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Sample records for 15d-pgj2 mediates repression

  1. 15d-PGJ2-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles: Physicochemical Characterization and Evaluation of Pharmacological Effects on Inflammation.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Nathalie Ferreira Silva; de Macedo, Cristina Gomes; Bonfante, Ricardo; Abdalla, Henrique Ballassini; da Silva, Camila Morais Gonçalves; Pasquoto, Tatiane; de Lima, Renata; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes; Clemente-Napimoga, Juliana Trindade; Napimoga, Marcelo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonist, has physiological properties including pronounced anti-inflammatory activity, though it binds strongly to serum albumin. The use of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) can improve therapeutic properties increasing drug efficiency and availability. 15d-PGJ2-SLN was therefore developed and investigated in terms of its immunomodulatory potential. 15d-PGJ2-SLN and unloaded SLN were physicochemically characterized and experiments in vivo were performed. Animals were pretreated with 15d-PGJ2-SLN at concentrations of 3, 10 or 30 μg·kg-1 before inflammatory stimulus with carrageenan (Cg), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or mBSA (immune response). Interleukins (IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-17) levels were also evaluated in exudates. The 15d-PGJ2-SLN system showed good colloidal parameters and encapsulation efficiency of 96%. The results showed that the formulation was stable for up to 120 days with low hemolytic effects. The 15d-PGJ2-SLN formulation was able to reduce neutrophil migration in three inflammation models tested using low concentrations of 15d-PGJ2. Additionally, 15d-PGJ2-SLN increased IL-10 levels and reduced IL-1β as well as IL-17 in peritoneal fluid. The new 15d-PGJ2-SLN formulation highlights perspectives of a potent anti-inflammatory system using low concentrations of 15d-PGJ2. PMID:27575486

  2. Elimination of the biphasic pharmacodynamics of 15d-PGJ2 by controlling its release from a nanoemulsion

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Saed; Kajimoto, Kazuaki; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2016-01-01

    15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) has a dual action of stimulating anti-inflammation and anti-proliferation when exogenously administered at high doses. However, at lower doses, it can be toxic inducing opposite actions, ie, stimulation of both inflammation and cell proliferation. This biphasic phenomenon of 15d-PGJ2 is believed to be due to its multitarget behavior. In this study, we provide a strategy for controlling such biphasic pharmacodynamics by separating its dual actions while retaining the beneficial one by using a nanoemulsion (NE). The 15d-PGJ2 was encapsulated in the NE composed of triolein/distearoyl phosphatidylcholine/Tween 80 at a high encapsulation ratio (>83%). Furthermore, NE enhanced drug retention by slowing down its release rate, which was, unconventionally, inversely dependent on the total surface area of the NE system. Next, focusing on the biphasic effect on cell proliferation, we found that the 15d-PGJ2-loaded slow-release NE showed only a dose-dependent inhibition of the viability of a mouse macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, although a fast-release NE as well as free 15d-PGJ2 exerted a biphasic effect. The observed slow-release kinetics are believed to be responsible for elimination of the biphasic pharmacodynamics of 15d-PGJ2 mainly for two reasons: 1) a high proportion of 15d-PGJ2 that is retained in the NE was delivered to the cytosol, where proapoptotic targets are located and 2) 15d-PGJ2 was able to bypass cell membrane-associated targets that lead to the induction of cellular proliferation. Collectively, our strategy of eliminating the 15d-PGJ2-induced biphasic pharmacodynamics was based on the delivery of 15d-PGJ2 to its desired site of action, excluding undesired sites, on a subcellular level. PMID:27354798

  3. 15d-PGJ2-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles: Physicochemical Characterization and Evaluation of Pharmacological Effects on Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Camila Morais Gonçalves; Pasquoto, Tatiane; de Lima, Renata; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonist, has physiological properties including pronounced anti-inflammatory activity, though it binds strongly to serum albumin. The use of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) can improve therapeutic properties increasing drug efficiency and availability. 15d-PGJ2-SLN was therefore developed and investigated in terms of its immunomodulatory potential. 15d-PGJ2-SLN and unloaded SLN were physicochemically characterized and experiments in vivo were performed. Animals were pretreated with 15d-PGJ2-SLN at concentrations of 3, 10 or 30 μg·kg-1 before inflammatory stimulus with carrageenan (Cg), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or mBSA (immune response). Interleukins (IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-17) levels were also evaluated in exudates. The 15d-PGJ2-SLN system showed good colloidal parameters and encapsulation efficiency of 96%. The results showed that the formulation was stable for up to 120 days with low hemolytic effects. The 15d-PGJ2-SLN formulation was able to reduce neutrophil migration in three inflammation models tested using low concentrations of 15d-PGJ2. Additionally, 15d-PGJ2-SLN increased IL-10 levels and reduced IL-1β as well as IL-17 in peritoneal fluid. The new 15d-PGJ2-SLN formulation highlights perspectives of a potent anti-inflammatory system using low concentrations of 15d-PGJ2. PMID:27575486

  4. 15d-PGJ2 inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis of MCG-803 human gastric cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun-Xian; Zhong, Xue-Yun; Qin, Yan-Fang; Bing, Wang; He, Li-Zhen

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the influence of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) ligand, 15-deoxy-△12, 14-prostaglandin J2 (15dPGJ2) on the proliferation and apoptosis of MCG-803 human gastric cancer cell lines. METHODS: Cell proliferation was measured by 3H-TdR assay. Apoptosis was determined by ELISA and TUNEL staining. Protein and mRNA level of bcl-2 family and COXs were measured by Western blotting and Northern blotting respectively. PGE2 production was examined by RIA. RESULTS: 15dPGJ2 inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis of MCG-803 cells. The COX-2 and bcl-2/bax ratios were decreased following 15dPGJ2 treatment. The PGE2 production in supernatants was also decreased. These changes were in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: 15dPGJ2 may be a useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:14562367

  5. Mitochondrial remodeling following fission inhibition by 15d-PGJ2 involves molecular changes in mitochondrial fusion protein OPA1

    SciTech Connect

    Kar, Rekha; Mishra, Nandita; Singha, Prajjal K.; Venkatachalam, Manjeri A.; Saikumar, Pothana

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Chemical inhibition of fission protein Drp1 leads to mitochondrial fusion. {yields} Increased fusion stimulates molecular changes in mitochondrial fusion protein OPA1. {yields} Proteolysis of larger isoforms, new synthesis and ubiquitination of OPA1 occur. {yields} Loss of mitochondrial tubular rigidity and disorganization of cristae. {yields} Generation of large swollen dysfunctional mitochondria. -- Abstract: We showed earlier that 15 deoxy {Delta}{sup 12,14} prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) inactivates Drp1 and induces mitochondrial fusion . However, prolonged incubation of cells with 15d-PGJ2 resulted in remodeling of fused mitochondria into large swollen mitochondria with irregular cristae structure. While initial fusion of mitochondria by 15d-PGJ2 required the presence of both outer (Mfn1 and Mfn2) and inner (OPA1) mitochondrial membrane fusion proteins, later mitochondrial changes involved increased degradation of the fusion protein OPA1 and ubiquitination of newly synthesized OPA1 along with decreased expression of Mfn1 and Mfn2, which likely contributed to the loss of tubular rigidity, disorganization of cristae, and formation of large swollen degenerated dysfunctional mitochondria. Similar to inhibition of Drp1 by 15d-PGJ2, decreased expression of fission protein Drp1 by siRNA also resulted in the loss of fusion proteins. Prevention of 15d-PGJ2 induced mitochondrial elongation by thiol antioxidants prevented not only loss of OPA1 isoforms but also its ubiquitination. These findings provide novel insights into unforeseen complexity of molecular events that modulate mitochondrial plasticity.

  6. Proteome analysis identified the PPARγ ligand 15d-PGJ2 as a novel drug inhibiting melanoma progression and interfering with tumor-stroma interaction.

    PubMed

    Paulitschke, Verena; Gruber, Silke; Hofstätter, Elisabeth; Haudek-Prinz, Verena; Klepeisz, Philipp; Schicher, Nikolaus; Jonak, Constanze; Petzelbauer, Peter; Pehamberger, Hubert; Gerner, Christopher; Kunstfeld, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been originally thought to be restricted to lipid metabolism or glucose homeostasis. Recently, evidence is growing that PPARγ ligands have inhibitory effects on tumor growth. To shed light on the potential therapeutic effects on melanoma we tested a panel of PPAR agonists on their ability to block tumor proliferation in vitro. Whereas ciglitazone, troglitazone and WY14643 showed moderate effects on proliferation, 15d-PGJ2 displayed profound anti-tumor activity on four different melanoma cell lines tested. Additionally, 15d-PGJ2 inhibited proliferation of tumor-associated fibroblasts and tube formation of endothelial cells. 15d-PGJ2 induced the tumor suppressor gene p21, a G(2)/M arrest and inhibited tumor cell migration. Shot gun proteome analysis in addition to 2D-gel electrophoresis and immunoprecipitation of A375 melanoma cells suggested that 15d-PGJ2 might exert its effects via modification and/or downregulation of Hsp-90 (heat shock protein 90) and several chaperones. Applying the recently established CPL/MUW database with a panel of defined classification signatures, we demonstrated a regulation of proteins involved in metastasis, transport or protein synthesis including paxillin, angio-associated migratory cell protein or matrix metalloproteinase-2 as confirmed by zymography. Our data revealed for the first time a profound effect of the single compound 15d-PGJ2 on melanoma cells in addition to the tumor-associated microenvironment suggesting synergistic therapeutic efficiency. PMID:23049949

  7. The low molecular weight fraction of human serum albumin upregulates production of 15d-PGJ2 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Gregory W; Rael, Leonard T; Hausburg, Melissa; Frederick, Elizabeth D; Mains, Charles W; Slone, Denetta; Carrick, Matthew M; Bar-Or, David

    2016-05-13

    Activation of the innate immune system involves a series of events designed to counteract the initial insult followed by the clearance of debris and promotion of healing. Aberrant regulation can lead to systemic inflammatory response syndrome, multiple organ failure, and chronic inflammation. A better understanding of the innate immune response may help manage complications while allowing for proper immune progression. In this study, the ability of several classes of anti-inflammatory drugs to affect LPS-induced cytokine and prostaglandin release from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was evaluated. PBMC were cultured in the presence of dexamethasone (DEX), ibuprofen (IBU), and the low molecular weight fraction of 5% albumin (LMWF5A) followed by stimulation with LPS. After 24 h, TNFα, PGE2, and 15d-PGJ2 release was determined by ELISA. Distinct immunomodulation patterns emerged following LPS stimulation of PBMC in the presence of said compounds. DEX, a steroid with strong immunosuppressive properties, reduced TNFα, PGE2, and 15d-PGJ2 release. IBU caused significant reduction in prostaglandin release while TNFα release was unchanged. An emerging biologic with known anti-inflammatory properties, LMWF5A, significantly reduced TNFα release while enhancing PGE2 and 15d-PGJ2 release. Incubating LMWF5A together with IBU negated this observed increased prostaglandin release without affecting the suppression of TNFα release. Additionally, LMWF5A caused an increase in COX-2 transcription and translation. LMWF5A exhibited a unique immune modulation pattern in PBMC, disparate from steroid or NSAID administration. This enhancement of prostaglandin release (specifically 15d-PGJ2), in conjunction with a decrease in TNFα release, suggests a switch that favors resolution and decreased inflammation. PMID:27095392

  8. Total Synthesis of Prostaglandin 15d-PGJ(2) and Investigation of its Effect on the Secretion of IL-6 and IL-12.

    PubMed

    Egger, Julian; Fischer, Stefan; Bretscher, Peter; Freigang, Stefan; Kopf, Manfred; Carreira, Erick M

    2015-09-01

    An efficient synthesis of 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2, 1) is reported. The route described allows for diversification of the parent structure to prepare seven analogues of 1 in which the positioning of electrophilic sites is varied. These analogues were tested in SAR studies for their ability to reduce the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. It was shown that the endocyclic enone is crucial for the bioactivity investigated and that the conjugated ω-side chain serves in a reinforcing manner.

  9. The role of aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3)-mediated prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) metabolism in keloids.

    PubMed

    Mantel, Alon; Newsome, Austin; Thekkudan, Theresa; Frazier, Robert; Katdare, Meena

    2016-01-01

    Keloids are progressively expanding scars, mostly prevalent in individuals of African descent. Previous data identified increased mast cell number and activation state in keloids suggesting a role in disease progression. The major eicosanoid secreted by mast cells is prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), a relatively unstable pro-inflammatory mediator which can be spontaneously converted to 15-deoxy-(Delta12,14)-prostaglandin J2(15d-PGJ2) or enzymatically metabolized to 9α,11β-PGF2 by aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3). In this work, we investigated the possible role of PGD2 and its metabolites in keloids using CRL1762 keloid fibroblasts (KF) and immunohistochemical staining. Our data suggested approximately 3-fold increase of tryptase-positive mast cell count in keloids compared with normal skin. Furthermore, AKR1C3 was overexpressed in the fibrotic area of keloids while relatively weak staining detected in normal skin. Metabolism of PGD2 to 9α,11β-PGF2 by both, KF and normal fibroblasts, was dependent on AKR1C3 as this reaction was attenuated in the presence of the AKR1C3 inhibitor, 2'-hydroxyflavanone, or in cells with decreased AKR1C3 expression. 15d-PGJ2, but not the other tested PGs, inhibited KF proliferation, attenuated KF-mediated collagen gel contraction and increased caspase-3 activation. In addition, treatment with 15d-PGJ2 activated P38-MAPK, induced reactive oxygen species and upregulated superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1). Finally, inhibition of P38-MAPK further augmented 15d-PGJ2-induced caspase-3 cleavage and attenuated its effect on SOD-1 transcription. This work suggests that localized dual inhibition of AKR1C3 and P38-MAPK may inhibit keloid progression. Inhibiting AKR1C3 activity may generate oxidative environment due to redirection of PGD2 metabolism towards 15d-PGJ2 while inhibition of P38-MAPK will sensitize keloid cells to ROS-induced apoptosis. PMID:26308156

  10. BEND3 mediates transcriptional repression and heterochromatin organization.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abid; Prasanth, Supriya G

    2015-01-01

    Transcription repression plays a central role in gene regulation. Transcription repressors utilize diverse strategies to mediate transcriptional repression. We have recently demonstrated that BEND3 (BANP, E5R and Nac1 domain) protein represses rDNA transcription by stabilizing a NoRC component. We discuss the role of BEND3 as a global regulator of gene expression and propose a model whereby BEND3 associates with chromatin remodeling complexes to modulate gene expression and heterochromatin organization.

  11. BEND3 mediates transcriptional repression and heterochromatin organization

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abid; Prasanth, Supriya G

    2015-01-01

    Transcription repression plays a central role in gene regulation. Transcription repressors utilize diverse strategies to mediate transcriptional repression. We have recently demonstrated that BEND3 (BANP, E5R and Nac1 domain) protein represses rDNA transcription by stabilizing a NoRC component. We discuss the role of BEND3 as a global regulator of gene expression and propose a model whereby BEND3 associates with chromatin remodeling complexes to modulate gene expression and heterochromatin organization. PMID:26507581

  12. BEND3 mediates transcriptional repression and heterochromatin organization.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abid; Prasanth, Supriya G

    2015-01-01

    Transcription repression plays a central role in gene regulation. Transcription repressors utilize diverse strategies to mediate transcriptional repression. We have recently demonstrated that BEND3 (BANP, E5R and Nac1 domain) protein represses rDNA transcription by stabilizing a NoRC component. We discuss the role of BEND3 as a global regulator of gene expression and propose a model whereby BEND3 associates with chromatin remodeling complexes to modulate gene expression and heterochromatin organization. PMID:26507581

  13. Organic acid mediated repression of sugar utilization in rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Bhagya; Rajput, Mahendrapal Singh; Jog, Rahul; Joshi, Ekta; Bharwad, Krishna; Rajkumar, Shalini

    2016-11-01

    Rhizobia are a class of symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria which utilize C4 acids in preference to sugars and the sugar utilization is repressed as long as C4 acids are present. This can be manifested as a diauxie when rhizobia are grown in the presence of a sugar and a C4 acid together. Succinate, a C4 acid is known to repress utilization of sugars, sugar alcohols, hydrocarbons, etc by a mechanism termed as Succinate Mediated Catabolite Repression (SMCR). Mechanism of catabolite repression determines the hierarchy of carbon source utilization in bacteria. Though the mechanism of catabolite repression has been well studied in model organisms like E. coli, B. subtilis and Pseudomonas sp., mechanism of SMCR in rhizobia has not been well elucidated. C4 acid uptake is important for effective symbioses while mutation in the sugar transport and utilization genes does not affect symbioses. Deletion of hpr and sma0113 resulted in the partial relief of SMCR of utilization of galactosides like lactose, raffinose and maltose in the presence of succinate. However, no such regulators governing SMCR of glucoside utilization have been identified till date. Though rhizobia can utilize multitude of sugars, high affinity transporters for many sugars are yet to be identified. Identifying high affinity sugar transporters and studying the mechanism of catabolite repression in rhizobia is important to understand the level of regulation of SMCR and the key regulators involved in SMCR. PMID:27664739

  14. MicroRNA-mediated repression of nonsense mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ya; Lin, Jimin; Xu, Beiying; Hu, Sida; Zhang, Xue; Wu, Ligang

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have established important roles for microRNAs (miRNAs) in regulating gene expression. Here, we report that miRNAs also serve as a surveillance system to repress the expression of nonsense mRNAs that may produce harmful truncated proteins. Upon recognition of the premature termination codon by the translating ribosome, the downstream portion of the coding region of an mRNA is redefined as part of the 3′ untranslated region; as a result, the miRNA-responsive elements embedded in this region can be detected by miRNAs, triggering accelerated mRNA deadenylation and translational inhibition. We demonstrate that naturally occurring cancer-causing APC (adenomatous polyposis coli) nonsense mutants which escape nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) are repressed by miRNA-mediated surveillance. In addition, we show that miRNA-mediated surveillance and exon–exon junction complex-mediated NMD are not mutually exclusive and act additively to enhance the repressive activity. Therefore, we have uncovered a new role for miRNAs in repressing nonsense mutant mRNAs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03032.001 PMID:25107276

  15. p53-dependent gene repression through p21 is mediated by recruitment of E2F4 repression complexes.

    PubMed

    Benson, E K; Mungamuri, S K; Attie, O; Kracikova, M; Sachidanandam, R; Manfredi, J J; Aaronson, S A

    2014-07-24

    The p53 tumor suppressor protein is a major sensor of cellular stresses, and upon stabilization, activates or represses many genes that control cell fate decisions. While the mechanism of p53-mediated transactivation is well established, several mechanisms have been proposed for p53-mediated repression. Here, we demonstrate that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 is both necessary and sufficient for the downregulation of known p53-repression targets, including survivin, CDC25C, and CDC25B in response to p53 induction. These same targets are similarly repressed in response to p16 overexpression, implicating the involvement of the shared downstream retinoblastoma (RB)-E2F pathway. We further show that in response to either p53 or p21 induction, E2F4 complexes are specifically recruited onto the promoters of these p53-repression targets. Moreover, abrogation of E2F4 recruitment via the inactivation of RB pocket proteins, but not by RB loss of function alone, prevents the repression of these genes. Finally, our results indicate that E2F4 promoter occupancy is globally associated with p53-repression targets, but not with p53 activation targets, implicating E2F4 complexes as effectors of p21-dependent p53-mediated repression.

  16. 15-Deoxy-delta 12,14-prostaglandin J2 biphasically regulates the proliferation of mouse hippocampal neural progenitor cells by modulating the redox state.

    PubMed

    Katura, Takashi; Moriya, Takahiro; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2010-04-01

    The activity of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is regulated by various humoral factors. Although prostaglandin (PG) D(2) is known to mediate various physiological brain functions such as sleep, its actions on NPCs have not been fully understood. In the process of investigating the effects of PGD(2) on NPCs, we found that 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), an endogenous metabolite of PGD(2), exhibits a novel regulation of the proliferation of NPCs derived from mouse hippocampus. 15d-PGJ(2) showed biphasic effects on epidermal growth factor-induced proliferation of NPCs; facilitation at low concentrations ( approximately 0.3 muM) and suppression at higher concentrations (0.5-10 microM) in vitro. 2-Chloro-5-nitrobenzanilide (GW9662), an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, known to be a molecular target for 15d-PGJ(2), failed to abolish the effects of 15d-PGJ(2). 9,10-dihydro-15d-PGJ(2) (CAY10410), a structural analog of 15d-PGJ(2) lacking the electrophilic carbon in the cyclopentenone ring, did not show 15d-PGJ(2)-like actions. Treatment with 15d-PGJ(2) increased the levels of reactive oxygen species and decreased endogenous GSH levels. Furthermore, supplementation with a membrane-permeable analog of glutathione, GSH ethyl ester (2 mM), diminished the biphasic effects of 15d-PGJ(2). Finally, cell division in the dentate gyrus of postnatal mice was increased by injection of low-dose (1 ng i.c.v.) 15d-PGJ(2) and suppressed by high-dose (30 ng) 15d-PGJ(2). These results suggest that 15d-PGJ(2) regulates the proliferation of NPCs via its electrophilic nature, which enables covalent binding to molecules such as GSH. PMID:20086036

  17. Musashi mediates translational repression of the Drosophila hypoxia inducible factor.

    PubMed

    Bertolin, Agustina P; Katz, Maximiliano J; Yano, Masato; Pozzi, Berta; Acevedo, Julieta M; Blanco-Obregón, Dalmiro; Gándara, Lautaro; Sorianello, Eleonora; Kanda, Hiroshi; Okano, Hideyuki; Srebrow, Anabella; Wappner, Pablo

    2016-09-19

    Adaptation to hypoxia depends on a conserved α/β heterodimeric transcription factor called Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF), whose α-subunit is regulated by oxygen through different concurrent mechanisms. In this study, we have identified the RNA binding protein dMusashi, as a negative regulator of the fly HIF homologue Sima. Genetic interaction assays suggested that dMusashi participates of the HIF pathway, and molecular studies carried out in Drosophila cell cultures showed that dMusashi recognizes a Musashi Binding Element in the 3' UTR of the HIFα transcript, thereby mediating its translational repression in normoxia. In hypoxic conditions dMusashi is downregulated, lifting HIFα repression and contributing to trigger HIF-dependent gene expression. Analysis performed in mouse brains revealed that murine Msi1 protein physically interacts with HIF-1α transcript, suggesting that the regulation of HIF by Msi might be conserved in mammalian systems. Thus, Musashi is a novel regulator of HIF that inhibits responses to hypoxia specifically when oxygen is available.

  18. Musashi mediates translational repression of the Drosophila hypoxia inducible factor

    PubMed Central

    Bertolin, Agustina P.; Katz, Maximiliano J.; Yano, Masato; Pozzi, Berta; Acevedo, Julieta M.; Blanco-Obregón, Dalmiro; Gándara, Lautaro; Sorianello, Eleonora; Kanda, Hiroshi; Okano, Hideyuki; Srebrow, Anabella; Wappner, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Adaptation to hypoxia depends on a conserved α/β heterodimeric transcription factor called Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF), whose α-subunit is regulated by oxygen through different concurrent mechanisms. In this study, we have identified the RNA binding protein dMusashi, as a negative regulator of the fly HIF homologue Sima. Genetic interaction assays suggested that dMusashi participates of the HIF pathway, and molecular studies carried out in Drosophila cell cultures showed that dMusashi recognizes a Musashi Binding Element in the 3′ UTR of the HIFα transcript, thereby mediating its translational repression in normoxia. In hypoxic conditions dMusashi is downregulated, lifting HIFα repression and contributing to trigger HIF-dependent gene expression. Analysis performed in mouse brains revealed that murine Msi1 protein physically interacts with HIF-1α transcript, suggesting that the regulation of HIF by Msi might be conserved in mammalian systems. Thus, Musashi is a novel regulator of HIF that inhibits responses to hypoxia specifically when oxygen is available. PMID:27141964

  19. Resveratrol-Mediated Repression and Reversion of Prostatic Myofibroblast Phenoconversion

    PubMed Central

    Gharaee-Kermani, Mehrnaz; Moore, Bethany B.; Macoska, Jill A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in berries, peanuts, grapes, and red wine, inhibits oxidation, inflammation, and cell proliferation and collagen synthesis in multiple cell types and or animal models. It represses collagen deposition in the vasculature, heart, lung, kidney, liver, and esophagus in animal models and may have some utility as an anti-fibrotic. Recent studies have shown that increased collagen deposition and tissue stiffness in the peri-urethral area of the prostate are associated with lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) and urinary obstructive symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine whether Resveratrol might be useful to inhibit or revert TGFβ- and/or CXCL12-mediated myofibroblast phenoconversion of prostate fibroblasts in vitro, and therefore whether the use of anti-fibrotic therapeutics might be efficacious for the treatment of LUTD. Methods Primary prostate and lung tissues were explanted and fibroblast monolayers expanded in vitro. Primary and N1 immortalized prostate stromal fibroblasts, as well as primary fibroblasts cultured from a normal lung and one affected by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) for comparison, were grown in serum–free defined media supplemented with vehicle, TGFβ or CXCL12, pre- or post-treatment with Resveratrol, and were evaluated using immunofluorescence for alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA) and collagen I (COL1) protein expression and assessed for cell proliferation, apoptosis, and COL1 and EGR1 transcript expression. Results This study showed that low concentrations of Resveratrol (≤50 μM) had no effect on N1 or primary prostate fibroblast cell proliferation, apoptosis, or COL1 or EGR1 gene transcription but repressed and reversed myofibroblast phenoconversion. As expected, these same effects were observed for IPF lung fibroblasts though higher levels of Resveratrol (≥100uM) were required. Taken together, these data suggest that, like lung fibroblasts, prostate fibroblast to

  20. Long noncoding RNA EWSAT1-mediated gene repression facilitates Ewing sarcoma oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Marques Howarth, Michelle; Simpson, David; Ngok, Siu P.; Nieves, Bethsaida; Chen, Ron; Siprashvili, Zurab; Vaka, Dedeepya; Breese, Marcus R.; Crompton, Brian D.; Alexe, Gabriela; Hawkins, Doug S.; Jacobson, Damon; Brunner, Alayne L.; West, Robert; Mora, Jaume; Stegmaier, Kimberly; Khavari, Paul; Sweet-Cordero, E. Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal translocation that results in fusion of the genes encoding RNA-binding protein EWS and transcription factor FLI1 (EWS-FLI1) is pathognomonic for Ewing sarcoma. EWS-FLI1 alters gene expression through mechanisms that are not completely understood. We performed RNA sequencing (RNAseq) analysis on primary pediatric human mesenchymal progenitor cells (pMPCs) expressing EWS-FLI1 in order to identify gene targets of this oncoprotein. We determined that long noncoding RNA-277 (Ewing sarcoma–associated transcript 1 [EWSAT1]) is upregulated by EWS-FLI1 in pMPCs. Inhibition of EWSAT1 expression diminished the ability of Ewing sarcoma cell lines to proliferate and form colonies in soft agar, whereas EWSAT1 inhibition had no effect on other cell types tested. Expression of EWS-FLI1 and EWSAT1 repressed gene expression, and a substantial fraction of targets that were repressed by EWS-FLI1 were also repressed by EWSAT1. Analysis of RNAseq data from primary human Ewing sarcoma further supported a role for EWSAT1 in mediating gene repression. We identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (HNRNPK) as an RNA-binding protein that interacts with EWSAT1 and found a marked overlap in HNRNPK-repressed genes and those repressed by EWS-FLI1 and EWSAT1, suggesting that HNRNPK participates in EWSAT1-mediated gene repression. Together, our data reveal that EWSAT1 is a downstream target of EWS-FLI1 that facilitates the development of Ewing sarcoma via the repression of target genes. PMID:25401475

  1. A transient reversal of miRNA-mediated repression controls macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Anup; Bose, Mainak; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Chakrabarti, Saikat; Bhattacharyya, Suvendra N

    2013-11-01

    In mammalian macrophages, the expression of a number of cytokines is regulated by miRNAs. Upon macrophage activation, proinflammatory cytokine mRNAs are translated, although the expression of miRNAs targeting these mRNAs remains largely unaltered. We show that there is a transient reversal of miRNA-mediated repression during the early phase of the inflammatory response in macrophages, which leads to the protection of cytokine mRNAs from miRNA-mediated repression. This derepression occurs through Ago2 phosphorylation, which results in its impaired binding to miRNAs and to the corresponding target mRNAs. Macrophages expressing a mutant, non-phosphorylatable AGO2--which remains bound to miRNAs during macrophage activation--have a weakened inflammatory response and fail to prevent parasite invasion. These findings highlight the relevance of the transient relief of miRNA repression for macrophage function.

  2. Prostaglandin (PG)D2 and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2, but not PGE2, Mediate Shear-Induced Chondrocyte Apoptosis via Protein Kinase A-dependent Regulation of Polo-like Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Fei; Wang, Pu; Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, Aikaterini; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos

    2010-01-01

    Excessive mechanical loading of cartilage producing hydrostatic stress, tensile strain and fluid flow leads to chondrocyte apoptosis and osteoarthritis. High fluid flow induces cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in sheared chondrocytes, which suppresses their antioxidant capacity and contributes to apoptosis. The pivotal role of COX-2 in shear-induced chondrocyte apoptosis and the conflicting literature data on the roles of prostaglandin (PG)E2, PGD2 and its metabolite 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2) in chondrocyte apoptosis prompted us to investigate which COX-2-derived PG is involved in this process. We show that exogenously added PGD2 and 15d-PGJ2, but not PGE2, diminish the viability of human T/C-28a2 chondrocytes under static conditions. In agreement with these observations, knockdown of L-PGD synthase (L-PGDS) abolishes shear-induced chondrocyte apoptosis. Using cDNA microarrays in conjunction with clustering algorithms, we propose a novel signaling pathway by which high fluid shear mediates COX-2/L-PGDS-dependent chondrocyte apoptosis, which is validated by molecular interventions. We demonstrate that L-PGDS controls the downregulation of Protein Kinase A (PKA), which in turn regulates Polo-like kinase1 (Plk1) and Plk3. Plks target p53, which controls the transcription of p53 effectors (TP53INPs, FAS and Bax) involved in chondrocyte apoptosis. Reconstructing the signaling network regulating chondrocyte apoptosis may provide insights to optimize conditions for culturing artificial cartilage in bioreactors and for developing therapeutic strategies for arthritic disorders. PMID:20150912

  3. The MOX promoter in Hansenula polymorpha is ultrasensitive to glucose-mediated carbon catabolite repression.

    PubMed

    Dusny, Christian; Schmid, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    Redesigning biology towards specific purposes requires a functional understanding of genetic circuits. We present a quantitative in-depth study on the regulation of the methanol-specific MOX promoter system (PMOX) at the single-cell level. We investigated PMOX regulation in the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula (Ogataea) polymorpha with respect to glucose-mediated carbon catabolite repression. This promoter system is particularly delicate as the glucose as carbon and energy source in turn represses MOX promoter activity. Decoupling single cells from population activity revealed a hitherto underrated ultrasensitivity of the MOX promoter to glucose repression. Environmental control with single-cell technologies enabled quantitative insights into the balance between activation and repression of PMOX with respect to extracellular glucose concentrations. While population-based studies suggested full MOX promoter derepression at extracellular glucose concentrations of ∼1 g L(-1), we showed that glucose-mediated catabolite repression already occurs at concentrations as low as 5 × 10(-4) g L(-1) These findings demonstrate the importance of uncoupling single cells from populations for understanding the mechanisms of promoter regulation in a quantitative manner. PMID:27527102

  4. Hairy and Groucho mediate the action of juvenile hormone receptor Methoprene-tolerant in gene repression.

    PubMed

    Saha, Tusar T; Shin, Sang Woon; Dou, Wei; Roy, Sourav; Zhao, Bo; Hou, Yuan; Wang, Xue-Li; Zou, Zhen; Girke, Thomas; Raikhel, Alexander S

    2016-02-01

    The arthropod-specific juvenile hormone (JH) controls numerous essential functions. Its involvement in gene activation is known to be mediated by the transcription factor Methoprene-tolerant (Met), which turns on JH-controlled genes by directly binding to E-box-like motifs in their regulatory regions. However, it remains unclear how JH represses genes. We used the Aedes aegypti female mosquito, in which JH is necessary for reproductive maturation, to show that a repressor, Hairy, is required for the gene-repressive action of JH and Met. The RNA interference (RNAi) screen for Met and Hairy in the Aedes female fat body revealed a large cohort of Met- and Hairy-corepressed genes. Analysis of selected genes from this cohort demonstrated that they are repressed by JH, but RNAi of either Met or Hairy renders JH ineffective in repressing these genes in an in vitro fat-body culture assay. Moreover, this JH action was prevented by the addition of the translational inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) to the culture, indicating the existence of an indirect regulatory hierarchy. The lack of Hairy protein in the CHX-treated tissue was verified using immunoblot analysis, and the upstream regions of Met/Hairy-corepressed genes were shown to contain common binding motifs that interact with Hairy. Groucho (gro) RNAi silencing phenocopied the effect of Hairy RNAi knockdown, indicating that it is involved in the JH/Met/Hairy hierarchy. Finally, the requirement of Hairy and Gro for gene repression was confirmed in a cell transfection assay. Thus, our study has established that Hairy and its cofactor Gro mediate the repressive function of JH and Met. PMID:26744312

  5. Hairy and Groucho mediate the action of juvenile hormone receptor Methoprene-tolerant in gene repression

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Tusar T.; Shin, Sang Woon; Dou, Wei; Roy, Sourav; Zhao, Bo; Hou, Yuan; Wang, Xue-Li; Zou, Zhen; Girke, Thomas; Raikhel, Alexander S.

    2016-01-01

    The arthropod-specific juvenile hormone (JH) controls numerous essential functions. Its involvement in gene activation is known to be mediated by the transcription factor Methoprene-tolerant (Met), which turns on JH-controlled genes by directly binding to E-box–like motifs in their regulatory regions. However, it remains unclear how JH represses genes. We used the Aedes aegypti female mosquito, in which JH is necessary for reproductive maturation, to show that a repressor, Hairy, is required for the gene-repressive action of JH and Met. The RNA interference (RNAi) screen for Met and Hairy in the Aedes female fat body revealed a large cohort of Met- and Hairy-corepressed genes. Analysis of selected genes from this cohort demonstrated that they are repressed by JH, but RNAi of either Met or Hairy renders JH ineffective in repressing these genes in an in vitro fat-body culture assay. Moreover, this JH action was prevented by the addition of the translational inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) to the culture, indicating the existence of an indirect regulatory hierarchy. The lack of Hairy protein in the CHX-treated tissue was verified using immunoblot analysis, and the upstream regions of Met/Hairy-corepressed genes were shown to contain common binding motifs that interact with Hairy. Groucho (gro) RNAi silencing phenocopied the effect of Hairy RNAi knockdown, indicating that it is involved in the JH/Met/Hairy hierarchy. Finally, the requirement of Hairy and Gro for gene repression was confirmed in a cell transfection assay. Thus, our study has established that Hairy and its cofactor Gro mediate the repressive function of JH and Met. PMID:26744312

  6. Histone methyltransferase Ash1L mediates activity-dependent repression of neurexin-1α.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Τao; Liang, Chen; Li, Dongdong; Tian, Miaomiao; Liu, Sanxiong; Gao, Guanjun; Guan, Ji-Song

    2016-05-27

    Activity-dependent transcription is critical for the regulation of long-term synaptic plasticity and plastic rewiring in the brain. Here, we report that the transcription of neurexin1α (nrxn1α), a presynaptic adhesion molecule for synaptic formation, is regulated by transient neuronal activation. We showed that 10 minutes of firing at 50 Hz in neurons repressed the expression of nrxn1α for 24 hours in a primary cortical neuron culture through a transcriptional repression mechanism. By performing a screening assay using a synthetic zinc finger protein (ZFP) to pull down the proteins enriched near the nrxn1α promoter region in vivo, we identified that Ash1L, a histone methyltransferase, is enriched in the nrxn1α promoter. Neuronal activity triggered binding of Ash1L to the promoter and enriched the histone marker H3K36me2 at the nrxn1α promoter region. Knockout of Ash1L in mice completely abolished the activity-dependent repression of nrxn1α. Taken together, our results reveal that a novel process of activity-dependent transcriptional repression exists in neurons and that Ash1L mediates the long-term repression of nrxn1α, thus implicating an important role for epigenetic modification in brain functioning.

  7. Histone methyltransferase Ash1L mediates activity-dependent repression of neurexin-1α

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Τao; Liang, Chen; Li, Dongdong; Tian, Miaomiao; Liu, Sanxiong; Gao, Guanjun; Guan, Ji-Song

    2016-01-01

    Activity-dependent transcription is critical for the regulation of long-term synaptic plasticity and plastic rewiring in the brain. Here, we report that the transcription of neurexin1α (nrxn1α), a presynaptic adhesion molecule for synaptic formation, is regulated by transient neuronal activation. We showed that 10 minutes of firing at 50 Hz in neurons repressed the expression of nrxn1α for 24 hours in a primary cortical neuron culture through a transcriptional repression mechanism. By performing a screening assay using a synthetic zinc finger protein (ZFP) to pull down the proteins enriched near the nrxn1α promoter region in vivo, we identified that Ash1L, a histone methyltransferase, is enriched in the nrxn1α promoter. Neuronal activity triggered binding of Ash1L to the promoter and enriched the histone marker H3K36me2 at the nrxn1α promoter region. Knockout of Ash1L in mice completely abolished the activity-dependent repression of nrxn1α. Taken together, our results reveal that a novel process of activity-dependent transcriptional repression exists in neurons and that Ash1L mediates the long-term repression of nrxn1α, thus implicating an important role for epigenetic modification in brain functioning. PMID:27229316

  8. Wnt-mediated repression via bipartite DNA recognition by TCF in the Drosophila hematopoietic system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen U; Blauwkamp, Timothy A; Burby, Peter E; Cadigan, Ken M

    2014-08-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays many important roles in animal development, tissue homeostasis and human disease. Transcription factors of the TCF family mediate many Wnt transcriptional responses, promoting signal-dependent activation or repression of target gene expression. The mechanism of this specificity is poorly understood. Previously, we demonstrated that for activated targets in Drosophila, TCF/Pangolin (the fly TCF) recognizes regulatory DNA through two DNA binding domains, with the High Mobility Group (HMG) domain binding HMG sites and the adjacent C-clamp domain binding Helper sites. Here, we report that TCF/Pangolin utilizes a similar bipartite mechanism to recognize and regulate several Wnt-repressed targets, but through HMG and Helper sites whose sequences are distinct from those found in activated targets. The type of HMG and Helper sites is sufficient to direct activation or repression of Wnt regulated cis-regulatory modules, and protease digestion studies suggest that TCF/Pangolin adopts distinct conformations when bound to either HMG-Helper site pair. This repressive mechanism occurs in the fly lymph gland, the larval hematopoietic organ, where Wnt/β-catenin signaling controls prohemocytic differentiation. Our study provides a paradigm for direct repression of target gene expression by Wnt/β-catenin signaling and allosteric regulation of a transcription factor by DNA. PMID:25144371

  9. Wnt-mediated repression via bipartite DNA recognition by TCF in the Drosophila hematopoietic system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen U; Blauwkamp, Timothy A; Burby, Peter E; Cadigan, Ken M

    2014-08-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays many important roles in animal development, tissue homeostasis and human disease. Transcription factors of the TCF family mediate many Wnt transcriptional responses, promoting signal-dependent activation or repression of target gene expression. The mechanism of this specificity is poorly understood. Previously, we demonstrated that for activated targets in Drosophila, TCF/Pangolin (the fly TCF) recognizes regulatory DNA through two DNA binding domains, with the High Mobility Group (HMG) domain binding HMG sites and the adjacent C-clamp domain binding Helper sites. Here, we report that TCF/Pangolin utilizes a similar bipartite mechanism to recognize and regulate several Wnt-repressed targets, but through HMG and Helper sites whose sequences are distinct from those found in activated targets. The type of HMG and Helper sites is sufficient to direct activation or repression of Wnt regulated cis-regulatory modules, and protease digestion studies suggest that TCF/Pangolin adopts distinct conformations when bound to either HMG-Helper site pair. This repressive mechanism occurs in the fly lymph gland, the larval hematopoietic organ, where Wnt/β-catenin signaling controls prohemocytic differentiation. Our study provides a paradigm for direct repression of target gene expression by Wnt/β-catenin signaling and allosteric regulation of a transcription factor by DNA.

  10. Wnt-Mediated Repression via Bipartite DNA Recognition by TCF in the Drosophila Hematopoietic System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chen U.; Blauwkamp, Timothy A.; Burby, Peter E.; Cadigan, Ken M.

    2014-01-01

    The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays many important roles in animal development, tissue homeostasis and human disease. Transcription factors of the TCF family mediate many Wnt transcriptional responses, promoting signal-dependent activation or repression of target gene expression. The mechanism of this specificity is poorly understood. Previously, we demonstrated that for activated targets in Drosophila, TCF/Pangolin (the fly TCF) recognizes regulatory DNA through two DNA binding domains, with the High Mobility Group (HMG) domain binding HMG sites and the adjacent C-clamp domain binding Helper sites. Here, we report that TCF/Pangolin utilizes a similar bipartite mechanism to recognize and regulate several Wnt-repressed targets, but through HMG and Helper sites whose sequences are distinct from those found in activated targets. The type of HMG and Helper sites is sufficient to direct activation or repression of Wnt regulated cis-regulatory modules, and protease digestion studies suggest that TCF/Pangolin adopts distinct conformations when bound to either HMG-Helper site pair. This repressive mechanism occurs in the fly lymph gland, the larval hematopoietic organ, where Wnt/β-catenin signaling controls prohemocytic differentiation. Our study provides a paradigm for direct repression of target gene expression by Wnt/β-catenin signaling and allosteric regulation of a transcription factor by DNA. PMID:25144371

  11. Helix-loop-helix transcription factors mediate activation and repression of the p75LNGFR gene.

    PubMed Central

    Chiaramello, A; Neuman, K; Palm, K; Metsis, M; Neuman, T

    1995-01-01

    Sequence analysis of rat and human low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor p75LNGFR gene promoter regions revealed a single E-box cis-acting element, located upstream of the major transcription start sites. Deletion analysis of the E-box sequence demonstrated that it significantly contributes to p75LNGFR promoter activity. This E box has a dual function; it mediates either activation or repression of the p75LNGFR promoter activity, depending on the interacting transcription factors. We showed that the two isoforms of the class A basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor ME1 (ME1a and ME1b), the murine homolog of the human HEB transcription factor, specifically repress p75LNGFR promoter activity. This repression can be released by coexpression of the HLH Id2 transcriptional regulator. In vitro analyses demonstrated that ME1a forms a stable complex with the p75LNGFR E box and likely competes with activating E-box-binding proteins. By using ME1a-overexpressing PC12 cells, we showed that the endogenous p75LNGFR gene is a target of ME1a repression. Together, these data demonstrate that the p75LNGFR E box and the interacting bHLH transcription factors are involved in the regulation of p75LNGFR gene expression. These results also show that class A bHLH transcription factors can repress and Id-like negative regulators can stimulate gene expression. PMID:7565756

  12. De-repression of RaRF-mediated RAR repression by adenovirus E1A in the nucleolus.

    PubMed

    Um, Soo-Jong; Youn, Hye Sook; Kim, Eun-Joo

    2014-02-21

    Transcriptional activity of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) is regulated by diverse binding partners, including classical corepressors and coactivators, in response to its ligand retinoic acid (RA). Recently, we identified a novel corepressor of RAR called the retinoic acid resistance factor (RaRF) (manuscript submitted). Here, we report how adenovirus E1A stimulates RAR activity by associating with RaRF. Based on immunoprecipitation (IP) assays, E1A interacts with RaRF through the conserved region 2 (CR2), which is also responsible for pRb binding. The first coiled-coil domain of RaRF was sufficient for this interaction. An in vitro glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pull-down assay was used to confirm the direct interaction between E1A and RaRF. Further fluorescence microscopy indicated that E1A and RaRF were located in the nucleoplasm and nucleolus, respectively. However, RaRF overexpression promoted nucleolar translocation of E1A from the nucleoplasm. Both the RA-dependent interaction of RAR with RaRF and RAR translocation to the nucleolus were disrupted by E1A. RaRF-mediated RAR repression was impaired by wild-type E1A, but not by the RaRF binding-defective E1A mutant. Taken together, our data suggest that E1A is sequestered to the nucleolus by RaRF through a specific interaction, thereby leaving RAR in the nucleoplasm for transcriptional activation.

  13. Inhibition of tumor cell growth by Sigma1 ligand mediated translational repression

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Felix J.; Schrock, Joel M.; Spino, Christina M.; Marino, Jacqueline C.; Pasternak, Gavril W.

    2012-09-21

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sigma1 ligand treatment mediates decrease in tumor cell mass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of a Sigma1 ligand with reversible translational repressor actions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstration of a role for Sigma1 in cellular protein synthesis. -- Abstract: Treatment with sigma1 receptor (Sigma1) ligands can inhibit cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. However, the cellular pathways engaged in response to Sigma1 ligand treatment that contribute to these outcomes remain largely undefined. Here, we show that treatment with putative antagonists of Sigma1 decreases cell mass. This effect corresponds with repressed cap-dependent translation initiation in multiple breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Sigma1 antagonist treatment suppresses phosphorylation of translational regulator proteins p70S6K, S6, and 4E-BP1. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Sigma1 also results in translational repression, consistent with the effects of antagonist treatment. Sigma1 antagonist mediated translational repression and decreased cell size are both reversible. Together, these data reveal a role for Sigma1 in tumor cell protein synthesis, and demonstrate that small molecule Sigma1 ligands can be used as modulators of protein translation.

  14. Insights into GATA-1 Mediated Gene Activation versus Repression via Genome-wide Chromatin Occupancy Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ming; Riva, Laura; Xie, Huafeng; Schindler, Yocheved; Moran, Tyler B.; Cheng, Yong; Yu, Duonan; Hardison, Ross; Weiss, Mitchell J; Orkin, Stuart H.; Bernstein, Bradley E.; Fraenkel, Ernest; Cantor, Alan B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The transcription factor GATA-1 is required for terminal erythroid maturation and functions as an activator or repressor depending on gene context. Yet its in vivo site selectivity and ability to distinguish between activated versus repressed genes remain incompletely understood. In this study, we performed GATA-1 ChIP-seq in erythroid cells and compared it to GATA-1 induced gene expression changes. Bound and differentially expressed genes contain a greater number of GATA binding motifs, a higher frequency of palindromic GATA sites, and closer occupancy to the transcriptional start site versus non-differentially expressed genes. Moreover, we show that the transcription factor Zbtb7a occupies GATA-1 bound regions of some direct GATA-1 target genes, that the presence of SCL/TAL1 helps distinguish transcriptional activation versus repression, and that Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is involved in epigenetic silencing of a subset of GATA-1 repressed genes. These data provide insights into GATA-1 mediated gene regulation in vivo. PMID:19941827

  15. RNAi mediates post-transcriptional repression of gene expression in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    Smialowska, Agata; Djupedal, Ingela; Wang, Jingwen; Kylsten, Per; Swoboda, Peter; Ekwall, Karl

    2014-02-07

    Highlights: • Protein coding genes accumulate anti-sense sRNAs in fission yeast S. pombe. • RNAi represses protein-coding genes in S. pombe. • RNAi-mediated gene repression is post-transcriptional. - Abstract: RNA interference (RNAi) is a gene silencing mechanism conserved from fungi to mammals. Small interfering RNAs are products and mediators of the RNAi pathway and act as specificity factors in recruiting effector complexes. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome encodes one of each of the core RNAi proteins, Dicer, Argonaute and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (dcr1, ago1, rdp1). Even though the function of RNAi in heterochromatin assembly in S. pombe is established, its role in controlling gene expression is elusive. Here, we report the identification of small RNAs mapped anti-sense to protein coding genes in fission yeast. We demonstrate that these genes are up-regulated at the protein level in RNAi mutants, while their mRNA levels are not significantly changed. We show that the repression by RNAi is not a result of heterochromatin formation. Thus, we conclude that RNAi is involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing in S. pombe.

  16. NFIB-Mediated Repression of the Epigenetic Factor Ezh2 Regulates Cortical Development

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Guy; Harvey, Tracey J.; McLeay, Robert; Smith, Aaron G.; Harris, Lachlan; Mason, Sharon; Stringer, Brett W.; Day, Bryan W.; Wray, Naomi R.; Gronostajski, Richard M.; Bailey, Timothy L.; Boyd, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are essential in regulating neural progenitor cell self-renewal, with the chromatin-modifying protein Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) emerging as a central player in promoting progenitor cell self-renewal during cortical development. Despite this, how Ezh2 is itself regulated remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the transcription factor nuclear factor IB (NFIB) plays a key role in this process. Nfib−/− mice exhibit an increased number of proliferative ventricular zone cells that express progenitor cell markers and upregulation of EZH2 expression within the neocortex and hippocampus. NFIB binds to the Ezh2 promoter and overexpression of NFIB represses Ezh2 transcription. Finally, key downstream targets of EZH2-mediated epigenetic repression are misregulated in Nfib−/− mice. Collectively, these results suggest that the downregulation of Ezh2 transcription by NFIB is an important component of the process of neural progenitor cell differentiation during cortical development. PMID:24553933

  17. Intrinsic plasmids influence MicF-mediated translational repression of ompF in Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zizhong; Wang, Haili; Wang, Hongduo; Wang, Jing; Bi, Yujing; Wang, Xiaoyi; Yang, Ruifu; Han, Yanping

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, which is the causative agent of plague, has acquired exceptional pathogenicity potential during its evolution from Y. pseudotuberculosis. Two laterally acquired plasmids, namely, pMT1 and pPCP1, are specific to Y. pestis and are critical for pathogenesis and flea transmission. Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) commonly function as regulators of gene expression in bacteria. MicF, is a paradigmatic sRNA that acts as a post-transcriptional repressor through imperfect base pairing with the 5′-UTR of its target mRNA, ompF, in Escherichia coli. The high sequence conservation and minor variation in the RNA duplex of MicF-ompF has been reported in Yersinia. In this study, we utilized super-folder GFP reporter gene fusion to validate the post-transcriptional MicF-mediated regulation of target mRNA ompF in Y. pestis. Unexpectedly, upon MicF overexpression, the slightly upregulated expression of OmpF were found in the wild-type strain, which contradicted the previously established model. Interestingly, the translational repression of ompF target fusions was restored in the intrinsic plasmids-cured Y. pestis strain, suggesting intrinsic plasmids influence the MicF-mediated translational repression of ompF in Y. pestis. Further examination showed that plasmid pPCP1 is likely the main contributor to the abolishment of MicF-mediated translational repression of endogenous or plasmid-borne ompF. It represents that the possible roles of intrinsic plasmids should be considered upon investigating sRNA-mediated gene regulation, at least in Y. pestis, even if the exact mechanism is not fully understood. PMID:26347736

  18. Snail Recruits Ring1B to Mediate Transcriptional Repression and Cell Migration in Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiangzhi; Xu, Hong; Zou, Xiuqun; Wang, Jiamin; Zhu, Yi; Chen, Hao; Shen, Baiyong; Deng, Xiaxing; Zhou, Aiwu; Chin, Y. Eugene; Rauscher, Frank J.; Peng, Chenghong; Hou, Zhaoyuan

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptional repressor Snail is a master regulator of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), yet the epigenetic mechanism governing Snail to induce EMT is not well understood. Here, we report that in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), elevated levels of the ubiquitin E3 ligase Ring1B and Snail, along with elevated monoubiquitination of H2A at K119 (H2AK119Ub1), are highly correlated with poor survival. Mechanistic investigations identified Ring1B as a Snail-interacting protein and showed that the carboxyl zinc fingers of Snail recruit Ring1B and its paralog Ring1A to repress its target promoters. Simultaneous depletion of Ring1A and Ring1B in pancreatic cancer cells decreased Snail binding to the target chromatin, abolished H2AK119Ub1 modification, and thereby compromised Snail-mediated transcriptional repression and cell migration. We found that Ring1B and the SNAG-associated chromatin modifier EZH2 formed distinct protein complexes with Snail and that EZH2 was required for Snail-Ring1A/B recruitment to the target promoter. Collectively, our results unravel an epigenetic mechanism underlying transcriptional repression by Snail, suggest Ring1A/B as a candidate therapeutic target, and identify H2AK119Ub1 as a potential biomarker for PDAC diagnosis and prognosis. Cancer Res; 74(16); 4353-63. ©2014 AACR PMID:24903147

  19. Global control of motor neuron topography mediated by the repressive actions of a single hox gene.

    PubMed

    Jung, Heekyung; Lacombe, Julie; Mazzoni, Esteban O; Liem, Karel F; Grinstein, Jonathan; Mahony, Shaun; Mukhopadhyay, Debnath; Gifford, David K; Young, Richard A; Anderson, Kathryn V; Wichterle, Hynek; Dasen, Jeremy S

    2010-09-01

    In the developing spinal cord, regional and combinatorial activities of Hox transcription factors are critical in controlling motor neuron fates along the rostrocaudal axis, exemplified by the precise pattern of limb innervation by more than fifty Hox-dependent motor pools. The mechanisms by which motor neuron diversity is constrained to limb levels are, however, not well understood. We show that a single Hox gene, Hoxc9, has an essential role in organizing the motor system through global repressive activities. Hoxc9 is required for the generation of thoracic motor columns, and in its absence, neurons acquire the fates of limb-innervating populations. Unexpectedly, multiple Hox genes are derepressed in Hoxc9 mutants, leading to motor pool disorganization and alterations in the connections by thoracic and forelimb-level subtypes. Genome-wide analysis of Hoxc9 binding suggests that this mode of repression is mediated by direct interactions with Hox regulatory elements, independent of chromatin marks typically associated with repressed Hox genes.

  20. Acute myeloid leukemia requires Hhex to enable PRC2-mediated epigenetic repression of Cdkn2a

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Benjamin J.; Jackson, Jacob T.; Metcalf, Donald; Shi, Wei; Huang, Qiutong; Garnham, Alexandra L.; Glaser, Stefan P.; Beck, Dominik; Pimanda, John E.; Bogue, Clifford W.; Smyth, Gordon K.; Alexander, Warren S.; McCormack, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike clustered HOX genes, the role of nonclustered homeobox gene family members in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis has not been extensively studied. Here we found that the hematopoietically expressed homeobox gene Hhex is overexpressed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is essential for the initiation and propagation of MLL-ENL-induced AML but dispensable for normal myelopoiesis, indicating a specific requirement for Hhex for leukemic growth. Loss of Hhex leads to expression of the Cdkn2a-encoded tumor suppressors p16INK4a and p19ARF, which are required for growth arrest and myeloid differentiation following Hhex deletion. Mechanistically, we show that Hhex binds to the Cdkn2a locus and directly interacts with the Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2) to enable H3K27me3-mediated epigenetic repression. Thus, Hhex is a potential therapeutic target that is specifically required for AML stem cells to repress tumor suppressor pathways and enable continued self-renewal. PMID:26728554

  1. DEWAX-mediated transcriptional repression of cuticular wax biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mi Chung; Go, Young Sam

    2014-06-06

    The aerial parts of plants are covered with a cuticular wax layer, which is the first barrier between a plant and its environment. Although cuticular wax deposition increases more in the light than in the dark, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of cuticular wax biosynthesis. Recently DEWAX (Decrease Wax Biosynthesis) encoding an AP2/ERF transcription factor was found to be preferentially expressed in the epidermis and induced by darkness. Wax analysis of the dewax knockout mutant, wild type, and DEWAX overexpression lines (OX) indicates that DEWAX is a negative regulator of cuticular wax biosynthesis. DEWAX represses the expression of wax biosynthetic genes CER1, LACS2, ACLA2, and ECR via direct interaction with their promoters. Cuticular wax biosynthesis is negatively regulated twice a day by the expression of DEWAX; throughout the night and another for stomata closing. Taken together, it is evident that DEWAX-mediated negative regulation of the wax biosynthetic genes plays role in determining the total wax loads produced in Arabidopsis during daily dark and light cycles. In addition, significantly higher levels of DEWAX transcripts in leaves than stems suggest that DEWAX-mediated transcriptional repression might be involved in the organ-specific regulation of total wax amounts on plant surfaces.

  2. Methylation-mediated transcriptional repression of microRNAs during cervical carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wilting, Saskia M.; Verlaat, Wina; Jaspers, Annelieke; Makazaji, Nour A.; Agami, Reuven; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Snijders, Peter J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Deregulated expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is common and biologically relevant in cervical carcinogenesis and appears only partly related to chromosomal changes. We recently identified 32 miRNAs showing decreased expression in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and carcinomas not associated with a chromosomal loss, 6 of which were located within a CpG island. This study aimed to investigate to what extent these miRNAs are subject to DNA methylation-mediated transcriptional repression in cervical carcinogenesis.   Methylation-specific PCR (MSP) analysis on a cell line panel representing different stages of human papillomavirus (HPV) induced transformation revealed an increase in methylation of hsa-miR-149, -203 and -375 with progression to malignancy, whereas expression of these miRNAs was restored upon treatment with a demethylating agent. All three miRNAs showed significantly increased levels of methylation in cervical carcinomas, whereas methylation levels of hsa-miR-203 and -375 were also significantly increased in high-grade CIN. A pilot analysis showed that increased hsa-miR-203 methylation was also detectable in HPV-positive cervical scrapes of women with high-grade CIN compared with controls. Similar to recent findings on hsa-miR-375, ectopic expression of hsa-miR-203 in cervical cancer cells decreased both the proliferation rate and anchorage independent growth. We found evidence for methylation-mediated transcriptional repression of hsa-miR-149, -203 and -375 in cervical cancer. Methylation of the latter two was already apparent in precancerous lesions and represent functionally relevant events in HPV-mediated transformation. Increased hsa-miR-203 methylation was detectable in scrapes of women with high-grade CIN, indicating that methylated miRNAs may provide putative markers to assess the presence of (pre)cancerous lesions. PMID:23324622

  3. Anchoring of Heterochromatin to the Nuclear Lamina Reinforces Dosage Compensation-Mediated Gene Repression

    PubMed Central

    Brouhard, Elizabeth A.; Jiang, Jianhao; Sifuentes, Margarita H.

    2016-01-01

    Higher order chromosome structure and nuclear architecture can have profound effects on gene regulation. We analyzed how compartmentalizing the genome by tethering heterochromatic regions to the nuclear lamina affects dosage compensation in the nematode C. elegans. In this organism, the dosage compensation complex (DCC) binds both X chromosomes of hermaphrodites to repress transcription two-fold, thus balancing gene expression between XX hermaphrodites and XO males. X chromosome structure is disrupted by mutations in DCC subunits. Using X chromosome paint fluorescence microscopy, we found that X chromosome structure and subnuclear localization are also disrupted when the mechanisms that anchor heterochromatin to the nuclear lamina are defective. Strikingly, the heterochromatic left end of the X chromosome is less affected than the gene-rich middle region, which lacks heterochromatic anchors. These changes in X chromosome structure and subnuclear localization are accompanied by small, but significant levels of derepression of X-linked genes as measured by RNA-seq, without any observable defects in DCC localization and DCC-mediated changes in histone modifications. We propose a model in which heterochromatic tethers on the left arm of the X cooperate with the DCC to compact and peripherally relocate the X chromosomes, contributing to gene repression. PMID:27690361

  4. Gene induction and repression during terminal erythropoiesis are mediated by distinct epigenetic changes.

    PubMed

    Wong, Piu; Hattangadi, Shilpa M; Cheng, Albert W; Frampton, Garrett M; Young, Richard A; Lodish, Harvey F

    2011-10-20

    It is unclear how epigenetic changes regulate the induction of erythroid-specific genes during terminal erythropoiesis. Here we use global mRNA sequencing (mRNA-seq) and chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to high-throughput sequencing (CHIP-seq) to investigate the changes that occur in mRNA levels, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) occupancy, and multiple posttranslational histone modifications when erythroid progenitors differentiate into late erythroblasts. Among genes induced during this developmental transition, there was an increase in the occupancy of Pol II, the activation marks H3K4me2, H3K4me3, H3K9Ac, and H4K16Ac, and the elongation methylation mark H3K79me2. In contrast, genes that were repressed during differentiation showed relative decreases in H3K79me2 levels yet had levels of Pol II binding and active histone marks similar to those in erythroid progenitors. We also found that relative changes in histone modification levels, in particular, H3K79me2 and H4K16ac, were most predictive of gene expression patterns. Our results suggest that in terminal erythropoiesis both promoter and elongation-associated marks contribute to the induction of erythroid genes, whereas gene repression is marked by changes in histone modifications mediating Pol II elongation. Our data map the epigenetic landscape of terminal erythropoiesis and suggest that control of transcription elongation regulates gene expression during terminal erythroid differentiation.

  5. Pax6 represses androgen receptor-mediated transactivation by inhibiting recruitment of the coactivator SPBP.

    PubMed

    Elvenes, Julianne; Thomassen, Ernst Ivan Simon; Johnsen, Sylvia Sagen; Kaino, Katrine; Sjøttem, Eva; Johansen, Terje

    2011-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) has a central role in development and maintenance of the male reproductive system and in the etiology of prostate cancer. The transcription factor Pax6 has recently been reported to act as a repressor of AR and to be hypermethylated in prostate cancer cells. SPBP is a transcriptional regulator that previously has been shown to enhance the activity of Pax6. In this study we have identified SPBP to act as a transcriptional coactivator of AR. We also show that Pax6 inhibits SPBP-mediated enhancement of AR activity on the AR target gene probasin promoter, a repression that was partly reversed by increased expression of SPBP. Enhanced expression of Pax6 reduced the amount of SPBP associated with the probasin promoter when assayed by ChIP in HeLa cells. We mapped the interaction between both AR and SPBP, and AR and Pax6 to the DNA-binding domains of the involved proteins. Further binding studies revealed that Pax6 and SPBP compete for binding to AR. These results suggest that Pax6 represses AR activity by displacing and/or inhibiting recruitment of coactivators to AR target promoters. Understanding the mechanism for inhibition of AR coactivators can give rise to molecular targeted drugs for treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:21935435

  6. Pax6 Represses Androgen Receptor-Mediated Transactivation by Inhibiting Recruitment of the Coactivator SPBP

    PubMed Central

    Johnsen, Sylvia Sagen; Kaino, Katrine; Sjøttem, Eva; Johansen, Terje

    2011-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) has a central role in development and maintenance of the male reproductive system and in the etiology of prostate cancer. The transcription factor Pax6 has recently been reported to act as a repressor of AR and to be hypermethylated in prostate cancer cells. SPBP is a transcriptional regulator that previously has been shown to enhance the activity of Pax6. In this study we have identified SPBP to act as a transcriptional coactivator of AR. We also show that Pax6 inhibits SPBP-mediated enhancement of AR activity on the AR target gene probasin promoter, a repression that was partly reversed by increased expression of SPBP. Enhanced expression of Pax6 reduced the amount of SPBP associated with the probasin promoter when assayed by ChIP in HeLa cells. We mapped the interaction between both AR and SPBP, and AR and Pax6 to the DNA-binding domains of the involved proteins. Further binding studies revealed that Pax6 and SPBP compete for binding to AR. These results suggest that Pax6 represses AR activity by displacing and/or inhibiting recruitment of coactivators to AR target promoters. Understanding the mechanism for inhibition of AR coactivators can give rise to molecular targeted drugs for treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:21935435

  7. Trbp regulates heart function through miRNA-mediated Sox6 repression

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jian; Chen, Jinghai; Wang, Yanqun; Kataoka, Masaharu; Ma, Lixin; Zhou, Pingzhu; Hu, Xiaoyun; Lin, Zhiqiang; Nie, Mao; Deng, Zhong-Liang; Pu, William T; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy is associated with altered expression of genes encoding contractile proteins. Here we show that Trbp (Tarbp2), an RNA binding protein, is required for normal heart function. Cardiac-specific inactivation of Trbp (TrbpcKO) caused progressive cardiomyopathy and lethal heart failure. Trbp loss of function resulted in upregulation of Sox6, repression of genes encoding normal cardiac slow-twitch myofiber proteins, and pathologically increased expression of skeletal fast-twitch myofiber genes. Remarkably, knockdown of Sox6 fully rescued the Trbp mutant phenotype, whereas Sox6 overexpression phenocopied the TrbpcKO phenotype. Trbp inactivation was mechanistically linked to Sox6 upregulation through altered processing of miR-208a, which is a direct inhibitor of Sox6. Transgenic overexpression of miR-208a sufficiently repressed Sox6, restored the balance of fast- and slow- twitch myofiber gene expression, and rescued cardiac function in TrbpcKO mice. Together, our studies reveal a novel Trbp-mediated microRNA processing mechanism in regulating a linear genetic cascade essential for normal heart function. PMID:26029872

  8. RNAi mediates post-transcriptional repression of gene expression in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Smialowska, Agata; Djupedal, Ingela; Wang, Jingwen; Kylsten, Per; Swoboda, Peter; Ekwall, Karl

    2014-02-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a gene silencing mechanism conserved from fungi to mammals. Small interfering RNAs are products and mediators of the RNAi pathway and act as specificity factors in recruiting effector complexes. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome encodes one of each of the core RNAi proteins, Dicer, Argonaute and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (dcr1, ago1, rdp1). Even though the function of RNAi in heterochromatin assembly in S. pombe is established, its role in controlling gene expression is elusive. Here, we report the identification of small RNAs mapped anti-sense to protein coding genes in fission yeast. We demonstrate that these genes are up-regulated at the protein level in RNAi mutants, while their mRNA levels are not significantly changed. We show that the repression by RNAi is not a result of heterochromatin formation. Thus, we conclude that RNAi is involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing in S. pombe.

  9. MAP kinase phosphatase-1 expression is regulated by 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 via a HuR-dependent post-transcriptional mechanism.

    PubMed

    Woo, Joo Hong; Lee, Jee Hoon; Kim, Hyunmi; Choi, Yuree; Park, Sang Myun; Joe, Eun-hye; Jou, Ilo

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, we demonstrate a mechanism through which 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) induces MKP-1 expression in rat primary astrocytes, leading to the regulation of inflammatory responses. We show that 15d-PGJ2 enhances the efficiency of MKP-1 pre-mRNA processing (constitutive splicing and 3'-end processing) and increases the stability of the mature mRNA. We further report that this occurs via the RNA-binding protein, Hu antigen R (HuR). Our experiments show that HuR knockdown abrogates the 15d-PGJ2-induced increases in the pre-mRNA processing and mature mRNA stability of MKP-1, whereas HuR overexpression further enhances the 15d-PGJ2-induced increases in these parameters. Using cysteine (Cys)-mutated HuR proteins, we show that the Cys-245 residue of HuR (but not Cys-13 or Cys-284) is critical for the direct binding of HuR with 15d-PGJ2 and the effects downstream of this interaction. Collectively, our data show that HuR is a novel target of 15d-PGJ2 and reveal HuR-mediated pre-mRNA processing and mature mRNA stabilization as important regulatory steps in the 15d-PGJ2-induced expression of MKP-1. The potential to use a small molecule such as 15d-PGJ2 to regulate the induction of MKP-1 at multiple levels of gene expression could be exploited as a novel therapeutic strategy aimed at combating a diverse range of MKP-1-associated pathologies.

  10. Control of inducer accumulation plays a key role in succinate-mediated catabolite repression in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Bringhurst, Ryan M; Gage, Daniel J

    2002-10-01

    The symbiotic, nitrogen-fixing bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti favors succinate and related dicarboxylic acids as carbon sources. As a preferred carbon source, succinate can exert catabolite repression upon genes needed for the utilization of many secondary carbon sources, including the alpha-galactosides raffinose and stachyose. We isolated lacR mutants in a genetic screen designed to find S. meliloti mutants that had abnormal succinate-mediated catabolite repression of the melA-agp genes, which are required for the utilization of raffinose and other alpha-galactosides. The loss of catabolite repression in lacR mutants was seen in cells grown in minimal medium containing succinate and raffinose and grown in succinate and lactose. For succinate and lactose, the loss of catabolite repression could be attributed to the constitutive expression of beta-galactoside utilization genes in lacR mutants. However, the inactivation of lacR did not cause the constitutive expression of alpha-galactoside utilization genes but caused the aberrant expression of these genes only when succinate was present. To explain the loss of diauxie in succinate and raffinose, we propose a model in which lacR mutants overproduce beta-galactoside transporters, thereby overwhelming the inducer exclusion mechanisms of succinate-mediated catabolite repression. Thus, some raffinose could be transported by the overproduced beta-galactoside transporters and cause the induction of alpha-galactoside utilization genes in the presence of both succinate and raffinose. This model is supported by the restoration of diauxie in a lacF lacR double mutant (lacF encodes a beta-galactoside transport protein) grown in medium containing succinate and raffinose. Biochemical support for the idea that succinate-mediated repression operates by preventing inducer accumulation also comes from uptake assays, which showed that cells grown in raffinose and exposed to succinate have a decreased rate of raffinose transport

  11. STAT6-mediated BCL6 repression in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL)

    PubMed Central

    Ritz, Olga; Rommel, Karolin; Dorsch, Karola; Kelsch, Elena; Melzner, Julia; Buck, Michaela; Leroy, Karen; Papadopoulou, Vasiliki; Wagner, Simon; Marienfeld, Ralf; Brüderlein, Silke; Lennerz, Jochen K.; Möller, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) is characterized by aberrant activation of JAK/STAT-signaling resulting in constitutive presence of phosphorylated STAT6 (pSTAT6). In primary PMBL samples pSTAT6 is only expressed in a sub-population of lymphoma cells in a pattern that is reminiscent of that of the BCL6 oncogene. Double-fluorescence staining was carried out to determine the association between these two proteins in ten primary PMBL cases and three available PMBL cell line models. Surprisingly, only a minute fraction of double-positive nuclei was observed, while each sample contained considerable fractions of single-positive pSTAT6 and BCL6 nuclei. The intratumoral coexistence of BCL6+/pSTAT6− and BCL6−/pSTAT6+ subpopulations suggests a negative interaction between these factors. In silico screening of the STAT6 /BCL6 promoters for DNA consensus binding sites identified five STAT-binding-sites in the BCL6 promoter. We confirmed STAT6 binding to the BCL6 promoter in vitro and in vivo by band shift / super shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitations. Using BCL6 luciferase reporter assays, depletion of STAT6 by siRNA, and ectopic overexpression of a constitutive active STAT6 mutant, we proved that pSTAT6 is sufficient to transcriptionally repress BCL6. Recently developed small molecule inhibitors 79-6 and TG101348 that increases BCL6 target gene expression and decreases pSTAT6 levels, respectively, demonstrate that a combined targeting results in additive efficacy regarding their negative effect on cell viability. The delineated pSTAT6-mediated molecular repression mechanism links JAK/STAT to BCL6-signaling in PMBL and may carry therapeutic potential. PMID:23852366

  12. STAT6-mediated BCL6 repression in primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL).

    PubMed

    Ritz, Olga; Rommel, Karolin; Dorsch, Karola; Kelsch, Elena; Melzner, Julia; Buck, Michaela; Leroy, Karen; Papadopoulou, Vasiliki; Wagner, Simon; Marienfeld, Ralf; Brüderlein, Silke; Lennerz, Jochen K; Möller, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL) is characterized by aberrant activation of JAK/STAT-signaling resulting in constitutive presence of phosphorylated STAT6 (pSTAT6). In primary PMBL samples pSTAT6 is only expressed in a sub-population of lymphoma cells in a pattern that is reminiscent of that of the BCL6 oncogene. Double-fluorescence staining was carried out to determine the association between these two proteins in ten primary PMBL cases and three available PMBL cell line models. Surprisingly, only a minute fraction of double-positive nuclei was observed, while each sample contained considerable fractions of single-positive pSTAT6 and BCL6 nuclei. The intratumoral coexistence of BCL6+/pSTAT6- and BCL6-/pSTAT6+ subpopulations suggests a negative interaction between these factors. In silico screening of the STAT6 /BCL6 promoters for DNA consensus binding sites identified five STAT-binding-sites in the BCL6 promoter. We confirmed STAT6 binding to the BCL6 promoter in vitro and in vivo by band shift / super shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitations. Using BCL6 luciferase reporter assays, depletion of STAT6 by siRNA, and ectopic overexpression of a constitutive active STAT6 mutant, we proved that pSTAT6 is sufficient to transcriptionally repress BCL6. Recently developed small molecule inhibitors 79-6 and TG101348 that increases BCL6 target gene expression and decreases pSTAT6 levels, respectively, demonstrate that a combined targeting results in additive efficacy regarding their negative effect on cell viability. The delineated pSTAT6-mediated molecular repression mechanism links JAK/STAT to BCL6-signaling in PMBL and may carry therapeutic potential. PMID:23852366

  13. STAT4-mediated transcriptional repression of the IL5 gene in human memory Th2 cells.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-van Horn, Sarah R; Estrada, Leonardo D; van Oers, Nicolai S C; Farrar, J David

    2016-06-01

    Type I interferon (IFN-α/β) plays a critical role in suppressing viral replication by driving the transcription of hundreds of interferon-sensitive genes (ISGs). While many ISGs are transcriptionally activated by the ISGF3 complex, the significance of other signaling intermediates in IFN-α/β-mediated gene regulation remains elusive, particularly in rare cases of gene silencing. In human Th2 cells, IFN-α/β signaling suppressed IL5 and IL13 mRNA expression during recall responses to T-cell receptor (TCR) activation. This suppression occurred through a rapid reduction in the rate of nascent transcription, independent of de novo expression of ISGs. Further, IFN-α/β-mediated STAT4 activation was required for repressing the human IL5 gene, and disrupting STAT4 dimerization reversed this effect. This is the first demonstration of STAT4 acting as a transcriptional repressor in response to IFN-α/β signaling and highlights the unique activity of this cytokine to acutely block the expression of an inflammatory cytokine in human T cells. PMID:26990433

  14. GLI3-dependent repression of DR4 mediates hedgehog antagonism of TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kurita, S; Mott, J L; Almada, L L; Bronk, S F; Werneburg, N W; Sun, S-Y; Roberts, L R; Fernandez-Zapico, M E; Gores, G J

    2010-08-26

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis through its cognate receptors death receptor 4 (DR4) and death receptor 5 (DR5), preferentially in malignant cells. However, many malignant cells remain resistant to TRAIL cytotoxicity by poorly characterized mechanisms. Here, using cholangiocarcinoma cells, as a model for TRAIL resistance, we identified a role for the oncogenic Hedgehog (Hh)-GLI pathway in the regulation of TRAIL cytotoxicity. Blockade of Hh using pharmacological and genetic tools sensitizes the cells to TRAIL cytotoxicity. Restoration of apoptosis sensitivity coincided with upregulation of DR4 expression, while expression of other death effector proteins remained unaltered. Knockdown of DR4 mimics Hh-mediated resistance to TRAIL cytotoxicity. Hh regulates the expression of DR4 by modulating the activity of its promoter. Luciferase, chromatin immunoprecipitation and expression assays show that the transcription factor GLI3 binds to the DR4 promoter and Hh requires an intact GLI3-repression activity to silence DR4 expression. Finally, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-targeted knockdown of GLI3, but not GLI1 or GLI2, restores DR4 expression and TRAIL sensitivity, indicating that the Hh effect is exclusively mediated by this transcription factor. In conclusion, these data provide evidence of a regulatory mechanism, which modulates TRAIL signaling in cancer cells and suggest new therapeutic approaches for TRAIL-resistant neoplasms. PMID:20562908

  15. GLI3-dependent repression of DR4 mediates hedgehog antagonism of TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Kurita, S; Mott, JL; Almada, LL; Bronk, SF; Werneburg, NW; Sun, S-Y; Roberts, LR; Fernandez-Zapico, ME; Gores, GJ

    2010-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis through its cognate receptors death receptor 4 (DR4) and death receptor 5 (DR5), preferentially in malignant cells. However, many malignant cells remain resistant to TRAIL cytotoxicity by poorly characterized mechanisms. Here, using cholangiocarcinoma cells, as a model for TRAIL resistance, we identified a role for the oncogenic Hedgehog (Hh)-GLI pathway in the regulation of TRAIL cytotoxicity. Blockade of Hh using pharmacological and genetic tools sensitizes the cells to TRAIL cytotoxicity. Restoration of apoptosis sensitivity coincided with upregulation of DR4 expression, while expression of other death effector proteins remained unaltered. Knockdown of DR4 mimics Hh-mediated resistance to TRAIL cytotoxicity. Hh regulates the expression of DR4 by modulating the activity of its promoter. Luciferase, chromatin immunoprecipitation and expression assays show that the transcription factor GLI3 binds to the DR4 promoter and Hh requires an intact GLI3-repression activity to silence DR4 expression. Finally, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-targeted knockdown of GLI3, but not GLI1 or GLI2, restores DR4 expression and TRAIL sensitivity, indicating that the Hh effect is exclusively mediated by this transcription factor. In conclusion, these data provide evidence of a regulatory mechanism, which modulates TRAIL signaling in cancer cells and suggest new therapeutic approaches for TRAIL-resistant neoplasms. PMID:20562908

  16. Id2 complexes with the SNAG domain of Snai1 inhibiting Snai1-mediated repression of integrin β4.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng; Yang, Xiaofang; Pursell, Bryan; Mercurio, Arthur M

    2013-10-01

    The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental process that underlies development and cancer. Although the EMT involves alterations in the expression of specific integrins that mediate stable adhesion to the basement membrane, such as α6β4, the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here, we report that Snai1 inhibits β4 transcription by increasing repressive histone modification (trimethylation of histone H3 at K27 [H3K27Me3]). Surprisingly, Snai1 is expressed and localized in the nucleus in epithelial cells, but it does not repress β4. We resolved this paradox by discovering that Id2 complexes with the SNAG domain of Snai1 on the β4 promoter and constrains the repressive function of Snai1. Disruption of the complex by depleting Id2 resulted in Snai1-mediated β4 repression with a concomitant increase in H3K27Me3 modification on the β4 promoter. These findings establish a novel function for Id2 in regulating Snai1 that has significant implications for the regulation of epithelial gene expression.

  17. 15-deoxy prostaglandin J2, the nonenzymatic metabolite of prostaglandin D2, induces apoptosis in keratinocytes of human hair follicles: a possible explanation for prostaglandin D2-mediated inhibition of hair growth.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hyun Woo; Kang, Yoo Ri; Kwack, Mi Hee; Sung, Young Kwan

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and its nonenzymatic metabolite, 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15-dPGJ2), inhibit in vitro growth of explanted human hair follicles and inhibit hair growth in mice through the GPR44 (DP2). However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we first investigated the expression of DP2 in human hair follicles and in cultured follicular cells. We found that DP2 is strongly expressed in the outer root sheath (ORS) cells and weakly expressed in the dermal papilla (DP) cells. We observed slight growth stimulation when ORS and DP cells were treated with PGD2. We also observed slight growth stimulation when DP and ORS cells were treated with low concentrations (0.5 and 1 μM) of 15-dPGJ2. However, 5 μM 15-dPGJ2 inhibited the viability and caused apoptosis of both cell types. Exposure of cultured human hair follicles to 15-dPGJ2 resulted in significant apoptosis in follicular keratinocytes. Altogether, our data provide an evidence that 15-dPGJ2 promotes apoptosis in follicular keratinocytes and provide rationale for developing remedies for the prevention and treatment of hair loss based on DP2 antagonism.

  18. Compact and highly active next-generation libraries for CRISPR-mediated gene repression and activation

    PubMed Central

    Horlbeck, Max A; Gilbert, Luke A; Villalta, Jacqueline E; Adamson, Britt; Pak, Ryan A; Chen, Yuwen; Fields, Alexander P; Park, Chong Yon; Corn, Jacob E; Kampmann, Martin; Weissman, Jonathan S

    2016-01-01

    We recently found that nucleosomes directly block access of CRISPR/Cas9 to DNA (Horlbeck et al., 2016). Here, we build on this observation with a comprehensive algorithm that incorporates chromatin, position, and sequence features to accurately predict highly effective single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) for targeting nuclease-dead Cas9-mediated transcriptional repression (CRISPRi) and activation (CRISPRa). We use this algorithm to design next-generation genome-scale CRISPRi and CRISPRa libraries targeting human and mouse genomes. A CRISPRi screen for essential genes in K562 cells demonstrates that the large majority of sgRNAs are highly active. We also find CRISPRi does not exhibit any detectable non-specific toxicity recently observed with CRISPR nuclease approaches. Precision-recall analysis shows that we detect over 90% of essential genes with minimal false positives using a compact 5 sgRNA/gene library. Our results establish CRISPRi and CRISPRa as premier tools for loss- or gain-of-function studies and provide a general strategy for identifying Cas9 target sites. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19760.001 PMID:27661255

  19. Hepatocyte-Ductal Transdifferentiation Is Mediated by Reciprocal Repression of SOX9 and C/EBPα

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Kathy E.; Thowfeequ, Shifaan; Li, Wan-Chun; Eberhard, Daniel; Dutton, James R.; Slack, Jonathan M.W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Primary hepatocytes rapidly dedifferentiate when cultured in vitro. We have studied the mechanism of hepatocyte dedifferentiation by using two culture media: one that maintains hepatocytes in a differentiated state and another that allows dedifferentiation. We show that dedifferentiation involves partial transformation of hepatocytes into cells that resemble biliary epithelial cells. Lineage labeling and time-lapse filming confirm that the dedifferentiated cells are derived from hepatocytes and not from contaminating ductal or fibroblastic cells in the original culture. Furthermore, we establish that the conversion of hepatocytes to biliary-like cells is regulated by mutual antagonism of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) and SOX9, which have opposing effects on the expression of hepatocyte and ductal genes. Thus, hepatocyte dedifferentiation induces the biliary gene expression program by alleviating C/EBPα-mediated repression of Sox9. We propose that reciprocal antagonism of C/EBPα and SOX9 also operates in the formation of hepatocytes and biliary ducts from hepatoblasts during normal embryonic development. These data demonstrate that reprogramming of differentiated cells can be used to model the acquisition and maintenance of cell fate in vivo. PMID:25153359

  20. 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 inhibits macrophage colonization by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Michelle M C; Antunes, L Caetano M; Gill, Navkiran; Russell, Shannon L; Shames, Stephanie R; Finlay, B Brett

    2013-01-01

    15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) is an anti-inflammatory downstream product of the cyclooxygenase enzymes. It has been implicated to play a protective role in a variety of inflammatory mediated diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, neural damage, and myocardial infarctions. Here we show that 15d-PGJ2 also plays a role in Salmonella infection. Salmonella enterica Typhimurium is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that is able to survive and replicate inside phagocytic immune cells, allowing for bacterial dissemination to systemic sites. Salmonella species cause a wide range of morbidity and mortality due to gastroenteritis and typhoid fever. Previously we have shown that in mouse models of typhoid fever, Salmonella infection causes a major perturbation in the prostaglandin pathway. Specifically, we saw that 15d-PGJ2 production was significantly increased in both liver and feces. In this work we show that 15d-PGJ2 production is also significantly increased in macrophages infected with Salmonella. Furthermore, we show that the addition of 15d-PGJ2 to Salmonella infected RAW264.7, J774, and bone marrow derived macrophages is sufficient to significantly reduce bacterial colonization. We also show evidence that 15d-PGJ2 is reducing bacterial uptake by macrophages. 15d-PGJ2 reduces the inflammatory response of these infected macrophages, as evidenced by a reduction in the production of cytokines and reactive nitrogen species. The inflammatory response of the macrophage is important for full Salmonella virulence, as it can give the bacteria cues for virulence. The reduction in bacterial colonization is independent of the expression of Salmonella virulence genes SPI1 and SPI2, and is independent of the 15d-PGJ2 ligand PPAR-γ. 15d-PGJ2 also causes an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in infected macrophages. In conclusion, we show here that 15d-PGJ2 mediates the outcome of bacterial infection, a previously unidentified role for this

  1. Recruitment of histone methyltransferase G9a mediates transcriptional repression of Fgf21 gene by E4BP4 protein.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xin; Zhang, Deqiang; Buelow, Katie; Guha, Anirvan; Arthurs, Blake; Brady, Hugh J M; Yin, Lei

    2013-02-22

    The liver responds to fasting-refeeding cycles by reprogramming expression of metabolic genes. Fasting potently induces one of the key hepatic hormones, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), to promote lipolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and ketogenesis, whereas refeeding suppresses its expression. We previously reported that the basic leucine zipper transcription factor E4BP4 (E4 binding protein 4) represses Fgf21 expression and disrupts its circadian oscillations in cultured hepatocytes. However, the epigenetic mechanism for E4BP4-dependent suppression of Fgf21 has not yet been addressed. Here we present evidence that histone methyltransferase G9a mediates E4BP4-dependent repression of Fgf21 during refeeding by promoting repressive histone modification. We find that Fgf21 expression is up-regulated in E4bp4 knock-out mouse liver. We demonstrate that the G9a-specific inhibitor BIX01294 abolishes suppression of the Fgf21 promoter activity by E4BP4, whereas overexpression of E4bp4 leads to increased levels of dimethylation of histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9me2) around the Fgf21 promoter region. Furthermore, we also show that E4BP4 interacts with G9a, and knockdown of G9a blocks repression of Fgf21 promoter activity and expression in cells overexpressing E4bp4. A G9a mutant lacking catalytic activity, due to deletion of the SET domain, fails to inhibit the Fgf21 promoter activity. Importantly, acute hepatic knockdown by adenoviral shRNA targeting G9a abolishes Fgf21 repression by refeeding, concomitant with decreased levels of H3K9me2 around the Fgf21 promoter region. In summary, we show that G9a mediates E4BP4-dependent suppression of hepatic Fgf21 by enhancing histone methylation (H3K9me2) of the Fgf21 promoter. PMID:23283977

  2. The gap protein knirps mediates both quenching and direct repression in the Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Arnosti, D N; Gray, S; Barolo, S; Zhou, J; Levine, M

    1996-01-01

    Transcriptional repression is essential for establishing localized patterns of gene expression during Drosophila embryogenesis. Several mechanisms of repression have been proposed, including competition, quenching and direct repression of the transcription complex. Previous studies suggest that the knirps orphan receptor (kni) may repress transcription via competition, and exclude the binding of the bicoid (bcd) activator to an overlapping site in a target promoter. Here we present evidence that kni can quench, or locally inhibit, upstream activators within a heterologous enhancer in transgenic embryos. The range of kni repression is approximately 50-100 bp, so that neighboring enhancers in a modular promoter are free to interact with the transcription complex (enhancer autonomy). However, kni can also repress the transcription complex when bound in promoter-proximal regions. In this position, kni functions as a dominant repressor and blocks multiple enhancers in a modular promoter. Our studies suggest that short-range repression represents a flexible form of gene regulation, exhibiting enhancer- or promoter-specific effects depending on the location of repressor binding sites. Images PMID:8670869

  3. The Mediator Kinase Module Restrains Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling and Represses Vulval Cell Fate Specification in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Grants, Jennifer M; Ying, Lisa T L; Yoda, Akinori; You, Charlotte C; Okano, Hideyuki; Sawa, Hitoshi; Taubert, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    Cell signaling pathways that control proliferation and determine cell fates are tightly regulated to prevent developmental anomalies and cancer. Transcription factors and coregulators are important effectors of signaling pathway output, as they regulate downstream gene programs. In Caenorhabditis elegans, several subunits of the Mediator transcriptional coregulator complex promote or inhibit vulva development, but pertinent mechanisms are poorly defined. Here, we show that Mediator's dissociable cyclin dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) module (CKM), consisting of cdk-8, cic-1/Cyclin C, mdt-12/dpy-22, and mdt-13/let-19, is required to inhibit ectopic vulval cell fates downstream of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. cdk-8 inhibits ectopic vulva formation by acting downstream of mpk-1/ERK, cell autonomously in vulval cells, and in a kinase-dependent manner. We also provide evidence that the CKM acts as a corepressor for the Ets-family transcription factor LIN-1, as cdk-8 promotes transcriptional repression by LIN-1. In addition, we find that CKM mutation alters Mediator subunit requirements in vulva development: the mdt-23/sur-2 subunit, which is required for vulva development in wild-type worms, is dispensable for ectopic vulva formation in CKM mutants, which instead display hallmarks of unrestrained Mediator tail module activity. We propose a model whereby the CKM controls EGFR-Ras-ERK transcriptional output by corepressing LIN-1 and by fine tuning Mediator specificity, thus balancing transcriptional repression vs. activation in a critical developmental signaling pathway. Collectively, these data offer an explanation for CKM repression of EGFR signaling output and ectopic vulva formation and provide the first evidence of Mediator CKM-tail module subunit crosstalk in animals. PMID:26715664

  4. The DDX6-4E-T interaction mediates translational repression and P-body assembly.

    PubMed

    Kamenska, Anastasiia; Simpson, Clare; Vindry, Caroline; Broomhead, Helen; Bénard, Marianne; Ernoult-Lange, Michèle; Lee, Benjamin P; Harries, Lorna W; Weil, Dominique; Standart, Nancy

    2016-07-27

    4E-Transporter binds eIF4E via its consensus sequence YXXXXLΦ, shared with eIF4G, and is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein found enriched in P-(rocessing) bodies. 4E-T inhibits general protein synthesis by reducing available eIF4E levels. Recently, we showed that 4E-T bound to mRNA however represses its translation in an eIF4E-independent manner, and contributes to silencing of mRNAs targeted by miRNAs. Here, we address further the mechanism of translational repression by 4E-T by first identifying and delineating the interacting sites of its major partners by mass spectrometry and western blotting, including DDX6, UNR, unrip, PAT1B, LSM14A and CNOT4. Furthermore, we document novel binding between 4E-T partners including UNR-CNOT4 and unrip-LSM14A, altogether suggesting 4E-T nucleates a complex network of RNA-binding protein interactions. In functional assays, we demonstrate that joint deletion of two short conserved motifs that bind UNR and DDX6 relieves repression of 4E-T-bound mRNA, in part reliant on the 4E-T-DDX6-CNOT1 axis. We also show that the DDX6-4E-T interaction mediates miRNA-dependent translational repression and de novo P-body assembly, implying that translational repression and formation of new P-bodies are coupled processes. Altogether these findings considerably extend our understanding of the role of 4E-T in gene regulation, important in development and neurogenesis. PMID:27342281

  5. Lactose-mediated carbon catabolite repression of putrescine production in dairy Lactococcus lactis is strain dependent.

    PubMed

    del Rio, Beatriz; Ladero, Victor; Redruello, Begoña; Linares, Daniel M; Fernández, Maria; Martín, Maria Cruz; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2015-06-01

    Lactococcus lactis is the lactic acid bacterial (LAB) species most widely used as a primary starter in the dairy industry. However, several strains of L. lactis produce the biogenic amine putrescine via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway. We previously reported the putrescine biosynthesis pathway in L. lactis subsp. cremoris GE2-14 to be regulated by carbon catabolic repression (CCR) via glucose but not lactose (Linares et al., 2013). The present study shows that both these sugars repress putrescine biosynthesis in L. lactis subsp. lactis T3/33, a strain isolated from a Spanish artisanal cheese. Furthermore, we demonstrated that both glucose and lactose repressed the transcriptional activity of the aguBDAC catabolic genes of the AGDI route. Finally, a screening performed in putrescine-producing dairy L. lactis strains determined that putrescine biosynthesis was repressed by lactose in all the L. lactis subsp. lactis strains tested, but in only one L. lactis subsp. cremoris strain. Given the obvious importance of the lactose-repression in cheese putrescine accumulation, it is advisable to consider the diversity of L. lactis in this sense and characterize consequently the starter cultures to select the safest strains.

  6. Identification of a prostaglandin D2 metabolite as a neuritogenesis enhancer targeting the TRPV1 ion channel

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Takahiro; Takahashi, Katsuhiro; Matsubara, Yui; Inuzuka, Emi; Nakashima, Fumie; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Kozai, Daisuke; Mori, Yasuo; Uchida, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells play important roles in allergic inflammation by secreting various mediators. In the present study, based on the finding that the medium conditioned by activated RBL-2H3 mast cells enhanced the nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neuritogenesis of PC12 cells, we attempted to isolate an active compound from the mast cell conditioned culture medium. Our experiment identified 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2), one of the PGD2 metabolites, as a potential enhancer of neuritogenesis. 15d-PGJ2 strongly enhanced the neuritogenesis elicited by a low-concentration of NGF that alone was insufficient to induce the neuronal differentiation. This 15d-PGJ2 effect was exerted in a Ca2+-dependent manner, but independently of the NGF receptor TrkA. Importantly, 15d-PGJ2 activated the transient receptor potential vanilloid-type 1 (TRPV1), a non-selective cation channel, leading to the Ca2+ influx. In addition, we observed that (i) NGF promoted the insertion of TRPV1 into the cell surface membrane and (ii) 15d-PGJ2 covalently bound to TRPV1. These findings suggest that the NGF/15d-PGJ2-induced neuritogenesis may be regulated by two sets of mechanisms, one for the translocation of TRPV1 into the cell surface by NGF and one for the activation of TRPV1 by 15d-PGJ2. Thus, there is most likely a link between allergic inflammation and activation of the neuronal differentiation. PMID:26879669

  7. Identification of a microRNA that activates gene expression by repressing nonsense-mediated RNA decay.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Ivone G; Karam, Rachid; Huang, Lulu; Bhardwaj, Anjana; Lou, Chih H; Shum, Eleen Y; Song, Hye-Won; Corbett, Mark A; Gifford, Wesley D; Gecz, Jozef; Pfaff, Samuel L; Wilkinson, Miles F

    2011-05-20

    Nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) degrades both normal and aberrant transcripts harboring stop codons in particular contexts. Mutations that perturb NMD cause neurological disorders in humans, suggesting that NMD has roles in the brain. Here, we identify a brain-specific microRNA-miR-128-that represses NMD and thereby controls batteries of transcripts in neural cells. miR-128 represses NMD by targeting the RNA helicase UPF1 and the exon-junction complex core component MLN51. The ability of miR-128 to regulate NMD is a conserved response occurring in frogs, chickens, and mammals. miR-128 levels are dramatically increased in differentiating neuronal cells and during brain development, leading to repressed NMD and upregulation of mRNAs normally targeted for decay by NMD; overrepresented are those encoding proteins controlling neuron development and function. Together, these results suggest the existence of a conserved RNA circuit linking the microRNA and NMD pathways that induces cell type-specific transcripts during development.

  8. Roles of two DNA-binding factors in replication, segregation and transcriptional repression mediated by a yeast silencer.

    PubMed Central

    Kimmerly, W; Buchman, A; Kornberg, R; Rine, J

    1988-01-01

    The HMR E silencer is required for SIR-dependent transcriptional repression of the silent mating-type locus, HMR. The silencer also behaves as an origin of replication (ARS element) and allows plasmids to replicate autonomously in yeast. The replication and segregation properties of these plasmids are also dependent on the four SIR genes. We have previously characterized two DNA-binding factors in yeast extracts that recognize specific sequences at the HMR E silencer. These proteins, called ABFI (ARS-Binding Factor) and GRFI (General Regulatory Factor), are not encoded by any of the SIR genes. To investigate the biological roles of these factors, single-base-pair mutations were constructed in both binding sites at the HMR E silencer that were no longer recognized by the corresponding proteins in vitro. Our results indicate that the GRFI-binding site is required for the efficient segregation of plasmids replicated by the HMR E silencer. SIR-dependent transcriptional repression requires either an intact ABFI-binding site or GRFI-binding site, although the GRFI-binding site appears to be more important. A double-mutant silencer that binds neither ABFI nor GRFI does not mediate transcriptional repression of HMR. The replacement of HMR E with a chromosomal origin of replication (ARS1) allows partial SIR-dependent transcriptional repression of HMR, indicating a role for replication in silencer function. Together, these results suggest that the SIR proteins influence the properties of the HMR E silencer through interactions with other DNA-binding proteins. Images PMID:3046937

  9. Evolution of VRN2/Ghd7-Like Genes in Vernalization-Mediated Repression of Grass Flowering1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    McKeown, Meghan A.

    2016-01-01

    Flowering of many plant species is coordinated with seasonal environmental cues such as temperature and photoperiod. Vernalization provides competence to flower after prolonged cold exposure, and a vernalization requirement prevents flowering from occurring prior to winter. In winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), three genes VRN1, VRN2, and FT form a regulatory loop that regulates the initiation of flowering. Prior to cold exposure, VRN2 represses FT. During cold, VRN1 expression increases, resulting in the repression of VRN2, which in turn allows activation of FT during long days to induce flowering. Here, we test whether the circuitry of this regulatory loop is conserved across Pooideae, consistent with their niche transition from the tropics to the temperate zone. Our phylogenetic analyses of VRN2-like genes reveal a duplication event occurred before the diversification of the grasses that gave rise to a CO9 and VRN2/Ghd7 clade and support orthology between wheat/barley VRN2 and rice (Oryza sativa) Ghd7. Our Brachypodium distachyon VRN1 and VRN2 knockdown and overexpression experiments demonstrate functional conservation of grass VRN1 and VRN2 in the promotion and repression of flowering, respectively. However, expression analyses in a range of pooids demonstrate that the cold repression of VRN2 is unique to core Pooideae such as wheat and barley. Furthermore, VRN1 knockdown in B. distachyon demonstrates that the VRN1-mediated suppression of VRN2 is not conserved. Thus, the VRN1-VRN2 feature of the regulatory loop appears to have evolved late in the diversification of temperate grasses. PMID:26848096

  10. Inhibition of root meristem growth by cadmium involves nitric oxide-mediated repression of auxin accumulation and signalling in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hong-Mei; Huang, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The root is the first plant organ to get in contact with the toxin cadmium (Cd), which is a widespread soil contaminant. Cd inhibits the growth of the primary root, but the mechanisms underlying this inhibition remain elusive. In this study, we used physiological, pharmacological and genetic approaches to investigate the roles of nitric oxide (NO) and auxin in Cd-mediated inhibition of Arabidopsis thaliana root meristem growth. Our study demonstrated that in the first 12 h of exposure, Cd inhibits primary root elongation through a decrease in the sizes of both the elongation and meristematic zones. Following Cd exposure, a decrease in auxin levels is associated with reduced PIN1/3/7 protein accumulation, but not with reduced PIN1/3/7 transcript levels. Additionally, Cd stabilized AXR3/IAA17 protein to repress auxin signalling in this Cd-mediated process. Furthermore, decreasing Cd-induced NO accumulation with either NO-specific scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (cPTIO) or NO synthase inhibitor N(ω) -nitro-l-Arg-methylester (l-NAME) compromised the Cd-mediated inhibition of root meristem development, reduction in auxin and PIN1/3/7 accumulation, as well as stabilization of AXR3/IAA17, indicating that NO participates in Cd-mediated inhibition of root meristem growth. Taken together, our data suggest that Cd inhibits root meristem growth by NO-mediated repression of auxin accumulation and signalling in Arabidopsis.

  11. The zinc finger and C-terminal domains of MTA proteins are required for FOG-2-mediated transcriptional repression via the NuRD complex.

    PubMed

    Roche, Andrea E; Bassett, Brett J; Samant, Sadhana A; Hong, Wei; Blobel, Gerd A; Svensson, Eric C

    2008-02-01

    FOG-2 is a transcriptional co-regulator that is required for cardiac morphogenesis as mice deficient in this factor die during mid-gestation of cardiac malformations. FOG-2 interacts with GATA4 to attenuate GATA4-dependent gene expression. The first 12 amino acids of FOG-2 (the FOG Repression Motif) are necessary to mediate this repression. To determine the mechanism by which the FOG Repression Motif functions, we identified 7 polypeptides from rat cardiac nuclear extracts that co-purified with a GST-FOG-2 fusion protein. All proteins identified are members of the NuRD nucleosome remodeling complex. Using in vitro binding and co-immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrate that Metastasis-Associated proteins (MTA)-1, 2 and 3 and Retinoblastoma binding proteins RbAp46 and RbAp48 interact with FOG-2, but not with a mutant form of FOG-2 that is unable to repress transcription. Furthermore, we define a novel domain located in the C-terminal portion of MTA-1 that mediates the FOG-2/MTA-1 interaction. We also demonstrate that knockdown of MTA protein expression dramatically impairs the ability of FOG-2 to repress GATA4 activity. Finally, we show that the zinc finger domain of MTA-1 is required for FOG-2-mediated transcriptional repression and that this domain interacts with RbAp46 and RbAp48 subunits of the NuRD complex. Together, these results demonstrate the importance of FOG-2/MTA/RbAp interactions for FOG-2-mediated transcriptional repression and further define the molecular interactions between the FOG Repression Motif and the NuRD complex.

  12. A negatively acting DNA sequence element mediates phytochrome-directed repression of phyA gene transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, W B; Deng, X W; Quail, P H

    1991-01-01

    Phytochrome represses transcription of its own phyA genes within 5 min of light-triggered conversion to its active Pfr form. We have utilized microprojectile mediated gene transfer into etiolated rice seedlings to delineate sequence elements in the oat phyA3 promoter responsible for this regulation. Linker-scan mutagenesis of this promoter has identified two positive elements which together are necessary for maximal transcription in the absence of Pfr. These elements are designated PE1, centered at position -357 bp, and PE3, centered at position -96 bp. Sequence mutagenesis immediately downstream of PE3 results in maximal transcription in the presence of high Pfr levels, indicating that Pfr represses phyA3 transcription through a negatively acting sequence element. This element, designated RE1, with the sequence CATGGGCGCGG, encompasses a motif that is highly conserved in all monocot phyA promoters thus far characterized. DNase I protection analysis indicates that oat nuclear extracts contain multiple factors that bind to an array of sequence motifs, including PE1 and part of PE3, within 400 bp upstream of the oat phyA3 transcription start site. This DNA-binding pattern is not altered by Pfr. Weak binding to part of the RE1 motif is evident but also with no difference between high and low Pfr levels. We conclude that the signal transduction chain that mediates Pfr-directed repression of phyA3 transcription terminates with a negatively acting transcription factor that binds to the sequence element RE1. Images PMID:1915276

  13. Glucocorticoid receptor-mediated repression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone promoter activity in GT1 hypothalamic cell lines.

    PubMed

    Chandran, U R; Attardi, B; Friedman, R; Dong, K W; Roberts, J L; DeFranco, D B

    1994-03-01

    The synthesis and release of GnRH within a specific subset of neurons in the hypothalamus, which serves as the primary drive to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, is subject to various levels of control. Although a number of direct synaptic connections to GnRH-containing neurons have been identified, which presumably provide some regulatory inputs, the mechanisms responsible for hormonal regulation of GnRH synthesis and release mediated by either cell surface or intracellular receptors remain controversial. The recent demonstration that a subset of GnRH-containing neurons in the rat hypothalamus possesses immunoreactive glucocorticoid receptors (GR) implies that this class of steroid hormones could exert a direct effect to regulate the functioning of these neurons and perhaps the HPG axis. We used the GT1-3 and GT1-7 cell lines of immortalized GnRH-secreting hypothalamic neurons as a model to study the direct effects of glucocorticoids on GnRH gene expression. We demonstrated that these cell lines possess GR that bind the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone, in vitro with high affinity (Kd = 2-3 nM). These receptors are functional, as indicated by their ability to activate transcription from exogenously introduced heterologous glucocorticoid-responsive promoters. Furthermore, dexamethasone represses both the endogenous mouse GnRH gene, decreasing steady state levels of GnRH mRNA, and the transcriptional activity of transfected rat GnRH promoter-reporter gene vectors. Glucocorticoid repression of rat GnRH promoter activity appears to be mediated by sequences contained within the promoter proximal 459 basepairs and not be influenced by the relative basal activity of the GnRH promoter. Thus, our results provide the first direct demonstration of glucocorticoid repression of transcription in a hypothalamic cell line and suggest that GR acting directly within GnRH neurons could be at least partly responsible for negative regulation of the HPG axis by

  14. Freud-2/CC2D1B mediates dual repression of the serotonin-1A receptor gene.

    PubMed

    Hadjighassem, Mahmoud R; Galaraga, Kimberly; Albert, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    The serotonin-1A (5-HT1A) receptor functions as a pre-synaptic autoreceptor in serotonin neurons that regulates their activity, and is also widely expressed on non-serotonergic neurons as a post-synaptic heteroreceptor to mediate serotonin action. The 5-HT1A receptor gene is strongly repressed by a dual repressor element (DRE), which is recognized by two proteins: Freud-1/CC2D1A and another unknown protein. Here we identify mouse Freud-2/CC2D1B as the second repressor of the 5-HT1A-DRE. Freud-2 shares 50% amino acid identity with Freud-1, and contains conserved structural domains. Mouse Freud-2 bound specifically to the rat 5-HT1A-DRE adjacent to, and partially overlapping, the Freud-1 binding site. By supershift assay using nuclear extracts from L6 myoblasts, Freud-2-DRE complexes were distinguished from Freud-1-DRE complexes. Freud-2 mRNA and protein were detected throughout mouse brain and peripheral tissues. Freud-2 repressed 5-HT1A promoter-reporter constructs in a DRE-dependent manner in non-neuronal (L6) or 5-HT1A-expressing neuronal (NG108-15, RN46A) cell models. In NG108-15 cells, knockdown of Freud-2 using a specific short-interfering RNA reduced endogenous Freud-2 protein levels and decreased Freud-2 bound to the 5-HT1A-DRE as detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, but increased 5-HT1A promoter activity and 5-HT1A protein levels. Taken together, these data show that Freud-2 is the second component that, with Freud-1, mediates dual repression of the 5-HT1A receptor gene at the DRE.

  15. Trichoderma reesei CRE1-mediated Carbon Catabolite Repression in Re-sponse to Sophorose Through RNA Sequencing Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Antoniêto, Amanda Cristina Campos; de Paula, Renato Graciano; Castro, Lílian dos Santos; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Persinoti, Gabriela Felix; Silva, Roberto Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) mediated by CRE1 in Trichoderma reesei emerged as a mechanism by which the fungus could adapt to new environments. In the presence of readily available carbon sources such as glucose, the fungus activates this mechanism and inhibits the production of cellulolytic complex enzymes to avoid unnecessary energy expenditure. CCR has been well described for the growth of T. reesei in cellulose and glucose, however, little is known about this process when the carbon source is sophorose, one of the most potent inducers of cellulase production. Thus, we performed high-throughput RNA sequencing to better understand CCR during cellulase formation in the presence of sophorose, by comparing the mutant ∆cre1 with its parental strain, QM9414. Of the 9129 genes present in the genome of T. reesei, 184 were upregulated and 344 downregulated in the mutant strain ∆cre1 compared to QM9414. Genes belonging to the CAZy database, and those encoding transcription factors and transporters are among the gene classes that were repressed by CRE1 in the presence of sophorose; most were possible indirectly regulated by CRE1. We also observed that CRE1 activity is carbon-dependent. A recent study from our group showed that in cellulose, CRE1 repress different groups of genes when compared to sophorose. CCR differences between these carbon sources may be due to the release of cellodextrins in the cellulose polymer, resulting in different targets of CRE1 in both carbon sources. These results contribute to a better understanding of CRE1-mediated CCR in T. reesei when glucose comes from a potent inducer of cellulase production such as sophorose, which could prove useful in improving cellulase production by the biotechnology sector. PMID:27226768

  16. Cyclic di-GMP-mediated repression of swarming motility by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 requires the MotAB stator.

    PubMed

    Kuchma, S L; Delalez, N J; Filkins, L M; Snavely, E A; Armitage, J P; O'Toole, G A

    2015-02-01

    The second messenger cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) plays a critical role in the regulation of motility. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14, c-di-GMP inversely controls biofilm formation and surface swarming motility, with high levels of this dinucleotide signal stimulating biofilm formation and repressing swarming. P. aeruginosa encodes two stator complexes, MotAB and MotCD, that participate in the function of its single polar flagellum. Here we show that the repression of swarming motility requires a functional MotAB stator complex. Mutating the motAB genes restores swarming motility to a strain with artificially elevated levels of c-di-GMP as well as stimulates swarming in the wild-type strain, while overexpression of MotA from a plasmid represses swarming motility. Using point mutations in MotA and the FliG rotor protein of the motor supports the conclusion that MotA-FliG interactions are critical for c-di-GMP-mediated swarming inhibition. Finally, we show that high c-di-GMP levels affect the localization of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-MotD fusion, indicating a mechanism whereby this second messenger has an impact on MotCD function. We propose that when c-di-GMP level is high, the MotAB stator can displace MotCD from the motor, thereby affecting motor function. Our data suggest a newly identified means of c-di-GMP-mediated control of surface motility, perhaps conserved among Pseudomonas, Xanthomonas, and other organisms that encode two stator systems.

  17. Trichoderma reesei CRE1-mediated Carbon Catabolite Repression in Re-sponse to Sophorose Through RNA Sequencing Analysis.

    PubMed

    Antoniêto, Amanda Cristina Campos; de Paula, Renato Graciano; Castro, Lílian Dos Santos; Silva-Rocha, Rafael; Persinoti, Gabriela Felix; Silva, Roberto Nascimento

    2016-04-01

    Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) mediated by CRE1 in Trichoderma reesei emerged as a mechanism by which the fungus could adapt to new environments. In the presence of readily available carbon sources such as glucose, the fungus activates this mechanism and inhibits the production of cellulolytic complex enzymes to avoid unnecessary energy expenditure. CCR has been well described for the growth of T. reesei in cellulose and glucose, however, little is known about this process when the carbon source is sophorose, one of the most potent inducers of cellulase production. Thus, we performed high-throughput RNA sequencing to better understand CCR during cellulase formation in the presence of sophorose, by comparing the mutant ∆cre1 with its parental strain, QM9414. Of the 9129 genes present in the genome of T. reesei, 184 were upregulated and 344 downregulated in the mutant strain ∆cre1 compared to QM9414. Genes belonging to the CAZy database, and those encoding transcription factors and transporters are among the gene classes that were repressed by CRE1 in the presence of sophorose; most were possible indirectly regulated by CRE1. We also observed that CRE1 activity is carbon-dependent. A recent study from our group showed that in cellulose, CRE1 repress different groups of genes when compared to sophorose. CCR differences between these carbon sources may be due to the release of cellodextrins in the cellulose polymer, resulting in different targets of CRE1 in both carbon sources. These results contribute to a better understanding of CRE1-mediated CCR in T. reesei when glucose comes from a potent inducer of cellulase production such as sophorose, which could prove useful in improving cellulase production by the biotechnology sector. PMID:27226768

  18. Phosphoribulokinase mediates nitrogenase-induced carbon dioxide fixation gene repression in Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    In many organisms there is a balance between carbon and nitrogen metabolism. These observations extend to the nitrogen-fixing, nonsulfur purple bacteria, which have the classic family of P(II) regulators that coordinate signals of carbon and nitrogen status to regulate nitrogen metabolism. Curiously, these organisms also possess a reverse mechanism to regulate carbon metabolism based on cellular nitrogen status. In this work, studies in Rhodobacter sphaeroides firmly established that the activity of the enzyme that catalyses nitrogen fixation, nitrogenase, induces a signal that leads to repression of genes encoding enzymes of the Calvin–Benson–Bassham (CBB) CO2 fixation pathway. Additionally, genetic and metabolomic experiments revealed that NADH-activated phosphoribulokinase is an intermediate in the signalling pathway. Thus, nitrogenase activity appears to be linked to cbb gene repression through phosphoribulokinase. PMID:26306848

  19. MYC Association with Cancer Risk and a New Model of MYC-Mediated Repression

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    MYC is one of the most frequently mutated and overexpressed genes in human cancer but the regulation of MYC expression and the ability of MYC protein to repress cellular genes (including itself) have remained mysterious. Recent genome-wide association studies show that many genetic polymorphisms associated with disease risk map to distal regulatory elements that regulate the MYC promoter through large chromatin loops. Cancer risk-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contain more potent enhancer activity, promoting higher MYC levels and a greater risk of disease. The MYC promoter is also subject to complex regulatory circuits and limits its own expression by a feedback loop. A model for MYC autoregulation is discussed which involves a signaling pathway between the PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) tumor suppressor and repressive histone modifications laid down by the EZH2 methyltransferase. PMID:24985129

  20. Phosphoribulokinase mediates nitrogenase-induced carbon dioxide fixation gene repression in Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Ryan M; Tabita, F Robert

    2015-11-01

    In many organisms there is a balance between carbon and nitrogen metabolism. These observations extend to the nitrogen-fixing, nonsulfur purple bacteria, which have the classic family of P(II) regulators that coordinate signals of carbon and nitrogen status to regulate nitrogen metabolism. Curiously, these organisms also possess a reverse mechanism to regulate carbon metabolism based on cellular nitrogen status. In this work, studies in Rhodobacter sphaeroides firmly established that the activity of the enzyme that catalyses nitrogen fixation, nitrogenase, induces a signal that leads to repression of genes encoding enzymes of the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) CO2 fixation pathway. Additionally, genetic and metabolomic experiments revealed that NADH-activated phosphoribulokinase is an intermediate in the signalling pathway. Thus, nitrogenase activity appears to be linked to cbb gene repression through phosphoribulokinase.

  1. Blue light-mediated transcriptional activation and repression of gene expression in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Premkumar; Devarajan, Kavya; Chua, Tze Kwang; Zhang, Hanzhong; Gunawan, Erry; Poh, Chueh Loo

    2016-08-19

    Light-regulated modules offer unprecedented new ways to control cellular behavior in precise spatial and temporal resolution. The availability of such tools may dramatically accelerate the progression of synthetic biology applications. Nonetheless, current optogenetic toolbox of prokaryotes has potential issues such as lack of rapid and switchable control, less portable, low dynamic expression and limited parts. To address these shortcomings, we have engineered a novel bidirectional promoter system for Escherichia coli that can be induced or repressed rapidly and reversibly using the blue light dependent DNA-binding protein EL222. We demonstrated that by modulating the dosage of light pulses or intensity we could control the level of gene expression precisely. We show that both light-inducible and repressible system can function in parallel with high spatial precision in a single cell and can be switched stably between ON- and OFF-states by repetitive pulses of blue light. In addition, the light-inducible and repressible expression kinetics were quantitatively analysed using a mathematical model. We further apply the system, for the first time, to optogenetically synchronize two receiver cells performing different logic behaviors over time using blue light as a molecular clock signal. Overall, our modular approach layers a transformative platform for next-generation light-controllable synthetic biology systems in prokaryotes. PMID:27353329

  2. Epigenetic regulation of puberty via Zinc finger protein-mediated transcriptional repression

    PubMed Central

    Lomniczi, Alejandro; Wright, Hollis; Castellano, Juan Manuel; Matagne, Valerie; Toro, Carlos A.; Ramaswamy, Suresh; Plant, Tony M.; Ojeda, Sergio R.

    2015-01-01

    In primates, puberty is unleashed by increased GnRH release from the hypothalamus following an interval of juvenile quiescence. GWAS implicates Zinc finger (ZNF) genes in timing human puberty. Here we show that hypothalamic expression of several ZNFs decreased in agonadal male monkeys in association with the pubertal reactivation of gonadotropin secretion. Expression of two of these ZNFs, GATAD1 and ZNF573, also decreases in peripubertal female monkeys. However, only GATAD1 abundance increases when gonadotropin secretion is suppressed during late infancy. Targeted delivery of GATAD1 or ZNF573 to the rat hypothalamus delays puberty by impairing the transition of a transcriptional network from an immature repressive epigenetic configuration to one of activation. GATAD1 represses transcription of two key puberty-related genes, KISS1 and TAC3, directly, and reduces the activating histone mark H3K4me2 at each promoter via recruitment of histone demethylase KDM1A. We conclude that GATAD1 epitomizes a subset of ZNFs involved in epigenetic repression of primate puberty. PMID:26671628

  3. Blue light-mediated transcriptional activation and repression of gene expression in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Premkumar; Devarajan, Kavya; Chua, Tze Kwang; Zhang, Hanzhong; Gunawan, Erry; Poh, Chueh Loo

    2016-08-19

    Light-regulated modules offer unprecedented new ways to control cellular behavior in precise spatial and temporal resolution. The availability of such tools may dramatically accelerate the progression of synthetic biology applications. Nonetheless, current optogenetic toolbox of prokaryotes has potential issues such as lack of rapid and switchable control, less portable, low dynamic expression and limited parts. To address these shortcomings, we have engineered a novel bidirectional promoter system for Escherichia coli that can be induced or repressed rapidly and reversibly using the blue light dependent DNA-binding protein EL222. We demonstrated that by modulating the dosage of light pulses or intensity we could control the level of gene expression precisely. We show that both light-inducible and repressible system can function in parallel with high spatial precision in a single cell and can be switched stably between ON- and OFF-states by repetitive pulses of blue light. In addition, the light-inducible and repressible expression kinetics were quantitatively analysed using a mathematical model. We further apply the system, for the first time, to optogenetically synchronize two receiver cells performing different logic behaviors over time using blue light as a molecular clock signal. Overall, our modular approach layers a transformative platform for next-generation light-controllable synthetic biology systems in prokaryotes.

  4. A Conserved Upstream Open Reading Frame Mediates Sucrose-Induced Repression of TranslationW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Wiese, Anika; Elzinga, Nico; Wobbes, Barry; Smeekens, Sjef

    2004-01-01

    Sugars have been shown to regulate transcription of numerous genes in plants. Sucrose controls translation of the group S basic region leucine zipper (bZIP)-type transcription factor ATB2/AtbZIP11 (Rook et al., 1998a). This control requires the unusually long 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of the gene. Point mutations and deletions of the 5′UTR have uncovered the sequences involved. A highly conserved upstream open reading frame (uORF) coding for 42 amino acids is essential for the repression mechanism. It is conserved in 5′UTRs of bZIP transcription factors from other Arabidopsis thaliana genes and many other plants. ATB2/AtbZIP11 is normally expressed in association with vascular tissues. Ectopic expression of a 5′UTR construct shows that the sucrose repression system is functional in all tissues. AtbZIP2 is another Arabidopsis bZIP transcription factor gene harboring the conserved uORF, which is regulated similarly via sucrose-induced repression of translation. This suggests a general function of the conserved uORF in sucrose-controlled regulation of expression. Our findings imply the operation of a sucrose-sensing pathway that controls translation of several plant bZIP transcription factor genes harboring the conserved uORF in their 5′UTRs. Target genes of such transcription factors will then be regulated in sucrose-dependent way. PMID:15208401

  5. Spalt-mediated dve repression is a critical regulatory motif and coordinates with Iroquois complex in Drosophila vein formation.

    PubMed

    Sugimori, Seiko; Hasegawa, Aya; Nakagoshi, Hideki

    2016-08-01

    Veins are longitudinal cuticular structures that maintain shape of the wing. Drosophila melanogaster has six longitudinal veins (L1-L6) and two cross veins. The Zn-finger transcription factors of Spalt-complex (Sal) are required for positioning of the L2 and L5, and the homeodomain transcription factors of Iroquois complex (Iro-C) are required for formation of the L3 and L5 veins. The homeodomain transcriptional repressor Defective proventriculus (Dve) is uniformly expressed in the wing pouch of the larval imaginal disc. However, dve mutant wings showed loss of the L2 and L5, but not of the L3 and L4 veins. Temporal dve knockdown experiments indicate that the Dve activity is required for vein formation from late third larval instar to the prepupal stage. In the prepupal wing, Dve expression becomes nearly complementary to that of Sal through the Sal-mediated dve repression. Furthermore, coexpression of Dve and Iro-C relieved of Sal-mediated repression is required for the L5 formation in a dose-dependent manner. The relationship between Sal, Dve, and Iro-C in wing vein specification is quite similar to that in ommatidial cell-type specification. Our results provide information about the conserved function of dve regulatory motifs in cell differentiation. PMID:27349585

  6. GR SUMOylation and formation of an SUMO-SMRT/NCoR1-HDAC3 repressing complex is mandatory for GC-induced IR nGRE-mediated transrepression

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Guoqiang; Paulen, Laetitia; Chambon, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Unique among the nuclear receptor superfamily, the glucocorticoid (GC) receptor (GR) can exert three distinct transcriptional regulatory functions on binding of a single natural (cortisol in human and corticosterone in mice) and synthetic [e.g., dexamethasone (Dex)] hormone. The molecular mechanisms underlying GC-induced positive GC response element [(+)GRE]-mediated activation of transcription are partially understood. In contrast, these mechanisms remain elusive for GC-induced evolutionary conserved inverted repeated negative GC response element (IR nGRE)-mediated direct transrepression and for tethered indirect transrepression that is mediated by DNA-bound NF-κB/activator protein 1 (AP1)/STAT3 activators and instrumental in GC-induced anti-inflammatory activity. We demonstrate here that SUMOylation of lysine K293 (mouse K310) located within an evolutionary conserved sequence in the human GR N-terminal domain allows the formation of a GR-small ubiquitin-related modifiers (SUMOs)-NCoR1/SMRT-HDAC3 repressing complex mandatory for GC-induced IR nGRE-mediated direct repression in vitro, but does not affect transactivation. Importantly, these results were validated in vivo: in K310R mutant mice and in mice ablated selectively for nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCoR1)/silencing mediator for retinoid or thyroid-hormone receptors (SMRT) corepressors in skin keratinocytes, Dex-induced direct repression and the formation of repressing complexes on IR nGREs were impaired, whereas transactivation was unaffected. In mice selectively ablated for histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in skin keratinocytes, GC-induced direct repression, but not bindings of GR and of corepressors NCoR1/SMRT, was abolished, indicating that HDAC3 is instrumental in IR nGRE-mediated repression. Moreover, we demonstrate that the binding of HDAC3 to IR nGREs in vivo is mediated through interaction with SMRT/NCoR1. We also show that the GR ligand binding domain (LBD) is not required for SMRT-mediated

  7. Nuclear factor 1 family members mediate repression of the BK virus late promoter.

    PubMed

    Kraus, R J; Shadley, L; Mertz, J E

    2001-08-15

    BK virus (BKV) is a member of the polyoma virus family that is ubiquitous in humans. Its 5-kb DNA genome consists of a bidirectional promoter region situated between two temporally regulated coding regions. We mapped the transcription initiation site of the major late promoter (MLP) of the archetype strain BKV(WW) to nt 185. We found that it lies within the sequence TGGN6GCCA, a binding site for members of the nuclear factor 1 (NF1) family of transcription factors. Competition electrophoretic mobility shift and immunoshift assays confirmed that NF1 factors present in nuclear extracts of HeLa and CV-1 cells bind to the BKV-MLP. Because BKV(WW) grew poorly in tissue culture and failed to express detectable levels of RNA in vitro, SV40-BKV chimeric viruses were constructed to investigate the transcriptional function of this NF-1 binding site. These sequence-specific factors repressed transcription in a cell-free system when template copy number was low. This repression could be relieved by the addition in trans of oligonucleotides containing wild-type, but not mutated, NF1-binding site sequences. SV40-BKV chimeric viruses defective in this NF1-binding site overproduced late RNA at early, but not late, times after transfection of CV-1 cells. Finally, transient expression in 293 cells of cDNAs encoding the family members NF1-A4, NF1-C2, and NF1-X2 specifically repressed transcription from the BKV late promoter approximately 3-, 10-, and 10-fold, respectively, in a DNA binding-dependent manner. We conclude that some members of the NF1 family of transcription factors can act as sequence-specific cellular repressors of the BKV-MLP. We propose that titration of these and other cellular repressors by viral genome amplification may be responsible in part for the replication-dependent component of the early-to-late switch in BKV gene expression.

  8. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 in normal and malignant B lymphocytes by 15-deoxy-Δ12, 14-prostaglandin J2 requires Nrf2

    PubMed Central

    Bancos, Simona; Baglole, Carolyn J.; Rahman, Irfan; Phipps, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is induced in response to oxidative stress and is believed to be a cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory enzyme. It is unknown whether normal or malignant human B lineage cells express HO-1. 15-deoxy-Δ12, 14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) is an interesting electrophilic lipid mediator able to increase oxidative stress in B cells. Here, we tested normal and malignant human B lineage cells for their ability to express HO-1 in response to 15d-PGJ2, as well as the signaling pathways required for HO-1 expression. 15d-PGJ2 potently induced HO-1 protein expression in normal and malignant B cells. Malignant B cells exhibited a greater induction of HO-1 protein compared to normal B lymphocytes. Using siRNA directed against the transcription factor Nrf2 and B cells isolated from Nrf2-deficient mice, we show that HO-1 induction by 15d-PGJ2 is dependent on Nrf2. These results show that, compared to normal B lymphocytes, malignant B cells have a greater capacity to increase their HO-1 protein levels in response to 15d-PGJ2. We speculate that the ability to highly express HO-1 by malignant B cells could confer a survival advantage. PMID:20064636

  9. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 in normal and malignant B lymphocytes by 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) requires Nrf2.

    PubMed

    Bancos, Simona; Baglole, Carolyn J; Rahman, Irfan; Phipps, Richard P

    2010-01-01

    Heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is induced in response to oxidative stress and is believed to be a cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory enzyme. It is unknown whether normal or malignant human B-lineage cells express HO-1. 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) is an interesting electrophilic lipid mediator able to increase oxidative stress in B cells. Here, we tested normal and malignant human B-lineage cells for their ability to express HO-1 in response to 15d-PGJ(2), as well as the signaling pathways required for HO-1 expression. 15d-PGJ(2) potently induced HO-1 protein expression in normal and malignant B cells. Malignant B cells exhibited a greater induction of HO-1 protein compared to normal B lymphocytes. Using siRNA directed against the transcription factor Nrf2 and B cells isolated from Nrf2-deficient mice, we show that HO-1 induction by 15d-PGJ(2) is dependent on Nrf2. These results show that, compared to normal B lymphocytes, malignant B cells have a greater capacity to increase their HO-1 protein levels in response to 15d-PGJ(2). We speculate that the ability to highly express HO-1 by malignant B cells could confer a survival advantage.

  10. mRNA Targeting to Endoplasmic Reticulum Precedes Ago Protein Interaction and MicroRNA (miRNA)-mediated Translation Repression in Mammalian Cells.

    PubMed

    Barman, Bahnisikha; Bhattacharyya, Suvendra N

    2015-10-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) binds to the 3'-UTR of its target mRNAs to repress protein synthesis. Extensive research was done to understand the mechanism of miRNA-mediated repression in animal cells. Considering the progress in understanding the mechanism, information about the subcellular sites of miRNA-mediated repression is surprisingly limited. In this study, using an inducible expression system for an miRNA target message, we have delineated how a target mRNA passes through polysome association and Ago2 interaction steps on rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) before the miRNA-mediated repression sets in. From this study, de novo formed target mRNA localization to the ER-bound polysomes manifested as the earliest event, which is followed by Ago2 micro-ribonucleoprotein binding, and translation repression of target message. Compartmentalization of this process to rough ER membrane ensures enrichment of miRNA-targeted messages and micro-ribonucleoprotein components on ER upon reaching a steady state. PMID:26304123

  11. mRNA Targeting to Endoplasmic Reticulum Precedes Ago Protein Interaction and MicroRNA (miRNA)-mediated Translation Repression in Mammalian Cells.

    PubMed

    Barman, Bahnisikha; Bhattacharyya, Suvendra N

    2015-10-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) binds to the 3'-UTR of its target mRNAs to repress protein synthesis. Extensive research was done to understand the mechanism of miRNA-mediated repression in animal cells. Considering the progress in understanding the mechanism, information about the subcellular sites of miRNA-mediated repression is surprisingly limited. In this study, using an inducible expression system for an miRNA target message, we have delineated how a target mRNA passes through polysome association and Ago2 interaction steps on rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) before the miRNA-mediated repression sets in. From this study, de novo formed target mRNA localization to the ER-bound polysomes manifested as the earliest event, which is followed by Ago2 micro-ribonucleoprotein binding, and translation repression of target message. Compartmentalization of this process to rough ER membrane ensures enrichment of miRNA-targeted messages and micro-ribonucleoprotein components on ER upon reaching a steady state.

  12. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) increases apoptosis, represses growth of cancer cells, and enhances adenovirus-mediated oncolysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lan; Cheng, Pei-Hsin; Rao, Xiao-Mei; McMasters, Kelly M; Zhou, Heshan Sam

    2014-09-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that high intake of cruciferous vegetables is associated with a lower risk of cancer. Experiments have shown that indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a naturally occurring compound derived from cruciferous vegetables, exhibits potent anticarcinogenic properties in a wide range of cancers. In this study, we showed that higher doses of I3C (≥400 μM) induced apoptotic cancer cell death and lower doses of I3C (≤200 μM) repressed cancer cell growth concurrently with suppressed expression of cyclin E and its partner CDK2. Notably, we found that pretreatment with low doses of I3C enhanced Ad-mediated oncolysis and cytotoxicity of human carcinoma cells by synergistic upregulation of apoptosis. Thus, the vegetable compound I3C as a dietary supplement may benefit cancer prevention and improve Ad oncolytic therapies.

  13. CDK11{sup p58} represses vitamin D receptor-mediated transcriptional activation through promoting its ubiquitin-proteasome degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Yayun; Hong, Yi; Zong, Hongliang; Wang, Yanlin; Zou, Weiying; Yang, Junwu; Kong, Xiangfei; Yun, Xiaojing; Gu, Jianxin

    2009-08-28

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and regulates transcription of target genes. In this study, we identified CDK11{sup p58} as a novel protein involved in the regulation of VDR. CDK11{sup p58}, a member of the large family of p34cdc2-related kinases, is associated with cell cycle progression, tumorigenesis, and apoptotic signaling. Our study demonstrated that CDK11{sup p58} interacted with VDR and repressed VDR-dependent transcriptional activation. Furthermore, overexpression of CDK11{sup p58} decreased the stability of VDR through promoting its ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated degradation. Taken together, these results suggest that CDK11{sup p58} is involved in the negative regulation of VDR.

  14. Ikaros mediates gene silencing in T cells through Polycomb repressive complex 2

    PubMed Central

    Oravecz, Attila; Apostolov, Apostol; Polak, Katarzyna; Jost, Bernard; Le Gras, Stéphanie; Chan, Susan; Kastner, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    T-cell development is accompanied by epigenetic changes that ensure the silencing of stem cell-related genes and the activation of lymphocyte-specific programmes. How transcription factors influence these changes remains unclear. We show that the Ikaros transcription factor forms a complex with Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) in CD4−CD8− thymocytes and allows its binding to more than 500 developmentally regulated loci, including those normally activated in haematopoietic stem cells and others induced by the Notch pathway. Loss of Ikaros in CD4−CD8− cells leads to reduced histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation and ectopic gene expression. Furthermore, Ikaros binding triggers PRC2 recruitment and Ikaros interacts with PRC2 independently of the nucleosome remodelling and deacetylation complex. Our results identify Ikaros as a fundamental regulator of PRC2 function in developing T cells. PMID:26549758

  15. Velvet-mediated repression of β-glucan synthesis in Aspergillus nidulans spores

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hee-Soo; Man Yu, Yeong; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Jae Maeng, Pil; Chang Kim, Sun; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Beta-glucans are a heterologous group of fibrous glucose polymers that are a major constituent of cell walls in Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes fungi. Synthesis of β (1,3)- and (1,6)-glucans is coordinated with fungal cell growth and development, thus, is under tight genetic regulation. Here, we report that β-glucan synthesis in both asexual and sexual spores is turned off by the NF-kB like fungal regulators VosA and VelB in Aspergillus nidulans. Our genetic and genomic analyses have revealed that both VosA and VelB are necessary for proper down-regulation of cell wall biosynthetic genes including those associated with β-glucan synthesis in both types of spores. The deletion of vosA or velB results in elevated accumulation of β-glucan in asexual spores. Double mutant analyses indicate that VosA and VelB play an inter-dependent role in repressing β-glucan synthesis in asexual spores. In vivo chromatin immuno-precipitation analysis shows that both VelB and VosA bind to the promoter region of the β-glucan synthase gene fksA in asexual spores. Similarly, VosA is required for proper repression of β-glucan synthesis in sexual spores. In summary, the VosA-VelB hetero-complex is a key regulatory unit tightly controlling proper levels of β-glucan synthesis in asexual and sexual spores. PMID:25960370

  16. Polycomb-Mediated Repression and Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Interact to Regulate Merkel Cell Specification during Skin Development.

    PubMed

    Perdigoto, Carolina N; Dauber, Katherine L; Bar, Carmit; Tsai, Pai-Chi; Valdes, Victor J; Cohen, Idan; Santoriello, Francis J; Zhao, Dejian; Zheng, Deyou; Hsu, Ya-Chieh; Ezhkova, Elena

    2016-07-01

    An increasing amount of evidence indicates that developmental programs are tightly regulated by the complex interplay between signaling pathways, as well as transcriptional and epigenetic processes. Here, we have uncovered coordination between transcriptional and morphogen cues to specify Merkel cells, poorly understood skin cells that mediate light touch sensations. In murine dorsal skin, Merkel cells are part of touch domes, which are skin structures consisting of specialized keratinocytes, Merkel cells, and afferent neurons, and are located exclusively around primary hair follicles. We show that the developing primary hair follicle functions as a niche required for Merkel cell specification. We find that intraepidermal Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, initiated by the production of Shh ligand in the developing hair follicles, is required for Merkel cell specification. The importance of Shh for Merkel cell formation is further reinforced by the fact that Shh overexpression in embryonic epidermal progenitors leads to ectopic Merkel cells. Interestingly, Shh signaling is common to primary, secondary, and tertiary hair follicles, raising the possibility that there are restrictive mechanisms that regulate Merkel cell specification exclusively around primary hair follicles. Indeed, we find that loss of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) in the epidermis results in the formation of ectopic Merkel cells that are associated with all hair types. We show that PRC2 loss expands the field of epidermal cells competent to differentiate into Merkel cells through the upregulation of key Merkel-differentiation genes, which are known PRC2 targets. Importantly, PRC2-mediated repression of the Merkel cell differentiation program requires inductive Shh signaling to form mature Merkel cells. Our study exemplifies how the interplay between epigenetic and morphogen cues regulates the complex patterning and formation of the mammalian skin structures. PMID:27414999

  17. miRNA-558 promotes gastric cancer progression through attenuating Smad4-mediated repression of heparanase expression

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Liduan; Jiao, Wanju; Song, Huajie; Qu, Hongxia; Li, Dan; Mei, Hong; Chen, Yajun; Yang, Feng; Li, Huanhuan; Huang, Kai; Tong, Qiangsong

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that as the only mammalian endo-β-D-glucuronidase, heparanase (HPSE) is up-regulated and associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer, while the underlying mechanisms still remain to be determined. Herein, through integrative analysis of public datasets, we found microRNA-558 (miR-558) and SMAD family member 4 (Smad4) as the crucial transcription regulators of HPSE expression in gastric cancer, with their adjacent target sites within the promoter of HPSE. We identified that endogenous miR-558 activated the transcription and expression of HPSE in gastric cancer cell lines. In contrast, Smad4 suppressed the nascent transcription and expression of HPSE via directly binding to its promoter. Mechanistically, miR-558 recognized its complementary site within HPSE promoter to decrease the binding of Smad4 in an Argonaute 1-dependent manner. Ectopic expression or knockdown experiments indicated that miR-558 promoted the in vitro and in vivo tumorigenesis and aggressiveness of gastric cancer cell lines via attenuating Smad4-mediated repression of HPSE expression. In clinical gastric cancer specimens, up-regulation of miR-558 and down-regulation of Smad4 were positively correlated with HPSE expression. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis revealed that miR-558 and Smad4 were associated with unfavourable and favourable outcome of gastric cancer patients, respectively. Therefore, these findings demonstrate that miR-558 facilitates the progression of gastric cancer through directly targeting the HPSE promoter to attenuate Smad4-mediated repression of HPSE expression. PMID:27685626

  18. Polycomb-Mediated Repression and Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Interact to Regulate Merkel Cell Specification during Skin Development

    PubMed Central

    Bar, Carmit; Tsai, Pai-Chi; Valdes, Victor J.; Cohen, Idan; Santoriello, Francis J.; Zhao, Dejian; Hsu, Ya-Chieh; Ezhkova, Elena

    2016-01-01

    An increasing amount of evidence indicates that developmental programs are tightly regulated by the complex interplay between signaling pathways, as well as transcriptional and epigenetic processes. Here, we have uncovered coordination between transcriptional and morphogen cues to specify Merkel cells, poorly understood skin cells that mediate light touch sensations. In murine dorsal skin, Merkel cells are part of touch domes, which are skin structures consisting of specialized keratinocytes, Merkel cells, and afferent neurons, and are located exclusively around primary hair follicles. We show that the developing primary hair follicle functions as a niche required for Merkel cell specification. We find that intraepidermal Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, initiated by the production of Shh ligand in the developing hair follicles, is required for Merkel cell specification. The importance of Shh for Merkel cell formation is further reinforced by the fact that Shh overexpression in embryonic epidermal progenitors leads to ectopic Merkel cells. Interestingly, Shh signaling is common to primary, secondary, and tertiary hair follicles, raising the possibility that there are restrictive mechanisms that regulate Merkel cell specification exclusively around primary hair follicles. Indeed, we find that loss of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) in the epidermis results in the formation of ectopic Merkel cells that are associated with all hair types. We show that PRC2 loss expands the field of epidermal cells competent to differentiate into Merkel cells through the upregulation of key Merkel-differentiation genes, which are known PRC2 targets. Importantly, PRC2-mediated repression of the Merkel cell differentiation program requires inductive Shh signaling to form mature Merkel cells. Our study exemplifies how the interplay between epigenetic and morphogen cues regulates the complex patterning and formation of the mammalian skin structures. PMID:27414999

  19. Human 4E-T represses translation of bound mRNAs and enhances microRNA-mediated silencing

    PubMed Central

    Kamenska, Anastasiia; Lu, Wei-Ting; Kubacka, Dorota; Broomhead, Helen; Minshall, Nicola; Bushell, Martin; Standart, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    A key player in translation initiation is eIF4E, the mRNA 5′ cap-binding protein. 4E-Transporter (4E-T) is a recently characterized eIF4E-binding protein, which regulates specific mRNAs in several developmental model systems. Here, we first investigated the role of its enrichment in P-bodies and eIF4E-binding in translational regulation in mammalian cells. Identification of the conserved C-terminal sequences that target 4E-T to P-bodies was enabled by comparison of vertebrate proteins with homologues in Drosophila (Cup and CG32016) and Caenorhabditis elegans by sequence and cellular distribution. In tether function assays, 4E-T represses bound mRNA translation, in a manner independent of these localization sequences, or of endogenous P-bodies. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and northern blot analysis verified that bound mRNA remained intact and polyadenylated. Ectopic 4E-T reduces translation globally in a manner dependent on eIF4E binding its consensus Y30X4Lϕ site. In contrast, tethered 4E-T continued to repress translation when eIF4E-binding was prevented by mutagenesis of YX4Lϕ, and modestly enhanced the decay of bound mRNA, compared with wild-type 4E-T, mediated by increased binding of CNOT1/7 deadenylase subunits. As depleting 4E-T from HeLa cells increased steady-state translation, in part due to relief of microRNA-mediated silencing, this work demonstrates the conserved yet unconventional mechanism of 4E-T silencing of particular subsets of mRNAs. PMID:24335285

  20. dbx mediates neuronal specification and differentiation through cross-repressive, lineage-specific interactions with eve and hb9.

    PubMed

    Lacin, Haluk; Zhu, Yi; Wilson, Beth A; Skeath, James B

    2009-10-01

    Individual neurons adopt and maintain defined morphological and physiological phenotypes as a result of the expression of specific combinations of transcription factors. In particular, homeodomain-containing transcription factors play key roles in determining neuronal subtype identity in flies and vertebrates. dbx belongs to the highly divergent H2.0 family of homeobox genes. In vertebrates, Dbx1 and Dbx2 promote the development of a subset of interneurons, some of which help mediate left-right coordination of locomotor activity. Here, we identify and show that the single Drosophila ortholog of Dbx1/2 contributes to the development of specific subsets of interneurons via cross-repressive, lineage-specific interactions with the motoneuron-promoting factors eve and hb9 (exex). dbx is expressed primarily in interneurons of the embryonic, larval and adult central nervous system, and these interneurons tend to extend short axons and be GABAergic. Interestingly, many Dbx(+) interneurons share a sibling relationship with Eve(+) or Hb9(+) motoneurons. The non-overlapping expression of dbx and eve, or dbx and hb9, within pairs of sibling neurons is initially established as a result of Notch/Numb-mediated asymmetric divisions. Cross-repressive interactions between dbx and eve, and dbx and hb9, then help maintain the distinct expression profiles of these genes in their respective pairs of sibling neurons. Strict maintenance of the mutually exclusive expression of dbx relative to that of eve and hb9 in sibling neurons is crucial for proper neuronal specification, as misexpression of dbx in motoneurons dramatically hinders motor axon outgrowth.

  1. PTP1B triggers integrin-mediated repression of myosin activity and modulates cell contractility

    PubMed Central

    González Wusener, Ana E.; González, Ángela; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Arregui, Carlos O.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cell contractility and migration by integrins depends on precise regulation of protein tyrosine kinase and Rho-family GTPase activities in specific spatiotemporal patterns. Here we show that protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B cooperates with β3 integrin to activate the Src/FAK signalling pathway which represses RhoA-myosin-dependent contractility. Using PTP1B null (KO) cells and PTP1B reconstituted (WT) cells, we determined that some early steps following cell adhesion to fibronectin and vitronectin occurred robustly in WT cells, including aggregation of β3 integrins and adaptor proteins, and activation of Src/FAK-dependent signalling at small puncta in a lamellipodium. However, these events were significantly impaired in KO cells. We established that cytoskeletal strain and cell contractility was highly enhanced at the periphery of KO cells compared to WT cells. Inhibition of the Src/FAK signalling pathway or expression of constitutive active RhoA in WT cells induced a KO cell phenotype. Conversely, expression of constitutive active Src or myosin inhibition in KO cells restored the WT phenotype. We propose that this novel function of PTP1B stimulates permissive conditions for adhesion and lamellipodium assembly at the protruding edge during cell spreading and migration. PMID:26700725

  2. EphrinB2 repression through ZEB2 mediates tumour invasion and anti-angiogenic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Depner, C.; zum Buttel, H.; Böğürcü, N.; Cuesta, A. M.; Aburto, M. R.; Seidel, S.; Finkelmeier, F.; Foss, F.; Hofmann, J.; Kaulich, K.; Barbus, S.; Segarra, M.; Reifenberger, G.; Garvalov, B. K.; Acker, T.; Acker-Palmer, A.

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse invasion of the surrounding brain parenchyma is a major obstacle in the treatment of gliomas with various therapeutics, including anti-angiogenic agents. Here we identify the epi-/genetic and microenvironmental downregulation of ephrinB2 as a crucial step that promotes tumour invasion by abrogation of repulsive signals. We demonstrate that ephrinB2 is downregulated in human gliomas as a consequence of promoter hypermethylation and gene deletion. Consistently, genetic deletion of ephrinB2 in a murine high-grade glioma model increases invasion. Importantly, ephrinB2 gene silencing is complemented by a hypoxia-induced transcriptional repression. Mechanistically, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α induces the EMT repressor ZEB2, which directly downregulates ephrinB2 through promoter binding to enhance tumour invasiveness. This mechanism is activated following anti-angiogenic treatment of gliomas and is efficiently blocked by disrupting ZEB2 activity. Taken together, our results identify ZEB2 as an attractive therapeutic target to inhibit tumour invasion and counteract tumour resistance mechanisms induced by anti-angiogenic treatment strategies. PMID:27470974

  3. GCNF-dependent repression of BMP-15 and GDF-9 mediates gamete regulation of female fertility

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Zi-Jian; Gu, Peili; Xu, Xueping; Jackson, Kathy J.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; O’Malley, Bert W.; Cooney, Austin J.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the function of germ cell nuclear factor (GCNF) in female reproduction, we generated an oocyte-specific GCNF knockout mouse model (GCNFfl/flZp3Cre+). These mice displayed hypofertility due to prolonged diestrus phase of the estrous cycle and aberrant steroidogenesis. These reproductive defects were secondary to a primary defect in the oocytes, in which expression of the paracrine transforming growth factor-β signaling molecules, bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP-15) and growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF-9), were up-regulated in GCNFfl/flZp3Cre+ females at diestrus. This was a direct effect of GCNF, as molecular studies showed that GCNF bound to DR0 elements within the BMP-15 and GDF-9 gene promoters and repressed their reporter activities. Consistent with these findings, abnormal double-oocyte follicles, indicative of aberrant BMP-15/GDF-9 expression, were observed in GCNFfl/flZp3Cre+ females. The Cre/loxP knockout of GCNF in the oocyte has uncovered a new regulatory pathway in ovarian function. Our results show that GCNF directly regulates paracrine communication between the oocyte and somatic cells by regulating the expression of BMP-15 and GDF-9, to affect female fertility. PMID:12912906

  4. Argonaute3 is a key player in miRNA-mediated target cleavage and translational repression in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Tomohito; Kim, Eun-Jeong; Cerutti, Heriberto; Ohama, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in diverse biological processes in eukaryotes, generally through degradation and/or inhibition of the translation of target mRNAs. MicroRNAs are loaded into Argonaute (AGO) proteins to form the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and used as guides to identify complementary transcripts. The distinct functions and features, such as associated small RNA classes and modes of silencing, of individual AGO paralogs have been well documented in multicellular eukaryotes. However, this aspect of miRNA function remains poorly understood in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which contains three AGO paralogs. In this study, we isolated AGO2 and AGO3 insertional mutants and confirmed that AGO3 is more abundantly expressed than AGO2. MicroRNA-directed target transcript cleavage and translational repression were impaired in the AGO3 mutant background, indicating that AGO3 can mediate both modes of silencing. In contrast, although the AGO2 mutant is not a null, the involvement of AGO2 in miRNA-directed silencing appears to be more limited. Our results strongly suggest that miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing relies primarily on AGO3 in Chlamydomonas.

  5. Argonaute3 is a key player in miRNA-mediated target cleavage and translational repression in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Tomohito; Kim, Eun-Jeong; Cerutti, Heriberto; Ohama, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in diverse biological processes in eukaryotes, generally through degradation and/or inhibition of the translation of target mRNAs. MicroRNAs are loaded into Argonaute (AGO) proteins to form the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and used as guides to identify complementary transcripts. The distinct functions and features, such as associated small RNA classes and modes of silencing, of individual AGO paralogs have been well documented in multicellular eukaryotes. However, this aspect of miRNA function remains poorly understood in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which contains three AGO paralogs. In this study, we isolated AGO2 and AGO3 insertional mutants and confirmed that AGO3 is more abundantly expressed than AGO2. MicroRNA-directed target transcript cleavage and translational repression were impaired in the AGO3 mutant background, indicating that AGO3 can mediate both modes of silencing. In contrast, although the AGO2 mutant is not a null, the involvement of AGO2 in miRNA-directed silencing appears to be more limited. Our results strongly suggest that miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing relies primarily on AGO3 in Chlamydomonas. PMID:26686836

  6. Transcriptional Repressive H3K9 and H3K27 Methylations Contribute to DNMT1-Mediated DNA Methylation Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chun-Ming; Wong, Carmen Chak-Lui; Ng, Yeung-Lam; Au, Sandy Leung-Kuen; Ko, Frankie Chi-Fat; Ng, Irene Oi-Lin

    2011-01-01

    DNA methylation and histone modifications are two major epigenetic events regulating gene expression and chromatin structure, and their alterations are linked to human carcinogenesis. DNA methylation plays an important role in tumor suppressor gene inactivation, and can be revised by DNA methylation inhibitors. The reversible nature of DNA methylation forms the basis of epigenetic cancer therapy. However, it has been reported that DNA re-methylation and gene re-silencing could occur after removal of demethylation treatment and this may significantly hamper the therapeutic value of DNA methylation inhibitors. In this study we have provided detailed evidence demonstrating that mammalian cells possess a bona fide DNA methylation recovery system. We have also shown that DNA methylation recovery was mediated by the major human DNA methyltransferase, DNMT1. In addition, we found that H3K9-tri-methylation and H3K27-tri-methylation were closely associated with this DNA methylation recovery. These persistent transcriptional repressive histone modifications may have a crucial role in regulating DNMT1-mediated DNA methylation recovery. Our findings may have important implications towards a better understanding of epigenetic regulation and future development of epigenetic therapeutic intervention. PMID:21347439

  7. Expression of FLR1 transporter requires phospholipase C and is repressed by Mediator.

    PubMed

    Romero, Carlos; Desai, Parima; DeLillo, Nicholas; Vancura, Ales

    2006-03-01

    In budding yeast, phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (Plc1p encoded by PLC1 gene) is important for function of kinetochores. Deletion of PLC1 results in benomyl sensitivity, alterations in chromatin structure of centromeres, mitotic delay, and a higher frequency of chromosome loss. Here we intended to utilize benomyl sensitivity as a phenotype that would allow us to identify genes that are important for kinetochore function and are downstream of Plc1p. However, our screen identified SIN4, encoding a component of the Mediator complex of RNA polymerase II. Deletion of SIN4 gene (sin4Delta) does not suppress benomyl sensitivity of plc1Delta cells by improving the function of kinetochores. Instead, benomyl sensitivity of plc1Delta cells is caused by a defect in expression of FLR1, and the suppression of benomyl sensitivity in plc1Delta sin4Delta cells occurs by derepression of FLR1 transcription. FLR1 encodes a plasma membrane transporter that mediates resistance to benomyl. Several other mutations in the Mediator complex also result in significant derepression of FLR1 and greatly increased resistance to benomyl. Thus, benomyl sensitivity is not a phenotype exclusively associated with mitotic spindle defect. These results demonstrate that in addition to promoter-specific transcription factors that are components of the pleiotropic drug resistance network, expression of the membrane transporters can be regulated by Plc1p, a component of a signal transduction pathway, and by Mediator, a general transcription factor. The results thus suggest another layer of complexity in regulation of pleiotropic drug resistance.

  8. Acute TNF-induced repression of cell identity genes is mediated by NFκB-directed redistribution of cofactors from super-enhancers.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Søren Fisker; Larsen, Bjørk Ditlev; Loft, Anne; Nielsen, Ronni; Madsen, Jesper Grud Skat; Mandrup, Susanne

    2015-09-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays a central role in low-grade adipose tissue inflammation and development of insulin resistance during obesity. In this context, nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) is directly involved and required for the acute activation of the inflammatory gene program. Here, we show that the major transactivating subunit of NFκB, v-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A (RELA), is also required for acute TNF-induced suppression of adipocyte genes. Notably, this repression does not involve RELA binding to the associated enhancers but rather loss of cofactors and enhancer RNA (eRNA) selectively from high-occupancy sites within super-enhancers. Based on these data, we have developed models that, with high accuracy, predict which enhancers and genes are repressed by TNF in adipocytes. We show that these models are applicable to other cell types where TNF represses genes associated with super-enhancers in a highly cell-type-specific manner. Our results propose a novel paradigm for NFκB-mediated repression, whereby NFκB selectively redistributes cofactors from high-occupancy enhancers, thereby specifically repressing super-enhancer-associated cell identity genes.

  9. Activation and repression of transcription at two different phage phi29 promoters are mediated by interaction of the same residues of regulatory protein p4 with RNA polymerase.

    PubMed Central

    Monsalve, M; Mencia, M; Rojo, F; Salas, M

    1996-01-01

    Phage phi29 regulatory protein p4 activates transcription from the late A3 promoter and represses the main early promoters, named A2b and A2c. Activation involves stabilization of RNA polymerase (RNAP) at the A3 promoter as a closed complex and is mediated by interaction between RNAP and a small domain of protein p4 in which residue Arg120 plays an essential role. We show that protein p4 represses the A2c promoter by binding to DNA immediately upstream from RNAP in a way that does not hinder RNAP binding; rather, the two proteins bind cooperatively to DNA. In the presence of protein p4, RNAP can form an initiated complex at the A2c promoter that generates short abortive transcripts, but cannot leave the promoter. Mutation of protein p4 residue Arg120, which relieves the contact between the two proteins, leads to a loss of repression. Therefore, the contact between protein p4 and RNAP through the protein p4 domain containing Arg120 can activate or repress transcription, depending on the promoter. The relative position of protein p4 and RNAP, which is different at each promoter, together with the distinct characteristics of the two promoters, may determine whether protein p4 activates or represses transcription. Images PMID:8617213

  10. Acute TNF-induced repression of cell identity genes is mediated by NFκB-directed redistribution of cofactors from super-enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Søren Fisker; Larsen, Bjørk Ditlev; Loft, Anne; Nielsen, Ronni; Madsen, Jesper Grud Skat; Mandrup, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays a central role in low-grade adipose tissue inflammation and development of insulin resistance during obesity. In this context, nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) is directly involved and required for the acute activation of the inflammatory gene program. Here, we show that the major transactivating subunit of NFκB, v-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A (RELA), is also required for acute TNF-induced suppression of adipocyte genes. Notably, this repression does not involve RELA binding to the associated enhancers but rather loss of cofactors and enhancer RNA (eRNA) selectively from high-occupancy sites within super-enhancers. Based on these data, we have developed models that, with high accuracy, predict which enhancers and genes are repressed by TNF in adipocytes. We show that these models are applicable to other cell types where TNF represses genes associated with super-enhancers in a highly cell-type–specific manner. Our results propose a novel paradigm for NFκB-mediated repression, whereby NFκB selectively redistributes cofactors from high-occupancy enhancers, thereby specifically repressing super-enhancer-associated cell identity genes. PMID:26113076

  11. Role of the hinge region of glucocorticoid receptor for HEXIM1-mediated transcriptional repression

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikawa, Noritada; Shimizu, Noriaki; Sano, Motoaki; Ohnuma, Kei; Iwata, Satoshi; Hosono, Osamu; Fukuda, Keiichi; Morimoto, Chikao

    2008-06-20

    We previously reported that HEXIM1 (hexamethylene bisacetamide-inducible protein 1), which suppresses transcription elongation via sequestration of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) using 7SK RNA as a scaffold, directly associates with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) to suppress glucocorticoid-inducible gene activation. Here, we revealed that the hinge region of GR is essential for its interaction with HEXIM1, and that oxosteroid receptors including GR show sequence homology in their hinge region and interact with HEXIM1, whereas the other members of nuclear receptors do not. We also showed that HEXIM1 suppresses GR-mediated transcription in two ways: sequestration of P-TEFb by HEXIM1 and direct interaction between GR and HEXIM1. In contrast, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}-dependent gene expression is negatively modulated by HEXIM1 solely via sequestration of P-TEFb. We, therefore, conclude that HEXIM1 may act as a gene-selective transcriptional regulator via direct interaction with certain transcriptional regulators including GR and contribute to fine-tuning of, for example, glucocorticoid-mediated biological responses.

  12. The RY/Sph element mediates transcriptional repression of maturation genes from late maturation to early seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Gea; Martin, Nathalie; Golovko, Anna; Sundström, Jens F; Rask, Lars; Ezcurra, Ines

    2009-11-01

    In orthodox seeds, the transcriptional activator ABI3 regulates two major stages in embryo maturation: a mid-maturation (MAT) stage leading to accumulation of storage compounds, and a late maturation (LEA) stage leading to quiescence and desiccation tolerance. Our aim was to elucidate mechanisms for transcriptional shutdown of MAT genes during late maturation, to better understand phase transition between MAT and LEA stages. Using transgenic and transient approaches in Nicotiana, we examined activities of two ABI3-dependent reporter genes driven by multimeric RY and abscisic acid response elements (ABREs) from a Brassica napus napin gene, termed RY and ABRE, where the RY reporter requires ABI3 DNA binding. Expression of RY peaks during mid-maturation and drops during late maturation, mimicking the MAT gene program, and in Arabidopsis thaliana RY elements are over-represented in MAT, but not in LEA, genes. The ABI3 transactivation of RY is inhibited by staurosporine, by a PP2C phosphatase, and by a repressor of maturation genes, VAL1/HSI2. The RY element mediates repression of MAT genes, and we propose that transcriptional shutdown of the MAT program during late maturation involves inhibition of ABI3 DNA binding by dephosphorylation. Later, during seedling growth, VAL1/HSI2 family repressors silence MAT genes by binding RY elements.

  13. Tumor suppressor SMAR1 mediates cyclin D1 repression by recruitment of the SIN3/histone deacetylase 1 complex.

    PubMed

    Rampalli, Shravanti; Pavithra, L; Bhatt, Altaf; Kundu, Tapas K; Chattopadhyay, Samit

    2005-10-01

    Matrix attachment region binding proteins have been shown to play an important role in gene regulation by altering chromatin in a stage- and tissue-specific manner. Our previous studies report that SMAR1, a matrix-associated protein, regresses B16-F1-induced tumors in mice. Here we show SMAR1 targets the cyclin D1 promoter, a gene product whose dysregulation is attributed to breast malignancies. Our studies reveal that SMAR1 represses cyclin D1 gene expression, which can be reversed by small interfering RNA specific to SMAR1. We demonstrate that SMAR1 interacts with histone deacetylation complex 1, SIN3, and pocket retinoblastomas to form a multiprotein repressor complex. This interaction is mediated by the SMAR1(160-350) domain. Our data suggest SMAR1 recruits a repressor complex to the cyclin D1 promoter that results in deacetylation of chromatin at that locus, which spreads to a distance of at least the 5 kb studied upstream of the cyclin D1 promoter. Interestingly, we find that the high induction of cyclin D1 in breast cancer cell lines can be correlated to the decreased levels of SMAR1 in these lines. Our results establish the molecular mechanism exhibited by SMAR1 to regulate cyclin D1 by modification of chromatin. PMID:16166625

  14. TBP-like protein (TLP) interferes with Taspase1-mediated processing of TFIIA and represses TATA box gene expression.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hidefumi; Isogai, Momoko; Maeda, Ryo; Ura, Kiyoe; Tamura, Taka-Aki

    2015-07-27

    TBP-TFIIA interaction is involved in the potentiation of TATA box-driven promoters. TFIIA activates transcription through stabilization of TATA box-bound TBP. The precursor of TFIIA is subjected to Taspase1-directed processing to generate α and β subunits. Although this processing has been assumed to be required for the promoter activation function of TFIIA, little is known about how the processing is regulated. In this study, we found that TBP-like protein (TLP), which has the highest affinity to TFIIA among known proteins, affects Taspase1-driven processing of TFIIA. TLP interfered with TFIIA processing in vivo and in vitro, and direct binding of TLP to TFIIA was essential for inhibition of the processing. We also showed that TATA box promoters are specifically potentiated by processed TFIIA. Processed TFIIA, but not unprocessed TFIIA, associated with the TATA box. In a TLP-knocked-down condition, not only the amounts of TATA box-bound TFIIA but also those of chromatin-bound TBP were significantly increased, resulting in the stimulation of TATA box-mediated gene expression. Consequently, we suggest that TLP works as a negative regulator of the TFIIA processing and represses TFIIA-governed and TATA-dependent gene expression through preventing TFIIA maturation.

