pis Presen~tly in the stage of...cor.sderaticn; the wrnd’o en "onrr-:- rea -nes the steady state are considered. ’her. se : " rren :n an electric gun is shorted, the power :s ex;end e

  8. Electromagnetic targeting of guns

    SciTech Connect

    Pogue, E.W.; Boat, R.M.; Holden, D.N.; Lopez, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) signals produced from explosives being fired have been reported in the literature for fifty years. When a gun is fired it produces an EMP muzzle blast signal. The strength and nature of these signals was first analyzed in the early 1970s, while the results were interesting, no follow-up studies were conducted. With modern detection and signal processing technology, we believe that these signals could be used to instantaneously locate guns of virtually all calibers as they fire. The objective of our one-year project was to establish the basic nature of these signals and their utility in the concept of electromagnetic targeting of guns.

  9. Where the guns come from: the gun industry and gun commerce.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J

    2002-01-01

    Under federal law, it is illegal for youth under age 18 to purchase rifles or shotguns, and for those under age 21 to purchase handguns. However, fatality and injury statistics clearly show that guns are finding their way into young people's hands. Many of these youth obtain guns through illegal gun markets. This article focuses on how guns in the United States are manufactured, marketed, and sold. The article shows how the legal and illegal gun markets are intimately connected and make guns easily accessible to youth. Although the domestic gun manufacturing industry is relatively small and has experienced declining sales in recent years, it has significant political clout and a large market for its products, and has engaged in aggressive marketing to youth. Lax oversight of licensed firearms dealers, combined with little or no regulation of private sales between gun owners, mean that guns can quickly moved from the legal gun market into the illegal market, where they can be acquired by young people. Certain guns, especially inexpensive, poorly made small handguns, are particularly attractive to criminals and youth. The author observes that several policy innovations--including increased regulation of licensed firearms dealers, intensified screening of prospective buyers, regulation of private sales, gun licensing and registration, and bans on some types of weapons--hold promise for decreasing the flow of guns into the hands of youth.

  10. Unbalanced field RF electron gun

    DOEpatents

    Hofler, Alicia

    2013-11-12

    A design for an RF electron gun having a gun cavity utilizing an unbalanced electric field arrangement. Essentially, the electric field in the first (partial) cell has higher field strength than the electric field in the second (full) cell of the electron gun. The accompanying method discloses the use of the unbalanced field arrangement in the operation of an RF electron gun in order to accelerate an electron beam.

  11. High gradient electron guns

    SciTech Connect

    Fant, K.S.; Caryotakis, G.; Koontz, R.F.; Vlieks, A.E. ); Miram, G. , Atherton, CA )

    1990-08-01

    Experiments have been conducted to determine peak operating gradients attainable in thermionic electron guns. These tests are part of a study of high-current-density, long-life cathodes suitable for use in high power klystrons. We also investigated the use of chromium oxide coating as a means of inhibiting electronic breakdown across the focus electrode anode gap. Field gradients in excess of 280 kV/cm have been achieved for a gun operating at 240 kV with a beam current of 228 A, at pulse widths of the order of 1 {mu}s. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Gun Control Legislation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-10

    pro-gun Members of the House of Representatives, who were dissatisfied with the District’s response to the Heller decision, passed a bill that... bill (S. 160) with language similar to the House bill (described above) and passed that bill on February 26, 2009. Although the House leadership...attempted to negotiate an end to the impasse over the District’s gun laws and bring its version of the DC voting rights bill (H.R. 157) to the floor, this

  13. Glue Guns: Aiming for Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    While glue guns are very useful, there are safety issues. Regardless of the temperature setting, glue guns can burn skin. The teacher should demonstrate and supervise the use of glue guns and have a plan should a student get burned. There should be an initial first aid protocol in place, followed by a visit to the school nurse. An accident report…

  14. Children, Youth, and Gun Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This collection of articles summarizes knowledge and research about how gun violence affects children and youth and discusses which policies hold promise for reducing youth gun violence. The papers are: (1) "Statement of Purpose" (Richard E. Behrman); "Children, Youth, and Gun Violence: Analysis and Recommendations" (Kathleen…

  15. Glue Guns: Aiming for Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2010-01-01

    While glue guns are very useful, there are safety issues. Regardless of the temperature setting, glue guns can burn skin. The teacher should demonstrate and supervise the use of glue guns and have a plan should a student get burned. There should be an initial first aid protocol in place, followed by a visit to the school nurse. An accident report…

  16. Hot hollow cathode gun assembly

    DOEpatents

    Zeren, J.D.

    1983-11-22

    A hot hollow cathode deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, the hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  17. Vacuum vapor deposition gun assembly

    DOEpatents

    Zeren, Joseph D.

    1985-01-01

    A vapor deposition gun assembly includes a hollow body having a cylindrical outer surface and an end plate for holding an adjustable heat sink, a hot hollow cathode gun, two magnets for steering the plasma from the gun into a crucible on the heat sink, and a shutter for selectively covering and uncovering the crucible.

  18. Platform-independent and Label-free Quantitation of Proteomic Data Using MS1 Extracted Ion Chromatograms in Skyline

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Birgit; Rardin, Matthew J.; MacLean, Brendan X.; Zawadzka, Anna M.; Frewen, Barbara E.; Cusack, Michael P.; Sorensen, Dylan J.; Bereman, Michael S.; Jing, Enxuan; Wu, Christine C.; Verdin, Eric; Kahn, C. Ronald; MacCoss, Michael J.; Gibson, Bradford W.

    2012-01-01

    Despite advances in metabolic and postmetabolic labeling methods for quantitative proteomics, there remains a need for improved label-free approaches. This need is particularly pressing for workflows that incorporate affinity enrichment at the peptide level, where isobaric chemical labels such as isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation and tandem mass tags may prove problematic or where stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture labeling cannot be readily applied. Skyline is a freely available, open source software tool for quantitative data processing and proteomic analysis. We expanded the capabilities of Skyline to process ion intensity chromatograms of peptide analytes from full scan mass spectral data (MS1) acquired during HPLC MS/MS proteomic experiments. Moreover, unlike existing programs, Skyline MS1 filtering can be used with mass spectrometers from four major vendors, which allows results to be compared directly across laboratories. The new quantitative and graphical tools now available in Skyline specifically support interrogation of multiple acquisitions for MS1 filtering, including visual inspection of peak picking and both automated and manual integration, key features often lacking in existing software. In addition, Skyline MS1 filtering displays retention time indicators from underlying MS/MS data contained within the spectral library to ensure proper peak selection. The modular structure of Skyline also provides well defined, customizable data reports and thus allows users to directly connect to existing statistical programs for post hoc data analysis. To demonstrate the utility of the MS1 filtering approach, we have carried out experiments on several MS platforms and have specifically examined the performance of this method to quantify two important post-translational modifications: acetylation and phosphorylation, in peptide-centric affinity workflows of increasing complexity using mouse and human models. PMID:22454539

  19. Investigating the link between gun possession and gun assault.

    PubMed

    Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S; Culhane, Dennis P; Ten Have, Thomas R; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2009-11-01

    We investigated the possible relationship between being shot in an assault and possession of a gun at the time. We enrolled 677 case participants that had been shot in an assault and 684 population-based control participants within Philadelphia, PA, from 2003 to 2006. We adjusted odds ratios for confounding variables. After adjustment, individuals in possession of a gun were 4.46 (P < .05) times more likely to be shot in an assault than those not in possession. Among gun assaults where the victim had at least some chance to resist, this adjusted odds ratio increased to 5.45 (P < .05). On average, guns did not protect those who possessed them from being shot in an assault. Although successful defensive gun uses occur each year, the probability of success may be low for civilian gun users in urban areas. Such users should reconsider their possession of guns or, at least, understand that regular possession necessitates careful safety countermeasures.

  20. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, W.

    1988-04-01

    Existing analytic design equations for magnetron injection guns (MIG's) are approximated to obtain a set of scaling laws. The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum peak power capabilities of MIG's. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations.

  1. Radar gun hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-20

    Radar guns - hand-held units used by the law to nail speeders - have been in use since the early '60s. Now they've been accused of causing cancer. Police officers in several states have so far filed eight suits against the manufacturer, claiming that they have contracted rare forms of cancer, such as of the eyelid and the testicle, from frequent proximity to the devices. Spurred by concerns expressed by police groups, researchers at the Rochester Institute of Technology are conducting what they believe to be the first research of its kind in the nation. Last month psychologist John Violanti, an expert in policy psychology and health, sent out a one-page survey to 6,000 active and retired police officers in New York State, asking them about their health and their use of radar guns. Violanti says melanoma, leukemia, and lymph node cancer may be linked to these as well as other electromagnetic devices. The Food and Drug Administration earlier this year issued a warning about radar guns, telling users not to operate them closer than 6 inches from the body. But this may not be a sufficient safeguard since the instruments can give off crisscrossing wave emissions within a police vehicle. The survey will be used to help determine if it would be safer to mount the guns, which are currently either hand-held or mounted on dashboards, outside troopers' cars.

  2. Gun Dealers, USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie; And Others

    In the United States, more than 11,500 adolescents' and young adults' lives are taken each year by firearms. Although Federal law prohibits minors from purchasing handguns, they typically get them by asking someone of legal age (18 years or older) to purchase them from one of the 256,771 Federally licensed gun dealers. This pamphlet answers…

  3. Giving Up the Gun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRue, Robert D.

    1989-01-01

    Provides a model lesson from the book "Science/Technology/Society: Model Lessons for Secondary Social Studies Classes." Outlines Japan's campaign in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to rid itself of guns and return to swords. Provides background information and student handouts. (RW)

  4. The Rail Gun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Gay B.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a rail gun demonstration that addresses a broad group of educational goals in introductory electricity and magnetism. Uses a battery-powered circuit consisting of a movable conductor placed across two conducting rails in a magnetic field to review mechanics, foster approximate reasoning and lateral class discussion, and demonstrate the…

  5. 120 Hz Gun Review

    SciTech Connect

    Colby, E.

    2005-01-31

    The review was held at SLAC on September 11 and 12, 2001. Presentations concerning the thermal analysis, mechanical design, integration with the laser and accelerator, general beam dynamics considerations, a load lock mechanism, and symmetric power feed options comprised the review. Slides from these presentations are available elsewhere. The review committee was charged with evaluating the 120 Hz gun design including proposed load lock and power feed options and recommending improvements. Broader evaluation of the injector as a whole (including focusing and diagnostic systems that do no impact the envelope of the gun itself) is expected to be covered in a future review and will not be commented on here. In general, the long operational experience with four generations of s-band RF guns at numerous labs worldwide has led to considerable experience in design, fabrication, and operation aspects, and provides an excellent base on which to design the higher duty factor LCLS injector. While open questions remain on obtaining the design performance from these injectors, the microwave design of the gun has reached a state of relative maturity.

  6. The polarized SRF gun experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Kewisch,J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.; Grover, R.; Todd, R.; Bluem, H.; Holmes, D.; Schultheiss, T.

    2007-09-10

    RF electron guns are capable of producing electron bunches with high brightness, which outperform DC electron guns and may even be able to provide electron beams for the ILC without the need for a damping ring. However, all successful existing guns for polarized electrons are DC guns because the environment inside an RF gun is hostile to the GaAs cathode material necessary for polarization. While the typical vacuum pressure in a DC gun is better than 10{sup -11} torr the vacuum in an RF gun is in the order of 10{sup -9} torr. Experiments at BINP Novosibirsk show that this leads to strong ion back-bombardment and generation of dark currents, which destroy the GaAs cathode in a short time. The situation might be much more favorable in a (super-conducting) SRF gun. The cryogenic pumping of the gun cavity walls may make it possible to maintain a vacuum close to 10{sup -12} torr, solving the problem of ion bombardment and dark currents. Of concern would be contamination of the gun cavity by evaporating cathode material. This report describes an experiment that Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in collaboration with Advanced Energy Systems (AES) is conducting to answer these questions.

  7. Gun Attitudes and Fear of Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Linda; Weeks, Kyle; Murphy, Marie Mackay

    1997-01-01

    Using three studies, examined the relationship between attitudes toward guns and fear of crime. Findings indicate a connection between fear of crime and attitudes toward guns: people higher in fear of crime favored gun control. Results also established a relationship between stereotypical beliefs about gun victims and support for gun control. (RJM)

  8. Gun Attitudes and Fear of Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Linda; Weeks, Kyle; Murphy, Marie Mackay

    1997-01-01

    Using three studies, examined the relationship between attitudes toward guns and fear of crime. Findings indicate a connection between fear of crime and attitudes toward guns: people higher in fear of crime favored gun control. Results also established a relationship between stereotypical beliefs about gun victims and support for gun control. (RJM)

  9. RF Gun Optimization Study

    SciTech Connect

    Alicia Hofler; Pavel Evtushenko

    2007-07-03

    Injector gun design is an iterative process where the designer optimizes a few nonlinearly interdependent beam parameters to achieve the required beam quality for a particle accelerator. Few tools exist to automate the optimization process and thoroughly explore the parameter space. The challenging beam requirements of new accelerator applications such as light sources and electron cooling devices drive the development of RF and SRF photo injectors. A genetic algorithm (GA) has been successfully used to optimize DC photo injector designs at Cornell University [1] and Jefferson Lab [2]. We propose to apply GA techniques to the design of RF and SRF gun injectors. In this paper, we report on the initial phase of the study where we model and optimize a system that has been benchmarked with beam measurements and simulation.

  10. Friction in rail guns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of friction is included in the present equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail gun. These equations, which have their basis in an empirical formulation, are applied to results from two different experiments. Only an approximate physical description of the problem is attempted, in view of the complexity of details in the interaction among forces of this magnitude over time periods of the order of milisecs.

  11. Friction in rail guns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kay, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of friction is included in the present equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail gun. These equations, which have their basis in an empirical formulation, are applied to results from two different experiments. Only an approximate physical description of the problem is attempted, in view of the complexity of details in the interaction among forces of this magnitude over time periods of the order of milisecs.

  12. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, W.

    1988-04-01

    A set of tradeoff equations was simplified to obtain scaling laws for magnetron injection guns (MIGs). The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum-peak-power capabilities of MIGs. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations in which each MIG is designed to double the beam power of an existing design by adjusting one of the four fundamental parameters.

  13. Liquid Propellant Guns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    GROUP SUB- GROUP 19. ABSTRAJ (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) Liquid propellants have been the focus of periodic...The ignition system of the BLG , more so than in a solid propellant gun, is key to safe ballistic operation. The coupling (temporal and spatial) of...based monopropellant.’i’ This approach offers advantages for mechanical simplification during loading. Satisfactory performance in a five round group

  14. Improved DC Gun Insulator

    SciTech Connect

    M.L. Neubauer, K.B. Beard, R. Sah, C. Hernandez-Garcia, G. Neil

    2009-05-01

    Many user facilities such as synchrotron light sources and free electron lasers require accelerating structures that support electric fields of 10-100 MV/m, especially at the start of the accelerator chain where ceramic insulators are used for very high gradient DC guns. These insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and have poor reliability, in part because energetic electrons bury themselves in the ceramic, creating a buildup of charge and causing eventual puncture. A novel ceramic manufacturing process is proposed. It will incorporate bulk resistivity in the region where it is needed to bleed off accumulated charge caused by highly energetic electrons. This process will be optimized to provide an appropriate gradient in bulk resistivity from the vacuum side to the air side of the HV standoff ceramic cylinder. A computer model will be used to determine the optimum cylinder dimensions and required resistivity gradient for an example RF gun application. A ceramic material example with resistivity gradient appropriate for use as a DC gun insulator will be fabricated by glazing using doping compounds and tested.

  15. Mole gun injury.

    PubMed

    Pistré, V; Rezzouk, J

    2013-09-01

    A mole gun is a weapon, which is used to trap and kill moles. This report provides an overview of the state of knowledge of mole gun injuries, comparable to blast injuries caused by fireworks, explosive or gunshot. Over a 2-year period, the authors reported their experience with ten hand injuries caused by mole gun. Radial side of the hand was often concerned, particularly the thumb. The authors explain their choices in the management of such lesions. Surgery was performed primarily and a large debridement currently seemed to offer the best outcome for the patient. Blast, crush, burns and lacerations may explain the higher rate of amputation to the digits. A long period of physiotherapy, specifically of the hand, was needed before the patient could return to work. This ballistic hand trauma encountered by surgeons requires knowledge and understanding of these injuries. It should be in accordance with firearms law because of severe injuries encountered and possible lethal wounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Air guns: toys or weapons?

    PubMed

    Aslan, Sahin; Uzkeser, Mustafa; Katirci, Yavuz; Cakir, Zeynep; Bilir, Ozlem; Bilge, Fatih; Cakir, Murtaza

    2006-09-01

    Air guns and blank guns may appear relatively harmless at first glance, but they are, in fact, potentially destructive, even lethal, weapons. Approximately 2 to 2.5 million nonpowder firearms are sold annually, and again approximately 12.9 per 100,000 population are treated for such injuries in hospital emergency departments each year in the United States. Unfortunately, these guns are considered to be a toy for children. Therefore, incidents of air gun injuries are gradually increasing. Although such injuries may initially be considered trivial, it may signify severe internal tissue pathologies. These apparently trivial injuries may have catastrophic consequences if unnoticed. In this study, we report 4 cases with head injury due to a shot by these guns. The cases indicate that these people had used the guns belonging to their parents for the purpose of suicide. The cases also show that these machines are not innocent.

  17. Middle Ground on Gun Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    Each tragic shooting incident that the American news media covers highlights the problem of gun violence in the United States. However, the focus of...firearms for individuals with suicidal tendencies could cause a significant reduction in the total number of casualties included in gun violence ...reporting of this information could be improved in order to reduce overall gun violence . Improved mental health reporting must be a matter of federal law

  18. Wisconsin SRF Electron Gun Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Bisognano, Joseph J.; Bissen, M.; Bosch, R.; Efremov, M.; Eisert, D.; Fisher, M.; Green, M.; Jacobs, K.; Keil, R.; Kleman, K.; Rogers, G.; Severson, M.; Yavuz, D. D.; Legg, Robert A.; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna; Hovater, J. Curtis; Plawski, Tomasz; Powers, Thomas J.

    2013-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin has completed fabrication and commissioning of a low frequency (199.6 MHz) superconducting electron gun based on a quarter wave resonator (QWR) cavity. Its concept was optimized to be the source for a CW free electron laser facility. The gun design includes active tuning and a high temperature superconducting solenoid. We will report on the status of the Wisconsin SRF electron gun program, including commissioning experience and first beam measurements.

  19. E-Gun Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    for use in UV and visible laser e-guns as they are scaled to large average powers. Another way to avoid diode closure is to use thermionic cathodes...Emitting Cathodes 11-5 1. Diode Closure 11-5 2. Loss of Emission Sites 11-14 3. Emission Site Density 11-19 4. Fast Beam Current Density Fluctuation...Activation IV-17 2. Beam Expansion IV-18 3. Magnetic Field Effects IV-23 4. No Diode Closure IV-23 5. Comparison of Cathode Performance IV-23 -iv

  20. Advanced electromagnetic gun simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J. L.; George, E. B.; Lippert, J. R.; Balius, A. R.

    1986-11-01

    The architecture, software and application of a simulation system for evaluating electromagnetic gun (EMG) operability, maintainability, test data and performance tradeoffs are described. The system features a generic preprocessor designed for handling the large data rates necessary for EMG simulations. The preprocessor and postprocessor operate independent of the EMG simulation, which is viewed through windows by the user, who can then select the areas of the simulation desired. The simulation considers a homopolar generator, busbars, pulse shaping coils, the barrel, switches, and prime movers. In particular, account is taken of barrel loading by the magnetic field, Lorentz force and plasma pressure.

  1. The reconnection gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, M.; Cnare, E. C.; Duggin, B. W.; Kaye, R. J.; Tucker, T. J.

    1986-11-01

    An electromagnetic launcher called the reconnection gun is introduced. Its potential performance is shown to be superior to that of a modern railgun for projectiles with mass greater than a few hundred grams. It has a 'characteristic velocity' which is an order of magnitude lower for much lower energy loss to ohmic heating. Also, it has several advantages for producing higher acceleration including; no barrel, no drop in acceleration with increase in projectile mass, higher peak pressure on the projectile and smaller differences between average and peak pressure. Experimental results and plans for high-performance, multi-stage designs are briefly discussed.

  2. Gun Concerns Personal for Duncan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2013-01-01

    As U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan works with other Obama administration officials on policy responses to the shootings at a Connecticut elementary school, he brings a personal and professional history that has acquainted him with the impact of gun violence. As schools chief in Chicago from 2001 to 2008, he was affected by the gun deaths…

  3. Gun Concerns Personal for Duncan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2013-01-01

    As U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan works with other Obama administration officials on policy responses to the shootings at a Connecticut elementary school, he brings a personal and professional history that has acquainted him with the impact of gun violence. As schools chief in Chicago from 2001 to 2008, he was affected by the gun deaths…

  4. Preventing gun injuries in children.

    PubMed

    Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2015-02-01

    Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective. © American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015. All rights reserved.

  5. LCLS Gun Solenoid Design Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Schmerge, John

    2010-12-10

    The LCLS photocathode rf gun requires a solenoid immediately downstream for proper emittance compensation. Such a gun and solenoid have been operational at the SSRL Gun Test Facility (GTF) for over eight years. Based on magnetic measurements and operational experience with the GTF gun solenoid multiple modifications are suggested for the LCLS gun solenoid. The modifications include adding dipole and quadrupole correctors inside the solenoid, increasing the bore to accommodate the correctors, decreasing the mirror plate thickness to allow the solenoid to move closer to the cathode, cutouts in the mirror plate to allow greater optical clearance with grazing incidence cathode illumination, utilizing pancake coil mirror images to compensate the first and second integrals of the transverse fields and incorporating a bipolar power supply to allow for proper magnet standardization and quick polarity changes. This paper describes all these modifications plus the magnetic measurements and operational experience leading to the suggested modifications.

  6. Electric arc welding gun

    DOEpatents

    Luttrell, Edward; Turner, Paul W.

    1978-01-01

    This invention relates to improved apparatus for arc welding an interior joint formed by intersecting tubular members. As an example, the invention is well suited for applications where many similar small-diameter vertical lines are to be welded to a long horizontal header. The improved apparatus includes an arc welding gun having a specially designed welding head which is not only very compact but also produces welds that are essentially free from rolled-over solidified metal. The welding head consists of the upper end of the barrel and a reversely extending electrode holder, or tip, which defines an acute angle with the barrel. As used in the above-mentioned example, the gun is positioned to extend upwardly through the vertical member and the joint to be welded, with its welding head disposed within the horizontal header. Depending on the design of the welding head, the barrel then is either rotated or revolved about the axis of the vertical member to cause the electrode to track the joint.

  7. Investigating the Link Between Gun Possession and Gun Assault

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Therese S.; Culhane, Dennis P.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the possible relationship between being shot in an assault and possession of a gun at the time. Methods. We enrolled 677 case participants that had been shot in an assault and 684 population-based control participants within Philadelphia, PA, from 2003 to 2006. We adjusted odds ratios for confounding variables. Results. After adjustment, individuals in possession of a gun were 4.46 (P < .05) times more likely to be shot in an assault than those not in possession. Among gun assaults where the victim had at least some chance to resist, this adjusted odds ratio increased to 5.45 (P < .05). Conclusions. On average, guns did not protect those who possessed them from being shot in an assault. Although successful defensive gun uses occur each year, the probability of success may be low for civilian gun users in urban areas. Such users should reconsider their possession of guns or, at least, understand that regular possession necessitates careful safety countermeasures. PMID:19762675

  8. Gun Shows and Gun Violence: Fatally Flawed Study Yields Misleading Results

    PubMed Central

    Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled “The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas” outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors’ prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy. PMID:20724672

  9. Gun shows and gun violence: fatally flawed study yields misleading results.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J; Hemenway, David; Webster, Daniel; Pierce, Glenn; Braga, Anthony A

    2010-10-01

    A widely publicized but unpublished study of the relationship between gun shows and gun violence is being cited in debates about the regulation of gun shows and gun commerce. We believe the study is fatally flawed. A working paper entitled "The Effect of Gun Shows on Gun-Related Deaths: Evidence from California and Texas" outlined this study, which found no association between gun shows and gun-related deaths. We believe the study reflects a limited understanding of gun shows and gun markets and is not statistically powered to detect even an implausibly large effect of gun shows on gun violence. In addition, the research contains serious ascertainment and classification errors, produces results that are sensitive to minor specification changes in key variables and in some cases have no face validity, and is contradicted by 1 of its own authors' prior research. The study should not be used as evidence in formulating gun policy.

  10. Policing guns and youth violence.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    To combat the epidemic of youth gun violence in the 1980s and 1990s, law enforcement agencies across the United States adopted a variety of innovative strategies. This article presents case studies of eight cities' efforts to police gun crime. Some cities emphasized police-citizen partnerships to address youth violence, whereas others focused on aggressive enforcement against youth suspected of even minor criminal activity. Still others attempted to change youth behavior through "soft" strategies built on alternatives to arrest. Finally, some cities used a combination of approaches. Key findings discussed in this article include: Law enforcement agencies that emphasized police-citizen cooperation benefited from a more positive image and sense of legitimacy in the community, which may have enhanced their efforts to fight crime. Aggressive law enforcement strategies may have contributed to a decline in youth gun violence, but they also may have cost police legitimacy in minority communities where residents felt that the tactics were unfair or racially motivated. Approaches that emphasize nonarrest alternatives and problem-solving strategies offer an intriguing but unproven vision for addressing youth gun violence. None of the initiatives presented in the case studies has been shown conclusively to reduce youth gun crime over the long term. The author suggests that policing alone cannot contain youth gun violence, but by carefully balancing enforcement with community collaboration, police departments can help shift social norms that contribute to youth gun violence.

  11. High Intensity Polarized Electron Gun

    SciTech Connect

    Redwine, Robert P.

    2012-07-31

    The goal of the project was to investigate the possibility of building a very high intensity polarized electron gun for the Electron-Ion Collider. This development is crucial for the eRHIC project. The gun implements a large area cathode, ring-shaped laser beam and active cathode cooling. A polarized electron gun chamber with a large area cathode and active cathode cooling has been built and tested. A preparation chamber for cathode activation has been built and initial tests have been performed. Major parts for a load-lock chamber, where cathodes are loaded into the vacuum system, have been manufactured.

  12. Gas gun assembly

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, J.N.

    1983-10-11

    A gas gun assembly, for measuring depths of reflectors in a well bore, includes a housing having a central chamber and bottom bulkhead through which a first valve bore extends. Coupling structure is provided to connect the housing to the well. A cap closure for the chamber has a second valve bore therethrough of diameter larger than the diameter of the first valve bore and is located in axial alignment with the first valve bore. A valve stem has one end axially movable within the second valve bore while closing the same and the other end movable into and out of the first valve bore. A predetermined pressure condition is established across the bulkhead. The valve stem is then released for rapid equalization of pressure across the bulkhead to produce an acoustic pulse in the well bore.

  13. Reliable Execution Based on CPN and Skyline Optimization for Web Service Composition

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Weitao; Zhang, Guojun

    2013-01-01

    With development of SOA, the complex problem can be solved by combining available individual services and ordering them to best suit user's requirements. Web services composition is widely used in business environment. With the features of inherent autonomy and heterogeneity for component web services, it is difficult to predict the behavior of the overall composite service. Therefore, transactional properties and nonfunctional quality of service (QoS) properties are crucial for selecting the web services to take part in the composition. Transactional properties ensure reliability of composite Web service, and QoS properties can identify the best candidate web services from a set of functionally equivalent services. In this paper we define a Colored Petri Net (CPN) model which involves transactional properties of web services in the composition process. To ensure reliable and correct execution, unfolding processes of the CPN are followed. The execution of transactional composition Web service (TCWS) is formalized by CPN properties. To identify the best services of QoS properties from candidate service sets formed in the TCSW-CPN, we use skyline computation to retrieve dominant Web service. It can overcome that the reduction of individual scores to an overall similarity leads to significant information loss. We evaluate our approach experimentally using both real and synthetically generated datasets. PMID:23935431

  14. Reliable execution based on CPN and skyline optimization for Web service composition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liping; Ha, Weitao; Zhang, Guojun

    2013-01-01

    With development of SOA, the complex problem can be solved by combining available individual services and ordering them to best suit user's requirements. Web services composition is widely used in business environment. With the features of inherent autonomy and heterogeneity for component web services, it is difficult to predict the behavior of the overall composite service. Therefore, transactional properties and nonfunctional quality of service (QoS) properties are crucial for selecting the web services to take part in the composition. Transactional properties ensure reliability of composite Web service, and QoS properties can identify the best candidate web services from a set of functionally equivalent services. In this paper we define a Colored Petri Net (CPN) model which involves transactional properties of web services in the composition process. To ensure reliable and correct execution, unfolding processes of the CPN are followed. The execution of transactional composition Web service (TCWS) is formalized by CPN properties. To identify the best services of QoS properties from candidate service sets formed in the TCSW-CPN, we use skyline computation to retrieve dominant Web service. It can overcome that the reduction of individual scores to an overall similarity leads to significant information loss. We evaluate our approach experimentally using both real and synthetically generated datasets.

  15. Insect models of illumination-invariant skyline extraction from UV and green channels.

    PubMed

    Differt, Dario; Möller, Ralf

    2015-09-07

    Experiments have shown that the skyline is an important visual cue for navigating insects. However, the comparison between two snapshots collected at different times of day is a complex task due to possible illumination changes. In this study we examine whether the information from two different color channels (UV and green, which are also available for many insects) can be used to obtain an illumination-invariant separation between the sky and ground. We collected UV and green images of seven different scenes over entire days, in which natural and artificial objects are visible in front of the sky. With the collected data we want to find answers to the following two questions: 'Does UV/green contrast vision increase the quality of separation compared to UV-only vision?' and 'What yields a better performance: separation methods based on a fixed threshold (global separation techniques) or separation methods which adapt the threshold dependent on the input image (local separation techniques)?' We implemented several linear separation techniques and found that UV/green contrast only marginally increases the quality of global separation in comparison to UV-only, and that local separation techniques are superior to global separation techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reduction of Gun Erosion and Correlation of Gun Erosion Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, Dave; Wercinski, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Gun barrel erosion is serious problem with two-stage light gas guns. Excessive barrel erosion can lead to poor or failed launches and frequent barrel changes, with the corresponding down time. Also, excessive barrel erosion can limit the maximum velocity obtainable by loading down the hydrogen working gas with eroded barrel material. Guided by a CFD code, the operating conditions of the Ames 0.5-inch gun were modified to reduce barrel erosion. The changes implemented included: (1) reduction in the piston mass, powder mass and hydrogen fill pressure; and (2) reduction in pump tube volume, while maintaining hydrogen mass. The latter change was found, in particular, to greatly reduce barrel erosion. For muzzle velocity ranges of 6.1 - 6.9 km/sec, the barrel erosion was reduced by a factor of 10. Even for the higher muzzle velocity range of 7.0 - 8.2 km/sec, the barrel erosion was reduced by a factor of 4. Gun erosion data from the Ames 0.5-inch, 1.0-inch, and 1.5-inch guns operated over a wide variety of launch conditions was examined and it was found that this data could be correlated using four different parameters: normalized powder charge energy, normalized hydrogen energy density, normalized pump tube volume and barrel diameter. The development of the correlation and the steps used to collapse the experimental data are presented. Over a certain parameter range in the correlation developed, the barrel erosion per shot is found to increase very rapidly. The correlation should prove useful in the selection of gun operating conditions and the design of new guns. Representative shapes of eroded gun barrels are also presented.

  17. Reduction of Gun Erosion and Correlation of Gun Erosion Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, Dave; Wercinski, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Gun barrel erosion is serious problem with two-stage light gas guns. Excessive barrel erosion can lead to poor or failed launches and frequent barrel changes, with the corresponding down time. Also, excessive barrel erosion can limit the maximum velocity obtainable by loading down the hydrogen working gas with eroded barrel material. Guided by a CFD code, the operating conditions of the Ames 0.5-inch gun were modified to reduce barrel erosion. The changes implemented included: (1) reduction in the piston mass, powder mass and hydrogen fill pressure; and (2) reduction in pump tube volume, while maintaining hydrogen mass. The latter change was found, in particular, to greatly reduce barrel erosion. For muzzle velocity ranges of 6.1 - 6.9 km/sec, the barrel erosion was reduced by a factor of 10. Even for the higher muzzle velocity range of 7.0 - 8.2 km/sec, the barrel erosion was reduced by a factor of 4. Gun erosion data from the Ames 0.5-inch, 1.0-inch, and 1.5-inch guns operated over a wide variety of launch conditions was examined and it was found that this data could be correlated using four different parameters: normalized powder charge energy, normalized hydrogen energy density, normalized pump tube volume and barrel diameter. The development of the correlation and the steps used to collapse the experimental data are presented. Over a certain parameter range in the correlation developed, the barrel erosion per shot is found to increase very rapidly. The correlation should prove useful in the selection of gun operating conditions and the design of new guns. Representative shapes of eroded gun barrels are also presented.

  18. Gun ownership and counseling of Alabama pediatricians.

    PubMed

    Fargason, C A; Johnston, C

    1995-04-01

    To examine the personal behavior of primary care pediatricians in Alabama with respect to a gun control policy. The American Academy of Pediatrics supports removal of handguns from homes, safe gun storage in homes with guns, and counseling patients about gun safety practices. Survey. Primary care pediatricians. Population-based sample. None. The proportion of pediatricians who were gun and handgun owners was examined. In addition, the safety behaviors and counseling practices reported by pediatricians were examined. The response rate for pediatricians was 67%. Fifty percent of pediatricians reported owning a gun. Thirty-four percent of pediatricians had a handgun in their household. Eleven percent of pediatricians had unsafe gun practices, where unsafe was defined as having a loaded gun in the home or car at least some of the time. The most common reason for owning a handgun or having a loaded gun in the home or car was personal protection. Only a third (33%) of pediatricians routinely counseled their patients about gun safety. Long gun owners were less likely to counsel patients about bike helmet safety and were less likely to use car seats and bike helmets for their own children. A large proportion of Alabama pediatricians are gun owners, but most store weapons safely. Although long gun owners were less likely to use car seats or bike helmets and less likely to counsel patients regarding bike helmet use, no effect of gun ownership on counseling about gun safety was identified.

  19. Temporal association between federal gun laws and the diversion of guns to criminals in Milwaukee.

    PubMed

    Webster, Daniel W; Vernick, Jon S; Bulzacchelli, Maria T; Vittes, Katherine A

    2012-02-01

    The practices of licensed gun dealers can threaten the safety of urban residents by facilitating the diversion of guns to criminals. In 2003, changes to federal law shielded gun dealers from the release of gun trace data and provided other protections to gun dealers. The 14-month period during which the dealer did not sell junk guns was associated with a 68% reduction in the diversion of guns to criminals within a year of sale by the dealer and a 43% increase in guns diverted to criminals following sales by other dealers. The laws were associated with a 203% increase in the number of guns diverted to criminals within a year of sale by the gun store, which was the focus of this study. Policies which affect gun dealer accountability appeared to influence the diversion of guns to criminals.

  20. LX-04 Violence Measurments: Steven Tests Impacted By Projectiles Shot From A Howitzer Gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidester, Steven K.

    2005-07-01

    Characterization of the reaction violence of LX-04 explosive (85% HMX and 15% Viton by weight) was obtained from Steven Impact Tests performed above the reaction initiation threshold. A 155 mm Howitzer propellant driven gas gun was used to accelerate the Steven Test projectiles in the range of approximately 150-300 m/s to react (ignite) the LX-04 explosive. Blast overpressure gauges, acoustic microphones, and high-speed photography characterized the level of high explosive reaction violence. A detonation in this velocity range was not observed and when comparing these results (and the Susan test results) with that of other HMX based explosives, LX-04 has a more gradual reaction violence slope as the impact velocity increases. The high binder content (15%) of the LX-04 explosive is believed to be the key factor to the lower level of violence. This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  1. The polarized SRF gun experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kewisch,J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Rao, T.; Burrill, A.; Pate, D.; Todd, R.; Wang, E.; Bluem, H.; Holmes, D.; Shultheiss, T.

    2008-10-01

    An experiment is under way to prove the feasibility of a super-conducting RF gun for the production of polarized electrons. We report on the progress of the experiment and on simulations predicting the possibility of success.

  2. State Gun Law Environment and Youth Gun Carrying in the United States.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Ziming; Hemenway, David

    2015-11-01

    Gun violence and injuries pose a substantial threat to children and youth in the United States. Existing evidence points to the need for interventions and policies for keeping guns out of the hands of children and youth. (1) To examine the association between state gun law environment and youth gun carrying in the United States, and (2) to determine whether adult gun ownership mediates this association. This was a repeated cross-sectional observational study design with 3 years of data on youth gun carrying from US states. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey comprises data of representative samples of students in grades 9 to 12 from biennial years of 2007, 2009, and 2011. We hypothesized that states with more restrictive gun laws have lower rates of youth gun carrying, and this association is mediated by adult gun ownership. State gun law environment as measured by state gun law score. Youth gun carrying was defined as having carried a gun on at least 1 day during the 30 days before the survey. In the fully adjusted model, a 10-point increase in the state gun law score, which represented a more restrictive gun law environment, was associated with a 9% decrease in the odds of youth gun carrying (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.91 [95% CI, 0.86-0.96]). Adult gun ownership mediated the association between state gun law score and youth gun carrying (AOR, 0.94 [ 95% CI, 0.86-1.01], with 29% attenuation of the regression coefficient from -0.09 to -0.07 based on bootstrap resampling). More restrictive overall gun control policies are associated with a reduced likelihood of youth gun carrying. These findings are relevant to gun policy debates about the critical importance of strengthening overall gun law environment to prevent youth gun carrying.

  3. NASA-Ames vertical gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    A national facility, the NASA-Ames vertical gun range (AVGR) has an excellent reputation for revealing fundamental aspects of impact cratering that provide important constraints for planetary processes. The current logistics in accessing the AVGR, some of the past and ongoing experimental programs and their relevance, and the future role of this facility in planetary studies are reviewed. Publications resulting from experiments with the gun (1979 to 1984) are listed as well as the researchers and subjects studied.

  4. Machine Gun Liner Bond Strength

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    investigation does not constitute a complete analysis of liner failures in the M2 machine gun. The fact that two different liner-failure modes were...An order-of-magnitude estimate can be made of the bond strength in this case using a standard elastic analysis and some reasonable assumptions... analysis of the forces on the machine gun bullet, it was found that the measured bond strength was adequate to resist the reaction forces produced when

  5. NASA-Ames vertical gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, P. H.

    1984-01-01

    A national facility, the NASA-Ames vertical gun range (AVGR) has an excellent reputation for revealing fundamental aspects of impact cratering that provide important constraints for planetary processes. The current logistics in accessing the AVGR, some of the past and ongoing experimental programs and their relevance, and the future role of this facility in planetary studies are reviewed. Publications resulting from experiments with the gun (1979 to 1984) are listed as well as the researchers and subjects studied.

  6. The case for moderate gun control.

    PubMed

    DeGrazia, David

    2014-03-01

    In addressing the shape of appropriate gun policy, this essay assumes for the sake of discussion that there is a legal and moral right to private gun ownership. My thesis is that, against the background of this right, the most defensible policy approach in the United States would feature moderate gun control. The first section summarizes the American gun control status quo and characterizes what I call "moderate gun control." The next section states and rebuts six leading arguments against this general approach to gun policy. The section that follows presents a positive case for moderate gun control that emphasizes safety in the home and society as well as rights whose enforcement entails some limits or qualifications on the right to bear arms. A final section shows how the recommended gun regulations address legitimate purposes, rather than imposing arbitrary restrictions on gun rights, and offers concluding reflections.

  7. Large Bore Powder Gun Qualification (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Rabern, Donald A.; Valdiviez, Robert

    2012-04-02

    A Large Bore Powder Gun (LBPG) is being designed to enable experimentalists to characterize material behavior outside the capabilities of the NNSS JASPER and LANL TA-55 PF-4 guns. The combination of these three guns will create a capability to conduct impact experiments over a wide range of pressures and shock profiles. The Large Bore Powder Gun will be fielded at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) U1a Complex. The Complex is nearly 1000 ft below ground with dedicated drifts for testing, instrumentation, and post-shot entombment. To ensure the reliability, safety, and performance of the LBPG, a qualification plan has been established and documented here. Requirements for the LBPG have been established and documented in WE-14-TR-0065 U A, Large Bore Powder Gun Customer Requirements. The document includes the requirements for the physics experiments, the gun and confinement systems, and operations at NNSS. A detailed description of the requirements is established in that document and is referred to and quoted throughout this document. Two Gun and Confinement Systems will be fielded. The Prototype Gun will be used primarily to characterize the gun and confinement performance and be the primary platform for qualification actions. This gun will also be used to investigate and qualify target and diagnostic modifications through the life of the program (U1a.104 Drift). An identical gun, the Physics Gun, will be fielded for confirmatory and Pu experiments (U1a.102D Drift). Both guns will be qualified for operation. The Gun and Confinement System design will be qualified through analysis, inspection, and testing using the Prototype Gun for the majority of process. The Physics Gun will be qualified through inspection and a limited number of qualification tests to ensure performance and behavior equivalent to the Prototype gun. Figure 1.1 shows the partial configuration of U1a and the locations of the Prototype and Physics Gun/Confinement Systems.

  8. Gravity's Smoking Gun?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaztañaga, Enrique; Juszkiewicz, Roman

    2001-09-01

    We present a new constraint on the biased galaxy formation picture. Gravitational instability theory predicts that the two-point mass density correlation function, ξ(r), has an inflection point at the separation r=r0, corresponding to the boundary between the linear and nonlinear regime of clustering, ξ~=1. We show how this feature can be used to constrain the biasing parameter b2≡ξg(r)/ξ(r) on scales r~=r0, where ξg is the galaxy-galaxy correlation function, which is allowed to differ from ξ. We apply our method to real data: the ξg(r), estimated from the Automatic Plate Measuring (APM) galaxy survey. Our results suggest that the APM galaxies trace the mass at separations r>~5 h-1 Mpc, where h is the Hubble constant in units of 100 km s-1 Mpc-1. The present results agree with earlier studies, based on comparing higher order correlations in the APM with weakly nonlinear perturbation theory. Both approaches constrain the b factor to be within 20% of unity. If the existence of the feature that we identified in the APM ξg(r)-the inflection point near ξg=1-is confirmed by more accurate surveys, we may have discovered gravity's smoking gun: the long-awaited ``shoulder'' in ξ, predicted by Gott and Rees 25 years ago.

  9. Revisiting Pneumatic Nail Gun Trigger Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Albers, James; Lowe, Brian; Lipscomb, Hester; Hudock, Stephen; Dement, John; Evanoff, Bradley; Fullen, Mark; Gillen, Matt; Kaskutas, Vicki; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Platner, James; Pompeii, Lisa; Schoenfisch, Ashley

    2015-03-01

    Use of a pneumatic nail gun with a sequential actuation trigger (SAT) significantly diminishes the risk for acute traumatic injury compared to use of a contact actuation trigger (CAT) nail gun. A theoretically-based increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders from use of a SAT nail gun, relative to CAT, appears unlikely and remains unproven. Based on current knowledge, the use of CAT nail guns cannot be justified as a safe alternative to SAT nail guns. This letter provides a perspective of ergonomists and occupational safety researchers recommending the use of the sequential actuation trigger for all nail gun tasks in the construction industry.

  10. Revisiting Pneumatic Nail Gun Trigger Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Albers, James; Lipscomb, Hester; Hudock, Stephen; Dement, John; Evanoff, Bradley; Fullen, Mark; Gillen, Matt; Kaskutas, Vicki; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Platner, James; Pompeii, Lisa; Schoenfisch, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Summary Use of a pneumatic nail gun with a sequential actuation trigger (SAT) significantly diminishes the risk for acute traumatic injury compared to use of a contact actuation trigger (CAT) nail gun. A theoretically-based increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders from use of a SAT nail gun, relative to CAT, appears unlikely and remains unproven. Based on current knowledge, the use of CAT nail guns cannot be justified as a safe alternative to SAT nail guns. This letter provides a perspective of ergonomists and occupational safety researchers recommending the use of the sequential actuation trigger for all nail gun tasks in the construction industry. PMID:26366020

  11. Creativity under the gun.

    PubMed

    Amabile, Teresa M; Hadley, Constance N; Kramer, Steven J

    2002-08-01

    If you're like most managers, you've worked with people who swear they do their most creative work under tight deadlines. You may use pressure as a management technique, believing it will spur people on to great leaps of insight. You may even manage yourself this way. If so, are you right? Not necessarily, these researchers say. There are instances where ingenuity flourishes under extreme time pressure--for instance, a NASA team within hours comes up with a primitive but effective fix for the failing air filtration system aboard Apollo 13. But when creativity is under the gun, it usually ends up getting killed, the authors say. They recently took a close look at how people experience time pressure, collecting and analyzing more than 9,000 daily diary entries from individuals who were working on projects that required high levels of creativity and measuring their ability to innovate under varying levels of time pressure. The authors describe common characteristics of time pressure and outline four working environments under which creativity may or may not flourish. High-pressure days that still yield creativity are full of focus and meaningful urgency--people feel like they are on a mission. High-pressure days that yield no creativity lack such focus--people feel like they are on a treadmill, forced to switch gears often. On low-pressure days that yield creativity, people feel like they are on an expedition--exploring ideas rather than just identifying problems. And on low-pressure days that yield no creative thinking, people work on autopilot--doing their jobs without engaging too deeply. Managers should avoid extreme time pressure when possible; after all, complex cognitive processing takes time. For when they can't, the authors suggest ways to mollify its effects.

  12. Switched power workshop. [Switched power electron guns

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the design of a switched power electron gun. Particular topics discussed are: vacuum photodiode switch; laser switched solid state diodes; gun performance; charging supply; and laser requirements. (LSP)

  13. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    DOEpatents

    Abbatiello, Leonard A.; Neal, Richard E.

    1978-01-01

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is provided. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun.

  14. Large Caliber Gun Tube Materials Systems Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-26

    gun tube environment and current gun tube materials, properties , dimensions, and fabrication methods will be reviewed, as well as the erosion test...for a tank gun is shown in Figure 1. Any materials system can be examined in terms of PROCESSING! MANUFACTURING, STRUCTURE/COMPOSITION, PROPERTIES ...part of gun materials systems design. The list of required and desired properties is long, and a material that satisfies the list completely does not

  15. Hydrogen Embrittlement of Gun Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    8217s HY80 and HY130 steels were checked for the critical hydrogen concentrations which were determined to be 6 ppm for HY8O steel 8 and 3 ppm for HY130...JOTC FILE COPY AD-A188 972 AD 1 TECHNICAL REPORT ARCCB-TR-87030 HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT OF GUN STEEL F’ GERALD L. SPFNCER DTIC DEC 1 5 1987 NOVEMBER...PtEtIOC COVERED HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEHENT OF GUN STEEL Final OG EOTNME 6. PERFORMINGORO EOTNME 7. A*JTNOR(s) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(&) Gerald L

  16. High brightness picosecond electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Merano, M.; Collin, S.; Renucci, P.; Gatri, M.; Sonderegger, S.; Crottini, A.; Ganiere, J.D.; Deveaud, B.

    2005-08-15

    We have developed a high brightness picosecond electron gun. We have used it to replace the thermionic electron gun of a commercial scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to perform time-resolved cathodoluminescence experiments. Picosecond electron pulses are produced, at a repetition rate of 80.7 MHz, by femtosecond mode-locked laser pulses focused on a metal photocathode. This system has a normalized axial brightness of 93 A/cm{sup 2} sr kV, allowing for a spatial resolution of 50 nm in the secondary electron imaging mode of the SEM. The temporal width of the electron pulse is 12 ps.

  17. Erosion in Large Gun Barrels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    AD-A017-104 EROSION IN LARGE GUN BARRELS National Materials Advisory Board (NAS-NAE) Washington, D. C. 1975 i OD O i...KCEUMk MO Erosion in Large Quo Barrels « »CIIPOMMIHO 0»C MK»0"T NUMK* • COWtWACT OM GHAnT NUMIEIV.I •UTH. National Materials Advisory...Ad Hoc Committee on Gun Tube Erosion MDA903-74-C-0167 — • PCMFOMMIMG 0*)0AMIIAT|©M H «Ml AMD AOO«eSS National Materials Advisory Board

  18. Unintentional Gun Deaths among Children. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Children are at risk of being killed or injured by a gun if their parents own a gun because many guns obtained for self-defense are kept loaded and within reach of children. This brief fact sheet presents statistical information relating to accidental deaths involving young people and firearms. Safety measures are suggested for preventing…

  19. Use of Electroplated Chromium in Gun Barrels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Temperature; oF S t r e s s R e t a i n e d ; % 50% swage 75% swage Residual stress retained following 2 hr furnace heating of 120mm M256 gun barrels... Swage Autofrettage LARGE CALIBER GUN BARREL STRENGTH Coating Process Temperature Limitations Autofrettage allows gun barrels to be lighter and

  20. Guns in Schools. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Common reasons that young people choose to carry firearms outside of school--protection, intimidation of others, or to be like their peers--are the same reasons they carry guns into the school. This fact sheet presents statistics regarding the prevalence of firearms amongst students in American schools, including: shooting fatalities and woundings…

  1. High pressure paint gun injuries.

    PubMed

    Booth, C M

    1977-11-19

    Despite their use for the past 20 years the dangers of injuries from high pressure paint guns are not widely known. Two cases treated incorrectly through ignorance in our casualty department resulted in amputation of digits. Paint solvents are far moe damaging than paint of grease injection. All cases should be treated urgently by an experienced surgeon as fairly extensive surgery may be needed.

  2. Interior Ballistics of Recoilless Guns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-09-08

    PROCEDURE 14. Calculation of pressure -travel and velocity-travel curves ........................................... 17 PART IV. CHAPACTERISTICS OF...of a recoilless gun .............. 2 2. Comparison betw,:een pressure -travel curve calculated by the methods of this report and that obtained by...numerical integration ............................. 23 3. Theoretical pressure -travel and velocity-travel curves for the German 7.5-cm Leichtes Geschltz

  3. Developments in electron gun simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1994-05-01

    This paper will discuss the developments in the electron gun simulation programs that are based on EGUN and its derivatives and supporting programs. Much of the code development has been inspired by technology changes in computer hardware; the implications on EGN2 of this evolution will be discussed. Some examples and a review of the capabilities of the EGUN family will be described.

  4. The costs of gun violence against children.

    PubMed

    Cook, Philip J; Ludwig, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Gun violence imposes significant costs on children, families, and American society as a whole. But these costs can be difficult to quantify, as much of the burden of gun violence results from intangible concerns about injury and death. This article explores several methods for estimating the costs of gun violence. One method is to assess how much Americans would be willing to pay to reduce the risk of gun violence. The authors use this "willingness-to-pay" framework to estimate the total costs of gun violence. Their approach yields the following lessons: Although gun violence has a disproportionate impact on the poor, it imposes costs on the entire socioeconomic spectrum through increased taxes, decreased property values, limits on choices of where to live and visit, and safety concerns. Most of the costs of gun violence--especially violence against children--result from concerns about safety. These are not captured by the traditional public health approach to estimating costs, which focuses on medical expenses and lost earnings. When people in a national survey were asked about their willingness to pay for reductions in gun violence, their answers suggested that the costs of gun violence are approximately $100 billion per year, of which at least $15 billion is directly attributable to gun violence against youth. The authors note that in light of the substantial costs of gun violence, even modestly effective regulatory and other interventions may generate benefits to society that exceed costs.

  5. RF Design of the LCLS Gun

    SciTech Connect

    Limborg-Deprey, C

    2010-12-13

    Final dimensions for the LCLS RF gun are described. This gun, referred to as the LCLS gun, is a modified version of the UCLA/BNL/SLAC 1.6 cell S-Band RF gun [1], referred to as the prototype gun. The changes include a larger mode separation (15 MHz for the LCLS gun vs. 3.5 MHz for the prototype gun), a larger radius at the iris between the 2 cells, a reduced surface field on the curvature of the iris between the two cells, Z power coupling, increased cooling channels for operation at 120 Hz, dual rf feed, deformation tuning of the full cell, and field probes in both cells. Temporal shaping of the klystron pulse, to reduce the average power dissipated in the gun, has also been adopted. By increasing the mode separation, the amplitude of the 0-mode electric field on the cathode decreases from 10% of the peak on axis field for the prototype gun to less than 3% for the LCLS gun for the steady state fields. Beam performance is improved as shown by the PARMELA simulations. The gun should be designed to accept a future load lock system. Modifications follow the recommendations of our RF review committee [2]. Files and reference documents are compiled in Section IV.

  6. Gun carrying by high school students in Boston, MA: does overestimation of peer gun carrying matter?

    PubMed

    Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah

    2011-10-01

    This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1,700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a gun, 9% of boys and 2% of girls. Students substantially overestimated the percentage of their peers who carried guns; the likelihood that a respondent carried a gun was strongly associated with their perception of the level of peer gun carrying. Most respondents believed it was easier for other youth to obtain guns than it was for them. Social marketing campaigns designed to lower young people's perceptions about the prevalence of peer gun carrying may be a promising strategy for reducing actual gun carrying among youth. Copyright © 2010 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A gasdynamic gun driven by gaseous detonation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinping; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Shizhong; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Yu, Hongru

    2016-01-01

    A gasdynamic gun driven by gaseous detonation was developed to address the disadvantages of the insufficient driving capability of high-pressure gas and the constraints of gunpowder. The performance of this gasdynamic gun was investigated through experiments and numerical simulations. Much more powerful launching capability was achieved by this gun relative to a conventional high-pressure gas gun, owing to the use of the chemical energy of the driver gas. To achieve the same launching condition, the initial pressure required for this gun was an order of magnitude lower than that for a gun driven by high-pressure H2. Because of the presence of the detonation, however, a more complex internal ballistic process of this gun was observed. Acceleration of projectiles for this gun was accompanied by a series of impulse loads, in contrast with the smooth acceleration for a conventional one, which indicates that this gun should be used conditionally. The practical feasibility of this gun was verified by experiments. The experiments demonstrated the convenience of taking advantage of the techniques developed for detonation-driven shock tubes and tunnels.

  8. Public opinion about guns in the home

    PubMed Central

    Kellermann, A.; Fuqua-Whitley, D.; Sampson, T.; Lindenmann, W.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—(1) Determine the frequency of gun ownership, acquisition, and transfer; (2) assess gun storage practices; and (3) compare the views of firearm owning and non-owning adults regarding the protective value of keeping a gun in the home. Setting and methods—Over three different time periods (1995, 1996, and 1999) stratified, random digit telephone surveys were conducted in a five county area of metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. Five hundred adults (aged 21+ years) responded to each survey. Results—The proportion of Atlanta area households reporting firearm ownership was generally stable over this interval (38%, 40%, and 35% respectively). The percentage of gun owning households containing a handgun (approximately 75%) was stable as well. In 1995, more than half of gun owning households kept one or more guns unlocked; since that time, the trend has been gradually downward. In 1995, 44% of gun owning respondents kept one or more guns loaded, compared with 38% in 1996 and 40% in 1999. A majority of respondents to all three surveys (55%) agreed with the statement "A home with a gun is less secure than a home without a gun, because a gun can be involved in an accidental shooting, suicide or family homicide". Among five home security measures, respondents rated a burglar alarm most effective, and keeping a gun in the home least effective. Conclusions—In Atlanta, many households keep a firearm for protection, but they are ambivalent about the associated risks. These findings suggest that education about gun safety should include a discussion of the risks of unsafe storage, and non-lethal alternatives for home security. PMID:11003183

  9. Effects of a Gun Dealer's Change in Sales Practices on the Supply of Guns to Criminals

    PubMed Central

    Vernick, Jon S.; Bulzacchelli, Maria T.

    2006-01-01

    Licensed gun dealers are a major conduit for gun trafficking. Prior to May 1999, a single gun store sold more than half of the guns recovered from criminals in Milwaukee, WI, shortly following retail sale. On May 10, 1999, the store stopped selling small, inexpensive handguns popular with criminals, often called “Saturday night specials.” The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of this gun store's changed sales practices on criminals' acquisition of new guns. We used an interrupted time-series design with comparisons to test for changes in the number of guns that police recovered from criminals within a year of retail sale following the gun dealer's new sales policy. The dealer's changed sales policy was associated with a 96% decrease in recently sold, small, inexpensive handguns use in crime in Milwaukee, a 73% decrease in crime guns recently sold by this dealer, and a 44% decrease in the flow of all new, trafficked guns to criminals in Milwaukee. The findings demonstrate the substantial impact that a single gun store's sales practices can have on the supply of new guns to criminals. Proposed anti-gun-trafficking efforts in other cities could benefit from targeting problem retail outlets. PMID:16937085

  10. Effects of a gun dealer's change in sales practices on the supply of guns to criminals.

    PubMed

    Webster, Daniel W; Vernick, Jon S; Bulzacchelli, Maria T

    2006-09-01

    Licensed gun dealers are a major conduit for gun trafficking. Prior to May 1999, a single gun store sold more than half of the guns recovered from criminals in Milwaukee, WI, shortly following retail sale. On May 10, 1999, the store stopped selling small, inexpensive handguns popular with criminals, often called "Saturday night specials." The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of this gun store's changed sales practices on criminals' acquisition of new guns. We used an interrupted time-series design with comparisons to test for changes in the number of guns that police recovered from criminals within a year of retail sale following the gun dealer's new sales policy. The dealer's changed sales policy was associated with a 96% decrease in recently sold, small, inexpensive handguns use in crime in Milwaukee, a 73% decrease in crime guns recently sold by this dealer, and a 44% decrease in the flow of all new, trafficked guns to criminals in Milwaukee. The findings demonstrate the substantial impact that a single gun store's sales practices can have on the supply of new guns to criminals. Proposed anti-gun-trafficking efforts in other cities could benefit from targeting problem retail outlets.

  11. Effects of Exposure to Gun Violence in Movies on Children's Interest in Real Guns.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Kelly P; Bushman, Brad J

    2017-09-25

    More US children die by accidental gun use than children in other developed countries. One factor that can influence children's interest in guns is exposure to media containing guns. To test whether children who see a movie containing guns will handle a real gun longer and will pull the trigger more times than children who see the same movie not containing guns. One hundred four children aged 8 to 12 years recruited through advertisements were randomly assigned in pairs to watch a 20-minute PG-rated movie containing or not containing guns in a university laboratory. Children then played with toys and games in a room for 20 minutes while being video recorded. A cabinet in the room contained a real (disabled) gun with a sensor counting trigger pulls. Recordings were coded for the time spent holding the gun and in aggressive play. Data were collected from July 15, 2015, through January 1, 2016, and analyzed using generalized estimating equations (Tweedie log-link for time spent holding the gun; Poisson log-link for pulling the trigger). The 2 main outcomes were time spent holding the gun and the number of trigger pulls. Control variables included sex, age, trait aggressiveness, exposure to violent media, interest in guns, and number of guns at home. Among the 104 study participants (62 boys [59.6%] and 42 girls [40.4%]; mean (SD) age, 9.9 [1.5] years), the adjusted median number of trigger pulls among children who saw the movie containing guns was 2.8 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.2-2.8) compared with 0.01 (IQR, 0.01-0.2) among children who saw the movie not containing guns (adjusted odds ratio, 22.3; 95% CI, 6.0-83.4; P < .001). The adjusted median number of seconds spent holding the gun among children who saw a movie containing guns was 53.1 (IQR, 35.5-53.1) compared with 11.1 (IQR, 10.7-16.7) among children who saw the movie not containing guns (adjusted odds ratio, 3.0; 95% CI, 0.9-9.9; P = .07). Qualitative analyses on 4 pairs from each condition found

  12. Vertical Gun Test Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-18

    phosphate (TBP) as a chemical agent simulant in a maximum of six vertical gun experiments to be conducted at the Energetic Materials Research and... phosphate . Using either of Ka-Bandprocess, with 2 these two substances would not achieve the test objectives of realistically simulating the threat. In...resources, geology and soils , hazardous materials and hazardous waste, health and safety, land use, noise, socioeconomics and environmental justice

  13. High pressure paint gun injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Booth, C M

    1977-01-01

    Despite their use for the past 20 years the dangers of injuries from high pressure paint guns are not widely known. Two cases treated incorrectly through ignorance in our casualty department resulted in amputation of digits. Paint solvents are far moe damaging than paint of grease injection. All cases should be treated urgently by an experienced surgeon as fairly extensive surgery may be needed. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:589172

  14. Study of the Bistatic Radar Cross Section of a 155-mm Artillery Round

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    models. The radar cross section (RCS) calculations are performed by 2 different methods, implemented by the FEKO and AFDTD electromagnetic simulation...including that of a monostatic radar system. 15. SUBJECT TERMS computational electromagnetics , radar signature, bistatic radar, radar cross...of rockets, artillery, and mortar. The electromagnetic (EM) modeling team at the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) is contributing to these efforts

  15. Squeeze Casting 81mm M374 Mortar Body and 155mm M483 Projectile Body Preform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    exclu- sively H13 die steel. This material is moderately strong at high temperatures and resists thermal fatigue sufficiently to combat the high...high surface temperatures from con- tact with the molten steel require inserts of tungsten- or molybdenum-base materials. The H13 punch for the...materials for select- ed areas of the punch would considerably alleviate this problem. In order to minimize the thermal shock, the dies are preheated

  16. Experimental Study of Flamespreading Processes in 155-mm, XM216 Modular Propelling Charges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    placed on the films to aid in correlation of the film data with other data. Flash radiography was used to monitor the behavior of the solid phase during...Research P. 0. Box 400 Laboratory, Inc. Buffalo , NY 14225-0400 ATTN: M. Summerfield 475 US Highway One General Electric Company Monmouth Junction, NJ 08852

  17. Integrated Artillery Recoil Mechanism and Automated Handling Design for 155mm Self-Propelled Howitzer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    4E -TR/4+ 15/6󈧑~7I-"~ ;4 S -rs -.X×_ oAJ Tkt C,e,,Q.A 7P4, .IT_ c-: J/ L. , u P r’ 51DE t, I E/f"--" o s OD:-44 ~tj i J i ,), Lo--{., T_( EUQ P...1005 L/eCA)EP7 OFf TIE 77fE7) C-tA JbEL .1 CtOC //J 177I *5c0(YZkT CI±4/W,3CL. 10 )Y t VA)T, Y6E oP77omom4 ",tm" LI 0FThE_ ’AMMEK $ ( Ut) JLL HAUJC TD

  18. XM982 155-mm Artillery Projectile Container Support System: Finite-Element Model Development and Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    R PETERSON CODE 2020 M CRITCHFIELD CODE 1730 BETHESDA MD 20084 8 DIRECTOR US ARMY NGIC D LEITER MS 404 M HOLTUS MS 301 M WOLFE ...8500 NORMANDALE LAKE BLVD SUITE 1610 BLOOMINGTON MN 55437-3828 1 UCLA MANE DEPT ENGR IV H T HAHN LOS ANGELES CA 90024-1597 1...SPAGNUOLO S WALSH S WOLF AMSRD ARL WM RP J BORNSTEIN C SHOEMAKER AMSRD ARL WM T B BURNS AMSRD ARL WM TA W BRUCHEY M

  19. Fragment Hazard Investigation Program: Natural Communication Detonation of 155-mm Projectiles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    an accurate representa- S - tion of the percentage of hazardous fragments as a function of range. A good fit to thesO data Is provided by K k i;• vPH ...projected on a sphere equal to the radius of the recovery media, is divided into the total surface area of the polar zone. This ratio yields a zone factor

  20. Monolithic High Strength Aluminum Bottom Carriage Structure for 155mm Howitzer, XM198

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-05-01

    increased the estimated cost by $6,305.00, extended the delivery schedule, 2 ś~* , and deleted the draft copy of the final technical report. Re- manufacture...1.0IN.STEEL 4LL 00 /-2.00 IN. STEEL CHILL 4 : T 3.00IN. GMRY IRON C U- ’\\,?00R0-, .4S* 0 VPS1 : 5 - - (,,-t.,e _ _, / ’ ___C_______ ’Tip 0B - /, W\\IS Fmv

  1. X-Band RF Gun Development

    SciTech Connect

    Vlieks, Arnold; Dolgashev, Valery; Tantawi, Sami; Anderson, Scott; Hartemann, Fred; Marsh, Roark; /LLNL, Livermore

    2012-06-22

    In support of the MEGa-ray program at LLNL and the High Gradient research program at SLAC, a new X-band multi-cell RF gun is being developed. This gun, similar to earlier guns developed at SLAC for Compton X-ray source program, will be a standing wave structure made of 5.5 cells operating in the pi mode with copper cathode. This gun was designed following criteria used to build SLAC X-band high gradient accelerating structures. It is anticipated that this gun will operate with surface electric fields on the cathode of 200 MeV/m with low breakdown rate. RF will be coupled into the structure through a final cell with symmetric duel feeds and with a shape optimized to minimize quadrupole field components. In addition, geometry changes to the original gun, operated with Compton X-ray source, will include a wider RF mode separation, reduced surface electric and magnetic fields.

  2. Design Considerations for the LCLS RF Gun

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, R.

    2005-01-31

    The LCLS rf gun design requires several modifications from existing S-band rf guns. The modifications that have the largest impact on the design of the gun are a dual rf feed and additional cooling capacity for 120 Hz operation. A list of electrical and mechanical specifications have been developed to produce the desired rf field. The simulation code ANSYS was used to study the steady state thermal properties of a 120 Hz gun. It was determined that four cooling channels at appropriate locations could be used to maintain the gun at a nearly constant frequency. The gun body stresses were all at or below the yield strength of Cu except for at the rf apertures. The stress at the apertures is over twice the yield strength and additional work is necessary to reduce the stress and still produce the desired rf coupling coefficient. Only steady state temperatures were calculated and no pulsed heating effects were considered in this study.

  3. A Two-Frequency RF Photocathode Gun

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, D.

    2004-11-05

    In this paper we resurrect an idea originally proposed by Serafini[1] in 1992 for an RF photocathode gun capable of operating simultaneously at the fundamental frequency and a higher frequency harmonic. Driving the gun at two frequencies with the proper field ratio and relative phase produces a beam with essentially no rf emittance and a linear longitudinal phase space distribution. Such a gun allows a completely new range of operating parameters for controlling space charge emittance growth. In addition, the linear longitudinal phase space distribution aids in bunch compression. This paper will compare results of simulations for the two-frequency gun with the standard rf gun, and the unique properties of the two-frequency gun will be discussed.

  4. Racism, gun ownership and gun control: biased attitudes in US whites may influence policy decisions.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kerry; Forrest, Walter; Lynott, Dermot; Daly, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty). This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US whites. Explanatory variables known to be related to gun ownership and gun control opposition (i.e., age, gender, education, income, conservatism, anti-government sentiment, southern vs. other states, political identification) were entered in logistic regression models, along with measures of racism, and the stereotype of blacks as violent. Outcome variables included; having a gun in the home, opposition to bans on handguns in the home, support for permits to carry concealed handguns. After accounting for all explanatory variables, logistic regressions found that for each 1 point increase in symbolic racism there was a 50% increase in the odds of having a gun at home. After also accounting for having a gun in the home, there was still a 28% increase in support for permits to carry concealed handguns, for each one point increase in symbolic racism. The relationship between symbolic racism and opposition to banning handguns in the home (OR1.27 CI 1.03,1.58) was reduced to non-significant after accounting for having a gun in the home (OR1.17 CI.94,1.46), which likely represents self-interest in retaining property (guns). Symbolic racism was related to having a gun in the home and opposition to gun control policies in US whites. The findings help explain US whites' paradoxical attitudes towards gun ownership and gun control. Such attitudes may adversely influence US gun control policy debates and decisions.

  5. Racism, Gun Ownership and Gun Control: Biased Attitudes in US Whites May Influence Policy Decisions

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Kerry; Forrest, Walter; Lynott, Dermot; Daly, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Objective Racism is related to policies preferences and behaviors that adversely affect blacks and appear related to a fear of blacks (e.g., increased policing, death penalty). This study examined whether racism is also related to gun ownership and opposition to gun controls in US whites. Method The most recent data from the American National Election Study, a large representative US sample, was used to test relationships between racism, gun ownership, and opposition to gun control in US whites. Explanatory variables known to be related to gun ownership and gun control opposition (i.e., age, gender, education, income, conservatism, anti-government sentiment, southern vs. other states, political identification) were entered in logistic regression models, along with measures of racism, and the stereotype of blacks as violent. Outcome variables included; having a gun in the home, opposition to bans on handguns in the home, support for permits to carry concealed handguns. Results After accounting for all explanatory variables, logistic regressions found that for each 1 point increase in symbolic racism there was a 50% increase in the odds of having a gun at home. After also accounting for having a gun in the home, there was still a 28% increase in support for permits to carry concealed handguns, for each one point increase in symbolic racism. The relationship between symbolic racism and opposition to banning handguns in the home (OR1.27 CI 1.03,1.58) was reduced to non-significant after accounting for having a gun in the home (OR1.17 CI.94,1.46), which likely represents self-interest in retaining property (guns). Conclusions Symbolic racism was related to having a gun in the home and opposition to gun control policies in US whites. The findings help explain US whites’ paradoxical attitudes towards gun ownership and gun control. Such attitudes may adversely influence US gun control policy debates and decisions. PMID:24204867

  6. Improved Orifice Plate for Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, W.

    1986-01-01

    Erratic spray pattern of commercial spray gun changed to repeatable one by simple redesign of two parts. In modified spray gun orifice plate and polytetrafluoroethylene bushing redesigned to assure centering and alignment with nozzle. Such improvement useful in many industrial applications requiring repeatable spray patterns. Might include spraying of foam insulation, paint, other protective coatings, detergents, abrasives, adhesives, process chemicals, or fuels. Unmodified spray gun produces erratic spray because lateral misalignment between orifice plate and nozzle.

  7. The polarized electron gun for the SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, D.C.; Clendenin, J.; Frisch, J.; Hoyt, E.; Klaisner, L.; Woods, M.; Wright, D.; Zolotorev, M.

    1992-03-01

    A new polarized electron gun for use on the SLC at SLAC has been built and tested. It is a diode gun with a laser driven GaAs photocathode. It is designed to provide short (2ns) pulses of 10 A at 160 kV at 120 Hz. The design features of the gun and results from a testing program on a new and dedicated beam line are presented. Early results from operation on the SLC will also be shown.

  8. Performance Calculations and Optimization of Gas Guns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    Covolume . D Inside diameter. E Internal energy of driver gas in control volume. g Initial (maximum) projectile acceleration. G Mass of driver gas...Degrees of freedom of driver gas. P Gas pressure . R Gas constant. t Time. T Gas temperature. u Gas Velocity. u p Projectile Mach number based on initial...guns operating at low- pressures are used. These guns are located in fixed length rooms. The characteristics of the guns must be known to configure

  9. Improved Orifice Plate for Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, W.

    1986-01-01

    Erratic spray pattern of commercial spray gun changed to repeatable one by simple redesign of two parts. In modified spray gun orifice plate and polytetrafluoroethylene bushing redesigned to assure centering and alignment with nozzle. Such improvement useful in many industrial applications requiring repeatable spray patterns. Might include spraying of foam insulation, paint, other protective coatings, detergents, abrasives, adhesives, process chemicals, or fuels. Unmodified spray gun produces erratic spray because lateral misalignment between orifice plate and nozzle.

  10. Health and Gun Violence. Guns as a Public-Health Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Victoria

    1994-01-01

    Violence in all settings has reached epidemic proportions. Most shootings are committed by friends or relatives following an argument or when playing with guns. The public needs education about nonviolent ways of coping with anger and about the high cost of gun violence. Suggestions for avoiding gun violence and the PTA position on firearms are…

  11. Conceptual Design for CLIC Gun Pulser

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Tao

    2016-01-08

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a proposed future electron-positron collider, designed to perform collisions at energies from 0.5 to 5 TeV, with a nominal design optimized for 3 TeV (Dannheim, 2012). The Drive Beam Accelerator consists of a thermionic DC gun, bunching section and an accelerating section. The thermionic gun needs deliver a long (~143us) pulse of current into the buncher. A pulser is needed to drive grid of the gun to generate a stable current output. This report explores the requirements of the gun pulser and potential solutions to regulate grid current.

  12. Community gun safety in Central Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Wargo, Christina; Erdman, Deborah A; Smith, Jill Gray; Widom, Kenneth; Reardon, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Firearm-related injuries are a public health issue in the United States. In rural Pennsylvania, it is a familiar way of life to have a gun or guns in the home. Safety behaviors along with gun storage in the home, specifically where there are young children (aged 6 years and younger), are a concern for this level I regional resource center in rural Pennsylvania. Head Start families were surveyed regarding gun safety habits before and after safety educational activities. A noteworthy number of families reported changing behaviors regarding better safety habits for storing and use of firearms in the home postsurvey.

  13. Optimization of gun parameters for a pulsed power electron gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Smedley, J.; Batchelor, K.; Farrell, J. P.; Dudnikova, G.

    1999-07-01

    Extensive simulation work has been done to identify the optimal parameters for a pulsed power electron gun. PBGUNS, an electrostatic beam optics code, was used to optimize the electrode shape and the beam spatial distribution, including modeling the focusing effect of a curved cathode surface. MAFIA, a particle-in-a-cell code, was used to investigate those aspects that required time dependence, such as longitudinal energy spread. The range of agreement between the two codes was also investigated. The transverse phase space at a comparison plane was found to be very close (within 1% at low currents and 4% for higher currents), even for bunch lengths shorter than the gap transit time.

  14. Optimization of gun parameters for a pulsed power electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Smedley, J.; Batchelor, K.; Farrell, J. P.; Dudnikova, G.

    1999-07-12

    Extensive simulation work has been done to identify the optimal parameters for a pulsed power electron gun. PBGUNS, an electrostatic beam optics code, was used to optimize the electrode shape and the beam spatial distribution, including modeling the focusing effect of a curved cathode surface. MAFIA, a particle-in-a-cell code, was used to investigate those aspects that required time dependence, such as longitudinal energy spread. The range of agreement between the two codes was also investigated. The transverse phase space at a comparison plane was found to be very close (within 1% at low currents and 4% for higher currents), even for bunch lengths shorter than the gap transit time.

  15. Optimization of gun parameters for a pulsed power electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Srvinivasan-Rao, T.; Smedley, J.; Batchelor, K.; Farrell, J.P.; Dudnikova, G.

    1998-07-01

    Extensive simulation work has been done to identify the optimal parameters for a pulsed power electron gun. PBGUNS, an electrostatic beam optics code, was used to optimize the electrode shape and the beam spatial distribution, including modeling the focusing effect of a curved cathode surface. MAFIA, a particle-in-a-cell code, was used to investigate those aspects that required time dependence, such as longitudinal energy spread. The range of agreement between the two codes was also investigated. The transverse phase space at a comparison plane was found to be very close (within 1% at low currents and 4% for higher currents), even for bunch lengths shorter than the gap transit time.

  16. Gun shows across a multistate American gun market: observational evidence of the effects of regulatory policies.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J

    2007-06-01

    To describe gun shows and assess the impact of increased regulation on characteristics linked to their importance as sources of guns used in crime. Cross-sectional, observational. Data were collected at a structured sample of 28 gun shows in California, which regulates these events and prohibits undocumented private party gun sales; and in Arizona, Nevada, Texas and Florida-all leading sources of California's crime guns--where these restrictions do not exist. Size of shows, measured by numbers of gun vendors and people in attendance; number and nature of guns for sale by gun vendors; measures of private party gun sales and illegal surrogate ("straw") gun purchases. Shows in comparison states were larger, but the number of attendees per gun vendor was higher in California. None of these differences was statistically significant. Armed attendees were more common in other states (median 5.7%, interquartile range (IQR) 3.9-10.0%) than in California (median 1.1%, IQR 0.5-2.2%), p = 0.0007. Thirty percent of gun vendors both in California and elsewhere were identifiable as licensed firearm retailers. There were few differences in the types or numbers of guns offered for sale; vendors elsewhere were more likely to sell assault weapons (34.9% and 13.3%, respectively; p = 0.001). Straw purchases were more common in the comparison states (rate ratio 6.6 (95% CI 0.9 to 49.1), p = 0.06). California's regulatory policies were associated with a decreased incidence of anonymous, undocumented gun sales and illegal straw purchases at gun shows. No significant adverse effects of these policies were observed.

  17. From gun politics to self-defense politics: a feminist critique of the great gun debate.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Jennifer D

    2014-03-01

    This article calls attention to a problematic binary produced by public debates surrounding gun rights and gun control-namely, that women must choose armed self-protection or no self-protection at all. I argue that both anti- and pro-gun discourses, drawing on and reproducing race and class privileges, use assumptions about women's physical inferiority to further their agendas. I highlight how both sides have used guns as the proxy for self-defense and conclude by calling for a shift in public discourse to focus on the broader question of the right to self-defense rather than the narrower question of gun rights.

  18. Action alters object identification: wielding a gun increases the bias to see guns.

    PubMed

    Witt, Jessica K; Brockmole, James R

    2012-10-01

    Stereotypes, expectations, and emotions influence an observer's ability to detect and categorize objects as guns. In light of recent work in action-perception interactions, however, there is another unexplored factor that may be critical: The action choices available to the perceiver. In five experiments, participants determined whether another person was holding a gun or a neutral object. Critically, the participant did this while holding and responding with either a gun or a neutral object. Responding with a gun biased observers to report "gun present" more than did responding with a ball. Thus, by virtue of affording a perceiver the opportunity to use a gun, he or she was more likely to classify objects in a scene as a gun and, as a result, to engage in threat-induced behavior (raising a firearm to shoot). In addition to theoretical implications for event perception and object identification, these findings have practical implications for law enforcement and public safety.

  19. Crafting a Gauss Gun Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, Matthew E.; Blodgett, E. D.

    2006-12-01

    A Gauss Gun launches a ferromagnetic projectile using a pulsed electromagnet. This demonstration provides a nice counterpoint to the popular Thompson's jumping ring demonstration, which launches a nonferromagnetic ring via repulsion of an induced current. The pulsed current must be short enough in duration so that the projectile is not retarded by lingering current in the launch solenoid, but also large enough to provide a suitably impressive velocity. This project involved an iterative design process, as we worked through balancing all the different design criteria. We recommend it as a very nice electronics design project which will produce a very portable and enjoyable demonstration. AAPT sponsor Earl Blodgett.

  20. The Xygra gun simulation tool.

    SciTech Connect

    Garasi, Christopher Joseph; Lamppa, Derek C.; Aubuchon, Matthew S.; Shirley, David Noyes; Robinson, Allen Conrad; Russo, Thomas V.

    2008-12-01

    Inductive electromagnetic launchers, or coilguns, use discrete solenoidal coils to accelerate a coaxial conductive armature. To date, Sandia has been using an internally developed code, SLINGSHOT, as a point-mass lumped circuit element simulation tool for modeling coilgun behavior for design and verification purposes. This code has shortcomings in terms of accurately modeling gun performance under stressful electromagnetic propulsion environments. To correct for these limitations, it was decided to attempt to closely couple two Sandia simulation codes, Xyce and ALEGRA, to develop a more rigorous simulation capability for demanding launch applications. This report summarizes the modifications made to each respective code and the path forward to completing interfacing between them.

  1. Electromagnetic Gun With Commutated Coils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, David G.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed electromagnetic gun includes electromagnet coil, turns of which commutated in sequence along barrel. Electrical current fed to two armatures by brushes sliding on bus bars in barrel. Interaction between armature currents and magnetic field from coil produces force accelerating armature, which in turn, pushes on projectile. Commutation scheme chosen so magnetic field approximately coincides and moves with cylindrical region defined by armatures. Scheme has disadvantage of complexity, but in return, enables designer to increase driving magnetic field without increasing armature current. Attainable muzzle velocity increased substantially.

  2. Electromagnetic Gun With Commutated Coils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, David G.

    1991-01-01

    Proposed electromagnetic gun includes electromagnet coil, turns of which commutated in sequence along barrel. Electrical current fed to two armatures by brushes sliding on bus bars in barrel. Interaction between armature currents and magnetic field from coil produces force accelerating armature, which in turn, pushes on projectile. Commutation scheme chosen so magnetic field approximately coincides and moves with cylindrical region defined by armatures. Scheme has disadvantage of complexity, but in return, enables designer to increase driving magnetic field without increasing armature current. Attainable muzzle velocity increased substantially.

  3. Gun Control: The Debate and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview and background information on the debate over gun control, as well as several teaching ideas. Handouts include a list of related topics drawn from various disciplines (economics, U.S. history), seven arguments for and against gun control, and a set of policy evaluation guidelines. (MJP)

  4. Experiments and Demonstrations with Soldering Guns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Dennis C.; Danielson, Sarah A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the essential electrical characteristics of a particular model of soldering gun. Presents four classroom demonstrations that utilize the soldering gun to test the following geometrics of wire loops as electromagnets: (1) the original tip; (2) a single circular loop; (3) a Helmholtz coil; and (4) the solenoid. (MDH)

  5. Experiments and Demonstrations with Soldering Guns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Dennis C.; Danielson, Sarah A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the essential electrical characteristics of a particular model of soldering gun. Presents four classroom demonstrations that utilize the soldering gun to test the following geometrics of wire loops as electromagnets: (1) the original tip; (2) a single circular loop; (3) a Helmholtz coil; and (4) the solenoid. (MDH)

  6. Light gas gun with reduced timing jitter

    DOEpatents

    Laabs, G.W.; Funk, D.J.; Asay, B.W.

    1998-06-09

    Gas gun with reduced timing jitter is disclosed. A gas gun having a prepressurized projectile held in place with a glass rod in compression is described. The glass rod is destroyed with an explosive at a precise time which allows a restraining pin to be moved and free the projectile. 4 figs.

  7. Protect Children Instead of Guns, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    Beginning with statistics pertaining to children and gun violence in a single year in the United States, this report details trends in child and youth gun deaths. Tables present information on the following: (1) number of firearms deaths by manner and by race from 1979 to 2000; (2) number of firearms deaths by manner for each state and nationwide,…

  8. Protect Children Instead of Guns, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    Beginning with statistics pertaining to children and gun violence in a single year in the United States, this report details trends in child and youth gun deaths. Tables present information on the following: (1) number of firearms deaths by manner and by race from 1979 to 2000; (2) number of firearms deaths by manner for each state and nationwide,…

  9. Gun Control: The Debate and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Christine

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview and background information on the debate over gun control, as well as several teaching ideas. Handouts include a list of related topics drawn from various disciplines (economics, U.S. history), seven arguments for and against gun control, and a set of policy evaluation guidelines. (MJP)

  10. Concepts for a short wavelength rf gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzikov, S. V.; Shchelkunov, S.; Vikharev, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    Three concepts of an rf gun to be operated at 0.1-10 mm wavelengths are considered. In all the concepts, the rf system exploits an accelerating traveling wave. In comparison with a classical decimeter standing-wave rf gun, we analyze the advantages of new concepts, available rf sources, and achievable beam parameters.

  11. Light gas gun with reduced timing jitter

    DOEpatents

    Laabs, Gary W.; Funk, David J.; Asay, Blaine W.

    1998-01-01

    Gas gun with reduced timing jitter. A gas gun having a prepressurized projectile held in place with a glass rod in compression is described. The glass rod is destroyed with an explosive at a precise time which allows a restraining pin to be moved and free the projectile.

  12. Superconducting 112 MHz QWR electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Boulware, C.H.; Chang, X.; Grimm, T.L.; Rao, T.; Siegel, B.; Skaritka, J.; Than, R.; Winowski, M.; Wu, Q.; Xin, T.; Xue, L.

    2011-07-25

    Brookhaven National Laboratory and Niowave, Inc. have designed and fabricated a superconducting 112 MHz quarter-wave resonator (QWR) electron gun. The first cold test of the QWR cryomodule has been completed at Niowave. The paper describes the cryomodule design, presents the cold test results, and outline plans to upgrade the cryomodule. Future experiments include studies of different photocathodes and use for the coherent electron cooling proof-of-principle experiment. Two cathode stalk options, one for multi-alkali photocathodes and the other one for a diamond-amplified photocathode, are discussed. A quarter-wave resonator concept of superconducting RF (SRF) electron gun was proposed at BNL for electron cooling hadron beams in RHIC. QWRs can be made sufficiently compact even at low RF frequencies (long wavelengths). The long wavelength allows to produce long electron bunches, thus minimizing space charge effects and enabling high bunch charge. Also, such guns should be suitable for experiments requiring high average current electron beams. A 112 MHz QWR gun was designed, fabricated, and cold-tested in collaboration between BNL and Niowave. This is the lowest frequency SRF gun ever tested successfully. In this paper we describe the gun design and fabrication, present the cold test results, and outline our plans. This gun will also serve as a prototype for a future SRF gun to be used for coherent electron cooling of hadrons in eRHIC.

  13. Fighting Juvenile Gun Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, David; Grant, Heath; Rowe, Wendy; Jacobs, Nancy

    This bulletin describes the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention's efforts to fight juvenile gun violence. The Office awarded four community demonstration grants to implement "Partnerships To Reduce Juvenile Gun Violence." Partnership goals include increasing the effectiveness of existing strategies by enhancing and…

  14. Gun shows across a multistate American gun market: observational evidence of the effects of regulatory policies

    PubMed Central

    Wintemute, Garen J

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe gun shows and assess the impact of increased regulation on characteristics linked to their importance as sources of guns used in crime. Design Cross‐sectional, observational. Subjects Data were collected at a structured sample of 28 gun shows in California, which regulates these events and prohibits undocumented private party gun sales; and in Arizona, Nevada, Texas and Florida—all leading sources of California's crime guns—where these restrictions do not exist. Main outcome measures Size of shows, measured by numbers of gun vendors and people in attendance; number and nature of guns for sale by gun vendors; measures of private party gun sales and illegal surrogate (“straw”) gun purchases. Results Shows in comparison states were larger, but the number of attendees per gun vendor was higher in California. None of these differences was statistically significant. Armed attendees were more common in other states (median 5.7%, interquartile range (IQR) 3.9–10.0%) than in California (median 1.1%, IQR 0.5–2.2%), p = 0.0007. Thirty percent of gun vendors both in California and elsewhere were identifiable as licensed firearm retailers. There were few differences in the types or numbers of guns offered for sale; vendors elsewhere were more likely to sell assault weapons (34.9% and 13.3%, respectively; p = 0.001). Straw purchases were more common in the comparison states (rate ratio 6.6 (95% CI 0.9 to 49.1), p = 0.06). Conclusions California's regulatory policies were associated with a decreased incidence of anonymous, undocumented gun sales and illegal straw purchases at gun shows. No significant adverse effects of these policies were observed. PMID:17567968

  15. Interpreting the empirical evidence on illegal gun market dynamics.

    PubMed

    Braga, Anthony A; Wintemute, Garen J; Pierce, Glenn L; Cook, Philip J; Ridgeway, Greg

    2012-10-01

    Thousands of Americans are killed by gunfire each year, and hundreds of thousands more are injured or threatened with guns in robberies and assaults. The burden of gun violence in urban areas is particularly high. Critics suggest that the results of firearm trace data and gun trafficking investigation studies cannot be used to understand the illegal supply of guns to criminals and, therefore, that regulatory and enforcement efforts designed to disrupt illegal firearms markets are futile in addressing criminal access to firearms. In this paper, we present new data to address three key arguments used by skeptics to undermine research on illegal gun market dynamics. We find that criminals rely upon a diverse set of illegal diversion pathways to acquire guns, gun traffickers usually divert small numbers of guns, newer guns are diverted through close-to-retail diversions from legal firearms commerce, and that a diverse set of gun trafficking indicators are needed to identify and shut down gun trafficking pathways.

  16. Sequential injection gas guns for accelerating projectiles

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Jeffrey M; Chu, Henry S; Novascone, Stephen R

    2011-11-15

    Gas guns and methods for accelerating projectiles through such gas guns are described. More particularly, gas guns having a first injection port located proximate a breech end of a barrel and a second injection port located longitudinally between the first injection port and a muzzle end of the barrel are described. Additionally, modular gas guns that include a plurality of modules are described, wherein each module may include a barrel segment having one or more longitudinally spaced injection ports. Also, methods of accelerating a projectile through a gas gun, such as injecting a first pressurized gas into a barrel through a first injection port to accelerate the projectile and propel the projectile down the barrel past a second injection port and injecting a second pressurized gas into the barrel through the second injection port after passage of the projectile and to further accelerate the projectile are described.

  17. ECR ion source with electron gun

    DOEpatents

    Xie, Z.Q.; Lyneis, C.M.

    1993-10-26

    An Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source having an electron gun for introducing electrons into the plasma chamber of the ion source is described. The ion source has a injection enclosure and a plasma chamber tank. The plasma chamber is defined by a plurality of longitudinal magnets. The electron gun injects electrons axially into the plasma chamber such that ionization within the plasma chamber occurs in the presence of the additional electrons produced by the electron gun. The electron gun has a cathode for emitting electrons therefrom which is heated by current supplied from an AC power supply while bias potential is provided by a bias power supply. A concentric inner conductor and outer conductor carry heating current to a carbon chuck and carbon pusher which hold the cathode in place and also heat the cathode. In the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source, the electron gun replaces the conventional first stage used in prior electron cyclotron resonance ion generators. 5 figures.

  18. Electron gun jitter effects on beam bunching

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, M. S.; Iqbal, M.

    2014-02-15

    For routine operation of Beijing Electron Positron Collider II (BEPCII) linac, many factors may affect the beam bunching process directly or indirectly. We present the measurements and analyses of the gun timing jitter, gun high voltage jitter, and beam energy at the exit of the standard acceleration section of the linac quantitatively. Almost 80 mV and more than 200 ps of gun high voltage and time jitters have ever been measured, respectively. It was analyzed that the gun timing jitter produced severe effects on beam energy than the gun high voltage jitter, if the timing jitter exceeded 100 ps which eventually deteriorates both the beam performance and the injection rate to the storage ring.

  19. Structure of GUN4 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Tarahi Tabrizi, Shabnam; Langley, David B; Harrop, Stephen J; Duff, Anthony P; Willows, Robert D

    2015-08-01

    The genomes uncoupled 4 (GUN4) protein stimulates chlorophyll biosynthesis by increasing the activity of Mg-chelatase, the enzyme that inserts magnesium into protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) in the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway. One of the roles of GUN4 is in binding PPIX and Mg-PPIX. In eukaryotes, GUN4 also participates in plastid-to-nucleus signalling, although the mechanism for this is unclear. Here, the first crystal structure of a eukaryotic GUN4, from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is presented. The structure is in broad agreement with those of previously solved cyanobacterial structures. Most interestingly, conformational divergence is restricted to several loops which cover the porphyrin-binding cleft. The conformational dynamics suggested by this ensemble of structures lend support to the understanding of how GUN4 binds PPIX or Mg-PPIX.

  20. The Ames Vertical Gun Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karcz, J. S.; Bowling, D.; Cornelison, C.; Parrish, A.; Perez, A.; Raiche, G.; Wiens, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    The Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) is a national facility for conducting laboratory- scale investigations of high-speed impact processes. It provides a set of light-gas, powder, and compressed gas guns capable of accelerating projectiles to speeds up to 7 km s(exp -1). The AVGR has a unique capability to vary the angle between the projectile-launch and gravity vectors between 0 and 90 deg. The target resides in a large chamber (diameter approximately 2.5 m) that can be held at vacuum or filled with an experiment-specific atmosphere. The chamber provides a number of viewing ports and feed-throughs for data, power, and fluids. Impacts are observed via high-speed digital cameras along with investigation-specific instrumentation, such as spectrometers. Use of the range is available via grant proposals through any Planetary Science Research Program element of the NASA Research Opportunities in Space and Earth Sciences (ROSES) calls. Exploratory experiments (one to two days) are additionally possible in order to develop a new proposal.

  1. The supply and demand for guns to juveniles: Oakland's gun tracing project.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Deane; Dodge, Andrea Craig; Journel, Coraline S; Zahnd, Elaine

    2005-12-01

    In response to Oakland, California's high level of gun violence affecting young people, the East Oakland Partnership to Reduce Juvenile Gun Violence, a citywide collaboration, was formed in 1997. In 1999, the Partnership established the Oakland Gun Tracing Project to develop evidence-based policy recommendations aimed at reducing the supply of and demand for gun acquisition among urban youth. The advocacy project involved gathering, analyzing, and using police record and gun sale/registration data to inform policy and practice. Such data were collected for all gun crimes committed in Oakland, California between 1998 and 1999 in which a juvenile was either the suspect or the victim. The 213 cases involved 263 juveniles of which 170 were suspects/perpetrators and 93 were victims. Suspects as well as victims were predominantly male and African American. The 213 cases involved 132 recovered guns. Only 55% of the cases were traced to a federally licensed dealer. Three-quarters of the guns were purchased near Oakland, California. Successful traces, defined as the ability to identify federally licensed dealers and initial purchasers, were completed on only 52 of the 132 guns, demonstrating systemic tracing difficulties. Data gathered for the project was used to advocate for numerous policy changes. Recommended policy strategies include initiating a comprehensive gun tracing program so police can track all secondary sales, new laws requiring federal handgun registration which would track ownership changes, required reporting of stolen firearms, and providing effective intervention services to all juveniles the first time they enter the criminal justice system.

  2. Gun Violence Following Inpatient Psychiatric Treatment: Offense Characteristics, Sources of Guns, and Number of Victims.

    PubMed

    Kivisto, Aaron J

    2017-10-01

    This study presents data on the relative contribution to gun violence by people with a history of inpatient psychiatric treatment and on federal efforts to deter presumptively dangerous persons from obtaining firearms, information useful for analyzing the potential public health benefits of gun policies targeting people with serious mental illness. The study also estimates the reduction in gun violence victims that would be expected if individuals with a previous psychiatric hospitalization were prohibited from purchasing firearms. Data from 838 violent gun offenders from a nationally representative sample of state prison inmates were analyzed. Those with and without a history of psychiatric hospitalization were compared on a range of offense characteristics, including relationship to the victim, number of victims, location of the offense, and source of firearms. Inmates with a history of hospitalization constituted 12% of all violent gun offenders and accounted for 13% of the sample's victims. They were less likely than those without a previous hospitalization to victimize strangers (odds ratio=.52) and were no more likely to commit gun violence in public or to have multiple victims. Among those with previous hospitalizations, 78% obtained guns from sources not subject to federal background checks. Of the total 1,041 victims of gun violence, only 3% were victimized by participants with a history of hospitalization who obtained guns from currently regulated sources. Prohibiting all individuals with a history of psychiatric hospitalization from purchasing firearms, absent expanded background checks, was estimated to reduce the number of gun violence victims by only 3%.

  3. Gun Violence, Mental Illness, And Laws That Prohibit Gun Possession: Evidence From Two Florida Counties.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Easter, Michele M; Robertson, Allison G; Swartz, Marvin S; Alanis-Hirsch, Kelly; Moseley, Daniel; Dion, Charles; Petrila, John

    2016-06-01

    Gun violence kills about ninety people every day in the United States, a toll measured in wasted and ruined lives and with an annual economic price tag exceeding $200 billion. Some policy makers suggest that reforming mental health care systems and improving point-of-purchase background checks to keep guns from mentally disturbed people will address the problem. Epidemiological research shows that serious mental illness contributes little to the risk of interpersonal violence but is a strong factor in suicide, which accounts for most firearm fatalities. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of gun restrictions focused on mental illness remains poorly understood. This article examines gun-related suicide and violent crime in people with serious mental illnesses, and whether legal restrictions on firearm sales to people with a history of mental health adjudication are effective in preventing gun violence. Among the study population in two large Florida counties, we found that 62 percent of violent gun crime arrests and 28 percent of gun suicides involved individuals not legally permitted to have a gun at the time. Suggested policy reforms include enacting risk-based gun removal laws and prohibiting guns from people involuntarily detained in short-term psychiatric hospitalizations.

  4. Gun Violence, Mental Illness, And Laws That Prohibit Gun Possession: Evidence From Two Florida Counties

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Easter, Michele M.; Robertson, Allison G.; Swartz, Marvin S.; Alanis-Hirsch, Kelly; Moseley, Daniel; Dion, Charles; Petrila, John

    2016-01-01

    Gun violence kills about ninety people every day in the United States, a toll measured in wasted and ruined lives and with an annual economic price tag exceeding $200 billion. Some policy makers suggest that reforming mental health care systems and improving point-of-purchase background checks to keep guns from mentally disturbed people will address the problem. Epidemiological research shows that serious mental illness contributes little to the risk of interpersonal violence but is a strong factor in suicide, which accounts for most firearm fatalities. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of gun restrictions focused on mental illness remains poorly understood. This article examines gun-related suicide and violent crime in people with serious mental illnesses, and whether legal restrictions on firearm sales to people with a history of mental health adjudication are effective in preventing gun violence. Among the study population in two large Florida counties, we found that 62 percent of violent gun crime arrests and 28 percent of gun suicides involved individuals not legally permitted to have a gun at the time. Suggested policy reforms include enacting risk-based gun removal laws and prohibiting guns from people involuntarily detained in short-term psychiatric hospitalizations. PMID:27269024

  5. Optimization of gun parameters for a pulsed power electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Smedley, J.; Batchelor, K.; Farrell, J.P.; Dudnikova, G.

    1999-07-01

    Extensive simulation work has been done to identify the optimal parameters for a pulsed power electron gun. PBGUNS, an electrostatic beam optics code, was used to optimize the electrode shape and the beam spatial distribution, including modeling the focusing effect of a curved cathode surface. MAFIA, a particle-in-a-cell code, was used to investigate those aspects that required time dependence, such as longitudinal energy spread. The range of agreement between the two codes was also investigated. The transverse phase space at a comparison plane was found to be very close (within 1{percent} at low currents and 4{percent} for higher currents), even for bunch lengths shorter than the gap transit time. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Papular Epidermal Nevus with Skyline Basal Cell Layer (PENS): Three New Cases and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Luna, Paula C; Pannizardi, Anabel A; Martin, Carolina I; Vigovich, Felix; Casas, José G; Larralde, Margarita

    2016-05-01

    Papular epidermal nevus with skyline basal cell layer (PENS) is a recently described type of epidermal nevus with characteristic histopathologic findings, mainly regular, rectangular acanthosis and a well-demarcated basal cell layer with clear palisading and separation between basal cell nuclei and the first row of Malpighian cell nuclei. Although the first reports described randomly distributed lesions appearing sporadically in otherwise healthy patients, cases of Blaschkoid distribution, lesions associated with extracutaneous manifestations, and familial cases have been reported. We performed a review of the clinical charts of all patients with histologic diagnosis of PENS in our hospital. We evaluated epidemiologic, clinical, and histologic features. We then reviewed the literature with a particular emphasis on the presence or absence of extra-cutaneous associations. Three patients with PENS are described. One had a single lesion, one had three lesions, and one, a patient with mild developmental delay, a curved penis, and hypospadias, had multiple lesions. The probability of having extracutaneous manifestations is 6.3 times as great in individuals with more than four lesions. Therefore these patients may need closer follow-up. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Gun Safety Management with Patients at Risk for Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Robert I.

    2007-01-01

    Guns in the home are associated with a five-fold increase in suicide. All patients at risk for suicide must be asked if guns are available at home or easily accessible elsewhere, or if they have intent to buy or purchase a gun. Gun safety management requires a collaborative team approach including the clinician, patient, and designated person…

  8. Alignment Fixtures For Vacuum-Plasma-Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodford, William H.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Power, Christopher A.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Fixtures for alignment of vacuum-plasma-spray guns built. Each fixture designed to fit specific gun and holds small, battery-powered laser on centerline of gun. Laser beam projects small red dot where centerline intersects surface of workpiece to be sprayed. After laser beam positioned on surface of workpiece, fixture removed from gun and spraying proceeds.

  9. Correlates of Gun Involvement and Aggressiveness among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody S.; Nelsen, Edward A.; Lassonde, Cynthia T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated adolescents' aggressiveness in relation to their experiences, beliefs, and attitudes concerning gun use, also noting family composition, relationships with parents, and emotionality as correlates of gun involvement and aggression. Student surveys indicated links between gun ownership and recreational use, beliefs about gun use, and…

  10. Ready, Fire, Aim: The College Campus Gun Fight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether guns should be permitted on college and university campuses in the United States reflects the tension between two competing perspectives. America has both a robust gun culture and an equally robust (if less well known) gun-control culture. The gun culture is as American as apple pie: There may be as many as 300 million…

  11. Homopolar Gun for Pulsed Spheromak Fusion Reactors II

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T

    2004-06-14

    A homopolar gun is discussed that could produce the high currents required for pulsed spheromak fusion reactors even with unit current amplification and open field lines during injection, possible because close coupling between the gun and flux conserver reduces gun losses to acceptable levels. Example parameters are given for a gun compatible with low cost pulsed reactors and for experiments to develop the concept.

  12. Alignment Fixtures For Vacuum-Plasma-Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodford, William H.; Mckechnie, Timothy N.; Power, Christopher A.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Fixtures for alignment of vacuum-plasma-spray guns built. Each fixture designed to fit specific gun and holds small, battery-powered laser on centerline of gun. Laser beam projects small red dot where centerline intersects surface of workpiece to be sprayed. After laser beam positioned on surface of workpiece, fixture removed from gun and spraying proceeds.

  13. Gun Safety Management with Patients at Risk for Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Robert I.

    2007-01-01

    Guns in the home are associated with a five-fold increase in suicide. All patients at risk for suicide must be asked if guns are available at home or easily accessible elsewhere, or if they have intent to buy or purchase a gun. Gun safety management requires a collaborative team approach including the clinician, patient, and designated person…

  14. Correlates of Gun Involvement and Aggressiveness among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody S.; Nelsen, Edward A.; Lassonde, Cynthia T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated adolescents' aggressiveness in relation to their experiences, beliefs, and attitudes concerning gun use, also noting family composition, relationships with parents, and emotionality as correlates of gun involvement and aggression. Student surveys indicated links between gun ownership and recreational use, beliefs about gun use, and…

  15. Ready, Fire, Aim: The College Campus Gun Fight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether guns should be permitted on college and university campuses in the United States reflects the tension between two competing perspectives. America has both a robust gun culture and an equally robust (if less well known) gun-control culture. The gun culture is as American as apple pie: There may be as many as 300 million…

  16. Modeling of water-gun signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Landroe, M.; Zaalberg-Metselaar, G.; Owren, B.

    1993-01-01

    A method for calculating the acoustic signal generated by a water gun is presented. The equations describing the shuttle motion and the water jet formation are derived with the assumption that the water is incompressible. The motion of the shuttle is evaluated by assuming adiabatic expansion of the air initially contained in the air chamber of the gun. The formation and dynamics of the water jets emerging from the gun ports are closely connected to the shuttle motion. The combined effect of the water motion through the gun ports and the collapse of a cavity inside the gun nozzle can explain the first part of a water-gun signature, often referred to as the precursor. The last part of the signature is mainly an impulsive shock wave caused by the collapse of external cavities. It is assumed that the external cavities are formed due to the pressure drop behind each water jet, and that the cavities collapse due to the hydrostatic pressure. The main effect of including interaction between the external cavities is to increase the bubble period (i.e. the collapse time). Comparison between modeled and measured near-field signatures for an S80 SODERA water gun show a difference of less than 5 percent of the energy in the measurement.

  17. Simple light gas guns for hypervelocity studies

    SciTech Connect

    Combs, S.K.; Haselton, H.H.; Milora, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    Two-stage light guns are used extensively in hypervelocity research. The applications of this technology include impact studies and special materials development. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed two-stage guns that accelerate small projectiles (4-mm nominal diameter) to velocities of up to {approx}5 km/s. These guns are relatively small and simple (thus, easy to operate), allowing a significant number of test shots to be carried out and data accumulated in a short time. Materials that have been used for projectiles include plastics, frozen isotopes of hydrogen, and lithium hydride. One gun has been used to demonstrate repetitive operation at a rate of 0.7 Hz; and, with a few design improvements, it appears capable of performing at firing frequencies of 1--2 Hz. A schematic of ORNL two-stage device is shown below. Unlike most such devices, no rupture disks are used. Instead, a fast valve (high-flow type) initiates the acceleration process in the first stage. Projectiles can be loaded into the gun breech via the slide mechanism; this action has been automated which allows repetitive firing. Alternatively, the device is equipped with pipe gun'' apparatus in which gas can be frozen in situ in the gun barrel to form the projectile. This equipment operates with high reliability and is well suited for small-scale testing at high velocity. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Gun Violence, mental health, and Connecticut physicians.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Peter R; Anderson, Caitlyn O; Dodds, Jon H

    2014-01-01

    While there is a public perception that gun violence is associated with mental illness we present evidence that it is a complex public health problem which defies simple characterizations and solutions. Only a small percentage of individuals with mental illness are at risk for extreme violence and they account for only a small percentage of gun-related homicides. Individuals who are at risk for gun violence are difficult to identify and successfully treat. The incidence, and perhaps the demographics, of gun violence vary substantially from state to state. We make a case for Connecticut physicians to study gun violence at the state level. We recommend that Connecticut physicians promote and expand upon the American Academy of Pediatrics' recommendation for creating a "safe home environment. "We suggest that guns be secured in all homes in which there are children. In addition we suggest that guns be voluntarily removed from homes in which there are individuals with a history of violence, threats of violence, depression, drug and/or alcohol abuse, and individuals with major mental illnesses who are not cooperating with therapy.

  19. Extended suicide using an atypical stud gun.

    PubMed

    Hagemeier, L; Schyma, C; Madea, B

    2009-08-10

    Suicides with stud guns are uncommon, but are well documented in the literature. On rare occasions, stud guns are also used as a homicide weapon. This case report describes an extended suicide in which a husband killed his wife and their two dogs, which lived on the property. The husband then committed suicide with a shot from the stud gun into his skull. He was a 70-year-old pensioner, a retired butcher, who was found by his son. He was lying in a supine position on a carpet in the living room, with the stud gun stuck in his skull. During autopsy, high concentrations of an antihistamine were found in the blood of each corpse; this drug is used as a soporific. In contrast to the literature, which mainly describes powder deposits due to the use of conventional stud guns, in this case a stud gun was used in which the expanding gases and powder escaped together with the central bolt at the front of the device; powder drains were not involved. Detailed findings of the autopsy are given with reference to this type of stud gun.

  20. Gun safety management with patients at risk for suicide.

    PubMed

    Simon, Robert I

    2007-10-01

    Guns in the home are associated with a five-fold increase in suicide. All patients at risk for suicide must be asked if guns are available at home or easily accessible elsewhere, or if they have intent to buy or purchase a gun. Gun safety management requires a collaborative team approach including the clinician, patient, and designated person responsible for removing guns from the home. A call-back to the clinician from the designated person is required confirming that guns have been removed and secured according to plan. The principle of gun safety management applies to outpatients, inpatients, and emergency patients, although its implementation varies according to the clinical setting.

  1. "Is there a gun in the home?" Assessing the risks of gun ownership in older adults.

    PubMed

    Pinholt, Ellen M; Mitchell, Joshua D; Butler, Jane H; Kumar, Harjinder

    2014-06-01

    An important ethical and safety concern that geriatricians, primary care providers, and home health professionals need to address is gun ownership by elderly adults. Those aged 65 and older now have the highest rate of gun ownership in America, and they also have a high prevalence of depression and suicide. Dementia can add additional layers of risk. Even older gun owners who are otherwise intellectually intact may benefit from information about gun safety with the increasing numbers of children being cared for by grandparents. Health professionals should ask patients, "Is there a gun in the home?" in the clinic and during home visits. Healthcare professionals must have knowledge and skills to address safe gun ownership in elderly adults. The 5 L's (Locked, Loaded, Little children, feeling Low, Learned owner) will assist professionals in addressing all aspects of safe ownership. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  2. Evaluation of Smart Gun Technologies preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Smart Gun Technology Project has a goal to eliminate the capability of an unauthorized user from firing a law enforcement officer`s firearm by implementing {open_quote}smart{close_quote} technologies. Smart technologies are those that can in some manner identify an officer. This report will identify, describe, and grade various technologies as compared to the requirements that were obtained from officers. This report does not make a final recommendation for a smart gun technology, nor does it give the complete design of a smart gun system.

  3. SSRL photocathode RF gun test stand

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, M.; Baltay, M.; Boyce, A.

    1995-12-31

    A photocathode RF gun test stand designed for the production and study of high brightness electron beams will be constructed at SSRL. The beam will be generated from a laser driven third generation photocathode RF gun being developed in collaboration with BNL, LBL, and UCLA. The 3-5 [MeV] beam from the gun will be accelerated using a SLAC three meter S-band accelerator section, in order to achieve the desired low emittance beam, emittance compensation with solenoidal focusing will be employed.

  4. Pediatric air gun shot injury.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ubaid U; Kamal, Naglaa M; Mirza, Shazia J; Sherief, Laila M

    2014-12-01

    Air guns (AGs) use air or another compressed gas to propel a projectile. Different injuries may occur in children due to their body structure, which is less-resistant with thin soft tissue coverage that can be easily penetrated by an AG shot. We present 3 cases of pediatric AG shot injury. The first-case had right lumber deep tissue penetration of AG pallet without internal damage, the second-case had a complex course of pellet into the perineum, and the third-case was shot in the left shoulder. All cases were accidentally shot. The shooters were all children, and relatives of the victims. All patients were generally stable on arrival. Two cases were operated, and one received conservative management. On follow up, no complications were noted.  At first sight, AGs and air rifles may appear relatively harmless, but they are potentially lethal and children should not be allowed to play with them. 

  5. Effects of undercover police stings of gun dealers on the supply of new guns to criminals

    PubMed Central

    Webster, D W; Bulzacchelli, M T; Zeoli, A M; Vernick, J S

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of undercover police stings and lawsuits against gun dealers suspected of facilitating illegal gun sales in three US cities (Chicago, Detroit, Gary) on the flow of new firearms to criminals. Methods An interrupted time series design and negative binomial regression analyses were used to test for temporal change in the recovery of guns used in crimes within one year of retail sale in both intervention and comparison cities. Results The stings were associated with an abrupt 46.4% reduction in the flow of new guns to criminals in Chicago (95% confidence interval, −58.6% to −30.5%), and with a gradual reduction in new crime guns recovered in Detroit. There was no significant change associated with the stings in Gary, and no change in comparison cities that was coincident with the stings in Chicago and Detroit. Conclusions The announcement of police stings and lawsuits against suspect gun dealers appeared to have reduced the supply of new guns to criminals in Chicago significantly, and may have contributed to beneficial effects in Detroit. Given the important role that gun stores play in supplying guns to criminals in the US, further efforts of this type are warranted and should be evaluated. PMID:16887943

  6. Effects of undercover police stings of gun dealers on the supply of new guns to criminals.

    PubMed

    Webster, D W; Bulzacchelli, M T; Zeoli, A M; Vernick, J S

    2006-08-01

    To assess the effects of undercover police stings and lawsuits against gun dealers suspected of facilitating illegal gun sales in three US cities (Chicago, Detroit, Gary) on the flow of new firearms to criminals. An interrupted time series design and negative binomial regression analyses were used to test for temporal change in the recovery of guns used in crimes within one year of retail sale in both intervention and comparison cities. The stings were associated with an abrupt 46.4% reduction in the flow of new guns to criminals in Chicago (95% confidence interval, -58.6% to -30.5%), and with a gradual reduction in new crime guns recovered in Detroit. There was no significant change associated with the stings in Gary, and no change in comparison cities that was coincident with the stings in Chicago and Detroit. The announcement of police stings and lawsuits against suspect gun dealers appeared to have reduced the supply of new guns to criminals in Chicago significantly, and may have contributed to beneficial effects in Detroit. Given the important role that gun stores play in supplying guns to criminals in the US, further efforts of this type are warranted and should be evaluated.

  7. Separating batterers and guns: a review and analysis of gun removal laws in 50 States.

    PubMed

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Vernick, Jon S

    2006-06-01

    Firearms play an important role in lethal domestic violence incidents. The authors review state laws regarding two policies to separate batterers from firearms: laws authorizing police to remove firearms when responding to a domestic violence complaint ("police gun removal laws") and laws authorizing courts to order guns removed from batterers through a protective order ("court-ordered removal laws"). As of April 2004, 18 states had police gun removal laws; 16 states had court-ordered removal laws. The authors examine relevant characteristics of the laws and recommend that these laws be mandatory, apply to all guns and ammunition possessed by an abuser, and include clear procedures to enhance implementation.

  8. Arc Plasma Gun With Coaxial Powder Feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, Isidor

    1988-01-01

    Redesigned plasma gun provides improved metallic and ceramic coatings. Particles injected directly through coaxial bore in cathode into central region of plasma jet. Introduced into hotter and faster region of plasma jet.

  9. Toroid Joining Gun For Fittings And Couplings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert L.; Swaim, Robert J.; Johnson, Samuel D.; Buckley, John D.; Copeland, Carl E.; Coultrip, Robert H.; Johnston, David F.; Phillips, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Hand-held gun used to join metal heat-to-shrink couplings. Uses magnetic induction (eddy currents) to produce heat in metal coupling, and thermocouple to measure temperature and signals end of process. Gun, called "toroid joining gun" concentrates high levels of heat in localized areas. Reconfigured for use on metal heat-to-shrink fitting and coupling applications. Provides rapid heating, operates on low power, lightweight and portable. Safe for use around aircraft fuel and has no detrimental effects on surrounding surfaces or objects. Reliable in any environment and under all weather conditions. Gun logical device for taking full advantage of capabilities of new metal heat-to-shrink couplings and fittings.

  10. Lightweight, High-Current Welding Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starck, Thomas F.; Brennan, Andrew D.

    1989-01-01

    Lighweight resistance-welding, hand-held gun supplies alternating or direct current over range of 600 to 4,000 A and applies forces from 40 to 60 lb during welding. Used to weld metal sheets in multilayered stacks.

  11. Direct launch using the electric rail gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The concept explored involves using a large single stage electric rail gun to achieve orbital velocities. Exit aerodynamics, launch package design and size, interior ballistics, system and component sizing and design concepts are treated. Technology development status and development requirements are identified and described. The expense of placing payloads in Earth orbit using conventional chemical rockets is considerable. Chemical rockets are very inefficient in converting chemical energy into payload kinetic energy. A rocket motor is relatively expensive and is usually expended on each launch. In addition specialized and expensive forms of fuel are required. Gun launching payloads directly to orbit from the Earth's surface is a possible alternative. Guns are much more energy efficient than rockets. The high capital cost of the gun installation can be recovered by reusing it over and over again. Finally, relatively inexpensive fuel and large quantities of energy are readily available to a fixed installation on the Earth's surface.

  12. Arc-driven rail gun research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The equations describing the performance of an inductively-driven rail gun are analyzed numerically. Friction between the projectile and rails is included through an empirical formulation. The equations are applied to the experiment of Rashleigh and Marshall to obtain an estimate of energy distribution in rail guns as a function of time. The effect of frictional heat dissipation on the bore of the gun is calculated. The mechanism of plasma and projectile acceleration in a dc rail gun is described from a microscopic point of view through the establishment of the Hall field. The plasma conductivity is shown to be a tensor indicating that there is a small component of current parallel to the direction of acceleration. The plasma characteristics are evaluated as a function of plasma mass through a simple fluid mechanical analysis of the plasma. By equating the energy dissipated in the plasma with the radiation heat loss, the properties of the plasma are determined.

  13. The electric rail gun for space propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, D. P.; Barber, J. P.; Vahlberg, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    An analytic feasibility investigation of an electric propulsion concept for space application is described. In this concept, quasistatic thrust due to inertial reaction to repetitively accelerated pellets by an electric rail gun is used to propel a spacecraft. The study encompasses the major subsystems required in an electric rail gun propulsion system. The mass, performance, and configuration of each subsystem are described. Based on an analytic model of the system mass and performance, the electric rail gun mission performance as a reusable orbital transfer vehicle (OTV) is analyzed and compared to a 30 cm ion thruster system (BIMOD) and a chemical propulsion system (IUS) for payloads with masses of 1150 kg and 2300 kg. For system power levels in the range from 25 kW(e) to 100 kW(e) an electric rail gun OTV is more attractive than a BIMOD system for low Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit transfer durations in the range from 20 to 120 days.

  14. Arc Plasma Gun With Coaxial Powder Feed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaplatynsky, Isidor

    1988-01-01

    Redesigned plasma gun provides improved metallic and ceramic coatings. Particles injected directly through coaxial bore in cathode into central region of plasma jet. Introduced into hotter and faster region of plasma jet.

  15. Lightweight, High-Current Welding Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starck, Thomas F.; Brennan, Andrew D.

    1989-01-01

    Lighweight resistance-welding, hand-held gun supplies alternating or direct current over range of 600 to 4,000 A and applies forces from 40 to 60 lb during welding. Used to weld metal sheets in multilayered stacks.

  16. Direct launch using the electric rail gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The concept explored involves using a large single stage electric rail gun to achieve orbital velocities. Exit aerodynamics, launch package design and size, interior ballistics, system and component sizing and design concepts are treated. Technology development status and development requirements are identified and described. The expense of placing payloads in Earth orbit using conventional chemical rockets is considerable. Chemical rockets are very inefficient in converting chemical energy into payload kinetic energy. A rocket motor is relatively expensive and is usually expended on each launch. In addition specialized and expensive forms of fuel are required. Gun launching payloads directly to orbit from the Earth's surface is a possible alternative. Guns are much more energy efficient than rockets. The high capital cost of the gun installation can be recovered by reusing it over and over again. Finally, relatively inexpensive fuel and large quantities of energy are readily available to a fixed installation on the Earth's surface.

  17. Toroid Joining Gun For Fittings And Couplings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert L.; Swaim, Robert J.; Johnson, Samuel D.; Buckley, John D.; Copeland, Carl E.; Coultrip, Robert H.; Johnston, David F.; Phillips, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Hand-held gun used to join metal heat-to-shrink couplings. Uses magnetic induction (eddy currents) to produce heat in metal coupling, and thermocouple to measure temperature and signals end of process. Gun, called "toroid joining gun" concentrates high levels of heat in localized areas. Reconfigured for use on metal heat-to-shrink fitting and coupling applications. Provides rapid heating, operates on low power, lightweight and portable. Safe for use around aircraft fuel and has no detrimental effects on surrounding surfaces or objects. Reliable in any environment and under all weather conditions. Gun logical device for taking full advantage of capabilities of new metal heat-to-shrink couplings and fittings.

  18. Circuit Model for Gun Driven Spheromaks

    SciTech Connect

    Thomassen, K I

    2000-07-14

    In this note we derive circuit equations for sustained spheromaks, in the phase after a spheromak is detached from the gun and sustained in a flux conserver. The impedance of the spheromak during the formation and ''bubble burst'' phase has been discussed by Barnes et. al. We assume here that the spheromak is formed and helicity is being delivered to it from the gun, currents are above the threshold current, and the {lambda}-gradients are outward ({lambda} decreasing inward). We follow an open field line that begins and ends at the gun electrodes, encircling the closed flux surfaces of the spheromak, and apply power and helicity balance equations for this gun-driven system. In addition to these equations one will need to know the initial conditions (currents, stored energies) after the ''bubble burst'' in order to project forward in time.

  19. Modification and prototype test of staple gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsue, Kuang-Yih; Wu, Gwo-Jen

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents how to design a staple gun and verify its data through simulation. The staple gun was estimated and analyzed using 'ANSYS' software and the results were compared with those obtained through experiments. In this research, a supporting position for the spring inside the staple gun was damaged after hundreds of loads, and there was no data about the impact force when staples were shot into the targets. Therefore, a prototype test system is developed to validate the data through simulation. In this case, the results are quite close to each other before they can be used to help the manufacturer to improve its structure. This prototype test system is completed through PC-based automation software. The simulation model was modified to develop the next new products for saving costs and time. Because the impact force, coming out from the staple gun is pretty large, it should be restricted within a certain limit to keep the user safe.

  20. New RF gun for Novosibirsk ERL FEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, Vladimir N.; Arbusov, Vladimir S.; Kenzhebulatov, Ermek K.; Kolobanov, Evgeniy I.; Kondakov, Aleksey A.; Kozyrev, Evgeniy V.; Krutikhin, Sergey A.; Kurkin, Grigoriy Ya.; Kuptsov, Igor V.; Motygin, Sergey V.; Ovchar, Vladimir K.; Petrov, Victor M.; Pilan, Andrey M.; Rotov, Evgeniy A.; Sedlyarov, Igor K.; Serednykov, Stanislav S.; Shevchenko, Oleg A.; Scheglov, Mikhail A.; Tribendis, Aleksey G.; Vinokurov, Nikolay A.

    The new radiofrequency (RF) gun making an intensive high-quality electron beam for injecting in Novosibirsk microtron recuperator (ERL) and driving Free Electron Laser (FEL) is made in Budker INP SB RAS. Bench tests of RF gun demonstrated good results in strict accordance with the calculations predicting average current of a bunch of 100 iA, energy of particles of 400 keV and normalized emittance less than 15 microns. The RF gun stand testing showed reliable work, unpretentious for vacuum conditions and stable in long-term operation. The additional injection beamline built-in to the existing system of the NovoFEL injector with the static gun is developed and designed.

  1. Modifications Of A Commercial Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Peter B.

    1993-01-01

    Commercial spray gun modified to increase spray rate and make sprayed coats more nearly uniform. Consists of gun head and pneumatic actuator. Actuator opens valves for two chemical components, called "A" and "B," that react to produce foam. Components flow through orifices, into mixing chamber in head. Mixture then flows through control orifice to spray tip. New spray tip tapered to reduce area available for accumulation of foam and makes tip easier to clean.

  2. Hand injury with paint-gun.

    PubMed

    Thakore, H K

    1985-02-01

    Paint-gun injuries are notoriously disabling, far more so than those caused by other foreign materials as they carry a high morbidity rate. Forty-three cases of high pressure injection injury due to paint-guns have been reported in the English literature. The four new cases reported here reflect the effects of injury by the epoxy resins, relatively recently introduced and widely used in heavy industry.

  3. Modifications Of A Commercial Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Peter B.

    1993-01-01

    Commercial spray gun modified to increase spray rate and make sprayed coats more nearly uniform. Consists of gun head and pneumatic actuator. Actuator opens valves for two chemical components, called "A" and "B," that react to produce foam. Components flow through orifices, into mixing chamber in head. Mixture then flows through control orifice to spray tip. New spray tip tapered to reduce area available for accumulation of foam and makes tip easier to clean.

  4. Cost Estimate for Gun Liner Emplacement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Recent firing success of an explosively-bonded tantalum alloy gun liner has prompted an examination of other gun liner...usage (1). Soon after this memorandum was written, the Army demonstrated that a medium-caliber barrel with a tantalum -10% tungsten (Ta-10W) liner had...attributed to two main factors: first, a liner was used, rather than a coating; and second, a tantalum alloy with much higher melting point than chromium

  5. Electrothermal plasma gun as a pellet injector

    SciTech Connect

    Kincaid, R.W.; Bourham, M.A.

    1994-11-01

    The NCSU electrothermal plasma gun SIRENS has been used to accelerate plastic (Lexan polycarbonate) pellets, to determine the feasibility of the use of electrothermal guns as pellet injectors. The use of an electrothermal gun to inject frozen hydrogenic pellets requires a mechanism to provide protective shells (sabots) for shielding the pellet from ablation during acceleration into and through the barrel of the gun. The gun has been modified to accommodate acceleration of the plastic pellets using special acceleration barrels equipped with diagnostics for velocity and position of the pellet, and targets to absorb the pellet`s energy on impact. The length of the acceleration path could be varied between 15 and 45 cm. The discharge energy of the electrothermal gun ranged from 2 to 6 kJ. The pellet velocities have been measured via a set of break wires. Pellet masses were varied between 0.5 and 1.0 grams. Preliminary results on 0.5 and 1.0 g pellets show that the exit velocity reaches 0.9 km/s at 6 kJ input energy to the source. Higher velocities of 1.5 and 2.7 km/s have been achieved using 0.5 and 1.0 gm pellets in 30 cm long barrel, without cleaning the barrel between the shots.

  6. Air supply valve for seismic air gun

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, B.

    1989-07-25

    This paper describes an improvement in a marine seismic array adapted to be towed by a vessel wherein the array is comprised of a plurality of air guns spaced along an array bundle which includes a central air hose assembly that supplies compressed air to each of the air guns through individual air passages which extend between the central air hose assembly and each of the air guns. The improvement comprising: an air supply valve positioned in each of the individual air passages, the air supply valve comprising: a housing having inlet and an outlet and a passage in the housing connecting the inlet and the outlet; valve means positioned in the passage in the housing; valve actuating means in the housing for moving the valve means from an open position to a closed position and from a closed position to an open position; means for remotely actuating the valve actuating means from the vessel to close the valve to deactivate the air gun and to reopen the valve to reactivate the air gun whereby each of the plurality of air guns can be individually inactivated and reactivated remotely from the vessel.

  7. NPS Gas Gun for Planar Impact Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong Ho, Chien; Hixson, Robert

    2009-11-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) commissioned a Gas Gun for shock wave studies on 9^th October 2009, by performing the first experiment. The Gas Gun is the key element of NPS Shock Wave Research Program within the Physics Department, where well-characterized planar impacts are essential for obtaining high quality data, to characterize a solid material. This first experiment was very successful, and returned key data on the quality of the impact conditions created. The Gas Gun is designed by SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES, and the NPS spent twelve months fabricating the components of the Gas Gun and six months assembling the Gas Gun. Three inch projectile are launched at velocities up to 0.5 km/s, creating high pressure and temperature states that can be used to characterize the fundamental response of relevant materials to dynamic loading. The projectile is launched from a `wrap around' gas breech where helium gas is pressurized to relatively low pressure. This gas is used to accelerate the projectile down a 3m barrel. Upon impact, the speed of the projectile and the flatness of the impact is measured, via a stepped circular pin array circuit. The next stage of development for the Gas Gun is to integrate a Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR). The VISAR sees all the waves that flow through the target plate as a result of the impact. This is a key diagnostic for determining material properties under dynamic loading conditions.

  8. Are "goods for guns" good for the community? An update of a community gun buyback program.

    PubMed

    Green, Jonathan; Damle, Rachelle N; Kasper, Rebecca E; Violano, Pina; Manno, Mariann; Nazarey, Pradeep P; Aidlen, Jeremy T; Hirsh, Michael P

    2017-08-01

    Gun violence remains a leading cause of death in the United States. Community gun buyback programs provide an opportunity to dispose of extraneous firearms. The purpose of this study was to understand the demographics, motivation, child access to firearms, and household mental illness of buyback participants in hopes of improving the program's effectiveness. A 2015 Injury Free Coalition for Kids gun buyback program which collaborated with local police departments was studied. We administered a 23-item questionnaire survey to gun buyback participants assessing demographic characteristics, motivation for relinquishing firearms, child firearm accessibility, and mental illness/domestic violence history. A total of 186 individuals from Central/Western Massachusetts turned in 339 weapons. Participants received between US $25 and US $75 in gift cards dependent on what type of gun was turned in, with an average cost of $41/gun. A total of 109 (59%) participants completed the survey. Respondents were mostly white (99%), men (90%) and first-time participants in the program (85.2%). Among survey respondents, 54% turned in firearms "for safety reasons." Respondents reported no longer needing/wanting their weapons (47%) and approximately one in eight participants were concerned the firearm(s) were accessible to children. Most respondents (87%) felt the program encouraged neighborhood awareness of firearm safety. Three of every five participants reported that guns still remained in their homes; additionally, 21% where children could potentially access them and 14% with a history of mental illness/suicide/domestic violence in the home. Gun buybacks can provide a low-cost means of removing unwanted firearms from the community. Most participants felt their homes were safer after turning in the firearm(s). In homes still possessing guns, emphasis on secure gun storage should continue, increasing the safety of children and families. The results of this survey also provided new

  9. A high-brightness thermionic microwave electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Borland, Michael

    1991-02-01

    In a collaborative effort by SSRL, AET Associates, and Varian Associates, a high-brightness microwave electron gun using a thermionic cathode has been designed, built, tested, and installed for use with the SSRL 150 MeV linear accelerator. This thesis discusses the physics behind the design and operation of the gun and associated systems, presenting predictions and experimental tests of the gun`s performance. The microwave gun concept is of increasing interest due to its promise of providing higher-current, lower-emittance electron beams than possible from conventional, DC gun technology. In a DC guns, accelerating gradients are less than 8 MV/m, while those in a microwave gun can exceed 100 MV/m, providing much more rapid initial acceleration, thereby reducing the deleterious effects of space-charge. Microwave guns produce higher momentum beams than DC guns, thus lessening space-charge effects during subsequent beam transport. Typical DC guns produce kinetic energies of 80--400 KeV, compared to 2--3 MeV for the SSRL microwave gun. ``State-of-the-art`` microwave gun designs employ laser-driven photocathodes, providing excellent performance but with greater complexity and monetary costs. A thermionic microwave gun with a magnetic bunching system is comparable in cost and complexity to a conventional system, but provides performance that is orders of magnitude better. Simulations of the SSRL microwave gun predict a normalized RMS emittance at the gun exist of < 10 π • mec • μm for a beam consisting of approximately 50% of the particles emitted from the gun, and having a momentum spread ±10%. These emittances are for up to 5 x 109e- per bunch. Chromatic aberrations in the transport line between the gun and linear accelerator increase this to typically < 30 π • me • μm.

  10. Separating Batterers and Guns: A Review and Analysis of Gun Removal Laws in 50 States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Vernick, Jon S.

    2006-01-01

    Firearms play an important role in lethal domestic violence incidents. The authors review state laws regarding two policies to separate batterers from firearms: laws authorizing police to remove firearms when responding to a domestic violence complaint ("police gun removal laws") and laws authorizing courts to order guns removed from batterers…

  11. Gun Carrying by High School Students in Boston, MA: Does Overestimation of Peer Gun Carrying Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M.; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a…

  12. Gun Carrying by High School Students in Boston, MA: Does Overestimation of Peer Gun Carrying Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemenway, David; Vriniotis, Mary; Johnson, Renee M.; Miller, Matthew; Azrael, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates: (1) whether high school students overestimate gun carrying by their peers, and (2) whether those students who overestimate peer gun carrying are more likely to carry firearms. Data come from a randomly sampled survey conducted in 2008 of over 1700 high school students in Boston, MA. Over 5% of students reported carrying a…

  13. Separating Batterers and Guns: A Review and Analysis of Gun Removal Laws in 50 States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Vernick, Jon S.

    2006-01-01

    Firearms play an important role in lethal domestic violence incidents. The authors review state laws regarding two policies to separate batterers from firearms: laws authorizing police to remove firearms when responding to a domestic violence complaint ("police gun removal laws") and laws authorizing courts to order guns removed from batterers…

  14. Modeling internal ballistics of gas combustion guns.

    PubMed

    Schorge, Volker; Grossjohann, Rico; Schönekess, Holger C; Herbst, Jörg; Bockholdt, Britta; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Frank, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Potato guns are popular homemade guns which work on the principle of gas combustion. They are usually constructed for recreational rather than criminal purposes. Yet some serious injuries and fatalities due to these guns are reported. As information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion-powered guns is scarce, it is the aim of this work to provide an experimental model of the internal ballistics of these devices and to investigate their basic physical parameters. A gas combustion gun was constructed with a steel tube as the main component. Gas/air mixtures of acetylene, hydrogen, and ethylene were used as propellants for discharging a 46-mm caliber test projectile. Gas pressure in the combustion chamber was captured with a piezoelectric pressure sensor. Projectile velocity was measured with a ballistic speed measurement system. The maximum gas pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, the time parameters of the pressure curve, and the velocity and path of the projectile through the barrel as a function of time were determined according to the pressure-time curve. The maximum gas pressure was measured to be between 1.4 bar (ethylene) and 4.5 bar (acetylene). The highest maximum rate of pressure rise was determined for hydrogen at (dp/dt)max = 607 bar/s. The muzzle energy was calculated to be between 67 J (ethylene) and 204 J (acetylene). To conclude, this work provides basic information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion guns. The risk of injury to the operator or bystanders is high, because accidental explosions of the gun due to the high-pressure rise during combustion of the gas/air mixture may occur.

  15. Gun ownership and firearm-related deaths.

    PubMed

    Bangalore, Sripal; Messerli, Franz H

    2013-10-01

    A variety of claims about possible associations between gun ownership rates, mental illness burden, and the risk of firearm-related deaths have been put forward. However, systematic data on this issue among various countries remain scant. Our objective was to assess whether the popular notion "guns make a nation safer" has any merits. Data on gun ownership were obtained from the Small Arms Survey, and for firearm-related deaths from a European detailed mortality database (World Health Organization), the National Center for Health Statistics, and others. Crime rate was used as an indicator of safety of the nation and was obtained from the United Nations Surveys of Crime Trends. Age-standardized disability-adjusted life-year rates due to major depressive disorder per 100,000 inhabitants with data obtained from the World Health Organization database were used as a putative indicator for mental illness burden in a given country. Among the 27 developed countries, there was a significant positive correlation between guns per capita per country and the rate of firearm-related deaths (r = 0.80; P <.0001). In addition, there was a positive correlation (r = 0.52; P = .005) between mental illness burden in a country and firearm-related deaths. However, there was no significant correlation (P = .10) between guns per capita per country and crime rate (r = .33), or between mental illness and crime rate (r = 0.32; P = .11). In a linear regression model with firearm-related deaths as the dependent variable with gun ownership and mental illness as independent covariates, gun ownership was a significant predictor (P <.0001) of firearm-related deaths, whereas mental illness was of borderline significance (P = .05) only. The number of guns per capita per country was a strong and independent predictor of firearm-related death in a given country, whereas the predictive power of the mental illness burden was of borderline significance in a multivariable model. Regardless of exact

  16. Development of plasma cathode electron guns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oks, Efim M.; Schanin, Peter M.

    1999-05-01

    The status of experimental research and ongoing development of plasma cathode electron guns in recent years is reviewed, including some novel upgrades and applications to various technological fields. The attractiveness of this kind of e-gun is due to its capability of creating high current, broad or focused beams, both in pulsed and steady-state modes of operation. An important characteristic of the plasma cathode electron gun is the absence of a thermionic cathode, a feature which leads to long lifetime and reliable operation even in the presence of aggressive background gas media and at fore-vacuum gas pressure ranges such as achieved by mechanical pumps. Depending on the required beam parameters, different kinds of plasma discharge systems can be used in plasma cathode electron guns, such as vacuum arcs, constricted gaseous arcs, hollow cathode glows, and two kinds of discharges in crossed E×B fields: Penning and magnetron. At the present time, plasma cathode electron guns provide beams with transverse dimension from fractional millimeter up to about one meter, beam current from microamperes to kiloamperes, beam current density up to about 100 A/cm2, pulse duration from nanoseconds to dc, and electron energy from several keV to hundreds of keV. Applications include electron beam melting and welding, surface treatment, plasma chemistry, radiation technologies, laser pumping, microwave generation, and more.

  17. ECR ion source with electron gun

    DOEpatents

    Xie, Zu Q.; Lyneis, Claude M.

    1993-01-01

    An Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (10) having an electron gun (52) for introducing electrons into the plasma chamber (18) of the ion source (10). The ion source (10) has a injection enclosure (12) and a plasma chamber tank (14). The plasma chamber (18) is defined by a plurality of longitudinal magnets (16). The electron gun (52) injects electrons axially into the plasma chamber (18) such that ionization within the plasma chamber (18) occurs in the presence of the additional electrons produced by the electron gun (52). The electron gun (52) has a cathode (116) for emitting electrons therefrom which is heated by current supplied from an AC power supply (96) while bias potential is provided by a bias power supply (118). A concentric inner conductor (60) and Outer conductor (62) carry heating current to a carbon chuck (104) and carbon pusher (114) Which hold the cathode (116) in place and also heat the cathode (16). In the Advanced Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source (10), the electron gun (52) replaces the conventional first stage used in prior art electron cyclotron resonance ion generators.

  18. FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  19. FEATURE C. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH REMNANT OF MOUNT, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE C. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH REMNANT OF MOUNT, VIEW FACING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Battery-Machine Gun Positions, South of Point Cruz Road & west of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  20. FEATURE B. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH LEWIS MOUNT, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE B. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH LEWIS MOUNT, VIEW FACING NORTHWEST (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Battery-Machine Gun Positions, South of Point Cruz Road & west of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Mole guns in Turkey in 2003-2005.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Riza; Birincioğlu, Ismail; Cakir, Ismail; Uner, H Bülent; Açikgöz, Dinç; Seçkin, Cetin

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the frequency of mole guns in Turkey by examining the cases sent to the Council of Forensic Medicine of Turkey between 2003 and 2005. In total, 11 mole guns were examined. Mole guns are manufactured to be used as a trap against detrimental animals. Although they are not meant to be used as a firearm, they are able to cause death. Mole guns appearing in regular casework were evaluated in terms of type of the gun, number of barrels, size and caliber, rifling, design, mechanism, fitness for use, legality, and geographical distribution. Ninety-one percent of the guns were 12 gauge. Most commonly they originate from Inner Anatolia. Mole guns are typically handmade. Some examples of injuries and deaths caused by mole guns are also offered.

  2. FEATURE 1, SMALL GUN POSITION, VIEW FACING NORTH. Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 1, SMALL GUN POSITION, VIEW FACING NORTH. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Small Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  3. FEATURE A. CONCRETE ANTIAIRCRAFT GUN POSITION, VIEW FACING NORTHNORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE A. CONCRETE ANTI-AIRCRAFT GUN POSITION, VIEW FACING NORTH-NORTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Battery-Anti-Aircraft Gun Position, South of Point Cruz Road & west of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  4. FEATURE B. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH LEWIS MOUNT, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE B. MACHINE GUN POSITION WITH LEWIS MOUNT, VIEW FACING NORTHWEST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Battery-Machine Gun Positions, South of Point Cruz Road & west of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 6. INTERIOR DETAIL OF GUN MOUNT ON TERRACE, LOOKING EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR DETAIL OF GUN MOUNT ON TERRACE, LOOKING EAST (1992). - Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Area B, Building 22, Armament Laboratory & Gun Range, On flightline between Tenth & Eleventh Streets, Dayton, Montgomery County, OH

  6. FEATURE A. CONCRETE ANTIAIRCRAFT GUN POSITION, VIEW FACING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE A. CONCRETE ANTI-AIRCRAFT GUN POSITION, VIEW FACING NORTH - NORTHEAST (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Battery-Anti-Aircraft Gun Position, South of Point Cruz Road & west of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  7. FEATURE 1, SMALL GUN POSITION, VIEW FACING NORTH, (with scale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 1, SMALL GUN POSITION, VIEW FACING NORTH, (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Small Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  8. FEATURE A. CONCRETE ANTIAIRCRAFT GUN POSITION, SHOWING CORAL RUBBLE BERM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE A. CONCRETE ANTI-AIRCRAFT GUN POSITION, SHOWING CORAL RUBBLE BERM, VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Battery-Anti-Aircraft Gun Position, South of Point Cruz Road & west of Coral Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  9. 13. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), VIEW NORTH AT SOUTH END OF BUILDING. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  10. [Comparison of wound morphology following gunshots by machine guns and sub-machine guns].

    PubMed

    Grellner, W; Madea, B

    1999-01-01

    Automatic weapons such as machine guns and submachine guns are found in the German-speaking region only in special army and police units and appear accordingly rarely in homicides, suicides and accidents. In the following, the findings in two cases of death with the use of machine and submachine guns are presented. The first case was a fatal accident during shooting on a training area (current machine gun of the German army, calibre 7.62 x 51 mm), the second case was a killing during a physical conflict (submachine gun MP 40 from World War II, calibre 9 x 19 mm). In the case with the machine gun autopsy disclosed typical entry holes corresponding to the calibre, but unusually large exit wounds with tissue bridges in the wound ground, measuring 4 x 2.5 cm in diameter. By contrast, the second case (submachine gun) showed "normal" entry and exit wounds. The differences are mainly caused by deviating ballistic data of the ammunition used. They are discussed against the background of literature on wound ballistics.

  11. Gun requirements to achieve high field spheromaks

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, T K

    1999-03-04

    It is shown that a gun similar to that in the SSPX could demonstrate the high fields required for Pulsed Spheromak reactors merely by prolonging the pulse. Important considerations are choosing the voltage to exceed ohmic losses; designing the gun to avoid wasteful short-circuiting of current within the gun; and the injection efficiency factor, f, determined by the ''sag'' in the profile of {lambda} = {mu}{sub o}j/B. Typically f = 0.75 in experiments, giving an overall efficiency > 50 % if short-circuiting is avoided. Theoretical transport models agree qualitatively with the need for a finite gradient in h to pump in helicity by current-driven tearing modes and suggest that pressure-driven resistive modes would not compete with current-driven modes during a buildup to ohmic ignition.

  12. The Real Costs of Gun Violence

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, Philip J.

    2001-03-14

    I will report some of the results in my new book, 'Gun Violence: The Real Costs' (Oxford University Press, 2000; with Jens Ludwig). The problem of gun violence is usually summarized by statistics on deaths and injuries. Those statistics tell only part of the story. All of us bear some of the burden of gun violence, at least in the form of higher taxes and waiting to go through the airport security checks. But that's just the beginning. The extraordinary reductions in lethal violence that occurred during the 1990s help account for rising property values and urban renewal; further reductions are possible and would do still more to enhance the average standard of living. This talk will explain why the economic perspective provides a fresh, useful point of view on violence, and will discuss the technique used to arrive at an estimate of the magnitude of the burden.

  13. Secondary emission electron gun using external primaries

    DOEpatents

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni [Shoreham, NY; Ben-Zvi, Ilan [Setauket, NY

    2009-10-13

    An electron gun for generating an electron beam is provided, which includes a secondary emitter. The secondary emitter includes a non-contaminating negative-electron-affinity (NEA) material and emitting surface. The gun includes an accelerating region which accelerates the secondaries from the emitting surface. The secondaries are emitted in response to a primary beam generated external to the accelerating region. The accelerating region may include a superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavity, and the gun may be operated in a continuous wave (CW) mode. The secondary emitter includes hydrogenated diamond. A uniform electrically conductive layer is superposed on the emitter to replenish the extracted current, preventing charging of the emitter. An encapsulated secondary emission enhanced cathode device, useful in a superconducting RF cavity, includes a housing for maintaining vacuum, a cathode, e.g., a photocathode, and the non-contaminating NEA secondary emitter with the uniform electrically conductive layer superposed thereon.

  14. Secondary emission electron gun using external primaries

    DOEpatents

    Srinivasan-Rao, Triveni; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Kewisch, Jorg; Chang, Xiangyun

    2007-06-05

    An electron gun for generating an electron beam is provided, which includes a secondary emitter. The secondary emitter includes a non-contaminating negative-electron-affinity (NEA) material and emitting surface. The gun includes an accelerating region which accelerates the secondaries from the emitting surface. The secondaries are emitted in response to a primary beam generated external to the accelerating region. The accelerating region may include a superconducting radio frequency (RF) cavity, and the gun may be operated in a continuous wave (CW) mode. The secondary emitter includes hydrogenated diamond. A uniform electrically conductive layer is superposed on the emitter to replenish the extracted current, preventing charging of the emitter. An encapsulated secondary emission enhanced cathode device, useful in a superconducting RF cavity, includes a housing for maintaining vacuum, a cathode, e.g., a photocathode, and the non-contaminating NEA secondary emitter with the uniform electrically conductive layer superposed thereon.

  15. Simulations of Gaussian electron guns for RHIC electron lens

    SciTech Connect

    Pikin, A.

    2014-02-28

    Simulations of two versions of the electron gun for RHIC electron lens are presented. The electron guns have to generate an electron beam with Gaussian radial profile of the electron beam density. To achieve the Gaussian electron emission profile on the cathode we used a combination of the gun electrodes and shaping of the cathode surface. Dependence of electron gun performance parameters on the geometry of electrodes and the margins for electrodes positioning are presented.

  16. Plasma Dynamics of the Arc-Driven Rail Gun

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    AO-A^JX^1^ TECHNICAL LIBRARY AD TECHNICAL REPORT ARBRL-TR-02267 PLASMA DYNAMICS OF THE ARC-DRIVEN RAIL GUN JohnD. Powell JadH. Batteh...T]T\\.E (and Subtitle) Plasma Dynamics of the Arc-Driven Rail Gun 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHORfa...Electric gun , rail gun , electromagnetic propulsion, plasma dynamics, fluid mechanics 2Q. ABSTRACT (Conttttue am reverse aid* tf necessary and

  17. Improved DC Gun and Insulator Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, Michael

    2015-01-11

    Many user facilities such as synchrotron radiation light sources and free electron lasers rely on DC high voltage photoguns with internal field gradients as high as 10 to 15 MV/m. These high gradients often lead to field emission which poses serious problems for the photocathode used to generate the electron beam and the ceramic insulators used to bias the photocathode at high voltage. Ceramic insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and have poor reliability, in part because energetic electrons bury themselves in the ceramic causing a buildup of charge and eventual puncture, and also because large diameter ceramics are difficult to braze reliably. The lifetimes of photo cathodes inside high current DC guns exhibiting field emission are limited to less than a hundred hours. Reducing the surface gradients on the metals reduces the field emission, which serves to maintain the required ultrahigh vacuum condition. A novel gun design with gradients around 5 MV/m and operating at 350 kV, a major improvement over existing designs, was proposed that allows for the in-situ replacement of photo cathodes in axially symmetric designs using inverted ceramics. In this project, the existing JLAB CEBAF asymmetric gun design with an inverted ceramic support was modeled and the beam dynamics characterized. An improved structure was designed that reduces the surface gradients and improves the beam optics. To minimize the surface gradients, a number of electrostatic gun designs were studied to determine the optimum configuration of the critical electrodes within the gun structure. Coating experiments were carried out to create a charge dissipative coating for cylindrical ceramics. The phase II proposal, which was not granted, included the design and fabrication of an axially symmetric DC Gun with an inverted ceramic that would operate with less than 5 MV/m at 350 kV and would be designed with an in-situ replaceable photo-cathode.

  18. Dynamics Modelling of Biolistic Gene Guns

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M.; Tao, W.; Pianetta, P.A.

    2009-06-04

    The gene transfer process using biolistic gene guns is a highly dynamic process. To achieve good performance, the process needs to be well understood and controlled. Unfortunately, no dynamic model is available in the open literature for analysing and controlling the process. This paper proposes such a model. Relationships of the penetration depth with the helium pressure, the penetration depth with the acceleration distance, and the penetration depth with the micro-carrier radius are presented. Simulations have also been conducted. The results agree well with experimental results in the open literature. The contribution of this paper includes a dynamic model for improving and manipulating performance of the biolistic gene gun.

  19. Controlled-Temperature Hot-Air Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    Materials that find applications in wind tunnels first tested in laboratory. Hot-Air Gun differs from commercial units in that flow rate and temperature monitored and controlled. With typical compressed-airsupply pressure of 25 to 38 psi (170 to 260 kPa), flow rate and maximum temperature are 34 stdft3/min (0.96 stdm3/min) and 1,090 degrees F (590 degrees C), respectively. Resembling elaborate but carefully regulated hot-air gun, setup used to apply blasts of air temperatures above 1,500 degrees F (815 degrees C) to test specimens.

  20. Nb-Pb Superconducting RF Gun

    SciTech Connect

    Sekutowicz, J.; Iversen, J.; Kreps, G.; Moller, W.D.; Singer, W.; Singer, X.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Smedley, J.; Rao, T.; Ferrario, M.; Kneisel, P.; Langner, J.; Strzyzewski, P.; Lefferts, R.; Lipski, A.; Szalowski, K.; Ko, K.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC

    2006-03-29

    We report on the status of an electron RF-gun made of two superconductors: niobium and lead. The presented design combines the advantages of the RF performance of bulk niobium superconducting cavities and the reasonably high quantum efficiency of lead, as compared to other superconducting metals. The concept, mentioned in a previous paper, follows the attractive approach of all niobium superconducting RF-gun as it has been proposed by the BNL group. Measured values of quantum efficiency for lead at various photon energies, analysis of recombination time of photon-broken Cooper pairs for lead and niobium, and preliminary cold test results are discussed in this paper.

  1. Nb-Pb superconducting RF gun

    SciTech Connect

    J. Sekutowicz; J. Iversen; G. Kreps; W.D. Moller; W. Singer; X. Singer; I. Ben-Zvi; A. Burrill; J. Smedley; T. Rao; M. Ferrario; P. Kneisel; J. Langner; P. Strzyzewski; R. Lefferts; A. Lipski; K. Szalowski; K. Ko; L. Xiao

    2006-04-14

    We report on the status of an electron RF-gun made of two superconductors: niobium and lead. The presented design combines the advantages of the RF performance of bulk niobium superconducting cavities and the reasonably high quantum efficiency of lead, as compared to other superconducting metals. The concept, mentioned in a previous paper, follows the attractive approach of all niobium superconducting RF-gun as it has been proposed by the BNL group. Measured values of quantum efficiency for lead at various photon energies, analysis of recombination time of photon-broken Cooper pairs for lead and niobium, and preliminary cold test results are discussed in this paper.

  2. Do guns provide safety? At what cost?

    PubMed

    Narang, Puneet; Paladugu, Anubha; Manda, Sainath Reddy; Smock, William; Gosnay, Cynthia; Lippmann, Steven

    2010-02-01

    Many people feel that having a gun provides greater safety for them and their family. Actually, having a firearm in the home escalates the risk for death or injury, while using it to shoot someone who endangers the household is much less common. The resultant injuries, deaths, emotional turmoil, and/or disabilities lead to greater utilization of health care and legal/police services. Payment for these expenses is provided by higher insurance premiums and tax rates. This financial aspect has become a part of our country's current political concern over firearm ownership rights, gun violence or regulation, health care costs, the economy, and taxes.

  3. Calculation of Blowout Gun Nozzle Temperatures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    0) = - 9.7 + 0.0094 T, where T is the peak surface temperature in Kelvin and wear is expressed as y/shot. To test how well the dependence of wear on...interior ballistic parameters such as charge weight, flame temperature, gun diameter, and peak pressure .^’^ 2 "Hypewelooity Guns and the Control...computations are listed in Table 3. The term, B/W, is used to relate burning rate, r, with chamber pressure , P, and propellant web, W, by r = (P

  4. Controlled-Temperature Hot-Air Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, M. C.

    1986-01-01

    Materials that find applications in wind tunnels first tested in laboratory. Hot-Air Gun differs from commercial units in that flow rate and temperature monitored and controlled. With typical compressed-airsupply pressure of 25 to 38 psi (170 to 260 kPa), flow rate and maximum temperature are 34 stdft3/min (0.96 stdm3/min) and 1,090 degrees F (590 degrees C), respectively. Resembling elaborate but carefully regulated hot-air gun, setup used to apply blasts of air temperatures above 1,500 degrees F (815 degrees C) to test specimens.

  5. Negative Transconductance in Apertured Electron Guns

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J R; O'Shea, P G

    2007-09-21

    Passing an electron beam through an aperture can serve to reduce the beam current or change the transverse beam profile. For a sufficiently intense beam, space charge will drive a radial expansion of the beam, which may cause the current passing through the aperture to increase even though the current arriving at the aperture is decreasing. When a gridded electron gun is used, this may be expressed by stating that the transconductance of the apertured gun is negative. Here we explain this effect, and explore some of the key factors governing when it can occur and influencing its strength.

  6. Youth, Guns, and the Juvenile Justice System. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Jeffrey; Coggeshall, Mark; Gouvis, Caterina; Mears, Daniel; Travis, Jeremy; Waul, Michelle; White, Ruth

    This report documents trends in youth gun violence and the response within the justice system, noting the growing variety of data resources available to investigate the effect of new gun laws on youth, communities, and public safety. The first section reviews recent trends, examining the major wave of gun violence in the United States during the…

  7. Are medical societies developing a standard for gun injury prevention?

    PubMed

    Longjohn, M M; Christoffel, K K

    2004-06-01

    Following heightened gun violence in the 1990s, many medical societies in the United States adopted policies on the topic. Identify points of firearm violence policy agreement among large medical organizations. Fourteen national medical societies-clinical focus, demonstrated interest in gun injury prevention, >2000 members-were selected for policy review in 2002. Policies were categorized on areas covered and items within these. Consensus areas were addressed by >/=7/14 societies. Consensus items were included by >/=7/14 societies, shared items by 5-6. There were five consensus areas: access prevention, gun commerce, research, public education, and clinical counseling. There were four consensus items: restricting gun access by enforcing existing laws, restricting access to all guns at the point of sale, restricting access to handguns at the point of sale, and creating a national database on gun injury and death. Shared items promote violence prevention, clinical education on risks of guns in the home, treating guns as consumer products, restricting gun access to children, bans on automatic weapons, and promoting trigger locks. Large medical societies in the United States agree on key approaches for reducing gun injury mortality and morbidity. Future research will be needed to track the evolution of this emerging standard for physician action, which now includes the consensus areas and items. It promises to be, in effect, a medical standard of care for gun injury prevention. The United States experience may be useful to others working on gun injury prevention.

  8. 78 FR 11902 - Review of Gun Safety Technologies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... of Justice Programs Review of Gun Safety Technologies AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, JPO, DOJ. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Following the President's Plan to reduce gun violence released on January 16...) is conducting a review of existing and emerging gun safety technologies and plans to issue a report...

  9. Should Gun Safety Be Taught in Schools? Perspectives of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Background: Gun-related injuries and deaths among children occur at disproportionately high rates in the United States. Children who live in homes with guns are the most likely victims. This study describes teachers' views on whether gun safety should be taught to children in the preschool and elementary years. Methods: A total of 150 survey…

  10. Spot-Welding Gun Is Easy To Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Nguyen, Francis H.

    1991-01-01

    Electrical-resistance spot-welding gun designed to produce more welds per unit time by decreasing technician's effort and fatigue. Vacuum cups on frame secure welding gun to workpiece while compressed air drives welding tip against workpiece to make spot resistance weld. When weld completed, vacuum in frame cups released so frame and gun moved to position of next spot weld.

  11. Gun Violence and Children: Factors Related To Exposure and Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovak, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Study investigated relationship between access to firearms and parental monitoring on rural youths' exposure to gun violence, and examined the effect of gun violence exposure on mental health. Results indicated a substantial number were exposed to gun violence. Exposure was related to firearm access and parental monitoring. Implications for social…

  12. VIEW OF SOUTH GUN EMPLACEMENT. NOTE THE EXCAVATED EDGE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTH GUN EMPLACEMENT. NOTE THE EXCAVATED EDGE OF THE GUN BLOCK IN THE FOREGROUND. VIEW FACING NORTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, South Gun Emplacement, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. Gun Violence and Children: Factors Related To Exposure and Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovak, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Study investigated relationship between access to firearms and parental monitoring on rural youths' exposure to gun violence, and examined the effect of gun violence exposure on mental health. Results indicated a substantial number were exposed to gun violence. Exposure was related to firearm access and parental monitoring. Implications for social…

  14. Should Gun Safety Be Taught in Schools? Perspectives of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeng, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Background: Gun-related injuries and deaths among children occur at disproportionately high rates in the United States. Children who live in homes with guns are the most likely victims. This study describes teachers' views on whether gun safety should be taught to children in the preschool and elementary years. Methods: A total of 150 survey…

  15. Spot-Welding Gun Is Easy To Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Nguyen, Francis H.

    1991-01-01

    Electrical-resistance spot-welding gun designed to produce more welds per unit time by decreasing technician's effort and fatigue. Vacuum cups on frame secure welding gun to workpiece while compressed air drives welding tip against workpiece to make spot resistance weld. When weld completed, vacuum in frame cups released so frame and gun moved to position of next spot weld.

  16. Frequency of Guns in the Households of High School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Ann L.; Bush, Heather M.; Follingstad, Diane R.; Brancato, Candace J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In 2013, President Obama lifted the federal ban on gun violence research. The current study provides one of the first reports to estimate household gun ownership as reported by youth. Methods: In this cohort study of 3,006 high school seniors from 24 schools, we examined the frequency of household guns ownership. Results: About 65%…

  17. Frequency of Guns in the Households of High School Seniors.

    PubMed

    Coker, Ann L; Bush, Heather M; Follingstad, Diane R; Brancato, Candace J

    2017-03-01

    In 2013, President Obama lifted the federal ban on gun violence research. The current study provides one of the first reports to estimate household gun ownership as reported by youth. In this cohort study of 3006 high school seniors from 24 schools, we examined the frequency of household guns ownership. About 65% reported having at least 1 gun in their household. White males were more likely to have a gun and to have more guns than other demographically characterized groups. After adjustment for race and sex, those of higher income, who lived in suburban or rural areas, identified as being exclusively attracted to the opposite sex, and in a romantic relationship, were more likely to have a gun in their household. Having a gun was not associated with increasing symptoms of depression or current poor physical or mental health. Whereas we cannot determine gun types or reasons for having a gun, this research indicates that high school seniors are aware of and may have access to guns for use other than their intended purpose. Household gun ownership among students at higher risk for violence may pose safety challenges for communities and schools. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  18. Frequency of Guns in the Households of High School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Ann L.; Bush, Heather M.; Follingstad, Diane R.; Brancato, Candace J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In 2013, President Obama lifted the federal ban on gun violence research. The current study provides one of the first reports to estimate household gun ownership as reported by youth. Methods: In this cohort study of 3,006 high school seniors from 24 schools, we examined the frequency of household guns ownership. Results: About 65%…

  19. Is There a Gun in the House? Gun Safety in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    Written in a conversational style with illustrations, this booklet from a series of home literacy readers is directed at the Alaskan environment where guns are a way of life, used for food and defense from animals. But more than 10% of the 1,300 U.S. deaths from gun accidents occur in Alaska, and more than 70%, at home. Nearly half the victims are…

  20. Is There a Gun in the House? Gun Safety in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Rosanne

    Written in a conversational style with illustrations, this booklet from a series of home literacy readers is directed at the Alaskan environment where guns are a way of life, used for food and defense from animals. But more than 10% of the 1,300 U.S. deaths from gun accidents occur in Alaska, and more than 70%, at home. Nearly half the victims are…

  1. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  2. Performance of a carbon nanotube field emission electron gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getty, Stephanie A.; King, Todd T.; Bis, Rachael A.; Jones, Hollis H.; Herrero, Federico; Lynch, Bernard A.; Roman, Patrick; Mahaffy, Paul

    2007-04-01

    A cold cathode field emission electron gun (e-gun) based on a patterned carbon nanotube (CNT) film has been fabricated for use in a miniaturized reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (RTOF MS), with future applications in other charged particle spectrometers, and performance of the CNT e-gun has been evaluated. A thermionic electron gun has also been fabricated and evaluated in parallel and its performance is used as a benchmark in the evaluation of our CNT e-gun. Implications for future improvements and integration into the RTOF MS are discussed.

  3. Safety Plan for Schools: No Guns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    In a pre-emptive move against a school safety proposal from the National Rifle Association that is expected to include a call for more people trained and approved to carry guns at schools, a coalition of civil rights and education groups unveiled its own safety plan last week. It seeks the creation of positive school climates, thoughtful and…

  4. Toward a terahertz-driven electron gun

    PubMed Central

    Huang, W. Ronny; Nanni, Emilio A.; Ravi, Koustuban; Hong, Kyung-Han; Fallahi, Arya; Wong, Liang Jie; Keathley, Phillip D.; Zapata, Luis E.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2015-01-01

    Femtosecond electron bunches with keV energies and eV energy spread are needed by condensed matter physicists to resolve state transitions in carbon nanotubes, molecular structures, organic salts, and charge density wave materials. These semirelativistic electron sources are not only of interest for ultrafast electron diffraction, but also for electron energy-loss spectroscopy and as a seed for x-ray FELs. Thus far, the output energy spread (hence pulse duration) of ultrafast electron guns has been limited by the achievable electric field at the surface of the emitter, which is 10 MV/m for DC guns and 200 MV/m for RF guns. A single-cycle THz electron gun provides a unique opportunity to not only achieve GV/m surface electric fields but also with relatively low THz pulse energies, since a single-cycle transform-limited waveform is the most efficient way to achieve intense electric fields. Here, electron bunches of 50 fC from a flat copper photocathode are accelerated from rest to tens of eV by a microjoule THz pulse with peak electric field of 72 MV/m at 1 kHz repetition rate. We show that scaling to the readily-available GV/m THz field regime would translate to monoenergetic electron beams of ~100 keV. PMID:26486697

  5. Guns on Campus: A Chilling Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mash, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    The author of this article observes that, while much has been written on the overall topic of safety with regard to allowing guns on college campuses, little has been said about how allowing the possession of deadly weapons can create a "chilling effect" on academic discussions. This article considers how some universities have…

  6. Gene gun immunization to combat malaria.

    PubMed

    Bergmann-Leitner, Elke S; Leitner, Wolfgang W

    2013-01-01

    DNA immunization by gene gun against a variety of infectious diseases has yielded promising results in animal models. Skin-based DNA vaccination against these diseases is not only an attractive option for the clinic but can aid in the discovery and optimization of vaccine candidates. Vaccination against the protozoan parasite Plasmodium presents unique challenges: (a) most parasite-associated antigens are stage-specific; (b) antibodies capable of neutralizing the parasite during the probing of the mosquitoes have to be available at high titers in order to prevent infection of the liver; (c) immunity to liver-stage infection needs to be absolute in order to prevent subsequent blood-stage parasitemia. Gene gun vaccination has successfully been used to prevent the infection of mice with the rodent malaria strain P. berghei and has been employed in a macaque model of human P. falciparum. DNA plasmid delivery by gene gun offers the opportunity to economically and efficiently test novel malaria vaccine candidates and vaccination strategies, which include the evaluation of novel molecular adjuvant strategies. Here we describe the procedures involved in making and delivering a pre-clinical malaria DNA vaccine by gene gun as well as the correct approach for the in vivo evaluation of the vaccine. Furthermore, we discuss various approaches that either have already been tested or could be employed to improve DNA vaccines against malaria.

  7. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    DOEpatents

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Yonas, Gerold

    2017-01-03

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided by a cavitating venturi that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated.

  8. Nerf Guns Strike a Nerve on Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Killing zombies on campus just isn't as much fun as it used to be. Students at Bowling Green State University once carried Nerf guns for a week each semester, shooting the zombies before the creatures could tag them. Participants were seen by most bystanders as nerdy but harmless kids who liked role-playing. These days, bright plastic Nerf guns…

  9. Collapsible pistons for light-gas guns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teng, R. N.

    1973-01-01

    Moving and expandable parts of gun consist of pump-tube diaphragm, piston, launch-tube diaphragm, and saboted projectile. As a result of improved piston design, pressure cycle has been significantly improved by smoother buildup, increasing muzzle velocities up to 50%.

  10. Spray Gun With Constant Mixing Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, William G.

    1987-01-01

    Conceptual mechanism mounted in handle of spray gun maintains constant ratio between volumetric flow rates in two channels leading to spray head. With mechanism, possible to keep flow ratio near 1:1 (or another desired ratio) over range of temperatures, orifice or channel sizes, or clogging conditions.

  11. Common Sense Copper and RF Guns

    SciTech Connect

    Mulhollan, G.

    2005-01-18

    The purpose of this document is to gather together both fundamental information on copper and on the cleaning and operation of copper in RF gun structures. While incomplete, this is a living document and will be added to and updated as necessary.

  12. Understanding air-gun bubble behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.T. )

    1994-11-01

    An air-gun bubble behaves approximately as a spherical bubble of an ideal gas in an infinite volume of practically incompressible water. With this simplification, the equation of bubble motion and its far-field signature is more understandable than with the more exact theory commonly cited in the literature. The terms of the equation of bubble motion are explained using elementary physics and mathematics, computation of numerical results is outlined, and an example signature is shown. An air-gun bubble is analogous to a simple harmonic oscillator consisting of a mass on a spring, with an equivalent mass equal three times that of the water displaced by the bubble, and air pressure following an ideal gas law corresponding to a spring. With this understanding, one is prepared to deal with the effects of interactions among air guns and with the high-order terms and other features that must be included to model the air-gun signature of actual seismic source arrays.

  13. Effective launch package integration for electromagnetic guns

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, T.E.; Dethlefsen, R.; Price, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    Many engineering disciplines must be considered when designing launch packages for electromagnetic guns. These include electromechanics, plasma physics, fluid dynamics, structures, materials science, aerodynamics, thermodynamics, flight dynamics, and terminal effects. Often, the requirements of one discipline will be in direct conflict with the requirements of another. Each discipline can claim to be of overriding importance, but all aspects of launch package design must be considered if the gun system is to succeed in its mission. Choices must be made regarding launch package configuration. Base-pushing or mid-riding solutions are possible with solid, hybrid or plasma armatures. Fully optimized launch package designs must be used in comparisons to find the actual optimal design point. The most effective design for one gun system will not necessarily be the most effective for another. This paper discusses the interplay among the various engineering disciplines involved in launch package design. Successful testing of integrated projectile/armature/sabot configurations from 90 mm EM guns is reviewed.

  14. Nerf Guns Strike a Nerve on Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Killing zombies on campus just isn't as much fun as it used to be. Students at Bowling Green State University once carried Nerf guns for a week each semester, shooting the zombies before the creatures could tag them. Participants were seen by most bystanders as nerdy but harmless kids who liked role-playing. These days, bright plastic Nerf guns…

  15. Capital Punishment, Gun Ownership, and Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleck, Gary

    1979-01-01

    Examines two controversial questions related to the problem of interpersonal violence in America: (1) Does use of the death penalty exert any measurable influence on the rate of homicide in the United States? (2) What relationship, if any, exists between the level of gun ownership and the level of homicide violence? (Author)

  16. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  17. Youth Suicide and Guns. Firearm Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Whether or not a suicide attempt results in death depends in large part on the method chosen. If a teenager attempts suicide with a gun, his or her death is nearly guaranteed. This brief fact sheet presents data on firearms and suicide, the third leading cause of death for adolescents and young adults in the United States. Any number of societal…

  18. Recreational Gun Use by California Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vittes, Katherine A.; Sorenson, Susan B.

    2005-01-01

    Most research on adolescents and firearms focuses on urban populations, handguns, and homicide. This study examines the prevalence and correlates of recreational gun use (RGU)--for hunting or target shooting--among 5,801 community-residing 12- to 17-year-old Californians. Data are from the first statewide California Health Interview Survey (CHIS),…

  19. Protect Children Instead of Guns, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    Noting that firearms outnumber children by a margin of almost three to one in the United States, this report advocates gun safety policies to protect children. The report provides information on trends in youth firearm deaths and finds the statistics alarming, despite recent decline. The first of three tables in the report delineates 1979-1999…

  20. Safety Plan for Schools: No Guns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2013-01-01

    In a pre-emptive move against a school safety proposal from the National Rifle Association that is expected to include a call for more people trained and approved to carry guns at schools, a coalition of civil rights and education groups unveiled its own safety plan last week. It seeks the creation of positive school climates, thoughtful and…

  1. Capital Punishment, Gun Ownership, and Homicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleck, Gary

    1979-01-01

    Examines two controversial questions related to the problem of interpersonal violence in America: (1) Does use of the death penalty exert any measurable influence on the rate of homicide in the United States? (2) What relationship, if any, exists between the level of gun ownership and the level of homicide violence? (Author)

  2. Spray Gun With Constant Mixing Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, William G.

    1987-01-01

    Conceptual mechanism mounted in handle of spray gun maintains constant ratio between volumetric flow rates in two channels leading to spray head. With mechanism, possible to keep flow ratio near 1:1 (or another desired ratio) over range of temperatures, orifice or channel sizes, or clogging conditions.

  3. RF Gun Photocathode Research at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Jongewaard, E.; Akre, R.; Brachmann, A.; Corbett, J.; Gilevich, S.; Grouev, K.; Hering, P.; P.Krejcik,; Lewandowski, J.; Loos, H.; Montagne, T.; Sheppard, J.C.; Stefan, P.; Vlieks, A.; Weathersby, S.; Zhou, F.; /SLAC

    2012-05-16

    LCLS is presently operating with a third copper photocathode in the original rf gun, with a quantum efficiency (QE) of {approx}1 x 10{sup -4} and projected emittance {gamma}{var_epsilon}{sub x,y} = 0.45 {micro}m at 250 pC bunch charge. The spare LCLS gun is installed in the SLAC Accelerator Structure Test Area (ASTA), fully processed to high rf power. As part of a wider photocathode R and D program, a UV laser system and additional gun diagnostics are being installed at ASTA to measure QE, QE lifetime, and electron beam emittance under a variety of operating conditions. The near-term goals are to test and verify the spare photocathode production/installation sequence, including transfer from the final holding chamber to the rf gun. Mid- and longer-term goals include development of a rigorous understanding of plasma and laser-assisted surface conditioning and investigation of new, high-QE photocathode materials. In parallel, an x-ray photoemission spectroscopy station is nearing completion, to analyze Cu photocathode surface chemistry. In this paper we review the status and anticipated operating parameters of ASTA and the spectroscopy test chamber.

  4. Factors affecting penetrating captive bolt gun performance.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Troy J; Mason, Charles W; Spence, Jade Y; Barker, Heather; Gregory, Neville G

    2015-01-01

    Captive bolt stunning is used for rendering livestock insensible at slaughter. The mechanical factors relating to performance of 6 penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG) models were examined. The Matador Super Sécurit 3000 and the .25 Cash Euro Stunner had the highest kinetic energy values (443 J and 412 J, respectively) of the CBGs tested. Ninety percent (27/30) of CBGs held at a government gun repository (United Kingdom) were found to have performed at a normal standard for the model, while 53% (10/19) of commercial contractor CBGs tested were found to underperform for the gun model. When the .22 Cash Special was fired 500 times at 4 shots per min, the gun reached a peak temperature of 88.8°C after 2.05 hr. Repeat firing during extended periods significantly reduced the performance of the CBG. When deciding on the appropriate CBG/cartridge combination, the kinetic energy delivered to the head of the nonhuman animal, bolt penetration depth, and species/animal type must be considered. It is recommended that CBGs are routinely checked for wear to the bolt and barrel if they are repeatedly fired in a session.

  5. Glow discharge initiation with electron gun assist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtrop, K. L.; Jackson, G. L.; Schaubel, K. M.; Kellman, A. G.

    1991-11-01

    Helium glow discharge conditioning is used before every discharge in the D3-D Tokamak to desorb hydrogen and low Z impurities from the graphite and Inconel plasma facing surfaces. However high gas pressure is required to initiate each glow discharge session and this requires frequent cycling of valves to protect pressure sensitive devices. To alleviate this mechanical fatigue an electron gun assisted glow system (EAG) is being installed on the D3-D vessel to lower the initiation pressure. Through the injection of electrons the initiation pressure of the helium glow discharge has been lowered by a factor of 70, bringing the initiation pressure within a factor of 2 of the minimum sustaining pressure of the glow discharge. This might also make possible pulsed glow conditioning which would allow a lower average pressure during glow conditioning reducing the heat load on proposed cryogenic pumping panels. Experimental results of the electron assist on He glow initiation and a scaling model for the electron gun assisted glow will be presented. The electron gun can also be used as a diagnostic. Without a glow discharge, the electron gun has been pulsed into the wall and desorbed gas measured by a Residual Gas Analyzer. We are attempting to correlate the desorbed gas with recycling or vessel cleanliness.

  6. Recreational Gun Use by California Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vittes, Katherine A.; Sorenson, Susan B.

    2005-01-01

    Most research on adolescents and firearms focuses on urban populations, handguns, and homicide. This study examines the prevalence and correlates of recreational gun use (RGU)--for hunting or target shooting--among 5,801 community-residing 12- to 17-year-old Californians. Data are from the first statewide California Health Interview Survey (CHIS),…

  7. Protect Children Instead of Guns, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    Noting that firearms outnumber children by a margin of almost three to one in the United States, this report advocates gun safety policies to protect children. The report provides information on trends in youth firearm deaths and finds the statistics alarming, despite recent decline. The first of three tables in the report delineates 1979-1999…

  8. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  9. Mystery of the Desert Gun Turret

    DOE PAGES

    Hoffman, R. D.; Leslie, J. R.

    2017-08-01

    America's vast deserts are a depository for many strange items and people, but few are stranger than a main gun turret from a heroic World War Two cruiser combined with the fact the turret is located on a nuclear test range. This article describes the history surrounding the area.

  10. Issue Management and the Australian Gun Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Christopher

    1997-01-01

    Examines the rise and fall of media coverage of the issues of gun control and political conflict in Australia after an incident of mass murder in April 1996. Aims to reveal the issue management process that occurred and the hidden agendas that motivated the political and media activity. Demonstrates the media's role in the creation of issue…

  11. Issue Management and the Australian Gun Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Christopher

    1997-01-01

    Examines the rise and fall of media coverage of the issues of gun control and political conflict in Australia after an incident of mass murder in April 1996. Aims to reveal the issue management process that occurred and the hidden agendas that motivated the political and media activity. Demonstrates the media's role in the creation of issue…

  12. Performance of photocathode rf gun electron accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, I.

    1993-07-01

    In Photo-Injectors (PI) electron guns, electrons are emitted from a photocathode by a short laser pulse and then accelerated by intense rf fields in a resonant cavity. The best known advantage of this technique is the high peak current with a good emittance (high brightness). This is important for short wavelength Free-Electron Lasers and linear colliders. PIs are in operation in many electron accelerator facilities and a large number of new guns are under construction. Some applications have emerged, providing, for example, very high pulse charges. PIs have been operated over a wide range of frequencies, from 144 to 3000 MHz (a 17 GHz gun is being developed). An exciting new possibility is the development of superconducting PIs. A significant body of experimental and theoretical work exists by now, indicating the criticality of the accelerator elements that follow the gun for the preservation of the PI`s performance as well as possible avenues of improvements in brightness. Considerable research is being done on the laser and photocathode material of the PI, and improvement is expected in this area.

  13. Performance of photocathode rf gun electron accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Zvi, I.

    1993-01-01

    In Photo-Injectors (PI) electron guns, electrons are emitted from a photocathode by a short laser pulse and then accelerated by intense rf fields in a resonant cavity. The best known advantage of this technique is the high peak current with a good emittance (high brightness). This is important for short wavelength Free-Electron Lasers and linear colliders. PIs are in operation in many electron accelerator facilities and a large number of new guns are under construction. Some applications have emerged, providing, for example, very high pulse charges. PIs have been operated over a wide range of frequencies, from 144 to 3000 MHz (a 17 GHz gun is being developed). An exciting new possibility is the development of superconducting PIs. A significant body of experimental and theoretical work exists by now, indicating the criticality of the accelerator elements that follow the gun for the preservation of the PI's performance as well as possible avenues of improvements in brightness. Considerable research is being done on the laser and photocathode material of the PI, and improvement is expected in this area.

  14. Guns on Campus: A Chilling Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mash, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    The author of this article observes that, while much has been written on the overall topic of safety with regard to allowing guns on college campuses, little has been said about how allowing the possession of deadly weapons can create a "chilling effect" on academic discussions. This article considers how some universities have…

  15. NASA Researcher with a Coaxial Plasma Gun

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-06-21

    Researcher Charles Michels operates a coaxial plasma gun rig in Cell SW-13 of the Engine Research Building at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center. From 1962 to 1967 NASA Lewis investigated coaxial plasma guns powered by conventional capacitor banks. The studies were part of a larger effort to identify electromagnetic accelerators for space propulsion. NASA worked with General Dynamics, General Electric, General Motors, and Republic Aviation on the project. NASA Lewis conducted a research program to determine which factors influenced the coaxial gun’s efficiency and analyze the acceleration process. The system had not previously been used for propulsion applications. The single-shot gun’s fast gas valve and capacitor banks with variable-delay ignition source permitted the evaluation of gun performance under controllable propellant quantity and distribution conditions. The coaxial plasma gun was the most basic type of electromagnetic accelerator. It included a charged capacitor in series with a pair of coaxial electrodes. An electrical breakdown occurred when gas was admitted to the inter-electrode region. The gas instantly became a good conductor and formed a conducting sheet that separated the magnetic field from the open region beyond. The highly-conducting gas was basically expelled by the force of the magnetic pressure. This type of thruster could operate at the high instantaneous power levels without decreasing its average power level.

  16. Association Between Substance Use and Gun-Related Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Danhong; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2016-01-01

    Gun-related violence is a public health concern. This study synthesizes findings on associations between substance use and gun-related behaviors. Searches through PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO located 66 studies published in English between 1992 and 2014. Most studies found a significant bivariate association between substance use and increased odds of gun-related behaviors. However, their association after adjustment was mixed, which could be attributed to a number of factors such as variations in definitions of substance use and gun activity, study design, sample demographics, and the specific covariates considered. Fewer studies identified a significant association between substance use and gun access/possession than other gun activities. The significant association between nonsubstance covariates (e.g., demographic covariates and other behavioral risk factors) and gun-related behaviors might have moderated the association between substance use and gun activities. Particularly, the strength of association between substance use and gun activities tended to reduce appreciably or to become nonsignificant after adjustment for mental disorders. Some studies indicated a positive association between the frequency of substance use and the odds of engaging in gun-related behaviors. Overall, the results suggest a need to consider substance use in research and prevention programs for gun-related violence. PMID:26769722

  17. Association Between Substance Use and Gun-Related Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Danhong; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2016-01-01

    Gun-related violence is a public health concern. This study synthesizes findings on associations between substance use and gun-related behaviors. Searches through PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO located 66 studies published in English between 1992 and 2014. Most studies found a significant bivariate association between substance use and increased odds of gun-related behaviors. However, their association after adjustment was mixed, which could be attributed to a number of factors such as variations in definitions of substance use and gun activity, study design, sample demographics, and the specific covariates considered. Fewer studies identified a significant association between substance use and gun access/possession than other gun activities. The significant association between nonsubstance covariates (e.g., demographic covariates and other behavioral risk factors) and gun-related behaviors might have moderated the association between substance use and gun activities. Particularly, the strength of association between substance use and gun activities tended to reduce appreciably or to become nonsignificant after adjustment for mental disorders. Some studies indicated a positive association between the frequency of substance use and the odds of engaging in gun-related behaviors. Overall, the results suggest a need to consider substance use in research and prevention programs for gun-related violence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Improved DC Gun Insulator Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sah, R.; Dudas, A.; Neubauer, M. L.; Poelker, M.; Surles-Law, K. E.L.

    2010-05-23

    Many user fa­cil­i­ties such as syn­chrotron ra­di­a­tion light sources and free elec­tron lasers re­quire ac­cel­er­at­ing struc­tures that sup­port elec­tric fields of 10-100 MV/m, es­pe­cial­ly at the start of the ac­cel­er­a­tor chain where ce­ram­ic in­su­la­tors are used for very high gra­di­ent DC guns. These in­su­la­tors are dif­fi­cult to man­u­fac­ture, re­quire long com­mis­sion­ing times, and often ex­hib­it poor re­li­a­bil­i­ty. Two tech­ni­cal ap­proach­es to solv­ing this prob­lem will be in­ves­ti­gat­ed. First­ly, in­vert­ed ce­ram­ics offer so­lu­tions for re­duced gra­di­ents be­tween the elec­trodes and ground. An in­vert­ed de­sign will be pre­sent­ed for 350 kV, with max­i­mum gra­di­ents in the range of 5-10 MV/m. Sec­ond­ly, novel ce­ram­ic man­u­fac­tur­ing pro­cess­es will be stud­ied, in order to pro­tect triple junc­tion lo­ca­tions from emis­sion, by ap­ply­ing a coat­ing with a bulk re­sis­tiv­i­ty. The pro­cess­es for cre­at­ing this coat­ing will be op­ti­mized to pro­vide pro­tec­tion as well as be used to coat a ce­ram­ic with an ap­pro­pri­ate gra­di­ent in bulk re­sis­tiv­i­ty from the vac­u­um side to the air side of an HV stand­off ce­ram­ic cylin­der. Ex­am­ple in­su­la­tor de­signs are being com­put­er mod­elled, and in­su­la­tor sam­ples are being man­u­fac­tured and test­ed

  19. An X-Band Gun Test Area at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Limborg-Deprey, C.; Adolphsen, C.; Chu, T.S.; Dunning, M.P.; Jobe, R.K.; Jongewaard, E.N.; Hast, C.; Vlieks, A.E.; Wang, F.; Walz, D.R.; Marsh, R.A.; Anderson, S.G.; Hartemann, F.V.; Houck, T.L.; /LLNL, Livermore

    2012-09-07

    The X-Band Test Area (XTA) is being assembled in the NLCTA tunnel at SLAC to serve as a test facility for new RF guns. The first gun to be tested will be an upgraded version of the 5.6 cell, 200 MV/m peak field X-band gun designed at SLAC in 2003 for the Compton Scattering experiment run in ASTA. This new version includes some features implemented in 2006 on the LCLS gun such as racetrack couplers, increased mode separation and elliptical irises. These upgrades were developed in collaboration with LLNL since the same gun will be used in an injector for a LLNL Gamma-ray Source. Our beamline includes an X-band acceleration section which takes the electron beam up to 100 MeV and an electron beam measurement station. Other X-Band guns such as the UCLA Hybrid gun will be characterized at our facility.

  20. Progress on a cryogenically cooled RF gun polarized electron source

    SciTech Connect

    Fliller, R.P., III; Edwards, H.; /Fermilab

    2006-08-01

    RF guns have proven useful in multiple accelerator applications. An RF gun capable of producing polarized electrons is an attractive electron source for the ILC or an electron-ion collider. Producing such a gun has proven elusive. The NEA GaAs photocathode needed for polarized electron production is damaged by the vacuum environment in an RF gun. Electron and ion back bombardment can also damage the cathode. These problems must be mitigated before producing an RF gun polarized electron source. In this paper we report continuing efforts to improve the vacuum environment in a normal conducting RF gun by cooling it with liquid nitrogen after a high temperature vacuum bake out. We also report on a design of a cathode preparation chamber to produce bulk GaAs photocathodes for testing in such a gun. Future directions are also discussed.

  1. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Janet E

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (a) permissive gun laws, (b) widespread gun ownership, (c) and encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters. They cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source material. Swiss and Israeli laws limit firearm ownership and require permit renewal one to four times annually. ICVS analysis finds the United States has more firearms per capita and per household than either country. Switzerland and Israel curtail off-duty soldiers' firearm access to prevent firearm deaths. Suicide among soldiers decreased by 40 per cent after the Israeli army's 2006 reforms. Compared with the United States, Switzerland and Israel have lower gun ownership and stricter gun laws, and their policies discourage personal gun ownership.

  2. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Janet

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim that mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (1) permissive gun laws, (2) widespread gun ownership, (3) encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters, and cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source material. Swiss and Israeli laws limit firearm ownership and require permit renewal 14 times annually. ICVS analysis finds that the US has more firearms per capita and per household than either country. Switzerland and Israel curtail off-duty soldiers firearm access to prevent firearm deaths. Suicide among soldiers decreased by 40% after the Israeli armys 2006 reforms. Compared with the US, Switzerland and Israel have lower gun ownership and stricter gun laws, and their policies discourage personal gun ownership. PMID:22089893

  3. Pediatricians' involvement in gun injury prevention.

    PubMed

    Olson, L M; Christoffel, K K; O'Connor, K G

    2007-04-01

    Injuries from small arms are of concern internationally. The health perspective is an emerging aspect of international work to reduce these injuries. This aspect has been evident in US firearm injury prevention work for over a decade, exhibited by strong statements from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) to remove firearms from children's environments. To assess trends among US pediatricians related to firearm injury prevention counseling practices and attitudes toward gun legislation. National random sample, mailed surveys of AAP members: (1) 1994 (response rate = 68.9%, n = 982); (2) 2000 (response rate = 62.4%, n = 922). chi(2) Tests were used to assess bivariate relationships and logistic regression to assess multivariate relationships regarding counseling practices. Respondents in both years believed that violence prevention should be a priority for pediatricians (91.4% and 92.0%) and reported always or sometimes recommending handgun removal from the home (46.2% and 55.9%, respectively). In 2000, 74% of the respondents were comfortable discussing firearm safety; fewer thought they had sufficient training (32.7%) or time (27.5%) to discuss firearms. In 1994 and 2000, the likelihood of counseling on handgun removal was positively related to recent experience treating a gun injury, female sex and not owning a gun. In both years, >80% of pediatricians thought that gun control legislation or regulations would reduce injury and death. US pediatricians continue to adopt policies promoting gun injury prevention. The practices and attitudes of pediatricians may be important for public education strategies regarding firearm injury prevention in the US and internationally.

  4. Minimum joint space width (mJSW) of patellofemoral joint on standing "skyline" radiographs: test-retest reproducibility and comparison with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI).

    PubMed

    Simoni, Paolo; Jamali, Sanaa; Albert, Adelin; Totterman, Saara; Schreyer, Edward; Tamez-Peña, Jose G; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte; Miezentseva, Victoria Alvarez; Gillet, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    To assess the intraobserver, interobserver, and test-retest reproducibility of minimum joint space width (mJSW) measurement of medial and lateral patellofemoral joints on standing "skyline" radiographs and to compare the mJSW of the patellofemoral joint to the mean cartilage thickness calculated by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI). A couple of standing "skyline" radiographs of the patellofemoral joints and MRI of 55 knees of 28 volunteers (18 females, ten males, mean age, 48.5 ± 16.2 years) were obtained on the same day. The mJSW of the patellofemoral joint was manually measured and Kellgren and Lawrence grade (KLG) was independently assessed by two observers. The mJSW was compared to the mean cartilage thickness of patellofemoral joint calculated by qMRI. mJSW of the medial and lateral patellofemoral joint showed an excellent intraobserver agreement (interclass correlation (ICC) = 0.94 and 0.96), interobserver agreement (ICC = 0.90 and 0.95) and test-retest agreement (ICC = 0.92 and 0.96). The mJSW measured on radiographs was correlated to mean cartilage thickness calculated by qMRI (r = 0.71, p < 0.0001 for the medial PFJ and r = 0.81, p < 0.0001 for the lateral PFJ). However, there was a lack of concordance between radiographs and qMRI for extreme values of joint width and KLG. Radiographs yielded higher joint space measures than qMRI in knees with a normal joint space, while qMRI yielded higher joint space measures than radiographs in knees with joint space narrowing and higher KLG. Standing "skyline" radiographs are a reproducible tool for measuring the mJSW of the patellofemoral joint. The mJSW of the patellofemoral joint on radiographs are correlated with, but not concordant with, qMRI measurements.

  5. a High-Brightness Thermionic Microwave Electron Gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borland, Michael David

    In a collaborative effort by SSRL, AET Associates, and Varian Associates, a high-brightness microwave electron gun using a thermionic cathode has been designed, built, tested, and installed for use with the SSRL 150 MeV linear accelerator. This thesis discusses the physics behind the design and operation of the gun and associated systems, presenting predictions and experimental tests of the gun's performance. The microwave gun concept is of increasing interest due to its promise of providing higher-current, lower-emittance electron beams than possible from conventional, DC gun technology. In DC guns, accelerating gradients are less than 8 MV/m, while those in a microwave gun can exceed 100 MV/m, providing much more rapid initial acceleration, thereby reducing the deleterious effects of space-charge. Microwave guns produce higher momentum beams than DC guns, thus lessening space-charge effects during subsequent beam transport. Typical DC guns produce kinetic energies of 80-400 KeV, compared to 2-3 MeV for the SSRL microwave gun. "State-of-the-art" microwave gun designs employ laser-driven photocathodes, providing excellent performance but with greater complexity and monetary costs. A thermionic microwave gun with a magnetic bunching system is comparable in cost and complexity to a conventional system, but provides performance that is orders of magnitude better. Simulations of the SSRL microwave gun predict a normalized RMS emittance at the gun exit of < 10 pi cdot m_{rm e}c cdot μm for a beam consisting of approximately 50% of the particles emitted from the gun, and having a momentum spread of +/-10%. These emittances are for up to 5 times 10^9e ^- per bunch. Chromatic aberrations in the transport line between the gun and linear accelerator (GTL) increase this to typically <30 picdot m_{rm e}cdotmum. The SSRL microwave gun was designed to have a longitudinal phase-space suited to magnetic bunch compression. Simulations predict that peak currents of several hundred

  6. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing... the gun. The line canister shall be secured by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun. (c) One...

  7. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing... the gun. The line canister shall be secured by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun. (c) One...

  8. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing... the gun. The line canister shall be secured by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun. (c) One...

  9. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing... the gun. The line canister shall be secured by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun. (c) One...

  10. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing... the gun. The line canister shall be secured by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun. (c) One...

  11. Gun possession among American youth: a discovery-based approach to understand gun violence.

    PubMed

    Ruggles, Kelly V; Rajan, Sonali

    2014-01-01

    To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions' Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001-2011). Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association "fingerprint" to 1) visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2) evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1) physical activity and nutrition; 2) disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3) weapon carrying and physical safety; 4) alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5) drug use on school property and 6) overall drug use. Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described.

  12. Field Test Kit for Gun Residue Detection

    SciTech Connect

    WALKER, PAMELA K.; RODACY, PHILIP J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major needs of the law enforcement field is a product that quickly, accurately, and inexpensively identifies whether a person has recently fired a gun--even if the suspect has attempted to wash the traces of gunpowder off. The Field Test Kit for Gunshot Residue Identification based on Sandia National Laboratories technology works with a wide variety of handguns and other weaponry using gunpowder. There are several organic chemicals in small arms propellants such as nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine, dinitrotoluene, and nitrites left behind after the firing of a gun that result from the incomplete combustion of the gunpowder. Sandia has developed a colorimetric shooter identification kit for in situ detection of gunshot residue (GSR) from a suspect. The test kit is the first of its kind and is small, inexpensive, and easily transported by individual law enforcement personnel requiring minimal training for effective use. It will provide immediate information identifying gunshot residue.

  13. Hall effect degradation of rail gun performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witalis, E. A.; Gunnarsson, Patrik

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses the Hall effect and shows it to be significant in the low-density and high-field trailing part of a plasma armature. Without the Hall effect a simple armature model is derived. It exhibits properties expected from classical MHD theory and shows that the purely relativistic electric charge buildup on the rails is a fundamental gun property, leading to V(breech) = 1.5 V(muzzle). The mathematics involved in accounting for Hall effect phenomena is described. These are of two types: the Hall-skewing of the armature current and the superimposed plasma flow rotation. For decreasing gun current the two effects efficiently combine to eject armature plasma rearwards, thus creating conditions for arc separation and parasitic arcs.

  14. Electrical parameters of projectile stun guns.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Wayne C; Benwell, Andrew; Kovaleski, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Projectile stun guns have been developed as less-lethal devices that law enforcement officers can use to control potentially violent subjects, as an alternative to using firearms. These devices apply high voltage, low amperage, pulsatile electric shocks to the subject, which causes involuntary skeletal muscle contraction and renders the subject unable to further resist. In field use of these devices, the electric shock is often applied to the thorax, which raises the issue of cardiac safety of these devices. An important determinant of the cardiac safety of these devices is their electrical output. Here the outputs of three commercially available projectile stun guns were evaluated with a resistive load and in a human-sized animal model (a 72 kg pig).

  15. Media violence, gun control, and public policy.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, D M

    1996-07-01

    Public concern with the national level of violence is discussed, and the complexity of the issue delineated. Research findings in two key areas of the topic, media violence and availability of firearms, are examined, as is their applicability to public policy efforts and recommendations for the prevention of violence. An approach that combines efforts to counteract media violence with those aimed at effective gun control is outlined in terms of bringing about changes in attitudes toward violence and firearm possession.

  16. Nozzle Extension for Safety Air Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumbrun, H. N.; Croom, Delwin R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    New nozzle-extension design overcomes problems and incorporates original commercial nozzle, retaining intrinsic safety features. Components include extension tube, length of which made to suit application; adaptor fitting, and nozzle adaptor repinned to maintain original safety features. Design moves conical airstream to end of extension to blow machine chips away from operator. Nozzle-extension modification allows safe and efficient operation of machine tools while maintaining integrity of orginial safety-air-gun design.

  17. Regenerative Liquid Propellant Gun Igniter Concepts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    AL 35898-5500 Ft Enox , KY 40121 Commander 1 Commiander US Army Belvoir R&D Ctr US Army Development and ATTNt STRBE-WC Eployment Agency Tech Library...REGENERATIVE LIQUID PROPELLANT GUN IGNITER CONCEPTS JOHN D. KNAPTON AVI BIRK JAIMES DESPIRITO CRIS WATSON DTIC E-1FCTE OCTOBER- 1987 SMAR 1 41988D...5 I. INTRODUCTION 1 . BACKGROUND, ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . P R O PELL AN T * 6

  18. Nozzle Extension for Safety Air Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumbrun, H. N.; Croom, Delwin R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    New nozzle-extension design overcomes problems and incorporates original commercial nozzle, retaining intrinsic safety features. Components include extension tube, length of which made to suit application; adaptor fitting, and nozzle adaptor repinned to maintain original safety features. Design moves conical airstream to end of extension to blow machine chips away from operator. Nozzle-extension modification allows safe and efficient operation of machine tools while maintaining integrity of orginial safety-air-gun design.

  19. Explosively Bonded Gun Tube Liner Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    efforts identified several promising materials that could be used for liners, primarily refractory metals such as tantalum (Ta), molybdenum (Mo...Characterization of tantalum liners applied to 25-mm and 120-mm cannon bore sections via explosive bonding. Watervliet (NY): Benét Laboratories (US...fired tantalum liners applied to 25mm gun tubes. Watervliet (NY): Benét Laboratories; 2001 Nov. Report No.: ARCCB-TR-02016. 9. Pepi M, Snoha D

  20. An experimental study on microwave electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.; Wu, J.; Wang, Y.

    1995-12-31

    We report both the simulation and experimental results of using a ring cathode instead of the solid cathode to reduce the back bombardment effect of a thermionic cathode microwave electron gun. The result shows that the back bombardment power is decreased about 2/3 without changing the beam quality apparently which allows operation at higher repetition rate. Experimental results are compared with the simulation with good agreement.

  1. The Development of the Linac Coherent Light Source RF Gun

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, David H.; Jongewaard, Erik; Lewandowski, James; Limborg-Deprey, Cecile; Li, Zenghai; Schmerge, John; Vlieks, Arnold; Wang, Juwen; Xiao, Liling; /SLAC

    2008-09-24

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is the first x-ray laser user facility based upon a free electron laser (FEL) requiring extraordinary beam quality to saturate at 1.5 angstroms within a 100 meter undulator.[1] This new type of light source is using the last kilometer of the three kilometer linac at SLAC to accelerate the beam to an energy as high as 13.6 GeV and required a new electron gun and injector to produce a very bright beam for acceleration. At the outset of the project it was recognized that existing RF guns had the potential to produce the desired beam but none had demonstrated it. Therefore a new RF gun or at least the modification of an existing gun was necessary. The parameters listed in Table 1 illustrate the unique characteristics of LCLS which drive the requirements for the electron gun as given in Table 2. The gun beam quality needs to accommodate emittance growth as the beam is travels through approximately one kilometer of linac and two bunch compressors before reaching the undulator. These beam requirements were demonstrated during the recent commissioning runs of the LCLS injector and linac [2] due to the successful design, fabrication, testing and operation of the LCLS gun. The goal of this paper is to relate the technical background of how the gun was able to achieve and in some cases exceed these requirements by understanding and correcting the deficiencies of the prototype s-band RF photocathode gun, the BNL/SLAC/UCLA Gun III. This paper begins with a brief history and technical description of Gun III and the Gun Test Facility (GTF) at SLAC, and studies of the gun's RF and emittance compensation solenoid. The work at the GTF identified the gun and solenoid deficiencies, and helped to define the specifications for the LCLS gun. Section 1.1.5 describes the modeling used to compute and correct the gun RF fields and Section 1.1.6 describes the use of these fields in the electron beam simulations. The magnetic design and measurements of

  2. Goods for Guns--the use of a gun buyback as an injury prevention/community education tool.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Margaret; Manno, Mariann; Rook, Allison; Maranda, Louise; Renaud, Elizabeth; DeRoss, Anthony; Hirsh, Michael

    2011-11-01

    US children aged between 5 years and 14 years have a rate of gun-related homicide 17 times higher and a rate of gun-related suicide and unintentional firearm injury 10 times higher than other developed countries. Gun buyback programs have been criticized as ineffective interventions in decreasing violence. The Injury Free Coalition for Kids-Worcester (IFCK-W) Goods for Guns buyback is a multipronged approach to address these concerns and to reduce the number of firearms in the community. The IFCK-W buyback program is funded by corporate sponsors, grants, and individual donations. Citizens are instructed to transport guns, ammunition, and weapons safely to police headquarters on two Saturdays in December. Participants are guaranteed anonymity by the District Attorney's office and receive gift certificates for operable guns. Trained volunteers administer an anonymous survey to willing participants. Individuals who disclose having unsafely stored guns remaining at home receive educational counseling and trigger locks. Guns and ammunition are destroyed at a later time in a gun crushing ceremony. Since 2002, 1,861 guns (444 rifle/shotgun, 738 pistol/revolver, and 679 automatic/semiautomatic) have been collected at a cost of $99,250 (average, $53/gun). Seven hundred ten people have surrendered firearms, 534 surveys have been administered, and ≈ 75 trigger locks have been distributed per year. IFCK-W Goods for Guns is a relatively inexpensive injury prevention model program that removes unwanted firearms from homes, raises community awareness about gun safety, and provides high-risk individuals with trigger locks and educational counseling.

  3. Gas Gun Studies of Interface Wear Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Tyler; Kennedy, Greg; Thadhani, Naresh

    2011-06-01

    The characteristics of interface wear were studied by performing gas gun experiments at velocities up to 1 km/s. The approach involved developing coefficients of constitutive strength models for Al 6061 and OFHC-Cu, then using those to design die geometry for interface wear gas gun experiments. Taylor rod-on-anvil impact experiments were performed to obtain coefficients of the Johnson-Cook constitutive strength model by correlating experimentally obtained deformed states of impacted samples with those predicted using ANSYS AUTODYN hydrocode. Simulations were used with validated strength models to design geometry involving acceleration of Al rods through a copper concentric cylindrical angular extrusion die. Experiments were conducted using 7.62 mm and 80 mm diameter gas guns. Differences in the microstructure of the interface layer and microhardness values illustrate that stress-strain conditions produced during acceleration of Al through the hollow concentric copper die, at velocities less than 800 m/s, result in formation of a layer via solid state alloying due to severe plastic deformation, while higher velocities produce an interface layer consisting of melted and re-solidified aluminum.

  4. A Robust High Current Density Electron Gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mako, F.; Peter, W.; Shiloh, J.; Len, L. K.

    1996-11-01

    Proof-of-principle experiments are proposed to validate a new concept for a robust, high-current density Pierce electron gun (RPG) for use in klystrons and high brightness electron sources for accelerators. This rugged, long-life electron gun avoids the difficulties associated with plasma cathodes, thermionic emitters, and field emission cathodes. The RPG concept employs the emission of secondary electrons in a transmission mode as opposed to the conventional mode of reflection, i.e., electrons exit from the back face of a thin negative electron affinity (NEA) material, and in the same direction as the incident beam. Current amplification through one stage of a NEA material could be over 50 times. The amplification is accomplished in one or more stages consisting of one primary emitter and one or more secondary emitters. The primary emitter is a low current density robust emitter (e.g., thoriated tungsten). The secondary emitters are thin NEA electrodes which emit secondary electrons in the same direction as the incident beam. Specific application is targeted for a klystron gun to be used by SLAC with a cold cathode at 30-40 amps/cm^2 output from the secondary emission stage, a ~2 μs pulse length, and ~200 pulses/second.

  5. HMX based enhanced energy LOVA gun propellant.

    PubMed

    Sanghavi, R R; Kamale, P J; Shaikh, M A R; Shelar, S D; Kumar, K Sunil; Singh, Amarjit

    2007-05-08

    Efforts to develop gun propellants with low vulnerability have recently been focused on enhancing the energy with a further improvement in its sensitivity characteristics. These propellants not only prevent catastrophic disasters due to unplanned initiation of currently used gun propellants (based on nitrate esters) but also realize enhanced energy levels to increase the muzzle velocity of the projectiles. Now, in order to replace nitroglycerine, which is highly sensitive to friction and impact, nitramines meet the requirements as they offer superior energy due to positive heat of formation, typical stoichiometry with higher decomposition temperatures and also owing to negative oxygen balance are less sensitive than stoichiometrically balanced NG. RDX has been widely reported for use in LOVA propellant. In this paper we have made an effort to present the work on scantily reported nitramine HMX based LOVA gun propellant while incorporating energetic plasticizer glycidyl azide polymer to enhance the energy level. HMX is known to be thermally stable at higher temperature than RDX and also proved to be less vulnerable to small scale shaped charge jet attack as its decomposition temperature is 270 degrees C. HMX also offers improved impulse due to its superior heat of formation (+17 kcal/mol) as compared to RDX (+14 kcal/mol). It has also been reported that a break point will not appear until 35,000 psi for propellant comprising of 5 microm HMX. Since no work has been reported in open literature regarding replacement of RDX by HMX, the present studies were carried out.

  6. Overview of Plasma Guns for PLX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Bomgardner, Richard; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah; Brockington, Samuel; Wu, Linchun; Elton, Raymond; Hsu, Scott; Cassibry, Jason; Gilmore, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Plasma guns are being developed for use on the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) located at LANL. The collapsing plasma liner will be formed via merging of 30-60 dense, high Mach number plasma jets (n˜10^16-17 cm-3, M˜10--35, v˜50--70 km/s, rjet˜5 cm) in a spherically convergent geometry. Small parallel-plate railguns are being developed for this purpose. Each gun will operate at ˜300-600 kA peak current, and launch up to ˜8000 μg of high-Z plasma (Ar, Xe) using a ˜50 kJ pfn. We are now successfully operating with very fast gas valve injection of Ar, and have already achieved good performance of 1200 μg at 42 km/s, and 4000 μg at 20-25 km/s at low current. Work is underway to increase both the mass and velocity using higher current. We describe experimental development of the minirailguns and their present and projected performance. We also discuss options for modest size coaxial guns that might achieve the same performance and provide additional control of the plasmoid structure.

  7. Design of an electron gun for terahertz radiation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ji; Pei, Yuan-Ji; Hu, Tong-Ning; Chen, Qu-Shan; Feng, Guang-Yao; Shang, Lei; Li, Cheng-Long

    2014-04-01

    An EC-ITC (External-Cathode Independently Tunable Cells) RF gun was employed with the aim of obtaining short-pulse bunches with high peak current for a terahertz radiation source. A gridded DC gun plays a key role as the external injecting electron source of the ITC RF gun, the performance of which determines the beam quality in the injector and transport line. In order to make the beam well compressed in the ITC RF gun, the energy of the electrons acquired from the gridded DC gun should be 15 keV at most. A proper structure of the gridded gun with double-anode is shown to overcome the strong space- charge force on the cathode, which is able to generate 6 μs beam with 4.5 A current successfully.

  8. Are medical societies developing a standard for gun injury prevention?

    PubMed Central

    Longjohn, M; Christoffel, K

    2004-01-01

    Context: Following heightened gun violence in the 1990s, many medical societies in the United States adopted policies on the topic. Objective: Identify points of firearm violence policy agreement among large medical organizations. Design: Fourteen national medical societies—clinical focus, demonstrated interest in gun injury prevention, >2000 members—were selected for policy review in 2002. Policies were categorized on areas covered and items within these. Consensus areas were addressed by ⩾7/14 societies.Consensus items were included by ⩾7/14 societies, shared items by 5–6. Results: There were five consensus areas: access prevention, gun commerce, research, public education, and clinical counseling. There were four consensus items: restricting gun access by enforcing existing laws, restricting access to all guns at the point of sale, restricting access to handguns at the point of sale, and creating a national database on gun injury and death. Shared items promote violence prevention, clinical education on risks of guns in the home, treating guns as consumer products, restricting gun access to children, bans on automatic weapons, and promoting trigger locks. Conclusions: Large medical societies in the United States agree on key approaches for reducing gun injury mortality and morbidity. Future research will be needed to track the evolution of this emerging standard for physician action, which now includes the consensus areas and items. It promises to be, in effect, a medical standard of care for gun injury prevention. The United States experience may be useful to others working on gun injury prevention. PMID:15178674

  9. Normal Modes of Vibration of the PHALANX Gun

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    areas, small speed boats, which were considered an insignificant challenge in blue water, now have exposed a weakness in surface combatants. Rather than...range of the gun is about 2000 m (2187 yds). However, the gun, after calculating the target speed , begins firing when the target is about 5 seconds from...that the target is destroyed, that is, when the target’s speed or radar cross-section drops below a certain threshold, then the firing stops and the gun

  10. Small Arms - Hand and Shoulder Weapons and Machine Guns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-24

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 03-2-045A Small Arms - Hand and Shoulder Weapons and Machine ...hand and shoulder weapons and machine guns, including crew served weapons and light automatic cannons up to 50 millimeters in caliber. The test...TERMS small arms, handguns, machine guns, shoulder weapons, rifle, gun tests 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  11. Prove-Out RAM Assessment Report for the 155 mm M483 LAP Line at Lone Star Army Ammunition Plant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    loaded on the automatic powder feed system to be transferred and distributed to the proper loading system. This is an automatic car dispatching system...load manually into the hopper type buggies (25,000 cones per buggy). The buggies are transported via the driverless tractor system to the body...Delivered to individual assembly sys- tems by driverless tractor system as required and the tape stiffener assemblies are manually placed on circulating

  12. Process Parameters for Banding 155-mm M483A1 Projectiles in High-Capacity Inertia Welding Machine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    the projectile body were initially made from a low -carbon steel with the serrated edge carburized . These worked well for a small number of welds, but...welded rotating band. Since this forward-edge disbond was due to nonuniform pressure on the band during inertia welding, modifying the band seat...dimensions to maintain uniform collet pressure will minimize this problem. Inertia welding rotating bands using various lubricants and coatings was studied

  13. A Theoretical Investigation of the Feasibility of a Two-Module Charge in a Dual-Chamber, 155-MM Howitzer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    L. Ambrosini DRSAR-IRC, G. Cowan DRSAR- LEM . W. Fortune R. Zastrow Rock Island, IL 61299 Commander US Army Watervliet Arsenal ATTN : SARWV-RD, R. ‘l...Inc. ATTN : L. C. Elmore 815 American Street San Carlos, CA 94070 No. Of Copies 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 Organization Rockwell International Rocketdyne Division

  14. Evaluation of Biological and Male Reproductive Function Responses to Potential Lead Exposures in 155 mm Howitzer Crewmen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    was then submitted for analysis of total count by Coulter Counter, manual differential white blood cell count, and blood smear. CBC analyses were... differential adjustments in the covariate for each group. Any interaction significant at alpha = 0.05 was included in the final model. Descriptors are those...w/o outlier) Control 30 4.7 Lead exposed 29 5.2 0.60 Microwave exposed 18 5.4 0.51 47 Spermatogonia , spermatids, spermatocytes, and sperm containing

  15. Mitigating the effects of gun violence on children and youth.

    PubMed

    Garbarino, James; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Vorrasi, Joseph A

    2002-01-01

    Countless children and youth are exposed to gun violence each year--at home, at school, in their communities, or through the media. Gun violence can leave lasting emotional scars on these children. This article reviews research regarding the psychological effects of gun violence on children and youth, and offers suggestions for how parents, school administrators, and mental health workers can mitigate these negative effects. Children exposed to gun violence may experience negative short- and long-term psychological effects, including anger, withdrawal, posttraumatic stress, and desensitization to violence. All of these outcomes can feed into a continuing cycle of violence. Certain children may be at higher risk for negative outcomes if they are exposed to gun violence. Groups at risk include children injured in gun violence, those who witness violent acts at close proximity, those exposed to high levels of violence in their communities or schools, and those exposed to violent media. Parents, school administrators, and mental health workers all can play key roles in protecting children from gun violence and helping them overcome the effects of gun-related trauma. The authors recommend a number of strategies that adults can adopt to help children cope with gun violence, such as increasing parental monitoring, targeting services to youth at risk of violent activity, and developing therapeutic interventions to help traumatized young people.

  16. Innovative active control of gun barrels using smart materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattice, Michael S.; LaVigna, Chris

    1997-06-01

    The accuracy of stabilized, turreted gun systems like the 120mm gun on the M1A2 Abrams tank and the 30mm gun on the Apache helicopter are limited by, among other things, structural flexure of the gun barrel and support structure. An advanced actuation system based on piezoelectric translators and an optical fiber strain sensing system are described in conjunction with a rapid prototyping workstation for the design of distributed parameter control systems to actively minimize the effects of vibrations caused by traversing rough terrain or weapon firing.

  17. "Love our kids, lock your guns": a community-based firearm safety counseling and gun lock distribution program.

    PubMed

    Coyne-Beasley, T; Schoenbach, V J; Johnson, R M

    2001-06-01

    Safer storage practices may reduce injury rates by limiting youth access to firearms. To determine if a firearm safety counseling and gun lock distribution program improved storage practices. Community-based before-after trial. Urban county in central North Carolina. One hundred twelve adult gun owners recruited through a mass media advertising campaign. In the parking lot of a shopping mall, participants completed a survey, and were then provided with tailored counseling, gun safety information, a gun lock, and instructions to use it. Firearm storage practices, assessed by survey and personal interview (baseline) and telephone interview (6-month follow-up). Most participants were white (62%), men (63%), had children (58%), and owned a gun for protection (74%). At follow-up, of the 82 participants, 63 (77%) (up from 39 [48%]) reported storing their gun(s) in a locked compartment (P =.004), 59 (72%) (up from 0) reported using gun locks (P =.001), 61 (74%) (up from 57 [69%]) reported storing their ammunition locked in a separate location, 59 (72%) (up from 52 [63%]) reported storing their gun(s) unloaded, and 6 (7%) (down from 15 [18%]) reported storing firearms unlocked and loaded. Participants with children were more likely at baseline to store weapons unlocked and loaded (38 [59%] vs 19 [41%]; P =.02) but were more likely after counseling to lock their weapons (29 [58%] vs 14 [44%]) and remove guns from the home (5 [10%] vs 0 [0%]). This program prompted reporting of safer firearm storage practices, particularly among parents. Longer follow-up, verification of self-reports and correct use, testing of gun locks, and monitoring firearm injury rates after distribution programs are needed to establish the public health potential of this approach.

  18. Low Emittance Guns for the ILC Polarized Electron Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clendenin, J. E.; Brachmann, A.; Ioakeimidi, K.; Kirby, R. E.; Maruyama, T.; Miller, R. H.; Wang, J. W.; Zhou, F.

    2007-06-01

    Polarized electron beams generated by DC guns are routinely available at several accelerators including JLAB, Mainz and SLAC. These guns operate with a cathode bias on the order of -100 kV. To minimize space charge effects, relatively long bunches are generated at the gun and then compressed longitudinally external to the gun just before and during initial acceleration. For linear colliders, this compression is accomplished using a combination of rf bunchers. For the basic design of the International Linear Collider (ILC), a 120 kV DC photocathode gun is used to produce a series of nanosecond bunches that are each compressed by two sub-harmonic bunchers (SHBs) followed by an L-band buncher and capture section. The longitudinal bunching process results in a significantly higher emittance than produced by the gun alone. While high-energy experiments using polarized beams are not generally sensitive to the source emittance, there are several benefits to a lower source emittance including a simpler more efficient injector system and a lower radiation load during transport especially at bends as at the damping ring. For the ILC, the SHBs could be eliminated if the voltage of the gun is raised sufficiently. Simulations using the General Particle Tracer (GPT) package indicate that a cathode bias voltage of ⩾200 kV should allow both SHBs to be operated at 433 or even 650 MHz, while ⩾500 kV would be required to eliminate the SHBs altogether. Simulations can be used to determine the minimum emittance possible if the injector is designed for a given increased voltage. A possible alternative to the DC gun is an rf gun. Emittance compensation, routinely used with rf guns, is discussed for higher-voltage DC guns.

  19. Action Alters Object Identification: Wielding a Gun Increases the Bias to See Guns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Jessica K.; Brockmole, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypes, expectations, and emotions influence an observer's ability to detect and categorize objects as guns. In light of recent work in action-perception interactions, however, there is another unexplored factor that may be critical: The action choices available to the perceiver. In five experiments, participants determined whether another…

  20. Cyclic Gun--Human Evolution: Soldiers, Guns, Machine Logic, and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Guns, slug-throwing weapons, have evolved as humans have increased their grasp of the mechanical arts. In the near future, however, it seems likely that soldiers' rifles operating at punishing cyclic rates of fire face the limits of physics and materials science--heat and speed will cost accuracy and distance. This article considers not only the…

  1. Cyclic Gun--Human Evolution: Soldiers, Guns, Machine Logic, and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Guns, slug-throwing weapons, have evolved as humans have increased their grasp of the mechanical arts. In the near future, however, it seems likely that soldiers' rifles operating at punishing cyclic rates of fire face the limits of physics and materials science--heat and speed will cost accuracy and distance. This article considers not only the…

  2. Action Alters Object Identification: Wielding a Gun Increases the Bias to See Guns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Jessica K.; Brockmole, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Stereotypes, expectations, and emotions influence an observer's ability to detect and categorize objects as guns. In light of recent work in action-perception interactions, however, there is another unexplored factor that may be critical: The action choices available to the perceiver. In five experiments, participants determined whether another…

  3. Testing a GaAs cathode in SRF gun

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, E.; Kewisch, J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Rao, T.; Wu, Q.; Holmes, D.

    2011-03-28

    RF electron guns with a strained superlattice GaAs cathode are expected to generate polarized electron beams of higher brightness and lower emittance than do DC guns, due to their higher field gradient at the cathode's surface and lower cathode temperature. We plan to install a bulk GaAs:Cs in a SRF gun to evaluate the performance of both the gun and the cathode in this environment. The status of this project is: In our 1.3 GHz 1/2 cell SRF gun, the vacuum can be maintained at nearly 10{sup -12} Torr because of cryo-pumping at 2K. With conventional activation of bulk GaAs, we obtained a QE of 10% at 532 nm, with lifetime of more than 3 days in the preparation chamber and have shown that it can survive in transport from the preparation chamber to the gun. The beam line has been assembled and we are exploring the best conditions for baking the cathode under vacuum. We report here the progress of our test of the GaAs cathode in the SRF gun. Future particle accelerators, such as eRHIC and the ILC require high-brightness, high-current polarized electrons. Strained superlattice GaAs:Cs has been shown to be an efficient cathode for producing polarized electrons. Activation of GaAs with Cs,O(F) lowers the electron affinity and makes it energetically possible for all the electrons, excited into the conduction band that drift or diffuse to the emission surface, to escape into the vacuum. Presently, all operating polarized electron sources, such as the CEBAF, are DC guns. In these devices, the excellent ultra-high vacuum extends the lifetime of the cathode. However, the low field gradient on the photocathode's emission surface of the DC guns limits the beam quality. The higher accelerating gradients, possible in the RF guns, generate a far better beam. Until recently, most RF guns operated at room temperature, limiting the vacuum to {approx}10{sup -9} Torr. This destroys the GaAs's NEA surface. The SRF guns combine the excellent vacuum conditions of DC guns and the high

  4. Smart gun technology requirements preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, D.R.; Brandt, D.J.; Tweet, K.D.

    1995-05-01

    Goal of the Smart Gun Technology project is to eliminate the capability of an unauthorized user from firing a law enforcement officer`s firearm by implementing user-recognizing-and-authorizing surety technologies. This project is funded by the National Institute of Justice. This document reports the projects first objective: to find and document the requirements for a user-recognizing-and-authorizing firearm technology that law enforcement officers will value. This report details the problem of firearm takeaways in law enforcement, the methodology used to develop the law enforcement officers` requirements, and the requirements themselves.

  5. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    DOEpatents

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Yonas, Gerold

    2016-03-01

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  6. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    DOEpatents

    Grubelich, Mark C; Yonas, Gerold

    2013-11-12

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  7. Characterisation of plasma in a rail gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism of plasma and projectile acceleration in a DC rail gun is described from a microscopic point of view through the establishment of the Hall field. The plasma conductivity is shown to be a tensor, indicating that there is a small component of current parallel to the direction of acceleration. The plasma characteristics are evaluated in the experiment of Bauer et. al., as a function of plasma mass through a simple fluid mechanical analysis of the plasma. By equating the energy dissipatated in the plasma with the radiation heat loss, the properties of the plasma are determined.

  8. Catalytic Ignitor for Regenerative Propellant Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor); Ferraro, Ned W. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An ignitor initiates combustion of liquid propellant in a gun by utilizing a heated catalyst onto which the liquid propellant is sprayed in a manner which mitigates the occurrence of undesirable combustion chamber oscillations. The heater heats the catalyst sufficiently to provide the activation necessary to initiate combustion of the liquid propellant sprayed thereonto. Two embodiments of the igniter and three alternative mountings thereof within the combustion chamber are disclosed. The ignitor may also be utilized to dispose of contaminated, excess, or waste liquid propellant in a safe, controlled, simple, and reliable manner.

  9. Catalytic ignitor for regenerative propellant gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor); Ferraro, Ned W. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An ignitor initiates combustion of liquid propellant in a gun by utilizing a heated catalyst onto which the liquid propellant is sprayed in a manner which mitigates the occurrence of undesirable combustion chamber oscillations. The heater heats the catalyst sufficiently to provide the activation necessary to initiate combustion of the liquid propellant sprayed thereonto. Two embodiments of the ignitor and three alternative mountings thereof within the combustion chamber are disclosed. The ignitor may also be utilized to dispose of contaminated, excess, or waste liquid propellant in a safe, controlled, simple, and reliable manner.

  10. Gun shot control unit for seismic exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, E. A.; Deline, G. R.; Koeijmans, G. D.

    1985-04-16

    A gun shot control unit for a seismic exploration system compensates for the inherent delay between the shot command signal and the actual occurrence of the seismic pulse. A digital clock is synchronized with an external source. Timing pulses occurring at a time preceding the timing pulse upon which the occurrence of a seismic pulse is desired are produced by the clock. These timing pulses start a digital counter at a time preceding the desired time of occurrence of the seismic pulse. This counter is adjustable so that the delay which interposes between the timing and the actual occurrence of the seismic pulse can be minimized.

  11. Electron gun simulation with CST PARTICLE STUDIO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spachmann, Holger; Becker, Ulrich

    2006-03-01

    This paper introduces CST PARTICLE STUDIO TM, a specialist tool for the fast and accurate design and analysis of 3D electron guns. The new software is based on the multi-purpose electromagnetic solvers of the CST STUDIO family and incorporates their powerful modelling capabilities as well as successful algorithms of the MAFIA-TS simulators. The underlying theory of the PBA ® based field solvers and the used tracking technique is presented and some examples of application demonstrate the current status of the software.

  12. Electron gun simulation for 95 GHz gyrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Udaybir; Kumar, Nitin; Sinha, A.K. E-mail: aksinha@ceeri.ernet.in; Purohit, L.P.

    2011-07-01

    A triode type Magnetron Injection Gun (MIG) for a 2 MW, 95 GHz Gyrotron has been designed by using commercially available code EGUN and another in-house developed code MIGANS. The operating mode of the gyrotron is TE{sub 24.8} and it is operated in the fundamental harmonic. The operating voltages of the modulating anode and the accelerating anode are 61 kV and 85 kV respectively. The parametric dependences of modulating anode voltage and cathode magnetic field on the beam quality have also been studied. (author)

  13. Electromagnetic Gun Circuit Analysis Code (EGCAC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolader, Glenn E.; Thornhill, Lindsey D.; Batteh, Jad H.; Scanlon, James J., III

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a system engineering code that simulates the performance of a railgun/power supply system. The code, named EGCAC (Electromagnetic Gun Circuit Analysis Code), accounts for many performance degrading effects including viscous drag on the armature, viscous drag on the gas being pushed in front of the projectile, entrained gas that must be accelerated in front of the projectile, time-dependent rail resistance, armature resistance, system resistance, and ablation drag. EGCAC has been utilized to predict railgun performance up to a velocity of approximately 4 km/s for experiments at several laboratories. In this paper, the theory of EGCAC is described, and sample calculations are presented.

  14. Characterisation of plasma in a rail gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism of plasma and projectile acceleration in a DC rail gun is described from a microscopic point of view through the establishment of the Hall field. The plasma conductivity is shown to be a tensor, indicating that there is a small component of current parallel to the direction of acceleration. The plasma characteristics are evaluated in the experiment of Bauer et. al., as a function of plasma mass through a simple fluid mechanical analysis of the plasma. By equating the energy dissipatated in the plasma with the radiation heat loss, the properties of the plasma are determined.

  15. Gun Possession among American Youth: A Discovery-Based Approach to Understand Gun Violence

    PubMed Central

    Ruggles, Kelly V.; Rajan, Sonali

    2014-01-01

    Objective To apply discovery-based computational methods to nationally representative data from the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions’ Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System to better understand and visualize the behavioral factors associated with gun possession among adolescent youth. Results Our study uncovered the multidimensional nature of gun possession across nearly five million unique data points over a ten year period (2001–2011). Specifically, we automated odds ratio calculations for 55 risk behaviors to assemble a comprehensive table of associations for every behavior combination. Downstream analyses included the hierarchical clustering of risk behaviors based on their association “fingerprint” to 1) visualize and assess which behaviors frequently co-occur and 2) evaluate which risk behaviors are consistently found to be associated with gun possession. From these analyses, we identified more than 40 behavioral factors, including heroin use, using snuff on school property, having been injured in a fight, and having been a victim of sexual violence, that have and continue to be strongly associated with gun possession. Additionally, we identified six behavioral clusters based on association similarities: 1) physical activity and nutrition; 2) disordered eating, suicide and sexual violence; 3) weapon carrying and physical safety; 4) alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use; 5) drug use on school property and 6) overall drug use. Conclusions Use of computational methodologies identified multiple risk behaviors, beyond more commonly discussed indicators of poor mental health, that are associated with gun possession among youth. Implications for prevention efforts and future interdisciplinary work applying computational methods to behavioral science data are described. PMID:25372864

  16. The life cycle of crime guns: a description based on guns recovered from young people in California.

    PubMed

    Wintemute, Garen J; Romero, Michael P; Wright, Mona A; Grassel, Kevin M

    2004-06-01

    We describe the life cycle of crime guns recovered from young people-the movement of those guns from manufacture to criminal use-and identify associations between the characteristics of those guns and their possessors, purchasers, sellers, and places of origin. This is a cross-sectional study of data from gun ownership tracing records compiled by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives for 2,121 crime guns recovered in California from persons younger than 25 years and traced in 1999. Purchaser and seller data for handguns were updated when possible by linking to California handgun sales records. The 2,121 traced guns were recovered from 1,717 young people. Guns recovered from persons aged 21 to 24 years were most frequently also purchased by persons aged 21 to 24 years; those recovered from persons younger than 18 years were most often purchased by persons aged 45 years or older. Small-caliber handguns made up 41.0% of handguns recovered from persons younger than 18 years but 25.2% of handguns recovered from persons aged 21 to 24 years. The median time from sale to recovery (commonly called time to crime) for all guns was 6.4 years (interquartile range 2.7 to 12.4 years). A time to crime of less than 3 years, suggesting deliberate gun trafficking, was observed for 17.3% of guns recovered from persons younger than 18 years but 34.6% of guns recovered from persons aged 21 to 24 years. Ten retailers who sold 10 or more traced guns accounted for 13.1% of all guns traced to a retailer. Handguns whose purchaser and possessor were the same person were more likely than others to be large-caliber semiautomatic pistols (29.3% and 11.7%, respectively); their median time to crime was 0.2 years (69 days). Analysis of crime-gun ownership traces reveals patterns that may help refine gun violence prevention efforts and render them more effective.

  17. Modelling multi-ion plasma gun simulations of Tokamak disruptions

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, D.A.

    1995-08-01

    The effect of impurity ions in plasma gun ablation tests of various targets is considered. Inclusion of reasonable amounts of impurity ({approximately}10%) is adequate to explain observed energy transmission and erosion measurements. The gun tests and the computer code calculations are relevant to the parameter range expected for major disruptions on large tokamaks.

  18. Normative Considerations in the Aftermath of Gun Violence in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gereluk, Dianne T.; Donlevy, J. Kent; Thompson, Merlin B.

    2015-01-01

    Gun violence in American and Canadian schools is an ongoing tragedy that goes substantially beyond its roots in the interlocking emotional and behavioral issues of mental health and bullying. In light of the need for effective policy development, Dianne T. Gereluk, J. Kent Donlevy, and Merlin B. Thompson examine gun violence in schools from…

  19. Everyday Engineering: What Makes a Squirt Gun Squirt?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2009-01-01

    You may not think of engineering and squirt guns in the same sentence. However, like many examples of engineering design, the squirt gun pump mechanism is uncomplicated, yet elegant, and very inexpensive to manufacture. The design is widely used because of its simplicity and low cost. With only a few moving parts, it is able to deliver a stream of…

  20. VIEW OF GUN EMPLACEMENT AND THE TABLELIKE CAST CONCRETE STRUCTURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF GUN EMPLACEMENT AND THE TABLE-LIKE CAST CONCRETE STRUCTURE SHOWING THE SPALLED AREA ON ITS EAST SIDE (LEFT) WHERE THE SECOND PROJECTING ARM WAS BROKEN OFF. NOTE THE SLOPED CONCRETE PAD IN THE BACKGROUND. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, East Gun Emplacement, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, SHOWING MULTIPLE COMPARTMENTS, VIEW FACING SOUTH (with scale stick). - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  2. VIEW OF EAST GUN EMPLACEMENT. NOTE THE STEEL REINFORCING RODS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST GUN EMPLACEMENT. NOTE THE STEEL REINFORCING RODS PROTRUDING FROM THE BROKEN TOP OF THE RETAINING WALL. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, East Gun Emplacement, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Preventing Clogging In A Vacuum Plasma Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krotz, Phillip D.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.; Davis, William M.

    1994-01-01

    Modification of powder-injection ports enables lengthy, high-temperature deposition operations. Graphite inserts prevent clogging of ports through which copper powder injected into vacuum plasma spray (VPS) gun. Graphite liners eliminate need to spend production time refurbishing VPS gun, reducing cost of production and increasing productivity. Concept also applied to other material systems used for net-shape fabrication via VPS.

  4. 62. SIXTEEN INCH GUN MOUNTED ON THE MACHINING LATHE; LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. SIXTEEN INCH GUN MOUNTED ON THE MACHINING LATHE; LOOKING WSW. THE GUN ITSELF EXTENDS BEYOND THE BRICK ARCHES OF THE MAIN SHOP FLOOR'S W WALL AND INTO THE W AISLE. THE LATHE'S CUTTING HEAD CAN BE SEEN AT THE RIGHT CENTER OF THE VIEW. (Ryan) - Watervliet Arsenal, Building No. 110, Hagner Road between Schull & Whittemore Roads, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  5. Plans: Aft Gun Platform, Quarters for 16 Gunmen, Poop Deck, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plans: Aft Gun Platform, Quarters for 16 Gunmen, Poop Deck, Boat Deck, House Top, Bridge Deck, Upper Bridge Deck, Navigating Bridge, Forecastle Deck, Gun Platform, Upper Deck, Second Deck and Hold Plan - Mission Santa Ynez, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  6. Self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly

    DOEpatents

    Zeren, J.D.

    1984-08-01

    A self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly for use in a vacuum chamber includes a crucible block having a hot-hollow cathode gun mounted underneath and providing a hole for the magnetic deflection of the ion/electron beam into a crucible on top the block.

  7. NASCAP simulation of laboratory charging tests using multiple electron guns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Katz, I.; Parks, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    NASCAP calculations have been performed simulating exposure of a spacecraft-like model to multiple electron guns. The results agree well with experiment. It is found that magnetic field effects are fairly small, but substantial differential charging can result from electron gun placement. Conditions for surface flashover are readily achieved.

  8. View forward of five inch gun mounted in sponson; note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View forward of five inch gun mounted in sponson; note glass windows which would be removed in combat, gudgeons below window allowed attachment of armor plate which could be swung up to protect gun crew in battle; also note lower section of flag rack at top left center of photograph. (p39) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Gun Possession among Massachusetts Batterer Intervention Program Enrollees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily F.; Johnson, Renee M.; Hemenway, David

    2006-01-01

    Batterers with access to firearms present a serious lethal threat to their partners. The purpose of this exploratory study is to estimate the prevalence of and risk markers for gun possession among Massachusetts men enrolled in batterer intervention programs. The authors found that 1.8% of the men reported having a gun in or around their home.…

  10. 83. GENERAL VIEW FROM NORTH END OF GUN HILL PLATFORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. GENERAL VIEW FROM NORTH END OF GUN HILL PLATFORM OF 3RD AVENUE EL SHOWING THE SOUTHBOUND TRACK APPROACH INTO GUN HILL STATION. 7TH AVENUE EXPRESS EL ABOVE. - Interborough Rapid Transit Company, Third Avenue Elevated Line, Borough of the Bronx, New York County, NY

  11. FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, ARMCO HUT (FEATURE 4) IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FEATURE 3, LARGE GUN POSITION, ARMCO HUT (FEATURE 4) IN BACKGROUND, VIEW FACING NORTH. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Anti-Aircraft Battery Complex-Large Gun Position, East of Coral Sea Road, northwest of Hamilton Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  12. 10. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), LOOKING AT SOUTHEAST CORNER. BUILDING NO. 332, CHANGE HOUSE, IN RIGHT BACKGROUND; BUILDING NO. 445-F, MAGAZINE, IN LEFT BACKGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  13. 15. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), INTERIOR, FOURTH LEVEL. POWDER HOPPER AT TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. POWDER DISTRIBUTED FROM HERE TO LOADING ROOMS BY TUBES. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  14. 16. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), INTERIOR, SECOND LEVEL. LOOKING UP AT POWDER AND DISTRIBUTION TUBES. ELEVATOR SHAFT ON LEFT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  15. 14. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. BUILDING NO. 445, PHYSICS LAB (FORMERLY GUN BAG LOADING), LOOKING EAST AT SOUTHWEST END OF BUILDING. HVAC EQUIPMENT LOCATED OUTDOORS IN FOREGROUND. DUCTS CONDUCT HOT OR COLD AIR INDOORS. ROUND PIPES ARE INSULATED STEAM LINES. BUILDING NO. 448, ORDNANCE FACILITY, IN BACKGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  16. Conceptual Design for the LCLS 120 Hz Gun Load Lock

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, D.

    2005-01-31

    A load lock for the LCLS 120 Hz RF gun is required for the rapid interchange of cathodes onto the gun as well as to avoid exposing the cathode to contamination during installation. Implementing a load lock allows the gun to be operational in less then 1 hour after a cathode change since no bake out is required and minimal rf conditioning will be needed. A conceptual drawing of the load lock proposed by SLAC is shown in the figure. The load lock approach adopted by SLAC requires two load-lock transporters: one mounted on the gun and another in the cathode processing lab where cathodes are prepared and stored for use on the gun. A single cathode is mounted in each transporter, eliminating the need for transferring cathodes under vacuum from a storage carousel, or ''6-pack''. This design has the advantage of greatly reducing the mechanical complications of transferring cathodes and connecting them to cooling lines while under high vacuum. Cooling of the cathode is necessary, given the gun cooling requirements as detailed in the LCLS Technical Note ''Design Considerations for the LCLS RF Gun''. The cathode size is approximately the same as that of the standard BNL/SLAC/UCLA gun which has an RF seal at the outer diameter of the cathode cavity to avoid RF breakdown.

  17. Carbon-fiber low-voltage electron guns

    SciTech Connect

    Drori, R.; Jerby, E.

    1995-12-31

    Carbon-fiber cathodes am used in cold electron-guns in our laboratory. They operate in low-voltage (< 10 kV) free-electron maser and cyclotron-resonance maser experiments. The paper presents I-V characteristics of various carbon-fiber electron-guns and show results of the corresponding maser experiments.

  18. Normative Considerations in the Aftermath of Gun Violence in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gereluk, Dianne T.; Donlevy, J. Kent; Thompson, Merlin B.

    2015-01-01

    Gun violence in American and Canadian schools is an ongoing tragedy that goes substantially beyond its roots in the interlocking emotional and behavioral issues of mental health and bullying. In light of the need for effective policy development, Dianne T. Gereluk, J. Kent Donlevy, and Merlin B. Thompson examine gun violence in schools from…

  19. GLEEM - A New Composite Gun Tube Processing Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    GLEEM – A NEW COMPOSITE GUN TUBE PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY Robert H. Carter David M. Gray U.S. Army Research Laboratory APG, MD 21005 William S...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GLEEM A New Composite Gun Tube Processing Technology 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  20. Gun Access and Safety Practices among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Hillary D.; Flaten, Hanna K.; Betz, Marian E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Given high rates of gun ownership among older adults, geriatric providers can assess firearm safety practices using a “5 Ls” approach: Locked; Loaded; Little children; feeling Low; and Learned owner. This study describes gun access and the “5 Ls” among US older adults. Methods. Data on the “5 Ls” from the Second Injury Control and Risk Survey (ICARIS-2), a national telephone survey conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, were analyzed. Weighted variables were used to generate national estimates regarding prevalence of gun ownership and associated gun safety among older adults (≥55 years). Results. Of 2939 older adults, 39% (95% CI 37%–42%) reported ≥1 gun stored at home. Among those with guns at home, 21% (95% CI 18–24%) stored guns loaded and unlocked; 9.2% (95% CI 6.6–12%) had ≥1 child in household; 5.1% (95% CI 3.5–6.8%) reported past-year suicidal ideation and 3.6% (95% CI 2.1–5.2%) reported history of a suicide attempt; and 55% (95% CI 51–59%) stated that ≥1 adult had attended firearm safety workshop. Conclusion. Some older adults may be at elevated risk of firearm injury because of storage practices, suicidal thoughts, or limited safety training. Future work should assess effective approaches to reduce the risk of gun-related injuries among older adults. PMID:26949391

  1. Taking Aim at Gun Violence: Rebuilding Community Education & Employment Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    In January 2013, President Obama released a plan for protecting children and communities by reducing gun violence. This plan has generated serious debate from both sides of the issue. The ensuing conversations about how to solve the issue of gun violence have been volatile. The President's plan includes reforms to close loopholes on background…

  2. Guns and Fear: A One-Way Street?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Will; Kleck, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Surveys show that more than one half of gun owners report owning their firearm for self-protection. Although research has examined the effect of fear of crime on gun ownership, the issue of reciprocity and temporal order has been largely ignored. Furthermore, the effect of firearm acquisition and relinquishment on fear has not been evaluated…

  3. Preventing Clogging In A Vacuum Plasma Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krotz, Phillip D.; Daniel, Ronald L., Jr.; Davis, William M.

    1994-01-01

    Modification of powder-injection ports enables lengthy, high-temperature deposition operations. Graphite inserts prevent clogging of ports through which copper powder injected into vacuum plasma spray (VPS) gun. Graphite liners eliminate need to spend production time refurbishing VPS gun, reducing cost of production and increasing productivity. Concept also applied to other material systems used for net-shape fabrication via VPS.

  4. NASCAP simulation of laboratory charging tests using multiple electron guns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Katz, I.; Parks, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    NASCAP calculations have been performed simulating exposure of a spacecraft-like model to multiple electron guns. The results agree well with experiment. It is found that magnetic field effects are fairly small, but substantial differential charging can result from electron gun placement. Conditions for surface flashover are readily achieved.

  5. Everyday Engineering: What Makes a Squirt Gun Squirt?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2009-01-01

    You may not think of engineering and squirt guns in the same sentence. However, like many examples of engineering design, the squirt gun pump mechanism is uncomplicated, yet elegant, and very inexpensive to manufacture. The design is widely used because of its simplicity and low cost. With only a few moving parts, it is able to deliver a stream of…

  6. Gun Possession among Massachusetts Batterer Intervention Program Enrollees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily F.; Johnson, Renee M.; Hemenway, David

    2006-01-01

    Batterers with access to firearms present a serious lethal threat to their partners. The purpose of this exploratory study is to estimate the prevalence of and risk markers for gun possession among Massachusetts men enrolled in batterer intervention programs. The authors found that 1.8% of the men reported having a gun in or around their home.…

  7. Self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly

    DOEpatents

    Zeren, Joseph D.

    1986-01-01

    A self-contained hot-hollow cathode gun source assembly for use in a vacuum chamber includes a crucible block having a hot-hollow cathode gun mounted underneath and providing a hole for the magnetic deflection of the ion/electron beam into a crucible on top the block.

  8. Fluidized bed combustor and coal gun-tube assembly therefor

    DOEpatents

    Hosek, William S.; Garruto, Edward J.

    1984-01-01

    A coal supply gun assembly for a fluidized bed combustor which includes heat exchange elements extending above the bed's distributor plate assembly and in which the gun's nozzles are disposed relative to the heat exchange elements to only discharge granular coal material between adjacent heat exchange elements and in a path which is substantially equidistant from adjacent heat exchange elements.

  9. Accidental Bolt Gun Injury to Femur - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kattimani, Ravi Prasad; Shetty, Sanath; Mirza, Humayun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Bolt gun or slaughterer’s guns are used in meat industry for “humane killing” of animals. Injuries caused by bolt gun are rare, reported exclusively from central European countries. We report a case of 28 year old male, who accidentally shot himself with a bolt gun to his right thigh. Case Report: A 28 years old male presented to our Accident and Emergency department after accidental injury to his right thigh with bolt gun. He had an entry wound measuring 2 cm in length and 1 cm in breadth over anterior aspect of lower one third of thigh at lower and sustained Grade II compound fracture of right femur shaft at distal one third. The wound was treated with multiple debridements, negative pressure wound therapy and intravenous antibiotics based on culture and sensitivity. Conclusion: Bolt gun or slaughterer’s guns are weapons used in meat industry for slaughtering animals. Wounds inflicted by bolt guns have specific morphological feature, distinctive from wounds made by other kinds of hand firearms. Most of the time wound will be infected at presentation. Lesions caused by these weapons are likely to have a more serious character than is to be expected from the size of the entrance wound. The mainstay of treatment is liberal wound exploration, multiple debridement’s and intra venous antibiotics based on culture reports to treat infection and prevent morbidity. PMID:28164044

  10. Guns and Fear: A One-Way Street?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Will; Kleck, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Surveys show that more than one half of gun owners report owning their firearm for self-protection. Although research has examined the effect of fear of crime on gun ownership, the issue of reciprocity and temporal order has been largely ignored. Furthermore, the effect of firearm acquisition and relinquishment on fear has not been evaluated…

  11. A Gridded Electron Gun for a Sheet Beam Klystron

    SciTech Connect

    Read, M.E.; Miram, G.; Ives, R.L.; Ivanov, V.; Krasnykh, A.; /SLAC

    2008-04-25

    This paper describes the development of an electron gun for a sheet beam klystron. Initially intended for accelerator applications, the gun can operate at a higher perveance than one with a cylindrically symmetric beam. Results of 2D and 3D simulations are discussed.

  12. Color television system using single gun color cathode ray tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaiser, E. E.; Hilborn, E. H.

    1970-01-01

    Two-primary color and single gun system provides quality differential color and variation in brightness for specific colors by varying current and controlling duty cycle of electron beam. Number of video amplifiers, deflection circuits, and guns required to display color TV picture is reduced and less complex tube is required.

  13. Effects of seismic air guns on marine fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardle, C. S.; Carter, T. J.; Urquhart, G. G.; Johnstone, A. D. F.; Ziolkowski, A. M.; Hampson, G.; Mackie, D.

    2001-05-01

    Observations of marine fish and invertebrates on an inshore reef were made using TV and acoustic tags one week before, during, and four days after a seismic triple G. airgun (three synchronised airguns, each gun 2.5 l and 2000 psi) was deployed and repeatedly fired. The guns were fired once/min for eight periods on four days at different positions. The structure and intensity of the sound of each triple G. gun explosion was recorded and calibrated. Peak sound pressure levels of 210 dB (rel to 1 μPa) at 16 m range and 195 dB (rel to 1 μPa) at 109 m range were measured at positions where the fish were being observed. The final position of the triple G. gun, at 5.3 m range, had a peak pressure level of 218 dB (rel to 1 μPa). Neither the fish, nor the invertebrates, showed any signs of moving away from the reef. Firing the guns did not interrupt a diurnal rhythm of fish gathering at dusk and passing the TV camera position while the guns were firing. The long-term day-to-night movements of two tagged pollack were slightly changed by the arrival and banging of the guns particularly when positioned within 10 m of their normal living positions. Those reef fish, watched by the TV camera, always showed involuntary reactions in the form of a Mauthner cell reflex, C-start, at each explosion of the guns at all ranges tested (maximum range was 109 m, 195 dB rel to 1 μPa). When the explosion source was not visible to the fish, the C-start reaction was cut short and the fish continued with what they were doing before the stimulus. When the G. gun rack was sunk to the seabed (depth 14 m) visible to the fish and the TV camera, those fish that were observed approaching the G. gun rack when the guns were fired were seen to turn and flee from the very visible explosion. When the gun rack was suspended midwater (5 m depth) and just outside visible range at 16 metres, the fish receiving a 6 ms peak to peak, 206 dB (rel to 1 μPa) pressure swing exhibited a C-start and then continued

  14. American preferences for "smart" guns versus traditional weapons: Results from a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Lacey Nicole

    2016-12-01

    This study examines Americans' preferences regarding smart guns. The study builds on prior research by including previously unexamined factors, specifically victimization and comfort sharing gun ownership status with a doctor. Further, this study examines differences in preference patterns among gun owners and non-owners. Data were obtained from a nationwide online survey with 524 respondents in February 2016. The study finds that, among non-owners, older respondents and those with pro-gun attitudes are less likely to prefer smart guns to traditional firearms. Among gun owners, those with moderate political views, those with a history of victimization, and those residing in the Northeast are all more likely to prefer smart guns. Males and those with pro-gun attitudes are less likely to prefer smart guns. Education, income, race, marital status, presence of children in the home, and comfort discussing gun ownership with a doctor had no significant association with smart gun preference. Practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Thermionic gun control system for the CEBAF injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pico, Randolph; Diamond, Bill; Fugitt, Jock; Bork, Rolf

    1989-09-01

    The injector for the CEBAF accelerator must produce a high quality electron beam to meet the overall accelerator specifications. A Hermosa electron gun with a 2 mm-diameter cathode and a control aperture was chosen as the electron source. This must be controlled over a wide range of operating conditions to meet the beam specifications and to provide flexibility for accelerator commissioning. The gun is controlled using Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC IEEE-583) technology. The system employs the CAMAC-based control architecture developed at CEBAF. The control system was tested, and early operating data on the electron gun and the injector beam transport system was obtained. This system also allows gun parameters to be stored at the operator location, without paralyzing operation. The use is described of this computer system in the control of the CEBAF electron gun.

  16. Dual Feed RF Gun Design for the LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, L.; Boyce, R.F.; Dowell, D.H.; Li, Z.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Schmerge, J.F.; /SLAC

    2005-05-23

    In order to remove the dipole field introduced by the coupler in existing S-band BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell RF gun, a dual feed design for the LCLS RF gun is proposed together with several significant changes. The improvements include adopting z-coupling instead of {theta}-coupling, modifying the iris dimensions and profile to increase 0- and {pi}-mode separation from 3.4 to 15MHz and reduce the surface field on the iris, incorporating racetrack cavity shape to minimize the quadrupole field, increasing cooling for operation at 120Hz and other small changes to improve performance and diagnostic capabilities. The 3D gun structure had been modeled with the parallel finite element complex eigensolver Omega3p to provide the desired RF parameters and to generate the gun cavity dimensions needed for fabrication. In this paper the RF gun design will be presented.

  17. Cure violence: a public health model to reduce gun violence.

    PubMed

    Butts, Jeffrey A; Roman, Caterina Gouvis; Bostwick, Lindsay; Porter, Jeremy R

    2015-03-18

    Scholars and practitioners alike in recent years have suggested that real and lasting progress in the fight against gun violence requires changing the social norms and attitudes that perpetuate violence and the use of guns. The Cure Violence model is a public health approach to gun violence reduction that seeks to change individual and community attitudes and norms about gun violence. It considers gun violence to be analogous to a communicable disease that passes from person to person when left untreated. Cure Violence operates independently of, while hopefully not undermining, law enforcement. In this article, we describe the theoretical basis for the program, review existing program evaluations, identify several challenges facing evaluators, and offer directions for future research.

  18. Guns, Mental Illness, and the Law: Introduction to This Issue.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Felthous, Alan R

    2015-06-01

    Firearm violence is a top-tier public health problem in the U.S., killing 33,563 and injuring an additional 81,396 people in 2012 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC, ). Given constitutional protection and the cultural entrenchment of private gun ownership in the U.S., it is likely that guns will remain widely accessible--and largely unrestricted--for the foreseeable future. Therefore, most policies and laws intended to reduce firearm violence focus selectively on preventing "dangerous people" from having access to guns. That is a formidable challenge. How do we think productively about guns and mental illness in this context, and about the role of law in lessening the toll of gun violence? Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Cardiac stimulation with high voltage discharge from stun guns.

    PubMed

    Nanthakumar, Kumaraswamy; Massé, Stephane; Umapathy, Karthikeyan; Dorian, Paul; Sevaptsidis, Elias; Waxman, Menashe

    2008-05-20

    The ability of an electrical discharge to stimulate the heart depends on the duration of the pulse, the voltage and the current density that reaches the heart. Stun guns deliver very short electrical pulses with minimal amount of current at high voltages. We discuss external stimulation of the heart by high voltage discharges and review studies that have evaluated the potential of stun guns to stimulate cardiac muscle. Despite theoretical analyses and animal studies which suggest that stun guns cannot and do not affect the heart, 3 independent investigators have shown cardiac stimulation by stun guns. Additional research studies involving people are needed to resolve the conflicting theoretical and experimental findings and to aid in the design of stun guns that are unable to stimulate the heart.

  20. Compact electron gun based on secondary emission through ionic bombardment.

    PubMed

    Diop, Babacar; Bonnet, Jean; Schmid, Thomas; Mohamed, Ajmal

    2011-01-01

    We present a new compact electron gun based on the secondary emission through ionic bombardment principle. The driving parameters to develop such a gun are to obtain a quite small electron gun for an in-flight instrument performing Electron Beam Fluorescence measurements (EBF) on board of a reentry vehicle in the upper atmosphere. These measurements are useful to characterize the gas flow around the vehicle in terms of gas chemical composition, temperatures and velocity of the flow which usually presents thermo-chemical non-equilibrium. Such an instrument can also be employed to characterize the upper atmosphere if placed on another carrier like a balloon. In ground facilities, it appears as a more practical tool to characterize flows in wind tunnel studies or as an alternative to complex electron guns in industrial processes requiring an electron beam. We describe in this paper the gun which has been developed as well as its different features which have been characterized in the laboratory.

  1. Cardiac stimulation with high voltage discharge from stun guns

    PubMed Central

    Nanthakumar, Kumaraswamy; Massé, Stephane; Umapathy, Karthikeyan; Dorian, Paul; Sevaptsidis, Elias; Waxman, Menashe

    2008-01-01

    The ability of an electrical discharge to stimulate the heart depends on the duration of the pulse, the voltage and the current density that reaches the heart. Stun guns deliver very short electrical pulses with minimal amount of current at high voltages. We discuss external stimulation of the heart by high voltage discharges and review studies that have evaluated the potential of stun guns to stimulate cardiac muscle. Despite theoretical analyses and animal studies which suggest that stun guns cannot and do not affect the heart, 3 independent investigators have shown cardiac stimulation by stun guns. Additional research studies involving people are needed to resolve the conflicting theoretical and experimental findings and to aid in the design of stun guns that are unable to stimulate the heart. PMID:18450834

  2. Experimental study of viscosity effects on air-gun signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Langhammer, J.; Landroe, M. )

    1993-12-01

    In computer modeling of air guns the theory is often based on the assumption of an ideal freely oscillating spherical air bubble in an ideal fluid. Theoretical and experimental air-gun signatures do not match perfectly. Synthetic signatures are underdamped compared to real signatures. Several physical effects have been proposed as an explanation of this mismatch, among them viscosity effects. The viscosity of the surrounding liquid may contribute to the damping of the bubble oscillation. The numerical value of the viscosity of the surrounding liquid has to be increased considerably beyond the actual value of water to obtain sufficient damping of the synthetic signatures. The authors therefore performed an experiment to study the effect upon the pressure signature from an air gun when changing the viscosity of the surrounding medium. The motivation for the experiment was to quantify the influence of viscous terms on the output pressure waveform from an air gun. The experiment was carried out in an 850 dm[sup 3] tank. The source was a BOLT 600 B air gun with a firing chamber of 1.6 in[sup 3] (26 cm[sup 3]). The gun was placed at 0.5 m depth, and the hydrophone was placed 0.22 m from the gun ports. This configuration was kept constant during the experiment. The authors observed changes in the output pressure waveform generated by the gun at different liquid viscosities. Sets of five signatures recorded at 12 viscosity values in the range 6--723 centipoise, were analyzed. The effects on the pressure signature when increasing the viscosity of the liquid surrounding the gun are to decrease the primary to bubble ratio and the bubble period; thus, the opposite of what one should expect. They therefore conclude that viscosity is not the main physical effect that explains the damping of an air gun signature.

  3. 77 FR 37834 - Revocation of Certain Requirements Pertaining to Caps Intended for Use With Toy Guns and Toy Guns...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1500 Revocation of Certain Requirements Pertaining to Caps Intended for Use With Toy Guns and Toy Guns Not Intended for Use With Caps AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION... Safety Specifications for Toy Safety'' (``ASTM F 963''), to be consumer product safety standards issued...

  4. 78 FR 66840 - Revocation of Certain Requirements Pertaining to Caps Intended for Use With Toy Guns and Toy Guns...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1500 Revocation of Certain Requirements Pertaining to Caps Intended for Use With Toy Guns and Toy Guns Not Intended for Use With Caps AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION... the provisions of ASTM International Standard F963, ``Standard Consumer Safety Specifications for Toy...

  5. Gunshot injuries due to celebratory gun shootings.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Mevci; Unlü, Ağahan

    2009-01-01

    Traditional shooting with guns often occurs and leads to unwanted gunshot injuries in areas where celebrations are held. Such injuries have been classified as celebratory gun shooting injury in the international disease classification system. An 8-year-old female patient presented with respiratory arrest. The heartbeats normalized upon cardiopulmonary resuscitation. On physical examination, the only pathological finding was a skin defect measuring 1 x 1 cm on the midline and located 2 cm in front of the coronal suture. Cranial CT revealed a bone defect of 0.5 cm in the area 2 cm in front of the coronal suture on the midline, tetraventricular and extensive subarachnoid hemorrhage and parenchymal hematoma in the frontal area. It was initially thought to be a gunshot injury; however, on cranial CT, no bullet fragments or bullet exit hole was observed. A cervicothoracal direct graph was obtained and an image that might have been compatible with a bullet core was detected at Th 2-3 vertebra level. Although gunshot injuries are generally well- known, this may not be a very familiar topic for neurosurgeons. The primary aim of this report is to emphasize that a bullet round randomly fired into the air ascends in reverse direction to gravity and after reaching a zero point, it returns to the ground at a high velocity that facilitates its penetration into the skull according to a principal physics law.

  6. African-American adults' perceptions of guns and violence.

    PubMed Central

    Price, J. H.; Kandakai, T. L.; Casler, S.; Everett, S.; Smith, D.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined African-American adults' perceptions of guns and violence. Through a mall intercept type study, 347 adults, ages 20 to 75, responded to a 54-item questionnaire. One third of the respondents claimed they owned one or more types of guns, three fourths had personally known someone who had been shot, more than one third had actually seen someone shot, and one third had a gun pulled on them. While the vast majority (84%) believed guns are too easy to obtain, the majority (62%) also believed that having a gun at home would help protect them. There were no significant differences in perceptions of guns based on age, gender, level of education, or socioeconomic status. The results of this study tend to substantiate the concern and fear of personal harm that African Americans have to contend with on a regular basis. The results also suggest the need for some form of educational intervention and gun safety training in order to help reduce the risk of death and injury among African Americans. PMID:8078079

  7. Development program on a cold cathode electron gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spindt, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype electron gun with a field emitter cathode capable of producing 95 mA in a 1/4 mm diameter beam at 12 kV was produced. Achievement of this goal required supporting studies in cathode fabrication, cathode performance, gun design, cathode mounting and gun fabrication. A series of empirical investigations advanced fabrication technology: More stable emitters were produced and multiple cone failure caused by chain reaction discharges were reduced. The cathode is capable of producing well over 95 mA, but a substantial collector development effort was required to demonstrate emission levels in the 100 mA region. Space charge problems made these levels difficult to achieve. Recommendations are made for future process and materials investigation. Electron gun designs were modeled and tested. A pair of two-electrode gun structures were fabricated and tested; one gun was delivered to NASA. Cathodes were pretested up to 100 mA at SRI and delivered to NASA for test in the gun structure.

  8. Effect Analysis of Gradient Air-gun Source for Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Wang, L.; Tong, S.; Zou, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Aimed at our nation's request of exploration and exploitation of marine petroleum and gas hydrate, we studied the signature features of marine air-gun source based on nonideal gas equations and actual conditions. By analyzing signature features of air-guns of clustered, tuned, time-delayed and coded in different 3D marine air-gun source, the optimum firing pattern of marine gradient 3D air-gun arrays has been set up. Because of the complexity of ghosts, traditional seismic acquisition using horizontal air-gun arrays cannot eliminate the ghost effectively. The acquisition applying gradient air-gun array utilizes the ghost's feature that its distance to the desired signal grows with the increase of the source's depth, so it can suppress the source ghost relatively easily and improve the frequency band-width of seismic data. By comparing and analyzing the theory and the actual application effect, the signature simulation of the gradient air-gun source has been verified. Using the gradient source, components of high and low frequency of seismic reflection data are enhanced. Meanwhile, the resolution and signal-to-noise ratio of seismic data are improved and the imaging result becomes better.

  9. Quiet eye duration and gun motion in elite shotgun shooting.

    PubMed

    Causer, Joe; Bennett, Simon J; Holmes, Paul S; Janelle, Christopher M; Williams, A Mark

    2010-08-01

    No literature exists to document skill-related differences in shotgun shooting and whether these may be a function of eye movements and control of gun motion. We therefore conducted an exploratory investigation of the visual search behaviors and gun barrel kinematics used by elite and subelite shooters across the three shotgun shooting subdisciplines. Point of gaze and gun barrel kinematics were recorded in groups of elite (n = 24) and subelite (n = 24) shooters participating in skeet, trap, and double trap events. Point of gaze was calculated in relation to the scene, while motion of the gun was captured by two stationary external cameras. Quiet eye (final fixation or tracking gaze that is located on a specific location/object in the visual display for a minimum of 100 ms) duration and onset were analyzed as well as gun motion profiles in the horizontal and vertical planes. In skeet, trap, and double trap disciplines, elite shooters demonstrated both an earlier onset and a longer relative duration of quiet eye than their subelite counterparts did. Also, in all three disciplines, quiet eye duration was longer and onset earlier during successful compared with unsuccessful trials for elite and subelite shooters. Kinematic analyses indicated that a slower movement of the gun barrel was used by elite compared with subelite shooters. Overall, stable gun motion and a longer quiet eye duration seem critical to a successful performance in all three shotgun disciplines.

  10. A photocathode RF gun for x-ray FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.J.; Batchelor, K.; Ben-Zvi, I.

    1995-12-31

    A 1.6 cell photocathode RF gun was developed by a BNL/SLAC/UCLA collaboration for X-ray FEL and other applications. The objective of the collaboration is to develop a cost effective and more reliable photocathode RF gun based on the operational experience of the original BNL gun. The new photocathode RF gun is cable of producing 1 mm-mrad normalized rms emittance photocurrent with a peak current of 100 A. The half-cell length of the new RF gun was lengthened to reduce the peak field on the cavity surface, the side-coupled scheme for cavity and waveguide coupling was replaced by a symmetrized coupling to the full-cell. The cavity aperture was increased to improve the coupling between two cells and for flat beam application. The experimental results of cold testing the RF gun will be presented. We will also present an injector design based on the new photocathode RF gun and emittance compensation technique.

  11. Production of Dioxins and Furans from the Burning of Excess Gun Propellant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    left over after an artillery exercise is a common practice on Canadian Forces Base (CFB) ranges and training areas. This process is carried out by...battery team leaves the training range. This destruction is carried out by aligning and burning the excess bags on the ground, using a railroad...large-calibre howitzers, such as 105-mm and 155-mm howitzers, are common. At the end of most military exercises involving large-calibre weapon

  12. Gun culture and symbolism among U.K. and U.S. women.

    PubMed

    Cooke, C A; Puddifoot, J E

    2000-08-01

    The authors explored attitudes of young women in the United Kingdom (n = 108) and the United States (n = 91) toward (a) the possession and use of guns through the Attitude to Guns Scale (N. R. Branscombe, J. A. Weir, & P. Crosby, 1992) and (b) guns' perceived functional and symbolic significance through the Symbolic Nature of Guns Scale (C. A. Cooke & J. E. Puddifoot, 1997). There were significant differences in beliefs concerning the right to own a gun and the protective effect of guns but not in the perceived contribution of guns to crime. Although neither group strongly equated guns symbolically with power or control, the U.S. women were more likely to perceive guns as expressions of freedom or independence, and the U.K. women were more likely to view guns as expressions of danger and violence. The findings were contextualized by comparison with samples of male control participants of similar ages.

  13. Note: Characteristic beam parameter for the line electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, M.; Islam, G. U.; Zhou, Z.; Chi, Y.

    2013-11-15

    We have optimized the beam parameters of line source electron gun using Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre electron beam trajectory program (EGUN), utilizing electrostatic focusing only. We measured minimum beam diameter as 0.5 mm that corresponds to power density of 68.9 kW/cm{sup 2} at 13.5 mm in the post-anode region which is more than two-fold (33 kW/cm{sup 2}), of the previously reported results. The gun was operated for the validation of the theoretical results and found in good agreement. The gun is now without any magnetic and electrostatic focusing thus much simpler and more powerful.

  14. Energy partitioning in an inductively driven rail gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, K. K.; Ray, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail are analyzed numerically. Friction between the projectile and rails is included through an empirical formulation. The equations are applied to the experiment of Rashleigh and Marshall to obtain an estimate of energy distribution in rail guns as a function of time. It is found that only 15 percent of energy delivered by the inductor to the gun is transformed into the kinetic energy of the projectile. This study provides an insight into the nature of nonlinear coupling involved in the electromechanical interactions in a rail gun.

  15. Commentary: evidence to guide gun violence prevention in America.

    PubMed

    Webster, Daniel W

    2015-03-18

    Gun violence is a major threat to the public's health and safety in the United States. The articles in this volume's symposium on gun violence reveal the scope of the problem and new trends in mortality rates from gunfire. Leading scholars synthesize research evidence that demonstrates the ability of numerous policies and programs-each consistent with lessons learned from successful efforts to combat public health problems-to prevent gun violence. Each approach presents challenges to successful implementation. Future research should inform efforts to assess which approaches are most effective and how to implement evidence-based interventions most effectively.

  16. Development of Subcaliber Projectiles for the Hispano-Suiza Gun

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-11-01

    SUBOALIBER PRO JECTILES FOR THE HISPANO- SUIZA GUN 𔃺TECMEPUC-lT, TJ 0 ABERDEEN P 𔃺i7 CiiTDM. ST~lU-TL A T, 1?7,, by CTa * UG r C. L. Critchfield I P I, 2...FOR THE HISPANO- SUIZA GUN by C. L. Critchfield and J. McG. Millar TECiN•IcAr LITPP.py ABERDE " , :PT’- , Approved on November 12, 1943 for submission...Hispano- Suiza gun ....... 6 2. 20-ram sabot-projectiles of Series B and C ......... ... 12 3. Type C2 at h ft from the muzzle . .......... . 13 h. The 20

  17. Plasma spray gun having gas vortex producing nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Smyth, R.T.; Zatorski, R.A.

    1985-03-19

    A plasma flame spray gun suitable for being constructed physically smaller than comparable power prior art plasma flame spray guns. The gun includes a nozzle having a tapering portion on the inlet side thereof. A cathode with a flat tip is positioned to at least partially extend into the tapering portion of the nozzle. A gas distribution ring is located around the cathode for creating a vortex around the cathode tip. This causes the arc formed between the tip and the nozzle to have a root which spins around the perimeter of the nozzle tip resulting in less wear and, therefore, extended part life.

  18. Energy partitioning in an inductively driven rail gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, K. K.; Ray, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    The equations describing the performance of an inductively driven rail are analyzed numerically. Friction between the projectile and rails is included through an empirical formulation. The equations are applied to the experiment of Rashleigh and Marshall to obtain an estimate of energy distribution in rail guns as a function of time. It is found that only 15 percent of energy delivered by the inductor to the gun is transformed into the kinetic energy of the projectile. This study provides an insight into the nature of nonlinear coupling involved in the electromechanical interactions in a rail gun.

  19. Analysis of Slice Transverse Emittance Evolution ina Photocathode RF Gun

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Z.; Ding, Y.; Qiang, J.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2007-10-17

    The slice transverse emittance of an electron beam is of critical significance for an x-ray FEL. In a photocathode RF gun, the slice transverse emittance is not only determined by the emission process, but also influenced strongly by the non-linear space charge effect. In this paper, we study the slice transverse emittance evolution in a photocathode RF gun using a simple model that includes effects of RF acceleration, focusing, and space charge force. The results are compared with IMPACT-T space charge simulations and may be used to understand the development of the slice emittance in an RF gun.

  20. Cold Rotary Forging of Small Caliber Gun Barrels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-12-01

    COMPONENTS SUPPORTED. (1) 7.62mm M219 machine gun barrel (2) 7.62mm M134 mini gun ( Gau barrel) (3) .30 caliber machine gun barrel (4) 5.56=m MI6Al rifle ...barrel (5) 50 cal. M8C spotting rifle barrel (6) 7.62mm Ml4 National Match rifle bw’rel (7) other small arms weapon barrels K -. 1. FACILITIES SUPPORTED... rifle barrels was made in conjunction with the rotary forging process. From this, a purchase description was written and submitted for bid for a