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Sample records for 15d-pgj2 stimulates ho-1

  1. Elimination of the biphasic pharmacodynamics of 15d-PGJ2 by controlling its release from a nanoemulsion

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Saed; Kajimoto, Kazuaki; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2016-01-01

    15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) has a dual action of stimulating anti-inflammation and anti-proliferation when exogenously administered at high doses. However, at lower doses, it can be toxic inducing opposite actions, ie, stimulation of both inflammation and cell proliferation. This biphasic phenomenon of 15d-PGJ2 is believed to be due to its multitarget behavior. In this study, we provide a strategy for controlling such biphasic pharmacodynamics by separating its dual actions while retaining the beneficial one by using a nanoemulsion (NE). The 15d-PGJ2 was encapsulated in the NE composed of triolein/distearoyl phosphatidylcholine/Tween 80 at a high encapsulation ratio (>83%). Furthermore, NE enhanced drug retention by slowing down its release rate, which was, unconventionally, inversely dependent on the total surface area of the NE system. Next, focusing on the biphasic effect on cell proliferation, we found that the 15d-PGJ2-loaded slow-release NE showed only a dose-dependent inhibition of the viability of a mouse macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, although a fast-release NE as well as free 15d-PGJ2 exerted a biphasic effect. The observed slow-release kinetics are believed to be responsible for elimination of the biphasic pharmacodynamics of 15d-PGJ2 mainly for two reasons: 1) a high proportion of 15d-PGJ2 that is retained in the NE was delivered to the cytosol, where proapoptotic targets are located and 2) 15d-PGJ2 was able to bypass cell membrane-associated targets that lead to the induction of cellular proliferation. Collectively, our strategy of eliminating the 15d-PGJ2-induced biphasic pharmacodynamics was based on the delivery of 15d-PGJ2 to its desired site of action, excluding undesired sites, on a subcellular level. PMID:27354798

  2. Mitochondrial remodeling following fission inhibition by 15d-PGJ2 involves molecular changes in mitochondrial fusion protein OPA1

    SciTech Connect

    Kar, Rekha; Mishra, Nandita; Singha, Prajjal K.; Venkatachalam, Manjeri A.; Saikumar, Pothana

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Chemical inhibition of fission protein Drp1 leads to mitochondrial fusion. {yields} Increased fusion stimulates molecular changes in mitochondrial fusion protein OPA1. {yields} Proteolysis of larger isoforms, new synthesis and ubiquitination of OPA1 occur. {yields} Loss of mitochondrial tubular rigidity and disorganization of cristae. {yields} Generation of large swollen dysfunctional mitochondria. -- Abstract: We showed earlier that 15 deoxy {Delta}{sup 12,14} prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) inactivates Drp1 and induces mitochondrial fusion . However, prolonged incubation of cells with 15d-PGJ2 resulted in remodeling of fused mitochondria into large swollen mitochondria with irregular cristae structure. While initial fusion of mitochondria by 15d-PGJ2 required the presence of both outer (Mfn1 and Mfn2) and inner (OPA1) mitochondrial membrane fusion proteins, later mitochondrial changes involved increased degradation of the fusion protein OPA1 and ubiquitination of newly synthesized OPA1 along with decreased expression of Mfn1 and Mfn2, which likely contributed to the loss of tubular rigidity, disorganization of cristae, and formation of large swollen degenerated dysfunctional mitochondria. Similar to inhibition of Drp1 by 15d-PGJ2, decreased expression of fission protein Drp1 by siRNA also resulted in the loss of fusion proteins. Prevention of 15d-PGJ2 induced mitochondrial elongation by thiol antioxidants prevented not only loss of OPA1 isoforms but also its ubiquitination. These findings provide novel insights into unforeseen complexity of molecular events that modulate mitochondrial plasticity.

  3. Oxidative stress-induced expression of HSP70 contributes to the inhibitory effect of 15d-PGJ2 on inducible prostaglandin pathway in chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, A; Moulin, D; Hupont, S; Koufany, M; Netter, P; Reboul, P; Jouzeau, J-Y

    2014-11-01

    The inhibitory effect of 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) on proinflammatory gene expression has been extensively documented and frequently ascribed to its ability to prevent NF-κB pathway activation. We and others have previously demonstrated that it was frequently independent of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)γ activation. Here, we provide evidence that induction of intracellular heat shock protein (HSP)70 by oxidative stress is an additional regulatory loop supporting the anti-inflammatory effect of 15d-PGJ2 in chondrocytes. Using real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting, we showed that 15d-PGJ2 stimulated HSP70, but not HSP27 expression while increasing oxidative stress as measured by spectrofluorimetry and confocal spectral imaging. Using N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as an antioxidant, we demonstrated further that oxidative stress was thoroughly responsible for the increased expression of HSP70. Finally, using an HSP70 antisense strategy, we showed that the inhibitory effect of 15d-PGJ2 on IL-1-induced activation of the NF-κB pathway, COX-2 and mPGES-1 expression, and PGE2 synthesis was partly supported by HSP70. These data provide a new anti-inflammatory mechanism to support the PPARγ-independent effect of 15d-PGJ2 in chondrocyte and suggest a possible feedback regulatory loop between oxidative stress and inflammation via intracellular HSP70 up-regulation. This cross talk is consistent with 15d-PGJ2 as a putative negative regulator of the inflammatory reaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The cyclopentenone prostaglandin 15d-PGJ2 inhibits the NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes.

    PubMed

    Maier, Nolan K; Leppla, Stephen H; Moayeri, Mahtab

    2015-03-15

    Inflammasomes are cytosolic protein complexes that respond to diverse danger signals by activating caspase-1. The sensor components of the inflammasome, often proteins of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR) family, detect stress, danger stimuli, and pathogen-associated molecular patterns. We report that the eicosanoid 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2) and related cyclopentenone PGs inhibit caspase-1 activation by the NLR family leucine-rich repeat protein (NLRP)1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes. This inhibition was independent of the well-characterized role of 15d-PGJ2 as a peroxisome proliferator receptor-γ agonist, its activation of NF erythroid 2-related factor 2, or its anti-inflammatory function as an inhibitor of NF-κB. Instead, 15d-PGJ2 prevents the autoproteolytic activation of caspase-1 and the maturation of IL-1β through induction of a cellular state inhibitory to caspase-1 proteolytic function. The eicosanoid does not directly modify or inactivate the caspase-1 enzyme. Rather, inhibition is dependent on de novo protein synthesis. In a mouse peritonitis model of gout, using monosodium urate crystals to activate NLRP3, 15d-PGJ2 caused a significant inhibition of cell recruitment and associated IL-1β release. Furthermore, in a murine anthrax infection model, 15d-PGJ2 reversed anthrax lethal toxin-mediated NLRP1-dependent resistance. The findings reported in this study suggest a novel mechanism for the anti-inflammatory properties of the cyclopentenone PGs through inhibition of caspase-1 and the inflammasome.

  5. 15d-PGJ2-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles: Physicochemical Characterization and Evaluation of Pharmacological Effects on Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Camila Morais Gonçalves; Pasquoto, Tatiane; de Lima, Renata; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonist, has physiological properties including pronounced anti-inflammatory activity, though it binds strongly to serum albumin. The use of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) can improve therapeutic properties increasing drug efficiency and availability. 15d-PGJ2-SLN was therefore developed and investigated in terms of its immunomodulatory potential. 15d-PGJ2-SLN and unloaded SLN were physicochemically characterized and experiments in vivo were performed. Animals were pretreated with 15d-PGJ2-SLN at concentrations of 3, 10 or 30 μg·kg-1 before inflammatory stimulus with carrageenan (Cg), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or mBSA (immune response). Interleukins (IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-17) levels were also evaluated in exudates. The 15d-PGJ2-SLN system showed good colloidal parameters and encapsulation efficiency of 96%. The results showed that the formulation was stable for up to 120 days with low hemolytic effects. The 15d-PGJ2-SLN formulation was able to reduce neutrophil migration in three inflammation models tested using low concentrations of 15d-PGJ2. Additionally, 15d-PGJ2-SLN increased IL-10 levels and reduced IL-1β as well as IL-17 in peritoneal fluid. The new 15d-PGJ2-SLN formulation highlights perspectives of a potent anti-inflammatory system using low concentrations of 15d-PGJ2. PMID:27575486

  6. 15-Deoxy-{delta}{sup 12,14}-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) mediates repression of TNF-{alpha} by decreasing levels of acetylated histone H3 and H4 at its promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Engdahl, Ryan . E-mail: rengdahl@temple.edu; Monroy, M. Alexandra; Daly, John M.

    2007-07-20

    Prostaglandin metabolite 15-Deoxy-{delta}{sup 12,14}-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) is known to inhibit a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as being a ligand for nuclear receptor PPAR{gamma}. We investigated the ability of 15d-PGJ2 to inhibit TNF-{alpha} gene expression through mechanisms that involve histone modification. Pretreatment with 15d-PGJ2 (10 {mu}M) inhibited LPS-stimulated TNF-{alpha} mRNA in THP-1 monocytes or PMA-differentiated cells to nearly basal levels. A specific PPAR{gamma} ligand, GW1929, failed to inhibit LPS-induced TNF-{alpha} mRNA expression nor did a PPAR{gamma} antagonist, GW9662, alter the repression of TNF-{alpha} mRNA in LPS-stimulated cells pretreated with 15d-PGJ2 suggesting a PPAR{gamma}-independent inhibition of TNF-{alpha} mRNA in THP-1 cells. Transfection studies with a reporter construct and subsequent treatment with 15d-PGJ2 demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of the TNF-{alpha} promoter. Additional studies demonstrated that inhibition of histone deacetylases with trichostatin A (TSA) or overexpression of histone acetyltransferase CBP could overcome 15d-PGJ2-mediated repression of the TNF-{alpha} promoter, suggesting that an important mechanism whereby 15d-PGJ2 suppresses a cytokine is through factors that regulate histone modifications. To examine the endogenous TNF-{alpha} promoter, chromatin immunoprecipitations (ChIP) were performed. ChIP assays demonstrated that LPS stimulation induced an increase in histone H3 and H4 acetylation at the TNF-{alpha} promoter, which was reduced in cells pretreated with 15d-PGJ2. These results highlight the ability of acetylation and deacetylation factors to affect the TNF-{alpha} promoter and demonstrate that an additional important mechanism whereby 15d-PGJ2 mediates TNF-{alpha} transcriptional repression by altering levels of acetylated histone H3 and H4 at its promoter.

  7. Autocrine secretion of 15d-PGJ2 mediates simvastatin-induced apoptotic burst in human metastatic melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Wasinger, Christine; Künzl, Martin; Minichsdorfer, Christoph; Höller, Christoph; Zellner, Maria; Hohenegger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Despite new therapeutic approaches, metastatic melanomas still have a poor prognosis. Statins reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and exert anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative actions. We have recently shown that simvastatin triggers an apoptotic burst in human metastatic melanoma cells by the synthesis of an autocrine factor. Experimental Approach The current in vitro study was performed in human metastatic melanoma cell lines (A375, 518a2) and primary human melanocytes and melanoma cells. The secretome of simvastatin-stressed cells was analysed with two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and MS. The signalling pathways involved were analysed at the protein and mRNA level using pharmacological approaches and siRNA technology. Key Results Simvastatin was shown to activate a stress cascade, leading to the synthesis of 15-deoxy-12,14-PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2), in a p38- and COX-2-dependent manner. Significant concentrations of 15d-PGJ2 were reached in the medium of melanoma cells, which were sufficient to activate caspase 8 and the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Inhibition of lipocalin-type PGD synthase, a key enzyme for 15d-PGJ2 synthesis, abolished the apoptotic effect of simvastatin. Moreover, 15d-PGJ2 was shown to bind to the fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5), which was up-regulated and predominantly detected in the secretome of simvastatin-stressed cells. Knockdown of FABP5 abolished simvastatin-induced activation of PPAR-γ and amplified the apoptotic response. Conclusions and Implications We characterized simvastatin-induced activation of the 15d-PGJ2/FABP5 signalling cascades, which triggered an apoptotic burst in melanoma cells but did not affect primary human melanocytes. These data support the rationale for the pharmacological targeting of 15d-PGJ2 in metastatic melanoma. PMID:25091578

  8. 15d-PGJ2 Reduced Microglia Activation and Alleviated Neurological Deficit of Ischemic Reperfusion in Diabetic Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lihong; Li, Gang; Feng, Xiaofang; Wang, Luojun

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of PPARγ agonist 15d-PGJ2 treatment on the microglia activation and neurological deficit of ischemia reperfusion in diabetic rat model, adult Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed for the research. The rats were randomly categorized into four groups: (1) sham-operated group; (2) standard ischemia group; (3) diabetic ischemia group; (4) diabetic ischemia group with diabetes and treated with 15d-PGJ2. Compared to the sham-operated group, all the ischemic groups have significantly severer neurological deficits, more TNF-α and IL-1 expression, increased labeling of apoptotic cells, increased CD68 positive staining of brain lesion, and increased volume of infarct and cerebral edema in both 24 hours and 7 days after reperfusion. Interestingly, reduced neurological deficits, decreased TNF-α and IL-1 expression, less apoptotic cells and CD68 positive staining, and alleviated infarct and cerebral edema volume were observed when 15d-PGJ2 was intraperitoneally injected after reperfusion in diabetic ischemia group, suggesting its neuroprotective role in regulating microglia activation, which may have a therapeutic application in the future. PMID:26844229

  9. Therapeutic Treatment of Arthritic Mice with 15-Deoxy Δ(12,14)-Prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) Ameliorates Disease through the Suppression of Th17 Cells and the Induction of CD4(+)CD25(-)FOXP3(+) Cells.

    PubMed

    Carregaro, Vanessa; Napimoga, Marcelo H; Peres, Raphael S; Benevides, Luciana; Sacramento, Laís Amorim; Pinto, Larissa G; Grespan, Renata; Cunha, Thiago M; da Silva, João Santana; Cunha, Fernando Q

    2016-01-01

    The prostaglandin, 15-deoxy Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), is a lipid mediator that plays an important role in the control of chronic inflammatory disease. However, the role of prostanoid in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is not well determined. We demonstrated the therapeutic effect of 15d-PGJ2 in an experimental model of arthritis. Daily administration of 15d-PGJ2 attenuated the severity of CIA, reducing the clinical score, pain, and edema. 15d-PGJ2 treatment was associated with a marked reduction in joint levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Although the mRNA expression of ROR-γt was profoundly reduced, FOXP3 was enhanced in draining lymph node cells from 15d-PGJ2-treated arthritic mice. The specific and polyclonal CD4(+) Th17 cell responses were limited during the addition of prostaglandin to cell culture. Moreover, in vitro 15d-PGJ2 increased the expression of FOXP3, GITR, and CTLA-4 in the CD4(+)CD25(-) population, suggesting the induction of Tregs on conventional T cells. Prostanoid addition to CD4(+)CD25(-) cells selectively suppressed Th17 differentiation and promoted the enhancement of FOXP3 under polarization conditions. Thus, 15d-PGJ2 ameliorated symptoms of collagen-induced arthritis by regulating Th17 differentiation, concomitant with the induction of Tregs, and, consequently, protected mice from diseases aggravation. Altogether, these results indicate that 15d-PGJ2 may represent a potential therapeutic strategy in RA.

  10. Study of new interactions of glitazone's stereoisomers and the endogenous ligand 15d-PGJ2 on six different PPAR gamma proteins.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Almazán, Samuel; Bello, Martiniano; Tamay-Cach, Feliciano; Martínez-Archundia, Marlet; Alemán-González-Duhart, Diana; Correa-Basurto, José; Mendieta-Wejebe, Jessica Elena

    2017-10-15

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. Glitazones or thiazolidinediones (TZD) are drugs that act as insulin-sensitizing agents whose molecular target is the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). The euglycemic action of TZD has been linked with the induction of type 4 glucose transporter. However, it has been shown that the effect of TZD depends on the specific stereoisomer that interacts with PPARγ. Therefore, this work is focused on exploring the interactions and geometry adopted by glitazone's stereoisomers and one endogenous ligand on different conformations of the six crystals of the PPARγ protein using molecular docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations accompanied by the MMGBSA approach. Specifically, the 2,4-thiazolidinedione ring, pioglitazone (PIO), rosiglitazone (ROSI) and troglitazone (TRO) stereoisomers (exogenous ligands), as well as the endogenous ligand 15d-PGJ2, were evaluated. The six crystallographic structures of PPARγ are available at Protein Data Bank as the PDB entries 2PRG, 4PRG, 3T03, 1I7I, 1FM6, and 4EMA. According to the results, a boomerang shape and a particular location of ligands were found with low variations according to the protein conformations. The 15d-PGJ2, TZD, PIO, ROSI and (S,S)-TRO enantiomers were mostly stabilized by twenty hydrophobic residues: Phe226, Pro227, Leu228, Ile281, Phe282, Cys285, Ala292, Ile296, Ile326, Tyr327, Met329, Leu330, Leu333, Met334, Val339, Ile341, Met348, Leu353, Phe363 and Met364. Most hydrogen bond interactions were found between the polar groups of ligands with Arg288, Ser289, Lys367, Gln286, His323, Glu343 and His449 residues. An energetic analysis revealed binding free energy trends that supported known experimental findings of other authors describing better binding properties for PIO, ROSI and (S,S)-TRO than for 15d-PGJ2 and the TZD ring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Therapeutic Treatment of Arthritic Mice with 15-Deoxy Δ12,14-Prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) Ameliorates Disease through the Suppression of Th17 Cells and the Induction of CD4+CD25−FOXP3+ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Benevides, Luciana; Pinto, Larissa G.; Cunha, Thiago M.

    2016-01-01

    The prostaglandin, 15-deoxy Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), is a lipid mediator that plays an important role in the control of chronic inflammatory disease. However, the role of prostanoid in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is not well determined. We demonstrated the therapeutic effect of 15d-PGJ2 in an experimental model of arthritis. Daily administration of 15d-PGJ2 attenuated the severity of CIA, reducing the clinical score, pain, and edema. 15d-PGJ2 treatment was associated with a marked reduction in joint levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Although the mRNA expression of ROR-γt was profoundly reduced, FOXP3 was enhanced in draining lymph node cells from 15d-PGJ2-treated arthritic mice. The specific and polyclonal CD4+ Th17 cell responses were limited during the addition of prostaglandin to cell culture. Moreover, in vitro 15d-PGJ2 increased the expression of FOXP3, GITR, and CTLA-4 in the CD4+CD25− population, suggesting the induction of Tregs on conventional T cells. Prostanoid addition to CD4+CD25− cells selectively suppressed Th17 differentiation and promoted the enhancement of FOXP3 under polarization conditions. Thus, 15d-PGJ2 ameliorated symptoms of collagen-induced arthritis by regulating Th17 differentiation, concomitant with the induction of Tregs, and, consequently, protected mice from diseases aggravation. Altogether, these results indicate that 15d-PGJ2 may represent a potential therapeutic strategy in RA. PMID:27872515

  12. Fermented Brown Rice Extract Stimulates BDNF Gene Transcription in C6 Glioma Cells: Possible Connection with HO-1 Expression.

    PubMed

    Morita, Kyoji; Nishibori, Naoyoshi; Kishibuchi, Reina; Itoh, Mari; Horie, Yukiko; Nemoto, Hideyuki

    2017-03-04

    Fermented brown rice with Aspergillus oryzae, designated as FBRA, is known to be commercially available dietary fiber-rich food, which is appreciated as prebiotics to improve intestinal microflora, and also shown to contain various biologically active substances including polyphenolic compounds. On the other hand, polyphenolic compounds have been suggested to stimulate the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene in connection with the expression of heme oxidase-1 (HO-1) gene in glial cells, thus resulting in the augmentation of BDNF production in the brain, thereby being anticipated to have a putative effect on the brain function. Then, the effect of FBRA extract on HO-1 and BDNF messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels in C6 glioma cells was examined, and the extract was shown to stimulate both HO-1 and BDNF gene transcription in the glioma cells. Further studies showed that the stimulatory effect of FBRA extract on BDNF gene transcription was almost completely suppressed by silencing HO-1 gene expression with an HO-1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide and also inhibiting HO-1 activity with an inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin, thus suggesting that FBRA might have a potential ability to induce BDNF gene expression through HO-1 activity in glial cells.

  13. Electroacupuncture Ameliorates Acute Renal Injury in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Rabbits via Induction of HO-1 through the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 Pathways.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian-Bo; Shi, Jia; Zhang, Yuan; Gong, Li-Rong; Dong, Shu-An; Cao, Xin-Shun; Wu, Li-Li; Wu, Li-Na

    2015-01-01

    Electroacupuncture at select acupoints have been verified to protect against organ dysfunctions during endotoxic shock. And, heme oxygenase (HO)-1 as a phase II enzyme and antioxidant contributed to the protection of kidney in septic shock rats. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway mediated the activation of NF-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2), which was involved in HO-1 induction. To understand the efficacy of electroacupuncture stimulation in ameliorating acute kidney injury (AKI) through the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 pathway and subsequent HO-1 upregulation, a dose of LPS 5mg/kg was administered intravenously to replicate the rabbit model of AKI induced by endotoxic shock. Electroacupuncture pretreatment was handled bilaterally at Zusanli and Neiguan acupoints for five consecutive days while sham electroacupuncture at non-acupoints as control. Results displayed that electroacupuncture stimulation significantly alleviated the morphologic renal damage, attenuated renal tubular apoptosis, suppressed the elevated biochemical indicators of AKI caused by LPS, enhanced the expressions of phospho-Akt, HO-1protein, Nrf2 total and nucleoprotein, and highlighted the proportions of Nrf2 nucleoprotein as a parallel. Furthermore, partial protective effects of elecroacupuncture were counteracted by preconditioning with wortmannin (the selective PI3K inhibitor), indicating a direct involvement of PI3K/Akt pathway. Inconsistently, wortmannin pretreatment made little difference to the expressions of HO-1, Nrf2 nucleoprotein and total protein, which indicated that PI3K/Akt may be not the only pathway responsible for electroacupuncture-afforded protection against LPS-induced AKI. These findings provide new insights into the potential future clinical applications of electroacupuncture for AKI induced by endotoxic shock instead of traditional remedies.

  14. Electroacupuncture Ameliorates Acute Renal Injury in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Rabbits via Induction of HO-1 through the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Li-rong; Dong, Shu-an; Cao, Xin-shun; Wu, Li-li; Wu, Li-na

    2015-01-01

    Electroacupuncture at select acupoints have been verified to protect against organ dysfunctions during endotoxic shock. And, heme oxygenase (HO)-1 as a phase II enzyme and antioxidant contributed to the protection of kidney in septic shock rats. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway mediated the activation of NF-E2 related factor-2 (Nrf2), which was involved in HO-1 induction. To understand the efficacy of electroacupuncture stimulation in ameliorating acute kidney injury (AKI) through the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 pathway and subsequent HO-1 upregulation, a dose of LPS 5mg/kg was administered intravenously to replicate the rabbit model of AKI induced by endotoxic shock. Electroacupuncture pretreatment was handled bilaterally at Zusanli and Neiguan acupoints for five consecutive days while sham electroacupuncture at non-acupoints as control. Results displayed that electroacupuncture stimulation significantly alleviated the morphologic renal damage, attenuated renal tubular apoptosis, suppressed the elevated biochemical indicators of AKI caused by LPS, enhanced the expressions of phospho-Akt, HO-1protein, Nrf2 total and nucleoprotein, and highlighted the proportions of Nrf2 nucleoprotein as a parallel. Furthermore, partial protective effects of elecroacupuncture were counteracted by preconditioning with wortmannin (the selective PI3K inhibitor), indicating a direct involvement of PI3K/Akt pathway. Inconsistently, wortmannin pretreatment made little difference to the expressions of HO-1, Nrf2 nucleoprotein and total protein, which indicated that PI3K/Akt may be not the only pathway responsible for electroacupuncture-afforded protection against LPS-induced AKI. These findings provide new insights into the potential future clinical applications of electroacupuncture for AKI induced by endotoxic shock instead of traditional remedies. PMID:26524181

  15. 15d-PGJ{sub 2} stimulates HO-1 expression through p38 MAP kinase and Nrf-2 pathway in rat vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Hyun-Joung; Lee, Kuy-Sook; Lee, Seahyoung; Park, Jin-Hee; Choi, Hye-Eun; Go, Sang Hee; Kwak, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Hyun-Young

    2007-08-15

    15d-PGJ{sub 2}, a potent endogenous ligand for peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-{gamma}, is a cyclopentenone-type prostaglandin produced by many different types of cells. Pertinent to its effect on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC), antiproliferative effects have been most frequently reported. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 15d-PGJ{sub 2} on HO-1 expression that has been reported to inhibit VSMC proliferation. According to our data, 15d-PGJ{sub 2} significantly induced ROS/NO production and HO-1 expression in rVSMCs. We also observed 15d-PGJ{sub 2}-induced translocation of Nrf-2. In addition, ROS scavenger pretreatment suppressed 15d-PGJ{sub 2}-induced HO-1 expression while PPAR{gamma} antagonist did not, suggesting nuclear translocation of Nrf-2 and subsequent HO-1 expression was ROS dependent rather than PPAR{gamma} dependent. Furthermore, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK abolished 15d-PGJ{sub 2}-induced HO-1 expression. These data suggest that 15d-PGJ{sub 2}-induced up-regulation of HO-1 is independent of PPAR{gamma} but dependent of ROS and p38 MAPK pathway. The present study reports for the first time that 15d-PGJ{sub 2} induces HO-1 expression possibly using Nrf-2 pathway as a response to ROS in VSMCs.

  16. Morin downregulates nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells by suppressing NF-κB activity and activating HO-1 induction.

    PubMed

    Dilshara, Matharage Gayani; Jayasooriya, Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga; Lee, Seungheon; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young

    2016-06-01

    Morin possesses anti-inflammatory activity against septic shock and allergic responses, and prevents acute liver damage. However, the biological mechanism of action of morin in neuroinflammation remains largely unknown. Therefore, the present study investigated whether morin has the ability to attenuate expression of proinflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Morin inhibited the expression of LPS-induced proinflammatory mediators such as NO and PGE2, without any cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, LPS-induced inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were inhibited both at the mRNA and protein levels in response to morin. Morin also attenuated LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) and its promoter activity. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), a specific NF-κB inhibitor, downregulated the expression of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2, which suggests that morin-mediated NF-κB inhibition is the main signaling pathway responsible for the inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 expression. Additionally, morin increased induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) activity, leading to the suppression of NO and PGE2 production. Our results indicate that morin downregulates the expression of proinflammatory genes, such as iNOS and COX-2, involved in the synthesis of NO and PGE2 in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells by suppressing NF-κB activity and activation of HO-1. Taken together, the findings of the present study suggest that morin may have potential as a therapeutic for the prevention of neuroinflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Stimulation of CD36 and the key effector of reverse cholesterol transport ATP-binding cassette A1 in monocytoid cells by niacin.

    PubMed

    Rubic, Tina; Trottmann, Matthias; Lorenz, Reinhard L

    2004-02-01

    Niacin, the first lipid lowering drug shown to improve survival after myocardial infarction, decreases LDL and increases HDL cholesterol levels. These effects cannot fully be explained by its suspected mechanism of action, inhibition of lipolysis and hepatic VLDL synthesis. Niacin has also been shown to interfere with the cyclic AMP (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway and massively stimulate prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) formation. The major metabolite of PGD2, 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), was recently identified as the most potent endogenous PPARgamma activator. We, therefore, studied the effects of niacin on the PPARgamma- and cAMP-dependent expression of receptors promoting reverse cholesterol transport. The transcription of PPARgamma-, HDL-, LDL- and scavenger-receptors and the sterol exporter ABCA1, were measured by quantitative RT-PCR and cellular cholesterol efflux and PPARgamma activation studied in macrophage and hepatocyte models. Niacin stimulated the translocation of PPARgamma and the transcription of PPARgamma, CD36 and ABCA1 in monocytoid cells, whereas the LDL-receptor (LDL-R) was unchanged. Thereby niacin enhanced HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from the cells resulting in a reduced cellular cholesterol content. The niacin effect on CD36 but not on ABCA1 was prevented by cyclooxygenase inhibition, whereas the niacin effect on ABCA1 but not on CD36 was prevented by PKA inhibition, suggesting mediation by the 15d-PGJ2/PPARgamma and the cAMP/PKA pathways, respectively. These new actions of niacin on several key effectors of reverse cholesterol transport out of the vessel wall provide a rational to expect regression of atherosclerosis and test the combination of niacin with statins for an overadditive clinical benefit.

  18. Modulation of HO-1 by Ferulic Acid Attenuates Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Kui-Jin; Seo, Young-Jin; Choi, Jia; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2017-05-05

    Ferulic acid (FA) is phenolic compound found in fruits. Many studies have reported that FA has diverse therapeutic effects against metabolic diseases. However, the mechanism by which FA modulates adipogenesis via the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) implicated in suppression of adipocyte differentiation is not fully understood. We investigated whether HO-1 can be activated by FA and suppress adipogenic factors in 3T3-L1. Our results showed that FA suppresses triglyceride-synthesizing enzymes, fatty acid synthase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). We observed that the expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) were suppressed by FA. In addition, HO-1 inhibitor stimulated lipid accumulation, while FA attenuated lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 treated with HO-1 inhibitor. We also observed that the expression of HO-1 had the same tendency as C/EBP homologous protein 10 (CHOP10) during the mitotic clonal expansion (MCE) of adipogenesis. We next employed siRNA against HO-1 to clarify whether HO-1 regulates CHOP10. The results indicated that CHOP10 is downstream of HO-1. Furthermore, FA-mediated HO-1/CHOP10 axis activation prevented the initiation of MCE. Therefore, we demonstrated that FA is a positive regulator of HO-1 in 3T3-L1, and may be an effective bioactive compound to reduce adipocyte tissue mass.

  19. HO-1 expression control in the rat glomerulus.

    PubMed

    Detsika, Maria G; Duann, Pu; Lianos, Elias A

    2015-05-08

    The differential localization of HO-1 in renal cells under conditions of injury, and the demonstration that exaggerated HO-1 expression can have detrimental rather than beneficial effects, raises the question of whether HO-1 expression in these cells is subject to control. The present study identifies a unique HO-1 expression pattern in the renal glomerulus indicative of presence of HO-1 expression control following prolonged HO-1 induction. HO-1 and HO-2 expression in response to the natural HO substrate/inducer Fe(++) protoporphyrin (PP) IX (hemin) was assessed in normal rat glomeruli. Following 18 h incubations with hemin (0-200 μM), HO-1 expression increased in a concentration-dependent manner and via a hemopexin (HPX) independent mechanism with no effect on HO-2. In incubations with higher hemin concentrations (400 μM), likely to be encountered in hemolytic disorders, HO-1 expression, decreased. This was preceded by a prolonged and sustained increase in HO-1 protein and was independent of the Fe(++) moiety as incubations with Cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) resulted in an identical expression pattern. The decrease of HO-1 protein could not be accounted for by proteasomal degradation since it was not reversed in co-incubations with hemin and the proteasome inhibitor, MG132, at concentrations sufficient to increase HO-1 glomerular content when used alone. Moreover, in the presence of MG132, a decrease of HO-1 expression also occurred at 100 and 200 μM hemin. The effect of MG132 was mimicked by two additional mechanistically different approaches which also raised HO-1 content: a) co-incubations of hemin with ZnPP which increased HO-1 protein when used alone, and b) glomerular HO-1 over expression achieved by SB transposon mediated transgenesis. In contrast, the decrease in HO-1 levels observed at high hemin concentrations was reversed in co-incubations with hemin and SnPP, which reduced HO-1 content when used alone. Expression of NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2

  20. The Anti-inflammatory Activities of Two Major Withanolides from Physalis minima Via Acting on NF-κB, STAT3, and HO-1 in LPS-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui-Jun; Gao, Cai-Yun; Guo, Chao; Zhou, Miao-Miao; Luo, Jun; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2016-12-02

    Physalis minima has been traditionally used as a folk herbal medicine in China for the treatment of many inflammatory diseases. However, little is known about its anti-inflammatory constituents and associated molecular mechanisms. In our study, withaphysalin A (WA) and 2, 3-dihydro-withaphysalin C (WC), two major withanolide-type compounds, were obtained from the anti-inflammatory fraction of P. minima. Both WA and WC significantly inhibited the production of nitrite oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and several pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. Further research indicated that they downregulated the LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, they also suppressed nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65, phosphorylation of STAT3, and upregulated HO-1 expression. Intriguingly, the activation of MAPKs was suppressed by WA but was not altered by WC. Taken together, these data provide scientific evidence for elucidating the major bioactive constituents and related molecular mechanisms for the traditional use of P. minima and suggest that WA and WC can be attractive therapeutic candidates for various inflammatory diseases.

  1. Therapeutic potential of HO-1 in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Li, Bao-Zhu; Guo, Biao; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Liu, Juan; Tao, Sha-Sha; Pan, Hai-Feng; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2014-10-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the inducible isoform of heme oxygenase (HO), has raised a lot of concerns in recent years due to its multiple functions. HO-1 was found to be a pivotal cytoprotective, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, immunosuppressive, as well as anti-inflammatory molecule. Recent studies have clarified its significant functions in many diseases with substantial findings. In autoimmune diseases, HO-1 may have promising therapeutic potential. Here, we briefly reviewed recent advances in this field, aiming at hopefully exploring the potential therapeutic roles of HO-1, and design HO-1-based strategies for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  2. HO-1/CO system in tumor growth, angiogenesis and metabolism - Targeting HO-1 as an anti-tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Loboda, Agnieszka; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Jozef

    2015-11-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, hmox-1) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the heme degradation processes. Out of three by-products of HO-1 activity, biliverdin, iron ions and carbon monoxide (CO), the latter was mostly shown to mediate many beneficial HO-1 effects, including protection against oxidative injury, regulation of apoptosis, modulation of inflammation as well as contribution to angiogenesis. Mounting evidence suggests that HO-1/CO systemmay be of special benefit in protection inmany pathological conditions, like atherosclerosis or myocardial infarction. By contrast, the augmented expression of HO-1 in tumor tissues may have detrimental effect as HO-1 accelerates the formation of tumor neovasculature and provides the selective advantage for tumor cells to overcome the increased oxidative stress during tumorigenesis and during treatment. The inhibition of HO-1 has been proposed as an anti-cancer therapy, however, because of non-specific effects of known HO-1 inhibitors, the discovery of ideal drug lowering HO-1 expression/activity is still an open question. Importantly, in several types of cancer HO-1/CO system exerts opposite activities, making the possible treatment more complicated. All together indicates the complex role for HO-1/CO in various in vitro and in vivo conditions.

  3. Heme oxygenase-1 expression is down-regulated by angiotensin II and under hypertension in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Alba, Gonzalo; El Bekay, Rajaa; Chacón, Pedro; Reyes, M Edith; Ramos, Eladio; Oliván, Josefina; Jiménez, Juan; López, José M; Martín-Nieto, José; Pintado, Elízabeth; Sobrino, Francisco

    2008-08-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a peptide hormone able to elicit a strong production of reactive oxygen species by human neutrophils. In this work, we have addressed whether expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an antioxidant enzyme, becomes altered in these cells upon Ang II treatment or under hypertension conditions. In neutrophils from healthy and hypertensive subjects, induction of HO-1 mRNA and protein expression with a parallel increase in enzyme activity took place upon treatment with 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-PGJ2 (15dPGJ2). However, Ang II prevented HO-1 synthesis by normal neutrophils in vitro, and HO-1 expression was depressed in neutrophils from hypertensive patients in comparison with cells from healthy subjects. In addition, Ang II treatment led to a reduced HO-1 enzyme activity to levels similar to those found in neutrophils from hypertensive patients. NO donors reversed the inhibition of 15dPGJ2-dependent HO-1 expression in neutrophils from hypertensive patients, and conversely, inhibition of inducible NO synthase (NOS2) activity counteracted the stimulatory effect of 15dPGJ2 on HO-1 expression in normal human neutrophils. Moreover, Ang II canceled 15dPGJ2-dependent induction of NOS2 mRNA synthesis. Present findings indicate that down-regulation of HO-1 expression in neutrophils from hypertensive subjects is likely exerted through the inhibition of NOS2 expression. Additionally, they underscore the potential usefulness of NO donors as new, therapeutic agents against hypertension.

  4. EGR-1 regulates Ho-1 expression induced by cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Huaqun; Wang, Lijuan; Gong, Tao; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Chunhua; Li, Fen; Wang, Li; Li, Chaojun

    2010-05-28

    As an anti-oxidant molecule, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been implicated in the protection of lung injury by cigarette smoke (CS). The mechanisms regulating its expression have not been defined. In this report, the role of early growth response 1 (EGR-1) in the regulation of Ho-1 expression was investigated. In C57BL/6 mice with CS exposure, HO-1 was greatly increased in bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar inflammatory cells. In primary cultured mouse lung fibroblasts and RAW264.7 cells exposed to cigarette smoke water extract (CSE), an increase in HO-1 protein level was detected. In addition, CSE induced HO-1 expression was decreased in Egr-1 deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (Egr-1{sup -/-} MEFs). Nuclear localization of EGR-1 was examined in mouse lung fibroblasts after exposure to CSE. Luciferase reporter activity assays showed that the enhancer region of the Ho-1 gene containing a proposed EGR-1 binding site was responsible for the induction of HO-1. A higher increase of alveolar mean linear intercept (Lm) was observed in lung tissues, and a larger increase in the number of total cells and monocytes/macrophages from bronchial alveolar lavage fluid was found in CS-exposed mice by loss of function of EGR-1 treatment. In summary, the present data demonstrate that EGR-1 plays a critical role in HO-1 production induced by CS.

  5. The cyclopentenone 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 binds to and activates H-Ras

    PubMed Central

    Oliva, José Luis; Pérez-Sala, Dolores; Castrillo, Antonio; Martínez, Natalia; Cañada, F. Javier; Boscá, Lisardo; Rojas, José M.

    2003-01-01

    The cyclopentenone 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) induces cell proliferation and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Here, we describe that these effects are mediated by 15d-PGJ2-elicited H-Ras activation. We demonstrate that this pathway is specific for H-Ras through the formation of a covalent adduct of 15d-PGJ2 with Cys-184 of H-Ras, but not with N-Ras or K-Ras. Mutation of C184 inhibited H-Ras modification and activation by 15d-PGJ2, whereas serum-elicited stimulation was not affected. These results describe a mechanism for the activation of the Ras signaling pathway, which results from the chemical modification of H-Ras by formation of a covalent adduct with cyclopentenone prostaglandins. PMID:12684535

  6. Aprotinin Inhibits Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Inflammation and Proliferation via Induction of HO-1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hyup; Choi, Hyoung Chul; Lee, Kwang Youn

    2009-01-01

    Aprotinin is used clinically in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to reduce transfusion requirements and the inflammatory response. The mechanism of action for the anti-inflammatory effects of aprotinin is still unclear. We examined our hypothesis whether inhibitory effects of aprotinin on cytokine-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression (IL-1β plus TNF-α), reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation were due to HO-1 induction in rat VSMCs. Aprotinin induced HO-1 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner, which was potentiated during inflammatory condition. Aprotinin reduced cytokine mixture (CM)-induced iNOS expression in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, aprotinin reduced CM-induced ROS generation, cell proliferation, and phosphorylation of JNK but not of P38 and ERK1/2 kinases. Aprotinin effects were reversed by pre-treatment with the HO-1 inhibitor, tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPPIX). HO-1 is therefore closely involved in inflammatory-stimulated VSMC proliferation through the regulation of ROS generation and JNK phosphorylation. Our results suggest a new molecular basis for aprotinin anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:19885007

  7. Substance P Induces HO-1 Expression in RAW 264.7 Cells Promoting Switch towards M2-Like Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Montana, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide that mediates many physiological as well as inflammatory responses. Recently, SP has been implicated in the resolution of inflammation through induction of M2 macrophages phenotype. The shift between M1-like and M2-like, allowing the resolution of inflammatory processes, also takes place by means of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1). HO-1 is induced in response to oxidative stress and inflammatory stimuli and modulates the immune response through macrophages polarisation. SP induces HO-1 expression in human periodontal ligament (PDL), the latter potentially plays a role in cytoprotection. We demonstrated that SP promotes M2-like phenotype from resting as well as from M1 macrophages. Indeed, SP triggers the production of interleukine-10 (IL-10), interleukine-4 (IL-4) and arginase-1 (Arg1) without nitric oxide (NO) generation. In addition, SP increases HO-1 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Here we report that SP, without affecting cell viability, significantly reduces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and enzymes, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukine-6 (IL-6), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and ameliorates migration and phagocytic properties in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. M2-like conversion required retention of NF-κB p65 into the cytoplasm and HO-1 induced expression. Silencing of the HO-1 mRNA expression reversed the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 stimulated by LPS and down-regulated anti-inflammatory hallmarks of M2 phenotype. In conclusion, our data show that SP treatment might be associated with anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells by suppressing NF-κB activation and inducing HO-1 expression. PMID:27907187

  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands induce heme oxygenase-1 in lung fibroblasts by a PPARgamma-independent, glutathione-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Heather E; Thatcher, Thomas H; Olsen, Keith C; Garcia-Bates, Tatiana M; Baglole, Carolyn J; Kottmann, R M; Strong, Emily R; Phipps, Richard P; Sime, Patricia J

    2009-11-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a key antioxidant enzyme, and overexpression of HO-1 significantly decreases lung inflammation and fibrosis in animal models. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) is a transcription factor that regulates adipogenesis, insulin sensitization, and inflammation. We report here that the PPARgamma ligands 15d-PGJ2 and 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO), which have potent antifibrotic effects in vitro, also strongly induce HO-1 expression in primary human lung fibroblasts. Pharmacological and genetic approaches are used to demonstrate that induction of HO-1 is PPARgamma independent. Upregulation of HO-1 coincides with decreased intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels and can be inhibited by N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a thiol antioxidant and GSH precursor. Upregulation of HO-1 is not inhibited by Trolox, a non-thiol antioxidant, and does not involve the transcription factors AP-1 or Nrf2. CDDO and 15d-PGJ2 contain an alpha/beta unsaturated ketone that acts as an electrophilic center that can form covalent bonds with free reduced thiols. Rosiglitazone, a PPARgamma ligand that lacks an electrophilic center, does not induce HO-1. These data suggest that in human lung fibroblasts, 15d-PGJ2 and CDDO induce HO-1 via a GSH-dependent mechanism involving the formation of covalent bonds between 15d-PGJ2 or CDDO and GSH. Inhibiting HO-1 upregulation with NAC has only a small effect on the antifibrotic properties of 15d-PGJ2 and CDDO in vitro. These results suggest that CDDO and similar electrophilic PPARgamma ligands may have great clinical potential as antifibrotic agents, not only through direct effects on fibroblast differentiation and function, but indirectly by bolstering antioxidant defenses.

  9. Activation of the complement cascade enhances motility of leukemic cells by downregulating expression of HO-1

    PubMed Central

    Abdelbaset-Ismail, A; Borkowska-Rzeszotek, S; Kubis, E; Bujko, K; Brzeźniakiewicz-Janus, K; Bolkun, L; Kloczko, J; Moniuszko, M; Basak, G W; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W; Ratajczak, M Z

    2017-01-01

    As a crucial arm of innate immunity, the complement cascade (ComC) is involved both in mobilization of normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) from bone marrow (BM) into peripheral blood and in their homing to BM. Despite the fact that ComC cleavage fragments alone do not chemoattract normal HSPCs, we found that leukemia cell lines as well as clonogenic blasts from chronic myeloid leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia patients respond robustly to C3 and C5 cleavage fragments by chemotaxis and increased adhesion. This finding was supported by the detection of C3a and C5a receptors in cells from human malignant hematopoietic cell lines and patient blasts at the mRNA (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) and protein level (fluorescence-activated cell sorting), and by the demonstration that these receptors respond to stimulation by C3a and C5a by phosphorylation of p42/44 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and protein kinase B (PKB/AKT). We also found that inducible heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is a negative regulator of ComC-mediated trafficking of leukemic cells, and that stimulation of leukemic cells by C3 or C5 cleavage fragments activates p38 MAPK, which downregulates HO-1 expression, rendering cells more mobile. We conclude that activation of the ComC in leukemia/lymphoma patients (for example, as a result of accompanying infections) enhances the motility of malignant cells and contributes to their spread in a p38 MAPK–HO-1-dependent manner. Therefore, inhibition of p38 MAPK or upregulation of HO-1 by small-molecule modulators would have a beneficial effect on ameliorating cell migration-mediated expansion of leukemia/lymphoma cells when the ComC becomes activated. PMID:27451975

  10. Activation of the complement cascade enhances motility of leukemic cells by downregulating expression of HO-1.

    PubMed

    Abdelbaset-Ismail, A; Borkowska-Rzeszotek, S; Kubis, E; Bujko, K; Brzeźniakiewicz-Janus, K; Bolkun, L; Kloczko, J; Moniuszko, M; Basak, G W; Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W; Ratajczak, M Z

    2017-02-01

    As a crucial arm of innate immunity, the complement cascade (ComC) is involved both in mobilization of normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) from bone marrow (BM) into peripheral blood and in their homing to BM. Despite the fact that ComC cleavage fragments alone do not chemoattract normal HSPCs, we found that leukemia cell lines as well as clonogenic blasts from chronic myeloid leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia patients respond robustly to C3 and C5 cleavage fragments by chemotaxis and increased adhesion. This finding was supported by the detection of C3a and C5a receptors in cells from human malignant hematopoietic cell lines and patient blasts at the mRNA (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) and protein level (fluorescence-activated cell sorting), and by the demonstration that these receptors respond to stimulation by C3a and C5a by phosphorylation of p42/44 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and protein kinase B (PKB/AKT). We also found that inducible heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is a negative regulator of ComC-mediated trafficking of leukemic cells, and that stimulation of leukemic cells by C3 or C5 cleavage fragments activates p38 MAPK, which downregulates HO-1 expression, rendering cells more mobile. We conclude that activation of the ComC in leukemia/lymphoma patients (for example, as a result of accompanying infections) enhances the motility of malignant cells and contributes to their spread in a p38 MAPK-HO-1-dependent manner. Therefore, inhibition of p38 MAPK or upregulation of HO-1 by small-molecule modulators would have a beneficial effect on ameliorating cell migration-mediated expansion of leukemia/lymphoma cells when the ComC becomes activated.

  11. HO-1/EBP interaction alleviates cholesterol-induced hypoxia through the activation of the AKT and Nrf2/mTOR pathways and inhibition of carbohydrate metabolism in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiaohan; Xu, Zhongwei; Cao, Jin; Yan, Rui; Xu, Ruicheng; Ran, Ruiqiong; Ma, Yongqiang; Cai, Wei; Fan, Rong; Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Xin; Li, Yuming

    2017-06-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible and cytoprotective enzyme that provides a defense against oxidant damage. The present study screened 137 HO-1/interacting proteins using a profound co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) coupled with proteomics, and profiled the global HO-1 interactome network, including oxidative phosphorylation, endoplasmic reticulum and transport vesicle functions. Among these molecules, we observed that a novel interactor, emopamil-binding protein (EBP), is closely related to the cholesterol metabolism process. This study demonstrated that cholesterol promotes excessive oxidative stress and alters the energy metabolism in cardiomyocytes, further triggering numerous cardiovascular diseases. We observed that cholesterol caused the overexpression of EBP and HO-1 by the activation of AKT and Nrf2/mTOR pathways. In addition, HO-1 and EBP performed a myocardial protective function. The overexpression of HO-1 alleviated the cholesterol-induced excessive oxidative stress status by inhibition of the carbohydrate metabolism. Notably, we also confirmed that the loss of partial HO-1 activity aggravated the oxidative damage and cardiac systolic function induced by a high-fat diet in HO-1 heterozygous (HO-1+/-) mice. These findings indicate that the HO-1/EBP interaction plays a protective role in alleviating the dysfunction of oxidative stress and cardiac systolic function induced by cholesterol stimulation.

  12. Coniferaldehyde inhibits LPS-induced apoptosis through the PKC α/β II/Nrf-2/HO-1 dependent pathway in RAW264.7 macrophage cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Mo; Heo, Deok Rim; Kim, Young-A; Lee, Jun; Kim, No Soo; Bang, Ok-Sun

    2016-12-01

    Coniferaldehyde (CA) exerts anti-inflammatory properties by inducing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). To define the regulation mechanism by which CA induces a cytoprotective function and HO-1 expression, the up-stream regulations involved in the activation of nuclear transcription factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf)-2/HO-1 pathway were investigated. CA dramatically increased the Nrf-2 nuclear translocation and HO-1 expression. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and cell death were down-regulated by CA, which were reversed by inhibition of HO-1 activity. Furthermore, CA specifically enhanced the phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) α/β II. Selective inhibition of PKC α/β II using Go6976 or siRNA abolished the CA-induced Nrf-2/HO-1 signaling, and consequently suppressed the cytoprotective activity of CA on the LPS-induced cell death. Together, our results elucidate the regulatory mechanism of PKC α/β II as the upstream molecule of Nrf-2 required for HO-1 expression during CA-induced anti-inflammatory cytoprotective function in LPS stimulated macrophages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Adoptive transfer of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)-modified macrophages rescues the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) antiinflammatory phenotype in liver ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Shen, Xiu-Da; Yue, Shi; Zhu, Jianjun; Gao, Feng; Zhai, Yuan; Busuttil, Ronald W; Ke, Bibo; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W

    2014-10-14

    Macrophages are instrumental in the pathophysiology of liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Although Nrf2 regulates macrophage-specific heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) antioxidant defense, it remains unknown whether HO-1 induction might rescue macrophage Nrf2-dependent antiinflammatory functions. This study explores the mechanisms by which the Nrf2-HO-1 axis regulates sterile hepatic inflammation responses after adoptive transfer of ex vivo modified HO-1 overexpressing bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). Livers in Nrf2-deficient mice preconditioned with Ad-HO-1 BMMs, but not Ad-β-Gal-BMMs, ameliorated liver IRI (at 6 h of reperfusion after 90 min of warm ischemia), evidenced by improved hepatocellular function (serum alanine aminotransferase [sALT] levels) and preserved hepatic architecture (Suzuki histological score). Treatment with Ad-HO-1 BMMs decreased neutrophil accumulation, proinflammatory mediators and hepatocellular necrosis/apoptosis in ischemic livers. Moreover, Ad-HO-1 transfection of Nrf2-deficient BMMs suppressed M1 (Nos2(+)) while promoting the M2 (Mrc-1/Arg-1(+)) phenotype. Unlike in controls, Ad-HO-1 BMMs increased the expression of Notch1, Hes1, phosphorylation of Stat3 and Akt in IR-stressed Nrf2-deficient livers as well as in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BMMs. Thus, adoptive transfer of ex vivo generated Ad-HO-1 BMMs rescued Nrf2-dependent antiinflammatory phenotype by promoting Notch1/Hes1/Stat3 signaling and reprogramming macrophages toward the M2 phenotype. These findings provide the rationale for a novel clinically attractive strategy to manage IR liver inflammation/damage.

  14. Ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 positive macrophages and HO-1 up-regulation in intestinal muscularis resident macrophages.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Hanne B; Huizinga, Jan D; Larsen, Jytte O; Kirkeby, Svend

    2017-06-01

    Small intestinal muscularis externa macrophages have been associated with interstitial cells of Cajal. They have been proposed to play various roles in motility disorders and to take part in a microbiota-driven regulation of gastrointestinal motility. Our objective was to understand the reaction of resident macrophages of the musculature to a pro-inflammatory stimulator, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mice were injected with LPS or saline and sacrificed after 6 hr. Whole mounts were stained with antibodies toward CD169, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (iba1) (microglial/macrophage marker) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Cell densities were measured using unbiased stereology. iba1(pos) cells showed an overall higher density than CD169(pos) and HO-1(pos) cells. Most HO-1(pos) and iba1(pos) cells were positive for CD 169 in serosa and at Auerbach's plexus (AP). At the deep muscular plexus, mainly iba1(pos) cells were present, and were mostly CD169(neg) ; a few HO-1(pos) cells were present. A new subset of resident macrophages in the intestinal muscularis externa was discovered, identified as iba1(pos) CD169(neg) . HO-1 is constitutively present in most macrophages in serosa and at AP, suggesting a M2 phenotype. LPS-treatment results in an up-regulation of HO-1(pos) /CD169(neg) cells in serosa and at AP. Anat Rec, 300:1114-1122, 2017. © 2016 The Authors. The Anatomical Record published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 The Authors. The Anatomical Record published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Anatomists.

  15. NRF2 activation is involved in ozonated human serum upregulation of HO-1 in endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pecorelli, Alessandra; Bocci, Velio; Acquaviva, Alessandra; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Gardi, Concetta; Virgili, Fabio; Ciccoli, Lucia; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2013-02-15

    During the last decade, it has been shown that the activation of NRF2 and the binding to electrophile-responsive element (EpREs), stimulates the expression of a great number of genes responsible for the synthesis of phase I and phase II proteins, including antioxidants enzymes and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). This critical cell response occurs in cardiovascular, degenerative and chronic infective diseases aggravated by a chronic oxidative stress. In our previous reports we have shown that ozonated plasma is able to up-regulate HO-1 expression in endothelial cells. In the present work we investigated a candidate mechanism involved in this process. After treatment with increasing doses of ozonated serum (20, 40 and 80 μg/mL O{sub 3} per mL of serum), a clear dose dependent activation of NRF2 and the subsequent induction of HO-1 and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1) was observed. This effect was also present when cells were treated with serum and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) or serum and 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE). Moreover, the treatment with ozonated serum was associated with a dose-dependent activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) and p38 MAP kinases (p38), not directly involved in NRF2 activation. These data, provide a new insight on the mechanism responsible for the induction of HO-1 expression by ozonated serum in the endothelium, and have a practical importance as an expedient approach to the treatment of patients with both effective orthodox drugs and ozonated autohemotherapy, targeted to the restoration of redox homeostasis. - Highlights: ► Endothelial HO1 is upregulated by ozonated plasma ► This activation is induced by NRF2 and it is ERK independent. ► 4HNE and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} are the main molecules involved in this process. ► Ozonated plasma induced a hormetic effect ► Combination of orthodox medicine and ozonated plasma can be a useful treatment.

  16. Molecular hydrogen protects mice against polymicrobial sepsis by ameliorating endothelial dysfunction via an Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongguang; Xie, Keliang; Han, Huanzhi; Li, Yuan; Liu, Lingling; Yang, Tao; Yu, Yonghao

    2015-09-01

    Endothelial injury is a primary cause of sepsis and sepsis-induced organ damage. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) plays an essential role in endothelial cellular defenses against inflammation by activating nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2). We found that molecular hydrogen (H2) exerts an anti-inflammatory effect. Here, we hypothesized that H2 attenuates endothelial injury and inflammation via an Nrf2-mediated HO-1 pathway during sepsis. First, we detected the effects of H2 on cell viability and cell apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) stimulated by LPS. Then, we measured cell adhesion molecules and inflammatory factors in HUVECs stimulated by LPS and in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis mouse model. Next, the role of Nrf2/HO-1 was investigated in activated HUVECs, as well as in wild-type and Nrf(-/-) mice with sepsis. We found that both 0.3 mmol/L and 0.6 mmol/L (i.e., saturated) H2-rich media improved cell viability and cell apoptosis in LPS-activated HUVECs and that 0.6mmol/L (i.e., saturated) H2-rich medium exerted an optimal effect. H2 could suppress the release of cell adhesion molecules, such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1). Furthermore, H2 could elevate anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 levels in LPS-stimulated HUVECs and in lung tissue from CLP mice. H2 enhanced HO-1 expression and activity in vitro and in vivo. HO-1 inhibition reversed the regulatory effects of H2 on cell adhesion molecules and inflammatory factors. H2 regulated endothelial injury and the inflammatory response via Nrf2-mediated HO-1 levels. These results suggest that H2 could suppress excessive inflammatory responses and endothelial injury via an Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

  17. PPAR-gamma ligands modulate effects of LPS in stimulated rat synovial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Simonin, Marie-Agnès; Bordji, Karim; Boyault, Sandrine; Bianchi, Arnaud; Gouze, Elvire; Bécuwe, Philippe; Dauça, Michel; Netter, Patrick; Terlain, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    This work demonstrated the constitutive expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma and PPAR-alpha in rat synovial fibroblasts at both mRNA and protein levels. A decrease in PPAR-gamma expression induced by 10 microg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was observed, whereas PPAR-alpha mRNA expression was not modified. 15-Deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) dose-dependently decreased LPS-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 (-80%) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression (-80%), whereas troglitazone (10 microM) only inhibited iNOS mRNA expression (-50%). 15d-PGJ(2) decreased LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-1 beta (-25%) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha (-40%) expression. Interestingly, troglitazone strongly decreased TNF-alpha expression (-50%) but had no significant effect on IL-1 beta expression. 15d-PGJ(2) was able to inhibit DNA-binding activity of both nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B and AP-1. Troglitazone had no effect on NF-kappa B activation and was shown to increase LPS-induced AP-1 activation. 15d-PGJ(2) and troglitazone modulated the expression of LPS-induced iNOS, COX-2, and proinflammatory cytokines differently. Indeed, troglitazone seems to specifically target TNF-alpha and iNOS pathways. These results offer new insights in regard to the anti-inflammatory potential of the PPAR-gamma ligands and underline different mechanisms of action of 15d-PGJ(2) and troglitazone in synovial fibroblasts.

  18. The HO-1/CO system regulates mitochondrial-capillary density relationships in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Pecorella, Shelly R H; Potter, Jennifer V F; Cherry, Anne D; Peacher, Dionne F; Welty-Wolf, Karen E; Moon, Richard E; Piantadosi, Claude A; Suliman, Hagir B

    2015-10-15

    The heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)/carbon monoxide (CO) system induces mitochondrial biogenesis, but its biological impact in human skeletal muscle is uncertain. The enzyme system generates CO, which stimulates mitochondrial proliferation in normal muscle. Here we examined whether CO breathing can be used to produce a coordinated metabolic and vascular response in human skeletal muscle. In 19 healthy subjects, we performed vastus lateralis muscle biopsies and tested one-legged maximal O2 uptake (V̇o2max) before and after breathing air or CO (200 ppm) for 1 h daily for 5 days. In response to CO, there was robust HO-1 induction along with increased mRNA levels for nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), cytochrome c, cytochrome oxidase subunit IV (COX IV), and mitochondrial-encoded COX I and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (NDI). CO breathing did not increase V̇o2max (1.96 ± 0.51 pre-CO, 1.87 ± 0.50 post-CO l/min; P = not significant) but did increase muscle citrate synthase, mitochondrial density (139.0 ± 34.9 pre-CO, 219.0 ± 36.2 post-CO; no. of mitochondrial profiles/field), myoglobin content and glucose transporter (GLUT4) protein level and led to GLUT4 localization to the myocyte membrane, all consistent with expansion of the tissue O2 transport system. These responses were attended by increased cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31)-positive muscle capillaries (1.78 ± 0.16 pre-CO, 2.37 ± 0.59 post-CO; capillaries/muscle fiber), implying the enrichment of microvascular O2 reserve. The findings support that induction of the HO-1/CO system by CO not only improves muscle mitochondrial density, but regulates myoglobin content, GLUT4 localization, and capillarity in accordance with current concepts of skeletal muscle plasticity. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. The HO-1/CO system regulates mitochondrial-capillary density relationships in human skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Pecorella, Shelly R. H.; Potter, Jennifer V. F.; Cherry, Anne D.; Peacher, Dionne F.; Welty-Wolf, Karen E.; Moon, Richard E.; Suliman, Hagir B.

    2015-01-01

    The heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)/carbon monoxide (CO) system induces mitochondrial biogenesis, but its biological impact in human skeletal muscle is uncertain. The enzyme system generates CO, which stimulates mitochondrial proliferation in normal muscle. Here we examined whether CO breathing can be used to produce a coordinated metabolic and vascular response in human skeletal muscle. In 19 healthy subjects, we performed vastus lateralis muscle biopsies and tested one-legged maximal O2 uptake (V̇o2max) before and after breathing air or CO (200 ppm) for 1 h daily for 5 days. In response to CO, there was robust HO-1 induction along with increased mRNA levels for nuclear-encoded mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam), cytochrome c, cytochrome oxidase subunit IV (COX IV), and mitochondrial-encoded COX I and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (NDI). CO breathing did not increase V̇o2max (1.96 ± 0.51 pre-CO, 1.87 ± 0.50 post-CO l/min; P = not significant) but did increase muscle citrate synthase, mitochondrial density (139.0 ± 34.9 pre-CO, 219.0 ± 36.2 post-CO; no. of mitochondrial profiles/field), myoglobin content and glucose transporter (GLUT4) protein level and led to GLUT4 localization to the myocyte membrane, all consistent with expansion of the tissue O2 transport system. These responses were attended by increased cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31)-positive muscle capillaries (1.78 ± 0.16 pre-CO, 2.37 ± 0.59 post-CO; capillaries/muscle fiber), implying the enrichment of microvascular O2 reserve. The findings support that induction of the HO-1/CO system by CO not only improves muscle mitochondrial density, but regulates myoglobin content, GLUT4 localization, and capillarity in accordance with current concepts of skeletal muscle plasticity. PMID:26186946

  20. AN ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR THE HO-1 ISOFORM OF HEME OXYGENASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    AN ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR THE HO-1 ISOFORM OF HEME OXYGENASE

    Heme oxygenase (HO) occurs in biological tissues as two major isoforms HO-1 and HO-2. HO-1 is inducible by many treatments, particularly oxidative stress-related conditions such as depletion of gl...

  1. AN ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR THE HO-1 ISOFORM OF HEME OXYGENASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    AN ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY FOR THE HO-1 ISOFORM OF HEME OXYGENASE

    Heme oxygenase (HO) occurs in biological tissues as two major isoforms HO-1 and HO-2. HO-1 is inducible by many treatments, particularly oxidative stress-related conditions such as depletion of gl...

  2. 15-deoxy prostaglandin J2, the nonenzymatic metabolite of prostaglandin D2, induces apoptosis in keratinocytes of human hair follicles: a possible explanation for prostaglandin D2-mediated inhibition of hair growth.

    PubMed

    Joo, Hyun Woo; Kang, Yoo Ri; Kwack, Mi Hee; Sung, Young Kwan

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and its nonenzymatic metabolite, 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15-dPGJ2), inhibit in vitro growth of explanted human hair follicles and inhibit hair growth in mice through the GPR44 (DP2). However, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we first investigated the expression of DP2 in human hair follicles and in cultured follicular cells. We found that DP2 is strongly expressed in the outer root sheath (ORS) cells and weakly expressed in the dermal papilla (DP) cells. We observed slight growth stimulation when ORS and DP cells were treated with PGD2. We also observed slight growth stimulation when DP and ORS cells were treated with low concentrations (0.5 and 1 μM) of 15-dPGJ2. However, 5 μM 15-dPGJ2 inhibited the viability and caused apoptosis of both cell types. Exposure of cultured human hair follicles to 15-dPGJ2 resulted in significant apoptosis in follicular keratinocytes. Altogether, our data provide an evidence that 15-dPGJ2 promotes apoptosis in follicular keratinocytes and provide rationale for developing remedies for the prevention and treatment of hair loss based on DP2 antagonism.

  3. Effect of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)gamma agonists on prostaglandins cascade in joint cells.

    PubMed

    Moulin, David; Poleni, Paul-Emile; Kirchmeyer, Mélanie; Sebillaud, Sylvie; Koufany, Meriem; Netter, Patrick; Terlain, Bernard; Bianchi, Arnaud; Jouzeau, Jean-Yves

    2006-01-01

    In response to inflammatory cytokines, chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts produce high amounts of prostaglandins (PG) which self-perpetuate locally the inflammatory reaction. Prostaglandins act primarily through membrane receptors coupled to G proteins but also bind to nuclear Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs). Amongst fatty acids, the cyclopentenone metabolite of PGD2, 15-deoxy-Delta12,14PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2), was shown to be a potent ligand of the PPARgamma isotype prone to inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators. As the stimulated synthesis of PGE2 originates from the preferential coupling of inducible enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and membrane PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1), we investigated the potency of 15d-PGJ2 to regulate prostaglandins synthesis in rat chondrocytes stimulated with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). We demonstrated that 15d-PGJ2, but not the high-affinity PPARgamma ligand rosiglitazone, decreased almost completely PGE2 synthesis and mPGES-1 expression. The inhibitory potency of 15d-PGJ2 was unaffected by changes in PPARgamma expression and resulted from inhibition of NF-kappaB nuclear binding and IkappaBalpha sparing, secondary to reduced phosphorylation of IKKbeta. Consistently with 15d-PGJ2 being a putative endogenous regulator of the inflammatory reaction if synthesized in sufficient amounts, the present data confirm the variable PPARgamma-dependency of its effects in joint cells while underlining possible species and cell types specificities.

  4. Feedback Control of the Arachidonate Cascade in Osteoblastic Cells by 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-Prostaglandin J2

    PubMed Central

    Ishino, Hidetaka; Kawahito, Yutaka; Tsubouchi, Yasunori; Kohno, Masataka; Wada, Makoto; Yamamoto, Aihiro; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Kadoya, Masatoshi; Tokunaga, Daisaku; Hojo, Tatsuya; Matsuyama, Masahide; Yoshimura, Rikio; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2008-01-01

    15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) and an anti-diabetic thiazolidinedione, troglitazone (TRO) are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ ligands, which regulate immuno-inflammatory reactions as well as adipocyte differentiation. We previously reported that 15d-PGJ2 can suppress interleukin (IL)-1β-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis in synoviocytes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). IL-1 also stimulates PGE2 synthesis in osteoblasts by regulation of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and regulates osteoclastic bone resorption in various diseases such as RA and osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated the feedback mechanism of the arachidonate cascade in mouse osteoblastic cells, MC3T3-E1 cells, which differentiate into mature osteoblasts. Treatment with 15d-PGJ2 led to a significant increase in IL-1α-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in a dose dependent manner. The effect of 15d-PGJ2 was stronger than that of TRO. However, it did not affect the expression of COX-1. In addition, cell viability of MC3T3-E1 cells was not changed in the condition we established. This means that 15d-PGJ2 exerts a positive feedback regulation of the arachidonate cascade of PGE2 in osteoblastic cells. These results may provide important information about the pathogenesis and treatment of bone resorption in a variety of diseases such as RA and osteoporosis. PMID:18231633

  5. Extratumoral Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) Expressing Macrophages Likely Promote Primary and Metastatic Prostate Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    Halin Bergström, Sofia; Nilsson, Maria; Adamo, Hanibal; Thysell, Elin; Jernberg, Emma; Stattin, Pär; Widmark, Anders; Wikström, Pernilla; Bergh, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive tumors induce tumor-supporting changes in the benign parts of the prostate. One factor that has increased expression outside prostate tumors is hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1). To investigate HO-1 expression in more detail, we analyzed samples of tumor tissue and peritumoral normal prostate tissue from rats carrying cancers with different metastatic capacity, and human prostate cancer tissue samples from primary tumors and bone metastases. In rat prostate tumor samples, immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR showed that the main site of HO-1 synthesis was HO-1+ macrophages that accumulated in the tumor-bearing organ, and at the tumor-invasive front. Small metastatic tumors were considerably more effective in attracting HO-1+ macrophages than larger non-metastatic ones. In clinical samples, accumulation of HO-1+ macrophages was seen at the tumor invasive front, almost exclusively in high-grade tumors, and it correlated with the presence of bone metastases. HO-1+ macrophages, located at the tumor invasive front, were more abundant in bone metastases than in primary tumors. HO-1 expression in bone metastases was variable, and positively correlated with the expression of macrophage markers but negatively correlated with androgen receptor expression, suggesting that elevated HO-1 could be a marker for a subgroup of bone metastases. Together with another recent observation showing that selective knockout of HO-1 in macrophages reduced prostate tumor growth and metastatic capacity in animals, the results of this study suggest that extratumoral HO-1+ macrophages may have an important role in prostate cancer.

  6. Involvement of PKA and HO-1 signaling in anti-inflammatory effects of surfactin in BV-2 microglial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sun Young; Kim, Ji-Hee; Lee, Sang Joon; Kim, YoungHee

    2013-04-01

    Surfactin, one of the most powerful biosurfactants, is a bacterial cyclic lipopeptide. Here, we investigated the anti-neuroinflammatory properties of surfactin in lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Surfactin significantly inhibited excessive production of the pro-inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Subsequent mechanistic studies revealed that surfactin inhibited LTA-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1) activation. However, surfactin increases the phosphorylation of the STAT-3, a component of the homeostatic mechanism causing anti-inflammatory events. We also demonstrated that surfactin induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and nuclear factor-regulated factor-2 (Nrf-2) activation, and that the anti-inflammatory effects of surfactin are abrogated by small interfering RNA-mediated knock-down of HO-1 or Nrf-2. Interestingly, we found that surfactin increased the level of cAMP and induced phosphorylation of cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) in microglial cells. Furthermore, treatment with the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, H-89, blocked HO-1 induction by surfactin and abolished surfactin's suppressive effects on ROS and NO production. These results indicate that HO-1 and its upstream effector, PKA, play a pivotal role in the anti-neuroinflammatory response of surfactin in LTA-stimulated microglia. Therefore, surfactin might have therapeutic potential for neuroprotective agents to treat inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. - Highlights: ► Surfactin inhibits proinflammatory mediator synthesis in LTA-activated BV-2 cells. ► Surfactin suppresses NF-κB and STAT-1, but potentiates

  7. (S)-1-α-naphthylmethyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (CKD712), promotes wound closure by producing VEGF through HO-1 induction in human dermal fibroblasts and mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hwa Jin; Tsoyi, Konstantin; Kim, Young Min; Park, Eun Jung; Park, Sang Won; Kim, Hye Jung; Lee, Jae Heun; Chang, Ki Churl

    2013-03-01

    Given the importance of VEGF and haem oxygenase (HO)-1 in wound healing, the present study tested the hypothesis that CKD712, a synthetic tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid, activated VEGF production through the induction of HO-1 in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) and in mouse skin to stimulate wound healing. Using HDFs, the effects of CKD712 on the production of VEGF and migration were evaluated. The mechanisms responsible were investigated using various signal inhibitors and small interfering RNA techniques. The ability of CKD712 to promote wound healing was also investigated in full-thickness skin-wounded mice. CKD712 treatment of HDFs increased VEGF production and accelerated migration, which was antagonized by anti-VEGF antibodies. Both an AMPK inhibitor (compound C) and a HO-1 activity inhibitor (SnPPIX) but not inhibitors of MAPKs, PI3K and PKC reduced the production of VEGF by CKD712. Interestingly, SnPPIX inhibited HO-1 expression but not p-AMPK, whereas compound C inhibited both p-AMPK and HO-1 induction by CKD712. Moreover, CKD712 decreased HO-1 expression without affecting the expression of p-AMPK by siHO-1 transfection, but it failed to induce HO-1 in siAMPKα1-transfected cells, suggesting that AMPK is involved in HO-1 induction by CKD712 in HDFs. Also, CKD712 shortened the time of wound closure in an SnPPIX-sensitive manner in a full-thickness skin-wounded mouse model. CKD712 accelerated cutaneous wound healing, at least in part, by the production of VEGF through HO-1 induction in HDFs and mouse skin. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. The activation of HO-1/Nrf-2 contributes to the protective effects of diallyl disulfide (DADS) against ethanol-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Tao; Zhang, Cui-Li; Song, Fu-Yong; Zhao, Xiu-Lan; Yu, Li-Hua; Zhu, Zhen-Ping; Xie, Ke-Qin

    2013-10-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a garlic-derived organosulfur compound. The current study is designed to evaluate the protective effects of DADS against ethanol-induced oxidative stress, and to explore the underlying mechanisms by examining the HO-1/Nrf-2 pathway. We investigated whether or not DADS could activate the HO-1 in normal human liver cell LO2, and then evaluated the protective effects of DADS against ethanol-induced damage in LO2 cells and in acute ethanol-intoxicated mice. The biochemical parameters were measured using commercial kits. HO-1 mRNA level was determined by RT-PCR. Histopathology and immunofluorescence assay were performed with routine methods. Protein levels were measured by western blot. DADS significantly increased the mRNA and protein levels of HO-1, stimulated the nuclear translocation of Nrf-2 and increased the phosphorylation of MAPK in LO2 cells. The nuclear translocation of Nrf-2 was abrogated by MAPK inhibitors. DADS significantly suppressed ethanol-induced elevation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities, decrease of glutathione (GSH) level, increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and apoptosis of LO2 cells, which were all blocked by ZnPPIX. In mice, DADS effectively suppressed acute ethanol-induced elevation of aminotransferase activities, and improved liver histopathological changes, which might be associated with HO-1 activation. These results demonstrate that DADS could induce the activation of HO-1/Nrf-2 pathway, which may contribute to the protective effects of DADS against ethanol-induced liver injury. DADS may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of ALD due to significant activation of HO-1/Nrf-2 pathway. © 2013.

  9. Fasting-Mimicking Diet Reduces HO-1 to Promote T Cell-Mediated Tumor Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Di Biase, Stefano; Lee, Changhan; Brandhorst, Sebastian; Manes, Brianna; Buono, Roberta; Cheng, Chia-Wei; Cacciottolo, Mafalda; Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro; de Cabo, Rafael; Wei, Min; Morgan, Todd E; Longo, Valter D

    2016-07-11

    Immune-based interventions are promising strategies to achieve long-term cancer-free survival. Fasting was previously shown to differentially sensitize tumors to chemotherapy while protecting normal cells, including hematopoietic stem and immune cells, from its toxic side effects. Here, we show that the combination of chemotherapy and a fasting-mimicking diet (FMD) increases the levels of bone marrow common lymphoid progenitor cells and cytotoxic CD8(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), leading to a major delay in breast cancer and melanoma progression. In breast tumors, this effect is partially mediated by the downregulation of the stress-responsive enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). These data indicate that FMD cycles combined with chemotherapy can enhance T cell-dependent targeted killing of cancer cells both by stimulating the hematopoietic system and by enhancing CD8(+)-dependent tumor cytotoxicity.

  10. Statins inhibit pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation by upregulation of HO-1 and p21WAF1.

    PubMed

    Li, Manxiang; Liu, Yuan; Shi, Hongyang; Zhang, Yonghong; Wang, Guizuo; Xu, Jing; Lu, Jiamei; Zhang, Dexin; Xie, Xinming; Han, Dong; Wu, Yuanyuan; Li, Shaojun

    2012-10-01

    Simvastatin is a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitor, which has been shown to ameliorate the development of pulmonary hypertension in animal model by suppression of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) proliferation, yet its underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. In this study, we show that simvastatin dose-dependently inhibited serotonin-stimulated PASMCs proliferation. This was accompanied with the parallel induction of heme oxyganase-1 (HO-1) and upregulation of p21(WAF1). More importantly, we found that Tin-protoporphyrin (SnPP), a selective inhibitor of HO-1, could block the effect of simvastatin on inhibition of cell proliferation in response to serotonin and abolish simvastatin-induced p21(WAF1) expression. The inhibitive effect of simvastatin on cell proliferation was also significantly suppressed by silencing p21(WAF1) with siRNA transfection. The extent of effect of SnPP on inhibition of cell proliferation was similar to that of lack of p21(WAF1) by siRNA transfection. Taken together, our study suggests that simvastatin inhibits PASMCs proliferation by sequential upregulation of HO-1 and p21(WAF1) to benefit pulmonary hypertension.

  11. Oregonin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced iNOS gene transcription and upregulates HO-1 expression in macrophages and microglia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Jui; Lee, Shoei-Sheng; Chen, Su-Chung; Ho, Feng-Ming; Lin, Wan-Wan

    2005-01-01

    Oregonin isolated from Alnus formosana is a diarylheptanoid derivative, which appears to have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, our data demonstrated inhibitory actions of oregonin on the LPS-induced iNOS protein in RAW264.7 macrophages and BV-2 microglial cells. We also suggested that HO-1 induction by oregonin might contribute to this action. Oregonin is able to dose-dependently reduce NO production, iNOS protein and iNOS promoter activity stimulated by LPS in RAW264.7 and BV-2 cells. Oregonin also showed inhibition of LPS-mediated NF-κB promoter activity and DNA-binding ability, as well as p65 nuclear translocation and phosphorylation. However, oregonin had no effect on IKK activity. AP-1 promoter activity and p38 MAPK activation but not PKC, ERK and JNK activation induced by LPS were attenuated by oregonin. Accompanying with iNOS protein reduction, moreover, we found that oregonin was able to induce HO-1 protein level. Results using a CO donor, [Ru(CO)3Cl2]2 further showed the ability of CO in reduction of iNOS protein level induced by LPS through the blockade of NF-κB and AP-1. Taken together, these results provide new evidences into the anti-inflammatory actions of oregonin, which include the inhibition of iNOS gene transcription via suppressing transcriptional activity of NF-κB and AP-1, as well as the upregulation of anti-inflammatory molecule HO-1. The HO-1-derived CO may also be involved in the suppressive effect on iNOS gene regulation. PMID:16025135

  12. Sex-Dependent Effects of HO-1 Deletion from Adipocytes in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hosick, Peter A.; Weeks, Mary Frances; Hankins, Michael W.; Moore, Kyle H.; Stec, David E.

    2017-01-01

    Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been demonstrated to decrease body weight and improve insulin sensitivity in several models of obesity in rodents. To further study the role of HO-1 in adipose tissue, we created an adipose-specific HO-1 knockout mouse model. Male and female mice were fed either a control or a high-fat diet for 30 weeks. Body weights were measured weekly and body composition, fasting blood glucose and insulin levels were determined every six weeks. Adipocyte-specific knockout of HO-1 had no significant effect on body weight in mice fed a high-fat diet but increased body weight in female mice fed a normal-fat diet. Although body weights were not different in females fed a high fat diet, loss of HO-1 in adipocytes resulted in significant alterations in body composition. Adipose-specific HO-1 knockout resulted in increased fasting hyperglycemia and insulinemia in female but not male mice on both diets. Adipose-specific knockout of HO-1 resulted in a significant loss of HO activity and a decrease in the protein levels of adiponectin in adipose tissue. These results demonstrate that loss of HO-1 in adipocytes has greater effects on body fat and fasting hyperglycemia in a sex-dependent fashion and that expression of HO-1 in adipose tissue may have a greater protective role in females as compared to males. PMID:28287466

  13. Brg1-mediated Nrf2/HO-1 pathway activation alleviates hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Ge, Mian; Yao, Weifeng; Yuan, Dongdong; Zhou, Shaoli; Chen, Xi; Zhang, Yihan; Li, Haobo; Xia, Zhengyuan; Hei, Ziqing

    2017-06-01

    Cytoprotective gene heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) could be induced by nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1), a catalytic subunit of SWI2/SNF2-like chromatin remodeling complexes, in Nrf2/HO-1 pathway activation during hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (HIR). Our results showed that hepatic Brg1 was inhibited during early HIR while Brg1 overexpression reduced oxidative injury in CMV-Brg1 mice subjected to HIR. Moreover, promoter-driven luciferase assay showed that overexpression of Brg1 by adenovirus transfection in AML12 cells selectively enhanced HO-1 gene expression after hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) treatment but did not affect the other Nrf2 target gene NQO1. Furthermore, inhibition of HO-1 by the selective HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyria could partly reverse the hepatic protective effects of Brg1 overexpression while HO-1-Adv attenuated AML12 cells H/R damage. Further, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that Brg1 overexpression, which could significantly increase the recruitment of Brg1 protein to HO-1 but not NQO1 promoter, was recruited by Nrf2 to the HO-1 regulatory regions in AML12 hepatocytes subjected to H/R. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that restoration of Brg1 during reperfusion could enhance Nrf2-mediated inducible expression of HO-1 during HIR to effectively increase antioxidant ability to combat against hepatocytes damage.

  14. Sex-Dependent Effects of HO-1 Deletion from Adipocytes in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hosick, Peter A; Weeks, Mary Frances; Hankins, Michael W; Moore, Kyle H; Stec, David E

    2017-03-11

    Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been demonstrated to decrease body weight and improve insulin sensitivity in several models of obesity in rodents. To further study the role of HO-1 in adipose tissue, we created an adipose-specific HO-1 knockout mouse model. Male and female mice were fed either a control or a high-fat diet for 30 weeks. Body weights were measured weekly and body composition, fasting blood glucose and insulin levels were determined every six weeks. Adipocyte-specific knockout of HO-1 had no significant effect on body weight in mice fed a high-fat diet but increased body weight in female mice fed a normal-fat diet. Although body weights were not different in females fed a high fat diet, loss of HO-1 in adipocytes resulted in significant alterations in body composition. Adipose-specific HO-1 knockout resulted in increased fasting hyperglycemia and insulinemia in female but not male mice on both diets. Adipose-specific knockout of HO-1 resulted in a significant loss of HO activity and a decrease in the protein levels of adiponectin in adipose tissue. These results demonstrate that loss of HO-1 in adipocytes has greater effects on body fat and fasting hyperglycemia in a sex-dependent fashion and that expression of HO-1 in adipose tissue may have a greater protective role in females as compared to males.

  15. tBHQ-induced HO-1 expression is mediated by calcium through regulation of Nrf2 binding to enhancer and polymerase II to promoter region of HO-1.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ka Lung; Yu, Siwang; Pan, Zui; Ma, Jianjie; Wu, Tien Yuan; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2011-05-16

    Induction of Nrf2-mediated detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes is an effective strategy for cancer chemoprevention. The goal of this study was to examine the role of calcium [Ca(2+)] in regulating a well-known phenolic chemopreventive compound tertiary-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) activation of Nrf2 and induction of Nrf2 downstream target gene heme-oxygenase (HO-1). tBHQ alone caused Nrf2 nuclear localization and induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Using RT-PCR and Western blotting, we showed that tBHQ-induced transcription of HO-1 is Ca(2+)-dependent. Chelation of [Ca(2+)](ext) or [Ca(2+)](intra) by EGTA or BAPTA attenuated tBHQ-induced HO-1. Cotreatment of tBHQ with inhibitors of [Ca(2+)]-sensitive protein kinase C and camodulin kinase did not attenuate HO-1 induction. Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 induced by tBHQ was also not affected by treatment of EGTA or BAPTA. Additionally, EGTA and BAPTA treatments decreased basal nuclear phosphorylation of CREB and decreased tBHQ-induced Nrf2-CBP binding and Nrf2 binding to enhancer as well as polymerase II binding to the promoter of HO-1 gene. Furthermore, tBHQ in combination with higher [Ca(2+)](ext) augmented HO-1 induction both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that the modulation of [Ca(2+)](int) could be used as an adjuvant to increase the efficacy of chemopreventive agents. Taken together, our results indicated that in addition to tBHQ-induced oxidative stress-mediated Nrf2 translocation, HO-1 induction by tBHQ also appears to be dependent on a series of Ca(2+)-regulated mechanisms.

  16. Induction of heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) does not enhance adiponectin production in human adipocytes: Evidence against a direct HO-1 - Adiponectin axis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mengliu; Kimura, Masaki; Ng, Choaping; He, Jingjing; Keshvari, Sahar; Rose, Felicity J; Barclay, Johanna L; Whitehead, Jonathan P

    2015-09-15

    Adiponectin is a salutary adipokine and hypoadiponectinemia is implicated in the aetiology of obesity-related inflammation and cardiometabolic disease making therapeutic strategies to increase adiponectin attractive. Emerging evidence, predominantly from preclinical studies, suggests induction of heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) increases adiponectin production and reduces inflammatory tone. Here, we aimed to test whether induction of HO-1 enhanced adiponectin production from mature adipocytes. Treatment of human adipocytes with cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) or hemin for 24-48 h increased HO-1 expression and activity without affecting adiponectin expression and secretion. Treatment of adipocytes with TNFα reduced adiponectin secretion and increased expression and secretion of additional pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and MCP-1, as well as expression of sXBP-1, a marker of ER stress. HO-1 induction failed to reverse these effects. These results demonstrate that induction of HO-1 does not directly enhance adiponectin production or ameliorate the pro-inflammatory effects of TNFα and argue against a direct HO-1 - adiponectin axis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationships between NOS2 and HO-1 in liver of rats with chronic bile duct ligation.

    PubMed

    Flores, Olga; Criado, Manuela; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Angel; Hidalgo, Froilán; Collía, Francisco; López-Novoa, José Miguel; Esteller, Alejandro

    2005-05-01

    An increased expression and activity of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the liver has been observed in models of hepatic damage. Nitric oxide (NO) seems to be involved in HO-1 regulation. The aim of this work is to assess HO-1 induction and heme oxygenase (HO) activity in rats with bile duct ligation (BDL). We have assessed the effect of chronic inhibition of the NO synthesis by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) on HO-1 induction and HO activity. In the BDL animals, compared with sham-operated ones, we found an increased plasma nitrite and bilirubin concentration, and a marked liver expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and HO-1, assessed by both Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Chronic l-NAME treatment prevented plasma nitrite increase in animals subjected to BDL. BDL animals treated with l-NAME, compared with untreated BDL rats, showed an important decrease in HO-1 expression and in HO activity (assessed as a decreased plasma bilirubin and bilirubin excretion). In conclusion, our experiments show parallel changes in expression and activity of HO-1 and NOS2 activity in the BDL model of liver damage and suggest that increased NO production is involved in HO-1 overexpression.

  18. Quercetin and tin protoporphyrin attenuate hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury: role of HO-1.

    PubMed

    Atef, Yara; El-Fayoumi, Hassan M; Abdel-Mottaleb, Yousra; Mahmoud, Mona F

    2017-06-06

    Ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury occurs in many clinical situations such as organ transplantation and hepatectomies resulting in oxidative stress and immune activation. Heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) is the rate-limiting step in the heme-degradation pathway and has a critical cytoprotective role. Induction of HO-1 improves liver I/R injury. Quercetin, a plant pigment (flavonoid), is an antioxidant and HO-1 inducer. Tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) is a HO-1 inhibitor. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of quercetin in hepatic I/R injury and the role of HO-1. Wister rats were randomly divided into four groups (sham, I/R, quercetin, and SnPP). Liver ischemia was induced for 45 min then reperfusion was allowed for 1 h. Quercetin and surprisingly SnPP ameliorate the deleterious effect of I/R by reducing the oxidative stress and hepatocyte degeneration. Both agents decreased the elevated inflammatory cytokines and improved the inhibition of the antiapoptotic marker, Bcl2. They induced HO-1 content and expression. Quercetin has better cytoprotective effect than SnPP. These findings suggest that quercetin has a hepatoprotective effect against I/R injury via HO-1 induction and unexpectedly, SnPP showed the similar effect. Quercetin has more prominent protective effect than SnPP because of its superior ability to induce HO-1.

  19. HO-1 Induction in Cancer Progression: A Matter of Cell Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Nitti, Mariapaola; Piras, Sabrina; Marinari, Umberto M; Moretta, Lorenzo; Pronzato, Maria A; Furfaro, Anna Lisa

    2017-05-05

    The upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is one of the most important mechanisms of cell adaptation to stress. Indeed, the redox sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 is the pivotal regulator of HO-1 induction. Through the antioxidant, antiapoptotic, and antinflammatory properties of its metabolic products, HO-1 plays a key role in healthy cells in maintaining redox homeostasis and in preventing carcinogenesis. Nevertheless, several lines of evidence have highlighted the role of HO-1 in cancer progression and its expression correlates with tumor growth, aggressiveness, metastatic and angiogenetic potential, resistance to therapy, tumor escape, and poor prognosis, even though a tumor- and tissue-specific activity has been observed. In this review, we summarize the current literature regarding the pro-tumorigenic role of HO-1 dependent tumor progression as a promising target in anticancer strategy.

  20. Baicalein protects rat insulinoma INS-1 cells from palmitate-induced lipotoxicity by inducing HO-1.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hyun Jeong; Yang, Dongki; Hwang, Yongha; Jun, Hee-Sook; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong

    2017-01-01

    β-Cell dysfunction plays a central role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and the identification of novel approaches to improve β-cell function is essential to treat this disease. Baicalein, a flavonoid originally isolated from the root of Scutellaria Baicalensis, has been shown to have beneficial effects on β-cell function. Here, the authors investigated the molecular mechanism responsible for the protective effects of baicalein against palmitate (PA)-induced impaired β-cell function, and placed focus on the role of heme oxygenase (HO)-1. Rat pancreatic β-cell line INS-1 cells or mouse pancreatic islets were cultured with PA (500 μM) to induce lipotoxicity in the presence or absence of baicalein (50 μM), and the expressions of the ER stress markers, ATF-3, CHOP and GRP78 were detected by Western blotting and/or qPCR. The involvement of HO-1 was evaluated by HO-1 siRNA transfection and using the HO-1 inhibitor ZnPP. Baicalein reduced PA-induced ER stress and inflammation and enhanced insulin secretion, and these effects were associated with the induction of HO-1. Furthermore, these protective effects were attenuated by ZnPP and by HO-1 siRNA. Pretreatment of PD98059 (an ERK inhibitor) significantly inhibited the protective effects of baicalein and blocked HO-1 induction. On the other hand, CO production by RuCO (a CO donor) ameliorated PA-induced ER stress, suggesting that CO production followed by HO-1 induction may contribute to the protective effects of baicalein against PA-induced β-cell dysfunction. Baicalein protects pancreatic β-cells from PA-induced ER stress and inflammation via an ERK-HO-1 dependent pathway. The authors suggest HO-1 induction in pancreatic β-cells appears to be a promising therapeutic strategy for T2D.

  1. ATF3-mediated NRF2/HO-1 signaling regulates TLR4 innate immune responses in mouse liver ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Rao, J; Qian, X; Li, G; Pan, X; Zhang, C; Zhang, F; Zhai, Y; Wang, X; Lu, L

    2015-01-01

    Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a stress-induced transcription factor that has been shown to repress inflammatory gene expression in multiple cell types and diseases. However, little is known about the roles and mechanisms of ATF3 in liver ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). In warm and cold liver IRI models, we showed that ATF3 deficiency significantly increased ischemia/reperfusion (IR)-stressed liver injury, as evidenced by increased serum alanine aminotransferase levels, histological liver damage, and hepatocellular apoptosis. These may correlate with inhibition of the intrahepatic nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2/heme oxygenase-1 (NRF2/HO-1) signaling pathway leading to enhancing Toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor kappa beta (TLR4/NF-κB) activation, pro-inflammatory programs and macrophage/neutrophil trafficking, while simultaneously repressing anti-apoptotic molecules in ischemic liver. Interestingly, activation of NRF2/HO-1 signaling using an NRF2 activator, oltipraz (M2), during hepatic IRI-rescued ATF3 anti-inflammatory functions in ATF3-deficient mice. For in vitro studies, ATF3 ablation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) depressed levels of NRF2/HO-1 and PI3K/AKT, resulting in enhanced TLR4/NF-κB activation. Pretreatment of LPS-stimulated BMMs with M2 increased NRF2/HO-1 expression, promoted PI3K/AKT, which in turn suppressed TLR4/NF-κB-mediated proinflammatory mediators. Thus, our results first demonstrate ATF3-mediated NRF2/HO-1 signaling in the regulation of TLR4-driven inflammatory responses in IR-stressed livers. Our findings provide a rationale for a novel therapeutic strategy for managing IR-induced liver injury.

  2. The Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Bark. Involves NF-κB Suppression and Nrf2-Dependent HO-1 Induction in BV-2 Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Seung-Hwan; Ma, Shi-Xun; Hwang, Ji-Young; Ko, Yong-Hyun; Seo, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Bo-Ram; Lee, Seok-Yong; Jang, Choon-Gon

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Bark. (EUE) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglial BV-2 cells and found that EUE inhibited LPS-mediated up-regulation of pro-inflammatory response factors. In addition, EUE inhibited the elevated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, mediators, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in LPS-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Subsequent mechanistic studies revealed that EUE suppressed LPS-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), and their downstream transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). EUE also blocked the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and inhibited its binding to DNA. We next demonstrated that EUE induced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and upregulated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. We determined that the significant up-regulation of HO-1 expression by EUE was a consequence of Nrf2 nuclear translocation; furthermore, EUE increased the DNA binding of Nrf2. In contrast, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), a specific HO-1 inhibitor, blocked the ability of EUE to inhibit NO and PGE2 production, indicating the vital role of HO-1. Overall, our results indicate that EUE inhibits pro-inflammatory responses by modulating MAPKs, PI3K/Akt, and GSK-3β, consequently suppressing NF-κB activation and inducing Nrf2-dependent HO-1 activation. PMID:27068259

  3. Neural HO-1/sterol interactions in vivo: implications for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hascalovici, J R; Song, W; Liberman, A; Vaya, J; Khatib, S; Holcroft, C; Laferla, F; Schipper, H M

    2014-11-07

    Up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and altered cholesterol (CH) metabolism are characteristic of Alzheimer-diseased (AD) neural tissues. We previously provided evidence of significant HO-1/sterol interactions in vitro (cultured rat astroglia) and in post-mortem human AD brain (Religious Orders Study). The current experiments were designed to further delineate these interactions in vivo by comparing the behavior of HO-1/sterol interactions in two mouse models; (1) a novel HO-1 transgenic mouse (GFAP.HMOX1) engineered to selectively express human HO-1 in the astrocytic compartment and (2) the previously described triple transgenic AD mouse (3xTg-AD). In samples of frontal cortex, total CH, CH precursors and relevant oxysterols were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and HO-1 protein expression was assessed by ELISA. The relationships of HO-1 expression to total CH, CH precursors and total oxysterols were determined for both mouse models using linear regression analysis. HO-1 expression is increased in GFAP.HMOX1 mice relative to wild type and in 11-12-month-old 3xTg-AD mice (with AD-like phenotype) relative to control mice and 5-6-month-old 3xTg-AD mice (no AD-like phenotype). Total oxysterols significantly decreased as HO-1 expression increased in GFAP.HMOX1 mice expressing high levels of HO-1, whereas total oxysterols increased as HO-1 expression increased in aged 3xTg-AD mice. Total CH and total CH precursors increased as HO-1 protein expression increased in 11-12-month-old 3xTg-AD mice relative to 5-6-month old 3xTg-AD mice. Our findings indicate a differential impact of HO-1 on patterns of brain sterol and redox homeostasis that is contingent on the presence or absence of AD-like neuropathology. These data provide fresh insight concerning the regulation of sterol homeostasis within the aging and degenerating CNS which may inform the development of novel therapeutic and preventive strategies for the management of AD and related

  4. Micro-RNA-155-mediated control of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is required for restoring adaptively tolerant CD4+ T-cell function in rodents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinyu; Vandevenne, Patricia; Hamdi, Haifa; Van Puyvelde, Merry; Zucchi, Alessandro; Bettonville, Marie; Weatherly, Kathleen; Braun, Michel Y

    2015-03-01

    T cells chronically stimulated by a persistent antigen often become dysfunctional and lose effector functions and proliferative capacity. To identify the importance of micro-RNA-155 (miR-155) in this phenomenon, we analyzed mouse miR-155-deficient CD4(+) T cells in a model where the chronic exposure to a systemic antigen led to T-cell functional unresponsiveness. We found that miR-155 was required for restoring function of T cells after programmed death receptor 1 blockade. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) was identified as a specific target of miR-155 and inhibition of HO-1 activity restored the expansion and tissue migration capacity of miR-155(-/-) CD4(+) T cells. Moreover, miR-155-mediated control of HO-1 expression in CD4(+) T cells was shown to sustain in vivo antigen-specific expansion and IL-2 production. Thus, our data identify HO-1 regulation as a mechanism by which miR-155 promotes T-cell-driven inflammation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. HO-1 Is Essential for Tetrahydroxystilbene Glucoside Mediated Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Anti-Inflammation Process in LPS-Treated RAW264.7 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Weihua; Zhang, Xiaodi; Liu, Jiangzheng

    2017-01-01

    2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG), an important monomer extracted from Polygonum multiflorum, can prevent a number of inflammation associated chronic diseases. However, the mechanism involved in TSG inducing anti-inflammatory role remains unclear. As an inducible antioxidant enzyme, Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), is crucial for protecting the mammalian cells against adverse stimuli. Here, we found that the TSG treatment strongly induces the expression of HO-1 in an NRF2-depended manner. Meanwhile, TSG increased the mitochondrial mass through upregulation of the mitochondrial biogenesis activators (PGC-1α, NRF1, and TFAM) as well as the mitochondrial complex IV. Furthermore, TSG attenuated Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediated RAW264.7 cells activation and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Zinc Protoporphyrin (ZnPP), a selective inhibitor of HO-1 activity, was able to attenuate TSG mediated mitochondrial biogenesis and anti-inflammatory process. Finally, we observed that LPS induced obvious mtDNA depletion and ATP deficiency, which indicated a severe damage of mitochondria. TSG restored the LPS induced mitochondrial dysfunction via activation of the mitochondrial biogenesis. ZnPP treatment markedly reversed the inhibitory effects of TSG on mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress in LPS stimulated macrophages. Taken together, these findings suggest that TSG enhances mitochondrial biogenesis and function mainly via activation the HO-1. TSG can be developed as a potential drug for treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:28473878

  6. HO-1 Is Essential for Tetrahydroxystilbene Glucoside Mediated Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Anti-Inflammation Process in LPS-Treated RAW264.7 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Yu, Weihua; Zhang, Xiaodi; Wu, Hao; Zhou, Qingbiao; Wang, Zhao; Liu, Rui; Liu, Jiangzheng; Wang, Xin; Hai, Chunxu

    2017-01-01

    2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG), an important monomer extracted from Polygonum multiflorum, can prevent a number of inflammation associated chronic diseases. However, the mechanism involved in TSG inducing anti-inflammatory role remains unclear. As an inducible antioxidant enzyme, Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), is crucial for protecting the mammalian cells against adverse stimuli. Here, we found that the TSG treatment strongly induces the expression of HO-1 in an NRF2-depended manner. Meanwhile, TSG increased the mitochondrial mass through upregulation of the mitochondrial biogenesis activators (PGC-1α, NRF1, and TFAM) as well as the mitochondrial complex IV. Furthermore, TSG attenuated Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mediated RAW264.7 cells activation and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Zinc Protoporphyrin (ZnPP), a selective inhibitor of HO-1 activity, was able to attenuate TSG mediated mitochondrial biogenesis and anti-inflammatory process. Finally, we observed that LPS induced obvious mtDNA depletion and ATP deficiency, which indicated a severe damage of mitochondria. TSG restored the LPS induced mitochondrial dysfunction via activation of the mitochondrial biogenesis. ZnPP treatment markedly reversed the inhibitory effects of TSG on mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress in LPS stimulated macrophages. Taken together, these findings suggest that TSG enhances mitochondrial biogenesis and function mainly via activation the HO-1. TSG can be developed as a potential drug for treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  7. HO-1 and VEGF gene expressions are time dependant during exposure to welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Stark, M; Zubareb, J; Jacovovitz, R; Schwartz, Y; Lerman, Y; Grinberg, N; Fireman, E

    2009-05-01

    Hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a defensive enzyme against oxidative stress. Vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent cytokine which promotes angiogenesis. We used induced sputum (IS) technology to study HO-1 and VEGF expressions in neutrophilic inflammation in asymptomatic welders. Aircraft plant employees were divided into three groups: Welders 1 (n=30) had short-term exposure to aluminum/iron, Welders 2 (n=16) had long-term exposure to cadmium/chromium/iron/nickel, and controls (n=27 non-exposed individuals). Participants underwent pulmonary function tests (PFTs), IS, differential cell counts, and determination of particle size distribution in IS samples. HO-1 and VEGF gene expressions were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and protein levels were measured by bilirubin reductase-dependant reaction and ELISA, respectively. All subjects had normal PFTs. Welders 2 had neutrophilic inflammation and higher percentages of particles between 2-5 micron than the other groups. HO-1 inversely correlated with VEGF gene expression: HO-1 was significantly higher and VEGF was significantly lower in the Welders 1 group than in the other groups. There was a correlation between HO-1 expression and protein activity (r=0.33, P=0.05). Particulate matters significantly influenced HO-1 and VEGF gene expressions, caused neutrophilic inflammation and promoted oxidative stress in welders with long-term exposure.

  8. Mechanical Stress Changes the Complex Interplay Between HO-1, Inflammation and Fibrosis, During Excisional Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Cremers, Niels A. J.; Suttorp, Maarten; Gerritsen, Marlous M.; Wong, Ronald J.; van Run-van Breda, Coby; van Dam, Gooitzen M.; Brouwer, Katrien M.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Carels, Carine E. L.; Lundvig, Ditte M. S.; Wagener, Frank A. D. T. G.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical stress following surgery or injury can promote pathological wound healing and fibrosis, and lead to functional loss and esthetic problems. Splinted excisional wounds can be used as a model for inducing mechanical stress. The cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is thought to orchestrate the defense against inflammatory and oxidative insults that drive fibrosis. Here, we investigated the activation of the HO-1 system in a splinted and non-splinted full-thickness excisional wound model using HO-1-luc transgenic mice. Effects of splinting on wound closure, HO-1 promoter activity, and markers of inflammation and fibrosis were assessed. After seven days, splinted wounds were more than three times larger than non-splinted wounds, demonstrating a delay in wound closure. HO-1 promoter activity rapidly decreased following removal of the (epi)dermis, but was induced in both splinted and non-splinted wounds during skin repair. Splinting induced more HO-1 gene expression in 7-day wounds; however, HO-1 protein expression remained lower in the epidermis, likely due to lower numbers of keratinocytes in the re-epithelialization tissue. Higher numbers of F4/80-positive macrophages, αSMA-positive myofibroblasts, and increased levels of the inflammatory genes IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2 were present in 7-day splinted wounds. Surprisingly, mRNA expression of newly formed collagen (type III) was lower in 7-day wounds after splinting, whereas, VEGF and MMP-9 were increased. In summary, these data demonstrate that splinting delays cutaneous wound closure and HO-1 protein induction. The pro-inflammatory environment following splinting may facilitate higher myofibroblast numbers and increase the risk of fibrosis and scar formation. Therefore, inducing HO-1 activity against mechanical stress-induced inflammation and fibrosis may be an interesting strategy to prevent negative effects of surgery on growth and function in patients with orofacial clefts or in patients with

  9. Mechanical Stress Changes the Complex Interplay Between HO-1, Inflammation and Fibrosis, During Excisional Wound Repair.

    PubMed

    Cremers, Niels A J; Suttorp, Maarten; Gerritsen, Marlous M; Wong, Ronald J; van Run-van Breda, Coby; van Dam, Gooitzen M; Brouwer, Katrien M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Carels, Carine E L; Lundvig, Ditte M S; Wagener, Frank A D T G

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical stress following surgery or injury can promote pathological wound healing and fibrosis, and lead to functional loss and esthetic problems. Splinted excisional wounds can be used as a model for inducing mechanical stress. The cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is thought to orchestrate the defense against inflammatory and oxidative insults that drive fibrosis. Here, we investigated the activation of the HO-1 system in a splinted and non-splinted full-thickness excisional wound model using HO-1-luc transgenic mice. Effects of splinting on wound closure, HO-1 promoter activity, and markers of inflammation and fibrosis were assessed. After seven days, splinted wounds were more than three times larger than non-splinted wounds, demonstrating a delay in wound closure. HO-1 promoter activity rapidly decreased following removal of the (epi)dermis, but was induced in both splinted and non-splinted wounds during skin repair. Splinting induced more HO-1 gene expression in 7-day wounds; however, HO-1 protein expression remained lower in the epidermis, likely due to lower numbers of keratinocytes in the re-epithelialization tissue. Higher numbers of F4/80-positive macrophages, αSMA-positive myofibroblasts, and increased levels of the inflammatory genes IL-1β, TNF-α, and COX-2 were present in 7-day splinted wounds. Surprisingly, mRNA expression of newly formed collagen (type III) was lower in 7-day wounds after splinting, whereas, VEGF and MMP-9 were increased. In summary, these data demonstrate that splinting delays cutaneous wound closure and HO-1 protein induction. The pro-inflammatory environment following splinting may facilitate higher myofibroblast numbers and increase the risk of fibrosis and scar formation. Therefore, inducing HO-1 activity against mechanical stress-induced inflammation and fibrosis may be an interesting strategy to prevent negative effects of surgery on growth and function in patients with orofacial clefts or in patients with

  10. Downregulation of Heme Oxygenase 1 (HO-1) Activity in Hematopoietic Cells Enhances Their Engraftment After Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Adamiak, Mateusz; Moore, Joseph B; Zhao, John; Abdelbaset-Ismail, Ahmed; Grubczak, Kamil; Rzeszotek, Sylwia; Wysoczynski, Marcin; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z

    2016-01-01

    Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is an inducible stress-response enzyme that not only catalyzes the degradation of heme (e.g., released from erythrocytes) but also has an important function in various physiological and pathophysiological states associated with cellular stress, such as ischemic/reperfusion injury. HO-1 has a well-documented anti-inflammatory potential, and HO-1 has been reported to have a negative effect on adhesion and migration of neutrophils in acute inflammation in a model of peritonitis. This finding is supported by our recent observation that hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) from HO-1 KO mice are easy mobilizers, since they respond better to peripheral blood chemotactic gradients than wild-type littermates. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that transient inhibition of HO-1 by nontoxic small-molecule inhibitors would enhance migration of HSPCs in response to bone marrow chemoattractants and thereby facilitate their homing. To directly address this issue, we generated several human hematopoietic cell lines in which HO-1 was upregulated or downregulated. We also exposed murine and human BM-derived cells to small-molecule activators and inhibitors of HO-1. Our results indicate that HO-1 is an inhibitor of hematopoietic cell migration in response to crucial BM homing chemoattractants such as stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). Most importantly, our in vitro and in vivo animal experiments demonstrate for the first time that transiently inhibiting HO-1 activity in HSPCs by small-molecule inhibitors improves HSPC engraftment. We propose that this simple and inexpensive strategy could be employed in the clinical setting to improve engraftment of HSPCs, particularly in those situations in which the number of HSPCs available for transplant is limited (e.g., when transplanting umbilical cord blood).

  11. Ginsenoside Rd mitigates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury via Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiaofeng; Li, Juan; Li, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rd (GsRd) reportedly protects the heart against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Nrf2/HO-1 signaling plays a key role in attenuating oxidative stress. However, it remains unclear whether GsRd protects against myocardial I/R injury via Nrf2/HO-1 signaling. This study aimed to investigate the role of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling in the cardioprotective effect of GsRd. Rats received 30 min ischemia followed by 2 h reperfusion. Cardiac function, infarct size and serum CK, LDH, cTnI levels were detected. The expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 was detected by western blot. The results suggested that GsRd attenuated myocardial I/R injury as evidenced by improved cardiac function, decreased infarct size and decreased levels of serum CK, LDH and cTnI. In addition, GsRd administration enhanced the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1. In conclusion, the present study shows that GsRd protects against myocardial I/R injury via Nrf2/HO-1 signaling. PMID:26550440

  12. Prunella vulgaris suppresses HG-induced vascular inflammation via Nrf2/HO-1/eNOS activation.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sun Mi; Lee, Yun Jung; Yoon, Jung Joo; Lee, So Min; Kim, Jin Sook; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2012-01-01

    Vascular inflammation is an important factor which can promote diabetic complications. In this study, the inhibitory effects of aqueous extract from Prunella vulgaris (APV) on high glucose (HG)-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) are reported. APV decreased HG-induced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin. APV also dose-dependently inhibited HG-induced adhesion of HL-60 monocytic cells. APV suppressed p65 NF-κB activation in HG-treated cells. APV significantly inhibited the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). HG-stimulated HUVEC secreted gelatinases, however, APV inhibited it. APV induced Akt phosphorylation as well as activation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), eNOS, and nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which may protect vascular inflammation caused by HG. In conclusion, APV exerts anti-inflammatory effect via inhibition of ROS/NF-κB pathway by inducing HO-1 and eNOS expression mediated by Nrf2, thereby suggesting that Prunella vulgaris may be a possible therapeutic approach to the inhibition of diabetic vascular diseases.

  13. ZmHO-1, a maize haem oxygenase-1 gene, plays a role in determining lateral root development.

    PubMed

    Han, Bin; Xu, Sheng; Xie, Yan-Jie; Huang, Jing-Jing; Wang, Li-Juan; Yang, Zheng; Zhang, Chang-He; Sun, Ya; Shen, Wen-Biao; Xie, Gui-Shui

    2012-03-01

    Previous results revealed that haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1)/carbon monoxide (CO) system is involved in auxin-induced adventitious root formation. In this report, a cDNA for the gene ZmHO-1, encoding an HO-1 protein, was cloned from Zea mays seedlings. ZmHO-1 has a conserved HO signature sequence and shares highest homology with rice SE5 (OsHO-1) protein. We further discovered that N-1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA), haemin, and CO aqueous solution, led to the induction of ZmHO-1 expression as well as the thereafter promotion of lateral root development. These effects were specific for ZmHO-1 since the potent HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) differentially blocked the above actions. The addition of haemin and CO were able to reverse the auxin depletion-triggered inhibition of lateral root formation as well as the decreased ZmHO-1 transcripts. Molecular evidence showed that the haemin- or CO-mediated the modulation of target genes responsible for lateral root formation, including ZmCDK and ZmCKI2, could be blocked by ZnPPIX. Overexpression of ZmHO-1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants resulted in promotion of lateral root development as well as the modulation of cell cycle regulatory gene expressions. Overall, our results suggested that a maize HO-1 gene is required for the lateral root formation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Role of HO-1 in protective effect of electro-acupuncture against endotoxin shock-induced acute lung injury in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian-Bo; Jianbo, Yu; Dong, Shu-An; Shuan, Dong; Luo, Xiao-Qing; Xiaoqing, Luo; Gong, Li-Rong; Lirong, Gong; Zhang, Yuan; Yuan, Zhang; Wang, Man; Man, Wang; Cao, Xin-Shun; Xinshun, Cao; Liu, Da-Quan; Daquan, Liu

    2013-06-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 has been reported to play a great role in attenuating lung injury during endotoxic shock in our previous research. Although electro-acupuncture has been explored to reduce oxidative stress and decrease inflammatory reaction in animals with endotoxic shock, the mechanism of this effect is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether HO-1 is involved in the effect of electro-acupuncture on the injured lung during endotoxic shock in rabbits. Sixty New England white rabbits were randomly divided into groups C, Z, ES, EA, AP, and EAZ. Before inducing endotoxic shock, group ES received no electro-acupuncture, while group EA received electro-acupuncture at ST36 (zusanli) and BL13 (feishu) acupoints on both sides for five days and group AP received electro-acupuncture (EA) stimulation at a non-acupoint. Groups ES, AP, EA, and EAZ received LPS to replicate the experimental model of injured lung induced by endotoxic shock, and electro-acupuncture was performed throughout the procedure with the same parameter. Groups EAZ and Z received the HO-1 inhibitor, ZnPP-IX, intraperitoneally. The animals were sacrificed by blood-letting at 6 h after LPS administration. The blood samples were collected for serum examination, and the lungs were removed for pathology examination, detection of alveolaer epithelial cell apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay (TUNEL assay), determination of wet to dry ratio, measurement of Evans blue (EB) contents, and determination of HO-1protein and mRNA expression. According to the results, EA at ST36 and BL13 could increase the expression of HO-1. At the same time, index of quantitative assessment (IQA) score and the number of TUNEL-positive cells decreased, while electro-acupuncture at the other points did not exert this effect, and pretreatment with ZnPP-IX in group EAZ suppressed the efficacy of electro-acupuncture preconditioning. In summary, electro

  15. The role of HO-1 in protection against lead-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoyi; Ye, Fang; Li, Lili; Chang, Wei; Wu, Xiongwen; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Lead is a pervasive and persistent environmental pollutant that exerts deleterious effects on all living organisms and continues to threaten public health on a global scale. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress-inducible enzyme that mediates antioxidative and cytoprotective effects to maintain cellular redox homeostasis and protect cells from oxidative stress. This study was designed to explore the role of HO-1 in protection against lead neurotoxicity and the signaling pathways involved. Lead acetate (PbAc) exposure resulted in increased HO-1 expression in primary rat hippocampal neurons and SH-SY5Y cells. PbAc-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) also increased, and cell viability decreased in SH-SY5Y cells. We further demonstrated that HO-1 could be induced by PbAc through the P38, ERK1/2, and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways in a ROS-dependent manner and through the JNK pathway in a ROS-independent manner. Further investigation revealed that HO-1 overexpression significantly restrained cell apoptosis and ROS production induced by PbAc in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, HO-1 knockdown aggravated PbAc-induced cell apoptosis and ROS production. Our results indicated that HO-1 was a novel protective factor that could efficiently inhibit PbAc-induced oxidative stress and cell death in the nervous system, thereby providing the potential therapeutic strategies for the prevention and treatment of lead-related diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. HtrA3 is regulated by 15-deoxy-{Delta}12,14-prostaglandin J2 independently of PPAR{gamma} in clear cell renal cell carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Theoleyre, Sandrine; Mottier, Stephanie; Masson, Damien; Denis, Marc G.

    2010-04-09

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) ligands have been shown to possess anti-proliferative effects in many types of cancer. In clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC), the targets involved in these effects are not known. In this study, we demonstrated that, in CCRCC cell lines, the endogenous PPAR{gamma} ligand 15-deoxy-{Delta}12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15dPGJ2) induces the expression, both at the mRNA and the protein levels, of the HtrA3 gene. This gene belongs to the High-Temperature Requirement Factor A family of serine proteases that repress signaling by TGF-{beta} family members and inhibit cell migration. Rosiglitazone or ciglitazone, synthetic PPAR{gamma} agonists, did not induce HtrA3 expression, and the PPAR{gamma} antagonist GW9662 did not prevent 15dPGJ2 induction, suggesting that the up-regulation of HtrA3 by 15dPGJ2 is independent of PPAR{gamma}. The MEK/ERK inhibitor PD98059 dramatically repressed HtrA3 induction. Altogether, these data indicate that 15dPGJ2 is able to stimulate the expression of HtrA3 through an indirect mechanism involving the MEK/ERK pathway but independent of PPAR{gamma}. Our results provide a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of HtrA3, a potential tumor suppressor gene.

  17. Nrf2-Mediated HO-1 Induction Coupled with the ERK Signaling Pathway Contributes to Indirect Antioxidant Capacity of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Kyoung; Jang, Hae-Dong

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the contributing effect of the nuclear transcription factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated signaling pathway on the indirect antioxidant capacity of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) against oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. The result of an antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase assay showed that CAPE stimulated ARE promoter activity resulting in increased transcriptional and translational activities of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). In addition, CAPE treatment enhanced Nrf2 accumulation in the nucleus and the post-translational phosphorylation level of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) among several protein kinases tested. Treatment with ERK inhibitor U126 completely suppressed CAPE-induced ERK phosphorylation and HO-1 expression, but it only partly inhibited CAPE-induced Nrf2 accumulation and ARE promoter. Using the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) method, the cellular antioxidant capacity of CAPE against 2,2'-azobis (2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)- or H2O2-induced oxidative stress also was shown to be partially suppressed by the ERK inhibitor. From the overall results it is proposed that the indirect antioxidant activity of CAPE against oxidative stress in HepG2 cells is partially attributed to induction of HO-1, which is regulated by Kelch-like erythroid-cell-derived protein with CNC homology (ECH)-associated protein 1 (Keap1)-independent Nrf2 activation relying on post-translational phosphorylation of ERK. PMID:25007817

  18. Diallyl-disulfide, an organosulfur compound of garlic, attenuates airway inflammation via activation of the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway and NF-kappaB suppression.

    PubMed

    Shin, In-Sik; Hong, Jumi; Jeon, Chan-Mi; Shin, Na-Rae; Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Kim, Hui-Seong; Kim, Jong-Choon; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Ahn, Kyung-Seop

    2013-12-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a major organosulfur compound found in garlic oil that is widely used as a flavoring agent. In this study, we evaluated the effects of DADS on airway inflammation using an ovalbumin-induced model of allergic asthma and RAW264.7 cells. DADS decreased nitric oxide production with a reduction in the levels of interleukins (IL)-1β and IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS. DADS also reduced the expression of proinflammatory proteins including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and it enhanced the expression of antioxidant proteins including Nrf-2 and hemeoxygenase (HO)-1. In in vivo experiments, DADS decreased the inflammatory cell count in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) with IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and immunoglobulin (Ig) E. These results were consistent with the histological analysis. DADS attenuated the airway inflammation and mucus hypersecretion induced by OVA challenge. In addition, DADS induced the activation of Nrf-2 and the expression of HO-1. In contrast, DADS reduced the activation of NF-κB, iNOS and MMP-9. In conclusion, DADS reduced the airway inflammation via regulation of Nrf-2/HO-1 and NF-κB. These results suggest that DADS might represent a useful new oral therapy to treat allergic asthma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tetrahydroxy stilbene glycoside (TSG) antagonizes Aβ-induced hippocampal neuron injury by suppressing mitochondrial dysfunction via Nrf2-dependent HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Chenli; Gao, Feng; Ou, Li; Yu, Jinhua; Li, Min; Wei, Peifeng; Miao, Feng

    2017-10-05

    Amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) ranks as a pivotal cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a common devastating dementia form in elderly. Recent research corroborated the beneficial roles of tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside (TSG) in alleviating the learning and memory of AD model and aged mice. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanism remains poorly elucidated. Here, treatment with non-toxic TSG dose-dependently antagonized Aβ-induced cytotoxic death in hippocampal neuronal cells by increasing cell viability and decreasing cell apoptosis. Furthermore, TSG also alleviated cell oxidative stress injury in response to Aβ by attenuating lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, ROS levels and MDA leakage. Importantly, TSG administration abrogated Aβ-triggered loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δym), release of cytochrome c from mitochondrial to cytosol, increase in caspase-3 activity and pro-apoptotic protein Bax, and decrease in Bcl-2 protein, indicating that TSG could rescue mitochondrial dysfunctions of neuron cells under adverse Aβ condition. Subsequently, TSG induced the activation of Nrf2-HO-1 pathway. Importantly, blocking this pathway by si-Nrf2 transfection or HO-1 antagonist ZnPP notably muted the cytoprotective effects of TSG on neuronal cell cytotoxic injury upon Aβ stimulation. Together, this research substantiated a new mechanism that TSG protectively antagonized Aβ-induced hippocampal neuronal cell damage by restoring mitochondrial function via Nrf2-HO-1 pathway, implying a promising candidate against neurodegenerative diseases including AD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Higenamine promotes M2 macrophage activation and reduces Hmgb1 production through HO-1 induction in a murine model of spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Li, Mingchao; Wang, Yan; Wu, Jian; Li, Jiaping

    2014-12-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is considered to be primarily associated with loss of motor function and leads to the activation of diverse cellular mechanisms in the central nervous system to attempt to repair the damaged spinal cord tissue. Higenamine (HG) (1-[(4-hydroxyphenyl) methyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-6,7-diol), an active ingredient of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, has been traditionally used as a heart stimulant and anti-inflammatory agent in oriental countries. However, the function and related mechanism of HG on SCI have never been investigated. In our current study, HG treatment displayed increased myelin sparring and enhanced spinal cord repair process. The numbers of CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, Ly6G(+) neutrophils and CD11b(+) macrophages were all significantly lower in the HG-treated group than that in the control group after SCI. HG administration increased the expression of IL-4 and IL-10 and promoted M2 macrophage activation. Significantly reduced Hmgb1 expression was also observed in HG-treated mice with SCI. Furthermore, HG treatment promoted HO-1 production. The increased number of M2 macrophages, decreased expression of Hmgb1 and promoted locomotor recovery induced by HG were all reversed with additional HO-1 inhibitor treatment. In conclusion, HG promotes M2 macrophage activation and reduces Hmgb1 expression dependent on HO-1 induction and then promotes locomotor function after SCI.

  1. NO counterbalances HO-1 overexpression-induced acceleration of hepatocyte proliferation in mice.

    PubMed

    Schuett, Harald; Eipel, Christian; Maletzki, Claudia; Menger, Michael D; Vollmar, Brigitte

    2007-06-01

    The trigger for liver regeneration, including shear stress, has been the subject of ongoing debate. Blood vessel-derived gaseous molecules carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) regulate vascular tone and play an important role in liver regeneration. In heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) transgenic mice, it has been shown that CO-mediated impairment of vasorelaxation is an NO-dependent event. We therefore studied liver regeneration in HO-1 overexpressing animals in dependency of NO availability. Mice were subjected to (2/3) hepatectomy and were treated with either cobalt protoporphyrin-IX for induction of CO-liberating HO-1, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) for blockade of NO synthase (NOS) or both. Application of molsidomine in L-NAME treated animals served for resubstitution of NO. Vehicle-treated animals served as respective control animals. We examined 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression as well as HO-1 and NOS-2 protein levels. Intrahepatic red blood cell velocity and volumetric blood flow were evaluated by in vivo fluorescence microscopy as indicators for microvascular shear stress. Hepatic regeneration remained unaffected by L-NAME application for NOS blockade. However, NOS blockade in HO-1 induced animals caused increased 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine and proliferating cell nuclear antigen measures of liver regeneration. In parallel, these animals revealed increased velocities and volumetric blood flow in the terminal afferent vessels and postsinusoidal venules. These local hemodynamic changes including enhanced hepatocyte proliferation could be reversed by NO liberation via molsidomine. The present findings stress the role of NO to counterbalance vascular tone in HO-1 overexpressing animals for maintenance of adequate perfusion and salutary shear force within the hepatic microvasculature upon liver resection.

  2. Association of HO-1 and BRCA1 Is Critical for the Maintenance of Cellular Homeostasis in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Labanca, Estefanía; De Luca, Paola; Gueron, Geraldine; Paez, Alejandra; Moiola, Cristian P; Massillo, Cintia; Porretti, Juliana; Giudice, Jimena; Zalazar, Florencia; Navone, Nora; Vazquez, Elba; De Siervi, Adriana

    2015-11-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men worldwide. Many factors that participate in the development of prostate cancer promote imbalance in the redox state of the cell. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species causes injury to cell structures, ultimately leading to cancer development. The antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1/HO-1) is responsible for the maintenance of the cellular homeostasis, playing a critical role in the oxidative stress and the regulation of prostate cancer development and progression. In the present study, the transcriptional regulation of HO-1 was investigated in prostate cancer. Interestingly, the tumor suppressor BRCA1 binds to the HO-1 promoter and modulates HO-1, inducing its protein levels through both the increment of its promoter activity and the induction of its transcriptional activation. In addition, in vitro and in vivo analyses show that BRCA1 also controls HO-1-negative targets: MMP9, uPA, and Cyclin D1. HO-1 transcriptional regulation is also modulated by oxidative and genotoxic agents. Induction of DNA damage by mitoxantrone and etoposide repressed HO-1 transcription, whereas hydrogen peroxide and doxorubicin induced its expression. Xenograft studies showed that HO-1 regulation by doxorubicin also occurs in vivo. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that BRCA1 overexpression and/or doxorubicin exposure induced the cytoplasmic retention of HO-1. Finally, the transcription factor NRF2 cooperates with BRCA1 protein to activate HO-1 promoter activity. In summary, these results show that the activation of BRCA1-NRF2/HO-1 axis defines a new mechanism for the maintenance of the cellular homeostasis in prostate cancer. Oxidative and genotoxic stress converge on HO-1 transcriptional activity through the combined actions of BRCA1 and NRF2. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Angelica gigas via Heme Oxygenase (HO)-1 Expression.

    PubMed

    Cho, Joon Hyeong; Kwon, Jung Eun; Cho, Youngmi; Kim, Inhye; Kang, Se Chan

    2015-06-15

    Angelica gigas (AG) is effective against various medical conditions such as bacterial infection, inflammation, and cancer. It contains a number of coumarin compounds and the group of interest is the pyranocoumarin, which comprises decursin and decursinol angelate. This group has an effect on controlling inflammation, which is caused by excessive nitric oxide (NO) production. Heme oxygenases (HOs), particularly HO-1, play a role in regulating the production of NO. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of AG by measuring HO-1 expression. Treatments with CH2Cl2 layer and Angelica gigas extract (AGE) showed the highest NO inhibition effects. Decursin, decursinol angelate, and nodakenin were isolated from the CH2Cl2 layer of AGE. Decursin also demonstrated the highest anti-oxidative effect among the coumarins. Although decursin had the best NO inhibition and anti-oxidative effects, the effects of AGE treatment far surpassed that of decursin. This is owing to the combination effect of the coumarins present within AGE, which is a solvent extract of AG. The expression of HO-1 is an effective indicator of the anti-inflammatory effects of AG. Based on the results of the coumarin compounds, HO-1 expression was found to be dose dependent and specific to decursin.

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Angelica gigas via Heme Oxygenase (HO)-1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Joon Hyeong; Kwon, Jung Eun; Cho, Youngmi; Kim, Inhye; Kang, Se Chan

    2015-01-01

    Angelica gigas (AG) is effective against various medical conditions such as bacterial infection, inflammation, and cancer. It contains a number of coumarin compounds and the group of interest is the pyranocoumarin, which comprises decursin and decursinol angelate. This group has an effect on controlling inflammation, which is caused by excessive nitric oxide (NO) production. Heme oxygenases (HOs), particularly HO-1, play a role in regulating the production of NO. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of AG by measuring HO-1 expression. Treatments with CH2Cl2 layer and Angelica gigas extract (AGE) showed the highest NO inhibition effects. Decursin, decursinol angelate, and nodakenin were isolated from the CH2Cl2 layer of AGE. Decursin also demonstrated the highest anti-oxidative effect among the coumarins. Although decursin had the best NO inhibition and anti-oxidative effects, the effects of AGE treatment far surpassed that of decursin. This is owing to the combination effect of the coumarins present within AGE, which is a solvent extract of AG. The expression of HO-1 is an effective indicator of the anti-inflammatory effects of AG. Based on the results of the coumarin compounds, HO-1 expression was found to be dose dependent and specific to decursin. PMID:26083119

  5. Catalase prevents maternal diabetes-induced perinatal programming via the Nrf2-HO-1 defense system.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shiao-Ying; Chen, Yun-Wen; Zhao, Xin-Ping; Chenier, Isabelle; Tran, Stella; Sauvé, Alexandre; Ingelfinger, Julie R; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2012-10-01

    We investigated whether overexpression of catalase (CAT) in renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) could prevent the programming of hypertension and kidney disease in the offspring of dams with maternal diabetes. Male offspring of nondiabetic and diabetic dams from two transgenic (Tg) lines (Hoxb7-green fluorescent protein [GFP]-Tg [controls] and Hoxb7/CAT-GFP-Tg, which overexpress CAT in RPTCs) were studied from the prenatal period into adulthood. Nephrogenesis, systolic blood pressure, renal hyperfiltration, kidney injury, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were assessed. Gene expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), nuclear factor erythroid 2p45-related factor-2 (Nrf2), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was tested in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Renal dysmorphogenesis was observed in offspring of Hoxb7-GFP-Tg dams with severe maternal diabetes; the affected male offspring displayed higher renal ROS generation and developed hypertension and renal hyperfiltration as well as renal injury with heightened TGF-β1 expression in adulthood. These changes were ameliorated in male offspring of diabetic Hoxb7/CAT-GFP-Tg dams via the Nrf2-HO-1 defense system. CAT promoted Nrf2 nuclear translocation and HO-1 gene expression, seen in both in vitro and in vivo studies. In conclusion, CAT overexpression in the RPTCs ameliorated maternal diabetes-induced perinatal programming, mediated, at least in part, by triggering the Nrf2-HO-1 defense system.

  6. Exogenous induction of HO-1 alleviates vincristine-induced neuropathic pain by reducing spinal glial activation in mice.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Zhu, Ming-Di; Jiang, Bao-Chun; Yang, Tian; Gao, Yong-Jing

    2015-07-01

    Chemotherapy drugs such as vincristine can produce painful peripheral neuropathy for which is still lack of effective treatment. Recent studies have demonstrated that neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) was shown to mediate the resolution of inflammation. In this study, we investigated the contribution of HO-1 in the modulation of vincristine-induced pain and the mechanisms implicated. Injection of vincristine induced persistent mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in mice. The expression of HO-1 mRNA and protein was increased in 2 weeks in the spinal cord. Immunostaining showed that HO-1 was mainly expressed in neurons of spinal cord dorsal horn in naïve animals, but induced in astrocytes and microglia after vincristine injection. Intraperitoneal injection of HO-1 inducer increased HO-1 expression in the spinal cord and attenuated vincristine-induced pain. Persistent induction of HO-1 by intraspinal injection of HO-1-expressing lentivirus alleviated vincristine-induced pain for more than 2 weeks. Furthermore, vincristine induced activation of glial cells (astrocytes and microglia), phosphorylation of MAPKs (JNK, ERK, and p38), and production of TNF-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the spinal cord, which were all reduced by intrathecal injection of HO-1 inducer. Taken together, our data provide the first evidence that induction of HO-1 attenuates vincristine-induced neuropathic pain via inhibition of glia-mediated neuroinflammation in the spinal cord. This suggests that exogenously induced HO-1 may have potential as therapy in chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain.

  7. Amelioration of radiation-induced skin injury by adenovirus-mediated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) overexpression in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective Radiation-induced skin injury remains a serious concern for radiation therapy. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in heme catabolism, has been reported to have potential antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. However, the role of HO-1 in radiation-induced skin damage remains unclear. This study aims to elucidate the effects of HO-1 on radiation-induced skin injury in rats. Methods A control adenovirus (Ad-EGFP) and a recombinant adenovirus (Ad-HO1-EGFP) were constructed. Rats were irradiated to the buttock skin with a single dose of 45 Gy followed by a subcutaneous injection of PBS, 5 × 109 genomic copies of Ad-EGFP or Ad-HO1-EGFP (n = 8). After treatment, the skin MDA concentration, SOD activity and apoptosis were measured. The expression of antioxidant and pro-apoptotic genes was determined by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. Skin reactions were measured at regular intervals using the semi-quantitative skin injury score. Results Subcutaneous injection of Ad-HO1-EGFP infected both epidermal and dermal cells and could spread to the surrounding regions. Radiation exposure upregulated the transcription of the antioxidant enzyme genes, including SOD-1, GPx2 and endogenous HO-1. HO-1 overexpression decreased lipid peroxidation and inhibited the induction of ROS scavenging proteins. Moreover, HO-1 exerted an anti-apoptotic effect by suppressing FAS and FASL expression. Subcutaneous injection of Ad-HO1-EGFP demonstrated significant improvement in radiation-induced skin injury. Conclusions The present study provides evidences for the protective role of HO-1 in alleviating radiation-induced skin damage in rats, which is helpful for the development of therapy for radiation-induced skin injury. PMID:22247972

  8. PGC-1 alpha regulates HO-1 expression, mitochondrial dynamics and biogenesis: Role of epoxyeicosatrienoic acid.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shailendra P; Schragenheim, Joseph; Cao, Jian; Falck, John R; Abraham, Nader G; Bellner, Lars

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is a risk factor in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, predominantly as a result of cardiovascular complications. Increased adiposity is a systemic condition characterized by increased oxidative stress (ROS), increased inflammation, inhibition of anti-oxidant genes such as HO-1 and increased degradation of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). We previously demonstrated that EETs attenuate mitochondrial ROS. We postulate that EETs increase peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), which controls mitochondrial function, oxidative metabolism and induction of HO-1. Cultured murine adipocytes and mice fed a high fat (HF) diet were used to assess functional relationship between EETs, HO-1 and (PGC-1α) using an EET analogue (EET-A) and lentivirus to knock down the PPARGC1A gene. EET-A increased PGC-1α and HO-1 in cultured adipocytes and increased the expression of genes involved in thermogenesis and adipocyte browning (UCP1 and PRDM16, respectively). PGC-1α knockdown prevented EET-A-induced HO-1expression, suggesting that PGC-1α is upstream of HO-1. MRI data obtained from fat tissues showed that EET-A administration to mice on a HF diet significantly reduced total body fat content, subcutaneous and visceral fat deposits and reduced the VAT: SAT ratio. Moreover EET-A normalized the VO2 and RQ (VCO2/VO2) in mice fed a HF diet, an effect that was completely prevented in PGC-1α deficient mice. In addition, EET-A increased mitochondrial biogenesis and function as measured by OPA1, MnSOD, Mfn1, Mfn2, and SIRT3, an effect that was inhibited by knockdown of PGC-1α. Taken together, our findings show that EET-A increased PGC-1α thereby increasing mitochondrial viability, increased fusion potential thereby providing metabolic protection and increased VO2 consumption in HF-induced obesity in mice, thus demonstrating that the EET-mediated increase in HO-1

  9. Suppression of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation by Morin via MAPK, PI3K/Akt, and PKA/HO-1 Signaling Pathway Modulation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji-Sun; Choi, Min-Ji; Lee, Yu Young; Moon, Byung-In; Park, Jin-Sun; Kim, Hee-Sun

    2017-01-18

    Morin is a flavonoid isolated from certain fruits and Chinese herbs and is known to possess various medicinal properties. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of morin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation, both in vitro and in vivo. We found that morin inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Furthermore, morin suppressed the microglial activation and cytokine expression in the brains of LPS-stimulated mice. Subsequent mechanistic studies revealed that morin inhibited the action of LPS-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and activating protein-1 (AP-1). Further, the phosphorylation and DNA binding activity of cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) was enhanced by morin. Moreover, morin suppressed the LPS-induced expression of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase subunits, while it increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation. Therefore, our data suggest that morin exerts anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated microglia by downregulating MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways while upregulating protein kinase A (PKA)/CREB and Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathways.

  10. In vitro evaluation of mitochondrial-chloroplast subcellular localization of heme oxygenase1 (HO1) in Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Shubham; Verma, Khushbu; Shekhawat, Gyan Singh

    2014-05-01

    Heme oxygenase1 (HO1) catalyzes the degradation of heme in to biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and ferrous ions. Its role in higher plants has been found as an antioxidant and precursor of phytochrome synthesis. The present study focuses on subcellular localization of HO1 in leaves of soybean has been investigated. Most activity appeared to be located within chloroplast due to its role in phytochrome synthesis but mitochondria also share its localization. Mitochondrial location of HO1 might be on its inner membranous space due to its role in the synthesis of electron donor species which facilitates HO1 catalyzed reaction. Study reports the co-localization of HO1 in both chloroplast and mitochondria.

  11. Dual protective role of HO-1 in transplanted liver grafts: A review of experimental and clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun-Feng; Wang, Zhen-Yu; Li, Ji-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Liver transplantation is considered as the most effective treatment for end-stage liver disease. However, serious complications still exist, particularly in two aspects: ischemia and subsequent reperfusion of the liver, causing postoperative hepatic dysfunction and even failure; and acute and chronic graft rejections, affecting the allograft survival. Heme oxygenase (HO), a stress-response protein, is believed to exert a protective function on both the development of ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and graft rejection. In this review of current researches on allograft protection, we focused on the HO-1. We conjecture that HO-1 may link these two main factors affecting the prognosis of liver transplantations. In this review, the following aspects were emphasized: the basic biological functions of HO-1, its roles in IRI and allograft rejection, as well as methods to induce HO-1 and the prospects of a therapeutic application of HO-1 in liver transplantation. PMID:21912452

  12. HO1 and Wnt expression is independently regulated in female mice brains following permanent ischemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Tulsulkar, Jatin; Ward, Alicia; Shah, Zahoor A

    2017-05-01

    A gender difference in stroke is observed throughout epidemiologic studies, pathophysiology, treatment and outcomes. We investigated the neuroprotective role of hemeoxygenase (HO) enzyme, which catabolizes free heme to bilirubin, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the female brain after permanent ischemia. We have previously reported in male mice that genetic deletion of HO1 exacerbates the brain damage after permanent ischemia, and the mechanism of neuroprotection is dependent on the HO1/Wnt pathway; however, the role of HO1/Wnt mediated neuroprotection in the female brain is yet to be investigated. We subjected ovary intact female mice, HO1(-/-) intact, HO1 inhibitor tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP) treated intact and/or ovariectomized female mice to permanent ischemia (pMCAO), and the animals were sacrificed after 7days. The SnMP treatment for 7days significantly reduced the HO1 enzyme activity as compared to that of vehicle treated group. Infarct volume analysis showed significantly lower infarct in intact, HO1(-/-) intact, and SnMP treated group as compared to the OVX group, suggesting the role of estrogen in neuroprotection. However, there were no differences in infarct volume observed between the intact, HO1(-/-) and SnMP treated group, suggesting a sexually dimorphic role of HO1 neuroprotection. Western blot analysis on intact and SnMP-treated groups subjected to pMCAO suggested no significant differences in Wnt expression. Together, these results suggest that HO1 neuroprotection is sexually dimorphic and Wnt expression is independently regulated in the female brain following permanent ischemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) Expression in Prostate Cancer Cells Modulates the Oxidative Response in Bone Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, Mercedes; Wan, Xinhai; Meiss, Roberto; Yang, Jun; De Siervi, Adriana; Navone, Nora; Vazquez, Elba

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of death among males. It is currently estimated that inflammatory responses are linked to 15-20% of all deaths from cancer worldwide. PCa is dominated by complications arising from metastasis to the bone where the tumor cells interact with the bone microenvironment impairing the balance between bone formation and degradation. However, the molecular nature of this interaction is not completely understood. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) counteracts oxidative damage and inflammation. Previous studies from our laboratory showed that HO-1 is implicated in PCa, demonstrating that endogenous HO-1 inhibits bone derived-prostate cancer cells proliferation, invasion and migration and decreases tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo. The aim of this work was to analyze the impact of HO-1 modulated PCa cells on osteoblasts proliferation in vitro and on bone remodeling in vivo. Using a co-culture system of PC3 cells with primary mice osteoblasts (PMOs), we demonstrated that HO-1 pharmacological induction (hemin treatment) abrogated the diminution of PMOs proliferation induced by PCa cells and decreased the expression of osteoclast-modulating factors in osteoblasts. No changes were detected in the expression of genes involved in osteoblasts differentiation. However, co-culture of hemin pre-treated PC3 cells (PC3 Hem) with PMOs provoked an oxidative status and activated FoxO signaling in osteoblasts. The percentage of active osteoblasts positive for HO-1 increased in calvarias explants co-cultured with PC3 Hem cells. Nuclear HO-1 expression was detected in tumors generated by in vivo bone injection of HO-1 stable transfected PC3 (PC3HO-1) cells in the femur of SCID mice. These results suggest that HO-1 has the potential to modify the bone microenvironment impacting on PCa bone metastasis. PMID:24224047

  14. Hirsutenone reduces deterioration of tight junction proteins through EGFR/Akt and ERK1/2 pathway both converging to HO-1 induction.

    PubMed

    Seo, Geom Seog; Jiang, Wen-Yi; Park, Pil-Hoon; Sohn, Dong Hwan; Cheon, Jae Hee; Lee, Sung Hee

    2014-07-15

    Oxidative stress-induced disruption of epithelial tight junctions (TJ) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of intestinal disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The current study investigated the protective effect of hirsutenone against disruption of the intestinal barrier in vitro and in a mouse model of colitis. Caco-2 cells were stimulated with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BH). Hirsutenone prevented the t-BH-induced increase in permeability by inhibiting the reduction in zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) expression, and rapidly stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Hirsutenone-mediated protection against the loss of ZO-1 depends on the activation of both ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways. Interestingly, hirsutenone-mediated activation of Akt, but not ERK1/2, signaling was EGFR-dependent. Hirsutenone increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression through both EGFR/Akt- and ERK1/2-dependent pathways, contributing to the protective effects against TJ dysfunction. Colitis was induced in mice by intrarectal administration of 2,4,6,-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Hirsutenone administration improved the clinical parameters and tissue histological appearance, increased HO-1 expression, attenuated reduction of ZO-1 and occludin mRNA, and promoted BrdU incorporation in the colonic epithelium of TNBS-treated mice. Taken together, our results demonstrate that hirsutenone reverse disordered intestinal permeability by activating EGFR/Akt and ERK1/2 pathways, which are involved in the regulation of HO-1 expression. These findings highlight the potential of hirsutenone for clinical applications in the treatment of IBD.

  15. Ligands of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR-gamma and PPAR-alpha) reduce myocardial infarct size.

    PubMed

    Wayman, Nicole S; Hattori, Yoshiyuki; McDonald, Michelle C; Mota-Filipe, Helder; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Pisano, Babrbara; Chatterjee, Prabal K; Thiemermann, Christoph

    2002-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of various chemically distinct activators of PPAR-gamma and PPAR-alpha in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. Using Northern blot analysis and RT-PCR in samples of rat heart, we document the expression of the mRNA for PPAR-gamma (isoform 1 but not isoform 2) as well as PPAR-beta and PPAR-alpha in freshly isolated cardiac myocytes and cardiac fibroblasts and in the left and right ventricles of the heart. Using a rat model of regional myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (in vivo), we have discovered that various chemically distinct ligands of PPAR-gamma (including the TZDs rosiglitazone, ciglitazone, and pioglitazone, as well as the cyclopentanone prostaglandins 15D-PGJ2 and PGA1) cause a substantial reduction of myocardial infarct size in the rat. We demonstrate that two distinct ligands of PPAR-alpha (including clofibrate and WY 14643) also cause a substantial reduction of myocardial infarct size in the rat. The most pronounced reduction in infarct size was observed with the endogenous PPAR-gamma ligand, 15-deoxyDelta12,14-prostagalndin J2 (15D-PGJ2). The mechanisms of the cardioprotective effects of 15D-PGJ2 may include 1) activation of PPAR-alpha, 2) activation of PPAR-gamma, 3) expression of HO-1, and 4) inhibition of the activation of NF-kappaB in the ischemic-reperfused heart. Inhibition by 15D-PGJ2 of the activation of NF-kappaB in turn results in a reduction of the 1) expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and the nitration of proteins by peroxynitrite, 2) formation of the chemokine MCP-1, and 3) expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1. We speculate that ligands of PPAR-gamma and PPAR-alpha may be useful in the therapy of conditions associated with ischemia-reperfusion of the heart and other organs. Our findings also imply that TZDs and fibrates may help protect the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury. This beneficial effect of 15D-PGJ2 was associated with a reduction in the

  16. HIF-regulated HO-1 gene transfer improves the post-ischemic limb recovery and diminishes TLR-triggered immune responses - Effects modified by concomitant VEGF overexpression.

    PubMed

    Jazwa, Agnieszka; Stoszko, Mateusz; Tomczyk, Mateusz; Bukowska-Strakova, Karolina; Pichon, Chantal; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Jozef

    2015-08-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mitigates cellular injury by antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and proangiogenic effects. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a critical regulator of blood vessel growth. Their coordinated action was analyzed in a model of femoral artery ligation (FAL) in mice lacking HO-1 gene (HO-1 KO). Gastrocnemius skeletal muscles of HO-1 KO mice were preemptively injected with plasmids containing hypoxia-response element (HRE) driving the expression of only HO-1 (pHRE-HO1) or both HO-1 and VEGF (pHRE-HO1-VEGF). At day 14th the pHRE-HO1 vector increased an impaired post-ischemic blood flow recovery in HO-1 KO mice to the level observed in wild-type (WT) mice subjected to FAL and pHRE-HO1-VEGF restored it already at day 7. The pHRE-HO1 gene therapy diminished, when compared to control pHRE-empty-treated HO-1 KO mice, the expression of toll-like receptors (TLR4 and TLR9) and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα) at day 3, whereas opposite effects were observed following concomitant HO-1 and VEGF gene transfer. Moreover, HO-1 diminished ischemia-induced expression of MyoD involved in satellite cell differentiation in HO-1 KO mice. Our results confirm the therapeutic potential of HO-1 and VEGF against critical limb ischemia although, their concomitant delivery may have contradictory actions on the resolution of inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Iron Supplementation Alters Heme and Heme Oxygenase 1 (HO-1) Levels In Pregnant Women in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Salifu, Hassana; Wilson, Nana O.; Liu, Mingli; Dickinson-Copeland, Carmen; Yatich, Nelly; Keenan, John; Turpin, Cornelius; Jolly, Pauline; Gyasi, Richard; Adjei, Andrew A.; Stiles, Jonathan K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron supplementation is recommended for pregnant women to meet their iron requirement for a healthy pregnancy. The benefits and risks of universal iron supplementation during pregnancy in malaria endemic countries are currently being debated. As part of a broader study that focused on the effect of heme/HO-1 on pregnancy outcomes in malaria in pregnancy, we determined the association between iron supplementation and free heme levels in blood of pregnant women with and without malaria in Ghana. We hypothesized that pregnant women with malaria who took iron supplements will have higher levels of Heme/HO-1 than those who did not take iron supplements. Methods A total of 337 women were recruited for this study. Blood samples were collected for malaria diagnosis and heme/HO-1 measurement. Quantification of heme was done using a heme colorimetric assay kit and HO-1 levels were performed using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) on plasma samples. Results Malaria positive iron supplemented women, in their third trimester, had significantly higher median levels of heme 59.3(43.1 – 60.4) than non-malaria iron supplemented women 35.7(33.0 – 62.2), p = 0.026. Also, malaria positive iron supplemented women had significant higher median levels of HO-16.2(IQR 4.9 – 8.1) than pregnant women who did not take iron supplements 2.9 (IQR 2.1 – 3.8), p = <0.001 Conclusion Although iron supplementation may be highly beneficial and improve pregnancy outcomes for iron deficient or anemic mothers, it is also likely that iron supplementation for pregnant women who are not iron deficient may put this group of women at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Findings from this study sheds light on the effect of iron supplementation on malaria derived heme in pregnancy, which may inform how iron supplementation is recommended for pregnant women who are not iron deficient. PMID:28124024

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Rhapontici Radix Ethanol Extract via Inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK and Induction of HO-1 in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Oh, You-Chang; Cho, Won-Kyung; Yim, Nam-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Rhapontici Radix (RR) has been used in traditional medicine in East Asia and has been shown to have various beneficial effects. However, its biological properties or mechanism on inflammation-related diseases is unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory activity and underlying molecular mechanisms of Rhapontici Radix ethanol extract (RRE). The inhibitory effect of RRE on the production of NO, cytokines, inflammatory-related proteins, and mRNAs in LPS-stimulated macrophages was determined by the Griess assay, ELISA, Western blot analysis, and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Our results indicate that treatment with RRE significantly inhibited the secretion of NO and inflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages without cytotoxicity. We also found that RRE strongly suppressed the expression of iNOS and COX-2 and induced HO-1 expression. It also prevented nuclear translocation of NF-κB by inhibiting the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of MAPKs in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells was significantly inhibited by RRE. These findings suggest that RRE may operate as an effective anti-inflammatory agent by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways and inducing HO-1 expression in macrophages. Our results suggest that RRE has potential value as candidate to inflammatory therapeutic phytomedicine. PMID:27524868

  19. t-BHQ Provides Protection against Lead Neurotoxicity via Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fang; Li, Xiaoyi; Li, Lili; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    The neurotoxicity of lead has been well established, and oxidative stress is strongly associated with lead-induced neurotoxicity. Nrf2 is important for protection against oxidative stress in many disease models. We applied t-BHQ, which is an Nrf2 activator, to investigate the possible role of Nrf2 in the protection against lead neurotoxicity. t-BHQ significantly attenuated the oxidative stress in developmental rats by decreasing MDA level, as well as by increasing SOD activity and GSH content, in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Furthermore, neuronal apoptosis was detected by Nissl staining, and Bax expression was inhibited in the t-BHQ-treated group. Results showed that t-BHQ suppressed ROS production and caspase 3/7 activity but increased intracellular GSH content, in SH-SY5Y cells under lead exposure. Moreover, in vivo and in vitro, t-BHQ enhanced the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and binding to ARE areas but did not induce Nrf2 transcription. These phenomena were confirmed using RT-PCR, EMSA, Western blot, and immunofluorescence analyses. Subsequent upregulation of the expression of HO-1, NQO1, and GCLC was observed. However, knockdown of Nrf2 or HO-1 adversely affected the protective effects of t-BHQ against lead toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Thus, t-BHQ can protect against lead neurotoxicity, depending on the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. PMID:26798413

  20. Nadroparin sodium activates Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Yalniz, Mehmet; Demirel, Ulvi; Orhan, Cemal; Bahcecioglu, Ibrahim Halil; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanefi; Aygun, Cem; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Sahin, Kazim

    2012-06-01

    Effects of nadroparin sodium, a low molecular weight heparin, in colitis was investigated by analyzing proteins implicated in nuclear factor E2-related factor-2/heme oxygenase-1 (Nrf2/HO-1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways. Twenty-eight rats were used. Colitis was induced by acetic acid (AA). Nadroparin sodium was given to prevention and treatment groups in addition to AA. Colitis was assessed histologically and levels of proteins were analyzed with Western blot. Nadroparin not only prevented and ameliorated the AA-induced colitis histopathologically but also decreased expression of colon NF-κB, activator protein-1, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and IL-6, which were significantly increased in group AA compared to control. The accumulation of Nrf2 in nuclear fraction and HO-1 found low in group AA was increased with nadroparin (p < 0.05). The mean malondialdehyde level increased with AA and was decreased significantly with nadroparin prevention and treatment (p < 0.001). Nadroparin sodium has both protective and therapeutic effects against colonic inflammation via exerting anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects by modulating Nrf2/HO-1 and NF-κB pathways.

  1. Long-term effect of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction in glomerular immune injury.

    PubMed

    Datta, Prasun K; Duann, Pu; Lianos, Elias A

    2006-03-01

    In a rat model of macrophage-dependent glomerular immune injury induced by administration of antibody against the glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM), the authors assessed the anti-proteinuric effect of Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction. Rats received anti-GBM antibody alone, anti-GBM antibody and treatment with the HO-1 inducer, hemin, or non-immune serum (controls). Urine protein, creatinine, and nitrite/nitrate excretion were measured on days 5, 7, and 14 after administration of the anti-GBM antibody. In hemin-treated animals with anti-GBM antibody-induced immune injury, HO-1 immunolocalized in macrophages infiltrating glomeruli and in tubular epithelial cells. In these animals, proteinuria was decreased. There was also a decrease in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels without a change in serum creatinine or systemic blood pressure. The observations establish the anti-proteinuric effect of hemin induction. This effect could be mechanistically linked to blunting of the ability of infiltrating macrophages to cause injury or to changes in tubular handling of filtered protein.

  2. Transport properties of Ho1- x Lu x B12 solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabáni, S.; Bat'ko, I.; Bat'ková, M.; Flachbart, K.; Gaz̆o, E.; Pristás̆, G.; Takác̆ová, I.; Bogach, A. V.; Sluchanko, N. E.; Shitsevalova, N. Yu.

    2013-05-01

    Our studies of Ho1- x Lu x B12 solid solutions have shown that the temperature of antiferromagnetic (AF) order in geometrically frustrated system of HoB12 ( T N = 7.4 K) is linearly suppressed to zero temperature, i.e. T N → 0, as lutetium concentration increases to x→ x c ≈ 0.9. In this contribution, we present original results of electrical resistivity measurements on Ho1- x Lu x B12 single crystalline samples with x = 0, 0.2, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9, 1 in the temperature range 0.06-300 K and in magnetic fields ( B) up to 8 T. Complex B vs T N phase diagrams were received from precise temperature ρ( T) and field ρ( B) dependences of resistivity with several AF phases for x ≤ 0.5 pointing to a possibility of quantum critical point at x c ≈ 0.9. The scattering of conduction electrons in the AF phase and in the paramagnetic phase as well as Hall effect results are analyzed and discussed for various concentrations x, when magnetic dilution increases with the increasing content of nonmagnetic Lu ions in the Ho1- x Lu x B12 system.

  3. Nutritional control of IL-23/Th17-mediated autoimmune disease through HO-1/STAT3 activation

    PubMed Central

    Brück, Jürgen; Holstein, Julia; Glocova, Ivana; Seidel, Ursula; Geisel, Julia; Kanno, Toshio; Kumagai, Jin; Mato, Naoko; Sudowe, Stephan; Widmaier, Katja; Sinnberg, Tobias; Yazdi, Amir S.; Eberle, Franziska C.; Hirahara, Kiyoshi; Nakayama, Toshinori; Röcken, Martin; Ghoreschi, Kamran

    2017-01-01

    The nutritional curcumin (CUR) is beneficial in cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. The molecular mechanisms underlying this food-mediated silencing of inflammatory immune responses are poorly understood. By investigating antigen-specific immune responses we found that dietary CUR impairs the differentiation of Th1/Th17 cells in vivo during encephalomyelitis and instead promoted Th2 cells. In contrast, feeding CUR had no inhibitory effect on ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation. Mechanistically, we found that CUR induces an anti-inflammatory phenotype in dendritic cells (DC) with enhanced STAT3 phosphorylation and suppressed expression of Il12b and Il23a. On the molecular level CUR readily induced NRF2-sensitive heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) mRNA and protein in LPS-activated DC. HO-1 enhanced STAT3 phosphorylation, which enriched to Il12b and Il23a loci and negatively regulated their transcription. These findings demonstrate the underlying mechanism through which a nutritional can interfere with the immune response. CUR silences IL-23/Th17-mediated pathology by enhancing HO-1/STAT3 interaction in DC. PMID:28290522

  4. Mitochondrial quality-control dysregulation in conditional HO-1–/– mice

    PubMed Central

    Suliman, Hagir B.; Keenan, Jeffrey E.; Piantadosi, Claude A.

    2017-01-01

    The heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox1; HO-1) pathway was tested for defense of mitochondrial quality control in cardiomyocyte-specific Hmox1 KO mice (HO-1[CM]–/–) exposed to oxidative stress (100% O2). After 48 hours of exposure, these mice showed persistent cardiac inflammation and oxidative tissue damage that caused sarcomeric disruption, cardiomyocyte death, left ventricular dysfunction, and cardiomyopathy, while control hearts showed minimal damage. After hyperoxia, HO-1(CM)–/– hearts showed suppression of the Pgc-1α/nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) axis, swelling, low electron density mitochondria by electron microscopy (EM), increased cell death, and extensive collagen deposition. The damage mechanism involves structurally deficient autophagy/mitophagy, impaired LC3II processing, and failure to upregulate Pink1- and Park2-mediated mitophagy. The mitophagy pathway was suppressed through loss of NRF-1 binding to proximal promoter sites on both genes. These results indicate that cardiac Hmox1 induction not only prevents heme toxicity, but also regulates the timing and registration of genetic programs for mitochondrial quality control that limit cell death, pathological remodeling, and cardiac fibrosis. PMID:28194437

  5. Cobalt Protoporphyrin Induces HO-1 Expression Mediated Partially by FOXO1 and Reduces Mitochondria-Derived Reactive Oxygen Species Production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meixia; Xu, Haifeng; Zuo, Jin; Fang, Fude; Chang, Yongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Background Reactive oxygen species arise in the mitochondria as byproducts of respiration and oxidase activity and have important roles in many physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The level of reactive oxygen species is regulated by a number of enzymes and physiological antioxidants, including HO-1, Sod2, catalase and COX-2, etc. And HO-1 against oxidative stress requires an increase in stress-responsive genes, such as Sod2 and catalase. Especially for the activity of HO-1, cobalt protoporphyrin is known to be a potent and effective inducer in many tissues. The transcription factor, FOXO1 is resistant to oxidative stress through downregulating reactive oxygen species production. Previous study showed that FOXO1 induces HO-1 expression by binding to HO-1 promoter. The question whether cobalt protoporphyrin induces HO-1 expression mediated by FOXO1 and subsequently lessens reactive oxygen species production remains to be elucidated. Results Cobalt protoporphyrin enhances the expression of FOXO1 and facilitates FOXO1 binding to HO-1 promoter and increasing its transcriptional activity without influencing the FOXO1 protein stability. CoPP induces HO-1 and other oxidative stress-responsive genes expression, such as catalase, cytochrome c, Sod2, and COX-2, and decreases mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species production, which are mediated partially by FOXO1. Conclusions Cobalt protoporphyrin induces HO-1 and other oxidative stress-responsive genes expression mediated partially by FOXO1, and has an important role in reducing cellular reactive oxygen species level. Cobalt protoporphyrin may be a more promising therapeutic agent to upregulate some antioxidantive genes. PMID:24255720

  6. Diabetes blocks the cardioprotective effects of sevoflurane postconditioning by impairing Nrf2/Brg1/HO-1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Gao, Sumin; Yang, Zhengchao; Shi, Ruili; Xu, Dan; Li, Haobo; Xia, Zhengyuan; Wu, Qing-Ping; Yao, Shanglong; Wang, Tingting; Yuan, Shiying

    2016-05-15

    Sevofluane postconditioning (SPostC) protects heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, SPostC cardioprotection is lost in diabetes whose cardiac heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is reduced. Brahma-related gene 1 (Brg1) facilitates nuclear factor-erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) to activate HO-1 to increase myocardial antioxidant capacity in response to oxidative stress. However, cardiac Brg1 is reduced in diabetes. We hypothesized that SPostC confers cardioprotection by activating HO-1 through Nrf2/Brg1 and that impaired Nrf2/Brg1/HO-1 in diabetes is responsible for the loss of SPostC. Control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were subjected to 45min coronary artery occlusion followed by 2h reperfusion with or without SPostC achieved by exposing the mice to 2% sevoflurane for 15min at the onset of reperfusion. In invitro study, H9c2 cells were exposed to normal or high glucose and subjected to 3h hypoxia followed by 6h reoxygenation. Diabetic mice displayed larger post-ischemic infarct size, severer cardiomyocytes apoptosis, and increased oxidative stress concomitant with reduced HO-1, nuclear Nrf2 and Brg1 protein expression. These changes were prevented/reversed by SPostC in control but not in diabetic mice, and these beneficial effects of SPostC were abolished by HO-1 inhibition. In H9c2 cells exposed to normal glucose but not high glucose, SPostC significantly attenuated hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced cellular injury and oxidative stress with increased HO-1 and nuclear Nrf2. These SPostC beneficial effects were canceled by HO-1 inhibition. In conclusion, SPostC protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury through activation of Nrf2/Brg1/HO-1 signaling and impairment of this signaling may be responsible for the loss of SPostC cardioprotection in diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Unveiling the Association of STAT3 and HO-1 in Prostate Cancer: Role beyond Heme Degradation1

    PubMed Central

    Elguero, Belen; Gueron, Geraldine; Giudice, Jimena; Toscani, Martin A; De Luca, Paola; Zalazar, Florencia; Coluccio-Leskow, Federico; Meiss, Roberto; Navone, Nora; De Siervi, Adriana; Vazquez, Elba

    2012-01-01

    Activation of the androgen receptor (AR) is a key step in the development of prostate cancer (PCa). Several mechanisms have been identified in AR activation, among them signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling. Disruption of STAT3 activity has been associated to cancer progression. Recent studies suggest that heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) may play a key role in PCa that may be independent of its catalytic function. We sought to explore whether HO-1 operates on AR transcriptional activity through the STAT3 axis. Our results display that HO-1 induction in PCa cells represses AR activation by decreasing the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) promoter activity and mRNA levels. Strikingly, this is the first report to show by chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis that HO-1 associates to gene promoters, revealing a novel function for HO-1 in the nucleus. Furthermore, HO-1 and STAT3 directly interact as determined by co-immunoprecipitation studies. Forced expression of HO-1 increases STAT3 cytoplasmic retention. When PCa cells were transfected with a constitutively active STAT3 mutant, PSA and STAT3 downstream target genes were abrogated under hemin treatment. Additionally, a significant decrease in pSTAT3 protein levels was detected in the nuclear fraction of these cells. Confocal microscopy images exhibit a decreased rate of AR/STAT3 nuclear co-localization under hemin treatment. In vivo studies confirmed that STAT3 nuclear delimitation was significantly decreased in PC3 tumors overexpressing HO-1 grown as xenografts in nude mice. These results provide a novel function for HO-1 down-modulating AR transcriptional activity in PCa, interfering with STAT3 signaling, evidencing its role beyond heme degradation. PMID:23226098

  8. Taxol prevents myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by inducing JNK-mediated HO-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huaming; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Ruxing; Guo, Suxia; Zhao, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Yu; Tong, Debing; Yang, Zhenyu

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia/hypoxia and reperfusion impair mitochondria and produce a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which lead to mitochondrial and brain damage. Furthermore, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) as a cytoprotective gene protects cells against ROS-induced cell death in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Induction of HO-1 is involved in cytoprotective effects of taxol. We hypothesize that taxol protects cardiac myocytes possibly by preserving myocardial mitochondrial function and inducing HO-1 expression through the JNK pathway. In this project, the perfused Langendorff hearts isolated from rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, ischemic, ischemic + taxol (0.1 μM), ischemic + taxol (0.3 μM), and ischemic + taxol (1 μM). Briefly, following a 15 min equilibration period, the control group was subject to normoxic perfusion for 120 min; the ischemia group, normoxic reperfusion for 120 min after 30 min ischemia; the taxol groups, normoxic reperfusion for 120 min after 30-min ischemia with taxol (0.1, 0.3, or 1 μM). The microtubule disruption score, ROS levels, and the activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes I and III were examined by using immunohistochemical methods and free radical detection kits. Western blot assay was employed to study the underlying mechanisms. After Taxol treatment (0.1 µM), the ischemic microtubule disruption score was reduced to 9.8 ± 1.9%. The study revealed that 0.1, 0.3, and 1 μM taxol reduced the level of ROS by 33, 46 and 51%, respectively (p < 0.05). In additional, 0.3 and 1 μM taxol dramatically increased the activity of mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I (99.11 ± 2.59, 103.49 ± 3.89) and mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III (877.82 ± 12.08; 907.42 ± 16.21; 914.73 ± 19.39, *p < 0.05). Additionally, phosphorylation levels of JNK1 were significantly increased in the taxol group. Furthermore, the

  9. Nrf2-driven CD36 and HO-1 gene expression in circulating monocytes correlates with favourable clinical outcome in pregnancy-associated malaria.

    PubMed

    Aubouy, Agnès; Olagnier, David; Bertin, Gwladys; Ezinmegnon, Sem; Majorel, Clarisse; Mimar, Saliha; Massougbodji, Achille; Deloron, Philippe; Pipy, Bernard; Coste, Agnès

    2015-09-18

    Pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) constitutes one of the most severe forms of malaria infection leading to fetal growth restriction and high risk of infant death. The severity of the pathology is largely attributed to the recruitment of monocytes and macrophages in the placenta which is evidenced by dysregulated inflammation found in placental blood. Importantly, CD36(+) monocytes/macrophages are also thought to participate in the tight control of the pro- and anti-inflammatory responses following Plasmodium detection through elimination of apoptotic cells and malaria-infected erythrocytes, internalization and recycling of oxidized forms of low-density lipoprotein and collaboration with TLR2 in pro-inflammatory response. Interestingly, previous work demonstrated that CD36 expression was upregulated on inflammatory macrophages following stimulation of the Nrf2 transcription factor, whilst the PPARγ pathway was inhibited and non-functional in the same inflammatory conditions. This current study examined the possible role of Nrf2-driven gene expression, CD36 and Haem-Oxygenase-1 (HO-1), in PAM clinical outcomes. Clinical data and biological samples including peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from 27 women presenting PAM. Polychromatic flow cytometry was used to characterize innate immune cell subpopulations and quantify CD36 protein expression level on monocytes. mRNA levels of CD36, PPARγ, Nrf2 and HO-1 were determined by qPCR and related to clinical outcomes. Finally, the capacity of monocytes to modulate CD36 expression upon rosiglitazone or sulforaphane treatment, two respective PPARγ or Nrf2 activators, was also investigated. The CD36 receptor, mostly expressed by CD14(+) circulating monocytes, statistically correlated with increased infant birth weights. Interestingly, mRNA levels of the transcription factor Nrf2 and the enzyme HO-1 also correlated with lower parasitaemia and increased infant birth weight, while PPARγ mRNA levels did not

  10. Effect of CXCR3/HO-1 genes modified bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on small bowel transplant rejection.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ming-Li; Song, Hong-Li; Yang, Yang; Zheng, Wei-Ping; Liu, Tao; Shen, Zhong-Yang

    2017-06-14

    To investigate whether bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) modified with the HO-1 and CXCR3 genes can augment the inhibitory effect of BMMSCs on small bowel transplant rejection. Lewis rat BMMSCs were cultured in vitro. Third-passage BMMSCs were transduced with the CXCR3/HO-1 genes or the HO-1 gene alone. The rats were divided into six groups and rats in the experimental group were pretreated with BMMSCs 7 d prior to small bowel transplant. Six time points (instant, 1 d, 3 d, 7 d, 10 d, and 14 d) (n = 6) were chosen for each group. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to observe pathologic rejection, while immunohistochemistry and Western blot were used to detect protein expression. Flow cytometry was used to detect T lymphocytes and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect cytokines. The median survival time of BMMSCs from the CXCR3/HO-1 modified group (53 d) was significantly longer than that of the HO-1 modified BMMSCs group (39 d), the BMMSCs group (26 d), and the NS group (control group) (16 d) (P < 0.05). Compared with BMMSCs from the HO-1 modified BMMSCs, BMMSCs, and NS groups, rejection of the small bowel in the CXCR3/HO-1 modified group was significantly reduced, while the weight of transplant recipients was also significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Furthermore, IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, IFN-γ, and TNF-α levels were significantly decreased and the levels of IL-10 and TGF-β were significantly increased (P < 0.05). BMMSCs modified with the CXCR3 and HO-1 genes can abrogate the rejection of transplanted small bowel more effectively and significantly increase the survival time of rats that receive a small bowel transplant.

  11. Zinc mesoporphyrin induces rapid and marked degradation of the transcription factor Bach1 and up-regulates HO-1.

    PubMed

    Hou, Weihong; Shan, Ying; Zheng, Jianyu; Lambrecht, Richard W; Donohue, Susan E; Bonkovsky, Herbert L

    2008-03-01

    Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is the first and rate-controlling enzyme in heme degradation. Bach1 is a mammalian transcriptional repressor of HO-1. To understand how zinc mesoporphyrin (ZnMP) induces the expression of HO-1, we investigated the effects of ZnMP on Bach1 mRNA and protein levels in human hepatoma Huh-7 cells by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blots. We found that ZnMP markedly up-regulated HO-1 mRNA and protein levels, and rapidly and significantly decreased Bach1 protein levels by increasing degradation of Bach1 protein [half life (t(1/2)) from 19 h to 45 min], whereas ZnMP did not influence Bach1 mRNA levels. The proteasome inhibitors, epoxomicin and MG132, significantly inhibited degradation of Bach1 by ZnMP in a dose-dependent fashion, indicating that the degradation of Bach1 by ZnMP is proteasome-dependent. Purified Bach1 C-terminal fragment bound heme, but there was no evidence for binding of ZnMP to the heme-binding region of Bach1. In conclusion, ZnMP produces profound post-transcriptional down-regulation of Bach1 protein levels and transcriptional up-regulation of HO-1. Our results indicate that ZnMP up-regulates HO-1 gene expression by markedly increasing Bach1 protein degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner.

  12. HO-1 inhibits preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation at the onset of obesity via ROS dependent activation of Akt2

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Gabriel; Lindroos-Christensen, Josefine; Einwallner, Elisa; Husa, Julia; Zapf, Thea-Christin; Lipp, Katharina; Rauscher, Sabine; Gröger, Marion; Spittler, Andreas; Loewe, Robert; Gruber, Florian; Duvigneau, J. Catharina; Mohr, Thomas; Sutterlüty-Fall, Hedwig; Klinglmüller, Florian; Prager, Gerhard; Huppertz, Berthold; Yun, Jeanho; Wagner, Oswald; Esterbauer, Harald; Bilban, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of white adipose tissue (WAT) is a hallmark of obesity. The expansion of WAT in obesity involves proliferation and differentiation of adipose precursors, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we used an unbiased transcriptomics approach to identify the earliest molecular underpinnings occuring in adipose precursors following a brief HFD in mice. Our analysis identifies Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) as strongly and selectively being upregulated in the adipose precursor fraction of WAT, upon high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Specific deletion of HO-1 in adipose precursors of Hmox1fl/flPdgfraCre mice enhanced HFD-dependent visceral adipose precursor proliferation and differentiation. Mechanistically, HO-1 reduces HFD-induced AKT2 phosphorylation via ROS thresholding in mitochondria to reduce visceral adipose precursor proliferation. HO-1 influences adipogenesis in a cell-autonomous way by regulating events early in adipogenesis, during the process of mitotic clonal expansion, upstream of Cebpα and PPARγ. Similar effects on human preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation in vitro were observed upon modulation of HO-1 expression. This collectively renders HO-1 as an essential factor linking extrinsic factors (HFD) with inhibition of specific downstream molecular mediators (ROS & AKT2), resulting in diminished adipogenesis that may contribute to hyperplastic adipose tissue expansion. PMID:28102348

  13. Simvastatin Inhibits Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Through Induction of HO-1 in Cultured Renal Proximal Tubule Cells.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jeb S; Carter, Anthony J; Dixit, Mehul; Arany, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that simvastatin (SIM) inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a key step in fibrosis, and activates the anti-fibrotic heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene in renal proximal tubule cells independent of its lipid-lowering. We tested the hypothesis that SIM inhibits EMT via HO-1-dependent suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) release. Renal proximal tubule cells were treated with either 10 μM SIM or 10 ng/ml transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) or with their combination and promoter activity of the alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) gene, stress fiber formation (markers of EMT), as well as ROS production were determined. HO-1 was manipulated via genetic and pharmacologic means. SIM prevented TGFβ1-dependent EMT and ROS production. Inhibition/knockdown of HO-1 reversed, while induction/overexpression of HO-1 emulated beneficial effects of SIM. SIM, via HO-1, suppresses TGFβ1-dependent ROS production and, hence, EMT. Further evaluation of the anti-fibrotic nature of SIM in the kidney would be useful in the treatment of chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. Agrimonolide and Desmethylagrimonolide Induced HO-1 Expression in HepG2 Cells through Nrf2-Transduction and p38 Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Teng, Hui; Zhang, Kalin Yanbo; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Georgiev, Milen I.; Xiao, Jianbo

    2017-01-01

    Agrimonolide and desmethylagrimonolide are the main bioactive polyphenols in agrimony with well-documented antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory potential. We report here for the first time that agrimonolide and desmethylagrimonolide stimulate the expression of phase II detoxifying enzymes through the Nrf2-dependent signaling pathway. Agrimonolide and desmethylagrimonolide also possess considerable protective activity from oxidative DNA damage. In order to explore the cytoprotective potential of agrimonolide and desmethylagrimonolide on oxidative stress in liver, we developed an oxidative stress model in HepG2 cells, and check the hypothesis whether Nrf2 pathway is involved. Western blotting and luciferase assay revealed that exposure of HepG2 cells to agrimonolide or desmethylagrimonolide leads to increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression by activating ARE through induction of Nrf2 and suppression of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1). Moreover, agrimonolide and desmethylagrimonolide also activated ERK signaling pathways and significantly attenuated individual p38 MAPK expression, subsequently leading to Nrf2 nuclear translocation. In conclusion, our results indicated that transcriptional activation of Nrf2/ARE is critical in agrimonolide and desmethylagrimonolide-mediated HO-1 induction, which can be regulated partially by the blockade of p38 MAPK signaling pathway and inhibiting nuclear translocation of Nrf2. PMID:28119605

  15. AmeriFlux US-Ho1 Howland Forest (main tower)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hollinger, David [USDA Forest Service; Hollinger, David [USDA Forest Service

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ho1 Howland Forest (main tower). Site Description - Closed conifer forest, minimal disturbance. References: Fernandez et al. (1993), Canadian Journal of Soil Science 73 317-328. Hollinger et al. (1999), Global Change Biology 5: 891-902. Savage KE, Davidson EA (2001), Global Biogeochemical Cycles 15 337-350. Scott et al. (2004), Environmental Management, Vol. 33, Supplement 1, pp. S9-S22. Hollinger et al. (2004), Global Change Biology 10: 1689-1706.

  16. HO-1, RET and PML as possible markers for risk stratification of acute myelocytic leukemia and prognostic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Meisheng; Wang, Jishi; Ma, Dan; Chen, Shuya; Lin, Xiaojing; Fang, Qin; Zhe, Nana

    2015-11-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible isoform of HO that is activated in response to oxidative stress and has anti-apoptotic and pro-proliferative effects on leukemia cells. RET, a tyrosine kinase receptor; its expression levels are associated with the differentiation degree of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) cells. The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) gene inhibits cell proliferation and tumor growth, participates in the differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells and induces cell apoptosis. However, the association between the expression levels of HO-1, RET and PML genes and the risk stratification of AML and prognosis have not previously been reported. In the present study, HO-1 was expressed in the human AML Kasumi-1, HL-60 and THP-1 cell lines, and HO-1 expression was regulated by Hemin (20 µmol/l) and ZnPPIX (10 µmol/l). Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis demonstrated that expression of RET and PML were positively and negatively correlated with HO-1 expression, respectively. Bone marrow samples (18 favorable, 55 intermediate, 15 adverse and 2 unknown karyotype AML cases and 20 healthy donors) were collected from 90 randomly selected AML patients upon their first visit. The mRNA and protein expression of HO-1, RET and PML in samples was detected by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. At the mRNA level, the adverse group expressed significantly higher levels of HO-1 and RET compared with the levels in the favorable and normal groups. The PML mRNA expression levels in adverse patient samples was lower compared with those of the intermediate group and favorable group. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the expression levels of HO-1, RET and PML proteins in all risk groups exhibited the same pattern of expression as was observed for the mRNA levels. The overall survival and relapse-free survival rates were shortest in AML patients with high HO-1 expression (Kaplan-Meier; log-rank, P<0.01). The results of the

  17. HO-1 Signaling Activation by Pterostilbene Treatment Attenuates Mitochondrial Oxidative Damage Induced by Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Wang, Jiayi; Li, Yue; Fan, Chongxi; Jiang, Shuai; Zhao, Lei; Di, Shouyin; Xin, Zhenlong; Wang, Bodong; Wu, Guiling; Li, Xia; Li, Zhiqing; Gao, Xu; Dong, Yushu; Qu, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury (IRI) is harmful to the cerebral system and causes mitochondrial oxidative stress. The antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated antioxidant pathway plays an important role in maintaining the redox status of the brain. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), combined with potent AREs in the promoter of HO-1, is a highly effective therapeutic target for protection against cerebral IRI. Pterostilbene (PTE), a natural dimethylated analog of resveratrol from blueberries, is a strong natural antioxidant. PTE has been shown to be beneficial for some nervous system diseases and may regulate HO-1 signaling. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of PTE on cerebral IRI and to elucidate potential mechanisms underlying those effects. Mouse brains and cultured HT22 neuron cells were subjected to IRI. Prior to this procedure, the brains or cells were exposed to PTE in the absence or presence of the HO-1 inhibitor ZnPP or HO-1 small interfering RNA (siRNA). PTE conferred a cerebral protective effect, as shown by increased neurological scores, viable neurons and decreased brain edema as well as a decreased ion content and apoptotic ratio in vivo. PTE also increased the cell viability and decreased the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and apoptotic ratio in vitro. ZnPP and HO-1 siRNA both blocked PTE-mediated cerebral protection by inhibiting HO-1 signaling and further inhibited two HO-1 signaling-related antioxidant molecules: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), which are induced by PTE. PTE also promoted a well-preserved mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondria complex I activity, and mitochondria complex IV activity, increased the mitochondrial cytochrome c level, and decreased the cytosolic cytochrome c level. However, this PTE-elevated mitochondrial function was reversed by ZnPP or HO-1 siRNA treatment. In summary, our results demonstrate that PTE treatment attenuates cerebral IRI by

  18. The flavanol (−)-epicatechin prevents stroke damage through the Nrf2/HO1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Zahoor A; Li, Rung-chi; Ahmad, Abdullah S; Kensler, Thomas W; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Biswal, Shyam; Doré, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have shown that foods rich in polyphenols, such as flavanols, can lower the risk of ischemic heart disease; however, the mechanism of protection has not been clearly established. In this study, we investigated whether epicatechin (EC), a flavanol in cocoa and tea, is protective against brain ischemic damage in mice. Wild-type mice pretreated orally with 5, 15, or 30 mg/kg EC before middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) had significantly smaller brain infarcts and decreased neurologic deficit scores (NDS) than did the vehicle-treated group. Mice that were posttreated with 30 mg/kg of EC at 3.5 hours after MCAO also had significantly smaller brain infarcts and decreased NDS. Similarly, WT mice pretreated with 30 mg/kg of EC and subjected to N-methyl-aspartate (NMDA)-induced excitotoxicity had significantly smaller lesion volumes. Cell viability assays with neuronal cultures further confirmed that EC could protect neurons against oxidative insults. Interestingly, the EC-associated neuroprotection was mostly abolished in mice lacking the enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (HO1) or the transcriptional factor Nrf2, and in neurons derived from these knockout mice. These results suggest that EC exerts part of its beneficial effect through activation of Nrf2 and an increase in the neuroprotective HO1 enzyme. PMID:20442725

  19. Regulation of APC development, immune response, and autoimmunity by Bach1/HO-1 pathway in mice

    PubMed Central

    So, Alex Yick-Lun; Garcia-Flores, Yvette; Minisandram, Aarathi; Martin, Ayana; Taganov, Konstantin; Boldin, Mark

    2012-01-01

    APCs are essential for innate and adaptive immunity as well as self-immune tolerance. Here, we show that the Cap'n'collar member Bach1 regulates the generation of APCs, specifically macrophages and dendritic cells, in mice. The impaired APC development in Bach1−/− mice was accompanied by defects in downstream T-cell responses and partial protection from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Genomewide analyses identified a panel of Bach1 target genes and ablation of the direct Bach1 target gene HO-1 exacerbated the impaired APC development observed in Bach1−/− mice. This was attributed to the impaired ability of HO-1−/−Bach1−/− double mutants to produce upstream APC progenitor cells, including common myeloid progenitor (CMP)–Flk2+. By contrast, we observed an increase in hematopoietic stem-progenitor cells (HSPCs) in these mice, suggesting a developmental block in the progression of HSPCs to CMP-Flk2+ and subsequently APCs. PMID:22791292

  20. Overexpression of HO-1 assisted PM2.5-induced apoptosis failure and autophagy-related cell necrosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Li; Su, Baoting; Tian, Dongdong; Li, Yang; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Yimei; Peng, Shuangqing

    2017-11-01

    Severe smog/haze events accompanied by extremely high concentrations of airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have emerged frequently in China and the potential health risks have attracted ever-growing attention. During these episodes, a surge in hospital visits for acute respiratory symptoms and respiratory diseases exacerbation has been reported to be associated with acute exposure to high-levels of particulate matters. To investigate cell fate determination and the underlying pathogenic mechanisms during severe haze episodes or smog events, we exposed human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) to PM2.5 (0-400μg/mL) for 24h and found that high doses of PM2.5 caused cell necrosis and autophagy dysfunction, while co-treatment with the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA could partially reduce PM2.5-induced cell necrosis. Exposure to PM2.5 also increased the expression and mitochondrial transposition of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), which consequently reduced the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria to cytosol. Knockdown of HO-1 by siRNA attenuated the mitochondrial accumulation of HO-1, reversed HO-1-induced the reduction of cytochrome C release and promoted PM2.5-induced cell apoptosis. In contrast to necrosis, PM2.5-induced autophagy was independent of HO-1. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that acute exposure to high PM2.5 concentrations causes autophagy-related cell necrosis. The decrease in cytochrome C release and apoptosis by upregulation of HO-1 maybe assist PM2.5-induced autophagy-related cell necrosis. Further, this study reveals dual roles for HO-1 in PM2.5-induced cytotoxicity and presents a possible explanation for the onset of acute respiratory symptoms under extreme particulate air pollution. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Molecular cloning and expression of a cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) heme oxygenase-1 gene, CsHO1, which is involved in adventitious root formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Yue; Cao, Ze-Yu; Shen, Wen-Biao; Cui, Jin

    2011-10-15

    Our previous work showed that in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), auxin rapidly induces heme oxygenase (HO) activity and the product of HO action, carbon monoxide (CO), then triggers the signal transduction events leading to adventitious root formation. In this study, the cucumber HO-1 gene (named as CsHO1) was isolated and sequenced. It contains four exons and three introns and encodes a polypeptide of 291 amino acids. Further results show that CsHO1 shares a high homology with plant HO-1 proteins and codes a 33.3 kDa protein with a 65-amino transit peptide, predicting a mature protein of 26.1 kDa. The mature CsHO1 was expressed in Escherichia coli to produce a fusion protein, which exhibits HO activity. The CsHO1:GFP fusion protein was localized in the chloroplast. Related biochemical analyses of mature CsHO1, including Vmax, Km, Topt and pHopt, were also investigated. CsHO1 mRNA was found in germinating seeds, roots, stem, and especially in leaf tissues. Several well-known adventitious root inducers, including auxin, ABA, hemin, nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), CaCl(2), and sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), differentially up-regulate CsHO1 transcripts and corresponding protein levels. These results suggest that CsHO1 may be involved in cucumber adventitious rooting.

  2. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) heme oxygenase-1 gene, MsHO1, which is pro-oxidants-regulated.

    PubMed

    Fu, Guang-Qing; Xu, Sheng; Xie, Yan-Jie; Han, Bin; Nie, Li; Shen, Wen-Biao; Wang, Ren

    2011-07-01

    It has been documented that plant heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; EC 1.14.99.3) is both development- and stress-regulated, thus it plays a vital role in light signalling and stress responses. In this study, an alfalfa (Medica sativa L.) HO-1 gene MsHO1 was isolated and sequenced. It contains four exons and three introns within genomic DNA sequence and encodes a polypeptide with 283 amino acids. MsHO1 had a conserved HO signature sequence and showed high similarity to other HOs in plants, especially HO-1 isoform. The MsHO1:GFP fusion protein was localized in the chloroplast. Further biochemical activity analysis of mature MsHO1, which was expressed in Escherichia coli, showed that the Vmax was 48.78 nmol biliverdin-IXα (BV) h⁻¹ nmol⁻¹ protein with an apparent Km value for hemin of 2.33 μM, and the optimum Tm and pH were 37 °C and 7.2, respectively. Results of semi-quantitative RT-PCR and western blot showed that the expressions of MsHO1 were higher in alfalfa stems and leaves than those in germinating seeds and roots. Importantly, MsHO1 gene expression and protein level were induced significantly by some pro-oxidant compounds, including hemin and nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP). In conclusion, MsHO1 may play an important role in oxidative responses.

  3. Pre-emptive hypoxia-regulated HO-1 gene therapy improves post-ischaemic limb perfusion and tissue regeneration in mice.

    PubMed

    Jazwa, Agnieszka; Stepniewski, Jacek; Zamykal, Martin; Jagodzinska, Jolanta; Meloni, Marco; Emanueli, Costanza; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Jozef

    2013-01-01

    Haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a haem-degrading enzyme that generates carbon monoxide, bilirubin, and iron ions. Through these compounds, HO-1 mitigates cellular injury by exerting antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we examined the influence of HO-1 deficiency and transient hypoxia/ischaemia-induced HO-1 overexpression on post-injury hindlimb recovery. Mice lacking functional HO-1 (HO-1(-/-)) showed reduced reparative neovascularization in ischaemic skeletal muscles, impaired blood flow (BF) recovery, and increased muscle cell death compared with their wild-type littermates. Human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) transfected with plasmid vector (pHRE-HO-1) carrying human HO-1 driven by three hypoxia response elements (HREs) and cultured in 0.5% oxygen demonstrated markedly increased expression of HO-1. Such upregulated HO-1 levels were effective in conferring protection against H(2)O(2)-induced cell death and in promoting the proangiogenic phenotype of HMEC-1 cells. More importantly, when delivered in vivo, pHRE-HO-1 significantly improved the post-ischaemic foot BF in mice subjected to femoral artery ligation. These effects were associated with reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and CXCL1) and lower numbers of transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling-positive cells. Moreover, HO-1 delivered into mouse skeletal muscles seems to influence the regenerative potential of myocytes as it significantly changed the expression of transcriptional (Pax7, MyoD, myogenin) and post-transcriptional (miR-146a, miR-206) regulators of skeletal muscle regeneration. Our results suggest the therapeutic potential of HO-1 for prevention of adverse effects in critical limb ischaemia.

  4. Activated AMPK boosts the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling axis—A role for the unfolded protein response

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Kristin; Baldinger, Johannes; Mayerhofer, Barbara; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Dirsch, Verena M.; Heiss, Elke H.

    2015-01-01

    In light of the emerging interplay between redox and metabolic signaling pathways we investigated the potential cross talk between nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK), central regulators of the cellular redox and energy balance, respectively. Making use of xanthohumol (XN) as an activator of both the AMPK and the Nrf2 signaling pathway we show that AMPK exerts a positive influence on Nrf2/heme oxygenase (HO)-1 signaling in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Genetic ablation and pharmacological inhibition of AMPK blunts Nrf2-dependent HO-1 expression by XN already at the mRNA level. XN leads to AMPK activation via interference with mitochondrial function and activation of liver kinase B1 as upstream AMPK kinase. The subsequent AMPK-mediated enhancement of the Nrf2/HO-1 response does not depend on inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin, inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β, or altered abundance of Nrf2 (total and nuclear). However, reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress was identified and elaborated as a step in the AMPK-augmented Nrf2/HO-1 response. Overall, we shed more light on the hitherto incompletely understood cross talk between the LKB1/AMPK and the Nrf2/HO-1 axis revealing for the first time involvement of the unfolded protein response as an additional player and suggesting tight cooperation between signaling pathways controlling cellular redox, energy, or protein homeostasis. PMID:25843659

  5. Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenases in Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N: role in hexadecanol metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, M E; Finnerty, W R

    1985-01-01

    The role of fatty aldehyde dehydrogenases (FALDHs) in hexadecane and hexadecanol metabolism was studied in Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N. Two distinct FALDHs were demonstrated in Acinetobacter sp. strain HO1-N: a membrane-bound, NADP-dependent FALDH activity induced 5-, 15-, and 9-fold by growth on hexadecanol, dodecyl aldehyde, and hexadecane, respectively, and a constitutive, NAD-dependent, membrane-localized FALDH. The NADP-dependent FALDH exhibited apparent Km and Vmax values for decyl aldehyde of 5.0, 13.0, 18.0, and 18.3 microM and 537.0, 500.0, 25.0, and 38.0 nmol/min in hexadecane-, hexadecanol-, ethanol-, palmitate-grown cells, respectively. FALDH isozymes ald-a, ald-b, and ald-c were demonstrated by gel electrophoresis in extracts of hexadecane- and hexadecanol-grown cells. ald-a, ald-b, and ald-d were present in dodecyl aldehyde-grown cells, while palmitate-grown control cells contained ald-b and ald-d. Dodecyl aldehyde-negative mutants were isolated and grouped into two phenotypic classes based on growth: class 1 mutants were hexadecane and hexadecanol negative and class 2 mutants were hexadecane and hexadecanol positive. Specific activity of NADP-dependent FALDH in Ald21 (class 1 mutant) was 85% lower than that of wild-type FALDH, while the specific activity of Ald24 (class 2 mutant) was 55% greater than that of wild-type FALDH. Ald21R, a dodecyl aldehyde-positive revertant able to grow on hexadecane, hexadecanol, and dodecyl aldehyde, exhibited a 100% increase in the specific activity of the NADP-dependent FALDH. The oxidation of [3H]hexadecane byAld21 yielded the accumulation of 61% more fatty aldehyde than the wild type, while Ald24 accumulated 27% more fatty aldehyde, 95% more fatty alcohol, and 65% more wax ester than the wild type. This study provides genetic and physiological evidence for the role of fatty aldehyde as an essential metabolic intermediate and NADP-dependent FALDH as a key enzyme in the dissimilation of hexadecane, hexadecanol

  6. Contributions of reactive oxygen species and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in arsenite-stimulated hemeoxygenase-1 production

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Karen L.; Liu, Ke Jian; Hudson, Laurie G. . E-mail: lhudson@salud.unm.edu

    2007-01-15

    Hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an oxidative stress responsive gene upregulated by various physiological and exogenous stimuli. HO-1 has cytoprotective activities and arsenite is a potent inducer of HO-1 in many cell types and tissues, including epidermal keratinocytes. We investigated the potential contributions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation to arsenite-dependent regulation of HO-1 in HaCaT cells, an immortalized human keratinocyte line. Both epidermal growth factor (EGF) and arsenite stimulated ROS production was detected by dihydroethidium (DHE) staining and fluorescence microscopy. Arsenite induced HO-1 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, while HO-1 expression in response to EGF was modest and evident at extended time points (48-72 h). Inhibition of EGF receptor, MEK I/II or Src decreased arsenite-stimulated HO-1 expression by 20-30%. In contrast, addition of a superoxide scavenger or inhibition of p38 activity decreased the arsenite-dependent response by 80-90% suggesting that ROS and p38 are required for HO-1 induction. However, ROS generation alone was insufficient for the observed arsenite-dependent response as use of a xanthine/xanthine oxidase system to generate ROS did not produce an equivalent upregulation of HO-1. Cooperation between ERK signaling and ROS generation was demonstrated by synergistic induction of HO-1 in cells co-treated with EGF and xanthine/xanthine oxidase resulting in a response nearly equivalent to that observed with arsenite. These findings suggest that the ERK/MAPK activation is necessary but not sufficient for optimal arsenite-stimulated HO-1 induction. The robust and persistent upregulation of HO-1 may have a role in cellular adaptation to chronic arsenic exposure.

  7. Magnetic properties of Ho1- x Lu x B12 solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabáni, S.; Gaz̆o, E.; Pristás̆, G.; Takác̆ová, I.; Flachbart, K.; Shitsevalova, N.; Siemensmeyer, K.; Sluchanko, N.

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic properties of the geometrically frustrated antiferromagnet HoB12 (with T N = 7.4 K) modified by substitution of magnetic Ho atoms through non-magnetic Lu ones are presented and discussed. In this case, in Ho1- x Lu x B12 solid solutions, both chemical pressure resulting from different Lu3+ and Ho3+ radii and magnetic dilution take place with increasing Lu content ( x) that change properties of the system. The received results show strong indication for the existence of a quantum critical point near x = 0.9, which separates the region of magnetic order (starting with HoB12 for x = 0) and the nonmagnetic region (ending with superconducting LuB12 for x = 1).

  8. Modification of Caffeic Acid with Pyrrolidine Enhances Antioxidant Ability by Activating AKT/HO-1 Pathway in Heart

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Hui-Chun; Lee, Shih-Yi; Yang, Kai-Chien; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Su, Ming-Jai

    2016-01-01

    Overproduction of free radicals during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury leads to an interest in using antioxidant therapy. Activating an endogenous antioxidant signaling pathway is more important due to the fact that the free radical scavenging behavior in vitro does not always correlate with a cytoprotection effect in vivo. Caffeic acid (CA), an antioxidant, is a major phenolic constituent in nature. Pyrrolidinyl caffeamide (PLCA), a derivative of CA, was compared with CA for their antioxidant and cytoprotective effects. Our results indicate that CA and PLCA exert the same ability to scavenge DPPH in vitro. In response to myocardial I/R stress, PLCA was shown to attenuate lipid peroxydation and troponin release more than CA. These responses were accompanied with a prominent elevation in AKT and HO-1 expression and a preservation of mnSOD expression and catalase activity. PLCA also improved cell viability and alleviated the intracellular ROS level more than CA in cardiomyocytes exposed to H2O2. When inhibiting the AKT or HO-1 pathways, PLCA lost its ability to recover mnSOD expression and catalase activity to counteract with oxidative stress, suggesting AKT/HO-1 pathway activation by PLCA plays an important role. In addition, inhibition of AKT signaling further abolished HO-1 activity, while inhibition of HO-1 signaling attenuated AKT expression, indicating cross-talk between the AKT and HO-1 pathways. These protective effects may contribute to the cardiac function improvement by PLCA. These findings provide new insight into therapeutic approaches using a modified natural compound against oxidative stress from myocardial injuries. PMID:26845693

  9. Hydroxysafflor yellow A promotes neovascularization and cardiac function recovery through HO-1/VEGF-A/SDF-1α cascade.

    PubMed

    Wei, Guo; Yin, Ying; Duan, Jialin; Guo, Chao; Zhu, Yanrong; Wang, Yanhua; Xi, Miaomiao; Wen, Aidong

    2017-04-01

    The present study was to investigate the proangiogenic and cardioprotective effects of hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) against myocardial infarction (MI) injury and the underlying mechanisms. MI model was induced by ligation of the left coronary artery in normal and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) knockout mice and the ones receiving vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) or stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) antagonists. They were treated with three doses or single dose of HSYA for 28days. The cardiac function, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) mobilization, angiogenesis, the expression of HO-1, VEGF-A, SDF-1α and apoptosis or fibrosis related proteins in the peri-infarct area were evaluated at respective times. We further examined the effect of HSYA on EPCs CXC chemokiner receptor 4 (CXCR4) expression and the role of SDF-1α on EPCs function in vitro. HSYA could dose dependently reduce left ventricular function impairment, myocardial apoptosis and fibrosis, and promote EPCs mobilization and myocardial neovascularization. Further, HO-1 knockout abolished HSYA-induced up-regulation of HO-1, VEGF-A and SDF-1α. VEGF antagonist significantly reduced HSYA-increased VEGF-A and SDF-1α levels and SDF-1 antagonist abolished HSYA-simulated up-regulation of SDF-1α. Meanwhile, HO-1 knockout, administration of VEGF and SDF-1 antibodies abrogated HSYA-promoted expression of the marker proteins of newborn microvessels and cardiac functional recovery. In vitro, HSYA dose dependently promoted (CXCR4) expression on EPCs. SDF-1α significantly accelerated EPCs function which was reversed by CXCR4 antagonist. HSYA could promote EPCs function through the HO-1/VEGF-A/SDF-1α signaling cascade, which contributed largely to myocardial neovascularization and further improved cardiac function in MI mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Luteolin protects mice from severe acute pancreatitis by exerting HO-1-mediated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jie; Wang, Kezhou; Yuan, Chunxiao; Xing, Rong; Ni, Jianbo; Hu, Guoyong; Chen, Fengling; Wang, Xingpeng

    2017-01-01

    Reseda odorata L. has long been used in traditional Asian medicine for the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative injury and acute inflammation, such as endotoxemia, acute lung injury, acute myocardial infarction and hepatitis. Luteolin, the main component of Reseda odorata L., which is also widely found in many natural herbs and vege-tables, has been shown to induce heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of luteolin on mice with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Cerulein and lipopolysaccharide were used to induce SAP in male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice in the SAP group. The SAP group was divided into 4 subgroups, as follows: the vehicle, luteolin, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) only, and luteolin (Lut) + ZnPP (luteolin plus zinc protoporphyrin treatment) groups. The wet/dry weight ratios, hematoxylin and eosin staining and pathological scores of pancreatic tissues were assessed and compared to those of the control mice. Amylase, lipase, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and myeloperoxidase activities, and malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and HO-1 levels, as well as the expression of HO-1 were determined in serum and/or pancreatic tissue samples. SAP was successfully induced in male mice compared to normal control mice. The wet/dry weight ratios, pathological scores, and amylase and lipase activity, as well as the levels of TNFα and IL-6 were significantly reduced in the pancreatic tissues of the mice in the Lut group compared with those of the mice in the vehicle group. The Lut group exhibited a significant increase in HO-1 expression in the pancreas and enhanced serum HO-1 and IL-10 levels compared with the vehicle group. The suppression of HO-1 activity in the ZnPP group significantly abolished the protective effects of luteolin. NF-κB expression in

  11. HO-1 inhibits IL-13-induced goblet cell hyperplasia associated with CLCA1 suppression in normal human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mishina, Kei; Shinkai, Masaharu; Shimokawaji, Tadasuke; Nagashima, Akimichi; Hashimoto, Yusuke; Inoue, Yoriko; Inayama, Yoshiaki; Rubin, Bruce K; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Kaneko, Takeshi

    2015-12-01

    Mucus hypersecretion and goblet cell hyperplasia are common features that characterize asthma. IL-13 increases mucin (MUC) 5AC, the major component of airway mucus, in airway epithelial cells. According to the literature, IL-13 receptor activation leads to STAT6 activation and consequent induction of chloride channel accessory 1 (CLCA1) gene expression, associated with the induction of MUC5AC. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an enzyme that catalyzes oxidation of heme to biliverdin, and has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. We examined the effects of HO-1 on mucin production and goblet cell hyperplasia induced by IL-13. Moreover, we assessed the cell signaling intermediates that appear to be responsible for mucin production. Normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were grown at air liquid interface (ALI) in the presence or absence of IL-13 and hemin, a HO-1 inducer, for 14 days. Protein concentration was analyzed using ELISA, and mRNA expression was examined by real-time PCR. Histochemical analysis was performed using HE staining, andWestern blotting was performed to evaluate signaling transduction pathway. Hemin (4 μM) significantly increased HO-1 protein expression (p b 0.01) and HO-1 mRNA expression (p b 0.001). IL-13 significantly increased goblet cells, MUC5AC protein secretion (p b 0.01) and MUC5AC mRNA (p b 0.001), and these were decreased by hemin by way of HO-1. Tin protoporphyrin (SnPP)-IX, a HO-1 inhibitor, blocked the effect of hemin restoring MUC5AC protein secretion (p b 0.05) and goblet cell hyperplasia. Hemin decreased the expression of CLCA1 mRNA (p b 0.05) and it was reversed by SnPP-IX, but could not suppress IL-13-induced phosphorylation of STAT6 or SAM pointed domain-containing ETS transcription factor (SPDEF) and Forkhead box A2 (FOXA2) mRNA expression. In summary, HO-1 overexpression suppressed IL-13-induced goblet cell hyperplasia and MUC5AC production, and involvement of CLCA1 in the mechanism was suggested.

  12. Luteolin protects mice from severe acute pancreatitis by exerting HO-1-mediated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Jie; Wang, Kezhou; Yuan, Chunxiao; Xing, Rong; Ni, Jianbo; Hu, Guoyong; Chen, Fengling; Wang, Xingpeng

    2017-01-01

    Reseda odorata L. has long been used in traditional Asian medicine for the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative injury and acute inflammation, such as endotoxemia, acute lung injury, acute myocardial infarction and hepatitis. Luteolin, the main component of Reseda odorata L., which is also widely found in many natural herbs and vege tables, has been shown to induce heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of luteolin on mice with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Cerulein and lipopolysaccharide were used to induce SAP in male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice in the SAP group. The SAP group was divided into 4 subgroups, as follows: the vehicle, luteolin, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) only, and luteolin (Lut) + ZnPP (luteolin plus zinc protoporphyrin treatment) groups. The wet/dry weight ratios, hematoxylin and eosin staining and pathological scores of pancreatic tissues were assessed and compared to those of the control mice. Amylase, lipase, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and myeloperoxidase activities, and malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and HO-1 levels, as well as the expression of HO-1 were determined in serum and/or pancreatic tissue samples. SAP was successfully induced in male mice compared to normal control mice. The wet/dry weight ratios, pathological scores, and amylase and lipase activity, as well as the levels of TNFα and IL-6 were significantly reduced in the pancreatic tissues of the mice in the Lut group compared with those of the mice in the vehicle group. The Lut group exhibited a significant increase in HO-1 expression in the pancreas and enhanced serum HO-1 and IL-10 levels compared with the vehicle group. The suppression of HO-1 activity in the ZnPP group significantly abolished the protective effects of luteolin. NF-κB expression in the pancreatic tissues

  13. Nuclear Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) Modulates Subcellular Distribution and Activation of Nrf2, Impacting Metabolic and Anti-oxidant Defenses*

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Chhanda; Shah, Nidhi; Muthu, Manasa; La, Ping; Fernando, Amal P.; Sengupta, Shaon; Yang, Guang; Dennery, Phyllis A.

    2014-01-01

    With oxidative injury as well as in some solid tumors and myeloid leukemia cells, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic microsomal stress protein, migrates to the nucleus in a truncated and enzymatically inactive form. However, the function of HO-1 in the nucleus is not completely clear. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor and master regulator of numerous antioxidants and anti-apoptotic proteins, including HO-1, also accumulates in the nucleus with oxidative injury and in various types of cancer. Here we demonstrate that in oxidative stress, nuclear HO-1 interacts with Nrf2 and stabilizes it from glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β)-mediated phosphorylation coupled with ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation, thereby prolonging its accumulation in the nucleus. This regulation of Nrf2 post-induction by nuclear HO-1 is important for the preferential transcription of phase II detoxification enzymes such as NQO1 as well as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), a regulator of the pentose phosphate pathway. Using Nrf2 knock-out cells, we further demonstrate that nuclear HO-1-associated cytoprotection against oxidative stress depends on an HO-1/Nrf2 interaction. Although it is well known that Nrf2 induces HO-1 leading to mitigation of oxidant stress, we propose a novel mechanism by which HO-1, by modulating the activation of Nrf2, sets an adaptive reprogramming that enhances antioxidant defenses. PMID:25107906

  14. Knockout of ho-1 protects the striatum from ferrous iron-induced injury in a male-specific manner in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Fang; Yokoyama, Kazunari K.; Lin, Chih-Lung; Chen, Tzu-Yin; Hsiao, Hsiu-Wen; Chiang, Pei-Chi; Hsu, Chin

    2016-01-01

    Men have worse survival than premenopausal women after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). After ICH, overproduction of iron associated with induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in brain was observed. Rodent ICH model using ferrous citrate (FC)-infusion into the striatum to simulate iron overload, showed a higher degree of injury severity in males than in females. However, the participation of HO-1 in sex-differences of iron-induced brain injury remains unknown. The present results showed a higher level of HO-1 expression associated with more severe injury in males compared with females after FC-infusion. Estradiol (E2) contributed to lower levels of FC-induced HO-1 expression in females compared with males. Heterozygote ho-1 KO decreased the levels of FC-induced injury severity, histological lesions, behavioral deficits, autophagy and autophagic cell death in the striatum of males but not in females. Moreover, ho-1 deficiency enhanced the neuroprotection by E2 only in males. These results suggested that over induction of HO-1 plays a harmful role in FC-induced brain injury in a male-specific manner. Suppression of HO-1 combined with E2 exhibits a synergistic effect on neuroprotection against FC-induced striatal injury in males. These findings open up the prospect for male-specific neuroprotection targeting HO-1 suppression for patients suffering from striatal iron overload. PMID:27198537

  15. High expression of HO-1 predicts poor prognosis of ovarian cancer patients and promotes proliferation and aggressiveness of ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Z; Xu, Y; Lu, J; Xue, J; Liu, P

    2017-08-14

    HO-1 has been proved to be associated with tumor aggressivity and poor prognosis in various cancers. Our study provides the first study to demonstrate the relationship of HO-1 expression and clinical characteristics in ovarian cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to examine the expression of HO-1 in tissue species and fresh tissues. CCK-8 was used to investigate cell viability. Transwell chamber was performed to estimate migration and invasion capacities in A2780 and Skov-3 cells. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting showed that the expression of HO-1 was higher in ovarian cancer tissues than normal ovarian tissues. High expression of HO-1 was significantly associated with serous ovarian cancer, high FIGO stage, lymph node metastasis, and non-optimal debulking. Patients with high expression of HO-1 exhibited an unfavorable prognosis. In vitro inducing the expression of HO-1 promoted the proliferation and metastasis of A2780 and Skov-3 cells, with the increased expressions of mesenchymal marker (Vimentin), epithelial-mesenchymal transition-associated transcript factor (Zeb-1), anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2), and the decreased expressions of epithelial marker (Keratin) and pro-apoptotic protein (Bax). Meanwhile, after incubating A2780 and Skov-3 together with HO-1 inhibitor, above results could be reversed. HO-1 might be a potential marker for prediction of ovarian cancer prognosis and a target for ovarian cancer treatment.

  16. Knockout of ho-1 protects the striatum from ferrous iron-induced injury in a male-specific manner in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Fang; Yokoyama, Kazunari K; Lin, Chih-Lung; Chen, Tzu-Yin; Hsiao, Hsiu-Wen; Chiang, Pei-Chi; Hsu, Chin

    2016-05-20

    Men have worse survival than premenopausal women after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). After ICH, overproduction of iron associated with induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in brain was observed. Rodent ICH model using ferrous citrate (FC)-infusion into the striatum to simulate iron overload, showed a higher degree of injury severity in males than in females. However, the participation of HO-1 in sex-differences of iron-induced brain injury remains unknown. The present results showed a higher level of HO-1 expression associated with more severe injury in males compared with females after FC-infusion. Estradiol (E2) contributed to lower levels of FC-induced HO-1 expression in females compared with males. Heterozygote ho-1 KO decreased the levels of FC-induced injury severity, histological lesions, behavioral deficits, autophagy and autophagic cell death in the striatum of males but not in females. Moreover, ho-1 deficiency enhanced the neuroprotection by E2 only in males. These results suggested that over induction of HO-1 plays a harmful role in FC-induced brain injury in a male-specific manner. Suppression of HO-1 combined with E2 exhibits a synergistic effect on neuroprotection against FC-induced striatal injury in males. These findings open up the prospect for male-specific neuroprotection targeting HO-1 suppression for patients suffering from striatal iron overload.

  17. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) protects skin cells from ionizing radiation via heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) overexpression.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Xu, Jing; Ge, Yangyang; Cao, Han; Ge, Xin; Luo, Judong; Xue, Jiao; Yang, Hongying; Zhang, Shuyu; Cao, Jianping

    2014-11-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenolic constituent of green tea, is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger that may have therapeutic applications for the treatment of many disorders. Radiation therapy is widely used for the treatment of various types of cancers; however, radiation-induced skin injury remains a serious concern. EGCG has not yet been reported as protecting skin cells against ionizing radiation. In the present study, we investigated whether EGCG confers cytoprotection against ionizing radiation. We found that, compared with the control, pretreatment with EGCG significantly enhanced the viability of human skin cells that were irradiated with X-rays, and decreased apoptosis induced by X-ray irradiation. Mito-Tracker assay showed that EGCG suppressed the damage to mitochondria induced by ionizing radiation via upregulation of SOD2. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HaCaT cells were significantly reduced when pretreated with EGCG before irradiation. Radiation-induced γH2AX foci, which are representative of DNA double-strand breaks, were decreased by pretreatment with EGCG. Furthermore, EGCG induced the expression of the cytoprotective molecule heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in a dose-dependent manner via transcriptional activation. HO-1 knockdown or treatment with the HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPPIX) reversed the protective role of EGCG, indicating an important role for HO-1. These results suggest that EGCG offers a new strategy for protecting skin against ionizing radiation.

  18. The Chinese herbal formula Free and Easy Wanderer ameliorates oxidative stress through KEAP1-NRF2/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chunlan; Cao, Jingming; Wu, Ching-Fen; Kadioglu, Onat; Schüffler, Anja; Kauhl, Ulrich; Klauck, Sabine M; Opatz, Till; Thines, Eckhard; Paul, Norbert W; Efferth, Thomas

    2017-09-14

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) gains a lot of attention due to high prevalence and strong psychological upset, but the etiology remains undefined and effective treatment is quite limited. Growing studies demonstrated the involvement of oxidative stress in various psychiatry diseases, suggesting anti-oxidation therapy might be a strategy for PTSD treatment. Free and Easy Wanderer (FAEW) is a poly-herbal drug clinically used in China for hundreds of years in the treatment of psychiatric disorder. We hypothesized that FAEW exerts clinical effects through the activity against oxidative stress with fluoxetine as antidepressant control drug. Our results revealed that FAEW significantly reduced both endogenous and H2O2-induced exogenous ROS levels in the human glioblastoma T98G and neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell lines. Transcriptome-wide microarray analysis indicated NRF2/HO-1 as the common target of FAEW and fluoxetine. Western blotting assay proved that the two drugs promoted NRF2 release from KEAP1 in the cytoplasm and translocation to the nuclei in a KEAP1-dependent manner, the expression of the protein HO-1 increased accordingly, suggesting the participation of KEAP1-NRF2/HO-1 pathway. The chemical constituents of FAEW (i.e. paeoniflorin, baicalin) bound to KEAP1 in silico, which hence might be the effective substances of FAEW. In conclusion, FAEW counteracted H2O2-induced oxidative stress through KEAP1-NRF2/HO-1 pathway.

  19. Identification of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) as a novel negative regulator of mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Wysoczynski, Marcin; Ratajczak, Janina; Pedziwiatr, Daniel; Rokosh, Gregg; Bolli, Roberto; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z

    2015-02-01

    Activation of complement cascade (ComC) play and important role in mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) from bone marrow (BM) into peripheral blood (PB). While there are vast experimental data on the mechanisms and factors that induce or promote mobilization of HSPCs, there is relatively less data on negative regulators of this process. We demonstrate for the first time that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) that has a well-documented anti-inflammatory potential plays an important and heretofore unrecognized role in retention of HSPCs in BM niches by i) modulating negatively activation of mobilization promoting ComC, ii) maintaining stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) level in the BM microenvironment and iii) attenuating chemotactic responsiveness of HSPCs to SDF-1 and sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) gradients in PB. Furthermore, our data showing a positive mobilizing effect by a non-toxic small-molecule inhibitor of HO-1 (SnPP) suggest that blockade of HO-1 would be a promising strategy to facilitate mobilization of HSPCs. Further studies are also needed to evaluate better the molecular mechanisms responsible for the potential effect of HO-1 in homing of HSPCs after transplantation.

  20. Cerium oxide nanoparticles alleviate oxidative stress and decreases Nrf-2/HO-1 in D-GALN/LPS induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Reem M; Rashd, Laila A; Hashem, Khalid S; Soliman, Hatem M

    2015-07-01

    Translocation of the master regulator of antioxidant-response element-driven antioxidant gene, nuclear factor erythroid 2 (Nrf-2) from the cytoplasm into the nucleus and triggering the transcription of hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1) to counteract the oxidative stress is a key feature in D-galactoseamine and lipopolysaccharide (D-GALN/LPS) induced hepatotoxicity. We mainly aimed to study the effect of cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles on Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway whereas; it has previously shown to have an antioxidant effect in liver models. Administration of CeO2 nanoparticles significantly decreased the translocation of the cytoplasmic Nrf-2 with a concomitant decrement in the gene expression of HO-1 as it reveals a powerful antioxidative effect as indicated by the significant increase in the levels of glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPX1), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. In synchronization, a substantial decrement in the levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), TBARS and percentage of DNA fragmentation was established. These results were confirmed by histopathology examination which showed a severe degeneration, haemorrhages, widened sinusoids and focal leukocyte infiltration in D-GALN/LPS treatment and these features were alleviated with CeO2 administration. In conclusion, CeO2 is a potential antioxidant that can effectively decrease the translocation of the cytoplasmic Nrf-2 into the nucleus and decrease HO-1 in D-GALN/LPS induced hepatotoxicity.

  1. Endothelial HO-1 induction by model TG-rich lipoproteins is regulated through a NOX4-Nrf2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Latham Birt, Sally H; Purcell, Robert; Botham, Kathleen M; Wheeler-Jones, Caroline P D

    2016-07-01

    Circulating levels of chylomicron remnants (CMRs) increase postprandially and their composition directly reflects dietary lipid intake. These TG-rich lipoproteins likely contribute to the development of endothelial dysfunction, albeit via unknown mechanisms. Here, we investigated how the FA composition of CMRs influences their actions on human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) by comparing the effects of model CMRs-artificial TG-rich CMR-like particles (A-CRLPs)-containing TGs extracted from fish, DHA-rich algal, corn, or palm oils. HAECs responded with distinct transcriptional programs according to A-CRLP TG content and oxidation status, with genes involved in antioxidant defense and cytoprotection most prominently affected by n-3 PUFA-containing A-CRLPs. These particles were significantly more efficacious inducers of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) than n-6 PUFA corn or saturated FA-rich palm CRLPs. Mechanistically, HO-1 induction by all CRLPs requires NADPH oxidase 4, with PUFA-containing particles additionally dependent upon mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Activation of both p38 MAPK and PPARβ/δ culminates in increased nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression/nuclear translocation and HO-1 induction. These studies define new molecular pathways coupling endothelial cell activation by model CMRs with adaptive regulation of Nrf2-dependent HO-1 expression and may represent key mechanisms through which dietary FAs differentially impact progression of endothelial dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Evaluation of HO-1 expression, cellular ROS production, cellular proliferation and cellular apoptosis in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma tumors and cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ren, Quan-Guang; Yang, Sheng-Li; Hu, Jian-Li; Li, Pin-Dong; Chen, Ye-Shan; Wang, Qiu-Shuang

    2016-04-01

    Patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) have a poor prognosis. However, the related mechanisms are unclear, thus we investigated the expression of HO-1 in ESCC tissue and explored possible mechanisms of tumor progression. Expression of HO-1 was examined by immunohistochemistry in 143 ESCC tumors. The correlation of HO-1 with clinicopathological characteristics was also examined. Two human ESCC cell lines, TE-13 and Eca109 were studied. Silencing of cell line HO-1 by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) was evaluated using real-time quantitative PCR. Cell line viability, apoptosis and intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after transfection were determined using MTT and flow cytometry, respectively. HO-1, Bax, Bcl-2 and A-caspase-3/-9 expression was evaluated using western blot analyses. We found that HO-1 was expressed in 58 of 143 ESCC tumors, mainly in the cytoplasm. There was a significant association between HO-1 expression and tumor grade (P<0.001). Knockdown of HO-1 expression in cell lines was associated with significantly decreased cellular proliferation (P<0.05) and a higher rate of apoptosis (P<0.001) 48 h after treatment. Treatment of the cell lines with the ROS inhibitor N-acetylcysteine abrogated this effect. Knockdown of HO-1 was associated with increased A-caspase-3 and -9 expression, but no change in Bax or Bcl-2 expression or Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was observed. Thus, the present study identified that ESCC tumors frequently expressed HO-1. Knockdown of HO-1 promoted apoptosis through activation of a ROS-mediated caspase apoptosis pathway.

  3. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 induction prevents Endoplasmic Reticulum stress-mediated endothelial cell death and impaired angiogenic capacity.

    PubMed

    Maamoun, Hatem; Zachariah, Matshediso; McVey, John H; Green, Fiona R; Agouni, Abdelali

    2017-03-01

    Most of diabetic cardiovascular complications are attributed to endothelial dysfunction and impaired angiogenesis. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and oxidative stresses were shown to play a pivotal role in the development of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes. Hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) was shown to protect against oxidative stress in diabetes; however, its role in alleviating ER stress-induced endothelial dysfunction remains not fully elucidated. We aim here to test the protective role of HO-1 against high glucose-mediated ER stress and endothelial dysfunction and understand the underlying mechanisms with special emphasis on oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death. Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) were grown in either physiological or intermittent high concentrations of glucose for 5days in the presence or absence of Cobalt (III) Protoporphyrin IX chloride (CoPP, HO-1 inducer) or 4-Phenyl Butyric Acid (PBA, ER stress inhibitor). Using an integrated cellular and molecular approach, we then assessed ER stress and inflammatory responses, in addition to apoptosis and angiogenic capacity in these cells. Our results show that HO-1 induction prevented high glucose-mediated increase of mRNA and protein expression of key ER stress markers. Cells incubated with high glucose exhibited high levels of oxidative stress, activation of major inflammatory and apoptotic responses [nuclear factor (NF)-κB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)] and increased rate of apoptosis; however, cells pre-treated with CoPP or PBA were fully protected. In addition, high glucose enhanced caspases 3 and 7 cleavage and activity and augmented cleaved poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) expression whereas HO-1 induction prevented these effects. Finally, HO-1 induction and ER stress inhibition prevented high glucose-induced reduction in NO release and impaired the angiogenic capacity of HUVECs, and enhanced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A expression. Altogether, we show here the

  4. Neurotherapeutic effects of novel HO-1 inhibitors in vitro and in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ajay; Lacoste, Baptiste; Pistell, Paul J; Pistel, Paul J; Ingram, Donald K; Hamel, Edith; Alaoui-Jamali, Moulay A; Szarek, Walter A; Vlahakis, Jason Z; Jie, Su; Song, Wei; Schipper, Hyman M

    2014-12-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) encoded by the HMOX1 gene is a 32-kDa stress protein that catabolizes heme to biliverdin, free iron, and carbon monoxide (CO). Glial HO-1 is over-expressed in the CNS of subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and multiple sclerosis (MS). The HMOX1 gene is exquisitely sensitive to oxidative stress and is induced in brain and other tissues in various models of disease and trauma. Induction of the glial HMOX1 gene may lead to pathological brain iron deposition, intracellular oxidative damage, and bioenergetic failure in AD and other human CNS disorders such as PD and MS. Therefore, targeted suppression of glial HO-1 hyperactivity may prove to be a rational and effective therapeutic intervention in AD and related neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we report the effects of QC-47, QC-56, and OB-28, novel azole-based competitive and reversible inhibitors of HO-1, on oxidative damage to whole-cell and mitochondrial compartments in rat astrocytes transfected with the HMOX1 gene. We also report the effect of OB-28 on the behavior and neuropathology of APP(swe)/PS1(∆E9) mice. OB-28 was found to reduce oxidative damage to whole-cell and mitochondrial compartments in rat astrocytes transfected with the HMOX1 gene. Moreover, OB-28 was found to significantly counter behavioral deficits and neuropathological alterations in APP(swe)/PS1(∆E9) mice. Attenuation of AD-associated behavioral deficits and neuropathological changes suggests that HO-1 may be a promising target for neuroprotective intervention in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. We propose that the targeted suppression of glial heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) hyperactivity may prove to be a rational and effective therapeutic intervention in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related neurodegenerative disorders. We report attenuation by a selective HO-1 inhibitor of oxidative damage to whole-cell and mitochondrial compartments in astrocytes in vitro and amelioration

  5. Salidroside Reduces High-Glucose-Induced Podocyte Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress via Upregulating Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) Expression.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hua; Li, Ying; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Maodong; Chi, Yanqing; Liu, Shuxia; Shi, Yonghong

    2017-08-23

    BACKGROUND Hyperglycemia is one of the most dangerous factors causing diabetic nephropathy. Salidroside is considered to have the effects of reducing oxidative stress damage and improving cell viability. This study was performed to investigate whether and how salidroside reduces high-glucose (HG)-induced apoptosis in mouse podocytes. MATERIAL AND METHODS We examined whether salidroside could decrease HG-induced podocyte oxidative stress and podocyte apoptosis in vitro. The potential signaling pathways were also investigated. Podocytes (immortalized mouse epithelial cells) were treated with normal glucose (5.5 mM) as control or HG (30 mM), and then exposed to salidroside treatment. RESULTS HG enhanced the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis in podocytes. Salidroside reduced HG-induced apoptosis-related consequences via promoting HO-1 expression. Salidroside increased the expression level of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and phosphorylated ILK (p-ILK), p-JNK, and p-ERK and localization of Nrf-2. JNK inhibitor and ILK inhibitor decreased HO-1 expression to different degrees. Moreover, specific siRNAs of ILK, Nrf-2, and HO-1, and inhibitors of HO-1 and ILK significantly increased ROS generation and Caspase9/3 expression in the presence of salidroside and HG. CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that salidroside reduces HG-induced ROS generation and apoptosis and improves podocytes viability by upregulating HO-1 expression. ILK/Akt, JNK, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and Nrf-2 are involved in salidroside-decreased podocyte apoptosis in HG condition.

  6. Protocatechualdehyde Protects Against Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Oxidative Injury Via Protein Kinase Cε/Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chao; Wang, Shiquan; Duan, Jialin; Jia, Na; Zhu, Yanrong; Ding, Yi; Guan, Yue; Wei, Guo; Yin, Ying; Xi, Miaomaio; Wen, Aidong

    2017-03-01

    Oxidative stress is closely related to the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. Protocatechualdehyde (PCA) is a phenolic acid compound that has the putative antioxidant activities. The present study was aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in the antioxidative effect of PCA against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. The experiment stroke model was produced in Sprague-Dawley rats via middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). To model ischemia-like conditions in vitro, differentiated SH-SY5Y cells were exposed to transient oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). Treatment with PCA significantly improved neurologic score, reduced infarct volume and necrotic neurons, and also decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) contents at 24 h after reperfusion. Meanwhile, PCA significantly increased the transcription nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expressions in the ischemic cerebral cortex as shown by immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis. In vitro experiment showed that PCA protected differentiated SH-SY5Y cells against OGD-induced injury. Likewise, PCA also increased markedly the Nrf2 and HO-1 expressions in a dose-dependent manner. The neuroprotection effect of PCA was abolished by knockdown of Nrf2 and HO-1. Moreover, knockdown of protein kinase Cε (PKCε) also blocked PCA-induced Nfr2 nuclear translocation, HO-1 expression, and neuroprotection. Taken together, these results provide evidences that PCA can protect against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative injury, and the neuroprotective effect involves the PKCε/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

  7. Differentiation impairs Bach1 dependent HO-1 activation and increases sensitivity to oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Piras, Sabrina; Furfaro, Anna Lisa; Brondolo, Lorenzo; Passalacqua, Mario; Marinari, Umberto Maria; Pronzato, Maria Adelaide; Nitti, Mariapaola

    2017-08-08

    Neuronal adaptation to oxidative stress is crucially important in order to prevent degenerative diseases. The role played by the Nrf2/HO-1 system in favoring cell survival of neuroblastoma (NB) cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has been investigated using undifferentiated or all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. While undifferentiated cells were basically resistant to the oxidative stimulus, ATRA treatment progressively decreased cell viability in response to H2O2. HO-1 silencing decreased undifferentiated cell viability when exposed to H2O2, proving the role of HO-1 in cell survival. Conversely, ATRA differentiated cells exposed to H2O2 showed a significantly lower induction of HO-1, and only the supplementation with low doses of bilirubin (0,5-1 μM) restored viability. Moreover, the nuclear level of Bach1, repressor of HO-1 transcription, strongly decreased in undifferentiated cells exposed to oxidative stress, while did not change in ATRA differentiated cells. Furthermore, Bach1 was displaced from HO-1 promoter in undifferentiated cells exposed to H2O2, enabling the binding of Nrf2. On the contrary, in ATRA differentiated cells treated with H2O2, Bach1 displacement was impaired, preventing Nrf2 binding and limiting HO-1 transcription. In conclusion, our findings highlight the central role of Bach1 in HO-1-dependent neuronal response to oxidative stress.

  8. Trimetazidine protects retinal ganglion cells from acute glaucoma via the Nrf2/Ho-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wan, Peixing; Su, Wenru; Zhang, Yingying; Li, Zhidong; Deng, Caibin; Zhuo, Yehong

    2017-09-15

    Acute glaucoma is one of the leading causes of irreversible vision impairment characterized by the rapid elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) and consequent retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation have been considered critical for the pathogenesis of RGC death in acute glaucoma. Trimetazidine (TMZ), an anti-ischemic drug, possesses antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, contributing to its therapeutic potential in tissue damage. However, the role of TMZ in acute glaucoma and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report that treatment with TMZ significantly attenuated retinal damage and RGC death in mice with acute glaucoma, with a significant decrease in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokine production in the retina. Furthermore, TMZ treatment directly decreased ROS production and rebalanced the intracellular redox state, thus contributing to the survival of RGCs in vitro TMZ treatment also reduced the production of inflammatory cytokines in vitro Mechanistically, the TMZ-mediated inhibition of apoptosis and inflammatory cytokine production in RGCs occurred via the regulation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/heme oxygenase 1/caspase-8 pathway. Moreover, the TMZ-mediated neuroprotection in acute glaucoma was abrogated when an HO-1 inhibitor, SnPP, was used. Our findings identify potential mechanisms of RGC apoptosis and propose a novel therapeutic agent, TMZ, which exerts a precise neuroprotective effect against acute glaucoma. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. H2S confers colonoprotection against TNBS-induced colitis by HO-1 upregulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Kupai, Krisztina; Almási, Nikoletta; Kósa, Magdolna; Nemcsók, János; Murlasits, Zsolt; Török, Szilvia; Al-Awar, Amin; Baráth, Zoltán; Pósa, Anikó; Varga, Csaba

    2017-08-02

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous mediator that contributes to many important physiological processes including vasodilation and vascular smooth muscle relaxation; in turn, preventing tissue damage and reducing inflammation. Heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes, of which HO-1 is inducible by harmful stimuli, were found to regulate intestinal inflammation in experimental animal models of colitis. We aimed to investigate the protective effects of H2S against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats, and whether HO enzyme system is involved in the H2S-induced colonic cytoprotection. Male Wistar rats were treated with TNBS to induce colitis, and H2S donor (Lawesson's reagent) was prepared two times/day at different concentrations, and delivered per os (from day 1 to day 3). Our results suggest that daily treatment (2 times/day) with H2S donor, could significantly decrease the extent of colonic inflammation compared to vehicle treatment, and the most effective daily dose of H2S donor against inflammation was 18.75 µM/kg/day. Per os administration of H2S donor increased the colonic HO enzyme activity; on the contrary, the protective effect of H2S was abolished by the co-treatment with HO inhibitor. Our findings suggest that H2S confers colonoprotection, probably by modulation of anti-inflammatory parameters and HO enzyme activity.

  10. Spinal Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) Exerts Antinociceptive Effects Against Neuropathic Pain in a Mouse Model of L5 Spinal Nerve Ligation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhijun; Cheng, Zhuqiang; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Shuangshuang; Liu, Hongjun; Jia, Hongbin; Jin, Yi

    2016-02-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) exerts protective effects against ischemia and inflammation in the central nervous system. However, its role in neuropathic pain is still unclear. This study was undertaken to explore the distribution and possible mechanism of HO-1 in a mouse model of peripheral nerve injury. The experiment was conducted using a mouse model of L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL). Mice received repeated intraperitoneal injection of Carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CO-RM-2), HO-1 inducer cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPP) or single intraspinal injection of lentivirus (LV) over-expressing HO-1. The behavior analyses were conducted. The distribution and expression of HO-1 in the spinal cord were analyzed. HO-1 but not HO-2 was upregulated in spinal cord microglia cells after nerve injury, and the repeated intraperitoneal administration of CORM-2 (10 mg/kg/d) or CoPP (5 mg/kg/d) both significantly reduced the mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia induced by SNL (P < 0.01). Intraspinal injection of LV-HO-1 persistently suppresses SNL-induced neuropathic pain (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), significantly induced the spinal HO-1 protein content (P < 0.01) and inhibited the microglia activation (P < 0.01) 7 days after SNL. HO-1 upregulation could elicit potent analgesic effects against neuropathic pain, which might partly be attributed to inhibition of spinal microglia activation. HO-1 signaling pathway may present a novel strategy for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

  11. Ablation of adipose-HO-1 expression increases white fat over beige fat through inhibition of mitochondrial fusion and of PGC1α in female mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shailendra P; Grant, Ilana; Meissner, Aliza; Kappas, Attallah; Abraham, Nader G

    2017-08-01

    Background Hmox1 plays an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics and function by regulating cellular heme-derived CO and bilirubin. Previous studies have demonstrated that global disruption of HO-1 in humans and mice resulted in severe organ dysfunction. Methods We investigated the potential role of adipose-specific-HO-1 genetic ablation on adipose tissue function, mitochondrial quality control and energy expenditure by generating an adipo-HO-1 knockout mouse model (Adipo-HO-1-/-) and, in vitro, adipocyte cells in which HO activity was inhibited. Adiposity, signaling proteins, fasting glucose and oxygen consumption were determined and compared to adipocyte cultures with depressed levels of both HO-1/HO-2. Results Adipo-HO-1-/- female mice exhibited increased adipocyte size, and decreases in the mitochondrial fusion to fission ratio, PGC1, and SIRT3. Importantly, ablation of HO-1 in adipose tissue resulted in fat acquiring many properties of visceral fat such as decreases in thermogenic genes including pAMPK and PRDM16. Deletion of HO-1 in mouse adipose tissue led to complete metabolic dysfunction, an increase in white adipose tissue, a reduction of beige fat and associated increases in FAS, aP2 and hyperglycemia. Mechanistically, genetic deletion of HO-1 in adipose tissues decreased the mitochondrial fusion to fission ratio; disrupted the activity of the PGC1 transcriptional axis and thermogenic genes both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion Ablation of adipose tissue-HO-1 abridged PGC1 expression promoted mitochondrial dysfunction and contributed to an increase of pro-inflammatory visceral fat and abrogated beige-cell like phenotype.

  12. Garcinia vilersiana bark extract activates the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway in RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Shinkai, Yasuhiro; Yamanaka, Ichiro; Duong, Ho Huynh Thuy; Quynh, Nguyen Thi; Kanaho, Yasunori; Kumagai, Yoshito

    2013-01-01

    Garcinia vilersiana is a traditional medicinal plant in Vietnam. The petroleum ether extract of stem bark of Garcinia vilersiana (GVE) was prepared to evaluate its potential to activate Nrf2, a transcription factor of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. Exposure of mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells to GVE (0.625-2.5 µg/ml) resulted in a significant activation of Nrf2, as evaluated by nuclear accumulation of this transcription factor, and increased antioxidant response element (ARE) binding activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. As a result, GVE caused ARE-dependent up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the cells. These results suggest that GVE contains components that have the ability to activate the Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 signaling pathway, leading to cellular protection.

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum stress stimulates heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in vascular smooth muscle. Role in cell survival.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-ming; Peyton, Kelly J; Ensenat, Diana; Wang, Hong; Schafer, Andrew I; Alam, Jawed; Durante, William

    2005-01-14

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective protein that catalyzes the degradation of heme to biliverdin, iron, and carbon monoxide (CO). In the present study, we found that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by a variety of experimental agents stimulated a time- and concentration-dependent increase in HO-1 mRNA and protein in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC). The induction of HO-1 by ER stress was blocked by actinomycin D or cycloheximide and was independent of any changes in HO-1 mRNA stability. Luciferase reporter assays indicated that ER stress stimulated HO-1 promoter activity via the antioxidant response element. Moreover, ER stress induced the nuclear import of Nrf2 and the binding of Nrf2 to the HO-1 antioxidant response element. Interestingly, ER stress stimulated SMC apoptosis, as demonstrated by annexin V binding, caspase-3 activation, and DNA laddering. The induction of apoptosis by ER stress was potentiated by HO inhibition, whereas it was prevented by addition of HO substrate. In addition, exposure of SMC to exogenously administered CO inhibited ER stress-mediated apoptosis, and this was associated with a decrease in the expression of the proapoptotic protein, GADD153. In contrast, the other HO-1 products failed to block apoptosis or GADD153 expression during ER stress. These results demonstrated that ER stress is an inducer of HO-1 gene expression in vascular SMC and that HO-1-derived CO acts in an autocrine fashion to inhibit SMC apoptosis. The capacity of ER stress to stimulate the HO-1/CO system provides a novel mechanism by which this organelle regulates cell survival.

  14. Irradiation inhibits the maturation and mineralization of osteoblasts via the activation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Kook, Sung-Ho; Kim, Kyoung-A; Ji, Hyeok; Lee, Daewoo; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2015-12-01

    Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) regulates the induction of antioxidant gene expression and protects cells against oxidative injury. However, there are controversial findings regarding the roles of Nrf2 on bone metabolism under oxidative stress. The role of Nrf2 on the differentiation of radiation-exposed osteoblasts is also unclear. We investigated whether Nrf2 negatively or positively affects osteoblast differentiation in response to irradiation. Irradiation inhibited osteoblast differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This inhibition was evidenced by the irradiation-mediated decreases in bone-like nodule formation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium accumulation, and expression of osteoblast markers, such as ALP, osteocalcin, osteopontin, bone sialoprotein, osterix, and Runx2. These reductions were accompanied by increased induction of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), accumulation of cellular oxidants, and depletion of antioxidant defense enzymes. siRNA-mediated silencing of Nrf2 markedly reversed the negative effect of irradiation on osteoblast differentiation of the cells, leading to a decrease in HO-1 and an increase in Runx2 levels. Irradiation-mediated decreases in the levels of Runx2 and osteocalcin mRNA, but not of Nrf2 protein, were also significantly inhibited by HO-1 inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin IX. Furthermore, N-acetyl cysteine restored all of the changes induced by irradiation to near-normal levels in the cells. These results demonstrate that irradiation inhibits osteoblast differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells through the oxidative stress-mediated activation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

  15. (GT)n Repeat Polymorphism in Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) Correlates with Clinical Outcome after Myeloablative or Nonmyeloablative Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Køllgaard, Tania; Kornblit, Brian; Petersen, Jesper; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Mortensen, Bo Kok; Brændstrup, Peter; Sengeløv, Henrik; Høgdall, Estrid; Müller, Klaus; Vindeløv, Lars; Andersen, Mads Hald; thor Straten, Per

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a treatment for various hematologic diseases where efficacy of treatment is in part based on the graft versus tumour (GVT) activity of cells in the transplant. The cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation and it has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory functions. In humans a (GT)n repeat polymorphism regulates the expression of HO-1. We conducted fragment length analyses of the (GT)n repeat in the promotor region of the gene for HO-1 in DNA from donors and recipients receiving allogeneic myeloablative- (MA) (n = 110) or nonmyeloablative- (NMA-) (n = 250) HCT. Subsequently, we compared the length of the (GT)n repeat with clinical outcome after HCT. We demonstrated that transplants from a HO-1high donor after MA-conditioning (n = 13) is associated with higher relapse incidence at 3 years (p = 0.01, n = 110). In the NMA-conditioning setting transplantation of HO-1low donor cells into HO-1low recipients correlated significantly with decreased relapse related mortality (RRM) and longer progression free survival (PFS) (p = 0.03 and p = 0.008, respectively). Overall, our findings suggest that HO-1 may play a role for the induction of GVT effect after allogeneic HCT. PMID:27997582

  16. Nitric oxide sets off an antioxidant response in adrenal cells: involvement of sGC and Nrf2 in HO-1 induction.

    PubMed

    Astort, F; Mercau, M; Giordanino, E; Degese, M S; Caldareri, L; Coso, O; Cymeryng, C B

    2014-02-15

    Induction of microsomal heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) activity is considered a cytoprotective mechanism in different cell types. In adrenal cells, HO-1 induction by ACTH exerts a modulatory effect on steroid production as well. As nitric oxide (NO) has been also regarded as an autocrine/paracrine modulator of adrenal steroidogenesis we sought to study the effects of NO on the induction of HO-1 and the mechanism involved. We hereby analyzed the time and dose-dependent effect of a NO-donor (DETA/NO) on HO-1 induction in a murine adrenocortical cell line. We showed that this effect is mainly exerted at a transcriptional level as it is inhibited by actinomycin D and HO-1 mRNA degradation rates were not affected by DETA/NO treatment. HO-1 induction by NO does not appear to involve the generation of oxidative stress as it was not affected by antioxidant treatment. We also demonstrated that NO-treatment results in the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), an effect that is attenuated by transfecting the cells with a dominant negative isoform of Nrf2. We finally show that the effects of the NO-donor are reproduced by a permeable analog of cGMP and that a soluble guanylate cyclase specific inhibitor blocked both the induction of HO-1 by NO and the nuclear translocation of Nrf2.

  17. Heat Shock Proteins in Brain: Role of Hsp70, Hsp 27 and HO-1 (Hsp32) and Their Therapeutic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Frank R; Zhan, Xinhua; Liu, DaZhi

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock proteins are induced by heat shock via HSF proteins binding to heat shock elements in their promoters. Hsp70 is massively induced in response to misfolded proteins following cerebral ischemia in all cell types, but is induced mainly in neurons in the ischemic penumbra. Over expression of Hsp70 via transgenes and viruses or systemic administration of Hsp70 fusion proteins that allow it to cross the blood brain barrier protect brain against ischemia in most reported studies. Hsp27 can exist as unphosphorylated large oligomers that prevent misfolded protein aggregates and improve cell survival. P-Hsp27 small oligomers bind specific protein targets to improve survival. In brain Protein Kinase D phosphorylates Hsp27 following ischemia which then binds ASK1 to prevent MKK4/7, JNK, Jun induced apoptosis and decrease infarct volumes following focal cerebral ischemia. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) metabolizes heme to carbon monoxide, ferrous ion and biliverdin. CO activates cGMP to promote vasodilation, and biliverdin is converted to bilirubin which can serve as an anti-oxidant both of which may contribute to the reported protective role of HO-1 in cerebral ischemia and subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, ferrous ion can react with hydrogen peroxide to produce pro-oxidant hydroxyl radicals which may explain the harmful role of HO-1 in intracerebral hemorrhage. Heat shock proteins as a class have great potential as treatments for cerebrovascular disease and have yet to be tested in the clinic. PMID:24323422

  18. Beneficial effects of the transgenic expression of human sTNF-αR-Fc and HO-1 on pig-to-mouse islet xenograft survival.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ji-Jing; Yeom, Hye-Jeong; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Lee, Jae-Ghi; Lee, Eun Won; Cho, Bumrae; Lee, Han Sin; Kim, Su Jin; Hwang, Jong-Ik; Kim, Sung Joo; Lee, Byeong-Chun; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-02-01

    Both human soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptor-Fc (sTNF-αR-Fc) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) transgenic pigs have been generated previously for xenotransplantation. Here, we investigated whether overexpression of sTNF-αR-Fc or HO-1 in pig islets prolongs islet xenograft survival. Adult porcine islets were isolated from human sTNF-αR-Fc or HO-1 transgenic and wild type pigs, and were transplanted into diabetic nude mice. Effects of the expression of both genes on islet apoptosis, chemokine expression, cellular infiltration, antibody production, and islet xenograft survival were analyzed. Human sTNF-αR-Fc transgenic pigs successfully expressed sTNF-αR-Fc in the islets; human HO-1 transgenic pigs expressed significant levels of HO-1 in the islets. Pig-to-mouse islet xenograft survival was significantly prolonged in both the sTNF-αR-Fc and HO-1 groups compared with that in the wild type group. Both the sTNF-αR-Fc and HO-1 groups exhibited suppressed intragraft expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and decreased perigraft infiltration of immune cells. However, there was no difference in the anti-pig antibody levels between the groups. Apoptosis of islet cells during the early engraftment was suppressed only in the HO-1 group. Porcine islets from both sTNF-αR-Fc and HO-1 transgenic pigs prolonged xenograft survival by suppressing islet cell apoptosis or secondary inflammatory responses following islet death, indicating that these transgenic pigs might have applications in successful islet xenotransplantation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. HO-1 attenuates hippocampal neurons injury via the activation of BDNF-TrkB-PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in stroke.

    PubMed

    Qi, Dashi; Ouyang, Changjie; Wang, Yulan; Zhang, Shichun; Ma, Xijuan; Song, YuanJian; Yu, HongLi; Tang, Jiali; Fu, Wei; Sheng, Lei; Yang, Lihua; Wang, Mei; Zhang, Weihao; Miao, Lei; Li, Tengteng; Huang, Xiaojing; Dong, Hongyan

    2014-08-19

    Although recent studies have found that HO-1 plays an important role in neuronal survival, little is known about the precise mechanisms occurring during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective mechanisms of HO-1 against ischemic brain injury induced by cerebral I/R and to explore whether the BDNF-TrkB-PI3K/Akt signaling pathway contributed to the protection provided by HO-1. Over-expressed HO-1 plasmids were employed to induce the overexpression of HO-1 through hippocampi CA1 injection 5 days before the cerebral I/R animal model was induced by four-vessel occlusion for 15 min transient ischemia and followed by reperfusion in Sprague-Dawley rats. Immunoblotting was carried out to examine the expression of the related proteins, and HE-staining was used to detect the percentage of living neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region. The results showed that over-expressed HO-1 could significantly protect neurons against cerebral I/R. Furthermore, the protein expression of BDNF, TrkB and p-Akt also increased in the rats treated with over-expressed HO-1 plasmids. However, treatment with tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptor antagonist (K252a) reversed the HO-1-induced increase in BDNF and p-Akt protein levels and decreased the level of cleaved caspase-3 protein in I/R rats. In summary, our results imply that HO-1 can decrease cell apoptosis in the I/R rat brain and that the mechanism may be related to the activation of the BDNF-TrkB-PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  20. Targeting HO-1 by Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Reduces Contrast-Induced Renal Injury via Anti-Oxidative Stress and Anti-Inflammation Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yunhui; Wu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yongbin; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Fu, Jinjuan; Zou, Xue; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Xiongwen; Jose, Pedro A.; Lu, Xi; Zeng, Chunyu

    2016-01-01

    Both oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in the pathogenesis of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a purified catechin from green tea, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, it is unknown whether or not EGCG is effective in treating CIN. Our present study found that intravenous administration of EGCG, either before or just after the establishment of CIN, had a protective effect, determined by normalization of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels, improvement in renal histopathological scoring and alleviation of apoptosis, accompanied by decreased oxidative stress and inflammation. Because EGCG is a potent inducer of the antioxidant heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), we studied HO-1 signaling in CIN. HO-1 levels were increased in CIN; treatment with EGCG further increased HO-1 levels, accompanied by an increase in Nrf2, a regulator of antioxidant proteins. Interestingly, blockade of HO-1 with protoporphyrin IX zinc(II) (ZnPP) prevented the protective effect of EGCG on CIN. ZnPP also blocked the ability of EGCG to increase the activity of an antioxidant (superoxide dismutase), and decrease markers of oxidative stress (myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde) and inflammation (myeloperoxidase and IL-1β), indicating that HO-1 is the upstream molecule that regulates the EGCG-mediated protection. To determine further the role of HO-1 on the EGCG-mediated inhibition of inflammation, we studied the effect of EGCG on the NLRP3 inflammasome, an upstream signaling of IL-1β. EGCG down-regulated NLRP3 expression, which was blocked by ZnPP, indicating that HO-1 links EGCG with NLRP3. Therefore, EGCG, via up-regulation of HO-1, protects against CIN by amelioration of oxidative stress and inflammation. PMID:26866373

  1. Targeting HO-1 by Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Reduces Contrast-Induced Renal Injury via Anti-Oxidative Stress and Anti-Inflammation Pathways.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhao; Han, Yu; Hu, Yunhui; Wu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yongbin; Zhang, Xiaoqun; Fu, Jinjuan; Zou, Xue; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Xiongwen; Jose, Pedro A; Lu, Xi; Zeng, Chunyu

    2016-01-01

    Both oxidative stress and inflammation are involved in the pathogenesis of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a purified catechin from green tea, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. However, it is unknown whether or not EGCG is effective in treating CIN. Our present study found that intravenous administration of EGCG, either before or just after the establishment of CIN, had a protective effect, determined by normalization of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels, improvement in renal histopathological scoring and alleviation of apoptosis, accompanied by decreased oxidative stress and inflammation. Because EGCG is a potent inducer of the antioxidant heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), we studied HO-1 signaling in CIN. HO-1 levels were increased in CIN; treatment with EGCG further increased HO-1 levels, accompanied by an increase in Nrf2, a regulator of antioxidant proteins. Interestingly, blockade of HO-1 with protoporphyrin IX zinc(II) (ZnPP) prevented the protective effect of EGCG on CIN. ZnPP also blocked the ability of EGCG to increase the activity of an antioxidant (superoxide dismutase), and decrease markers of oxidative stress (myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde) and inflammation (myeloperoxidase and IL-1β), indicating that HO-1 is the upstream molecule that regulates the EGCG-mediated protection. To determine further the role of HO-1 on the EGCG-mediated inhibition of inflammation, we studied the effect of EGCG on the NLRP3 inflammasome, an upstream signaling of IL-1β. EGCG down-regulated NLRP3 expression, which was blocked by ZnPP, indicating that HO-1 links EGCG with NLRP3. Therefore, EGCG, via up-regulation of HO-1, protects against CIN by amelioration of oxidative stress and inflammation.

  2. Preconditioning with the BKCa Channel Activator NS-1619 Prevents Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Inflammation and Mucosal Barrier Dysfunction: ROS and HO-1.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongyan; Wang, Meifang; Patel, Parag N; Kalogeris, Theodore J; Liu, Yajun; Durante, William; Korthuis, Ronald J

    2017-08-19

    Activation of large conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels evokes cell survival programs that mitigate intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) inflammation and injury 24 hours later. The goal of the current study was to determine the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in delayed acquisition of tolerance to I/R induced by pretreatment with the BKCa channel opener NS-1619. Superior mesentery arteries were occluded for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 70 min in wild type (WT) or HO-1 null (HO-1(-/-)) mice that were pretreated with NS-1619 or saline vehicle 24 hrs earlier. Intravital microscopy was used to quantify the numbers of rolling and adherent leukocytes. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) levels and HO-1 expression in jejunum were also determined. I/R induced leukocyte rolling and adhesion and increased intestinal TNFα levels in WT mice, effects that were largely abolished by pretreatment with NS-1619. The anti-inflammatory effects of NS-1619 were prevented by coincident treatment with the HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin-IX or a cell-permeant SOD mimetic MnTBAP in WT mice. NS-1619 also upregulated jejunal HO-1 expression in WT animals, an effect that was attenuated by treatment with BKCa channel antagonist paxilline or MnTBAP. I/R also increased postischemic leukocyte rolling and adhesion and intestinal TNFα levels in HO-1(-/-) mice to levels comparable to that noted in WT animals. However, NS-1619 was ineffective in preventing these effects in HO-1-deficient mice. Our data indicate that NS-1619 induces the development of an anti-inflammatory phenotype by a mechanism that may involve ROS-dependent HO-1 expression. Copyright © 2016, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

  3. Ethanol Extract of Ganoderma lucidum Augments Cellular Anti-oxidant Defense through Activation of Nrf2/HO-1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoo-hwan; Kim, Jung-hee; Song, Choon-ho; Jang, Kyung-jeon; kim, Cheol-hong; Kang, Ji- Sook; Choi, Yung-hyun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The mushroom Ganoderma lucidum has been widely used as a traditional herbal medicine for many years. Although several studies have focused on the anti-oxidative activity of this mushroom, the molecular mechanisms underlying its activity have not yet been clearly established. The present study investigated the cytoprotective effect of ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum (EGL) against oxidative stress (hydrogen peroxide, H2O2) and elucidated the underlying mechanisms in a C2C12 myoblast cell line. Methods: Oxidative stress markers were determined by using the comet assay to measure reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage. Cell viability and Western blotting analyses were employed to evaluate the cellular response to EGL and H2O2 in C2C12 cells. Transfection with nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-specific small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) was conducted to understand the relationship between Nrf2 expression and H2O2-induced growth inhibition. Results: The results showed that EGL effectively inhibited H2O2-induced growth and the generation of ROS. EGL markedly suppressed H2O2-induced comet-like DNA formation and phosphorylation of histone H2AX at serine 139 (p-γH2AX), a widely used marker of DNA damage, suggesting that EGL prevented H2O2-induced DNA damage. Furthermore, the EGL treatment effectively induced the expression of Nrf2, as well as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), with parallel phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in the C2C12 myoblasts. However, zinc protoporphyrin IX, a HO-1 inhibitor, significantly abolished the protective effects of EGL against H2O2-induced accumulation of ROS and reduced cell growth. Notably, transient transfection with Nrf2-specific siRNA attenuated the cytoprotective effects and HO-1 induction by EGL, indicating that EGL induced the expression of HO-1 in an Nrf2-dependent manner. Conclusion: Collectively, these results demonstrate that EGL augments the

  4. Sulforaphane Protects Rodent Retinas against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury through the Activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 Antioxidant Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ruixing; Brecha, Nicholas C.; Yu, Albert Cheung Hoi; Pu, Mingliang

    2014-01-01

    Retinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury induces oxidative stress, leukocyte infiltration, and neuronal cell death. Sulforaphane (SF), which can be obtained in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, exerts protective effects in response to oxidative stress in various tissues. These effects can be initiated through nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). This investigation was designed to elucidate the neural protective mechanisms of SF in the retinal I/R rat model. Animals were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with SF (12.5 mg/kg) or vehicle (corn oil) once a day for 7 consecutive days. Then, retinal I/R was made by elevating the intraocular pressure (IOP) to 130 mmHg for 1 h. To determine if HO-1 was involved in the Nrf2 antioxidant pathway, rats were subjected to protoporphyrin IX zinc (II) (ZnPP, 30 mg/kg, i.p.) treatments at 24 h before retinal ischemia. The neuroprotective effects of SF were assessed by determining the morphology of the retina, counting the infiltrating inflammatory cells and the surviving retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and amacrine cells, and measuring apoptosis in the retinal layers. The expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 was studied by immunofluorescence analysis and western blotting. I/R induced a marked increase of ROS generation, caused pronounced inflammation, increased the apoptosis of RGCs and amacrine cells and caused the thinning of the inner retinal layer (IRL), and these effects were diminished or abolished by SF pretreatment. Meanwhile, SF pretreatment significantly elevated the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 and the level of HO-1 expression in the I/R retinas; however, ZnPP reversed the protective effects of SF on I/R retinas. Together, we offer direct evidence that SF had protective effects on I/R retinas, which could be attributed, at least in part, to the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidant pathway. PMID:25470382

  5. Sulforaphane exerts its anti-inflammatory effect against amyloid-β peptide via STAT-1 dephosphorylation and activation of Nrf2/HO-1 cascade in human THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    An, Ye Won; Jhang, Kyoung A; Woo, So-Youn; Kang, Jihee Lee; Chong, Young Hae

    2016-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder worldwide, accounting for most cases of dementia in elderly individuals, and effective therapies are still lacking. This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of sulforaphane against Aβ1-42 monomers in human THP-1 microglia-like cells. The results showed that sulforaphane preferentially inhibited cathepsin B- and caspase-1-dependent NLRP3 inflammasome activation induced by mostly Aβ1-42 monomers, an effect that potently reduced excessive secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Subsequent mechanistic studies revealed that sulforaphane mitigated the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 induced by Aβ1-42 monomers. Sulforaphane also increased nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation, which was followed by upregulation of heme-oxygenase 1 (HO-1). The anti-inflammatory effect of sulforaphane on Aβ1-42-induced IL-1β production was diminished by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Nrf2 or HO-1. Moreover, sulforaphane significantly attenuated the levels of microRNA-146a, which is selectively upregulated in the temporal cortex and hippocampus of AD brains. The aforementioned effects of sulforaphane were replicated by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, herbimycin A, and Nrf2 activator. These results indicate that signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 dephosphorylation, HO-1 and its upstream effector, Nrf2, play a pivotal role in triggering an anti-inflammatory signaling cascade of sulforaphane that results in decreases of IL-1β release and microRNA-146a production in Aβ1-42-stimulated human microglia-like cells. These findings suggest that the phytochemical sulforaphane has a potential application in AD therapeutics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibit gastric aspiration lung injury and inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Jiang, Liyan; Long, Xuan; Fu, Cuiping; Wang, Xiangdong; Wu, Xiaodan; Liu, Zilong; Zhu, Fen; Shi, Jindong; Li, Shanqun

    2016-09-01

    Gastric aspiration lung injury is one of the most common clinical events. This study investigated the effects of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on combined acid plus small non-acidified particle (CASP)-induced aspiration lung injury. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP(+) ) or EGFP(-) BMSCs or 15d-PGJ2 were injected via the tail vein into rats immediately after CASP-induced aspiration lung injury. Pathological changes in lung tissues, blood gas analysis, the wet/dry weight ratio (W/D) of the lung, levels of total proteins and number of total cells and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined. The cytokine levels were measured using ELISA. Protein expression was determined by Western blot. Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells treatment significantly reduced alveolar oedema, exudation and lung inflammation; increased the arterial partial pressure of oxygen; and decreased the W/D of the lung, the levels of total proteins and the number of total cells and neutrophils in BALF in the rats with CASP-induced lung injury. Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells treatment decreased the levels of tumour necrosis factor-α and Cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 and the expression of p-p65 and increased the levels of interleukin-10 and 15d-PGJ2 and the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in the lung tissue in CASP-induced rats. Tumour necrosis factor-α stimulated BMSCs to secrete 15d-PGJ2 . A tracking experiment showed that EGFP(+) BMSCs were able to migrate to local lung tissues. Treatment with 15d-PGJ2 also significantly inhibited CASP-induced lung inflammation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our results show that BMSCs can protect lung tissues from gastric aspiration injury and inhibit lung inflammation in rats. A beneficial effect might be achieved through BMSC-derived 15d-PGJ2 activation of the PPAR-γ receptor, reducing the production of

  7. Butein induction of HO-1 by p38 MAPK/Nrf2 pathway in adipocytes attenuates high-fat diet induced adipose hypertrophy in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Ka, Sun-O; Lee, Youngyi; Park, Byung-Hyun; Bae, Eun Ju

    2017-03-15

    Adipose tissue inflammation and oxidative stress are key components in the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in adipocytes protects against obesity and adipose dysfunction. In this study, we report the identification of butein, a flavonoid chalcone, as a novel inducer of HO-1 expression in adipocytes in vitro and in vivo. Butein upregulated HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, accompanied by Kelch-Like ECH-Associated Protein (Keap) 1 degradation and increase in the nuclear level of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Butein modulation of Keap1 and Nrf2 as well as HO-1 upregulation was reversed by pretreatment with p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580, indicating the involvement of p38 MAPK in butein activation of Nrf2 in adipocytes. In addition, HO-1 activation by butein led to the inhibitions of reactive oxygen species and adipocyte differentiation, as evidenced by the fact that butein repression of reactive oxygen species and adipogenesis was reversed by pretreatment with HO-1 inhibitor SnPP. Induction of HO-1 expression by butein was also demonstrated in the adipose tissue of C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet administered along with butein for three weeks, and correlated with the inhibitions of adiposity and adipose tissue inflammation, which were reversed by co-administration of SnPP. Altogether, our results demonstrate that butein activates the p38 MAPK/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway to act as a potent inhibitor of adipose hypertrophy and inflammation in a diet-induced obesity model and thus has potential for suppressing obesity-linked metabolic syndrome.

  8. MiR-1254 suppresses HO-1 expression through seed region-dependent silencing and non-seed interaction with TFAP2A transcript to attenuate NSCLC growth

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xinming; Chen, Jing; Wang, Yizheng; Gao, Lulu; Miao, Lingling; Ren, Jin

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs, which direct post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) and function in a vast range of biological events including cancer development. Most miRNAs pair to the target sites through seed region near the 5’ end, leading to mRNA cleavage and/or translation repression. Here, we demonstrated a miRNA-induced dual regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) via seed region and non-seed region, consequently inhibited tumor growth of NSCLC. We identified miR-1254 as a negative regulator inhibiting HO-1 translation by directly targeting HO-1 3’UTR via its seed region, and suppressing HO-1 transcription via non-seed region-dependent inhibition of transcriptional factor AP-2 alpha (TFAP2A), a transcriptional activator of HO-1. MiR-1254 induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells by inhibiting the expression of HO-1, consequently suppressed NSCLC cell growth. Consistently with the in vitro studies, mouse xenograft studies validated that miR-1254 suppressed NSCLC tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, we found that HO-1 expression was inversely correlated with miR-1254 level in human NSCLC tumor samples and cell lines. Overall, these findings identify the dual inhibition of HO-1 by miR-1254 as a novel functional mechanism of miRNA, which results in a more effective inhibition of oncogenic mRNA, and leads to a tumor suppressive effect. PMID:28749936

  9. MiR-1254 suppresses HO-1 expression through seed region-dependent silencing and non-seed interaction with TFAP2A transcript to attenuate NSCLC growth.

    PubMed

    Pu, Mengfan; Li, Chenggang; Qi, Xinming; Chen, Jing; Wang, Yizheng; Gao, Lulu; Miao, Lingling; Ren, Jin

    2017-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs, which direct post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) and function in a vast range of biological events including cancer development. Most miRNAs pair to the target sites through seed region near the 5' end, leading to mRNA cleavage and/or translation repression. Here, we demonstrated a miRNA-induced dual regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) via seed region and non-seed region, consequently inhibited tumor growth of NSCLC. We identified miR-1254 as a negative regulator inhibiting HO-1 translation by directly targeting HO-1 3'UTR via its seed region, and suppressing HO-1 transcription via non-seed region-dependent inhibition of transcriptional factor AP-2 alpha (TFAP2A), a transcriptional activator of HO-1. MiR-1254 induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells by inhibiting the expression of HO-1, consequently suppressed NSCLC cell growth. Consistently with the in vitro studies, mouse xenograft studies validated that miR-1254 suppressed NSCLC tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, we found that HO-1 expression was inversely correlated with miR-1254 level in human NSCLC tumor samples and cell lines. Overall, these findings identify the dual inhibition of HO-1 by miR-1254 as a novel functional mechanism of miRNA, which results in a more effective inhibition of oncogenic mRNA, and leads to a tumor suppressive effect.

  10. Zinc L-carnosine suppresses inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 murine macrophages cell line via activation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Theng Choon; Chan, Kok Meng; Sharif, Razinah

    2017-10-01

    Zinc L-carnosine (ZnC) is a chelate of Zn and L-carnosine and is used clinically in the treatment of peptic ulcer. In this study, we aim to investigate the involvement of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the anti-inflammatory effects of ZnC in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. We used immunoblotting analysis to evaluate the involvement of HO-1 in the anti-inflammatory effects of ZnC and the signaling pathway involved was measured using Dual luciferase reporter assay. Results from immunoblotting analysis demonstrated that pretreatment of cells with ZnC enhanced the expression of HO-1 in RAW 264.7 cells. Pretreatment of cells with HO-1 inhibitor (tin protoporphyrin IX dichloride) significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of ZnC on nitric oxide (NO) production, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NF-κB activation in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, suggesting that HO-1 play an important role in the suppression of inflammatory responses induced by ZnC. Furthermore, results from co-immunoprecipitation of Nrf2 and Keap1 and dual luciferase reporter assay showed that pretreatment of ZnC was able to activate the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Treatment of cells with p38 inhibitor (SB203580), c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor (SP600125), and MEK 1/2 inhibitor (U0126) did not significantly suppress the induction of HO-1 by ZnC. Moreover, our present findings suggest that the effects of ZnC on NO production, HO-1 expression, and Nrf2 activation were attributed to its Zn subcomponent, but not l-carnosine. Pretreatment with ZnC was able to activate Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway, thus suppressing the expression of inflammatory mediators, such as NO and iNOS in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells.

  11. Induction of HO-1 by carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 attenuates thrombin-induced COX-2 expression and hypertrophy in primary human cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Chien, Peter Tzu-Yu; Lin, Chih-Chung; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2015-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the cytoprotective byproducts of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and exerts anti-inflammatory action in various models. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying CO-induced HO-1 expression in primary human cardiomyocytes remain largely unidentified. We used primary left ventricle myocytes as a model and applied CO releasing molecule (CORM)-2 to investigate the relationship of CO and HO-1 expression. We herein used Western blot, real-time PCR, promoter activity and EIA to investigate the role of HO-1 expression protecting against thrombin-mediated responses. We found that thrombin-induced COX-2 expression, PGE2 release and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy markers (increase in ANF/BNP, α-actin expression and cell surface area) was attenuated by pretreatment with CORM-2 which was partially reversed by hemoglobin (Hb) or ZnPP (an inhibitor of HO-1 activity), suggesting that HO-1/CO system may be of clinical importance to ameliorate heart failure through inhibition of inflammatory responses. CORM-2-induced HO-1 protein expression, mRNA and promoter was attenuated by pretreatment with the inhibitors of Pyk2 (PF431396), PDGFR (AG1296), PI3K (LY294002), Akt (SH-5), p38 (SB202530), JNK1/2 (SP600125), FoxO1 (AS1842856) and Sp1 (mithramycin A). The involvement of these signaling components was further confirmed by transfection with respective siRNAs, consistent with those of pharmacological inhibitors. These results suggested that CORM-2-induced HO-1 expression is mediated through a Pyk2/PDGFR/PI3K/Akt/FoxO1/Sp1-dependent manner and exerts a cytoprotective effect in human cardiomyocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. MP4CO, a pegylated hemoglobin saturated with carbon monoxide, is a modulator of HO-1, inflammation, and vaso-occlusion in transgenic sickle mice.

    PubMed

    Belcher, John D; Young, Mark; Chen, Chunsheng; Nguyen, Julia; Burhop, Kenneth; Tran, Phuc; Vercellotti, Gregory M

    2013-10-10

    Transgenic sickle mice expressing β(S) hemoglobin have activated vascular endothelium in multiple organs that exhibits enhanced expression of NF-ĸB and adhesion molecules and promotes microvascular stasis in sickle, but not normal, mice in response to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R), or heme. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) or administration of its products, carbon monoxide (CO) or biliverdin, inhibits microvascular stasis in sickle mice. Infusion of human hemoglobin conjugated with polyethylene glycol and saturated with CO (MP4CO) markedly induced hepatic HO-1 activity and inhibited NF-ĸB activation and H/R-induced microvascular stasis in sickle mice. These effects were mediated by CO; saline or MP4 saturated with O2 (MP4OX) had little to no effect on H/R-induced stasis, though unmodified oxyhemoglobin exacerbated stasis. The HO-1 inhibitor, tin protoporphyrin, blocked MP4CO protection, consistent with HO-1 involvement in the protection afforded by MP4CO. MP4CO also induced nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), an important transcriptional regulator of HO-1 and other antioxidant genes. In a heterozygous (hemoglobin-AS) sickle mouse model, intravenous hemin induced cardiovascular collapse and mortality within 120 minutes, which was significantly reduced by MP4CO, but not MP4OX. These data demonstrate that MP4CO induces cytoprotective Nrf2 and HO-1 and decreases NF-ĸB activation, microvascular stasis, and mortality in transgenic sickle mouse models.

  13. Glycyrrhizin reduces HMGB1 secretion in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 cells and endotoxemic mice by p38/Nrf2-dependent induction of HO-1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Min; Kim, Hye Jung; Chang, Ki Churl

    2015-05-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is now recognized as a late mediator of sepsis. Although glycyrrhizin was known as inhibitor of HMGB1, it is not yet clear underlying mechanism(s). We found that glycyrrhizin activates translocation of Nrf2 from cytosol to nucleus and induces heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression in RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, deletion of Nrf2 by siRNA significantly reduced mRNA expression of NQO1 and HO-1 suggesting that glycyrrhizin targets Nrf2 gene. The expression of iNOS protein and release of HMGB1 in LPS activated cells were significantly reduced by glycyrrhizin and cells transfected with mouse HO-1 expression vector. The p38MAPK inhibitor (SB203580) but not JNK inhibitor (SP600125) or ERK inhibitor (PD98059) significantly inhibited HO-1 induction by glycyrrhizin, which was confirmed by showing that siP38 transfected cells significantly reduced HO-1 induction. Pretreatment with SB203580 significantly reversed the expression of iNOS and release of NO and HMGB1 in LPS-activated cells. Most importantly, administration of glycyrrhizin (200mg/kg, i.p) significantly reduced hepatic injury and serum HMGB1 in a ZnPPIX-sensitive manner. Thus, it is concluded that glycyrrhizin reduces HMGB1 secretion in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW 264.7 cells and endotoxemic mice by p38/Nrf2-dependent induction of HO-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sulforaphane Ameliorates Okadaic Acid-Induced Memory Impairment in Rats by Activating the Nrf2/HO-1 Antioxidant Pathway.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Subhash; Rajasekar, N; Hanif, Kashif; Nath, Chandishwar; Shukla, Rakesh

    2016-10-01

    Okadaic acid (OKA) causes memory impairment and attenuates nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) along with oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in rats. Sulforaphane (dietary isothiocyanate compound), an activator of Nrf2 signaling, exhibits neuroprotective effects. However, the protective effect of sulforaphane in OKA-induced neurotoxicity remains uninvestigated. Therefore, in the present study, the role of sulforaphane in OKA-induced memory impairment in rats was explored. A significant increased Nrf2 expression in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex was observed in trained (Morris water maze) rats, and a significant decreased Nrf2 expression in memory-impaired (OKA, 200 ng icv) rats indicated its involvement in memory function. Sulforaphane administration (5 and 10 mg/kg, ip, days 1 and 2) ameliorates OKA-induced memory impairment in rats. The treatment also restored Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidant protein expression (GCLC, HO-1) and attenuated oxidative stress (ROS, nitrite, GSH), neuroinflammation (NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-10), and neuronal apoptosis in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of OKA-treated rats. Further, to determine whether modulation of Nrf2 signaling is responsible for the protective effect of sulforaphane, in vitro, Nrf2 siRNA and its downstream HO-1 inhibition studies were carried out in a rat astrocytoma cell line (C6). The protective effects of sulforaphane were abolished with Nrf2 siRNA and HO-1 inhibition in astrocytes. The results suggest that Nrf2-dependent activation of cellular antioxidant machinery results in sulforaphane-mediated protection against OKA-induced memory impairment in rats. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  15. Melatonin prevents hemorrhagic shock-induced liver injury in rats through an Akt-dependent HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jun-Te; Kuo, Chia-Jung; Chen, Tsung-Hsing; Wang, Frank; Lin, Chun-Jun; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Jan, Yi-Yin

    2012-11-01

    Although melatonin treatment following trauma-hemorrhage or ischemic reperfusion prevents organs from dysfunction and injury, the precise mechanism remains unknown. This study tested whether melatonin prevents liver injury following trauma-hemorrhage involved the protein kinase B (Akt)-dependent heme oxygenase (HO)-1 pathway. After a 5-cm midline laparotomy, male rats underwent hemorrhagic shock (mean blood pressure approximately 40 mmHg for 90 min) followed by fluid resuscitation. At the onset of resuscitation, rats were treated with vehicle, melatonin (2 mg/kg), or melatonin plus phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin (1 mg/kg). At 2 hr after trauma-hemorrhage, the liver tissue myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde, adenosine triphosphate, serum alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase levels were significantly increased compared with sham-operated control. Trauma-hemorrhage resulted in a significant decrease in the Akt activation in comparison with the shams (relative density, 0.526 ± 0.031 versus 1.012 ± 0.066). Administration of melatonin following trauma-hemorrhage normalized liver Akt phosphorylation (0.993 ± 0.061), further increased mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation (5.263 ± 0.338 versus 2.556 ± 0.225) and HO-1 expression (5.285 ± 0.325 versus 2.546 ± 0.262), and reduced cleaved caspase-3 levels (2.155 ± 0.297 versus 5.166 ± 0.309). Coadministration of wortmannin abolished the melatonin-mediated attenuation of the shock-induced liver injury markers. Our results collectively suggest that melatonin prevents hemorrhagic shock-induced liver injury in rats through an Akt-dependent HO-1 pathway.

  16. Protective action of nipradilol mediated through S-nitrosylation of Keap1 and HO-1 induction in retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Koriyama, Yoshiki; Kamiya, Marie; Takadera, Tsuneo; Arai, Kunizo; Sugitani, Kayo; Ogai, Kazuhiro; Kato, Satoru

    2012-12-01

    Nipradilol (Nip), which has α1- and β-adrenoceptor antagonist and nitric oxide (NO)-donating properties, has clinically been used as an anti-glaucomatous agent in Japan. NO mediates cellular signaling pathways that regulate physiological functions. The major signaling mechanisms mediated by NO are cGMP-dependent signaling and protein S-nitrosylation-dependent signalings. Nip has been described as having neuroprotective effects through cGMP-dependent pathway in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). However, the effect seems to be partial. On the other hand, whether Nip can prevent cell death through S-nitrosylation is not yet clarified. In this study, we therefore focused on the neuroprotective mechanism of Nip through S-nitrosylation. Nip showed a dramatic neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress-induced death of RGC-5 cells. However, denitro-nipradilol, which does not have NO-donating properties, was not protective against oxidative stress. Furthermore, an NO scavenger significantly reversed the protective action of Nip against oxidative stress. In addition, we demonstrated that α1- or β-adrenoceptor antagonists (prazosin or timolol) did not show any neuroprotective effect against oxidative stress in RGC-5 cells. We also demonstrated that Nip induced the expression of the NO-dependent antioxidant enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). S-nitrosylation of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein by Nip was shown to contribute to the translocation of NF-E2-related factor 2 to the nucleus, and triggered transcriptional activation of HO-1. Furthermore, RGC death and levels of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE) were increased after optic nerve injury in vivo. Pretreatment with Nip significantly suppressed RGC death and accumulation of 4HNE after injury through an HO-1 activity-dependent mechanism. These data demonstrate a novel neuroprotective action of Nip against oxidative stress-induced RGC death in vitro and in vivo.

  17. EET intervention on Wnt1, NOV, and HO-1 signaling prevents obesity-induced cardiomyopathy in obese mice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jian; Singh, Shailendra P; McClung, John A; Joseph, Gregory; Vanella, Luca; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Jiang, Houli; Falck, John R; Arad, Michael; Shapiro, Joseph I; Abraham, Nader G

    2017-08-01

    We have previously reported that epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) has multiple beneficial effects on vascular function; in addition to its antiapoptotic action, it increases insulin sensitivity and inhibits inflammation. To uncover the signaling mechanisms by which EET reduces cardiomyopathy, we hypothesized that EET infusion might ameliorate obesity-induced cardiomyopathy by improving heme oxygenase (HO)-1, Wnt1, thermogenic gene levels, and mitochondrial integrity in cardiac tissues and improved pericardial fat phenotype. EET reduced levels of fasting blood glucose and proinflammatory adipokines, including nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV) signaling, while increasing echocardiographic fractional shortening and O2 consumption. Of interest, we also noted a marked improvement in mitochondrial integrity, thermogenic genes, and Wnt 1 and HO-1 signaling mechanisms. Knockout of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) in EET-treated mice resulted in a reversal of these beneficial effects including a decrease in myocardial Wnt1 and HO-1 expression and an increase in NOV. To further elucidate the effects of EET on pericardial adipose tissues, we observed EET treatment increases in adiponectin, PGC-1α, phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase, insulin receptor phosphorylation, and thermogenic genes, resulting in a "browning" pericardial adipose phenotype under high-fat diets. Collectively, these experiments demonstrate that an EET agonist increased Wnt1 and HO-1 signaling while decreasing NOV pathways and the progression of cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, this report presents a portal into potential therapeutic approaches for the treatment of heart failure and metabolic syndrome.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The mechanism by which EET acts on obesity-induced cardiomyopathy is unknown. Here, we describe a previously unrecognized function of EET infusion that inhibits nephroblastoma overexpressed (NOV) levels and activates Wnt1, hence identifying NOV inhibition

  18. Potent Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Actions of the Chloroform Extract of Dendropanax morbifera Mediated by the Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Akram, Muhammad; Kim, Kyeong-A; Kim, Eun-Sun; Syed, Ahmed Shah; Kim, Chul Young; Lee, Jong Soo; Bae, Ok-Nam

    2016-01-01

    Dendropanax morbifera LEVEILLE (DP) has been used in traditional Korean medicines to treat a variety of inflammatory diseases. Although the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of this plant is understood, its in vivo efficacy and underlying molecular mechanism of anti-inflammatory effects are largely unknown. We elucidated the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and the underlying molecular mechanisms of DP using in vitro and in vivo models. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages were used to analyze the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of DP extract and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. In vivo animal models of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA)-induced ear edema and acetic acid-induced writhing response tests were used to analyze the in vivo anti-inflammatory effects and anti-nociceptive effects of DP extract, respectively. Methanolic extract of DP (DPME) significantly inhibited the release of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS-activated macrophages. Among the five sub-fractions, the chloroform fraction (DP-C) showed the most potent suppressive effects against pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines in LPS-stimulated macrophages. These effects were attributed to inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) nuclear translocation and c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2 phosphorylation and to activation of NF-E2-related factor 2/heme oxygenase-1 (Nrf2/HO-1) signaling. DP-C exhibited strong protective in vivo effects in TPA-induced ear edema mouse model and acetic acid-induced writhing response test. Our data suggest that DP-C has potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and may be a promising treatment against a variety of inflammatory diseases.

  19. The Stress-responsive Heme Oxygenase (HO)-1 Isoenzyme is Increased in Labouring Myometrium where it Regulates Contraction-associated Proteins.

    PubMed

    Liong, Stella; Lappas, Martha

    2015-07-01

    Sterile inflammation through activation of cytokine receptor signalling pathways and viral or bacterial infection via activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) induces a cascade of events that leads to myometrial contractions and spontaneous preterm delivery. In non-pregnant tissues, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is thought to play a central role in regulating the inflammatory response. Thus, the aims of this study were to determine the effect of human term labour on HO-1 expression in human myometrium and to investigate the role of HO-1 in myometrial primary cells in response to cytokine- and TLR ligand-induced inflammation. Localization and expression of HO-1 protein in human myometrial tissues were determined using IHC. Western blot analysis and qRT-PCR were also used to determine HO-1 protein and gene expression, respectively, in human myometrium. siRNA knock-down of HO-1 in myometrial primary cells was used to determine its role in response to inflammatory stimuli. HO-1 gene expression and protein expression were increased in term labouring myometrium compared with non-labouring myometrium. Bacterial flagellin (TLR5 ligand), viral dsRNA analogue polyinosinic polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) (TLR3 ligand) and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α induced pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6 and IL-8) mRNA expression and release in myometrial cells. IL-1β also induced COX-2 mRNA expression and prostaglandin release. HO-1 siRNA knock-down significantly decreased the expression and secretion of these prolabour mediators. Additionally, flagellin, poly(I:C), IL-1β, and TNF-α-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity were suppressed in HO-1-deficient myometrial cells. Collectively, these findings in myometrium indicate HO-1 expression is increased with labour and exerts pro-inflammatory effects via NF-κB during cytokine- and TLR ligand-induced inflammation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protects human lens epithelial cells (SRA01/04) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tianju; Chen, Tingjun; Li, Peng; Ye, Zi; Zhai, Wei; Jia, Liang; Chen, Wenqian; Sun, Ang; Huang, Yang; Wei, Shihui; Li, Zhaohui

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the protective role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in H2O2-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in human lens epithelial cells (hLEC; SRA01/04). SRA01/04 cells were exposed to a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration gradient and inducers of HO-1 such as cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), respectively. In addition, an RNA silencing experiment was conducted to investigate the HO-1 function in this study. A Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was used to measure cell viability. Western blot and ELISA were used to detect the level of HO-1 expression. In our study, hLECs were exposed to 400 μM hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for 24 h with or without pretreatment with 10μΜ CoPP or 10μΜ ZnPP, respectively. Double immunofluorescence staining was used for cell identification and the qualitative expression of HO-1. Expression of HO-1 was monitored using Western blot and ELISA. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by flow cytometry analyses; commercial enzymatic kits were used to measure the levels of glutathione (GSH), as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD). The proportion of cell apoptosis was quantified by annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) staining. The expression of caspase family (-8, -3) proteins was measured by Western blot analysis. HO-1 significantly restored the cell viability under H2O2 injury via reducing the generation of ROS and increasing the levels of SOD and GSH activity. Moreover, HO-1 also inhibited H2O2-induced caspase-8 and caspase-3 proteins, thus significantly reducing the apoptosis of SRA01/04. An RNA silencing experiment demonstrated the increased resistance of LECs to oxidative stress specifically for increased levels of HO-1. These findings suggested that HO-1 protects human lens epithelial cells from H2O2-induced oxidant stress by upregulating antioxidant enzyme activity, reducing ROS generation, and thus inhibiting caspase family

  1. Vascular Protective Role of Samul-Tang in HUVECs: Involvement of Nrf2/HO-1 and NO

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun Sik; Lee, Yun Jung; Seo, Chang Seob; Yoon, Jung Joo; Han, Byung Hyuk; Park, Min Cheol; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2016-01-01

    Samul-Tang (Si-Wu-Tang, SMT), composed of four medicinal herbs, is a well-known herbal formula treating hematological disorder or gynecologic disease. However, vascular protective effects of SMT and its molecular mechanisms on the vascular endothelium, known as the central spot of vascular inflammatory process, are not reported. The aim of this study was to investigate vascular protective effects of SMT water extract in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Water extract of SMT was prepared and identified by HPLC-PDA analysis. Expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were determined by western blot. Nuclear localization of NF-κB and Nrf2 was visualized by immunofluorescence and DNA binding activity of NF-κB was measured. ROS production, HL-60 monocyte adhesion, and intracellular nitric oxide (NO) were also measured using a fluorescent indicator. SMT suppressed NF-κB translocation and activation as well as expression of CAMs, monocyte adhesion, and ROS production induced by TNF-α in HUVECs. SMT treated HUVECs showed upregulation of HO-1 and NO which are responsible for vascular protective action. Our study suggests that SMT, a traditionally used herbal formula, protects the vascular endothelium from inflammation and might be used as a promising vascular protective drug. PMID:27366195

  2. Protective Effect of Decursin Extracted from Angelica gigas in Male Infertility via Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Bae, Woong Jin; Ha, U Syn; Choi, Jin Bong; Kim, Kang Sup; Kim, Su Jin; Cho, Hyuk Jin; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl; Wang, Zhiping; Hwang, Sung Yeoun; Kim, Sae Woong

    2016-01-01

    Higher testicular temperature results in altered spermatogenesis due to heat-related oxidative stress. We examined the effects of decursin extracted from Angelica gigas Nakai on antioxidant activity in vitro and in a cryptorchidism-induced infertility rat model. TM3 Leydig cell viability was measured based on oxidative stress according to treatment. Either distilled water or AG 400 mg/kg of A. gigas extract was administered orally for 4 weeks after unilateral cryptorchidism was induced. After 1, 2, and 4 weeks, six rats from the control group and six rats from treatment group were sacrificed. Testicular weight, semen quality, antioxidant activities, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein, and mRNA expression of Nrf2-regulated genes were analyzed. Treatment with A. gigas extract (1) protected TM3 cells against oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner, (2) improved the mean weight of the cryptorchid testis, (3) maintained sperm counts, motility, and spermatogenic cell density, (4) decreased levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and increased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), (5) significantly increased Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and (6) significantly decreased apoptosis. This study suggests that decursin extracted from A. gigas is a supplemental agent that can reduce oxidative stress by Nrf2-mediated upregulation of HO-1 in rat experimentally induced unilateral cryptorchidism and may improve cryptorchidism-induced infertility.

  3. Protective Effect of Decursin Extracted from Angelica gigas in Male Infertility via Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Woong Jin; Ha, U. Syn; Choi, Jin Bong; Kim, Kang Sup; Kim, Su Jin; Cho, Hyuk Jin; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl; Wang, Zhiping; Hwang, Sung Yeoun; Kim, Sae Woong

    2016-01-01

    Higher testicular temperature results in altered spermatogenesis due to heat-related oxidative stress. We examined the effects of decursin extracted from Angelica gigas Nakai on antioxidant activity in vitro and in a cryptorchidism-induced infertility rat model. TM3 Leydig cell viability was measured based on oxidative stress according to treatment. Either distilled water or AG 400 mg/kg of A. gigas extract was administered orally for 4 weeks after unilateral cryptorchidism was induced. After 1, 2, and 4 weeks, six rats from the control group and six rats from treatment group were sacrificed. Testicular weight, semen quality, antioxidant activities, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein, and mRNA expression of Nrf2-regulated genes were analyzed. Treatment with A. gigas extract (1) protected TM3 cells against oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner, (2) improved the mean weight of the cryptorchid testis, (3) maintained sperm counts, motility, and spermatogenic cell density, (4) decreased levels of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and increased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), (5) significantly increased Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and (6) significantly decreased apoptosis. This study suggests that decursin extracted from A. gigas is a supplemental agent that can reduce oxidative stress by Nrf2-mediated upregulation of HO-1 in rat experimentally induced unilateral cryptorchidism and may improve cryptorchidism-induced infertility. PMID:27034737

  4. Isorhamnetin Attenuates Atherosclerosis by Inhibiting Macrophage Apoptosis via PI3K/AKT Activation and HO-1 Induction

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yun; Sun, Guibo; Dong, Xi; Wang, Min; Qin, Meng; Yu, Yingli; Sun, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Isorhamnetin (Iso) is a flavonoid compound extracted from the Chinese herb Hippophae rhamnoides L. Previous studies have revealed its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities. This study investigated the ability of Iso to inhibit oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced cell apoptosis in THP-1-derived macrophages. The effects of Iso on atherosclerosis in vivo were also evaluated in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice fed a high fat diet. Methods and Results Iso showed significant inhibitory effects on ox-LDL-induced THP-1-derived macrophage injuries via decreasing reactive oxygen species levels, lipid deposition, and caspase-3 activation, restoring mitochondrial membrane potential, reducing the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells, and regulating apoptosis-related proteins. We also determined the protective effects of Iso by PI3K/AKT activation and HO-1 induction. Iso reduced the atherosclerotic plaque size in vivo in ApoE-/- mice as assessed by oil red O, Sudan IV staining, and CD68-positive cells, and reduced macrophage apoptosis as assessed by caspase-3 and TUNEL assays in lesions. Conclusion In conclusion, our results show that Iso inhibited atherosclerotic plaque development in ApoE-/- mice by PI3K/AKT activation and HO-1 induction. PMID:25799286

  5. Protective effect of zerumbone reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury via antioxidative enzymes and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Leung, Wai-Shing; Yang, Ming-Ling; Lee, Shiuan-Shinn; Kuo, Chi-Wen; Ho, Yung-Chyuan; Huang-Liu, Rosa; Lin, Hui-Wen; Kuan, Yu-Hsiang

    2017-05-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a serious disease with high morbidity and mortality rate. Although there are effective strategies for treatment of ALI; a widely accepted specific pharmacotherapy has not yet established. Zerumbone, the major active phytochemical compound from Zingiber zerumbet Smith, exhibits various beneficial biological and pharmacological activities, such as antioxidation, anti-inflammation, immunomodulation, and anti-cancer. We aimed to study the potential protective effects and mechanisms of zerumbone in mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Pretreatment with zerumbone inhibited the histopatholgical changes such as neutrophils infiltration, increased in alveolar barrier thickness, hemorrhage, and hyaline membrane formation occurred in lungs in LPS-induced ALI. In addition, not only LPS-induced activation of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) was suppressed by zerumbone, but also lipid peroxidation in lungs was inhibited as well. Moreover, pretreatment with zerumbone reversed the antioxidative enzymes activities, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, decreased by LPS and enhanced the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase (HO-1) induced by LPS. These results from present study suggested that the protective mechanisms of zerumbone on LPS-induced ALI were via up-regulation of antioxidative enzymes and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

  6. Nelumbo nucifera leaves protect hydrogen peroxide-induced hepatic damage via antioxidant enzymes and HO-1/Nrf2 activation.

    PubMed

    Je, Jae-Young; Lee, Da-Bin

    2015-06-01

    Naturally occurring phenolic compounds are widely found in plants. Here, the phenolic composition and hepatoprotective effect of the butanolic extract (BE) from Nelumbo nucifera leaves against H2O2-induced hepatic damage in cultured hepatocytes were investigated. BE showed high total phenol and flavonoid contents, and major phenolic compounds are quercetin, catechin, ferulic acid, rutin, and protocatechuic acid by HPLC analysis. BE effectively scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) cation radicals (IC50 values of 5.21 μg mL(-1) for DPPH and 6.22 μg mL(-1) for ABTS(+)) and showed strong reducing power. Pretreatment of BE prior to 650 μM H2O2 exposure markedly increased cell viability and suppressed H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and AAPH-induced cell membrane lipid peroxidation. In addition, BE up-regulated intracellular glutathione levels under normal and oxidative stress conditions. Notably, the hepatoprotective effect of BE was directly correlated with the increased expression of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) by 0.62-fold, catalase (CAT) by 0.42-fold, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) by 2.4-fold. Pretreatment of BE also increased the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 by 8.1-fold indicating that increased SOD-1, CAT, and HO-1 expressions are Nrf2-mediated.

  7. Uric Acid-Induced Adipocyte Dysfunction Is Attenuated by HO-1 Upregulation: Potential Role of Antioxidant Therapy to Target Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sodhi, Komal; Hilgefort, Jordan; Banks, George; Gilliam, Chelsea; Stevens, Sarah; Ansinelli, Hayden A.; Getty, Morghan; Abraham, Nader G.; Shapiro, Joseph I.

    2016-01-01

    Increased uric acid levels have been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. To examine the mechanisms by which this occurs, we hypothesized that an increase in heme oxygenase 1, a potent antioxidant gene, will decrease uric acid levels and adipocyte dysfunction via suppression of ROS and xanthine oxidase (XO) levels. We examined the effect of uric acid on adipogenesis in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the presence and absence of cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), an HO-1 inducer, and tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP), an HO activity inhibitor. Uric acid increased adipogenesis by increasing NADPH oxidase expression and elevation in the adipogenesis markers C/EBPα, PPARγ, and Mest, while decreasing small lipid droplets and Wnt10b levels. We treated MSCs with fructose, a fuel source that increases uric acid levels. Our results showed that fructose increased XO expression as compared to the control and concomitant treatment with CoPP significantly decreased XO expression and uric acid levels. These beneficial effects of CoPP were reversed by SnMP, supporting a role for HO activity in mediating these effects. These findings demonstrate that increased levels of HO-1 appear crucial in modulating the phenotype of adipocytes exposed to uric acid and in downregulating XO and NADPH oxidase levels. PMID:26681956

  8. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) upregulation delays morphological and oxidative damage induced in an excitotoxic/pro-oxidant model in the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Colín-González, A L; Orozco-Ibarra, M; Chánez-Cárdenas, M E; Rangel-López, E; Santamaría, A; Pedraza-Chaverri, J; Barrera-Oviedo, D; Maldonado, P D

    2013-02-12

    Quinolinic acid (QA)-induced overactivation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors yields excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, which altogether contribute to trigger a wide variety of toxic pathways with biochemical, behavioral and neuropathological alterations similar to those observed in Huntington's disease. Noteworthy, in the brains of these patients, increased expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) levels can be found. It has been proposed that this enzyme can exert a dual role, as it can be either protective or deleterious to the CNS. While some evidence indicates that its overexpression affords cellular anti-oxidant protection due to decreased concentrations of its pro-oxidative substrate heme group, and increased bilirubin levels, other reports established that high HO-1 expression and activity may result in a pro-oxidizing atmosphere due to a release of Fe(2+). In this work, we examined the temporal evolution of oxidative damage to proteins, HO-1 expression, immunoreactivity, total activity, and cell death after 1, 3, 5 and 7 days of an intrastriatal QA infusion (240 nmol/μl). QA was found to induce cellular degeneration, increasing carbonylated proteins and generating a transitory response in HO-1 mRNA, protein content, and immunoreactivity and activity in nerve cells. In order to study the role of HO-1 in the QA-induced cellular death, the tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP), a well-known HO inhibitor, was administered to rats (30 μmol/kg, i.p.). The administration of SnPP to animals treated with QA inhibited the HO activation, and exacerbated the striatal cell damage induced by QA. Our findings reveal a potential modulatory role of HO-1 in the toxic paradigm evoked by QA in rats. This evidence provides a valuable tool for further approaches on HO-1 regulation in neurotoxic paradigms. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanism of phytoestrogen puerarin-mediated cytoprotection following oxidative injury: Estrogen receptor-dependent up-regulation of PI3K/Akt and HO-1

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2008-12-15

    Phytoestrogens are polyphenolic non-steroidal plant compounds with estrogen-like biological activity. The phytoestrogen puerarin, the main isoflavone glycoside found in the root of Pueraria lobata, has been used for various medicinal purposes in traditional Chinese medicines for thousands of years. Recent studies have indicated that the estrogen receptor (ER), through interaction with p85, regulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, revealing a physiologic, non-nuclear function of ER that may be relevant in cytoprotection. In this study, we demonstrate that the phytoestrogen puerarin inhibits tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative injury via an ER-dependent G{beta}1/PI3K/Akt and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway. Pretreatment of Hepa1c1c7 and HepG2 cells with puerarin significantly reduced t-BHP-induced caspase-3 activation and subsequent cell death. Also, puerarin up-regulated HO-1 expression and this expression conferred cytoprotection against oxidative injury induced by t-BHP. Moreover, puerarin induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, which is upstream of puerarin-induced HO-1 expression, and PI3K activation, a pathway that is involved in induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, HO-1 expression and cytoprotection. Puerarin-induced up-regulation of HO-1 and cytoprotection against t-BHP were abolished by silencing Nrf2 expression with specific siRNA. Also, puerarin-mediated increases in PI3K activation and HO-1 induction were reversed by co-treatment with ICI 182,780 and pertussis toxin. Taken together, these results suggest that puerarin augments cellular antioxidant defense capacity through ER-dependent HO-1 induction via the G{beta}1/PI3K/Akt-Nrf2 signaling pathway, thereby protecting cells from oxidative stress.

  10. Activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 Antioxidant Pathway Contributes to the Protective Effects of Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides in the Rodent Retina after Ischemia-Reperfusion-Induced Damage

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; So, Kwok-Fai; Brecha, Nicholas C.; Pu, Mingliang

    2014-01-01

    Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP), extracts from the wolfberries, are protective to retina after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). The antioxidant response element (ARE)–mediated antioxidant pathway plays an important role in maintaining the redox status of the retina. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), combined with potent AREs in its promoter, is a highly effective therapeutic target for the protection against neurodegenerative diseases, including I/R-induced retinal damage. The aim of our present study was to investigate whether the protective effect of LBP after I/R damage was mediated via activation of the Nrf2/HO-1-antioxidant pathway in the retina. Retinal I/R was induced by an increase in intraocular pressure to 130 mm Hg for 60 minutes. Prior to the induction of ischemia, rats were orally treated with either vehicle (PBS) or LBP (1 mg/kg) once a day for 1 week. For specific experiments, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP, 20 mg/kg), an HO-1 inhibitor, was intraperitoneally administered at 24 h prior to ischemia. The protective effects of LBP were evaluated by quantifying ganglion cell and amacrine cell survival, and by measuring cell apoptosis in the retinal layers. In addition, HO-1 expression was examined using Western blotting and immunofluorescence analyses. Cytosolic and nuclear Nrf2 was measured using immunofluorescent staining. LBP treatment significantly increased Nrf2 nuclear accumulation and HO-1 expression in the retina after I/R injury. Increased apoptosis and a decrease in the number of viable cells were observed in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) and inner nuclear layer (INL) in the I/R retina, which were reversed by LBP treatment. The HO-1 inhibitor, ZnPP, diminished the LBP treatment-induced protective effects in the retina after I/R. Taken together, these results suggested that LBP partially exerted its beneficial neuroprotective effects via the activation of Nrf2 and an increase in HO-1 protein expression. PMID:24400114

  11. BnHO1, a haem oxygenase-1 gene from Brassica napus, is required for salinity and osmotic stress-induced lateral root formation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zeyu; Geng, Beibei; Xu, Sheng; Xuan, Wei; Nie, Li; Shen, Wenbiao; Liang, Yongchao; Guan, Rongzhan

    2011-08-01

    In this report, a rapeseed (Brassica napus) haem oxygenase-1 gene BnHO1 was cloned and sequenced. It shared high homology with Arabidopsis HY1 proteins, and encodes a 32.6 kDa protein with a 54-amino-acid transit peptide, predicting the mature protein of 25.1 kDa. The mature BnHO1 expressed in Escherichia coli exhibits haem oxygenase (HO) activity. Furthermore, the application of lower doses of NaCl (10 mM) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) (2%) mimicked the inducible effects of naphthylacetic acid and the HO-1 inducer haemin on the up-regulation of BnHO1 and subsequent lateral root (LR) formation. Contrasting effects were observed when a higher dose of NaCl or PEG was applied. The above inducible and inhibitory responses were blocked significantly when the HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) or haemin was applied, both of which were reversed by the application of carbon monoxide or ZnPPIX, respectively. Moreover, the addition of ZnPPIX at different time points during LR formation indicated that BnHO1 might be involved in the early stages of LR formation. The auxin response factor transcripts and the auxin content in seedling roots were clearly induced by lower doses of salinity or osmotic stress. However, treatment with the inhibitor of polar auxin transport N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid prevented the above inducible responses conferred by lower doses of NaCl and PEG, which were further rescued when the treatments were combined with haemin. Taken together, these results suggested a novel role of the rapeseed HO-1 gene in salinity and osmotic stress-induced LR formation, with a possible interaction with auxin signalling.

  12. 5-aminolevulinic acid combined with sodium ferrous citrate ameliorates H2O2-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via activation of the MAPK/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingyi; Guo, Huiming; Chen, Jimei; Fujino, M; Ito, H; Takahashi, K; Abe, F; Nakajima, M; Tanaka, T; Wang, Jinju; Huang, Huanlei; Zheng, Shaoyi; Hei, Mingyan; Li, Jiaxin; Huang, Shuai; Li, Jiani; Ma, Xiaotang; Chen, Yanfang; Zhao, Lingling; Zhuang, Jian; Zhu, