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Sample records for 1568a rice flour

  1. Thermal characteristics of ohmically heated rice starch and rice flours.

    PubMed

    An, H J; King, J M

    2007-01-01

    Thermal properties of conventionally and ohmically heated rice starch and rice flours at various frequencies and voltages were studied. There was an increase in gelatinization temperature for conventionally heated rice starches since they were pregelatinized and became more rigid due to starch-chain interactions. In addition, there was a decrease in enthalpy (energy needed) for conventionally and ohmically heated starches during gelatinization; thus, the samples required less energy for gelatinization during DSC analysis. Ohmically heated commercial starch showed the greatest decrease in enthalpy probably because of the greatest extent of pregelatinization through ohmic heating. Brown rice flour showed the greatest gelatinization temperature resulting from the delay of starch granule swelling by lipid and protein. Enthalpy of ohmically heated starches at 20 V/cm was the lowest, which was most likely due to the lower voltage resulting in a more complete pregelatinization from a longer heating time required to reach 100 degrees C. Ohmic treatment at 70 V/cm decreased onset gelatinization temperature of white flour; therefore, it produced rice flour that swelled faster, whereas the conventionally heated sample showed a better thermal resistance.

  2. Cooked rice texture and rice flour pasting properties; impacted by rice temperature during milling.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammed; Meullenet, Jean-Francois

    2015-03-01

    Rice milling plays a key factor in determining rice quality and value. Therefore accurate quality assessments are critical to the rice industry. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of exposing rice to elevated temperatures during milling, on cooked rice texture and rice flour pasting properties. Two long (Cybonnett and Francis) and one medium (Jupiter) rice (oryzae sativa L.) cultivars were milled using McGill laboratory mill for 30 and 40 s after warmed up the mill before milling. Four different milling temperatures per milling duration were achieved. Cooked rice texture properties were assessed using a uniaxial compression test and rice flour pasting properties measured using a TA-2000 rheometer. Results of this study showed that exposure of rice to high temperatures during milling significantly decreased cooked rice firmness. An increase in milled rice temperature after milling from 10.0 to 13.3 °C resulted in a 5.4 and 8.1 N decrease in cooked rice firmness. Although not always significant, the increase in milled rice temperature during milling resulted in an increase in cooked rice stickiness. The increase in milling temperature also showed significant increase in rice flour pasting properties. Changes in rice functional characteristics were attributed to the changes occurring to rice chemical constituents due to temperature exposure as indicated by the increase in rice protein hydrophobicity. Proteins are known to affect rice starch water holding capacity and other starch gelatinization properties.

  3. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient.

    PubMed

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-02-12

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker's yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products.

  4. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M.; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker’s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to obtain fermented brown rice flour (FBRF). The FBRF was added to white rice flour at 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% levels to prepare steamed rice bread. Based on the sensory evaluation test, steamed rice bread containing 40% FBRF had the highest overall acceptability score. Thus, pasting properties of the composite rice flour, rheological properties of its batter, volume and texture properties of its steamed bread were determined. The results showed that peak viscosity of the rice flour containing 40% FBRF was significantly increased, whereas its breakdown, final viscosity and setback significantly decreased. Viscous, elastic and complex moduli of the batter having 40% FBRF were also significantly reduced. However, volume, specific volume, chewiness, resilience and cohesiveness of its steamed bread were significantly increased, while hardness and springiness significantly reduced in comparison to the control. These results established the effectiveness of yeast fermentation in reducing the detrimental effects of bran on the sensory properties of steamed white rice bread and encourage the usage of brown rice flour to enhance the quality of rice products. PMID:28234309

  5. Rice starch vs. rice flour: differences in their properties when modified by heat-moisture treatment.

    PubMed

    Puncha-arnon, Santhanee; Uttapap, Dudsadee

    2013-01-02

    Starch and flour from the same rice grain source (with 20, 25 and 30% moisture content) were exposed to heat-moisture treatment (HMT) at 100 °C for 16 h in order to investigate whether there were differences in their susceptibility to modification by HMT and, if any, to determine the main causes of the differences. HMT had a far greater effect on paste viscosity of flour than of starch. A significant increase in paste viscosity after removal of proteins from HMT flour - as well as images of fast green-stained HMT flour gels - indicated that an important role was played by proteins in affecting properties of the modified samples. Greater effects of HMT on thermal parameters of gelatinization and gel hardness values of flours were observed - more so than those for starches. Following this observation, it was ascertained that components in rice flour other than rice starch granules also underwent alterations during HMT.

  6. Quality characteristics of bread produced from wheat, rice and maize flours.

    PubMed

    Rai, Sweta; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Baljit; Minhas, K S

    2012-12-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) flour and maize (Zea mays) meal substitution in wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour, from 0 to 100% each, for the production of bread was investigated. The proximate analysis, pasting properties, bread making qualities of raw materials and sensory evaluation of the bread samples were determined. The pasting temperature increased with increased percentage of rice flour and maize meal. But the other pasting characters decreased with the higher proportion of rice flour. The baking absorption was observed to increase with higher level of maize meal but it decreased when level of rice flour was increased. Loaf weight (g) decreased with progressive increase in the proportion of maize meal but increased when rice flour incorporation was increased. Loaf volume, loaf height and specific volume decreased for progressively higher level of maize meal and rice flour. The sensory evaluation revealed that 25% replacement of wheat flour was found to be more acceptable than control sample.

  7. Effect of germination on the physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of rice flour from three rice varieties from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Chinma, Chiemela Enyinnaya; Anuonye, Julian Chukwuemeka; Simon, Omotade Comfort; Ohiare, Raliat Ozavize; Danbaba, Nahemiah

    2015-10-15

    This study determined the effect of germination (48 h) on the physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of rice flour from three rice varieties from Nigeria. Local rice varieties (Jamila, Jeep and Kwandala) were evaluated and compared to an improved variety (MR 219). Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of flours were determined using standard methods. Protein, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and antioxidant properties of rice flours increased after germination while phytic acid and total starch contents decreased. Foaming capacity and stability of rice flours increased after germination. Germination resulted to changes in pasting and thermal characteristics of rice flours. Germinated rice flours had better physicochemical and antioxidant properties with reduced phytic acid and starch contents compared to MR 219, which can be utilized as functional ingredients in the preparation of rice-based products.

  8. Physicochemical properties of gluten-free pancakes from rice and sweet potato flours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gluten-free pancakes were prepared using rice flour and rice flour replaced with various amounts, at 10, 20 and 40%, of sweet potato flour. Textural properties of the cooked pancakes, such as hardness and chewiness generally increased with time after cooking, whereas they decreased with increased sw...

  9. Hydrophobicity of stored (15, 35 °C), or dry-heated (120 °C) rice flour and deteriorated breadmaking properties baked with these treated rice flour/fresh gluten flour.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Mariko; Tabara, Aya; Ushijima, Yuki; Matsunaga, Kotaro; Seguchi, Masaharu

    2016-05-01

    Rice flour was stored at 15 °C/9 months, at 35 °C/14 days, or dry-heated at 120 °C/20 min. The breadmaking properties baked with this rice flour/fresh gluten flour deteriorated. In addition, the rice flour was mixed with oil in water vigorously, and oil-binding ability was measured. Every rice flour subjected to storage or dry-heated at 120 °C showed higher hydrophobicity, owing to changes in proteins. Then, proteins in the stored rice flour were excluded with NaOH solution, and bread baked with the deproteinized rice flour showed the same breadmaking properties as unstored rice flour/fresh gluten flour. The viscoelasticity of wheat glutenin fraction decreased after the addition of dry-heated rice flour in a mixograph profile. DDD staining increased Lab in color meter, which suggested an increase in SH groups in rice protein. The increase in SH groups caused a reduction in wheat gluten protein resulting in a deterioration of rice bread quality. .

  10. Evaluation of the Hypoglycemic Effect of Composite Rice Flour in Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhigang; Gao, Hongmei; Du, Chuanlai; Zheng, Yimei; Guo, Yuanxin; Pan, Dongmei

    2016-03-01

    To study the hypoglycemic effect of composite rice flour, the diabetic mouse model was established through the intraperitoneal injection of alloxan saline (twice, 200 mg/kg bw). The mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: negative control, positive control, metformin medication group, and composite rice flour feed group. After 21 days, the fasting blood glucose levels were determined by glucose oxidase method and followed with a glucose tolerance test. The results show that the body weight growth rate of mice in the rice flour group was significantly higher than that of the medication group (P < 0.01). Comparing with the positive control group, the fasting blood glucose levels of medication group and rice flour group were significantly lower, and the glucose tolerance was significantly increased in rice flour group (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the composite rice flour has obvious hypoglycemic and protective effect for diabetic mouse model.

  11. Characterization of yellow rice and development of instant flours by hydrothermal process.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Bustos, F; Delgado, L L; Victorio, M G; Morales, S E

    1997-03-01

    Commercial brown and yellow milled rice submitted to inappropriate storage conditions were characterized and utilized to develop instant flours that were used in the preparation of atoles. The grains were classified as long-thin; the average size was 2.13 x 6.79 mm. The milling yields obtained in laboratory with paddy rice were 70% brown rice and 60% milled rice. Brown rice and yellow milled rice had similar amylose contents, 22.5 and 25.6% respectively. Gel consistency was soft with low gelatinization temperature (63-68 degrees C) for both samples. Field fungi, such as Helminthosporium oryzae, and storage fungi, such as Aspergillus spp, were present in paddy, yellow milled and commercial rice. The fungus Helminthosporium oryzae, Aspergillus spp, and Penicillum spp were not present in instant flours. Instant flours were prepared by soaking the grain in water, and then steaming, drying and milling it. The highest values for water absorption index were obtained from yellow milled instant rice flour. The color of yellow milled instant rice flour varied from white ("L") to pale yellow (lesser values of "b"). The lower viscosity of the instant flours indicates the breakdown of polymers and reveals that unintact starch granules were not present in instant flours. Protein and ash contents of brown and milled rice were unaffected by hydrothermal process, and the lipid content showed only little changes. Sensory analyses carried out on the atoles prepared with instant flours considered them acceptable, specially for products made from milled yellow rice.

  12. Morphological and starch structural characteristics of the Japonica rice mutant variety Seolgaeng for dry-milled flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producing fine, good quality rice flour is more difficult than wheat flour because the rice grain is harder. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between the morphology and starch of kernels from genetically different rice varieties that can be used to make dry-milled flour. The non-glutinous...

  13. Effects of incorporating germinated brown rice on the antioxidant properties of wheat flour chapatti.

    PubMed

    Gujral, H Singh; Sharma, P; Bajaj, R; Solah, V

    2012-02-01

    Brown rice after germinating for 24 and 48 h was milled into flour and incorporated in whole wheat flour at a level of 10% to prepare chapattis. The objective was to use chapatti as a delivery vehicle for germinated brown rice. The flour blends and chapattis made from the flour blends were evaluated for their antioxidant properties. Incorporating germinated brown rice flour increased the total phenolic content of the flour blend from 1897 to 2144 µg FAE/g. The total flavonoids content increased significantly from 632.3 to1770.9 µg CAE/g and metal chelating activity significantly increased by 71.62%. Antioxidant activity increased significantly by the addition of brown rice flour and addition of 24- and 48-h germinated brown rice flour further increased the antioxidant activity significantly. The total phenolic content and total flavonoids content decrease significantly in all the blends after baking the flour into chapatti. A decrease of 3% to 29% was observed in the total phenolic content and a decrease of 25% to 42% was observed in the total flavonoids content. However, baking of the flour blends into chapatti increased the reducing power, metal chelating activity by three folds and antioxidant activity from 64% to 104%.

  14. Effects of heat treatment on oil-binding ability of rice flour.

    PubMed

    Tabara, Aya; Nakagawa, Mariko; Ushijima, Yuki; Matsunaga, Kotaro; Seguchi, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Heat-treated (120 °C for 120 min) rice flour showed high affinity to oil (oil-binding ability). This oil-binding ability could be observed by shaking the heat-treated rice flour (2.0 g), oil (4.0 mL), and water (20 mL) vigorously in a test tube, and the oil bound to the rice flour sank into the water. To examine the time-dependent levels of the oil-binding ability, rice flour was heat-treated at 120 °C for 10, 20, 40, 60, and 120 min, and the precipitated volume of oil/rice flour complex increased with an increase of the heating time. The oil-binding ability of the rice flour was not affected by the treatments with diethyl ether or boiled chloroform/methanol (2:1) solutions, which suggested no relationship to the oil in the rice flour, but was lost upon alkali (0.2% NaOH solution) or pepsin treatment, which suggested its relationship to the rice proteins.

  15. Reducing retrogradation and lipid oxidation of normal and glutinous rice flours by adding mango peel powder.

    PubMed

    Siriamornpun, Sirithon; Tangkhawanit, Ekkarat; Kaewseejan, Niwat

    2016-06-15

    Green and ripe mango peel powders (MPP) were added to normal rice flour (NRF) and glutinous rice flour (GRF) at three levels (400, 800 and 1200 ppm) and their effects on physicochemical properties and lipid oxidation inhibition were investigated. Overall, MPP increased the breakdown viscosity and reduced the final viscosity in rice flours when compared to the control. Decreasing in retrogradation was observed in both NRF and GRF with MPP added of all levels. MPP addition also significantly inhibited the lipid oxidation of all flours during storage (30 days). Retrogradation values were strongly negatively correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents, but not with fiber content. The hydrogen bonds and hydrophilic interactions between phenolic compounds with amylopectin molecule may be involved the decrease of starch retrogradation, especially GRF. We suggest that the addition of MPP not only reduced the retrogradation but also inhibited the lipid oxidation of rice flour.

  16. The effect of moisture content on physicochemical properties of extruded waxy and non-waxy rice flour.

    PubMed

    Jongsutjarittam, Ornpicha; Charoenrein, Sanguansri

    2014-12-19

    The properties of waxy rice flour (WRF) and non-waxy rice flour (RF) were modified using an extrusion process with different feeding material moisture contents. WRF was more affected by the thermomechanical stress from extrusion; consequently, it had a lower glass transition temperature but higher water solubility index (WSI) indicating higher molecular degradation than extruded RF. The lower moisture content of the feeding flour caused more severe flour damage (coarser surface of the extruded flour) and lowered relative crystallinity compared to higher moisture content processing. Moreover, low moisture content processing led to complete gelatinization, whereas, partial gelatinization occurred in the higher moisture content extrusion. Consequently, the extruded flours had a lower peak viscosity and gelatinization enthalpy but a higher water absorption index and WSI than native flour. In conclusion, the rice flour type and the moisture content of the extrusion feeding flour affected the physicochemical properties of the extruded flour.

  17. Physicochemical and functional properties of yeast fermented brown rice flour.

    PubMed

    Ilowefah, Muna; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah M; Mediani, Ahmed; Muhammad, Kharidah

    2015-09-01

    In the current study, effects of fermentation on physicochemical and functional properties of brown rice flour (BRF) were investigated. Fermentation conditions were optimized using response surface methodology to achieve moderate acidity (pH 5-6), specifically pH 5.5 of brown rice batter with time, temperature and yeast concentration as the independent variables. The results indicated that brown rice batter was well fermented to maintain pH 5.5 at optimum conditions of 32 °C for 6.26 h using 1 % yeast concentration. Fermentation at moderate acidity significantly increased the levels of protein, total ash, insoluble fiber, soluble fibre, minerals, phenolics, antioxidants, resistant starch, riboflavin, pyridoxine, nicotinic acid, γ-tocotrienol, and δ-tocotrienol. However, it reduced the contents of γ-oryzanol, γ-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, phytic acid, amylose and total starch. Foaming capacity, foaming stability, oil holding capacity, gelatinization temperatures, enthalpy and whiteness of BRF were increased after fermentation. In contrast, its swelling power, water solubility index, hot paste viscosity, breakdown, and setback significantly decreased. Microstructure of BRF was also influenced, where its starch granules released from its enclosed structure after fermentation. This investigation shows evidence that yeast fermentation modified the functionality of BRF and can be used as a functional food ingredient.

  18. Influence of physicochemical properties of rice flour on oil uptake of tempura frying batter.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2010-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of rice flour and wheat flour influenced the oil uptake of tempura frying batter. Rice flour was better than wheat flour in the overall quality and crispness of the fried tempura batter. Rice flour resisted oil absorption more than wheat flour, and a higher level of apparent starch amylose and higher consistency/breakdown ratio of the pasting properties led to a lower oil uptake of the batter. Super hard EM10 rice showed the highest apparent amylose content and higher consistency/breakdown ratio than the other flour samples, the batter from EM10 revealing the lowest oil content after frying among all the batters examined. The apparent amylose content, consistency/breakdown ratio and oil absorption index are proposed as useful guides for oil absorption when frying from among the physicochemical properties that influence the oil content of fried batter. Our proposal for the "oil absorption index" could be a simple, although not perfect method for estimating the oil content of batter flour.

  19. Porous rice powder from the precipitation of gelatinized flour or starch paste with ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hot paste obtained by autoclaving (130oC, 20 psi, 20-30 min) a 5-7% (w/w) rice flour or starch slurry was precipitated with ethanol (three extractions) to produce a dry, porous, pregelatinized powder with an average particle size of 75.0µm (flour-derived powder), and 41.6µm (starch-derived powder). ...

  20. Porous rice powder from precipitation of gelatinized flour or starch paste with ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hot paste obtained by autoclaving (130oC, 20 psi, 20-30 min) a 5-7% (w/w) rice flour or starch slurry, was precipitated with ethanol (three extractions) to produce a dry, porous, pregelatinized powder with an average particle size of 75.0µm (flour-derived powder), and 41.6µm (starch-derived powder)....

  1. Milling of rice grains: effects of starch/flour structures on gelatinization and pasting properties.

    PubMed

    Hasjim, Jovin; Li, Enpeng; Dhital, Sushil

    2013-01-30

    Starch gelatinization and flour pasting properties were determined and correlated with four different levels of starch structures in rice flour, i.e. flour particle size, degree of damaged starch granules, whole molecular size, and molecular branching structure. Onset starch-gelatinization temperatures were not significantly different among all flour samples, but peak and conclusion starch-gelatinization temperatures were significantly different and were strongly correlated with the flour particle size, indicating that rice flour with larger particle size has a greater barrier for heat transfer. There were slight differences in the enthalpy of starch gelatinization, which are likely associated with the disruption of crystalline structure in starch granules by the milling processes. Flours with volume-median diameter ≥56 μm did not show a defined peak viscosity in the RVA viscogram, possibly due to the presence of native protein and/or cell-wall structure stabilizing the swollen starch granules against the rupture caused by shear during heating. Furthermore, RVA final viscosity of flour was strongly correlated with the degree of damage to starch granules, suggesting the contribution of granular structure, possibly in swollen form. The results from this study allow the improvement in the manufacture and the selection criteria of rice flour with desirable gelatinization and pasting properties.

  2. Influence of germination time of brown rice in relation to flour and gluten free bread quality.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Fabiola; Rosell, Cristina M

    2015-10-01

    The effect of germination time on physicochemical characteristics of brown rice flour and its effect on gluten free bread qualities have been investigated. Germination was carried out at 28 °C and 100 % RH for 12, 24 and 48 h; brown rice and soaked brown rice was also analyzed. Significant changes on hydration and pasting properties of brown rice flour were found during germination. The starch degradation by enzyme activity could be evidenced with the decrease in viscosity and water binding capacity (WBC). No significant effect in specific volume, humidity and water activity of the gluten free bread was found as germination time increase, but a significant softness of the crumb was obtained. However, at 48 h of germination, the intense action of α amylase could result in excessive liquefaction and dextrinisation, causing inferior bread quality. Overall, germinated rice flour showed appropriate functionality for being used as raw ingredient in gluten free breadmaking.

  3. Particle size distribution of rice flour affecting the starch enzymatic hydrolysis and hydration properties.

    PubMed

    de la Hera, Esther; Gomez, Manuel; Rosell, Cristina M

    2013-10-15

    Rice flour is becoming very attractive as raw material, but there is lack of information about the influence of particle size on its functional properties and starch digestibility. This study evaluates the degree of dependence of the rice flour functional properties, mainly derived from starch behavior, with the particle size distribution. Hydration properties of flours and gels and starch enzymatic hydrolysis of individual fractions were assessed. Particle size heterogeneity on rice flour significantly affected functional properties and starch features, at room temperature and also after gelatinization; and the extent of that effect was grain type dependent. Particle size heterogeneity on rice flour induces different pattern in starch enzymatic hydrolysis, with the long grain having slower hydrolysis as indicated the rate constant (k). No correlation between starch digestibility and hydration properties or the protein content was observed. It seems that in intact granules interactions with other grain components must be taken into account. Overall, particle size fractionation of rice flour might be advisable for selecting specific physico-chemical properties.

  4. Super-fine rice-flour production by enzymatic treatment with high hydrostatic pressure processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kido, Miyuki; Kobayashi, Kaneto; Chino, Shuji; Nishiwaki, Toshikazu; Homma, Noriyuki; Hayashi, Mayumi; Yamamoto, Kazutaka; Shigematsu, Toru

    2013-06-01

    In response to the recent expansion of rice-flour use, we established a new rice-flour manufacturing process through the application of high hydrostatic pressure (HP) to the enzyme-treated milling method. HP improved both the activity of pectinase, which is used in the enzyme-treated milling method and the water absorption capacity of rice grains. These results indicate improved damage to the tissue structures of rice grains. In contrast, HP suppressed the increase in glucose, which may have led to less starch damage. The manufacturing process was optimized to HP treatment at 200 MPa (40°C) for 1 h and subsequent wet-pulverization at 11,000 rpm. Using this process, rice flour with an exclusively fine mean particle size less than 20 μm and starch damage less than 5% was obtained from rice grains soaked in an enzyme solution and distilled water. This super-fine rice flour is suitable for bread, pasta, noodles and Western-style sweets.

  5. Storage properties of low fat fish and rice flour coextrudates

    SciTech Connect

    Tumuluru, J.S.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bandyopadhyay, Sukumar; Bawa, A.S.

    2008-12-01

    Storage properties of an extruded mixture of fish meat and rice flour were investigated. These properties included the determination of an isotherm for equilibrium moisture content vs. water activity at 30oC. Vitamin-A and total tocopherols and gain in peroxides and free fatty acid were measured during storage at this temperature. The acceptability of the extruded meal in terms of sensory characteristics were studied at the end of the storage period (45 days). Sorption isotherm indicated that the safe aw levels of the extrudates were 0.4-0.7. During the first 15 days of storage a loss of 53.1 % and 50 % of vitamin-A (IU/g) and total tocopherols (%) was observed. The peroxide and free fatty content increased from 46 to 109 mg/kg and 3.8 to 7.7 %, respectively during the same period. Non-linear model described the best the loss of vitamin-A, and tocopherols and gain in peroxide values and free fatty acid content. The loss of vitamin-A and total tocopherols almost followed a similar trend during the complete storage period of 45 days. The gain in peroxides was more prominent compared to free fatty acid content during the initial 15 days of storage. The ANOVA table indicated that the sensory attributes of the product fried for different times (15-120 s) were significantly and the product fried at 15 sec were most acceptable.

  6. Effect of Soybean Flour on Physico-chemical, Functional, and Rheological Properties of Composite Flour from Rice, Sweet Potato, and Potato

    PubMed Central

    Julianti, Elisa; Rusmarilin, Herla; Ridwansyah; Yusraini, Era

    2016-01-01

    Three composite flours were prepared by combining rice flour, potato starch, sweet potato flour, soybean flour, and xanthan gum in the ratio of 30: 15: 50: 4.5: 0.5; 30: 15: 45: 9.5: 0.5; and 30: 15: 40: 14.5: 0.5, were analysed for selected physical, chemical, functional, and rheological properties. Fat, protein, ash, and crude fibre content were found to increase with increase in the ratio of soybean flour and decrease in the ratio of sweet potato flour in the mixture. The composite flours were not significantly different in water and oil absorption capacity, swelling power, and baking expansion. There was a tendency for the relative viscosities of the composite flours to increase significantly with increasing proportion of the soybean flour and decreasing proportion of sweet potato flour in the mixture. Pasting viscosity measurements of the composite flours gave maximum (peak) viscosity values ranging from 582.00–668.67 cP. The pasting analysis results indicated increased level of setback and final viscosity, pasting temperature, setback and stability ratio while peak viscosity decreased with increasing proportion of soybean flour and decreasing proportion of sweet potato flour in the mixture. PMID:27965751

  7. Effect of Soybean Flour on Physico-chemical, Functional, and Rheological Properties of Composite Flour from Rice, Sweet Potato, and Potato.

    PubMed

    Julianti, Elisa; Rusmarilin, Herla; Ridwansyah; Yusraini, Era

    2016-11-01

    Three composite flours were prepared by combining rice flour, potato starch, sweet potato flour, soybean flour, and xanthan gum in the ratio of 30: 15: 50: 4.5: 0.5; 30: 15: 45: 9.5: 0.5; and 30: 15: 40: 14.5: 0.5, were analysed for selected physical, chemical, functional, and rheological properties. Fat, protein, ash, and crude fibre content were found to increase with increase in the ratio of soybean flour and decrease in the ratio of sweet potato flour in the mixture. The composite flours were not significantly different in water and oil absorption capacity, swelling power, and baking expansion. There was a tendency for the relative viscosities of the composite flours to increase significantly with increasing proportion of the soybean flour and decreasing proportion of sweet potato flour in the mixture. Pasting viscosity measurements of the composite flours gave maximum (peak) viscosity values ranging from 582.00-668.67 cP. The pasting analysis results indicated increased level of setback and final viscosity, pasting temperature, setback and stability ratio while peak viscosity decreased with increasing proportion of soybean flour and decreasing proportion of sweet potato flour in the mixture.

  8. Influence of moisture content and temperature on thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of rice flours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of four types of rice flours and one type of rice protein were determine at temperatures ranging from 4.8 to 36.8 C, bulk densities 535 to 875.8 kg/m3, and moisture contents 2.6 to 16.7 percent (w.b.), using a KD2 Thermal Properties Analyzer. It was ...

  9. Germination conditions affect selected quality of composite wheat-germinated brown rice flour and bread formulations.

    PubMed

    Charoenthaikij, Phantipha; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Jangchud, Anuvat; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Tungtrakul, Patcharee

    2010-08-01

    Brown rice has been reported to be more nutritious after germination. Germinated brown rice flours (GBRFs) from different steeping conditions (in distilled water [DI, pH 6.8] or in a buffer solution [pH 3] for either 24 or 48 h at 35 degrees C) were evaluated in this study. GBRF obtained from brown rice steeped at pH 3 for 48 h contained the highest amount of free gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA; 67 mg/100 g flour). The composite flour (wheat-GBRF) at a ratio of 70 : 30 exhibited significantly lower peak viscosity (PV) (56.99 - 132.45 RVU) with higher alpha-amylase activity (SN = 696 - 1826) compared with those of wheat flour (control) (PV = 136.46 RVU and SN = 1976). Bread formulations, containing 30% GBRF, had lower loaf volume and greater hardness (P < 0.05) than the wheat bread. However, the hardness of bread containing 30% GBRF (except at pH 6.8 and 24 h) was significantly lower than that of bread containing 30% nongerminated brown rice flour (BRF). Acceptability scores for aroma, taste, and flavor of breads prepared with or without GBRFs (30% substitution) were not significantly different, with the mean score ranging from 6.1 (like slightly) to 7 (like moderately). Among the bread formulations containing GBRF, the one with GBRF prepared after 24 h steeping at pH 3 had a slightly higher (though not significant) overall liking score (6.8). This study demonstrated that it is feasible to substitute wheat flour with up to 30% GBRF in bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. Practical Application: Our previous study revealed that flours from germinated brown rice have better nutritional properties, particularly gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), than the nongerminated one. This study demonstrated feasibility of incorporating up to 30% germinated brown rice flour in a wheat bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. In the current United States market, this type of bread may be sold as frozen bread which would have a

  10. Effect of brown rice flour fortification on the quality of wheat-based dough and flat bread.

    PubMed

    Khoshgozaran-Abras, S; Azizi, M H; Bagheripoor-Fallah, N; Khodamoradi, A

    2014-10-01

    The objective of present study was to investigate the impact of Brown Rice flour (BR) incorporation, at three different levels of 5, 10 and 15 % to the Wheat Flour (WF) preparations on rheological properties of wheat-based dough and quality of wheat-based flat bread. The BR flour incorporation mainly affected the chemical properties of flours, the rheological characteristics of dough and, quality and shelf life of bread. The protein-related properties of flours principally experienced reduction; however, the ash content had an increase, along with BR flour incorporation. The rheological properties of dough were affected considerably by BR flour substitution, wherein the sample containing 5 % BR flour was closest to BR flour-free dough (control). Regarding the yielded bread, BR flour addition affirmatively affected sensorial properties and firmness quality evaluation, wherein the bread made from dough with composite flour fortified with 5 % BR flour was scored the best. The findings from instrumental firmness quality assessment were confirmed as the bread containing 5 % BR flour remained softer and demanded lowest force to be compressed over the storage period. Overall, results showed that adding BR flour up to 5 % can be used in baking of flat bread since it meets the required criteria.

  11. Influence of waxy rice flour substitution for wheat flour on characteristics of batter and freeze-thawed cake.

    PubMed

    Jongsutjarittam, Nisachon; Charoenrein, Sanguansri

    2013-09-12

    This study aimed to improve the freeze-thawed cake properties by10-20% waxy rice flour (WRF) substitution for wheat flour (WF). Viscosity of WRF-substituted batters was lower; consequently, trapped air was less uniformly distributed than WF batter. After five freeze-thaw cycles, firmness and enthalpy of melting retrograded amylopectin of WF- and WRF-substituted cakes increased and the matrix surrounding the air pores from SEM images was denser than in fresh-baked cakes. Sensory evaluation showed an increase in firmness and a decrease in firmness acceptability of freeze-thawed cakes. However, freeze-thawed cake with WRF substitution had significantly less firmness, less dense matrix and more acceptability than WF cake. This could have been due to a low amylose content of WRF and the spread of ruptured waxy rice starch granules around swollen wheat starch granules as observed by CLSM. Thus, WRF could be used for WF substitution to improve the firmness in freeze-thawed cake.

  12. Simulated gastrointestinal pH condition improves antioxidant properties of wheat and rice flours.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kim Wei; Khong, Nicholas M H; Iqbal, Shahid; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant properties of wheat and rice flours under simulated gastrointestinal pH condition. After subjecting the wheat and rice flour slurries to simulated gastrointestinal pH condition, both slurries were centrifuged to obtain the crude phenolic extracts for further analyses. Extraction yield, total contents of phenolic and flavonoids were determined as such (untreated) and under simulated gastrointestinal pH condition (treated). 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(•)) scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS(•+)) scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), beta-carotene bleaching (BCB) and iron chelating activity assays were employed for the determination of antioxidant activity of the tested samples. In almost all of the assays performed, significant improvements in antioxidant properties (p < 0.05) were observed in both flours after treatment, suggesting that wheat and rice flours contain considerably heavy amounts of bound phenolics, and that their antioxidant properties might be improved under gastrointestinal digestive conditions.

  13. Iron bioavailability in Wistar rats fed with fortified rice by Ultra Rice technology with or without addition of yacon flour (Smallanthus sonchifolius).

    PubMed

    Della Lucia, Ceres M; Vaz Tostes, Maria das Graças; Silveira, Carlos Mário M; Bordalo, Lívia A; Rodrigues, Fabiana C; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria; Martino, Hércia S D; Costa, Neuza Maria B

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate iron (Fe) bioavailability in Wistar rats fed with rice fortified with micronized ferric pyrophosphate (FP) by Ultra Rice (UR) technology with or without addition of yacon flour as a source of 7.5% of fructooligosaccharides (FOS). Diets were supplied with 12 mg iron/kg from the following sources: ferrous sulfate (FS - control diet), fortified rice with micronized ferric pyrophosphate (Ultra Rice) (UR diet), ferrous sulfate + yacon flour (FS + Y diet) or Ultra Rice + yacon flour (UR + Y diet). Blood samples were collected at the end of depletion and repletion stages for determination of hemoglobin concentration and calculation of the relative biological value (RBV). Also, the content of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) (acetic, propionic and butyric acids) from animals' stools and caecum weight were determined. The UR diet showed high iron bioavailability (RBV = 84.7%). However, the addition of yacon flour in the diet containing fortified rice (UR + Y diet) decreased RBV (63.1%) significantly below the other three groups (p < 0.05). Groups that received yacon flour showed higher acetic acid values compared to those who did not. In conclusion, fortified UR with micronized ferric pyrophosphate showed high iron bioavailability but the addition of yacon flour at 7.5% FOS reduced iron bioavailability despite increased caecum weight and SCFA concentration.

  14. Utilization of sorghum, rice, corn flours with potato starch for the preparation of gluten-free pasta.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sila Mary Rodrigues; de Mello, Ana Paula; de Caldas Rosa dos Anjos, Mônica; Krüger, Cláudia Carneiro Hecke; Azoubel, Patrícia Moreira; de Oliveira Alves, Márcia Aurelina

    2016-01-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of mixture of sorghum-rice-corn flour and potato starch in the development of gluten-free pasta for celiac disease patients. The experiment was designed according to simplex-lattice method and different types of gluten-free flours were used, such as sorghum, rice, corn, and potato starch. The fifteen formulations were subjected to sensory analysis (Mixed Structured Scale - MSS) and seven formulations were selected in respect to taste and grittiness. These formulations were subjected to Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA), which evaluated the attributes: appearance, color, odor, hardness, elasticity, stickiness, grittiness, taste, residual bitterness and overall quality. Results showed significant difference in appearance, color and hardness. The formulations that showed the best sensory results were submitted to chemical analysis and cooking quality of pasta. It was observed that the best results for mixing is sorghum flour, rice flour and potato starch.

  15. Mixing, tensile and pasting properties of wheat flour mixed with raw and enzyme treated rice bran.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yuefei; Liu, Chunying; Bai, Jing; Liang, Jianfen

    2015-05-01

    Rice bran is a potential fiber and minerals source for nutrients enhancement of cereals food. For evaluation of rice bran applied in bread making, mixing properties, tensile and pasting properties of wheat flour dough with raw (RB) or enzymes treated rice bran (ERB) were investigated. Farinogram with two peaks, which was observed in the dough with 40 % ERB, was reported. For mixing properties, addition of RB and ERB significantly decreased water absorption and stability of wheat dough. Dough development time of mixed flour with ERB was longer than that with RB. Water absorption, stability time of the dough and farinograph quality number is negatively correlated with addition of RB and ERB. The alveograph tests indicated that extensibility of dough decreased remarkably with increased RB or ERB addition and RB had more negative effects than that of the ERB. Results of pasting behaviors predicted that addition of RB or ERB, could slow down starch retrogradation and delay bread staling. In general, wheat flour mixed with 20 % RB or ERB was fit for bread making and the later expects better sensory and nutritional values.

  16. Extraction techniques for arsenic species in rice flour and their speciation by HPLC-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Narukawa, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Inagaki, Kazumi; Hioki, Akiharu

    2014-12-01

    The extraction of arsenic (As) species present in rice flour samples was investigated using different extracting solvents, and the concentration of each species was determined by HPLC-ICP-MS after heat-assisted extraction. The extraction efficiencies for total arsenic species and especially for arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] were investigated. As(III), As(V) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) were found in the samples, and the concentration of DMAA did not vary with treatment conditions. However, the concentrations of extracted total arsenic and those of As(III) and As(V) depended on the extracting solvents. When an extracting solvent was highly acidic, the concentrations of extracted total arsenic were in good agreement with the total arsenic concentration determined by ICP-MS after microwave-assisted digestion, though a part of the As(V) was reduced to As(III) during the highly acidic extraction process. Extraction under neutral conditions increased the extracted As(V), but extracted total arsenic was decreased because a part of the As(III) could not be extracted. Optimum conditions for the extraction of As(III) and As(V) from rice flour samples are discussed to allow the accurate determinations of As(III), As(V) and DMAA in the rice flour samples. Heat block extraction techniques using 0.05 mol L(-1) HClO4 and silver-containing 0.15 mol L(-1) HNO3 were also developed.

  17. Method of creating starch-like ultra-fine rice flour and effect of spray drying on formation of free fatty acid.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice flour from long, medium, and short grain cultivars were processed by passing a 32% rice flour slurry through a microfluidizer at 100 MPa, and spray dryer at three different outlet temperatures, OT (50°C, 80°C, and 115°C). Spray drying conditions were controlled by the flow-rate of the slurry ...

  18. Quantification and characterization of volatiles evolved during extrusion of rice and soy flours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vodovotz, Y.; Zasypkin, D.; Lertsiriyothin, W.; Lee, T. C.; Bourland, C. T.

    2000-01-01

    NASA-Johnson Space Center is designing and building a habitat (Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex, BIO-Plex) intended for evaluating advanced life support systems developed for long-duration missions to the Moon or Mars where all consumables will be recycled and reused. A food system based on raw products obtained from higher plants (such as soybeans, rice, and wheat) may be a central feature of a biologically based Advanced Life Support System. To convert raw crops to edible ingredients or food items, multipurpose processing equipment such as an extruder is ideal. Volatile compounds evolved during the manufacturing of these food products may accumulate and reach toxic levels. Additionally, off-odors often dissipated in open-air environments without consequence may cause significant discomfort in the BIO-Plex. Rice and defatted soy flours were adjusted to 16% moisture, and triplicate samples were extruded using a tabletop single-screw extruder. The extrudate was collected in specially designed Tedlar bags from which air samples could be extracted. The samples were analyzed by GC-MS with special emphasis on compounds with Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs). Results showed a combination of alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and carbonyl compounds in the different flours. Each compound and its SMAC value, as well as its impact on the air revitalization system, was discussed.

  19. Quantification and Characterization of Volatiles Evolved During Extrusion of Rice and Soy Flours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zasypkin, D.; Lertsiriyothin, W.; Lee, T. C.; Bourland, C. T.; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center is designing and building a habitat (Bioregenerative Planetary Life Support Systems Test Complex, BIO-Plex) intended for evaluating advanced life support systems developed for long duration missions to the Moon or Mars where all consumables will be recycled and reused. A food system based on raw products obtained from higher plants (such as soybeans, rice and wheat) may be a central feature of a biological ly-based Advanced Life Support System (ALSS). In order to convert raw crops to edible ingredients or food items, multipurpose processing equipment such as an extruder is ideal. Volatile compounds evolved during the manufacturing of these food products may accumulate reaching toxic levels. Additionally, off-odors often dissipated in open-air environments without consequence, may cause significant discomfort in the BIO-Plex. Rice and defatted soy flours were adjusted to 16% moisture and triplicate samples were extruded using a table top single-screw extruder. The extrudate was collected in specially designed Tedlar bags from which air samples could be extracted. The samples were analyzed by GC-MS with special emphasis on compounds with Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMAC). Results showed a combination of alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and carbonyl compounds in the different flours. Each compound and its SMAC value as well as its impact on the air revitalization system was discussed.

  20. Effect of low temperature plasma on the functional properties of basmati rice flour.

    PubMed

    Thirumdas, Rohit; Deshmukh, R R; Annapure, U S

    2016-06-01

    The present study deals with the application of low temperature plasma on basmati rice flour and its effect on functional properties such as gel hydrations properties, flour hydration properties, gelatinization temperatures and antioxidant properties. The water holding capacity and water binding capacity were observed to be increased with increase in plasma power and time of treatment as the air plasma is known to make the surface more hydrophilic. XRD analysis revealed there is no significance difference in the crystalline structure after the plasma treatment. DSC shows a decrease in peak temperatures (Tp) after the treatment. Hot paste viscosities were observed to be decease from 692 to 591 BU was corresponded to decrease in peak temperature. The total polyphenolic content and reducing power was observed to be increased. The effects of plasma treatment on functional groups of polyphenols were observed by changes in absorption intensities using FTIR. This study demonstrates that the low temperature plasma treatmentis capable of improving the functional properties of basmati rice.

  1. Reversed Phase Column HPLC-ICP-MS Conditions for Arsenic Speciation Analysis of Rice Flour.

    PubMed

    Narukawa, Tomohiro; Matsumoto, Eri; Nishimura, Tsutomu; Hioki, Akiharu

    2015-01-01

    New measurement conditions for arsenic speciation analysis of rice flour were developed using HPLC-ICP-MS equipped with a reversed phase ODS column. Eight arsenic species, namely, arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)], monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO), tetramethylarsonium (TeMA), arsenobetaine (AsB) and arsenocholine (AsC), were separated and determined under the proposed conditions. In particular, As(III) and MMAA and DMAA and AsB were completely separated using a newly proposed eluent containing ammonium dihydrogen phosphate. Importantly, the sensitivity changes, in particular those of As(V) and As(III) caused by coexisting elements and by complex matrix composition, which had been problematical in previously reported methods, were eliminated. The new eluent can be applied to C8, C18 and C30 ODS columns with the same effectiveness and with excellent repeatability. The proposed analytical method was successfully applied to extracts of rice flour certified reference materials.

  2. A nutritious medida (Sudanese cereal thin porridge) prepared by fermenting malted brown rice flour with Bifidobacterium longum BB 536.

    PubMed

    Kabier, Barka M; Mustafa, Suhaimi; Kharidah, Muhammad; Suraini, Abd-Aziz; Abdul Manap, Yazid

    2004-09-01

    The nutritive value of spontaneously fermented brown rice flour medida, a Sudanese cereal thin porridge, is low. This study was carried out to improve the nutritional quality of medida. The flour was soaked and malted at 30◦C to optimise the protein content. Flour malted for two days had the highest protein content. Skim milk was added to the malted brown rice flour medida and fermented using Bifidobacterium longum BB 536. Maximum count of B. longum BB 536 up to 9 log CFU/ ml was attained at 4.6 final fermentation pH. The resultant viscosity was similar to that of the spontaneously fermented brown rice flour medida. There was significant (P< 0.01) increase in both the energy density and the protein content, having increased 12 folds and 24 folds, respectively. The essential amino acids including lysine and methionine were highly augmented. The resultant medida have stable flowing characteristics and meet the whole protein and energy requirements for infants and children aged 1 - 10 years old.

  3. Vitamin A Activity of Rice-based Weaning Foods Enriched with Germinated Cowpea Flour, Banana, Pumpkin and Milk Powder.

    PubMed

    Hashim, N; Pongjata, J

    2000-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the effect of different drying methods on vitamin A activity of formulated weaning food. Weaned foods on vitamin A activity of formulated using treated cowpea flour, locally available rice flour, banana-pumpkin, skim milk powder and sugar in the ratio 35:35:15:15:5. Treated cowpea flour consisted of original cowpea flour, 24 h germinated cowpea flour. Each treated flour was mixed separately with the other ingredients and cooked into a slurry. Each mixture was either oven-dried or freeze-dried to produce a dry flaky mixture. The carotenoid composition of the product was determined by HPLC. Vitamin A activity of oven-dried weaning food was significantly reduced (p<0.05) compared to freeze-dried weaning food. The freeze-dried weaning foods showed a higher retinol equivalent than oven-dried weaning foods for all treatments. The results of the study found that an intake of 100 g of freeze-dried weaning foods enriched with banana-pumpkin and cowpea flour provided an adequate amount of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of vitamin A for infants.

  4. Pasting properties of Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) kernel powder in the presence of Xanthan, Carboxymethylcellulose and Locust bean gum in comparison to Rice and Potato flour.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Maninder; Sandhu, Kawaljit Singh; Kaur, Jasmeen

    2013-08-01

    Effects of addition of different levels of gums (xanthan, carboxymethylcellulose and locust bean gum) on the pasting properties of tamarind kernel, potato and rice flour were studied by using Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA). Tamarind kernel powder (TKP) varied significantly (P < 0.05) from rice and potato flours with respect to its highest protein, ash and fat contents. The results of RVA analysis indicated that pasting properties of flour/gum mixtures were dependent upon the concentration and type of the gums. Peak, breakdown and final viscosity increased with increase in gum concentration in the flour/gum mixture, but the effect was more pronounced for rice and potato flour than for TKP which showed much lower viscosity responses to all of the gums. Among the three gums studied, the increase in viscosity was significantly higher with addition of locust bean gum followed by xanthan while the lowest was observed with carboxymethylcellulose.

  5. Effects of processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein in extruded brown rice and pinto bean composite flours.

    PubMed

    Sumargo, Franklin; Gulati, Paridhi; Weier, Steven A; Clarke, Jennifer; Rose, Devin J

    2016-11-15

    The influence of pinto bean flour and processing moisture on the physical properties and in vitro digestibility of rice-bean extrudates has been investigated. Brown rice: pinto bean flour (0%, 15%, 30%, and 45% bean flour) were extruded under 5 moisture conditions (17.2%, 18.1%, 18.3%, 19.5%, and 20.1%). Physical properties [bulk density, unit density, radial expansion, axial expansion, overall expansion, specific volume, hardness, color, water solubility index, and water absorption index] and in vitro starch and protein digestibilities were determined. Increasing bean flour and processing moisture increased density and hardness while decreasing expansion. Rapidly digestible starch decreased and resistant starch increased as bean substitution and processing moisture increased. In vitro protein digestibility increased with increasing bean flour or with decreasing processing moisture. Incorporating bean flour into extruded snacks can negatively affect physical attributes (hardness, density, and expansion) while positively affecting in vitro starch (decrease) and protein (increase) digestibilities.

  6. STORAGE, NUTRITIONAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF HIGH-FAT FISH AND RICE FLOUR COEXTRUDATES

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Sukumar Bandyopadhyay; Amarender Singh Bawa

    2013-10-01

    The present research is on understanding the storage, nutritional and sensory characteristics of high-fat fish (khoira) and rice flour coextrudates at storage temperature of 30C. The extruder processing conditions used are barrel temperature (200C), screw speed (109 rpm), fish content of feed (44%) and feed moisture content (39%). Sorption isotherm data indicated that the safe aw level was about 0.4–0.7. Guggenheim -Anderson -de Boer model described the sorption data adequately with an r2 value of 0.99. During the initial 15 days of storage, there was a loss of vitamin A and total tocopherols by 64.4 and 20.6%, and an increase in peroxides and free fatty acid content by about 116 mg/kg and 21.7%. The nonlinear mathematical model developed has adequately described the changes in nutritional and storage properties. Sensory attributes indicated that the product fried for 15 s was most acceptable.

  7. Viscoelastic properties of waxy and nonwaxy rice flours, their fat and protein-free starch, and the microstructure of their cooked kernels.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, Ana M; Wood, Delilah F; Yokoyama, Wallace H; Park, I M; Tinoco, Mario A; Hudson, Carol A; McKenzie, Kent S; Shoemaker, Charles F

    2007-08-08

    Physicochemistry and structural studies of two types of japonica rice, low amylose Calmochi-101 (CM101) and intermediate amylose M-202 (M202), were conducted to determine similarities and differences between the rices perhaps attributable to amylose content differences. The rheological behavior of the gelation and pasting processes of flours and starches was determined with high accuracy and precision using a controlled stress rheometer. Fat and protein, although minor constituents of milled rice, were shown to have significant effects on the physicochemical and pasting properties of starches and flours. Removal of protein and lipids with aqueous alkaline or detergent solutions caused lower pasting temperatures and higher overall viscosity in both starches, compared with their respective flours. There was less viscosity difference between M202 flour and its starch when isolated by enzymatic hydrolysis of protein. The protease did not reduce internally bound lipids, suggesting that fats help to determine pasting properties of rice flours and their respective starches. Structural integrity differences in individual granules of waxy and nonwaxy rice flours, starches, and whole raw, soaked, and cooked milled grain were revealed by fracture analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Calmochi 101 and M202 did not differ in weight-averaged molar mass (Mw) and root-mean-square radii (Rz) between flours and starches, as determined by high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) and multiple-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) (Park, I.; Ibanez, A. M.; Shoemaker, C. F. Starch 2007, 59, 69-77).

  8. Studies on fortification of wheat flour with defatted rice bran for chapati making.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Deep N; Singh, Krishna K; Rehal, Jagbir

    2012-02-01

    An investigation was undertaken to explore the possibility of utilizing defatted rice bran (DRB) for making chapati. DRB was ground in hammer mill, sieved for different particle size i.e. 0.336 mm (large), 0.234 mm (medium) and 0.157 mm (fine), blended with wheat flour in the proportion of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25% and blends were evaluated for dough and chapati making quality. Extensibility of dough and chapati decreased (19.9 ± 0.08 to 14.3 ± 0.08 mm, 11.2 ± 0.05 to 6.3 ± 0.04 mm, respectively) while peak load to rupture of chapati increased (3.1 ± 0.04 to 3.6 ± 0.05 N) at 25% replacement of flour with fine DRB. Water absorption capacity of flour increased from 73 ± 0.4% to 74.6 ± 0.4% with 25% of large DRB, while the increase was up to 78.4 ± 0.3 and 80.6 ± 0.3% in case of medium and fine DRB. Overall acceptability score of chapati was also significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased (8.4 ± 0.2 to 6.8 ± 0.2) with 20% of large DRB, whereas it was 7.0 ± 0.1 and 7.6 ± 0.1 for medium and fine DRB at the same proportion. The chapati prepared from the wheat flour containing 20% fine DRB was rated acceptable and also had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher ash (2.1 ± 0.05) and total dietary fiber (4.3 ± 0.10%) content than control chapati.

  9. Functional Properties of Glutinous Rice Flour by Dry-Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yang; Liu, Chengzhen; Jiang, Suisui; Cao, Jinmiao; Xiong, Liu; Sun, Qingjie

    2016-01-01

    Glutinous rice flour (GRF) and glutinous rice starch (GRS) were modified by dry-heat treatment and their rheological, thermal properties and freeze-thaw stability were evaluated. Compared with the native GRF and GRS, the water-holding ability of modified GRF and GRS were enhanced. Both the onset and peak temperatures of the modified samples increased while the endothermic enthalpy change decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, dry heating remarkably increased the apparent viscosities of both GRF and GRS. Importantly, compared with GRS samples, the storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G") values of modified GRF increased more greatly and the tanδ values decreased more remarkably, indicating that the dry-heat treatment showed more impact on the GRF and a higher viscoelasticity compared with GRS. Our results suggest the dry-heat treatment of GRF is a more effective method than that of GRS, which omits the complex and tedious process for purifying GRS, and thereby has more practical applications in the food industry. PMID:27537844

  10. Rheology of Rice Flour Dough with Gum Arabic: Small and Large-Deformation Studies, Sensory Assessment and Modeling.

    PubMed

    Shanthilal, J; Bhattacharya, Suvendu

    2015-08-01

    The absence of gluten protein makes the rice flour doughs difficult to handle when flattened/sheeted products are to be prepared. The rheological, sensory and microstructural changes in rice flour doughs having gum Arabic (0% to 5%, w/w) and moisture contents (44% to 50%) were studied for improving the dough handling characteristics. Rheological parameters like storage modulus (G') and complex viscosity (η*) decreased with an increase in moisture content while loss angle (δ) increased. A power-law type equation was suitable to relate angular frequency (ω) with G', G", and η* (0.814 ≤ r ≤ 0.999, P ≤ 0.01). An increase in gum and moisture contents increased δ from 6.9° to 15.5° but decreased the energy required for compression/flattening. The 6-element spring-dashpot model was suitable (r ≥ 0.991, P ≤ 0.01) for creep curves. The sensory panel had the opinion that dough with a low to moderate hardness between 3 and 4, and stickiness of ≤ 3.5 was suitable for the purpose of flattening in relation to the preparation of sheeted/flattened products; the appropriate condition for dough formulation was with the moisture and gum contents of 47.0% to 47.9% and 1.55% to 2.25%, respectively to offer the desirability index between 0.50 and 0.52. The microstructure of the rice flour dough in the absence of gum Arabic appeared to possess loosely bound flour particles. The presence of gum provided a coating on flour particles to yield dough having good cohesive microstructure.

  11. Relationships of damaged starch granules and particle size distribution with pasting and thermal profiles of milled MR263 rice flour.

    PubMed

    Asmeda, R; Noorlaila, A; Norziah, M H

    2016-01-15

    This research was conducted to investigate the effects of different grinding techniques (dry, semi-wet and wet) of milled rice grains on the damaged starch and particle size distribution of flour produced from a new variety, MR263, specifically related to the pasting and thermal profiles. The results indicated that grinding techniques significantly (p<0.05) affected starch damage content and particle size distribution of rice flour. Wet grinding process yields flour with lowest percentage of starch damage (7.37%) and finest average particle size (8.52μm). Pasting and gelatinization temperature was found in the range of 84.45-89.63°C and 59.86-75.31°C, respectively. Dry ground flour attained the lowest pasting and gelatinization temperature as shown by the thermal and pasting profiles. Correlation analysis revealed that percentage of damaged starch granules had a significant, negative relationship with pasting temperature while average particle size distribution had a significant, strong negative relationship with gelatinization temperature.

  12. Effect of extrusion process parameters and pregelatinized rice flour on physicochemical properties of ready-to-eat expanded snacks.

    PubMed

    Gat, Yogesh; Ananthanarayan, Laxmi

    2015-05-01

    Present study was conducted to investigate effects of pregelatinized rice flour and extrusion process parameters such as feed moisture (16-19 %), die temperature (115-145 °C) and screw speed (150-250 rpm) on physicochemical properties of ready-to-eat expanded snacks by using co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Higher die temperature increased extrudate density and WSI but reduced die pressure, torque and expansion. Increased feed moisture content resulted in extrudates with increased density, WAI and hardness but reduced die pressure, expansion and WSI. Screw speed was found to have no significant effect on expansion and hardness of extrudates, while increase in screw speed resulted in increased WAI of extrudates and reduced torque of extrudates. Effect of pregelatinized rice flour on extrudate expansion and hardness was analysed at 16 % feed moisture, 135 °C die temperature and 150 rpm screw speed. Use of pregelatinized rice flour increased expansion while it reduced hardness of extrudates.

  13. Total antioxidant capacity and starch digestibility of muffins baked with rice, wheat, oat, corn and barley flour.

    PubMed

    Soong, Yean Yean; Tan, Seow Peng; Leong, Lai Peng; Henry, Jeya Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Muffins are a popular snack consumed in western and emerging countries. Increased glycemic load has been implicated in the aetiology of diabetes. This study examined the starch digestibility of muffins baked with rice, wheat, corn, oat and barley flour. Rapidly digested starch (RDS) was greatest in rice (445 mg/g) and wheat (444 mg/g) muffins, followed by oat (416 mg/g), corn (402 mg/g) and barley (387 mg/g). Total phenolic content was found to be positively correlated with total antioxidative capacity and inversely related to the RDS of muffins. The phenolic content was highest in muffin baked with barley flour (1,687 μg/g), followed by corn (1,454 μg/g), oat (945 μg/g), wheat (705 μg/g), and rice (675 μg/g) flour. Browning was shown not to correlate with free radical scavenging capacity and digestibility of muffins. The presence of high phenolic content and low RDS makes barley muffin an ideal snack to modulate glycemic response.

  14. Rheological and secondary structural characterization of rice flour-zein composites for noodles slit from gluten-free sheeted dough.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sungmin; Kim, Hee Won; Lee, Suyong

    2017-04-15

    Rice flour-zein composites in a hydrated viscoelastic state were utilized to compensate for the role of wheat gluten in gluten-free sheeted dough. The use of zein above its glass transition temperature was able to form a viscoelastic protein network of non-wheat dough with rice flour. The mixing stability and development time of the rice dough were positively increased with increasing levels of zein. The protein secondary structural analysis by FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated that the rice doughs with high levels of zein showed significant increases in β-sheet structures whose intensity was almost doubled by the use of 10% zein. The use of zein at more than 5% (w/w) successfully produced gluten-free dough sheets that could be slit into thin and long noodle strands. In addition, the composites were effective in improving the rheological characteristics of gluten-free noodle strands by increasing their maximum force to extension, compared to wheat-based noodles.

  15. Environmental factors that affect the ability of amylose to contribute to retrogradation in gels made from rice flour.

    PubMed

    Philpot, Kim; Martin, Margrit; Butardo, Vito; Willoughby, Doug; Fitzgerald, Melissa

    2006-07-12

    Retrogradation in rice is a trait that describes the hardening of cooked rice after storage or cooling, and it has significant implications for many consumers of rice, since many people cook rice in the morning and consume it several hours later or the next day. Tools to select against retrogradation in breeding programs are yet to be described. Here, we aim to determine the effect on retrogradation of storage time and temperature and the role of starch, protein, and lipids using gels made from Koshihikari grown in either Australia or Japan. Immediately after cooking, cooling from 60 to 40 degrees C had a minimal effect on firmness, but cooling to 20 degrees C led to significantly firmer gels. Storing the gels at low temperatures did not have an additional effect on the firmness as compared with storing the gels at 20, 40, or 60 degrees C. The removal of proteins led to significantly softer gels at all storage treatments but did not affect the change in firmness on cooling. The removal of lipids increased the rate of retrogradation and the firmness of gels significantly for all treatments. Koshihikari grown in Japan retrograded much less than Koshihikari grown in Australia. The amount of amylose that could be washed from gels made from Australian flour was much greater than for gels made from Japanese flour. After storage, only low molecular weight amylose chains were released from the gel and only after rewarming them to 60 degrees C. Despite the fact that flours from both origins were 18% amylose, the amount of long amylose chains that were complexed with lipids was much greater for the Japanese rice, and the unavailability of the complexed long amylose chains explained the lack of retrogradation in the Japanese rice. Once the long chains were released from amylose-lipid complexes, the Japanese rice retrograded. Thus, the environmental factor affecting retrogradation in this variety is type or amount of lipids synthesized, and the degree of retrogradation was

  16. A rapid monitoring method for inorganic arsenic in rice flour using reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Narukawa, Tomohiro; Chiba, Koichi; Sinaviwat, Savarin; Feldmann, Jörg

    2017-01-06

    A new rapid monitoring method by means of high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) following the heat-assisted extraction was developed for measurement of total inorganic arsenic species in rice flour. As(III) and As(V) eluted at the same retention time and completely separated from organoarsenic species by an isocratic elution program on a reversed phase column. Therefore, neither ambiguous oxidation of arsenite to arsenate nor the integration of two peaks were necessary to determine directly the target analyte inorganic arsenic. Rapid injection allowed measuring 3 replicates within 6min and this combined with a quantitative extraction of all arsenic species from rice flour by a 15min HNO3-H2O2 extraction makes this the fastest laboratory based method for inorganic arsenic in rice flour.

  17. Simultaneous determination of nickel, lead, zinc, and copper in citrus leaves and rice flour by liquid chromatography with hexamethylenedithiocarbamate extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Ichinoki, S.; Yamazaki, M.

    1985-10-01

    Reversed-phase liquid chromatography followed by solvent extraction with hexamethyleneammonium hexamethylenedithiocarbamate (HMA-HMDC) was carried out to determine Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cu in standard reference citrus leaves and rice flour. These samples (250 mg) were ashed with nitric acid and perchloric acid. The metals in the ash were extracted into chloroform as HMDC chelates which were then separated on a C 18 column and monitored at 260 nm. The microgram per gram levels of Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cu in the standard biological materials were simultaneously determined within 25 min. 22 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  18. Effect of extrusion temperature and moisture content of corn flour on crystallinity and hardness of rice analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budi, Faleh Setia; Hariyadi, Purwiyatno; Budijanto, Slamet; Syah, Dahrul

    2015-12-01

    Rice analogues are food products made of broken rice and/or any other carbohydrate sources to have similar texture and shape as rice. They are usually made by hot extrusion processing. The hot extrusion process may change the crystallinity of starch and influence the characteristic of rice analogues. Therefore, this research aimed to study the effect of moisture content of incoming dough and temperature of extrusion process on the crystallinity and hardness of resulting rice analogues. The dough's were prepared by mixing of corn starch-flour with ratio 10/90 (w/w) and moisture content of 35%, 40% and 45% (w/w) and extrusion process were done at temperature of 70, 80, 90°C by using of twin screw extruder BEX-DS-2256 Berto. The analyses were done to determine the type of crystal, degree of crystallinity, and hardness of the resulting rice analogues. Our result showed that the enhancement of extrusion temperature from 70 - 90°C increased degree of crystallinity from 5.86 - 15.00% to 10.70 - 18.87% and hardness from 1.71 - 4.36 kg to 2.05 - 5.70 kg. The raising of dough moisture content from 35 - 45% decreased degree of crystallinity from 15.00 - 18.87% to 5.86 - 10.70% and hardness from 4.36 - 5.70 kg to 1.71 - 2.05 kg. The increase of degree of crystallinity correlated positively with the increase of hardness of rice analogues (r = 0.746, p = 0.05).

  19. Quality characteristics of gluten-free cookies made of buckwheat, corn, and rice flour with/without transglutaminase.

    PubMed

    Altındağ, Gülçin; Certel, Muharrem; Erem, Fundagül; İlknur Konak, Ülgen

    2015-04-01

    Buckwheat is one of the most valuable pseudo-cereals in terms of its nutritional composition, and it is suitable for celiac patients because of its gluten-free characteristic. However, gluten is the main structure-forming protein responsible for the development of structure in baked products. Therefore, it is a challenge to produce high-quality gluten-free products. Transglutaminase addition is a relatively common application used in the production of gluten-free baked goods. The objective of this study was to investigate the combination of buckwheat flour with rice and corn flour at different levels in gluten-free cookie formulations and the impact of transglutaminase on the quality of cookies. Quality parameters evaluated were proximal chemical composition, spread ratio, color, and textural parameters (hardness and fracturability). Spread ratio, protein, crude fiber, ash content, and also b* and hardness values were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by flour combinations. Further, addition of transglutaminase resulted in increased moisture content, spread ratio, and fracturability but decreased hardness values.

  20. Simultaneous extraction of arsenic and selenium species from rice products by microwave-assisted enzymatic extraction and analysis by ion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mar, Jorge L Guzmán; Reyes, Laura Hinojosa; Rahman, G M Mizanur; Kingston, H M Skip

    2009-04-22

    A microwave-assisted enzymatic extraction (MAEE) method was developed for the simultaneous extraction of arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) species in rice products. The total arsenic and selenium content in the enzymatic extracts were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), while the speciation analysis was performed by ion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (IC-ICP-MS). The main factors affecting the enzymatic extraction process were evaluated in NIST SRM-1568a rice flour. The optimum extraction conditions were 500 mg of sample, 50 mg of protease XIV, and 25 mg of alpha-amylase in aqueous medium during 40 min at 37 degrees C. The extraction recoveries of total As and Se reached 100 +/- 3 and 80 +/- 4%, respectively. The species stability study during the MAEE process did not show transformation of the target species in rice products. The results of As speciation obtained for SRM-1568a were in agreement with previous studies of As speciation performed on the same reference material. The proposed method was applied to the determination of As and Se species in rice and rice-based cereals. Arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)], dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and selenomethionine (SeMet) were the predominant species identified in rice products.

  1. Improvement of physical properties of gluten-free steamed cake based on black waxy rice flour using different hydrocolloids.

    PubMed

    Itthivadhanapong, Pimchada; Jantathai, Srinual; Schleining, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of 1 % addition of four selected hydrocolloids (xanthan, guar, hypdroxypropylmethylcellulose and carrageenan) on quality characteristics of batter and of black waxy rice steamed cake compared to a control without hydrocolloids. Dynamic frequency sweeps of the batters at 25 °C indicated that all formulations exhibited gel-like behaviour with storage moduli (G') higher than loss moduli (G″). Hydrocolloids increased the apparent viscosity and the thixotropic behaviour, depending on the type of hydrocolloids. Xanthan had the greatest effects on both moduli, whereas carrageenan had the smallest effects. During a storage period of 4 days the cakes with xanthan remained softer than control samples. The overall acceptability of cake with xanthan and guar were higher than control. This study is the first report on using black waxy rice flour as a main raw material in gluten free cake. The results of this study provided useful information for selection hydrocolloids as ingredients that can help to improve the physical properties of waxy rice steamed cake.

  2. Complexation of rice starch/flour and maize oil through heat moisture treatment: Structural, in vitro digestion and physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu; He, Xiaowei; Fu, Xiong; Zhang, Bin; Huang, Qiang

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated structural, in vitro digestion and physicochemical properties of normal rice starch (NRS)/flour (NRF) complexed with maize oil (MO) through heat-moisture treatment (HMT). The NRS-/NRF-MO complex displayed an increased pasting temperature and a decreased peak viscosity. After HMT, less ordered Maltese and more granule fragments were observed for NRS-/NRF-MO complex. Meanwhile, more aggregation was observed in the HMT samples with higher moisture contents. We found that higher onset temperature, lower enthalpy change and relative crystallinity of the NRS-/NRF-MO complex were associated with a higher moisture content of HMT samples. The higher moisture content of HMT was also favorable for the amylose-lipid complex formation. Differences in starch digestion properties were found for NRS-MO and NRF-MO complex. All of the NRS/NRF complexed MO after cooking showed lower rapidly digestible starch (RDS) contents compared with the control sample, therein NRS-/NRF- MO 20% exhibited the highest sum of the slowly digestible starch and resistant starch contents. In general, HMT had a greater impact on the in vitro digestion and physicochemical properties of flour samples compared with starch counterparts.

  3. Homogeneity study of a corn flour laboratory reference material candidate for inorganic analysis.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Ana Maria Pinto; Dos Santos, Liz Oliveira; Brandao, Geovani Cardoso; Leao, Danilo Junqueira; Bernedo, Alfredo Victor Bellido; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Lemos, Valfredo Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a homogeneity study of a corn flour reference material candidate for inorganic analysis is presented. Seven kilograms of corn flour were used to prepare the material, which was distributed among 100 bottles. The elements Ca, K, Mg, P, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and Mo were quantified by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) after acid digestion procedure. The method accuracy was confirmed by analyzing the rice flour certified reference material, NIST 1568a. All results were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA). In the study, a sample mass of 400mg was established as the minimum mass required for analysis, according to the PCA. The between-bottle test was performed by analyzing 9 bottles of the material. Subsamples of a single bottle were analyzed for the within-bottle test. No significant differences were observed for the results obtained through the application of both statistical methods. This fact demonstrates that the material is homogeneous for use as a laboratory reference material.

  4. Digestibility of rice (Oryza sativa L.) flours and starches differing in amylose content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Digestibility of starches in four rice samples with amylose content (AC) from 1.7 to 55.4%, including a newly developed high-amylose rice, was investigated. An in vitro enzymatic starch digestion method an an AOAC method were applied to correlate rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible s...

  5. Response surface methodology for evaluation and optimization of process parameter and antioxidant capacity of rice flour modified by enzymatic extrusion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Enbo; Pan, Xiaowei; Wu, Zhengzong; Long, Jie; Li, Jingpeng; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2016-12-01

    For the purpose of investigating the effect of enzyme concentration (EC), barrel temperature (BT), moisture content (MC), and screw speed (SS) on processing parameters (product temperature, die pressure and special mechanical energy (SME)) and product responses (extent of gelatinization (GE), retention rate of total phenolic content (TPC-RR)), rice flour extruded with thermostable α-amylase was analyzed by response surface methodology. Stepwise regression models were computed to generate response surface and contour plots, revealing that both TPC-RR and GE increased as increasing MC while expressed different sensitivities to BT during enzymatic extrusion. Phenolics preservation was benefited from low SME. According to multiple-factor optimization, the conditions required to obtain the target SME (10kJ/kg), GE (100%) and TPC-RR (85%) were: EC=1.37‰, BT=93.01°C, MC=44.30%, and SS=171.66rpm, with the actual values (9.49kJ/kg, 99.96% and 87.10%, respectively) showing a good fit to the predicted values.

  6. Development and Validation of a Multiresidue Method for the Determination of Pesticides in Dry Samples (Rice and Wheat Flour) Using Liquid Chromatography/Triple Quadrupole Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Grande-Martínez, Ángel; Arrebola, Francisco Javier; Moreno, Laura Díaz; Vidal, José Luis Martínez; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive multiresidue method was developed and validated for the determination of around 100 pesticides in dry samples (rice and wheat flour) by ultra-performance LC coupled to a triple quadrupole mass analyzer working in tandem mode (UPLC/QqQ-MS/MS). The sample preparation step was optimized for both matrixes. Pesticides were extracted from rice samples using aqueous ethyl acetate, while aqueous acetonitrile extraction [modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method] was used for wheat flour matrixes. In both cases the extracts were then cleaned up by dispersive solid phase extraction with MgSO4 and primary secondary amine+C18 sorbents. A further cleanup step with Florisil was necessary to remove fat in wheat flour. The method was validated at two concentration levels (3.6 and 40 μg/kg for most compounds), obtaining recoveries ranging from 70 to 120%, intraday and interday precision values≤20% expressed as RSDs, and expanded uncertainty values≤50%. The LOQ values ranged between 3.6 and 20 μg/kg, although it was set at 3.6 μg/kg for the majority of the pesticides. The method was applied to the analysis of 20 real samples, and no pesticides were detected.

  7. Production of amylase by Aspergillus foetidus on rice flour medium and characterization of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Michelena, V V; Castillo, F J

    1984-06-01

    Aspergillus foetidus ATCC 10254 was selected from nine starch-utilizing microorganisms for its high amylolytic activity. This mould produced high levels of extracellular alpha-amylase in rice starch medium and degraded the available starch efficiently. Optimal conditions for enzyme production on 2.0% rice medium included 28 degrees C, initial pH of 6.6, and supplementations with 0.02% NaNO2, 0.08% KH2PO4, and 0.08% corn steep liquor. Eleven-fold purification of the enzyme was obtained after ammonium sulphate and ethanol precipitations from spent medium. The molecular weight was estimated at 41 500. Optimum pH and temperature for enzyme activity were 5.0 and 45 degrees C. Michaelis-Menten constants were 1.14 mg/ml on amylopectin, 2.19 mg/ml on soluble starch and 7.65 mg/ml on amylose. Amylose produced substrate inhibition while glucose or maltose did not inhibit the enzyme. This alpha-amylase may be used as a saccharifying enzyme for rice starch. Aspergillus foetidus ATCC 10254 also presents a potential for treatment of starch-containing waste waters.

  8. Nutritive value of baobab milk (gubdi) and mixtures of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) and hungry rice, acha (Digitaria exilis) flours.

    PubMed

    Obizoba, I C; Anyika, J U

    1994-09-01

    The baobab milk and fermented baobab/acha flour mixtures were analyzed chemically for their proximate, ascorbate, mineral and antinutrient composition. The dry pulp scraped from baobab fruits was kneaded, made into solution, extracted through cheese-cloth and stored frozen until analyzed. The acha and baobab grains were cleaned, fermented for 24 to 120 hours, dried and hammermilled into fine flours. The unfermented flours served as controls. The standard assay methods of AOAC were selected for use for the analysis of the nutrients and the antinutrients. The mixtures were composed of 70% acha and 30% baobab flours (70:30 protein basis). The baobab milk contained more protein (1.5%) and minerals (Fe, 17.8 mg; Ca 134.2 mg) than those of human milk (protein, 1.3%, Fe, 0.2 mg, Ca 30 mg) and cow milk (Fe, 0.1 mg; Ca 1.20 mg) and most leading national commercial infant formulas e.g. cerelac (Fe, 10.0 mg). The composite flours contained more nutrients than the baobab or the acha flour alone. The BF96 had greater advantage over other BF flours as a supplement to acha. The mixtures are within the reach of lower income group and can be incorporated into their diets.

  9. Changes in Moisture, Protein, and Fat Content of Fish and Rice Flour Coextrudates during Single-Screw Extrusion Cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; Sukumar Bandyopadhyay; A. S. Bawa

    2013-02-01

    Changes in proximate composition of fish and rice flour coextrudates like moisture, protein, and fat content were studied with respect to extrusion process v ariables like barrel temperature, x1 (100–200 degrees C); screw speed, x2 (70–110 rpm); fish content of the feed, x3 (5–45 percent); and feed moisture content, x4 (20–60 percent). Experiments were conducted at five levels of the process variables based on rotatable experimental design. Response surface models (RSM) were developed that adequately described the changes in moisture, protein, and fat content of the extrudates based on the coeff icient of determination (R2) values of 0.95, 0.99, and 0.94. ANOVA analysis indicated that extrudate moisture content was influenced by x4, protein content by x1 and x3, and fat content by x3 and x4 at P < 0.001. Trends based on response surf ace plots indicated that the x1 of about 200 degrees C, x2 of about 90 rpm, x3 of about 25%, and x4 of about 20% minimized the moisture in the extrudates. Protein content was maximized at x1 of 100 degrees C, x2 > 80 rpm, x3 of about 45 percent, and x4 > 50 percent, and fat content was minimized at x1 of about 200 degrees C, x2 of about 85–95 rpm, x3 < 15 percent, and x4 of about >50 percent. Optimized process variables based on a genetic algorithm (GA) for minimum moisture and fat content and maximum protein content were x1 = 199.86, x2 = 109.86, x3 = 32.45, x4 = 20.03; x1 = 199.71, x2 = 90.09, x3 = 15.27, x4 = 58.47; and x1 = 102.97, x2 = 107.67, x3 = 44.56, x4 = 59.54. The predicted values were 17.52 percent, 0.57 percent, and 46.65 percent. Based on the RSM and GA analy sis, extrudate moisture and protein content was influenced by x1, x3, and x4 and fat content by x2, x3, and x4.

  10. Optimization of process parameters for extrusion cooking of low amylose rice flour blended with seeded banana and carambola pomace for development of minerals and fiber rich breakfast cereal.

    PubMed

    Borah, Anjan; Lata Mahanta, Charu; Kalita, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    The low-amylose rice flour, seeded banana (Musa balbisiana, ABB) and carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.) pomace blends were extruded to prepare ready to eat breakfast cereal in a single-screw extruder. Response surface methodology using a central composite design was used to evaluate effect of independent variables, namely blend ratio (80:10:10 - 60:30:10 of low-amylose rice flour, seeded banana and carambola pomace), screw speed (200 - 400 rpm), barrel temperature (90 - 130 (°)C) and feed moisture content (9 - 21 g/100 g, wet basis) on product responses. Quadratic polynomial equations were also obtained by multiple regression analysis. The predicted models were adequate based on lack-of-fit test and coefficient of determination obtained. The feed moisture content had critical effect on all response variables. The compromised optimal conditions obtained by numerical integration for development of extrudates were: screw speed of 350 rpm, barrel temperature of 120 (°)C, feed moisture content of 12 g/100 g and 65:25:10 of blend ratio of feed. In the optimized condition low-amylose rice blend is found to have better physicochemical properties (water absorption index of 481.79 g/100 g; water solubility index of 44.13 g/100 g) and dietary fiber content of 21.35 g/100 g respectively. The developed breakfast cereal showed considerable amount of minerals (Mg and K) and overall acceptability was found to be 7.8.

  11. Effects of rice batter on oil uptake and sensory quality coated fried okra.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Okra was coated and deep-fat fried with batters of flour sources, including rice flour, a mixture of rice flour, and small amounts of pregelatinized rice flour (PGRF), and, as a control, the traditional wheat flour. The addition of PGRF, up to 8%, enhanced batter viscosity and the coating properties...

  12. Report of the key comparison CCQM-K108 determination of arsenic species, total arsenic and cadmium in brown rice flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hioki, Akiharu; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Inagaki, Kazumi; Miyashita, Shinichi; Kotzeva, Boriana; Kakoulides, Elias; Sxoina, Vasiliki; Fung, W. H.; Choi, Y. Y.; Yau, H. P.; Tsoi, Y. T.; Lee, C. L.; Kong, M. F.; Shin, Richard; Juan, Wang; Sin Yee, Ng; Uribe, Christian; Marques Rodrigues, Janaína; Caciano de Sena, Rodrigo; Silva Dutra, Emily; Bergamaschi, Luigi; Giordani, Laura; D'Agostino, Giancarlo; Valiente, Liliana; Horvat, Milena; Jacimovic, Radojko; Oduor Okumu, Tom; Kang'Iri, Jacqueline; Owiti Orwa, Tabitha; Chao, Wei; Jingbo, Chao; Taebunpakul, Sutthinun; Yafa, Charun; Kaewkhomdee, Nattikarn; Chailap, Benjamat; Pharat, Yanee; Phukphattanachai, Pranee; Turk, Gregory C.; Long, Stephen; Murphy, K. E.; Davis, Clay; Ellisor, Michael; Merrick, Jeffrey; White, Ian; Saxby, David; Linsky, S. M.; Barzev, A.; Botha, A.

    2015-01-01

    The CCQM-K108 key comparison was organised by the Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) of CCQM to test the abilities of national metrology institutes (NMIs) or designated institutes (DIs) to measure the mass fractions of arsenic species, total arsenic and cadmium in brown rice flour. The National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) acted as the coordinating laboratory. The participants used different measurement methods, though most of them used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) or isotope-dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) for Cd and ICP-MS for total arsenic. Regarding arsenic speciation, all participants used ICP-MS coupled with liquid chromatography (LC). Accounting for relative expanded uncertainty, comparability of measurement results for each of total arsenic and cadmium was successfully demonstrated by the participating NMIs or DIs for the measurement of the measurand at the level of less than 0.5 mg/kg. Regarding arsenic species (inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA)), there was, however, a measurement problem still to be solved and that part of CCQM-K108 will be repeated. It is expected that arsenic, cadmium and other metals at mass fractions greater than approximately 0.1 mg/kg in rice flour can be determined by each participant using the same technique(s) employed for this key comparison to achieve similar uncertainties mentioned in the present report. Furthermore, the results of this key comparison can be utilised along with the IAWG core capability approach. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. Development of a certified reference material (NMIJ CRM 7531-a) for the determination of trace cadmium and other elements in brown rice flour.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Shin-ichi; Inagaki, Kazumi; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Zhu, Yanbei; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Hioki, Akiharu; Chiba, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    A certified reference material (CRM) for trace cadmium and other elements in brown rice flour was developed at the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ). The CRM was provided as a dry powder after drying and frozen pulverization of fresh brown rice obtained from a Japanese domestic market. Characterization of the property value for each element was carried out exclusively by NMIJ with at least two independent analytical methods, including inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ICP high-resolution mass spectrometry, isotope-dilution ICP-MS, ICP optical emission spectrometry, and graphite-furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. Property values were provided for six elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd). The concentration range of the property values was from 0.280 mg kg(-1) of As to 31.8 mg kg(-1) of Zn. The combined relative standard uncertainties of the property values were estimated by considering the uncertainties of the homogeneity, characterization, difference among analytical methods, dry-mass correction factor, and calibration standard. The range of the relative combined standard uncertainties was from 1.1% of Zn to 1.6% of As.

  14. A study on flexural and water absorption of surface modified rice husk flour/E-glass/polypropylene hybrid composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassiah, K.; Sin, T. W.; Ismail, M. Z.

    2016-10-01

    This work is to study the effects of rice husk (RH)/E-Glass (EG)/polypropylene (PP) hybrid composites in terms of flexural and water absorption properties. The tests conducted are the flexural test and also the water absorption test using two types of water: distilled and sea water. The hybrid composites are prepared with various ratios of fibre weight fractions and the rice husk is treated using 2% Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) to improve interaction and adhesion between the non-polar matrix and the polar lignocellulosic fibres. It was found that the content of rice husk/E-Glass fillers affected the structural integrity and flexural properties of hybrid composites. In addition, a higher ratio of rice husk contributes to higher water absorption in the hybrid composites.

  15. Effects of whey protein concentrate, feed moisture and temperature on the physicochemical characteristics of a rice-based extruded flour.

    PubMed

    Teba, Carla da Silva; Silva, Erika Madeira Moreira da; Chávez, Davy William Hidalgo; Carvalho, Carlos Wanderlei Piler de; Ascheri, José Luis Ramírez

    2017-08-01

    The influence of whey protein concentrate (WPC), feed moisture and temperature on the physicochemical properties of rice-based extrudates has been investigated. WPC (0.64-7.36g/100g rice) was extruded under 5 moisture (16.64-23.36g/100g) and 5 temperature (106.36-173.64°C) established by a 3(2) central composite rotational design. Physicochemical properties [color, porosimetry, crystallinity, water solubility and absorption, pasting properties, reconstitution test, proximate composition, amino acids, minerals and electrophoresis] were determined. WPC and feed moisture increased redness, yellowness and decreased luminosity. Feed moisture and temperature increased density and total volume pore. WPC and moisture increased crystallinity, but only WPC increased solubility and decrease the retrogradation tendency. Increasing temperature increased the viscosity of the extrudates. The addition of WPC improved the nutritional composition of the extrudates, especially proteins. It is suggested that the extrusion process positively affected the retention of most of the polypeptides chains.

  16. Relationship between population growth of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and protein and carbohydrate content in flour and starch.

    PubMed

    Wong, Nellie; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2011-12-01

    The effects of eight diets (atta flour, wheat flour, self-rising flour, rice flour, custard powder, corn flour, tapioca starch, and potato starch) on the development of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), reared at 29-31 degrees C and 66-70% RH were assessed. Five pairs of male and female T. castaneum were reared on the respective diets for 28 d before the experimental setup was dismantled and adult counts were recorded. In another experiment, the insects were allowed to mate and oviposit in each flour or starch type over a period of 7 d before being removed. The counting of pupae and adult emergence began on the day of emergence and was continued on a daily basis until day 140. Proximate analysis was performed for chemical composition of each diet, and the numbers of new adults that developed were found to be positively correlated (r2 = 0.97; P < 0.05) with the protein content and negatively correlated (r2 = 0.93; P < 0.05) with the carbohydrate content. For T. castaneum, the suitable diets were ranked as follows: atta flour > wheat flour > self-rising flour > rice flour > custard powder > corn flour > tapioca starch > potato starch. T. castaneum larval development to the pupal and adult stages developed significantly faster in atta flour (P < 0.05) than in the other diets, and the greatest number of progeny was produced from beetles reared on atta flour. Fewer adults emerged from wheat flour, self-rising flour, and rice flour, and no new emergences were recorded for the remaining diets. Developmental rate was much slower in beetles reared on diets in which a low number in progeny was produced. These data illustrate that different diets can influence the sustainability of these insects and affect their development and growth.

  17. Viscoelastic Properties of Waxy and Non-Waxy Rice Flours, Their Fat and Protein-Free Starch, and the Microstructure of Their Cooked Kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physicochemistry and structural studies of two types of japonica rice, low amylose Calmochi-101 (CM101) and intermediate amylose M-202 (M202), were conducted to determine similarities and differences between the rices perhaps attributable to amylose content differences. The rheological behavior of ...

  18. [Physicochemical and sensory properties of flours ready to prepare an amaranth "atole"].

    PubMed

    Contreras López, Elizabeth; Jaimez Ordaz, Judith; Porras Martínez, Griselda; Juárez Santillán, Luis Felipe; Villanueva Rodríguez, Javier Añorve Morga y Socorro

    2010-06-01

    Atole is a Mexican pre-hispanic drink prepared traditionally with corn; however, cereals as wheat, rice and amaranth have also been used. The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical and sensory properties of an amaranth flour to prepare a drink (atole) mentioned above, in order to determine its nutritive value. Proximate analysis of the amaranth, corn and rice drink flours was determined by means of official techniques of AOAC. Mineral content was carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry. Viscosity was measured in a reometer from 25 to 90 degrees C. The quantitative descriptive profile (QDA) of the amaranth drink was studied by a trained panel of 10 judges. Results showed that the amaranth drink flour presented the highest protein and fat content compared to corn and rice drink flours. Sodium and potassium were the most abundant minerals in all flours studied. Corn and rice drink flours showed a constant viscosity from 20 to 84 degrees C, to 85 degrees C an important increase in this parameter was observed. This increase was detected in the amaranth drink flour to 75 degrees C. Descriptors defined by trained judges for the QDA of the amaranth drink flours were: starch, almond/cherry, caramel, vanilla, strawberry, walnut and chocolate. The amaranth drink flour, compared to corn and rice drink flours, presented the best nutritional profile; it is important to emphasize its protein content.

  19. Soybean-Enriched Snacks Based on African Rice

    PubMed Central

    Marengo, Mauro; Akoto, Hannah F.; Zanoletti, Miriam; Carpen, Aristodemo; Buratti, Simona; Benedetti, Simona; Barbiroli, Alberto; Johnson, Paa-Nii T.; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther O.; Saalia, Firibu K.; Bonomi, Francesco; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Manful, John; Iametti, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Snacks were produced by extruding blends of partially-defatted soybean flour with flours from milled or parboiled African-grown rice. The interplay between composition and processing in producing snacks with a satisfactory sensory profile was addressed by e-sensing, and by molecular and rheological approaches. Soybean proteins play a main role in defining the properties of the protein network in the products. At the same content in soybean flour, use of parboiled rice flour increases the snack’s hardness. Electronic nose and electronic tongue discriminated samples containing a higher amount of soybean flour from those with a lower soybean flour content. PMID:28231133

  20. Nutritional evaluation and shelf life studies of papads prepared from wheat-legume composite flours.

    PubMed

    Garg, R; Dahiya, S

    2003-01-01

    The present study was carried out to develop papads from wheat and legume blends and to analyze them for organoleptic acceptability, nutritional quality, and keeping quality. Papad is a dehydrated product prepared from dhals or rice. A firm but pliable dough is made from the flours of dhals or rice with addition of suitable seasoning. It is shaped into balls, rolled out thin, dried and toasted over open fire so as to give a light, crisp product. Mung flour papads were kept as control and wheat flour, chickpea flour, and pea flour were used to supplement mung flour papads. Three different proportions (10, 20, 30%) of each flour were used to supplement Mung flour. Papads with wheat flour (10%), chickpea flour (20%), and pea flour (10%) level of supplementation were found to be most acceptable and these papads were subjected to nutritional evaluation. Protein content significantly increased on supplementation with legume flours at all levels. Fat content was significantly higher in chickpea flour supplemented papads. Ash content varied significantly from 10.17 to 10.78% in papads. Total carbohydrates decreased significantly on supplementation with chickpea flour. Copper content increased significantly on supplementation. A significant decrease in phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor of supplemented papads was found. In vitro protein digestibility significantly increased on supplementation but a significant decrease in in vitro starch digestibility was found in supplemented papads. Storage studies showed that chickpea flour and pea flour supplemented papads can be stored safely for 60 days and wheat flour supplemented papads for 30 days both at room and refrigeration temperatures.

  1. 'The effect of inulin addition on structural and textural properties of extruded products under several extrusion conditions': The effect of inulin addition on structural and textural properties of rice flour extrudates.

    PubMed

    Tsokolar-Tsikopoulos, Konstantinos C; Katsavou, Ioanna D; Krokida, Magdalini K

    2015-10-01

    The growing consumer demand for healthy snacks has turned the interest of industry and research in the development of new ready-to-eat products, enriched with dietary fibers. Inulin is a soluble fiber with a neutral taste that promotes the good function of the intestine. Rice flour extrudates were produced under various extrusion temperatures, screw speeds, feed moisture concentrations and inulin replacement levels. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the material characteristics and the extrusion conditions on the structural and textural properties of the extrudates. Simple mathematical models were used for properties correlation with process conditions and through regression analysis it was revealed that there is a significant effect of extrusion temperature, screw speed, feed moisture content and inulin concentration on the final properties. Both density and maximum stress increased when moisture content and inulin concentration increased, while they decreased when extrusion temperature and screw speed increased. These results were also strengthened by scanning electron microscopy. The highest expansion ratio was presented when decreasing all process conditions apart from screw speed.

  2. Cake Flour Is Not Just Any Old White Powder: A Fun Take-Home Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Kevin; Rasmus, C.; Virtue, Melinda; Slik, Kate; Wrigley, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Baking cakes with different recipes can provide an exercise in the application of the scientific method, illustrating the need to vary only one ingredient at a time for correct derivation of conclusions. This experiment, most likely to be performed at home, compares a cake flour with flours from durum wheat, rice and cornflour (gluten-free…

  3. Quality characteristics of gluten free cookies prepared from different flour combinations.

    PubMed

    Rai, Sweta; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Baljit

    2014-04-01

    The present investigation was undertaken on the utilization of alternate flours/meals (rice (Oryza sativa), maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) for the preparation of gluten free cookies as compared to conventional wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour cookies. The physicochemical parameters, sensory qualities and functional properties of flours/cookies were studied and compared with control cookies. The blend of maize and pearl millet had best pasting qualities followed by blend of pearl millet and sorghum flour. The control cookies showed a higher yield (186.8%) but stronger peak force (2.69 kg). The cookies prepared from rice and maize combination had highest spread ratio whereas, the lowest spread ratio was observed in rice and sorghum combination. The cookies with pearl millet and sorghum flour combination had higher fat, protein, ash and calorific values as compared to control cookies. The maximum sensory overall acceptability scores were found for cookies prepared from combination of pearl millet and sorghum flour followed by rice and sorghum, maize and sorghum, rice and maize, maize and pearl millet, rice and pearl millet and control cookies. All gluten free cookies had higher nutritional value as compared to control cookies and were acceptable by panelists.

  4. [Gluten-free cookies prepared with sorghum flour].

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Ferreira, Sila Mary; Luparelli, Paola Cordeiro; Schieferdecker, Maria Eliana Madalozzo; Vilela, Regina Maria

    2009-12-01

    Considering that sorghum is a gluten free flour, it could be proposed as an ingredient to produce alternative bakery products for the subjects with Celiac Disease, since they do not have many food options available in the market. For this reason, the main goal of this study is to develop chocolate cookies with sorghum flour (Sorghum vulgare). The experimental design used was the simplex-lattice factor to compare the following variables: sorghum flour (50-100%), rice flour (0-50%) and corn starch (0-50%), totaling up to ten experiments. The formulations IX and X were selected as the ones with the highest sensorial scores The sorghum flour, regular chocolate cookies and gluten free cookies were submitted to physicochemical analysis. Physical and sensorial analysis using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) and hedonic analysis were performed for the two cookies preparation. Sorghum flour presented characteristics compared with the described by the food regulation laws. The preparations that presented satisfactory sensorial characteristics were the ones that had 58 and 67% of sorghum flour, 8 and 17% of rice flour, 33 and 17% of corn starch, respectively. The performance for both IX and X formulations was 0,92 and the specific volume was 1,54 and 1.46 cm3/g, respectively. When compared with regular cookies, the differences on most of the sensorial attributes evaluated on sorghum cookies were not statistically significant (P < 0.05), except for the color and the odour. All the sensorial scores reached values equal or higher than 7 for both samples and most of them scored 8. The results showed the feasibility of including sorghum flour on the manufacture of gluten free cookies.

  5. Degradation and detection of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis DNA and proteins in flour of three genetically modified rice events submitted to a set of thermal processes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofu; Chen, Xiaoyun; Xu, Junfeng; Dai, Chen; Shen, Wenbiao

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the degradation of three transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes (Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac, and Cry1Ab/Ac) and the corresponding encoded Bt proteins in KMD1, KF6, and TT51-1 rice powder, respectively, following autoclaving, cooking, baking, or microwaving. Exogenous Bt genes were more stable than the endogenous sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene, and short DNA fragments were detected more frequently than long DNA fragments in both the Bt and SPS genes. Autoclaving, cooking (boiling in water, 30 min), and baking (200 °C, 30 min) induced the most severe Bt protein degradation effects, and Cry1Ab protein was more stable than Cry1Ac and Cry1Ab/Ac protein, which was further confirmed by baking samples at 180 °C for different periods of time. Microwaving induced mild degradation of the Bt and SPS genes, and Bt proteins, whereas baking (180 °C, 15 min), cooking and autoclaving led to further degradation, and baking (200 °C, 30 min) induced the most severe degradation. The findings of the study indicated that degradation of the Bt genes and proteins somewhat correlated with the treatment intensity. Polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and lateral flow tests were used to detect the corresponding transgenic components. Strategies for detecting transgenic ingredients in highly processed foods are discussed.

  6. Proteomics of Wheat Flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is a major food crop grown on more than 215 million hectares of land throughout the world. Wheat flour provides an important source of protein for human nutrition and is used as a principal ingredient in a wide range of food products, largely because wheat flour, when mixed with water, has un...

  7. Flour Flame Thrower: The "Flaming Potential" of Plain Flour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoval, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Plain flour has a lot of chemical energy packed into it. When the flour is in a clump or pile it does not ignite although it may blacken. This is because there is not enough flour exposed to the oxygen in the air. Aerosolising the flour exposes it to much more oxygen allowing a self sustaining combustion reaction to occur when an ignition source…

  8. Antioxidant Capacity, Mineral Content and Sensory Properties of Gluten-Free Rice and Buckwheat Cookies

    PubMed Central

    Pestorić, Mladenka; Mišan, Aleksandra; Nedeljković, Nataša; Jambrec, Dubravka; Jovanov, Pavle; Banjac, Vojislav; Torbica, Aleksandra; Hadnađev, Miroslav; Mandić, Anamarija

    2015-01-01

    Summary Light buckwheat flour was used to substitute rice flour at the level of 10, 20 and 30% to produce gluten-free cookies. The substitution of gluten-free cookie formulation with light buckwheat flour contributed to the significantly higher mineral content, especially magnesium, potassium, iron and copper, in comparison with the control rice cookies (p<0.05). Gluten-free cookies made with rice flour and buckwheat flour exhibited significantly higher total phenolic and rutin content, scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•), antioxidant activity and reducing power than the control cookies (p<0.05). Comparing all evaluated sensory properties, cookies containing 20% of light buckwheat flour had the most acceptable sensory properties. The obtained results of principal component analysis showed that the cookies with 20 and 30% buckwheat flour had better antioxidant and sensory properties in comparison with other two cookie samples. PMID:27904330

  9. Low oil-uptake rice batters.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice starch and flour are popular for use in foods, because they are known to be nutritious, gluten-free, and hypoallergenic – properties which make them particularly desirable for use in infant foods, and in products for people with celiac disease (gluten intolerance). One application for rice sta...

  10. Ultrasonic analysis to discriminate bread dough of different types of flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Álvarez, J.; Rosell, C. M.; García-Hernández, M. J.; Chávez, J. A.; Turó, A.; Salazar, J.

    2012-12-01

    Many varieties of bread are prepared using flour coming from wheat. However, there are other types of flours milled from rice, legumes and some fruits and vegetables that are also suitable for baking purposes, used alone or in combination with wheat flour. The type of flour employed strongly influences the dough consistency, which is a relevant property for determining the dough potential for breadmaking purposes. Traditional methods for dough testing are relatively expensive, time-consuming, off-line and often require skilled operators. In this work, ultrasonic analysis are performed in order to obtain acoustic properties of bread dough samples prepared using two different types of flour, wheat flour and rice flour. The dough acoustic properties can be related to its viscoelastic characteristics, which in turn determine the dough feasibility for baking. The main advantages of the ultrasonic dough testing can be, among others, its low cost, fast, hygienic and on-line performance. The obtained results point out the potential of the ultrasonic analysis to discriminate doughs of different types of flour.

  11. Gluten-free dough-making of specialty breads: Significance of blended starches, flours and additives on dough behaviour.

    PubMed

    Collar, Concha; Conte, Paola; Fadda, Costantino; Piga, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The capability of different gluten-free (GF) basic formulations made of flour (rice, amaranth and chickpea) and starch (corn and cassava) blends, to make machinable and viscoelastic GF-doughs in absence/presence of single hydrocolloids (guar gum, locust bean and psyllium fibre), proteins (milk and egg white) and surfactants (neutral, anionic and vegetable oil) have been investigated. Macroscopic (high deformation) and macromolecular (small deformation) mechanical, viscometric (gelatinization, pasting, gelling) and thermal (gelatinization, melting, retrogradation) approaches were performed on the different matrices in order to (a) identify similarities and differences in GF-doughs in terms of a small number of rheological and thermal analytical parameters according to the formulations and (b) to assess single and interactive effects of basic ingredients and additives on GF-dough performance to achieve GF-flat breads. Larger values for the static and dynamic mechanical characteristics and higher viscometric profiles during both cooking and cooling corresponded to doughs formulated with guar gum and Psyllium fibre added to rice flour/starch and rice flour/corn starch/chickpea flour, while surfactant- and protein-formulated GF-doughs added to rice flour/starch/amaranth flour based GF-doughs exhibited intermediate and lower values for the mechanical parameters and poorer viscometric profiles. In addition, additive-free formulations exhibited higher values for the temperature of both gelatinization and retrogradation and lower enthalpies for the thermal transitions. Single addition of 10% of either chickpea flour or amaranth flour to rice flour/starch blends provided a large GF-dough hardening effect in presence of corn starch and an intermediate effect in presence of cassava starch (chickpea), and an intermediate reinforcement of GF-dough regardless the source of starch (amaranth). At macromolecular level, both chickpea and amaranth flours, singly added, determined

  12. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.175 Phosphated flour. Phosphated flour, phosphated white flour, and...

  13. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.175 Phosphated flour. Phosphated flour, phosphated white flour, and...

  14. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.175 Phosphated flour. Phosphated flour, phosphated white flour, and...

  15. Catering Gluten-Free When Simultaneously Using Wheat Flour.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kathryn; McGough, Norma; Urwin, Heidi

    2016-02-01

    A European law on gluten-free (GF) labeling came into force in 2012, covering foods sold prepacked and in food service establishments, and a similar U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation covers GF labeling from August 2014. Gluten is found in the grains wheat, rye, and barley. A common source of gluten in the kitchen is wheat flour. This research aimed to determine variables that have a significant effect on gluten contamination in commercial kitchens when wheat flour is in use and to establish controls necessary to assure GF production. A pilot study was used to test the following hypotheses: (i) increasing duration of exposure to wheat flour would increase gluten contamination, (ii) increasing distance between the site of preparation and the site of wheat flour would reduce gluten contamination, (iii) the use of a ventilation hood would decrease gluten contamination, and (iv) the use of a barrier segregating the site of preparation of a GF meal and the use of wheat flour would decrease gluten contamination. Petri dishes containing GF rice pudding were placed in three directions at increasing distances (0.5 to 2 m) from a site of wheat flour use. A barrier was in place between a third of samples and the site of wheat flour. After wheat flour was handled for 0.5 and 4.0 h, petri dishes were sealed and the contents were analyzed for gluten. The experiment was duplicated with the ventilation hood on and off. The pilot study revealed that a distance of 2 m from the use of wheat flour was required to control gluten contamination at ≤20 ppm if wheat flour had been in use for 4.0 h. The identified control of distance was tested in five different study sites. In each of the study sites, a test meal was prepared a minimum of 2 m away from the site of wheat flour use. Although kitchens vary and must be considered individually, the established control of a minimum 2 m distance, along with good hygiene practices, was found to be effective in preparing GF meals

  16. Identifying irradiated flours by photo-stimulated luminescence technique

    SciTech Connect

    Ramli, Ros Anita Ahmad; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Othman, Zainon; Abdullah, Wan Saffiey Wan

    2014-02-12

    Photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique was used in this study to detect gamma irradiation treatment of five types of flours (corn, rice, tapioca, wheat and glutinous rice) at four different doses 0, 0.2, .05 and 1kGy. The signal level was compared with two threshold values (700 and 5000). With the exception of glutinous rice, all irradiated samples produced a strong signal above the upper threshold (5000 counts/60s). All control samples produced negative result with the signals below the lower threshold (700 counts/60s) suggesting that the samples have not been irradiated. Irradiated glutinous rice samples produced intermediate signals (700 - 5000 counts/60s) which were subsequently confirmed using calibrated PSL. The PSL signals remained stable after 90 days of storage. The findings of this study will be useful to facilitate control of food irradiation application in Malaysia.

  17. Identifying irradiated flours by photo-stimulated luminescence technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Ros Anita Ahmad; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Othman, Zainon; Abdullah, Wan Saffiey Wan

    2014-02-01

    Photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL) technique was used in this study to detect gamma irradiation treatment of five types of flours (corn, rice, tapioca, wheat and glutinous rice) at four different doses 0, 0.2, .05 and 1kGy. The signal level was compared with two threshold values (700 and 5000). With the exception of glutinous rice, all irradiated samples produced a strong signal above the upper threshold (5000 counts/60s). All control samples produced negative result with the signals below the lower threshold (700 counts/60s) suggesting that the samples have not been irradiated. Irradiated glutinous rice samples produced intermediate signals (700 - 5000 counts/60s) which were subsequently confirmed using calibrated PSL. The PSL signals remained stable after 90 days of storage. The findings of this study will be useful to facilitate control of food irradiation application in Malaysia.

  18. 21 CFR 137.170 - Instantized flours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Instantized flours. 137.170 Section 137.170 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.170 Instantized flours. (a) Instantized flours, instant blending...

  19. 21 CFR 137.155 - Bromated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bromated flour. 137.155 Section 137.155 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.155 Bromated flour. Bromated flour conforms to the definition and standard...

  20. 21 CFR 137.170 - Instantized flours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Instantized flours. 137.170 Section 137.170 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.170 Instantized flours. (a) Instantized flours, instant blending...

  1. 21 CFR 137.220 - Durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Durum flour. 137.220 Section 137.220 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.220 Durum flour. (a) Durum flour is the food prepared by grinding and...

  2. 21 CFR 137.220 - Durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Durum flour. 137.220 Section 137.220 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.220 Durum flour. (a) Durum flour is the food prepared by grinding and...

  3. 21 CFR 137.220 - Durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Durum flour. 137.220 Section 137.220 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.220 Durum flour. (a) Durum flour is the food prepared by grinding and...

  4. 21 CFR 137.155 - Bromated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bromated flour. 137.155 Section 137.155 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.155 Bromated flour. Bromated flour conforms to the definition and standard...

  5. 21 CFR 137.155 - Bromated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bromated flour. 137.155 Section 137.155 Food and... CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.155 Bromated flour. Bromated flour conforms to the definition and standard...

  6. 21 CFR 137.170 - Instantized flours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Instantized flours. 137.170 Section 137.170 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.170 Instantized flours. (a) Instantized flours, instant blending...

  7. Trends in wheat-flour fortification with folic acid and iron--worldwide, 2004 and 2007.

    PubMed

    2008-01-11

    Consumption of adequate amounts of folic acid by women before pregnancy and during early pregnancy decreases their risk for having a pregnancy affected by neural tube defects (NTDs), the most common preventable type of birth defects worldwide. Consumption of iron ameliorates iron deficiency, the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in the world, affecting approximately 2 billion persons. Although certain populations consume substantial amounts of rice and corn, worldwide, the consumption of wheat flour is greater than that of any other cereal grain. Fortification of wheat flour is an effective, simple, and inexpensive strategy for supplying folic acid, iron, and other vitamins and minerals to large segments of the world population. To assess the global change from 2004 to 2007 in 1) the percentage of wheat flour being fortified with folic acid and iron; 2) the total number of persons overall and women in particular with access to fortified wheat flour; and 3) the total number of newborns whose mothers had access to fortified wheat flour during pregnancy, CDC analyzed data from the Flour Fortification Initiative (FFI). This report summarizes the results of that assessment, which indicated that the worldwide percentage of wheat-flour fortification increased from 18% in 2004 to 27% in 2007. The estimated number of persons with access to fortified wheat flour increased by approximately 540 million, and the annual number of newborns whose mothers had access to fortified wheat flour during pregnancy increased by approximately 14 million. Nonetheless, approximately two thirds of the world population lacks access to fortified wheat flour. Programs should continue to expand coverage of wheat-flour fortification as a strategy to increase folic acid and iron consumption.

  8. In vitro digestibility and physicochemical properties of milled rice.

    PubMed

    Dhital, Sushil; Dabit, Laura; Zhang, Bin; Flanagan, Bernadine; Shrestha, Ashok K

    2015-04-01

    Rice is a staple diet as well as a major ingredient in many processed foods. The physicochemical and supra-molecular structure of eight rice varieties with amylose content from 9% to 19% were studied to elucidate the factors responsible for variation in enzymatic digestibility of raw and cooked rice. Parboiled rice had a digestion rate coefficient almost 4.5 times higher than the least digestible Low GI rice. The rate coefficient was found to be independent of helical structure and long range molecular order, possibly attributed to the effect of rice flour architecture. Strong swelling and pasting behaviour and lower gelatinisation temperature were linked with apparently higher in vitro digestibility but the relationship was statistically insignificant. It is concluded that the enzymatic susceptibility of rice flours are independent of supra-molecular structure and are most likely controlled by external factors not limited to particle size, presence of intact cell wall and other non-starch polymers.

  9. Cooking quality and starch digestibility of gluten free pasta using new bean flour.

    PubMed

    Giuberti, Gianluca; Gallo, Antonio; Cerioli, Carla; Fortunati, Paola; Masoero, Francesco

    2015-05-15

    The use of rice/leguminous blend may be nutritionally convenient in gluten free product manufacturing. Gluten free spaghetti was prepared with rice flour and different concentrations of bean flour (included at levels of 0%, 20% and 40%, w/w) derived from a new developed white-seeded low phytic acid and lectin free (ws+lpa+lf) bean cultivar. Protein, ash and dietary fibre contents increased linearly (P<0.05) while total starch decreased quadratically (P<0.05) with the inclusion of ws+lpa+lf bean flour. The colour of spaghetti was influenced (P<0.05) by ws+lpa+lf bean inclusion. With respect to 0% spaghetti, the inclusion of ws+lpa+lf bean increased linearly (P<0.05) the optimal cooking time and the water absorption capacity, without affecting cooking loss and texture properties. The ws+lpa+lf bean inclusion increases quadratically (P<0.05) the resistant starch content, while decreasing quadratically (P<0.05) the in vitro glycemic index. The partial replacement of rice flour with bean flour can favourably be used in gluten free spaghetti formulation.

  10. Analysis of Azodicarbonamide in Wheat Flour and Prepared Flour Mixes.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Akiko; Oishi, Mitsuo; Hayafuji, Chieko; Kobayashi, Chigusa; Shindo, Tetsuya; Ozawa, Hideki; Nakazato, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    Azodicarbonamide (ADA) is used in some countries as a flour bleaching agent and a dough conditioner. However, ADA is prohibited for use as a food additive in Japan. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an efficient and sensitive method to determine ADA in wheat flour. A simple and practical procedure to analyze ADA in wheat flour and prepared flour mixes was developed. ADA was extracted from samples by ultrasonication with acetone. ADA in the solution was derivatized with triphenylphosphine (TPP). The ADA-TPP derivative was concentrated and cleaned up using a reversed-phase solid-phase extraction cartridge, and the ADA-TPP derivative was analyzed using HPLC for determination and LC-MS/MS for identification. Good linearity was achieved over the concentration range of 0.25-100 ppm ADA in wheat flour and prepared flour mixes. The mean recoveries from wheat flour and prepared flour mixes fortified at the levels of 1 and 10 ppm ranged from 86.9 to 101.0%, and the coefficients of variation ranged from 1.9 to 3.4%.

  11. Impact of variety type and particle size distribution on starch enzymatic hydrolysis and functional properties of tef flours.

    PubMed

    Abebe, Workineh; Collar, Concha; Ronda, Felicidad

    2015-01-22

    Tef grain is becoming very attractive in the Western countries since it is a gluten-free grain with appreciated nutritional advantages. However there is little information of its functional properties and starch digestibility and how they are affected by variety type and particle size distribution. This work evaluates the effect of the grain variety and the mill used on tef flour physico-chemical and functional properties, mainly derived from starch behavior. In vitro starch digestibility of the flours by Englyst method was assessed. Two types of mills were used to obtain whole flours of different granulation. Rice and wheat flours were analyzed as references. Protein molecular weight distribution and flour structure by SEM were also analyzed to justify some of the differences found among the cereals studied. Tef cultivar and mill type exhibited important effect on granulation, bulking density and starch damage, affecting the processing performance of the flours and determining the hydration and pasting properties. The color was darker although one of the white varieties had a lightness near the reference flours. Different granulation of tef flour induced different in vitro starch digestibility. The disc attrition mill led to higher starch digestibility rate index and rapidly available glucose, probably as consequence of a higher damaged starch content. The results confirm the adequacy of tef flour as ingredient in the formulation of new cereal based foods and the importance of the variety and the mill on its functional properties.

  12. Exposure to inhalable flour dust in Canadian flour mills.

    PubMed

    Karpinski, Eva A

    2003-12-01

    In 1999, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH(R)) proposed a Threshold Limit Value (TLV(R)) of 0.5 mg/m(3) for flour dust with a sensitization notation. The Labour Program of the Department of Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC), following notice of the intention to set a TLV, conducted a study of the levels of exposure to flour dust in flour mills across Canada to verify existing conditions, as well as to decide whether to adopt the proposed TLV or reference some other value. As part of the study, a relationship between flour dust concentrations obtained by using Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) samplers and closed-face 37-mm cassettes was examined and the literature on the health effects of exposure to flour dust was reviewed. A total of 104 millers, packers, sweepers, bakery mix operators, and others (mixed tasks) from 14 flour mills were sampled over an 8-hour work shift using IOM samplers. The results indicate that 101 employees (97.1%) were exposed to levels exceeding 0.5 mg/m(3), 66 employees (67.3%) to levels exceeding 5 mg/m(3), and 44 employees (42.3%) to levels exceeding 10 mg/m(3). For comparison purposes, flour dust measurements were also taken in a highly automated flour mill using state-of-the-art technology. The results suggest that even with the most up-to-date technology and proper cleaning operations in place, the flour milling industry may not be able to reduce the flour dust levels to below the TLV of 0.5 mg/m(3). According to the measurements of inhalable and total dust concentrations, the IOM sampler appears to be a more efficient collector of inhalable airborne particles up to 100 microm than the closed-face 37-mm cassette.

  13. Wheat products as acceptable substitutes for rice.

    PubMed

    Yu, B H; Kies, C

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the acceptability to semi-trained US American and Asian palatability panelist, of four wheat products processed to be possible replacers of rice in human diets. Products evaluated using rice as the control standard of excellence were steamed whole wheat, couscous (steamed, extracted wheat flour semolina), rosamarina (rice shaped, extracted wheat flour pasta), and bulgar (steamed, pre-cooked partly debranned, cracked wheat). Using a ten point hedonic rating scale, both groups of panelists gave rosamarina closely followed by couscous, most favorable ratings although these ratings were somewhat lower than that of the positive control, steamed polished rice. Bulgar wheat was given the lowest evaluation and was, in general, found to be an unacceptable replacement for rice by both American and Asian judges because of its dark, 'greasy' color and distinctive flavor. In their personal dietaries, judges included rice from 0.25 to 18 times per week with the Asian judges consuming rice significantly more times per week than did the American judges (10.8 +/- 4.71 vs 1.75 +/- 1.65, p < 0.01). However, rice consumption patterns, nationality, race, or sex of the judges was not demonstrated to affect scoring of the wheat products as rice replacers.

  14. The Classroom Animal: Flour Beetles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the flour beetle, "Tribolium confusum," and its life cycle, habitat, culturing requirements, and some possible uses of this beetle as a classroom animal. Discusses what children could learn from flour beetles. Explains how to get rid of beetles found in foods at home. (CW)

  15. Committed effective dose determination in southern Brazilian cereal flours.

    PubMed

    Scheibel, V; Appoloni, C R

    2013-01-01

    The health impact of radionuclide ingestion from foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in eight commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, cornmeal, cassava, rye, oat, barley and rice flours). The radioactivity traces of (228)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, (40)K, (7)Be and (137)Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing an HPGe detector of 66 % relative efficiency. The efficiency curve has taken into account the differences in densities and chemical composition between the matrix and the certified sample. The highest concentration levels of (228)Th and (40)K were 3.5±0.4 and 1469±17 Bq kg(-1) for soy flour, respectively, within the 95 % confidence level. The lower limit of detection for (137)Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq kg(-1). The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 μSv.y(-1) for (228)Ra in cassava flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the International Atomic Energy Agency dose limit of 1 mSv.y(-1), to the public exposure.

  16. Comparative study of the physicochemical, compositional and functional properties of eight flours obtained from different plant materials found in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Lopera-Cardona, Seneida; Gallardo, Cecilia; Umaña-Gallego, Jairo; Gil, Lina María

    2016-12-01

    The physicochemical, compositional and functional properties of flour from green plantains (Musa acuminata) of the large green plantain variety, oyster mushrooms (Pleorotus ostreatus), pineapple peel (Ananas comosus) of the 'apple pineapple' variety, yellow peas (Pisum sativum), chickpeas (Cicer arietinum), whole grain rice (Oryza sativa), whole grain corn (Zea mays) and whole grain white quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) were evaluated by using one-way analysis of variance, Pearson correlations and principal component analysis chemical composition of the eight flours, statistically differed (p < 0.05). Oyster mushroom and yellow pea flours had the greatest protein content (28.92 and 21.02%, respectively), whereas the pineapple peel, peas and corn stood out for their high contents of Fe and Zn. All flours exhibited emulsifying and foaming activities, while hydration and interfacial properties showed statistically significant negative correlations. There was a clear relationship between levels of protein and carbohydrates and gelation and syneresis phenomena in thermally treated flour suspensions. According to principal component analysis of functional, physicochemical and compositional properties, flours were classified into five groups of raw materials: (1) yellow peas, (2) chickpeas, rice, corn and quinoa, (3) green plantain, (4) pineapple peel and (5) oyster mushrooms. Results are promising to formulate mixes and composite flours for fortification and/or enrichment of food products by using different technological processes.

  17. Impact of the substitution of rice bran on rheological properties of dough and in the new product development.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice bran is a nutrient-rich co-product of the rice milling industries. The impact of adding 2-20% rice bran in wheat flour on the rheological behavior of the dough was investigated using the instruments, Farinograph, Consistograph, and Alveograph. The changes in physico-chemical properties were fo...

  18. Chromatographic separation of arsenic species with pentafluorophenyl column and application to rice.

    PubMed

    Baba, Koji; Arao, Tomohito; Yamaguchi, Noriko; Watanabe, Eiki; Eun, Heesoo; Ishizaka, Masumi

    2014-08-08

    Arsenic species, including arsenous acid, arsenic acid, methylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid, were determined using HPLC-ICPMS. The species were separated with a Discovery HS F5 column and a simple, volatile, and isocratic mobile phase of 0.1% (v/v) formic acid and 1% (v/v) methanol. The Discovery HS F5 column with a pentafluorophenyl (PFP) stationary phase gave sharp peaks and full separation of the arsenic species in 5min, and other PFP columns showed lower performance. This separation method was applied to arsenic species analysis in rice. The extraction of arsenic from rice samples was performed using 0.15M nitric acid. The methodology was validated by use of certified reference materials, NMIJ CRM 7503-a and NIST SRM 1568a, and extremely low arsenic rice samples as blank samples.

  19. Germinated brown rice as a value added rice product: A review.

    PubMed

    Patil, Swati Bhauso; Khan, Md Khalid

    2011-12-01

    Rice is a staple food for over half of the world's population. Germinated brown rice (GBR) is considered whole food because only the outermost layer i.e. the hull of the rice kernel is removed which causes least damage to its nutritional value. Brown rice can be soaked in water at 30 °C for specified hours for germination to get GBR. Soaking for 3 h and sprouting for 21 h has been found to be optimum for getting the highest gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in GBR, which is the main reason behind the popularity of GBR. The intake of GBR instead of white rice ameliorates the hyperglycemia, boosts the immune system, lowers blood pressure, inhibits development of cancer cells and assists the treatment of anxiety disorders. Germination process could be used as enzymatic modification of starch that affects pasting properties of GBR flour. GBR would improve the bread quality when substituted for wheat flour. It is concluded that GBR has potential to become innovative rice by preserving all nutrients in the rice grain for human consumption in order to create the highest value from rice.

  20. Aerosols and contact insecticides as alternatives to methyl bromide in flour mills, food production facilities, and food warehouses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fumigant methyl bromide (MB) is being phased out of production and usage to control stored product insects in flour and rice mills, as well as feed and food production plants, in the United States (US) and other developed countries throughout the world. A phase-out schedule has also been establi...

  1. 21 CFR 137.155 - Bromated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bromated flour. 137.155 Section 137.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours...

  2. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours...

  3. 21 CFR 137.220 - Durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Durum flour. 137.220 Section 137.220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours...

  4. 21 CFR 137.175 - Phosphated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Phosphated flour. 137.175 Section 137.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours...

  5. 21 CFR 137.220 - Durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Durum flour. 137.220 Section 137.220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours...

  6. 21 CFR 137.155 - Bromated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bromated flour. 137.155 Section 137.155 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours...

  7. Sorghum flour fractions: correlations among polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and glycemic index.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Érica Aguiar; Marineli, Rafaela da Silva; Lenquiste, Sabrina Alves; Steel, Caroline Joy; de Menezes, Cícero Beserra; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Maróstica Júnior, Mário Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Nutrients composition, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and estimated glycemic index (EGI) were evaluated in sorghum bran (SB) and decorticated sorghum flour (DSF), obtained by a rice-polisher, as well as whole sorghum flour (WSF). Correlation between EGI and the studied parameters were determined. SB presented the highest protein, lipid, ash, β-glucan, total and insoluble dietary fiber contents; and the lowest non-resistant and total starch contents. The highest carbohydrate and resistant starch contents were in DSF and WSF, respectively. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities were concentrated in SB. The EGI values were: DSF 84.5 ± 0.41; WSF 77.2 ± 0.33; and SB 60.3 ± 0.78. Phenolic compounds, specific flavonoids and antioxidant activities, as well as total, insoluble and soluble dietary fiber and β-glucans of sorghum flour samples were all negatively correlated to EGI. RS content was not correlated to EGI.

  8. [Supplementation of wheat flour with chickpea (Cicer arietinum) flour. I. Preparation of flours and their properties for bread making].

    PubMed

    Figuerola, F E; Estévez, A M; Castillo, E

    1987-06-01

    The feasibility of adding chick-pea flour substituting part of wheat flour in yeast-leavened bread-making in order to increase the protein value, was studied. A 70% extraction chick-pea flour of commercial granulometry (150 mu) was prepared. Wheat flours of 74% and 78% extraction were then blended with 5%, 10% and 15% of chick-pea flour. Every flour and blend were subsequently analyzed to determine protein, ash, fiber, fat and maltose content, as well as sedimentation, farinogram and bread-making. Addition of chick-pea flour increased protein, fiber, ash and fat content in the blends, not causing a severe effect on quality, even at the 15% level of substitution. Blends showed an increase in maltose content, W value and bread specific volume. Furthermore, breads prepared were of good quality even without the use of maturing agents.

  9. 21 CFR 137.180 - Self-rising flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Self-rising flour. 137.180 Section 137.180 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.180 Self-rising flour. (a) Self-rising flour, self-rising white flour, self-rising wheat flour, is an intimate mixture of flour, sodium bicarbonate, and one or more of...

  10. 21 CFR 137.180 - Self-rising flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Self-rising flour. 137.180 Section 137.180 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.180 Self-rising flour. (a) Self-rising flour, self-rising white flour, self-rising wheat flour, is an intimate mixture of flour, sodium bicarbonate, and one or more of...

  11. 21 CFR 137.180 - Self-rising flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-rising flour. 137.180 Section 137.180 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.180 Self-rising flour. (a) Self-rising flour, self-rising white flour, self-rising wheat flour, is an intimate mixture of flour, sodium bicarbonate, and one or more of...

  12. 21 CFR 137.180 - Self-rising flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Self-rising flour. 137.180 Section 137.180 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.180 Self-rising flour. (a) Self-rising flour, self-rising white flour, self-rising wheat flour, is an intimate mixture of flour, sodium bicarbonate, and one or more of...

  13. Starch digestibility and molecular weight distribution of proteins in rice grains subjected to heat-moisture treatment.

    PubMed

    Silva, Wyller Max Ferreira; Biduski, Bárbara; Lima, Karina Oliveira; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Hoffmann, Jéssica Fernanda; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

    2017-03-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the heat-moisture treatment (HMT) applied to paddy rice grains on the physicochemical properties, in vitro starch digestibility, and molecular weight distribution of proteins in rice flour. The paddy rice grains were adjusted to 13%, 16%, and 18% moisture and autoclaved at 121°C for 30 and 60min. The HMT promoted a reduction of the amylose content, the swelling power, and the solubility of the rice flour. Changes in the relative crystallinity and molecular weight of the proteins extracted with a sodium phosphate buffer containing 2.0% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDDS) were observed in HMT samples. The different methods for the quantification of resistant starch resulted in distinct resistant starch contents. The HMT (18%-60min) promoted an increase in resistant starch content and the HMT (16%-60min) caused an increase in the slowly digestible starch in the rice flour.

  14. Effect of water content and flour particle size on gluten-free bread quality and digestibility.

    PubMed

    de la Hera, Esther; Rosell, Cristina M; Gomez, Manuel

    2014-05-15

    The impact of dough hydration level and particle size distribution of the rice flour on the gluten free bread quality and in vitro starch hydrolysis was studied. Rice flour was fractionated in fine and coarse parts and mixed with different amounts of water (70%, 90% and 110% hydration levels) and the rest of ingredients used for making gluten free bread. A larger bread specific volume was obtained when coarser fraction and great dough hydration (90-110%) were combined. The crumb texture improved when increasing dough hydration, although that effect was more pronounced when breads were obtained from a fine fraction. The estimated glycaemic index was higher in breads with higher hydration (90-110%). Slowly digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS) increased in the coarse flour breads. The coarse fraction complemented with a great dough hydration (90-110%) was the most suitable combination for developing rice bread when considering the bread volume and crumb texture. However, the lowest dough hydration limited starch gelatinization and hindered the in vitro starch digestibility.

  15. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  16. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  17. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  18. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  19. 21 CFR 137.215 - Yellow corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yellow corn flour. 137.215 Section 137.215 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.215 Yellow corn flour. Yellow corn flour conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.211 for white corn flour except that cleaned yellow corn is...

  20. 21 CFR 137.160 - Enriched bromated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched bromated flour. 137.160 Section 137.160... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.160 Enriched bromated flour. Enriched bromated flour conforms to...

  1. 21 CFR 137.160 - Enriched bromated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched bromated flour. 137.160 Section 137.160... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.160 Enriched bromated flour. Enriched bromated flour conforms to...

  2. 21 CFR 137.225 - Whole durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whole durum flour. 137.225 Section 137.225 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.225 Whole durum flour. Whole durum wheat flour conforms to...

  3. 21 CFR 137.160 - Enriched bromated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched bromated flour. 137.160 Section 137.160... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.160 Enriched bromated flour. Enriched bromated flour conforms to...

  4. 21 CFR 137.225 - Whole durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whole durum flour. 137.225 Section 137.225 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.225 Whole durum flour. Whole durum wheat flour conforms to...

  5. 21 CFR 137.225 - Whole durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whole durum flour. 137.225 Section 137.225 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.225 Whole durum flour. Whole durum wheat flour conforms to...

  6. Proposing nutrients and nutrient levels for rice fortification.

    PubMed

    de Pee, Saskia

    2014-09-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies are often linked to low dietary diversity. Rice fortification could substantially increase micronutrient intake in countries where rice is a staple food. The World Health Organization (WHO) interim consensus statement on maize and wheat flour fortification is based on the premise of the public health importance of specific micronutrient deficiencies and evidence of the benefits of increased micronutrient intake. Since this rationale for maize and wheat flour also applies to rice, it is recommended to fortify rice with iron, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin A, and zinc, as well as with thiamin, vitamin B6, and niacin, as polished rice has low levels of these micronutrients. To achieve intake that meets the estimated average requirement of adults, the following levels are recommended where rice consumption is 150-300 g/cap/day (mg/100 g): iron, 7; folic acid, 0.13; vitamin B12, 0.001; vitamin A, 0.15; zinc, 6; thiamin, 0.5; niacin, 7; and vitamin B6, 0.6. These concentrations can be achieved at a 1:100 blending ratio of fortified:unfortified kernels. The costs of rice fortification are largely determined by the manufacturing of the fortified kernels rather than by the number of micronutrients that are added. These are general recommendations that can be adjusted locally, and monitoring and impact evaluation should accompany the introduction of rice fortification.

  7. Nutritional quality of germinated cowpea flour (Vigna unguiculata) and its application in home prepared powdered weaning foods.

    PubMed

    Jirapa, P; Normah, H; Zamaliah, M M; Asmah, R; Mohamad, K

    2001-01-01

    Amino acid profiles, protein digestibility, corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS), chemical scores, essential amino acid indexes, and calculated biological values of controlcowpea flour (CCF), germinated cowpea flour (GCF) prepared from cowpeas germinated at 25 degrees C for either 24 h or 48 h and weaning foods prepared from cowpea flours were determined. Locally available rice, cowpea flour, banana-pumpkin slurry, and skim milk powder and sucrose in the ratio 35:35:15:15:5 were used to formulate weaning food containing not less than 15% protein. The ingredients were cooked into a slurry and oven-dried to produce flakes. The nutritional and sensory qualities of the weaning products were evaluated. Germination had little effect on the amino acid profile of cowpeas. In vitro protein quality and starch digestibility were improved in germinated cowpea flour. The PDCAAS of 24 h germinated cowpea flour (GCF) weaning food was higher (55.49%) than CCF-weaning food (46.74%). Vitamin A activity in 24 h GCF weaning food was higher than in CCF-weaning food. In vitro starch digestibilities of 24 h GCF and 48 h GCF-weaning foods were higher than that of CCF weaning food. The 24 h GCF-weaning food which had a higher overall acceptability score by sensory panelist than 48 h GCF and CCF-weaning food is recommended for household consumption.

  8. 21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat...

  9. 21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat...

  10. [Amaranth flour: characteristics, comparative analysis, application possibilities].

    PubMed

    Zharkov, I M; Miroshnichenko, L A; Zviagin, A A; Bavykina, I A

    2014-01-01

    Amaranth flour--a product of amaranth seeds processing--is a valuable industrial raw material that has an unique chemical composition and may be used for nutrition of people suffering from intolerance to traditional cereals protein, including celiac disease patients. The research aim was to study the composition of amaranth flour of two types compared with semolina which is traditionally used for nutrition by Russian population, as well as to compare the composition of milk amaranth flour porridge with milk semolina porridge. The composition of amaranth whole-ground flour and amaranth flour of premium grade processed from amaranth seeds grown in Voronezh region has been researched. It is to be noted that protein content in amaranth flour was 10.8-24.3% higher than in semolina, and its biological value and NPU-coefficient were higher by 22.65 and 46.51% respectively; lysine score in amaranth flour protein of premium grade came up to 107.54%, and in semolina protein only 40.95%. The level of digestible carbohydrates, including starch, was lower in amaranth flour than in semolina by 2.79-12.85 and 4.76-15.85% respectively, while fiber content was 15.5-30 fold higher. Fat content in amaranth flour of premium grade was 2,4 fold lower than in whole-ground amaranth flour but it was 45% higher than in semolina. The main advantage of amaranth flour protein compared to wheat protein is the predominance of albumins and globulins and a minimal content of prolamines and alpha-gliadin complete absence. The specifics of chemical composition allow the amaranth flour to be recommended for being included into nutrition of both healthy children and adults and also celiac disease patients.

  11. Radiation disinfestation of wheat flour leaving the mill: Flour quality and economic aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedláčková, J.; Zuska, J.; Příhoda, J.

    Wheat flour irradiated by 0.25 or 0.5 kGy of gamma rays retained its sensoric quality. Its baking properties improved after the doses of 0.25 to 1.5 kGy. Flour irradiation in a flour mill is less expensive if an electron accelerator is used instead of a 60Co source.

  12. Characterization of cookies made from wheat flour blended with buckwheat flour and effect on antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Jan, Ulfat; Gani, Adil; Ahmad, Mudasir; Shah, Umar; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, F A; Maqsood, Sajid; Gani, Asir; Wani, Idress Ahmed; Wani, S M

    2015-10-01

    Buckwheat flour was incorporated into wheat flour at different levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 %) and the physicochemical, functional and antioxidant properties of the blended flour were studied. This study also investigated the effect of buckwheat on the retention of antioxidant properties of cookies during baking. The results showed significant variation in physicochemical and functional properties of the blended flour. The addition of buckwheat flour into wheat flour also increased the antioxidant properties of blended flour proportionally, but metal chelating properties decreased. The incorporation of buckwheat in wheat flour helped in better retention of antioxidant potential of cookies during baking process as buckwheat cookies (100 % buckwheat) showed greater percentage increase in antioxidant properties than control (100 % wheat). Quality characteristics of cookies such as hardness and spread ratio decreased, while as non-enzymatic browning (NEB) increased significantly with increase in the proportion of buckwheat flour in wheat flour. The Overall acceptability of cookies by sensory analysis was highest at 40 % level of blending. This study concluded that addition of buckwheat in wheat flour, may not only improve the physico-chemical and functional properties of the blended flour but may also enhance the nutraceutical potential of the product prepared from it.

  13. Suitability of full fat and defatted rice brain obtained from Indian rice for use in food products.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Sekhon, K S; Singh, N

    1995-04-01

    The effect of blending different types of rice bran in wheat flour on the rheological, pasting and baking properties is reported. Dough development time and strength as measured through farinograph decreased with the blending of unstabilized full fat and defatted bran; whereas, blending of stabilized full fat and defatted bran improved the dough strength. Pasting properties revealed an increase in gelatinization temperature and decrease in paste viscosities and set-back values with the blending of various types of rice bran. Bread volume and cookie spread decreased with blending of different types of rice bran; however, the decrease was more pronounced with the defatted bran. Muffin volume improved with the blending of rice bran. Stabilized full fat rice bran up to 20% level and unstabilized full fat or stabilized defatted rice bran up to 10% was found suitable in various food products.

  14. The contribution of lysophospholipids to pasting and thermal properties of nonwaxy rice starch.

    PubMed

    Tong, Chuan; Liu, Lei; Waters, Daniel L E; Huang, Yan; Bao, Jinsong

    2015-11-20

    It is known that lysophospholipids (LPLs) may affect rice starch pasting and thermal properties possibly through the formation of an amylose-lipid complex. However, whether these effects of rice LPLs are independent of amylose are still not understood. Here, the diversity of rice flour pasting and thermal properties and their relationship with individual LPL components in native rice endosperm were studied. Several significant correlations between LPLs and pasting properties, such as cool paste viscosity (CPV), breakdown (BD) and consistency (CS) were clearly evident. Thermal properties generally had no relationship with LPLs except for gelatinization enthalpy. Using partial correlation analysis we found that, irrespective of apparent amylose content, CPV and individual LPLs were positively correlated, while BD, CS and other individual LPLs were negatively correlated. This study suggests naturally occurring individual LPLs can contribute to rice flour pasting and thermal properties, either independently or in combination with amylose.

  15. Search for cell-wall-degrading enzymes of world-wide rice grains by PCR and their effects on the palatability of rice.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Sumiko; Machida, Keisuke; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2012-01-01

    Such rice cultivars as Japonica, Japonica-Indica hybrid, Javanica and Indica, were evaluated for their main chemical components (amylose content and protein content), pasting property of rice flour (consistency), physical property of the cooked rice grains (adhesion, L3), and enzyme activities (cellulase and xylanase). The amylose content, cellulase activity and xylanase activity showed significant positive or negative correlation with the pasting property (consistency) of rice flour (r = 0.89, r = 0.58, r = 0.70, respectively) and with the physical property of the cooked rice grains (adhesion, L3: r = -0.51, r = -0.61, r = -0.71, respectively) at the level of 1%. Endogenous xylanase and cellulase played important roles to determine the texture of the cooked rice grains similarly to the amylose content. Part of the DNA sequences of the α-glucosidase gene differed among the Japonica, Japonica-Indica hybrid and Indica subspecies. We found discriminative DNA bands appearing by PCR, corresponding to 1,4-β-xylanase and endo-1,4-β-glucanase 13 in the case of Indica rice, Indica-Japonica hybrid rice, and Javanica rice (non-Japonica subspecies). The equation for estimating the physical property (adhesion) of cooked rice grains by PCR was improved by adding novel primers related to the cell-wall-degrading enzymes.

  16. Hydrothermal synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles using rice as soft biotemplate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rice as a renewable, abundant bio-resource with unique characteristics can be used as a bio-template to synthesize various functional nanomaterials. Therefore, the effect of uncooked rice flour as bio-template on physico-chemical properties, especially the morphology of zinc oxide nanostructures was investigated in this study. The ZnO particles were synthesized through hydrothermal-biotemplate method using zinc acetate-sodium hydroxide and uncooked rice flour at various ratios as precursors at 120°C for 18 hours. Results The results indicate that rice as a bio-template can be used to modify the shape and size of zinc oxide particles. Different morphologies, namely flake-, flower-, rose-, star- and rod-like structures were obtained with particle size at micro- and nanometer range. Pore size and texture of the resulting zinc oxide particles were found to be template-dependent and the resulting specific surface area enhanced compared to the zinc oxide synthesized without rice under the same conditions. However, optical property particularly the band gap energy is generally quite similar. Conclusion Pure zinc oxide crystals were successfully synthesized using rice flour as biotemplate at various ratios of zinc salt to rice. The size- and shape-controlled capability of rice to assemble the ZnO particles can be employed for further useful practical applications. PMID:23919386

  17. Nutritional and functional evaluation of wheat flour cookies supplemented with gram flour.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Ali A; Ahmed, Anwaar; Ahmad, Asif; Hameed, Tabassum; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Hayat, Imran; Khalid, Nauman

    2013-02-01

    Protein-enriched cookies were prepared by supplementing gram flour into wheat flour at levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% and analysed for physicochemical properties. The protein quality of the cookies was assessed by feeding gram flour-supplemented cookies to albino rats for 10 days. The supplementation resulted in a significant increase in protein, fat, crude fibre and ash contents of the cookies. The thickness and spread factor of cookies differ significantly while non-significant effect was observed in the width of the cookies. The protein efficiency ratio, net protein utilization, biological value and true digestibility differed significantly among diets containing cookies with gram flour fed to rats. Cookies with 30% substitution of straight grade flour and gram flour produced acceptable cookies as compared to control. The cookies containing 40-50% gram flour were best regarded as protein bioavailability for rats.

  18. Optimization of mold wheat bread fortified with soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Erben, Melina; Osella, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of replacing a selected wheat flour for defatted soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate on both dough rheological characteristics and the performance and nutritional quality of bread. A mixture design was used to analyze the combination of the ingredients. The optimization process suggested that a mixture containing 88.8% of wheat flour, 8.2% of defatted soy flour, 0.0% of pea flour and 3.0% of whey protein concentrate could be a good combination to achieve the best fortified-bread nutritional quality. The fortified bread resulted in high protein concentration, with an increase in dietary fiber content and higher calcium levels compared with those of control (wheat flour 100%). Regarding protein quality, available lysine content was significantly higher, thus contributing with the essential amino acid requirement.

  19. Influence of moisture, particle size and pulse flour composition on phase transition behavior of rice flour.

    PubMed

    Nithya, D J; Saravanan, M; Mohan, R Jagan; Alagusundaram, K

    2015-04-01

    Study on the phase transition characteristics is an important parameter in extrusion processing. The influence of Moisture Content (MC), particle size and level of cereal-pulse blend on the glass transition (Tg) and melt (Tm) temperatures of a ready to eat cereal-pulse formulation was determined. All samples were moisture conditioned in a 9 to 27 % with 3 % interval. Tg and Tm were measured by phase transition analyser (PTA). A substantial decrease in Tg and Tm was observed as moisture content level increased from 9 to 27 %. However Tg and Tm values could not be clearly defined below 9 % moisture content and above 27 % moisture content. The Tg and Tm values of the cereal-pulse formulation were found to be increased with increasing pulse composition (5 to 30 % with 5 % interval). Increase in particle size (150, 180, 212, 300, 425 and 500 μ) exhibited significant increase effect on Tg while less significant effect on Tm. This may be due to crystalline regions which play a role in cross linking amorphous regions of the polymeric network and thus suppress the mobility of amorphous regions. The observed differences in Tg and Tm induced by the moisture content, concentration of Bengal gram and particle size will be useful in simulation and optimization of barrel temperature set during extrusion processing.

  20. Development and analysis of composite flour bread.

    PubMed

    Menon, Lakshmi; Majumdar, Swarnali Dutta; Ravi, Usha

    2015-07-01

    The study elucidates the effect of utilizing cereal-pulse-fruit seed composite flour in the development and quality analysis of leavened bread. The composite flour was prepared using refined wheat flour (WF), high protein soy flour (SF), sprouted mung bean flour (MF) and mango kernel flour (MKF). Three variations were formulated such as V-I (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 85:5:5:5), V-II (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 70:10:10:10), and V-III (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 60:14:13:13). Pertinent functional, physico-chemical and organoleptic attributes were studied in composite flour variations and their bread preparations. Physical characteristics of the bread variations revealed a percentage decrease in loaf height (14 %) and volume (25 %) and 20 % increase in loaf weight with increased substitution of composite flour. The sensory evaluation of experimental breads on a nine-point hedonic scale revealed that V-I score was 5 % higher than the standard bread. Hence, the present study highlighted the nutrient enrichment of bread on incorporation of a potential waste material mango kernel, soy and sprouted legume. Relevant statistical tests were done to analyze the significance of means for all tested parameters.

  1. Rheological Properties of Aqueous Peanut Flour Dispersions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rheological behaviors of aqueous peanut flour dispersions were characterized across a range of conditions, including controlled heating and cooling rates under both large and small-strain deformations. Fat content of the dry flours influenced rheological changes, as dispersions of higher fat fl...

  2. 21 CFR 137.165 - Enriched flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Related Products § 137.165 Enriched flour. Enriched flour conforms to the definition and standard of... vitamins and minerals are maintained throughout the expected shelf life of the food under...

  3. 21 CFR 137.170 - Instantized flours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Instantized flours. 137.170 Section 137.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  4. 21 CFR 137.170 - Instantized flours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Instantized flours. 137.170 Section 137.170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  5. Enrichment of gluten-free cakes with lupin (Lupinus albus L.) or buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) flours.

    PubMed

    Levent, Hacer; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, the effect of debittered lupin flour (LF) and whole buckwheat flour (BF) on the nutritional and sensory quality of gluten-free cake was studied. LF (10, 20, 30 and 40%) and BF (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were partially replaced with corn starch and rice flour mixture (1:1 w/w) in the gluten-free cake recipe. LF increased the protein, calcium, iron, manganese, phosphorus and zinc contents of the cakes, while BF caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) especially in potassium and magnesium contents of the gluten-free cakes. According to the overall acceptability rating, it was concluded that gluten-free cake could be produced with satisfactory results by the addition of LF and BF up to 30% and 10%, respectively.

  6. 21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bromated whole wheat flour. 137.205 Section 137...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat...

  7. 21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bromated whole wheat flour. 137.205 Section 137...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat...

  8. 21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bromated whole wheat flour. 137.205 Section 137...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat...

  9. Incorporation of carrot pomace powder in wheat flour: effect on flour, dough and cookie characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mukhtar; Wani, Touseef Ahmed; Wani, S M; Masoodi, F A; Gani, Adil

    2016-10-01

    Carrot pomace powder (CPP) of 72 and 120 mesh sizes was incorporated in wheat flour at 10, 15 and 20 % level and its impact on flour, dough and cookie characteristics was evaluated. Protein content of the flour blends (8.84-7.88 %) decreased and fibre content (4.63-6.68 %) increased upon blending of CPP in wheat flour. Wheat flour containing 120 mesh CPP showed better functional properties [water absorption (1.16-1.47 %), oil absorption (1.11-1.39 %), solubility index (41-50 %) and swelling power (1.34-1.39)] than those containing 72 mesh. Water solvent retention capacity and sucrose solvent retention capacity increased while lactic acid solvent retention capacity and sodium carbonate solvent retention capacity decreased with blending of CPP. Water absorption, dough development time and degree of softening increased whereas, dough stability and mixing tolerance decreased with increasing CPP. The highest decrease in pasting was observed flour containing 72 mesh CPP. Rheology of dough containing 120 mesh CPP closely resembled the control. Color of flour and cookies increased with blending of CPP irrespective of mesh size. Antioxidant activity of cookies was higher than the flour blends. The cookies containing CPP of 72 mesh showed the lowest hardness. However, cookies containing CPP of 120 mesh showed the best sensory properties. Incorporation of 120 mesh CPP produced low gluten cookies with manageable flour and dough characteristics and better antioxidant and sensory properties.

  10. Ultrasonic study of wheat flour properties.

    PubMed

    García-Álvarez, J; Salazar, J; Rosell, C M

    2011-02-01

    In this work, the wheat flour properties are investigated using ultrasound techniques. Moreover, the flour samples were also characterized by means of well established techniques such as protein content, Alveograph and Mixolab®. A set of 35 dough samples, made of wheat flours with diverse physical and quality properties, were studied. The obtained results shown that ultrasound measurements can detect changes in the dough consistency induced by proteins and also by gelatinization of the starch. Furthermore, ultrasound measurements can be related to parameters indicative of the proteolytic degradation or softening of the dough due to protease activity. Thus, ultrasound can be considered a low cost and rapid tool, complementary to conventional test, for wheat flour characterization.

  11. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties and Morphological Studies of Rice Husk (Treated/Untreated)-CaCO3 Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Deepak; Joshi, Garvit; Gupta, Ayush

    2016-10-01

    Natural fiber reinforced composites are a very popular area of research because of the easy availability and biodegradability of these fibers. The manufacturing of natural fiber composite is done by reinforcing fibers in the particulate form, fiber form or in woven mat form. Natural fiber composites also utilize industrial wastes as a secondary reinforcements like fly ash, sludge etc. By keeping all these point of views in the present investigation the effect of rice husk flour (chemically treated/untreated) and micro sized calcium carbonate with epoxy resin have been evaluated. The diameter of rice husk flour was maintained at 600 µm through mechanical sieving machine. The husk flour was chemically treated with NaOH (5 % w/v). Mechanical properties like hardness, flexural impact and compression strength were evaluated and found to be superior in modified or chemically treated flour as compared to unmodified or untreated flour reinforced composites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study was also undertaken for the developed composites. SEM study shows the distribution of the rice husk flour and calcium carbonate over the matrix.

  12. Chemical, nutritional and technological characteristics of buckwheat and non-prolamine buckwheat flours in comparison of wheat flour.

    PubMed

    de Francischi, M L; Salgado, J M; Leitão, R F

    1994-12-01

    Chemical, nutritional, and technological characteristics of buckwheat and non-prolamine buckwheat flours in comparison to wheat for celiac patients use have been studied. The results suggested the following conclusions: the 56.5% extraction value for flour obtention is considered good; the buckwheat flour presents methionine and cystine as first limiting amino acids followed by threonine as the second limiting amino acid; the buckwheat flour presents higher content of lysine amino acids than the wheat flour; the buckwheat flour is superior to the wheat flour regarding iron, copper, and magnesium minerals; the buckwheat flour does not present haemagglutinin activity and the tannin content is negligible. Rheological assays indicate that the buckwheat flour does not contain gluten.

  13. Physical and molecular changes during the storage of gluten-free rice and oat bread.

    PubMed

    Hager, Anna-Sophie; Bosmans, Geertrui M; Delcour, Jan A

    2014-06-18

    Gluten-free bread crumb generally firms more rapidly than regular wheat bread crumb. We here combined differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), texture analysis, and time-domain proton nuclear magnetic resonance (TD (1)H NMR) to investigate the mechanisms underlying firming of gluten-free rice and oat bread. The molecular mobility of water and biopolymers in flour/water model systems and changes thereof after heating and subsequent cooling to room temperature were investigated as a basis for underpinning the interpretation of TD (1)H NMR profiles of fresh crumb. The proton distributions of wheat and rice flour/water model systems were comparable, while that of oat flour/water samples showed less resolved peaks and an additional population at higher T2 relaxation times representing lipid protons. No significant crumb moisture loss during storage was observed for the gluten-free bread loaves. Crumb firming was mainly caused by amylopectin retrogradation and water redistribution within bread crumb. DSC, texture, and TD (1)H NMR data correlated well and showed that starch retrogradation and crumb firming are much more pronounced in rice flour bread than in oat flour bread.

  14. Effect of beet flour on films made from biological macromolecules: Native and modified plantain flour.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Tomy J; Guzmán, Romel; Medina Jaramillo, Carolina; Famá, Lucía

    2016-01-01

    Biological macromolecules such as starches of different amylaceous sources have been used in the formulation of edible films. However, there are few studies aimed at evaluating edible and intelligent films with response to pH changes from natural pigments, this despite the importance of these materials. In this context, films from native and modified plantain flour, plasticized with glycerol, with or without the addition of beet flour were developed. The chemical and structural composition of the flours, and its incidence on thickness, water solubility, contact angle, and mechanical and microstructural properties were evaluated, thus as its response to pH changes of the developed films. The observations showed that the incorporation of beet flour allowed to obtain intelligent films front to pH changes alkaline. Likewise, the betalains that were found in beet flour interacted more efficiently with the phosphated plantain flour, limiting well its immediate response to pH changes. In the same way, proteins and sugars of beet flour allowed to obtain more flexible films, due to the hydrogen bond interactions between these constituents and the plantain flours. This latter could justify the decrease of contact angle, and the increase on thickness and solubility of these films.

  15. Physical characteristics of extrudates from corn flour and dehulled carioca bean flour blend

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extruded products were prepared from a corn flour and dehulled carioca bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) flour blend using a single-screw extruder. A central composite rotate design was used to evaluate the effects of extrusion process variables: screw speed (318.9-392.9 rpm), feed moisture (10.9-21.0 g...

  16. Comparative study of the effect of incorporated individual wheat storage proteins on mixing properties of rice and wheat doughs.

    PubMed

    Oszvald, Mária; Balázs, Gábor; Tömösközi, Sándor; Békés, Ferenc; Tamás, László

    2011-09-14

    The aim of this work was to compare the effects of incorporated wheat storage proteins on the functional properties of rice and wheat flours. The advantage of rice as a base flour compared to wheat is that it does not contain any wheat flour components and, therefore, has no interactive effect between wheat glutenin proteins. The incorporation of individual HMW glutenin subunit proteins (Bx6, Bx7, and By8) in different ratios had significant positive effects on the mixing requirements of both rice and wheat doughs. Reconstitution experiments using two x+y type HMW-GS pairs together with a bacterially expressed LMW-GS have been also carried out in this study. The largest effects of polymer formation and mixing properties of rice flour dough were observed when Bx and By subunits were used in a 1:1 ratio and HMW and LMW glutenin subunits in a 1:3 ratio. However, using the same subunit ratios in wheat as the base flour, these synergistic effects were not observed.

  17. Flour sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-extractable protein level as a cookie flour quality indicator.

    PubMed

    Pareyt, Bram; Bruneel, Charlotte; Brijs, Kristof; Goesaert, Hans; Delcour, Jan A

    2010-01-13

    Flour characteristics of laboratory-milled flour fractions of two wheat cultivars were related to their cookie-baking performance. Cultivar (cv.) Albatros wheat milling yielded fractions with lower damaged starch (DS) and arabinoxylan levels and higher sodium dodecyl sulfate-extractable protein (SDSEP) levels than did cv. Meunier wheat milling. During baking, cv. Albatros flour doughs spread faster and set later than their cv. Meunier counterparts and, hence, resulted in larger cookie diameters. DS levels negatively affected spread rate during both cv. Albatros (R2=0.68) and cv. Meunier (R2=0.51) cookie baking. SDSEP levels also influenced cookie quality. The use of flour heat-treated to reduce its SDSEP levels to different degrees led to reduction of the set time (R2=0.90). It was deduced that larger gluten polymer sizes limit dough spread time during baking and that, apart from DS level, the SDSEP level is an indicator for cookie flour quality.

  18. Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) associated with rice mills: Fumigation efficacy and population rebound

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is the most important stored-product insect pest infesting rice mills in the U.S. Due to the phasing out of methyl bromide in accordance with the 1987 Montreal Protocol, the efficacy of alternative fumigants in controlli...

  19. [Development on a rice-based food product, for children].

    PubMed

    Segura, E; Mahecha, G; Moreno, B E; Rodríguez, G S

    1988-06-01

    An infant dehydrated rice-based food product, complemented with soybean flour, was developed. To improve its nutritional and organoleptic characteristics, fruits were also added. Ingredients were first precooked and dried in a drum-dryer, obtaining a final product, as flakes, with a 2 to 3% water content. This rehydrates easily with liquids such as milk, water or "panela" (refined and concentrated sugar cane syrup). The sensory panel did not detect any difference between formulations containing 10, 15 and 20% soybean, respectively.

  20. Anti-staling effects of β-glucan and barley flour in wheat flour chapatti.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Paras; Gujral, Hardeep Singh

    2014-02-15

    Chapatti making behaviour of wheat flour containing barley flour (28%, 56% and 84%) or β-glucan (1.5%, 3.0% and 4.5%) and their effect on staling of chapatti was studied. The dough water absorption increased significantly up to 76.7% and 78.3% upon incorporation of barley flour and β-glucan, respectively. Bake loss significantly increased (up to 20%) upon incorporation of barley flour but was not significantly affected by β-glucan. The peak (PV) and final viscosity (FV) significantly increased upon incorporation of barley flour (up to 105% and 65%), whereas incorporating β-glucan decreased the PV and FV by 20.3% and 20.6%, respectively. The stored chapatties exhibited higher pasting viscosities compared to the fresh chapatties. Incorporation of barley flour exhibited a gradual increase in the enthalpy of gelatinisation (ΔHgel), similarly β-glucan at 1.5% increased the ΔHgel. Retrogradation was lowered by 23.7%, 41.5% and 63.5% by barley flour and by 19.9%, 27.4% and 44.8% by β-glucan.

  1. Extraction of starch from wheat flour by alkaline solution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Separation of starch from wheat flour with high purity is very important for the analysis of starch such as amylose and amylopectin determination by size exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC). A procedure that extracts starch from flour by ethanol precipitation after dissolving flour in KOH and urea solution wa...

  2. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  3. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  4. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  5. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  6. 21 CFR 137.211 - White corn flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false White corn flour. 137.211 Section 137.211 Food and... Related Products § 137.211 White corn flour. (a) White corn flour is the food prepared by so grinding and bolting cleaned white corn that when tested by the method prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this...

  7. Production and characterization of Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta flours.

    PubMed

    Pérez, E E; Gutiérrez, M E; De Delahaye, E Pacheco; Tovar, J; Lares, M

    2007-08-01

    The physical proximate composition and physicochemical characteristics, microbiological stability, and in vitro alpha-amylolysis rate of flours produced by conventional dehydration techniques of the edible portions of the aroids Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta were investigated. Flours from the edible portion of both tubers did not show significant statistical differences in moisture, Aw, crude protein, total sugars, amylose, and amylopectin contents. C. esculenta flour showed higher crude fat, total, soluble, and insoluble dietary fiber, and mineral (P, Ca, Fe, and Zn) contents, whereas X. sagittifolium flour showed higher starch, ash, and reducing sugar content than its counterpart. With regard to physical and physicochemical characteristics, X. sagittifolium flour showed higher titratable acidity and relative density values, being darker and more yellowish than its counterpart. On the other hand, X. sagittifolium flour showed higher gelatinization temperature than C. esculenta flour. Parameters such as viscosity during the holding time (95 degrees C for 30 min), viscosity at 50 degrees C, setback, and consistency were lower in C. esculenta flour than X. sagittifolium flour. The viscosity peak and breakdown indexes were higher in C. esculenta flour than in the X. sagittifolium sample. The colony forming units (CFU) of the microorganisms were much lower than those reported in the literature for similar products. Moreover, due to their moisture content and water activity, these flours could be classified as dry foods and they are shelf-stable foods. The results reflect that flours with good chemical, physicochemical, and nutritional quality and satisfactory microbiological stability may be produced from these aroids.

  8. Avidin expressed in transgenic rice confers resistance to the stored-product insect pests Tribolium confusum and Sitotroga cerealella.

    PubMed

    Yoza, Koh-Ichi; Imamura, Taro; Kramer, Karl J; Morgan, Thomas D; Nakamura, Sumiko; Akiyama, Kohki; Kawasaki, Shinji; Takaiwa, Fumio; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2005-05-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa var. Nipponbare) was transformed with an artificial avidin gene. The features of this construct are as follows: (1) a signal peptide sequence derived from barley alpha amylase was added at the N-terminal region, (2) codon usage of the gene was optimized for rice, and (3) the gene was driven by rice glutelin GluB-1, an endosperm-specific promoter. Avidin was produced in the grain of the transgenic rice but not in the leaves. The concentration of avidin in the kernels was about 1,800 ppm. All larvae of the confused flour beetle (Tribolium confusum) and Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella) died when fed transgenic avidin rice powder or kernels, respectively, whereas most of the test insects developed into adults when they were fed a nontransgenic rice control diet. Avidin extracted from the transgenic rice kernel lost most biotin-binding activity after 5 min heating at 95 degrees C.

  9. Identification of a member of the catalase multigene family on wheat chromosome 7A associated with flour b* colour and biological significance of allelic variation.

    PubMed

    Li, Dora A; Walker, Esther; Francki, Michael G

    2015-12-01

    Carotenoids (especially lutein) are known to be the pigment source for flour b* colour in bread wheat. Flour b* colour variation is controlled by a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on wheat chromosome 7AL and one gene from the carotenoid pathway, phytoene synthase, was functionally associated with the QTL on 7AL in some, but not all, wheat genotypes. A SNP marker within a sequence similar to catalase (Cat3-A1snp) derived from full-length (FL) cDNA (AK332460), however, was consistently associated with the QTL on 7AL and implicated in regulating hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to control carotenoid accumulation affecting flour b* colour. The number of catalase genes on chromosome 7AL was investigated in this study to identify which gene may be implicated in flour b* variation and two were identified through interrogation of the draft wheat genome survey sequence consisting of five exons and a further two members having eight exons identified through comparative analysis with the single catalase gene on rice chromosome 6, PCR amplification and sequencing. It was evident that the catalase genes on chromosome 7A had duplicated and diverged during evolution relative to its counterpart on rice chromosome 6. The detection of transcripts in seeds, the co-location with Cat3-A1snp marker and maximised alignment of FL-cDNA (AK332460) with cognate genomic sequence indicated that TaCat3-A1 was the member of the catalase gene family associated with flour b* colour variation. Re-sequencing identified three alleles from three wheat varieties, TaCat3-A1a, TaCat3-A1b and TaCat3-A1c, and their predicted protein identified differences in peroxisomal targeting signal tri-peptide domain in the carboxyl terminal end providing new insights into their potential role in regulating cellular H2O2 that contribute to flour b* colour variation.

  10. Development and characterization of rice bran cookies.

    PubMed

    Sangronis, E; Sancio, M

    1990-01-01

    Four cookie formulas (A, B, C and D) were prepared by combining stabilized rice bran with flour of other locally produced cereals. A Hedonic Scale from 1 to 7 was used to test acceptability; and Proximate Composition, Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), Chemical Score (C.S.) and NDpCal% were determined. Sensory evaluation of the products did not detect a significant preference (p = 0.05) for any of the tested cookies. The formula A (30% rice bran), with the highest average score in flavor (6.2) and the highest PER (0.9) was selected for a consumer test among children ages 4 to 7, resulting in an acceptability of 100%.

  11. Study of mechanical and thermal properties of soy flour elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Kendra Alicia

    Bio-based plastics are becoming viable alternatives to petroleum-based plastics because they decrease dependence on petroleum derivatives and are more environmentally friendly. Raw materials such as soy flour are widely available, low cost, lightweight, stiffness and have high strength characteristics, but weak interfacial adhesion between the soy flour and the polymer poses a challenge. In this study, soy flour was utilized as a filler in thermoplastic elastomer composites. A surface modification called acetylation was investigated at soy flour concentrations of 10 wt%, 15 wt% and 20 wt%. The mechanical properties of the composites were then compared to that of elastomers without a filler. Chemical characterization of the acetylated soy flour was attempted in order to understand what occurs during the reaction and after completion. In the range of tests, soy flour loadings were observed to be inversely proportional to tensile strength for both the untreated and treated soy flour. However, the acetylated soy flour at 10 wt% concentration performed comparable to that of the neat rubber and resulted in an increase in tensile strength. Unexpectedly, the acetylation reaction increased elongation, which reduced stress within the composite and is believed to increase the adhesion of the soy flour to that of the elastomer. In the nuclear magnetic resonance (SS-NMR), the intensity for the treated soy flour was larger than that of the untreated soy flour for the acetyl groups that were attached to the soy flour, particularly, the carbonyl function group next to the deprotonated oxygen and the methyl group next to the carbonyl. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that the acetylated soy flour is slightly more thermally stable than the untreated soy flour. The treated soy flour also increased the decomposition temperature of the composite.

  12. Studies on the baking properties of wheat: pigeonpea flour blends.

    PubMed

    Harinder, K; Kaur, B; Sharma, S

    1999-01-01

    Pigeonpea flour was substituted at levels of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25% to wheat flour and whole wheat meal for bread and Chapatti making, respectively. Blends were prepared up to 50% for cookie making. Increasing levels of pigeonpeas in the blends significantly increased the protein and mineral content of the baked products. The bread from 10% pigeonpea flour blend with 2-3% vital gluten and 0.5% SSL had high loaf volume and loaf quality. Blends containing 15% pigeonpea flour were acceptable for Chapatti and 30% pigeonpea flour with 0.25% SSL were acceptable for cookie making.

  13. Glycemic index of grain amaranth, wheat and rice in NIDDM subjects.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, A; Sarojini, G; Nirmala, G; Nirmalamma, N; Satyanarayana, D

    1997-01-01

    Glycemic index of grain amaranth, wheat and rice preparations was studied in non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects. Diets containing 50 g carbohydrate equivalent were given and post-prandial blood glucose estimated at different intervals. Glycemic index calculated for different experimental diets showed that GI of amaranth-wheat composite flour diet (25:75) was the least (65.6%) followed by wheat diet (65.7%), rice diet (69.2%), amaranth-wheat flour 50:50 (75.5%), and popped amaranth in milk (97.3%). Therefore 25:75 combination of amaranth and wheat, wheat and rice can be considered low GI food, 50:50 grain amaranth and wheat medium GI food and popped amaranth and milk combination high GI food.

  14. Fungi species and red flour beetle in stored wheat flour under Jazan region conditions.

    PubMed

    Bosly, Hanan AbuAlQasem; Kawanna, Maha Adel

    2014-05-01

    Infection of stored wheat flour with insects and toxic fungi can be an extremely serious problem. This study was conducted to isolate and identify the fungal species and insects in different stages, which infested and contaminated the stored flour under Jazan region conditions and changed its color and flavor. The obtained results revealed that the isolated insect was the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Live adult, larvae and cast skin were isolated. Four Aspergillus species were isolated from stored wheat flour; the isolated species prevalence being A. flavus > A. niveus > A. terreus > A. niger by rate 44.5%, 37.8%, 10.9% and 6.7%, respectively. The same fungal species isolated from flour were also isolated from different insect stages. A. flavus was the most common fungus and A. niger was isolated with a lower rate. The results about the isolated fungi either from the suspension of adult insects, larvae or cast skins may confirm the role of T. castaneum to carry and distribute fungi in different parts of the stored flour.

  15. Cold temperature disinfestation of bagged flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted studies using a commercial freezer maintained at -17.8°C to determine the time needed to kill Tribolium castaneum eggs in a pallet of flour. Each bag weighed 22.7 kg, and there were 5 bags in each of 10 layers. The dimensions of the pallet were 109-cm wide by 132-cm long by 123-cm tall,...

  16. Chirality determines pheromone activity for flour beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinson, H. Z.; Mori, K.

    1983-04-01

    Olfactory perception and orientation behaviour of female and male flour beetles ( Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum) to single stereoisomers of their aggregation pheromone revealed maximal receptor potentials and optimal attraction in response to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, whereas its optical antipode 4S,8S-(+)-dimethyldecanal was found to be inactive in this respect. Female flour beetles of both species were ≈ 103 times less attracted to 4R,8S-(+)- and 4S,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal than to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, while male flour beetles failed to respond to the R,S-(+)- and S,R-(-)-stereoisomers. Pheromone extracts of prothoracic femora from unmated male flour beetles elicited higher receptor potentials in the antennae of females than in those of males. The results suggest that the aggregation pheromone emitted by male T. castaneum as well as male T. confusum has the stereochemical structure of 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyl-decanal, which acts as sex attractant for the females and as aggregant for the males of both species.

  17. A three generation reproduction study with Sprague-Dawley rats consuming high-amylose transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xing Hua; Dong, Ying; Zhao, Yan Sheng; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Yun; He, Yuan Qing; Liu, Qiao Quan

    2014-12-01

    The transgenic rice line (TRS) enriched with amylose and resistant starch (RS) was developed by antisense RNA inhibition of starch-branching enzymes. Cereal starch with high amylose has a great benefit on human health through its resistant starch. In order to evaluate the effect of transgenic rice on rats, the rats were fed diets containing 70% TRS rice flour, its near-isogenic rice flour or the standard diet as the control through three generations. In the present study, clinical performance, reproductive capacity and pathological responses including body weight, food consumption, reproductive data, hematological parameters, serum chemistry components, organ relative weights and histopathology were examined. Some statistically significant differences were observed in rats consuming the high amylose rice diet when compared to rats fed the near-isogenic control rice diet or the conventional (non-rice) standard diet. These differences were generally of small magnitude, appeared to be random in nature, and were within normal limits for the strain of rat used, and were therefore not considered to be biologically meaningful or treatment related.

  18. Physicochemical properties of quinoa flour as affected by starch interactions.

    PubMed

    Li, Guantian; Zhu, Fan

    2017-04-15

    There has been growing interest in whole grain quinoa flour for new product development due to the unique nutritional benefits. The quality of quinoa flour is much determined by the properties of its major component starch as well as non-starch components. In this study, composition and physicochemical properties of whole grain flour from 7 quinoa samples have been analyzed. Flour properties have been correlated to the flour composition and the properties of isolated quinoa starches through chemometrics. Great variations in chemical composition, swelling power, water soluble index, enzyme susceptibility, pasting, gel texture, and thermal properties of the flour have been observed. Correlation analysis showed that thermal properties and enzyme susceptibility of quinoa flour are highly influenced by the starch. Interactions of starch with non-starch components, including lipids, protein, dietary fibre, phenolics, and minerals, greatly impacted the flour properties. For example, peak gelatinization temperature of the flour is positively correlated to that of the starch (r=0.948, p<0.01) and negatively correlated to the lipid content (r=-0.951, p<0.01). Understanding the roles of starch and other components in physicochemical properties of quinoa flour provides a basis for better utilization of this specialty crop.

  19. Characterization of resistance to three bruchid species (Callosobruchus spp., Coleoptera, Bruchidae) in cultivated rice bean (Vigna umbellata).

    PubMed

    Kashiwaba, K; Tomooka, N; Kaga, A; Han, O K; Vaughan, D A

    2003-02-01

    Resistance of wild and cultivated rice bean (Vigna umbellata [Thunberg] Ohwi and Ohashi) to three bruchid species, Callosobruchus chinensis L., Callosobruchus maculatus F., and Callosobruchus analis F., was evaluated. All but three accessions of cultivated, and all wild rice bean accessions tested, exhibited complete resistance to all three bruchid species. Rice bean seeds with seed coat removed also showed complete resistance to the three bruchid species. Results indicate that physical attributes and/or chemical(s) present in the seed coat of rice bean are not the main factors responsible for resistance. Feeding tests were performed by using artificial beans prepared with varying proportions of rice bean (resistant) and azuki bean (susceptible) flour. Number of bruchid adults that emerged decreased, and larval developmental period (days) was extended, when artificial beans with an increasing proportion of rice bean flour were used. These tests revealed that a chemical compound(s) contained in the cotyledon of rice bean has an inhibitory effect on the growth of these bruchid species. The results also indicate that the chemical(s) in rice bean cotyledon is most effective against C. maculatus.

  20. Solvent Retention Capacities of Oat Flour.

    PubMed

    Niu, Qianwen; Pu, Yu; Li, Xiaoping; Ma, Zhen; Hu, Xinzhong

    2017-03-13

    This study measured the solvent retention capacities (SRCs) of flours from eight oat varieties and one wheat variety against different solvents to explore the swelling volume of oat flour with different solvents, and thus provide a theoretical basis for quick β-glucan analysis. The SRC profile consists of water SRC (WSRC), 50% sucrose SRC (SSRC), 5% lactic acid SRC (LASRC), 5% Na₂CO₃ SRC (SCASRC), NaCl SRC (SCSRC), CaCl₂ SRC (CCSRC), FeCl₃ SRC (FCSRC), sodium cholate SRC (SCHSRC), NaOH (pH 10) SRC (SHSRC), Na₂CO₃ (pH 10) SRC (SCABSRC) and SDS (pH 10) SRC (SDSSRC) values, and a Chopin SRC kit was used to measure the SRC value. SRCs of the oat flours increased when the solvents turned from neutral (water and NaCl) to acidic (5% lactic acid) or alkaline (5% Na₂CO₃, CaCl₂, FeCl₃, NaOH and pH 10 Na₂CO₃), and rose as the metal ion valencies of the metal salts (NaCl, CaCl₂ and FeCl₃) increased. The β-glucan contents were significantly positively correlated with the SCSRC (0.83**), CCSRC (0.82**), SCHSRC (0.80**) and FCSRC (0.78*). SRC measurements of β-glucan in oat flours revealed that the CCSRC values were related with β-glucan (0.64*) but not related with protein and starch. CaCl₂ could therefore potentially be exploited as a reagent for β-glucan assay.

  1. Solvent Retention Capacities of Oat Flour

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Qianwen; Pu, Yu; Li, Xiaoping; Ma, Zhen; Hu, Xinzhong

    2017-01-01

    This study measured the solvent retention capacities (SRCs) of flours from eight oat varieties and one wheat variety against different solvents to explore the swelling volume of oat flour with different solvents, and thus provide a theoretical basis for quick β-glucan analysis. The SRC profile consists of water SRC (WSRC), 50% sucrose SRC (SSRC), 5% lactic acid SRC (LASRC), 5% Na2CO3 SRC (SCASRC), NaCl SRC (SCSRC), CaCl2 SRC (CCSRC), FeCl3 SRC (FCSRC), sodium cholate SRC (SCHSRC), NaOH (pH 10) SRC (SHSRC), Na2CO3 (pH 10) SRC (SCABSRC) and SDS (pH 10) SRC (SDSSRC) values, and a Chopin SRC kit was used to measure the SRC value. SRCs of the oat flours increased when the solvents turned from neutral (water and NaCl) to acidic (5% lactic acid) or alkaline (5% Na2CO3, CaCl2, FeCl3, NaOH and pH 10 Na2CO3), and rose as the metal ion valencies of the metal salts (NaCl, CaCl2 and FeCl3) increased. The β-glucan contents were significantly positively correlated with the SCSRC (0.83**), CCSRC (0.82**), SCHSRC (0.80**) and FCSRC (0.78*). SRC measurements of β-glucan in oat flours revealed that the CCSRC values were related with β-glucan (0.64*) but not related with protein and starch. CaCl2 could therefore potentially be exploited as a reagent for β-glucan assay. PMID:28335393

  2. Yacon flour and Bifidobacterium longum modulate bone health in rats.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Fabiana Carvalho; Castro, Adriano Simões Barbosa; Rodrigues, Vívian Carolina; Fernandes, Sérgio Antônio; Fontes, Edimar Aparecida Filomeno; de Oliveira, Tânia Toledo; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Célia Lúcia

    2012-07-01

    Yacon flour has been considered a food with prebiotic potential because of the high levels of fructooligosaccharides, which allows for its use in formulating synbiotic foods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of yacon flour and probiotic (Bifidobacterium longum) on the modulation of variables related to bone health. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: control, yacon flour, diet+B. longum, and yacon flour+B. longum. After euthanasia, the bones were removed for analysis of biomechanical properties (thickness, length, and strength of fracture) and mineral content (Ca, Mg, and P); the cecum was removed for analysis of the microbiota and short-chain fatty acids. Tibia Ca, P, and Mg content was significantly (P<.05) higher in groups fed diet+B. longum, yacon flour+B. longum than in the control group. An increase in fracture strength was observed in the yacon flour (8.1%), diet+B. longum (8.6%), and yacon flour+B. longum (14.6%) in comparison to the control group. Total anaerobe and weight of the cecum were higher (P<.05) in rats consuming the yacon flour diet compared with the other groups. Cecal concentration of propionate was higher in all experimental groups compared with the control (P<.05). Yacon flour in combination with B. longum helped increase the concentration of minerals in bones, an important factor in the prevention of diseases such as osteoporosis.

  3. Studies on physicochemical and pasting properties of Taro (Colocasia esculenta L.) flour in comparison with a cereal, tuber and legume flour.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Maninder; Kaushal, Pragati; Sandhu, Kawaljit Singh

    2013-02-01

    The physicochemical and pasting properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta L.) flour were investigated and compared with flours from other botanical sources. Proximate composition, color parameters, water and oil absorption, foaming characteristics and pasting properties (measured using Rapid visco analyzer) of flours were related to each other using Pearson correlation and principal component analysis (PCA). Taro flour was significantly (P < 0.05) different from other flours in exhibiting highest carbohydrate, water absorption, and lower protein, foaming capacity and setback viscosity. Peak viscosity of taro flour was lower in comparison to potato flour but higher than that of soya and corn flours. Several significant correlations between functional and pasting properties were revealed both by PCA and Pearson correlation. PCA showed that taro and potato flours were located at the left of the score plot with a negative score, while soybean and corn flours had a large positive score in the first principal component.

  4. The viscoelastic properties of the protein-rich materials from the fermented hard wheat, soft wheat and barley flours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The linear and non-linear rheological properties of the suspensions for the hard red spring wheat (HRS) flour, soft wheat (Pastry) flour, barley flour, as well as the remain residues of HRS flour, Pastry flour, and barley flour after fermentation were investigated. The linear and non-linear rheologi...

  5. Impact of food source on survival of red flour beetles and confused flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) exposed to diatomaceous earth.

    PubMed

    Arthur, F H

    2000-08-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the effect of a flour food source on survival of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum (DuVal), exposed to the labeled rate (0.5 mg/cm2) of Protect-It, a marine formulation of diatomaceous earth. Beetles were exposed at 27 degrees C, and 40, 57, and 75% RH in 62-cm2 petri dishes. When beetles were exposed for 1 or 2 d in dishes with the labeled rate (0.5 mg/cm2, or 31 mg per dish) of diatomaceous earth or in dishes containing flour at varying levels from 0 to 200 mg mixed with the labeled rate of diatomaceous earth, survival of both species increased as the amount of flour increased, and quickly plateaued at levels approaching 100%. In a second set of experiments, beetles were transferred to dishes containing flour at varying levels from 0 to 200 mg after they were exposed for 1 or 2 d in dishes with the labeled rate of diatomaceous earth alone. There were no significant differences in beetle survival among the levels of flour, however, survival in dishes with flour was usually greater than survival in dishes with diatomaceous earth alone. In a third test, beetles were exposed for 1, 2, and 3 d in dishes with either the labeled rate of diatomaceous earth alone (clean dishes), dishes with diatomaceous earth and empty straws, or dishes with diatomaceous earth and approximately 300 mg of flour packed in the straws. Survival was not significantly different between clean dishes or dishes with straws, but survival in dishes containing the straws with flour was usually 100%, regardless of exposure interval. In all experiments, confused flour beetles were less susceptible to diatomaceous earth than red flour beetles. In addition, survival was negatively related to exposure interval and positively related to relative humidity.

  6. Variation in cooking and eating quality traits in Japanese rice germplasm accessions

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Kiyosumi; Suzuki, Keitaro; Iijima, Ken; Ebana, Kaworu

    2016-01-01

    The eating quality of cooked rice is important and determines its market price and consumer acceptance. To comprehensively describe the variation of eating quality in 183 rice germplasm accessions, we evaluated 33 eating-quality traits including amylose and protein contents, pasting properties of rice flour, and texture of cooked rice grains. All eating-quality traits varied widely in the germplasm accessions. Principal-components analysis (PCA) revealed that allelic differences in the Wx gene explained the largest proportion of phenotypic variation of the eating-quality traits. In 146 accessions of non-glutinous temperate japonica rice, PCA revealed that protein content and surface texture of the cooked rice grains significantly explained phenotypic variations of the eating-quality traits. An allelic difference based on simple sequence repeats, which was located near a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on the short arm of chromosome 3, was associated with differences in the eating quality of non-glutinous temperate japonica rice. These results suggest that eating quality is controlled by genetic factors, including the Wx gene and the QTL on chromosome 3, in Japanese rice accessions. These genetic factors have been consciously selected for eating quality during rice breeding programs in Japan. PMID:27162502

  7. Variation in cooking and eating quality traits in Japanese rice germplasm accessions.

    PubMed

    Hori, Kiyosumi; Suzuki, Keitaro; Iijima, Ken; Ebana, Kaworu

    2016-03-01

    The eating quality of cooked rice is important and determines its market price and consumer acceptance. To comprehensively describe the variation of eating quality in 183 rice germplasm accessions, we evaluated 33 eating-quality traits including amylose and protein contents, pasting properties of rice flour, and texture of cooked rice grains. All eating-quality traits varied widely in the germplasm accessions. Principal-components analysis (PCA) revealed that allelic differences in the Wx gene explained the largest proportion of phenotypic variation of the eating-quality traits. In 146 accessions of non-glutinous temperate japonica rice, PCA revealed that protein content and surface texture of the cooked rice grains significantly explained phenotypic variations of the eating-quality traits. An allelic difference based on simple sequence repeats, which was located near a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on the short arm of chromosome 3, was associated with differences in the eating quality of non-glutinous temperate japonica rice. These results suggest that eating quality is controlled by genetic factors, including the Wx gene and the QTL on chromosome 3, in Japanese rice accessions. These genetic factors have been consciously selected for eating quality during rice breeding programs in Japan.

  8. Physicochemical and functional properties of peeled and unpeeled pumpkin flour.

    PubMed

    Noor Aziah, A A; Komathi, C A

    2009-09-01

    This study was intended to investigate the potential of peeled and unpeeled pumpkin pulp as a raw material for the production of flour that could be used in composite blend with wheat flour or as a functional ingredient in food products. The peeled and unpeeled pumpkin pulp were soaked in sodium metabisulphite solution, sliced and dried overnight in a hot air oven, followed by milling into peeled pumpkin pulp flour (PPPF) and unpeeled pumpkin pulp flour (UPPF), respectively. The flours were then evaluated for physicochemical attributes (color, proximate compositions, and water activity) and functional properties (water holding capacity and oil holding capacity), in comparison to the commercial wheat flour. PPPF and UPPF were observed to be more attractive in terms of color than wheat flour, as indicated by the significantly higher results (P flour, PPPF and UPPF were superior in term of nutrients as indicated by the significantly higher (P or= 0.05) was shown in water holding capacity of PPPF and wheat flour. However, the oil holding capacity of PPPF and UPPF was shown to be significantly higher (P flour, indicating the potential of PPPF and UPPF as emulsifying agents. Moisture content and water activity values in PPPF and UPPF were significantly lower (P flour, suggesting that PPPF and UPPF have a better keeping quality and longer shelf life.

  9. Use of sodium stearoyl lactylate and azodicarbonamide in wheat flour breads with added pea flour.

    PubMed

    Alasino, Maria C; Osella, Carlos A; De La Torre, Maria A; Sanchez, Hugo D

    2011-06-01

    Different amounts of sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) (X(1)) and azodicarbonamide (ADA) (X(2)) were analyzed to measure their effect on breadmaking using wheat flour with incorporation of pea flour (Pisum sativum) to the dough. The objective of the present work was to optimize the physical properties of dough (Y(1)Y(2)Y(3)Y(4)), the dough consistency during mixing (Y(5)Y(6)) and the baking performance (Y(7)Y(8)Y(9)). A central composite design and second-order models for Y(i) were employed. For dough physical properties and dough consistency during mixing, the best response was found when SSL varied between 0.5 and 1.5% and ADA between 110 and 170 ppm. For responses concerning the baking performance, better values for specific volume, crumb texture scores and bread score were obtained using SSL between 0.9 and 1.4% and ADA between 50 and 80 ppm. It is concluded that for baking with wheat flour replaced at about 10% with inactivated pea flour it should be advised to use SSL at levels close to 1% with ADA between 50 and 80 ppm.

  10. Substituting normal and waxy-type whole wheat flour on dough and baking properties.

    PubMed

    Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong

    2012-09-01

    Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour decreased pasting viscosity, showing all RVA parameters were the lowest in SMC40 composite flour. Water absorption was slightly higher with 40% whole wheat flour regardless of whether the wheat was normal or waxy. An increased mixing time was observed when higher levels of KK flour were substituted, but the opposite reaction occurred when SMC flour was substituted at the same levels. Bread loaf volume was lower in breads containing a whole wheat flour substitution compared to bread containing only white wheat flour. No significant difference in bread loaf volume was observed between normal and waxy whole flour, but the bread crumb firmness was significantly lower in breads containing waxy flour. The results of these studies indicate that up to 40% whole wheat flour substitution could be considered a practical option with respect to functional qualities. Also, replacing waxy whole flour has a positive effect on bread formulation over normal whole wheat flour in terms of improving softness and glutinous texture.

  11. Substituting Normal and Waxy-Type Whole Wheat Flour on Dough and Baking Properties

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour decreased pasting viscosity, showing all RVA parameters were the lowest in SMC40 composite flour. Water absorption was slightly higher with 40% whole wheat flour regardless of whether the wheat was normal or waxy. An increased mixing time was observed when higher levels of KK flour were substituted, but the opposite reaction occurred when SMC flour was substituted at the same levels. Bread loaf volume was lower in breads containing a whole wheat flour substitution compared to bread containing only white wheat flour. No significant difference in bread loaf volume was observed between normal and waxy whole flour, but the bread crumb firmness was significantly lower in breads containing waxy flour. The results of these studies indicate that up to 40% whole wheat flour substitution could be considered a practical option with respect to functional qualities. Also, replacing waxy whole flour has a positive effect on bread formulation over normal whole wheat flour in terms of improving softness and glutinous texture. PMID:24471084

  12. Gamma radiation influence on technological characteristics of wheat flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. d.

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed at determining the influence of gamma radiation on technological characteristics of wheat (Triticum sativum) flour and physical properties of pan breads made with this flour. The bread formulation included wheat flour, water, milk, salt, sugar, yeast and butter. The α-amylase activity of wheat flour irradiated with 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a Gammacell 220 (AECL), one day, five days and one month after irradiation was evaluated. Deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with the irradiated flour were also determined. The enzymatic activity increased—reduction of falling number time—as radiation dose increased, their values being 397 s (0 kGy), 388 s (1 kGy), 343 s (3 kGy) and 293 s (9 kGy) respectively, remaining almost constant over the period of one month. Pan breads prepared with irradiated wheat flour showed increased weight. Texture analysis showed that bread made of irradiated flour presented an increase in maximum deformation force. The results indicate that wheat flour ionizing radiation processing may confer increased enzymatic activity on bread making and depending on the irradiation dose, an increase in weight, height and deformation force parameters of pan breads made of it.

  13. Nutritional profile of whole grain soft wheat flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole grain wheat flour is used in baking products to increase fiber content and to provide vitamins from the bran layers of the kernel. We surveyed whole grain soft flour samples from North America to determine the nutritional profile using recently revised fiber quantification protocols, CODEX 20...

  14. 21 CFR 137.180 - Self-rising flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., self-rising wheat flour, is an intimate mixture of flour, sodium bicarbonate, and one or more of the... by means of the leveling bulb E bring the displacement solution to the 25 cc. graduation above the... burette into the air, keep the displacement solution in the leveling bulb at all times during...

  15. Allergenic Properties of Enzymatically Hydrolyzed Peanut Flour Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut flour is a high protein, low oil, powdered material prepared from roasted 21 peanut seed. In addition to being a well-established food ingredient, peanut flour is also the 22 active ingredient in peanut oral immunotherapy trials. Enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated as a 23 processing strategy ...

  16. Fractionation of cottonseed flour for improving its adhesive properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As early as the 1950's, cottonseed flour (i. e. meal) was tested for use as wood adhesives. Recently, renewed interest exists in the use of plant proteins as wood adhesives, as these materials are renewable and biodegradable. In this research, we separated cottonseed flour into several fractions wit...

  17. [Effect of soybean lipoxygenae on baking properties of wheat flour].

    PubMed

    Permiakova, M D; Trufanov, V A

    2011-01-01

    Changes in bread-baking properties of wheat flour caused by soybean lipoxygenase and polyunsaturated fatty acids were studied. A positive effect of soybean flour added during dough kneading in an amount of 2% was demonstrated. A method for dough fermentation increasing the loaf volume and improving organoleptic characteristics and total bread-baking estimate is recommended.

  18. Pasting and rheological properties of chia composites containing barley flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chia containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) was composited with barley flour having high ß-glucan content. Both omega-3 PUFAs and ß-glucan are well known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing coronary heart disease. Barley flour was dry blended with ground chia ...

  19. Reinforcement Effect of Corn Flour in Rubber Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn flour is an economical renewable material and investigated in this study as filler for rubber composites. The composites were prepared by mixing an aqueous dispersion of corn flour with rubber latex, followed by freeze-drying and compression molding. The small strain elastic modulus and the str...

  20. Dough Rheology and Wet Milling of Hard Waxy Wheat Flours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To realize the full potential of waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), wet milling of waxy wheat flour to produce gluten and waxy wheat starch was investigated. Flours of six advanced lines of waxy hard wheats, one normal hard wheat (‘Karl 92’), and one partial waxy wheat (‘Trego’) were fractionated by...

  1. 1. VIEW SHOWING FLOUR MILL (TWOSTORY BUILDING WITH GABLE ROOF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SHOWING FLOUR MILL (TWO-STORY BUILDING WITH GABLE ROOF JUST RIGHT OF CENTER), IN CONTEXT OF ROCKY BOY'S AGENCY, WITH MAIN AGENCY OFFICES IN FOREGROUND AND AGENCY HOUSING IN THE BACKGROUND TO LEFT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Rocky Boy's Agency Flour Mill, Rocky Boy, Hill County, MT

  2. Energy Conservation in the Food Industry : Terminal Flour Mill.

    SciTech Connect

    United Industries Corporation.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the results of an energy study that was conducted at Terminal Flour Mill in Portland, Oregon. Terminal Flour Mill is one of five food industry (SIC 20) plants that are being studied. Energy conservation measures (ECM's) are divided into two groups; operation and maintenance (O and M) measures, and equipment modification measures.

  3. 49. Archer Daniels Midland Flour Mill. It was the world's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Archer Daniels Midland Flour Mill. It was the world's largest flour mill when constructed by Pillsbury in 1922. The left side was built in 1977 to replace a unit destroyed by an explosion. Jet Lowe, photographer, Summer 1994. - Great Northern Elevator, 250 Ganson Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  4. 21 CFR 137.225 - Whole durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole durum flour. 137.225 Section 137.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  5. 21 CFR 137.160 - Enriched bromated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched bromated flour. 137.160 Section 137.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  6. 21 CFR 137.225 - Whole durum flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whole durum flour. 137.225 Section 137.225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  7. 21 CFR 137.160 - Enriched bromated flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched bromated flour. 137.160 Section 137.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  8. The molecular biology and biochemistry of rice endosperm. alpha. -globulin

    SciTech Connect

    Shorrosh, B.S.

    1989-01-01

    The author's first objective was to isolate a cDNA clone that encodes the rice endosperm {alpha}-globulin. Purified antibodies against a rice storage protein, {alpha}-globulin, were used to screen a {lambda}gt11 cDNA expression library constructed from immature rice seed endosperm. The cDNA insert of clone 4A1 (identified by antibody screening) was used as a probe to identify long cDNA inserts in the library. The deduced amino acid sequence of clone A3-12 cDNA insert (identified by cDNA screening) contained the amino acid sequences of three cyanogen bromide peptides fragment of {alpha}-globulin. The calculated molecular weight and amino acid composition of the deduced amino acid sequence were similar to the {alpha}-globulin protein. Northern blot analysis indicated that mRNA of one size, approximately 1.0 kb, is expressed. Southern genomic blot analysis revealed one band with EcoRI or Hind III digestion. Cell-free translation and immunoprecipitation showed that the initial translation product is approximately 2,000 daltons larger than the mature protein. The amino acid sequence of {alpha}-globulin revealed limited regions of similarities with wheat storage proteins. The author concludes that the cDNA insert in clone A3-12 contained the entire coding region of {alpha}-globulin protein and that {alpha}-globulin is encoded by a single gene. My second objective was to inhibit the degradation of {alpha}-globulin in the salt extract of rice flour. The salt extract of rice flour contained an acid protease whose optimal pH was 3 for {sup 3}H-casein hydrolysis. A polypeptide with molecular weight of 20,000 was immunologically reactive with {alpha}-globulin antibodies and is produced by limited proteolysis in the extract. Pepstatin inhibited the proteolysis of 3H-casein and slowed the proteolysis of {alpha}-globulin.

  9. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-04-17

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  10. Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F.; Sarath, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs. PMID:25653837

  11. Rice ( Oryza) hemoglobins.

    PubMed

    Arredondo-Peter, Raúl; Moran, Jose F; Sarath, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice ( Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a single copy of the thb gene exist in Oryza sativa var. indica and O. sativa var. japonica, Hb transcripts coexist in rice organs and Hb polypeptides exist in rice embryonic and vegetative organs and in the cytoplasm of differentiating cells. At the structural level, the crystal structure of rice Hb1 has been elucidated, and the structures of the other rice Hbs have been modeled. Kinetic analysis indicated that rice Hb1 and 2, and possibly rice Hb3 and 4, exhibit a very high affinity for O 2, whereas rice Hb5 and tHb possibly exhibit a low to moderate affinity for O 2. Based on the accumulated information on the properties of rice Hbs and data from the analysis of other plant and non-plant Hbs, it is likely that Hbs play a variety of roles in rice organs, including O 2-transport, O 2-sensing, NO-scavenging and redox-signaling. From an evolutionary perspective, an outline for the evolution of rice Hbs is available. Rice nshb and thb genes vertically evolved through different lineages, rice nsHbs evolved into clade I and clade II lineages and rice nshbs and thbs evolved under the effect of neutral selection. This review also reveals lacunae in our ability to completely understand rice Hbs. Primary lacunae are the absence of experimental information about the precise functions of rice Hbs, the properties of modeled rice Hbs and the cis-elements and trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of rice hb genes, and the partial understanding of the evolution of rice Hbs.

  12. Effect of Wheat Flour Pre-cooking on the Composite Modulus of Wheat Flour and Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Latex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial wheat flours with two different concentrations of insoluble protein were used as fillers to reinforce styrene-butadiene latex composites and their viscoelastic properties were examined. Both wheat flours were also cooked at 55, 70, or 95 deg C for one hour in an aqueous dispersion prior ...

  13. Quality characteristics of Chinese steamed bread prepared from soft red winter wheat flours with waxy wheat flour substitution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quality characteristics of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) prepared from two soft red winter (SRW) wheat flours blended with 0-30% waxy wheat flour (WWF) were determined to estimate the influence of starch amylose content. The increased proportion of WWF in blends raised mixograph absorption with insign...

  14. Measurement of resistant starch content in cooked rice and analysis of gelatinization and retrogradation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Nakayoshi, Yuuki; Nakamura, Sumiko; Kameo, Yoji; Shiiba, Daisuke; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

    2015-01-01

    Digestion-resistant starch (RS) has many physiologic functions. The RS content is measured by enzymatically degrading flour samples according to the method of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Experiments have been performed with wheat, corn, and other grains, but there are no data for cooked rice grains in the form ingested by humans. Thus, we investigated a method to measure RS that is suitable for cooked rice grains using rice cultivars that are reported to differentially increase postprandial blood glucose in humans. Using a method for cooking individual rice grains and optimized enzyme reaction conditions, we established an RS measurement method. We also found that the amylopectin crystal condition affects the RS content measured using our method.

  15. The Effect of Spring Wheat Starch Properties on Flour Tortilla Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The largest component of wheat flour is starch. Starch properties affect the end use quality of products made from wheat flour. Seven genotypes of wheat flour, having various amounts of amylose, were grown at three locations in North Dakota. Flour from these genotypes was tested for starch propertie...

  16. Evaluation of four sorghum varieties in the utilization of sorghum flour tortillas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gluten-free flour tortillas were made with five different sorghum flours to evaluate flour quality. Four sorghum varieties were used along with a commercial sorghum flour. The four varieties were: Fontanelle-625 (F-625), Fontanelle-1000 (F-1000), ATx631xRTx2907(NE#20), and 5040C. The tortilla wei...

  17. Navy bean flour particle size and protein content affect cake baking and batter quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to three levels with navy bean starch. The effect...

  18. 40 CFR 406.30 - Applicability; description of the normal wheat flour milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... normal wheat flour milling subcategory. 406.30 Section 406.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.30 Applicability; description of the normal wheat flour milling... wheat and other grains are milled by dry processes into flour and millfeed....

  19. 40 CFR 406.30 - Applicability; description of the normal wheat flour milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... normal wheat flour milling subcategory. 406.30 Section 406.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.30 Applicability; description of the normal wheat flour milling... wheat and other grains are milled by dry processes into flour and millfeed....

  20. 40 CFR 406.30 - Applicability; description of the normal wheat flour milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... normal wheat flour milling subcategory. 406.30 Section 406.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.30 Applicability; description of the normal wheat flour milling... wheat and other grains are milled by dry processes into flour and millfeed....

  1. 40 CFR 406.30 - Applicability; description of the normal wheat flour milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... normal wheat flour milling subcategory. 406.30 Section 406.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.30 Applicability; description of the normal wheat flour milling... wheat and other grains are milled by dry processes into flour and millfeed....

  2. 40 CFR 406.30 - Applicability; description of the normal wheat flour milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... normal wheat flour milling subcategory. 406.30 Section 406.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.30 Applicability; description of the normal wheat flour milling... wheat and other grains are milled by dry processes into flour and millfeed....

  3. Expression of a fungal glucoamylase in transgenic rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoli; Huang, Jinming; Fang, Jun; Lin, Chaoyang; Cheng, Jiaan; Shen, Zhicheng

    2008-10-01

    Glucoamylase, which catalyses the hydrolysis of the alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds of starch, is an important industrial enzyme used in starch enzymatic saccharification. In this study, a glucoamylase gene from Aspergillus awamori, under the control of the promoter of seed storage protein Gt1, was introduced into rice by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Significant glucoamylase activity was detected specifically in the seeds but not other tissues of the transgenic rice lines. The highest enzymatic activity was found in the transgenic line Bg17-2, which was estimated to have about 500 units per gram of seeds (one unit is defined as the amount of enzyme that produces 1 micromol of reducing sugar in 1 min at 60 degrees C using soluble starch as substrate). The optimum pH for the activity of the rice produced enzyme is 5.0-5.5, and the optimum temperature is around 60 degrees C. One part of this transgenic glucoamylase rice seed flour fully converted 25 parts of corn starch pre-liquefied by an alpha-amylase also produced by a transgenic rice into glucose in 16 h incubation. This study suggests that this hydrolysis enzyme may substitute commercial fermentation enzymes for industrial starch conversion.

  4. Quality Evaluation of Biscuits Supplemented with Alfalfa Seed Flour

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Fahim; Ahmad, Sajjad; Wahab, Said; Zeb, Alam; Khan Khattak, Mansoor; Khan, Saleem; Kang, Min

    2016-01-01

    The effect of alfalfa seed flour supplementation on the quality characteristics of refined wheat flour-based biscuits was studied. The proximate composition of refined wheat flour and alfalfa seed flour was determined. Refined wheat flour contained 12.43% moisture, 11.52% crude protein, 1.61% crude fat, 0.71% crude fiber, 1.43% ash and 70.83% nitrogen free extract, while alfalfa seed flour contained 5.79%, 29.49%, 12.71%, 5.53%, 4.80% and 41.73% moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, ash and nitrogen free extract correspondingly. Alfalfa seed flour at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% supplementation levels was incorporated in refined wheat flour to produce composite flour. The biscuits prepared were subjected to quality evaluation. Physical analysis of biscuits disclosed that supplementation of alfalfa seed flour decreased the width from 47.25 to 42 mm and the spread factor from 62.7 to 53.12, while it increased the thickness from 7.53 to 8.10 mm. Supplementation of refined wheat flour–based biscuits with alfalfa seed flour at different inclusion levels significantly (p < 0.05) increased the crude protein content from 10.19% to 15.30%, the crude fiber content from 0.73% to 1.62%, the crude fat content from 17.46% to 21.59% and the ash content from 1.37% to 1.92%, whereas it decreased the moisture content from 3.57% to 3.26% and the nitrogen free extract from 66.90% to 59.32%. The effect of supplementation on the mineral contents of biscuits was also significant (p < 0.05). Potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron and zinc contents increased from 105.30, 14.65, 43.91, 3.74 and 0.94 to 145.00, 26.64, 79.60, 7.93 and 1.60 mg/100 g, respectively. Sensory evaluation revealed that the quality score of biscuits in terms of color, taste, texture and overall acceptability decreased with increased supplementation. The present research work confirmed that a maximum of 10% alfalfa seed flour supplementation in refined wheat flour could produce acceptable biscuits with an

  5. Association between rice consumption and selected indicators of dietary and nutritional status using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eileen; Luo, Hanqi

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating whether white rice, brown rice, and rice flour consumption has any association with selected measures of dietary intake and nutritional status, including various variables of energy intake, major vitamin and mineral intakes, weigh status, blood pressure, cholesterol level, and serum folate level for adults 20 years and older. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 and the Food Commodity Intake Database were used. Rice consumers had a significantly higher energy intake, yet they had lower percentage calorie intake from fat and saturated fat. Rice consumers also had significantly higher intakes of a range of nutrients. Rice consumers had lower waist circumference, triceps skinfold, and were significantly more likely to have a body mass index less than or equal to 25.

  6. The cadmium and lead content of the grain produced by leading Chinese rice cultivars.

    PubMed

    Xie, L H; Tang, S Q; Wei, X J; Shao, G N; Jiao, G A; Sheng, Z H; Luo, J; Hu, P S

    2017-02-15

    The cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) content in both white and wholemeal flour milled from 110 leading rice cultivars was assessed. The white flour Cd content ranged from <0.0025 to 0.2530mg/kg (geometric mean (GM)=0.0150mg/kg), while its Pb content ranged from <0.0250 to 0.3830mg/kg (GM=0.0210mg/kg). The indica types took up higher amounts of Cd and Pb than did the japonica types. Although the heavy metal content of wholemeal flour tended to higher than that of white flour, nevertheless 84.5% (Cd) and 95.4% (Pb) of the entries were compliant with the national maximum allowable concentration of 0.2000mg/kg of each contaminant. An analysis of the Cd content in the white flour of three indica type cultivars grown in two consecutive years at two locations indicated that Cd content may be significantly affected by the conditions prevailing in the growing season.

  7. Physicochemical modification of native and extruded wheat flours by enzymatic amylolysis.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Mario M; Pico, Joana; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-01-15

    Enzymatic hydrolysis could be an alternative way to modify flour functionality. The effect of two different enzymes, α-amylase and amyloglucosidase, and their combination on microstructure, oligosaccharide content, crystalline order, pasting, gel hydration, and colour properties of native and extruded wheat flours was investigated. Micrographs showed different mechanisms of actuation of the different enzymes on native and extruded flours, achieving greater than 300% and 500% increases of glucose and maltose contents, respectively, in extruded flours compared with their native counterparts. Native flours displayed higher values of water absorption capacity and swelling power than extruded flours. Flours treated by a combination of amylase and amyloglucosidase showed low swelling power. Regarding colour, native flours were darker and more reddish than extruded flours, whereas flours treated by amyloglucosidase, and therefore had a higher glucose content, were darker and more reddish.

  8. Speciation of inorganic arsenic species and total inorganic arsenic in rice using microwave-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi-Jouibari, Toraj; Fattahi, Nazir

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) via rice consumption is of increasing concern. In the present study, microwave-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (MADLLME) and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) were developed for the speciation of iAs in rice samples. After microwave-assisted digestion, the As(III) ion reacted with diethyldithiophosphoric acid (DDTP) to form an As-DDTP complex and was extracted at the same time. Some parameters affecting digestion, complex formation, and extraction were studied and optimised. Under the optimised conditions, a detection limit of 0.2 µg kg(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9901 were obtained with a calibration curve in the range of 0.5-200 µg kg(-1). Total iAs was determined after reduction of As(V) to As(III) with sodium thiosulfate and potassium iodide, and As(V) was calculated by difference. The proposed extraction procedure was successfully applied for the determination of iAs ions in certified reference materials (NIST CRM 1568a and NMIJ CRM 7503a) and 10 rice samples produced in Iran and other Asian countries.

  9. [Microbiological quality of wheat flour consumed in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Ennadir, Jihane; Hassikou, Rachida; Ohmani, Farida; Hammamouchi, Jamila; Bouazza, Fatima; Qasmaoui, Aicha; Mennane, Zakaria; Touhami, Amina Ouazzani; Charof, Reda; Khedid, Khadija

    2012-02-01

    Cereal products (soft and hard wheat) are a basic staple food in the Moroccan diet. A total of 60 samples of two types of wheat flours used for human consumption were collected; 30 samples among this collection were obtained from various households using Moroccan varieties of wheat produced in traditional flour mills. The rest of the samples were purchased from retail wheat flour sources in the Rabat and Sale city markets. Standard plate counts (SPC), total and faecal coliforms, Clostridium, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, yeast, lactic acid bacteria, and molds, were carried out to assess the microbiological quality of wheat flour. Microbiological interpretation of the criteria was performed according to standards implemented by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Most frequent counts, in traditional and industrial wheat flour, were total aerobic mesophilic bacteria with an average 4 × 104 and 2.5 × 104 cfu/g, respectively. The results showed higher coliform and fungi counts in house than in commercial samples. Pathogenic flora as Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, and Clostridium were not detected in all investigated samples. Bacterial strains isolated from both flours belong to the following genera: Enterobacter spp., Serratia spp., Klebsiella spp., Pantoea spp., Leclercia spp., Proteus spp. The most frequent genus of the investigated isolates was Aspergillus (81 %). Microbial counts were lower than the limit laid down in the Codex Alimentarius, attributing to these flours a satisfactory microbiological quality.

  10. Flow-specific physical properties of coconut flours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikantan, Musuvadi R.; Kingsly Ambrose, Rose P.; Alavi, Sajid

    2015-10-01

    Coconut milk residue and virgin coconut oil cake are important co-products of virgin coconut oil that are used in the animal feed industry. Flour from these products has a number of potential human health benefits and can be used in different food formulations. The objective of this study was to find out the flow-specific physical properties of coconut flours at three moisture levels. Coconut milk residue flour with 4.53 to 8.18% moisture content (w.b.) had bulk density and tapped density of 317.37 to 312.65 and 371.44 to 377.23 kg m-3, respectively; the corresponding values for virgin coconut oil cake flour with 3.85 to 7.98% moisture content (wet basis) were 611.22 to 608.68 and 663.55 to 672.93 kg m-3, respectively. The compressibility index and Hausner ratio increased with moisture. The angle of repose increased with moisture and ranged from 34.12 to 36.20 and 21.07 to 23.82° for coconut milk residue flour and virgin coconut oil cake flour, respectively. The coefficient of static and rolling friction increased with moisture for all test surfaces, with the plywood offering more resistance to flow than other test surfaces. The results of this study will be helpful in designing handling, flow, and processing systems for coconut milk residue and virgin coconut oil cake flours.

  11. Nutritional evaluation of dry-roasted navy bean flour and mixtures with cereal proteins.

    PubMed

    Yadav, N R; Liener, I E

    1978-01-01

    A navy bean flour prepared by dry roasting in a salt bed as a medium of heat exchange was found to have a higher PER than beans which had been autoclaved in the conventional manner. This difference was attributed to a small but significant improvement in the digestibility of the protein. The PER of the roasted beans was higher than the autoclaved beans even in the presence of supplemental methionine. When various proportions of roasted beans and corn were fed at a level of 8.3% protein in the diet, a mixture in which 40% to 60% of the protein was provided by either beans or corn had a PER essentially the same as casein. Diets containing roasted beans and various cereal grains (oats, barely, buckwheat, wheat germ, and rice) were formulated in proportions calculated to give the highest chemical scores. In most cases the PER' were not significantly different from that of casein, and, in the case of rice, the PER was higher than that of casein. Supplementation of such diets with their first limiting amino acid failed to produce a further enhancement of the PER.

  12. Iron bioavailability and utilization in rats are lower from lime-treated corn flour than from wheat flour when they are fortified with different sources of iron.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Miguel; Sousa, Virginia; Moreno, Ambar; Villapando, Salvador; López-Alarcón, Mardya

    2003-01-01

    Although iron bioavailability from wheat flour fortified with iron has been widely studied, the bioavailability of lime-treated corn flour has not been evaluated sufficiently. We compared iron bioavailability and utilization of lime-treated corn flour and wheat flour supplemented with various iron sources. Bioavailability and utilization were determined in Sprague-Dawley rats using the iron balance and hemoglobin depletion-repletion methods. Rats were iron depleted by feeding them a low iron, casein diet for 10 d. During the repletion period, the rats were fed diets based on lime-treated corn flour or wheat flour, both supplemented with ferrous fumarate, ferrous sulfate, ferric citrate and reduced iron for 14 d. Hemoglobin was determined at the end of depletion and repletion periods. The phytate concentration was lower in wheat flour (114 mg/100g) than in lime-treated corn flour (501 mg/100g). Iron bioavailability and utilization by rats were higher from fortified and unfortified wheat flour than from the lime-treated corn flour counterparts. Iron utilization was greater in rats fed wheat flour supplemented with ferrous sulfate, followed by fumarate and citrate than in rats fed reduced iron. In lime-treated corn flour, iron utilization by rats fed unfortified flour and flour fortified with reduced iron did not differ, but utilization was higher in rats fed corn flour fortified with iron sulfate, fumarate and citrate than with reduced iron. We conclude that fortification of lime-treated corn flour with reduced iron has no effect on iron bioavailability or utilization, probably due to the high phytate content. Other iron compounds must be selected to fortify lime-treated corn flour when intended for public nutrition programs.

  13. Soybean flour asthma: detection of allergens by immunoblotting

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, R.K.; Schroeckenstein, D.; Meier-Davis, S.; Balmes, J.; Rempel, D.

    1988-08-01

    A 43-year-old woman developed asthma 6 years after beginning work in a food-processing plant in which soybean flour was used as a protein extender. Symptoms of sneezing, coughing, and wheezing would begin within minutes of exposure to soybean flour and resolve 2 hours after exposure ceased. Skin tests were positive to a soy extract prepared from the flour. Airway hyperreactivity was confirmed by a positive bronchial challenge to methacholine. Bronchial challenge with soybean flour produced an immediate increase in specific airway resistance from 5.0 to 22.7 L. cm of H2O/L/sec. There was no response to challenge with lactose. The patient's allergic response to soy-flour extract was further characterized by several immunologic methods. IgE binding to soy-flour protein by direct RAST was 5.98 times that of a normal control serum. The soy-flour extract was separated by dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Twenty-four protein bands were detected in the crude soy-flour extract. After immunoblotting and subsequent autoradiography, nine proteins with molecular weights ranging from 54,500 to 14,875 were found. Cross-reactivity studies with other legumes demonstrated apparent immunologic identity between a component in green pea extract and a soybean protein with a molecular weight of 17,000. The clinical significance of this cross-reactivity is not known. We conclude that in this case of occupational asthma to soybean flour, multiple allergens were involved. Immunoblotting may be useful in identifying the allergens involved in occupational asthma.

  14. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous detection of the adulteration of cereal flours with melamine and related triazine by-products ammeline, ammelide, and cyanuric acid.

    PubMed

    Ehling, S; Tefera, S; Ho, I P

    2007-12-01

    Melamine has been used for the adulteration of cereal flours in order to increase their apparent protein content. Crude melamine may contain several by-products, i.e. ammeline, ammelide, and cyanuric acid. The simultaneous analysis of all four chemicals is difficult because of the formation of an insoluble salt between melamine and cyanuric acid. A simple and convenient high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the detection of the adulteration of cereal flours with all four chemicals is proposed herein. The precipitate formation between melamine and cyanuric acid was prevented by using alkaline conditions (pH 11-12) for both standards preparation and sample extraction. The method uses matrix-matching, which involves the construction of a calibration curve on a blank (negative control) matrix, which is then used for the quantitation of melamine and by-products in adulterated (positive) samples. Matrix-matching compensates for analyte losses during sample preparation, and for matrix effects. The method was successfully applied to wheat, corn, and rice flours, and is expected to be applicable (with some modifications) to soy flour as well. The method allows for the detection of melamine, ammeline, and ammelide at approximately 5 microg g(-1), and cyanuric acid at approximately 90 microg g(-1) in wheat flour.

  15. Effect of fermentation on the nutrient and antinutrient composition of baobab (adansonia digitata) seeds and rice (oryza sativa) grains.

    PubMed

    Nnam, N M; Obiakor, P N

    2003-01-01

    This study is part of an ongoing investigation on the effect of fermentation on chemical and antinutrient compositions of baobab seeds and rice grains. Baobab seeds and rice grains were cleaned and fermented for 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively, by the microflora present in both the seed and the grains. The pH and titratable acidity of the unfermented and fermented samples were determined. The samples were dried and milled into fine flours respectively. Standard assay techniques were used to evaluate the f lours for proximate, mineral, and some antinutrient composition. Fermentation of baobab decreased protein and carbohydrate but increased fat levels. The rice carbohydrate and fat were decreased during fermentation except for the carbohydrate of the 48 and 72 h fermented samples. Protein was only increased in the 24 h fermented rice. Fermentation had varied effects on the mineral concentrations of the baobab seeds and the rice grains. It reduced their antinutrients (phytate and tannins), decreased pH, and increased the titratable acidity of the samples. The biochemical and biological evaluation of the blends of baobab and rice flours as complementary food is in progress in this laboratory.

  16. Inhibition of Fusarium graminearum growth in flour gel cultures by hexane-soluble compounds from oat (Avena sativa L.) flour.

    PubMed

    Doehlert, Douglas C; Rayas-Duarte, Patricia; McMullen, Michael S

    2011-12-01

    Fusarium head blight, incited by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, primarily affects wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgarum), while oat (Avena sativa) appears to be more resistant. Although this has generally been attributed to the open panicle of oats, we hypothesized that a chemical component of oats might contribute to this resistance. To test this hypothesis, we created culture media made of wheat, barley, and oat flour gels (6 g of flour in 20 ml of water, gelled by autoclaving) and inoculated these with plugs of F. graminearum from actively growing cultures. Fusarium growth was measured from the diameter of the fungal plaque. Plaque diameter was significantly smaller on oat flour cultures than on wheat or barley cultures after 40 to 80 h of growth. Ergosterol concentration was also significantly lower in oat cultures than in wheat cultures after growth. A hexane extract from oats added to wheat flour also inhibited Fusarium growth, and Fusarium grew better on hexane-defatted oat flour. The growth of Fusarium on oat flour was significantly and negatively affected by the oil concentration in the oat, in a linear relationship. A hexane-soluble chemical in oat flour appears to inhibit Fusarium growth and might contribute to oat's resistance to Fusarium head blight. Oxygenated fatty acids, including hydroxy, dihydroxy, and epoxy fatty acids, were identified in the hexane extracts and are likely candidates for causing the inhibition.

  17. Solar drying of yam-flour pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Oladiran, M.T.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the heat/mass transfer characteristics of a turbulent impinging jet in cross flow in a model of a chamber used for solar drying of yam flour pellets is presented. The variables studied were the nozzle inclination, ..cap alpha.. and the jet-to-cross flow velocity ratio, M. These parameters were varied from 30/sup 0/ to 135/sup 0/ and from 5.0 to 20.9 respectively. Superimposing a cross flow onto the jet reduced the heat transfer coefficients. At low cross flows, inclining the nozzle further reduced the heat transfer coefficients. However, at higher cross flows, inclining the nozzle could be beneficial. The thin film napthalene sublimation technique was employed for the mass transfer measurements.

  18. Processing maize flour and corn meal food products

    PubMed Central

    Gwirtz, Jeffrey A; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves

    2014-01-01

    Corn is the cereal with the highest production worldwide and is used for human consumption, livestock feed, and fuel. Various food technologies are currently used for processing industrially produced maize flours and corn meals in different parts of the world to obtain precooked refined maize flour, dehydrated nixtamalized flour, fermented maize flours, and other maize products. These products have different intrinsic vitamin and mineral contents, and their processing follows different pathways from raw grain to the consumer final product, which entail changes in nutrient composition. Dry maize mechanical processing creates whole or fractionated products, separated by anatomical features such as bran, germ, and endosperm. Wet maize processing separates by chemical compound classification such as starch and protein. Various industrial processes, including whole grain, dry milling fractionation, and nixtamalization, are described. Vitamin and mineral losses during processing are identified and the nutritional impacts outlined. Also discussed are the vitamin and mineral contents of corn. PMID:24329576

  19. Metals in wheat flour; comparative study and safety control.

    PubMed

    Tejera, Raquel L; Luis, G; González-Weller, Dailos; Caballero, José M; Gutiérrez, Angel J; Rubio, Carmen; Hardisson, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Cereal industry and its derived products have a big economic and social importance worldwide. Therefore, as wheat flour is a commodity for all bread and bakery industry, it is safety is of high nutrition and toxicological interest. In this investigation we intend to study and determine the content of twelve metals in 50 samples of wheat flour coming from a wheat flour industry. Macro elements sodium, potassium magnesium and calcium, micro elements manganese, iron, copper, zinc, chrome and nickel as well as toxic trace elements cadmium and lead have been analysed. The estimated diary intake of each metal and their contribution in percentage terms to the RDI (macro and micro elements) and to the PTWI (toxic elements) has been determined. Contribution of Cd and Pb to the PTWI was very low, a fact that shows safety in this wheat flour concerning toxic metals.

  20. Use of ultrasound for the determination of flour quality.

    PubMed

    Alava, J M; Sahi, S S; García-Alvarez, J; Turó, A; Chávez, J A; García, M J; Salazar, J

    2007-06-01

    Within the baking industry, the control of dough properties is required to achieve final product quality and consistency. Traditional methods for dough testing are slow and off-line and do not provide fundamental rheological information. There is therefore a need for the development of fast and on-line instruments capable of providing relevant data for baking. Ultrasonics provide a non-destructive, rapid and low cost technique for the measurement of physical food characteristics. In this work, the water content of dough is investigated using ultrasonic techniques. The capability of ultrasound measurements for discriminating flours for different purposes is also studied. Doughs from more than 30 flours were characterised rheologically using a Chopin Alveograph and a Brabender Extensograph. Ultrasound measurements on the doughs prepared from these flours were also performed. The measurements were correlated, showing that ultrasound was an alternative measurement method to discriminate types of flours for different purposes.

  1. Exposure to flour dust in the occupational environment

    PubMed Central

    Stobnicka, Agata; Górny, Rafał L.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to flour dust can be found in the food industry and animal feed production. It may result in various adverse health outcomes from conjunctivitis to baker's asthma. In this paper, flour dust exposure in the above-mentioned occupational environments is characterized and its health effects are discussed. A peer-reviewed literature search was carried out and all available published materials were included if they provided information on the above-mentioned elements. The hitherto conducted studies show that different components of flour dust like enzymes, proteins and baker's additives can cause both non-allergic and allergic reactions among exposed workers. Moreover, the problem of exposure to cereal allergens present in flour dust can also be a concern for bakers’ family members. Appreciating the importance of all these issues, the exposure assessment methods, hygienic standards and preventive measures are also addressed in this paper. PMID:26414680

  2. Exposure to flour dust in the occupational environment.

    PubMed

    Stobnicka, Agata; Górny, Rafał L

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to flour dust can be found in the food industry and animal feed production. It may result in various adverse health outcomes from conjunctivitis to baker's asthma. In this paper, flour dust exposure in the above-mentioned occupational environments is characterized and its health effects are discussed. A peer-reviewed literature search was carried out and all available published materials were included if they provided information on the above-mentioned elements. The hitherto conducted studies show that different components of flour dust like enzymes, proteins and baker's additives can cause both non-allergic and allergic reactions among exposed workers. Moreover, the problem of exposure to cereal allergens present in flour dust can also be a concern for bakers' family members. Appreciating the importance of all these issues, the exposure assessment methods, hygienic standards and preventive measures are also addressed in this paper.

  3. Antioxidant properties of sterilized yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) tuber flour.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Sérgio; Pinto, Jorge; Rodrigues, César; Gião, Maria; Pereira, Claúdia; Tavaria, Freni; Malcata, F Xavier; Gomes, Ana; Bertoldo Pacheco, M T; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this research work was to investigate the antioxidant properties of sterilized yacon tuber flour. The results revealed for the first time the high antioxidant activity of sterilized yacon flour. The best extract obtained by boiling 8.9% (w/v) of yacon flour in deionised water for 10 min exhibited a total antioxidant capacity of 222±2 mg (ascorbic acid equivalent)/100 g DW and a total polyphenol content of 275±3 mg (gallic acid equivalent)/100 g DW associated to the presence of four main phenolic compounds: chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric acid and protocatechuic acid, as well as the amino acid tryptophan. The most abundant was chlorogenic acid, followed by caffeic acid. Biological assays revealed that the extract had indeed antioxidant protection, and no pro-oxidant activity. In conclusion, sterilized yacon tuber flour has the potential to be used in the food industry as a food ingredient to produce functional food products.

  4. 9. FLOOR 1: FLOUR BOLTER, REEL IN PLACE BUT CLOTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. FLOOR 1: FLOUR BOLTER, REEL IN PLACE BUT CLOTH MISSING: LAYSHAFT WHICH FORMERLY DROVE BOLTER IS STORED AGAINST WALL - Windmill at Water Mill, Montauk Highway & Halsey Lane, Water Mill, Suffolk County, NY

  5. Rigid polyvinyl chloride/wood-flour composites and their foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengeloglu, Fatih

    The effects of impact modifier types (crosslinked vs. uncrosslinked) and addition levels on the mechanical properties of rigid PVC/wood-fiber composites were examined. With the proper choice of modifier type and concentration, the impact strength of rigid PVC/wood-fiber composites can be significantly improved without degrading the tensile properties. Foaming is an effective method for reducing the density and brittleness of polymers. The experimental results indicated that impact modification (crosslinked and uncrosslinked modifiers) accelerated the rate of gas loss during foaming process, which impeded the growth of nucleated cells. Consequently, impact modifiers are an unnecessary ingredient in the formulation of foamed neat rigid PVC and rigid PVC/wood-flour composites. Since the batch foaming process used to generate cellular foamed structures in the composites is not likely to be implemented in the industrial production of foams because it is not cost-effective, the manufacture of PVC/wood-flour composite foams in an extrusion process needs to be investigated. The foamability of rigid PVC/wood-flour composites using moisture present in the wood flour as the foaming agent was investigated using a central composite design (CCD) experiment. It was determined that wood flour moisture could be used effectively as the foaming agent in the production of rigid PVC/wood-flour composite foams. Finally, mechanical property characterizations of extrusion-foamed rigid PVC/wood-flour composites were done. Extrusion foaming reduced the density and the brittleness of the composites, but also caused a reduction in the tensile strength and modulus of the rigid PVC/wood-flour composites. This study suggested that depending on the application, the problems associated with the rigid PVC/wood-flour composite products; high density, brittleness and low impact resistance can be overcome by adopting impact modification and/or extrusion foaming. Since impact modification improves the

  6. Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality(1).

    PubMed

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X

    2015-06-01

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes.

  7. Cultural perspectives and current consumption changes of cooked rice in Korean diet

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Cooked rice is a staple food for Koreans which provides more than 60% of daily required energy. In 1960's, Koreans ate 600 g-800 g of cooked rice per meal and the energy obtained from cooked rice was almost more than 80% of the daily intake of energy. However, as the economy of Korea improved, the major industry has been shifted from agriculture to various manufacturing industries and the export of those products has been increased thus increasing the national income but decreasing the farming population and thus rice consumption have been decreased. It has been said that the decreased rice consumption is caused solely by decreased farming population but it can also be said that the decreased farming population is caused by decreased rice consumption. As the national income increases, the type of foods people consume have become diversified. Various processed foods such as convenience food or ready-to-eat food have been widespread, which are mostly made of wheat flour rather than rice. PMID:20535379

  8. Jet milling effect on wheat flour characteristics and starch hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, Georgios; Protonotariou, Styliani; Mandala, Ioanna; Rosell, Cristina M

    2016-01-01

    The interest for producing wheat flour with health promoting effect and improved functionality has led to investigate new milling techniques that can provide finer flours. In this study, jet milling treatment was used to understand the effect of ultrafine size reduction onto microstructure and physicochemical properties of wheat flour. Three different conditions of jet milling, regarding air pressure (4 or 8 bars) feed rate and recirculation, were applied to obtain wheat flours with different particle size (control, F1, F2 and F3 with d50 127.45, 62.30, 22.94 and 11.4 μm, respectively). Large aggregates were gradually reduced in size, depending on the intensity of the process, and starch granules were separated from the protein matrix. Damaged starch increased while moisture content decreased because of milling intensity. Notable changes were observed in starch hydrolysis kinetics, which shifted to higher values with milling. Viscosity of all micronized samples was reduced and gelatinization temperatures (To, Tp, Tc) for F2 and F3 flours increased. Controlling jet milling conditions allow obtaining flours with different functionality, with greater changes at higher treatment severity that induces large particle reduction.

  9. Maize flour fortification in Africa: markets, feasibility, coverage, and costs.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, John L; Afidra, Ronald; Mugambi, Gladys; Tehinse, John; Kabaghe, Gladys; Zulu, Rodah; Lividini, Keith; Smitz, Marc-Francois; Jallier, Vincent; Guyondet, Christophe; Bermudez, Odilia

    2014-04-01

    The economic feasibility of maize flour and maize meal fortification in Kenya, Uganda, and Zambia is assessed using information about the maize milling industry, households' purchases and consumption levels of maize flour, and the incremental cost and estimated price impacts of fortification. Premix costs comprise the overwhelming share of incremental fortification costs and vary by 50% in Kenya and by more than 100% across the three countries. The estimated incremental cost of maize flour fortification per metric ton varies from $3.19 in Zambia to $4.41 in Uganda. Assuming all incremental costs are passed onto the consumer, fortification in Zambia would result in at most a 0.9% increase in the price of maize flour, and would increase annual outlays of the average maize flour-consuming household by 0.2%. The increases for Kenyans and Ugandans would be even less. Although the coverage of maize flour fortification is not likely to be as high as some advocates have predicted, fortification is economically feasible, and would reduce deficiencies of multiple micronutrients, which are significant public health problems in each of these countries.

  10. ESR detection of wheat flour before and after irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoyama, Yuhei; Ukai, Mitsuko; Nakamura, Hideo

    2006-03-01

    We revealed free radicals in wheat flour before and after γ-ray irradiation and their thermal behavior during heat-treatment using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The ESR spectrum of wheat flour before irradiation consists of a sextet centered at g = 2.0 and a singlet signal at the same g-value position. The first one is attributable to a signal with hyperfine (hf) interactions of Mn 2+ ion (hf constant: 7.4 mT). The second is originated from carbon-centered radical. Upon γ-ray irradiation, however, a new signal with two triplet lines at the low and high field ends was detected in wheat flour on top of the Mn 2+ sextet lines. We analyzed the triplet ESR lines as powder spectra (rhombic g-tensor symmetry) with nitrogen ( 14N) hyperfine interactions. This indicates that a new organic radical was induced in the conjugated protein portion of wheat flour by the γ-ray irradiation. Intensity of the organic free radical at g = 2.0 detected in irradiated wheat flour increased monotonically by the thermal treatment. The analysis of the time-dependent evolution and decay process based on the theory of transient phenomena as well as the nonlinear least-squares numerical method provided a unique time constant for the radical evolution and decay in wheat flour during the heat-treatment.

  11. Rye flour enriched with arabinoxylans in rye bread making.

    PubMed

    Buksa, Krzysztof; Nowotna, Anna; Ziobro, Rafał; Gambuś, Halina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate physical and chemical properties of preparations of water soluble arabinoxylans (arabinoxylan-enriched flour) obtained by industrial method and their derivatives (obtained by hydrolysis and cross-linking of aranbinoxylans), as well as their impact on baking properties of rye flours. Additionally, these results were compared with highly purified arabinoxylans prepared by laboratory method and well characterized in the literature. Flour enriched with arabinoxylans was obtained by industrial method involving air separation of flour particles. It was characterized by 8.6% arabinoxylan content, lack of insoluble material and substantial residue (67%) of starch and dextrins. The addition of all industrial method preparations in amount of 10% (i.e. approx. 1% water soluble arabinoxylans), to rye flours resulted in an increase in water absorption, bread volume and decrease in hardness of the bread crumb and the effect was especially strong in the case of flour type 720. Due to the easiness of isolation procedure, industrial method preparation could be advised as an improver for rye bread making.

  12. Evaluation of dough rheological properties and bread texture of pearl millet-wheat flour mix.

    PubMed

    Maktouf, Sameh; Jeddou, Khawla Ben; Moulis, Claire; Hajji, Hejer; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Ellouz-Ghorbel, Raoudha

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken with the objective of formulating composite bread using pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) flours . Rheological and bread making properties of composite flours were evaluated. Mixolab results revealed torque increased and dough stability time decreased upon incorporation of pearl millet flour in wheat flour. The incorporation of millet flour at optimum level (5 %) led to an increase of the dough strength (W) and the elasticity-to-extensibility ratio (P/L) by 31 % and 65 % respectively. The bread texture and volume were also improved. These findings indicated the potentiality of using millet flour in bread making.

  13. Effect of Different Flours on the Formation of Hydroxymethylfurfural, Furfural, and Dicarbonyl Compounds in Heated Glucose/Flour Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mesías, Marta; Morales, Francisco J.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional cereal-based foods usually include wheat flour in their formulations; however, the search for new products with new ingredients providing different properties to foods is widely pursued by food companies. Replacement of wheat by other flours can modify both nutritional properties and organoleptic characteristics of the final baked food, but can also impact the formation of potentially harmful compounds. The effect of the type of flour on the formation of furfurals and dicarbonyl compounds was studied in a dough model system during baking that contains water or glucose in order to promote the Maillard reaction and caramelization. The formation of methylglyoxal and glyoxal was significantly reduced in spelt and teff formulations compared to wheat flour formulations, respectively. In contrast, samples formulated with oat, teff, and rye showed a significant increase in the levels of 3-deoxyglucosone. Similarly, spelt and teff formulations presented significantly higher concentrations of hydroxymethylfurfural, and spelt, teff, and rye presented higher concentrations of furfural. Therefore, the formation of process contaminants and undesirable compounds in new food products formulated with different flours replacing the traditional wheat flour should be considered carefully in terms of food safety. PMID:28231092

  14. Effect of incorporation of soy flour to wheat flour on nutritional and sensory quality of biscuits fortified with mushroom

    PubMed Central

    Farzana, Tasnim; Mohajan, Suman

    2015-01-01

    The research study was conducted to evaluate the quality characteristics of soy-mushroom-enriched biscuits which could be used as a protein supplemented cereal snack food. In this study, wheat flour was replaced with soy flour at different levels that is 20% (T3), 15% (T2), and 10% (T1) and without soy flour was kept as control (To). Mushroom was added in both biscuits. Biscuits were analyzed for chemical and sensory parameters. Protein content of soy flour-supplemented biscuits increased from 11.07% to 17.86% as compared to control along with a significant increased in fat (17.36–20.89%), fiber (0.48–0.92%), iron (1.56–1.99 mg/100 g), and energy value (463–485 Kcal/g). Ash content also increased but not significantly. Results from chemical analyses and organoleptic evaluation indicate that good quality biscuits can be prepared by substituting wheat flour with 15% soy flour and addition of mushroom powders may affect the backing quality. Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) of the Bangladeshi population can be reduced through the development of biscuits in this way. PMID:26405522

  15. Research in rice fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Between 1987 and 1999, 2.4-3 million acres of rice were planted annually nationwide. Rice fields are a major component of the contemporary landscapes in the Gulf Coastal Plain, the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, and Central Valley of California. In 1998, approximately 600,000 acres of rice were planted in Louisiana. In the Louisiana plant commodities report for 1998, total value for rice was over $350 million; sugarcane was the only plant commodity that exceeded this value. Louisiana has over 2,000 rice farmers supporting over 12,000 jobs in the state. Rice fields in the United States receive high use by wildlife, especially shorebirds, wading birds, and waterfowl. Waterbirds use rice fields for food, shelter, and breeding habitat.

  16. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of rice bifunctional α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor from Oryza sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yi-Hung; Peng, Wen-Yan; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Guan, Hong-Hsiang; Hsieh, Ying-Cheng; Liu, Ming-Yih; Chang, Tschining; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2006-08-01

    The crystallization of rice α-amylase/subtilisin bifunctional inhibitor is reported. Rice bifunctional α-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (RASI) can inhibit both α-amylase from larvae of the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and subtilisin from Bacillus subtilis. The synthesis of RASI is up-regulated during the late milky stage in developing seeds. The 8.9 kDa molecular-weight RASI from rice has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. According to 1.81 Å resolution X-ray diffraction data from rice RASI crystals, the crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 79.99, b = 62.95, c = 66.70 Å. Preliminary analysis indicates two RASI molecules in an asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 44%.

  17. In vitro protein digestibility and physicochemical properties of dry red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) flour: effect of processing and incorporation of soybean and cowpea flour.

    PubMed

    Njintang, N Y; Mbofung, C M; Waldron, K W

    2001-05-01

    A study was carried out to determine the effect of germination and drying temperature on the in vitro protein digestibility and physicochemical properties of dry red bean flours. A 2 x 3 factorial experiment with two treatments (germination and nongermination) and three drying temperatures was used for this purpose. The effect of particle size on water absorption capacity of bean flour was investigated. In addition, the effect of incorporating soybean and cowpea into the red bean flour on functional properties was equally investigated. Results reveal that protein digestibility increased with germination and also with drying temperature. Drying at 60 degrees C produced flours of optimum functional characteristics, although the hydrophilic/lipophilic index was high and the solubility index reduced. Germination and particle size as well as drying temperature all affected the water uptake properties of bean flours. Incorporation of soybean and cowpea flour into germinated bean flour at levels of 10 and 30%, respectively, produced a composite with higher functional properties.

  18. Use of peanut and cowpea in wheat-based products containing composite flours.

    PubMed

    McWatters, K H; Resurreccion, A V; Beuchat, L R; Phillips, R D

    1995-01-01

    Cowpeas and peanuts are legumes of major dietary and economic importance. They are favored worldwide because of their palatability, contribution to nutritional status, and low cost as a protein source compared to animal protein. Flours processed from cowpeas and peanuts have unique physico-chemical and sensory properties when used in composite flour mixtures. Appropriate blends of cowpea and peanut flours to replace wheat flour in Chinese-type noodles, muffins, and tortillas were determined using modelling and optimization procedures. For noodles, 15% peanut flour and 8% cowpea flour supplementation produced an acceptable product with high protein content (21%). For wheat flour replacement in muffins, up to 43% cowpea and up to 44% peanut flours may be used. However, when wheat flour replacement is 50% or greater, cassava flour should comprise 56 to 72% of the blend with a few exceptions. In tortillas, 24% cowpea and 46% peanut flours produced products similar in quality characteristics to those made from 100% wheat flour. The systematic approach used in these studies is more efficient than the traditional substitution method to optimize sensory qualities of wheat-based products containing composite flours.

  19. Characteristics and composition of watermelon, pumpkin, and paprika seed oils and flours.

    PubMed

    El-Adawy, T A; Taha, K M

    2001-03-01

    The nutritional quality and functional properties of paprika seed flour and seed kernel flours of pumpkin and watermelon were studied, as were the characteristics and structure of their seed oils. Paprika seed and seed kernels of pumpkin and watermelon were rich in oil and protein. All flour samples contained considerable amounts of P, K, Mg, Mn, and Ca. Paprika seed flour was superior to watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours in content of lysine and total essential amino acids. Oil samples had high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids with linoleic and oleic acids as the major acids. All oil samples fractionated into seven classes including triglycerides as a major lipid class. Data obtained for the oils' characteristics compare well with those of other edible oils. Antinutritional compounds such as stachyose, raffinose, verbascose, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid, and tannins were detected in all flours. Pumpkin seed kernel flour had higher values of chemical score, essential amino acid index, and in vitro protein digestibility than the other flours examined. The first limiting amino acid was lysine for both watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours, but it was leucine in paprika seed flour. Protein solubility index, water and fat absorption capacities, emulsification properties, and foam stability were excellent in watermelon and pumpkin seed kernel flours and fairly good in paprika seed flour. Flour samples could be potentially added to food systems such as bakery products and ground meat formulations not only as a nutrient supplement but also as a functional agent in these formulations.

  20. Genetically modified rice Bt-Shanyou63 expressing Cry1Ab/c protein does not harm Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Guo, Ruqing; Fang, Zhixiang; Liu, Biao

    2016-10-01

    The genetically modified (GM) rice Bt-ShanYou63 (Bt-SY63) received an official biosafety certificate while its safety remained in dispute. In a lifelong study, Daphnia magna were experimentally fed a basal diet of rice flours from Bt-SY63 or its parental rice ShanYou63 (SY63) at concentrations of 0.2mg, 0.3mg, or 0.4mgC (per individual per day). Overall the survival, body size, and reproduction of the animals were comparable between Bt-SY63 and ShanYou63.. The results showed that no significant differences were observed in growth and reproduction parameters between D. magna fed GM and non-GM flour and no dose-related changes occurred in all the values. Based on the different parameters assessed, the GM rice Bt-SY63 is a safe food source for D. magna that does not differ in quality from non-GM rice.

  1. Effects of extrusion conditions on the extrusion responses and the quality of brown rice pasta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Duan, Wei; Zhou, Sumei; Qian, Haifeng; Zhang, Hui; Qi, Xiguang

    2016-08-01

    This research investigated the effects of extrusion temperature and screw speed on the extrusion system parameters and the qualities of brown rice pasta. The die pressure and motor torque value reached a maximum at 90°C but decreased when the screw speed increased from 80 to 120rpm. The extrusion temperature and screw speed also significantly affected the cooking quality and textural properties of brown rice pasta. The pasta produced at an extrusion temperature of 120°C and screw speed of 120rpm had the best quality with a cooking loss, hardness and adhesiveness of 6.7%, 2387.2g and -7.0g⋅s, respectively, similar to those of pasta made from gluten-free flour. The results indicated that brown rice can be used to produce gluten-free pasta with improved nutrition.

  2. Proteomic analysis of wheat flour allergens.

    PubMed

    Akagawa, Mitsugu; Handoyo, Tri; Ishii, Takeshi; Kumazawa, Shigenori; Morita, Naofumi; Suyama, Kyozo

    2007-08-22

    Wheat can cause severe IgE-mediated systematic reactions, but knowledge on relevant wheat allergens at the molecular level is scanty. The aim of the present study was to achieve a more detailed and comprehensive characterization of the wheat allergens involved in food allergy to wheat using proteomic strategies, referred to as "allergenomics". Whole flour proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with isoelectric focusing and lithium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Then, IgE-binding proteins were detected by immunoblotting with sera of patients with a food allergy to wheat. After tryptic digestion, the peptides of IgE-binding proteins were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. In this study, we identified four previously reported wheat allergens or their sequentially homologous proteins [serpin, alpha-amylase inhibitor, gamma-gliadin, and low molecular weight (LMW) glutenin] by a database search. As a result of the high resolution of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, nine subunits of LMW glutenins were identified as the most predominant IgE-binding antigens. The two-dimensional allergen map can be beneficial in many ways. It could be used, for example, for precise diagnosis of wheat-allergic patients and assessment of wheat allergens in food. Additionally, we compared allergenomics to conventional biochemical methods and evaluated the usefulness of a proteomic strategy for identifying putative allergens to wheat allergy.

  3. Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar

    PubMed Central

    Nochera, Carmen L.; Ragone, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar), test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk (Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis), was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit. PMID:28231132

  4. Preparation of a Breadfruit Flour Bar.

    PubMed

    Nochera, Carmen L; Ragone, Diane

    2016-05-20

    Breadfruit is a nutritious, high energy food with a low quantity of protein but excellent protein quality. It has the potential to be developed into desired products which will help increase its utilization and add value to the crop. The overall purposes of this investigation were to develop a portable, nutritious, ready-to-eat breadfruit product (bar), test the sensory qualities of the product, and evaluate the nutritional properties of the product. Flour made from the Micronesian variety, Meinpadahk (Artocarpus altilis × Artocarpus mariannensis), was utilized for the development of the breadfruit bar. Breadfruit is a rich source of fiber, vitamins such as vitamin C, minerals such as potassium, and phytochemicals such as flavonoids. Nutritional labeling indicates that the breadfruit bar is high in carbohydrates and low in fat, and sensory evaluation indicates that 81% of the panelists found the bar acceptable while 19% disliked the bar. The breadfruit bar can provide an appealing and inexpensive gluten-free food source based on locally available breadfruit.

  5. Preparation of gluten-free rice spaghetti with soy protein isolate using twin-screw extrusion.

    PubMed

    Detchewa, Pakkawat; Thongngam, Masubon; Jane, Jay-Lin; Naivikul, Onanong

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soy protein isolate on functional properties and consumer acceptance of gluten-free rice spaghetti (GFRS) made from rice flour. Dry-milled high-amylose (Chai Nat 1) rice flour was premixed with dry-milled waxy (RD 6) rice flour at a ratio of 90:10 (w/w) with the soy protein isolate (SPI) concentration varying between 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 %, db. The GFRS formulation was processed using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder up to 95 °C with a screw speed of 220 rpm, 32 % moisture content, and then dried at 40 °C. The GFRS samples were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and texture parameters. Increasing SPI decreased the starch retrogradation of GFRS, whereas the enthalpy change of the amylose-lipid complex increased and crystallinity decreased. SEM revealed that the surface of GFRS containing SPI was much more porous than that of GFRS without SPI. The cooked GFRS containing 5.0 % SPI showed the best eating quality with increased firmness and tensile strength, and decrease stickiness. The GFRS samples were evaluated on the bases of cooking qualities and sensory evaluation. The results showed that the GFRS containing 5.0 % SPI decrease the cooking time from 17.6 to 13.7 min and cooking loss from 25.4 to 17.0 %. Overall acceptability of cooked GFRS containing 5.0 % SPI was the highest among all GFRS samples.

  6. Novel value-added uses for sweet potato juice and flour in polyphenol- and protein-enriched functional food ingredients

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Mary H; Truong, An N; Truong, Van-Den; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Blackcurrant, blueberry, and muscadine grape juices were efficiently sorbed, concentrated, and stabilized into dry granular ingredient matrices which combined anti-inflammatory and antioxidant fruit polyphenols with sweet potato functional constituents (carotenoids, vitamins, polyphenols, fibers). Total phenolics were highest in blackcurrant-orange sweet potato ingredient matrices (34.03 mg/g), and lowest in muscadine grape-yellow sweet potato matrices (10.56 mg/g). Similarly, anthocyanins were most concentrated in blackcurrant-fortified orange and yellow sweet potato matrices (5.40 and 6.54 mg/g, respectively). Alternatively, other protein-rich edible matrices (defatted soy flour, light roasted peanut flour, and rice protein concentrate) efficiently captured polyphenols (6.09–9.46 mg/g) and anthocyanins (0.77–1.27 mg/g) from purple-fleshed sweet potato juice, with comparable efficiency. Antioxidant activity correlated well with total phenolic content. All formulated ingredient matrices stabilized and preserved polyphenols for up to 24 weeks, even when stored at 37°C. Complexation with juice-derived polyphenols did not significantly alter protein or carbohydrate profiles of the matrices. Sensory evaluation of the ingredient matrices suggested potential uses for a wide range of functional food products. PMID:26405527

  7. [Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children between 6-24 months; I: formulation and acceptability].

    PubMed

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R

    2011-01-01

    The revaluation of the Andean cultivations, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupin (Lupinus albus L.), to be used in nutritional mixtures, with traditional cereals like corn (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), originate mixtures without gluten which constitute a good alternative for the nutrition of children under 24 months that suffer from celiac disease, since they improve the quality of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, and also impacts in the product's diversification strategy. In the present work, the percentage composition of each flour in the mixture was determined by means of Linear Programming by means of the Solver form from the Excel spreadsheet. Prolamines were determined in the quinua and lupin flours by the ELISA test and the HPLC technique was used in both products obtained called "sweet mix" and "dessert mix", to define the quantity of amino acids with the purpose of providing around the 15% of the proteins required in the day. The flour mixtures selected as optimum, sweet mix, suitable for the preparation of sweet pancakes, as well as for the dessert mix, that by addition of water or milk produce a semi solid dessert, were evaluated after three months of storage, being acceptable their microbiological, bromatological and sensorial requirements, corroborating the results with the good acceptance of the products, prepared from the formulated mixtures, by the children of two Day Care centers of the City of Antofagasta-Chile.

  8. The study of functional properties of Nypa fruticans flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyarti, Nazarudin, Sari, Dian Wulan

    2017-03-01

    Nypafruticans or known as nypa produces considerable amount of fruit with high content of carbohydrate. The mesocarp of the mature fruit is a potential source of energy but underutilised. This research was conducted to study the production of flour from mesocarp of mature nypa fruit and to determine the functional properties of nypa flour. This research used the fruit from mangrove area in Jambi Province. The highest rendemenof flour in ratio to mesocarp weight was 20.00±5.24%. Mesocarp processing produced flour with low fat content (1.45%) and high crude fibre content (17.68%), color parameter L* 83.13±4.04, a* -0.67±0.90, and b* 4.80±0.80. OAC nypa flour was 1.20±0.20 and its WAC was 2.84±0.24. Nypaflour exhibited low swelling power and solubility. The highest swelling power and solubility were achieved at 85oC with value of 4.5g/g and 10.56% respectively.

  9. Characteristics of the starch fine structure and pasting properties of waxy rice during storage.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Chan; Lai, Hsi-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Two waxy rice (TNW1 and TCSW1, exhibiting high and low amylase activity, respectively), were stored at 4 and 17 °C (polished rice) and at room temperature (paddy rice) for 15 months. The fine structure of starch isolated from the aged rice and the pasting properties of starch and rice flour were studied. After storage, the percentage of short amylopectin (AP) chains increased in TNW1, and no uniform changing pattern was observed in the chain-length (CL) distribution of TCSW1. The viscosity of starch isolated from the aged rice increased as the storage temperature and duration increased. We hypothesised that this increase was due to the hydrolysis of AP by endogenous amylase and the generation of small clusters during storage, which caused the simple dissociation of AP and a high swelling degree of starch granules during gelatinisation. Factor analysis of the first two factors associated with the characteristics of viscograms and the CL of AP explained 72% of the total variation.

  10. Effect of water content and heating temperature on thermal properties of brown rice batter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboukzail, Jehan; Abdullah, Aminah; Ghani, Maaruf Abd

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this research were to assess the effect of water content in the formulation (60%,80%, 100%, 105%, 110%, 120% flour basis) on starch gelatinization of brown rice batter, and to identify the effects of heat treatment at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, 80°C on starch gelatinization and degree of starch gelatinization of brown rice batter and wheat dough. At 60% water content, there was no gelatinization of brown rice batter, but the batter was gelatinized by increasing the water content to 80%. No significant differences in onset (To) peak (Tp) and endest (Tend) temperature when the water content increased from 80% to 120%; however, enthalpy (ΔH) decreased when water content grew up. Heat treatment of brown rice batter at 60% water content made brown rice batter gelatinized. Starch gelatinization temperature To, Tend and ΔH did not have significant differences when temperature of heat treatment increased from 50°C to 80°C while Tp increased significantly (p<0.05) at 80°C. However, heat treatment had more effect on wheat dough compared to brown rice batter.

  11. Inorganic and total arsenic contents in rice-based foods for children with celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Munera-Picazo, Sandra; Ramírez-Gandolfo, Amanda; Burló, Francisco; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease that affects the villi of the small intestine causing abdominal pain, gas, diarrhea, or bad absorption due to gluten intolerance. The only treatment for this disease consists of a lifelong gluten free diet; this is, celiac people cannot consume products containing gluten, such as wheat, barley, and rye, but they can use rice and corn. Thus, rice flour is mainly used for the manufacturing of the basic products of this population. Unfortunately, rice can contain high contents of total (t-As) and inorganic (i-As) arsenic. The current study demonstrated that products for celiac children with a high percentage of rice contained high concentrations of arsenic (256 and 128 μg kg⁻¹). The daily intake of i-As ranged from 0.61 to 0.78 μg kg⁻¹ body weight (bw) in children up to 5 y of age; these values were below the maximum value established by the EFSA Panel (8.0 μg kg⁻¹ bw per day), but it should be considered typical of populations with a high exposure to this pollutant. Finally, legislation is needed to improve the labeling of these special rice-based foods for celiac children; label should include information about percentage, geographical origin, and cultivar of the used rice.

  12. Optimization of hard red spring wheat milling for whole wheat flour production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of seed moisture content (10 to 16%) and rotor speed (6,000 to 15,000 rpm) of a centrifugal mill on quality of whole wheat flour (WWF) and subsequent baking quality. Particle size distribution, flour temperature, flour moisture, and starch dam...

  13. Effects of flour conditioning on cannibalism of T. castaneum eggs and pupae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cannibalism is a very important factor regulating population dynamics of the red flour beetle. After several days of feeding, the flour becomes conditioned by the beetles, which can affect rates of cannibalism. Flour conditioning is caused by an accumulation of feces, pheromones, and ethylquinone, w...

  14. Comparison Between Potassium Bromate and Ozone as Flour Oxidants in Breadmaking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to compare the efficacy of potassium bromate with that of ozone treatment in wheat flour oxidation for breadmaking. In the first experiment, flour was treated with ozone at 1,500 ppm for 2, 4.5, 9, and 18 min. In the second experiment, flour was fully treated with ...

  15. The case for water activity as a specification for wheat tempering and flour production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture plays an important role in processing wheat grain into flour, from proper grain tempering to the stability of the flour. Moisture properties of dry grain, tempered grain, and finished flour are currently tracked using moisture content. However, stability factors such as microbial growth and...

  16. Development, relative retention, and productivity of red flour beetle on resistant starches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development, relative retention, and fecundity of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), on six different types of starches, flour, and flour plus yeast was investigated in the laboratory. The viability of T. castaneum eggs was checked initially by placin...

  17. NOTE: Measuring oxidative gelation of aqueous flour suspensions using the Rapid Visco Analyzer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) was investigated as a tool to measure oxidative gelation capacity (OGC) of aqueous wheat-flour suspensions. One, club-wheat patent flour was used to determine optimal hydration time and 33 straight-grade flours (representing 12 hard and 31 soft varieties) were used to ...

  18. Evaluation of sorghum flour as extender in plywood adhesives for sprayline coaters or foam extrusion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate sorghum flour as protein extender in plywood adhesive for sprayline coaters or foam extrusion. Defatted sorghum flour, containing 0.2% (dry basis, db) residual oil and 12.0% (db) crude protein, was analyzed for solubility and foaming properties. Sorghum flour pr...

  19. 40 CFR 406.40 - Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour milling subcategory. 406.40 Section 406.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.40 Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour...

  20. 40 CFR 406.40 - Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour milling subcategory. 406.40 Section 406.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.40 Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour...

  1. 40 CFR 406.40 - Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour milling subcategory. 406.40 Section 406.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.40 Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour...

  2. 40 CFR 406.40 - Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour milling subcategory. 406.40 Section 406.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.40 Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour...

  3. 40 CFR 406.40 - Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour milling subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour milling subcategory. 406.40 Section 406.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.40 Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour...

  4. 21 CFR 73.140 - Toasted partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Toasted partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour... defatted cooked cottonseed flour. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive toasted partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour is a product prepared as follows: Food quality cottonseed is delinted and decorticated;...

  5. Effects of uniquely processed cowpea and plantain flours on wheat bread properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of incorporating uniquely processed whole-seed cowpeas or plantain flours at 10 or 20 g/100 g in all-purpose flour on paste viscosity and bread-baking properties in model bread was determined. Flours from plantains processed as follows: unblanched plantains dried at 60 degrees C (PLC), so...

  6. Dielectric properties of wheat flour mixed with oat meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łuczycka, D.; Czubaszek, A.; Fujarczuk, M.; Pruski, K.

    2013-03-01

    Possibilities of using electric methods for determining admixtures of oat meal to wheat flour, type 650 are presented. In wheat flour, oat meal and mixtures containing 10, 20 and 30% of the oat meal, moisture, protein, starch and ash content, sedimentation value, yield and softening of wet gluten were determined. In samples containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 100% of oat meal, the dielectric loss factor and conductivity were determined using an impedance analyzer for electromagnetic field frequency ranging from 0.1-20 kHz. It was found that the dielectric loss factor varied for tested material. The best distinguishing between tested mixtures was obtained at the measuring electromagnetic field frequency of 20 kHz. The loss factor was significantly correlated with the yield of wet gluten and the sedimentation value, parameters indicating the amount and quality of gluten proteins in flour.

  7. Equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, Gerardo; De-Regil, Luz Maria

    2014-01-01

    Mass fortification of maize flour and corn meal with a single or multiple micronutrients is a public health intervention that aims to improve vitamin and mineral intake, micronutrient nutritional status, health, and development of the general population. Micronutrient malnutrition is unevenly distributed among population groups and is importantly determined by social factors, such as living conditions, socioeconomic position, gender, cultural norms, health systems, and the socioeconomic and political context in which people access food. Efforts trying to make fortified foods accessible to the population groups that most need them require acknowledgment of the role of these determinants. Using a perspective of social determinants of health, this article presents a conceptual framework to approach equity in access to fortified maize flour and corn meal, and provides nonexhaustive examples that illustrate the different levels included in the framework. Key monitoring areas and issues to consider in order to expand and guarantee a more equitable access to maize flour and corn meal are described. PMID:24329609

  8. Previous studies underestimate BMAA concentrations in cycad flour.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ran; Banack, Sandra Anne

    2009-01-01

    The traditional diet of the Chamorro people of Guam has high concentrations of the neurotoxin BMAA, beta-methyl-amino-L-alanine, in cycad tortillas and from animals that feed on cycad seeds. We measured BMAA concentration in washed cycad flour and compared different extraction methods used by previous researchers in order to determine how much BMAA may have been unaccounted for in prior research. Samples were analyzed with AQC precolumn derivatization using HPLC-FD detection and verified with UPLC-UV, UPLC-MS, and triple quadrupole LC/MS/MS. Although previous workers had studied only the free amino acid component of BMAA in washed cycad flour, we detected significant levels of protein-associated BMAA in washed cycad flour. These data support a link between ALS/PDC and exposure to BMAA.

  9. Patch Exploitation by female Red Flour Beetles, Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, J. F.; Runnion, C.

    2003-01-01

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) has had a long association with human stored food and can be a major pest in anthropogenic structures used for the processing and storage of grain-based products. Anthropogenic structures are fragmented landscapes characterized by spatially and temporally patchy resources. Here we investigate the ability of female T. castaneum to evaluate the quality of small patches of food and to adjust the number of eggs they lay per patch (i.e., clutch size) to maximize fitness gains. In multiple choice, paired choice and no choice experiments females tended to lay more eggs in larger amounts of flour. The number of eggs that they lay in a patch of flour was consistent with that predicted to optimize production of adults from that patch (i.e., the ‘Lack’ clutch size). Progeny size was only significantly impacted in the smallest patch sizes. PMID:15841236

  10. Wheat flour based propionic acid fermentation: an economic approach.

    PubMed

    Kagliwal, Lalit D; Survase, Shrikant A; Singhal, Rekha S; Granström, Tom

    2013-02-01

    A process for the fermentative production of propionic acid from whole wheat flour using starch and gluten as nutrients is presented. Hydrolysis of wheat flour starch using amylases was optimized. A batch fermentation of hydrolysate supplemented with various nitrogen sources using Propionibacterium acidipropionici NRRL B 3569 was performed. The maximum production of 48.61, 9.40, and 11.06 g of propionic acid, acetic acid and succinic acid, respectively, was found with wheat flour hydrolysate equivalent to 90 g/l glucose and supplemented with 15 g/l yeast extract. Further, replacement of yeast extract with wheat gluten hydrolysate showed utilization of gluten hydrolysate without compromising the yields and also improving the economics of the process. The process so developed could be useful for production of animal feed from whole wheat with in situ production of preservatives, and also suggest utilization of sprouted or germinated wheat for the production of organic acids.

  11. Cold plasma: A new technology to modify wheat flour functionality.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Niloufar; Bayliss, Danny; Chope, Gemma; Penson, Simon; Perehinec, Tania; Fisk, Ian D

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric pressure cold plasma has the potential to modify biological chemistry and modulate physical surface properties. Wheat flour was treated by low levels of cold plasma (air, 15V and 20V) for 60 or 120s. There was no change in the total aerobic bacterial count or total mould count as a result of treatment. Treatment did not impact the concentration of total non-starch lipids, or non-polar and glycolipids. However, treatment did reduce total free fatty acids and phospholipids and was dose dependent. Oxidation markers (hydroperoxide value and head space n-hexanal) increased with treatment time and voltage, which confirmed the acceleration of lipid oxidation. Total proteins were not significantly influenced by treatment although there was a trend towards higher molecular weight fractions which indicated protein oxidation and treated flour did produce a stronger dough. This study confirms the potential of cold plasma as a tool to modify flour functionality.

  12. Patch exploitation by female red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J F; Runnion, C

    2003-01-01

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) has had a long association with human stored food and can be a major pest in anthropogenic structures used for the processing and storage of grain-based products. Anthropogenic structures are fragmented landscapes characterized by spatially and temporally patchy resources. Here we investigate the ability of female T. castaneum to evaluate the quality of small patches of food and to adjust the number of eggs they lay per patch (i.e., clutch size) to maximize fitness gains. In multiple choice, paired choice and no choice experiments females tended to lay more eggs in larger amounts of flour. The number of eggs that they lay in a patch of flour was consistent with that predicted to optimize production of adults from that patch (i.e., the 'Lack' clutch size). Progeny size was only significantly impacted in the smallest patch sizes.

  13. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on physicochemical, functional and pasting properties of some locally-produced rice (Oryza spp) cultivars in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocloo, Fidelis C. K.; Owureku-Asare, Mavis; Agyei-Amponsah, Joyce; Agbemavor, Wisdom S. K.; Egblewogbe, Martin N. Y. H.; Apea-Bah, Franklin B.; Sarfo, Adjoa; Apatey, John; Doku, Henry; Ofori-Appiah, Dora; Ayeh, Ernestina

    2017-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple crop in Ghana and much of West Africa, where it serves as an important convenience food for urban consumers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of gamma irradiation as insect disinfestation technique on some physicochemical, functional and pasting properties of selected locally-produced rice cultivars in Ghana. Four local rice cultivars and an imported (commercial) type were purchased, cleaned and irradiated at doses of 0.0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. The irradiated rice cultivars were milled and their physicochemical, functional and pasting properties determined. There were reductions in pH and swelling power, as well as increase in solubility of rice cultivars after gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation did not change the XRD pattern of the rice cultivars. Gamma irradiation significantly (P<0.05) decreased peak time for BAL and VNT rice cultivars. Gamma irradiation significantly (P<0.05) decreased PV, HPV, BDV, FV and SBV for all the rice cultivars. This study shows that flours from gamma irradiated rice cultivars have potential in food formulations that require low viscosity.

  15. Relating raw rice color and composition to cooked rice color.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, the color of milled rice is economically important. The whiter the rice the more it is preferred by consumers and the more value it has in the market place. Little attention has been given to relating raw rice color to cooked milled rice color and, specifically, to determining the i...

  16. The Presence of Flour Affects the Efficacy of Aerosolized Insecticides used to Treat the Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Toews, Michael D.; Campbell, James F.; Arthur, Franklin H.

    2010-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in tightly sealed pilot scale warehouses to assess the efficacy of common aerosolized insecticides on all life stages of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) when exposed in dishes containing 0 to 2 g of wheat flour either under pallets or out in the open. Petri dishes containing 0, 0.1, 1, or 2 g of flour were prepared with 25 eggs, 3rd instars, pupae, or adults and then immediately treated with aerosolized solvent, Pyrethrins, or esfenvalerate. Twenty-four h after insecticide exposure, the dishes were brought to the laboratory and placed in a growth chamber and held for a 3 day moribund (knockdown) assessment and a 21 day mortality assessment. Mortality in untreated controls was generally less than 10%, with the exception of the 21 day counts of adults and eggs. Solvent-treated replications followed similar trends, except that additional mortality was observed in exposed larvae and pupae. In the insecticide-treated dishes, mortality of T. castaneum provisioned with flour generally showed a linear decrease with increasing flour deposits. Regardless of life stage, mortality did not exceed 60% when individuals were exposed in petri dishes containing 2 g of flour. Exposure location also made a significant difference in observed mortality. While mortality never exceeded 75% in dishes positioned under pallets, there was never less than 80% mortality in dishes exposed in the open. Although there was a perceptible increase in mortality with esfenvalerate compared to Pyrethrins, these differences were considerably less than the variation observed among flour deposits. The study suggests that sanitation and preparation prior to aerosol insecticide treatments were more important than choice of a particular insecticide. PMID:21268701

  17. Particle size and particle-particle interactions on tensile properties and reinforcement of corn flour particles in natural rubber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewable corn flour has a significant reinforcement effect in natural rubber. The corn flour was hydrolyzed and microfluidized to reduce its particle size. Greater than 90% of the hydrolyzed corn flour had an average size of ~300 nm, a reduction of 33 times compared to unhydrolyzed corn flour. Comp...

  18. Development of polypropylene/wood flour ecocomposites. Evaluation of silane as coupling agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouza, R.; Barral, L.; Abad, M. J.; Montero, B.

    2010-06-01

    The effects of Pinus Sylvestris wood flour as filler in polypropylene matrix was evaluated. The mechanical properties and the morphology of different wood flour/polypropylene composites (WPC) were studied. The composites materials were prepared with several amounts of wood flour from 10 to 30% wt. Mechanical properties show that the wood flour incorporation increases the rigidity of the composites. Morphological analysis indicates that agglomerates are formed, with amounts exceeding 30% of wood flour. For the silane—treated composites, the dispersion of the filler into the polypropylene (PP) matrix improved. Shore D hardness of the composites is decreased with the addition of the coupling agent.

  19. Development of polypropylene/wood flour ecocomposites. Evaluation of silane as coupling agent

    SciTech Connect

    Bouza, R.; Barral, L.; Abad, M. J.; Montero, B.

    2010-06-02

    The effects of Pinus Sylvestris wood flour as filler in polypropylene matrix was evaluated. The mechanical properties and the morphology of different wood flour/polypropylene composites (WPC) were studied. The composites materials were prepared with several amounts of wood flour from 10 to 30% wt. Mechanical properties show that the wood flour incorporation increases the rigidity of the composites. Morphological analysis indicates that agglomerates are formed, with amounts exceeding 30% of wood flour. For the silane--treated composites, the dispersion of the filler into the polypropylene (PP) matrix improved. Shore D hardness of the composites is decreased with the addition of the coupling agent.

  20. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  1. Making rice even healthier!

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice is a naturally healthy food, but what if it could be made even healthier? Would Americans eat more rice if it could be advertised to be a 'New and Improved' source of calcium to promote bone growth, or iron to prevent anemia? Grocery stores are full of foods that are vitamin enhanced to attract...

  2. Efficacy of Deltamethrin Against Stored-Product Beetles at Short Exposure Intervals or on a Partially Treated Rice Mass.

    PubMed

    Kavallieratos, Nickolas G; Athanassiou, Christos G; Arthur, Frank H

    2015-06-01

    Stored-product insects can potentially be exposed to grain protectants for variable time periods. Adults of three species, the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae), the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) were exposed for 1, 4, 8, and 24 h on brown rice treated with the pyrethroid deltamethrin at the label rate of 0.5 ppm, then removed and placed on untreated rice. Adults of these same species plus the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and the warehouse beetle, Trogoderma variabile Ballion (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) were exposed on treated brown rice mixed with varying amounts of untreated rice to assess progeny production. Immediate and delayed mortality of exposed adults did not exceed 7% for any exposure interval, but progeny production for T. castaneum was generally lower in comparison with that for the other species. Increasing the amount of treated rice decreased progeny production of R. dominica but not for any Sitophilus species. Mixed results were obtained for T. castaneum and T. variabile. Results show that long exposure times and treatment of an entire rice mass may be necessary to give complete control of stored-product beetles.

  3. [Glycemic index of two varieties of pasta and two varieties of rice].

    PubMed

    Ridner, Edgardo; Di Sibio, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    The IG has been extensively studied as an indicator of the physiological effects of a carbohydrate meal with applications in the management and prevention of diabetes, dyslipidemia and obesity. A standard assay was performed to measure the glycemic index (GI) of two significant sources of carbohydrates following the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended methodology, determining the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve of a 50g carbohydrate portion of the test food compared to the same amount of carbohydrate from a glucose solution by the same subject measured in capillary whole blood before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after ingestion in a total of 9 subjects. The following results were obtained: Parboil rice: 73, Long Grain White Rice: 59; Pasta of durum wheat (Triticum durum): 71, Pasta of regular flour (Triticum aestivium): 38. This test confirms the low glycemic index of pasta made from durum wheat, and is the first measurement for pasta of common wheat flour properly characterized. It also indicates the values of the prevailing presentations of rice in the region, adding a reference for professionals and authorities.

  4. Effect of modified yam (Dioscorea esculenta) flour on some physicochemical and sensory properties of synbiotic yoghurt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, M. N.; Cakrawati, D.; Handayani, S.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study were to know characteristics of yam modified flour; to know the effect of modified yam flour on some physicochemical and sensory properties of synbiotic yoghurt and to determine the concentration level of modified yam flour to produce symbiotic yoghurt preferred by panelists. The reasearch was conducted using one factor complete randomized design. Modified yam flour was added to yoghurt at concentration of 2%, 4%, 6%. The effect of physical modification were investigated. Proximate analysis showed modified yam flour consist of 7.66% moisture content, 1.42% ash content, 10.16%, dietary fiber, 7.49% inulin, and 71.78% total starch content. Result obtained that modified yam flour has yield of 10.54%, the modified yam flour showed solubility and water absopsion of 77,63% and 136,65 respectively. The addition of modified yam flour on yoghurt resulted significantly difference effect on texture, but did not have significantly difference on colour, flavour and aroma. Modified yam flour added yoghurt thickness because it was gelatinized when added to yoghurt at 40°C. Sensory analysis conducted with hedonic test showed synbiotic yoghurt added with 2% of modified yam flour most preferred by panellists. Synbiotic yoghurt with 2% of modified yam flour has pH number of 4, 8 and total acid tirated of 1, 7%.

  5. Occupational asthma from exposure to rye flour in a Japanese baker

    PubMed Central

    Oshikata, Chiyako; Tsurikisawa, Naomi; Saito, Akemi; Yasueda, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Three years after beginning employment at a bakery, a 32-year-old Japanese man began experiencing acute asthma exacerbations after exposure to rye flour. Antigen-specific serum IgE antibodies were detected to the albumin and globulin, gliadin, prolamin, and glutenin protein fractions of rye flour purified from the crude antigen, but only to the albumin and globulin fraction of wheat flour. The histamine concentration producing one-half maximal effect was lower for all four rye flour fractions than for the wheat flour fractions. After inhalation of the albumin and globulin fraction of rye flour, forced expiratory volume in 1 sec decreased to 77.7% of that pre-provocation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of baker’s asthma due to rye flour in Japan. PMID:25473582

  6. Properties of amaranth flour with functional oat products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amaranth flour containing the essential amino acid, lysine, was composited with oat products that contain ß-glucan known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing heart disease. The pasting and rheological properties of amaranth-oat composites were evaluated. The amaranth-Nutrim composites showe...

  7. Grain and Flour Characterization of Four Different Sorghum Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With an increasing number of people with celiac disease, the need for gluten-free products is on the rise. Sorghum is a grain tolerated by celiac patients which can be used in gluten-free foods. The grain and flour of four sorghum varieties were characterized through physical and chemical means. ...

  8. Functionality of Gliadin Proteins in Wheat Flour Tortillas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gliadins are monomeric proteins that are encoded by the genes at the locus Gli 1 and Gli 2 present on the short arm of homeologous wheat chromosomes 1 and 6, respectively. Studies have suggested that gliadins may play an important role in determining the functional properties of wheat flour. The mai...

  9. Considering the case for vitamin B12 fortification of flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reasons to fortify flour with vitamin B12 are considered, which include the high prevalence of depletion and deficiency of this vitamin that occurs in persons of all ages in resource-poor countries and in elderly in wealthier countries, as well as the adverse functional consequences of poor vitamin ...

  10. Dough rheology and wet milling of hard waxy wheat flours.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lan; Seib, Paul A; Graybosch, Robert A; Bean, Scott; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2009-08-12

    To realize the full potential of waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the wet milling properties of waxy wheat flours including their dough-mixing properties were investigated. Flours of six waxy hard wheats, one normal hard wheat ('Karl 92'), and one partial waxy hard wheat ('Trego') were fractionated by the dough-washing (Martin) process, and the yields and recoveries of starch and gluten were compared. When waxy and normal wheat starches each were blended with a wheat gluten to give a mixture containing 14.5% protein, they gave very different mixograms even though the protein was the same in those blends. Waxy wheat starch absorbed more water than normal wheat starch, which apparently retarded hydration of gluten and dough development. Higher water content had to be used for some waxy wheat flours to develop optimum dough. Washing waxy wheat flour dough under a stream of water caused dough to become slack, spread out more on the sieve, and break apart into several pieces, which when thoroughly washed, coalesced into an elastic dough like the controls. By mixing a weak dough with 2% NaCl solution or by adding hemicellulase, stickiness of the dough subsided during the washing step and thereby improved the recovery of the gluten and starch fractions.

  11. LC-MS characterization of constituents of mesquite flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using an LC-MS method in conjunction with two complementary types of chromatographic retention modes—namely reversed phase and aqueous normal phase (ANP)—various compounds present in mesquite flour extracts were identified. Because of the diverse types of chemical constituents found in such natural ...

  12. Evaluation of factors impacting trap captures of red flour beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An effective monitoring program is the foundation of good Integrated Pest Management programs for food facilities such as mills, processing plants, warehouses, and retail stores. The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is a major stored-product pest of food facilities, especially mills, and a nu...

  13. 21 CFR 137.185 - Enriched self-rising flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CEREAL FLOURS AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized... conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label...

  14. Movement of Tribolium castaneum within a flour mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The colonization of food processing plants by stored-product pests and their distribution within a facility depend, in part, on their dispersal ability. In this case study, we relied on self-mark recapture to evaluate the ability of Tribolium castaneum, the red flour beetle, to move among floors wit...

  15. Variations in U.S. Consumers' Acceptability of Korean Rice Cake, Seolgitteok, with respect to Sensory Attributes and Nonsensory Factors.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sungeun; Yoon, Suk Hoo; Min, Jieun; Lee, Suji; Tokar, Tonya; Lee, Sun-Ok; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Because the Korean rice cake, Seolgitteok, is mainly prepared with rice flour containing no gluten-protein associated with celiac disease, it can be considered for inclusion in a gluten-free diet. However, Western consumers may be unlikely to enjoy the plain flavor and chewy texture of Seolgitteok. This study aimed to determine both sensory and nonsensory factors that might affect U.S. consumers' acceptability of Seolgitteok. A total of 119 U.S. consumers rated 5 Seolgitteok samples, differentiated by descriptive sensory analysis, with respect to hedonic impression and just-about-right aspects of sensory attributes. Nonsensory factors such as demographic profile, innovativeness, social representation, sensation-seeking, and personality traits were also assessed. Addition levels of brown rice flour (0% to 100%) and sugar (5% to 20%) not only enriched flavor, but also lessened chewiness of Seolgitteok, thereby increasing an overall hedonic impression. Moreover, consumer acceptability of Seolgitteok varied with respect to nonsensory factors. Seolgitteok was more appreciated by males, sensation seekers, and individuals constrained by social desirability than by other groups. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that U.S. consumers' acceptability of Seolgitteok varies not only by sensory attributes such as rice flavor, sweetness, and chewiness, but also by nonsensory factors such as gender, sensation-seeking characteristics, and personality traits.

  16. A 90-day subchronic feeding study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Huan; He, Xiaoyun; Zou, Shiying; Zhang, Teng; Luo, Yunbo; Huang, Kunlun; Zhu, Zhen; Xu, Wentao

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic rice line (mfb-MH86) expressing a synthetic cry1Ab gene can be protected against feeding damage from Lepidopteran insects, including Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis. Rice flour from mfb-MH86 and its near-isogenic control MH86 was separately formulated into rodent diets at concentrations of 17.5, 35 and 70 % (w/w) for a 90-day feeding test with rats, and all of the diets were nutritionally balanced. In this study, the responses of rats fed diets containing mfb-MH86 were compared to those of rats fed flour from MH86. Overall health, body weight and food consumption were comparable between groups fed diets containing mfb-MH86 and MH86. Blood samples were collected prior to sacrifice and a few significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in haematological and biochemical parameters between rats fed genetically modified (GM) and non-GM diets. However, the values of these parameters were within the normal ranges of values for rats of this age and sex, thus not considered treatment related. In addition, upon sacrifice a large number of organs were weighed, macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed with only minor changes to report. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that no toxic effect was observed in the conditions of the experiment, based on the different parameters assessed. GM rice mfb-MH86 is as safe and nutritious as non-GM rice.

  17. Sensory optimization of broken-rice based snacks fortified with protein and fiber.

    PubMed

    Sriwattana, S; Laokuldilok, N; Prinyawiwatkul, W

    2008-08-01

    A 3-component mixture experiment was used to optimize the formulation of broken-rice based snack fortified with protein and fiber based on consumer sensory acceptability. Soy protein isolate and guar gum were used as a good source of protein and fiber, respectively, according to DRV (daily reference value) based on a 2000-calorie diet. A consumer panel evaluated sensory acceptability of color, crispness, and flavor, and overall liking of 12 experimental broken-rice based snack formulations. Predicted models derived from the restricted nonintercept regression analysis were used to plot mixture response surfaces (MRS) of each sensory attribute. Areas within the MRS plots having predicted acceptability scores of at least 6.5 (on a 9-point hedonic scale) for color, crispness, flavor, and overall liking were selected to derive a predicted optimum formulation range. Flavor acceptability was a limiting factor in attaining the optimum formulation range, which consisted of 40% to 48% broken-rice flour, 8% to 16% guar gum, and 20% to 33% soy protein isolate. To verify the obtained predicted models, the formulation containing 48% broken-rice flour, 8% guar gum, and 20% soy protein isolate, which was located in the optimum area, was chosen to support our effort to utilize and add value to broken rice. Selected physicochemical measurements of the chosen optimized formulation were determined. One serving size (30 g) of the chosen optimized snack product provided 6.58 g protein and 3.80 g dietary fiber, which met the US FDA definition of a good source of protein and dietary fiber.

  18. Considering the case for vitamin B12 fortification of flour.

    PubMed

    Allen, Lindsay H; Rosenberg, Irwin H; Oakley, Godfrey P; Omenn, Gilbert S

    2010-03-01

    Reasons to fortify flour with vitamin B12 are considered, including the high prevalence of depletion and deficiency of this vitamin that occurs in persons of all ages in resource-poor countries and in the elderly in wealthier countries, and the adverse functional consequences of poor vitamin B12 status. From a global perspective, the main cause of inadequate intake and status is a low intake of animal-source foods; even lacto-ovo vegetarians have lower serum vitamin B12 concentrations than omnivores, and for various reasons many populations have limited consumption of animal-source foods. Infants are vitamin B12-depleted from early infancy if their mothers' vitamin B12 status and intake are poor during pregnancy and lactation. Even in the United States, more than 20% of the elderly have serum vitamin B12 concentrations that indicate depletion, and an additional 6% have deficiency, primarily due to gastric atrophy, which impairs the absorption of the vitamin from food but usually not from supplements or fortified foods. Although the evidence is limited, it shows that fortified flour, consumed as bread, can improve vitamin B12 status. Where vitamin B12 fortification is implemented, the recommendation is to add 20 microg/kg flour, assuming consumption of 75 to 100 g flour per day, to provide 75% to 100% of the Estimated Average Requirement; the amount of the vitamin that can be added is limited by its cost. The effectiveness of this level of addition for improving vitamin B12 status in programs needs to be determined and monitored. In addition, further research should evaluate the bioavailability of the vitamin from fortified flour by elderly people with food cobalamin malabsorption and gastric atrophy.

  19. Anaemia prevalence may be reduced among countries that fortify flour.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Jonathan S; Wheeler, Kathleen S; Pachón, Helena

    2015-07-01

    The effectiveness of flour fortification in reducing anaemia prevalence is equivocal. The goal was to utilise the existing national-level data to assess whether anaemia in non-pregnant women was reduced after countries began fortifying wheat flour, alone or in combination with maize flour, with at least Fe, folic acid, vitamin A or vitamin B12. Nationally representative anaemia data were identified through Demographic and Health Survey reports, the WHO Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System database and other national-level nutrition surveys. Countries with at least two anaemia surveys were considered for inclusion. Within countries, surveys were excluded if altitude was not consistently adjusted for, or if the blood-draw site (e.g. capillary or venous) or Hb quantification method (e.g. HemoCue or Cyanmethaemoglobin) differed. Anaemia prevalence was modelled for countries that had pre- and post-fortification data (n 12) and for countries that never fortified flour (n 20) using logistic regression models that controlled for time effects, human development index (HDI) and endemic malaria. After adjusting for HDI and malaria, each year of fortification was associated with a 2.4% reduction in the odds of anaemia prevalence (PR 0.976, 95% CI 0.975, 0.978). Among countries that never fortified, no reduction in the odds of anaemia prevalence over time was observed (PR 0.999, 95% CI 0.997, 1.002). Among both fortification and non-fortification countries, HDI and malaria were significantly associated with anaemia (P,0.001). Although this type of evidence precludes a definitive conclusion, results suggest that after controlling for time effects, HDI and endemic malaria, anaemia prevalence has decreased significantly in countries that fortify flour with micronutrients, while remaining unchanged in countries that do not.

  20. The presence of flour affects the efficacy of aerosolized insecticides used to treat the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted in tightly sealed pilot-scale warehouses to assess the efficacy of common aerosolized insecticides on all life stages of Tribolium castaneum when exposed in dishes containing 0 to 2 g of wheat flour either under pallets or out in the open. Petri dishes containing 0, 0.1, ...

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of rice bifunctional alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor from Oryza sativa.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi Hung; Peng, Wen Yan; Huang, Yen Chieh; Guan, Hong Hsiang; Hsieh, Ying Cheng; Liu, Ming Yih; Chang, Tschining; Chen, Chun Jung

    2006-08-01

    Rice bifunctional alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (RASI) can inhibit both alpha-amylase from larvae of the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and subtilisin from Bacillus subtilis. The synthesis of RASI is up-regulated during the late milky stage in developing seeds. The 8.9 kDa molecular-weight RASI from rice has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. According to 1.81 angstroms resolution X-ray diffraction data from rice RASI crystals, the crystal belongs to space group P2(1)2(1)2, with unit-cell parameters a = 79.99, b = 62.95, c = 66.70 angstroms. Preliminary analysis indicates two RASI molecules in an asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 44%.

  2. Effect of Cephalaria syriaca addition on rheological properties of composite flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaoðlu, M. M.

    2012-10-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the effect of whole and defatted Cephalaria syriaca flour on the rheological properties of composite flours that used in bran bread production. Cephalaria syriaca products were used to replace 0.25, 0.75, 1.25, 1.75, and 2.25% of wheat-wheat bran composite flour, and its rheological and fermentative properties were measured by farinograph, extensograph and rheofermentometre. The data showed that the rheological parameters of flours were greatly modified by addition of Cephalaria syriaca. The rheological properties of wheatwheat bran composite flour added with whole and defatted Cephalaria syriaca flour were considerably improved with regard to especially extensograph characteristics such as dough resistance, area (energy), ratio number and rheofermentometer parameters such as Hm, T1, Tx, volume loss and gas retention, as compared to control. However addition of Cephalaria syriaca products adversely affected the farinograph characteristics. Generally, these effects of both whole and defatted Cephalaria syriaca flour increased, as the addition level increased. Maximum Tx, gas retention and area (energy) of dough were obtained from wheat-wheat bran composite flour added with 1.75% whole Cephalaria syriaca flour, while the highest dough stability was at addition level of 0.25% whole Cephalaria syriaca flour.

  3. Wheat-water chestnut flour blends: effect of baking on antioxidant properties of cookies.

    PubMed

    Shafi, Musarat; Baba, Waqas N; Masoodi, Farooq Ahmad; Bazaz, Rafiya

    2016-12-01

    Proximate composition, mineral content, functional, pasting and antioxidant properties of water chestnut flour (WCF) were compared with refined wheat flour. WCF showed higher phenolic (4.25 gGAE/1000 g), flavonoid (1.92 g QE/1000 g) and mineral content (K, Mg, Zn, Cu) than wheat flour. WCF showed greater retrogradation tendency but lower peak viscosity than wheat flour. Wheat flour - WCF blends and cookies were evaluated for water activity, physical & textural properties. Water activity of cookies decreased significantly (0.415-0.311) with increase in level of WCF in wheat flour. Total phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity (DPPH• scavenging capacity, FRAP) of WCF - wheat flour blends as well as their cookies was also determined. Baking led to a greater increase in DPPH• scavenging capacity of WCF cookies (33.8%) than WF cookies (25%). Baking had a similar effect on FRAP value. Wheat flour cookies showed a decrease of 51%, and 62% while WCF cookies showed a decrease of 36%, and 34% in TPC and TFC values respectively. WCF cookies thus showed better retention of antioxidant activities suggesting greater stability of WC phenolics than wheat phenolics. Sensory analysis showed cookies made from water chestnut (100%) had fair acceptability due to their characteristic flavor. Thus, water chestnut flour serves both as a gluten free as well as antioxidant rich flour for production of cookies.

  4. Chemical, rheological and bread making characteristics of bran duster flours from roller flourmills.

    PubMed

    Sakhare, Suresh D; Indrani, D; Inamdar, Aashitosh A; Gaikwad, Shwetha B; Rao, G Venkateswara

    2014-10-01

    Bran dusters are used in the wheat flour milling process to increase flour extraction rate. Chemical, rheological and bread characteristics of bran duster flours (BDR1, BDR2, BDR3) and straight run flour (SRF) obtained from two commercial roller flour mills were analyzed. Important chemical characteristics such as ash, dry gluten content, sedimentation value, damaged starch and falling number of bran duster flours were determined. Rheological behavior was tested using farinograph and alveograph equipments. The results showed an increase in ash, dry gluten content and Zeleny's sedimentation value for bran duster flours compared to SRF. Rheological characteristics indicated higher farinograph dough development time and stability values for bran duster flours. Alveograph characteristics indicated higher extensibility and lower elasticity values for bran duster flours. Over all quality score of bread for BDR1 from A and B roller flour mills ranged from 73.4 to 74.7, BDR2 (79-81.8), BDR3 (69-70.4) as against SRF (85.4-86.3).

  5. Optimization of the functional characteristics, pasting and rheological properties of pearl millet-based composite flour.

    PubMed

    Awolu, Olugbenga Olufemi

    2017-02-01

    Optimisation of composite flour comprising pearl millet, kidney beans and tigernut with xanthan gum was evaluated for rheological evaluations. The functional properties of the composite flour were optimized using optimal design of response surface methodology. The optimum blends, defined as blends with overall best functional characteristics were run 3 (75.956% pearl millet, 17.692% kidney beans, 6.352% tigernut flours), run 7 (85.000% pearl millet, 10.000% kidney beans, 5.000% tigernut flours) and run 13 (75.000% pearl millet, 20.000% kidney beans, 5.000% tigernut flours). The pasting characteristics and rheological evaluation of the optimized blends were further evaluated in rapid visco units (RVU). Run 7 had the overall best pasting characteristics; peak viscosity (462 RVU), trough (442 RVU), breakdown viscosity (20 RVU), final viscosity (975 RVU), setback (533 RVU), peak time (5.47 min) and pasting temperature (89.60 °C). These values were found to be better than several composite flours consisting mixture of wheat and non-wheat crops. In addition, the rheological characteristics (measured by Mixolab) showed that run 7 is the best in terms of dough stability, swelling, water absorption and shelf stability. Composite flour with 85% pearl millet flour in addition to kidney beans and tigernut flours could therefore serve as a viable alternative to 100% wheat flour in bread production.

  6. Rheological, thermo-mechanical, and baking properties of wheat-millet flour blends.

    PubMed

    Aprodu, Iuliana; Banu, Iuliana

    2015-07-01

    Millet has long been known as a good source of fiber and antioxidants, but only lately started to be exploited by food scientists and food industry as a consequence of increased consumer awareness. In this study, doughs and breads were produced using millet flour in different ratios (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50%) to white, dark, and whole wheat flour. The flour blends were evaluated in terms of rheological and thermo-mechanical properties. Fundamental rheological measurements revealed that the viscosity of the flour formulations increases with wheat flour-extraction rate and decreases with the addition of millet flour. Doughs behavior during mixing, overmixing, pasting, and gelling was established using the Mixolab device. The results of this bread-making process simulation indicate that dough properties become critical for the flour blends with millet levels higher than 30%. The breads were evaluated for volume, texture, and crumb-grain characteristics. The baking test and sensory evaluation results indicated that substitution levels of up to 30% millet flour could be used in composite bread flour. High levels of millet flour (40 and 50%) negatively influenced the loaf volume, crumb texture, and taste.

  7. Effect of sorghum flour composition and particle size on quality properties of gluten-free bread.

    PubMed

    Trappey, Emily Frederick; Khouryieh, Hanna; Aramouni, Fadi; Herald, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    White, food-grade sorghum was milled to flour of varying extraction rates (60%, 80%, and 100%) and pin-milled at different speeds (no pin-milling, low-speed, and high-speed) to create flours of both variable composition and particle size. Flours were characterized for flour composition, total starch content, particle size distribution, color, damaged starch, and water absorption. Bread was characterized for specific volume, crumb structure properties, and crumb firmness. Significant differences were found (P < 0.05) in the composition of sorghum flours of varying extraction rate, most notably for fiber and total starch contents. Flour particle size and starch damage were significantly impacted by extraction rate and speed of pin-milling. Water absorption increased significantly with increasing extraction rate and pin-milling speed. Breads produced from 60% extraction flour had significantly higher specific volumes, better crumb properties, and lower crumb firmness when compared with all other extractions and flour types. The specific volume of bread slices ranged from 2.01 mL/g (100% extraction, no pin-milling) to 2.54 mL/g (60% extraction, low-speed pin-milling), whereas the firmness ranged from 553.28 g (60% extraction, high-speed pin-milling) to 1096.26 g (commercial flour, no pin-milling). The bread characteristics were significantly impacted by flour properties, specifically particle size, starch damage, and fiber content (P < 0.05).

  8. Physicochemical properties of flours and starches derived from traditional Indonesian tubers and roots.

    PubMed

    Aprianita, Aprianita; Vasiljevic, Todor; Bannikova, Anna; Kasapis, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Flours and starches isolated from traditional tubers and roots grown in Indonesia have physical and chemical properties suitable for certain food applications. Compared to other flour samples, cassava and canna flours contained the highest amount of total starch (TS) (77.4 and 77.1 %, respectively). Taro starch had the lowest amount of TS among other starch samples with 75.4 %. The highest amount of amylose was observed from yam and canna flours (25.2 and 23.2 %, respectively). Among starch samples, canna starch contained the highest amylose content (30.4 %), while taro had the lowest (7.6 %). In terms of protein content, arrowroot flour had the highest amount (7.7 %), in contrast to cassava flour which had the lowest (1.5 %). Compared to other flours, canna and konjac flour were the most slowly digested which indicated by their high amount of resistant starch (RS). Canna starch had the highest swelling power and viscosity than other starches and flours. The clearest paste was observed from cassava flour and starch as opposed to konjac starch which was the most opaque paste.

  9. White Whole-Wheat Flour Can Be Partially Substituted for Refined-Wheat Flour in Pizza Crust in School Meals without Affecting Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Hing Wan; Burgess Champoux, Teri; Reicks, Marla; Vickers, Zata; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Recent dietary guidance recommends that children consume at least three servings of whole-grains daily. This study examined whether white whole-wheat (WWW) flour can be partially substituted for refined-wheat (RW) flour in pizza crust without affecting consumption by children in a school cafeteria. Methods: Subjects included first to…

  10. Structural characterization of proteins in wheat flour doughs enriched with intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) flour.

    PubMed

    Marti, Alessandra; Bock, Jayne E; Pagani, Maria Ambrogina; Ismail, Baraem; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2016-03-01

    The high protein and fiber content of intermediate wheatgrass (IWG) - together with its interesting agronomic traits and environment-related benefits - make this perennial crop attractive also for human consumption. Structural characteristics of the proteins in IWG/hard wheat flour (HWF) doughs (at IWG:HWF ratios of 0:100, 50:50, 75:25 and 100:0) - including aggregate formation, thiols availability, and secondary structure changes during dough mixing - were investigated. Proteins in IWG-doughs had higher solubility and thiol content - as function of IWG content - suggesting that protein network was mostly based on non-covalent interactions. While 50% IWG-enrichment gave an increase in random structures, enrichment at ⩾75% resulted in a decrease in β-sheets with an increase in random structures, indicating a decrease in structural order. The observed differences in protein molecular configuration and interactions in HWF compared to IWG doughs necessitate further investigation to establish their impact on the quality of IWG-enriched bread.

  11. Comparison of nutritional properties of Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) flour with wheat and barley flours.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Bajracharya, Alina; Shrestha, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica. L) is a wild, unique herbaceous perennial flowering plant with Stinging hairs. It has a long history of use as a food sources as a soup or curries, and also used as a fiber as well as a medicinal herb. The current aim was to analyze the composition and bioactive compounds in Nepalese Stinging nettle. Chemical analysis showed the relatively higher level of crude protein (33.8%), crude fiber (9.1%), crude fat (3.6%), total ash (16.2%), carbohydrate (37.4%), and relatively lower energy value (307 kcal/100 g) as compared to wheat and barley flours. Analysis of nettle powder showed significantly higher level of bioactive compounds: phenolic compounds as 129 mg Gallic acid equivalent/g; carotenoid level 3497 μg/g; tannin 0.93 mg/100 g; anti-oxidant activity 66.3 DPPH inhibition (%), as compared to wheat and barley. This study further established that nettle plants as very good source of energy, proteins, high fiber, and a range of health benefitting bioactive compounds.

  12. New strategy for the determination of gliadins in maize- or rice-based foods matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry: fractionation of gliadins from maize or rice prolamins by acidic treatment.

    PubMed

    Hernando, Alberto; Valdes, Israel; Méndez, Enrique

    2003-08-01

    A procedure for determining small quantities of gliadins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) in gluten-free foods containing relatively large amounts of prolamin proteins from maize or rice is described. We report for the first time that gliadins, the ethanol-soluble wheat prolamin fraction, can be quantitatively solubilized in 1.0 M acetic acid, while the corresponding ethanol-soluble maize or rice prolamin fraction remains insoluble in acetic acid. We describe a methodology for the detection of gliadins in maize and rice foods based on a two-step procedure of extraction (60% aqueous ethanol followed by 1 M acetic acid). Subsequent MALDI-TOFMS analysis of the resulting acidic extract from these gluten-free foods clearly confirms the presence of a typical mass pattern corresponding to gliadin components, ranging from 30 to 45 kDa. Depending on the percentages of maize or rice flours employed in the elaboration of these foods, the combined procedure enables levels of gliadins from 100 to 400 ppm to be detected. The efficiency of this combined procedure corroborates enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay data for a large number of maize/rice gluten-free foods by means of direct visualization of the characteristic gliadin mass pattern in maize or rice foods.

  13. Quality characteristics of bread and cookies enriched with debittered Moringa oleifera seed flour.

    PubMed

    Ogunsina, B S; Radha, C; Indrani, D

    2011-03-01

    The effects of replacing wheat flour with 0-15% debittered moringa seed (DBMS) flour on the dough rheology of wheat flour and physical, sensory and chemical properties of bread were studied. Incorporation of an increasing amount of DBMS from 0 to 15% decreased farinograph water absorption, dough stability, amylograph peak viscosity and overall quality of bread. The bread with 10% DBMS had a typical moringa seed taste and was acceptable. Addition of combination of additives improved the dough strength and quality of bread with 10% DBMS flour. Replacement of wheat flour with 10%, 20% and 30% DBMS grits was found to affect cookies quality. Cookies with 20% DBMS grits had the nutty taste of moringa seeds and were acceptable. Bread with 10% DBMS flour and cookies with 20% DBMS grits had more protein, iron and calcium. Incorporating moringa seeds in baked foods may be exploited as a means of boosting nutrition in Africa and Asia where malnutrition is prevalent.

  14. Effect of amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) on the technological and sensory quality of bread wheat pasta.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Cristina S; Ribotta, Pablo D; Añón, María Cristina; León, Alberto E

    2014-03-01

    The technological and sensory quality of pasta made from bread wheat flour substituted with wholemeal amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) at four levels, 15, 30, 40 and 50% w/w was investigated. The quality of the resulted pasta was compared to that of control pasta made from bread wheat flour. The flours were analyzed for chemical composition and pasting properties. Cooking behavior, color, raw and cooked pasta texture, scanning electron microscopy and sensory evaluation were determined on samples. The pasta obtained from amaranth flour showed some detriment of the technological and sensory quality. So, a maximum substitution level of 30% w/w was defined. This is an equilibrium point between an acceptable pasta quality and the improved nutritional and functional properties from the incorporation of amaranth flour.

  15. Combination of extrusion and cyclodextrin glucanotransferase treatment to modify wheat flours functionality.

    PubMed

    Román, Laura; Dura, Ángela; Martínez, Mario M; Rosell, Cristina M; Gómez, Manuel

    2016-05-15

    This research aims to vary functional properties of native and extruded wheat flours combining cyclodextrin glucanotransferase and extrusion treatments. The level of released cyclodextrins (CD) was assessed, besides the microstructure, crystallinity, pasting properties and starch hydrolysis of the flours. Photomicrographs of enzymatically treated flours suggested the production of fragile structures that broke easily. Enzymatic hydrolysis was significantly higher in extruded flours, as confirmed the CD levels, being predominant the γ-CD followed by α-CD, whereas very low β-CD values were obtained probably due to the formation of CD-lipid complexes, as suggested X-ray diffractometry results. Both extruded and native samples showed very low viscosity and flat pasting profile consequence of the enzyme hydrolytic activity on the starch chains. Enzymatically treated flours (native and extruded) showed higher hydrolysis rates at the early hydrolysis stage, and extruded flours exhibited higher fractal exponent h in agreement with the extended crystalline structures resulting from enzymatic treatment.

  16. Flour from Prosopis alba cotyledons: A natural source of nutrient and bioactive phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, F; Costamagna, M S; Zampini, I C; Sayago, J; Alberto, M R; Chamorro, V; Pazos, A; Thomas-Valdés, S; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Isla, M I

    2016-10-01

    The Prosopis alba seed is a waste material in the process to produce pod flour. To suggest a potential use of these seeds it is necessary to determine the nutritional, phytochemical and functional quality of cotyledon flour from Prosopis alba. This flour showed high level of proteins (62%), low content of total carbohydrate and fat. Free polyphenol (1150±20mg GAE/100g flour) and carotenoids (10.55±0.05mg β-CE/100g flour) compounds were the dominant compounds. The main identified constituents in the polyphenolic extracts were C- glycosyl flavones, including schaftoside, isoschaftoside, vicenin II, vitexin and isovitexin. The extract enriched in polyphenolic compounds exhibited ABTS(+) reducing capacity and scavenging activity of H2O2; and was able to inhibit phospholipase, lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase, three pro-inflammatory enzymes. According to our results, the P. alba cotyledon flour could be considered as a new alternative in the formulation of functional foods or food supplements.

  17. Forensic DNA Analysis of Wheat Flour as Commonly Used in White Powder Cases.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Hitomi S; Tahara, Makoto; Sugita, Ritsuko

    2015-09-01

    In the wake of terrorist attacks using anthrax and ricin, white powder is often encountered in cases of malicious mischief and terrorist threats. Wheat flour is a common white powder encountered in such criminal investigations. We used DNA analysis to investigate wheat flour samples for identification and discrimination as trace evidence. Species identification of commercially available wheat flour was carried out by sequencing a partial region of the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit gene (rbcL). Samples were discriminated using short tandem repeat (STR) analysis. The rbcL sequences of all wheat flour samples were identical and showed a high level of similarity to known wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) sequences. Furthermore, flours had characteristic patterns in STR analyses, with specific cultivars showing distinctive patterns. These results suggested that the identification of wheat flour species is possible using rbcL sequencing, and that STR analysis is useful for discriminating between samples.

  18. PIXE analysis of Nigerian flour and bread samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olise, Felix S.; Fernandes, Adriana M.; Cristina Chaves, P.; Taborda, Ana; Reis, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    The alleged use of potassium bromate (KBrO3) in bread baking led a few authors to report on the chemical methods for the determination of KBrO3 levels in bread. In order to examine the potentials of a non chemical particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method for this purpose, six sets of samples, each composed of flour, dough and bread from a production batch were analysed. The samples were obtained from six different bakers of bread at Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The flour samples were air-dried while others were freeze dried at about -16 °C. The samples were homogenised in an agate mortar and then pelletised. Samples were analysed at the CTN standard PIXE setup and standard procedures for thick target samples analysis were followed. In some samples significant concentrations of bromine were found. In the present work we present possible explanations for the presence of this potentially dangerous contaminant in the samples.

  19. Effects of germination on the nutritive value and bioactive compounds of brown rice breads.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Fabiola; Caceres, Patricio J; Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina; Rosell, Cristina M; Frias, Juana

    2015-04-15

    The effect of germination conditions on the nutritional benefits of germinated brown rice flour (GBR) bread has been determined. The proximate composition, phytic acid, in vitro protein digestibility and in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis of starch, glucose and starch content, as well as the most relevant bioactive compounds (GABA, γ-oryzanol and total phenolic compounds) and antioxidant activity of breads prepared with GBR at different germination conditions was determined. When comparing different germination times (0 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h), germination for 48 h provides GBR bread with nutritionally superior quality on the basis of its higher content of protein, lipids and bioactive compounds (GABA and polyphenols), increased antioxidant activity and reduced phytic acid content and glycaemic index, although a slight decrease in in vitro protein digestibility was detected. Overall, germination seems to be a natural and sustainable way to improving the nutritional quality of gluten-free rice breads.

  20. 21 CFR 137.200 - Whole wheat flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... flour so used is not more than 0.75 percent. It may contain harmless preparations of α-amylase obtained...”. When the optional ingredient “α”-amylase obtained from Aspergillus oryzae” is used, it may alternatively be declared in the list of ingredients as “Fungal alpha-amylase,” “Fungal α-amylase”, “Enzyme”,...

  1. 21 CFR 137.200 - Whole wheat flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... flour so used is not more than 0.75 percent. It may contain harmless preparations of α-amylase obtained...”. When the optional ingredient “α”-amylase obtained from Aspergillus oryzae” is used, it may alternatively be declared in the list of ingredients as “Fungal alpha-amylase,” “Fungal α-amylase”, “Enzyme”,...

  2. 21 CFR 137.200 - Whole wheat flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... flour so used is not more than 0.75 percent. It may contain harmless preparations of α-amylase obtained...”. When the optional ingredient “α”-amylase obtained from Aspergillus oryzae” is used, it may alternatively be declared in the list of ingredients as “Fungal alpha-amylase,” “Fungal α-amylase”, “Enzyme”,...

  3. 21 CFR 137.200 - Whole wheat flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... flour so used is not more than 0.75 percent. It may contain harmless preparations of α-amylase obtained...”. When the optional ingredient “α”-amylase obtained from Aspergillus oryzae” is used, it may alternatively be declared in the list of ingredients as “Fungal alpha-amylase,” “Fungal α-amylase”, “Enzyme”,...

  4. 21 CFR 137.200 - Whole wheat flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... flour so used is not more than 0.75 percent. It may contain harmless preparations of α-amylase obtained...”. When the optional ingredient “α”-amylase obtained from Aspergillus oryzae” is used, it may alternatively be declared in the list of ingredients as “Fungal alpha-amylase,” “Fungal α-amylase”, “Enzyme”,...

  5. Fluorometric Method for Determination of Uric Acid in Flour

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    of the excreta of adult Tribolium used in this study for natural infestation, accumulates in infested products providing a quantitative measure of past...by Adult Tribolium 8 4 FLUOROMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF URIC ACID IN FLOUR Introduction Chemical and microanalytical techniques have been...determining uric acid content.’ Approximately 18% of the total excreta from Tribolium confusum is uric acid.2 Various investigators have established

  6. Antifungal sourdough lactic acid bacteria as biopreservation tool in quinoa and rice bread.

    PubMed

    Axel, Claudia; Brosnan, Brid; Zannini, Emanuele; Furey, Ambrose; Coffey, Aidan; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-12-19

    The use of sourdough fermented with specific strains of antifungal lactic acid bacteria can reduce chemical preservatives in bakery products. The main objective of this study was to investigate the production of antifungal carboxylic acids after sourdough fermentation of quinoa and rice flour using the antifungal strains Lactobacillus reuteri R29 and Lactobacillus brevis R2Δ as bioprotective cultures and the non-antifungal L. brevis L1105 as a negative control strain. The impact of the fermentation substrate was evaluated in terms of metabolic activity, acidification pattern and quantity of antifungal carboxylic acids. These in situ produced compounds (n=20) were extracted from the sourdough using a QuEChERS method and detected by a new UHPLC-MS/MS chromatography. Furthermore, the sourdough was applied in situ using durability tests against environmental moulds to investigate the biopreservative potential to prolong the shelf life of bread. Organic acid production and TTA values were lowest in rice sourdough. The sourdough fermentation of the different flour substrates generated a complex and significantly different profile of carboxylic acids. Extracted quinoa sourdough detected the greatest number of carboxylic acids (n=11) at a much higher concentration than what was detected from rice sourdough (n=9). Comparing the lactic acid bacteria strains, L. reuteri R29 fermented sourdoughs contained generally higher concentrations of acetic and lactic acid but also the carboxylic acids. Among them, 3-phenyllactic acid and 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid were present at a significant concentration. This was correlated with the superior protein content of quinoa flour and its high protease activity. With the addition of L. reuteri R29 inoculated sourdough, the shelf life was extended by 2 days for quinoa (+100%) and rice bread (+67%) when compared to the non-acidified controls. The L. brevis R2Δ fermented sourdough bread reached a shelf life of 4 days for quinoa (+100%) and

  7. Identification and characterization of a novel arabinoxylanase from wheat flour.

    PubMed Central

    Cleemput, G; Van Laere, K; Hessing, M; Van Leuven, F; Torrekens, S; Delcour, J A

    1997-01-01

    An endogenous wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour endoxylanase was purified to homogeneity from a crude wheat flour extract by ammonium sulfate precipitation and cation-exchange chromatography. The 30-kD protein had an isoelectric point of 9.3 or higher. A sequence of 19 amino acids at the NH2 terminus showed 84.2% identity with an internal sequence of 15-kD grain-softness protein, friabilin. High-performance anion-exchange chromatography and gel-permeation analysis of the hydrolysis products indicated the preferential hydrolysis of highly branched structures by the enzyme; wheat arabinoxylan and rye (Secale cereale) arabinoxylan (high arabinose to xylose ratios) were hydrolyzed more efficiently by this enzyme than oat (Avena sativa) spelt xylan (low arabinose to xylose ratios). The release of the hydrolysis products as a function of time suggested that the endoxylanolytic activity was associated with the release of arabinose units from the polysaccharides, suggesting that the enzyme action is similar to that by endoxylanases from Ceratocystis paradoxa, Aspergillus niger, and Neurospora crassa. Although the enzyme released arabinose from arabinoxylan, it did not hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl-alpha-L-arabinofuranoside. From the above, it follows that the enzyme, called arabinoxylanase, differs from most microbial endoxylanases and from an endoxylanase purified earlier from wheat flour. PMID:9414565

  8. [Chemical composition and biological quality of defatted hazelnut flour].

    PubMed

    Villarroel, M; Biolley, E; Schneeberger, R; Ballester, D; Santibáñez, S

    1989-06-01

    The results of the chemical composition and biological quality of deffated hazel nut flour are shown. The samples analyzed contained significant amounts of proteins (19%) comparable to legume flour, higher than cereals and lower than deffated oleaginous flours. The oil extracted from the seed was analyzed and the average results obtained were the following: Refraction index, 1.47; saponification No. 184.8; iodine No. 85.0. The average composition of the fatty acids obtained by gas liquid chromatography was: Palmitic acid 2.3% Palmitoleic acid 37.0% Stearic acid 0.5% Oleic acid 39.5% Linoleic acid 6.9% Linolenic acid 1.1% Eicosanoic acid 2.3% Eicosaenoic acid 4.6% Docosenoic acid 3.4% Tetraeicosanoic acid 0.3% These results indicate a good-quality oil due to the low content of linolenic acid. The nutritive value of the deffated meal measured in the rats gave a net protein ratio (NPR) of 3.58, lower than the corresponding casein value (4.10). The true protein digestibility measured in the rat gave a value of 7.3%, compared to 95% for casein. The amounts of iron and phosphorous are comparatively lower than those reported for rape-seed meal and sunflower meal.

  9. Mycoflora study in a wheat flour mill of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Aringoli, E.E.; Cambiagno, D.E.; Chiericatti, C.A.; Basilico, J.C.; Basilico, M.L.Z.

    2012-01-01

    The mycoflora of the environment: wheat conditioning, milling and screening, and filling zone, as well as, raw material -wheat-, intermediate product -grits- and end product -flour- on day 1, and after cleaning improvements -days 45 and 90- were studied in an Argentine wheat mill. Samples were incubated at 28°C for 5–7 days on Malt Extract Agar with chloramphenicol (100 mg L-1) and the results were expressed in colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU m-3) or per gram of sample (CFU g-1), respectively. Fungal genera and species were isolated and identified and the potential toxicogenic capacity of the Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium graminearum isolated was studied. Time-Place and Time-Product multifactorial ANOVA were carried out. After cleaning improvements, CFU m-3 of air decreased as a function of time. Cladosporium and Alternaria were abundant in every zone, Aspergillus predominated in the wheat conditioning zone and Penicillium and Eurotium decreased with time. Wheat was more contaminated than grits and flour; Aspergillus, Eurotium and Mucoraceae family were the most abundant. Deoxynivalenol was above the levels allowed in wheat, being acceptable in grits and flour. Aflatoxin and Zearalenone showed acceptable levels. When studied in vitro, 53% of Aspergillus flavus and 100% of Fusarium graminearum isolates, produced Total Aflatoxins, and Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone, respectively. PMID:24031975

  10. Iron fortification of flour with a complex ferric orthophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Hallberg, L.; Rossander-Hulthen, L.; Gramatkovski, E.

    1989-07-01

    The unexpectedly low bioavailability in humans of elemental iron powder prompted us to search for other Fe compounds suitable for Fe fortification of flour that fulfill the two requirements of insolubility in water (due to high water content of flour) and good bioavailability in humans. Systematic studies of compatibility, solubility, and bioavailability led to this study of a microcrystalline complex ferric orthophosphate (CFOP), Fe/sub 3/H/sub 8/(NH/sub 4/)-(PO/sub 4/)6.6H/sub 2/O, a well-defined compound. This compound was labeled with /sup 59/Fe, and the native Fe in meals was labeled with /sup 55/FeCl3. The ratio of absorbed /sup 59/Fe to absorbed /sup 55/Fe is a direct measure of the fraction of CFOP that joins the nonheme Fe pool and that is made potentially available for absorption. The relative bioavailability of CFOP varied from 30% to 60% when labeled wheat rolls were served with different meals. The CFOP meets practical requirements of an Fe fortificant for flour well, with regard to both compatibility and bioavailability in humans.

  11. Respirable quartz exposure at silica flour producers, 1975-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    A study was conducted on respirable quartz exposures at silica flour producers for the period 1975-1986. In 1979, evaluations were performed at two silica-flour facilities in Illinois for the purpose of determining worker exposure to respirable quartz. It was evident that workers at both sites had a high incidence of silicosis. Continuing with the effort, visits were made to 28 silica-flour producers between 1975 and 1986. A total of 2,175 respirable quartz samples were examined and 52% of these exceeded the Mining Safety and Health Act (MSHA) Permissible Exposure Level (PEL). In 1984, 1985, and 1986, the percentages of samples taken which exceeded the PEL were 44, 46, and 34, respectively. The Recommended Exposure Level (REL) as established in NIOSH for pure respirable quartz limits exposure to a 10-hour time-weighted average level of 0.05mg/m{sup 3}. The percentage of samples of respirable quartz which exceeded this REL for the same time period were 74, 76, and 69, respectively. According to the authors, while the figures since 1979 do show the exposures to be dropping, there were still far more overexposures in this industry than in most other metal and nonmetal commodities. Without greater efforts to meet the levels required, the new cases of silicosis will continue to occur among workers in this industry.

  12. Cold plasma: A new technology to modify wheat flour functionality

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Niloufar; Bayliss, Danny; Chope, Gemma; Penson, Simon; Perehinec, Tania; Fisk, Ian D.

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure cold plasma has the potential to modify biological chemistry and modulate physical surface properties. Wheat flour was treated by low levels of cold plasma (air, 15 V and 20 V) for 60 or 120 s. There was no change in the total aerobic bacterial count or total mould count as a result of treatment. Treatment did not impact the concentration of total non-starch lipids, or non-polar and glycolipids. However, treatment did reduce total free fatty acids and phospholipids and was dose dependent. Oxidation markers (hydroperoxide value and head space n-hexanal) increased with treatment time and voltage, which confirmed the acceleration of lipid oxidation. Total proteins were not significantly influenced by treatment although there was a trend towards higher molecular weight fractions which indicated protein oxidation and treated flour did produce a stronger dough. This study confirms the potential of cold plasma as a tool to modify flour functionality. PMID:26920291

  13. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread

    PubMed Central

    Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  14. Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of green banana (Musa acuminata x balbisiana Colla cv. Awak) flour.

    PubMed

    Haslinda, W H; Cheng, L H; Chong, L C; Noor Aziah, A A

    2009-01-01

    Flour was prepared from peeled and unpeeled banana Awak ABB. Samples prepared were subjected to analysis for determination of chemical composition, mineral, dietary fibre, starch and total phenolics content, antioxidant activity and pasting properties. In general, flour prepared from unpeeled banana was found to show enhanced nutrition values with higher contents of mineral, dietary fibre and total phenolics. Hence, flour fortified with peel showed relatively higher antioxidant activity. On the other hand, better pasting properties were shown when banana flour was blended with peel. It was found that a relatively lower pasting temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback were evident in a sample blended with peel.

  15. Phytochemical compositions, and antioxidant properties, and antiproliferative activities of wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Lv, Junli; Yu, Lu; Lu, Yingjian; Niu, Yuge; Liu, Linwei; Costa, Jose; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2012-11-15

    Ten soft wheat varieties grown in Maryland were compared for their phytochemical compositions, antioxidant properties and antiproliferative activities. Free radical scavenging capacities were examined against DPPH(·), oxygen, hydroxyl and ABTS(·+) radicals. Significant radical scavenging capacities were detected in all wheat flour extracts. Total phenolic content ranged from 1.66 to 2.01 mg of GAE/g wheat flour. The wheat flours contained 172.91-297.55 μg/g insoluble bound ferulic acid, contributing 89.74-94.29% of total ferulic acid on a per weight basis. The concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin were 0.27-0.46 and 0.08-0.13 μg/g, respectively. In addition, the wheat flours had 0.30-0.59 and 0.07-0.29 μg/g α- and δ-tocopherols, respectively. Four wheat flour extracts were further examined for their antiproliferative activities. The Jamestown wheat flour showed significant antiproliferative activity against both HT-29 and Caco-2 colon cancer cells at the initial treatment concentration of 50 mg flour equivalents/ml, while USG3555 flour showed inhibitive effect only in HT-29 cancer cells, suggesting the different and possible selective antiproliferative property of the wheat flours. These results may be used to direct the breeding effects to produce soft winter wheat varieties with improved health properties.

  16. Effects of flour conditioning on cannibalism of T. castaneum eggs and pupae.

    PubMed

    Flinn, Paul W; Campbell, James F

    2012-12-01

    Cannibalism is a very important factor regulating population dynamics of the red flour beetle. After several days of feeding, the flour becomes conditioned by the beetles, which can affect rates of cannibalism. Flour conditioning is caused by an accumulation of feces, pheromones, and ethylquinone, which is a repellent produced by the beetles. We determined the effect of five different levels of flour conditioning on cannibalism of red flour beetle eggs and pupae by adult and larval stages. Larvae had the highest rates of egg cannibalism (12 eggs eaten over the 4-d period) followed by female adults (seven eggs consumed). Adult males had the lowest rates of cannibalism with only two eggs consumed. Cannibalism of eggs by females was correlated negatively with the level of flour conditioning. There was no effect of flour conditioning on egg or pupal cannibalism by larvae or adult males. Cannibalism by adult females may decrease as the level of flour conditioning increases because females may spend less time tunneling in highly conditioned flour and more time trying to disperse to other areas that are better for oviposition.

  17. Shaping a better rice plant.

    PubMed

    Springer, Nathan

    2010-06-01

    Two studies describe how regulatory variation at the rice gene OsSPL14 can lead to altered plant morphology and improve grain yield. These studies support the possibility of improving rice yield through changing plant architecture.

  18. Influence of added bean flour (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on some physical and nutritional properties of wheat flour tortillas.

    PubMed

    Anton, Alex A; Ross, Kelly A; Lukow, Odean M; Fulcher, R Gary; Arntfield, Susan D

    2008-07-01

    Composite flours containing 15%, 25%, or 35% of small red, black, pinto, or navy bean flours (BF) and wheat were made into tortillas. Dough rheology, firmness, cohesiveness, rollability, and some physical properties of tortillas were negatively affected as BF concentration increased regardless of bean cultivar. Nutritionally, all bean tortillas had significantly higher levels of crude protein, total phenols, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS(+)) in vitro antioxidant activity (AA) and antinutritional compounds such as phytic acid (PA) and trypsin inhibitors (TI) than the wheat control. Tortillas to which 35% of small red, pinto and black BF was added had the highest levels of phenols, which were significantly correlated with both DPPH (r=0.99) and ABTS(+) (r=0.99) AA. Compared to raw flours, PA and TI were reduced from 37.37% to 43.78% and from 50% to 66%, respectively, in the tortillas. Overall analysis indicated that tortillas with acceptable texture and improved nutritional profile were produced at 25% substitution.

  19. Germination and extrusion as combined processes for reducing phytates and increasing phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of Oryza sativa L. whole grain flours.

    PubMed

    Albarracín, M; De Greef, D M; González, R J; Drago, S R

    2015-01-01

    Whole rice (WR) products with low phytic acid (PA) content and enhanced bio-functional components were obtained by the combination of germination and extrusion processes. Germination conditions (24 h - 35 °C), with a previous soaking process (24 h - 20 °C), were chosen according to the remnant PA content and germination rate. Specific mechanical energy consumption, expansion, sensorial and mechanical hardness, specific volume, solubility, water absorption, free phenolic content (FPC) and antioxidant capacity were evaluated. Results indicated that 175 °C and 14 g 100 g(-1) of moisture were the most appropriate conditions to obtain expanded products and precooked flours based on germinated WR. Selected extruded product presented less PA content (821.6 9 ± 10.3 versus 695.2 0 ± 1.6 mg 100 g(-1)) and higher Fe bio-accessibility, FPC (45.2 9 ± 1.61 versus 66.3 5 ± 3.35 mg GAE g(-1)) and antioxidant capacity compared with WR (34.9 5 ± 0.8 versus 54.6 3 ± 1.6 µmol trolox g(-1)). Combining germination-extrusion processes could be a strategy to obtain expanded products or precooked flours based on WR with enhanced health benefits.

  20. Insecticidal Effect of Labramin, a Lectin—Like Protein Isolated from Seeds of the Beach Apricot Tree, Labramia bojeri, on the Mediterranean Flour Moth, Ephestia kuehniella

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Diego Stéfani Teodoro; Freire, Maria das Graças Machado; Mazzafera, Paulo; Araujo-Júnior, Roberto Theodoro; Bueno, Rafael Delmond; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the insecticidal effect of labramin, a protein that shows lectin—like properties. Labramin was isolated from seeds of the Beach Apricot tree, Labramia bojeri A. DC ex Dubard (Ericales: Sapotaceae), and assessed against the development of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an important pest of stored products such as corn, wheat, rice, and flour. Results showed that labramin caused 90% larval mortality when incorporated in an artificial diet at a level of 1% (w/w). The presence of 0.25% labramin in the diet affected the larval and pupal developmental periods and the percentage of emerging adults. Treatments resulted in elevated levels of trypsin activity in midgut and fecal materials, indicating that labramin may have affected enzyme—regulatory mechanisms by perturbing peritrophic membranes in the midgut of is. kuehniella larvae. The results of dietary experiments with E. kuehniella larvae showed a reduced efficiency for the conversion of ingested and digested food, and an increase in approximate digestibility and metabolic cost. These findings suggest that labramin may hold promise as a control agent to engineer crop plants for insect resistance. PMID:22938183

  1. Physicochemical and sensory properties of soy bread made with germinated, steamed, and roasted soy flour.

    PubMed

    Shin, Doo-Jee; Kim, Wook; Kim, Yookyung

    2013-11-01

    For the development of healthful gluten-free soy bread acceptable to consumers, we evaluated the effects of various processing procedures for soy flour on bread quality, in terms of beany flavour and texture. We pretreated soy flour by both non-heating (raw:NS and germinated:GS) and heating (steamed:SS and roasted:RS) methods. In addition, to improve the loaf volume, we added 1% hydroxypropyl-methylcellulose (HPMC) to RS flour. Lipoxygenase activity was retained in the non-heat-treated flours (279 U/g for NS and 255 U/g for GS), but was significantly reduced in the heat-treated flours (106U/g for SS and 69 U/g for RS). Moreover, heat-treated flour had higher isoflavone and ferric reducing antioxidant power than had non-heat-treated flour. However, RS flour had the lowest moisture content and lowest L value. The GS bread had the highest specific loaf volume (3.53 cm(3)/g), followed by NS (2.96 cm(3)/g), RS (2.25c m(3)/g), and SS (1.81 cm(3)/g) bread. GS bread had the lowest hardness (1.53N), followed by NS (1.65 N), RS (2.00 N), and SS (3.75 N) bread. The addition of 1% HPMC to RS increased the loaf volume (2.44 cm(3)/g), but decreased the bread's hardness (1.80N). As to the sensory properties, the bread with heat-treated flour was perceived to have a less beany odour and taste than was the bread with non-heat-treated flour. However, the latter had a better appearance than the former. These results indicated that soy flour pretreatment could enhance the loaf volume and reduce the beany flavour of whole soy bread.

  2. Successive Reduction Dry Milling of Normal and Waxy Corn: Grain, Grit, and Flour Properties.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Sheetal; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder; Virdi, Amardeep Singh

    2015-06-01

    Dry milling of different corn types resulted in varied proportions of germ, pericarp, grit and flour. Grit and flour produced during different reduction stages varied in particle size and chemical constituents, hence applications in food industry. In this study, recovery of different fractions and variation in physicochemical and pasting properties of grit and flour fractions obtained during 3 successive reduction dry millings of 2 normal (African tall, HQPM1) and 1 waxy corn (IC 550353) were evaluated. Waxy corn grains had the highest L*, a*, b*, ash, fat, and protein content and the lowest weight. Waxy and African tall gave the highest recovery of germ and pericarp, respectively. Waxy corn showed lower grit and flour recovery as compared to normal corn. Flour fractions showed higher L* and lower a* and b* values than grit fractions. Particle size of grit and flour fractions ranged from 840 to 982 μm and 330 to 409 μm, respectively. Fractions with larger particle size showed lower L* value. The b* value showed positive correlation with yellow pigment content. Grit and flour from the 1st reduction stage showed higher ash and fat content. Protein content was correlated positively with ash content and negatively with L* value. Grit and flour fractions with higher protein content had lower pasting viscosities. Pasting viscosities were higher for flours than their corresponding grits. Protein profiling of grit and flour fractions from different stages showed quantitative and qualitative differences in medium (22, 28, and 35 kDa) and low molecular weight (16, 17, and 19 kDa) polypeptides and were related to grit and flour yield.

  3. Methane potential and biodegradability of rice straw, rice husk and rice residues from the drying process.

    PubMed

    Contreras, L M; Schelle, H; Sebrango, C R; Pereda, I

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural solid residues are a potential renewable energy source. Rice harvesting and production in Sancti Spíritus province, Cuba, currently generates residues without an environmentally sustainable disposal route. Rice residues (rice straw, rice husk and rice residues from the drying process) are potentially an important carbon source for anaerobic digestion. For this paper, rice residues were placed for 36 days retention time in anaerobic batch reactor environments at both mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) conditions. Biogas and methane yield were determined as well as biogas composition. The results showed that rice straw as well as rice residues from the drying process had the highest biogas and methane yield. Temperature played an important role in determining both biogas yield and kinetics. In all cases, rice straw produced the highest yields; under mesophilic conditions the biogas yield was 0.43 m(3) kg(VS)(-1), under thermophilic conditions biogas yield reached 0.52 m(3) kg(VS)(-1). In the case of the rice husk, the biodegradability was very low. Methane content in all batches was kept above 55% vol. All digested material had a high carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio, even though significant biodegradation was recorded with the exception of rice husk. A first-order model can be used to describe the rice crop residues fermentation effectively.

  4. Effect of rice variety and nutrient management on rice productivity in organic rice system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for organic rice has been increasing for decades. However, the information on sustainable organic rice production systems is still lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of soil amendment products, nitrogen rate, and variety on rice grain yield, yield components, ...

  5. Rice solution and World Health Organization solution by gastric infusion for high stool output diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Mota-Hernández, F; Bross-Soriano, D; Pérez-Ricardez, M L; Velásquez-Jones, L

    1991-08-01

    We sought to determine the efficacy of three different types of treatment in children with acute diarrhea who, during the oral rehydration period, had high stool output (greater than 10 mL/kg per hour). Sixty-six children, aged 1 to 18 months, with an average stool output of 22.6 mL/kg per hour were randomly distributed into three groups: group 1 received a rice flour solution, group 2 received the World Health Organization rehydration solution by gastric infusion, and group 3 continued to receive this solution orally. In all three groups, a decrease in stool output was observed, with the higher decrease observed in group 1 patients. Such a decrease facilitated rehydration of all 22 patients in group 1 (100%) in 3.3 +/- 1.5 hours, 16 (73%) in group 2 in 4.3 +/- 2.1 hours, and 15 (69%) in group 3 in 4.9 +/- 2.0 hours. No complications were observed. These data indicate that the rice flour solution is effective in children with high stool output diarrhea.

  6. Optimization of corn, rice and buckwheat formulations for gluten-free wafer production.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Ismail Sait; Yildiz, Onder; Meral, Raciye

    2016-07-01

    Gluten-free baked products for celiac sufferers are essential for healthy living. Cereals having gluten such as wheat and rye must be removed from the diet for the clinical and histological improvement. The variety of gluten-free foods should be offered for the sufferers. In the study, gluten-free wafer formulas were optimized using corn, rice and buckwheat flours, xanthan and guar gum blend as an alternative product for celiac sufferers. Wafer sheet attributes and textural properties were investigated. Considering all wafer sheet properties in gluten-free formulas, better results were obtained by using 163.5% water, 0.5% guar and 0.1% xanthan in corn formula; 173.3% water, 0.45% guar and 0.15% xanthan gum in rice formula; 176% water, 0.1% guar and 0.5% xanthan gum in buckwheat formula. Average desirability values in gluten-free formulas were between 0.86 and 0.91 indicating they had similar visual and textural profiles to control sheet made with wheat flour.

  7. Dried flour-oil composites for lipid delivery in low-fat cake mix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excess steam jet-cooked wheat flour and canola oil composites containing 30 to 55% oil were drum dried. The composites were used to replace the flour and oil in the low-fat cake mix formulations. The cake batter specific gravity and viscosity were measured. The cakes were analyzed for crumb grain...

  8. Effect of flour-oil composite as powdered fat source in low-fat cake mixes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excess steam jet-cooked composites containing wheat flour and 30 to 55% canola oil were drum dried and used to replace the oil and part of the flour in low-fat cake mix formulations. Specific gravity and viscosity of cake batters were measured. The cakes were analyzed for crumb grain, color, textu...

  9. Characterization of sorghum grain and evaluation of sorghum flour in a Chinese egg noodle system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is a gluten free grain that has potential to be used as an alternative to wheat flour for the Celiac Sprue market. There are thousands of sorghum lines that have not been characterized for grain, flour or end product quality. The objective of the research was to gain an understanding among g...

  10. Rheological and pasting properties of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) flours with and without jet-cooking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasting, rheological and water-holding properties of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) flour obtained from whole achenes separated into three particle sizes, and three commercial flours (Fancy, Supreme and Farinetta) were measured with or without jet-cooking. Fancy had instantaneous paste viscosity ...

  11. Antioxidant activity of commercial buckwheat flours and their free and bound phenolic compositions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Buckwheat flours (Whole, Farinetta, Supreme, and Fancy) were investigated for their compositions, free and bound phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and flavonoid contents using spectrophotometer and LC-ESI-IT- MS (LC-MS). Farinetta flour contained the highest oil, protein, and free and boun...

  12. Durum and soft wheat flours in sourdough and straight-dough bread-making.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Sgarbi, Elisa; Cirlini, Martina; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Chiavaro, Emma

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, the bread-making performance of durum wheat flour under straight-dough and sourdough procedures were compared to those offered by soft wheat flour by means of selected physical properties (colour, texture, water dynamics, crumb grain characteristic, bulk volume) immediately after baking and during a 5-day shelf-life. The use of sourdough process better preserved both crumb grain characteristic and moisture content of the breads during shelf-life, independently of the wheat flour used. The flour seemed to significantly affect the water dynamics in sourdough breads, being the dehydration process of crust and under-crust faster in durum wheat breads. On the other hand, increasing trend of crumb firmness during the shelf-life was slower in durum wheat breads than in those obtained with soft wheat flour. Initial colour parameters of crust and crumb appeared to less change during shelf-life if durum wheat flour was used. Thus, the final quality of breads after baking and along the shelf-life was significantly affected by both the type of flours and the bread-making process. The results reported herein showed that technological performances of durum wheat flour, especially when combined with sourdough processes, could be successfully exploited for the production of innovative products in the bread-making industry.

  13. Relationship between physicochemical characteristics of flour and sugar-snap cookie quality in Korean wheat cultivar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship of physicochemical properties of flour, including particle size of flour, damaged starch, SDS-sedimentation volume, gluten content and four solvent retention capacity (SRC) values with cookie baking quality, including cookie diameter and thickness was evaluated using 30 Korean wheat...

  14. Effect of abiotic factors on initiation of red flour beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) flight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps baited with pheromones are used to monitor the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), populations in flour mills to aid in making pest management decisions, but the factors that influence T. castaneum flight aren’t fully understood. We investigated the impa...

  15. Hydrophilic Lipophilic Antioxidant Activities of Commercially Available Peanut Flours and Peanut Seed Roasted to Differing Intensities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut flours are commercially available, high protein ingredients prepared from partially defatted roasted peanut seed. Peanut flours have differing roast intensities and residual fat contents, which allows for these ingredients to be utilized in a variety of food formulations. Antioxidant proper...

  16. Oxidative Gelation of Solvent-Accessible Arabinoxylans occurs during Chlorination of Soft Wheat Flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arabinoxylans and glutenins are two of the critical network-forming biopolymers of wheat flours, functionally related to Arabinoxylans and glutenins are two of the critical network-forming biopolymers of wheat flours, functionally related to mixing and baking performance and baked goods quality. Fo...

  17. Precooked Bran-Enriched Wheat Flour Using Extrusion: Dietary Fiber Profile and Sensory Characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of precooking by extrusion processing on the on the dietary fiber profile of wheat flour substituted with 0%,10%,20%,and 30% wheat bran was evaluated. Depending on the level of bran,total dietary fiber(TDF)and soluble dietary fiber(SDF)in uncooked flours ranged from 4.2% to 17.2% and 1.5%...

  18. Flow properties of natural rubber composites filled with defatted soy flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The linear and nonlinear viscoelastic properties of natural rubber composites reinforced with defatted soy flour were studied. Defatted soy flour is an abundant, renewable commodity, and its rigid nature makes it suitable as a reinforcement phase in rubber composites. At small strain, the elastic ...

  19. Influence of jet-cooking Prowashonupana barley flour on phenolic composition, antioxidant activities, and viscoelastic properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of jet-cooking Prowashonupana barley flour on total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, water holding capacities, and viscoelastic properties was studied. Barley flour was jet-cooked without or with pH adjustment at 7, 9, or 11. Generally, the free phenolic content and antioxi...

  20. Preparation and characterization of sorghum flour with increased resistant starch content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary objective of this research was to develop an effective process to increase the resistant starch content of sorghum flour. A secondary objective was to investigate the role of the sorghum proteins on starch digestibility. Samples of white sorghum flour (28.9% amylose content) with differe...

  1. Comparative study on properties of edible films based on pinhao (Araucaria angustifolia) starch and flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to develop and compare the properties of edible films based on pinhao starch and pinhao flour. Seven formulations were developed by casting methodology: 5% pinhao starch with 0, 1, 1.5, and 2% glycerol, and 5% pinhao flour with 1, 1.5, and 2% glycerol. The films were evalua...

  2. Design Considerations for the Construction and Operation of Flour Milling Facilities. Part II: Process Design Considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flour milling facilities have been the cornerstone of agricultural processing for centuries. Like most agri-industrial production facilities, flour milling facilities have a number of unique design requirements. Design information, to date, has been limited. In an effort to summarize state of the ...

  3. The influence of thermal processing on emulsion properties of defatted hazelnut flour.

    PubMed

    Turan, Deniz; Altay, Filiz; Capanoğlu Güven, Esra

    2015-01-15

    In this study, the influences of roasting and the amount of hazelnut flour on the formation and stabilization of emulsions containing different amounts of oil were investigated. After hazelnuts were roasted in an oven at 140°C for 40 min, the oil content was removed. The emulsions with defatted hazelnut flour containing corn oil at 3%, 10% and 50% were prepared. Roasting process significantly decreased the interfacial tension values of samples down to 1.9 mN/m due to protein denaturation. There was no significant difference between the particle sizes of oil droplets in emulsions with roasted and raw hazelnut flour at the same concentration. However, diffusion coefficients of oil droplets increased for emulsions containing roasted defatted flour samples. The zeta (ζ) potential values of all emulsions increased when roasted hazelnut flour was used, indicating the stabilization of suspensions and the solution resistance against aggregation. Storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G″) and complex viscosity (η(∗)) of emulsions were measured. G' value was found to be greater than the G″ value, which fits into weak gel model. The roasting process resulted with lower transition temperatures but with increased transition enthalpies of the flour samples based on differential scanning (DSC) measurements. Lower transition temperatures may be attributed to the partial gelatinization of starch in the flour and partial denaturation of proteins. These results may help to tailor the properties of defatted hazelnut flour when it is used in food products containing emulsions such as sauces, dressings and creams for stabilizing purposes.

  4. Studies on the rheological and gelatinization characteristics of waxy wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanxin; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Chunzhong; Zhou, Xing

    2014-03-01

    The chemical composition, rheological and gelatinization characteristics of waxy wheat flour were investigated. Compared with wheat flour, waxy wheat flour has lower protein (9.52%), amylase (1.02%) and higher crude starch (73.19%) contents. Because of its different chemical composition, waxy wheat flour exhibited some better processing characteristics (water-holding capacity, dough development time, extensibility, swelling power and setback) than normal wheat flour. It also exhibited some defects in rheological characteristics, including a higher degree of softening, a lower Farinograph quality number and smaller resistance to extensibility ratio. Differential scanning calorimetry results showed that waxy wheat flour gelatinized at higher onset (To=60.9 °C), peak (Tp=64.9 °C), conclusion (Tc=73.6 °C) temperatures and required more energy (ΔH=7.6J/g) to melt gelatinized starch gels. The results of this investigation indicated that blending waxy wheat flour with normal flour is a promising way to improve product quality in baked foods and to prolong the shelf-life of these products.

  5. Analytical, nutritional and biological evaluation of various brands of fortified and non-fortified wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Amjad, Sohail; Hussain, Khalid; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Khan, Muhammad Tanveer; Latif, Abida; Islam, Muhammad; Karim, Sabiha; Hashmi, Furqan Khurshid; Hussain, Amjad; Danish, Muhammad Zeeshan

    2014-05-01

    In Pakistan, a funded flour fortification program was launched for malnourished population, residing mainly in rural low income areas, but the urban population having comparatively better nutritional as well as economic status was focused wherein excessive intake of fortificants might cause complications. Therefore, the present study describes the physicochemical properties, elemental composition, nutritional components and hemoglobin/ferritin increasing potential of fortified and non-fortified flour. Domesticated chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), either sex, age one month, weight 380 ± 18.28 g, were randomly segregated into 4 groups (n=6). The group I, II and III were fed on fortified flour, whereas group IV was fed on non-fortified flour for 30 days. The birds were weighed and blood samples of each of the birds were analyzed for determination of markers of iron status, hemoglobin (Hb) and serum ferritin (SF). Moisture, ash and iron contents were found to be lower in non-fortified flour than that of the fortified samples. Hb and SF levels in groups fed on fortified flour were significantly higher than the one received non-fortified flour (P < 0.05). The consumption of iron-fortified flour increases iron stores in the body without any further complication but long-term usage needs to be monitored.

  6. Textural and sensory properties of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) flour and stiff dough 'amala'.

    PubMed

    Abiodun, O A; Akinoso, R

    2015-05-01

    The use of trifoliate yam (Dioscorea dumetorum) flour for stiff dough 'amala' production is one of the ways to curb under-utilization of the tuber. The study evaluates the textural and sensory properties of trifoliate yam flour and stiff dough. Freshly harvested trifoliate yam tubers were peeled, washed, sliced and blanched (60 (°)C for 10 min). The sliced yam were soaked in water for 12 h, dried and milled into flour. Pasting viscosities, functional properties, brown index and sensory attributes of the flour and stiff dough were analyzed. Peak, holding strength and final viscosities ranged from 84.09 to 213.33 RVU, 81.25 to 157.00 RVU and 127.58 to 236.17 RVU respectively. White raw flour had higher viscosity than the yellow flours. The swelling index, water absorption capacity and bulk density ranged from 1.46 to 2.28, 2.11 to 2.92 ml H2O/g and 0.71 to 0.88 g/cm(3) respectively. Blanching method employed improved the swelling index and water absorption capacity of flour. The brown index values of flour and stiff dough ranged from 6.73 to 18.36 and 14.63-46.72 respectively. Sensory evaluation revealed significant differences in the colour, odour and general acceptability of the product when compared with the stiff dough from white yam.

  7. Effect of ball milling energy on rheological and thermal properties of amaranth flour.

    PubMed

    Roa, Diego F; Baeza, Rosa I; Tolaba, Marcela P

    2015-12-01

    Pearled amaranth grains obtained by abrasive milling were processed by planetary ball milling to produce amaranth flours. The influence of milling energy on rheological and thermal behavior of amaranth flour dispersions and stability during 24 h storage at 4 °C were investigated based on a factorial design. The rheological behavior of flour dispersions (4 % and 8 % w/v) was determined using a rotational viscometer, while gelatinization degree was determined by differential scanning calorimetry as a measure of structural changes.The power law model was found to be suitable in expressing the relationship between shear stress and shear rate. Flour dispersions showed a pseudoplastic behavior. However this character decreased with the storage being dependent on flour concentration and milling energy. A decrease of the consistency index and an increase of the flow behavior index were observed as a result of the increasing milling energy. Gelatinization enthalpy decrease showed the loss of crystalline structure due to ball milling. Amaranth flour dispersions presented increasing stability during storage. It was observed, that the stability changed with the concentration of amaranth flours.Thus, more stable dispersions were obtained as the flour concentration increased. The highly milled sample was the most stable sample during the storage.

  8. Dispersion, efficacy, and persistence of dichlorvos aerosol against two flour beetle life stages in a mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The distribution, efficacy, and residual activity of dichlorvos applied as an aerosol to each of five floors of the Kansas State University pilot flour mill (9,968.8 m3 total volume) were evaluated based on responses of adults of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum (Jacquelin du Val), and ...

  9. Molecular techniques for detection of confused flour beetle infestations in stored products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tribolium confusum (confused flour beetle) is a stored-product pest which contaminates a wide range of food products, from flour and cereals to spices. The insect reduces food quality and is responsible for large economic losses every year. Although a number of methods for detection of stored-produc...

  10. Deciphering the complexities of the wheat flour proteome using quantitative two-dimensional electrophoresis, three proteases and tandem mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat flour is one of the world's major food ingredients, but it is difficult to distinguish and identify the many proteins in a flour sample. The abundant glutamine and proline rich gluten proteins are responsible for many of the unique end-use qualities of wheat flour but it is challenging to dis...

  11. Residual efficacy of pyrethrin+methoprene for control of Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum in a commercial flour mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concrete arenas with and without flour were placed in open, obstructed, and hidden positions inside a commercial flour mill and exposed to a combination treatment of pyrethrin + methoprene. Bioassays were conducted 1, 3, 5, and 7 weeks after the arenas were treated by adding flour to those arenas th...

  12. Effect of strain rate on mechanical properties of melt-processed soy flour composite filler and styrene-butadiene blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymer composites were prepared by melt-mixing polymer and soy flour composite fillers in an internal mixer. Soy flour composite fillers were prepared by blending aqueous dispersion of soy flour with styrene-butadiene rubber latex, dried, and cryogenically ground into powders. Upon crosslinking, th...

  13. Mechanical properties of heterophase polymer blends of cryogenically fractured soy flour composite filler and poly(styrene-butadiene)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reinforcement effect of cryogenically fractured soy Flour composite filler in soft polymer was investigated in this study. Polymer composites were prepared by melt-mixing polymer and soy flour composite fillers in an internal mixer. Soy flour composite fillers were prepared by blending aqueous dis...

  14. 7 CFR 301.89-16 - Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour millers, National Survey participants, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-16 Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour... the 1999-2000 and subsequent crop seasons. Owners of grain storage facilities, flour millers,...

  15. 7 CFR 301.89-16 - Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour millers, National Survey participants, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-16 Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour... the 1999-2000 and subsequent crop seasons. Owners of grain storage facilities, flour millers,...

  16. 7 CFR 301.89-16 - Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour millers, National Survey participants, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-16 Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour... the 1999-2000 and subsequent crop seasons. Owners of grain storage facilities, flour millers,...

  17. 7 CFR 301.89-16 - Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour millers, National Survey participants, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Karnal Bunt § 301.89-16 Compensation for grain storage facilities, flour... the 1999-2000 and subsequent crop seasons. Owners of grain storage facilities, flour millers,...

  18. Susceptibility of different life stages of Tribolium confusum to pyrethrin aerosol: effects of a flour food source on insecticidal efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accumulated grain dust and flour residues in flour mills can potentially decrease the efficacy of contact insecticides used for control of adult and immature stages of stored product insects. A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of flour residues on the efficacy of synergized pyrethrin aero...

  19. Structural heat treatments against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): effect of flour depth, life stage and floor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of high temperatures (50-60°C) and two levels of sanitation (~0.5 and 43 g of flour), on mortality of eggs, young larvae, old larvae, pupae, and adults of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, were evaluated during heat treatment of a pilot flour mill at Kansas State University. The ...

  20. Organic Rice Production: Challenges and Opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The market demand for organically produced rice has grown steadily with the majority of the acreage now being located in Texas and California. A wide range of organic products are marketed including conventional long and medium grain rice, aromatic or scented rice, rice with colored bran, and rice f...

  1. [Preparation of flour processed with pigeon pea seed].

    PubMed

    Mueses, C; de León, L; Matute, J; Bressani, R

    1993-03-01

    Pigeon pea is a legume grain of good production capacity and of a relatively high nutritive value, which has not been used in Latin America on the basis of the potential it offers. In this study experiments were conducted to learn about the possibility of processing pigeon pea to yield an intermediate flour with good functional characteristics for food product development. The intermediate pigeon pea flour was produced through a selection of a process to efficiently dehull the grain followed by a thermic process to improve its functional properties and nutritive value. The best dehulling process was subjecting the grain to a vapor treatment for five minutes, followed by a 2-hour dehydration of surface moisture with air at 60 degrees and dehulling with an 8-disc dehuller for 10 minutes. Yield was 84% with 70.7% dehulling efficiency. Pigeon pea flours were prepared by three thermic processes: pressure cooking at 15 lb (121 degrees C) for 5 and 10 minutes as a reference product; cooking and drying with a drum dryer at 120 degrees C and 4 rpm and by extrusion-cooking with the material with 18 and 21% moisture at 270 and 300 degrees F, respectively. Process selection was based on the functional properties such as water absorption index, water solubility index, soluble nitrogen and viscosity, through chemical analysis of protein, available lysine and methionine and residual trypsin inhibitors, and through a biological evaluation of protein digestibility and quality. Both pressure cooking products had similar functional and chemical characteristics, however, the 5-minute cooked product has higher protein quality than the 10-minute product.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Some compositional properties and mineral contents of carob (Ceratonia siliqua) fruit, flour and syrup.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Arslan, Derya; Gökçalik, Harun

    2007-12-01

    The approximate composition and mineral contents of carob fruit (Ceratonia siliqua), and the traditional foods produced from this fruit, carob flour and carob syrup, were studied. Protein, crude fiber and ash content and energy values of carob syrup were lower than the values of both carob fruit and carob flour. According to the results, the total sugar content, the most important constituents of carob products, were 48.35%, 41.55% and 63.88% for fruit, flour and syrup, respectively. These products contained high amounts of calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium and phosphorus, which were the most abundant elements in carob fruits (P < 0.05). Among the samples, potassium, phosphorus and calcium had the highest values in carob syrup, respectively. Carob flour also contained these elements in high amounts, with the addition of sodium. We extended the notion that carob fruit, flour and syrup were rich sources of carbohydrates, proteins and minerals.

  3. Pachyrhizus ahipa (Wedd.) Parodi roots and flour: Biochemical and functional characteristics.

    PubMed

    Doporto, María C; Mugridge, Alicia; García, María A; Viña, Sonia Z

    2011-06-15

    Ahipa roots' chemical composition and physiological parameters were characterised; ahipa flour preparation procedures were selected and the chemical composition and functional properties of these products were studied. Ahipa roots and flour can be considered alternative food sources of gluten-free starch, with a considerable contribution of protein, fibre and minerals, such as potassium, calcium and iron. The grating process for ahipa flour production required a pressing step (AFGP) and the recovery of the starch leached. The slicing procedure (AFS) was simpler and the resulting product showed higher contents of potassium, magnesium, calcium and protein than did AFGP, which showed lower sodium and higher acid detergent fibre contents, together with lower gelatinisation temperature. Both flours differed in terms of α-amylase activity and swelling power, characteristics that may condition their specific applications, such as the incorporation of these flours as gluten-free functional food ingredients.

  4. Content of free amino groups during postharvest wheat and flour maturation in relation to gluten quality.

    PubMed

    Janić Hajnal, Elizabet; Tomić, Jelena; Torbica, Aleksandra; Rakita, Slađana; Pojić, Milica; Zivančev, Dragan; Hadnađev, Miroslav; Dapčević Hadnađev, Tamara

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the changes in the content of free amino groups during postharvest wheat and flour maturation. The content of free amino groups of wheat flour was analysed immediately after wheat harvest, after 50 days of wheat storage and after 14 days of flour storage varying by wet gluten samples incubation temperatures and incubation times (0, 90 or 135 min at 30°C and after that 180 min at 37°C). The results were observed in relation to wheat-bug damaged kernels content, gluten index values, proteolytic activity and electrophoretic properties of gliadins and glutenins. The content of free amino groups increased during postharvest wheat and flour maturation periods. Proteolytic activity values were the highest 50 days after the wheat storage. The electrophoretic determination indicated a macromolecular redistribution of the gluten proteins from the moment of the wheat harvest until the moment of flour stabilisation.

  5. Effects of enzymatic treatment using Response Surface Methodology on the quality of bread flour.

    PubMed

    Shafisoltani, Mahsa; Salehifar, Mania; Hashemi, Maryam

    2014-04-01

    Flour with low α-amylase activity needs to be supplemented with additional α-amylase, but α-amylase added to weak flour can lead to decreased quality of the dough. The objective of this study, was to evaluate the effects of glucose oxidase (1-5/100 g flour) and xylanase (1-3/100 g flour) on the quality of bread flour after optimisation by additions of α-amylase. The effects of enzyme additions on dough properties and bread quality parameters such as specific volume, shape, texture and sensory attributes were determined by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) using a central composite design. Results of RSM modelling showed that glucose oxidase and xylanase improved the quality of bread and dough but effects were dose dependent. In this work, the optimal dose of glucose oxidase and xylanase were (30 and 20) ppm, respectively.

  6. Functionality of gliadin proteins in wheat flour tortillas.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Suchismita; Hays, Dirk B; Alviola, Noviola J; Mason, Richard E; Tilley, Michael; Waniska, Ralph D; Bean, Scott R; Glover, Karl D

    2009-02-25

    Gliadins are monomeric proteins that are encoded by the genes at the loci Gli 1 and Gli 2 present on the short arm of homologous wheat chromosomes 1 and 6, respectively. Studies have suggested that gliadins may play an important role in determining the functional properties of wheat flour. The main objective of this study was to understand the functionality of gliadins with respect to tortilla quality. The important tortilla quality attributes are diameter, opacity, and shelf stability, designated here as rollability or the ability to roll or fold the tortilla without cracking. In this study gliadin functionality in tortilla quality was studied using near-isogenic wheat lines that have deletions in either Gli A1, Gli D1, Gli A2, or Gli D2 gliadin loci. The deletion lines are designated by the same abbreviations. Dough and tortillas were prepared from the parent line used to derive these deletion lines, each individual deletion line, and a control commercial tortilla flour. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations were performed on the dough and tortillas derived from the flour from each of these lines. None of the deletions in the gliadin loci altered the shelf stability versus that found for the parent to the deletion lines or control tortilla flour. However, deletions in the Gli 2 loci, in particular Gli A2 reduced the relative proportion of alpha- and beta-gliadins with a greater cysteine amino acid content and gluten cross-link function versus the chain-terminating omega-gliadins in Gli 1, which were still present. As such, the dough and gluten matrix appeared to have greater extensibility, which improved the diameter and overall quality of the tortillas while not altering the rollability. Deletions in the Gli 1 loci had the opposite result with increased cross-linking of alpha- and beta-gliadins, polymeric protein content, and a stronger dough that decreased the diameter and overall quality of the tortillas. The data suggest that altering certain Gli 2 loci

  7. Modeling the continuous lactic acid production process from wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Karen; Tebbani, Sihem; Lopes, Filipa; Thorigné, Aurore; Givry, Sébastien; Dumur, Didier; Pareau, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    A kinetic model of the simultaneous saccharification, protein hydrolysis, and fermentation (SSPHF) process for lactic acid production from wheat flour has been developed. The model describes the bacterial growth, substrate consumption, lactic acid production, and maltose hydrolysis. The model was fitted and validated with data from SSPHF experiments obtained under different dilution rates. The results of the model are in good agreement with the experimental data. Steady state concentrations of biomass, lactic acid, glucose, and maltose as function of the dilution rate were predicted by the model. This steady state analysis is further useful to determine the operating conditions that maximize lactic acid productivity.

  8. Rice: chemistry and technology.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice has taken center stage this last decade, not only as an important provider of nourishment for the world’s population, but as a grain now recognized as having many unique nutritional and functional attributes with potential to be captured in a multitude of value-added food and non-food applicati...

  9. Rice bran phytonutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bran layer of the whole grain rice contains potential health-beneficial compounds. These include vitamin E homologs (tocopherols, tocotrienols), oryzanol fractions, simple phenolics and poly-phenolics. These are antioxidants that are believed to provide protection against diseases such as cancer...

  10. Microbiological, Nutritional, and Sensory Quality of Bread Produced from Wheat and Potato Flour Blends

    PubMed Central

    Ijah, Udeme Joshua Josiah; Aduloju, Mercy Oluwayemisi; Aransiola, Sesan Abiodun

    2014-01-01

    Dehydrated uncooked potato (Irish and sweet) flour was blended by weight with commercial wheat flour at 0 to 10% levels of substitution to make bread. Comparative study of the microbial and nutritional qualities of the bread was undertaken. The total aerobic bacterial counts ranged from 3.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.09 × 106 cfu/g while the fungal counts ranged from 8.0 × 101 cfu/g to 1.20 × 103 cfu/g of the sample. Coliforms were not detected in the bread. Bacteria isolated were species of Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus while fungi isolates were species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Mucor. The mean sensory scores (color, aroma, taste, texture, and general acceptability) were evaluated. The color of the bread baked from WF/IPF2 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5%) blend was preferred to WF (wheat flour, 100%) while WF/SPF1 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 100%) and WF/IPF1 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 90 : 10%) aroma were preferred to WF. However, the bread baked from WF, WF/IPF2 (wheat flour/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5%), and WF/SPF2 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 95 : 5%) was more acceptable than other blends. The use of hydrated potato flour in bread making is advantageous due to increased nutritional value, higher bread yield, and reduced rate of staling. PMID:26904642

  11. Effects of chickpea flour on wheat pasting properties and bread making quality.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, I; Ahmed, Abdelrahman R; Senge, B

    2014-09-01

    Pulses (pea, chickpea, lentil, bean) are an important source of food proteins. They contain high amounts of lysine, leucine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and arginine and provide well balanced essential amino acid profiles when consumed with cereals. The influence of partial substitution of wheat flour with chickpea flour at the levels of 10, 20 and 30 % was carried out to study their pasting properties and bread making quality. Pasting properties were determined using Micro Visco-Amylo-Graph Analyser and Farinograph. The pasting temperature increased with increase chickpea flour concentration and the temperature of pasting ranged between 62 to 66.5 °C. No peak of viscosity curve was found for pure chickpea flour and have higher pasting temperature than pure wheat flour. Chickpea flour addition increased the water absorption and dough development time (p < 0.05), Regarding dough stability, it appears that 10 % chickpea exhibited higher stability and resistance to mechanical mixing values than the control, while it decreased as the substitute level increases from 20 % to 30 %. The dough surface of the wheat dough and the blend with 10 % was classified as "normal", however the blend with 20 % and 30 % produced "sticky" dough surface. The presence of chickpea flour in dough affected bread quality in terms of volume, internal structure and texture. The color of crust and crumb got progressively darker as the level of chickpea flour substitution increased. While the substitution of wheat flour with 10 % chickpea flour gave loaves as similar as control.

  12. Comparison of the chemical composition and nutritional value of Amaranthus cruentus flour and its protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Escudero, N L; de Arellano, M L; Luco, J M; Giménez, M S; Mucciarelli, S I

    2004-01-01

    Plants constitute an alternative source of proteins in the human diet, with advantages over animal proteins because of their low content of saturated fats and absence of cholesterol. Within the framework of a wider research project on the role of Amaranthus cruentus (Ac) in lipid metabolism, in this work the chemical composition and biological value of the Ac flour and its protein concentrate were compared. Proximate chemical composition, amino acid and fatty acid profiles, some antinutrient factors, and biological values were determined for Ac seed flour and its protein concentrate obtained by extraction at pH 11 and precipitation at pH 4.5. The flour protein content was 16.6 g% while that of the concentrate was 52.56 g%. The content of the soluble dietary fiber with a hypolipemic function was notably higher in the protein concentrate (12.90 g%) than in the seed flour (4.29 g%). The protein concentrate also exhibited a higher content of insoluble dietary fiber. The Ac flour and the concentrate contain 75.44 and 56.95% unsaturated fatty acids, respectively. Squalene, which affects the biosynthesis of cholesterol, was detected both in the flour and the concentrate oils, with a higher content in the concentrate (9.53%) as compared to the flour (6.23%). Comparison of the amino acid composition with the FAO pattern protein indicated that the concentrate does not have limiting amino acids, while the flour has leucine, threonine, and valine. The content of lysine was high in both the flour and the concentrate, making these products particularly useful as a complement for cereal flour, which is deficient in this amino acid. The biological quality analysis demonstrated an improvement in the quality of the concentrate. The presence of saponins, phytic acid, and trypsin inhibitors in the concentrate, which favor the metabolism of lipids, suggests that consumption of the concentrate might reduce the risk of heart disease.

  13. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  14. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  15. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  16. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  17. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled...

  18. Rice Glycosyltransferase (GT) Phylogenomic Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ronald, Pamela

    The Ronald Laboratory staff at the University of California-Davis has a primary research focus on the genes of the rice plant. They study the role that genetics plays in the way rice plants respond to their environment. They created the Rice GT Database in order to integrate functional genomic information for putative rice Glycosyltransferases (GTs). This database contains information on nearly 800 putative rice GTs (gene models) identified by sequence similarity searches based on the Carbohydrate Active enZymes (CAZy) database. The Rice GT Database provides a platform to display user-selected functional genomic data on a phylogenetic tree. This includes sequence information, mutant line information, expression data, etc. An interactive chromosomal map shows the position of all rice GTs, and links to rice annotation databases are included. The format is intended to "facilitate the comparison of closely related GTs within different families, as well as perform global comparisons between sets of related families." [From http://ricephylogenomics.ucdavis.edu/cellwalls/gt/genInfo.shtml] See also the primary paper discussing this work: Peijian Cao, Laura E. Bartley, Ki-Hong Jung and Pamela C. Ronalda. Construction of a Rice Glycosyltransferase Phylogenomic Database and Identification of Rice-Diverged Glycosyltransferases. Molecular Plant, 2008, 1(5): 858-877.

  19. Nutrient-enhanced production of remarkably high concentrations of ethanol by Saccharomyces bayanus through soy flour supplementation

    SciTech Connect

    Viegas, C.A.; Sa-Correia, I.; Novais, J.M.

    1985-11-01

    The supplementation of a simple medium with soy flour led to an increase in the specific growth rate and viable cell concentration of saccharomyces bayanus during fermentation. Increasing the amount of soy flour led to an increase in the maximum number of viable yeast cells and the percentage of glucose fermented. It was possible in 64 h to reach 12.8% (wt/vol) ethanol by adding 4% soy flour (wt/vol) to a simple medium with 300 g of glucose per liter. The aqueous extract from soy flour was nearly as effective as whole-soy flour, whereas the lipidic fraction had no positive effect.

  20. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Ariana Vieira; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Linzmeier, Adelita Maria; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd) is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83%) and lipid (40.45%), with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%), antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae) and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae. PMID:26974840

  1. Gamma radiation effects on commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agúndez-Arvizu, Z.; Fernández-Ramírez, M. V.; Arce-Corrales, M. E.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Meléndrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2006-04-01

    Gamma irradiation is considered to be an alternative method for food preservation to prevent food spoilage, insect infestation and capable of reducing the microbial load. In the present investigation, commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour was irradiated at 1.0 kGy using a 60C Gammabeam 651 PT irradiator facility. No changes were detected in moisture, protein and ashes in gamma irradiated samples as compared to those of non-irradiated samples. Slight radiation effects were observed in the alveogram values and farinograph properties; the falling number decreased 11%, the absorption as well as the mixing tolerance were practically unchanged by irradiation. An increase of 15% in the stability value and a 29% in the dough development time were observed. Also the deformation energy decreased 7% with no change at all in the tenacity/extensibility factor. Total aerobic, yeast and mold counts were reduced 96%, 25% and 75%; respectively by the irradiation process. The obtained results confirm that gamma irradiation is effective in reducing the microbial load in bread making wheat flour without a significant change in the physicochemical and baking properties.

  2. Effect of Condensed Tannin Profile on Wheat Flour Dough Rheology.

    PubMed

    Girard, Audrey L; Castell-Perez, M Elena; Bean, Scott R; Adrianos, Sherry L; Awika, Joseph M

    2016-10-05

    Proanthocyanidins (PA) cross-link proteins and could expand wheat gluten functionality; however, how the PA MW or gluten profile affect these interactions is unknown. Effect of PA MW profile (sorghum versus grape seed PA) on dough rheology of high versus low insoluble polymeric protein (IPP) wheat flour was evaluated using mixograph, large (TA.XT2i) and small (HAAKE Rheostress 6000) deformation rheometry. Sorghum PA (93% polymeric) more effectively (p < 0.05) strengthened both glutens than grape seed PA (45% polymeric), without reducing gluten extensibility. These effects were higher in low IPP (weak gluten) flour, e.g., sorghum PA doubled IPP, increased mix time by 75%, dough elasticity by 82%, and peak angle by 17° versus control. Grape seed PA increased IPP by 75% and elasticity by 36%, but reduced peak angle by 15°, indicating reduced mixing tolerance. Sorghum PA, but not grape seed PA, increased (p < 0.05) all above parameters in high IPP dough. Polymeric PA more effectively strengthened gluten than oligomeric PA, likely via more efficient protein cross-linking to overcome strong antioxidant effect of PA. High MW PA may be useful natural gluten strengtheners for diverse applications.

  3. Food Value of Mealworm Grown on Acrocomia aculeata Pulp Flour.

    PubMed

    Alves, Ariana Vieira; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet; Linzmeier, Adelita Maria; Cardoso, Claudia Andrea Lima; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Insects have played an important role as human food throughout history, especially in Africa, Asia and Latin America. A good example of edible insects is the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae), which are eaten in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia. This species is easily bred in captivity, requiring simple management. The bocaiuva (Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd) is an abundant palm tree found in the Brazilian Cerrado, providing fruits with high nutritional value. The aim of this work was to determine the chemical composition of T. molitor grown in different artificial diets with bocaiuva pulp flour. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition, antioxidant activity, trypsin activity and anti-nutritional factors of larvae were analyzed. The results showed that mealworms grown on artificial diet with bocaiuva are a good source of protein (44.83%) and lipid (40.45%), with significant levels of unsaturated fatty acids (65.99%), antioxidant activity (4.5 μM Trolox/g of oil extracted from larvae) and absence of anti-nutritional factors. This study indicates a new source of biomass for growing mealworms and shows that it is possible to breed mealworms in artificial diet with bocaiuva flour without compromising the nutritional quality of the larvae.

  4. Optimization of composite flour biscuits by mixture response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Okpala, Laura C; Okoli, Eric C

    2013-08-01

    Biscuits were produced from blends of pigeon pea, sorghum and cocoyam flours. The study was carried out using mixture response surface methodology as the optimization technique. Using the simplex centroid design, 10 formulations were obtained. Protein and sensory quality of the biscuits were analyzed. The sensory attributes studied were appearance, taste, texture, crispness and general acceptability, while the protein quality indices were biological value and net protein utilization. The results showed that while the addition of pigeon pea improved the protein quality, its addition resulted in reduced sensory ratings for all the sensory attributes with the exception of appearance. Some of the biscuits had sensory ratings, which were not significantly different (p > 0.05) from biscuits made with wheat. Rat feeding experiments indicated that the biological value and net protein utilization values obtained for most of the biscuits were above minimum recommended values. Optimization suggested biscuits containing 75.30% sorghum, 0% pigeon pea and 24.70% cocoyam flours as the best proportion of these components. This sample received good scores for the sensory attributes.

  5. Legislative frameworks for corn flour and maize meal fortification.

    PubMed

    Makhumula, Phillip; Dary, Omar; Guamuch, Monica; Tom, Carol; Afidra, Ronald; Rambeloson, Zo

    2014-04-01

    Corn flour and maize meal fortification can benefit the consumer when the added nutrient contents are in amounts appropriate to address nutrient gaps. Legislative instruments (standards and regulations) are needed to provide guidance to the producers and food control authorities. We reviewed a number of national standards and regulations of fortified corn flour and maize meal and identified constraints; contrary to current belief, the practice of using minimum contents or ranges of nutrients has caused confusion, misinterpretation, and conflict, and should therefore be abandoned. On the basis of the findings, a model of fortification legislation is proposed, in which the additional content and the expected average nutrient content in a final product are recommended as the main parameters for quality control and enforcement. For labeling, the average content, or one adjusted to the expected content of the product at the market, can be applied. Variation in micronutrient contents should still be checked to ensure homogeneity but with adherence to clear procedures of sampling and testing, which should be part of the standards and regulations.

  6. Physicochemical properties of nixtamalized corn flours with and without germ.

    PubMed

    Vega Rojas, Lineth J; Rojas Molina, Isela; Gutiérrez Cortez, Elsa; Rincón Londoño, Natalia; Acosta Osorio, Andrés A; Del Real López, Alicia; Rodríguez García, Mario E

    2017-04-01

    This research studied the influence of the germ components on the physicochemical properties of cooked corn and nixtamalized corn flours as a function of the calcium hydroxide content (from 0 to 2.1 w/w) and steeping time (between 0 and 9h). A linear relationship was found between calcium content in germ and steeping time used during nixtamalization process. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that calcium carbonate is formed into the germ structure to 2.1 w/w of calcium hydroxide and 9h steeping time. The presence of the germ improves the development of peak viscosity in flours, and it is related to the increases in calcium concentration in germ and the formation of amylose-lipid complexes. No significant changes were observed in palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids of corn oil. The levels of further corn oil deterioration were 2.1 w/w of calcium hydroxide concentration and 9h of steeping time.

  7. The nutritional value of oat flour for very young children.

    PubMed

    Graham, G G; MacLean, W C; Morales, E

    1990-04-01

    Whole groat flour was consumed by nine infants and young children as 22.5, 45, or 67% of total diet energy (one half of 6.4%, all of 6.4%, or all of 9.6% protein energy). Isonitrogenous and isoenergetic casein control diets were given. Apparent absorption of oat nitrogen (N) was consistently around 75% of intake (casein, 87%), but absorptions of oat energy, carbohydrate, and fat, as percentages of intake, decreased disproportionately as oat flour intake was doubled and then tripled. Apparent retentions were 39 +/- 5% of mixed oat-casein protein intake in the 22.5% diet, the preceding and following casein controls being 38 +/- 8% (NS) and 44.4% (p less than 0.05) of the intakes; 32 +/- 6% from oats in the 45% diet, controls 38 +/- 5 and 46 +/- 5% (both p less than 0.05), and 33 +/- 11% from oats in the 67% diet, controls, 36 +/- 9% (NS). Fasting plasma free total essential amino acid (TEAA) levels of children consuming 45% oats were low (562 +/- 119 mumol of TEAA/L) and did not change significantly after meals. Fasting molar proportions of individual essentials (millimoles of EAA per mole of TEAA) were similar to those from milk protein diets and did not vary significantly 3 and 4 h after feeding, suggesting that no individual amino acid, but rather protein digestibility, was first limiting to N retention. Oats are a satisfactory source of energy, protein, and fat for very young children and many infants.

  8. Accelerated Solvent Extraction of Insecticides from Rice Hulls, Rice Bran, and Polished Rice Grains.

    PubMed

    Teló, Gustavo Mack; Senseman, Scott Allen; Marchesan, Enio; Camargo, Edinalvo Rabaioli; Carson, Katherine

    2017-03-01

    Analysis of pesticide residues in irrigated rice grains is important for food security. In this study, we analyzed accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) conditions for the extraction of thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole insecticides from rice hulls, rice bran, and polished rice grains. Several variables, including extraction solvent, extraction temperature, extraction pressure, cell size, static extraction time, and sample concentration, were investigated. The average recoveries of the three matrixes were between 89.7 and 109.7% at the fortification level of 0.75 mg/kg. The optimum ASE operating conditions were acetonitrile (100%) as extraction solvent, extraction temperature of 75°C for rice hulls and 100°C for rice bran and polished rice grains, extraction cell pressure of 10.3 MPa, 22 mL cell size, and two extraction cycles. The total extraction time was approximately 25 min. The extracted volume was evaporated to dryness and the residues were redissolved in 2 mL acetonitrile after 1 min of vortex-shaking. Thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole were analyzed by ultra-HPLC with tandem MS. In conclusion, ASE in rice hulls, rice bran, and polished rice grains offers the possibility of a fast and simple method for obtaining a quantitative extraction of the studied pesticides.

  9. Changes in the solubility of corn proteins through interaction with the arabinoxylans in extruded nixtamalized corn flour treated with xylanase.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Rivas, Silvia Carolina; Medina-Rodríguez, Concepción Lorenia; Torres-Chávez, Patricia Isabel; Ramírez-Wong, Benjamín; Platt-Lucero, Luis Carlos

    2014-06-01

    The extrusion process allows the production of nixtamalized corn flour rich in arabinoxylans, which help to prevent cardiovascular and intestinal diseases. During extrusion, physiochemical properties of nixtamalized corn flour are negatively modified. The use of enzymes such as xylanase in order to obtain nixtamalized corn flour using extrusion has been studied as an alternative to reduce these changes in corn flour tortilla. The aim of this research was to evaluate changes in protein solubility of extruded nixtamalized corn flour with and without different concentrations of xylanase enzyme (0.05, 0.075, and 0.1%, w/w). Soluble proteins of each corn flour were extracted and analyzed by SE-HPLC, while insoluble proteins were determined by the combustion method. In addition, each corn flour was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that the extruded nixtamalized corn flour, with and without xylanase, increased the protein solubility, and this effect was lower in extruded nixtamalized corn flour with xylanase. Insoluble protein diminished in corn flours either with or without xylanase enzyme. The addition of xylanase reduces the effect that the extrusion process has on the solubility proteins of extruded nixtamalized corn flour.

  10. Use of whole grain and refined flour from tannin and non-tannin sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) varieties in frybread.

    PubMed

    Rose, Devin J; Williams, Emily; Mkandawire, Nyambe L; Weller, Curtis L; Jackson, David S

    2014-07-01

    Frybreads were prepared using wheat flour and wheat-sorghum composite flours (refined and whole grain; white, tannin-free and red, tannin-containing) at 0, 25, 50, and 75% sorghum flour. Hardness, volume, specific volume, color, and oil uptake were determined. Frybreads made with refined white, tannin-free sorghum were also evaluated in a sensory panel. Substitution of sorghum flour for wheat flour reduced the volume and increased the darkness of the fried dough pieces compared with wheat flour controls. Oil absorption was unaffected when using white, tannin-free sorghum. When using red, tannin-containing sorghum, oil absorption increased for refined flour and decreased for whole grain flour, suggesting that a component only present in the whole grain tannin-containing Sorghum--perhaps tannins themselves--may decrease oil uptake. Panelists rated frybreads containing up to 50% white, tannin-free sorghum flour as not significantly different from control frybreads made with refined wheat flour.

  11. Effect of incorporating hydrothermal, kilned and defatted oats on antioxidant and chapatti making properties of wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Gujral, Hardeep Singh; Sharma, Paras; Gill, Balmeet Singh; Kaur, Sumandeep

    2013-06-01

    Oats were subjected to treatments like defatting, hydrothermal cooking and kilning, milled into flour and then the control and treated flours were incorporated into wheat flour at 25% and 50% levels and chapatti making behaviour and antioxidant properties were studied. The treatments significantly affected the antioxidant properties of oats. Incorporating oat flours to wheat increased total phenolic content but lowered the antioxidant activity however both were decreased significantly upon baking. The reducing power of the oat blended flour was higher than the wheat flours and ranged from 8.0 to 15.5 μmol AAE/g and was further increased upon baking. The metal chelating activity of flour blends varied from 62.0% to 73.8% and further increased upon baking. After baking the total flavonoid content was lowered and ranged from 308 to 389 μg CE/g. The non-enzymatic browning index significantly increased up to 27.6% upon baking.

  12. RP-HPLC and chemometrics for wheat flour protein characterisation in an industrial bread-making process monitoring context.

    PubMed

    Li Vigni, Mario; Baschieri, Carlo; Marchetti, Andrea; Cocchi, Marina

    2013-08-15

    In the baking industry, a difficult task is to keep the quality perceived by the consumer as constant as possible, given the inner variability of flour, e.g. due to different wheat mixtures, harvesting time, etc. Here, we evaluated the influence of flour batches properties on bread quality, considering an industrial bread making process. In particular, flour composition in terms of protein fractions (gliadins, glutenins) has been determined by means of RP-HPLC, to assess the inter- and intra-batch variability of flour mixtures deliveries at a baking plant. Multivariate data analysis allowed evaluation of correlation between flour protein composition and technological properties. A great variability within different deliveries of a same flour batch emerged, as well as a considerable seasonal variability. Correlation models among protein sub-fractions, technological properties and bread quality are difficult to establish; however, the role of the protein profile on flour behaviour in bread making could be highlighted.

  13. Effect of delayed harvesting and pre-treatment methods on the antinutritional contents of trifoliate yam flour.

    PubMed

    Abiodun, Olufunmilola Adunni; Akinoso, Rahman

    2014-03-01

    Effects of delayed harvesting and pre-treatment methods on the anti-nutritional contents of trifoliate yam flour were examined. Trifoliate yam tubers were washed, peeled, sliced and subjected to pre-treatment methods, such as soaking, pre-cooking and blanching/soaking. The phenols, phytate, oxalate, tannin and alkaloid profiles of the flours were evaluated and the values of phenols, tannin, oxalate and phytate contents were 0.02-0.32, 0.04-0.53, 0.11-4.32 and 0.20-1.05mg/100g, respectively. The predominant alkaloids in trifoliate yam flour were dioscorine and dihydrodioscorine. The white trifoliate yam flour had higher levels of anti-nutrients than the yellow trifoliate yam flour. Alkaloid contents of trifoliate yam flour increased slightly with delayed harvesting periods. Blanching/soaking method drastically reduced the anti-nutrient contents of trifoliate yam flour than other methods.

  14. Effects of enzymatic hydrolysis of protein on the pasting properties of different types of wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Chen, J S; Wang, S Y; Deng, Z Y; Zhang, X Y; Feng, S L; Yuan, H Q; Tian, J C

    2012-05-01

    As one of the most effective methods to modify proteins, enzymatic hydrolysis is used widely in the preparation of wheat products in the food industry. During the same process, starch pasting occurs frequently. The effects of wheat protein hydrolysis with papain, pepsin, and trypsin on the pasting properties of 3 different kinds of flour were investigated in 5 concentrations. Results showed that the peak viscosity, trough, final, and integral area of pasting curve of these flours decreased with increasing enzymatic hydrolysis of protein, and decreased significantly with the increasing enzyme concentrations. Medium-gluten flour was the least sensitive to enzymatic activity and weak-gluten the most sensitive. Downtrends appeared with increasing papain and trypsin concentrations in the form of breakdown. Enzymes had no significant different effect on the peak times of strong- and medium-gluten flour, but prolonged peak time slightly in weak-gluten flour. The pasting time and temperature of strong- and medium-gluten flour were significantly increased in a concentration-dependent manner. However, there were no significant effects on the pasting times of weak-gluten flour. These results could supply a basis for utilization of enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat protein in food industry and for further studies into the interactions between hydrolyzed protein and starch in food or processing industries.

  15. [Detection of benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour by NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy technique].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-yong; Li, Gang; Liu, Hai-xue; Lin, Ling; Zhang, Bao-ju; Wu, Xiao-rong

    2011-12-01

    Adding benzoyl peroxide (BPO) into wheat flour was prohibited by the relevant government departments since May 1, 2011. And it is of great importance to detect BPO additive amount in wheat flour quickly and accurately. Part of BPO which was added into wheat flour will be deoxidized into benzoic acid, and this make it complex to detect the original BPO additive amount. The objective of the present research is to investigate the potential of NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a way for measurement of BPO original adding amount in wheat flour. A total of 133 wheat flour samples were prepared by adding different content of BPO into pure wheat flour. Spectra data were obtained by NIR spectrometer and then denoised by wavelet transform. Ninety seven samples were taken as calibration set and other 36 samples as prediction set. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was applied to establish the calibration model between BPO original adding contents and the spectra data. The determination coefficient of model for the calibration set is 0.8901, and root mean squared error of calibration (RMSEC) is 40.85 mg x kg(-1). The determination coefficient for the prediction set is 0.8865, and root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) is 44.69 mg x kg(-1). The result indicates that it is feasible to detect the BPO adding contents in wheat flour by NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy technique and this technique has the potential to measure some other additives in food.

  16. Studies on the baking properties of non-wheat flours--I. Breadfruit (Artocarpus artilis).

    PubMed

    Esuoso, K O; Bamiro, F O

    1995-08-01

    The possibility of producing bread from wheat (WF)/Breadfruit (BF), composite flour has been examined. Wheat flour was supplemented with up to 50% breadfruit flour. Chemical analysis of the breadfruit flour indicated a high starch content (80.9 +/- 0.9%), a fairly high crude fibre and ash contents (1.6 +/- 0.3; 4.2 +/- 0.3%) respectively and a low protein content (4.0 +/- 0.5%). Brabender amylograph pasting viscosity of the various flour and flour blends indicated that apart from the 100% WF, 10% BF/WF blends recorded the best pasting characteristics in terms of the starch stability, gelatinization index and set back values. While the 100% BF exhibited the poorest pasting characteristics. Physical characteristics indicated that only 100% WF and 10% BF/WF were free of cracks and crumbliness, 20% and 30% BF/WF had slight cracks, while others are dense and highly cracked. This was reflected on the panellist judgment during sensory evaluation. There was no significant difference at P < 0.05 between the control (100% WF) and the composite bread samples up to 30% level of breadfruit flour. Others differed significantly.

  17. Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Refined and Whole Wheat Flour and Bread.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lilei; Nanguet, Anne-Laure; Beta, Trust

    2013-11-26

    Antioxidant properties of refined and whole wheat flour and their resultant bread were investigated to document the effects of baking. Total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were employed to determine the content of ethanol extractable phenolic compounds. HPLC was used to detect the presence of phenolic acids prior to their confirmation using LC-MS/MS. Whole wheat flour showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than refined flour (p < 0.05). There was a significant effect of the bread-making process with the TPC of whole wheat bread (1.50-1.65 mg/g) and white bread (0.79-1.03 mg/g) showing a respective reduction of 28% and 33% of the levels found in whole wheat and refined flour. Similarly, baking decreased DPPH radical scavenging capacity by 32% and 30%. ORAC values, however, indicated that baking increased the antioxidant activities of whole wheat and refined flour by 1.8 and 2.9 times, respectively. HPLC analysis showed an increase of 18% to 35% in ferulic acid after baking to obtain whole and refined wheat bread containing 330.1 and 25.3 µg/g (average), respectively. Whole wheat flour and bread were superior to refined flour and bread in in vitro antioxidant properties.

  18. Respiratory symptoms and airway responsiveness in apparently healthy workers exposed to flour dust.

    PubMed

    Bohadana, A B; Massin, N; Wild, P; Kolopp, M N; Toamain, J P

    1994-06-01

    Our aim was to measure the levels of exposure to wheat flour dust in a modern industrial bakery, and to assess the relationship between respiratory symptoms, sensitization to wheat flour antigens and airway responsiveness in the workforce. Forty four flour-exposed male workers and 164 unexposed controls were examined. Inspirable dust concentrations were measured using personal samplers. Respiratory symptoms were assessed by questionnaire, sensitization to wheat flour antigens by skin-prick tests, and methacholine airway challenge (MAC) test using an abbreviated method. Subjects were labelled MAC+ if forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) fell by 20% or more. The linear dose-response slope (DRS) was calculated as the percentage fall in FEV1 at last dose divided by the total dose administered. Inspirable dust concentrations were within acceptable limits in all working areas but one. The proportion of subjects with one or more symptoms and with airway hyperresponsiveness was significantly greater among flour-exposed workers than among controls. Using logistic or linear regression analysis, airway responsiveness was found to be strongly related to working at the bakery and to the baseline level of lung function. A positive skin-prick test was found in only 11% of flour-exposed workers and 6% of controls. In conclusion, our data show that despite exposure to relatively low concentration levels of inspirable flour dust, subjects working in the baking industry are at risk of developing both respiratory symptoms and airway hyperresponsiveness.

  19. Effect of Wheat Flour Packaging Materials on Infestation by Lasioderma serricorne (F.).

    PubMed

    Lü, Jianhua; Ma, Dan

    2015-05-01

    The ability of the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (F.) (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), to infest wheat flour under packaged and unpackaged conditions was investigated in the laboratory at 27 ± 2°C and 75% ± 5% relative humidity. Five common packaging materials, namely, vacuum plastic bags, kraft paper bags, nonwoven cloth bags, aluminum foil bags, and woven plastic bags, were investigated. Adults and eggs of L. serricorne were released on different packaged wheat flour or on unpackaged wheat flour, and infestation levels (number of live adults and larvae) were determined after 45 days. When adults were released on wheat flour, the infestation degree varied depending on the package materials. The highest infestation was observed in refined wheat flour packaged in nonwoven cloth bags. With wheat flour packaged in kraft paper bags exposed to adults or eggs, there was no insect infestation or insect infestation was negligible (mean population, <1.3). With wheat flour packaged in aluminum foil bags and vacuum plastic bags exposed to adults or eggs, there was no insect infestation. Damage to the packaging materials along the folds or edges was found in nonwoven cloth bags and woven plastic bags. Therefore, both aluminum foil and plastic bags had the greatest resistance to package invasion by L. serricorne.

  20. Optimization of high filler loading on tensile properties of recycled HDPE/PET blends filled with rice husk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ruey Shan; Ahmad, Sahrim; Ghani, Mohd Hafizuddin Ab; Salleh, Mohd Nazry

    2014-09-01

    Biocomposites of recycled high density polyethylene / recycled polyethylene terephthalate (rHDPE/rPET) blend incorporated with rice husk flour (RHF) were prepared using a corotating twin screw extruder. Maleic anhydride polyethylene (MAPE) was added as a coupling agent to improve the fibre-matrix interface adhesion. The effect of high filler loadings (50-90 wt%) on morphology and tensile properties of compatibilized rHDPE/rPET blend was investigated. The results of our study shown that composite with 70 wt% exhibited the highest tensile strength and Young's modulus, which are 22 MPa and 1752 MPa, respectively. The elongation at break decreased with increasing percentage of RHF. SEM micrograph confirmed fillers dispersion, morphological interaction and enhanced interfacial bonding between recycled polymer blends and rice husk. It can be concluded that the optimum RHF content is 70 wt% with maximum tensile strength.

  1. Nutritional Profile and Chemical Stability of Pasta Fortified with Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Flour

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Maria Lúcia G.; Mársico, Eliane T.; Soares, Manoel S.; Magalhães, Amanda O.; Canto, Anna Carolina V. C. S.; Costa-Lima, Bruno R. C.; Alvares, Thiago S.; Conte, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Physicochemical parameters of pasta enriched with tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) flour were investigated. Five formulations were prepared with different concentrations of tilapia flour as partial substitute of wheat flour: pasta without tilapia flour (PTF0%), pasta with 6% (PTF6%), 12% (PTF12%), 17% (PTF17%), and 23% (PTF23%) of tilapia flour. The formulations were assessed for proximate composition, fatty acid and amino acid profile on day 1 whereas, instrumental color parameters (L*, a* and b* values), pH, water activity (aw), and lipid and protein oxidation were evaluated on days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of storage at 25°C. Fortification with tilapia flour increased (p < 0.05) protein, lipid, ash, total essential amino acids, and total polyunsaturated fatty acids contents. In addition, supplementation of pasta with tilapia flour decreased (p < 0.05) lightness and water activity while redness, yellowness, pH values, and lipid oxidation were increased (p < 0.05) in a level-dependent manner. Nevertheless, all formulations were exhibited storage stability at 25°C. In general, protein oxidation was greater (p < 0.05) in the pasta containing 12%, 17%, and 23% of tilapia flour than their counterparts, and the storage promoted an increase (p < 0.05) on the carbonyl content in all formulations. Thus, pasta with 6% of tilapia flour has the potential to be a technological alternative to food industry for the nutritional enrichment of traditional pasta with negligible negative effects on the chemical stability of the final product during 21 days at 25°C. PMID:27973565

  2. Physicochemical characterization of white, yellow and purple maize flours and rheological characterization of their doughs.

    PubMed

    Moreira, R; Chenlo, F; Arufe, S; Rubinos, S N

    2015-12-01

    White, yellow and purple maize flours were obtained after dried kernels milling with two different sieves (200 and 500 μm). Hygroscopic characteristics, particle size distribution, colour and total starch and damaged starch (DS) of flours were determined. Maize flour doughs were obtained by mixing of flour and water in a laboratory kneader (Mixolab®) at constant dough consistency (1.10 ± 0.07 Nm). Dough properties like water absorption (WA), development and stability times were determined. Rheological characterization was carried out at 30 °C by means of oscillatory frequency sweep (1-100 rad s(-1)) at 0.1 % strain and creep (50 Pa, 60 s) - recovery (0 Pa, 180 s) tests using a controlled stress rheometer. No significant differences were observed among water desorption isotherms of maize varieties and Halsey model was satisfactorily employed. Under the same milling conditions, white maize flours showed higher average particles size than purple and yellow maize flours. A model to predict flours colour involving colour parameters of the particle size fractions is proposed. Flours obtained with smaller particle size showed higher DS content and WA. For tested doughs, the mechanical spectra showed that elastic component was dominant over the viscous one. Damping factor varied slightly with angular frequency. Moduli values depended on average particle size and WA of dough. Creep-recovery data were satisfactorily fit with Burgers model. Instantaneous creep compliance varied with the same trend than elastic modulus. Viscoelastic creep compliance increased linearly with WA of the tested doughs and, at constant average flour particle size, increased with increasing DS.

  3. Physicochemical Properties of Defatted Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) Seed Flour after Alkaline Treatment.

    PubMed

    Eiamwat, Jirawat; Wanlapa, Sorada; Kampruengdet, Sukit

    2016-03-31

    Rambutan seeds were subjected to SC-CO₂ extraction at 35 MPa, 45 °C to obtain defatted rambutan seed flour. Its physicochemical properties before and after treatment with alkali solution using 0.075 N NaOH were investigated. Alkali-treated flour had a significant increment in bulk density, swelling power, water adsorption capacity, emulsion capacity and stability but a reduction in turbidity, solubility and oil absorption capacity. Pasting measurements showed peak viscosity, breakdown, setback and final viscosity increased significantly for the alkali-treated flour, while pasting temperature decreased. The alkaline treatment decreased the least gelation concentration, but increased the apparent viscosity.

  4. Modification of wheat flour with bromelain and baking hypoallergenic bread with added ingredients.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, S; Arai, S; Watanabe, M

    1996-08-01

    Based on the wheat glutenin IgE-binding epitope, Gln-Gln-Gln-Pro-Pro, a practical method is proposed for the production of hypoallergenic wheat flour. Bromelain was found effective for decomposing the epitope structure. In practice, soft flour was mixed with water dissolving bromelain and the mixture was incubated at 37 degrees C for 4 h. The result of IgE-ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) suggested negative allergenicity. A mixture of bromelain-modified flour, glucose, citric, acid, a surfactant and sodium hydrogen carbonate was baked to produce hypoallergenic bread, resembling English muffins.

  5. An outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 42 associated with the consumption of raw flour.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Lisa; Paine, Shevaun; Sexton, Kerry; Dufour, Muriel; Dyet, Kristin; Wilson, Maurice; Campbell, Donald; Bandaranayake, Don; Hope, Virginia

    2013-02-01

    A cluster of salmonellosis cases caused by Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 42 (STM42) emerged in New Zealand in October 2008. STM42 isolates from a wheat-based poultry feed raw material (broll; i.e., product containing wheat flour and particles of grain) had been identified in the 2 months prior to this cluster. Initial investigations indicated that eating uncooked baking mixture was associated with illness. A case-control study was conducted to test the hypothesis that there was an association between STM42 cases and consumption of raw flour or other baking ingredients. Salmonella isolates from human and non-human sources were compared using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Environmental investigations included testing flour and other baking ingredients from case homes, unopened bags of flour purchased from retail stores, and inspection of an implicated flour mill. A case-control study of 39 cases and 66 controls found cases had 4.5 times the odds of consuming uncooked baking mixture as controls (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-12.5, p-value 0.001). Examination of individual baking ingredients found that, after adjusting for eggs, flour had an odds ratio (OR) of 5.7 (95% CI 1.1-29.1, p-value 0.035). After adjusting for flour, eggs had an OR of 0.8 (95% CI 0.2-3.4, p-value 0.762). PFGE patterns were identical for all STM42 isolates tested; however, MLVA distinguished isolates that were epidemiologically linked to the cluster. STM42 was recovered from flour taken from four cases' homes, two unopened packs purchased from retail stores and packs from three batches of retrieved (recalled) product. This outbreak was associated with the consumption of uncooked baking mixture containing flour contaminated with STM42. The implicated flour mill initiated a voluntary withdrawal from sale of all batches of flour thought to be contaminated. Media releases informed the public about implicated flour

  6. Tabletop Tectonics: Diverse Mountain Ranges Using Flour and Graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, D. M.

    2006-12-01

    It has been recognized for some time that the frontal deformation zones where plates converge (foreland fold- and-thrust belts on continents and accretionary wedges at subduction zones) involve shortening over a decoupling layer, or decollement. A simple but successful way of explaining many aspects of their behavior is called the critical Coulomb wedge model, which regards these contractional wedges as analogous to the wedge-shaped mass of soil accreted in front of a bulldozer, or the wedge of snow that piles up in front of a snow plow. The shape and deformation history of the accreted wedge of soil or snow will depend upon the frictional strength of the material being plowed up and the surface over which it is being plowed. The same is true of `bulldozer' wedges consisting of many km thick piles of sediment at convergent plate margins. Using flour (or powdered milk), sandpaper, graphite, transparency sheets, and athletic field marker chalk, manipulated with sieves, brushes, pastry bags and blocks and sheets of wood, it is possible to demonstrate a wide variety of processes and tectonic styles observed at convergent plate boundaries. Model fold-and-thrust belts that behave like natural examples with a decollement that is strong (e.g., in rock without high pore fluid pressure) or weak (e.g., in a salt horizon or with elevated pore fluid pressure) can be generated simply by placing wither sandpaper or graphite beneath the flour that is pushed across the tabletop using a block of wood (the strong basement and hiterland rocks behind the fold-thrust belt). Depending upon the strength of the decollement, the cross-sectional taper of the deforming wedge will be thin or broad, the internal deformation mild or intense, and the structures either close to symmetric or strongly forward-vergent, just as at the analogous natural fold-thrust belts. Including a horizontal sheet of wood or Plexiglas in front of the pushing block allows generation of an accretionary wedge, outer

  7. Chemical purification of Gunungpati elephant foot yam flour to improve physical and chemical quality on processed food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramita, Octavianti; Wahyuningsih, Ansori, Muhammad

    2017-03-01

    This study was aimed at improving the physicochemical quality of elephant foot yam flour in Gunungpati, Semarang by chemical purification. The utilization of elephant foot yam flour in several processed food was also discussed in this study. The flour purification discussed in this study was expected to become a reference for the manufacturers of elephant foot yam flour and its processed food in Gunungpati. This study modified the elephant foot yam flour using pre - gelatinization method. The physical and chemical quality of each elephant foot yam flour purification sample were assessed using proximate analysis. The likability test was conducted for its processed food. 20 grams of elephant foot yam flour was put into a beaker glass, then 60 ml of water was added. The suspension was then heated at a temperature of 60 ° C and 70 ° C while stirred until it was homogeneous and thickened for 10, 30 and 60 minutes. The flour which had been heated was then cooled at room temperature for 1 hour and then at a temperature of 0 ° C until it was frozen. Furthermore, flour was dried in an oven at a temperature of 60 ° C for 9 hours. The dried flour was sifted with a 80 mesh sieve. Chemical test was conducted after elephant foot yam was pre-gelatinized to determine changes in the quality flour: test levels of protein, fat, crude fiber content, moisture content, ash content and starch content. In addition, color tests and granular test on elephant foot yam flour were also conducted. The pre-gelatinization as chemical treatment on elephant foot yam flour in this study was able to change the functional properties of elephant foot yam flour towards a better processing characterized by a brighter color (L = 70, a = 6 and b = 12), the hydrolysis of polysaccharides flour into shorter chain (flour content decreased to 44%), the expansion of granules in elephant foot yam resulting in a process - ready flour, and better monolayer water content of 9%. The content of protein and fiber

  8. Outcrossing Potential between U.S. Blackhull Red Rice and Indica Rice Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weedy red rice is a major weed pest of rice in the southern U.S. Outcrossing between red rice and commercial tropical japonica rice cultivars has resulted in new weed biotypes that further hinder the effectiveness of weed management. In recent years, indica rice has been used increasingly as a ger...

  9. Production of resistant starch by enzymatic debranching in legume flours.

    PubMed

    Morales-Medina, Rocío; Del Mar Muñío, María; Guadix, Emilia M; Guadix, Antonio

    2014-01-30

    Resistant starch (RS) was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of flours from five different legumes: lentil, chickpea, faba bean, kidney bean and red kidney bean. Each legume was firstly treated thermally, then hydrolyzed with pullulanase for 24h at 50°C and pH 5 and lyophilized. At the end of each hydrolysis reaction, the RS amount ranged from 4.7% for red kidney beans to 7.5% for chickpeas. With respect to the curves of RS against hydrolysis time, a linear increase was observed initially and a plateau was generally achieved by the end of reaction. These curves were successfully modeled by a kinetic equation including three parameters: initial RS, RS at long operation time and a kinetic constant (k). Furthermore, the relative increase in hydrolysis, calculated using the kinetic parameters, was successfully correlated to the percentage of amylose.

  10. Occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma by exposure to Lathyrus sativus flour.

    PubMed

    Antón Gironés, M; de la Hoz Caballer, B; Muñoz Martín, T; Cuevas Agustín, M; Sánchez-Cano, M

    2005-01-01

    We report the case of a 42-year-old non-smoking man, who had worked as a carpenter for 6 years and who reported a history of rhinorrhea, paroxysmal sneezing, nasocular pruritus, lacrimation, wheezing and dyspnea attacks while preparing a mixture to seal the junctures between wooden panels. Allergy study consisted of skin prick testing (SPT) to inhalants, foods and Lathyrus sativus flour (LSF) extract, specific bronchial provocation test with LSF extract, cytological analysis of sputum, specific IgE antibodies against LSF, and histamine releasing test with dilutions (1:5, 1:25, 1:125, 1:625) of LSF. The results demonstrated occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma due to LSF exposure. We provide a review of published reports to date.

  11. Overuse of Phosphorus Fertilizer Reduces the Grain and Flour Protein Contents and Zinc Bioavailability of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Dunyi; Liu, Yumin; Chen, Xinping; Zou, Chunqin

    2017-03-01

    To supplement human dietary nutrition, it is necessary to evaluate the effects of phosphorus (P) fertilizer application on grain and flour protein contents and especially on the bioavailability of zinc (Zn). A field experiment of winter wheat with six P application rates (0, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400 kg/ha) was conducted from 2013 to 2015. The grain yield increased with P application but was not further enhanced when P rates exceeded 50 kg/ha. As P application increased, the protein concentration in grain and standard flour and the viscosity of standard flour decreased. Phosphorus and phytic acid (PA) concentrations in grain and flours increased and then plateaued, whereas Zn concentration decreased and then plateaued as P application increased from 0 to 100 kg/ha. Estimated Zn bioavailability in grain and flours decreased as P application increased from 0 to 100 kg/ha and then plateaued. Estimated Zn bioavailability was greater in standard flour, bread flour, and refined flour than in grain or coarse flour. Phosphorus supply in the intensive cropping of wheat can be optimized to simultaneously obtain high grain yields, high grain and flour protein contents, and high Zn bioavailability.

  12. Optimization of the operating conditions of solid sampling electrothermal vaporization coupled to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for the sensitive direct analysis of powdered rice.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Nausheen; Beauchemin, Diane

    2014-12-03

    Two different approaches were used to improve the capabilities of solid sampling (SS) electrothermal vaporization (ETV) coupled to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for the direct analysis of powdered rice. Firstly, a cooling step immediately before and after the vaporization step in the ETV temperature program resulted in a much sharper analyte signal peak. Secondly, point-by-point internal standardization with an Ar emission line significantly improved the linearity of calibration curves obtained with an increasing amount of rice flour certified reference material (CRM). Under the optimized conditions, detection limits ranged from 0.01 to 6ngg(-1) in the solid, depending on the element and wavelength selected. The method was validated through the quantitative analysis of corn bran and wheat flour CRMs. Application of the method to the multi-elemental analysis of 4-mg aliquots of real organic long grain rice (white and brown) also gave results for Al, As, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Se, Pb and Zn in agreement with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry following acid digestion of 0.2-g aliquots. As the analysis takes roughly 5min per sample (2.5min for grinding, 0.5-1min for weighing a 4-mg aliquot and 87s for the ETV program), this approach shows great promise for fast screening of food samples.

  13. Physicochemical differences between sorghum starch and sorghum flour modified by heat-moisture treatment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qingjie; Han, Zhongjie; Wang, Li; Xiong, Liu

    2014-02-15

    Sorghum starch and sorghum flour were modified by heat-moisture treatment (HMT) at two different moisture contents, 20% and 25%. The result showed that solubility and swelling power of modified samples decreased. In addition, the pasting viscosities of most modified samples were lower than that of native samples. The onset, peak and conclusion temperatures of gelatinization, and the enthalpy of samples modified by HMT increased. The crystallinity of the modified samples was higher than that of control samples. HMT had a far greater effect on the solubility, swelling power, setback viscosity, through viscosity, enthalpy and crystallinity of sorghum flour than of sorghum starch. On the granules surface there were more holes for the HMT starches than for HMT flours. The microstructure of HMT sorghum starch gel had a more orderly and smaller holey structure. The sorghum flour gel had originally a crackled structure, but after the HMT treatment, it had many ordered and small holes.

  14. 21 CFR 73.140 - Toasted partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... cottonseed flour shall conform to the following specifications: Arsenic: It contains no added arsenic... arsenic, calculated as As. Lead (as Pb), not more than 10 parts per million. Free gossypol content,...

  15. 21 CFR 73.140 - Toasted partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... cottonseed flour shall conform to the following specifications: Arsenic: It contains no added arsenic... arsenic, calculated as As. Lead (as Pb), not more than 10 parts per million. Free gossypol content,...

  16. 21 CFR 73.140 - Toasted partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cottonseed flour shall conform to the following specifications: Arsenic: It contains no added arsenic... arsenic, calculated as As. Lead (as Pb), not more than 10 parts per million. Free gossypol content,...

  17. 21 CFR 73.140 - Toasted partially defatted cooked cottonseed flour.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cottonseed flour shall conform to the following specifications: Arsenic: It contains no added arsenic... arsenic, calculated as As. Lead (as Pb), not more than 10 parts per million. Free gossypol content,...

  18. Sourdough fermentation and chestnut flour in gluten-free bread: A shelf-life evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Scazzina, Francesca; Chiavaro, Emma

    2017-06-01

    The effect of sourdough fermentation combined with chestnut flour was investigated for improving technological and nutritional quality of gluten-free bread during 5day shelf life by means of chemico-physical and nutritional properties. Sourdough fermentation by itself and with chestnut flour reduced volume of loaves and heterogeneity in crumb grain. Sourdough technology allowed increasing crumb moisture content with no significant variations during shelf-life. Chestnut flour darkened crumb and crust while no effects on colour were observed for sourdough. Sourdough and/or chestnut flour addition caused a significant increase in crumb hardness at time 0 while a significant reduction of staling was observed only at 5days, even if a decrease in amylopectin fusion enthalpy was observed. The percentage of hydrolysed starch during in vitro digestion was significantly reduced by sourdough fermentation with a presumable lower glycaemic index.

  19. Chilean flour and wheat grain: tracing their origin using near infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    González-Martín, Ma Inmaculada; Wells Moncada, Guillermo; González-Pérez, Claudio; Zapata San Martín, Nelson; López-González, Fernando; Lobos Ortega, Iris; Hernández-Hierro, Jose-Miguel

    2014-02-15

    Instrumental techniques such a near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are used in industry to monitor and establish product composition and quality. As occurs with other food industries, the Chilean flour industry needs simple, rapid techniques to objectively assess the origin of different products, which is often related to their quality. In this sense, NIRS has been used in combination with chemometric methods to predict the geographic origin of wheat grain and flour samples produced in different regions of Chile. Here, the spectral data obtained with NIRS were analysed using a supervised pattern recognition method, Discriminat Partial Least Squares (DPLS). The method correctly classified 76% of the wheat grain samples and between 90% and 96% of the flour samples according to their geographic origin. The results show that NIRS, together with chemometric methods, provides a rapid tool for the classification of wheat grain and flour samples according to their geographic origin.

  20. Influence of Amaranthus betacyanin pigments on the physical properties and color of wheat flours.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Sun, Mei; Corke, Harold

    2008-09-10

    The effect of betacyanin pigments from Amaranthus tricolor and Amaranthus cruentus on chromatic and physicochemical properties of three wheat flours was studied. Addition of Amaranthus betacyanins increased the gelatinization temperatures (T(o), T(p), and T(c)) of all wheat flours without altering their transition ranges (T(c)-T(o)). The melting enthalpies (DeltaH) were either increased or decreased depending on the types of flour and pigment. Amaranthus betacyanins decreased the peak viscosity (PV), hot paste viscosity (HPV), cold paste viscosity (CPV), setback (SB), and pasting time (PT) of all flours and increased the breakdown (BD). Texture profile analysis (TPA) showed that Amaranthus betacyanins decreased hardness, and gumminess, and increased cohesiveness of all gels, without altering adhesiveness. Chromatic investigation exhibited that A. tricolor and A. cruentus pigments imparted gels with red and orange-yellow hues with favorable color stability.

  1. Buckwheat and Millet Affect Thermal, Rheological, and Gelling Properties of Wheat Flour.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kao; Gan, Renyou; Dai, Shuhong; Cai, Yi-Zhong; Corke, Harold; Zhu, Fan

    2016-03-01

    Buckwheat (BF) and millet (MF) are recommended as healthy foods due to their unique chemical composition and health benefits. This study investigated the thermal and rheological properties of BF-WF (wheat flour) and MF-WF flour blends at various ratios (0:100 to 100:0). Increasing BF or MF concentration led to higher cold paste viscosity and setback viscosity of pasting properties gel adhesiveness, storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″) of dynamic oscillatory rheology, and yield stress (σ0 ) of flow curve of WF. BF and MF addition decreased peak viscosity and breakdown of pasting, gel hardness, swelling volume, and consistency coefficient (K) of flow curve of WF. Thermal properties of the blends appeared additive of that of individual flour. Nonadditive effects were observed for some property changes in the mixtures, and indicated interactions between flour components. This may provide a physicochemical basis for using BF and MF in formulating novel healthy products.

  2. Predicted efficacy of the Palestinian wheat flour fortification program: complementary analysis of biochemical and dietary data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To utilize complementary biochemical and dietary data collected before the initiation of national flour fortification to 1) identify micronutrient insufficiencies or deficiencies and dietary inadequacies in Palestinian women and children in vulnerable communities and 2) assess the suitabi...

  3. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  4. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  5. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  6. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  7. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose...

  8. Glycaemic index of different coconut (Cocos nucifera)-flour products in normal and diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Trinidad, Trinidad P; Valdez, Divinagracia H; Loyola, Anacleta S; Mallillin, Aida C; Askali, Faridah C; Castillo, Joan C; Masa, Dina B

    2003-09-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) of commonly consumed bakery products supplemented with increasing levels of coconut (Cocos nucifera) flour was determined in ten normal and ten diabetic subjects. Using a randomized crossover design, the control and test foods were fed in random order on separate occasions after an overnight fast. Blood samples were collected through finger prick before and after feeding and were analysed for glucose levels using a clinical chemistry analyser. The significantly low-GI (<60) foods investigated were: macaroons (GI 45.7 (sem 3.0)) and carrot cake (GI 51.8 (sem 3.3)), with 200-250 g coconut flour/kg (P<0.05). The test foods with 150 g coconut flour/kg had GI ranging from 61.3 to 71.4. Among the test foods, pan de sal (GI 87.2 (sem 5.5)) and multigrain loaf (GI 85.2 (sem 6.8)) gave significantly higher GI with 50 and 100 g coconut flour/kg respectively (P<0.05). On the other hand, granola bar and cinnamon bread with 50 and 100 g coconut flour/kg respectively gave a GI ranging from 62.7 to 71.6 and did not differ significantly from the test foods with 150 g coconut flour/kg (P<0.05). A very strong negative correlation (r -0.85, n 11, P<0.005) was observed between the GI and dietary fibre content of the test foods supplemented with coconut flour. In conclusion, the GI of coconut flour-supplemented foods decreased with increasing levels of coconut flour and this may be due to its high dietary fibre content. The results of the present study may form a scientific basis for the development of coconut flour as a functional food. However, the fat content of coconut flour-supplemented food should always be considered to optimize the functionality of coconut fibre in the proper control and management of diabetes mellitus.

  9. Evaluation of Bacillus spp. as dough starters for Adhirasam - A traditional rice based fermented food of Southern India.

    PubMed

    Anisha, Anvar Hussain Noorul; Anandham, Rangasamy; Kwon, Soon Woo; Gandhi, Pandiyan Indira; Gopal, Nellaiappan Olaganathan

    2015-01-01

    Adhirasam is a cereal based, doughnut shaped, deep fried dessert consumed in the southern regions of India. The dough used to prepare adhirasam is fermented and contains rice flour and jaggery. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cultivable bacteria associated with this fermented dough and to identify a suitable starter culture for the production of quality adhirasam. In total, one hundred and seventy bacterial isolates were recovered from de Man Rogosa Sharp (MRS) agar, nutrient agar, lysogeny agar and tryptic soy agar media. Out of the 170 bacterial isolates, sixteen isolates were selected based on their ability to tolerate glucose and sucrose. All the bacterial isolates tolerated 15% glucose and 30% sucrose. Analyses of 16S rDNA gene sequences of the bacterial isolates showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria were members of the genus Bacillus. These strains were further used as starters and tested for their ability to ferment rice flour with jaggery to produce adhirasam dough. Organoleptic evaluation was carried out to choose the best starter strain. Adhirasam prepared from Bacillus subtilis isolates S4-P11, S2-G2-A1 and S1-G15, Bacillus tequilensis isolates S2-H16, S3-P9, S3-G10 and Bacillus siamensis isolate S2-G13 were highly acceptable to consumers. Adhirasam prepared using these starter cultures had superior product characteristics such as softness in texture, flavor and enhanced aroma and sweet taste.

  10. Evaluation of Bacillus spp. as dough starters for Adhirasam - A traditional rice based fermented food of Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Anisha, Anvar Hussain Noorul; Anandham, Rangasamy; Kwon, Soon Woo; Gandhi, Pandiyan Indira; Gopal, Nellaiappan Olaganathan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adhirasam is a cereal based, doughnut shaped, deep fried dessert consumed in the southern regions of India. The dough used to prepare adhirasam is fermented and contains rice flour and jaggery. The aim of the present study was to characterize the cultivable bacteria associated with this fermented dough and to identify a suitable starter culture for the production of quality adhirasam. In total, one hundred and seventy bacterial isolates were recovered from de Man Rogosa Sharp (MRS) agar, nutrient agar, lysogeny agar and tryptic soy agar media. Out of the 170 bacterial isolates, sixteen isolates were selected based on their ability to tolerate glucose and sucrose. All the bacterial isolates tolerated 15% glucose and 30% sucrose. Analyses of 16S rDNA gene sequences of the bacterial isolates showed that the dominant cultivable bacteria were members of the genus Bacillus. These strains were further used as starters and tested for their ability to ferment rice flour with jaggery to produce adhirasam dough. Organoleptic evaluation was carried out to choose the best starter strain. Adhirasam prepared from Bacillus subtilis isolates S4-P11, S2-G2-A1 and S1-G15, Bacillus tequilensis isolates S2-H16, S3-P9, S3-G10 and Bacillus siamensis isolate S2-G13 were highly acceptable to consumers. Adhirasam prepared using these starter cultures had superior product characteristics such as softness in texture, flavor and enhanced aroma and sweet taste. PMID:26691480

  11. Rapid detection of benzoyl peroxide in wheat flour by using Raman scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Juan; Peng, Yankun; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Dhakal, Sagar; Xu, Tianfeng

    2015-05-01

    Benzoyl peroxide is a common flour additive that improves the whiteness of flour and the storage properties of flour products. However, benzoyl peroxide adversely affects the nutritional content of flour, and excess consumption causes nausea, dizziness, other poisoning, and serious liver damage. This study was focus on detection of the benzoyl peroxide added in wheat flour. A Raman scattering spectroscopy system was used to acquire spectral signal from sample data and identify benzoyl peroxide based on Raman spectral peak position. The optical devices consisted of Raman spectrometer and CCD camera, 785 nm laser module, optical fiber, prober, and a translation stage to develop a real-time, nondestructive detection system. Pure flour, pure benzoyl peroxide and different concentrations of benzoyl peroxide mixed with flour were prepared as three sets samples to measure the Raman spectrum. These samples were placed in the same type of petri dish to maintain a fixed distance between the Raman CCD and petri dish during spectral collection. The mixed samples were worked by pretreatment of homogenization and collected multiple sets of data of each mixture. The exposure time of this experiment was set at 0.5s. The Savitzky Golay (S-G) algorithm and polynomial curve-fitting method was applied to remove the fluorescence background from the Raman spectrum. The Raman spectral peaks at 619 cm-1, 848 cm-1, 890 cm-1, 1001 cm-1, 1234 cm-1, 1603cm-1, 1777cm-1 were identified as the Raman fingerprint of benzoyl peroxide. Based on the relationship between the Raman intensity of the most prominent peak at around 1001 cm-1 and log values of benzoyl peroxide concentrations, the chemical concentration prediction model was developed. This research demonstrated that Raman detection system could effectively and rapidly identify benzoyl peroxide adulteration in wheat flour. The experimental result is promising and the system with further modification can be applicable for more products in near

  12. Effect of drying temperatures on starch-related functional and thermal properties of acorn flours.

    PubMed

    Correia, P R; Beirão-da-Costa, M L

    2011-03-01

    The application of starchy flours from different origins in food systems depends greatly on information about the chemical and functional properties of such food materials. Acorns are important forestry resources in the central and southern regions of Portugal. To preserve these fruits and to optimize their use, techniques like drying are needed. The effects of different drying temperatures on starch-related functional properties of acorn flours obtained from dried fruits of Quercus rotundifolia (QR) and Quercus suber (QS) were evaluated. Flours were characterized for amylose and resistant starch (RS) contents, swelling ability, and gelatinization properties. Drying temperature mainly affected amylose content and viscoamylographic properties. Amylograms of flours from fruits dried at 60 °C displayed higher consistency (2102 B.U. and 1560 B.U., respectively, for QR and QS). The transition temperatures and enthalpy were less affected by drying temperature, suggesting few modifications in starch structure during drying. QR flours presented different functional properties to those obtained from QS acorn flours. The effect of drying temperatures were more evident in QR.

  13. Exploration of making date seed’s flour and its nutritional contents analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahini, M.

    2016-04-01

    The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L) is one of the oldest fruit plants that identical with people’s lives in the Middle East including The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia since ancient times.The date palm is known and consumed by most of people in the form of fruit flesh, while its seed is discarded tough it is rich in nutrient. Therefore, need to be explored the potential of date seed through product innovation of foodstuffs with a high nutritional value. The aims of this study were to 1) know how to make flour from date seed, and 2) determine nutritional content of date seed’s flour. This study was experiment and conducted in July, 2015 at the laboratory of food technology, Family Welfare Education department. Chemical analysis was used to determine nutrients content. The results showed that 1) the flour of date seed produced from the process of washing, soaking, flushing, boiling, draining, drying, grinding, and sieving; 2) the flour of date seed’s flour have a macro nutrients value. This study explains that date seed is regarded as rubbish, in fact, it has a high value that can be an alternative substitution of wheat flour.

  14. Bambara-wheat composite flour: rheological behavior of dough and functionality in bread.

    PubMed

    Erukainure, Ochuko L; Okafor, Jane N C; Ogunji, Akinyele; Ukazu, Happiness; Okafor, Ebele N; Eboagwu, Ijeoma L

    2016-11-01

    The rheological behavior and functional properties of doughs from bambara-wheat composite flour was investigated. Bambara-wheat composite flour was prepared by substituting wheat with 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of bambara flour. The rheological behavior of their dough was analyzed with Mixolab. Breads produced from the flour were analyzed for physical characteristics. Organoleptic analysis was carried out by 20 panelists. Mixolab analysis revealed, except for stability time, depreciating values for dough consistency (C1), protein weakening (C2), starch gelatinization (C3), amylase activity (C4), and retrogradation (C5) as the inclusion of bambara flour increased. Physical characteristics of the loaves revealed significant (P < 0.05) decreasing bread volume and increasing specific volume, respectively, as bambara inclusion increased. There was significant (P < 0.05) difference between wheat bread and the bambara-wheat composites in all the studied quality attributes. 15% bambara-wheat composite bread was the most accepted amongst the composite breads. Inclusion of bambara flour improved the protein behavior of the composite, but did not evidently show benefits in the baking characteristics.

  15. Chemical composition, functional and sensory characteristics of wheat-taro composite flours and biscuits.

    PubMed

    Himeda, Makhlouf; Njintang Yanou, Nicolas; Fombang, Edith; Facho, Balaam; Kitissou, Pierre; Mbofung, Carl M F; Scher, Joel

    2014-09-01

    The physicochemical, alveographic and sensory characteristics of precooked taro-wheat composite flours and their biscuits were investigated. A 2x7 factorial design consisting of two varieties of taro flour (Red Ibo Ngaoundere, RIN, and egg-like varieties) and 7 levels of wheat substitutions (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 %) was used for this purpose. It was observed that water absorption capacity (range 95-152 g/100 g), water solubility index (range 18.8-29.5 g/100 g) and swelling capacity (range 125.4-204.6 mL/100 g) of composite flours significantly (p < 0.05) increased with increase in taro level. Conversely the dough elasticity index (range 59.8-0 %), extensibility (78-22 mm) and strength (range 281-139 × 10(-4) joules) significantly (p < 0.05) diminished with increase in wheat substitution. Up to 10 % substitution with RIN taro flour and 15 % with egg-like taro flour, the composite taro-wheat dough exhibited elasticity indices acceptable for the production of baking products, whereas at all levels of taro substitution, the composite biscuits samples were either acceptable as or better (5-10 % substitution with RIN flour) than 100 % wheat biscuit.

  16. Combination of cassava flour cyanide and urinary thiocyanate measurements of school children in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Paula Cardoso, A; Ernesto, Mario; Nicala, Domingos; Mirione, Estevao; Chavane, Leonardo; N'zwalo, Hipolito; Chikumba, Sergio; Cliff, Julie; Paulo Mabota, A; Rezaul Haque, M; Howard Bradbury, J

    2004-05-01

    The maximum daily cassava flour intake of children may be calculated from determination of the total cyanide content of cassava flour and urinary thiocyanate levels of school children in samples collected at the same time and place. Four sites, two with and two without recent konzo cases, were chosen for study. In two sites with recent konzo cases, 84% and 93% of school children consumed cassava the previous day, and the calculated maximum daily consumption of cassava was over 700 g. In two sites without recent konzo cases, about 50% of school children consumed cassava the previous day and the calculated daily consumption of cassava flour was less than 150 g. By measurements of cyanide in flour and urinary thiocyanate we are therefore able to distinguish between communities whose diet is almost totally reliant on cassava, and who are therefore susceptible to konzo, and those who have a broader diet and are free from konzo. In another calculation it is shown that 4-23% of the essential S-containing amino acids in the cassava flour consumed by children is used up to detoxify and flour cyanide to thiocyanate. This depletion of methionine and cystine may leads to protein deficiency and may contribute to onset of konzo.

  17. A simple method for simultaneous quantification of total arabinoxylans and fructans in wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiqian; Rochfort, Simone

    2014-08-20

    Current methods for measuring fructan and arabinoxylan concentrations in wheat flour are time-consuming, and each type of the polymers requires a separate method. Here, we report the development of a new method that allows simultaneous determination of arabinoxylan and fructan contents in wheat flour. The new method is based on a single hydrolysis procedure for both arabinoxylans and fructans and an optimized separation technique for all monomers released. Owing to the use of milder hydrolysis conditions that afforded higher recovery of pentoses, the level of arabinoxylans in wheat flour determined by this new method is slightly higher than that measured with the widely used hydrolysis protocol. On the basis of the finding that, for a given flour sample, the total fructose concentration after hydrolysis is highly correlated with its total fructan concentration, the fructan content of a wheat flour sample can thus be estimated directly by the total fructose content. By simplifying and combining the two separate methods used for arabonoxylan and fructan analysis, this new method enables the quantification of arabinoxylans and fructans in wheat flour using a single acid hydrolysis step and a single high-performance liquid chromatography run.

  18. The effect of modified potato flour substitution on the organoleptics characteristics of toddler biscuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cakrawati, Dewi; Rahmawati, Puji

    2016-04-01

    Toddler biscuit is complementary food given to infants to help meet their nutritional needs. This research was undertaken to develop toddler biscuit with subtitution of physically modified potato flour. There were two puposes of the research, first to know the characteristics of physically modification on potato flour; secondly to know biscuit characteristics with modified potato flour substitution. There were two factor analysis in the development of biscuit; first factor was pre heating mehods and substitution rate. The research was conducted with experimental method using split plot design. The functional properties on modified potato flour as swelling capacity, water absorption capacity, solubility and viscocity were analyzed. Organoleptic analysis using quality hedonic test showed no interaction between potato starch modification and concentration of modified potato flour. Quality hedonic test showed all toddler biscuit socred in the range of “slightly like” to “like moderately”. Modifying potato starch by boiling and steaming with flour concentration of 30% producing toddler biscuit with organoleptic characteristics acceptable according to the panelists.

  19. Technical considerations for maize flour and corn meal fortification in public health: consultation rationale and summary.

    PubMed

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Garcia-Casal, Maria Nieves; Pachón, Helena; Mclean, Mireille Seneclauze; Arabi, Mandana

    2014-04-01

    Fortification is the purposeful addition of vitamins and minerals to foods during their industrial processing, as a way to improve the nutrition and health of populations who consume these foods. Twelve countries have mandatory maize (Zea mays subsp. Mays) flour or meal fortification. The World Health Organization (WHO) is updating evidence-informed guidelines for the fortification of staple foods in public health, including the fortification of maize flour and corn meal with iron and other micronutrients. Although there is limited experience with fortification of maize, mass fortification of maize flour with at least iron has been practiced for many years in several countries in the Americas and Africa: Brazil, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Kenya, Mexico, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, the United States, and Venezuela. The WHO, in collaboration with the Sackler Institute for Nutrition Science and the Flour Fortification Initiative (FFI), convened a consultation on technical considerations for fortification of maize flour and corn meal in public health in New York, New York on April 8-9, 2013 to provide input into the guideline-development process and to discuss technical considerations of the fortification processes for maize flour and corn meal.

  20. Influence of fermented faba bean flour on the nutritional, technological and sensory quality of fortified pasta.

    PubMed

    Rizzello, Carlo G; Verni, Michela; Koivula, Hanna; Montemurro, Marco; Seppa, Laila; Kemell, Marianna; Katina, Kati; Coda, Rossana; Gobbetti, Marco

    2017-02-22

    Faba bean has gained increasing attention from the food industry and the consumers mainly due to the quality of its protein fraction. Fermentation has been recently recognized as the most efficient tool for improving its nutritional and organoleptic properties. In this study, faba bean flour fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum DPPMAB24W was used to fortify semolina pasta. Pasta samples including different percentages of fermented faba bean flour were produced at the pilot-plant level and characterized using an integrated approach for chemical, nutritional, technological, and sensory features. At a substitution level of 30%, pasta had a more homogeneous texture and lower cooking loss compared to 50% addition. The impact of faba bean flour addition on pasta technological functionality, particularly of the protein fraction, was also assessed by scanning electron microscopy and textural profile analysis. Compared to traditional (semolina) pasta and pasta containing unfermented faba bean flour, the nutritional profile (in vitro protein digestibility and nutritional indexes - chemical score (CS), sequence of limiting essential amino acids, Essential Amino Acid Index (EAAI), Biological Value (BV), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), and Nutritional Index (NI)) and the resistant starch content of pasta containing 30% fermented faba bean flour markedly improved, while the starch hydrolysis rate decreased, without negatively affecting technological and sensory features. The use of fermentation technology appears to be a promising tool to enhance the quality of pasta and to promote the use of faba bean flour.