  15. Abscisic Acid Antagonizes Ethylene Production through the ABI4-Mediated Transcriptional Repression of ACS4 and ACS8 in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhijun; Yu, Yanwen; Li, Shenghui; Wang, Juan; Tang, Saijun; Huang, Rongfeng

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has revealed that abscisic acid (ABA) negatively modulates ethylene biosynthesis, although the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To identify the factors involved, we conducted a screen for ABA-insensitive mutants with altered ethylene production in Arabidopsis. A dominant allele of ABI4, abi4-152, which produces a putative protein with a 16-amino-acid truncation at the C-terminus of ABI4, reduces ethylene production. By contrast, two recessive knockout alleles of ABI4, abi4-102 and abi4-103, result in increased ethylene evolution, indicating that ABI4 negatively regulates ethylene production. Further analyses showed that expression of the ethylene biosynthesis genes ACS4, ACS8, and ACO2 was significantly decreased in abi4-152 but increased in the knockout mutants, with partial dependence on ABA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR assays showed that ABI4 directly binds the promoters of these ethylene biosynthesis genes and that ABA enhances this interaction. A fusion protein containing the truncated ABI4-152 peptide accumulated to higher levels than its full-length counterpart in transgenic plants, suggesting that ABI4 is destabilized by its C terminus. Therefore, our results demonstrate that ABA negatively regulates ethylene production through ABI4-mediated transcriptional repression of the ethylene biosynthesis genes ACS4 and ACS8 in Arabidopsis.

  16. Nuclear Matrix protein SMAR1 represses HIV-1 LTR mediated transcription through chromatin remodeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenath, Kadreppa; Pavithra, Lakshminarasimhan; Singh, Sandeep; Sinha, Surajit; Dash, Prasanta K.; Siddappa, Nagadenahalli B.; Ranga, Udaykumar; Mitra, Debashis; Chattopadhyay, Samit

    2010-04-25

    Nuclear Matrix and MARs have been implicated in the transcriptional regulation of host as well as viral genes but their precise role in HIV-1 transcription remains unclear. Here, we show that > 98% of HIV sequences contain consensus MAR element in their promoter. We show that SMAR1 binds to the LTR MAR and reinforces transcriptional silencing by tethering the LTR MAR to nuclear matrix. SMAR1 associated HDAC1-mSin3 corepressor complex is dislodged from the LTR upon cellular activation by PMA/TNFalpha leading to an increase in the acetylation and a reduction in the trimethylation of histones, associated with the recruitment of RNA Polymerase II on the LTR. Overexpression of SMAR1 lead to reduction in LTR mediated transcription, both in a Tat dependent and independent manner, resulting in a decreased virion production. These results demonstrate the role of SMAR1 in regulating viral transcription by alternative compartmentalization of LTR between the nuclear matrix and chromatin.

  17. Exosomes account for vesicle-mediated transcellular transport of activatable phospholipases and prostaglandins[S

    PubMed Central

    Subra, Caroline; Grand, David; Laulagnier, Karine; Stella, Alexandre; Lambeau, Gérard; Paillasse, Michael; De Medina, Philippe; Monsarrat, Bernard; Perret, Bertrand; Silvente-Poirot, Sandrine; Poirot, Marc; Record, Michel

    2010-01-01

    Exosomes are bioactive vesicles released from multivesicular bodies (MVB) by intact cells and participate in intercellular signaling. We investigated the presence of lipid-related proteins and bioactive lipids in RBL-2H3 exosomes. Besides a phospholipid scramblase and a fatty acid binding protein, the exosomes contained the whole set of phospholipases (A2, C, and D) together with interacting proteins such as aldolase A and Hsp 70. They also contained the phospholipase D (PLD) / phosphatidate phosphatase 1 (PAP1) pathway leading to the formation of diglycerides. RBL-2H3 exosomes also carried members of the three phospholipase A2 classes: the calcium-dependent cPLA2-IVA, the calcium-independent iPLA2-VIA, and the secreted sPLA2-IIA and V. Remarkably, almost all members of the Ras GTPase superfamily were present, and incubation of exosomes with GTPγS triggered activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2)and PLD2. A large panel of free fatty acids, including arachidonic acid (AA) and derivatives such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandinJ2 (15-d PGJ2), were detected. We observed that the exosomes were internalized by resting and activated RBL cells and that they accumulated in an endosomal compartment. Endosomal concentrations were in the micromolar range for prostaglandins; i.e., concentrations able to trigger prostaglandin-dependent biological responses. Therefore exosomes are carriers of GTP-activatable phospholipases and lipid mediators from cell to cell. PMID:20424270

  18. Regulation of miRNA Processing and miRNA Mediated Gene Repression in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bajan, Sarah; Hutvagner, Gyorgy

    2014-01-01

    The majority of human protein-coding genes are predicted to be targets of miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation. The widespread influence of miRNAs is illustrated by their essential roles in all biological processes. Regulated miRNA expression is essential for maintaining cellular differentiation; therefore alterations in miRNA expression patterns are associated with several diseases, including various cancers. High-throughput sequencing technologies revealed low level expressing miRNA isoforms, termed isomiRs. IsomiRs may differ in sequence, length, target preference and expression patterns from their parental miRNA and can arise from differences in miRNA biosynthesis, RNA editing, or SNPs inherent to the miRNA gene. The association between isomiR expression and disease progression is largely unknown. Misregulated miRNA expression is thought to contribute to the formation and/or progression of cancer. However, due to the diversity of targeted transcripts, miRNAs can function as both tumor-suppressor genes and oncogenes as defined by cellular context. Despite this, miRNA profiling studies concluded that the differential expression of particular miRNAs in diseased tissue could aid the diagnosis and treatment of some cancers. PMID:25069508

  19. Melatonin mediates the stabilization of DELLA proteins to repress the floral transition in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haitao; Wei, Yunxie; Wang, Qiannan; Reiter, Russel J; He, Chaozu

    2016-04-01

    Precise floral transition from vegetative growth phase to reproductive growth phase is very important in plant life cycle. In flowering genetic pathways, DELLA proteins are master transcriptional regulators of gibberelic acid (GA) pathway, and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a core repressor of vernalization pathway as well as downstream of DELLAs. As a crucial messenger in plants, the possible involvement of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) in flowering and underlying molecular mechanism are unknown in Arabidopsis. In this study, we found that exogenous melatonin treatment delayed floral transition in Arabidopsis. Exogenous melatonin treatment conferred protein stabilizations of DELLAs [REPRESSOR of ga1-3 (RGA) and RGA-LIKE3 (RGL3)], without regulating the transcripts of DELLAs and endogenous GA level. Notably, exogenous melatonin delayed plant flowering and DELLA-activated transcripts of FLC were alleviated in della mutants, and those were exacerbated in DELLA overexpressing plants. Taken together, this study provides direct link between melatonin and floral transition, and indicates the novel involvement of DELLAs-activated FLC in melatonin-mediated flowering in Arabidopsis.

  20. Rac1 signaling modulates BCL-6-mediated repression of gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Barros, Patrícia; Jordan, Peter; Matos, Paulo

    2009-08-01

    Rac1 is a member of the Rho family of small GTPases that not only regulates signaling pathways involved in cell adhesion and migration but also regulates gene transcription. Here we show that the transcriptional repressor BCL-6 is regulated by Rac1 signaling. Transfection of active Rac1 mutants into colorectal DLD-1 cells led to increased expression of a BCL-6-controlled luciferase reporter construct. Conversely, inhibition of endogenous Rac1 activation by the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 decreased reporter activity. Moreover, BCL-6 lost its typical localization to nuclear dots upon activation of Rac1 and became predominantly soluble in a non-chromatin-bound cell fraction. Rac1 signaling also regulated the expression of endogenous BCL-6-regulated genes, including the p50 precursor NF-kappaB1/p105 and the cell adhesion molecule CD44. Interestingly, these effects were not stimulated by the alternative splice variant Rac1b. The mechanism of BCL-6 inhibition does not involve formation of a stable Rac1/BCL-6 complex and is independent of Rac-induced reactive oxygen species production or Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activation. We show that PAK1 mediates inhibition downstream of Rac and can directly phosphorylate BCL-6. Together, these data provide substantial evidence that Rac1 signaling inhibits the transcriptional repressor BCL-6 in colorectal cells and reveal a novel pathway that links Rac1 signaling to the regulation of gene transcription.

  1. Calcium-mediated repression of β-catenin and its transcriptional signaling mediates neural crest cell death in an avian model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Flentke, George R; Garic, Ana; Amberger, Ed; Hernandez, Marcos; Smith, Susan M

    2011-07-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a common birth defect in many societies. Affected individuals have neurodevelopmental disabilities and a distinctive craniofacial dysmorphology. These latter deficits originate during early development from the ethanol-mediated apoptotic depletion of cranial facial progenitors, a population known as the neural crest. We showed previously that this apoptosis is caused because acute ethanol exposure activates G-protein-dependent intracellular calcium within cranial neural crest progenitors, and this calcium transient initiates the cell death. The dysregulated signals that reside downstream of ethanol's calcium transient and effect neural crest death are unknown. Here we show that ethanol's repression of the transcriptional effector β-catenin causes the neural crest losses. Clinically relevant ethanol concentrations (22-78 mM) rapidly deplete nuclear β-catenin from neural crest progenitors, with accompanying losses of β-catenin transcriptional activity and downstream genes that govern neural crest induction, expansion, and survival. Using forced expression studies, we show that β-catenin loss of function (via dominant-negative T cell transcription factor [TCF]) recapitulates ethanol's effects on neural crest apoptosis, whereas β-catenin gain-of-function in ethanol's presence preserves neural crest survival. Blockade of ethanol's calcium transient using Bapta-AM normalizes β-catenin activity and prevents the neural crest losses, whereas ionomycin treatment is sufficient to destabilize β-catenin. We propose that ethanol's repression of β-catenin causes the neural crest losses in this model of FAS. β-Catenin is a novel target for ethanol's teratogenicity. β-Catenin/Wnt signals participate in many developmental events and its rapid and persistent dysregulation by ethanol may explain why the latter is such a potent teratogen.

  2. Complementary Quantitative Proteomics Reveals that Transcription Factor AP-4 Mediates E-box-dependent Complex Formation for Transcriptional Repression of HDM2*

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Wei-Chi; Chiu, Sung-Kay; Chen, Yi-Ju; Huang, Hsin-Hung; Wu, Wen-Guey; Chen, Yu-Ju

    2009-01-01

    Transcription factor activating enhancer-binding protein 4 (AP-4) is a basic helix-loop-helix protein that binds to E-box elements. AP-4 has received increasing attention for its regulatory role in cell growth and development, including transcriptional repression of the human homolog of murine double minute 2 (HDM2), an important oncoprotein controlling cell growth and survival, by an unknown mechanism. Here we demonstrate that AP-4 binds to an E-box located in the HDM2-P2 promoter and represses HDM2 transcription in a p53-independent manner. Incremental truncations of AP-4 revealed that the C-terminal Gln/Pro-rich domain was essential for transcriptional repression of HDM2. To further delineate the molecular mechanism(s) of AP-4 transcriptional control and its potential implications, we used DNA-affinity purification followed by complementary quantitative proteomics, cICAT and iTRAQ labeling methods, to identify a previously unknown E-box-bound AP-4 protein complex containing 75 putative components. The two labeling methods complementarily quantified differentially AP-4-enriched proteins, including the most significant recruitment of DNA damage response proteins, followed by transcription factors, transcriptional repressors/corepressors, and histone-modifying proteins. Specific interaction of AP-4 with CCCTC binding factor, stimulatory protein 1, and histone deacetylase 1 (an AP-4 corepressor) was validated using AP-4 truncation mutants. Importantly, inclusion of trichostatin A did not alleviate AP-4-mediated repression of HDM2 transcription, suggesting a previously unidentified histone deacetylase-independent repression mechanism. In contrast, the complementary quantitative proteomics study suggested that transcription repression occurs via coordination of AP-4 with other transcription factors, histone methyltransferases, and/or a nucleosome remodeling SWI·SNF complex. In addition to previously known functions of AP-4, our data suggest that AP-4 participates in

  3. Histone demethylase LSD1-mediated repression of GATA-2 is critical for erythroid differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yidi; Fu, Xueqi; Jin, Yue; Sun, Jing; Liu, Ye; Huo, Bo; Li, Xiang; Hu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Background The transcription factor GATA-2 is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and counteracts the erythroid-specific transcription factor GATA-1, to modulate the proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. During hematopoietic cell differentiation, GATA-2 exhibits dynamic expression patterns, which are regulated by multiple transcription factors. Methods Stable LSD1-knockdown cell lines were established by growing murine erythroleukemia (MEL) or mouse embryonic stem cells together with virus particles, in the presence of Polybrene® at 4 μg/mL, for 24–48 hours followed by puromycin selection (1 μg/mL) for 2 weeks. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis was used to test whether the TAL1 transcription factor is bound to 1S promoter in the GATA-2 locus or whether LSD1 colocalizes with TAL1 at the 1S promoter. The sequential ChIP assay was utilized to confirm the role of LSD1 in the regulation of H3K4me2 at the GATA-2 locus during erythroid differentiation. Western blot analysis was employed to detect the protein expression. The alamarBlue® assay was used to examine the proliferation of the cells, and the absorbance was monitored at optical density (OD) 570 nm and OD 600 nm. Results In this study, we showed that LSD1 regulates the expression of GATA-2 during erythroid differentiation. Knockdown of LSD1 results in increased GATA-2 expression and inhibits the differentiation of MEL and embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that LSD1 binds to the 1S promoter of the GATA-2 locus and suppresses GATA-2 expression, via histone demethylation. Conclusion Our data revealed that LSD1 mediates erythroid differentiation, via epigenetic modification of the GATA-2 locus. PMID:26124638

  4. Constitutive activation of gene expression by thyroid hormone receptor results from reversal of p53-mediated repression.

    PubMed Central

    Qi, J S; Desai-Yajnik, V; Yuan, Y; Samuels, H H

    1997-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptor (T3R) is a member of the steroid hormone receptor gene family of nuclear hormone receptors. In most cells T3R activates gene expression only in the presence of its ligand, L-triiodothyronine (T3). However, in certain cell types (e.g., GH4C1 cells) expression of T3R leads to hormone-independent constitutive activation. This activation by unliganded T3R occurs with a variety of gene promoters and appears to be independent of the binding of T3R to specific thyroid hormone response elements (TREs). Previous studies indicate that this constitutive activation results from the titration of an inhibitor of transcription. Since the tumor suppresser p53 is capable of repressing a wide variety of gene promoters, we considered the possibility that the inhibitor is p53. Evidence to support this comes from studies indicating that expression of p53 blocks T3R-mediated constitutive activation in GH4C1 cells. In contrast with hormone-independent activation by T3R, p53 had little or no effect on T3-dependent stimulation which requires TREs. In addition, p53 mutants which oligomerize with wild-type p53 and interfere with its function also increase promoter activity. This enhancement is of similar magnitude to but is not additive with the stimulation mediated by unliganded T3R, suggesting that they target the same factor. Since p53 mutants are known to target wild-type p53 in the cell, this suggests that T3R also interacts with p53 in vivo and that endogenous levels of p53 act to suppress promoter activity. Evidence supporting both functional and physical interactions of T3R and p53 in the cell is presented. The DNA binding domain (DBD) of T3R is important in mediating constitutive activation, and the receptor DBD appears to functionally interact with the N terminus of p53 in the cell. In vitro binding studies indicate that the T3R DBD is important for interaction of T3R with p53 and that this interaction is reduced by T3. These findings are consistent with

  5. Epigenetic involvement of Alien/ESET complex in thyroid hormone-mediated repression of E2F1 gene expression and cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Wei; Li, Jinru; Wang, Bo; Chen, Linfeng; Niu, Wenyan; Yao, Zhi; Baniahmad, Aria

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Corepressor Alien interacts with histone methyltransferase ESET in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alien/ESET complex is recruited to nTRE of T3-responsive gene by liganded TR{beta}1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ESET-mediated H3K9 methylation is required for liganded TR{beta}1-repressed transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ESET is involved in T3-repressed G1/S phase transition and proliferation. -- Abstract: The ligand-bound thyroid hormone receptor (TR) is known to repress via a negative TRE (nTRE) the expression of E2F1, a key transcription factor that controls the G1/S phase transition. Alien has been identified as a novel interacting factor of E2F1 and acts as a corepressor of E2F1. The detailed molecular mechanism by which Alien inhibits E2F1 gene expression remains unclear. Here, we report that the histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methyltransferase (HMT) ESET is an integral component of the corepressor Alien complex and the Alien/ESET complex is recruited to both sites, the E2F1 and the nTRE site of the E2F1 gene while the recruitment to the negative thyroid hormone response element (nTRE) is induced by the ligand-bound TR{beta}1 within the E2F1 gene promoter. We show that, overexpression of ESET promotes, whereas knockdown of ESET releases, the inhibition of TR{beta}1-regulated gene transcription upon T3 stimulation; and H3K9 methylation is required for TR{beta}1-repressed transcription. Furthermore, depletion of ESET impairs thyroid hormone-repressed proliferation as well as the G1/S transition of the cell cycle. Taken together, our data indicate that ESET is involved in TR{beta}1-mediated transcription repression and provide a molecular basis of thyroid hormone-induced repression of proliferation.

  6. Menin represses tumorigenesis via repressing cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ting; Hua, Xianxin

    2011-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) results from mutations in the tumor suppressor gene, MEN1, which encodes nuclear protein menin. Menin is important for suppressing tumorigenesis in various endocrine and certain non-endocrine tissues. Although menin suppresses MEN1 through a variety of mechanisms including regulating apoptosis and DNA repair, the role of menin in regulating cell proliferation is one of the best-studied functions. Here, we focus on reviewing various mechanisms underlying menin-mediated inhibition of cell proliferation. Menin inhibits cell proliferation to repress MEN1 through multiple mechanisms. 1) Menin interacts with various histonemodifying enzymes, such as MLL, EZH2 and HDACs, to affect gene transcription, leading to repression of cell proliferation. 2) Menin also interacts with various transcription factors, such as JunD, NF-κB, PPARγ and VDR, to induce or suppress gene transcription. As these various transcription factors are known to regulate cell proliferation, their interaction with menin may be relevant to menin's role in inhibiting cell proliferation. 3) Menin inhibits cell proliferation via TGF-β signaling and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. 4) Menin represses certain pro-proliferative factors involved in endocrine tumors such as IGFBP-2, IGF2 and PTHrP to repress cell proliferation. 5) Menin affects cell cycle progression to inhibit cell proliferation. This review is helpful in our understanding of the comprehensive mechanisms whereby menin represses MEN1 through inhibiting cell proliferation. PMID:22016823

  7. The lysyl oxidases LOX and LOXL2 are necessary and sufficient to repress E-cadherin in hypoxia: insights into cellular transformation processes mediated by HIF-1.

    PubMed

    Schietke, Ruth; Warnecke, Christina; Wacker, Ingrid; Schödel, Johannes; Mole, David R; Campean, Valentina; Amann, Kerstin; Goppelt-Struebe, Margarete; Behrens, Jürgen; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Wiesener, Michael S

    2010-02-26

    Hypoxia has been shown to promote tumor metastasis and lead to therapy resistance. Recent work has demonstrated that hypoxia represses E-cadherin expression, a hallmark of epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which is believed to amplify tumor aggressiveness. The molecular mechanism of E-cadherin repression is unknown, yet lysyl oxidases have been implicated to be involved. Gene expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX) and the related LOX-like 2 (LOXL2) is strongly induced by hypoxia. In addition to the previously demonstrated LOX, we characterize LOXL2 as a direct transcriptional target of HIF-1. We demonstrate that activation of lysyl oxidases is required and sufficient for hypoxic repression of E-cadherin, which mediates cellular transformation and takes effect in cellular invasion assays. Our data support a molecular pathway from hypoxia to cellular transformation. It includes up-regulation of HIF and subsequent transcriptional induction of LOX and LOXL2, which repress E-cadherin and induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Lysyl oxidases could be an attractive molecular target for cancers of epithelial origin, in particular because they are partly extracellular.

  8. Sp1 mediates repression of the resistin gene by PPAR{gamma} agonists in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.S.; Choi, H.H.; Cho, Y.M.; Lee, H.K.; Park, K.S. . E-mail: kspark@snu.ac.kr

    2006-09-15

    Resistin is an adipokine related to obesity and insulin resistance. Expression of the resistin gene is repressed by the treatment of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonists, thiazolidinediones (TZDs). In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which TZDs inhibit the resistin gene expression. Resistin gene expression was decreased by TZD in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which was abolished after treatment of cycloheximide (a protein synthesis inhibitor). TZD could not repress the expression of the resistin gene in the presence of mithramycin A (an Sp1 binding inhibitor). Sp1 binding site of the resistin promoter (-122/-114 bp) was necessary for the repression. Further investigation of the effect of TZDs on the modification of Sp1 showed that the level of O-glycosylation of Sp1 was decreased in this process. These results suggest that PPAR{gamma} activation represses the expression of the resistin gene by modulating Sp1 activity.

  9. Beyond the classic eicosanoids: Peripherally-acting oxygenated metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids mediate pain associated with tissue injury and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Haim; Singer, Pierre; Ariel, Amiram

    2016-08-01

    Pain is a complex sensation that may be protective or cause undue suffering and loss of function, depending on the circumstances. Peripheral nociceptor neurons (PNs) innervate most tissues, and express ion channels, nocisensors, which depolarize the cell in response to intense stimuli and numerous substances. Inflamed tissues manifest inflammatory hyperalgesia in which the threshold for pain and the response to painful stimuli are decreased and increased, respectively. Constituents of the inflammatory milieu sensitize PNs, thereby contributing to hyperalgesia. Polyunsaturated fatty acids undergo enzymatic and free radical-mediated oxygenation into an array of bioactive metabolites, oxygenated polyunsaturated fatty acids (oxy-PUFAs), including the classic eicosanoids. Oxy-PUFA production is enhanced during inflammation. Pioneering studies by Vane and colleagues from the early 1970s first implicated classic eicosanoids in the pain associated with inflammation. Here, we review the production and action of oxy-PUFAs that are not classic eicosanoids, but nevertheless are produced in injured/ inflamed tissues and activate or sensitize PNs. In general, oxy-PUFAs that sensitize PNs may do so directly, by activation of nocisensors, ion channels or GPCRs expressed on the surface of PNs, or indirectly, by increasing the production of inflammatory mediators that activate or sensitize PNs. We focus on oxy-PUFAs that act directly on PNs. Specifically, we discuss the role of arachidonic acid-derived 12S-HpETE, HNE, ONE, PGA2, iso-PGA2 and 15d-PGJ2, 5,6-and 8,9-EET, PGE2-G and 8R,15S-diHETE, as well as the linoleic acid-derived 9-and 13-HODE in inducing acute nocifensive behavior and/or inflammatory hyperalgesia in rodents. The nocisensors TRPV1, TRPV4 and TRPA1, and putative Gαs-type GPCRs are the PN targets of these oxy-PUFAs. PMID:27067460

  10. NuRD mediates activating and repressive functions of GATA-1 and FOG-1 during blood development.

    PubMed

    Miccio, Annarita; Wang, Yuhuan; Hong, Wei; Gregory, Gregory D; Wang, Hongxin; Yu, Xiang; Choi, John K; Shelat, Suresh; Tong, Wei; Poncz, Mortimer; Blobel, Gerd A

    2010-01-20

    GATA transcription factors interact with FOG proteins to regulate tissue development by activating and repressing transcription. FOG-1 (ZFPM1), a co-factor for the haematopoietic factor GATA-1, binds to the NuRD co-repressor complex through a conserved N-terminal motif. Surprisingly, we detected NuRD components at both repressed and active GATA-1/FOG-1 target genes in vivo. In addition, while NuRD is required for transcriptional repression in certain contexts, we show a direct requirement of NuRD also for FOG-1-dependent transcriptional activation. Mice in which the FOG-1/NuRD interaction is disrupted display defects similar to germline mutations in the Gata1 and Fog1 genes, including anaemia and macrothrombocytopaenia. Gene expression analysis in primary mutant erythroid cells and megakaryocytes (MKs) revealed an essential function for NuRD during both the repression and activation of select GATA-1/FOG-1 target genes. These results show that NuRD is a critical co-factor for FOG-1 and underscore the versatile use of NuRD by lineage-specific transcription factors to activate and repress gene transcription in the appropriate cellular and genetic context.

  11. Prostaglandin E2 represses interleukin 1 beta-induced inflammatory mediator output from pregnant human myometrial cells through the EP2 and EP4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Mosher, Andrea A; Rainey, Kelly J; Giembycz, Mark A; Wood, Stephen; Slater, Donna M

    2012-07-01

    Inflammatory mediators, including prostaglandins, cytokines, and chemokines, are strongly implicated in the mechanism of human labor, though their precise roles remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta) significantly increased the expression and release of interleukin-8 (CXCL8), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (CCL2), and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF2) by primary human myometrial cells. However, this effect was repressed by prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). As PGE(2) can activate four distinct PGE(2) receptors (EP(1), EP(2), EP(3), and EP(4)) to elicit various responses, we sought to define the EP receptor(s) responsible for this repression. Using selective EP receptor agonists and a selective EP(4) antagonist, we show that PGE(2) mediates the repression of IL-1beta-induced release of CXCL8, CCL2, and CSF2 via activation of the EP(2) and EP(4) receptors. The use of siRNA gene-specific knockdown further confirmed a role for both receptors. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that EP(2) was the most highly expressed of all four EP receptors at the mRNA level in human myometrial cells, and immunocytochemistry showed that EP(2) protein is abundantly present throughout the cells. Interestingly, PGE(2) does not appear to reduce mRNA expression of CXCL8, CCL2, and CSF2. Our results demonstrate that PGE(2) can elicit anti-inflammatory responses via activation of the EP(2) and EP(4) receptors in lower segment term pregnant human myometrial cells. Further elucidation of the EP receptor-mediated signaling pathways in the pregnant human uterus may be beneficial for optimizing the maintenance of pregnancy, induction of labor or indeed treatment of preterm labor.

  12. The catenin p120{sup ctn} inhibits Kaiso-mediated transcriptional repression of the {beta}-catenin/TCF target gene matrilysin

    SciTech Connect

    Spring, Christopher M.; Kelly, Kevin F.; O'Kelly, Ita; Graham, Monica; Crawford, Howard C.; Daniel, Juliet M. . E-mail: danielj@mcmaster.ca

    2005-05-01

    The POZ-zinc finger transcription factor Kaiso was first identified as a specific binding partner for the Armadillo catenin and cell adhesion cofactor, p120{sup ctn}. Kaiso is a unique POZ protein with bi-modal DNA-binding properties; it associates with a sequence-specific DNA consensus Kaiso binding site (KBS) or methylated CpG dinucleotides, and regulates transcription of artificial promoters containing either site. Interestingly, the promoter of the Wnt/{beta}-catenin/TCF target gene matrilysin possesses two conserved copies of the KBS, which suggested that Kaiso might regulate matrilysin expression. In this study, we demonstrate using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis that Kaiso associates with the matrilysin promoter in vivo. Minimal promoter assays further confirmed that Kaiso specifically repressed transcription of the matrilysin promoter; mutation of the KBS element or RNAi-mediated depletion of Kaiso abrogated this effect. More importantly, Kaiso blocked {beta}-catenin-mediated activation of the matrilysin promoter. Consistent with our previous findings, both Kaiso-DNA binding and Kaiso-mediated transcriptional repression of the matrilysin promoter were inhibited by overexpression of wild-type p120{sup ctn}, but not by a p120{sup ctn} mutant exhibiting impaired nuclear import. Collectively, our data establish Kaiso as a sequence-specific transcriptional repressor of the matrilysin promoter, and suggest that p120{sup ctn} and {beta}-catenin act in a synergistic manner, via distinct mechanisms, to activate matrilysin expression.

  13. Interaction of Arabidopsis DET1 with CCA1 and LHY in mediating transcriptional repression in the plant circadian clock

    PubMed Central

    Lau, On Sun; Huang, Xi; Charron, Jean-Benoit; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Li, Gang; Deng, Xing Wang

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The COP10-DET1-DDB1 (CDD) complex is an evolutionarily conserved protein complex discovered for its role in the repression of photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis, and is important in many cellular and developmental processes in both plants and animals. However, its molecular mode of action remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the CDD component, DET1, possesses transcriptional repression activity and physically interacts with two closely related MYB transcription factors, CCA1 and LHY, which are core components of the plant circadian clock. DET1 associates with the promoter of CCA1/LHY target genes, such as TOC1, in a CCA1/LHY-dependent manner and is required for their repression, suggesting a recruitment of DET1 by the central oscillator components to regulate the clock. Our results reveal DET1 as a core transcriptional repression factor important for clock progression. Overall, the CDD complex may function as a transcriptional co-repressor in diverse processes through direct interaction with distinct transcription factors. PMID:21884973

  14. Progesterone receptor repression of prolactin/signal transducer and activator of transcription 5-mediated transcription of the beta-casein gene in mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Buser, Adam C; Gass-Handel, Elizabeth K; Wyszomierski, Shannon L; Doppler, Wolfgang; Leonhardt, Susan A; Schaack, Jerome; Rosen, Jeffrey M; Watkin, Harriet; Anderson, Steven M; Edwards, Dean P

    2007-01-01

    Prolactin (PRL) and glucocorticoids act synergistically to stimulate transcription of the beta-casein milk protein gene. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (Stat5) mediates PRL-dependent trans-activation, and glucocorticoid potentiation occurs through cross talk between glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and Stat5 at the beta-casein promoter. In the mouse, progesterone withdrawal leads to terminal differentiation and secretory activation of the mammary gland at parturition, indicating progesterone's role in repressing milk protein gene expression during pregnancy. To investigate the mechanism of the inhibitory action of progesterone, experiments were performed with cell culture systems reconstituted to express progesterone receptor (PR), the PRL receptor/Stat5 signaling pathway, and GR, enabling evaluation of PR, GR, and Stat5 interactions at the beta-casein promoter. With COS-1, normal murine mammary gland, HC-11, and primary mammary epithelial cells, progestin-PR directly repressed the PRL receptor/Stat5a signaling pathway's mediation of PRL-induced beta-casein transcription. Progestin-PR also inhibited glucocorticoid-GR enhancement of PRL induced trans-activation of beta-casein. Inhibition depended on a functional PR DNA binding domain and specific PR-DNA interactions at the beta-casein promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in HC-11 cells revealed recruitment of PR and Stat5a to the beta-casein promoter by progestin or PRL, respectively. Recruitment was disrupted by cotreatment with progestin and PRL, suggesting a mutual interference between activated PR and Stat5a. Without PRL, progestin-PR also recruited Stat5a to the beta-casein promoter, suggesting that recruitment of an unactivated form of Stat5a may contribute to inhibition of beta-casein by progesterone. These results define a negative cross talk between PR and Stat5a/GR that may contribute to the physiological role of progesterone to repress lactogenic hormone induction of the beta

  15. FEN2: a gene implicated in the catabolite repression-mediated regulation of ergosterol biosynthesis in yeast.

    PubMed

    Marcireau, C; Joets, J; Pousset, D; Guilloton, M; Karst, F

    1996-05-01

    We have isolated and characterized a pleiotropic recessive mutation. fen2-1, that causes resistance to fenpropimorph and a low level of ergosterol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ergosterol synthesis in the mutant strain was 5.5-fold slower than in the wild type; however, in vitro assays of the enzymes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis could not account for this low rate in the mutant. The mutant phenotype was expressed only in media exerting both carbon and nitrogen catabolite repression. To our knowledge, this is the first locus in yeast that reveals a concerted regulation between different pathways (carbon and nitrogen catabolite repression and/or general control of amino acid biosynthesis and ergosterol biosynthesis). The yeast gene FEN2 has been isolated and contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 512 codons. This ORF was found to be identical to YCR28C of chromosome III. A possible function of the FEN2 gene product in yeast is discussed.

  16. Sumoylated PPARα mediates sex-specific gene repression and protects the liver from estrogen-induced toxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Leuenberger, Nicolas; Pradervand, Sylvain; Wahli, Walter

    2009-01-01

    As most metabolic studies are conducted in male animals, understanding the sex specificity of the underlying molecular pathways has been broadly neglected; for example, whether PPARs elicit sex-dependent responses has not been determined. Here we show that in mice, PPARα has broad female-dependent repressive actions on hepatic genes involved in steroid metabolism and immunity. In male mice, this effect was reproduced by the administration of a synthetic PPARα ligand. Using the steroid oxysterol 7α-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 7b1 (Cyp7b1) gene as a model, we elucidated the molecular mechanism of this sex-specific PPARα-dependent repression. Initial sumoylation of the ligand-binding domain of PPARα triggered the interaction of PPARα with GA-binding protein α (GABPα) bound to the target Cyp7b1 promoter. Histone deacetylase and DNA and histone methylases were then recruited, and the adjacent Sp1-binding site and histones were methylated. These events resulted in loss of Sp1-stimulated expression and thus downregulation of Cyp7b1. Physiologically, this repression conferred on female mice protection against estrogen-induced intrahepatic cholestasis, the most common hepatic disease during pregnancy, suggesting a therapeutic target for prevention of this disease. PMID:19729835

  17. LANA-Mediated Recruitment of Host Polycomb Repressive Complexes onto the KSHV Genome during De Novo Infection

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Zsolt; Papp, Bernadett; Brulois, Kevin; Choi, Youn Jung; Gao, Shou-Jiang; Jung, Jae U.

    2016-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of the latent phase of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection is the global repression of lytic viral gene expression. Following de novo KSHV infection, the establishment of latency involves the chromatinization of the incoming viral genomes and recruitment of the host Polycomb repressive complexes (PRC1 and PRC2) to the promoters of lytic genes, which is accompanied by the inhibition of lytic genes. However, the mechanism of how PRCs are recruited to the KSHV episome is still unknown. Utilizing a genetic screen of latent genes in the context of KSHV genome, we identified the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) to be responsible for the genome-wide recruitment of PRCs onto the lytic promoters following infection. We found that LANA initially bound to the KSHV genome right after infection and subsequently recruited PRCs onto the viral lytic promoters, thereby repressing lytic gene expression. Furthermore, both the DNA and chromatin binding activities of LANA were required for the binding of LANA to the KSHV promoters, which was necessary for the recruitment of PRC2 to the lytic promoters during de novo KSHV infection. Consequently, the LANA-knockout KSHV could not recruit PRCs to its viral genome upon de novo infection, resulting in aberrant lytic gene expression and dysregulation of expression of host genes involved in cell cycle and proliferation pathways. In this report, we demonstrate that KSHV LANA recruits host PRCs onto the lytic promoters to suppress lytic gene expression following de novo infection. PMID:27606464

  18. Myc Inhibits p27-Induced Erythroid Differentiation of Leukemia Cells by Repressing Erythroid Master Genes without Reversing p27-Mediated Cell Cycle Arrest▿ ‡

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Juan C.; Ferrándiz, Nuria; Bretones, Gabriel; Torrano, Verónica; Blanco, Rosa; Richard, Carlos; O'Connell, Brenda; Sedivy, John; Delgado, M. Dolores; León, Javier

    2008-01-01

    Inhibition of differentiation has been proposed as an important mechanism for Myc-induced tumorigenesis, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. We have established a genetically defined differentiation model in human leukemia K562 cells by conditional expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p27 (inducible by Zn2+) and Myc (activatable by 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen). Induction of p27 resulted in erythroid differentiation, accompanied by Cdk inhibition and G1 arrest. Interestingly, activation of Myc inhibited p27-mediated erythroid differentiation without affecting p27-mediated proliferation arrest. Microarray-based gene expression indicated that, in the presence of p27, Myc blocked the upregulation of several erythroid-cell-specific genes, including NFE2, JUNB, and GATA1 (transcription factors with a pivotal role in erythropoiesis). Moreover, Myc also blocked the upregulation of Mad1, a transcriptional antagonist of Myc that is able to induce erythroid differentiation. Cotransfection experiments demonstrated that Myc-mediated inhibition of differentiation is partly dependent on the repression of Mad1 and GATA1. In conclusion, this model demonstrates that Myc-mediated inhibition of differentiation depends on the regulation of a specific gene program, whereas it is independent of p27-mediated cell cycle arrest. Our results support the hypothesis that differentiation inhibition is an important Myc tumorigenic mechanism that is independent of cell proliferation. PMID:18838534

  19. Grb7 Upregulation Is a Molecular Adaptation to HER2 Signaling Inhibition Due to Removal of Akt-Mediated Gene Repression

    PubMed Central

    Nencioni, Alessio; Cea, Michele; Garuti, Anna; Passalacqua, Mario; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Soncini, Debora; Moran, Eva; Zoppoli, Gabriele; Pistoia, Vito; Patrone, Franco; Ballestrero, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of anti-HER2 therapeutics, such as lapatinib and trastuzumab, is limited by primary and acquired resistance. Cellular adaptations that allow breast cancer cell to survive prolonged HER2 inhibition include de-repression of the transcription factor FOXO3A with consequent estrogen receptor activation, and/or increased HER3 signaling. Here, we used low-density arrays, quantitative PCR, and western blotting to determine how HER2 signaling inhibition with lapatinib or PI3K inhibitors affects the expression of genes involved in breast cancer metastatic spread and overall prognosis. Retroviral transgenesis was used to express constitutively active forms of Akt in the HER2+ breast cancer cell line SKBR3, and Grb7 in MCF7 cells. Specific gene silencing was obtained by siRNAs transfection. A murine BT474 xenograft cancer model was used to assess the effect of lapatinib on gene expression in vivo. We found that lapatinib induces upregulation of Grb7, an adaptor protein involved in receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and promoting cell survival and cell migration. Grb7 upregulation induced by lapatinib was found to occur in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that Grb7 upregulation is recreated by PI3K inhibitors while being prevented by constitutively active Akt. Thus, Grb7 is repressed by PI3K signaling and lapatinib-mediated Akt inhibition is responsible for Grb7 de-repression. Finally, we show that Grb7 removal by RNA-interference reduces breast cancer cell viability and increases the activity of lapatinib. In conclusion, Grb7 upregulation is a potentially adverse consequence of HER2 signaling inhibition. Preventing Grb7 accumulation and/or its interaction with receptor tyrosine kinases may increase the benefit of HER2-targeting drugs. PMID:20126311

  20. WT1-mediated repression of the proapoptotic transcription factor ZNF224 is triggered by the BCR-ABL oncogene

    PubMed Central

    Montano, Giorgia; Vidovic, Karina; Palladino, Chiara; Cesaro, Elena; Sodaro, Gaetano; Quintarelli, Concetta; De Angelis, Biagio; Errichiello, Santa; Pane, Fabrizio; Izzo, Paola; Grosso, Michela; Gullberg, Urban; Costanzo, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The Kruppel-like protein ZNF224 is a co-factor of the Wilms’ tumor 1 protein, WT1. We have previously shown that ZNF224 exerts a specific proapoptotic role in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) K562 cells and contributes to cytosine arabinoside-induced apoptosis, by modulating WT1-dependent transcription of apoptotic genes. Here we demonstrate that ZNF224 gene expression is down-regulated both in BCR-ABL positive cell lines and in primary CML samples and is restored after imatinib and second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors treatment. We also show that WT1, whose expression is positively regulated by BCR-ABL, represses transcription of the ZNF224 gene. Finally, we report that ZNF224 is significantly down-regulated in patients with BCR-ABL positive chronic phase-CML showing poor response or resistance to imatinib treatment as compared to high-responder patients. Taken as a whole, our data disclose a novel pathway activated by BCR-ABL that leads to inhibition of apoptosis through the ZNF224 repression. ZNF224 could thus represent a novel promising therapeutic target in CML. PMID:26320177

  1. Ectomycorrhiza-mediated repression of the high-affinity ammonium importer gene AmAMT2 in Amanita muscaria.

    PubMed

    Willmann, Anita; Weiss, Michael; Nehls, Uwe

    2007-02-01

    A main function of ectomycorrhizas, a symbiosis between certain soil fungi and fine roots of woody plants, is the exchange of plant-derived carbohydrates for fungus-derived nutrients. As it is required in large amounts, nitrogen is of special interest. A gene (AmAMT2) coding for a putative fungal ammonium importer was identified in an EST project of functional Amanita muscaria/poplar ectomycorrhizas. Heterologous expression of the entire AmAMT2 coding region in yeast revealed the corresponding protein to be a high-affinity ammonium importer. In axenically grown Amanita hyphae AmAMT2 expression was strongly repressed by nitrogen, independent of whether the offered nitrogen source was transported by AmAMT2 or not. In functional ectomycorrhizas the AmAMT2 transcript level was further decreased in both hyphal networks (sheath and Hartig net), while extraradical hyphae revealed strong gene expression. Together our data suggest that (1) AmAMT2 expression is regulated by the endogenous nitrogen content of hyphae and (2) fungal hyphae in ectomycorrhizas are well supported with nitrogen even when the extraradical mycelium is nitrogen limited. As a consequence of AmAMT2 repression in mycorrhizas, ammonium can be suggested as a potential nitrogen source delivered by fungal hyphae in symbiosis.

  2. Akt1-mediated Gata3 phosphorylation controls the repression of IFNγ in memory-type Th2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Hosokawa, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Endo, Yusuke; Kato, Miki; Shinoda, Kenta; Suzuki, Akane; Motohashi, Shinichiro; Matsumoto, Masaki; Nakayama, Keiichi I.; Nakayama, Toshinori

    2016-01-01

    Th2 cells produce Th2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, but repress Th1 cytokine IFNγ. Recent studies have revealed various distinct memory-type Th2 cell subsets, one of which produces a substantial amount of IFNγ in addition to Th2 cytokines, however it remains unclear precisely how these Th2 cells produce IFNγ. We herein show that phosphorylation of Gata3 at Ser308, Thr315 and Ser316 induces dissociation of a histone deacetylase Hdac2 from the Gata3/Chd4 repressive complex in Th2 cells. We also identify Akt1 as a Gata3-phosphorylating kinase, and the activation of Akt1 induces derepression of Tbx21 and Ifng expression in Th2 cells. Moreover, T-bet-dependent IFNγ expression in IFNγ-producing memory Th2 cells appears to be controlled by the phosphorylation status of Gata3 in human and murine systems. Thus, this study highlights the molecular basis for posttranslational modifications of Gata3 that control the regulation of IFNγ expression in memory Th2 cells. PMID:27053161

  3. WT1-mediated repression of the proapoptotic transcription factor ZNF224 is triggered by the BCR-ABL oncogene.

    PubMed

    Montano, Giorgia; Vidovic, Karina; Palladino, Chiara; Cesaro, Elena; Sodaro, Gaetano; Quintarelli, Concetta; De Angelis, Biagio; Errichiello, Santa; Pane, Fabrizio; Izzo, Paola; Grosso, Michela; Gullberg, Urban; Costanzo, Paola

    2015-09-29

    The Kruppel-like protein ZNF224 is a co-factor of the Wilms' tumor 1 protein, WT1. We have previously shown that ZNF224 exerts a specific proapoptotic role in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) K562 cells and contributes to cytosine arabinoside-induced apoptosis, by modulating WT1-dependent transcription of apoptotic genes. Here we demonstrate that ZNF224 gene expression is down-regulated both in BCR-ABL positive cell lines and in primary CML samples and is restored after imatinib and second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors treatment. We also show that WT1, whose expression is positively regulated by BCR-ABL, represses transcription of the ZNF224 gene. Finally, we report that ZNF224 is significantly down-regulated in patients with BCR-ABL positive chronic phase-CML showing poor response or resistance to imatinib treatment as compared to high-responder patients. Taken as a whole, our data disclose a novel pathway activated by BCR-ABL that leads to inhibition of apoptosis through the ZNF224 repression. ZNF224 could thus represent a novel promising therapeutic target in CML. PMID:26320177

  4. A PHD12–Snail2 repressive complex epigenetically mediates neural crest epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Strobl-Mazzulla, Pablo H.

    2012-01-01

    Neural crest cells form within the neural tube and then undergo an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) to initiate migration to distant locations. The transcriptional repressor Snail2 has been implicated in neural crest EMT via an as of yet unknown mechanism. We report that the adaptor protein PHD12 is highly expressed before neural crest EMT. At cranial levels, loss of PHD12 phenocopies Snail2 knockdown, preventing transcriptional shutdown of the adhesion molecule Cad6b (Cadherin6b), thereby inhibiting neural crest emigration. Although not directly binding to each other, PHD12 and Snail2 both directly interact with Sin3A in vivo, which in turn complexes with histone deacetylase (HDAC). Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that PHD12 is recruited to the Cad6b promoter during neural crest EMT. Consistent with this, lysines on histone 3 at the Cad6b promoter are hyperacetylated before neural crest emigration, correlating with active transcription, but deacetylated during EMT, reflecting the repressive state. Knockdown of either PHD12 or Snail2 prevents Cad6b promoter deacetylation. Collectively, the results show that PHD12 interacts directly with Sin3A/HDAC, which in turn interacts with Snail2, forming a complex at the Cad6b promoter and thus revealing the nature of the in vivo Snail repressive complex that regulates neural crest EMT. PMID:22986495

  5. Pro Isomerization in MLL1 PHD3-Bromo Cassette Connects H3K4me Readout to CyP33 and HDAC-Mediated Repression

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhanxin; Song, Jikui; Milne, Thomas A.; Wang, Gang G.; Li, Haitao; Allis, C. David; Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2010-09-13

    The MLL1 gene is a frequent target for recurrent chromosomal translocations, resulting in transformation of hematopoietic precursors into leukemia stem cells. Here, we report on structure-function studies that elucidate molecular events in MLL1 binding of histone H3K4me3/2 marks and recruitment of the cyclophilin CyP33. CyP33 contains a PPIase and a RRM domain and regulates MLL1 function through HDAC recruitment. We find that the PPIase domain of CyP33 regulates the conformation of MLL1 through proline isomerization within the PHD3-Bromo linker, thereby disrupting the PHD3-Bromo interface and facilitating binding of the MLL1-PHD3 domain to the CyP33-RRM domain. H3K4me3/2 and CyP33-RRM target different surfaces of MLL1-PHD3 and can bind simultaneously to form a ternary complex. Furthermore, the MLL1-CyP33 interaction is required for repression of HOXA9 and HOXC8 genes in vivo. Our results highlight the role of PHD3-Bromo cassette as a regulatory platform, orchestrating MLL1 binding of H3K4me3/2 marks and cyclophilin-mediated repression through HDAC recruitment.

  6. Signaling from the embryo conditions Vp1-mediated repression of alpha-amylase genes in the aleurone of developing maize seeds.

    PubMed

    Hoecker, U; Vasil, I K; McCarty, D R

    1999-08-01

    The VP1 transcription factor functions as both a repressor and an activator of gene expression in the developing aleurone. Vp1 activation of the anthocyanin pathway exhibits strict cell autonomy in aleurone. In contrast, Vp1-mediated repression of hydrolase genes in aleurone cells during seed development is determined by a combination of cell autonomous and cell non-autonomous signals. To analyze signaling between the embryo and aleurone during seed development, a T-B3La chromosome translocation was used to create seed that has non-concordant embryo and endosperm genotypes. We show that de-repression of an Amy-GUS reporter gene in developing vp1 mutant aleurone cells strongly depends on the presence of a viviparous embryo. Genetic ablation of the developing embryo in vp1 mutant and Vp1 seeds through the introduction of an early embryo mutation caused a similar enhancement of Amy-GUS expression in the aleurone, suggesting that the quiescent embryo present in normal seed is a critical source of inhibitory signals. Analysis of an ABA deficient vp1 vp5 double mutant indicates that ABA synthesized in the embyro interacts additively with Vp1 to prevent precocious induction of alpha-amylase genes in the aleurone of the developing seed. A lack of ABA synthesis, however, does not account for the strongly synergistic interaction between a viviparous vp1 embryo and mutant aleurone suggesting that a quiescent embyro is a source of other inhibitory signals.

  7. Small molecule, NSC95397, inhibits the CtBP1-protein partner interaction and CtBP1-mediated transcriptional repression

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, Melanie A.; Kouznetsova, Jennifer; Krueger, Aaron B.; King, Rebecca; Griner, Lesley Mathews; Hu, Xin; Southall, Noel; Marugan, Juan J.; Ferrer, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Carboxyl-terminal binding protein (CtBP) is a transcriptional co-repressor that suppresses multiple pro-apoptotic and epithelial genes. CtBP is overexpressed in many human cancers and its overexpression increases stem cell-like features, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and cancer cell survival. Knockdown of CtBP increases apoptosis independent of p53 and dramatically inhibits tumorigenesis in mouse models. Therefore, targeting CtBP with small molecules that disrupt its interaction with transcription factor partners may be an effective cancer therapy. To elicit its co-repressing effect, CtBP binds to a conserved peptide motif in each transcription factor partner. We developed an AlphaScreen high throughput screening assay to monitor the interaction between CtBP and E1A (which mimics the interaction between CtBP and its transcriptional partners). We screened the LOPAC library of 1280 bioactive compounds and identified NSC95397, which inhibits the CtBP-E1A interaction (IC50 = 2.9 μM). The inhibitory activity of NSC95397 was confirmed using two secondary assays and a counterscreen. NSC95397 also behaved as a weak substrate of CtBP dehydrogenase activity and did not inhibit another dehydrogenase, LDH. Finally, NSC95397 was able to disrupt CtBP-mediated transcriptional repression of a target gene. These studies present a new possibility for the development of a therapeutic agent targeting tumors through disrupting the CtBP transcriptional complex. PMID:25477201

  8. DYRK1A phoshorylates histone H3 to differentially regulate the binding of HP1 isoforms and antagonize HP1-mediated transcriptional repression.

    PubMed

    Jang, Suk Min; Azebi, Saliha; Soubigou, Guillaume; Muchardt, Christian

    2014-06-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) proteins are chromatin-bound transcriptional regulators. While their chromodomain binds histone H3 methylated on lysine 9, their chromoshadow domain associates with the H3 histone fold in a region involved in chromatin remodeling. Here, we show that phosphorylation at histone H3 threonine 45 and serine 57 within this latter region differentially affects binding of the three mammalian HP1 isoforms HP1α, HP1β and HP1γ. Both phosphorylation events are dependent on the activity of the DYRK1A kinase that antagonizes HP1-mediated transcriptional repression and participates in abnormal activation of cytokine genes in Down's syndrome-associated megakaryoblastic leukemia. PMID:24820035

  9. DNA double-strand breaks relieve USF-mediated repression of Dβ2 germline transcription in developing thymocytes

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Jennifer L.; McMillan, Ruth E.; Skaar, David A.; Bradshaw, Justin M.; Jirtle, Randy L.; Sikes, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Activation of germline promoters is central to V(D)J recombinational accessibility, driving chromatin remodeling, nucleosome repositioning and transcriptional readthrough of associated DNA. We have previously shown that of the 2 Tcrb D segments, Dβ1 is flanked by an upstream promoter that directs its transcription and recombinational accessibility. In contrast, transcription within the DJβ2 segment cluster is initially restricted to the J segments and only redirected upstream of Dβ2 after D-to-J joining. The repression of upstream promoter activity prior to Tcrb assembly correlates with evidence that suggests DJβ2 recombination is less efficient than that of DJβ1. Since inefficient DJβ2 assembly offers the potential for V-to-DJβ2 recombination to rescue frameshifted V-to-DJβ1 joints, we wished to determine how Dβ2 promoter activity is modulated upon Tcrb recombination. Here, we show that repression of the otherwise transcriptionally primed 5'Dβ2 promoter (5'PDβ2) requires binding of USF-1 to a non-canonical E-box within the Dβ2 12-RSS spacer prior to Tcrb recombination. USF binding is lost from both rearranged and germline Dβ2 sites in DNA-PKcs-competent thymocytes. Finally, genotoxic double-stranded DNA breaks lead to rapid loss of USF binding and gain of 5'PDβ2 activity in a DNA-PKcs-dependent manner. Together, these data suggest a mechanism by which V(D)J recombination may feedback to regulate local Dβ2 recombinational accessibility during thymocyte development. PMID:22287717

  10. Pronephric tubule morphogenesis in zebrafish depends on Mnx mediated repression of irx1b within the intermediate mesoderm.

    PubMed

    Ott, Elisabeth; Wendik, Björn; Srivastava, Monika; Pacho, Frederic; Töchterle, Sonja; Salvenmoser, Willi; Meyer, Dirk

    2016-03-01

    Mutations in the homeobox transcription factor MNX1 are the major cause of dominantly inherited sacral agenesis. Studies in model organisms revealed conserved mnx gene requirements in neuronal and pancreatic development while Mnx activities that could explain the caudal mesoderm specific agenesis phenotype remain elusive. Here we use the zebrafish pronephros as a simple yet genetically conserved model for kidney formation to uncover a novel role of Mnx factors in nephron morphogenesis. Pronephros formation can formally be divided in four stages, the specification of nephric mesoderm from the intermediate mesoderm (IM), growth and epithelialisation, segmentation and formation of the glomerular capillary tuft. Two of the three mnx genes in zebrafish are dynamically transcribed in caudal IM in a time window that proceeds segmentation. We show that expression of one mnx gene, mnx2b, is restricted to the pronephric lineage and that mnx2b knock-down causes proximal pronephric tubule dilation and impaired pronephric excretion. Using expression profiling of embryos transgenic for conditional activation and repression of Mnx regulated genes, we further identified irx1b as a direct target of Mnx factors. Consistent with a repression of irx1b by Mnx factors, the transcripts of irx1b and mnx genes are found in mutual exclusive regions in the IM, and blocking of Mnx functions results in a caudal expansion of the IM-specific irx1b expression. Finally, we find that knock-down of irx1b is sufficient to rescue proximal pronephric tubule dilation and impaired nephron function in mnx-morpholino injected embryos. Our data revealed a first caudal mesoderm specific requirement of Mnx factors in a non-human system and they demonstrate that Mnx-dependent restriction of IM-specific irx1b activation is required for the morphogenesis and function of the zebrafish pronephros.

  11. The varicella-zoster virus-mediated delayed host shutoff: open reading frame 17 has no major function, whereas immediate-early 63 protein represses heterologous gene expression.

    PubMed

    Desloges, Nathalie; Rahaus, Markus; Wolff, Manfred H

    2005-12-01

    We reported that varicella-zoster virus (VZV) causes a delayed host shutoff during its replicative cycle. VZV open reading frame 17 (ORF17) is the homologue of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) UL41 gene encoding the virion host shutoff (vhs) protein which is responsible for the shutoff effect observed in HSV-infected cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that ORF17 is expressed as a late protein during the VZV replicative cycle in different infected permissive cell lines which showed a delayed shutoff of cellular RNA. A cell line with stable expression of VZV ORF17 was infected with VZV. In these cells, VZV replication and delayed host shutoff remained unchanged when compared to normal infected cells. ORF17 was not capable of repressing the expression of the beta-gal reporter gene under the control of the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene promoter or to inhibit the expression of a CAT reporter gene under the control of the human GAPDH promoter, indicating that ORF17 has no major function in the VZV-mediated delayed host shutoff. To determine whether other viral factors are involved in the host shutoff, a series of cotransfection assays was performed. We found that the immediate-early 63 protein (IE63) was able to downregulate the expression of reporter genes under the control of the two heterologous promoters, indicating that this viral factor can be involved in the VZV-mediated delayed host shutoff. Other factors can be also implicated to modulate the repressing action of IE63 to achieve a precise balance between the viral and cellular gene expression.

  12. miR-146b-5p mediates p16-dependent repression of IL-6 and suppresses paracrine procarcinogenic effects of breast stromal fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ansari, Mysoon M.; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence support the critical roles of active stromal fibroblasts in breast cancer development and spread. However, the mediators and the mechanisms of regulation are still not well defined. We have shown here that the tumor suppressor p16INK4A protein inhibits the pro-carcinogenic effects of breast stromal fibroblasts through repressing the expression/secretion of IL-6. Indeed, p16INK4A suppresses IL-6 at the mRNA and protein levels. This effect is mediated trough miR-146b-5p, which inhibits IL-6 expression through a specific sequence at the IL-6 3′UTR. In addition, we present clear evidence that miR-146b-5p inhibition is sufficient to transactivate breast stromal fibroblasts, which promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition in breast cancer cells in a paracrine manner. By contrast, ectopic expression of miR-146b-5p in active fibroblasts abrogated their pro-carcinogenic effects. The physiological importance of miR-146b-5p inhibition was revealed by showing that the levels of pre-miR-146b-5p as well as its mature form are reduced in cancer-associated fibroblasts as compared with their normal adjacent counterparts from cancer-free tissues isolated from the same patients. Interestingly, treatment of active breast stromal fibroblasts with curcumin increased the level of the p16INK4A coding CDKN2A mRNA and miR-146b-5p and suppressed IL-6, which confirms the repressive effect of these two tumor suppressor molecules on IL-6, and shows the possible “normalization” of cancer-related active fibroblasts. These results show that miR-146b-5p has non-cell-autonomous tumor suppressor function through inhibition of IL-6, suggesting that targeting this microRNA in breast stromal fibroblasts could be of great therapeutic value. PMID:26338965

  13. Optimizing sgRNA position markedly improves the efficiency of CRISPR/dCas9-mediated transcriptional repression

    PubMed Central

    Radzisheuskaya, Aliaksandra; Shlyueva, Daria; Müller, Iris; Helin, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) represents a newly developed tool for targeted gene repression. It has great application potential for studying gene function and mapping gene regulatory elements. However, the optimal parameters for efficient single guide RNA (sgRNA) design for CRISPRi are not fully defined. In this study, we systematically assessed how sgRNA position affects the efficiency of CRISPRi in human cells. We analyzed 155 sgRNAs targeting 41 genes and found that CRISPRi efficiency relies heavily on the precise recruitment of the effector complex to the target gene transcription start site (TSS). Importantly, we demonstrate that the FANTOM5/CAGE promoter atlas represents the most reliable source of TSS annotations for this purpose. We also show that the proximity to the FANTOM5/CAGE-defined TSS predicts sgRNA functionality on a genome-wide scale. Moreover, we found that once the correct TSS is identified, CRISPRi efficiency can be further improved by considering sgRNA sequence preferences. Lastly, we demonstrate that CRISPRi sgRNA functionality largely depends on the chromatin accessibility of a target site, with high efficiency focused in the regions of open chromatin. In summary, our work provides a framework for efficient CRISPRi assay design based on functionally defined TSSs and features of the target site chromatin. PMID:27353328

  14. Interaction with Suv39H1 is Critical for Snail-mediated E-cadherin Repression in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Chenfang; Wu, Yadi; Wang, Yifan; Wang, Chi; Kang, Tiebang; Rychahou, Piotr G.; Chi, Young-In; Evers, B. Mark; Zhou, Binhua P.

    2013-01-01

    Expression of E-cadherin, a hallmark of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), is often lost due to promoter DNA methylation in basal-like breast cancer (BLBC), which contributes to the metastatic advantage of this disease; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we identified that Snail interacted with Suv39H1, a major methyltransferase responsible for H3K9me3 that intimately links to DNA methylation. We demonstrated that the SNAG domain of Snail and the SET domain of Suv39H1 were required for their mutual interactions. We found that H3K9me3 and DNA methylation on the E-cadherin promoter were higher in BLBC cell lines. We showed that Snail interacted with Suv39H1 and recruited it to the E-cadherin promoter for transcriptional repression. Knockdown of Suv39H1 restored E-cadherin expression by blocking H3K9me3 and DNA methylation and resulted in the inhibition of cell migration, invasion and metastasis of BLBC. Our study not only reveals a critical mechanism underlying the epigenetic regulation of EMT, but also paves a way for the development of new treatment strategies against this disease. PMID:22562246

  15. Characterization of Cellulase Secretion and Cre1-Mediated Carbon Source Repression in the Potential Lignocellulose-Degrading Strain Trichoderma asperellum T-1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qun; Lin, Hui; Shen, Qi; Fan, Xiaoping; Bai, Naling; Zhao, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma asperellum, a traditional bio-control species, was demonstrated to be an excellent candidate for lignocellulose degradation in this work. Comparing to the representatively industrial strain of Trichoderma reeseiQM6a, T. asperellum T-1 showed more robust growth, stronger spore production, faster secretion of lignocellulose-decomposing enzymes and better pH tolerance. The reducing sugar released by strain T-1 on the second day of fermentation was 87% higher than that of strain QM6a, although the maximum reducing sugar yield and the cellulase production persistence of the strain T-1 were lower. Our experiment found that the cellulase secretion was strongly inhibited by glucose, suggesting the existence of carbon source repression pathway in T. asperellum T-1. The inhibiting effect was enhanced with an increase in glucose concentration and was closely related to mycelium growth. SDS-PAGE and secondary mass-spectrum identification confirmed that the expression of endo-1,4-β-xylanase I in T. asperellum T-1 was down-regulated when glucose was added. The factor Cre1, which plays an important role in the down-regulation of the endo-1,4-β-xylanase I gene, was investigated by bioinformatics methods. The protein structure of Cre1, analyzed using multiple protein sequence alignment, indicates the existence of the Zn-fingers domain. Then, the binding sites of Cre1 on the endo-1,4-β-xylanase I gene promoter were further elucidated. This study is the first report about Cre1-mediated carbon repression in the bio-control strain T. asperellum T-1. All of the above results provided good references for better understanding T. asperellum T-1 and improving its application for lignocellulose degradation. PMID:25741694

  16. Tumor Suppressor PDCD4 Represses Internal Ribosome Entry Site-Mediated Translation of Antiapoptotic Proteins and Is Regulated by S6 Kinase 2

    PubMed Central

    Liwak, Urszula; Thakor, Nehal; Jordan, Lindsay E.; Roy, Rajat; Lewis, Stephen M.; Pardo, Olivier E.; Seckl, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Apoptosis can be regulated by extracellular signals that are communicated by peptides such as fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) that have important roles in tumor cell proliferation. The prosurvival effects of FGF-2 are transduced by the activation of the ribosomal protein S6 kinase 2 (S6K2), which increases the expression of the antiapoptotic proteins X chromosome-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis (XIAP) and Bcl-xL. We now show that the FGF-2–S6K2 prosurvival signaling is mediated by the tumor suppressor programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4). We demonstrate that PDCD4 specifically binds to the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements of both the XIAP and Bcl-xL messenger RNAs and represses their translation by inhibiting the formation of the 48S translation initiation complex. Phosphorylation of PDCD4 by activated S6K2 leads to the degradation of PDCD4 and thus the subsequent derepression of XIAP and Bcl-xL translation. Our results identify PDCD4 as a specific repressor of the IRES-dependent translation of cellular mRNAs (such as XIAP and Bcl-xL) that mediate FGF-2–S6K2 prosurvival signaling and provide further insight into the role of PDCD4 in tumor suppression. PMID:22431522

  17. The Zinc Finger Transcription Factor ZXDC Activates CCL2 Gene Expression by Opposing BCL6-mediated Repression

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Jon E.; Fontes, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    The zinc finger X-linked duplicated (ZXD) family of transcription factors has been implicated in regulating transcription of major histocompatibility complex class II genes in antigen presenting cells; roles beyond this function are not yet known. The expression of one gene in this family, ZXD family zinc finger C (ZXDC), is enriched in myeloid lineages and therefore we hypothesized that ZXDC may regulate myeloid-specific gene expression. Here we demonstrate that ZXDC regulates genes involved in myeloid cell differentiation and inflammation. Overexpression of the larger isoform of ZXDC, ZXDC1, activates expression of monocyte-specific markers of differentiation and synergizes with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (which causes differentiation) in the human leukemic monoblast cell line U937. To identify additional gene targets of ZXDC1, we performed gene expression profiling which revealed multiple inflammatory gene clusters regulated by ZXDC1. Using a combination of approaches we show that ZXDC1 activates transcription of a gene within one of the regulated clusters, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2; monocyte chemoattractant protein 1; MCP1) via a previously defined distal regulatory element. Further, ZXDC1-dependent up-regulation of the gene involves eviction of the transcriptional repressor B-cell CLL/lymphoma 6 (BCL6), a factor known to be important in resolving inflammatory responses, from this region of the promoter. Collectively, our data show that ZXDC1 is a regulator in the process of myeloid function and that ZXDC1 is responsible for Ccl2 gene de-repression by BCL6. PMID:23954399

  18. KLF4 regulates adult lung tumor-initiating cells and represses K-Ras-mediated lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, T; Chen, X; Zhang, W; Liu, J; Avdiushko, R; Napier, D L; Liu, A X; Neltner, J M; Wang, C; Cohen, D; Liu, C

    2016-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in both men and women worldwide. To identify novel factors that contribute to lung cancer pathogenesis, we analyzed a lung cancer database from The Cancer Genome Atlas and found that Krüppel-like Factor 4 (KLF4) expression is significantly lower in patients' lung cancer tissue than in normal lung tissue. In addition, we identified seven missense mutations in the KLF4 gene. KLF4 is a transcription factor that regulates cell proliferation and differentiation as well as the self-renewal of stem cells. To understand the role of KLF4 in the lung, we generated a tamoxifen-induced Klf4 knockout mouse model. We found that KLF4 inhibits lung cancer cell growth and that depletion of Klf4 altered the differentiation pattern in the developing lung. To understand how KLF4 functions during lung tumorigenesis, we generated the K-ras(LSL-G12D/+);Klf4(fl/fl) mouse model, and we used adenovirus-expressed Cre to induce K-ras activation and Klf4 depletion in the lung. Although Klf4 deletion alone or K-ras mutation alone can trigger lung tumor formation, Klf4 deletion combined with K-ras mutation significantly enhanced lung tumor formation. We also found that Klf4 deletion in conjunction with K-ras activation caused lung inflammation. To understand the mechanism whereby KLF4 is regulated during lung tumorigenesis, we analyzed KLF4 promoter methylation and the profiles of epigenetic factors. We found that Class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) are overexpressed in lung cancer and that HDAC inhibitors induced expression of KLF4 and inhibited proliferation of lung cancer cells, suggesting that KLF4 is probably repressed by histone acetylation and that HDACs are valuable drug targets for lung cancer treatment.

  19. JunD-mediated repression of GADD45α and γ regulates escape from cell death in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    de Vasconcellos, Jaíra Ferreira; Czibere, Akos; Wang, Yihong; Paccez, Juliano D; Gu, Xuesong; Zhou, Jin-Rong; Libermann, Towia A

    2011-01-01

    The AP-1 transcription factor complex has been implicated in a variety of biological processes including cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis and oncogenic transformation. We previously established that activation of the AP-1 family member JunD contributes to deregulated expression of the anti-apoptotic IL-6 gene in prostate cancer cells. We now show that inhibition of JunD in prostate cancer cells results in GADD45α and γ dependent induction of cell death and inhibition of tumor growth that is mediated at least partially via c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase activation. Apoptosis induction by dominant negative JunD and JNK and p38 kinase activation are impeded upon knock down of GADD45α and γ expression by small interfering RNA, most vividly demonstrating the central role of GADD45α and γ in JunD-mediated escape of prostate cancer cells from programmed cell death. PMID:21734453

  20. HuR represses Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity by promoting cytoplasmic localization of β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Inae; Hur, Jung; Jeong, Sunjoo

    2015-01-30

    β-Catenin is the key transcriptional activator of canonical Wnt signaling in the nucleus; thus, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin is a critical step for expressing target genes. β-Catenin accumulates in the nucleus of cancer cells where it activates oncogenic target genes. Hu antigen R (HuR) is a RNA binding protein that regulates multiple post-transcriptional processes including RNA stability. Thus, cytoplasmic HuR protein may be involved in tumorigenesis by stabilizing oncogenic transcripts, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we observed that Wnt/β-catenin signaling induced export of the HuR protein, whereas HuR overexpression promoted accumulation of the β-catenin protein in the cytoplasm. Thus, Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity in the nucleus was reduced by overexpressing HuR. These results suggest novel and uncharacterized cytoplasmic β-catenin functions related to HuR-mediated RNA metabolism in cancer cells.

  1. HuR represses Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity by promoting cytoplasmic localization of β-catenin

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Inae; Hur, Jung; Jeong, Sunjoo

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • Wnt signaling as well as β-catenin overexpression enhance HuR cytoplasmic export. • HuR overexpression promotes cytoplasmic localization of β-catenin from the perinuclear fraction. • Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity is repressesed by HuR. - Abstract: β-Catenin is the key transcriptional activator of canonical Wnt signaling in the nucleus; thus, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin is a critical step for expressing target genes. β-Catenin accumulates in the nucleus of cancer cells where it activates oncogenic target genes. Hu antigen R (HuR) is a RNA binding protein that regulates multiple post-transcriptional processes including RNA stability. Thus, cytoplasmic HuR protein may be involved in tumorigenesis by stabilizing oncogenic transcripts, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we observed that Wnt/β-catenin signaling induced export of the HuR protein, whereas HuR overexpression promoted accumulation of the β-catenin protein in the cytoplasm. Thus, Wnt/β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activity in the nucleus was reduced by overexpressing HuR. These results suggest novel and uncharacterized cytoplasmic β-catenin functions related to HuR-mediated RNA metabolism in cancer cells.

  2. Salvianolic acid A preconditioning confers protection against concanavalin A-induced liver injury through SIRT1-mediated repression of p66shc in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xiaomei; Hu, Yan; Zhai, Xiaohan; Lin, Musen; Chen, Zhao; Tian, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Feng; Gao, Dongyan; Ma, Xiaochi; Lv, Li; Yao, Jihong

    2013-11-15

    Salvianolic acid A (SalA) is a phenolic carboxylic acid derivative extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza. It has many biological and pharmaceutical activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of SalA on concanavalin A (ConA)-induced acute hepatic injury in Kunming mice and to explore the role of SIRT1 in such an effect. The results showed that in vivo pretreatment with SalA significantly reduced ConA-induced elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities and decreased levels of the hepatotoxic cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Moreover, the SalA pretreatment ameliorated the increases in NF-κB and in cleaved caspase-3 caused by ConA exposure. Whereas, the pretreatment completely reversed expression of the B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL). More importantly, the SalA pretreatment significantly increased the expression of SIRT1, a NAD{sup +}-dependent deacetylase, which was known to attenuate acute hypoxia damage and metabolic liver diseases. In our study, the increase in SIRT1 was closely associated with down-regulation of the p66 isoform (p66shc) of growth factor adapter Shc at both protein and mRNA levels. In HepG2 cell culture, SalA pretreatment increased SIRT1 expression in a time and dose-dependent manner and such an increase was abrogated by siRNA knockdown of SIRT1. Additionally, inhibition of SIRT1 significantly reversed the decreased expression of p66shc, and attenuated SalA-induced p66shc down-regulation. Collectively, the present study indicated that SalA may be a potent activator of SIRT and that SalA can alleviate ConA-induced hepatitis through SIRT1-mediated repression of the p66shc pathway. - Highlights: • We report for the first time that SalA protects against ConA-induced hepatitis. • We find that SalA is a potential activator of SIRT1. • SalA's protection against hepatitis involves SIRT1-mediated repression of p66shc.

  3. Selenoprotein-dependent Up-regulation of Hematopoietic Prostaglandin D2 Synthase in Macrophages Is Mediated through the Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor (PPAR) γ*

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Ujjawal H.; Kaushal, Naveen; Ravindra, Kodihalli C.; Hegde, Shailaja; Nelson, Shakira M.; Narayan, Vivek; Vunta, Hema; Paulson, Robert F.; Prabhu, K. Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    The plasticity of macrophages is evident from their dual role in inflammation and resolution of inflammation that are accompanied by changes in the transcriptome and metabolome. Along these lines, we have previously demonstrated that the micronutrient selenium increases macrophage production of arachidonic acid (AA)-derived anti-inflammatory 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) and decreases the proinflammatory PGE2. Here, we hypothesized that selenium modulated the metabolism of AA by a differential regulation of various prostaglandin (PG) synthases favoring the production of PGD2 metabolites, Δ12-PGJ2 and 15d-PGJ2. A dose-dependent increase in the expression of hematopoietic-PGD2 synthase (H-PGDS) by selenium and a corresponding increase in Δ12-PGJ2 and 15d-PGJ2 in RAW264.7 macrophages and primary bone marrow-derived macrophages was observed. Studies with organic non-bioavailable forms of selenium and the genetic manipulation of cellular selenium incorporation machinery indicated that selenoproteins were necessary for H-PGDS expression and 15d-PGJ2 production. Treatment of selenium-deficient macrophages with rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ ligand, up-regulated H-PGDS. Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated the presence of an active peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-response element in murine Hpgds promoter suggesting a positive feedback mechanism of H-PGDS expression. Alternatively, the expression of nuclear factor-κB-dependent thromboxane synthase and microsomal PGE2 synthase was down-regulated by selenium. Using a Friend virus infection model of murine leukemia, the onset of leukemia was observed only in selenium-deficient and indomethacin-treated selenium-supplemented mice but not in the selenium-supplemented group or those treated with 15d-PGJ2. These results suggest the importance of selenium in the shunting of AA metabolism toward the production of PGD2 metabolites, which may have

  4. Deacetylase inhibitors repress STAT5-mediated transcription by interfering with bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) protein function.

    PubMed

    Pinz, Sophia; Unser, Samy; Buob, Dominik; Fischer, Philipp; Jobst, Belinda; Rascle, Anne

    2015-04-20

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription STAT5 is essential for the regulation of proliferation and survival genes. Its activity is tightly regulated through cytokine signaling and is often upregulated in cancer. We showed previously that the deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) inhibits STAT5-mediated transcription by preventing recruitment of the transcriptional machinery at a step following STAT5 binding to DNA. The mechanism and factors involved in this inhibition remain unknown. We now show that deacetylase inhibitors do not target STAT5 acetylation, as we initially hypothesized. Instead, they induce a rapid increase in global histone acetylation apparently resulting in the delocalization of the bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) protein Brd2 and of the Brd2-associated factor TBP to hyperacetylated chromatin. Treatment with the BET inhibitor (+)-JQ1 inhibited expression of STAT5 target genes, supporting a role of BET proteins in the regulation of STAT5 activity. Accordingly, chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that Brd2 is associated with the transcriptionally active STAT5 target gene Cis and is displaced upon TSA treatment. Our data therefore indicate that Brd2 is required for the proper recruitment of the transcriptional machinery at STAT5 target genes and that deacetylase inhibitors suppress STAT5-mediated transcription by interfering with Brd2 function.

  5. CD151-α3β1 integrin complexes suppress ovarian tumor growth by repressing slug-mediated EMT and canonical Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Lauren A; Hoff, John T; Lefringhouse, Jason; Zhang, Michael; Jia, Changhe; Liu, Zeyi; Erfani, Sonia; Jin, Hongyan; Xu, Mei; She, Qing-Bai; van Nagell, John R; Wang, Chi; Chen, Li; Plattner, Rina; Kaetzel, David M; Luo, Jia; Lu, Michael; West, Dava; Liu, Chunming; Ueland, Fred R; Drapkin, Ronny; Zhou, Binhua P; Yang, Xiuwei H

    2014-12-15

    Human ovarian cancer is diagnosed in the late, metastatic stages but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We report a surprising functional link between CD151-α3β1 integrin complexes and the malignancy of serous-type ovarian cancer. Analyses of clinical specimens indicate that CD151 expression is significantly reduced or diminished in 90% of metastatic lesions, while it remains detectable in 58% of primary tumors. These observations suggest a putative tumor-suppressing role of CD151 in ovarian cancer. Indeed, our analyses show that knocking down CD151 or α3 integrin enhances tumor cell proliferation, growth and ascites production in nude mice. These changes are accompanied by impaired cell-cell contacts and aberrant expression of E-cadherin, Mucin 5AC and fibronectin, largely reminiscent of an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like change. Importantly, Slug, a master regulator of EMT, is markedly elevated. Knocking down Slug partially restores CD151-α3β1 integrin complex-dependent suppression of cell proliferation. Moreover, disruption of these adhesion protein complexes is accompanied by a concomitant activation of canonical Wnt signaling, including elevated levels of β-catenin and Axin-2 as well as resistance to the inhibition in β-catenin-dependent transcriptional complexes. Together, our study demonstrates that CD151-α3β1 integrin complexes regulate ovarian tumor growth by repressing Slug-mediated EMT and Wnt signaling. PMID:25356755

  6. CD151-α3β1 integrin complexes suppress ovarian tumor growth by repressing slug-mediated EMT and canonical Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Michael; Jia, Changhe; Liu, Zeyi; Erfani, Sonia; Jin, Hongyan; Xu, Mei; She, Qing-Bai; van Nagell, John R.; Wang, Chi; Chen, Li; Plattner, Rina; Kaetzel, David M.; Luo, Jia; Lu, Michael; West, Dava; Liu, Chunming; Ueland, Fred R.; Drapkin, Ronny; Zhou, Binhua P.; Yang, Xiuwei H.

    2014-01-01

    Human ovarian cancer is diagnosed in the late, metastatic stages but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We report a surprising functional link between CD151-α3β1 integrin complexes and the malignancy of serous-type ovarian cancer. Analyses of clinical specimens indicate that CD151 expression is significantly reduced or diminished in 90% of metastatic lesions, while it remains detectable in 58% of primary tumors. These observations suggest a putative tumor-suppressing role of CD151 in ovarian cancer. Indeed, our analyses show that knocking down CD151 or α3 integrin enhances tumor cell proliferation, growth and ascites production in nude mice. These changes are accompanied by impaired cell-cell contacts and aberrant expression of E-cadherin, Mucin 5AC and fibronectin, largely reminiscent of an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like change. Importantly, Slug, a master regulator of EMT, is markedly elevated. Knocking down Slug partially restores CD151-α3β1 integrin complex-dependent suppression of cell proliferation. Moreover, disruption of these adhesion protein complexes is accompanied by a concomitant activation of canonical Wnt signaling, including elevated levels of β-catenin and Axin-2 as well as resistance to the inhibition in β-catenin-dependent transcriptional complexes. Together, our study demonstrates that CD151-α3β1 integrin complexes regulate ovarian tumor growth by repressing Slug-mediated EMT and Wnt signaling. PMID:25356755

  7. Mutational Analysis of AREA, a Transcriptional Activator Mediating Nitrogen Metabolite Repression in Aspergillus nidulans and a Member of the “Streetwise” GATA Family of Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Richard A.; Arst, Herbert N.

    1998-01-01

    Summary: The transcriptional activator AREA is a member of the GATA family of transcription factors and mediates nitrogen metabolite repression in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans. The nutritional versatility of A. nidulans and its amenability to classical and reverse genetic manipulations make the AREA DNA binding domain (DBD) a useful model for analyzing GATA family DBDs, particularly as structures of two AREA-DNA complexes have been determined. The 109 extant mutant forms of the AREA DBD surveyed here constitute one of the highest totals of eukaryotic transcription factor DBD mutants, are discussed in light of the roles of individual residues, and are compared to corresponding mutant sequence changes in other fungal GATA factor DBDs. Other topics include delineation of the DBD using both homology and mutational truncation, use of frameshift reversion to detect regions of tolerance to mutational change, the finding that duplication of the DBD can apparently enhance AREA function, and use of the AREA system to analyze a vertebrate GATA factor DBD. Some major points to emerge from work on the AREA DBD are (i) tolerance to sequence change (with retention of function) is surprisingly great, (ii) mutational changes in a transcription factor can have widely differing, even opposing, effects on expression of different structural genes so that monitoring expression of one or even several structural genes can be insufficient and possibly misleading, and (iii) a mutational change altering local hydrophobic packing and DNA binding target specificity can markedly influence the behavior of mutational changes elsewhere in the DBD. PMID:9729601

  8. High Glucose-Induced Repression of RAR/RXR In Cardiomyocytes is Mediated Through Oxidative Stress/JNK Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amar Bahadur; Guleria, Rakeshwar S.; Nizamutdinova, Irina T.; Baker, Kenneth M.; Pan, Jing

    2011-01-01

    The biological actions of retinoids are mediated by nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid × receptors (RXRs). We have recently reported that decreased expression of RARα and RXRα has an important role in high glucose (HG)-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. However, the regulatory mechanisms of HG effects on RARα and RXRα remain unclear. Using neonatal cardiomyocytes, we found that ligand-induced promoter activity of RAR and RXR was significantly suppressed by HG. HG promoted protein destabilization and serine-phosphorylation of RARα and RXRα. Proteasome inhibitor MG132 blocked the inhibitory effect of HG on RARα and RXRα. Inhibition of intracellular reactive oxidative species (ROS) abolished the HG effect. In contrast, H2O2 stimulation suppressed the expression and ligand-induced promoter activity of RARα and RXRα. HG promoted phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK and p38 MAP kinases, which was abrogated by an ROS inhibitor. Inhibition of JNK, but not ERK and p38 activity, reversed HG effects on RARα and RXRα. Activation of JNK by over expressing MKK7 and MEKK1, resulted in significant downregulation of RARα and RXRα. Ligand-induced promoter activity of RARα and RXRα was also suppressed by overexpression of MEKK1. HG-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis was potentiated by activation of JNK, and prevented by ATRA and inhibition of JNK. Silencing the expression of RARα and RXRα activated the JNK pathway. In conclusion, HG-induced oxidative stress and activation of the JNK pathway negatively regulated expression/activation of RAR and RXR. The impaired RAR/RXR signaling and oxidative stress/JNK pathway forms a vicious circle, which significantly contributes to hyperglycemia induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. PMID:21882190

  9. Ninjurin1 inhibits colitis-mediated colon cancer development and growth by suppression of macrophage infiltration through repression of FAK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ju-Hee; Hwang, Jong-Ik; Seong, Je Kyung; Lee, Sang-Jin; Jeon, Sejin; Oh, Goo Taeg

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage infiltration promotes tumorigenesis. However, the macrophage infiltration regulatory molecules have not been fully determined. Nerve injury-induced protein 1 (ninjurin1) is a homophilic cell surface adhesion molecule that plays an important role in cell migration and attachment. Although ninjurin1 is believed to play a role in several malignancies, it is unclear whether ninjurin1 expression contributes to cancer progression. We used transgenic mice (tg mice) that overexpressed ninjurin1 on macrophages. We subjected ninjurin1 tg mice to a well-known mouse model of colitis-associated colon cancer in which animals are treated with azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). After AOM and DSS treatment, ninjurin1 tg mice developed fewer and smaller tumors compared with wild-type (wt) mice. Ninjurin1 tg mice also showed reduced infiltration of macrophages and suppressed angiogenesis in the tumor mass. We therefore explored whether ninjurin1 decreases macrophage migration into the tumor sites. After adoptive transfer to tumor-bearing recipients, wild type and ninjurin1 tg mice's peritoneal macrophages were freshly isolated and labeled with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE). As expected, compared with that of wt type macrophages, tumor infiltration of ninjurin1-overexpressing macrophages was significantly decreased. We also found that ninjurin1 overexpression suppressed FAK activity. In addition, knockdown of ninjurin1 enhanced FAK activity and migration activity of RAW264.7 cells. Ninjurin1 overexpression on macrophage inhibits tumor growth by suppression of macrophage infiltration through repression of FAK signaling. Ninjurin1 is a key regulator molecule for macrophage migration and Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) mediated tumorigenesis in vivo. PMID:27127177

  10. The Anoikis Effector Bit1 Inhibits EMT through Attenuation of TLE1-Mediated Repression of E-Cadherin in Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xin; Pham, Tri; Temple, Brandi; Gray, Selena; Cannon, Cornita; Chen, Renwei; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B.; Biliran, Hector

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial Bcl-2 inhibitor of transcription 1 (Bit1) protein is part of an anoikis-regulating pathway that is selectively dependent on integrins. We previously demonstrated that the caspase-independent apoptotic effector Bit1 exerts tumor suppressive function in lung cancer in part by inhibiting anoikis resistance and anchorage-independent growth in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Herein we show a novel function of Bit1 as an inhibitor cell migration and epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line. Suppression of endogenous Bit1 expression via siRNA and shRNA strategies promoted mesenchymal phenotypes, including enhanced fibroblastoid morphology and cell migratory potential with concomitant downregulation of the epithelial marker E-cadherin expression. Conversely, ectopic Bit1 expression in A549 cells promoted epithelial transition characterized by cuboidal-like epithelial cell phenotype, reduced cell motility, and upregulated E-cadherin expression. Specific downregulation of E-cadherin in Bit1-transfected cells was sufficient to block Bit1-mediated inhibition of cell motility while forced expression of E-cadherin alone attenuated the enhanced migration of Bit1 knockdown cells, indicating that E-cadherin is a downstream target of Bit1 in regulating cell motility. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR and reporter analyses revealed that Bit1 upregulates E-cadherin expression at the transcriptional level through the transcriptional regulator Amino-terminal Enhancer of Split (AES) protein. Importantly, the Bit1/AES pathway induction of E-cadherin expression involves inhibition of the TLE1-mediated repression of E-cadherin, by decreasing TLE1 corepressor occupancy at the E-cadherin promoter as revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Consistent with its EMT inhibitory function, exogenous Bit1 expression significantly suppressed the formation of lung metastases of A549 cells in an in vivo experimental

  11. Inhibition of interleukin-1β-mediated interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 phosphorylation by zinc leads to repression of memory T helper type 17 response in humans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunju; Kim, Bonah; Choi, Yeon Ho; Hwang, Yuri; Kim, Dong Hyun; Cho, Sunjung; Hong, Sung Jun; Lee, Won-Woo

    2015-12-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element that plays pivotal roles in multiple facets of the immune system. Besides its catalytic and structural roles, zinc also functions as an intracellular signalling molecule, and changes in zinc levels can cause both direct and indirect modulation of immune responses. Further, cytoplasmic levels of bioavailable zinc in immune cells are largely influenced by many extracellular stimuli. Here we provide evidence that zinc represses memory T helper type 17 responses in humans by inhibiting interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-mediated signal. In vitro zinc treatment of CD4(+) T cells in the presence of activated monocytes inhibited interferon-γ-producing cells and IL-17-producing cells, but not IL-4-producing cells. Of note, production of IL-17(+) cells from memory CD4(+) T cells, which is significantly up-regulated by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytes, was preferentially repressed by zinc. Increased cytoplasmic zinc in T cells suppressed IL-1β signalling through repression of phosphorylation of IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4), so leading to an inhibitory effect on T helper type 17 responses facilitated by monocyte-derived IL-1β in humans. These findings suggest that extracellular zinc bioavailability may affect memory CD4(+) T-cell responses by modulating the zinc-mediated signalling pathway.

  12. Isolation of a Novel Family of C2H2 Zinc Finger Proteins Implicated in Transcriptional Repression Mediated by Chicken Ovalbumin Upstream Promoter Transcription Factor (COUP-TF) Orphan Nuclear Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Avram, Dorina; Fields, Andrew; Top, Karen Pretty On; Nevrivy, Daniel J.; Ishmael, Jane E.; Leid, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Two novel and related C2H2 zinc finger proteins that are highly expressed in the brain, CTIP1 and CTIP2 (COUP TF-interacting proteins 1 and 2, respectively), were isolated and shown to interact with all members of the chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor (COUP-TF) subfamily of orphan nuclear receptors. The interaction of CTIP1 with ARP1 was studied in detail, and CTIP1 was found to harbor two independent ARP1 interaction domains, ID1 and ID2, whereas the putative AF-2 of ARP1 was required for interaction with CTIP1. CTIP1, which exhibited a punctate staining pattern within the nucleus of transfected cells, recruited cotransfected ARP1 to these foci and potentiated ARP1-mediated transcriptional repression of a reporter construct. However, transcriptional repression mediated by ARP1 acting through CTIP1 did not appear to involve recruitment of a trichostatin A-sensitive histone deacetylase(s) to the template, suggesting that this repression pathway may be distinct from that utilized by several other nuclear receptors. PMID:10744719

  13. The octamer/mu E4 region of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain enhancer mediates gene repression in myeloma x T-lymphoma hybrids.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, L; Lieberman, S; Eckhardt, L A

    1993-01-01

    We have shown previously that the immunoglobulin heavy-chain enhancer acts as a repressor of gene transcription in hybrids between immunoglobulin-producing myelomas and a T-lymphoma line. We have now mapped this repressive activity to a 51-bp enhancer subfragment which contains the octamer and mu E4 protein-binding motifs. Even a single copy of this subfragment will repress gene expression in hybrid cells. Mutational analyses of the repressor fragment suggest that in non-B cells, a strong transcriptional repressor(s) functions through the same motifs important for gene activation in B cells. Changes in chromatin structure that accompany reporter gene repression suggest a general mechanism for prohibiting immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus activation in inappropriate cell types. Images PMID:8497268

  14. Bombyx mori E26 transformation-specific 2 (BmEts2), an Ets family protein, represses Bombyx mori Rels (BmRels)-mediated promoter activation of antimicrobial peptide genes in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Sagisaka, A; Suzuki, N; Yamakawa, M

    2016-10-01

    E26 transformation-specific (Ets) family transcription factors are known to play roles in various biological phenomena, including immunity, in vertebrates. However, the mechanisms by which Ets proteins contribute to immunity in invertebrates remain poorly understood. In this study, we identified a cDNA encoding BmEts2, which is a putative orthologue of Drosophila Yan and human translocation-ets-leukemia/Ets-variant gene 6, from the silkworm Bombyx mori. Expression of the BmEts2 gene was significantly increased in the fat bodies of silkworm larvae in response to injection with Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. BmEts2 overexpression dramatically repressed B. mori Rels (BmRels)-mediated promoter activation of antimicrobial peptide genes in silkworm cells. Conversely, gene knockdown of BmEts2 significantly enhanced BmRels activity. In addition, two κB sites located on the 5' upstream region of cecropin B1 were found to be involved in the repression of BmRels-mediated promoter activation. Protein-competition analysis further demonstrated that BmEts2 competitively inhibited binding of BmRels to κB sites. Overall, BmEts2 acts as a repressor of BmRels-mediated transactivation of antimicrobial protein genes by inhibiting the binding of BmRels to κB sites.

  15. HIGH NITROGEN INSENSITIVE 9 (HNI9)-mediated systemic repression of root NO3− uptake is associated with changes in histone methylation

    PubMed Central

    Widiez, Thomas; El Kafafi, El Sayed; Girin, Thomas; Berr, Alexandre; Ruffel, Sandrine; Krouk, Gabriel; Vayssières, Alice; Shen, Wen-Hui; Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Gojon, Alain; Lepetit, Marc

    2011-01-01

    In plants, root nitrate uptake systems are under systemic feedback repression by the N satiety of the whole organism, thus adjusting the N acquisition capacity to the N demand for growth; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. We previously isolated the Arabidopsis high nitrogen-insensitive 9-1 (hni9-1) mutant, impaired in the systemic feedback repression of the root nitrate transporter NRT2.1 by high N supply. Here, we show that HNI9 encodes Arabidopsis INTERACT WITH SPT6 (AtIWS1), an evolutionary conserved component of the RNA polymerase II complex. HNI9/AtIWS1 acts in roots to repress NRT2.1 transcription in response to high N supply. At a genomic level, HNI9/AtIWS1 is shown to play a broader role in N signaling by regulating several hundred N-responsive genes in roots. Repression of NRT2.1 transcription by high N supply is associated with an HNI9/AtIWS1-dependent increase in histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation at the NRT2.1 locus. Our findings highlight the hypothesis that posttranslational chromatin modifications control nutrient acquisition in plants. PMID:21788519

  16. Specific binding sites in the alcR and alcA promoters of the ethanol regulon for the CREA repressor mediating carbon catabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Kulmburg, P; Mathieu, M; Dowzer, C; Kelly, J; Felenbok, B

    1993-03-01

    The CREA repressor responsible for carbon catabolite repression in Aspergillus nidulans represses the transcription of the ethanol regulon. The N-terminal part of the CREA protein encompassing the two zinc fingers (C2H2 class family) and an alanine-rich region was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with glutathione-S-transferase. Our results show that CREA is a DNA-binding protein able to bind to the promoters of both the specific trans-acting gene, alcR, and of the structural gene, alcA, encoding the alcohol dehydrogenase I. DNase I protection footprinting experiments revealed several specific binding sites in the alcR and in the alcA promoters having the consensus sequence 5'-G/CPyGGGG-3'. The disruption of one of these CREA-binding sites in the alcR promoter overlapping the induction target for the trans-activator ALCR results in a partially derepressed alc phenotype and derepressed alcR transcription, showing that this binding site is functional in vivo. Our data suggest that CREA represses the ethanol regulon by a double lock mechanism repressing both the trans-acting gene, alcR, and the structural gene, alcA.

  17. The sbcDC locus mediates repression of type 5 capsule production as part of the SOS response in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhongyi; Luong, Thanh T; Lee, Chia Y

    2007-10-01

    Most strains of Staphylococcus aureus produce one type of capsular polysaccharide that belongs to either type 5 or type 8. The production of these capsules has been shown to be regulated by various regulators. Here we report that the sbcD and sbcC genes are involved in the repression of type 5 capsule production. Chromosomal deletions in the sbcDC genes resulted in increased capsule promoter activity, capsule gene transcripts, and capsule production. The survival rates of the sbcDC deletion mutant were reduced upon UV irradiation compared to those for the wild-type strain Newman, suggesting that the genes are involved in DNA repair in S. aureus. The two genes were organized as an operon and were expressed very early in the exponential growth phase. A subinhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin or mitomycin C induced sbcDC transcription but repressed the capsule promoter activity, suggesting that the sbcDC genes and the capsule genes are part of the SOS regulon. By reporter gene fusion and Northern blotting, we found that sbcDC regulated capsule by downregulating arl and mgr. Further genetic studies indicate that sbcDC functions upstream of arl and mgr in capsule regulation. Collectively, our results indicate that sbcDC, upon the SOS response, represses type 5 capsule production through an arl-mgr pathway. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that an SbcDC homolog was involved in transcriptional regulation.

  18. HDAC4 mediates IFN-γ induced disruption of energy expenditure-related gene expression by repressing SIRT1 transcription in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Fang, Mingming; Fan, Zhiwen; Tian, Wenfang; Zhao, Yuhao; Li, Ping; Xu, Huihui; Zhou, Bisheng; Zhang, Liping; Wu, Xiaoyan; Xu, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Metabolic homeostasis is achieved through balanced energy storage and output. Impairment of energy expenditure is a hallmark event in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Previously we have shown that the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon gamma (IFN-γ) disrupts energy expenditure in skeletal muscle cells via hypermethylated in cancer 1 (HIC1)-class II transactivator (CIITA) dependent repression of SIRT1 transcription. Here we report that repression of SIRT1 transcription by IFN-γ paralleled loss of histone acetylation on the SIRT1 promoter region with simultaneous recruitment of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4). IFN-γ activated HDAC4 in vitro and in vivo by up-regulating its expression and stimulating its nuclear accumulation. HIC1 and CIITA recruited HDAC4 to the SIRT1 promoter and cooperated with HDAC4 to repress SIRT1 transcription. HDAC4 depletion by small interfering RNA or pharmaceutical inhibition normalized histone acetylation on the SIRT1 promoter and restored SIRT1 expression in the presence of IFN-γ. Over-expression of HDAC4 suppressed the transcription of genes involved in energy expenditure in a SIRT1-dependent manner. In contrast, HDAC4 knockdown/inhibition neutralized the effect of IFN-γ on cellular metabolism by normalizing SIRT1 expression. Therefore, our data reveal a role for HDAC4 in regulating cellular energy output and as such provide insights into rationalized design of novel anti-diabetic therapeutics.

  19. The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor MYC2 Directly Represses PLETHORA Expression during Jasmonate-Mediated Modulation of the Root Stem Cell Niche in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qian; Sun, Jiaqiang; Zhai, Qingzhe; Zhou, Wenkun; Qi, Linlin; Xu, Li; Wang, Bao; Chen, Rong; Jiang, Hongling; Qi, Jing; Li, Xugang; Palme, Klaus; Li, Chuanyou

    2011-01-01

    The root stem cell niche, which in the Arabidopsis thaliana root meristem is an area of four mitotically inactive quiescent cells (QCs) and the surrounding mitotically active stem cells, is critical for root development and growth. We report here that during jasmonate-induced inhibition of primary root growth, jasmonate reduces root meristem activity and leads to irregular QC division and columella stem cell differentiation. Consistently, jasmonate reduces the expression levels of the AP2-domain transcription factors PLETHORA1 (PLT1) and PLT2, which form a developmentally instructive protein gradient and mediate auxin-induced regulation of stem cell niche maintenance. Not surprisingly, the effects of jasmonate on root stem cell niche maintenance and PLT expression require the functioning of MYC2/JASMONATE INSENSITIVE1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that involves versatile aspects of jasmonate-regulated gene expression. Gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments reveal that MYC2 directly binds the promoters of PLT1 and PLT2 and represses their expression. We propose that MYC2-mediated repression of PLT expression integrates jasmonate action into the auxin pathway in regulating root meristem activity and stem cell niche maintenance. This study illustrates a molecular framework for jasmonate-induced inhibition of root growth through interaction with the growth regulator auxin. PMID:21954460

  20. N-acetylcysteine and 15 deoxy-{delta}12,14-prostaglandin J2 exert a protective effect against autoimmune thyroid destruction in vivo but not against interleukin-1{alpha}/interferon {gamma}-induced inhibitory effects in thyrocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Poncin, Sylvie; Colin, Ides M; Decallonne, Brigitte; Clinckspooor, Isabelle; Many, Marie-Christine; Denef, Jean-François; Gérard, Anne-Catherine

    2010-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are crucial for thyroid hormonogenesis, and their production is kept under tight control. Oxidative stress (OS) is toxic for thyrocytes in an inflammatory context. In vitro, Th1 pro-inflammatory cytokines have already been shown to decrease thyroid-specific protein expression. In the present study, OS level and its impact on thyroid function were analyzed in vitro in Th1 cytokine (interleukin [IL]-1alpha/interferon [IFN] gamma)-incubated thyrocytes (rat and human), as well as in vivo in thyroids from nonobese diabetic mice, a model of spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and prostaglandin, 15 deoxy-(Delta12,14)-prostaglandinJ2 (15dPGJ2), were used for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, respectively. ROS production and OS were increased in IL-1alpha/IFNgamma-incubated thyrocytes and in destructive thyroiditis. In vitro, NAC not only reduced ROS production below control levels, but further decreased the expression of thyroid-specific proteins in addition to IL-1alpha/IFNgamma-inhibitory effects. Thus, besides ROS, other intracellular intermediaries likely mediate Th1 cytokine effects. In vivo, NAC and 15dPGJ2 reduced OS and the immune infiltration, thereby leading to a restoration of thyroid morphology. It is therefore likely that NAC and 15dPGJ2 mainly exert their protective effects by acting on infiltrating inflammatory cells rather than directly on thyrocytes.

  1. β-Arrestin-1 protects against endoplasmic reticulum stress/p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis-mediated apoptosis via repressing p-p65/inducible nitric oxide synthase in portal hypertensive gastropathy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Siwei; Li, Leijia; Chen, Tingting; Chen, Xiaoliang; Tao, Li; Lin, Xianyi; Tao, Jin; Huang, Xiaoli; Jiang, Jie; Liu, Huiling; Wu, Bin

    2015-10-01

    Portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) is a serious cause of bleeding in patients, and is associated with portal hypertension. β-Arrestins (β-arrestin-1 and β-arrestin-2) are well-established mediators of endocytosis of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), ubiquitination, and G-protein-independent signaling. The role of β-arrestin-1 (β-arr1) in mucosal apoptosis in PHG remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of β-arr1 in PHG via its regulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress/p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) apoptotic signaling. Gastric mucosal injury and apoptosis were studied in PHG patients and in PHG mouse models. The induction of β-arr1 and the ER stress/PUMA signaling pathway were investigated, and the mechanisms of β-arr1-regulated gastric mucosal apoptosis were analyzed in vivo and in vitro experiments. β-arr1 and ER stress/PUMA signaling elements were markedly induced in the gastric mucosa of PHG patients and mouse models. Blockage of ER stress demonstrably attenuated the mucosal apoptosis of PHG, while targeted deletion of β-arr1 significantly aggravated the injury and ER stress/PUMA-mediated apoptosis. β-arr1 limited the activation of p65 to repress TNF-α-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO release, which could regulate ER stress/PUMA-mediated mucosal apoptosis in PHG. In vivo and in vitro experiments further demonstrated that β-arr1 protected against mucosal apoptosis by repressing TNF-α-induced iNOS expression via inhibiting the activation of p65. These results indicated that β-arr1 regulated ER stress/PUMA-induced mucosal epithelial apoptosis through suppression of the TNF-α/p65/iNOS signaling pathway activation and that β-arr1 is a potential therapeutic target for PHG.

  2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection augments inflammation through miR-301b repression of c-Myb-mediated immune activation and infiltration.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuefeng; He, Sisi; Li, Rongpeng; Zhou, Xikun; Zhang, Shuang; Yu, Min; Ye, Yan; Wang, Yongsheng; Huang, Canhua; Wu, Min

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in various biological processes, including cell proliferation, development and host defence. However, the molecular mechanism for miRNAs in regulating bacterial-induced inflammation remains largely unclear. Here, we report that miR-301b augments pro-inflammatory response during pulmonary infection, and caffeine suppresses the effect of miR-301b and thereby augments respiratory immunity. LPS treatment or Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection induces miR-301b expression via a TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway. Importantly, caffeine decreases miR-301b expression through negative regulation of the cAMP/PKA/NF-κB axis. Further, c-Myb is identified as a target of miR-301b, which positively modulates anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and TGF-β1, but negatively regulates pro-inflammatory cytokines MIP-1α and IL-17A. Moreover, repression of miR-301b results in increased transcription of c-Myb and elevated levels of neutrophil infiltration, thereby alleviating infectious symptoms in mice. These findings reveal miR-301b as a new controller of inflammatory response by repressing c-Myb function to inhibit the anti-inflammatory response to bacterial infection, representing a novel mechanism for balancing inflammation. PMID:27670114

  3. CRISPR/dCas9-mediated Transcriptional Inhibition Ameliorates the Epigenetic Dysregulation at D4Z4 and Represses DUX4-fl in FSH Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Himeda, Charis L; Jones, Takako I; Jones, Peter L

    2016-03-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is one of the most prevalent myopathies, affecting males and females of all ages. Both forms of the disease are linked by epigenetic derepression of the D4Z4 macrosatellite repeat array at chromosome 4q35, leading to aberrant expression of D4Z4-encoded RNAs in skeletal muscle. Production of full-length DUX4 (DUX4-fl) mRNA from the derepressed D4Z4 array results in misexpression of DUX4-FL protein and its transcriptional targets, and apoptosis, ultimately leading to accumulated muscle pathology. Returning the chromatin at the FSHD locus to its nonpathogenic, epigenetically repressed state would simultaneously affect all D4Z4 RNAs, inhibiting downstream pathogenic pathways, and is thus an attractive therapeutic strategy. Advances in CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing make it possible to target epigenetic modifiers to an endogenous disease locus, although reports to date have focused on more typical genomic regions. Here, we demonstrate that a CRISPR/dCas9 transcriptional inhibitor can be specifically targeted to the highly repetitive FSHD macrosatellite array and alter the chromatin to repress expression of DUX4-fl in primary FSHD myocytes. These results implicate the promoter and exon 1 of DUX4 as potential therapeutic targets and demonstrate the utility of CRISPR technology for correction of the epigenetic dysregulation in FSHD. PMID:26527377

  4. Anaerobic expression of the gadE-mdtEF multidrug efflux operon is primarily regulated by the two-component system ArcBA through antagonizing the H-NS mediated repression

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Ziqing; Shan, Yue; Pan, Qing; Gao, Xiang; Yan, Aixin

    2013-01-01

    The gadE-mdtEF operon encodes a central acid resistance regulator GadE and two multidrug efflux proteins MdtEF. Although transcriptional regulation of gadE in the context of acid resistance under the aerobic growth environment of Escherichia coli has been extensively studied, regulation of the operon under the physiologically relevant environment of anaerobic growth and its effect on the expression of the multidrug efflux proteins MdtEF in the operon has not been disclosed. Our previous study revealed that anaerobic induction of the operon was dependent on ArcA, the response regulator of the ArcBA two-component system, in the M9 glucose minimal medium. However, the detailed regulatory mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we showed that anaerobic activation of mdtEF was driven by the 798 bp unusually long gadE promoter. Deletion of evgA, ydeO, rpoS, and gadX which has been shown to activate the gadE expression during acid stresses under aerobic condition did not have a significant effect on the anaerobic activation of the operon. Rather, anaerobic activation of the operon was largely dependent on the global regulator ArcA and a GTPase MnmE. Under aerobic condition, transcription of gadE was repressed by the global DNA silencer H-NS in M9 minimal medium. Interestingly, under anaerobic condition, while ΔarcA almost completely abolished transcription of gadE-mdtEF, further deletion of hns in ΔarcA mutant restored the transcription of the full-length PgadE-lacZ, and P1- and P3-lacZ fusions, suggesting an antagonistic effect of ArcA on the H-NS mediated repression. Taken together, we conclude that the anaerobic activation of the gadE-mdtEF was primarily mediated by the two-component system ArcBA through antagonizing the H-NS mediated repression. PMID:23874328

  5. Searching for repressed memory.

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    This chapter summarizes the work of my research group on adults who report either repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) or who report no history of CSA. Adapting paradigms from cognitive psychology, we tested hypotheses inspired by both the "repressed memory" and "false memory" perspectives on recovered memories of CSA. We found some evidence for the false memory perspective, but no evidence for the repressed memory perspective. However, our work also suggests a third perspective on recovered memories that does not require the concept of repression. Some children do not understand their CSA when it occurs, and do not experience terror. Years later, they recall the experience, and understanding it as abuse, suffer intense distress. The memory failed to come to mind for years, partly because the child did not encode it as terrifying (i.e., traumatic), not because the person was unable to recall it.

  6. MOZ-mediated repression of p16(INK) (4) (a) is critical for the self-renewal of neural and hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Perez-Campo, Flor M; Costa, Guilherme; Lie-A-Ling, Michael; Stifani, Stefano; Kouskoff, Valerie; Lacaud, Georges

    2014-06-01

    Although inhibition of p16(INK4a) expression is critical to preserve the proliferative capacity of stem cells, the molecular mechanisms responsible for silencing p16(INK4a) expression remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) monocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (MOZ) controls the proliferation of both hematopoietic and neural stem cells by modulating the transcriptional repression of p16(INK4a) . In the absence of the HAT activity of MOZ, expression of p16(INK4a) is upregulated in progenitor and stem cells, inducing an early entrance into replicative senescence. Genetic deletion of p16(INK4a) reverses the proliferative defect in both Moz(HAT) (-) (/) (-) hematopoietic and neural progenitors. Our results suggest a critical requirement for MOZ HAT activity to silence p16(INK4a) expression and to protect stem cells from early entrance into replicative senescence. PMID:24307508

  7. Yeast carbon catabolite repression.

    PubMed

    Gancedo, J M

    1998-06-01

    Glucose and related sugars repress the transcription of genes encoding enzymes required for the utilization of alternative carbon sources; some of these genes are also repressed by other sugars such as galactose, and the process is known as catabolite repression. The different sugars produce signals which modify the conformation of certain proteins that, in turn, directly or through a regulatory cascade affect the expression of the genes subject to catabolite repression. These genes are not all controlled by a single set of regulatory proteins, but there are different circuits of repression for different groups of genes. However, the protein kinase Snf1/Cat1 is shared by the various circuits and is therefore a central element in the regulatory process. Snf1 is not operative in the presence of glucose, and preliminary evidence suggests that Snf1 is in a dephosphorylated state under these conditions. However, the enzymes that phosphorylate and dephosphorylate Snf1 have not been identified, and it is not known how the presence of glucose may affect their activity. What has been established is that Snf1 remains active in mutants lacking either the proteins Grr1/Cat80 or Hxk2 or the Glc7 complex, which functions as a protein phosphatase. One of the main roles of Snf1 is to relieve repression by the Mig1 complex, but it is also required for the operation of transcription factors such as Adr1 and possibly other factors that are still unidentified. Although our knowledge of catabolite repression is still very incomplete, it is possible in certain cases to propose a partial model of the way in which the different elements involved in catabolite repression may be integrated.

  8. SPROUTY-2 represses the epithelial phenotype of colon carcinoma cells via upregulation of ZEB1 mediated by ETS1 and miR-200/miR-150.

    PubMed

    Barbáchano, A; Fernández-Barral, A; Pereira, F; Segura, M F; Ordóñez-Morán, P; Carrillo-de Santa Pau, E; González-Sancho, J M; Hanniford, D; Martínez, N; Costales-Carrera, A; Real, F X; Pálmer, H G; Rojas, J M; Hernando, E; Muñoz, A

    2016-06-01

    SPROUTY-2 (SPRY2) is a modulator of tyrosine kinase receptor signaling with receptor- and cell type-dependent inhibitory or enhancing effects. Studies on the action of SPRY2 in major cancers are conflicting and its role remains unclear. Here we have dissected SPRY2 action in human colon cancer. Global transcriptomic analyses show that SPRY2 downregulates genes encoding tight junction proteins such as claudin-7 and occludin and other cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix adhesion molecules in human SW480-ADH colon carcinoma cells. Moreover, SPRY2 represses LLGL2/HUGL2, PATJ1/INADL and ST14, main regulators of the polarized epithelial phenotype, and ESRP1, an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inhibitor. A key action of SPRY2 is the upregulation of the major EMT inducer ZEB1, as these effects are reversed by ZEB1 knock-down by means of RNA interference. Consistently, we found an inverse correlation between the expression level of claudin-7 and those of SPRY2 and ZEB1 in human colon tumors. Mechanistically, ZEB1 upregulation by SPRY2 results from the combined induction of ETS1 transcription factor and the repression of microRNAs (miR-200 family, miR-150) that target ZEB1 RNA. Moreover, SPRY2 increased AKT activation by epidermal growth factor, whereas AKT and also Src inhibition reduced the induction of ZEB1. Altogether, these data suggest that AKT and Src are implicated in SPRY2 action. Collectively, these results show a tumorigenic role of SPRY2 in colon cancer that is based on the dysregulation of tight junction and epithelial polarity master genes via upregulation of ZEB1. The dissection of the mechanism of action of SPRY2 in colon cancer cells is important to understand the upregulation of this gene in a subset of patients with this neoplasia that have poor prognosis.

  9. Kicking against the PRCs – A Domesticated Transposase Antagonises Silencing Mediated by Polycomb Group Proteins and Is an Accessory Component of Polycomb Repressive Complex 2

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Pumi; Mora-García, Santiago; de Leau, Erica; Thornton, Harry; de Alves, Flavia Lima; Rapsilber, Juri; Yang, Suxin; James, Geo Velikkakam; Schneeberger, Korbinian; Finnegan, E. Jean; Turck, Franziska; Goodrich, Justin

    2015-01-01

    The Polycomb group (PcG) and trithorax group (trxG) genes play crucial roles in development by regulating expression of homeotic and other genes controlling cell fate. Both groups catalyse modifications of chromatin, particularly histone methylation, leading to epigenetic changes that affect gene activity. The trxG antagonizes the function of PcG genes by activating PcG target genes, and consequently trxG mutants suppress PcG mutant phenotypes. We previously identified the ANTAGONIST OF LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 (ALP1) gene as a genetic suppressor of mutants in the Arabidopsis PcG gene LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 (LHP1). Here, we show that ALP1 interacts genetically with several other PcG and trxG components and that it antagonizes PcG silencing. Transcriptional profiling reveals that when PcG activity is compromised numerous target genes are hyper-activated in seedlings and that in most cases this requires ALP1. Furthermore, when PcG activity is present ALP1 is needed for full activation of several floral homeotic genes that are repressed by the PcG. Strikingly, ALP1 does not encode a known chromatin protein but rather a protein related to PIF/Harbinger class transposases. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that ALP1 is broadly conserved in land plants and likely lost transposase activity and acquired a novel function during angiosperm evolution. Consistent with this, immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry (IP-MS) show that ALP1 associates, in vivo, with core components of POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 (PRC2), a widely conserved PcG protein complex which functions as a H3K27me3 histone methyltransferase. Furthermore, in reciprocal pulldowns using the histone methyltransferase CURLY LEAF (CLF), we identify not only ALP1 and the core PRC2 components but also plant-specific accessory components including EMBRYONIC FLOWER 1 (EMF1), a transcriptional repressor previously associated with PRC1-like complexes. Taken together our data suggest that ALP1 inhibits Pc

  10. E2F/Rb Family Proteins Mediate Interferon Induced Repression of Adenovirus Immediate Early Transcription to Promote Persistent Viral Infection.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yueting; Stamminger, Thomas; Hearing, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that have pleiotropic effects and play important roles in innate and adaptive immunity. IFNs have broad antiviral properties and function by different mechanisms. IFNs fail to inhibit wild-type Adenovirus (Ad) replication in established cancer cell lines. In this study, we analyzed the effects of IFNs on Ad replication in normal human cells. Our data demonstrate that both IFNα and IFNγ blocked wild-type Ad5 replication in primary human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEC) and TERT-immortalized normal human diploid fibroblasts (HDF-TERT). IFNs inhibited the replication of divergent adenoviruses. The inhibition of Ad5 replication by IFNα and IFNγ is the consequence of repression of transcription of the E1A immediate early gene product. Both IFNα and IFNγ impede the association of the transactivator GABP with the E1A enhancer region during the early phase of infection. The repression of E1A expression by IFNs requires a conserved E2F binding site in the E1A enhancer, and IFNs increased the enrichment of the E2F-associated pocket proteins, Rb and p107, at the E1A enhancer in vivo. PD0332991 (Pabociclib), a specific CDK4/6 inhibitor, dephosphoryles pocket proteins to promote their interaction with E2Fs and inhibited wild-type Ad5 replication dependent on the conserved E2F binding site. Consistent with this result, expression of the small E1A oncoprotein, which abrogates E2F/pocket protein interactions, rescued Ad replication in the presence of IFNα or IFNγ. Finally, we established a persistent Ad infection model in vitro and demonstrated that IFNγ suppresses productive Ad replication in a manner dependent on the E2F binding site in the E1A enhancer. This is the first study that probes the molecular basis of persistent adenovirus infection and reveals a novel mechanism by which adenoviruses utilize IFN signaling to suppress lytic virus replication and to promote persistent infection. PMID:26809031

  11. VdCYC8, Encoding CYC8 Glucose Repression Mediator Protein, Is Required for Microsclerotia Formation and Full Virulence in Verticillium dahliae.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Fang; Liu, Yi-Jie; Feng, Zi-Li; Feng, Hong-Jie; Klosterman, Steven J; Zhou, Fang-Fang; Zhao, Li-Hong; Shi, Yong-Qiang; Zhu, He-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Verticillium dahliae is the primary causal agent for Verticillium wilt disease on a diverse array of economically important crops, including cotton. In previous research, we obtained the low-pathogenicity mutant T286 from the T-DNA insertional mutant library of the highly virulent isolate Vd080 derived from cotton. In this study, the target disrupted gene VdCYC8 was identified by TAIL-PCR, encoding a homolog of CYC8 proteins involved in glucose repression. The deletion mutant ΔCYC8 exhibited several developmental deficiencies, including reduced microsclerotia formation, reduced sporulation, and slower growth. Moreover, compared with the wild type strain Vd080, the pathogenicity of strain ΔCYC8 was significantly decreased on cotton seedlings. However, the complementary mutants ΔCYC8-C led to restoration of the wild type phenotype or near wild type levels of virulence on cotton. Interestingly, pathogenicity of the strains was correlated with VdCYC8 gene expression levels in complemented mutants. Gene expression analyses in the wild type strain Vd080, the ΔCYC8-45 strain, and complemented strain ΔCYC8-C26 indicated that VdCYC8 regulates the transcription levels of several genes in V. dahliae that have roles in melanin and production.

  12. VdCYC8, Encoding CYC8 Glucose Repression Mediator Protein, Is Required for Microsclerotia Formation and Full Virulence in Verticillium dahliae

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-Fang; Liu, Yi-Jie; Feng, Zi-Li; Feng, Hong-Jie; Klosterman, Steven J.; Zhou, Fang-Fang; Zhao, Li-Hong; Shi, Yong-Qiang; Zhu, He-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Verticillium dahliae is the primary causal agent for Verticillium wilt disease on a diverse array of economically important crops, including cotton. In previous research, we obtained the low-pathogenicity mutant T286 from the T-DNA insertional mutant library of the highly virulent isolate Vd080 derived from cotton. In this study, the target disrupted gene VdCYC8 was identified by TAIL-PCR, encoding a homolog of CYC8 proteins involved in glucose repression. The deletion mutant ΔCYC8 exhibited several developmental deficiencies, including reduced microsclerotia formation, reduced sporulation, and slower growth. Moreover, compared with the wild type strain Vd080, the pathogenicity of strain ΔCYC8 was significantly decreased on cotton seedlings. However, the complementary mutants ΔCYC8-C led to restoration of the wild type phenotype or near wild type levels of virulence on cotton. Interestingly, pathogenicity of the strains was correlated with VdCYC8 gene expression levels in complemented mutants. Gene expression analyses in the wild type strain Vd080, the ΔCYC8-45 strain, and complemented strain ΔCYC8-C26 indicated that VdCYC8 regulates the transcription levels of several genes in V. dahliae that have roles in melanin and production. PMID:26633180

  13. Repression of ergosterol biosynthesis is essential for stress resistance and is mediated by the Hog1 MAP kinase and the Mot3 and Rox1 transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Montañés, Fernando Martínez; Pascual-Ahuir, Amparo; Proft, Markus

    2011-02-01

    Hyperosmotic stress triggers a complex adaptive response that is dominantly regulated by the Hog1 MAP kinase in yeast. Here we characterize a novel physiological determinant of osmostress tolerance, which involves the Hog1-dependent transcriptional downregulation of ergosterol biosynthesis genes (ERG). Yeast cells considerably lower their sterol content in response to high osmolarity. The transcriptional repressors Mot3 and Rox1 are essential for this response. Both factors together with Hog1 are required to rapidly and transiently shut down transcription of ERG2 and ERG11 upon osmoshock. Mot3 abundance and its binding to the ERG2 promoter is stimulated by osmostress in a Hog1-dependent manner. As an additional layer of control, the expression of the main transcriptional activator of ERG gene expression, Ecm22, is negatively regulated by Hog1 and Mot3/Rox1 upon salt shock. Oxidative stress also triggers repression of ERG2, 11 transcription and a profound decrease in total sterol levels. However, this response was only partially dependent on Mot3/Rox1 and Hog1. Finally, we show that the upc2-1 mutation confers stress insensitive hyperaccumulation of ergosterol, overexpression of ERG2, 11 and severe sensitivity to salt and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that transcriptional control of ergosterol biosynthesis is an important physiological target of stress signalling.

  14. miR-155 activates cytokine gene expression in Th17 cells by regulating the DNA-binding protein Jarid2 to relieve polycomb-mediated repression.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Thelma M; Kanellopoulou, Chrysi; Kugler, David G; Kilaru, Gokhul; Nguyen, Cuong K; Nagarajan, Vijayaraj; Bhairavabhotla, Ravikiran K; Northrup, Daniel; Zahr, Rami; Burr, Patrick; Liu, Xiuhuai; Zhao, Keji; Sher, Alan; Jankovic, Dragana; Zhu, Jinfang; Muljo, Stefan A

    2014-06-19

    Specification of the T helper 17 (Th17) cell lineage requires a well-defined set of transcription factors, but how these integrate with posttranscriptional and epigenetic programs to regulate gene expression is poorly understood. Here we found defective Th17 cell cytokine expression in miR-155-deficient CD4+ T cells in vitro and in vivo. Mir155 was bound by Th17 cell transcription factors and was highly expressed during Th17 cell differentiation. miR-155-deficient Th17 and T regulatory (Treg) cells expressed increased amounts of Jarid2, a DNA-binding protein that recruits the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) to chromatin. PRC2 binding to chromatin and H3K27 histone methylation was increased in miR-155-deficient cells, coinciding with failure to express Il22, Il10, Il9, and Atf3. Defects in Th17 cell cytokine expression and Treg cell homeostasis in the absence of Mir155 could be partially suppressed by Jarid2 deletion. Thus, miR-155 contributes to Th17 cell function by suppressing the inhibitory effects of Jarid2.

  15. Zeste maintains repression of Ubx transgenes: Support for a new model of polycomb repression

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, Man-Wook; Laney, Jeffrey D.; Jeon, Sang-Hack; Ali, Janann; Biggin, Mark D.

    2001-09-01

    During late embryogenesis, the expression domains of homeotic genes are maintained by two groups of ubiquitously expressed regulators: the Polycomb repressors and the Trithorax activators. It is not known how the activities of the two maintenance systems are initially targeted to the correct genes. Zeste and GAGA are sequence specific DNA binding proteins previously shown to be Trithorax group activators of the homeotic gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx). Here we demonstrate that Zeste and GAGA DNA binding sites at the proximal promoter are also required to maintain, but not to initiate, repression of Ubx. Further, the repression mediated by Zeste DNA binding site is abolished in zeste null embryos. These data imply that Zeste and probably GAGA mediate Polycomb repression. We present a model in which the dual transcriptional activities of Zeste and GAGA are an essential component of the mechanism that chooses which maintenance system is to be targeted to a given promoter.

  16. P53-Mediated Repression of the Reprogramming in Cloned Bovine Embryos Through Direct Interaction with HDAC1 and Indirect Interaction with DNMT3A.

    PubMed

    Ma, P J; Zhang, H; Li, R; Wang, Y S; Zhang, Y; Hua, S

    2015-06-01

    P53 is a transcriptional activator, regulating growth arrest, DNA repair and apoptosis. We found that the expression level of P53 and the epigenetic profiles were significantly different in bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos from those in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos. So we inferred that abnormally expression of P53 might contribute to the incomplete reprogramming. Using bovine foetal fibroblasts, we constructed and screened a highly efficient shRNA vector targeting bovine P53 gene and then reconstituted somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos (RNAi-SCNT). The results indicated that expression levels of P53 were downregulated significantly in RNAi-SCNT embryos, and the blastulation rate and the total number of cell increased significantly. Moreover, methylation levels of CpG islands located 5' region of OCT4, NANOG, H19 and IGF2R in RNAi -SCNT embryos were significantly normalized to that IVF embryos, and the methylation levels of genome DNA, H3K9 and H4K5 acetylation levels were also returned to levels similar to the IVF embryos. Differentially expressed genes were identified by microarray, and 28 transcripts were found to be significantly different (> twofolds) in RNAi-SCNT embryos compared to the control nuclear transfer embryos (SCNT). Among the 28 differentially expressed transcripts, just HDAC1 and DNMT3A were closely associated with the epigenetic modifications. Finally, ChIP further showed that P53 might repress the epigenetic reprogramming by regulating HDAC1 directly and DNMT3A indirectly. These findings offer significant references to further elucidate the mechanism of epigenetic reprogramming in SCNT embryos.

  17. Electrostatic and Hydrophobic Interactions Mediate Single-Stranded DNA Recognition and Acta2 Repression by Purine-Rich Element-Binding Protein B.

    PubMed

    Rumora, Amy E; Ferris, Lauren A; Wheeler, Tamar R; Kelm, Robert J

    2016-05-17

    Myofibroblast differentiation is characterized by an increased level of expression of cytoskeletal smooth muscle α-actin. In human and murine fibroblasts, the gene encoding smooth muscle α-actin (Acta2) is tightly regulated by a network of transcription factors that either activate or repress the 5' promoter-enhancer in response to environmental cues signaling tissue repair and remodeling. Purine-rich element-binding protein B (Purβ) suppresses the expression of Acta2 by cooperatively interacting with the sense strand of a 5' polypurine sequence containing an inverted MCAT cis element required for gene activation. In this study, we evaluated the chemical basis of nucleoprotein complex formation between the Purβ repressor and the purine-rich strand of the MCAT element in the mouse Acta2 promoter. Quantitative single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) binding assays conducted in the presence of increasing concentrations of monovalent salt or anionic detergent suggested that the assembly of a high-affinity nucleoprotein complex is driven by a combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Consistent with the results of pH titration analysis, site-directed mutagenesis revealed several basic amino acid residues in the intermolecular (R267) and intramolecular (K82 and R159) subdomains that are essential for Purβ transcriptional repressor function in Acta2 promoter-reporter assays. In keeping with their diminished Acta2 repressor activity in fibroblasts, purified Purβ variants containing an R267A mutation exhibited reduced binding affinity for purine-rich ssDNA. Moreover, certain double and triple-point mutants were also defective in binding to the Acta2 corepressor protein, Y-box-binding protein 1. Collectively, these findings establish the repertoire of noncovalent interactions that account for the unique structural and functional properties of Purβ. PMID:27064749

  18. Dicer1 imparts essential survival cues in Notch-driven T-ALL via miR-21-mediated tumor suppressor Pdcd4 repression.

    PubMed

    Junker, Fabian; Chabloz, Antoine; Koch, Ute; Radtke, Freddy

    2015-08-20

    The modulatory function of individual microRNAs (miRNAs) in Notch-driven T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALLs) has recently been established. Although protumorigenic and tumor-suppressive miRNAs are implicated in disease onset in murine models of Notch-driven T-cell leukemia, whether Dicer1-processed miRNAs are essential for Notch-driven T-ALL is currently unknown. Here we used conditional and inducible genetic loss-of-function approaches to test whether the development and maintenance of Notch-driven T-ALL was dependent on Dicer1 function. Mice with specific inactivation of both Dicer1 alleles in the T-cell lineage did not develop Notch-driven T-ALL. In contrast, loss of 1 functional Dicer1 allele did not significantly perturb T-ALL onset and tumor progression. Inducible inactivation of Dicer1 in early stage polyclonal T-ALL cells was sufficient to abrogate T-ALL progression in leukemic mice, whereas late-stage monoclonal T-ALL cells were counterselected against loss of Dicer1. Lineage-tracing experiments revealed that Dicer1 deficiency led to the induction of apoptosis in T-ALL cells, whereas cell cycle progression remained unaltered. Through microarray-based miRNA profiling, we identified miR-21 as a previously unrecognized miRNA deregulated in both mouse and human T-ALL. Herein, we demonstrate that miR-21 regulates T-ALL cell survival via repression of the tumor suppressor Pdcd4.

  19. Racism and Surplus Repression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Howard

    1983-01-01

    Explores the relationship between Herbert Marcuse's theory of "surplus repression" and Freud's theory of the "unconscious" with respect to latent, hidden, covert, or subliminal aspects of racism in the United States. Argues that unconscious racism, manifested in evasion/avoidance, acting out/projection, and attempted justification, perpetuates…

  20. PPARγ Represses Apolipoprotein A-I Gene but Impedes TNFα-Mediated ApoA-I Downregulation in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Shavva, Vladimir S; Mogilenko, Denis A; Bogomolova, Alexandra M; Nikitin, Artemy A; Dizhe, Ella B; Efremov, Alexander M; Oleinikova, Galina N; Perevozchikov, Andrej P; Orlov, Sergey V

    2016-09-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) is the main anti-atherogenic component of human high-density lipoproteins (HDL). ApoA-I gene expression is regulated by several nuclear receptors, which are the sensors for metabolic changes during development of cardiovascular diseases. Activation of nuclear receptor PPARγ has been shown to impact lipid metabolism as well as inflammation. Here, we have shown that synthetic PPARγ agonist GW1929 decreases both ApoA-I mRNA and protein levels in HepG2 cells and the effect of GW1929 on apoA-I gene transcription depends on PPARγ. PPARγ binds to the sites A and C within the hepatic enhancer of apoA-I gene and the negative regulation of apoA-I gene transcription by PPARγ appears to be realized via the site C (-134 to -119). Ligand activation of PPARγ leads to an increase of LXRβ and a decrease of PPARα binding to the apoA-I gene hepatic enhancer in HepG2 cells. GW1929 abolishes the TNFα-mediated decrease of ApoA-I mRNA expression in both HepG2 and Caco-2 cells but does not block TNFα-mediated inhibition of ApoA-I protein secretion by HepG2 cells. These data demonstrate that complex of PPARγ with GW1929 is a negative regulator involved in the control of ApoA-I expression and secretion in human hepatocyte- and enterocyte-like cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2010-2022, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. MafG Sumoylation Is Required for Active Transcriptional Repression

    PubMed Central

    Motohashi, Hozumi; Katsuoka, Fumiki; Miyoshi, Chika; Uchimura, Yasuhiro; Saitoh, Hisato; Francastel, Claire; Engel, James Douglas; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2006-01-01

    A straightforward mechanism for eliciting transcriptional repression would be to simply block the DNA binding site for activators. Such passive repression is often mediated by transcription factors that lack an intrinsic repressor activity. MafG is a bidirectional regulator of transcription, a repressor in its homodimeric state but an activator when heterodimerized with p45. Here, we report that MafG is conjugated to SUMO-2/3 in vivo. To clarify the possible physiological role(s) for sumoylation in regulating MafG activity, we evaluated mutant and wild-type MafG in transgenic mice and cultured cells. Whereas sumoylation-deficient MafG activated p45-dependent transcription normally and did not affect heterodimer activity, repression by the sumoylation-deficient MafG mutant was severely compromised in vivo. Furthermore, the SUMO-dependent repression activity of MafG was sensitive to histone deacetylase inhibition. Thus, repression by MafG is not achieved through simple passive repression by competing for the activator binding site but requires sumoylation, which then mediates transcriptional repression through recruitment of a repressor complex containing histone deacetylase activity. PMID:16738329

  2. Pharmacological targeting of IDO-mediated tolerance for treating autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Penberthy, W Todd

    2007-04-01

    established mechanisms of necrosis. Chronic elevation of TNFalpha leading to necrotic events by NAD depletion in autoimmune disease likely occurs via combination of persistent IDO activation and iNOS-peroxynitrate activation of PARP1 both of which deplete NAD. Pharmacological doses of NAD precursors repeatedly provide dramatic therapeutic benefit for rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, colitis, other autoimmune diseases, and schizophrenia in either the clinic or animal models. Collectively these observations support the idea that autoimmune disease may in part be considered as localized pellagra manifesting symptoms particular to the inflamed target tissues. Thus pharmacological doses of NAD precursors (nicotinic acid/niacin, nicotinamide/niacinamide, or nicotinamide riboside) should be considered as potentially essential to the therapeutic success of any IDO-inducing regimen for treating autoimmune diseases. Distinct among the NAD precursors, nicotinic acid specifically activates the g-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) GPR109a to produce the IDO-inducing tolerogenic prostaglandins PGE(2) and PGD(2). Next, PGD(2) is converted to the anti-inflammatory prostaglandin, 15d-PGJ(2). These prostaglandins exert potent anti-inflammatory activities through endogenous signaling mechanisms involving the GPCRs EP2, EP4, and DP1 along with PPARgamma respectively. Nicotinamide prevents type 1 diabetes and ameliorates multiple sclerosis in animal models, while nothing is known about the therapeutic potential of nicotinamide riboside. Alternatively the direct targeting of the non-redox NAD-dependent proteins using resveratrol to activate SIRT1 or PJ34 in order to inhibit PARP1 and prevent autoimmune pathogenesis are also given consideration. PMID:17430113

  3. MiR203 mediates subversion of stem cell properties during mammary epithelial differentiation via repression of ΔNP63α and promotes mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition

    PubMed Central

    DeCastro, A J; Dunphy, K A; Hutchinson, J; Balboni, A L; Cherukuri, P; Jerry, D J; DiRenzo, J

    2013-01-01

    During reproductive life, the mammary epithelium undergoes consecutive cycles of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Doing so relies on the retained proliferative capacity, prolonged lifespan and developmental potency of mammary stem cells (MaSCs). ΔNp63α, the predominant TP63 isoform in mammary epithelia, is robustly expressed in MaSCs and is required for preservation of self-renewing capacity in diverse epithelial structures. However, the mechanism(s) underlying subversion of this activity during forfeiture of self-renewing capacity are poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) govern critical cellular functions including stem cell maintenance, development, cell cycle regulation and differentiation by disrupting translation of target mRNAs. Data presented here indicate that expression of miR203, a miRNA that targets ΔNp63α and ΔNp63β is activated during luminal epithelial differentiation and that this pattern is observed in the murine mammary hierarchy. In addition, we present evidence that the transcription factor Zeb1 represses miR203 expression, thus enhancing ΔNp63α protein levels. Furthermore, ectopic miR203 suppresses ΔNp63α expression, proliferation and colony formation. The anti-clonogenic effects mediated by miR203 require suppression of ΔNp63α. In addition, ectopic miR203 promotes mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition and disrupts activities associated with epithelial stem cells. These studies support a model in which induction of miR203 mediates forfeiture of self-renewing capacity via suppression of ΔNp63α and may also have anti-tumorigenic activity through its reduction of EMT and cancer stem cell populations. PMID:23449450

  4. Nemo phosphorylates Even-skipped and promotes Eve-mediated repression of odd-skipped in even parasegments during Drosophila embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Braid, Lorena R; Lee, Wendy; Uetrecht, Andrea C; Swarup, Sharan; Papaianni, Gina; Heiler, Amanda; Verheyen, Esther M

    2010-07-01

    Drosophila nemo (nmo) and other Nemo-like kinase family members (Nlks) are well-established key regulators of numerous conserved signaling pathways, such as Wg and BMP. nmo mutants display pleiotropic defects at different developmental stages, including the embryo. In this study we describe a detailed characterization of embryonic cuticle patterning defects associated with maternal loss of nmo. nmo mutant embryos consistently show segmentation defects, most frequently fusions of pairs of denticle belts in alternating segments. These phenotypes are reminiscent of those associated with defects in pair-rule patterning. Genetic interaction studies demonstrate that Nmo promotes Even-skipped (Eve) activity and is required to promote the expression of the Eve target, engrailed (en), in even numbered parasegments. We find that Nmo regulates a subset of Eve activities by stimulating Eve-mediated suppression of the odd-skipped (odd) repressor. Furthermore, we isolate Nmo in a protein complex with Eve and show that Nmo phosphorylates Eve in in vitro kinase assays. These studies reveal a novel role for the Nmo kinase in embryonic pattern formation through its regulation of the homeodomain-containing transcription factor Eve.

  5. Saikosaponin-D reduces cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by repressing ROS-mediated activation of MAPK and NF-κB signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaobin; Dang, Chengxue; Kang, Huafeng; Dai, Zhijun; Lin, Shuai; Guan, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Xijing; Hui, Wentao

    2015-09-01

    The nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin (DDP) severely limits the clinical efficacy of this widely used anticancer agent. The observed nephrotoxicity may be the result of DDP-induced inflammation and apoptosis. Saikosaponin-D (SSD), a triterpenoid saponin, has numerous pharmacological properties. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether and how SSD protected against DDP-induced nephrotoxicity. Non-cytotoxic levels of SSD significantly increased the viability rate, improved the nuclear morphology, and attenuated the caspase-3 activation and programmed apoptosis of DDP-treated HK-2 cells. In addition, SSD treatment markedly inhibited the release of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), as well as the production of nitric oxide and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by these cells. More importantly, SSD effectively blocked the DDP-induced activation of NF-κB, P38, JNK, and MAPKs. Furthermore, we found that U0126 (a specific inhibitor of MAPKs) strongly inhibited the IKK/IκB/NF-κB-dependent release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and iNOS gene expression. Finally, we demonstrated that SSD decreased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and that the specific ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) markedly inhibited the DDP-induced activation of MAPK and phosphorylation of the downstream signal NF-κB, which in turn reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine release and iNOS gene expression. Our results suggest that the SSD-mediated alleviation of DDP-induced nephrotoxicity was due to uncoupling of the ROS, P38, and JNK/NF-κB signalling pathways. PMID:26118633

  6. High Expression of Rabl3 is Associated with Poor Survival of Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer via Repression of MAPK8/9/10-Mediated Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weihua; Sun, Jian; Luo, Junming

    2016-01-01

    Background Rab-like 3 (Rabl3) is a member of the Rab subfamily of small GTPases which are involved in controlling proliferation and vesicular trafficking. Recent studies suggest that Rab proteins might play a critical role in regulating cancer cell survival, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Material/Methods We performed a bioinformatics analysis to examine the correlation between the expression level of Rabl3 and survival of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients in three independent cohorts containing 484 patients. The function of Rabl3 was examined in NSCLC cell line A549 in vitro. Following Rabl3 knockdown, cells were stained with propidium iodine (PI) and Annexin V, followed by flow cytometry analysis (FACS) for cell death and autophagy induction. The activity of the MAPK signaling pathway was assessed by Western blotting of different MAPK phosphorylations, and modulated with different chemical inhibitors. Results High expression of Rabl3 was significantly correlated with poor survival in all three independent NSCLC cohorts. In line with this result, Rabl3 was frequently overexpressed in lung cancer cell lines as compared with normal lung fibroblast cell lines. Knockdown of Rabl3 in lung cancer cells significantly enhanced cell death accompanied with autophagy induction, as evidenced by an increased level of autophagy marker LC3-II. Interestingly, Rabl3 knockdown was associated with enhanced activation of MAPK8/9/10 but not MAPK11/12/13/14. Treatment of MAPK8/9/10-specific inhibitor SP600125, but not MAPK11/12/13/14-specific inhibitor SB203580, largely abolished Rabl3 knockdown-induced LC3-I/LC3-II conversion and autophagic cell death. Conclusions Together, these results suggest that high expression of Rabl3 might inhibit cell death in NSCLCs via repression of MAPK8/9/10-mediated autophagy. PMID:27164297

  7. NikR mediates nickel-responsive transcriptional repression of the Helicobacter pylori outer membrane proteins FecA3 (HP1400) and FrpB4 (HP1512).

    PubMed

    Ernst, Florian D; Stoof, Jeroen; Horrevoets, Wannie M; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kusters, Johannes G; van Vliet, Arnoud H M

    2006-12-01

    The transition metal nickel plays an important role in gastric colonization and persistence of the important human pathogen Helicobacter pylori, as it is the cofactor of the abundantly produced acid resistance factor urease. Nickel uptake through the inner membrane is mediated by the NixA protein, and the expression of NixA is controlled by the NikR regulatory protein. Here we report that NikR also controls the nickel-responsive expression of the FecA3 (HP1400) and FrpB4 (HP1512) outer membrane proteins (OMPs), as well as the nickel-responsive expression of an ExbB-ExbD-TonB system, which may function in energization of outer membrane transport. Transcription and expression of the frpB4 and fecA3 genes were repressed by nickel in wild-type H. pylori 26695, but they were independent of nickel and derepressed in an isogenic nikR mutant. Both the frpB4 and fecA3 genes were transcribed from a promoter directly upstream of their start codon. Regulation by NikR was mediated via nickel-dependent binding to specific operators overlapping either the +1 or -10 sequence in the frpB4 and fecA3 promoters, respectively, and these operators contained sequences resembling the proposed H. pylori NikR recognition sequence (TATWATT-N(11)-AATWATA). Transcription of the HP1339-1340-1341 operon encoding the ExbB2-ExbD2-TonB2 complex was also regulated by nickel and NikR, but not by Fur and iron. In conclusion, H. pylori NikR controls nickel-responsive expression of the HP1400 (FecA3) and HP1512 (FrpB4) OMPs. We hypothesize that these two NikR-regulated OMPs may participate in the uptake of complexed nickel ions and that this process is energized by the NikR-regulated ExbB2-ExbD2-TonB2 system, another example of the specific adaptation of H. pylori to the gastric lifestyle.

  8. Nuclear AXIN2 represses MYC gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Rennoll, Sherri A.; Konsavage, Wesley M.; Yochum, Gregory S.

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •AXIN2 localizes to cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments in colorectal cancer cells. •Nuclear AXIN2 represses the activity of Wnt-responsive luciferase reporters. •β-Catenin bridges AXIN2 to TCF transcription factors. •AXIN2 binds the MYC promoter and represses MYC gene expression. -- Abstract: The β-catenin transcriptional coactivator is the key mediator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt, β-catenin associates with a cytosolic and multi-protein destruction complex where it is phosphorylated and targeted for proteasomal degradation. In the presence of Wnt, the destruction complex is inactivated and β-catenin translocates into the nucleus. In the nucleus, β-catenin binds T-cell factor (TCF) transcription factors to activate expression of c-MYC (MYC) and Axis inhibition protein 2 (AXIN2). AXIN2 is a member of the destruction complex and, thus, serves in a negative feedback loop to control Wnt/β-catenin signaling. AXIN2 is also present in the nucleus, but its function within this compartment is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that AXIN2 localizes to the nuclei of epithelial cells within normal and colonic tumor tissues as well as colorectal cancer cell lines. In the nucleus, AXIN2 represses expression of Wnt/β-catenin-responsive luciferase reporters and forms a complex with β-catenin and TCF. We demonstrate that AXIN2 co-occupies β-catenin/TCF complexes at the MYC promoter region. When constitutively localized to the nucleus, AXIN2 alters the chromatin structure at the MYC promoter and directly represses MYC gene expression. These findings suggest that nuclear AXIN2 functions as a rheostat to control MYC expression in response to Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  9. Antimycotics suppress the Malassezia extract-induced production of CXC chemokine ligand 10 in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Hau, Carren S; Kanda, Naoko; Makimura, Koichi; Watanabe, Shinichi

    2014-02-01

    Malassezia, a lipophilic yeast, exacerbates atopic dermatitis. Malassezia products can penetrate the disintegrated stratum corneum and encounter subcorneal keratinocytes in the skin of atopic dermatitis patients. Type 1 helper T (Th1) cells infiltrate chronic lesions with atopic dermatitis, and antimycotic agents improve its symptoms. We aimed to identify Malassezia-induced chemokines in keratinocytes and examine whether antimycotics suppressed this induction. Normal human keratinocytes were incubated with a Malassezia restricta extract and antimycotics. Chemokine expression was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1 activity was examined by luciferase assays. The tyrosine-phosphorylation of STAT1 was analyzed by western blotting. The M. restricta extract increased the mRNA and protein expression of Th1-attracting CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)10 and STAT1 activity and phosphorylation in keratinocytes, which was suppressed by a Janus kinase inhibitor. The antimycotics itraconazole, ketoconazole, luliconazole, terbinafine, butenafine and amorolfine suppressed M. restricta extract-induced CXCL10 mRNA and protein expression and STAT1 activity and phosphorylation. These effects were similarly induced by 15-deoxy-Δ-(12,14) -prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2 ), a prostaglandin D2 metabolite. Antimycotics increased the release of 15d-PGJ2 from keratinocytes. The antimycotic-induced suppression of CXCL10 production and STAT1 activity was counteracted by a lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase inhibitor. The antimycotics itraconazole, ketoconazole, luliconazole, terbinafine, butenafine and amorolfine may suppress the M. restricta-induced production of CXCL10 by inhibiting STAT1 through an increase in 15d-PGJ2 production in keratinocytes. These antimycotics may block the Th1-mediated inflammation triggered by Malassezia in the chronic phase of atopic dermatitis. PMID

  10. Technique Selectively Represses Immune System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Matters December 3, 2012 Technique Selectively Represses Immune System Myelin (green) encases and protects nerve fibers (brown). A new technique prevents the immune system from attacking myelin in a mouse model of ...

  11. A conserved 30 base pair element in the Wnt-5a promoter is sufficient both to drive its' early embryonic expression and to mediate its' repression by otx2.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R; Hooiveld, M H; In der Reiden, P; Durston, A J

    1999-07-01

    We have characterised a short (30 base pair) element from the Xenopus Wnt-5a promoter which is nearly identical to one located in the human Wnt-5a promoter, and has the same position relative to the transcription start site. When placed in front of a LacZ gene, this element can reproduce the same expression pattern observed for Wnt-5a at the late gastrula stage. Further we show that gastrula stage Wnt-5a expression is repressed by otx2, something which is reflected by the mutually exclusive expression patterns of these two genes. The isolated promoter sequence contains an OTX- consensus binding site and its' activity in embryos is repressed by ectopically expressed otx2.

  12. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kayikci, Ömur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-09-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression on yeast carbon metabolism with a focus on roles of the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway and Snf1 signal transduction in establishment and relief of glucose repression.

  13. Glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kayikci, Ömur; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Glucose is the primary source of energy for the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although yeast cells can utilize a wide range of carbon sources, presence of glucose suppresses molecular activities involved in the use of alternate carbon sources as well as it represses respiration and gluconeogenesis. This dominant effect of glucose on yeast carbon metabolism is coordinated by several signaling and metabolic interactions that mainly regulate transcriptional activity but are also effective at post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. This review describes effects of glucose repression on yeast carbon metabolism with a focus on roles of the Snf3/Rgt2 glucose-sensing pathway and Snf1 signal transduction in establishment and relief of glucose repression. PMID:26205245

  14. Novel TCF-binding sites specify transcriptional repression by Wnt signalling

    PubMed Central

    Blauwkamp, Timothy A; Chang, Mikyung V; Cadigan, Ken M

    2008-01-01

    Both transcriptional activation and repression have essential functions in maintaining proper spatial and temporal control of gene expression. Although Wnt signalling is often associated with gene activation, we have identified several directly repressed targets of Wnt signalling in Drosophila. Here, we explore how individual Wnt target genes are specified for signal-induced activation or repression. Similar to activation, repression required binding of Armadillo (Arm) to the N terminus of TCF. However, TCF/Arm mediated repression by binding to DNA motifs that are markedly different from typical TCF-binding sites. Conversion of the novel motifs to standard TCF-binding sites reversed the mode of regulation, resulting in Wnt-mediated activation instead of repression. A mutant form of Arm defective in activation was still functional for repression, indicating that distinct domains of the protein are required for each activity. This study suggests that the sequence of TCF-binding sites allosterically regulates the TCF/Arm complex to effect either transcriptional activation or repression. PMID:18418383

  15. Novel TCF-binding sites specify transcriptional repression by Wnt signalling.

    PubMed

    Blauwkamp, Timothy A; Chang, Mikyung V; Cadigan, Ken M

    2008-05-21

    Both transcriptional activation and repression have essential functions in maintaining proper spatial and temporal control of gene expression. Although Wnt signalling is often associated with gene activation, we have identified several directly repressed targets of Wnt signalling in Drosophila. Here, we explore how individual Wnt target genes are specified for signal-induced activation or repression. Similar to activation, repression required binding of Armadillo (Arm) to the N terminus of TCF. However, TCF/Arm mediated repression by binding to DNA motifs that are markedly different from typical TCF-binding sites. Conversion of the novel motifs to standard TCF-binding sites reversed the mode of regulation, resulting in Wnt-mediated activation instead of repression. A mutant form of Arm defective in activation was still functional for repression, indicating that distinct domains of the protein are required for each activity. This study suggests that the sequence of TCF-binding sites allosterically regulates the TCF/Arm complex to effect either transcriptional activation or repression. PMID:18418383

  16. ATRX represses alternative lengthening of telomeres.

    PubMed

    Napier, Christine E; Huschtscha, Lily I; Harvey, Adam; Bower, Kylie; Noble, Jane R; Hendrickson, Eric A; Reddel, Roger R

    2015-06-30

    The unlimited proliferation of cancer cells requires a mechanism to prevent telomere shortening. Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) is an homologous recombination-mediated mechanism of telomere elongation used in tumors, including osteosarcomas, soft tissue sarcoma subtypes, and glial brain tumors. Mutations in the ATRX/DAXX chromatin remodeling complex have been reported in tumors and cell lines that use the ALT mechanism, suggesting that ATRX may be an ALT repressor. We show here that knockout or knockdown of ATRX in mortal cells or immortal telomerase-positive cells is insufficient to activate ALT. Notably, however, in SV40-transformed mortal fibroblasts ATRX loss results in either a significant increase in the proportion of cell lines activating ALT (instead of telomerase) or in a significant decrease in the time prior to ALT activation. These data indicate that loss of ATRX function cooperates with one or more as-yet unidentified genetic or epigenetic alterations to activate ALT. Moreover, transient ATRX expression in ALT-positive/ATRX-negative cells represses ALT activity. These data provide the first direct, functional evidence that ATRX represses ALT.

  17. Repression of gene expression by oxidative stress.

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Y; Barouki, R

    1999-01-01

    Gene expression is modulated by both physiological signals (hormones, cytokines, etc.) and environmental stimuli (physical parameters, xenobiotics, etc.). Oxidative stress appears to be a key pleiotropic modulator which may be involved in either pathway. Indeed, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been described as second messengers for several growth factors and cytokines, but have also been shown to rise following cellular insults such as xenobiotic metabolism or enzymic deficiency. Extensive studies on the induction of stress-response genes by oxidative stress have been reported. In contrast, owing to the historical focus on gene induction, less attention has been paid to gene repression by ROS. However, a growing number of studies have shown that moderate (i.e. non-cytotoxic) oxidative stress specifically down-regulates the expression of various genes. In this review, we describe the alteration of several physiological functions resulting from oxidative-stress-mediated inhibition of gene transcription. We will then focus on the repressive oxidative modulation of various transcription factors elicited by ROS. PMID:10477257

  18. Pharmacological repression of PPARγ promotes osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Marciano, David P; Kuruvilla, Dana S; Boregowda, Siddaraju V; Asteian, Alice; Hughes, Travis S; Garcia-Ordonez, Ruben; Corzo, Cesar A; Khan, Tanya M; Novick, Scott J; Park, HaJeung; Kojetin, Douglas J; Phinney, Donald G; Bruning, John B; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Griffin, Patrick R

    2015-06-12

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is the master regulator of adipogenesis and the pharmacological target of the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of insulin sensitizers. Activation of PPARγ by TZDs promotes adipogenesis at the expense of osteoblast formation, contributing to their associated adverse effects on bone. Recently, we reported the development of PPARγ antagonist SR1664, designed to block the obesity-induced phosphorylation of serine 273 (S273) in the absence of classical agonism, to derive insulin-sensitizing efficacy with improved therapeutic index. Here we identify the structural mechanism by which SR1664 actively antagonizes PPARγ, and extend these findings to develop the inverse agonist SR2595. Treatment of isolated bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells with SR2595 promotes induction of osteogenic differentiation. Together these results identify the structural determinants of ligand-mediated PPARγ repression, and suggest a therapeutic approach to promote bone formation.

  19. Pharmacological Repression of PPARγ Promotes Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Marciano, David P.; Kuruvilla, Dana S.; Boregowda, Siddaraju V.; Asteian, Alice; Hughes, Travis S.; Garcia-Ordonez, Ruben; Corzo, Cesar A.; Khan, Tanya M.; Novick, Scott J.; Park, HaJeung; Kojetin, Douglas J.; Phinney, Donald G.; Bruning, John B.; Kamenecka, Theodore M.; Griffin, Patrick R.

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is the master regulator of adipogenesis and the pharmacological target of the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of insulin sensitizers. Activation of PPARγ by TZDs promotes adipogenesis at the expense of osteoblast formation, contributing to their associated adverse effects on bone. Recently we reported the development of PPARγ antagonist SR1664, designed to block the obesity induced phosphorylation of serine 273 (S273) in the absence of classical agonism, to derive insulin sensitizing efficacy with improved therapeutic index. Here we identify the structural mechanism by which SR1664 actively antagonizes PPARγ, and extend these findings to develop the inverse agonist SR2595. Treatment of isolated bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with SR2595 promotes induction of osteogenic differentiation. Together these results identify the structural determinants of ligand mediated PPARγ repression, and suggest a therapeutic approach to promote bone formation. PMID:26068133

  20. Transient repression of the lac operon.

    PubMed

    Tyler, B; Loomis, W F; Magasanik, B

    1967-12-01

    Severe transient repression of constitutive or induced beta-galactosidase synthesis occurs upon the addition of glucose to cells of Escherichia coli growing on glycerol, succinic acid, or lactic acid. Only mutants particularily well adapted to growth on glucose exhibit this phenomenon when transferred to a glucose-containing medium. No change in ribonucleic acid (RNA) metabolism was observed during transient repression. We could show that transient repression is pleiotropic, affecting all products of the lac operon. It occurs in a mutant insensitive to catabolite repression. It is established much more rapidly than catabolite repression, and is elicited by glucose analogues that are phosphorylated but not further catabolized by the cell. Thus, transient repression is not a consequence of the exclusion of inducer from the cell, does not require catabolism of the added compound, and does not involve a gross change in RNA metabolism. We conclude that transient repression is distinct from catabolite repression. PMID:4864411

  1. Conserved intron elements repress splicing of a neuron-specific c-src exon in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, R C; Black, D L

    1995-01-01

    The neuron-specific N1 exon of the mouse c-src transcript is normally skipped in nonneuronal cells. In this study, we examined the sequence requirements for the exclusion of this exon in nonneuronal HeLa cell nuclear extracts. We found that the repression of the N1 exon is mediated by specific intron sequences that flank the N1 exon. Mutagenesis experiments identified conserved CUCUCU elements within these intron regions that are required for the repression of N1 splicing. The addition of an RNA competitor containing the upstream regulatory sequence to the HeLa extract induced splicing of the intron downstream of N1, indicating that the competitor sequence binds to splicing repressor proteins. The similarities between this mechanism for src splicing repression and the repression of other regulated exons point to a common role of exon-spanning interactions in splicing repression. PMID:7565790

  2. Repression of CIITA by the Epstein-Barr virus transcription factor Zta is independent of its dimerization and DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Balan, Nicolae; Osborn, Kay; Sinclair, Alison J

    2016-03-01

    Repression of the cellular CIITA gene is part of the immune evasion strategy of the γherpes virus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) during its lytic replication cycle in B-cells. In part, this is mediated through downregulation of MHC class II gene expression via the targeted repression of CIITA, the cellular master regulator of MHC class II gene expression. This repression is achieved through a reduction in CIITA promoter activity, initiated by the EBV transcription and replication factor, Zta (BZLF1, EB1, ZEBRA). Zta is the earliest gene expressed during the lytic replication cycle. Zta interacts with sequence-specific elements in promoters, enhancers and the replication origin (ZREs), and also modulates gene expression through interaction with cellular transcription factors and co-activators. Here, we explore the requirements for Zta-mediated repression of the CIITA promoter. We find that repression by Zta is specific for the CIITA promoter and can be achieved in the absence of other EBV genes. Surprisingly, we find that the dimerization region of Zta is not required to mediate repression. This contrasts with an obligate requirement of this region to correctly orientate the DNA contact regions of Zta to mediate activation of gene expression through ZREs. Additional support for the model that Zta represses the CIITA promoter without direct DNA binding comes from promoter mapping that shows that repression does not require the presence of a ZRE in the CIITA promoter. PMID:26653871

  3. Nitric oxide participates in plant flowering repression by ascorbate

    PubMed Central

    Senthil Kumar, Rajendran; Shen, Chin-Hui; Wu, Pei-Yin; Suresh Kumar, Subbiah; Hua, Moda Sang; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2016-01-01

    In Oncidium, redox homeostasis involved in flowering is mainly due to ascorbic acid (AsA). Here, we discovered that Oncidium floral repression is caused by an increase in AsA-mediated NO levels, which is directed by the enzymatic activities of nitrate reductase (NaR) and nitrite reducatase (NiR). Through Solexa transcriptomic analysis of two libraries, ‘pseudobulb with inflorescent bud’ (PIB) and ‘pseudobulb with axillary bud’ (PAB), we identified differentially expressed genes related to NO metabolism. Subsequently, we showed a significant reduction of NaR enzymatic activities and NO levels during bolting and blooming stage, suggesting that NO controlled the phase transition and flowering process. Applying AsA to Oncidium PLB (protocorm-like bodies) significantly elevated the NO content and enzyme activities. Application of sodium nitroprusside (-NO donor) on Arabidopsis vtc1 mutant caused late flowering and expression level of flowering-associated genes (CO, FT and LFY) were reduced, suggesting NO signaling is vital for flowering repression. Conversely, the flowering time of noa1, an Arabidopsis NO-deficient mutant, was not altered after treatment with L-galacturonate, a precursor of AsA, suggesting AsA is required for NO-biosynthesis involved in the NO-mediated flowering-repression pathway. Altogether, Oncidium bolting is tightly regulated by AsA-mediated NO level and downregulation of transcriptional levels of NO metabolism genes. PMID:27731387

  4. Violent repression of environmental protests.

    PubMed

    Poulos, Helen M; Haddad, Mary Alice

    2016-01-01

    As global sea levels and natural resource demands rise, people around the world are increasingly protesting environmental threats to their lives and livelihoods. What are the conditions under which these peaceful environmental protests are violently repressed? This paper uses the random forest algorithm to conduct an event analysis of grassroots environmental protests around the world. Utilizing a database of 175 grassroots environmental protests, we found that: (1) a large proportion (37 %) of the protests involved violent repression; (2) most of the violence (56 %) was directed against marginalized groups; and (3) violence was geographically concentrated the global south in Latin America and Asia. The primary predictors of violence were political empowerment, GDP per capita, industry type, the presence of marginalized groups, and geographic region. Our analysis reveals a complex relationship between governance, resource extraction, and international funding that often resulted in human rights violations against marginalized groups. PMID:27026924

  5. miRNA-Dependent Translational Repression in the Drosophila Ovary

    PubMed Central

    Reich, John; Snee, Mark J.; Macdonald, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Background The Drosophila ovary is a tissue rich in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Many of the regulatory factors are proteins identified via genetic screens. The more recent discovery of microRNAs, which in other animals and tissues appear to regulate translation of a large fraction of all mRNAs, raised the possibility that they too might act during oogenesis. However, there has been no direct demonstration of microRNA-dependent translational repression in the ovary. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, quantitative analyses of transcript and protein levels of transgenes with or without synthetic miR-312 binding sites show that the binding sites do confer translational repression. This effect is dependent on the ability of the cells to produce microRNAs. By comparison with microRNA-dependent translational repression in other cell types, the regulated mRNAs and the protein factors that mediate repression were expected to be enriched in sponge bodies, subcellular structures with extensive similarities to the P bodies found in other cells. However, no such enrichment was observed. Conclusions/Significance Our results reveal the variety of post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms that operate in the Drosophila ovary, and have implications for the mechanisms of miRNA-dependent translational control used in the ovary. PMID:19252745

  6. The Sin3p PAH Domains Provide Separate Functions Repressing Meiotic Gene Transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ▿

    PubMed Central

    Mallory, Michael J.; Law, Michael J.; Buckingham, Lela E.; Strich, Randy

    2010-01-01

    Meiotic genes in budding yeast are repressed during vegetative growth but are transiently induced during specific stages of meiosis. Sin3p represses the early meiotic gene (EMG) by bridging the DNA binding protein Ume6p to the histone deacetylase Rpd3p. Sin3p contains four paired amphipathic helix (PAH) domains, one of which (PAH3) is required for repressing several genes expressed during mitotic cell division. This report examines the roles of the PAH domains in mediating EMG repression during mitotic cell division and following meiotic induction. PAH2 and PAH3 are required for mitotic EMG repression, while electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicate that only PAH2 is required for stable Ume6p-promoter interaction. Unlike mitotic repression, reestablishing EMG repression following transient meiotic induction requires PAH3 and PAH4. In addition, the role of Sin3p in reestablishing repression is expanded to include additional loci that it does not control during vegetative growth. These findings indicate that mitotic and postinduction EMG repressions are mediated by two separate systems that utilize different Sin3p domains. PMID:20971827

  7. Polycomb repressive complex 1 controls uterine decidualization

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Fenghua; Gao, Fei; Kartashov, Andrey V.; Jegga, Anil G.; Barski, Artem; Das, Sanjoy K.

    2016-01-01

    Uterine stromal cell decidualization is an essential part of the reproductive process. Decidual tissue development requires a highly regulated control of the extracellular tissue remodeling; however the mechanism of this regulation remains unknown. Through systematic expression studies, we detected that Cbx4/2, Rybp, and Ring1B [components of polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1)] are predominantly utilized in antimesometrial decidualization with polyploidy. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that PRC1 members are co-localized with its functional histone modifier H2AK119ub1 (mono ubiquitination of histone-H2A at lysine-119) in polyploid cell. A potent small-molecule inhibitor of Ring1A/B E3-ubiquitin ligase or siRNA-mediated suppression of Cbx4 caused inhibition of H2AK119ub1, in conjunction with perturbation of decidualization and polyploidy development, suggesting a role for Cbx4/Ring1B-containing PRC1 in these processes. Analyses of genetic signatures by RNA-seq studies showed that the inhibition of PRC1 function affects 238 genes (154 up and 84 down) during decidualization. Functional enrichment analyses identified that about 38% genes primarily involved in extracellular processes are specifically targeted by PRC1. Furthermore, ~15% of upregulated genes exhibited a significant overlap with the upregulated Bmp2 null-induced genes in mice. Overall, Cbx4/Ring1B-containing PRC1 controls decidualization via regulation of extracellular gene remodeling functions and sheds new insights into underlying molecular mechanism(s) through transcriptional repression regulation. PMID:27181215

  8. Two distinct repressive mechanisms for histone 3 lysine 4 methylation through promoting 3'-end antisense transcription.

    PubMed

    Margaritis, Thanasis; Oreal, Vincent; Brabers, Nathalie; Maestroni, Laetitia; Vitaliano-Prunier, Adeline; Benschop, Joris J; van Hooff, Sander; van Leenen, Dik; Dargemont, Catherine; Géli, Vincent; Holstege, Frank C P

    2012-09-01

    Histone H3 di- and trimethylation on lysine 4 are major chromatin marks that correlate with active transcription. The influence of these modifications on transcription itself is, however, poorly understood. We have investigated the roles of H3K4 methylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by determining genome-wide expression-profiles of mutants in the Set1 complex, COMPASS, that lays down these marks. Loss of H3K4 trimethylation has virtually no effect on steady-state or dynamically-changing mRNA levels. Combined loss of H3K4 tri- and dimethylation results in steady-state mRNA upregulation and delays in the repression kinetics of specific groups of genes. COMPASS-repressed genes have distinct H3K4 methylation patterns, with enrichment of H3K4me3 at the 3'-end, indicating that repression is coupled to 3'-end antisense transcription. Further analyses reveal that repression is mediated by H3K4me3-dependent 3'-end antisense transcription in two ways. For a small group of genes including PHO84, repression is mediated by a previously reported trans-effect that requires the antisense transcript itself. For the majority of COMPASS-repressed genes, however, it is the process of 3'-end antisense transcription itself that is the important factor for repression. Strand-specific qPCR analyses of various mutants indicate that this more prevalent mechanism of COMPASS-mediated repression requires H3K4me3-dependent 3'-end antisense transcription to lay down H3K4me2, which seems to serve as the actual repressive mark. Removal of the 3'-end antisense promoter also results in derepression of sense transcription and renders sense transcription insensitive to the additional loss of SET1. The derepression observed in COMPASS mutants is mimicked by reduction of global histone H3 and H4 levels, suggesting that the H3K4me2 repressive effect is linked to establishment of a repressive chromatin structure. These results indicate that in S. cerevisiae, the non-redundant role of H3K4 methylation by

  9. Molecular functions of the TLE tetramerization domain in Wnt target gene repression

    PubMed Central

    Chodaparambil, Jayanth V; Pate, Kira T; Hepler, Margretta R D; Tsai, Becky P; Muthurajan, Uma M; Luger, Karolin; Waterman, Marian L; Weis, William I

    2014-01-01

    Wnt signaling activates target genes by promoting association of the co-activator β-catenin with TCF/LEF transcription factors. In the absence of β-catenin, target genes are silenced by TCF-mediated recruitment of TLE/Groucho proteins, but the molecular basis for TLE/TCF-dependent repression is unclear. We describe the unusual three-dimensional structure of the N-terminal Q domain of TLE1 that mediates tetramerization and binds to TCFs. We find that differences in repression potential of TCF/LEFs correlates with their affinities for TLE-Q, rather than direct competition between β-catenin and TLE for TCFs as part of an activation–repression switch. Structure-based mutation of the TLE tetramer interface shows that dimers cannot mediate repression, even though they bind to TCFs with the same affinity as tetramers. Furthermore, the TLE Q tetramer, not the dimer, binds to chromatin, specifically to K20 methylated histone H4 tails, suggesting that the TCF/TLE tetramer complex promotes structural transitions of chromatin to mediate repression. PMID:24596249

  10. Gibberellins repress photomorphogenesis in darkness.

    PubMed

    Alabadí, David; Gil, Joan; Blázquez, Miguel A; García-Martínez, José L

    2004-03-01

    Plants undergo two different developmental programs depending on whether they are growing in darkness (skotomorphogenesis) or in the presence of light (photomorphogenesis). It has been proposed that the latter is the default pathway followed by many plants after germination and before the seedling emerges from soil. The transition between the two pathways is tightly regulated. The conserved COP1-based complex is central in the light-dependent repression of photomorphogenesis in darkness. Besides this control, hormones such as brassinosteroids (BRs), cytokinins, auxins, or ethylene also have been shown to regulate, to different extents, this developmental switch. In the present work, we show that the hormone gibberellin (GA) widely participates in this regulation. Studies from Arabidopsis show that both chemical and genetic reductions of endogenous GA levels partially derepress photomorphogenesis in darkness. This is based both on morphological phenotypes, such as hypocotyl elongation and hook and cotyledon opening, and on molecular phenotypes, such as misregulation of the light-controlled genes CAB2 and RbcS. Genetic studies indicate that the GA signaling elements GAI and RGA participate in these responses. Our results also suggest that GA regulation of this response partially depends on BRs. This regulation seems to be conserved across species because lowering endogenous GA levels in pea (Pisum sativum) induces full de-etiolation in darkness, which is not reverted by BR application. Our results, therefore, attribute an important role for GAs in the establishment of etiolated growth and in repression of photomorphogenesis. PMID:14963246

  11. ATF3 represses PPARγ expression and inhibits adipocyte differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Min-Kyung; Jung, Myeong Ho

    2014-11-07

    Highlights: • ATF3 decrease the expression of PPARγ and its target gene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. • ATF3 represses the promoter activity of PPARγ2 gene. • ATF/CRE (−1537/−1530) is critical for ATF3-mediated downregulation of PPARγ. • ATF3 binds to the promoter region containing the ATF/CRE. • ER stress inhibits adipocyte differentiation through downregulation of PPARγ by ATF3. - Abstract: Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a stress-adaptive transcription factor that mediates cellular stress response signaling. We previously reported that ATF3 represses CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) expression and inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. In this study, we explored potential role of ATF3 in negatively regulating peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). ATF3 decreased the expression of PPARγ and its target gene in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. ATF3 also repressed the activity of −2.6 Kb promoter of mouse PPARγ2. Overexpression of PPARγ significantly prevented the ATF3-mediated inhibition of 3T3-L1 differentiation. Transfection studies with 5′ deleted-reporters showed that ATF3 repressed the activity of −2037 bp promoter, whereas it did not affect the activity of −1458 bp promoter, suggesting that ATF3 responsive element is located between the −2037 and −1458. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that ATF3 binds to ATF/CRE site (5′-TGACGTTT-3′) between −1537 and −1530. Mutation of the ATF/CRE site abrogated ATF3-mediated transrepression of the PPARγ2 promoter. Treatment with thapsigargin, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer, increased ATF3 expression, whereas it decreased PPARγ expression. ATF3 knockdown significantly blocked the thapsigargin-mediated downregulation of PPARγ expression. Furthermore, overexpression of PPARγ prevented inhibition of 3T3-L1 differentiation by thapsigargin. Collectively, these results suggest that ATF3-mediated

  12. Selective repression of transcriptional activators at a distance by the Drosophila Krüppel protein.

    PubMed Central

    Licht, J D; Ro, M; English, M A; Grossel, M; Hansen, U

    1993-01-01

    The Krüppel (Kr) protein, bound at kilobase distances from the start site of transcription, represses transcription by RNA polymerase II in mammalian cells. Repression is monotonically dependent on the dose of Kr protein and the presence of Kr binding site(s) on the DNA. These data suggest an inhibitory protein-protein interaction between the Kr protein and proximal transcription factors. Repression by Kr depends on the specific activator protein driving transcription. In particular, Kr protein selectively represses transcription mediated by the Sp1 glutamine-rich activation domain, tethered to the promoter by a GAL4 DNA-binding domain, but does not repress transcription stimulated by the acidic GAL4 activator. We believe this represents repression by a quenching interaction between DNA-bound Kr protein and the activation region of Sp1, rather than competition between Sp1 and Kr for a limiting transcriptional component. Selective, context-related repression affords an added layer of combinatorial control of gene expression by sequence-specific transcription factors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 PMID:8248254

  13. Synergistic release from glucose repression by mig1 and ssn mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Vallier, L G; Carlson, M

    1994-05-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glucose repression of SUC2 transcription requires the SSN6-TUP1 repressor complex. It has been proposed that the DNA-binding protein MIG1 secures SSN6-TUP1 to the SUC2 promoter. Here we show that a mig1 deletion does not cause nearly as dramatic a loss of repression as ssn6: glucose-grown mig1 mutants display 20-fold lower SUC2 expression than ssn6 mutants. Thus, repression by SSN6-TUP1 is not mediated solely by MIG1, but also involves MIG1-independent mechanisms. We report that mig1 partially restores SUC2 expression in mutants lacking the SNF1 protein kinase and show that mig1 is allelic to ssn1, a mutation selected as a suppressor of snf1. Other SSN genes identified in this selection were therefore candidates for a role in repression of SUC2. We show that mig1 acts synergistically with ssn2 through ssn5, ssn7, and ssn8 to relieve glucose repression of SUC2 and to suppress the requirement for SNF1. These findings indicate that the SSN proteins contribute to repression of SUC2, and the pleiotropic phenotypes of the ssn mutants suggest global roles in repression. Finally, the regulated SUC2 expression observed in snf1 mig1 mutants indicates that signals regarding glucose availability can be transmitted independently of the SNF1 protein kinase.

  14. Salmonella promotes virulence by repressing cellulose production.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Mauricio H; Lee, Eun-Jin; Choi, Jeongjoon; Groisman, Eduardo A

    2015-04-21

    Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth. In bacteria, cellulose confers protection against environmental insults and is a constituent of biofilms typically formed on abiotic surfaces. We report that, surprisingly, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium makes cellulose when inside macrophages. We determine that preventing cellulose synthesis increases virulence, whereas stimulation of cellulose synthesis inside macrophages decreases virulence. An attenuated mutant lacking the mgtC gene exhibited increased cellulose levels due to increased expression of the cellulose synthase gene bcsA and of cyclic diguanylate, the allosteric activator of the BcsA protein. Inactivation of bcsA restored wild-type virulence to the Salmonella mgtC mutant, but not to other attenuated mutants displaying a wild-type phenotype regarding cellulose. Our findings indicate that a virulence determinant can promote pathogenicity by repressing a pathogen's antivirulence trait. Moreover, they suggest that controlling antivirulence traits increases long-term pathogen fitness by mediating a trade-off between acute virulence and transmission.

  15. Salmonella promotes virulence by repressing cellulose production

    PubMed Central

    Pontes, Mauricio H.; Lee, Eun-Jin; Choi, Jeongjoon; Groisman, Eduardo A.

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth. In bacteria, cellulose confers protection against environmental insults and is a constituent of biofilms typically formed on abiotic surfaces. We report that, surprisingly, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium makes cellulose when inside macrophages. We determine that preventing cellulose synthesis increases virulence, whereas stimulation of cellulose synthesis inside macrophages decreases virulence. An attenuated mutant lacking the mgtC gene exhibited increased cellulose levels due to increased expression of the cellulose synthase gene bcsA and of cyclic diguanylate, the allosteric activator of the BcsA protein. Inactivation of bcsA restored wild-type virulence to the Salmonella mgtC mutant, but not to other attenuated mutants displaying a wild-type phenotype regarding cellulose. Our findings indicate that a virulence determinant can promote pathogenicity by repressing a pathogen's antivirulence trait. Moreover, they suggest that controlling antivirulence traits increases long-term pathogen fitness by mediating a trade-off between acute virulence and transmission. PMID:25848006

  16. Salmonella promotes virulence by repressing cellulose production.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Mauricio H; Lee, Eun-Jin; Choi, Jeongjoon; Groisman, Eduardo A

    2015-04-21

    Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth. In bacteria, cellulose confers protection against environmental insults and is a constituent of biofilms typically formed on abiotic surfaces. We report that, surprisingly, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium makes cellulose when inside macrophages. We determine that preventing cellulose synthesis increases virulence, whereas stimulation of cellulose synthesis inside macrophages decreases virulence. An attenuated mutant lacking the mgtC gene exhibited increased cellulose levels due to increased expression of the cellulose synthase gene bcsA and of cyclic diguanylate, the allosteric activator of the BcsA protein. Inactivation of bcsA restored wild-type virulence to the Salmonella mgtC mutant, but not to other attenuated mutants displaying a wild-type phenotype regarding cellulose. Our findings indicate that a virulence determinant can promote pathogenicity by repressing a pathogen's antivirulence trait. Moreover, they suggest that controlling antivirulence traits increases long-term pathogen fitness by mediating a trade-off between acute virulence and transmission. PMID:25848006

  17. FOXP3 interactions with histone acetyltransferase and class II histone deacetylases are required for repression.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Samanta, Arabinda; Song, Xiaomin; Iacono, Kathryn T; Bembas, Kathryn; Tao, Ran; Basu, Samik; Riley, James L; Hancock, Wayne W; Shen, Yuan; Saouaf, Sandra J; Greene, Mark I

    2007-03-13

    The forkhead family protein FOXP3 acts as a repressor of transcription and is both an essential and sufficient regulator of the development and function of regulatory T cells. The molecular mechanism by which FOXP3-mediated transcriptional repression occurs remains unclear. Here, we report that transcriptional repression by FOXP3 involves a histone acetyltransferase-deacetylase complex that includes histone acetyltransferase TIP60 (Tat-interactive protein, 60 kDa) and class II histone deacetylases HDAC7 and HDAC9. The N-terminal 106-190 aa of FOXP3 are required for TIP60-FOXP3, HDAC7-FOXP3 association, as well as for the transcriptional repression of FOXP3 via its forkhead domain. FOXP3 can be acetylated in primary human regulatory T cells, and TIP60 promotes FOXP3 acetylation in vivo. Overexpression of TIP60 but not its histone acetyltransferase-deficient mutant promotes, whereas knockdown of endogenous TIP60 relieved, FOXP3-mediated transcriptional repression. A minimum FOXP3 ensemble containing native TIP60 and HDAC7 is necessary for IL-2 production regulation in T cells. Moreover, FOXP3 association with HDAC9 is antagonized by T cell stimulation and can be restored by the protein deacetylation inhibitor trichostatin A, indicating a complex dynamic aspect of T suppressor cell regulation. These findings identify a previously uncharacterized complex-based mechanism by which FOXP3 actively mediates transcriptional repression. PMID:17360565

  18. FOXP3 interactions with histone acetyltransferase and class II histone deacetylases are required for repression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Samanta, Arabinda; Song, Xiaomin; Iacono, Kathryn T.; Bembas, Kathryn; Tao, Ran; Basu, Samik; Riley, James L.; Hancock, Wayne W.; Shen, Yuan; Saouaf, Sandra J.; Greene, Mark I.

    2007-01-01

    The forkhead family protein FOXP3 acts as a repressor of transcription and is both an essential and sufficient regulator of the development and function of regulatory T cells. The molecular mechanism by which FOXP3-mediated transcriptional repression occurs remains unclear. Here, we report that transcriptional repression by FOXP3 involves a histone acetyltransferase–deacetylase complex that includes histone acetyltransferase TIP60 (Tat-interactive protein, 60 kDa) and class II histone deacetylases HDAC7 and HDAC9. The N-terminal 106–190 aa of FOXP3 are required for TIP60–FOXP3, HDAC7–FOXP3 association, as well as for the transcriptional repression of FOXP3 via its forkhead domain. FOXP3 can be acetylated in primary human regulatory T cells, and TIP60 promotes FOXP3 acetylation in vivo. Overexpression of TIP60 but not its histone acetyltransferase-deficient mutant promotes, whereas knockdown of endogenous TIP60 relieved, FOXP3-mediated transcriptional repression. A minimum FOXP3 ensemble containing native TIP60 and HDAC7 is necessary for IL-2 production regulation in T cells. Moreover, FOXP3 association with HDAC9 is antagonized by T cell stimulation and can be restored by the protein deacetylation inhibitor trichostatin A, indicating a complex dynamic aspect of T suppressor cell regulation. These findings identify a previously uncharacterized complex-based mechanism by which FOXP3 actively mediates transcriptional repression. PMID:17360565

  19. Proteomic Identification of Protein Targets for 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-Prostaglandin J2 in Neuronal Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Takase, Kenkichi; Kishino, Junji; Fujita, Megumi; Okamura, Noboru; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki; Fujimoto, Masafumi; Yagami, Tatsurou

    2011-01-01

    15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) is one of factors contributed to the neurotoxicity of amyloid β (Aβ), a causative protein of Alzheimer's disease. Type 2 receptor for prostaglandin D2 (DP2) and peroxysome-proliferator activated receptorγ (PPARγ) are identified as the membrane receptor and the nuclear receptor for 15d-PGJ2, respectively. Previously, we reported that the cytotoxicity of 15d-PGJ2 was independent of DP2 and PPARγ, and suggested that 15d-PGJ2 induced apoptosis through the novel specific binding sites of 15d-PGJ2 different from DP2 and PPARγ. To relate the cytotoxicity of 15d-PGJ2 to amyloidoses, we performed binding assay [3H]15d-PGJ2 and specified targets for 15d-PGJ2 associated with cytotoxicity. In the various cell lines, there was a close correlation between the susceptibilities to 15d-PGJ2 and fibrillar Aβ. Specific binding sites of [3H]15d-PGJ2 were detected in rat cortical neurons and human bronchial smooth muscle cells. When the binding assay was performed in subcellular fractions of neurons, the specific binding sites of [3H]15d-PGJ2 were detected in plasma membrane, nuclear and cytosol, but not in microsome. A proteomic approach was used to identify protein targets for 15d-PGJ2 in the plasma membrane. By using biotinylated 15d-PGJ2, eleven proteins were identified as biotin-positive spots and classified into three different functional proteins: glycolytic enzymes (Enolase2, pyruvate kinase M1 (PKM1) and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH)), molecular chaperones (heat shock protein 8 and T-complex protein 1 subunit α), cytoskeletal proteins (Actin β, F-actin-capping protein, Tubulin β and Internexin α). GAPDH, PKM1 and Tubulin β are Aβ-interacting proteins. Thus, the present study suggested that 15d-PGJ2 plays an important role in amyloidoses not only in the central nervous system but also in the peripheral tissues. PMID:21445266

  20. RsbU-Dependent Regulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm Formation Is Mediated via the Alternative Sigma Factor σB by Repression of the Negative Regulator Gene icaR

    PubMed Central

    Knobloch, Johannes K.-M.; Jäger, Sebastian; Horstkotte, Matthias A.; Rohde, Holger; Mack, Dietrich

    2004-01-01

    Transposon mutagenesis of rsbU leads to a biofilm-negative phenotype in Staphylococcus epidermidis. However, the pathway of this regulatory mechanism was unknown. To investigate the role of RsbU in the regulation of the alternative sigma factor σB and biofilm formation, we generated different mutants of the σB operon in S. epidermidis strains 1457 and 8400. The genes rsbU, rsbV, rsbW, and sigB, as well as the regulatory cascade rsbUVW and the entire σB operon, were deleted. Transcriptional analysis of sarA and the σB-dependent gene asp23 revealed the functions of RsbU and RsbV as positive regulators and of RsbW as a negative regulator of σB activity, indicating regulation of σB activity similar to that characterized for Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Phenotypic characterization of the mutants revealed that the dramatic decrease of biofilm formation in rsbU mutants is mediated via σB, indicating a crucial role for σB in S. epidermidis pathogenesis. However, biofilm formation in mutants defective in σB or its function could be restored in the presence of subinhibitory ethanol concentrations. Transcriptional analysis revealed that icaR is up-regulated in mutants lacking σB function but that icaA transcription is down-regulated in these mutants, indicating a σB-dependent regulatory intermediate negatively regulating IcaR. Supplementation of growth media with ethanol decreased icaR transcription, leading to increased icaA transcription and a biofilm-positive phenotype, indicating that the ethanol-dependent induction of biofilm formation is mediated by IcaR. This icaR-dependent regulation under ethanol induction is mediated in a σB-independent manner, suggesting at least one additional regulatory intermediate in the biofilm formation of S. epidermidis. PMID:15213125

  1. Neuron type-specific miRNA represses two broadly expressed genes to modulate an avoidance behavior in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Drexel, Tanja; Mahofsky, Katharina; Latham, Richard; Zimmer, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Two broad gene classes are distinguished within multicellular organisms: cell type-specific genes, which confer particular cellular properties, and ubiquitous genes that support general cellular functions. However, certain so-called ubiquitous genes show functionally relevant cell type-specific repression. How such repression is achieved is poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are repressors, many of which are expressed with high cell type specificity. Here we show that mir-791, expressed exclusively in the CO2-sensing neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans, represses two otherwise broadly expressed genes. This repression is necessary for normal neuronal function and behavior of the animals toward CO2. miRNA-mediated repression of broadly transcribed genes is a previously unappreciated strategy for cellular specialization. PMID:27688400

  2. mRNA for N-Bak, a neuron-specific BH3-only splice isoform of Bak, escapes nonsense-mediated decay and is translationally repressed in the neurons.

    PubMed

    Jakobson, M; Lintulahti, A; Arumäe, U

    2012-02-02

    mRNA for neuronal Bak (N-Bak), a splice variant of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member Bak is expressed in the neurons. Surprisingly the endogeneous N-Bak protein cannot be demonstrated in the neurons, although the antibodies recognize N-Bak protein from in vitro translation or transiently transfected cells. As N-Bak mRNA contains premature termination codon (PTC) at 89 nucleotides upstream from the last exon-exon junction, it could be degraded by nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) during the pioneer round of translation thus explaining the absence of the protein. We show here that the endogeneous neuronal N-Bak mRNA is not the NMD substrate, as it is not accumulating by cycloheximide treatment, it has a long lifetime, and even prevention of PTC by interfering with the alternative splicing did not lead to translation of the Bak mRNA. N-Bak protein is also not revealed by proteasome inhibitors. Our data suggest strong translational arrest of N-Bak mRNA in the neurons. We show that this arrest is partially mediated by 5'-untranslated region of Bak mRNA and it is not released during mitochondrial apoptosis.

  3. Repressive coping and alexithymia in idiopathic environmental intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Elberling, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine if the non-expression of negative emotions (i.e., repressive coping) and differences in the ability to process and regulate emotions (i.e., alexithymia) is associated with idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI). Methods The study included participants who had previously participated in a general population-based study and reported symptoms of environmental intolerance (n = 787) and patients with IEI (n = 237). The participants completed questionnaires assessing IEI, namely, a measure of repressive coping combining scores on the Marlowe–Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS) and the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (TMAS), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and a negative affectivity scale (NAS). Multiple, hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted using IEI variables as the dependent variables. Results The TMAS and MCSDS scores were independently associated with the IEI variables, but there was no evidence of a role of the repressive coping construct. While the total alexithymia score was unrelated to IEI, the TAS-20 subscale of difficulties identifying feelings (DIF) was independently associated with symptoms attributed to IEI. Negative affectivity was a strong independent predictor of the IEI variables and a mediator of the association between DIF and IEI. Conclusion Our results provide no evidence for a role of repressive coping in IEI, and our hypothesis of an association with alexithymia was only partly supported. In contrast, strong associations between IEI and negative emotional reactions, defensiveness and difficulties identifying feelings were found, suggesting a need for exploring the influence of these emotional reactions in IEI. PMID:21432559

  4. Cell-Context Dependent TCF/LEF Expression and Function: Alternative Tales of Repression, De-Repression and Activation Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Catherine D; Byers, Stephen W.

    2012-01-01

    Wnt signaling controls cell specification and fate during development and adult tissue homeostasis by converging on a small family of DNA binding factors, the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) family. In response to Wnt signals, TCF/LEF members undergo a transcriptional switch from repression to activation mediated in part by nuclear β-catenin binding and recruitment of co-activator complexes. In mammals, the specificity and fine tuning of this transcriptional switch is also achieved by the cell-context-dependent expression of four members (TCF7, TCF7L1, TCF7L2, and LEF1) and numerous variants, which display differential DNA binding affinity and specificity, repression strength, activation potential, and regulators. TCF7/LEF1 variants are generated by alternative promoters, alternative exon cassettes, and alternative donor/acceptor splicing sites, allowing combinatorial insertion/exclusion of modular functional and regulatory domains. In this review we present mounting evidence for the interdependency of TCF7/LEF1 variant expression and functions with cell lineage and cell state. We also illustrate how the p53 and nuclear receptor family of transcription factors, known to control cell fate and to inhibit Wnt signaling, may participate in the fine tuning of TCF7/LEF1 repression/activation potentials. PMID:22111711

  5. Mitosis-associated repression in development.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Emilia; Lim, Bomyi; Guessous, Ghita; Falahati, Hanieh; Levine, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Transcriptional repression is a pervasive feature of animal development. Here, we employ live-imaging methods to visualize the Snail repressor, which establishes the boundary between the presumptive mesoderm and neurogenic ectoderm of early Drosophila embryos. Snail target enhancers were attached to an MS2 reporter gene, permitting detection of nascent transcripts in living embryos. The transgenes exhibit initially broad patterns of transcription but are refined by repression in the mesoderm following mitosis. These observations reveal a correlation between mitotic silencing and Snail repression. We propose that mitosis and other inherent discontinuities in transcription boost the activities of sequence-specific repressors, such as Snail. PMID:27401553

  6. Mechanisms and consequences of ATMIN repression in hypoxic conditions: roles for p53 and HIF-1

    PubMed Central

    Leszczynska, Katarzyna B.; Göttgens, Eva-Leonne; Biasoli, Deborah; Olcina, Monica M.; Ient, Jonathan; Anbalagan, Selvakumar; Bernhardt, Stephan; Giaccia, Amato J.; Hammond, Ester M.

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-induced replication stress is one of the most physiologically relevant signals known to activate ATM in tumors. Recently, the ATM interactor (ATMIN) was identified as critical for replication stress-induced activation of ATM in response to aphidicolin and hydroxyurea. This suggests an essential role for ATMIN in ATM regulation during hypoxia, which induces replication stress. However, ATMIN also has a role in base excision repair, a process that has been demonstrated to be repressed and less efficient in hypoxic conditions. Here, we demonstrate that ATMIN is dispensable for ATM activation in hypoxia and in contrast to ATM, does not affect cell survival and radiosensitivity in hypoxia. Instead, we show that in hypoxic conditions ATMIN expression is repressed. Repression of ATMIN in hypoxia is mediated by both p53 and HIF-1α in an oxygen dependent manner. The biological consequence of ATMIN repression in hypoxia is decreased expression of the target gene, DYNLL1. An expression signature associated with p53 activity was negatively correlated with DYNLL1 expression in patient samples further supporting the p53 dependent repression of DYNLL1. Together, these data demonstrate multiple mechanisms of ATMIN repression in hypoxia with consequences including impaired BER and down regulation of the ATMIN transcriptional target, DYNLL1. PMID:26875667

  7. Selective repression of light harvesting complex 2 formation in Rhodobacter azotoformans by light under semiaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Yue, Huiying; Zhao, Chungui; Li, Kai; Yang, Suping

    2015-11-01

    Photosystem formation in anaerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria (APB) is repressed by oxygen but is de-repressed when oxygen tension decreases. Under semiaerobic conditions, the synthesis of photopigments and pigment protein complexes in Rhodobacter (Rba.) sphaeroides are repressed by light. AppA, a blue-light receptor, mediates this regulation. In the present study, it was showed that the synthesis of bacteriochlorophyll, carotenoid, and pigment protein complexes in Rba. azotoformans 134K20 was significantly repressed by oxygen. Oxygen exposure also led to a conversion of spheroidene to spheroidenone. In semiaerobically growing cells, light irradiation resulted in a decrease in the formation of photosystem, and blue light was found to be the most effective light source. Blue light reduced the contents of bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid slightly, but had negligible effects on light harvesting complex (LH) 1 content, whereas the content of LH2 was significantly decreased indicating that blue light selectively repressed the synthesis of LH2 in semiaerobically growing 134K20. It was concluded that, similar to Rba. sphaeroides, a blue light receptor presented in strain 134K20 played important roles in its light-dependent repression. A possible mechanism involved in controlling the differential inhibitory of blue light on the synthesis of photosystem was discussed. PMID:26193456

  8. Repression of Escherichia coli carbamoylphosphate synthase: relationships with enzyme synthesis in the arginine and pyrimidine pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Piérard, A; Glansdorff, N; Gigot, D; Crabeel, M; Halleux, P; Thiry, L

    1976-01-01

    Cumulative repression of Escherichia coli carbamoylphosphate synthase (CPSase; EC 2.7.2.9) by arginine and pyrimidine was analyzed in relation to control enzyme synthesis in the arginine and pyrimidine pathways. The expression of carA and carB, the adjacent genes that specify the two subunits of the enzyme, was estimated by means of an in vitro complementation assay. The synthesis of each gene product was found to be under repression control. Coordinate expression of the two genes was observed under most conditions investigated. They might thus form an operon. The preparation of strains blocked in the degradation of cytidine and harboring leaky mutations affecting several steps of pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis made it possible to distinguish between the effects of cytidine and uridine compounds in the repression of the pyrimidine pathway enzymes. The data obtained suggest that derivatives of both cytidine and uridine participate in the repression of CPSase. In addition, repression of CPSase by arginine did not appear to occur unless pyrimidines were present at a significant intracellular concentration. This observation, together with our previous report that argR mutations impair the cumulative repression of CPSase, suggests that this control is mediated through the concerted effects of regulatory elements specific for the arginine and pyrimidine pathways. PMID:179975

  9. Redistribution of H3K27me3 upon DNA hypomethylation results in de-repression of Polycomb target genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background DNA methylation and the Polycomb repression system are epigenetic mechanisms that play important roles in maintaining transcriptional repression. Recent evidence suggests that DNA methylation can attenuate the binding of Polycomb protein components to chromatin and thus plays a role in determining their genomic targeting. However, whether this role of DNA methylation is important in the context of transcriptional regulation is unclear. Results By genome-wide mapping of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2-signature histone mark, H3K27me3, in severely DNA hypomethylated mouse somatic cells, we show that hypomethylation leads to widespread H3K27me3 redistribution, in a manner that reflects the local DNA methylation status in wild-type cells. Unexpectedly, we observe striking loss of H3K27me3 and Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 from Polycomb target gene promoters in DNA hypomethylated cells, including Hox gene clusters. Importantly, we show that many of these genes become ectopically expressed in DNA hypomethylated cells, consistent with loss of Polycomb-mediated repression. Conclusions An intact DNA methylome is required for appropriate Polycomb-mediated gene repression by constraining Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 targeting. These observations identify a previously unappreciated role for DNA methylation in gene regulation and therefore influence our understanding of how this epigenetic mechanism contributes to normal development and disease. PMID:23531360

  10. The FBXL10/KDM2B Scaffolding Protein Associates with Novel Polycomb Repressive Complex-1 to Regulate Adipogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Inagaki, Takeshi; Iwasaki, Satoshi; Matsumura, Yoshihiro; Kawamura, Takeshi; Tanaka, Toshiya; Abe, Yohei; Yamasaki, Ayumu; Tsurutani, Yuya; Yoshida, Ayano; Chikaoka, Yoko; Nakamura, Kanako; Magoori, Kenta; Nakaki, Ryo; Osborne, Timothy F.; Fukami, Kiyoko; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Sakai, Juro

    2015-01-01

    Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) plays an essential role in the epigenetic repression of gene expression during development and cellular differentiation via multiple effector mechanisms, including ubiquitination of H2A and chromatin compaction. However, whether it regulates the stepwise progression of adipogenesis is unknown. Here, we show that FBXL10/KDM2B is an anti-adipogenic factor that is up-regulated during the early phase of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and in adipose tissue in a diet-induced model of obesity. Interestingly, inhibition of adipogenesis does not require the JmjC demethylase domain of FBXL10, but it does require the F-box and leucine-rich repeat domains, which we show recruit a noncanonical polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) containing RING1B, SKP1, PCGF1, and BCOR. Knockdown of either RING1B or SKP1 prevented FBXL10-mediated repression of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation indicating that PRC1 formation mediates the inhibitory effect of FBXL10 on adipogenesis. Using ChIP-seq, we show that FBXL10 recruits RING1B to key specific genomic loci surrounding the key cell cycle and the adipogenic genes Cdk1, Uhrf1, Pparg1, and Pparg2 to repress adipogenesis. These results suggest that FBXL10 represses adipogenesis by targeting a noncanonical PRC1 complex to repress key genes (e.g. Pparg) that control conversion of pluripotent cells into the adipogenic lineage. PMID:25533466

  11. SIP1/ZEB2 induces EMT by repressing genes of different epithelial cell–cell junctions

    PubMed Central

    Vandewalle, Cindy; Comijn, Joke; De Craene, Bram; Vermassen, Petra; Bruyneel, Erik; Andersen, Henriette; Tulchinsky, Eugene; Van Roy, Frans; Berx, Geert

    2005-01-01

    SIP1/ZEB2 is a member of the δEF-1 family of two-handed zinc finger nuclear factors. The expression of these transcription factors is associated with epithelial mesenchymal transitions (EMT) during development. SIP1 is also expressed in some breast cancer cell lines and was detected in intestinal gastric carcinomas, where its expression is inversely correlated with that of E-cadherin. Here, we show that expression of SIP1 in human epithelial cells results in a clear morphological change from an epithelial to a mesenchymal phenotype. Induction of this epithelial dedifferentiation was accompanied by repression of several cell junctional proteins, with concomitant repression of their mRNA levels. Besides E-cadherin, other genes coding for crucial proteins of tight junctions, desmosomes and gap junctions were found to be transcriptionally regulated by the transcriptional repressor SIP1. Moreover, study of the promoter regions of selected genes by luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation shows that repression is directly mediated by SIP1. These data indicate that, during epithelial dedifferentiation, SIP1 represses in a coordinated manner the transcription of genes coding for junctional proteins contributing to the dedifferentiated state; this repression occurs by a general mechanism mediated by Smad Interacting Protein 1 (SIP1)-binding sites. PMID:16314317

  12. REPRESSION OF TRYPTOPHANASE SYNTHESIS IN ESCHERICHIA COLI.

    PubMed

    BEGGS, W H; LICHSTEIN, H C

    1965-04-01

    Beggs, William H. (University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio), and Herman C. Lichstein. Repression of tryptophanase synthesis in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 89:996-1004. 1965.-The nature of the glucose effect on tryptophanase in Escherichia coli (Crookes) was investigated to test the catabolite-repression hypothesis. Under static conditions of growth in the presence of 0.005 m glucose, tryptophanase was repressed and remained so upon continued static incubation subsequent to glucose exhaustion. Aeration following glucose exhaustion under static cultural conditions resulted in rapid enzyme synthesis. In the absence of glucose, certain amino acids repressed tryptophanase synthesis early in the growth cycle under aerated conditions. An inverse relationship was observed between the concentration of acid-hydrolyzed casein and the level of tryptophanase. At 3 hr, enzyme activity in cells grown in media containing 0.05% acid-hydrolyzed casein was at least five times that of cells grown in the presence of 1% casein. Addition of 0.005 m d- or l-serine to a 0.05% acid-hydrolyzed casein medium rendered the medium capable of strongly repressing tryptophanase. Glucose-expended medium was prepared by allowing cells to grow and exhaust glucose in static culture. When this expended medium was recovered and inoculated with fresh cells not previously exposed to glucose, tryptophanase synthesis was repressed for a short period in shake culture, but in static culture enzyme synthesis was only slightly affected. When the expended medium was prepared from shake cultures, fresh cells were not repressed strongly when subsequent incubation was carried out aerobically. The tryptophan pool in glucose-repressed cells grown in shake culture was appreciably less than in cells grown in the absence of glucose or in cells undergoing synthesis of tryptophanase after exhaustion of the sugar.

  13. Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374r-Induced Systemic Resistance in Rice against Magnaporthe oryzae Is Based on Pseudobactin-Mediated Priming for a Salicylic Acid-Repressible Multifaceted Defense Response1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    De Vleesschauwer, David; Djavaheri, Mohammad; Bakker, Peter A.H.M.; Höfte, Monica

    2008-01-01

    Selected strains of nonpathogenic rhizobacteria can reduce disease in foliar tissues through the induction of a defense state known as induced systemic resistance (ISR). Compared with the large body of information on ISR in dicotyledonous plants, little is known about the mechanisms underlying rhizobacteria-induced resistance in cereal crops. Here, we demonstrate the ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374r to trigger ISR in rice (Oryza sativa) against the leaf blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Using salicylic acid (SA)-nonaccumulating NahG rice, an ethylene-insensitive OsEIN2 antisense line, and the jasmonate-deficient mutant hebiba, we show that this WCS374r-induced resistance is regulated by an SA-independent but jasmonic acid/ethylene-modulated signal transduction pathway. Bacterial mutant analysis uncovered a pseudobactin-type siderophore as the crucial determinant responsible for ISR elicitation. Root application of WCS374r-derived pseudobactin (Psb374) primed naive leaves for accelerated expression of a pronounced multifaceted defense response, consisting of rapid recruitment of phenolic compounds at sites of pathogen entry, concerted expression of a diverse set of structural defenses, and a timely hyperinduction of hydrogen peroxide formation putatively driving cell wall fortification. Exogenous SA application alleviated this Psb374-modulated defense priming, while Psb374 pretreatment antagonized infection-induced transcription of SA-responsive PR genes, suggesting that the Psb374- and SA-modulated signaling pathways are mutually antagonistic. Interestingly, in sharp contrast to WCS374r-mediated ISR, chemical induction of blast resistance by the SA analog benzothiadiazole was independent of jasmonic acid/ethylene signaling and involved the potentiation of SA-responsive gene expression. Together, these results offer novel insights into the signaling circuitry governing induced resistance against M. oryzae and suggest that rice is endowed with multiple

  14. Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374r-induced systemic resistance in rice against Magnaporthe oryzae is based on pseudobactin-mediated priming for a salicylic acid-repressible multifaceted defense response.

    PubMed

    De Vleesschauwer, David; Djavaheri, Mohammad; Bakker, Peter A H M; Höfte, Monica

    2008-12-01

    Selected strains of nonpathogenic rhizobacteria can reduce disease in foliar tissues through the induction of a defense state known as induced systemic resistance (ISR). Compared with the large body of information on ISR in dicotyledonous plants, little is known about the mechanisms underlying rhizobacteria-induced resistance in cereal crops. Here, we demonstrate the ability of Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS374r to trigger ISR in rice (Oryza sativa) against the leaf blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. Using salicylic acid (SA)-nonaccumulating NahG rice, an ethylene-insensitive OsEIN2 antisense line, and the jasmonate-deficient mutant hebiba, we show that this WCS374r-induced resistance is regulated by an SA-independent but jasmonic acid/ethylene-modulated signal transduction pathway. Bacterial mutant analysis uncovered a pseudobactin-type siderophore as the crucial determinant responsible for ISR elicitation. Root application of WCS374r-derived pseudobactin (Psb374) primed naive leaves for accelerated expression of a pronounced multifaceted defense response, consisting of rapid recruitment of phenolic compounds at sites of pathogen entry, concerted expression of a diverse set of structural defenses, and a timely hyperinduction of hydrogen peroxide formation putatively driving cell wall fortification. Exogenous SA application alleviated this Psb374-modulated defense priming, while Psb374 pretreatment antagonized infection-induced transcription of SA-responsive PR genes, suggesting that the Psb374- and SA-modulated signaling pathways are mutually antagonistic. Interestingly, in sharp contrast to WCS374r-mediated ISR, chemical induction of blast resistance by the SA analog benzothiadiazole was independent of jasmonic acid/ethylene signaling and involved the potentiation of SA-responsive gene expression. Together, these results offer novel insights into the signaling circuitry governing induced resistance against M. oryzae and suggest that rice is endowed with multiple

  15. Fisetin Suppresses Lipid Accumulation in Mouse Adipocytic 3T3-L1 Cells by Repressing GLUT4-Mediated Glucose Uptake through Inhibition of mTOR-C/EBPα Signaling.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Marina; Hisatake, Mitsuhiro; Fujimori, Ko

    2015-05-27

    3,7,3',4'-Tetrahydroxyflavone (fisetin) is a flavonoid found in vegetables and fruits having broad biological activities. Here the effects of fisetin on adipogenesis and its regulatory mechanism in mouse adipocytic 3T3-L1 cells are studied. Fisetin inhibited the accumulation of intracellular lipids and lowered the expression of adipogenic genes such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) α and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (aP2) during adipogenesis. Moreover, the mRNA levels of genes such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase involved in the fatty acid biosynthesis (lipogenesis) were reduced by the treatment with fisetin. The expression level of the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) gene was also decreased by fisetin, resulting in down-regulation of glucose uptake. Furthermore, fisetin inhibited the phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and that of p70 ribosomal S6 kinase, a target of the mTOR complex, the inhibition of which was followed by a decreased mRNA level of the C/EBPα gene. The results obtained from a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that the ability of C/EBPα to bind to the GLUT4 gene promoter was reduced by the treatment with fisetin, which agreed well with those obtained when 3T3-L1 cells were allowed to differentiate into adipocytes in medium in the presence of rapamycin, an inhibitor for mTOR. These results indicate that fisetin suppressed the accumulation of intracellular lipids by inhibiting GLUT4-mediated glucose uptake through inhibition of the mTOR-C/EBPα signaling in 3T3-L1 cells.

  16. Primal repression: clinical and theoretical aspects.

    PubMed

    Kinston, W; Cohen, J

    1986-01-01

    Primal repression, long an obscure and unusable concept, has been given a precise place in a recent re-working of the theory of repression (Cohen & Kinston, 1984); and this paper specifically examines its properties and presentation. Primal repression refers to an absence of psychic structure which can be made good in the process of emotional growth. It is a part of the mind where trauma persists; and it has a close connexion to the unrepressed unconscious. Direct emergence of primal repression is a threat to life and its activation is therefore risky. During psychoanalysis, primal repression is normally avoided by object-narcissism buttressed by neurotic defences, but it may be reached and worked with in the presence of a non-internalizable valuing and nurturing relationship which we label 'primary relatedness'. This relation is therefore the interactional context for emotional growth. Numerous clinical examples are provided to demonstrate characteristic features of this region of the mind as seen in psychoanalyses. Vignettes illustrate the experiences of patient and analyst as primary relatedness is established; the consequent re-emergence of traumatic states and unmet needs, often initially in the form of severe physical and psychological deterioration; primitive forms of symbolization in the course of repairing primal repression; and the role of action in emotional growth. PMID:2427464

  17. MLL repression domain interacts with histone deacetylases, the polycomb group proteins HPC2 and BMI-1, and the corepressor C-terminal-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Zhen-Biao; Anderson, Melanie; Diaz, Manuel O.; Zeleznik-Le, Nancy J.

    2003-01-01

    The MLL (mixed-lineage leukemia) gene is involved in many chromosomal translocations associated with acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemia. We previously identified a transcriptional repression domain in MLL, which contains a region with homology to DNA methyltransferase. In chromosomal translocations, the MLL repression domain is retained in the leukemogenic fusion protein and is required for transforming activity of MLL fusion proteins. We explored the mechanism of action of the MLL repression domain. Histone deacetylase 1 interacts with the MLL repression domain, partially mediating its activity; binding of Cyp33 to the adjacent MLL-PHD domain potentiates this binding. Because the MLL repression domain activity was only partially relieved with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A, we explored other protein interactions with this domain. Polycomb group proteins HPC2 and BMI-1 and the corepressor C-terminal-binding protein also bind the MLL repression domain. Expression of exogenous BMI-1 potentiates MLL repression domain activity. Functional antagonism between Mll and Bmi-1 has been shown genetically in murine knockout models for Mll and Bmi-1. Our new data suggest a model whereby recruitment of BMI-1 to the MLL protein may be able to modulate its function. Furthermore, repression mediated by histone deacetylases and that mediated by polycomb group proteins may act either independently or together for MLL function in vivo. PMID:12829790

  18. Direct activation and anti-repression functions of GAL4-VP16 use distinct molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, J G; Chambon, P

    1995-01-01

    In order to determine whether the molecular mechanisms used for direct activation by GAL4-VP16 are the same as those used for anti-repression, we have employed monoclonal antibodies specific for the VP16 activation domain. In the absence of added repressors, GAL4-VP16 was able to stimulate transcription from a template containing GAL4-binding sites, and the antibodies raised against the VP16 activation domain failed to inhibit this direct activation. GAL4-VP16 also was able to prevent histone H1-mediated repression by a mechanism that was strongly dependent on the presence of specific GAL4-binding elements in the promoter. However, in contrast to the assays conducted in the absence of repressors, the antibodies were strong inhibitors of GAL4-VP16-activated transcription in the presence of histone H1. Thus the binding of the antibodies distinguished between the direct activation and anti-repression functions of GAL4-VP16, indicating that these functions operate through distinct molecular mechanisms. The anti-repression-specific mechanism that is inhibitable by the antibodies acted at an early stage of preinitiation complex formation. Deletions of individual subdomains of the VP16 activation domain demonstrated that there was not a discrete subdomain responsible for the anti-repression function of GAL4-VP16. Thus, the inhibitory effect of the antibodies appeared to be due to the location of the epitope within the activator protein rather than to some inherent biochemical property of that region of the protein that is required specifically for anti-repression. The inhibitory effect of the antibodies also ruled out the possibility that steric exclusion of repressor proteins from the promoter was the sole means of anti-repression by the transcriptional activator. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8554536

  19. EVI1 recruits the histone methyltransferase SUV39H1 for transcription repression.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Francesca; Nucifora, Giuseppina

    2008-10-01

    EVI1 is an oncoprotein inappropriately expressed in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome cells. In vitro studies indicate that diverse biological properties can be attributed to this protein. Its role in leukemogenesis is still unclear but it is thought that overall EVI1 can act mostly as a transcription repressor through its interaction with a subset of histone deacetylases. Studies with histone deacetylase inhibitors have however indicated that EVI1-mediated repression can be only partially rescued by deacetylase inhibitor drugs, suggesting that additional chromosomal modifications might occur to induce gene repression by EVI1. To investigate whether histone methylation contributes to the repressive potential of EVI1, we examined a potential association between EVI1, the histone methyltransferase (HMT) SUV39H1, and methyltransferase activity in vitro. We find that EVI1 directly interacts with SUV39H1 and that the proteins form an active complex with methyltransferase activity in vitro. Our data indicate that SUV39H1 enhances the transcription repressive potential of EVI1 in vivo. We suggest that EVI1 affects promoters' activity in two different pathways, by association with histone deacetylases and by recruiting chromatin-modifying enzymes to impose a heterochromatin-like structure establishing a lasting transcription repression.

  20. Androgen receptor repression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene transcription via enhancer 1.

    PubMed

    Brayman, Melissa J; Pepa, Patricia A; Mellon, Pamela L

    2012-11-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a major role in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, and synthesis and secretion of GnRH are regulated by gonadal steroid hormones. Disruptions in androgen levels are involved in a number of reproductive defects, including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Androgens down-regulate GnRH mRNA synthesis in vivo and in vitro via an androgen receptor (AR)-dependent mechanism. Methyltrienolone (R1881), a synthetic AR agonist, represses GnRH expression through multiple sites in the proximal promoter. In this study, we show AR also represses GnRH transcription via the major enhancer (GnRH-E1). A multimer of the -1800/-1766 region was repressed by R1881 treatment. Mutation of two bases, -1792 and -1791, resulted in decreased basal activity and a loss of AR-mediated repression. AR bound to the -1796/-1791 sequence in electrophoretic mobility shift assays, indicating a direct interaction with DNA or other transcription factors in this region. We conclude that AR repression of GnRH-E1 acts via multiple AR-responsive regions, including the site at -1792/-1791.

  1. A highly conserved molecular switch binds MSY-3 to regulate myogenin repression in postnatal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Berghella, Libera; De Angelis, Luciana; De Buysscher, Tristan; Mortazavi, Ali; Biressi, Stefano; Forcales, Sonia V.; Sirabella, Dario; Cossu, Giulio; Wold, Barbara J.

    2008-01-01

    Myogenin is the dominant transcriptional regulator of embryonic and fetal muscle differentiation and during maturation is profoundly down-regulated. We show that a highly conserved 17-bp DNA cis-acting sequence element located upstream of the myogenin promoter (myogHCE) is essential for postnatal repression of myogenin in transgenic animals. We present multiple lines of evidence supporting the idea that repression is mediated by the Y-box protein MSY-3. Electroporation in vivo shows that myogHCE and MSY-3 are required for postnatal repression. We further show that, in the C2C12 cell culture system, ectopic MSY-3 can repress differentiation, while reduced MSY-3 promotes premature differentiation. MSY-3 binds myogHCE simultaneously with the homeodomain protein Pbx in postnatal innervated muscle. We therefore propose a model in which the myogHCE motif operates as a switch by specifying opposing functions; one that was shown previously is regulated by MyoD and Pbx and it specifies a chromatin opening, gene-activating function at the time myoblasts begin to differentiate; the other includes MYS-3 and Pbx, and it specifies a repression function that operates during and after postnatal muscle maturation in vivo and in myoblasts before they begin to differentiate. PMID:18676817

  2. Androgen receptor repression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene transcription via enhancer 1.

    PubMed

    Brayman, Melissa J; Pepa, Patricia A; Mellon, Pamela L

    2012-11-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a major role in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, and synthesis and secretion of GnRH are regulated by gonadal steroid hormones. Disruptions in androgen levels are involved in a number of reproductive defects, including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Androgens down-regulate GnRH mRNA synthesis in vivo and in vitro via an androgen receptor (AR)-dependent mechanism. Methyltrienolone (R1881), a synthetic AR agonist, represses GnRH expression through multiple sites in the proximal promoter. In this study, we show AR also represses GnRH transcription via the major enhancer (GnRH-E1). A multimer of the -1800/-1766 region was repressed by R1881 treatment. Mutation of two bases, -1792 and -1791, resulted in decreased basal activity and a loss of AR-mediated repression. AR bound to the -1796/-1791 sequence in electrophoretic mobility shift assays, indicating a direct interaction with DNA or other transcription factors in this region. We conclude that AR repression of GnRH-E1 acts via multiple AR-responsive regions, including the site at -1792/-1791. PMID:22877652

  3. Vernalization-mediated chromatin changes.

    PubMed

    Zografos, Brett R; Sung, Sibum

    2012-07-01

    Proper flowering time is vital for reproductive fitness in flowering plants. In Arabidopsis, vernalization is mediated primarily through the repression of a MADS box transcription factor, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC). The induction of a plant homeodomain-containing protein, VERNALIZATION INSENSITIVE 3 (VIN3), by vernalizing cold is required for proper repression of FLC. One of a myriad of changes that occurs after VIN3 is induced is the establishment of FLC chromatin at a mitotically repressed state due to the enrichment of repressive histone modifications. VIN3 induction by cold is the earliest known event during the vernalization response and includes changes in histone modifications at its chromatin. Here, the current understanding of the vernalization-mediated chromatin changes in Arabidopsis is discussed, with a focus on the roles of shared chromatin-modifying machineries in regulating VIN3 and FLC gene family expression during the course of vernalization.

  4. SOD1 integrates signals from oxygen and glucose to repress respiration.

    PubMed

    Reddi, Amit R; Culotta, Valeria C

    2013-01-17

    Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is an abundant enzyme that has been best studied as a regulator of antioxidant defense. Using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we report that SOD1 transmits signals from oxygen and glucose to repress respiration. The mechanism involves SOD1-mediated stabilization of two casein kinase 1-gamma (CK1γ) homologs, Yck1p and Yck2p, required for respiratory repression. SOD1 binds a C-terminal degron we identified in Yck1p/Yck2p and promotes kinase stability by catalyzing superoxide conversion to peroxide. The effects of SOD1 on CK1γ stability are also observed with mammalian SOD1 and CK1γ and in a human cell line. Therefore, in a single circuit, oxygen, glucose, and reactive oxygen can repress respiration through SOD1/CK1γ signaling. Our data therefore may provide mechanistic insight into how rapidly proliferating cells and many cancers accomplish glucose-mediated repression of respiration in favor of aerobic glycolysis.

  5. MYC acts via the PTEN tumor suppressor to elicit autoregulation and genome-wide gene repression by activation of the Ezh2 methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Mandeep; Cole, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    The control of normal cell growth is a balance between stimulatory and inhibitory signals. MYC is a pleiotropic transcription factor that both activates and represses a broad range of target genes and is indispensable for cell growth. While much is known about gene activation by MYC, there is no established mechanism for the majority of MYC repressed genes. We report that MYC transcriptionally activates the PTEN tumor suppressor in normal cells to inactivate the PI3K pathway, thus suppressing AKT activation. Suppression of AKT enhances the activity of the EZH2 histone methyltransferase, a subunit of the epigenetic repressor Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), while simultaneously stabilizing the protein. MYC mediated enhancement in EZH2 protein level and activity results in local and genome-wide elevation in the repressive H3K27me3 histone modification, leading to widespread gene repression including feedback autoregulation of the MYC gene itself. Depletion of either PTEN or EZH2 and inhibition of the PI3K/AKT pathway leads to gene derepression. Importantly, expression of a phospho-defective EZH2 mutant is sufficient to recapitulate nearly half of all MYC-mediated gene repression. We present a novel epigenetic model for MYC-mediated gene repression and propose that PTEN and MYC exist in homeostatic balance to control normal growth which is disrupted in cancer cells. PMID:23135913

  6. The oct3 gene, a gene for an embryonic transcription factor, is controlled by a retinoic acid repressible enhancer.

    PubMed Central

    Okazawa, H; Okamoto, K; Ishino, F; Ishino-Kaneko, T; Takeda, S; Toyoda, Y; Muramatsu, M; Hamada, H

    1991-01-01

    Oct3 is an embryonic octamer-binding transcription factor, whose expression is rapidly repressed by retinoic acid (RA). In this report, we have determined the transcriptional control region of the oct3 gene and studied the mechanism of the RA-mediated repression. The chromosomal oct3 gene consists of five exons. Three subdomains of the POU region and transactivating domain are located in separate exons. Transcription initiates at multiple sites in the GC-rich region lacking a typical TATA box. The upstream 2 kb region can confer the cell type-specific expression and RA-mediated repression. Analysis of the upstream region by deletion mutagenesis locates a cis element (RARE1) which functions as a stem cell-specific, yet RA-repressible, enhancer. Footprint and gel-retardation assays show that RARE1 is composed of two domains, each of which is recognized by distinct factors. Microinjection of oct3-lacZ constructs into fertilized eggs indicates that RARE1 can function in early embryos. We suggest that RARE1 is a critical cis element for oct3 gene expression in embryonic stem cells and for the RA-mediated repression. Images PMID:1915274

  7. The great repression: chromatin and cryptic transcription.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Bianca P; Fischer, Tamás

    2013-01-01

    The eukaryotic chromatin structure is essential in correctly defining transcription units. Impairing this structure can activate cryptic promoters, and lead to the accumulation of aberrant RNA transcripts. Here we discuss critical pathways that are responsible for the repression of cryptic transcription and the maintenance of genome integrity.

  8. Upstream operators enhance repression of the lac promoter.

    PubMed

    Mossing, M C; Record, M T

    1986-08-22

    To study regulation of transcription by distant elements, a wild-type lac operator was inserted upstream of a promoter-constitutive operator control region. The upstream operator is shown to aid in repression of transcription from the mutant control region. The effectiveness of the upstream operator as a function of its distance from the mutant control region parallels the length dependence observed for DNA cyclization. A quantitative model is proposed for action-at-a-distance of DNA control sites in which protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions are mediated by DNA looping. In this model, the effective concentrations of interacting proteins that are tethered by DNA are determined by the length of the intervening DNA and by its inherent bending and torsional stiffness. This model makes a number of predictions for both eukaryotic and prokaryotic control sequences located far from their sites of action. PMID:3090685

  9. How targets select activation or repression in response to Wnt.

    PubMed

    Murgan, Sabrina; Bertrand, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    In metazoans, the Wnt signaling pathway plays a key role in the regulation of binary decisions during development. During this process different sets of target genes are activated in cells where the Wnt pathway is active (classic target genes) versus cells where the pathway is inactive (opposite target genes). While the mechanism of transcriptional activation is well understood for classic target genes, how opposite target genes are activated in the absence of Wnt remains poorly characterized. Here we discuss how the key transcriptional mediator of the Wnt pathway, the TCF family member POP-1, regulates opposite target genes during C. elegans development. We examine recent findings suggesting that the direction of the transcriptional output (activation or repression) can be determined by the way TCF is recruited and physically interacts with its target gene. PMID:27123368

  10. The role of COP1 in repression of photoperiodic flowering.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dongqing; Zhu, Danmeng; Deng, Xing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Plants use the circadian clock as a timekeeping mechanism to regulate photoperiodic flowering in response to the seasonal changes. CONSTITUTIVELY PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1), initially identified as a central repressor of seedling photomorphogenesis, was recently shown to be involved in the regulation of light input to the circadian clock, modulating the circadian rhythm and flowering. COP1 encodes a RING-finger E3 ubiquitin ligase and works in concert with SUPPRESSOR of phyA-105 (SPA) proteins to repress photoperiodic flowering by regulating proteasome-mediated degradation of CONSTANS (CO), a central regulator of photoperiodic flowering. In addition, COP1 and EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3) indirectly modulate CO expression via the degradation of GIGANTEA (GI). Here, we summarize the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying COP1's role in controlling of photoperiodic flowering. PMID:26949521

  11. Tristetraprolin Represses Estrogen Receptor α Transactivation in Breast Cancer Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Barrios-García, Tonatiuh; Tecalco-Cruz, Angeles; Gómez-Romero, Vania; Reyes-Carmona, Sandra; Meneses-Morales, Iván; León-Del-Río, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) mediates the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) in normal mammary gland, and it is a key participant in breast cancer tumor development. ERα transactivation activity is mediated by the synergistic interaction of two domains designated AF1 and AF2. The function of AF2 is to recruit coactivator and corepressor proteins that allow ERα to oscillate between the roles of transcriptional activator and repressor. In contrast, the mechanism responsible for AF-1 transcriptional activity is not completely understood. In this study, we identified tristetraproline (TTP) as a novel ERα-associated protein. TTP expression in MCF7 cells repressed ERα transactivation and reduced MCF7 cell proliferation and the ability of the cells to form tumors in a mouse model. We show that TTP transcriptional activity is mediated through its recruitment to the promoter region of ERα target genes and its interaction with histone deacetylases, in particular with HDAC1. TTP expression attenuates the coactivating activity of SRC-1, suggesting that exchange between TTP and other coactivators may play an important role in fine-tuning ERα transactivation. These results indicate that TTP acts as a bona fide ERα corepressor and suggest that this protein may be a contributing factor in the development of E2-dependent tumors in breast cancer. PMID:24737323

  12. Tristetraprolin represses estrogen receptor α transactivation in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Barrios-García, Tonatiuh; Tecalco-Cruz, Angeles; Gómez-Romero, Vania; Reyes-Carmona, Sandra; Meneses-Morales, Iván; León-Del-Río, Alfonso

    2014-05-30

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) mediates the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) in normal mammary gland, and it is a key participant in breast cancer tumor development. ERα transactivation activity is mediated by the synergistic interaction of two domains designated AF1 and AF2. The function of AF2 is to recruit coactivator and corepressor proteins that allow ERα to oscillate between the roles of transcriptional activator and repressor. In contrast, the mechanism responsible for AF-1 transcriptional activity is not completely understood. In this study, we identified tristetraproline (TTP) as a novel ERα-associated protein. TTP expression in MCF7 cells repressed ERα transactivation and reduced MCF7 cell proliferation and the ability of the cells to form tumors in a mouse model. We show that TTP transcriptional activity is mediated through its recruitment to the promoter region of ERα target genes and its interaction with histone deacetylases, in particular with HDAC1. TTP expression attenuates the coactivating activity of SRC-1, suggesting that exchange between TTP and other coactivators may play an important role in fine-tuning ERα transactivation. These results indicate that TTP acts as a bona fide ERα corepressor and suggest that this protein may be a contributing factor in the development of E2-dependent tumors in breast cancer.

  13. Tristetraprolin represses estrogen receptor α transactivation in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Barrios-García, Tonatiuh; Tecalco-Cruz, Angeles; Gómez-Romero, Vania; Reyes-Carmona, Sandra; Meneses-Morales, Iván; León-Del-Río, Alfonso

    2014-05-30

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) mediates the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) in normal mammary gland, and it is a key participant in breast cancer tumor development. ERα transactivation activity is mediated by the synergistic interaction of two domains designated AF1 and AF2. The function of AF2 is to recruit coactivator and corepressor proteins that allow ERα to oscillate between the roles of transcriptional activator and repressor. In contrast, the mechanism responsible for AF-1 transcriptional activity is not completely understood. In this study, we identified tristetraproline (TTP) as a novel ERα-associated protein. TTP expression in MCF7 cells repressed ERα transactivation and reduced MCF7 cell proliferation and the ability of the cells to form tumors in a mouse model. We show that TTP transcriptional activity is mediated through its recruitment to the promoter region of ERα target genes and its interaction with histone deacetylases, in particular with HDAC1. TTP expression attenuates the coactivating activity of SRC-1, suggesting that exchange between TTP and other coactivators may play an important role in fine-tuning ERα transactivation. These results indicate that TTP acts as a bona fide ERα corepressor and suggest that this protein may be a contributing factor in the development of E2-dependent tumors in breast cancer. PMID:24737323

  14. Nimesulide, a cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitor, suppresses obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic insulin resistance through the regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimoto, Shunsuke; Kishina, Manabu; Koda, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Yasutaka; Tanaka, Kohei; Harada, Yusuke; Yoshida, Akio; Hisatome, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 selective inhibitors suppress non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, the precise mechanism of action remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine how the COX-2 selective inhibitor nimesulide suppresses NAFLD in a murine model of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Mice were fed either a normal chow diet (NC), an HFD, or HFD plus nimesulide (HFD-nime) for 12 weeks. Body weight, hepatic COX-2 mRNA expression and triglyceride accumulation were significantly increased in the HFD group. Triglyceride accumulation was suppressed in the HFD-nime group. The mRNA expression of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and the natural PPARγ agonist 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) were significantly increased in the HFD group and significantly suppressed in the HFD-nime group. Glucose metabolism was impaired in the HFD group compared with the NC group, and it was significantly improved in the HFD-nime group. In addition, the plasma insulin levels in the HFD group were increased compared with those in the NC group, and were decreased in the HFD-nime group. These results indicate that HFD-induced NAFLD is mediated by the increased hepatic expression of COX-2. We suggest that the production of 15d-PGJ2, which is mediated by COX-2, induces NAFLD and hepatic insulin resistance by activating PPARγ. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), procollagen-1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), as well as the number of F4/80-positive hepatic (Kupffer) cells, were significantly increased in the HFD group compared with the NC group, and they were reduced by nimesulide. In conclusion, COX-2 may emerge as a molecular target for preventing the development of NAFLD and insulin resistance in diet-related obesity. PMID:27431935

  15. Catabolite repression and inducer control in Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Saier, M H; Chauvaux, S; Cook, G M; Deutscher, J; Paulsen, I T; Reizer, J; Ye, J J

    1996-02-01

    Results currently available clearly indicate that the metabolite-activated protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation of Ser-46 in HPr plays a key role in catabolite repression and the control of inducer levels in low-GC Gram-positive bacteria. This protein kinase is not found in enteric bacteria such as E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium where an entirely different PTS-mediated regulatory mechanism is responsible for catabolite repression and inducer concentration control. In Table 2 these two mechanistically dissimilar but functionally related processes are compared (Saier et al., 1995b). In Gram-negative enteric bacteria, an external sugar is sensed by the sugar-recognition constituent of an Enzyme II complex of the PTS (IIC), and a dephosphorylating signal is transmitted via the Enzyme IIB/HPr proteins to the central regulatory protein, IIAGlc. Targets regulated include (1) permeases specific for lactose, maltose, melibiose and raffinose, (2) catabolic enzymes such as glycerol kinase that generate cytoplasmic inducers, and (3) the cAMP biosynthetic enzyme, adenylate cyclase that mediates catabolite repression (Saier, 1989, 1993). In low-GC Gram-positive bacteria, cytoplasmic phosphorylated sugar metabolites are sensed by the HPr kinase which is allostericlaly activated. HPr becomes phosphorylated on Ser-46, and this phosphorylated derivative regulates the activities of its target proteins. These targets include (1) the PTS, (2) non-PTS permeases (both of which are inhibited) and (3) a cytoplasmic sugar-P phosphatase which is activated to reduce cytoplasmic inducer levels. Other important targets of HPr(ser-P) action are (4) the CcpA protein and probably (5) the CepB transcription factor. These two proteins together are believed to determine the intensity of catabolite repression. Their relative importance depends on physiological conditions. Both proteins may respond to the cytoplasmic concentration of HPr(ser-P) and appropriate metabolites. CepA possibly binds

  16. Activation and repression functions of an SR splicing regulator depend on exonic versus intronic-binding position.

    PubMed

    Shen, Manli; Mattox, William

    2012-01-01

    SR proteins and related factors play widespread roles in alternative pre-mRNA splicing and are known to promote splice site recognition through their Arg-Ser-rich effector domains. However, binding of SR regulators to some targets results in repression of splice sites through a distinct mechanism. Here, we investigate how activated and repressed targets of the Drosophila SR regulator Transformer2 elicit its differing effects on splicing. We find that, like activation, repression affects early steps in the recognition of splice sites and spliceosome assembly. Repositioning of regulatory elements reveals that Tra2 complexes that normally repress splicing from intronic positions activate splicing when located in an exon. Protein tethering experiments demonstrate that this position dependence is an intrinsic property of Tra2 and further show that repression and activation are mediated by separate effector domains of this protein. When other Drosophila SR factors (SF2 and Rbp1) that activate splicing from exonic positions were tethered intronically they failed to either activate or repress splicing. Interestingly, both activities of Tra2 favor the exonic identity of the RNA sequences that encompass its binding sites. This suggests a model in which these two opposite functions act in concert to define both the position and extent of alternatively spliced exons.

  17. Protein kinase A represses skeletal myogenesis by targeting myocyte enhancer factor 2D.

    PubMed

    Du, Min; Perry, Robert L S; Nowacki, Nathaniel B; Gordon, Joseph W; Salma, Jahan; Zhao, Jianzhong; Aziz, Arif; Chan, Joseph; Siu, K W Michael; McDermott, John C

    2008-05-01

    Activation of protein kinase A (PKA) by elevation of the intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) level inhibits skeletal myogenesis. Previously, an indirect modulation of the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) was implicated as the mechanism. Because myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) proteins are key regulators of myogenesis and obligatory partners for the MRFs, here we assessed whether these proteins could be involved in PKA-mediated myogenic repression. Initially, in silico analysis revealed several consensus PKA phosphoacceptor sites on MEF2, and subsequent analysis by in vitro kinase assays indicated that PKA directly and efficiently phosphorylates MEF2D. Using mass spectrometric determination of phosphorylated residues, we document that MEF2D serine 121 and serine 190 are targeted by PKA. Transcriptional reporter gene assays to assess MEF2D function revealed that PKA potently represses the transactivation properties of MEF2D. Furthermore, engineered mutation of MEF2D PKA phosphoacceptor sites (serines 121 and 190 to alanine) rendered a PKA-resistant MEF2D protein, which efficiently rescues myogenesis from PKA-mediated repression. Concomitantly, increased intracellular cAMP-mediated PKA activation also resulted in an enhanced nuclear accumulation of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) and a subsequent increase in the MEF2D-HDAC4 repressor complex. Collectively, these data identify MEF2D as a primary target of PKA signaling in myoblasts that leads to inhibition of the skeletal muscle differentiation program.

  18. Transthyretin represses neovascularization in diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells has been reportedly induced by the protein transthyretin (TTR). In human ocular tissue, TTR is generally considered to be secreted mainly by retinal pigment epithelial cells (hRPECs); however, whether TTR affects the development of neovascularization in diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains unclear. Methods Natural and simulated DR media were used to culture human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (hRECs). Hyperglycemia was simulated by increasing the glucose concentration from 5.5 mM up to 25 mM, while hypoxia was induced with 200 µM CoCl2. To understand the effects of TTR on hRECs, cell proliferation was investigated under natural and DR conditions. Overexpression of TTR, an in vitro wound-healing assay, and a tube formation assay were employed to study the repression of TTR on hRECs. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to study the mRNA levels of DR-related genes, such as Tie2, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, Angpt1, and Angpt2. Results The proliferation of hRECs was significantly decreased in the simulated hyperglycemic and hypoxic DR environments. The cells were further repressed by added exogenous or endogenous TTR only under hyperglycemic conditions. The in vitro migration and tube formation processes of the hRECs were inhibited with TTR; furthermore, in the hyperglycemia and hyperglycemia/hypoxia environments, the levels of Tie2 and Angpt1 mRNA were enhanced with exogenous TTR, while those of VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and Angpt1 were repressed. Conclusions In hyperglycemia, the proliferation, migration, and neovascularization of hRECs were significantly inhibited by TTR. The key genes for DR neovascularization, including Tie2, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, Angpt1, and Angpt2, were regulated by TTR. Under DR conditions, TTR significantly represses neovascularization by inhibiting the proliferation, migration and tube formation of hRECs. PMID:27746673

  19. Differential regulation of transcription: repression by unactivated mitogen-activated protein kinase Kss1 requires the Dig1 and Dig2 proteins.

    PubMed

    Bardwell, L; Cook, J G; Zhu-Shimoni, J X; Voora, D; Thorner, J

    1998-12-22

    Kss1, a yeast mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), in its unphosphorylated (unactivated) state binds directly to and represses Ste12, a transcription factor necessary for expression of genes whose promoters contain filamentous response elements (FREs) and genes whose promoters contain pheromone response elements (PREs). Herein we show that two nuclear proteins, Dig1 and Dig2, are required cofactors in Kss1-imposed repression. Dig1 and Dig2 cooperate with Kss1 to repress Ste12 action at FREs and regulate invasive growth in a naturally invasive strain. Kss1-imposed Dig-dependent repression of Ste12 also occurs at PREs. However, maintenance of repression at PREs is more dependent on Dig1 and/or Dig2 and less dependent on Kss1 than repression at FREs. In addition, derepression at PREs is more dependent on MAPK-mediated phosphorylation than is derepression at FREs. Differential utilization of two types of MAPK-mediated regulation (binding-imposed repression and phosphorylation-dependent activation), in combination with distinct Ste12-containing complexes, contributes to the mechanisms by which separate extracellular stimuli that use the same MAPK cascade can elicit two different transcriptional responses. PMID:9860980

  20. Memory repression: brain mechanisms underlying dissociative amnesia.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Hirokazu; Fujii, Toshikatsu; Abe, Nobuhito; Suzuki, Maki; Takagi, Masahito; Mugikura, Shunji; Takahashi, Shoki; Mori, Etsuro

    2010-03-01

    Dissociative amnesia usually follows a stressful event and cannot be attributable to explicit brain damage. It is thought to reflect a reversible deficit in memory retrieval probably due to memory repression. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this condition are not clear. We used fMRI to investigate neural activity associated with memory retrieval in two patients with dissociative amnesia. For each patient, three categories of face photographs and three categories of people's names corresponding to the photographs were prepared: those of "recognizable" high school friends who were acquainted with and recognizable to the patients, those of "unrecognizable" colleagues who were actually acquainted with but unrecognizable to the patients due to their memory impairments, and "control" distracters who were unacquainted with the patients. During fMRI, the patients were visually presented with these stimuli and asked to indicate whether they were personally acquainted with them. In the comparison of the unrecognizable condition with the recognizable condition, we found increased activity in the pFC and decreased activity in the hippocampus in both patients. After treatment for retrograde amnesia, the altered pattern of brain activation disappeared in one patient whose retrograde memories were recovered, whereas it remained unchanged in the other patient whose retrograde memories were not recovered. Our findings provide direct evidence that memory repression in dissociative amnesia is associated with an altered pattern of neural activity, and they suggest the possibility that the pFC has an important role in inhibiting the activity of the hippocampus in memory repression.

  1. Bile Acids Function Synergistically To Repress Invasion Gene Expression in Salmonella by Destabilizing the Invasion Regulator HilD.

    PubMed

    Eade, Colleen R; Hung, Chien-Che; Bullard, Brian; Gonzalez-Escobedo, Geoffrey; Gunn, John S; Altier, Craig

    2016-08-01

    Salmonella spp. are carried by and can acutely infect agricultural animals and humans. After ingestion, salmonellae traverse the upper digestive tract and initiate tissue invasion of the distal ileum, a virulence process carried out by the type III secretion system encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). Salmonellae coordinate SPI-1 expression with anatomical location via environmental cues, one of which is bile, a complex digestive fluid that causes potent repression of SPI-1 genes. The individual components of bile responsible for SPI-1 repression have not been previously characterized, nor have the bacterial signaling processes that modulate their effects been determined. Here, we characterize the mechanism by which bile represses SPI-1 expression. Individual bile acids exhibit repressive activity on SPI-1-regulated genes that requires neither passive diffusion nor OmpF-mediated entry. By using genetic methods, the effects of bile and bile acids were shown to require the invasion gene transcriptional activator hilD and to function independently of known upstream signaling pathways. Protein analysis techniques showed that SPI-1 repression by bile acids is mediated by posttranslational destabilization of HilD. Finally, we found that bile acids function synergistically to achieve the overall repressive activity of bile. These studies demonstrate a common mechanism by which diverse environmental cues (e.g., certain short-chain fatty acids and bile acids) inhibit SPI-1 expression. These data provide information relevant to Salmonella pathogenesis during acute infection in the intestine and during chronic infection of the gallbladder and inform the basis for development of therapeutics to inhibit invasion as a means of repressing Salmonella pathogenicity.

  2. Pro-/Anti-inflammatory Dysregulation in Patients With First Episode of Psychosis: Toward an Integrative Inflammatory Hypothesis of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    García-Bueno, Borja; Bioque, Miquel; Mac-Dowell, Karina S.; Barcones, M. Fe; Leza, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is a chronic syndrome of unknown etiology, predominantly defined by signs of psychosis. The onset of the disorder occurs typically in late adolescence or early adulthood. Efforts to study pathophysiological mechanisms in early stages of the disease are crucial in order to prompt intervention. Methods: Case-control study of first-episode psychotic (FEP) patients and matched controls. We recruited 117 patients during the first year after their FEP according to the DSM-IV criteria and recruited 106 gender-, race-, and age-matched controls between September 2010 and June 2011. Results: Biochemical studies carried out in peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PMBC) and plasma evidence a significant increase in intracellular components of a main proinflammatory pathway, along with a significant decrease in the anti-inflammatory ones. Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified the expression of inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase in PMBC and homocysteine plasma levels as the most reliable potential risk factors and the inhibitor of the inflammatory transcription factor NFκB, IκBα, and the anti-inflammatory prostaglandin 15d-PGJ2 as potential protection factors. Discussion: Taken as a whole, the results of this study indicate robust phenotypical differences at the cellular machinery level in PMBC of patients with FEP. Although more scientific evidence is needed, the determination of multiple components of pro- and anti-inflammatory cellular pathways including the activity of nuclear receptors has interesting potential as biological markers and potential risk/protective factors for FEP. Due to its soluble nature, a notable finding in this study is that the anti-inflammatory mediator 15d-PGJ2 might be used as plasmatic biomarker for first episodes of psychosis. PMID:23486748

  3. MeCP2 repression of G9a in regulation of pain and morphine reward.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi; Tao, Wenjuan; Hou, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Wei; Kenny, Paul J; Pan, Zhizhong Z

    2014-07-01

    Opioids are commonly used for pain relief, but their strong rewarding effects drive opioid misuse and abuse. How pain affects the liability of opioid abuse is unknown at present. In this study, we identified an epigenetic regulating cascade activated by both pain and the opioid morphine. Both persistent pain and repeated morphine upregulated the transcriptional regulator MeCP2 in mouse central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that MeCP2 bound to and repressed the transcriptional repressor histone dimethyltransferase G9a, reducing G9a-catalyzed repressive mark H3K9me2 in CeA. Repression of G9a activity increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Behaviorally, persistent inflammatory pain increased the sensitivity to acquiring morphine-induced, reward-related behavior of conditioned place preference in mice. Local viral vector-mediated MeCP2 overexpression, Cre-induced G9a knockdown, and CeA application of BDNF mimicked, whereas MeCP2 knockdown inhibited, the pain effect. These results suggest that MeCP2 directly represses G9a as a shared mechanism in central amygdala for regulation of emotional responses to pain and opioid reward, and for their behavioral interaction.

  4. The neuronal repellent SLIT2 is a target for repression by EZH2 in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, J; Cao, Q; Yu, J; Wu, L; Dallol, A; Li, J; Chen, G; Grasso, C; Cao, X; Lonigro, R J; Varambally, S; Mehra, R; Palanisamy, N; Wu, J Y; Latif, F; Chinnaiyan, A M

    2010-09-30

    The neuronal repellent SLIT2 is repressed in a number of cancer types primarily through promoter hypermethylation. SLIT2, however, has not been studied in prostate cancer. Through genome-wide location analysis we identified SLIT2 as a target of polycomb group (PcG) protein EZH2. The EZH2-containing polycomb repressive complexes bound to the SLIT2 promoter inhibiting its expression. SLIT2 was downregulated in a majority of metastatic prostate tumors, showing a negative correlation with EZH2. This repressed expression could be restored by methylation inhibitors or EZH2-suppressing compounds. In addition, a low level of SLIT2 expression was associated with aggressive prostate, breast and lung cancers. Functional assays showed that SLIT2 inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation and invasion. Thus, this study showed for the first time the epigenetic silencing of SLIT2 in prostate tumors, and supported SLIT2 as a potential biomarker for aggressive solid tumors. Importantly, PcG-mediated repression may serve as a precursor for the silencing of SLIT2 by DNA methylation in cancer.

  5. Hypoxia induces a novel signature of chromatin modifications and global repression of transcription.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Amber Buescher; Denko, Nicholas; Barton, Michelle Craig

    2008-04-01

    Tumor cells respond to the harsh hypoxic microenvironment, in part, by transcriptional regulation of specific target genes. We found that hypoxia-mediated activation of selected genes occurs amidst widespread repression of transcription that is neither cell type-specific nor HIF-1-dependent. Despite overall repression, hypoxia induces a pool of histone modifications typically associated with transcriptional activation or repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses showed that this global mixture of hypoxia-modified histones is sorted in a gene-specific manner to correlate with transcriptional response to hypoxia. Exceptions to this were unexpected increases in H3K4me3 levels, typically associated with transcriptional activation, and decreased H3K27me3 levels, generally a marker of transcriptional silencing, at core promoters of both hypoxia-activated and -repressed genes. These data suggest that a novel signature of chromatin modifications is induced under hypoxic stress, which may play a role in gene regulatory switches active in proliferating tumor cells undergoing cycles of hypoxia and reoxygenation.

  6. Hypoxia induces a novel signature of chromatin modifications and global repression of transcription

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Amber Buescher; Denko, Nicholas; Barton, Michelle Craig

    2008-01-01

    Tumor cells respond to the harsh hypoxic microenvironment, in part, by transcriptional regulation of specific target genes. We found that hypoxia-mediated activation of selected genes occurs amidst widespread repression of transcription that is neither cell type-specific nor HIF-1-dependent. Despite overall repression, hypoxia induces a pool of histone modifications typically associated with transcriptional activation or repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses showed that this global mixture of hypoxia-modified histones is sorted in a gene-specific manner to correlate with transcriptional response to hypoxia. Exceptions to this were unexpected increases in H3K4me3 levels, typically associated with transcriptional activation, and decreased H3K27me3 levels, generally a marker of transcriptional silencing, at core promoters of both hypoxia-activated and -repressed genes. These data suggest that a novel signature of chromatin modifications is induced under hypoxic stress, which may play a role in gene regulatory switches active in proliferating tumor cells undergoing cycles of hypoxia and reoxygenation. PMID:18294659

  7. OprD Repression upon Metal Treatment Requires the RNA Chaperone Hfq in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Ducret, Verena; Gonzalez, Manuel R.; Scrignari, Tiziana; Perron, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The metal-specific CzcRS two-component system in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is involved in the repression of the OprD porin, causing in turn carbapenem antibiotic resistance in the presence of high zinc concentration. It has also been shown that CzcR is able to directly regulate the expression of multiple genes including virulence factors. CzcR is therefore an important regulator connecting (i) metal response, (ii) pathogenicity and (iii) antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa. Recent data have suggested that other regulators could negatively control oprD expression in the presence of zinc. Here we show that the RNA chaperone Hfq is a key factor acting independently of CzcR for the repression of oprD upon Zn treatment. Additionally, we found that an Hfq-dependent mechanism is necessary for the localization of CzcR to the oprD promoter, mediating oprD transcriptional repression. Furthermore, in the presence of Cu, CopR, the transcriptional regulator of the CopRS two-component system also requires Hfq for oprD repression. Altogether, these results suggest important roles for this RNA chaperone in the context of environment-sensing and antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa. PMID:27706108

  8. Conservation of uORF repressiveness and sequence features in mouse, human and zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Guo-Liang; Pauli, Andrea; Schier, Alexander F.

    2016-01-01

    Upstream open reading frames (uORFs) are ubiquitous repressive genetic elements in vertebrate mRNAs. While much is known about the regulation of individual genes by their uORFs, the range of uORF-mediated translational repression in vertebrate genomes is largely unexplored. Moreover, it is unclear whether the repressive effects of uORFs are conserved across species. To address these questions, we analyse transcript sequences and ribosome profiling data from human, mouse and zebrafish. We find that uORFs are depleted near coding sequences (CDSes) and have initiation contexts that diminish their translation. Linear modelling reveals that sequence features at both uORFs and CDSes modulate the translation of CDSes. Moreover, the ratio of translation over 5′ leaders and CDSes is conserved between human and mouse, and correlates with the number of uORFs. These observations suggest that the prevalence of vertebrate uORFs may be explained by their conserved role in repressing CDS translation. PMID:27216465

  9. Feedback circuitry between miR-218 repression and RTK activation in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Lijoy K; Huangyang, Peiwei; Mucaj, Vera; Lee, Samuel S.; Skuli, Nicolas; Eisinger-Mathason, T.S. Karin; Biju, Kevin; Li, Bo; Venneti, Sriram; Lal, Priti; Lathia, Justin D; Rich, Jeremy N; Keith, Brian; Simon, M Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathway signaling plays a central role in the growth and progression of Glioblastoma (GBM), a highly aggressive group of brain tumors. We recently reported that miR-218 repression, an essentially uniform feature of human GBM, directly promotes RTK hyperactivation by increasing the expression of key positive signaling effectors, including EGFR, PLCγ1, PIK3CA and ARAF (1). However, enhanced RTK signaling is known to activate compensatory inhibitory feedback mechanisms in both normal and cancer cells. We demonstrate here that miR-218 repression in GBM cells also increases the abundance of additional upstream and downstream signaling mediators, including PDGFRα, RSK2, and S6K1, which collectively function to alleviate inhibitory RTK feedback regulation. In turn, RTK signaling suppresses miR-218 expression via STAT3, which binds directly to the miR-218 locus, along with BCLAF1, to repress its expression. These data identify novel interacting feedback loops by which miR-218 repression promotes increased RTK signaling in high-grade gliomas. PMID:25943352

  10. Tet2 is required to resolve inflammation by recruiting Hdac2 to specifically repress IL-6

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yan; Li, Xia; Zhao, Dezhi; Liu, Yiqi; Wang, Chunmei; Zhang, Xiang; Su, Xiaoping; Liu, Juan; Ge, Wei; Levine, Ross L.; Li, Nan; Cao, Xuetao

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic modifiers have fundamental roles in defining unique cellular identity through the establishment and maintenance of lineage-specific chromatin and methylation status1. Several DNA modifications such as 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) are catalysed by the ten eleven translocation (Tet) methylcytosine dioxygenase family members2, and the roles of Tet proteins in regulating chromatin architecture and gene transcription independently of DNA methylation have been gradually uncovered3. However, the regulation of immunity and inflammation by Tet proteins independent of their role in modulating DNA methylation remains largely unknown. Here we show that Tet2 selectively mediates active repression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) transcription during inflammation resolution in innate myeloid cells, including dendritic cells and macrophages. Loss of Tet2 resulted in the upregulation of several inflammatory mediators, including IL-6, at late phase during the response to lipopolysaccharide challenge. Tet2-deficient mice were more susceptible to endotoxin shock and dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced colitis, displaying a more severe inflammatory phenotype and increased IL-6 production compared to wild-type mice. IκBζ, an IL-6-specific transcription factor, mediated specific targeting of Tet2 to the Il6 promoter, further indicating opposite regulatory roles of IκBζ at initial and resolution phases of inflammation. For the repression mechanism, independent of DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation, Tet2 recruited Hdac2 and repressed transcription of Il6 via histone deacetylation. We provide mechanistic evidence for the gene-specific transcription repression activity of Tet2 via histone deacetylation and for the prevention of constant transcription activation at the chromatin level for resolving inflammation. PMID:26287468

  11. Active repression by RARγ signaling is required for vertebrate axial elongation.

    PubMed

    Janesick, Amanda; Nguyen, Tuyen T L; Aisaki, Ken-ichi; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Kitajima, Satoshi; Chandraratna, Roshantha A S; Kanno, Jun; Blumberg, Bruce

    2014-06-01

    Retinoic acid receptor gamma 2 (RARγ2) is the major RAR isoform expressed throughout the caudal axial progenitor domain in vertebrates. During a microarray screen to identify RAR targets, we identified a subset of genes that pattern caudal structures or promote axial elongation and are upregulated by increased RAR-mediated repression. Previous studies have suggested that RAR is present in the caudal domain, but is quiescent until its activation in late stage embryos terminates axial elongation. By contrast, we show here that RARγ2 is engaged in all stages of axial elongation, not solely as a terminator of axial growth. In the absence of RA, RARγ2 represses transcriptional activity in vivo and maintains the pool of caudal progenitor cells and presomitic mesoderm. In the presence of RA, RARγ2 serves as an activator, facilitating somite differentiation. Treatment with an RARγ-selective inverse agonist (NRX205099) or overexpression of dominant-negative RARγ increases the expression of posterior Hox genes and that of marker genes for presomitic mesoderm and the chordoneural hinge. Conversely, when RAR-mediated repression is reduced by overexpressing a dominant-negative co-repressor (c-SMRT), a constitutively active RAR (VP16-RARγ2), or by treatment with an RARγ-selective agonist (NRX204647), expression of caudal genes is diminished and extension of the body axis is prematurely terminated. Hence, gene repression mediated by the unliganded RARγ2-co-repressor complex constitutes a novel mechanism to regulate and facilitate the correct expression levels and spatial restriction of key genes that maintain the caudal progenitor pool during axial elongation in Xenopus embryos.

  12. Arsenic at very low concentrations alters glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated gene activation but not GR-mediated gene repression: complex dose-response effects are closely correlated with levels of activated GR and require a functional GR DNA binding domain.

    PubMed

    Bodwell, Jack E; Kingsley, Lauren A; Hamilton, Joshua W

    2004-08-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of drinking water is considered a principal environmental health threat throughout the world. Chronic intake is associated with an increased risk of cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, and recent studies suggest increased health risks at levels as low as 5-10 ppb. We report here that 0.05-1 microM (6-120 ppb) As showed stimulatory effects on glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated gene activation in rat EDR3 hepatoma cells of both the endogenous tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) gene and the reporter genes containing TAT glucocorticoid response elements. At slightly higher concentrations (1-3 microM), the effects of As became inhibitory. Thus, over this narrow concentration range, the effects of As changed from a 2- to 4-fold stimulation to a greater than 2-fold suppression in activity. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of GR on both AP1- and NF-kappa B-mediated gene activation was not affected by As. The magnitude of GR stimulation and inhibition by As was highly dependent on the cellular level of hormone-activated GR. Mutational deletion studies indicated that the central DNA binding domain (DBD) of GR is the minimal region required for the As effect and does not require free sulfhydryls. Point mutations located within the DBD that have known structural consequences significantly altered the GR response to As. In particular, point mutations in the DBD that confer a DNA-bound GR confirmation abolished the low dose As stimulatory effect but enhanced the inhibitory response, further indicating that the DBD is important for mediating these As effects. PMID:15310238

  13. Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Signaling Represses Testicular Steroidogenesis through Cross-Talk with Orphan Nuclear Receptor Nur77

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eunsook; Song, Chin-Hee; Park, Jae-Il; Ahn, Ryun-Sup; Choi, Hueng-Sik; Ko, CheMyong; Lee, Keesook

    2014-01-01

    Transforming growth factor- β1 (TGF-β1) has been reported to inhibit luteinizing hormone (LH) mediated-steroidogenesis in testicular Leydig cells. However, the mechanism by which TGF-β1 controls the steroidogenesis in Leydig cells is not well understood. Here, we investigated the possibility that TGF-β1 represses steroidogenesis through cross-talk with the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77. Nur77, which is induced by LH/cAMP signaling, is one of major transcription factors that regulate the expression of steroidogenic genes in Leydig cells. TGF-β1 signaling inhibited cAMP-induced testosterone production and the expression of steroidogenic genes such as P450c17, StAR and 3β-HSD in mouse Leydig cells. Further, TGF-β1/ALK5 signaling repressed cAMP-induced and Nur77-activated promoter activity of steroidogenic genes. In addition, TGF-β1/ALK5-activated Smad3 repressed Nur77 transactivation of steroidogenic gene promoters by interfering with Nur77 binding to DNA. In primary Leydig cells isolated from Tgfbr2flox/flox Cyp17iCre mice, TGF-β1-mediated repression of cAMP-induced steroidogenic gene expression was significantly less than that in primary Leydig cells from Tgfbr2flox/flox mice. Taken together, these results suggest that TGF-β1/ALK5/Smad3 signaling represses the expression of steroidogenic genes via the suppression of Nur77 transactivation in testicular Leydig cells. These findings may provide a molecular mechanism involved in the TGF-β1-mediated repression of testicular steroidogenesis. PMID:25140527

  14. Krüppel Homolog 1 Inhibits Insect Metamorphosis via Direct Transcriptional Repression of Broad-Complex, a Pupal Specifier Gene.

    PubMed

    Kayukawa, Takumi; Nagamine, Keisuke; Ito, Yuka; Nishita, Yoshinori; Ishikawa, Yukio; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2016-01-22

    The Broad-Complex gene (BR-C) encodes transcription factors that dictate larval-pupal metamorphosis in insects. The expression of BR-C is induced by molting hormone (20-hydroxyecdysone (20E)), and this induction is repressed by juvenile hormone (JH), which exists during the premature larval stage. Krüppel homolog 1 gene (Kr-h1) has been known as a JH-early inducible gene responsible for repression of metamorphosis; however, the functional relationship between Kr-h1 and repression of BR-C has remained unclear. To elucidate this relationship, we analyzed cis- and trans elements involved in the repression of BR-C using a Bombyx mori cell line. In the cells, as observed in larvae, JH induced the expression of Kr-h1 and concurrently suppressed 20E-induced expression of BR-C. Forced expression of Kr-h1 repressed the 20E-dependent activation of the BR-C promoter in the absence of JH, and Kr-h1 RNAi inhibited the JH-mediated repression, suggesting that Kr-h1 controlled the repression of BR-C. A survey of the upstream sequence of BR-C gene revealed a Kr-h1 binding site (KBS) in the BR-C promoter. When KBS was deleted from the promoter, the repression of BR-C was abolished. Electrophoresis mobility shift demonstrated that two Kr-h1 molecules bound to KBS in the BR-C promoter. Based on these results, we conclude that Kr-h1 protein molecules directly bind to the KBS sequence in the BR-C promoter and thereby repress 20E-dependent activation of the pupal specifier, BR-C. This study has revealed a considerable portion of the picture of JH signaling pathways from the reception of JH to the repression of metamorphosis.

  15. Repression of Igf1 expression by Ezh2 prevents basal cell differentiation in the developing lung

    PubMed Central

    Galvis, Laura A.; Holik, Aliaksei Z.; Short, Kieran M.; Pasquet, Julie; Lun, Aaron T. L.; Blewitt, Marnie E.; Smyth, Ian M.; Ritchie, Matthew E.; Asselin-Labat, Marie-Liesse

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms involved in the establishment of lung epithelial cell lineage identities during development are largely unknown. Here, we explored the role of the histone methyltransferase Ezh2 during lung lineage determination. Loss of Ezh2 in the lung epithelium leads to defective lung formation and perinatal mortality. We show that Ezh2 is crucial for airway lineage specification and alveolarization. Using optical projection tomography imaging, we found that branching morphogenesis is affected in Ezh2 conditional knockout mice and the remaining bronchioles are abnormal, lacking terminally differentiated secretory club cells. Remarkably, RNA-seq analysis revealed the upregulation of basal genes in Ezh2-deficient epithelium. Three-dimensional imaging for keratin 5 further showed the unexpected presence of a layer of basal cells from the proximal airways to the distal bronchioles in E16.5 embryos. ChIP-seq analysis indicated the presence of Ezh2-mediated repressive marks on the genomic loci of some but not all basal genes, suggesting an indirect mechanism of action of Ezh2. We found that loss of Ezh2 de-represses insulin-like growth factor 1 (Igf1) expression and that modulation of IGF1 signaling ex vivo in wild-type lungs could induce basal cell differentiation. Altogether, our work reveals an unexpected role for Ezh2 in controlling basal cell fate determination in the embryonic lung endoderm, mediated in part by repression of Igf1 expression. PMID:25790853

  16. BZLF1 governs CpG-methylated chromatin of Epstein-Barr Virus reversing epigenetic repression.

    PubMed

    Woellmer, Anne; Arteaga-Salas, Jose M; Hammerschmidt, Wolfgang

    2012-09-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for the regulation of all genes in mammalian cells but transcriptional repression including DNA methylation are also major epigenetic mechanisms of defense inactivating potentially harmful pathogens. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), however, has evolved to take advantage of CpG methylated DNA to regulate its own biphasic life cycle. We show here that latent EBV DNA has an extreme composition of methylated CpG dinucleotides with a bimodal distribution of unmethylated or fully methylated DNA at active latent genes or completely repressed lytic promoters, respectively. We find this scenario confirmed in primary EBV-infected memory B cells in vivo. Extensive CpG methylation of EBV's DNA argues for a very restricted gene expression during latency. Above-average nucleosomal occupancy, repressive histone marks, and Polycomb-mediated epigenetic silencing further shield early lytic promoters from activation during latency. The very tight repression of viral lytic genes must be overcome when latent EBV enters its lytic phase and supports de novo virus synthesis in infected cells. The EBV-encoded and AP-1 related transcription factor BZLF1 overturns latency and initiates virus synthesis in latently infected cells. Paradoxically, BZLF1 preferentially binds to CpG-methylated motifs in key viral promoters for their activation. Upon BZLF1 binding, we find nucleosomes removed, Polycomb repression lost, and RNA polymerase II recruited to the activated early promoters promoting efficient lytic viral gene expression. Surprisingly, DNA methylation is maintained throughout this phase of viral reactivation and is no hindrance to active transcription of extensively CpG methylated viral genes as thought previously. Thus, we identify BZLF1 as a pioneer factor that reverses epigenetic silencing of viral DNA to allow escape from latency and report on a new paradigm of gene regulation. PMID:22969425

  17. [Induction and repression of the collagenase synthesis in Acinetobacter sp].

    PubMed

    Monboisse, J C; Labadie, J; Gouet, P

    1979-05-01

    The synthesis of collagenase in Acinetobacter sp. was found to be inducible by denatured collagen and by its high molecular weight fragments. The presence in the inducer of part of the tertiary structure appear to be indispensable. On the other hand, an addition of Casamino acids, meat protein hydrolysate, or a mixture of amino acids with a similar composition to gelatin does not stimulate collagenase synthesis. Enzyme production was severely repressed in the early phase of growth by glucose, arabinose, and ribose, single amino acids, proline, hydroxyproline, alanine, glutamic acid or casein acid hydrolysate. A mechanism of repression similar to catabolite repression was involved in the phenomenon caused by carbohydrates. However, the fact that cyclic adenosine 3'5-monophosphate did not overcome the repression caused by amino acids or Casamino acids, in contrast to classical catabolite repression, suggests that these two forms of repression may be distinct.

  18. Mechanism of catabolite repression of tryptophanase synthesis in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, H; Chao, D; Yanofsky, C; Saier, M H

    1994-08-01

    Repression of tryptophanase (tryptophan indole-lyase) by glucose and its non-metabolizable analogue methyl alpha-glucoside has been studied employing a series of isogenic strains of Escherichia coli lacking cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase and altered for two of the proteins of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS), Enzyme I and Enzyme IIAGlc. Basal activity of tryptophanase was depressed mildly by inclusion of glucose in the growth medium, but inducible tryptophanase synthesis was subject to strong glucose repression in the parental strain, which exhibited normal PTS enzyme activities. Methyl alpha-glucoside was without effect in this strain. Loss of Enzyme I decreased sensitivity to repression by glucose but enhanced sensitivity to repression by methyl alpha-glucoside. Loss of Enzyme IIAGlc activity largely abolished repression by methyl alpha-glucoside but had a less severe effect on glucose repression. The repressive effects of both sugars were fully reversed by inclusion of cyclic AMP in the growth medium. Tryptophan uptake under the same conditions was inhibited weakly by glucose and more strongly by methyl alpha-glucoside in the parental strain. Inhibition by both sugars was alleviated by partial loss of Enzyme I. Inhibition by methyl alpha-glucoside appeared to be largely due to energy competition and was not responsible for repression of tryptophanase synthesis. Measurement of net production of cyclic AMP as well as intracellular concentrations of cyclic AMP revealed a good correlation with intensity of repression. The results suggest that while basal tryptophanase synthesis is relatively insensitive to catabolite repression, inducible synthesis is subject to strong repression by two distinct mechanisms, one dependent on enzyme IIAGlc of the PTS and the other independent of this protein. Both mechanisms are attributable to depressed rates of cyclic AMP synthesis. No evidence for a cyclic-AMP-independent mechanism of catabolite

  19. PIASy, a nuclear matrix–associated SUMO E3 ligase, represses LEF1 activity by sequestration into nuclear bodies

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Shrikesh; Bruhn, Laurakay; Sieber, Heidemarie; Pichler, Andrea; Melchior, Frauke; Grosschedl, Rudolf

    2001-01-01

    The Wnt-responsive transcription factor LEF1 can activate transcription in association with β-catenin and repress transcription in association with Groucho. In search of additional regulatory mechanisms of LEF1 function, we identified the protein inhibitor of activated STAT, PIASy, as a novel interaction partner of LEF1. Coexpression of PIASy with LEF1 results in potent repression of LEF1 activity and in covalent modification of LEF1 with SUMO. PIASy markedly stimulates the sumoylation of LEF1 and multiple other proteins in vivo and functions as a SUMO E3 ligase for LEF1 in a reconstituted system in vitro. Moreover, PIASy binds to nuclear matrix–associated DNA sequences and targets LEF1 to nuclear bodies, suggesting that PIASy-mediated subnuclear sequestration accounts for the repression of LEF1 activity. PMID:11731474

  20. Role of the proto-oncogene Pokemon in cellular transformation and ARF repression.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Takahiro; Hobbs, Robin M; Merghoub, Taha; Guernah, Ilhem; Zelent, Arthur; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2005-01-20

    Aberrant transcriptional repression through chromatin remodelling and histone deacetylation has been postulated to represent a driving force underlying tumorigenesis because histone deacetylase inhibitors have been found to be effective in cancer treatment. However, the molecular mechanisms by which transcriptional derepression would be linked to tumour suppression are poorly understood. Here we identify the transcriptional repressor Pokemon (encoded by the Zbtb7 gene) as a critical factor in oncogenesis. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking Zbtb7 are completely refractory to oncogene-mediated cellular transformation. Conversely, Pokemon overexpression leads to overt oncogenic transformation both in vitro and in vivo in transgenic mice. Pokemon can specifically repress the transcription of the tumour suppressor gene ARF through direct binding. We find that Pokemon is aberrantly overexpressed in human cancers and that its expression levels predict biological behaviour and clinical outcome. Pokemon's critical role in cellular transformation makes it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:15662416

  1. Role of the proto-oncogene Pokemon in cellular transformation and ARF repression.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Takahiro; Hobbs, Robin M; Merghoub, Taha; Guernah, Ilhem; Zelent, Arthur; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2005-01-20

    Aberrant transcriptional repression through chromatin remodelling and histone deacetylation has been postulated to represent a driving force underlying tumorigenesis because histone deacetylase inhibitors have been found to be effective in cancer treatment. However, the molecular mechanisms by which transcriptional derepression would be linked to tumour suppression are poorly understood. Here we identify the transcriptional repressor Pokemon (encoded by the Zbtb7 gene) as a critical factor in oncogenesis. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking Zbtb7 are completely refractory to oncogene-mediated cellular transformation. Conversely, Pokemon overexpression leads to overt oncogenic transformation both in vitro and in vivo in transgenic mice. Pokemon can specifically repress the transcription of the tumour suppressor gene ARF through direct binding. We find that Pokemon is aberrantly overexpressed in human cancers and that its expression levels predict biological behaviour and clinical outcome. Pokemon's critical role in cellular transformation makes it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention.

  2. Suppression of BRD4 inhibits human hepatocellular carcinoma by repressing MYC and enhancing BIM expression.

    PubMed

    Li, Gong-Quan; Guo, Wen-Zhi; Zhang, Yi; Seng, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Hua-Peng; Ma, Xiu-Xian; Zhang, Gong; Li, Jie; Yan, Bing; Tang, Hong-Wei; Li, Shan-Shan; Wang, Li-Dong; Zhang, Shui-Jun

    2016-01-19

    Bromodomain 4 (BRD4) is an epigenetic regulator that, when inhibited, has anti-cancer effects. In this study, we investigated whether BRD4 could be a target for treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We show that BRD4 is over-expressed in HCC tissues. Suppression of BRD4, either by siRNA or using JQ1, a pharmaceutical BRD4 inhibitor, reduced cell growth and induced apoptosis in HCC cell lines while also slowing HCC xenograft tumor growth in mice. JQ1 treatment induced G1 cell cycle arrest by repressing MYC expression, which led to the up-regulation of CDKN1B (P27). JQ1 also de-repressed expression of the pro-apoptotic BCL2L11 (BIM). Moreover, siRNA knockdown of BIM attenuated JQ1-triggered apoptosis in HCC cells, suggesting an essential role for BIM in mediating JQ1 anti-HCC activity. PMID:26575167

  3. Suppression of BRD4 inhibits human hepatocellular carcinoma by repressing MYC and enhancing BIM expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Seng, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Hua-Peng; Ma, Xiu-Xian; Zhang, Gong; Li, Jie; Yan, Bing; Tang, Hong-Wei; Li, Shan-Shan; Wang, Li-Dong; Zhang, Shui-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Bromodomain 4 (BRD4) is an epigenetic regulator that, when inhibited, has anti-cancer effects. In this study, we investigated whether BRD4 could be a target for treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We show that BRD4 is over-expressed in HCC tissues. Suppression of BRD4, either by siRNA or using JQ1, a pharmaceutical BRD4 inhibitor, reduced cell growth and induced apoptosis in HCC cell lines while also slowing HCC xenograft tumor growth in mice. JQ1 treatment induced G1 cell cycle arrest by repressing MYC expression, which led to the up-regulation of CDKN1B (P27). JQ1 also de-repressed expression of the pro-apoptotic BCL2L11 (BIM). Moreover, siRNA knockdown of BIM attenuated JQ1-triggered apoptosis in HCC cells, suggesting an essential role for BIM in mediating JQ1 anti-HCC activity. PMID:26575167

  4. Nuclear receptor corepressors Ncor1 and Ncor2 (Smrt) are required for retinoic acid-dependent repression of Fgf8 during somitogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Cunningham, Thomas J; Duester, Gregg

    2016-10-01

    Retinoic acid (RA) repression of Fgf8 is required for many different aspects of organogenesis, however relatively little is known about how endogenous RA controls gene repression as opposed to gene activation. Here, we show that nuclear receptor corepressors NCOR1 and NCOR2 (SMRT) redundantly mediate the ability of RA to repress Fgf8. Ncor1;Ncor2 double mutants generated by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing exhibited a small somite and distended heart phenotype similar to that of RA-deficient Raldh2-/- embryos, associated with increased Fgf8 expression and FGF signaling in caudal progenitors and heart progenitors. Embryo chromatin immunoprecipitation studies revealed that NCOR1/2 but not coactivators are recruited to the Fgf8 RA response element (RARE) in an RA-dependent manner, whereas coactivators but not NCOR1/2 are recruited RA-dependently to a RARE near Rarb that is activated by RA. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genomic deletion of the Fgf8 RARE in mouse embryos often resulted in a small somite defect with Fgf8 derepression caudally, but no defect was observed in heart development or heart Fgf8 expression. This suggests the existence of another DNA element whose function overlaps with the Fgf8 RARE to mediate Fgf8 repression by RA and NCOR1/2. Our studies support a model in which NCOR1/2 mediates direct RA-dependent repression of Fgf8 in caudal progenitors in order to control somitogenesis.

  5. Laser Isotope Separation Employing Condensation Repression

    SciTech Connect

    Eerkens, Jeff W.; Miller, William H.

    2004-09-15

    Molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) techniques using condensation repression (CR) harvesting are reviewed and compared with atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS), gaseous diffusion (DIF), ultracentrifuges (UCF), and electromagnetic separations (EMS). Two different CR-MLIS or CRISLA (Condensation Repression Isotope Separation by Laser Activation) approaches have been under investigation at the University of Missouri (MU), one involving supersonic super-cooled free jets and dimer formation, and the other subsonic cold-wall condensation. Both employ mixtures of an isotopomer (e.g. {sup i}QF{sub 6}) and a carrier gas, operated at low temperatures and pressures. Present theories of VT relaxation, dimerization, and condensation are found to be unsatisfactory to explain/predict experimental CRISLA results. They were replaced by fundamentally new models that allow ab-initio calculation of isotope enrichments and predictions of condensation parameters for laser-excited and non-excited vapors which are in good agreement with experiment. Because of supersonic speeds, throughputs for free-jet CRISLA are a thousand times higher than cold-wall CRISLA schemes, and thus preferred for large-quantity Uranium enrichments. For small-quantity separations of (radioactive) medical isotopes, the simpler coldwall CRISLA method may be adequate.

  6. Repression of somatic cell fate in the germline.

    PubMed

    Robert, Valérie J; Garvis, Steve; Palladino, Francesca

    2015-10-01

    Germ cells must transmit genetic information across generations, and produce gametes while also maintaining the potential to form all cell types after fertilization. Preventing the activation of somatic programs is, therefore, crucial to the maintenance of germ cell identity. Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and mouse have revealed both similarities and differences in how somatic gene expression is repressed in germ cells, thereby preventing their conversion into somatic tissues. This review will focus on recent developments in our understanding of how global or gene-specific transcriptional repression, chromatin regulation, and translational repression operate in the germline to maintain germ cell identity and repress somatic differentiation programs. PMID:26043973

  7. Structural basis of JAZ repression of MYC transcription factors in jasmonate signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Yao, Jian; Ke, Jiyuan; Zhang, Li; Lam, Vinh Q.; Xin, Xiu-Fang; Zhou, X. Edward; Chen, Jian; Brunzelle, Joseph; Griffin, Patrick R.; Zhou, Mingguo; Xu, H. Eric; Melcher, Karsten; He, Sheng Yang

    2015-01-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) plays crucial roles in regulating plant responses to herbivorous insects and microbial pathogens and is an important regulator of plant growth and development1–7. Key mediators of JA signaling include MYC transcription factors, which are repressed by JAZ transcriptional repressors at the resting state. In the presence of active JA, JAZ proteins function as JA co-receptors by forming a hormone-dependent complex with COI1, the F-box subunit of an SCF-type ubiquitin E3 ligase8–11. The hormone-dependent formation of the COI1–JAZ co-receptor complex leads to ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation of JAZ repressors and release of MYC proteins from transcriptional repression3,10,12. The mechanism by which JAZ proteins repress MYC transcription factors and how JAZ proteins switch between the repressor function in the absence of hormone and the co-receptor function in the presence of hormone remain enigmatic. Here we show that Arabidopsis MYC3 undergoes pronounced conformational changes when bound to the conserved Jas motif of the JAZ9 repressor. The Jas motif, previously shown to bind to hormone as a partially unwound helix, forms a complete α-helix that displaces the N-terminal helix of MYC3 and becomes an integral part of the MYC N-terminal fold. In this position, the Jas helix competitively inhibits MYC3 interaction with the MED25 subunit of the transcriptional Mediator complex. Our study elucidates a novel molecular switch mechanism that governs the repression and activation of a major plant hormone pathway. PMID:26258305

  8. From Sensorimotor Inhibition to Freudian Repression: Insights from Psychosis Applied to Neurosis

    PubMed Central

    Bazan, Ariane

    2012-01-01

    First, three case studies are presented of psychotic patients having in common an inability to hold something down or out. In line with other theories on psychosis, we propose that a key change is at the efference copy system. Going back to Freud’s mental apparatus, we propose that the messages of discharge of the motor neurons, mobilized to direct perception, also called “indications of reality,” are equivalent to the modern efference copies. With this key, the reading of the cases is coherent with the psychodynamic understanding of psychosis, being a downplay of secondary processes, and consequently, a dominance of primary processes. Moreover, putting together the sensorimotor idea of a failure of efference copy-mediated inhibition with the psychoanalytic idea of a failing repression in psychosis, the hypothesis emerges that the attenuation enabled by the efference copy dynamics is, in some instances, the physiological instantiation of repression. Second, we applied this idea to the mental organization in neurosis. Indeed, the efference copy-mediated attenuation is thought to be the mechanism through which sustained activation of an intention, without reaching it – i.e., inhibition of an action – gives rise to mental imagery. Therefore, as inhibition is needed for any targeted action or for normal language understanding, acting in the world, or processing language, structurally induces mental imagery, constituting a subjective unconscious mental reality. Repression is a special instance of inhibition for emotionally threatening stimuli. These stimuli require stronger inhibition, leaving (the attenuation of) the motor intentions totally unanswered, in order to radically prevent execution which would lead to development of excess affect. This inhibition, then, yields a specific type of motor imagery, called “phantoms,” which induce mental preoccupation, as well as symptoms which, especially through their form, refer to the repressed motor fragments

  9. Identification of actin as a 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 target in neuroblastoma cells: mass spectrometric, computational, and functional approaches to investigate the effect on cytoskeletal derangement.

    PubMed

    Aldini, Giancarlo; Carini, Marina; Vistoli, Giulio; Shibata, Takahiro; Kusano, Yuri; Gamberoni, Luca; Dalle-Donne, Isabella; Milzani, Aldo; Uchida, Koji

    2007-03-13

    A proteomic approach was used to identify 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) protein targets in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. By using biotinylated 15d-PGJ2, beta-actin was found as the major adducted protein; at least 12 proteins were also identified as minor biotin-positive spots, falling in different functional classes, including glycolytic enzymes (enolase and lactate dehydrogenase), redox enzymes (biliverdin reductase), and a eukaryotic regulatory protein (14-3-3gamma). 15d-PGJ2 induced marked morphological changes in the actin filament network and in particular promoted F-actin depolymerization as confirmed by Western blot analysis. By using a mass spectrometric approach, we found that 15d-PGJ2 reacts with isolated G-actin in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio and selectively binds the Cys374 site through a Michael adduction mechanism. Computational studies showed that the covalent binding of 15d-PGJ2 induces a significant unfolding of actin structure and in particular that 15d-PGJ2 distorts the actin subdomains 2 and 4, which define the nucleotide binding sites impeding the nucleotide exchange. The functional effect of 15d-PGJ2 on G-actin was studied by polymerization measurement: in the presence of 15d-PGJ2, a lower amount of F-actin forms, as followed by the increase in pyrenyl-actin fluorescence intensity, as the major effect of increasing 15d-PGJ2 concentrations occurs on the maximum extent of actin polymerization, whereas it is negligible on the initial rate of reaction. In summary, the results here reported give an insight into the role of 15d-PGJ2 as a cytotoxic compound in neuronal cell dysfunction. Actin is the main protein cellular target of 15d-PGJ2, which specifically binds through a Michael adduction to Cys374, leading to a protein conformational change that can explain the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton, F-actin depolymerization, and impairment of G-actin polymerization. PMID:17297918

  10. Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Regulates MiR-200b in Retinal Endothelial Cells: Potential Relevance in Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Michael Anthony; Feng, Biao; Chakrabarti, Subrata

    2015-01-01

    Glucose-induced augmented vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production is a key event in diabetic retinopathy. We have previously demonstrated that downregulation of miR-200b increases VEGF, mediating structural and functional changes in the retina in diabetes. However, mechanisms regulating miR-200b in diabetes are not known. Histone methyltransferase complex, Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), has been shown to repress miRNAs in neoplastic process. We hypothesized that, in diabetes, PRC2 represses miR-200b through its histone H3 lysine-27 trimethylation mark. We show that human retinal microvascular endothelial cells exposed to high levels of glucose regulate miR-200b repression through histone methylation and that inhibition of PRC2 increases miR-200b while reducing VEGF. Furthermore, retinal tissue from animal models of diabetes showed increased expression of major PRC2 components, demonstrating in vivo relevance. This research established a repressive relationship between PRC2 and miR-200b, providing evidence of a novel mechanism of miRNA regulation through histone methylation. PMID:25884496

  11. Variable requirements for DNA-binding proteins at polycomb-dependent repressive regions in human HOX clusters.

    PubMed

    Woo, Caroline J; Kharchenko, Peter V; Daheron, Laurence; Park, Peter J; Kingston, Robert E

    2013-08-01

    Polycomb group (PcG)-mediated repression is an evolutionarily conserved process critical for cell fate determination and maintenance of gene expression during embryonic development. However, the mechanisms underlying PcG recruitment in mammals remain unclear since few regulatory sites have been identified. We report two novel prospective PcG-dependent regulatory elements within the human HOXB and HOXC clusters and compare their repressive activities to a previously identified element in the HOXD cluster. These regions recruited the PcG proteins BMI1 and SUZ12 to a reporter construct in mesenchymal stem cells and conferred repression that was dependent upon PcG expression. Furthermore, we examined the potential of two DNA-binding proteins, JARID2 and YY1, to regulate PcG activity at these three elements. JARID2 has differential requirements, whereas YY1 appears to be required for repressive activity at all 3 sites. We conclude that distinct elements of the mammalian HOX clusters can recruit components of the PcG complexes and confer repression, similar to what has been seen in Drosophila. These elements, however, have diverse requirements for binding factors, which, combined with previous data on other loci, speaks to the complexity of PcG targeting in mammals.

  12. MCRS2 represses the transactivation activities of Nrf1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jia-Long; Lin, Young-Sun; Yang, Chi-Chiang; Lin, Yu-Jen; Wu, Shan-Fu; Lin, Ying-Ting; Huang, Chien-Fu

    2009-01-01

    in the redistribution of Nrf1. This suggested the existence of Nrf1-MCRS2 complex in vivo. To further confirm the biological function, a reporter driven by CNC-bZIP protein binding sites was also shown to be repressed by MCRS2 in a transient transfection assay. An artificial reporter gene activated by LexA-Nrf1 was also specifically repressed by MCRS2. Conclusion From the results, we showed MCRS2, a new Nrf1-interacting protein, has a repression effect on Nrf1-mediated transcriptional activation. This was the first ever identified repressor protein related to Nrf1 transactivation. PMID:19187526

  13. SAGA complex components and acetate repression in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Georgakopoulos, Paraskevi; Lockington, Robin A; Kelly, Joan M

    2012-11-01

    Alongside the well-established carbon catabolite repression by glucose and other sugars, acetate causes repression in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutations in creA, encoding the transcriptional repressor involved in glucose repression, also affect acetate repression, but mutations in creB or creC, encoding components of a deubiquitination system, do not. To understand the effects of acetate, we used a mutational screen that was similar to screens that uncovered mutations in creA, creB, and creC, except that glucose was replaced by acetate to identify mutations that were affected for repression by acetate but not by glucose. We uncovered mutations in acdX, homologous to the yeast SAGA component gene SPT8, which in growth tests showed derepression for acetate repression but not for glucose repression. We also made mutations in sptC, homologous to the yeast SAGA component gene SPT3, which showed a similar phenotype. We found that acetate repression is complex, and analysis of facA mutations (lacking acetyl CoA synthetase) indicates that acetate metabolism is required for repression of some systems (proline metabolism) but not for others (acetamide metabolism). Although plate tests indicated that acdX- and sptC-null mutations led to derepressed alcohol dehydrogenase activity, reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed no derepression of alcA or aldA but rather elevated induced levels. Our results indicate that acetate repression is due to repression via CreA together with metabolic changes rather than due to an independent regulatory control mechanism.

  14. Epigenetic dysregulation by nickel through repressive chromatin domain disruption.

    PubMed

    Jose, Cynthia C; Xu, Beisi; Jagannathan, Lakshmanan; Trac, Candi; Mallela, Ramya K; Hattori, Takamitsu; Lai, Darson; Koide, Shohei; Schones, Dustin E; Cuddapah, Suresh

    2014-10-01

    Investigations into the genomic landscape of histone modifications in heterochromatic regions have revealed histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation (H3K9me2) to be important for differentiation and maintaining cell identity. H3K9me2 is associated with gene silencing and is organized into large repressive domains that exist in close proximity to active genes, indicating the importance of maintenance of proper domain structure. Here we show that nickel, a nonmutagenic environmental carcinogen, disrupted H3K9me2 domains, resulting in the spreading of H3K9me2 into active regions, which was associated with gene silencing. We found weak CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-binding sites and reduced CTCF binding at the Ni-disrupted H3K9me2 domain boundaries, suggesting a loss of CTCF-mediated insulation function as a potential reason for domain disruption and spreading. We furthermore show that euchromatin islands, local regions of active chromatin within large H3K9me2 domains, can protect genes from H3K9me2-spreading-associated gene silencing. These results have major implications in understanding H3K9me2 dynamics and the consequences of chromatin domain disruption during pathogenesis. PMID:25246589

  15. Farnesoid X receptor represses hepatic lipase gene expression.

    PubMed

    Sirvent, Audrey; Verhoeven, Adrie J M; Jansen, Hans; Kosykh, Vladimir; Darteil, Raphaël J; Hum, Dean W; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Staels, Bart

    2004-11-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear receptor that regulates gene expression in response to bile acids (BAs). FXR plays a central role in BA, cholesterol, and lipoprotein metabolism. Here, we identify HL, an enzyme involved in the metabolism of remnant and high density lipoproteins, as a novel FXR-regulated gene. The natural FXR ligand, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), downregulates HL gene expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. The nonsteroidal synthetic FXR agonist GW4064 also decreases HL mRNA levels in HepG2 cells and in primary human hepatocytes. Moreover, the decrease of HL mRNA levels after treatment with FXR agonists was associated with a significant decrease in secreted enzymatic activity. In addition, FXR-specific gene silencing using small interfering RNAs demonstrated that CDCA- and GW4064-mediated downregulation of HL transcript levels occurs via an FXR-dependent mechanism. Finally, using transient transfection experiments, it is shown that FXR represses transcriptional activity of a reporter driven by the -698/+13 bp human HL promoter. Taken together, these results identify HL as a new FXR-regulated gene in human liver cells. In view of the role of HL in plasma lipoprotein metabolism, our results further emphasize the central role of FXR in lipid homeostasis.

  16. Active and Repressive Chromatin-Associated Proteome after MPA Treatment and the Role of Midkine in Epithelial Monolayer Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Niamat; Lenz, Christof; Binder, Lutz; Pantakani, Dasaradha Venkata Krishna; Asif, Abdul R.

    2016-01-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is prescribed to maintain allografts in organ-transplanted patients. However, gastrointestinal (GI) complications, particularly diarrhea, are frequently observed as a side effect following MPA therapy. We recently reported that MPA altered the tight junction (TJ)-mediated barrier function in a Caco-2 cell monolayer model system. This study investigates whether MPA induces epigenetic changes which lead to GI complications, especially diarrhea. Methods: We employed a Chromatin Immunoprecipitation-O-Proteomics (ChIP-O-Proteomics) approach to identify proteins associated with active (H3K4me3) as well as repressive (H3K27me3) chromatin histone modifications in MPA-treated cells, and further characterized the role of midkine, a H3K4me3-associated protein, in the context of epithelial monolayer permeability. Results: We identified a total of 333 and 306 proteins associated with active and repressive histone modification marks, respectively. Among them, 241 proteins were common both in active and repressive chromatin, 92 proteins were associated exclusively with the active histone modification mark, while 65 proteins remained specific to repressive chromatin. Our results show that 45 proteins which bind to the active and seven proteins which bind to the repressive chromatin region exhibited significantly altered abundance in MPA-treated cells as compared to DMSO control cells. A number of novel proteins whose function is not known in bowel barrier regulation were among the identified proteins, including midkine. Our functional integrity assays on the Caco-2 cell monolayer showed that the inhibition of midkine expression prior to MPA treatment could completely block the MPA-mediated increase in barrier permeability. Conclusions: The ChIP-O-Proteomics approach delivered a number of novel proteins with potential implications in MPA toxicity. Consequently, it can be proposed that midkine inhibition could be a potent therapeutic approach to prevent the

  17. Plant callus: mechanisms of induction and repression.

    PubMed

    Ikeuchi, Momoko; Sugimoto, Keiko; Iwase, Akira

    2013-09-01

    Plants develop unorganized cell masses like callus and tumors in response to various biotic and abiotic stimuli. Since the historical discovery that the combination of two growth-promoting hormones, auxin and cytokinin, induces callus from plant explants in vitro, this experimental system has been used extensively in both basic research and horticultural applications. The molecular basis of callus formation has long been obscure, but we are finally beginning to understand how unscheduled cell proliferation is suppressed during normal plant development and how genetic and environmental cues override these repressions to induce callus formation. In this review, we will first provide a brief overview of callus development in nature and in vitro and then describe our current knowledge of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying callus formation. PMID:24076977

  18. Roles for the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase, DUSP1, in feedback control of inflammatory gene expression and repression by dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Shah, Suharsh; King, Elizabeth M; Chandrasekhar, Ambika; Newton, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Glucocorticoids act on the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) to repress inflammatory gene expression. This is central to their anti-inflammatory effectiveness and rational improvements in therapeutic index depend on understanding the mechanism. Human pulmonary epithelial A549 cells were used to study the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphatase, dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1), in the dexamethasone repression of 11 inflammatory genes induced, in a MAPK-dependent manner, by interleukin-1β (IL1B). Adenoviral over-expression of DUSP1 inactivated MAPK pathways and reduced expression of all 11 inflammatory genes. IL1B rapidly induced DUSP1 expression and RNA silencing revealed a transient role in feedback inhibition of MAPKs and inflammatory gene expression. With dexamethasone, which induced DUSP1 expression, plus IL1B (co-treatment), DUSP1 expression was further enhanced. At 1 h, this was responsible for the dexamethasone inhibition of IL1B-induced MAPK activation and CXCL1 and CXCL2 mRNA expression, with a similar trend for CSF2. Whereas, CCL20 mRNA was not repressed by dexamethasone at 1 h, repression of CCL2, CXCL3, IL6, and IL8 was unaffected, and PTGS2 repression was partially affected by DUSP1 knockdown. At later times, dexamethasone repression of MAPKs was unaffected by DUSP1 silencing. Likewise, 6 h post-IL1B, dexamethasone repression of all 11 mRNAs was essentially unaffected by DUSP1 knockdown. Qualitatively similar data were obtained for CSF2, CXCL1, IL6, and IL8 release. Thus, despite general roles in feedback inhibition, DUSP1 plays a transient, often partial, role in the dexamethasone-dependent repression of certain inflammatory genes. Therefore this also illustrates key roles for DUSP1-independent effectors in mediating glucocorticoid-dependent repression. PMID:24692548

  19. Hypnotizability as a Function of Repression, Adaptive Regression, and Mood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Maurice Joseph

    1974-01-01

    Forty male undergraduates were assessed in a personality assessment session and a hypnosis session. The personality traits studied were repressive style and adaptive regression, while the transitory variable was mood prior to hypnosis. Hypnotizability was a significant interactive function of repressive style and mood, but not of adaptive…

  20. Dream Recall And Repression: Evidence For An Alternative Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David B.; Wolfe, Gary

    1973-01-01

    An "Inner-rejectant" life style committed to repressing dreams has been described in terms of external locus of control, field dependence, and "poor inner life." However, in empirical studies reported here, results do not provide strong support for the (repression) formulation. The results suggest a distinction between life-style variables related…

  1. Multiple Poliovirus Proteins Repress Cytoplasmic RNA Granules

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Jonathan D.; Tsai, Wei-Chih; Lloyd, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that poliovirus (PV) infection induces stress granule (SG) formation early in infection and then inhibits the formation of SG and disperses processing bodies (PBs) by the mid-phase of infection. Loss of SG was linked to cleavage of G3BP1 by viral 3C proteinase (3Cpro), however dispersal of PBs was not strongly linked to cleavage of specific factors by viral proteinases, suggesting other viral proteins may play roles in inhibition of SG or PB formation. Here we have screened all viral proteins for roles in inducing or inhibiting the formation of RNA granules by creating fusions with mCherry and expressing them individually in cells. Expression of viral proteins separately revealed that the capsid region P1, 2Apro, 3A, 3Cpro, the protease precursor 3CD and 3D polymerase all affect RNA granules to varying extents, whereas 2BC does not. 2Apro, which cleaves eIF4GI, induced SGs as expected, and entered novel foci containing the SG nucleating protein G3BP1. Of the two forms of G3BP, only G3BP1 is cleaved by a virus proteinase, 3Cpro, whereas G3BP2 is not cleaved by 3Cpro or 2Apro. Surprisingly, 3CD, which contains proteinase activity, differentially repressed PBs but not SGs. Further, both 2Apro and 3Cpro expression dispersed PBs, however molecular targets were different since PB dispersal due to 2Apro and heat shock protein (Hsp)90 inhibition but not 3Cpro, could be rescued by application of oxidative stress to cells. The data indicate that PV repression of SGs and PBs is multifactorial, though protease function is dominant. PMID:26610553

  2. Huntingtin facilitates polycomb repressive complex 2

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Ihn Sik; Woda, Juliana M.; Song, Ji-Joon; Lloret, Alejandro; Abeyrathne, Priyanka D.; Woo, Caroline J.; Gregory, Gillian; Lee, Jong-Min; Wheeler, Vanessa C.; Walz, Thomas; Kingston, Robert E.; Gusella, James F.; Conlon, Ronald A.; MacDonald, Marcy E.

    2010-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by expansion of the polymorphic polyglutamine segment in the huntingtin protein. Full-length huntingtin is thought to be a predominant HEAT repeat α-solenoid, implying a role as a facilitator of macromolecular complexes. Here we have investigated huntingtin's domain structure and potential intersection with epigenetic silencer polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), suggested by shared embryonic deficiency phenotypes. Analysis of a set of full-length recombinant huntingtins, with different polyglutamine regions, demonstrated dramatic conformational flexibility, with an accessible hinge separating two large α-helical domains. Moreover, embryos lacking huntingtin exhibited impaired PRC2 regulation of Hox gene expression, trophoblast giant cell differentiation, paternal X chromosome inactivation and histone H3K27 tri-methylation, while full-length endogenous nuclear huntingtin in wild-type embryoid bodies (EBs) was associated with PRC2 subunits and was detected with trimethylated histone H3K27 at Hoxb9. Supporting a direct stimulatory role, full-length recombinant huntingtin significantly increased the histone H3K27 tri-methylase activity of reconstituted PRC2 in vitro, and structure–function analysis demonstrated that the polyglutamine region augmented full-length huntingtin PRC2 stimulation, both in HdhQ111 EBs and in vitro, with reconstituted PRC2. Knowledge of full-length huntingtin's α-helical organization and role as a facilitator of the multi-subunit PRC2 complex provides a novel starting point for studying PRC2 regulation, implicates this chromatin repressive complex in a neurodegenerative disorder and sets the stage for further study of huntingtin's molecular function and the impact of its modulatory polyglutamine region. PMID:19933700

  3. Separate necdin domains bind ARNT2 and HIF1{alpha} and repress transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Eitan R.; Fan Chenming

    2007-11-09

    PWS is caused by the loss of expression of a set of maternally imprinted genes including NECDIN (NDN). NDN is expressed in post-mitotic neurons and plays an essential role in PWS as mouse models lacking only the Ndn gene mimic aspects of this disease. Patients haploid for SIM1 develop a PW-like syndrome. Here, we report that NDN directly interacts with ARNT2, a bHLH-PAS protein and dimer partner for SIM1. We also found that NDN can interact with HIF1{alpha}. We showed that NDN can repress transcriptional activation mediated by ARNT2:SIM1 as well as ARNT2:HIF1{alpha}. The N-terminal 115 residues of NDN are sufficient for interaction with the bHLH domains of ARNT2 or HIF1{alpha} but not for transcriptional repression. Using GAL4-NDN fusion proteins, we determined that NDN possesses multiple repression domains. We thus propose that NDN regulates neuronal function and hypoxic response by regulating the activities of the ARNT2:SIM1 and ARNT2:HIF1{alpha} dimers, respectively.

  4. Drosophila PTB promotes formation of high-order RNP particles and represses oskar translation

    PubMed Central

    Besse, Florence; López de Quinto, Sonia; Marchand, Virginie; Trucco, Alvar; Ephrussi, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Local translation of asymmetrically enriched mRNAs is a powerful mechanism for functional polarization of the cell. In Drosophila, exclusive accumulation of Oskar protein at the posterior pole of the oocyte is essential for development of the future embryo. This is achieved by the formation of a dynamic oskar ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex regulating the transport of oskar mRNA, its translational repression while unlocalized, and its translational activation upon arrival at the posterior pole. We identified the nucleo–cytoplasmic shuttling protein PTB (polypyrimidine tract-binding protein)/hnRNP I as a new factor associating with the oskar RNP in vivo. While PTB function is largely dispensable for oskar mRNA transport, it is necessary for translational repression of the localizing mRNA. Unexpectedly, a cytoplasmic form of PTB can associate with oskar mRNA and repress its translation, suggesting that nuclear recruitment of PTB to oskar complexes is not required for its regulatory function. Furthermore, PTB binds directly to multiple sites along the oskar 3′ untranslated region and mediates assembly of high-order complexes containing multiple oskar RNA molecules in vivo. Thus, PTB is a key structural component of oskar RNP complexes that dually controls formation of high-order RNP particles and translational silencing. PMID:19131435

  5. Repression of hla by rot is dependent on sae in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongmei; Cheung, Ambrose

    2008-03-01

    The regulatory locus sae is a two-component system in Staphylococcus aureus that regulates many important virulence factors, including alpha-toxin (encoded by hla) at the transcriptional level. The SarA homologs Rot and SarT were previously shown to be repressors of hla in selected S. aureus backgrounds. To delineate the interaction of rot and sae and the contribution of sarT to hla expression, an assortment of rot and sae isogenic single mutants, a rot sae double mutant, and a rot sae sarT markerless triple mutant were constructed from wild-type strain COL. Using Northern blot analysis and transcriptional reporter gene green fluorescent protein, fusion, and phenotypic assays, we found that the repression of hla by rot is dependent on sae. A rot sae sarT triple mutant was not able to rescue the hla defect of the rot sae double mutant. Among the three sae promoters, the distal sae P3 promoter is the strongest in vitro. Interestingly, the sae P3 promoter activities correlate with hla expression in rot, rot sae, and rot sae sarT mutants of COL. Transcriptional study has also shown that rot repressed sae, especially at the sae P3 promoter. Collectively, our data implicated the importance of sae in the rot-mediated repression of hla in S. aureus.

  6. Derepression and repression of the histidine operon: role of the feedback site of the first enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, V M; Martíndelrío, R; Tébar, A R; Guisán, J M; Ballesteros, A O

    1975-01-01

    Thiazolealanine, a false feedback inhibitor, causes transient repression of the his operon previously derepressed by a severe histidine limitation in strains with a wild-type or feedback-hypersensitive first enzyme but not in feedback-resistant mutants. Since experiments reported here clearly demonstrate that thiazolealanine is not transferred to tRNAHis, it is proposed that this "transient repression" is effected through the interaction of thiazolealanine with the feedback site of the enzyme. Experiments in the presence of rifampin indicate that this thiazolealanine-mediated effect is exerted at the level of translation. We conclude that histidine (free), in addition to forming co-repressor, also represses the operon at the level of translation through feedback interaction with the first enzyme of the pathway (adenosine 5'-triphosphate phosphoribosyltransferase). Rates of derepression in feedback-resistant strains are roughly half of those observed in controls, suggesting a positive role played by a first enzyme with a normal but unoccupied feedback site. Some feedback-resistant mutants, in contrast to the wild type, were unable to exhibit derepression under histidine limitation caused by aminotriazole. PMID:1104584

  7. Wingless blocks bristle formation and morphogenetic furrow progression in the eye through repression of Daughterless.

    PubMed

    Cadigan, Kenneth M; Jou, Austin D; Nusse, Roel

    2002-07-01

    In the developing eye, wingless activity represses proneural gene expression (and thus interommatidial bristle formation) and positions the morphogenetic furrow by blocking its initiation in the dorsal and ventral regions of the presumptive eye. We provide evidence that wingless mediates both effects, at least in part, through repression of the basic helix-loop-helix protein Daughterless. daughterless is required for high proneural gene expression and furrow progression. Ectopic expression of wingless blocks Daughterless expression in the proneural clusters. This repression, and that of furrow progression, can be mimicked by an activated form of armadillo and blocked by a dominant negative form of pangolin/TCF. Placing daughterless under the control of a heterologous promoter blocks the ability of ectopic wingless to inhibit bristle formation and furrow progression. hedgehog and decapentapleigic could not rescue the wingless furrow progression block, indicating that wingless acts downstream of these genes. In contrast, Atonal and Scute, which are thought to heterodimerize with Daughterless to promote furrow progression and bristle formation, respectively, can block ectopic wingless action. These results are summarized in a model where daughterless is a major, but probably not the only, target of wingless action in the eye. PMID:12091309

  8. MAZR and Runx Factors Synergistically Repress ThPOK during CD8+ T Cell Lineage Development.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Shinya; Hainberger, Daniela; Tizian, Caroline; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Okuda, Tsukasa; Taniuchi, Ichiro; Ellmeier, Wilfried

    2015-09-15

    Th-inducing Pox virus and zinc finger/Krüppel-like factor (ThPOK) is a key commitment factor for CD4(+) lineage T cells and is essential for the maintenance of CD4 lineage integrity; thus, the expression of ThPOK has to be tightly controlled. In this article, we demonstrate that Myc-associated zinc finger-related factor (MAZR) and Runt-related transcription factor 1 (Runx1) together repressed ThPOK in preselection double-positive thymocytes, whereas MAZR acted in synergy with Runx3 in the repression of ThPOK in CD8(+) T cells. Furthermore, MAZR-Runx1 and MAZR-Runx3 double-mutant mice showed enhanced derepression of Cd4 in double-negative thymocytes and in CD8(+) T cells in comparison with Runx1 or Runx3 single-deficient mice, respectively, indicating that MAZR modulates Cd4 silencing. Thus, our data demonstrate developmental stage-specific synergistic activities between MAZR and Runx/core-binding factor β (CBFβ) complexes. Finally, retroviral Cre-mediated conditional deletion of MAZR in peripheral CD8(+) T cells led to the derepression of ThPOK, thus showing that MAZR is also part of the molecular machinery that maintains a repressed state of ThPOK in CD8(+) T cells. PMID:26254341

  9. A role for repressive histone methylation in cocaine-induced vulnerability to stress

    PubMed Central

    Covington, Herbert E.; Maze, Ian; Sun, HaoSheng; Bomze, Howard M.; DeMaio, Kristine D.; Wu, Emma Y.; Dietz, David M.; Lobo, Mary Kay; Ghose, Subroto; Mouzon, Ezekiel; Neve, Rachael L.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Substance abuse increases an individual's vulnerability to stress-related illnesses, which is presumably mediated by drug-induced neural adaptations that alter subsequent responses to stress. Here, we identify repressive histone methylation in nucleus accumbens (NAc), an important brain reward region, as a key mechanism linking cocaine exposure to increased stress vulnerability. Repeated cocaine administration prior to chronic social defeat stress potentiated depressive-like behaviors in mice through decreased levels of histone H3 lysine 9 dimethylation in NAc. Cre-mediated reduction of the histone methyltransferase, G9a, in NAc promoted increased susceptibility to social stress, similar to that observed with repeated cocaine. Conversely, G9a overexpression in NAc after repeated cocaine protected mice from the consequences of subsequent stress. This resilience was mediated, in part, through repression of BDNF-TrkB-CREB signaling, which was induced after repeated cocaine or stress. Identifying such common regulatory mechanisms may aid in the development of new therapies for addiction and depression. PMID:21867882

  10. Repressed mRNAs of muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bag, J.; Pramanik, S.

    1986-05-01

    In rat L-6 muscle cells cytoplasmic mRNAs have been found in two compartments polysome bound and free (or non polysomal). The mRNAs were differentially distributed in these two compartments. The mRNA for a polypeptide of molecular weight 60,000 daltons was present predominantly in the free or non polysomal fraction. We have prepared a cDNA library from the non polysomal mRNAs of L-6 myoblasts. This library was screened by using /sup 32/P labeled cDNA prepared from both polysomal and non polysomal mRNAs. We were able to isolate ten colonies which produced strong signals only when /sup 32/P cDNA from non polysomal mRNAs were used. The DNA from two of these colonies hybridized to two different mRNAs. These two clones were used to quantitate the mRNAs in polysomal and non polysomal fractions. It was found that one clone (D-12) hybridized to a mRNA 60% of which was present in the non polysomal fraction. On the other hand a second clone (P-5) hybridized to a mRNA 80% of which was repressed (non polysomal). Further studies are in progress to examine the mechanism of translational block of these two mRNAs.

  11. The Human Factors YY1 and LSF Repress the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Long Terminal Repeat via Recruitment of Histone Deacetylase 1

    PubMed Central

    Coull, Jason J.; Romerio, Fabio; Sun, Jian-Min; Volker, Janet L.; Galvin, Katherine M.; Davie, James R.; Shi, Yang; Hansen, Ulla; Margolis, David M.

    2000-01-01

    Enigmatic mechanisms restore the resting state in activated lymphocytes following human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, rarely allowing persistent nonproductive infection. We detail a mechanism whereby cellular factors could establish virological latency. The transcription factors YY1 and LSF cooperate in repression of transcription from the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR). LSF recruits YY1 to the LTR via the zinc fingers of YY1. The first two zinc fingers were observed to be sufficient for this interaction in vitro. A mutant of LSF incapable of binding DNA blocked repression. Like other transcriptional repressors, YY1 can function via recruitment of histone deacetylase (HDAC). We find that HDAC1 copurifies with the LTR-binding YY1-LSF repressor complex, the domain of YY1 that interacts with HDAC1 is required to repress the HIV-1 promoter, expression of HDAC1 augments repression of the LTR by YY1, and the deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A blocks repression mediated by YY1. This novel link between HDAC recruitment and inhibition of HIV-1 expression by YY1 and LSF, in the natural context of a viral promoter integrated into chromosomal DNA, is the first demonstration of a molecular mechanism of repression of HIV-1. YY1 and LSF may establish transcriptional and virological latency of HIV, a state that has recently been recognized in vivo and has significant implications for the long-term treatment of AIDS. PMID:10888618

  12. Human THAP7 is a chromatin-associated, histone tail-binding protein that represses transcription via recruitment of HDAC3 and nuclear hormone receptor corepressor.

    PubMed

    Macfarlan, Todd; Kutney, Sara; Altman, Brian; Montross, Rebecca; Yu, Jiujiu; Chakravarti, Debabrata

    2005-02-25

    The identities of signal transducer proteins that integrate histone hypoacetylation and transcriptional repression are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that THAP7, an uncharacterized member of the recently identified THAP (Thanatos-associated protein) family of proteins, is ubiquitously expressed, associates with chromatin, and represses transcription. THAP7 binds preferentially to hypoacetylated (un-, mono-, and diacetylated) histone H4 tails in vitro via its C-terminal 77 amino acids. Deletion of this domain, or treatment of cells with the histone deacetylase inhibitor TSA, which leads to histone hyperacetylation, partially disrupts THAP7/chromatin association in living cells. THAP7 coimmunoprecipitates with histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) and the nuclear hormone receptor corepressor (NCoR) and represses transcription as a Gal4 fusion protein. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that these corepressors are recruited to promoters in a THAP7 dependent manner and promote histone H3 hypoacetylation. The conserved THAP domain is a key determinant for full HDAC3 association in vitro, and both the THAP domain and the histone interaction domain are important for the repressive properties of THAP7. Full repression mediated by THAP7 is also dependent on NCoR expression. We hypothesize that THAP7 is a dual function repressor protein that actively targets deacetylation of histone H3 necessary to establish transcriptional repression and functions as a signal transducer of the repressive mark of hypoacetylated histone H4. This is the first demonstration of the transcriptional regulatory properties of a human THAP domain protein, and a critical identification of a potential transducer of the repressive signal of hypoacetylated histone H4 in higher eukaryotes. PMID:15561719

  13. ATF3 represses PDX-1 expression in pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Min Kyung; Park, Hyun Jin; Jung, Myeong Ho

    2011-08-26

    The downregulation of PDX-1 expression plays an important role in development of type 2 diabetes. However, the negative regulator of PDX-1 expression is not well known. In this study, we analyzed the mouse PDX-1 promoter to characterize the effects of ATF3 on PDX-1 expression in pancreatic β-cells. Both thapsigargin treatment, an inducer of ER stress, and ATF3 expression decreased PDX-1 expression in pancreatic β-cells, MIN6N8. Furthermore, they also repressed the activity of -4.5 Kb promoter of mouse PDX-1 gene. Transfection studies with 5' deleted-reporters showed that ATF3 repressed the activity of 0.9Kb PDX-1 promoter, whereas it did not affect the activity of 0.7 Kb PDX-1 promoter, suggesting that ATF3 responsive element is located between the -903 and -702. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that ATF3 binds directly to the promoter region spanning from -759 to -738. Moreover, mutation of the putative ATF/CRE site between -752 and -745 abrogated ATF3-mediated transrepression of the PDX-1 promoter. PDX-1 was decreased in MIN6N8 cells treated with high glucose or high palmitate, whereas ATF3 was increased, indicating that ATF3 plays a role in hyperglycemia or hyperlipidemia-mediated downregulation of PDX-1 expression. Collectively, these results demonstrate that ATF3 represses PDX-1 expression via binding to an ATF3-responsive element in its promoter, which plays an important role in suppression of pancreatic β-cells function.

  14. CcpA-Dependent Carbon Catabolite Repression in Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Jessica B.; Lolkema, Juke S.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) by transcriptional regulators follows different mechanisms in gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. In gram-positive bacteria, CcpA-dependent CCR is mediated by phosphorylation of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system intermediate HPr at a serine residue at the expense of ATP. The reaction is catalyzed by HPr kinase, which is activated by glycolytic intermediates. In this review, the distribution of CcpA-dependent CCR among bacteria is investigated by searching the public databases for homologues of HPr kinase and HPr-like proteins throughout the bacterial kingdom and by analyzing their properties. Homologues of HPr kinase are commonly observed in the phylum Firmicutes but are also found in the phyla Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Spirochaetes, and Chlorobi, suggesting that CcpA-dependent CCR is not restricted to gram-positive bacteria. In the α and β subdivisions of the Proteobacteria, the presence of HPr kinase appears to be common, while in the γ subdivision it is more of an exception. The genes coding for the HPr kinase homologues of the Proteobacteria are in a gene cluster together with an HPr-like protein, termed XPr, suggesting a functional relationship. Moreover, the XPr proteins contain the serine phosphorylation sequence motif. Remarkably, the analysis suggests a possible relation between CcpA-dependent gene regulation and the nitrogen regulation system (Ntr) found in the γ subdivision of the Proteobacteria. The relation is suggested by the clustering of CCR and Ntr components on the genome of members of the Proteobacteria and by the close phylogenetic relationship between XPr and NPr, the HPr-like protein in the Ntr system. In bacteria in the phylum Proteobacteria that contain HPr kinase and XPr, the latter may be at the center of a complex regulatory network involving both CCR and the Ntr system. PMID:14665673

  15. The interaction of induction and repression mechanisms in the regulation of galacturonic acid-induced genes in Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jing; Homan, Tim G; Arentshorst, Mark; de Vries, Ronald P; Visser, Jaap; Ram, Arthur F J

    2015-09-01

    Aspergillus niger is an important industrial fungus expressing a broad spectrum of pectinolytic genes. The main constituent of pectin, polygalacturonic acid (PGA), is degraded into galacturonic acid (GA) by the combined activity of endo- and exo-polygalacturonases some of which are specifically induced by GA. The regulatory mechanisms that control the expression of genes encoding PGA-degrading enzymes are not well understood. Based on available genome-wide expression profiles from literature, we selected five genes that were specifically induced by GA. These genes include three exo-polygalacturonases (pgaX, pgxB and pgxC), a GA transporter (gatA), and an intracellular enzyme involved in GA metabolism (gaaB). These five genes contain a conserved motif (5'-TCCNCCAAT-3') in their promoter regions, which we named GARE (galacturonic acid-responsive element). Promoter deletion studies and site-directed mutagenesis of the conserved motif of the pgaX gene showed that the conserved element is required for GA-mediated induction. A set of promoter reporter strains was constructed by fusing the promoter region of the five above-mentioned genes to the amdS reporter gene. Expression of the amdS gene is quantitatively correlated with ability to utilise acetamide as an N-source, hence higher expression of amdS improves growth of the strain on acetamide and therefore can be used as an in vivo reporter for gene expression. Growth analysis of the reporter strains indicated that four genes (pgaX, pgxB, pgxC, and gatA) are specifically induced by GA. The in vivo promoter reporter strains were also used to monitor carbon catabolite repression control. Except for gaaB, all promoter-reporter genes analysed were repressed by glucose in a glucose concentration-dependent way. Interestingly, the strength of glucose repression was different for the tested promoters. CreA is important in mediating carbon catabolite repression as deletion of the creA gene in the reporter strains abolished carbon

  16. Multiple repressive mechanisms in the hippocampus during memory formation.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jun; Yu, Nam-Kyung; Choi, Jun-Hyeok; Sim, Su-Eon; Kang, SukJae Joshua; Kwak, Chuljung; Lee, Seung-Woo; Kim, Ji-il; Choi, Dong Il; Kim, V Narry; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2015-10-01

    Memory stabilization after learning requires translational and transcriptional regulations in the brain, yet the temporal molecular changes that occur after learning have not been explored at the genomic scale. We used ribosome profiling and RNA sequencing to quantify the translational status and transcript levels in the mouse hippocampus after contextual fear conditioning. We revealed three types of repressive regulations: translational suppression of ribosomal protein-coding genes in the hippocampus, learning-induced early translational repression of specific genes, and late persistent suppression of a subset of genes via inhibition of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1/ERα) signaling. In behavioral analyses, overexpressing Nrsn1, one of the newly identified genes undergoing rapid translational repression, or activating ESR1 in the hippocampus impaired memory formation. Collectively, this study unveils the yet-unappreciated importance of gene repression mechanisms for memory formation.

  17. Targeted Transcriptional Repression in Bacteria Using CRISPR Interference (CRISPRi).

    PubMed

    Hawkins, John S; Wong, Spencer; Peters, Jason M; Almeida, Ricardo; Qi, Lei S

    2015-01-01

    Clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) interference (CRISPRi) is a powerful technology for sequence-specifically repressing gene expression in bacterial cells. CRISPRi requires only a single protein and a custom-designed guide RNA for specific gene targeting. In Escherichia coli, CRISPRi repression efficiency is high (~300-fold), and there are no observable off-target effects. The method can be scaled up as a general strategy for the repression of many genes simultaneously using multiple designed guide RNAs. Here we provide a protocol for efficient guide RNA design, cloning, and assay of the CRISPRi system in E. coli. In principle, this protocol can be used to construct CRISPRi systems for gene repression in other species of bacteria.

  18. Age-associated de-repression of retrotransposons in the Drosophila fat body, its potential cause and consequence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiyang; Zheng, Xiaobin; Xiao, Danqing; Zheng, Yixian

    2016-06-01

    Eukaryotic genomes contain transposable elements (TE) that can move into new locations upon activation. Since uncontrolled transposition of TEs, including the retrotransposons and DNA transposons, can lead to DNA breaks and genomic instability, multiple mechanisms, including heterochromatin-mediated repression, have evolved to repress TE activation. Studies in model organisms have shown that TEs become activated upon aging as a result of age-associated deregulation of heterochromatin. Considering that different organisms or cell types may undergo distinct heterochromatin changes upon aging, it is important to identify pathways that lead to TE activation in specific tissues and cell types. Through deep sequencing of isolated RNAs, we report an increased expression of many retrotransposons in the old Drosophila fat body, an organ equivalent to the mammalian liver and adipose tissue. This de-repression correlates with an increased number of DNA damage foci and decreased level of Drosophila lamin-B in the old fat body cells. Depletion of the Drosophila lamin-B in the young or larval fat body results in a reduction of heterochromatin and a corresponding increase in retrotransposon expression and DNA damage. Further manipulations of lamin-B and retrotransposon expression suggest a role of the nuclear lamina in maintaining the genome integrity of the Drosophila fat body by repressing retrotransposons.

  19. Transcriptional repression of Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC1 by hypoxia-inducible factor-1.

    PubMed

    Ibla, Juan C; Khoury, Joseph; Kong, Tianqing; Robinson, Andreas; Colgan, Sean P

    2006-08-01

    Tissue edema is commonly associated with hypoxia. Generally, such episodes of fluid accumulation are self-limiting. At present, little is known about mechanisms to compensate excessive fluid transport. Here we describe an adaptive mechanism to dampen fluid loss during hypoxia. Initial studies confirmed previous observations of attenuated electrogenic Cl- secretion after epithelial hypoxia. A screen of known ion transporters in Cl- -secreting epithelia revealed selective downregulation of Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC1 mRNA, protein, and function. Subsequent studies identified transcriptional repression of NKCC1 mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis identified a functional HIF binding site oriented on the antisense strand of genomic DNA downstream of the transcription start site corresponding to the NKCC1 5'-untranslated region. Additional in vivo studies using conditional Hif1a-null mice revealed that the loss of HIF-1alpha in Cl- -secreting epithelia results in a loss of NKCC1 repression. These studies describe a novel regulatory pathway for NKCC1 transcriptional repression by hypoxia. These results suggest that HIF-dependent repression of epithelial NKCC1 may provide a compensatory mechanism to prevent excessive fluid loss during hypoxia. PMID:16571862

  20. HDAC8 and STAT3 repress BMF gene activity in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Y; Nian, H; Rajendran, P; Kim, E; Dashwood, W M; Pinto, J T; Boardman, L A; Thibodeau, S N; Limburg, P J; Löhr, C V; Bisson, W H; Williams, D E; Ho, E; Dashwood, R H

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are undergoing clinical trials as anticancer agents, but some exhibit resistance mechanisms linked to anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 functions, such as BH3-only protein silencing. HDAC inhibitors that reactivate BH3-only family members might offer an improved therapeutic approach. We show here that a novel seleno-α-keto acid triggers global histone acetylation in human colon cancer cells and activates apoptosis in a p21-independent manner. Profiling of multiple survival factors identified a critical role for the BH3-only member Bcl-2-modifying factor (Bmf). On the corresponding BMF gene promoter, loss of HDAC8 was associated with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/specificity protein 3 (Sp3) transcription factor exchange and recruitment of p300. Treatment with a p300 inhibitor or transient overexpression of exogenous HDAC8 interfered with BMF induction, whereas RNAi-mediated silencing of STAT3 activated the target gene. This is the first report to identify a direct target gene of HDAC8 repression, namely, BMF. Interestingly, the repressive role of HDAC8 could be uncoupled from HDAC1 to trigger Bmf-mediated apoptosis. These findings have implications for the development of HDAC8-selective inhibitors as therapeutic agents, beyond the reported involvement of HDAC8 in childhood malignancy. PMID:25321483

  1. Lamin A/C sustains PcG protein architecture, maintaining transcriptional repression at target genes

    PubMed Central

    Cesarini, Elisa; Mozzetta, Chiara; Marullo, Fabrizia; Gregoretti, Francesco; Gargiulo, Annagiusi; Columbaro, Marta; Cortesi, Alice; Antonelli, Laura; Di Pelino, Simona; Squarzoni, Stefano; Palacios, Daniela; Zippo, Alessio; Bodega, Beatrice; Oliva, Gennaro

    2015-01-01

    Beyond its role in providing structure to the nuclear envelope, lamin A/C is involved in transcriptional regulation. However, its cross talk with epigenetic factors—and how this cross talk influences physiological processes—is still unexplored. Key epigenetic regulators of development and differentiation are the Polycomb group (PcG) of proteins, organized in the nucleus as microscopically visible foci. Here, we show that lamin A/C is evolutionarily required for correct PcG protein nuclear compartmentalization. Confocal microscopy supported by new algorithms for image analysis reveals that lamin A/C knock-down leads to PcG protein foci disassembly and PcG protein dispersion. This causes detachment from chromatin and defects in PcG protein–mediated higher-order structures, thereby leading to impaired PcG protein repressive functions. Using myogenic differentiation as a model, we found that reduced levels of lamin A/C at the onset of differentiation led to an anticipation of the myogenic program because of an alteration of PcG protein–mediated transcriptional repression. Collectively, our results indicate that lamin A/C can modulate transcription through the regulation of PcG protein epigenetic factors. PMID:26553927

  2. TET2 repression by androgen hormone regulates global hydroxymethylation status and prostate cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Ken-ichi; Misawa, Aya; Suzuki, Takashi; Takagi, Kiyoshi; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Homma, Yukio; Takahashi, Satoru; Urano, Tomohiko; Inoue, Satoshi

    2015-09-25

    Modulation of epigenetic patterns has promising efficacy for treating cancer. 5-Hydroxymethylated cytosine (5-hmC) is an epigenetic mark potentially important in cancer. Here we report that 5-hmC is an epigenetic hallmark of prostate cancer (PCa) progression. A member of the ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins, which catalyse the oxidation of methylated cytosine (5-mC) to 5-hmC, TET2, is repressed by androgens in PCa. Androgen receptor (AR)-mediated induction of the miR-29 family, which targets TET2, are markedly enhanced in hormone refractory PCa (HRPC) and its high expression predicts poor outcome of PCa patients. Furthermore, decreased expression of miR-29b results in reduced tumour growth and increased TET2 expression in an animal model of HRPC. Interestingly, global 5-hmC modification regulated by miR-29b represses FOXA1 activity. A reduction in 5-hmC activates PCa-related key pathways such as mTOR and AR. Thus, DNA modification directly links the TET2-dependent epigenetic pathway regulated by AR to 5-hmC-mediated tumour progression.

  3. Cytotype Regulation Facilitates Repression of Hybrid Dysgenesis by Naturally Occurring KP Elements in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Michael J.; Grimes, Craig D.; Czora, Cody S.

    2016-01-01

    P elements inserted in the Telomere Associated Sequences (TAS) at the left end of the X chromosome are determiners of cytotype regulation of the entire P family of transposons. This regulation is mediated by Piwi-interacting (pi) RNAs derived from the telomeric P elements (TPs). Because these piRNAs are transmitted maternally, cytotype regulation is manifested as a maternal effect of the TPs. When a TP is combined with a transgenic P element inserted at another locus, this maternal effect is strengthened. However, when certain TPs are combined with transgenes that contain the small P element known as KP, stronger regulation arises from a zygotic effect of the KP element. This zygotic effect is observed with transgenic KP elements that are structurally intact, as well as with KP elements that are fused to an ancillary promoter from the hsp70 gene. Zygotic regulation by a KP element occurs only when a TP was present in the maternal germ line, and it is more pronounced when the TP was also present in the grand-maternal germ line. However, this regulation does not require zygotic expression of the TP. These observations can be explained if maternally transmitted piRNAs from TPs enable a polypeptide encoded by KP elements to repress P element transposition in zygotes that contain a KP element. In nature, repression by the KP polypeptide may therefore be facilitated by cytotype-mediating piRNAs. PMID:27172198

  4. TALE-mediated modulation of transcriptional enhancers in vivo.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Justin; Stern, David L

    2013-08-01

    We tested whether transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) could mediate repression and activation of endogenous enhancers in the Drosophila genome. TALE repressors (TALERs) targeting each of the five even-skipped (eve) stripe enhancers generated repression specifically of the focal stripes. TALE activators (TALEAs) targeting the eve promoter or enhancers caused increased expression primarily in cells normally activated by the promoter or targeted enhancer, respectively. This effect supports the view that repression acts in a dominant fashion on transcriptional activators and that the activity state of an enhancer influences TALE binding or the ability of the VP16 domain to enhance transcription. In these assays, the Hairy repression domain did not exhibit previously described long-range transcriptional repression activity. The phenotypic effects of TALER and TALEA expression in larvae and adults are consistent with the observed modulations of eve expression. TALEs thus provide a novel tool for detection and functional modulation of transcriptional enhancers in their native genomic context.

  5. Transcriptional repression of SIRT1 by protein inhibitor of activated STAT 4 (PIAS4) in hepatic stellate cells contributes to liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lina; Fan, Zhiwen; Chen, Junliang; Tian, Wenfang; Li, Min; Xu, Huihui; Wu, Xiaoyan; Shao, Jing; Bian, Yaoyao; Fang, Mingming; Xu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial fibrosis represents a key pathological process in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In the liver, fibrogenesis is primarily mediated by activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) transitioning from a quiescent state in response to a host of stimuli. The molecular mechanism underlying HSC activation is not completely understood. Here we report that there was a simultaneous up-regulation of PIAS4 expression and down-regulation of SIRT1 expression accompanying increased hepatic fibrogenesis in an MCD-diet induced mouse model of NASH. In cultured primary mouse HSCs, stimulation with high glucose activated PIAS4 while at the same time repressed SIRT1. Over-expression of PIAS4 directly repressed SIRT1 promoter activity. In contrast, depletion of PIAS4 restored SIRT1 expression in HSCs treated with high glucose. Estrogen, a known NASH-protective hormone, antagonized HSC activation by targeting PIAS4. Lentivirus-mediated delivery of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting PIAS4 in mice ameliorated MCD diet induced liver fibrosis by normalizing SIRT1 expression in vivo. PIAS4 promoted HSC activation in a SIRT1-dependent manner in vitro. Mechanistically, PIAS4 mediated SIRT1 repression led to SMAD3 hyperacetylation and enhanced SMAD3 binding to fibrogenic gene promoters. Taken together, our data suggest SIRT1 trans-repression by PIAS4 plays an important role in HSC activation and liver fibrosis. PMID:27323886

  6. Repression of yeast Ste12 transcription factor by direct binding of unphosphorylated Kss1 MAPK and its regulation by the Ste7 MEK.

    PubMed

    Bardwell, L; Cook, J G; Voora, D; Baggott, D M; Martinez, A R; Thorner, J

    1998-09-15

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Kss1 has a dual role in regulating filamentous (invasive) growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The stimulatory function of Kss1 requires both its catalytic activity and its activation by the MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) Ste7; in contrast, the inhibitory function of Kss1 requires neither. This study examines the mechanism by which Kss1 inhibits invasive growth, and how Ste7 action overcomes this inhibition. We found that unphosphorylated Kss1 binds directly to the transcription factor Ste12, that this binding is necessary for Kss1-mediated repression of Ste12, and that Ste7-mediated phosphorylation of Kss1 weakens Kss1-Ste12 interaction and relieves Kss1-mediated repression. Relative to Kss1, the MAPK Fus3 binds less strongly to Ste12 and is correspondingly a weaker inhibitor of invasive growth. Analysis of Kss1 mutants indicated that the activation loop of Kss1 controls binding to Ste12. Potent repression of a transcription factor by its physical interaction with the unactivated isoform of a protein kinase, and relief of this repression by activation of the kinase, is a novel mechanism for signal-dependent regulation of gene expression. PMID:9744865

  7. Antenatal hypoxia induces epigenetic repression of glucocorticoid receptor and promotes ischemic-sensitive phenotype in the developing heart.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fuxia; Lin, Thant; Song, Minwoo; Ma, Qingyi; Martinez, Shannalee R; Lv, Juanxiu; MataGreenwood, Eugenia; Xiao, Daliao; Xu, Zhice; Zhang, Lubo

    2016-02-01

    Large studies in humans and animals have demonstrated a clear association of an adverse intrauterine environment with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Yet mechanisms remain largely elusive. The present study tested the hypothesis that gestational hypoxia leads to promoter hypermethylation and epigenetic repression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene in the developing heart, resulting in increased heart susceptibility to ischemia and reperfusion injury in offspring. Hypoxic treatment of pregnant rats from day 15 to 21 of gestation resulted in a significant decrease of GR exon 14, 15, 16, and 17 transcripts, leading to down-regulation of GR mRNA and protein in the fetal heart. Functional cAMP-response elements (CREs) at -4408 and -3896 and Sp1 binding sites at -3425 and -3034 were identified at GR untranslated exon 1 promoters. Hypoxia significantly increased CpG methylation at the CREs and Sp1 binding sites and decreased transcription factor binding to GR exon 1 promoter, accounting for the repression of the GR gene in the developing heart. Of importance, treatment of newborn pups with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine reversed hypoxia-induced promoter methylation, restored GR expression and prevented hypoxia-mediated increase in ischemia and reperfusion injury of the heart in offspring. The findings demonstrate a novel mechanism of epigenetic repression of the GR gene in fetal stress-mediated programming of ischemic-sensitive phenotype in the heart. PMID:26779948

  8. CRISPR Technology for Genome Activation and Repression in Mammalian Cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Dan; Qi, Lei S

    2016-01-01

    Targeted modulation of transcription is necessary for understanding complex gene networks and has great potential for medical and industrial applications. CRISPR is emerging as a powerful system for targeted genome activation and repression, in addition to its use in genome editing. This protocol describes how to design, construct, and experimentally validate the function of sequence-specific single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) for sequence-specific repression (CRISPRi) or activation (CRISPRa) of transcription in mammalian cells. In this technology, the CRISPR-associated protein Cas9 is catalytically deactivated (dCas9) to provide a general platform for RNA-guided DNA targeting of any locus in the genome. Fusion of dCas9 to effector domains with distinct regulatory functions enables stable and efficient transcriptional repression or activation in mammalian cells. Delivery of multiple sgRNAs further enables activation or repression of multiple genes. By using scaffold RNAs (scRNAs), different effectors can be recruited to different genes for simultaneous activation of some and repression of others. The CRISPRi and CRISPRa methods provide powerful tools for sequence-specific control of gene expression on a genome-wide scale to aid understanding gene functions and for engineering genetic regulatory systems. PMID:26729910

  9. Mechanism of promoter repression by Lac repressor-DNA loops.

    PubMed

    Becker, Nicole A; Peters, Justin P; Maher, L James; Lionberger, Troy A

    2013-01-01

    The Escherichia coli lactose (lac) operon encodes the first genetic switch to be discovered, and lac remains a paradigm for studying negative and positive control of gene expression. Negative control is believed to involve competition of RNA polymerase and Lac repressor for overlapping binding sites. Contributions to the local Lac repressor concentration come from free repressor and repressor delivered to the operator from remote auxiliary operators by DNA looping. Long-standing questions persist concerning the actual role of DNA looping in the mechanism of promoter repression. Here, we use experiments in living bacteria to resolve four of these questions. We show that the distance dependence of repression enhancement is comparable for upstream and downstream auxiliary operators, confirming the hypothesis that repressor concentration increase is the principal mechanism of repression loops. We find that as few as four turns of DNA can be constrained in a stable loop by Lac repressor. We show that RNA polymerase is not trapped at repressed promoters. Finally, we show that constraining a promoter in a tight DNA loop is sufficient for repression even when promoter and operator do not overlap. PMID:23143103

  10. Salt stress represses production of extracellular proteases in Bacillus pumilus.

    PubMed

    Liu, R F; Huang, C L; Feng, H

    2015-05-11

    Bacillus pumilus is able to secrete subtilisin-like prote-ases, one of which has been purified and characterized biochemically, demonstrating great potential for use in industrial applications. In the current study, the biosynthesis and transcription of extracellular pro-teases in B. pumilus (BA06) under salt stress were investigated using various methods, including a proteolytic assay, zymogram analysis, and real-time PCR. Our results showed that total extracellular proteolytic activity, both in fermentation broth and on milk-containing agar plates, was considerably repressed by salt in a dosage-dependent manner. As Bacillus species usually secret multiple extracellular proteases, a vari-ety of individual extracellular protease encoding genes were selected for real-time PCR analysis. It was shown that proteases encoded by the aprE and aprX genes were the major proteases in the fermentation broth in terms of their transcripts in B. pumilus. Further, transcription of aprE, aprX, and epr genes was indeed repressed by salt stress. In con-trast, transcription of other genes (e.g., vpr and wprA) was not repressed or significantly affected by the salt. Conclusively, salt stress represses total extracellular proteolytic activity in B. pumilus, which can largely be ascribed to suppression of the major protease-encoding genes (aprE, aprX) at the transcriptional level. In contrast, transcription of other pro-tease-encoding genes (e.g., vpr, wprA) was not repressed by salt stress.

  11. CRISPR Technology for Genome Activation and Repression in Mammalian Cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Dan; Qi, Lei S

    2016-01-04

    Targeted modulation of transcription is necessary for understanding complex gene networks and has great potential for medical and industrial applications. CRISPR is emerging as a powerful system for targeted genome activation and repression, in addition to its use in genome editing. This protocol describes how to design, construct, and experimentally validate the function of sequence-specific single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) for sequence-specific repression (CRISPRi) or activation (CRISPRa) of transcription in mammalian cells. In this technology, the CRISPR-associated protein Cas9 is catalytically deactivated (dCas9) to provide a general platform for RNA-guided DNA targeting of any locus in the genome. Fusion of dCas9 to effector domains with distinct regulatory functions enables stable and efficient transcriptional repression or activation in mammalian cells. Delivery of multiple sgRNAs further enables activation or repression of multiple genes. By using scaffold RNAs (scRNAs), different effectors can be recruited to different genes for simultaneous activation of some and repression of others. The CRISPRi and CRISPRa methods provide powerful tools for sequence-specific control of gene expression on a genome-wide scale to aid understanding gene functions and for engineering genetic regulatory systems.

  12. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Catabolite Repression Control Protein Crc Is Devoid of RNA Binding Activity

    PubMed Central

    Djinovic-Carugo, Kristina; Bläsi, Udo

    2013-01-01

    The Crc protein has been shown to mediate catabolite repression control in Pseudomonas, leading to a preferential assimilation of carbon sources. It has been suggested that Crc acts as a translational repressor of mRNAs, encoding functions involved in uptake and breakdown of different carbon sources. Moreover, the regulatory RNA CrcZ, the level of which is increased in the presence of less preferred carbon sources, was suggested to bind to and sequester Crc, resulting in a relief of catabolite repression. Here, we determined the crystal structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Crc, a member of apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease family, at 1.8 Å. Although Crc displays high sequence similarity with its orthologs, there are amino acid alterations in the area corresponding to the active site in AP proteins. Unlike typical AP endonuclease family proteins, Crc has a reduced overall positive charge and the conserved positively charged amino-acid residues of the DNA-binding surface of AP proteins are partially substituted by negatively charged, polar and hydrophobic residues. Crc protein purified to homogeneity from P. aeruginosa did neither display DNase activity, nor did it bind to previously identified RNA substrates. Rather, the RNA chaperone Hfq was identified as a contaminant in His-tagged Crc preparations purified by one step Ni-affinity chromatography from Escherichia coli, and was shown to account for the RNA binding activity observed with the His-Crc preparations. Taken together, these data challenge a role of Crc as a direct translational repressor in carbon catabolite repression in P. aeruginosa. PMID:23717639

  13. Ligand-dependent repression of the erythroid transcription factor GATA-1 by the estrogen receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Blobel, G A; Sieff, C A; Orkin, S H

    1995-01-01

    High-dose estrogen administration induces anemia in mammals. In chickens, estrogens stimulate outgrowth of bone marrow-derived erythroid progenitor cells and delay their maturation. This delay is associated with down-regulation of many erythroid cell-specific genes, including alpha- and beta-globin, band 3, band 4.1, and the erythroid cell-specific histone H5. We show here that estrogens also reduce the number of erythroid progenitor cells in primary human bone marrow cultures. To address potential mechanisms by which estrogens suppress erythropoiesis, we have examined their effects on GATA-1, an erythroid transcription factor that participates in the regulation of the majority of erythroid cell-specific genes and is necessary for full maturation of erythrocytes. We demonstrate that the transcriptional activity of GATA-1 is strongly repressed by the estrogen receptor (ER) in a ligand-dependent manner and that this repression is reversible in the presence of 4-hydroxytamoxifen. ER-mediated repression of GATA-1 activity occurs on an artificial promoter containing a single GATA-binding site, as well as in the context of an intact promoter which is normally regulated by GATA-1. GATA-1 and ER bind to each other in vitro in the absence of DNA. In coimmunoprecipitation experiments using transfected COS cells, GATA-1 and ER associate in a ligand-dependent manner. Mapping experiments indicate that GATA-1 and the ER form at least two contacts, which involve the finger region and the N-terminal activation domain of GATA-1. We speculate that estrogens exert effects on erythropoiesis by modulating GATA-1 activity through protein-protein interaction with the ER. Interference with GATA-binding proteins may be one mechanism by which steroid hormones modulate cellular differentiation. PMID:7760810

  14. Cyclin D1 represses gluconeogenesis via inhibition of the transcriptional coactivator PGC1α.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Kavita; Liu, Wan-Ju; Thompson, Keyata; Anders, Lars; Devarakonda, Srikripa; Dewi, Ruby; Buckley, Stephanie; Hwang, Bor-Jang; Polster, Brian; Dorsey, Susan G; Sun, Yezhou; Sicinski, Piotr; Girnun, Geoffrey D

    2014-10-01

    Hepatic gluconeogenesis is crucial to maintain normal blood glucose during periods of nutrient deprivation. Gluconeogenesis is controlled at multiple levels by a variety of signal transduction and transcriptional pathways. However, dysregulation of these pathways leads to hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. While the effects of various signaling pathways on gluconeogenesis are well established, the downstream signaling events repressing gluconeogenic gene expression are not as well understood. The cell-cycle regulator cyclin D1 is expressed in the liver, despite the liver being a quiescent tissue. The most well-studied function of cyclin D1 is activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), promoting progression of the cell cycle. We show here a novel role for cyclin D1 as a regulator of gluconeogenic and oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) gene expression. In mice, fasting decreases liver cyclin D1 expression, while refeeding induces cyclin D1 expression. Inhibition of CDK4 enhances the gluconeogenic gene expression, whereas cyclin D1-mediated activation of CDK4 represses the gluconeogenic gene-expression program in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, we show that cyclin D1 represses gluconeogenesis and OxPhos in part via inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC1α) activity in a CDK4-dependent manner. Indeed, we demonstrate that PGC1α is novel cyclin D1/CDK4 substrate. These studies reveal a novel role for cyclin D1 on metabolism via PGC1α and reveal a potential link between cell-cycle regulation and metabolic control of glucose homeostasis.

  15. Polycomb repressive complex 2 in embryonic stem cells: an overview.

    PubMed

    Jones, Amanda; Wang, Hengbin

    2010-12-01

    Polycomb Group Proteins (PcG) are a family of epigenetic regulators responsible for the repression of an array of genes important in development and cell fate specification. PcG proteins complex to form two types of epigenetic regulators: Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 and 2 (PRC1 and PRC2). Although the mechanisms regulating PRC2 recruitment and activity in mammals remain poorly understood, recent work has identified a non-canonical PRC2 in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) with unique activities required for repression of PRC2 target genes and necessary for mESC differentiation and somatic cell reprogramming. Here we review the functions of PRC2 in embryonic stem cells and explore the role of the newly identified mESC specific PRC2 regulatory subunits Jarid2 (jumonji, AT rich interactive domain 2), Mtf2 (metal response element binding transcription factor 2) and esPRC2p48.

  16. Genomic footprinting of the yeast zinc finger protein Rme1p and its roles in repression of the meiotic activator IME1.

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, M; Li, W; Covitz, P A; Hara, M; Shindo, H; Mitchell, A P

    1998-01-01

    The zinc finger protein Rme1p is a negative regulator of the meiotic activator IME1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Prior studies have shown that Rme1p binds in vitro to a site near nt -2030 in the IME1 upstream region, but a genomic mutation in that site has little effect on repression of IME1 . To identify Rme1p binding sites in vivo , we have examined the binding of Rme1p to genomic sites through in vivo footprinting. We show that Rme1p binds to two sites in the IME1 upstream region, near nt -1950 and -2030. Mutations in both binding sites abolish repression of chromosomal IME1 by Rme1p, whereas a mutation in either single site causes partial derepression. Therefore, both Rme1p binding sites are essential for repression of IME1 . Prior studies have shown that repression by Rme1p depends upon RGR1 and SIN4 , which specify RNA polymerase II mediator subunits that are required for normal nucleosome density. We find that RGR1 and SIN4 are not simply required for Rme1p to bind to DNA in vivo . These results suggest that Rme1p functions directly as a repressor of IME1 and that Rgr1p and Sin4p are required for DNA-bound Rme1p to exert repression. PMID:9580682

  17. PTH and Vitamin D Repress DMP1 in Cementoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L.; Tran, A.B.; Nociti, F.H.; Thumbigere-Math, V.; Foster, B.L.; Krieger, C.C.; Kantovitz, K.R.; Novince, C.M.; Koh, A.J.; McCauley, L.K.; Somerman, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    A complex feedback mechanism between parathyroid hormone (PTH), 1,25(OH)2D3 (1,25D), and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) maintains mineral homeostasis, in part by regulating calcium and phosphate absorption/reabsorption. Previously, we showed that 1,25D regulates mineral homeostasis by repressing dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) via the vitamin D receptor pathway. Similar to 1,25D, PTH may modulate DMP1, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Immortalized murine cementoblasts (OCCM.30), similar to osteoblasts and known to express DMP1, were treated with PTH (1–34). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot revealed that PTH decreased DMP1 gene transcription (85%) and protein expression (30%), respectively. PTH mediated the downregulation of DMP1 via the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the decreased localization of DMP1 in vivo in cellular cementum and alveolar bone of mice treated with a single dose (50 µg/kg) of PTH (1–34). RNA-seq was employed to further identify patterns of gene expression shared by PTH and 1,25D in regulating DMP1, as well as other factors involved in mineral homeostasis. PTH and 1,25D mutually upregulated 36 genes and mutually downregulated 27 genes by ≥2-fold expression (P ≤ 0.05). Many identified genes were linked with the regulation of bone/tooth homeostasis, cell growth and differentiation, calcium signaling, and DMP1 transcription. Validation of RNA-seq results via PCR array confirmed a similar gene expression pattern in response to PTH and 1,25D treatment. Collectively, these results suggest that PTH and 1,25D share complementary effects in maintaining mineral homeostasis by mutual regulation of genes/proteins associated with calcium and phosphate metabolism while also exerting distinct roles on factors modulating mineral metabolism. Furthermore, PTH may modulate phosphate homeostasis by downregulating DMP1 expression via the cAMP/PKA pathway. Targeting

  18. Spi-B inhibits human plasma cell differentiation by repressing BLIMP1 and XBP-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Schmidlin, Heike; Diehl, Sean A; Nagasawa, Maho; Scheeren, Ferenc A; Schotte, Remko; Uittenbogaart, Christel H; Spits, Hergen; Blom, Bianca

    2008-09-01

    The terminal differentiation of B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells is tightly regulated by a complex network of transcription factors. Here we evaluated the role of the Ets factor Spi-B during terminal differentiation of human B cells. All mature tonsil and peripheral blood B-cell subsets expressed Spi-B, with the exception of plasma cells. Overexpression of Spi-B in CD19(+) B cells inhibited, similar to the known inhibitor BCL-6, the expression of plasma cell-associated surface markers and transcription factors as well as immunoglobulin production, ie, in vitro plasma cell differentiation. The arrest in B-cell differentiation enforced by Spi-B was independent of the transactivation domain, but dependent on the Ets-domain. By chromatin immunoprecipitation and assays using an inducible Spi-B construct BLIMP1 and XBP-1 were identified as direct target genes of Spi-B mediated repression. We propose a novel role for Spi-B in maintenance of germinal center and memory B cells by direct repression of major plasma cell factors and thereby plasma cell differentiation.

  19. An epigenetic switch ensures transposon repression upon dynamic loss of DNA methylation in embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Marius; Teissandier, Aurélie; Pérez-Palacios, Raquel; Bourc'his, Déborah

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is extensively remodeled during mammalian gametogenesis and embryogenesis. Most transposons become hypomethylated, raising the question of their regulation in the absence of DNA methylation. To reproduce a rapid and extensive demethylation, we subjected mouse ES cells to chemically defined hypomethylating culture conditions. Surprisingly, we observed two phases of transposon regulation. After an initial burst of de-repression, various transposon families were efficiently re-silenced. This was accompanied by a reconfiguration of the repressive chromatin landscape: while H3K9me3 was stable, H3K9me2 globally disappeared and H3K27me3 accumulated at transposons. Interestingly, we observed that H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 occupy different transposon families or different territories within the same family, defining three functional categories of adaptive chromatin responses to DNA methylation loss. Our work highlights that H3K9me3 and, most importantly, polycomb-mediated H3K27me3 chromatin pathways can secure the control of a large spectrum of transposons in periods of intense DNA methylation change, ensuring longstanding genome stability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11418.001 PMID:26814573

  20. CHES1/FOXN3 regulates cell proliferation by repressing PIM2 and protein biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Huot, Geneviève; Vernier, Mathieu; Bourdeau, Véronique; Doucet, Laurent; Saint-Germain, Emmanuelle; Gaumont-Leclerc, Marie-France; Moro, Alejandro; Ferbeyre, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    The expression of the forkhead transcription factor checkpoint suppressor 1 (CHES1), also known as FOXN3, is reduced in many types of cancers. We show here that CHES1 decreases protein synthesis and cell proliferation in tumor cell lines but not in normal fibroblasts. Conversely, short hairpin RNA–mediated depletion of CHES1 increases tumor cell proliferation. Growth suppression depends on the CHES1 forkhead DNA-binding domain and correlates with the nuclear localization of CHES1. CHES1 represses the expression of multiple genes, including the kinases PIM2 and DYRK3, which regulate protein biosynthesis, and a number of genes in cilium biogenesis. CHES1 binds directly to the promoter of PIM2, and in cells expressing CHES1 the levels of PIM2 are reduced, as well as the phosphorylation of the PIM2 target 4EBP1. Overexpression of PIM2 or eIF4E partially reverses the antiproliferative effect of CHES1, indicating that PIM2 and protein biosynthesis are important targets of the antiproliferative effect of CHES1. In several human hematopoietic cancers, CHES1 and PIM2 expressions are inversely correlated, suggesting that repression of PIM2 by CHES1 is clinically relevant. PMID:24403608

  1. HBXAP, a novel PHD-finger protein, possesses transcription repression activity.

    PubMed

    Shamay, Meir; Barak, Orr; Shaul, Yosef

    2002-04-01

    The PHD/LAP (plant homology domain/leukemia associated protein) finger motif is characteristically defined by a histidine and seven cysteines that are spatially arranged in a C4HC3 consensus sequence. This unique zinc finger, found primarily in a wide variety of chromatin-associated proteins, is considered to mediate protein-protein interactions. We have isolated a novel human PHD-finger protein, HBXAP (for hepatitis B virus x associated protein). HBXAP has three alternatively spliced isoforms. We also identified the Drosophila melanogaster HBXAP ortholog, gene CG8677. Based on alignment of four different proteins, we found a novel conserved domain in HBXAP that we designated the HBXAP conserved domain (XCD). We show that HBXAP represses transcription when recruited to DNA via the DNA binding of GAL4. Furthermore, the PHD finger alone suffices to repress transcription, thus attributing a functional role to this domain. The gene HBXAP is localized to the long arm of human chromosome 11 between q13.4 and q14.1. This region is amplified and rearranged in many tumors, suggesting a role for HBXAP in tumorigenesis similar to that of other PHD-containing proteins. PMID:11944984

  2. SUMOylation regulates the transcriptional repression activity of FOG-2 and its association with GATA-4.

    PubMed

    Perdomo, José; Jiang, Xing-Mai; Carter, Daniel R; Khachigian, Levon M; Chong, Beng H

    2012-01-01

    Friend of GATA 2 (FOG-2), a co-factor of several GATA transcription factors (GATA-4, -5 and 6), is a critical regulator of coronary vessel formation and heart morphogenesis. Here we demonstrate that FOG-2 is SUMOylated and that this modification modulates its transcriptional activity. FOG-2 SUMOylation occurs at four lysine residues (K324, 471, 915, 955) [corrected]. Three of these residues are part of the characteristic SUMO consensus site (ψKXE), while K955 is found in the less frequent TKXE motif. Absence of SUMOylation did not affect FOG-2's nuclear localization. However, mutation of the FOG-2 SUMOylation sites, or de-SUMOylation, with SENP-1 or SENP-8 resulted in stronger transcriptional repression activity in both heterologous cells and cardiomyocytes. Conversely, increased FOG-2 SUMOylation by overexpression of SUMO-1 or expression of a SUMO-1-FOG-2 fusion protein rendered FOG-2 incapable of repressing GATA-4-mediated activation of the B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) promoter. Moreover, we demonstrate both increased interaction between a FOG-2 SUMO mutant and GATA-4 and enhanced SUMOylation of wild-type FOG-2 by co-expression of GATA-4. These data suggest a new dynamics in which GATA-4 may alter the activity of FOG-2 by influencing its SUMOylation status.

  3. Role of RUNX family members in transcriptional repression and gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Durst, Kristie L; Hiebert, Scott W

    2004-05-24

    RUNX family members are DNA-binding transcription factors that regulate the expression of genes involved in cellular differentiation and cell cycle progression. The RUNX family includes three mammalian RUNX proteins (RUNX1, -2, -3) and two homologues in Drosophila. Experiments in Drosophila and mouse indicate that the RUNX proteins are required for gene silencing of engrailed and CD4, respectively. RUNX-mediated repression involves recruitment of corepressors such as mSin3A and Groucho as well as histone deacetylases. Furthermore, RUNX1 and RUNX3 associate with SUV39H1, a histone methyltransferase involved in gene silencing. RUNX1 is frequently targeted in human leukemia by chromosomal translocations that fuse the DNA-binding domain of RUNX1 to other transcription factors and corepressor molecules. The resulting leukemogenic fusion proteins are transcriptional repressors that form stable complexes with corepressors, histone deacetylases and histone methyltransferases. Thus, transcriptional repression and gene silencing through RUNX1 contribute to the mechanisms of leukemogenesis of the fusion proteins. Therapies directed at the associated cofactors may be beneficial for treatment of these leukemias. PMID:15156176

  4. Yeast nitrogen catabolite repression is sustained by signals distinct from glutamine and glutamate reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Fayyad-Kazan, Mohammad; Feller, A; Bodo, E; Boeckstaens, M; Marini, A M; Dubois, E; Georis, I

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) is a wide transcriptional regulation program enabling baker's yeast to downregulate genes involved in the utilization of poor nitrogen sources when preferred ones are available. Nowadays, glutamine and glutamate, the major nitrogen donors for biosyntheses, are assumed to be key metabolic signals regulating NCR. NCR is controlled by the conserved TORC1 complex, which integrates nitrogen signals among others to regulate cell growth. However, accumulating evidence indicate that the TORC1-mediated control of NCR is only partial, arguing for the existence of supplementary regulatory processes to be discovered. In this work, we developed a genetic screen to search for new players involved in NCR signaling. Our data reveal that the NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase activity of Gdh1 negatively regulates NCR-sensitive gene transcription. By determining the total, cytoplasmic and vacuolar pools of amino acids, we show that there is no positive correlation between glutamine/glutamate reservoirs and the extent of NCR. While our data indicate that glutamine could serve as initial trigger of NCR, they show that it is not a sufficient signal to sustain repression and point to the existence of yet unknown signals. Providing additional evidence uncoupling TORC1 activity and NCR, our work revisits the dogmas underlying NCR regulation. PMID:26419331

  5. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex regulates germinal center formation by repressing Blimp-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jinwook; Jeon, Shin; Choi, Seungjin; Park, Kyungsoo; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2015-02-17

    Germinal center (GC) reaction is crucial in adaptive immune responses. The formation of GC is coordinated by the expression of specific genes including Blimp-1 and Bcl-6. Although gene expression is critically influenced by the status of chromatin structure, little is known about the role of chromatin remodeling factors for regulation of GC formation. Here, we show that the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is required for GC reactions. Mice lacking Srg3/mBaf155, a core component of the SWI/SNF complex, showed impaired differentiation of GC B and follicular helper T cells in response to T cell-dependent antigen challenge. The SWI/SNF complex regulates chromatin structure at the Blimp-1 locus and represses its expression by interacting cooperatively with Bcl-6 and corepressors. The defect in GC reactions in mice lacking Srg3 was due to the derepression of Blimp-1 as supported by genetic studies with Blimp-1-ablated mice. Hence, our study identifies the SWI/SNF complex as a key mediator in GC reactions by modulating Bcl-6-dependent Blimp-1 repression.

  6. CHES1/FOXN3 regulates cell proliferation by repressing PIM2 and protein biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Huot, Geneviève; Vernier, Mathieu; Bourdeau, Véronique; Doucet, Laurent; Saint-Germain, Emmanuelle; Gaumont-Leclerc, Marie-France; Moro, Alejandro; Ferbeyre, Gerardo

    2014-03-01

    The expression of the forkhead transcription factor checkpoint suppressor 1 (CHES1), also known as FOXN3, is reduced in many types of cancers. We show here that CHES1 decreases protein synthesis and cell proliferation in tumor cell lines but not in normal fibroblasts. Conversely, short hairpin RNA-mediated depletion of CHES1 increases tumor cell proliferation. Growth suppression depends on the CHES1 forkhead DNA-binding domain and correlates with the nuclear localization of CHES1. CHES1 represses the expression of multiple genes, including the kinases PIM2 and DYRK3, which regulate protein biosynthesis, and a number of genes in cilium biogenesis. CHES1 binds directly to the promoter of PIM2, and in cells expressing CHES1 the levels of PIM2 are reduced, as well as the phosphorylation of the PIM2 target 4EBP1. Overexpression of PIM2 or eIF4E partially reverses the antiproliferative effect of CHES1, indicating that PIM2 and protein biosynthesis are important targets of the antiproliferative effect of CHES1. In several human hematopoietic cancers, CHES1 and PIM2 expressions are inversely correlated, suggesting that repression of PIM2 by CHES1 is clinically relevant. PMID:24403608

  7. Repression of the Low Affinity Iron Transporter Gene FET4: A NOVEL MECHANISM AGAINST CADMIUM TOXICITY ORCHESTRATED BY YAP1 VIA ROX1.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Soraia M; Menezes, Regina; Amaral, Catarina; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina; Pimentel, Catarina

    2015-07-24

    Cadmium is a well known mutagenic metal that can enter cells via nonspecific metal transporters, causing several cellular damages and eventually leading to death. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcription factor Yap1 plays a key role in the regulation of several genes involved in metal stress response. We have previously shown that Yap1 represses the expression of FET4, a gene encoding a low affinity iron transporter able to transport metals other than iron. Here, we have studied the relevance of this repression in cell tolerance to cadmium. Our results indicate that genomic deletion of Yap1 increases FET4 transcript and protein levels. In addition, the cadmium toxicity exhibited by this strain is completely reversed by co-deletion of FET4 gene. These data correlate well with the increased intracellular levels of cadmium observed in the mutant yap1. Rox1, a well known aerobic repressor of hypoxic genes, conveys the Yap1-mediated repression of FET4. We further show that, in a scenario where the activity of Yap1 or Rox1 is compromised, cells activate post-transcriptional mechanisms, involving the exoribonuclease Xrn1, to compensate the derepression of FET4. Our data thus reveal a novel protection mechanism against cadmium toxicity mediated by Yap1 that relies on the aerobic repression of FET4 and results in the impairment of cadmium uptake.

  8. Dimethylated H3K27 Is a Repressive Epigenetic Histone Mark in the Protist Entamoeba histolytica and Is Significantly Enriched in Genes Silenced via the RNAi Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Foda, Bardees M.; Singh, Upinder

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a fundamental biological process that plays a crucial role in regulation of gene expression in many organisms. Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) is one of the important nuclear roles of RNAi. Our previous data show that Entamoeba histolytica has a robust RNAi pathway that links to TGS via Argonaute 2-2 (Ago2-2) associated 27-nucleotide small RNAs with 5′-polyphosphate termini. Here, we report the first repressive histone mark to be identified in E. histolytica, dimethylation of H3K27 (H3K27Me2), and demonstrate that it is enriched at genes that are silenced by RNAi-mediated TGS. An RNAi-silencing trigger can induce H3K27Me2 deposits at both episomal and chromosomal loci, mediating gene silencing. Our data support two phases of RNAi-mediated TGS: an active silencing phase where the RNAi trigger is present and both H3K27Me2 and Ago2-2 concurrently enrich at chromosomal loci; and an established silencing phase in which the RNAi trigger is removed, but gene silencing with H3K27Me2 enrichment persist independently of Ago2-2 deposition. Importantly, some genes display resistance to chromosomal silencing despite induction of functional small RNAs. In those situations, the RNAi-triggering plasmid that is maintained episomally gets partially silenced and has H3K27Me2 enrichment, but the chromosomal copy displays no repressive histone enrichment. Our data are consistent with a model in which H3K27Me2 is a repressive histone modification, which is strongly associated with transcriptional repression. This is the first example of an epigenetic histone modification that functions to mediate RNAi-mediated TGS in the deep-branching eukaryote E. histolytica. PMID:26149683

  9. Dimethylated H3K27 Is a Repressive Epigenetic Histone Mark in the Protist Entamoeba histolytica and Is Significantly Enriched in Genes Silenced via the RNAi Pathway.

    PubMed

    Foda, Bardees M; Singh, Upinder

    2015-08-21

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a fundamental biological process that plays a crucial role in regulation of gene expression in many organisms. Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) is one of the important nuclear roles of RNAi. Our previous data show that Entamoeba histolytica has a robust RNAi pathway that links to TGS via Argonaute 2-2 (Ago2-2) associated 27-nucleotide small RNAs with 5'-polyphosphate termini. Here, we report the first repressive histone mark to be identified in E. histolytica, dimethylation of H3K27 (H3K27Me2), and demonstrate that it is enriched at genes that are silenced by RNAi-mediated TGS. An RNAi-silencing trigger can induce H3K27Me2 deposits at both episomal and chromosomal loci, mediating gene silencing. Our data support two phases of RNAi-mediated TGS: an active silencing phase where the RNAi trigger is present and both H3K27Me2 and Ago2-2 concurrently enrich at chromosomal loci; and an established silencing phase in which the RNAi trigger is removed, but gene silencing with H3K27Me2 enrichment persist independently of Ago2-2 deposition. Importantly, some genes display resistance to chromosomal silencing despite induction of functional small RNAs. In those situations, the RNAi-triggering plasmid that is maintained episomally gets partially silenced and has H3K27Me2 enrichment, but the chromosomal copy displays no repressive histone enrichment. Our data are consistent with a model in which H3K27Me2 is a repressive histone modification, which is strongly associated with transcriptional repression. This is the first example of an epigenetic histone modification that functions to mediate RNAi-mediated TGS in the deep-branching eukaryote E. histolytica.

  10. Intellectual Performance as a Function of Repression and Menstrual Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander-Golden, Paula; And Others

    Performance on complex (Space Relations and Verbal Reasoning) and simple (Digit Symbol) tests was investigated as a function of Byrne's Repression-Sensitization (RS) dimension, phase of menstrual cycle and premenstrual-menstrual (PM) symptomatology in a group of females not taking oral contraceptives. Two control groups, consisting of males and…

  11. Catabolite repression control of flagellum production by Serratia marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Nicholas A.; Kalivoda, Eric J.; O’Dee, Dawn M.; Nau, Gerard J.; Shanks, Robert M. Q.

    2008-01-01

    Serratia marcescens is an emerging opportunistic pathogen with a remarkably broad host range. The cAMP-regulated catabolite repression system of S. marcescens has recently been identified and demonstrated to regulate biofilm formation through the production of surface adhesions. Here we report that mutations in components of the catabolite repression system (cyaA and crp) eliminate flagellum production and swimming motility. Exogenous cAMP was able to restore flagellum production to adenylate cyclase mutants, as determined by transmission electron microscopy and PAGE analysis. A transposon-generated suppressor mutation of the crp motility defect mapped to upstream of the flhDC operon. This suppressor mutation resulted in an upregulation of flhD expression and flagellum production, indicating that flhDC expression is sufficient to restore flagellum production to crp mutants. Lastly, and contrary to a previous report, we found that flhD expression is controlled by the catabolite repression system using quantitative RT-PCR. Together, these data indicate that flagellum production is regulated by the cAMP-dependent catabolite repression system. Given the role of flagella in bacterial pathogenicity, the regulatory pathway described here may assist us in better understanding the putative role of motility in dissemination and virulence of this opportunistic pathogen. PMID:18718529

  12. Impact of expert testimony on the believability of repressed memories.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, D B; Boney-McCoy, S

    1997-01-01

    Research suggests that people question the believability of trial testimony based on an alleged victim's previously repressed memories. Participants read one of six scenarios depicting the trial of a man accused of sexually assaulting a young girl. The alleged victim either reported the assault immediately (child witness) or waited 20 years to report it (adult witness). In the adult witness condition, the woman's memory for the event had either been repressed until recently or had always been available, and expert testimony was offered on behalf of the defense, the prosecution, both, or neither. Regression analyses revealed that women perceived the accuser's testimony as more believable and the defendant's testimony as less believable than men did. Similarly, the belief in the accuser's testimony decreased and the belief in the defendant's testimony increased when the accuser was an adult in contrast to a child, and when the defense offered expert testimony in contrast to its absence. In addition, guilty verdicts were associated with higher levels of accuser believability, lower levels of defendant believability and testimony based on repressed memories in contrast to testimony based on memories that were never repressed. PMID:9403982

  13. Long range repression conferring boundaries of Ultrabithorax expression in the Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, J; Bienz, M

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to reconstruct the embryonic expression pattern of the homeotic gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx) by stable integration of fusion constructs, we identified three key control regions called PBX, ABX and BXD. Each of these confers an expression pattern mimicking certain aspects of Ubx expression. The PBX and ABX patterns are limited to the Ubx domain with anterior boundaries at parasegments 6 and 5. In contrast, the BXD pattern extends from head to tail. PBX or ABX expression boundaries are imposed on the BXD pattern, if PBX or ABX is linked to BXD. These boundaries, although not the PBX and ABX expression limits themselves, are dependent on Polycomb function. We conclude that PBX and ABX are recognized by repressors which act across large distances to suppress BXD activity. Stable and heritable Ubx expression boundaries are thus mediated by this process of long range repression. Images PMID:1680676

  14. Deregulated repression of c-Jun provides a potential link to its role in tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Carsten; Bohmann, Dirk

    2004-02-01

    The transcription factor c-Jun cooperates with oncogenic alleles of ras in malignant transformation. Constitutively active Ras causes, via activation of mitogen activated protein kinases, phosphorylation of c-Jun which is essential for subsequent target gene activation and tumorigenesis. Studying the mechanisms controlling c-Jun activity we found that its transcription activation function is actively repressed by a presumably multimeric repressor complex that includes histone deacetylase 3 as a critical subunit. Suppression of c-Jun is relieved by MAP kinase-mediated phosphorylation and/or titration of inhibitor components. The viral tumorigenic counterpart of c-Jun, v-Jun, escapes this inhibition, suggesting deregulated transcriptional activity of c-Jun as a relevant cause for carcinogenesis.

  15. ZBTB7A acts as a tumor suppressor through the transcriptional repression of glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xue-Song; Haines, Jenna E.; Mehanna, Elie K.; Genet, Matthew D.; Ben-Sahra, Issam; Asara, John M.; Manning, Brendan D.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated glycolysis is a common metabolic trait of cancer, but what drives such metabolic reprogramming remains incompletely clear. We report here a novel transcriptional repressor-mediated negative regulation of glycolysis. ZBTB7A, a member of the POK (POZ/BTB and Krüppel) transcription repressor family, directly binds to the promoter and represses the transcription of critical glycolytic genes, including GLUT3, PFKP, and PKM. Analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data sets reveals that the ZBTB7A locus is frequently deleted in many human tumors. Significantly, reduced ZBTB7A expression correlates with up-regulation of the glycolytic genes and poor survival in colon cancer patients. Remarkably, while ZBTB7A-deficient tumors progress exceedingly fast, they exhibit an unusually heightened sensitivity to glycolysis inhibition. Our study uncovers a novel tumor suppressor role of ZBTB7A in directly suppressing glycolysis. PMID:25184678

  16. STAT3 Represses Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Human Macrophages upon Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Queval, Christophe J.; Song, Ok-Ryul; Deboosère, Nathalie; Delorme, Vincent; Debrie, Anne-Sophie; Iantomasi, Raffaella; Veyron-Churlet, Romain; Jouny, Samuel; Redhage, Keely; Deloison, Gaspard; Baulard, Alain; Chamaillard, Mathias; Locht, Camille; Brodin, Priscille

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a successful intracellular pathogen. Numerous host innate immune responses signaling pathways are induced upon mycobacterium invasion, however their impact on M. tuberculosis replication is not fully understood. Here we reinvestigate the role of STAT3 specifically inside human macrophages shortly after M. tuberculosis uptake. We first show that STAT3 activation is mediated by IL-10 and occurs in M. tuberculosis infected cells as well as in bystander non-colonized cells. STAT3 activation results in the inhibition of IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ and MIP-1β. We further demonstrate that STAT3 represses iNOS expression and NO synthesis. Accordingly, the inhibition of STAT3 is detrimental for M. tuberculosis intracellular replication. Our study thus points out STAT3 as a key host factor for M. tuberculosis intracellular establishment in the early stages of macrophage infection. PMID:27384401

  17. The Pasteur effect and catabolite repression in an oxidative yeast, Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed

    Royt, P W; MacQuillan, A M

    1979-01-01

    The presence of the Pasteur effect in Kluyveromyces lactis grown in glucose was shown by azide-stimulated glucose fermentation. Extracts from these cells contained ATP-sensitive phosphofructokinase activity. Cells grown on succinate oxidized glucose slowly at first without azide-stimulated rates of fermentation. Phosphofructokinase in these cells was ATP-insensitive. The activity of NAD+-isocitrate dehydrogenase in cell extracts did not require AMP activation. These results suggested the presence of a Pasteur effect in glucose-grown but not in succinate-grown K. lactis, mediated by (a) ATP inhibition of phosphofructokinase (b) possibly via feedback control of glucose transport, but not by AMP activation of isocitrate dehydrogenase. Azide inhibition of the Pasteur effect during growth of the cells did not lead to catabolite repression of respiratory activity. The results therefore suggest that the Pasteur effect does not inhibit the development of a Crabtree effect in oxidative yeasts.

  18. Benzoate catabolite repression of the phenol degradation in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus PHEA-2.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Yuhua; Yu, Haiying; Yan, Yongliang; Ping, Shuzhen; Lu, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Ming; Lin, Min

    2009-10-01

    Acinetobacter calcoaceticus PHEA-2 exhibited a delayed utilization of phenol in the presence of benzoate. Benzoate supplementation completely inhibited phenol degradation in a benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase knockout mutant. The mphR encoding the transcriptional activator and mphN encoding the largest subunit of multi-component phenol hydroxylase in the benA mutant were significantly downregulated (about 7- and 70-fold) on the basis of mRNA levels when benzoate was added to the medium. The co-transformant assay of E. coli JM109 with mphK::lacZ fusion and the plasmid pETR carrying mphR gene showed that MphR did not activate the mph promoter in the presence of benzoate. These results suggest that catabolite repression of phenol degradation by benzoate in A. calcoaceticus PHEA-2 is mediated by the inhibition of the activator protein MphR.

  19. Yeast Genetic Analysis Reveals the Involvement of Chromatin Reassembly Factors in Repressing HIV-1 Basal Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Respaldiza, Iñaki; Rodríguez-Gil, Alfonso; Gómez-Herreros, Fernando; Jimeno-González, Silvia; Jordan, Albert; Chávez, Sebastián

    2009-01-01

    Rebound of HIV viremia after interruption of anti-retroviral therapy is due to the small population of CD4+ T cells that remain latently infected. HIV-1 transcription is the main process controlling post-integration latency. Regulation of HIV-1 transcription takes place at both initiation and elongation levels. Pausing of RNA polymerase II at the 5′ end of HIV-1 transcribed region (5′HIV-TR), which is immediately downstream of the transcription start site, plays an important role in the regulation of viral expression. The activation of HIV-1 transcription correlates with the rearrangement of a positioned nucleosome located at this region. These two facts suggest that the 5′HIV-TR contributes to inhibit basal transcription of those HIV-1 proviruses that remain latently inactive. However, little is known about the cell elements mediating the repressive role of the 5′HIV-TR. We performed a genetic analysis of this phenomenon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae after reconstructing a minimal HIV-1 transcriptional system in this yeast. Unexpectedly, we found that the critical role played by the 5′HIV-TR in maintaining low levels of basal transcription in yeast is mediated by FACT, Spt6, and Chd1, proteins so far associated with chromatin assembly and disassembly during ongoing transcription. We confirmed that this group of factors plays a role in HIV-1 postintegration latency in human cells by depleting the corresponding human orthologs with shRNAs, both in HIV latently infected cell populations and in particular single-integration clones, including a latent clone with a provirus integrated in a highly transcribed gene. Our results indicate that chromatin reassembly factors participate in the establishment of the equilibrium between activation and repression of HIV-1 when it integrates into the human genome, and they open the possibility of considering these factors as therapeutic targets of HIV-1 latency. PMID:19148280

  20. Integrated genome-wide chromatin occupancy and expression analyses identify key myeloid pro-differentiation transcription factors repressed by Myb.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang; Glazov, Evgeny A; Pattabiraman, Diwakar R; Al-Owaidi, Faisal; Zhang, Ping; Brown, Matthew A; Leo, Paul J; Gonda, Thomas J

    2011-06-01

    To gain insight into the mechanisms by which the Myb transcription factor controls normal hematopoiesis and particularly, how it contributes to leukemogenesis, we mapped the genome-wide occupancy of Myb by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) in ERMYB myeloid progenitor cells. By integrating the genome occupancy data with whole genome expression profiling data, we identified a Myb-regulated transcriptional program. Gene signatures for leukemia stem cells, normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and myeloid development were overrepresented in 2368 Myb regulated genes. Of these, Myb bound directly near or within 793 genes. Myb directly activates some genes known critical in maintaining hematopoietic stem cells, such as Gfi1 and Cited2. Importantly, we also show that, despite being usually considered as a transactivator, Myb also functions to repress approximately half of its direct targets, including several key regulators of myeloid differentiation, such as Sfpi1 (also known as Pu.1), Runx1, Junb and Cebpb. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that interaction with p300, an established coactivator for Myb, is unexpectedly required for Myb-mediated transcriptional repression. We propose that the repression of the above mentioned key pro-differentiation factors may contribute essentially to Myb's ability to suppress differentiation and promote self-renewal, thus maintaining progenitor cells in an undifferentiated state and promoting leukemic transformation.

  1. Structural basis of oncogenic histone H3K27M inhibition of human polycomb repressive complex 2

    PubMed Central

    Justin, Neil; Zhang, Ying; Tarricone, Cataldo; Martin, Stephen R.; Chen, Shuyang; Underwood, Elizabeth; De Marco, Valeria; Haire, Lesley F.; Walker, Philip A.; Reinberg, Danny; Wilson, Jon R.; Gamblin, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) silences gene expression through trimethylation of K27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) via its catalytic SET domain. A missense mutation in the substrate of PRC2, histone H3K27M, is associated with certain pediatric brain cancers and is linked to a global decrease of H3K27me3 in the affected cells thought to be mediated by inhibition of PRC2 activity. We present here the crystal structure of human PRC2 in complex with the inhibitory H3K27M peptide bound to the active site of the SET domain, with the methionine residue located in the pocket that normally accommodates the target lysine residue. The structure and binding studies suggest a mechanism for the oncogenic inhibition of H3K27M. The structure also reveals how binding of repressive marks, like H3K27me3, to the EED subunit of the complex leads to enhancement of the catalytic efficiency of the SET domain and thus the propagation of this repressive histone modification. PMID:27121947

  2. Repression by RAZ of Epstein-Barr virus bZIP transcription factor EB1 is dimerization independent.

    PubMed

    Segouffin, C; Gruffat, H; Sergeant, A

    1996-07-01

    The hallmark of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is the establishment of a viral genome transcription pattern called latency. The EBV BZLF1 gene product EB1 (also known as ZEBRA or Zta) is a transcription factor which is essential for the switch from latency to the lytic cycle. It has been proposed that latency is maintained (i) by the inhibition of EB1 translation via antisense hybridization of EBNA1 and EB1 hnRNAs, or (ii) by the inactivation of the EB1 activating function via the direct interaction of EB1 with RelA, the retinoic acid receptor and p53, or via the titration of EB1 in RAZ:EB1 inactive heterodimers that are unable to bind to DNA. RAZ, a fusion protein which contains the EB1 C-terminal dimerization and DNA-binding domains fused to the N-terminal 86 amino acids of the EBV BRLF1 gene product R, has been described as a trans-dominant negative regulator of EB1-activated transcription. We demonstrate here that although RAZ efficiently represses EB1-mediated transcriptional activation, the amount of RAZ protein expressed is incompatible with repression through the titration of EB1 in inactive EB1:RAZ heterodimers. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that RAZ efficiently represses transcription activated by an EB1 mutant carrying the GCN4 homodimerization domain (EB1 gcn4), despite the inability of RAZ and EB1 gcn4 to form stable heterodimers.

  3. NSun2 delays replicative senescence by repressing p27 (KIP1) translation and elevating CDK1 translation

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Junyue; Liu, Zhenyun; Jiang, Bin; Dou, Yali; Gorospe, Myriam; Wang, Wengong

    2015-01-01

    A rise in the levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27KIP1 is important for the growth arrest of senescent cells, but the mechanisms responsible for this increase are poorly understood. Here, we show that the tRNA methyltransferase NSun2 represses the expression of p27 in replicative senescence. NSun2 methylated the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of p27 mRNA at cytosine C64 in vitro and in cells, thereby repressing the translation of p27. During replicative senescence, increased p27 protein levels were accompanied by decreased NSun2 protein levels. Knockdown of NSun2 in human diploid fibroblasts (HDFs) elevated p27 levels and reduced the expression of CDK1 (encoded by CDK1 mRNA, a previously reported target of NSun2), which in turn further repressed cell proliferation and accelerated replicative senescence, while overexpression of NSun2 exerted the opposite effect. Ectopic overexpression of the p27 5′UTR fragment rescued the effect of NSun2 overexpression in lowering p27, increasing CDK1, promoting cell proliferation, and delaying replicative senescence. Our findings indicate that NSun2-mediated mRNA methylation regulates p27 and CDK1 levels during replicative senescence. PMID:26687548

  4. Cooperative Action of Cdk1/cyclin B and SIRT1 Is Required for Mitotic Repression of rRNA Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Voit, Renate; Seiler, Jeanette; Grummt, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Mitotic repression of rRNA synthesis requires inactivation of the RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-specific transcription factor SL1 by Cdk1/cyclin B-dependent phosphorylation of TAFI110 (TBP-associated factor 110) at a single threonine residue (T852). Upon exit from mitosis, T852 is dephosphorylated by Cdc14B, which is sequestered in nucleoli during interphase and is activated upon release from nucleoli at prometaphase. Mitotic repression of Pol I transcription correlates with transient nucleolar enrichment of the NAD+-dependent deacetylase SIRT1, which deacetylates another subunit of SL1, TAFI68. Hypoacetylation of TAFI68 destabilizes SL1 binding to the rDNA promoter, thereby impairing transcription complex assembly. Inhibition of SIRT1 activity alleviates mitotic repression of Pol I transcription if phosphorylation of TAFI110 is prevented. The results demonstrate that reversible phosphorylation of TAFI110 and acetylation of TAFI68 are key modifications that regulate SL1 activity and mediate fluctuations of pre-rRNA synthesis during cell cycle progression. PMID:26023773

  5. Staphylococcus aureus RNAIII coordinately represses the synthesis of virulence factors and the transcription regulator Rot by an antisense mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Boisset, Sandrine; Geissmann, Thomas; Huntzinger, Eric; Fechter, Pierre; Bendridi, Nadia; Possedko, Maria; Chevalier, Clément; Helfer, Anne Catherine; Benito, Yvonne; Jacquier, Alain; Gaspin, Christine; Vandenesch, François; Romby, Pascale

    2007-01-01

    RNAIII is the intracellular effector of the quorum-sensing system in Staphylococcus aureus. It is one of the largest regulatory RNAs (514 nucleotides long) that are known to control the expression of a large number of virulence genes. Here, we show that the 3′ domain of RNAIII coordinately represses at the post-transcriptional level, the expression of mRNAs that encode a class of virulence factors that act early in the infection process. We demonstrate that the 3′ domain acts primarily as an antisense RNA and rapidly anneals to these mRNAs, forming long RNA duplexes. The interaction between RNAIII and the mRNAs results in repression of translation initiation and triggers endoribonuclease III hydrolysis. These processes are followed by rapid depletion of the mRNA pool. In addition, we show that RNAIII and its 3′ domain mediate translational repression of rot mRNA through a limited number of base pairings involving two loop–loop interactions. Since Rot is a transcriptional regulatory protein, we proposed that RNAIII indirectly acts on many downstream genes, resulting in the activation of the synthesis of several exoproteins. These data emphasize the multitude of regulatory steps affected by RNAIII and its 3′ domain in establishing a network of S. aureus virulence factors. PMID:17545468

  6. SSN genes that affect transcriptional repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae encode SIN4, ROX3, and SRB proteins associated with RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Song, W; Treich, I; Qian, N; Kuchin, S; Carlson, M

    1996-01-01

    The RNA polymerase II of Saccharomyces cerevisiae exists in holoenzyme forms containing a complex, known as the mediator, associated with the carboxyl-terminal domain. The mediator includes several SRB proteins and is required for transcriptional activation. Previous work showed that a cyclin-dependent kinase-cyclin pair encoded by SSN3 and SSN8, two members of the SSN suppressor family, are identical to two SRB proteins in the mediator. Here we have identified the remaining SSN genes by cloning and genetic analysis. SSN2 and SSN5 are identical to SRB9 and SRB8, respectively, which encode additional components of the mediator. Genetic evidence implicates the SSN genes in transcriptional repression. Thus, these identities provide genetic insight into mediator and carboxyl-terminal domain function, strongly suggesting a role in mediating transcriptional repression as well as activation. We also show that SSN4 and SSN7 are the same as SIN4 and ROX3, respectively, raising the possibility that these genes also encode mediator proteins.

  7. Msx1 Homeodomain Protein Represses the αGSU and GnRH Receptor Genes During Gonadotrope Development

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Huimin; Cherrington, Brian D.; Meadows, Jason D.; Witham, Emily A.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple homeodomain transcription factors are crucial for pituitary organogenesis and cellular differentiation. A homeodomain repressor, Msx1, is expressed from the ventral aspect of the developing anterior pituitary and implicated in gonadotrope differentiation. Here, we find that Msx1 represses transcription of lineage-specific pituitary genes such as the common α-glycoprotein subunit (αGSU) and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) promoters in the mouse gonadotrope-derived cell lines, αT3-1 and LβT2. Repression of the mouse GnRHR promoter by Msx1 is mediated through a consensus-binding motif in the downstream activin regulatory element (DARE). Truncation and mutation analyses of the human αGSU promoter map Msx1 repression to a site at −114, located at the junctional regulatory element (JRE). Dlx activators are closely related to the Msx repressors, acting through the same elements, and Dlx3 and Dlx2 act as transcriptional activators for GnRHR and αGSU, respectively. Small interfering RNA knockdown of Msx1 in αT3-1 cells increases endogenous αGSU and GnRHR mRNA expression. Msx1 gene expression reaches its maximal expression at the rostral edge at e13.5. The subsequent decline in Msx1 expression specifically coincides with the onset of expression of both αGSU and GnRHR. The expression levels of both αGSU and GnRHR in Msx1-null mice at e18.5 are higher compared with wild type, further confirming a role for Msx1 in the repression of αGSU and GnRHR. In summary, Msx1 functions as a negative regulator early in pituitary development by repressing the gonadotrope-specific αGSU and GnRHR genes, but a temporal decline in Msx1 expression alleviates this repression allowing induction of GnRHR and αGSU, thus serving to time the onset of gonadotrope-specific gene program. PMID:23371388

  8. Enhanced xylose fermentation capacity related to an altered glucose sensing and repression network in a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yu; Hou, Jin; Bao, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    The co-fermentation of glucose and xylose is one of the issues in decreasing the price of biofuel or chemicals produced from lignocellulosic materials. A glucose and xylose co-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae was obtained through rational genetic manipulation. Non-rational evolution in xylose was performed, and the xylose utilization efficiency of the engineered strain was significantly enhanced. The results of transcriptome study suggested that Snf1/Mig1-mediated regulation, a part of glucose sensing and repression network, was altered in the evolved strain and might be related to the enhancement of xylose utilization. PMID:23812433

  9. Unintended Consequences of Repression: Alliance Formation in South Korea's Democracy Movement (1970-1979)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Paul Y.

    2008-01-01

    Research regarding the impact of repression on social movements has yielded conflicting findings; some argue that repression decreases the total quantity of protest events while others argue that it motivates protest. To move beyond this impasse, various scholars have suggested exploring how repression influences the quality of social movements.…

  10. Repression of multiple CYP2D genes in mouse primary hepatocytes with a single siRNA construct.

    PubMed

    Elraghy, Omaima; Baldwin, William S

    2015-01-01

    The Cyp2d subfamily is the second most abun-dant subfamily of hepatic drug-metabolizing CYPs. In mice, there are nine Cyp2d members that are believed to have redundant catalytic activity. We are testing and optimizing the ability of one short interfering RNA (siRNA) construct to knockdown the expression of multiple mouse Cyp2ds in primary hepatocytes. Expression of Cyp2d10, Cyp2d11, Cyp2d22, and Cyp2d26 was observed in the primary male mouse hepatocytes. Cyp2d9, which is male-specific and growth hormone-dependent, was not expressed in male primary hepatocytes, potentially because of its dependence on pulsatile growth hormone release from the anterior pituitary. Several different siRNAs at different concentrations and with different reagents were used to knockdown Cyp2d expression. siRNA constructs designed to repress only one construct often mildly repressed several Cyp2d isoforms. A construct designed to knockdown every Cyp2d isoform provided the best results, especially when incubated with transfection reagents designed specifically for primary cell culture. Interestingly, a construct designed to knockdown all Cyp2d isoforms, except Cyp2d10, caused a 2.5× increase in Cyp2d10 expression, presumably because of a compensatory response. However, while RNA expression is repressed 24 h after siRNA treatment, associated changes in Cyp2d-mediated metabolism are tenuous. Overall, this study provides data on the expression of murine Cyp2ds in primary cell lines, valuable information on designing siRNAs for silencing multiple murine CYPs, and potential pros and cons of using siRNA as a tool for repressing Cyp2d and estimating Cyp2d's role in murine xenobiotic metabolism. PMID:25124873

  11. Polycomb mediates Myc autorepression and its transcriptional control of many loci in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Goodliffe, Julie M.; Wieschaus, Eric; Cole, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    Aberrant accumulation of the Myc oncoprotein propels proliferation and induces carcinogenesis. In normal cells, however, an abundance of Myc protein represses transcription at the c-myc locus. Cancer cells often lose this autorepression. We examined the control of myc in Drosophila and show here that the Drosophila ortholog, dmyc, also undergoes autorepression. We find that the developmental repressor Polycomb (Pc) is required for dmyc autorepression, and that this Pc-dMyc-mediated repression spreads across an 875-kb region encompassing the dmyc gene. To further investigate the relationship between Myc and Polycomb, we used microarrays to identify genes regulated by each, and identify a striking relationship between the two: A large set of dMyc activation targets is normally repressed by Pc, and 73% of dMyc repression targets require Pc for this repression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed that many dMyc-Pc-repressed loci have an epigenetic mark recognized by Pc. Our results suggest a novel relationship between Myc and Polycomb, wherein Myc enhances Polycomb repression in order to repress targets, and Myc suppresses Polycomb repression in order to activate targets. PMID:16357214

  12. Protooncogenes as mediators of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Teng, C S

    2000-01-01

    Apoptosis has been well established as a vital biological phenomenon that is important in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Three major protooncogene families and their encoded proteins function as mediators of apoptosis in various cell types and are the subject of this chapter. Protooncogenic proteins such as c-Myc/Max, c-Fos/c-Jun, and Bcl-2/Bax utilize a synergetic effect to enhance their roles in the pro- or antiapoptotic action. These family members activate and repress the expression of their target genes, control cell cycle progression, and execute programmed cell death. Repression or overproduction of these protooncogenic proteins induces apoptosis, which may vary as a result of either cell type specificity or the nature of the apoptotic stimuli. The proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins exert their effects in the membrane of cellular organelles. Here they generate cell-type-specific signals that activate the caspase family of proteases and their regulators for the execution of apoptosis.

  13. The Involvement of Mig1 from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous in Catabolic Repression: An Active Mechanism Contributing to the Regulation of Carotenoid Production.

    PubMed

    Alcaíno, Jennifer; Bravo, Natalia; Córdova, Pamela; Marcoleta, Andrés E; Contreras, Gabriela; Barahona, Salvador; Sepúlveda, Dionisia; Fernández-Lobato, María; Baeza, Marcelo; Cifuentes, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    The red yeast X. dendrorhous is one of the few natural sources of astaxanthin, a carotenoid used in aquaculture for salmonid fish pigmentation and in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries for its antioxidant properties. Genetic control of carotenogenesis is well characterized in this yeast; however, little is known about the regulation of the carotenogenesis process. Several lines of evidence have suggested that carotenogenesis is regulated by catabolic repression, and the aim of this work was to identify and functionally characterize the X. dendrorhous MIG1 gene encoding the catabolic repressor Mig1, which mediates transcriptional glucose-dependent repression in other yeasts and fungi. The identified gene encodes a protein of 863 amino acids that demonstrates the characteristic conserved features of Mig1 proteins, and binds in vitro to DNA fragments containing Mig1 boxes. Gene functionality was demonstrated by heterologous complementation in a S. cerevisiae mig1- strain; several aspects of catabolic repression were restored by the X. dendrorhous MIG1 gene. Additionally, a X. dendrorhous mig1- mutant was constructed and demonstrated a higher carotenoid content than the wild-type strain. Most important, the mig1- mutation alleviated the glucose-mediated repression of carotenogenesis in X. dendrorhous: the addition of glucose to mig1- and wild-type cultures promoted the growth of both strains, but carotenoid synthesis was observed only in the mutant strain. Transcriptomic and RT-qPCR analyses revealed that several genes were differentially expressed between X. dendrorhous mig1- and the wild-type strain when cultured with glucose as the sole carbon source. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that catabolic repression in X. dendrorhous is an active process in which the identified MIG1 gene product plays a central role in the regulation of several biological processes, including carotenogenesis. PMID:27622474

  14. The Involvement of Mig1 from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous in Catabolic Repression: An Active Mechanism Contributing to the Regulation of Carotenoid Production

    PubMed Central

    Córdova, Pamela; Marcoleta, Andrés E.; Contreras, Gabriela; Barahona, Salvador; Sepúlveda, Dionisia; Fernández-Lobato, María; Baeza, Marcelo; Cifuentes, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    The red yeast X. dendrorhous is one of the few natural sources of astaxanthin, a carotenoid used in aquaculture for salmonid fish pigmentation and in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries for its antioxidant properties. Genetic control of carotenogenesis is well characterized in this yeast; however, little is known about the regulation of the carotenogenesis process. Several lines of evidence have suggested that carotenogenesis is regulated by catabolic repression, and the aim of this work was to identify and functionally characterize the X. dendrorhous MIG1 gene encoding the catabolic repressor Mig1, which mediates transcriptional glucose-dependent repression in other yeasts and fungi. The identified gene encodes a protein of 863 amino acids that demonstrates the characteristic conserved features of Mig1 proteins, and binds in vitro to DNA fragments containing Mig1 boxes. Gene functionality was demonstrated by heterologous complementation in a S. cerevisiae mig1- strain; several aspects of catabolic repression were restored by the X. dendrorhous MIG1 gene. Additionally, a X. dendrorhous mig1- mutant was constructed and demonstrated a higher carotenoid content than the wild-type strain. Most important, the mig1- mutation alleviated the glucose-mediated repression of carotenogenesis in X. dendrorhous: the addition of glucose to mig1- and wild-type cultures promoted the growth of both strains, but carotenoid synthesis was observed only in the mutant strain. Transcriptomic and RT-qPCR analyses revealed that several genes were differentially expressed between X. dendrorhous mig1- and the wild-type strain when cultured with glucose as the sole carbon source. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that catabolic repression in X. dendrorhous is an active process in which the identified MIG1 gene product plays a central role in the regulation of several biological processes, including carotenogenesis. PMID:27622474

  15. Recovering a repressed memory, and representational shift in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Szajnberg, N M

    1993-01-01

    This case report focuses on the disappearance of a fixed pictorial iconic representation and transformation to symbolic (word) representation following the recovery of a repressed memory in a twelve-and-a-half-year-old after the first eleven months of psychoanalysis. There is a substantial body of psychoanalytic literature on the importance of language, naming or articulation of experiences associated with transformation of psychic structure (Fenichel, 1941; Glover, 1955; Kris, 1956a, 1956b; Werner and Kaplan, 1963; Schafer, 1976, 1978a, 1978b, 1980; Shapiro, 1979; Spence, 1982; Stern, 1989) and a relatively autonomous literature on the communicative representational power of children's play or visual portrayals (Piaget, 1962; A. Freud, 1947; Klein, 1964; Axeline, 1947; Esman, 1983; Neubauer et al., 1987; Krall, 1989). To our knowledge, there is no report of the structural effect of the recovery of a repressed traumatic experience, in this case, with subsequent parental confirmation of the traumatic event. PMID:8354843

  16. Glucocorticoid Repression of Inflammatory Gene Expression Shows Differential Responsiveness by Transactivation- and Transrepression-Dependent Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    King, Elizabeth M.; Chivers, Joanna E.; Rider, Christopher F.; Minnich, Anne; Giembycz, Mark A.; Newton, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Binding of glucocorticoid to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR/NR3C1) may repress inflammatory gene transcription via direct, protein synthesis-independent processes (transrepression), or by activating transcription (transactivation) of multiple anti-inflammatory/repressive factors. Using human pulmonary A549 cells, we showed that 34 out of 39 IL-1β-inducible mRNAs were repressed to varying degrees by the synthetic glucocorticoid, dexamethasone. Whilst these repressive effects were GR-dependent, they did not correlate with either the magnitude of IL-1β-inducibility or the NF-κB-dependence of the inflammatory genes. This suggests that induction by IL-1β and repression by dexamethasone are independent events. Roles for transactivation were investigated using the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. However, cycloheximide reduced the IL-1β-dependent expression of 13 mRNAs, which, along with the 5 not showing repression by dexamethasone, were not analysed further. Of the remaining 21 inflammatory mRNAs, cycloheximide significantly attenuated the dexamethasone-dependent repression of 11 mRNAs that also showed a marked time-dependence to their repression. Such effects are consistent with repression occurring via the de novo synthesis of a new product, or products, which subsequently cause repression (i.e., repression via a transactivation mechanism). Conversely, 10 mRNAs showed completely cycloheximide-independent, and time-independent, repression by dexamethasone. This is consistent with direct GR transrepression. Importantly, the inflammatory mRNAs showing attenuated repression by dexamethasone in the presence of cycloheximide also showed a significantly greater extent of repression and a higher potency to dexamethasone compared to those mRNAs showing cycloheximide-independent repression. This suggests that the repression of inflammatory mRNAs by GR transactivation-dependent mechanisms accounts for the greatest levels of repression and the most potent

  17. TBX2 represses PTEN in rhabdomyosarcoma and skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bo; Zhang, Meiling; Williams, Elizabeth M.; Keller, Charles; Mansoor, Atiya; Davie, Judith K.

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most frequent soft tissue sarcoma in children that shares many features of developing skeletal muscle. TBX2, a T-box family member, is highly up regulated in tumor cells of both major RMS subtypes where it functions as an oncogene. TBX2 is a repressor that is often over expressed in cancer cells and functions in bypassing cell growth control, including the repression of the cell cycle regulators p14 and p21. We have found that TBX2 directly represses the tumor suppressor PTEN in both RMS and normal muscle. Exogenous expression of TBX2 in normal muscle cells down regulates PTEN, and depletion or interference with TBX2 in RMS cells up regulates PTEN. Human RMS tumors show high levels of TBX2 and correspondingly low levels of PTEN. The expression of PTEN in clinical RMS samples is relatively uncharacterized and we establish that suppression of PTEN is a frequent event in both subtypes of RMS. TBX2 represses PTEN by directly binding to the promoter and recruiting the histone deacetylase, HDAC1. RMS cells have high levels of activated AKT due to the deregulation of PI3K signaling, and depletion or interference with TBX2, which up regulates PTEN, results in a reduction of phospho-AKT. We have also found that the highly related T-box family member TBX3 does not repress PTEN in the muscle lineage. This work suggests that TBX2 is a central component of the PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway deregulation in RMS cells and that targeting TBX2 in RMS tumors may offer a novel therapeutic approach for RMS. PMID:26686089

  18. TBX2 represses PTEN in rhabdomyosarcoma and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Zhu, B; Zhang, M; Williams, E M; Keller, C; Mansoor, A; Davie, J K

    2016-08-11

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most frequent soft tissue sarcoma in children that shares many features of developing skeletal muscle. TBX2, a T-box family member, is highly upregulated in tumor cells of both major RMS subtypes where it functions as an oncogene. TBX2 is a repressor that is often overexpressed in cancer cells and functions in bypassing cell growth control, including the repression of the cell cycle regulators p14 and p21. We have found that TBX2 directly represses the tumor-suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in both RMS and normal muscle. Exogenous expression of TBX2 in normal muscle cells downregulates PTEN, and depletion or interference with TBX2 in RMS cells upregulates PTEN. Human RMS tumors show high levels of TBX2 and correspondingly low levels of PTEN. The expression of PTEN in clinical RMS samples is relatively uncharacterized, and we establish that suppression of PTEN is a frequent event in both subtypes of RMS. TBX2 represses PTEN by directly binding to the promoter and recruiting the histone deacetylase, HDAC1. RMS cells have high levels of activated AKT owing to the deregulation of phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) signaling, and depletion or interference with TBX2, which upregulates PTEN, results in a reduction of phospho-AKT. We have also found that the highly related T-box family member TBX3 does not repress PTEN in the muscle lineage. This work suggests that TBX2 is a central component of the PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling pathway deregulation in RMS cells and that targeting TBX2 in RMS tumors may offer a novel therapeutic approach for RMS.

  19. CRISPR transcriptional repression devices and layered circuits in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Samira; Beal, Jacob; Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R; Huh, Jin; Hall, Richard N; Xie, Zhen; Li, Yinqing; Weiss, Ron

    2014-01-01

    A key obstacle to creating sophisticated genetic circuits has been the lack of scalable device libraries. Here we present a modular transcriptional repression architecture based on clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system and examine approaches for regulated expression of guide RNAs in human cells. Subsequently we demonstrate that CRISPR regulatory devices can be layered to create functional cascaded circuits, which provide a valuable toolbox for engineering purposes. PMID:24797424

  20. CRISPR transcriptional repression devices and layered circuits in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Samira; Beal, Jacob; Ebrahimkhani, Mohammad R; Huh, Jin; Hall, Richard N; Xie, Zhen; Li, Yinqing; Weiss, Ron

    2014-07-01

    A key obstacle to creating sophisticated genetic circuits has been the lack of scalable device libraries. Here we present a modular transcriptional repression architecture based on clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system and examine approaches for regulated expression of guide RNAs in human cells. Subsequently we demonstrate that CRISPR regulatory devices can be layered to create functional cascaded circuits, which provide a valuable toolbox for engineering purposes. PMID:24797424

  1. Myxoid Liposarcoma-Associated EWSR1-DDIT3 Selectively Represses Osteoblastic and Chondrocytic Transcription in Multipotent Mesenchymal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kayo; Matsui, Yoshito; Higashimoto, Mami; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Seki, Shoji; Motomura, Hiraku; Hori, Takeshi; Yahara, Yasuhito; Kanamori, Masahiko; Kimura, Tomoatsu

    2012-01-01

    Background Liposarcomas are the most common class of soft tissue sarcomas, and myxoid liposarcoma is the second most common liposarcoma. EWSR1-DDIT3 is a chimeric fusion protein generated by the myxoid liposarcoma-specific chromosomal translocation t(12;22)(q13;q12). Current studies indicate that multipotent mesenchymal cells are the origin of sarcomas. The mechanism whereby EWSR1-DDIT3 contributes to the phenotypic selection of target cells during oncogenic transformation remains to be elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings Reporter assays showed that the EWSR1-DDIT3 myxoid liposarcoma fusion protein, but not its wild-type counterparts EWSR1 and DDIT3, selectively repressed the transcriptional activity of cell lineage-specific marker genes in multipotent mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 cells. Specifically, the osteoblastic marker Opn promoter and chondrocytic marker Col11a2 promoter were repressed, while the adipocytic marker Ppar-γ2 promoter was not affected. Mutation analyses, transient ChIP assays, and treatment of cells with trichostatin A (a potent inhibitor of histone deacetylases) or 5-Aza-2′-deoxycytidine (a methylation-resistant cytosine homolog) revealed the possible molecular mechanisms underlying the above-mentioned selective transcriptional repression. The first is a genetic action of the EWSR1-DDIT3 fusion protein, which results in binding to the functional C/EBP site within Opn and Col11a2 promoters through interaction of its DNA-binding domain and subsequent interference with endogenous C/EBPβ function. Another possible mechanism is an epigenetic action of EWSR1-DDIT3, which enhances histone deacetylation, DNA methylation, and histone H3K9 trimethylation at the transcriptional repression site. We hypothesize that EWSR1-DDIT3-mediated transcriptional regulation may modulate the target cell lineage through target gene-specific genetic and epigenetic conversions. Conclusions/Significance This study elucidates the molecular mechanisms underlying EWSR1

  2. Lysine methylation represses p53 activity in teratocarcinoma cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiajun; Dou, Zhixun; Sammons, Morgan A; Levine, Arnold J; Berger, Shelley L

    2016-08-30

    TP53 (which encodes the p53 protein) is the most frequently mutated gene among all human cancers, whereas tumors that retain the wild-type TP53 gene often use alternative mechanisms to repress the p53 tumor-suppressive function. Testicular teratocarcinoma cells rarely contain mutations in TP53, yet the transcriptional activity of wild-type p53 is compromised, despite its high expression level. Here we report that in the teratocarcinoma cell line NTera2, p53 is subject to lysine methylation at its carboxyl terminus, which has been shown to repress p53's transcriptional activity. We show that reduction of the cognate methyltransferases reactivates p53 and promotes differentiation of the NTera2 cells. Furthermore, reconstitution of methylation-deficient p53 mutants into p53-depleted NTera2 cells results in elevated expression of p53 downstream targets and precocious loss of pluripotent gene expression compared with re-expression of wild-type p53. Our results provide evidence that lysine methylation of endogenous wild-type p53 represses its activity in cancer cells and suggest new therapeutic possibilities of targeting testicular teratocarcinoma. PMID:27535933

  3. Revisiting the Master-Signifier, or, Mandela and Repression.

    PubMed

    Hook, Derek; Vanheule, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    The concept of the master-signifier has been subject to a variety of applications in Lacanian forms of political discourse theory and ideology critique. While there is much to be commended in literature of this sort, it often neglects salient issues pertaining to the role of master signifiers in the clinical domain of (individual) psychical economy. The popularity of the concept of the master (or "empty") signifier in political discourse analysis has thus proved a double-edged sword. On the one hand it demonstrates how crucial psychical processes are performed via the operations of the signifier, extending thus the Lacanian thesis that identification is the outcome of linguistic and symbolic as opposed to merely psychological processes. On the other, the use of the master signifier concept within the political realm to track discursive formations tends to distance the term from the dynamics of the unconscious and operation of repression. Accordingly, this paper revisits the master signifier concept, and does so within the socio-political domain, yet while paying particular attention to the functioning of unconscious processes of fantasy and repression. More specifically, it investigates how Nelson Mandela operates as a master signifier in contemporary South Africa, as a vital means of knitting together diverse elements of post-apartheid society, enabling the fantasy of the post-apartheid nation, and holding at bay a whole series of repressed and negated undercurrents. PMID:26834664

  4. Carbon Catabolite Repression Regulates Glyoxylate Cycle Gene Expression in Cucumber.

    PubMed Central

    Graham, I. A.; Denby, K. J.; Leaver, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    We have previously proposed that metabolic status is important in the regulation of cucumber malate synthase (MS) and isocitrate lyase (ICL) gene expression during plant development. In this article, we used a cell culture system to demonstrate that intracellular metabolic status does influence expression of both of these genes. Starvation of cucumber cell cultures resulted in the coordinate induction of the expression of MS and ICL genes, and this effect was reversed when sucrose was returned to the culture media. The induction of gene expression was closely correlated with a drop in intracellular sucrose, glucose, and fructose below threshold concentrations, but it was not correlated with a decrease in respiration rate. Glucose, fructose, or raffinose in the culture media also resulted in repression of MS and ICL. Both 2-deoxyglucose and mannose, which are phosphorylated by hexokinase but not further metabolized, specifically repressed MS and ICL gene expression relative to a third glyoxylate cycle gene, malate dehydrogenase. However, the addition of 3-methylglucose, an analog of glucose that is not phosphorylated, did not result in repression of either MS or ICL. It is proposed that the signal giving rise to a change in gene expression originates from the intracellular concentration of hexose sugars or the flux of hexose sugars into glycolysis. PMID:12244257

  5. Revisiting the Master-Signifier, or, Mandela and Repression

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Derek; Vanheule, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    The concept of the master-signifier has been subject to a variety of applications in Lacanian forms of political discourse theory and ideology critique. While there is much to be commended in literature of this sort, it often neglects salient issues pertaining to the role of master signifiers in the clinical domain of (individual) psychical economy. The popularity of the concept of the master (or “empty”) signifier in political discourse analysis has thus proved a double-edged sword. On the one hand it demonstrates how crucial psychical processes are performed via the operations of the signifier, extending thus the Lacanian thesis that identification is the outcome of linguistic and symbolic as opposed to merely psychological processes. On the other, the use of the master signifier concept within the political realm to track discursive formations tends to distance the term from the dynamics of the unconscious and operation of repression. Accordingly, this paper revisits the master signifier concept, and does so within the socio-political domain, yet while paying particular attention to the functioning of unconscious processes of fantasy and repression. More specifically, it investigates how Nelson Mandela operates as a master signifier in contemporary South Africa, as a vital means of knitting together diverse elements of post-apartheid society, enabling the fantasy of the post-apartheid nation, and holding at bay a whole series of repressed and negated undercurrents. PMID:26834664

  6. Perfluoroalkyl Acids Inhibit Reductive Dechlorination of Trichloroethene by Repressing Dehalococcoides.

    PubMed

    Weathers, Tess S; Harding-Marjanovic, Katie; Higgins, Christopher P; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa; Sharp, Jonathan O

    2016-01-01

    The subsurface recalcitrance of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) derived from aqueous film-forming foams could have adverse impacts on the microbiological processes used for the bioremediation of co-mingled chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethene (TCE). Here, we show that reductive dechlorination by a methanogenic, mixed culture was significantly inhibited when exposed to concentrations representative of PFAA source zones (>66 mg/L total of 11 PFAA analytes, 6 mg/L each). TCE dechlorination, cis-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride production and dechlorination, and ethene generation were all inhibited at these PFAA concentrations. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the abundances of 65% of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) changed significantly when grown in the presence of PFAAs, although repression or enhancement resulting from PFAA exposure did not correlate with putative function or phylogeny. Notably, there was significant repression of Dehalococcoides (8-fold decrease in abundance) coupled with a corresponding enhancement of methane-generating Archaea (a 9-fold increase). Growth and dechlorination by axenic cultures of Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain 195 were similarly repressed under these conditions, confirming an inhibitory response of this pivotal genus to PFAA presence. These results suggest that chlorinated solvent bioattenuation rates could be impeded in subsurface environments near PFAA source zones. PMID:26636352

  7. Lysine methylation represses p53 activity in teratocarcinoma cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiajun; Dou, Zhixun; Sammons, Morgan A; Levine, Arnold J; Berger, Shelley L

    2016-08-30

    TP53 (which encodes the p53 protein) is the most frequently mutated gene among all human cancers, whereas tumors that retain the wild-type TP53 gene often use alternative mechanisms to repress the p53 tumor-suppressive function. Testicular teratocarcinoma cells rarely contain mutations in TP53, yet the transcriptional activity of wild-type p53 is compromised, despite its high expression level. Here we report that in the teratocarcinoma cell line NTera2, p53 is subject to lysine methylation at its carboxyl terminus, which has been shown to repress p53's transcriptional activity. We show that reduction of the cognate methyltransferases reactivates p53 and promotes differentiation of the NTera2 cells. Furthermore, reconstitution of methylation-deficient p53 mutants into p53-depleted NTera2 cells results in elevated expression of p53 downstream targets and precocious loss of pluripotent gene expression compared with re-expression of wild-type p53. Our results provide evidence that lysine methylation of endogenous wild-type p53 represses its activity in cancer cells and suggest new therapeutic possibilities of targeting testicular teratocarcinoma.

  8. Repression and activation by multiprotein complexes that alter chromatin structure.

    PubMed

    Kingston, R E; Bunker, C A; Imbalzano, A N

    1996-04-15

    Recent studies have provided strong evidence that macromolecular complexes are used in the cell to remodel chromatin structure during activation and to create an inaccessible structure during repression, Although there is not yet any rigorous demonstration that modification of chromatin structure plays a direct, causal role in either activation or repression, there is sufficient smoke to indicate the presence of a blazing inferno nearby. It is clear that complexes that remodel chromatin are tractable in vitro; hopefully this will allow the establishment of systems that provide a direct analysis of the role that remodeling might play in activation. These studies indicate that establishment of functional systems to corroborate the elegant genetic studies on repression might also be tractable. As the mechanistic effects of these complexes are sorted out, it will become important to understand how the complexes are regulated. In many of the instances discussed above, the genes whose products make up these complexes were identified in genetic screens for effects on developmental processes. This implies a regulation of the activity of these complexes in response to developmental cues and further implies that the work to fully understand these complexes will occupy a generation of scientists.

  9. Quantitative contributions of CtBP-dependent and -independent repression activities of Knirps.

    PubMed

    Struffi, Paolo; Corado, Maria; Kulkarni, Meghana; Arnosti, David N

    2004-05-01

    The Drosophila Knirps protein is a short-range transcriptional repressor that locally inhibits activators by recruiting the CtBP co-repressor. Knirps also possesses CtBP-independent repression activity. The functional importance of multiple repression activities is not well understood, but the finding that Knirps does not repress some cis-regulatory elements in the absence of CtBP suggested that the co-factor may supply a unique function essential to repress certain types of activators. We assayed CtBP-dependent and -independent repression domains of Knirps in Drosophila embryos, and found that the CtBP-independent activity, when provided at higher than normal levels, can repress an eve regulatory element that normally requires CtBP. Dose response analysis revealed that the activity of Knirps containing both CtBP-dependent and -independent repression activities is higher than that of the CtBP-independent domain alone. The requirement for CtBP at certain enhancers appears to reflect the need for overall higher levels of repression, rather than a requirement for an activity unique to CtBP. Thus, CtBP contributes quantitatively, rather than qualitatively, to overall repression function. The finding that both repression activities are simultaneously deployed suggests that the multiple repression activities do not function as cryptic 'backup' systems, but that each contributes quantitatively to total repressor output.

  10. Thanatos-associated protein 7 associates with template activating factor-Ibeta and inhibits histone acetylation to repress transcription.

    PubMed

    Macfarlan, Todd; Parker, J Brandon; Nagata, Kyosuke; Chakravarti, Debabrata

    2006-02-01

    The posttranslational modifications of histones on chromatin or a lack thereof is critical in transcriptional regulation. Emerging studies indicate a role for histone-binding proteins in transcriptional activation and repression. We have previously identified template-activating factor-Ibeta (TAF-Ibeta, also called PHAPII, SET, and I(2)(pp2A)) as a component of a cellular complex called inhibitor of acetyltransferases (INHAT) that masks histone acetylation in vitro and blocks histone acetyltransferase (HAT)-dependent transcription in living cells. TAF-Ibeta has also been shown to associate with transcription factors, including nuclear receptors, to regulate their activities. To identify novel interactors of TAF-Ibeta, we employed a yeast two-hybrid screen and identified a previously uncharacterized human protein called thanatos-associated protein-7 (THAP7), a member of a large family of THAP domain-containing putative DNA-binding proteins. In this study we demonstrate that THAP7 associates with TAF-Ibeta in vitro and map their association domains to a C-terminal predicted coiled-coil motif on THAP7 and the central region of TAF-Ibeta. Similarly, stably transfected THAP7 associates with endogenous TAF-Ibeta in intact cells. Like TAF-Ibeta, THAP7 associates with histone H3 and histone H4 and inhibits histone acetylation. The histone-interacting domain of THAP7 is sufficient for this activity in vitro. Promoter-targeted THAP7 can also recruit TAF-Ibeta and silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid receptors/nuclear hormone receptor corepressor (NCoR) proteins to promoters, and knockdown of TAF-Ibeta by small interfering RNA relieves THAP7-mediated repression, indicating that, like nuclear hormone receptors, THAP7 may represent a novel class of transcription factor that uses TAF-Ibeta as a corepressor to maintain histones in a hypoacetylated, repressed state. PMID:16195249

  11. Carbon catabolite repression by seryl phosphorylated HPr is essential to Streptococcus pneumoniae in carbohydrate-rich environments

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Eleanor; Lazinski, David W.; Camilli, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Summary Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) is a regulatory phenomenon implemented by bacteria to hierarchically organize carbohydrate utilization in order to achieve maximal growth. CCR is likely of great importance to Streptococcus pneumoniae because the human host sites inhabited by this pathogen represent complex carbohydrate environments. In this species, inactivation of the prototypical Gram-positive CCR master regulator, ccpA, attenuates virulence in mice but does not relieve CCR of most metabolic enzymes, suggesting CcpA-independent CCR mechanisms predominate. Here we show the activities of three transcriptional regulators constitute the majority of transcriptional CCR of galactose metabolism operons. We determined seryl-phosphorylated histidine phos-phocarrier protein (HPr-Ser~P)-mediated regulation is a major CCR mechanism and an essential activity in the pneumococcus, as an HPr point mutation abolishing HPrK/P-dependent phosphorylation was not tolerated nor was deletion of hprk/p. The HPr-Ser~P phosphomimetic mutant HPr S46D had reduced phos-photransferase system transport rates and limited induction of CCR-repressed genes. These results support a model of pneumococcal CCR in which HPr-Ser~P directly affects the activity of CcpA while indirectly affecting the activity of pathway-specific transactional regulators. This report describes the first CcpA-independent CCR mechanism identified in the pneumococcus and the first example of lethality from loss of HPr-Ser~P-mediated CCR in any species. PMID:25898857

  12. Arabidopsis COP1 SUPPRESSOR 2 Represses COP1 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity through Their Coiled-Coil Domains Association

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yan; Ling, Junjie; Hettiarachchi, Chamari; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Wei, Ning; Deng, Xing Wang

    2015-01-01

    CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase and mediates a variety of developmental processes in Arabidopsis by targeting a number of key regulators for ubiquitination and degradation. Here, we identify a novel COP1 interacting protein, COP1 SUPPRESSOR 2 (CSU2). Loss of function mutations in CSU2 suppress the constitutive photomorphogenic phenotype of cop1-6 in darkness. CSU2 directly interacts with COP1 via their coiled-coil domains and is recruited by COP1 into nuclear speckles in living plant cells. Furthermore, CSU2 inhibits COP1 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity in vitro, and represses COP1 mediated turnover of HY5 in cell-free extracts. We propose that in csu2 cop1-6 mutants, the lack of CSU2’s repression of COP1 allows the low level of COP1 to exhibit higher activity that is sufficient to prevent accumulation of HY5 in the dark, thus restoring the etiolated phenotype. In addition, CSU2 is required for primary root development under normal light growth condition. PMID:26714275

  13. Interaction of the phospholipid scramblase 1 with HIV-1 Tat results in the repression of Tat-dependent transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Kusano, Shuichi Eizuru, Yoshito

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •PLSCR1 specifically interacted with HIV-1 Tat in vitro and in vivo. •PLSCR1 repressed Tat-dependent transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR. •Suppression of PLSCR1 expression enhanced the levels of HIV-1 transcripts. •PLSCR1 reduced the nuclear localization of Tat. -- Abstract: Human phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1) is an interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene and possesses an IFN-mediated antiviral function. We show here that PLSCR1 directly interacts with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) Tat. This interaction occurs both in vitro and in vivo through amino acids 160–250 of PLSCR1. Overexpression of PLSCR1 efficiently represses the Tat-dependent transactivation of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) and reduces the nuclear translocation of Tat. In addition, shRNA-mediated suppression of endogenous PLSCR1 expression enhances the levels of gag mRNA in an HIV-1-infected T-cell line. These findings indicate that PLSCR1 negatively regulates the Tat-dependent transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR during HIV-1 infection.

  14. Hypomethylation of Intragenic LINE-1 Represses Transcription in Cancer Cells through AGO2

    PubMed Central

    Ittiwut, Chupong; Tongsima, Sissades; Mutirangura, Apiwat

    2011-01-01

    intragenic L1s are a nuclear siRNA mediated cis-regulatory element that can repress genes. This epigenetic regulation of retrotransposons likely influences many aspects of genomic biology. PMID:21423624

  15. Evidence that BCL-2 represses apoptosis by regulating endoplasmic reticulum-associated Ca2+ fluxes.

    PubMed Central

    Lam, M; Dubyak, G; Chen, L; Nuñez, G; Miesfeld, R L; Distelhorst, C W

    1994-01-01

    BCL-2 is a 26-kDa integral membrane protein that represses apoptosis by an unknown mechanism. Recent findings indicate that Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) mediates apoptosis in mouse lymphoma cells. In view of growing evidence that BCL-2 localizes to the ER, as well as mitochondria and the perinuclear membrane, we investigated the possibility that BCL-2 represses apoptosis by regulating Ca2+ fluxes through the ER membrane. A cDNA encoding BCL-2 was introduced into WEHI7.2 cells and two subclones, W.Hb12 and W.Hb13, which express high and low levels of BCL-2 mRNA and protein, respectively, were isolated. WEHI7.2 cells underwent apoptosis in response to treatment with the glucocorticoid hormone dexamethasone, whereas W.Hb12 and W.Hb13 cells were protected from apoptosis, revealing a direct relationship between the level of BCL-2 expression and the degree of protection. Significantly, BCL-2 also blocked induction of apoptosis by thapsigargin (TG), a highly specific inhibitor of the ER-associated Ca2+ pump. TG completely inhibited ER Ca2+ pumping in both WEHI7.2 and W.Hb12 cells, but the release of Ca2+ into the cytosol after inhibition of ER Ca2+ pumping was significantly less in W.Hb12 cells than in WEHI7.2 cells, indicating that BCL-2 reduces Ca2+ efflux through the ER membrane. By reducing ER Ca2+ efflux, BCL-2 interfered with a signal for "capacitative" entry of extracellular Ca2+, preventing a sustained increase of cytosolic Ca2+ in TG-treated cells. These findings suggest that BCL-2 either directly or indirectly regulates the flux of Ca2+ across the ER membrane, thereby abrogating Ca2+ signaling of apoptosis. Images PMID:8022822

  16. Sox2 Is an Androgen Receptor-Repressed Gene That Promotes Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kregel, Steven; Kiriluk, Kyle J.; Rosen, Alex M.; Cai, Yi; Reyes, Edwin E.; Otto, Kristen B.; Tom, Westin; Paner, Gladell P.; Szmulewitz, Russell Z.; Vander Griend, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite advances in detection and therapy, castration-resistant prostate cancer continues to be a major clinical problem. The aberrant activity of stem cell pathways, and their regulation by the Androgen Receptor (AR), has the potential to provide insight into novel mechanisms and pathways to prevent and treat advanced, castrate-resistant prostate cancers. To this end, we investigated the role of the embryonic stem cell regulator Sox2 [SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2] in normal and malignant prostate epithelial cells. In the normal prostate, Sox2 is expressed in a portion of basal epithelial cells. Prostate tumors were either Sox2-positive or Sox2-negative, with the percentage of Sox2-positive tumors increasing with Gleason Score and metastases. In the castration-resistant prostate cancer cell line CWR-R1, endogenous expression of Sox2 was repressed by AR signaling, and AR chromatin-IP shows that AR binds the enhancer element within the Sox2 promoter. Likewise, in normal prostate epithelial cells and human embryonic stem cells, increased AR signaling also decreases Sox2 expression. Resistance to the anti-androgen MDV3100 results in a marked increase in Sox2 expression within three prostate cancer cell lines, and in the castration-sensitive LAPC-4 prostate cancer cell line ectopic expression of Sox2 was sufficient to promote castration-resistant tumor formation. Loss of Sox2 expression in the castration-resistant CWR-R1 prostate cancer cell line inhibited cell growth. Up-regulation of Sox2 was not associated with increased CD133 expression but was associated with increased FGF5 (Fibroblast Growth Factor 5) expression. These data propose a model of elevated Sox2 expression due to loss of AR-mediated repression during castration, and consequent castration-resistance via mechanisms not involving induction of canonical embryonic stem cell pathways. PMID:23326489

  17. Polycomb repressive complex 2 structure with inhibitor reveals a mechanism of activation and drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Brooun, Alexei; Gajiwala, Ketan S.; Deng, Ya-Li; Liu, Wei; Bolaños, Ben; Bingham, Patrick; He, You-Ai; Diehl, Wade; Grable, Nicole; Kung, Pei-Pei; Sutton, Scott; Maegley, Karen A.; Yu, Xiu; Stewart, Al E.

    2016-01-01

    Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) mediates gene silencing through chromatin reorganization by methylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27). Overexpression of the complex and point mutations in the individual subunits of PRC2 have been shown to contribute to tumorigenesis. Several inhibitors of the PRC2 activity have shown efficacy in EZH2-mutated lymphomas and are currently in clinical development, although the molecular basis of inhibitor recognition remains unknown. Here we report the crystal structures of the inhibitor-bound wild-type and Y641N PRC2. The structures illuminate an important role played by a stretch of 17 residues in the N-terminal region of EZH2, we call the activation loop, in the stimulation of the enzyme activity, inhibitor recognition and the potential development of the mutation-mediated drug resistance. The work presented here provides new avenues for the design and development of next-generation PRC2 inhibitors through establishment of a structure-based drug design platform. PMID:27122193

  18. Dicer Elicits Paclitaxel Chemosensitization and Suppresses Cancer Stemness in Breast Cancer by Repressing AXL.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ting-Yu; Chen, Hsin-An; Chiu, Ching-Feng; Chang, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Tsang-Chih; Tseng, Po-Chun; Wang, Weu; Hung, Mien-Chie; Su, Jen-Liang

    2016-07-01

    Paclitaxel is a standard-of-care chemotherapy for breast cancer, despite the increasing recognition of its poor effectiveness in the treatment of patients with advanced disease. Here, we report that adenovirus-type 5 E1A-mediated elevation of the miRNA-processing enzyme Dicer is sufficient to enhance paclitaxel sensitization and reduce cancer stem-like cell properties in this setting. Elevating Dicer expression increased levels of the AXL kinase targeting miRNA miR-494, thereby repressing AXL expression to increase paclitaxel sensitivity. We found that Dicer expression was regulated at the transcription level by E1A, through activation of an MAPK14/CEBPα pathway. Our findings define a mechanism of E1A-mediated chemosensitization for paclitaxel, which is based upon the suppression of breast cancer stem-like cells, with potential implications for the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer patients. Cancer Res; 76(13); 3916-28. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27216190

  19. MDM4/HIPK2/p53 cytoplasmic assembly uncovers coordinated repression of molecules with anti-apoptotic activity during early DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Mancini, F; Pieroni, L; Monteleone, V; Lucà, R; Fici, L; Luca, E; Urbani, A; Xiong, S; Soddu, S; Masetti, R; Lozano, G; Pontecorvi, A; Moretti, F

    2016-01-14

    The p53 inhibitor, MDM4 (MDMX) is a cytoplasmic protein with p53-activating function under DNA damage conditions. Particularly, MDM4 promotes phosphorylation of p53 at Ser46, a modification that precedes different p53 activities. We investigated the mechanism by which MDM4 promotes this p53 modification and its consequences in untransformed mammary epithelial cells and tissues. In response to severe DNA damage, MDM4 stimulates p53Ser46(P) by binding and stabilizing serine-threonine kinase HIPK2. Under these conditions, the p53-inhibitory complex, MDM4/MDM2, dissociates and this allows MDM4 to promote p53/HIPK2 functional interaction. Comparative proteomic analysis of DNA damage-treated cells versus -untreated cells evidenced a diffuse downregulation of proteins with anti-apoptotic activity, some of which were targets of p53Ser46(P)/HIPK2 repressive activity. Importantly, MDM4 depletion abolishes the downregulation of these proteins indicating the requirement of MDM4 to promote p53-mediated transcriptional repression. Consistently, MDM4-mediated HIPK2/p53 activation precedes HIPK2/p53 nuclear translocation and activity. Noteworthy, repression of these proteins was evident also in mammary glands of mice subjected to γ-irradiation and was significantly enhanced in transgenic mice overexpressing MDM4. This study evidences the flexibility of MDM2/MDM4 heterodimer, which allows the development of a positive activity of cytoplasmic MDM4 towards p53-mediated transcriptional function. Noteworthy, this activity uncovers coordinated repression of molecules with shared anti-apoptotic function which precedes active cell apoptosis and that are frequently overexpressed and/or markers of tumour phenotype in human cancer. PMID:25961923

  20. Amplification of KP elements associated with the repression of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Jackson, M S; Black, D M; Dover, G A

    1988-12-01

    Mobile P elements in Drosophila melanogaster cause hybrid dysgenesis if their mobility is not repressed. One type of repression, termed P cytotype, is a complex interaction between chromosomes carrying P elements and cytoplasm and is transmitted through the cytoplasm only of females. Another type of repression is found in worldwide M' strains that contain approximately 30 copies per individual of one particular P element deletion-derivative termed the KP element. This repression is transmitted equally through both sexes. In the present study we show that biparentally transmitted repression increases in magnitude together with a rapid increase in KP copy-number in genotypes starting with one or a few KP elements and no other deletion-derivatives. Such correlated increases in repression and KP number per genome occur only in the presence of complete P elements, supporting the interpretation that they are probably a consequence of the selective advantage enjoyed by flies carrying the highest numbers of KP elements. Analysis of Q strains also reveals the presence of qualitative differences in the way the repression of dysgenesis is transmitted. In general, Q strains not containing KP elements have the P cytotype mode of repression, whereas Q strains with KP elements transmit repression through both sexes. This difference among Q strains further supports the existence of at least two types of repression of P-induced hybrid dysgenesis in natural populations of D. melanogaster. PMID:2852140

  1. Amplification of KP elements associated with the repression of hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Jackson, M S; Black, D M; Dover, G A

    1988-12-01

    Mobile P elements in Drosophila melanogaster cause hybrid dysgenesis if their mobility is not repressed. One type of repression, termed P cytotype, is a complex interaction between chromosomes carrying P elements and cytoplasm and is transmitted through the cytoplasm only of females. Another type of repression is found in worldwide M' strains that contain approximately 30 copies per individual of one particular P element deletion-derivative termed the KP element. This repression is transmitted equally through both sexes. In the present study we show that biparentally transmitted repression increases in magnitude together with a rapid increase in KP copy-number in genotypes starting with one or a few KP elements and no other deletion-derivatives. Such correlated increases in repression and KP number per genome occur only in the presence of complete P elements, supporting the interpretation that they are probably a consequence of the selective advantage enjoyed by flies carrying the highest numbers of KP elements. Analysis of Q strains also reveals the presence of qualitative differences in the way the repression of dysgenesis is transmitted. In general, Q strains not containing KP elements have the P cytotype mode of repression, whereas Q strains with KP elements transmit repression through both sexes. This difference among Q strains further supports the existence of at least two types of repression of P-induced hybrid dysgenesis in natural populations of D. melanogaster.

  2. Effect of 15-Deoxy-△(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 on Expression of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor in Mouse Monocyte/macrophage Cell Line J774A.1.

    PubMed

    Wei-Yang, L I; Yu-Meng, Shi; Xin, Liu; Lin, Yang; Li-Ying, L I

    2016-06-10

    Objective To investigate the effect of 15-Deoxy-△(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15 d-PGJ2) on the expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and its underlying mechanism in J774A.1. Methods The murine monocyte/macrophage cell line J774A.1 were divided into six groups:lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group,incubated with 1 μg/ml LPS for 1 h;normal control group,incubated with PBS for 1 h;negative control group,incubated with 5 μmol/L 15 d-PGJ2 for 1 h;15 d-PGJ2 group,incubated with 5 μmol/L 15 d-PGJ2 for 1 h followed by 1 μg/ml LPS for 1 h;GW9662 group,incubated with 5 μmol/L 15 d-PGJ2 for 1 h following GW9662 10 μmol/L for 1 h,and then incubated with 1 μg/ml LPS for 1 h;and Vehicle group,control of GW9662,GW9662 was replaced by its solvent DMSO. The expression of MIF was detected via immunofluorescence and agarose gel electrophoresis. RT-qPCR and Western blotting were used to test whether 15 d-PGJ2 could regulate mRNA and protein expression of MIF in J774A.1 upon LPS challenge. The effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) antagonist GW9662 on the regulation of MIF by 15 d-PGJ2 was observed. The effects of 15 d-PGJ2 on the nuclear translocation of PPAR-γ upon LPS challenge were detected via high content screening analysis. Results MIF DNA and protein expressions were detected in J774A.1. MIF mRNA expression was up-regulated (1.75±0.09,P=0.037) when challenged with LPS and 15 d-PGJ2 inhibited its upregulation (0.84±0.08,P=0.026) in J774A.1. The protein level was consistent with the mRNA level. PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 reversed the effect of 15 d-PGJ2 (mRNA,1.48±0.06,P=0.016;protein,1.28). Furthermore,nuclear translocation of PPAR-γ was regulated by 15 d-PGJ2 in J774A.1 upon LPS challenge(1.39±0.02 vs. 1.01±0.03,P=0.003). Conclusion 15 d-PGJ2 may down-regulate the MIF expression in J774A.1 in a PPAR-γ-dependent manner. PMID:27544994

  3. Doxorubicin represses CARP gene transcription through the generation of oxidative stress in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes: possible role of serine/threonine kinase-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Y; Kurabayashi, M; Tanaka, T; Takeda, S I; Tomaru, K; Sekiguchi, K I; Ohyama, Y; Nagai, R

    2000-08-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox), an anthracyclin antineoplastic agent, causes dilated cardiomyopathy. CARP has been identified as a nuclear protein whose mRNA levels are exquisitely sensitive to Dox. In this study we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the repression of CARP expression by Dox in cultured neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. Dox (1 micromol/l)-mediated decrease in CARP mRNA levels was strongly correlated with BNP but not with ANP mRNA levels. Hydrogen peroxide scavenger catalase (1 mg/ml) but not hydroxyl radical scavengers dimethylthiourea (10 mmol/l) or mannitol (10 mmol/l) blunted the Dox-mediated decrease in CARP and BNP expression. Superoxide dismutase inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamic acid (10 mmol/l), which inhibits the generation of hydrogen peroxide from superoxide metabolism, attenuated the repression. PD98059 (MEK1 inhibitor, 50 micromol/l), SB203580 (p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, 10 micromol/l), calphostin C (protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, 1 micromol/l), non-selective protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors genistein (50 micromol/l) or herbimycin A (1 micromol/l) failed to abrogate the downregulation of CARP and BNP expression by Dox. In contrast, H7 (30 micromol/l), a potent inhibitor of serine/threonine kinase, significantly blocked Dox-mediated downregulation of CARP and BNP expression. Transient transfection of a series of 5'-deletion and site-specific mutation constructs revealed that M-CAT element located at -37 of the human CARP promoter mediates Dox-induced repression of CARP promoter activity. These results suggest that a genetic response to Dox is mediated through the generation of hydrogen peroxide, which is selectively linked to the activation of H7-sensitive serine/threonine kinase distinct from PKC and well characterized mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases (ERK and p38MAP kinase). Furthermore, our data implicated M-CAT element as a Dox-response element within the CARP promoter in cardiac myocytes.

  4. Repression of death consciousness and the psychedelic trip.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Varsha

    2012-01-01

    Death is our most repressed consciousness, it inheres our condition as the primordial fear. Perhaps it was necessary that this angst be repressed in man or he would be hurled against the dark forces of nature. Modern ethos was built on this edifice, where the 'denial of death' while 'embracing one's symbolic immortality' would be worshipped, so this ideology simply overturned and repressed looking into the morass of the inevitable when it finally announced itself. Once this slowly pieced its way into all of life, 'death' would soon become a terminology in medicine too and assert its position, by giving a push to those directly dealing with the dying to shy away from its emotional and spiritual affliction. The need to put off death and prolong one's life would become ever more urgent. Research using psychedelics on the terminally ill which had begun in the 1950s and 1960s would coerce into another realm and alter the face of medicine; but the aggression with which it forced itself in the 1960s would soon be politically maimed, and what remained would be sporadic outpours that trickled its way from European labs and underground boot camps. Now, with the curtain rising, the question has etched itself again, about the use of psychedelic drugs in medicine, particularly psychedelic psychotherapy with the terminally ill. This study is an attempt to philosophically explore death anxiety from its existential context and how something that is innate in our condition cannot be therapeutically cured. Psychedelic use was immutably linked with ancient cultures and only recently has it seen its scientific revival, from which a scientific culture grew around psychedelic therapy. How much of what was threaded in the ritual and spiritual mores can be extricated and be interpreted in our own mechanized language of medicine is the question that nudges many.

  5. Soybean miR172c Targets the Repressive AP2 Transcription Factor NNC1 to Activate ENOD40 Expression and Regulate Nodule Initiation[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Youning; Wang, Lixiang; Zou, Yanmin; Chen, Liang; Cai, Zhaoming; Zhang, Senlei; Zhao, Fang; Tian, Yinping; Jiang, Qiong; Ferguson, Brett J.; Gresshoff, Peter M.; Li, Xia

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are noncoding RNAs that act as master regulators to modulate various biological processes by posttranscriptionally repressing their target genes. Repression of their target mRNA(s) can modulate signaling cascades and subsequent cellular events. Recently, a role for miR172 in soybean (Glycine max) nodulation has been described; however, the molecular mechanism through which miR172 acts to regulate nodulation has yet to be explored. Here, we demonstrate that soybean miR172c modulates both rhizobium infection and nodule organogenesis. miR172c was induced in soybean roots inoculated with either compatible Bradyrhizobium japonicum or lipooligosaccharide Nod factor and was highly upregulated during nodule development. Reduced activity and overexpression of miR172c caused dramatic changes in nodule initiation and nodule number. We show that soybean miR172c regulates nodule formation by repressing its target gene, Nodule Number Control1, which encodes a protein that directly targets the promoter of the early nodulin gene, ENOD40. Interestingly, transcriptional levels of miR172c were regulated by both Nod Factor Receptor1α/5α-mediated activation and by autoregulation of nodulation-mediated inhibition. Thus, we established a direct link between miR172c and the Nod factor signaling pathway in addition to adding a new layer to the precise nodulation regulation mechanism of soybean. PMID:25549672

  6. Banana Transcription Factor MaERF11 Recruits Histone Deacetylase MaHDA1 and Represses the Expression of MaACO1 and Expansins during Fruit Ripening.

    PubMed

    Han, Yan-Chao; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Chen, Jian-Ye; Liu, Xun-Cheng; Xiao, Yun-Yi; Fu, Chang-Chun; Wang, Jun-Ning; Wu, Ke-Qiang; Lu, Wang-Jin

    2016-06-01

    Phytohormone ethylene controls diverse developmental and physiological processes such as fruit ripening via modulation of ethylene signaling pathway. Our previous study identified that ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR11 (MaERF11), a transcription factor in the ethylene signaling pathway, negatively regulates the ripening of banana, but the mechanism for the MaERF11-mediated transcriptional regulation remains largely unknown. Here we showed that MaERF11 has intrinsic transcriptional repression activity in planta. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that MaERF11 binds to promoters of three ripening-related Expansin genes, MaEXP2, MaEXP7 and MaEXP8, as well as an ethylene biosynthetic gene MaACO1, via the GCC-box motif. Furthermore, expression patterns of MaACO1, MaEXP2, MaEXP7, and MaEXP8 genes are correlated with the changes of histone H3 and H4 acetylation level during fruit ripening. Moreover, we found that MaERF11 physically interacts with a histone deacetylase, MaHDA1, which has histone deacetylase activity, and the interaction significantly strengthens the MaERF11-mediated transcriptional repression of MaACO1 and Expansins Taken together, these findings suggest that MaERF11 may recruit MaHDA1 to its target genes and repress their expression via histone deacetylation. PMID:27208241

  7. RNA-binding protein HuR sequesters microRNA-21 to prevent translation repression of proinflammatory tumor suppressor gene programmed cell death 4.

    PubMed

    Poria, D K; Guha, A; Nandi, I; Ray, P S

    2016-03-31

    Translation control of proinflammatory genes has a crucial role in regulating the inflammatory response and preventing chronic inflammation, including a transition to cancer. The proinflammatory tumor suppressor protein programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) is important for maintaining the balance between inflammation and tumorigenesis. PDCD4 messenger RNA translation is inhibited by the oncogenic microRNA, miR-21. AU-rich element-binding protein HuR was found to interact with the PDCD4 3'-untranslated region (UTR) and prevent miR-21-mediated repression of PDCD4 translation. Cells stably expressing miR-21 showed higher proliferation and reduced apoptosis, which was reversed by HuR expression. Inflammatory stimulus caused nuclear-cytoplasmic relocalization of HuR, reversing the translation repression of PDCD4. Unprecedentedly, HuR was also found to bind to miR-21 directly, preventing its interaction with the PDCD4 3'-UTR, thereby preventing the translation repression of PDCD4. This suggests that HuR might act as a 'miRNA sponge' to regulate miRNA-mediated translation regulation under conditions of stress-induced nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation of HuR, which would allow fine-tuned gene expression in complex regulatory environments.

  8. The Third Intron of the Interferon Regulatory Factor-8 Is an Initiator of Repressed Chromatin Restricting Its Expression in Non-Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Barnea-Yizhar, Ofer; Ram, Sigal; Kovalev, Ekaterina; Azriel, Aviva; Rand, Ulfert; Nakayama, Manabu; Hauser, Hansjörg; Gepstein, Lior; Levi, Ben-Zion

    2016-01-01

    Interferon Regulatory Factor-8 (IRF-8) serves as a key factor in the hierarchical differentiation towards monocyte/dendritic cell lineages. While much insight has been accumulated into the mechanisms essential for its hematopoietic specific expression, the mode of restricting IRF-8 expression in non-hematopoietic cells is still unknown. Here we show that the repression of IRF-8 expression in restrictive cells is mediated by its 3rd intron. Removal of this intron alleviates the repression of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) IRF-8 reporter gene in these cells. Fine deletion analysis points to conserved regions within this intron mediating its restricted expression. Further, the intron alone selectively initiates gene silencing only in expression-restrictive cells. Characterization of this intron’s properties points to its role as an initiator of sustainable gene silencing inducing chromatin condensation with suppressive histone modifications. This intronic element cannot silence episomal transgene expression underlining a strict chromatin-dependent silencing mechanism. We validated this chromatin-state specificity of IRF-8 intron upon in-vitro differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into cardiomyocytes. Taken together, the IRF-8 3rd intron is sufficient and necessary to initiate gene silencing in non-hematopoietic cells, highlighting its role as a nucleation core for repressed chromatin during differentiation. PMID:27257682

  9. Blood-Brain Glucose Transfer: Repression in Chronic Hyperglycemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjedde, Albert; Crone, Christian

    1981-10-01

    Diabetic patients with increased plasma glucose concentrations may develop cerebral symptoms of hypoglycemia when their plasma glucose is rapidly lowered to normal concentrations. The symptoms may indicate insufficient transport of glucose from blood to brain. In rats with chronic hyperglycemia the maximum glucose transport capacity of the blood-brain barrier decreased from 400 to 290 micromoles per 100 grams per minute. When plasma glucose was lowered to normal values, the glucose transport rate into brain was 20 percent below normal. This suggests that repressive changes of the glucose transport mechanism occur in brain endothelial cells in response to increased plasma glucose.

  10. The Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor Transcriptionally Represses Pak1 in Osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Sosa-García, Bernadette; Vázquez-Rivera, Viviana; González-Flores, Jonathan N.; Engel, Brienne E.; Cress, W. Douglas; Santiago-Cardona, Pedro G.

    2015-01-01

    We previously characterized the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb) as a regulator of adherens junction assembly and cell-to-cell adhesion in osteoblasts. This is a novel function since Rb is predominantly known as a cell cycle repressor. Herein, we characterized the molecular mechanisms by which Rb performs this function, hypothesizing that Rb controls the activity of known regulators of adherens junction assembly. We found that Rb represses the expression of the p21-activated protein kinase (Pak1), an effector of the small Rho GTPase Rac1. Rac1 is a well-known regulator of adherens junction assembly whose increased activity in cancer is linked to perturbations of intercellular adhesion. Using nuclear run-on and luciferase reporter transcription assays, we found that Pak1 repression by Rb is transcriptional, without affecting Pak1 mRNA and protein stability. Pak1 promoter bioinformatics showed multiple E2F1 binding sites within 155 base pairs of the transcriptional start site, and a Pak1-promoter region containing these E2F sites is susceptible to transcriptional inhibition by Rb. Chromatin immunoprecipitations showed that an Rb-E2F complex binds to the region of the Pak1 promoter containing the E2F1 binding sites, suggesting that Pak1 is an E2F target and that the repressive effect of Rb on Pak1 involves blocking the trans-activating capacity of E2F. A bioinformatics analysis showed elevated Pak1 expression in several solid tumors relative to adjacent normal tissue, with both Pak1 and E2F increased relative to normal tissue in breast cancer, supporting a cancer etiology for Pak1 up-regulation. Therefore, we propose that by repressing Pak1 expression, Rb prevents Rac1 hyperactivity usually associated with cancer and related to cytoskeletal derangements that disrupt cell adhesion, consequently enhancing cancer cell migratory capacity. This de-regulation of cell adhesion due to Rb loss could be part of the molecular events associated with cancer progression

  11. Specific Gene Repression by CRISPRi System Transferred through Bacterial Conjugation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In microbial communities, bacterial populations are commonly controlled using indiscriminate, broad range antibiotics. There are few ways to target specific strains effectively without disrupting the entire microbiome and local environment. Here, we use conjugation, a natural DNA horizontal transfer process among bacterial species, to deliver an engineered CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) system for targeting specific genes in recipient Escherichia coli cells. We show that delivery of the CRISPRi system is successful and can specifically repress a reporter gene in recipient cells, thereby establishing a new tool for gene regulation across bacterial cells and potentially for bacterial population control. PMID:25409531

  12. GW4064, an Agonist of Farnesoid X Receptor, Represses CYP3A4 Expression in Human Hepatocytes by Inducing Small Heterodimer Partner Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shu; Pan, Xian

    2015-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) functions as a regulator of bile acid and lipid homeostasis and is recognized as a promising therapeutic target for metabolic diseases. The biologic function of FXR is mediated in part by a small heterodimer partner (SHP); ligand-activated FXR enhances SHP expression, and SHP in turn represses the activity of multiple transcription factors. This study aimed to investigate the effect of FXR activation on expression of the major drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4. The effects of 3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-4-(3′-carboxy-2-chlorostilben-4-yl)oxymethyl-5-isopropylisoxazole (GW4064), a synthetic agonist of FXR, on the expression and activity of CYP3A4 were examined in primary human hepatocytes by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and S9 phenotyping. In human hepatocytes, treatment of GW4064 (1 μM) for 48 hours resulted in a 75% decrease in CYP3A4 mRNA expression and a 25% decrease in CYP3A4 activity, accompanied by ∼3-fold increase in SHP mRNA expression. In HepG2 cells, SHP repressed transactivation of CYP3A4 promoter by pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and glucocorticoid receptor. Interestingly, GW4064 did not repress expression of CYP2B6, another target gene of PXR and CAR; GW4064 enhanced CYP2B6 promoter activity. In conclusion, GW4064 represses CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes, potentially through upregulation of SHP expression and subsequent repression of CYP3A4 promoter activity. Clinically significant drug-drug interaction involving FXR agonists and CYP3A4 substrates may occur. PMID:25725071

  13. GW4064, an agonist of farnesoid X receptor, represses CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes by inducing small heterodimer partner expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu; Pan, Xian; Jeong, Hyunyoung

    2015-05-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) functions as a regulator of bile acid and lipid homeostasis and is recognized as a promising therapeutic target for metabolic diseases. The biologic function of FXR is mediated in part by a small heterodimer partner (SHP); ligand-activated FXR enhances SHP expression, and SHP in turn represses the activity of multiple transcription factors. This study aimed to investigate the effect of FXR activation on expression of the major drug-metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4. The effects of 3-(2,6-dichlorophenyl)-4-(3'-carboxy-2-chlorostilben-4-yl)oxymethyl-5-isopropylisoxazole (GW4064), a synthetic agonist of FXR, on the expression and activity of CYP3A4 were examined in primary human hepatocytes by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and S9 phenotyping. In human hepatocytes, treatment of GW4064 (1 μM) for 48 hours resulted in a 75% decrease in CYP3A4 mRNA expression and a 25% decrease in CYP3A4 activity, accompanied by ∼3-fold increase in SHP mRNA expression. In HepG2 cells, SHP repressed transactivation of CYP3A4 promoter by pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), and glucocorticoid receptor. Interestingly, GW4064 did not repress expression of CYP2B6, another target gene of PXR and CAR; GW4064 enhanced CYP2B6 promoter activity. In conclusion, GW4064 represses CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes, potentially through upregulation of SHP expression and subsequent repression of CYP3A4 promoter activity. Clinically significant drug-drug interaction involving FXR agonists and CYP3A4 substrates may occur.

  14. Xbp1 Directs Global Repression of Budding Yeast Transcription during the Transition to Quiescence and Is Important for the Longevity and Reversibility of the Quiescent State

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Shawna; Li, Lihong; Davison, Jerry; Breeden, Linda L.

    2013-01-01

    Pure populations of quiescent yeast can be obtained from stationary phase cultures that have ceased proliferation after exhausting glucose and other carbon sources from their environment. They are uniformly arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and display very high thermo-tolerance and longevity. We find that G1 arrest is initiated before all the glucose has been scavenged from the media. Maintaining G1 arrest requires transcriptional repression of the G1 cyclin, CLN3, by Xbp1. Xbp1 is induced as glucose is depleted and it is among the most abundant transcripts in quiescent cells. Xbp1 binds and represses CLN3 transcription and in the absence of Xbp1, or with extra copies of CLN3, cells undergo ectopic divisions and produce very small cells. The Rad53-mediated replication stress checkpoint reinforces the arrest and becomes essential when Cln3 is overproduced. The XBP1 transcript also undergoes metabolic oscillations under glucose limitation and we identified many additional transcripts that oscillate out of phase with XBP1 and have Xbp1 binding sites in their promoters. Further global analysis revealed that Xbp1 represses 15% of all yeast genes as they enter the quiescent state and over 500 of these transcripts contain Xbp1 binding sites in their promoters. Xbp1-repressed transcripts are highly enriched for genes involved in the regulation of cell growth, cell division and metabolism. Failure to repress some or all of these targets leads xbp1 cells to enter a permanent arrest or senescence with a shortened lifespan. PMID:24204289

  15. Albumin-Binding and Tumor Vasculature Determine the Antitumor Effect of 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-Prostaglandin-J2 in vivo1

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Jai; Bansal, Ruchi; Post, Eduard; de Jager-Krikken, Alie; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N; Poelstra, Klaas

    2009-01-01

    15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin-J2 (15d-PGJ2), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist, induces cell death in tumor cells in vitro; however, no study showed its in vivo effect on tumors. Here, we report that 15d-PGJ2 shows antitumor effects in vivo in mice. However, its effects correlate with tumor uptake of albumin, to which it reversibly binds. 15d-PGJ2 induces cell death in B16F10 melanoma and C26 colon carcinoma cells in vitro. These effects were not elicited through PPARγ-dependent pathways because an irreversible PPARγ antagonist GW9662 did not inhibit these effects. Caspase- and nuclear factor κB- (NF-κB) dependent pathways were found to be involved as determined with caspase-3/7 fluorescent assay and NF-κB containing plasmid transfection assay, respectively. Noticeably, 15d-PGJ2 had significantly stronger effects in C26 cells compared with B16 cells in all assays. However, in vivo, there was no effect on C26 tumors, yet it significantly inhibited the B16 tumor growth in mice by 75%. We found that 15d-PGJ2 rapidly bound to albumin and in vivo albumin greatly distributed to B16 tumors compared with C26 tumors, shown with γ-camera imaging and immunohistochemical staining. Albumin accumulation can be attributed to the large blood vessel diameter in B16 tumors and an enhanced permeability and retention effect. These findings suggest that 15d-PGJ2 can be an effective therapeutic agent for cancer, although its effects seem to be limited to the tumors allowing albumin penetration. PMID:20019843

  16. Inorganic arsenic represses interleukin-17A expression in human activated Th17 lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Morzadec, Claudie; Macoch, Mélinda; Robineau, Marc; Sparfel, Lydie; Fardel, Olivier; Vernhet, Laurent

    2012-08-01

    Trivalent inorganic arsenic [As(III)] is an efficient anticancer agent used to treat patients suffering from acute promyelocytic leukemia. Recently, experimental studies have clearly demonstrated that this metalloid can also cure lymphoproliferative and/or pro-inflammatory syndromes in different murine models of chronic immune-mediated diseases. T helper (Th) 1 and Th17 lymphocytes play a central role in development of these diseases, in mice and humans, especially by secreting the potent pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ and IL-17A, respectively. As(III) impairs basic functions of human T cells but its ability to modulate secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by differentiated Th lymphocytes is unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that As(III), used at concentrations clinically achievable in plasma of patients, has no effect on the secretion of interferon-γ from Th1 cells but almost totally blocks the expression and the release of IL-17A from human Th17 lymphocytes co-stimulated for five days with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 antibodies, in the presence of differentiating cytokines. In addition, As(III) specifically reduces mRNA levels of the retinoic-related orphan receptor (ROR)C gene which encodes RORγt, a key transcription factor controlling optimal IL-17 expression in fully differentiated Th17 cells. The metalloid also blocks initial expression of IL-17 gene induced by the co-stimulation, probably in part by impairing activation of the JNK/c-Jun pathway. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that As(III) represses expression of the major pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17A produced by human Th17 lymphocytes, thus strengthening the idea that As(III) may be useful to treat inflammatory immune-mediated diseases in humans. -- Highlights: ► Arsenic inhibits secretion of IL-17A from human naïve and memory Th17 lymphocytes. ► Arsenic represses early expression of IL-17A gene in human activated T lymphocytes. ► Arsenic interferes with activation of

  17. TGF-β induces miR-30d down-regulation and podocyte injury through Smad2/3 and HDAC3-associated transcriptional repression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Lin, Wenjun; Zhang, Qin; Cao, Wangsen; Liu, Zhihong

    2016-03-01

    The microRNA-30 family plays important roles in maintaining kidney homeostasis. Patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) have reduced miR-30 levels in glomerulus. TGF-β represses miR-30s in kidney podocytes, which leads to cytoskeleton damage and podocyte apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which TGF-β represses miR-30d in vitro. The human miR-30d promoter contains multiple copies of Smad binding element-like sequences. A fragment of 150 base pairs close to the transcription start site was negatively regulated by TGF-β to a similar extent as the 1.8 kb promoter, which was blocked by histone-deacetylase inhibition. TGF-β specifically enhanced HDAC3 expression. Knockdown of HDAC3 by shRNA or a selective inhibitor RGFP966 significantly relieved the repression of miR-30d mRNA and the promoter transcription. TGF-β promoted HDAC3 association with Smad2/3 and NCoR and caused their accumulation at the putative Smad binding site on the miR-30d promoter, which was prohibited by TSA or RGFP966. Furthermore, TSA or RGFP966 treatment reversed TGF-β-induced up-regulation of miR-30d targets Notch1 and p53 and alleviated the podocyte cytoskeleton damage and apoptosis. Taken together, these findings pinpoint that TGF-β represses miR-30d through a Smad2/3-HDAC3-NCoR repression complex and provide novel insights into a potential target for the treatment of podocyte injury-associated glomerulopathies. Key message: MiR-30d promoter is negatively regulated by TGF-β. TGF-β down-regulates miR-30 through Smad signaling pathway. HDAC3 and NCoR are recruited by Smad2/3 to mediate miR-30d repression by TGF-β. HDAC3 acts as a critical player in TGF-β-induced miR-30d repression and podocyte injuries.

  18. The adenoviral E1A N-terminal domain represses MYC transcription in human cancer cells by targeting both p300 and TRRAP and inhibiting MYC promoter acetylation of H3K18 and H4K16

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ling-Jun; Loewenstein, Paul M.; Green, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Human cancers frequently arise from increased expression of proto-oncogenes, such as MYC and HER2. Understanding the cellular pathways regulating the transcription and expression of proto-oncogenes is important for targeted therapies for cancer treatment. Adenoviral (Ad) E1A 243R (243 aa residues) is a viral oncoprotein that interacts with key regulators of gene transcription and cell proliferation. We have shown previously that the 80 amino acid N-terminal transcriptional repression domain of E1A 243R (E1A 1-80) can target the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) p300 and repress HER2 in the HER2-overexpressing human breast cancer cell line SKBR3. Expression of E1A 1-80 induces death of SKBR3 and other cancer cell lines. In this study, we performed total cell RNA sequence analysis and identified MYC as the regulatory gene for cellular proliferation most strongly repressed by E1A 1-80. By RT-quantitative PCR analysis we show that repression of MYC in SKBR3 cells occurs early after expression of E1A 1-80, suggesting that MYC may be an early responder of E1A 1-80-mediated transcriptional repression. Of interest, while E1A 1-80 repression of MYC occurs in all eight human cancer cell lines examined, repression of HER2 is cell-type dependent. We demonstrate by ChIP analysis that MYC transcriptional repression by E1A 1-80 is associated with inhibition of acetylation of H3K18 and H4K16 on the MYC promoter, as well as inhibition of RNA Pol II binding to the MYC promoter. Deletion mutant analysis of E1A 1-80 suggests that both p300/CBP and TRRAP are involved in E1A 1-80 repression of MYC transcription. Further, E1A 1-80 interaction with p300/CBP and TRRAP is correlated with inhibition of H3K18 and H4K16 acetylation on the MYC promoter, respectively. Our results indicate that E1A 1-80 may target two important pathways for histone modification to repress transcription in human cancer cells. PMID:27382434

  19. MYCN repression of Lifeguard/FAIM2 enhances neuroblastoma aggressiveness.

    PubMed

    Planells-Ferrer, L; Urresti, J; Soriano, A; Reix, S; Murphy, D M; Ferreres, J C; Borràs, F; Gallego, S; Stallings, R L; Moubarak, R S; Segura, M F; Comella, J X

    2014-09-04

    Neuroblastoma (NBL) is the most common solid tumor in infants and accounts for 15% of all pediatric cancer deaths. Several risk factors predict NBL outcome: age at the time of diagnosis, stage, chromosome alterations and MYCN (V-Myc Avian Myelocytomatosis Viral Oncogene Neuroblastoma-Derived Homolog) amplification, which characterizes the subset of the most aggressive NBLs with an overall survival below 30%. MYCN-amplified tumors develop exceptional chemoresistance and metastatic capacity. These properties have been linked to defects in the apoptotic machinery, either by silencing components of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway (e.g. caspase-8) or by overexpression of antiapoptotic regulators (e.g. Bcl-2, Mcl-1 or FLIP). Very little is known on the implication of death receptors and their antagonists in NBL. In this work, the expression levels of several death receptor antagonists were analyzed in multiple human NBL data sets. We report that Lifeguard (LFG/FAIM2 (Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule 2)/NMP35) is downregulated in the most aggressive and undifferentiated tumors. Intringuingly, although LFG has been initially characterized as an antiapoptotic protein, we have found a new association with NBL differentiation. Moreover, LFG repression resulted in reduced cell adhesion, increased sphere growth and enhanced migration, thus conferring a higher metastatic capacity to NBL cells. Furthermore, LFG expression was found to be directly repressed by MYCN at the transcriptional level. Our data, which support a new functional role for a hitherto undiscovered MYCN target, provide a new link between MYCN overexpression and increased NBL metastatic properties.

  20. Ski represses BMP signaling in Xenopus and mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    kluo@lbl.gov

    2001-05-16

    The bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) play important roles in vertebrate development. In Xenopus, BMPs act as epidermal inducers and also as negative regulators of neurogenesis. Antagonism of BMP signaling results in neuralization. BMPs signal through the cell-surface receptors and downstream Smad molecules. Upon stimulation with BMP, Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8 are phosphorylated by the activated BMP receptors, form a complex with Smad4, and translocate into the nucleus, where they regulate the expression of BMP target genes. Here, we show that the Ski oncoprotein can block BMP signaling and the expression of BMP-responsive genes in both Xenopus and mammalian cells by directly interacting with and repressing the activity of BMP-specific Smad complexes. This ability to antagonize BMP signaling results in neuralization by Ski in the Xenopus embryo and blocking of osteoblast differentiation of murine W-20-17 cells. Thus, Ski is able to repress the activity of all receptor-associated Smads and may regulate vertebrate development by modulating the signaling activity of transforming growth factor-{beta} family members.

  1. Quantitative dissection of the simple repression input–output function

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Hernan G.; Phillips, Rob

    2011-01-01

    We present a quantitative case study of transcriptional regulation in which we carry out a systematic dialogue between theory and measurement for an important and ubiquitous regulatory motif in bacteria, namely, that of simple repression. This architecture is realized by a single repressor binding site overlapping the promoter. From the theory point of view, this motif is described by a single gene regulation function based upon only a few parameters that are convenient theoretically and accessible experimentally. The usual approach is turned on its side by using the mathematical description of these regulatory motifs as a predictive tool to determine the number of repressors in a collection of strains with a large variation in repressor copy number. The predictions and corresponding measurements are carried out over a large dynamic range in both expression fold change (spanning nearly four orders of magnitude) and repressor copy number (spanning about two orders of magnitude). The predictions are tested by measuring the resulting level of gene expression and are then validated by using quantitative immunoblots. The key outcomes of this study include a systematic quantitative analysis of the limits and validity of the input–output relation for simple repression, a precise determination of the in vivo binding energies for DNA–repressor interactions for several distinct repressor binding sites, and a repressor census for Lac repressor in Escherichia coli. PMID:21730194

  2. hnRNP-Q1 represses nascent axon growth in cortical neurons by inhibiting Gap-43 mRNA translation

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kathryn R.; McAninch, Damian S.; Stefanovic, Snezana; Xing, Lei; Allen, Megan; Li, Wenqi; Feng, Yue; Mihailescu, Mihaela Rita; Bassell, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    Posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by mRNA-binding proteins is critical for neuronal development and function. hnRNP-Q1 is an mRNA-binding protein that regulates mRNA processing events, including translational repression. hnRNP-Q1 is highly expressed in brain tissue, suggesting a function in regulating genes critical for neuronal development. In this study, we have identified Growth-associated protein 43 (Gap-43) mRNA as a novel target of hnRNP-Q1 and have demonstrated that hnRNP-Q1 represses Gap-43 mRNA translation and consequently GAP-43 function. GAP-43 is a neuronal protein that regulates actin dynamics in growth cones and facilitates axonal growth. Previous studies have identified factors that regulate Gap-43 mRNA stability and localization, but it remains unclear whether Gap-43 mRNA translation is also regulated. Our results reveal that hnRNP-Q1 knockdown increased nascent axon length, total neurite length, and neurite number in mouse embryonic cortical neurons and enhanced Neuro2a cell process extension; these phenotypes were rescued by GAP-43 knockdown. Additionally, we have identified a G-quadruplex structure in the 5′ untranslated region of Gap-43 mRNA that directly interacts with hnRNP-Q1 as a means to inhibit Gap-43 mRNA translation. Therefore hnRNP-Q1–mediated repression of Gap-43 mRNA translation provides an additional mechanism for regulating GAP-43 expression and function and may be critical for neuronal development. PMID:26658614

  3. Chondrocyte-intrinsic Smad3 represses Runx2-inducible MMP-13 expression to maintain articular cartilage and prevent osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Carol G.; Thuillier, Daniel; Chin, Emily N.; Alliston, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify mechanisms by which Smad3 maintains articular cartilage and prevents osteoarthritis. Methods A combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches was used to test the hypothesis that Smad3 represses Runx2-inducible gene expression to prevent articular cartilage degeneration. Col2-Cre;Smad3fl/fl mice allowed study of the chondrocyte-intrinsic role of Smad3, independently of its role in the perichondrium or other tissues. Primary Smad3fl/fl articular chondrocytes and ATDC5 chondroprogenitors were employed to evaluate Smad3 and Runx2 regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) mRNA and protein expression. Results Chondrocyte-specific reduction of Smad3 causes progressive articular cartilage degeneration due to imbalanced cartilage matrix synthesis and degradation. In addition to reduced collagen II mRNA expression, Col2-Cre;Smad3fl/fl articular cartilage is severely deficient in collagen II and aggrecan protein, due to excessive MMP-13-mediated proteolysis of these key cartilage matrix constituents. Normally, TGF-β signals through Smad3 to confer a rapid and dynamic repression of Runx2-inducible MMP-13 expression. However, in the absence of Smad3, TGF-β signals through p38 and Runx2 to induce MMP-13 expression. Conclusion This work elucidates a mechanism by which Smad3 mutations in humans and mice cause cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis. Specifically, Smad3 maintains the balance between cartilage matrix synthesis and degradation by inducing collagen II expression and repressing Runx2-inducible MMP-13 expression. Selective activation of TGF-β signaling through Smad3, rather than p38, may help to restore the balance between matrix synthesis and proteolysis that is lost in osteoarthritis. PMID:22674505

  4. The X protein of hepatitis B virus activates hepatoma cell proliferation through repressing melanoma inhibitory activity 2 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yilin; Yang, Yang; Cai, Yanyan; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yingle; Zhu, Ying; Wu, Jianguo

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrated that HBV represses MIA2 gene expression both invitro and in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The X protein of HBV plays a major role in such regulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Knock-down of MIA2 in HepG2 cells activates cell growth and proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBx activates cell proliferation, over-expression of MIA2 impaired such regulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HBx activates hepatoma cell proliferation through repressing MIA2 expression. -- Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths globally. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection accounts for over 75% of all HCC cases; however, the molecular pathogenesis of HCC is not well understood. In this study, we found that the expression of the newly identified gene melanoma inhibitory activity 2 (MIA2) was reduced by HBV infection invitro and invivo, and that HBV X protein (HBx) plays a major role in this regulation. Recent studies have revealed that MIA2 is a potential tumor suppressor, and that, in most HCCs, MIA2 expression is down-regulated or lost. We found that the knock-down of MIA2 in HepG2 cells activated cell growth and proliferation, suggesting that MIA2 inhibits HCC cell growth and proliferation. In addition, the over-expression of HBx alone induced cell proliferation, whereas MIA2 over-expression impaired the HBx-mediated induction of proliferation. Taken together, our results suggest that HBx activates hepatoma cell growth and proliferation through repression of the potential tumor suppressor MIA2.

  5. Divergent role of the Hox gene Antennapedia in spiders is responsible for the convergent evolution of abdominal limb repression

    PubMed Central

    Khadjeh, Sara; Turetzek, Natascha; Pechmann, Matthias; Schwager, Evelyn E.; Wimmer, Ernst A.; Damen, Wim G. M.; Prpic, Nikola-Michael

    2012-01-01

    Evolution often results in morphologically similar solutions in different organisms, a phenomenon known as convergence. However, there is little knowledge of the processes that lead to convergence at the genetic level. The genes of the Hox cluster control morphology in animals. They may also be central to the convergence of morphological traits, but whether morphological similarities also require similar changes in Hox gene function is disputed. In arthropods, body subdivision into a region with locomotory appendages (“thorax”) and a region with reduced appendages (“abdomen”) has evolved convergently in several groups, e.g., spiders and insects. In insects, legs develop in the expression domain of the Hox gene Antennapedia (Antp), whereas the Hox genes Ultrabithorax (Ubx) and abdominal-A mediate leg repression in the abdomen. Here, we show that, unlike Antp in insects, the Antp gene in the spider Achaearanea tepidariorum represses legs in the first segment of the abdomen (opisthosoma), and that Antp and Ubx are redundant in the following segment. The down-regulation of Antp in A. tepidariorum leads to a striking 10-legged phenotype. We present evidence from ectopic expression of the spider Antp gene in Drosophila embryos and imaginal tissue that this unique function of Antp is not due to changes in the Antp protein, but likely due to divergent evolution of cofactors, Hox collaborators or target genes in spiders and flies. Our results illustrate an interesting example of convergent evolution of abdominal leg repression in arthropods by altering the role of distinct Hox genes at different levels of their action. PMID:22421434

  6. Covalent Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) Modification of Maf1 Protein Controls RNA Polymerase III-dependent Transcription Repression*

    PubMed Central

    Rohira, Aarti D.; Chen, Chun-Yuan; Allen, Justin R.; Johnson, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    RNA polymerase (pol) III transcribes genes that determine biosynthetic capacity. Induction of these genes is required for oncogenic transformation. The transcriptional repressor, Maf1, plays a central role in the repression of these and other genes that promote oncogenesis. Our studies identify an important new role for SUMOylation in repressing RNA pol III-dependent transcription. We show that a key mechanism by which this occurs is through small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modification of Maf1 by both SUMO1 and SUMO2. Mutation of each lysine residue revealed that Lys-35 is the major SUMOylation site on Maf1 and that the deSUMOylase, SENP1, is responsible for controlling Maf1K35 SUMOylation. SUMOylation of Maf1 is unaffected by rapamycin inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and mTOR-dependent Maf1 phosphorylation. By preventing SUMOylation at Lys-35, Maf1 is impaired in its ability to both repress transcription and suppress colony growth. Although SUMOylation does not alter Maf1 subcellular localization, Maf1K35R is defective in its ability to associate with RNA pol III. This impairs Maf1 recruitment to tRNA gene promoters and its ability to facilitate the dissociation of RNA pol III from these promoters. These studies identify a novel role for SUMOylation in controlling Maf1 and RNA pol III-mediated transcription. Given the emerging roles of SENP1, Maf1, and RNA pol III transcription in oncogenesis, our studies support the idea that deSUMOylation of Maf1 and induction of its gene targets play a critical role in cancer development. PMID:23673667

  7. Integration Host Factor is required for FarR repression of the farAB-encoded efflux pump of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Hee; Hill, Stuart A; Napier, Ruth; Shafer, William M

    2006-06-01

    The farAB operon encodes an efflux pump system that mediates the resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to antimicrobial long-chain fatty acids. We previously observed that expression of farAB is negatively regulated by the FarR repressor. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism by which FarR represses expression of farAB. DNase I footprinting analysis, coupled with a deletion analysis of the farAB promoter region, indicated that FarR binds to three sites (termed sites A, B and C) within the DNA sequence upstream of farA; genetic analysis revealed, however, that site B is not required for FarR repression of farAB. This repression also required the presence of Integration Host Factor (IHF), which was found to bind to sequences located between FarR binding sites A and C. We determined that IHF binding to the farAB promoter region could inhibit transcription in vitro and that such binding induced a bending of the target DNA, which we propose to be important in regulating this operon. IHF binding to the promoter region was found to stabilize the binding of FarR to its binding sites A and C and as a consequence, enhanced repression of farAB expression mediated by FarR. We propose a model in which expression of the farAB-encoded efflux pump in N. gonorrhoeae is modulated by the DNA binding activities of FarR and IHF. PMID:16796676

  8. Selective repression of retinoic acid target genes by RIP140 during induced tumor cell differentiation of pluripotent human embryonal carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Kelly C; White, Kristina A; Deng, Dexin; Tomlinson, Craig R; Moore, Jason H; Freemantle, Sarah J; Spinella, Michael J

    2007-01-01

    Background The use of retinoids as anti-cancer agents has been limited due to resistance and low efficacy. The dynamics of nuclear receptor coregulation are incompletely understood. Cell-and context-specific activities of nuclear receptors may be in part due to distinct coregulator complexes recruited to distinct subsets of target genes. RIP140 (also called NRIP1) is a ligand-dependent corepressor that is inducible with retinoic acid (RA). We had previously shown that RIP140 limits RA induced tumor cell differentiation of embryonal carcinoma; the pluriopotent stem cells of testicular germ cell tumors. This implies that RIP140 represses key genes required for RA-mediated tumor cell differentiation. Identification of these genes would be of considerable interest. Results To begin to address this issue, microarray technology was employed to elucidate in a de novo fashion the global role of RIP140 in RA target gene regulation of embryonal carcinoma. Subclasses of genes were affected by RIP140 in distinct manners. Interestingly, approximately half of the RA-dependent genes were unaffected by RIP140. Hence, RIP140 appears to discriminate between different classes of RA target genes. In general, RIP140-dependent gene expression was consistent with RIP140 functioning to limit RA signaling and tumor cell differentiation. Few if any genes were regulated in a manner to support a role for RIP140 in "active repression". We also demonstrated that RIP140 silencing sensitizes embryonal carcinoma cells to low doses of RA. Conclusion Together the data demonstrates that RIP140 has profound effects on RA-mediated gene expression in this cancer stem cell model. The RIP140-dependent RA target genes identified here may be particularly important in mediating RA-induced tumor cell differentiation and the findings suggest that RIP140 may be an attractive target to sensitize tumor cells to retinoid-based differentiation therapy. We discuss these data in the context of proposed models of RIP

  9. Oncovirus Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) represses tumor suppressor PDLIM2 to persistently activate nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and STAT3 transcription factors for tumorigenesis and tumor maintenance.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fan; Xiao, Yadong; Qu, Zhaoxia

    2015-03-20

    Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) is the most common cause of malignancies among AIDS patients. However, how KSHV induces tumorigenesis remains largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that one important mechanism underlying the tumorigenesis of KSHV is through transcriptional repression of the tumor suppressor gene PDZ-LIM domain-containing protein 2 (PDLIM2). PDLIM2 expression is repressed in KSHV-transformed human umbilical vascular endothelial cells as well as in KSHV-associated cancer cell lines and primary tumors. Importantly, PDLIM2 repression is essential for KSHV-induced persistent activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and subsequent tumorigenesis and tumor maintenance. Our mechanistic studies indicate that PDLIM2 repression by KSHV involves DNA methylation. Notably, the epigenetic repression of PDLIM2 can be reversed by 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine and vitamin D to suppress KSHV-associated cancer cell growth. These studies not only improve our understanding of KSHV pathogenesis but also provide immediate therapeutic strategies for KSHV-mediated cancers, particularly those associated with AIDS.

  10. A Small Molecule Inhibitor of Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 Inhibits Ubiquitin Signaling at DNA Double-strand Breaks*

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Ismail Hassan; McDonald, Darin; Strickfaden, Hilmar; Xu, Zhizhong; Hendzel, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Polycomb-repressive complex 1 (PRC1)-mediated histone ubiquitylation plays an important role in aberrant gene silencing in human cancers and is a potential target for cancer therapy. Here we show that 2-pyridine-3-yl-methylene-indan-1,3-dione (PRT4165) is a potent inhibitor of PRC1-mediated H2A ubiquitylation in vivo and in vitro. The drug also inhibits the accumulation of all detectable ubiquitin at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), the retention of several DNA damage response proteins in foci that form around DSBs, and the repair of the DSBs. In vitro E3 ubiquitin ligase activity assays revealed that PRT4165 inhibits both RNF2 and RING 1A, which are partially redundant paralogues that together account for the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity found in PRC1 complexes, but not RNF8 nor RNF168. Because ubiquitylation is completely inhibited despite the efficient recruitment of RNF8 to DSBs, our results suggest that PRC1-mediated monoubiquitylation is required for subsequent RNF8- and/or RNF168-mediated polyubiquitylation. Our results demonstrate the unique feature of PRT4165 as a novel chromatin-remodeling compound and provide a new tool for the inhibition of ubiquitylation signaling at DNA double-strand breaks. PMID:23902761

  11. Essential Roles of Da Transactivation Domains in Neurogenesis and in E(spl)-Mediated Repression

    PubMed Central

    Zarifi, Ioanna; Kiparaki, Marianthi; Koumbanakis, Konstantinos A.; Giagtzoglou, Nikolaos; Zacharioudaki, Evanthia; Alexiadis, Anastasios; Livadaras, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    E proteins are a special class of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins that heterodimerize with many bHLH activators to regulate developmental decisions, such as myogenesis and neurogenesis. Daughterless (Da) is the sole E protein in Drosophila and is ubiquitously expressed. We have characterized two transcription activation domains (TADs) in Da, called activation domain 1 (AD1) and loop-helix (LH), and have evaluated their roles in promoting peripheral neurogenesis. In this context, Da heterodimerizes with proneural proteins, such as Scute (Sc), which is dynamically expressed and also contributes a TAD. We found that either one of the Da TADs in the Da/Sc complex is sufficient to promote neurogenesis, whereas the Sc TAD is incapable of doing so. Besides its transcriptional activation role, the Da AD1 domain serves as an interaction platform for E(spl) proteins, bHLH-Orange family repressors which antagonize Da/Sc function. We show that the E(spl) Orange domain is needed for this interaction and strongly contributes to the antiproneural activity of E(spl) proteins. We present a mechanistic model on the interplay of these bHLH factors in the context of neural fate assignment. PMID:22949507

  12. The Unicellular Ancestry of Groucho-Mediated Repression and the Origins of Metazoan Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Copley, Richard R.

    2016-01-01

    Groucho is a co-repressor that interacts with many transcription factors playing a crucial role in animal development. The evolutionary origins of Groucho are not clear. It is generally regarded as being a distinct animal-specific protein, although with similarities to the yeast Tup-like proteins. Here, it is shown that Groucho has true orthologs in unicellular relatives of animals. Based on their phylogenetic distribution, and an analysis of ligand-binding residues, these genes are unlikely to be orthologs of the fungal Tup-like genes. By identifying conserved candidate Groucho interaction motifs (GIMs) in nonmetazoan transcription factors, it is demonstrated that the details of molecular interactions between Groucho and transcription factors are likely to have been established prior to the origin of animals, but that the association of GIMs with many transcription factor types can be regarded as a metazoan innovation. PMID:27189982

  13. Loss of p53 function through PAX-mediated transcriptional repression.

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, E T; Haffner, R; Oren, M; Gruss, P

    1995-01-01

    Direct interactions between the genes that regulate development and those which regulate the cell cycle would provide a mechanism by which numerous biological events could be better understood. We have identified a direct role for PAX5 in the control of p53 transcription. In primary human diffuse astrocytomas, PAX5 expression inversely correlated with p53 expression. The human p53 gene harbours a PAX binding site within its untranslated first exon that is conserved throughout evolution. PAX5 and its paralogues PAX2 and PAX8 are capable of inhibiting both the p53 promoter and transactivation of a p53-responsive reporter in cell culture. Mutation of the identified binding site eliminates PAX protein binding in vitro and renders the promoter inactive in cells. These data suggest that PAX proteins might regulate p53 expression during development and propose a novel alternative mechanism for tumour initiation or progression, by which loss of p53 function occurs at the transcriptional level. Images PMID:8521821

  14. MicroProtein-Mediated Recruitment of CONSTANS into a TOPLESS Trimeric Complex Represses Flowering in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Graeff, Moritz; Straub, Daniel; Eguen, Tenai; Dolde, Ulla; Rodrigues, Vandasue; Brandt, Ronny; Wenkel, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    MicroProteins are short, single domain proteins that act by sequestering larger, multi-domain proteins into non-functional complexes. MicroProteins have been identified in plants and animals, where they are mostly involved in the regulation of developmental processes. Here we show that two Arabidopsis thaliana microProteins, miP1a and miP1b, physically interact with CONSTANS (CO) a potent regulator of flowering time. The miP1a/b-type microProteins evolved in dicotyledonous plants and have an additional carboxy-terminal PF(V/L)FL motif. This motif enables miP1a/b microProteins to interact with TOPLESS/TOPLESS-RELATED (TPL/TPR) proteins. Interaction of CO with miP1a/b/TPL causes late flowering due to a failure in the induction of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) expression under inductive long day conditions. Both miP1a and miP1b are expressed in vascular tissue, where CO and FT are active. Genetically, miP1a/b act upstream of CO thus our findings unravel a novel layer of flowering time regulation via microProtein-inhibition. PMID:27015278

  15. Synergistic repression of anaerobic genes by Mot3 and Rox1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Sertil, Odeniel; Kapoor, Rachna; Cohen, Brian D.; Abramova, Natalia; Lowry, Charles V.

    2003-01-01

    Two groups of anaerobic genes (genes induced in anaerobic cells and repressed in aerobic cells) are negatively regulated by heme, a metabolite present only in aerobic cells. Members of both groups, the hypoxic genes and the DAN/TIR/ERG genes, are jointly repressed under aerobic conditions by two factors. One is Rox1, an HMG protein, and the second, originally designated Rox7, is shown here to be Mot3, a global C2H2 zinc finger regulator. Repression of anaerobic genes results from co-induction of Mot3 and Rox1 in aerobic cells. Repressor synthesis is triggered by heme, which de-represses a mechanism controlling expression of both MOT3 and ROX1 in anaerobic cells; it includes Hap1, Tup1, Ssn6 and a fourth unidentified factor. The constitutive expression of various anaerobic genes in aerobic rox1Δ or mot3Δ cells directly implies that neither factor can repress by itself at endogenous levels and that stringent aerobic repression results from the concerted action of both. Mot3 and Rox1 are not essential components of a single complex, since each can repress independently in the absence of the other, when artificially induced at high levels. Moreover, the two repression mechanisms appear to be distinct: as shown here repression of ANB1 by Rox1 alone requires Tup1–Ssn6, whereas repression by Mot3 does not. Though artificially high levels of either factor can repress well, the absolute efficiency observed in normal cells when both are present—at much lower levels—demonstrates a novel inhibitory synergy. Evidently, expression levels for the two mutually dependent repressors are calibrated to permit a range of variation in basal aerobic expression at different promoters with differing operator site combinations. PMID:14530431

  16. ERA, a novel cis-acting element required for autoregulation and ethanol repression of PDC1 transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Liesen, T; Hollenberg, C P; Heinisch, J J

    1996-08-01

    Yeast pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc) catalyses the reaction at the branch-point of fermentation and respiration. In this work we have investigated the mechanisms of its transcriptional regulation in response to glucose and the non-fermentable carbon source ethanol. For this purpose we studied the function of different promoter fragments of PDC1, encoding the major pyruvate decarboxylase enzyme in wild-type cells, in the basal CYC1 promoter context. Thus, we identified a sequence mediating the response to ethanol and provide evidence showing that transcription of PDC1 is controlled by ethanol repression rather than by glucose induction. Furthermore, we showed that the same sequence is responsible for an autoregulatory process, leading to increased transcription from both the PDC1 and the PDC5 promoters, in strains in which the genomic copy of PDC1 is deleted. In addition, we have confirmed the role of Rap1 binding and have demonstrated that the Gcr1 protein also acts in transcriptional activation. DNA-protein interactions at the consensus Rap1-binding site and the newly identified ethanol-repression sequence (5'-AAATGCATA-3', termed 'ERA') were investigated by gel-shift and footprint analyses. Both DNA-binding activities were found in extracts from cells grown in media containing glucose or ethanol as the carbon source, indicating that the capacity to bind is not altered by the carbon source used.

  17. Quinolobactin, a new siderophore of Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400, the production of which is repressed by the cognate pyoverdine.

    PubMed

    Mossialos, D; Meyer, J M; Budzikiewicz, H; Wolff, U; Koedam, N; Baysse, C; Anjaiah, V; Cornelis, P

    2000-02-01

    Transposon mutant strain 3G6 of Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400 which was deficient in pyoverdine production, was found to produce another iron-chelating molecule; this molecule was identified as 8-hydroxy-4-methoxy-quinaldic acid (designated quinolobactin). The pyoverdine-deficient mutant produced a supplementary 75-kDa iron-repressed outer membrane protein (IROMP) in addition to the 85-kDa IROMP present in the wild type. The mutant was also characterized by substantially increased uptake of (59)Fe-quinolobactin. The 75-kDa IROMP was produced by the wild type after induction by quinolobactin-containing culture supernatants obtained from the pyoverdine-negative mutant or by purified quinolobactin. Conversely, adding purified wild-type pyoverdine to the growth medium resulted in suppression of the 75-kDa IROMP in the pyoverdine-deficient mutant; however, suppression was not observed when Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 pyoverdine, a siderophore utilized by strain 3G6, was added to the culture. Therefore, we assume that the quinolobactin receptor is the 75-kDa IROMP and that the quinolobactin-mediated iron uptake system is repressed by the cognate pyoverdine. PMID:10653708

  18. Population-level effects of fitness costs associated with repressible female-lethal transgene insertions in two pest insects.

    PubMed

    Harvey-Samuel, Tim; Ant, Thomas; Gong, Hongfei; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke

    2014-05-01

    Genetic control strategies offer great potential for the sustainable and effective control of insect pests. These strategies involve the field release of transgenic insects with the aim of introducing engineered alleles into wild populations, either permanently or transiently. Their efficacy can therefore be reduced if transgene-associated fitness costs reduce the relative performance of released insects. We describe a method of measuring the fitness costs associated with transgenes by analyzing their evolutionary trajectories when placed in competition with wild-type alleles in replicated cage populations. Using this method, we estimated lifetime fitness costs associated with two repressible female-lethal transgenes in the diamondback moth and olive fly as being acceptable for field suppression programs. Furthermore, using these estimates of genotype-level fitness costs, we were able to project longer-term evolutionary trajectories for the transgenes investigated. Results from these projections demonstrate that although transgene-associated fitness costs will ultimately cause these transgenes to become extinct, even when engineered lethality is repressed, they may persist for varying periods of time before doing so. This implies that tetracycline-mediated transgene field persistence in these strains is unlikely and suggests that realistic estimates of transgene-associated fitness costs may be useful in trialing 'uncoupled' gene drive system components in the field.

  19. Arabidopsis JAGGED links floral organ patterning to tissue growth by repressing Kip-related cell cycle inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Schiessl, Katharina; Muiño, Jose M.; Sablowski, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Plant morphogenesis requires coordinated cytoplasmic growth, oriented cell wall extension, and cell cycle progression, but it is debated which of these processes are primary drivers for tissue growth and directly targeted by developmental genes. Here, we used ChIP high-throughput sequencing combined with transcriptome analysis to identify global target genes of the Arabidopsis transcription factor JAGGED (JAG), which promotes growth of the distal region of floral organs. Consistent with the roles of JAG during organ initiation and subsequent distal organ growth, we found that JAG directly repressed genes involved in meristem development, such as CLAVATA1 and HANABA TARANU, and genes involved in the development of the basal region of shoot organs, such as BLADE ON PETIOLE 2 and the GROWTH REGULATORY FACTOR pathway. At the same time, JAG regulated genes involved in tissue polarity, cell wall modification, and cell cycle progression. In particular, JAG directly repressed KIP RELATED PROTEIN 4 (KRP4) and KRP2, which control the transition to the DNA synthesis phase (S-phase) of the cell cycle. The krp2 and krp4 mutations suppressed jag defects in organ growth and in the morphology of petal epidermal cells, showing that the interaction between JAG and KRP genes is functionally relevant. Our work reveals that JAG is a direct mediator between genetic pathways involved in organ patterning and cellular functions required for tissue growth, and it shows that a regulatory gene shapes plant organs by releasing a constraint on S-phase entry. PMID:24497510

  20. Cloning of a DNA fragment encoding a heme-repressible hemoglobin-binding outer membrane protein from Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, H; Ren, Z; Pozsgay, J M; Elkins, C; Whitby, P W; Morton, D J; Stull, T L

    1996-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae i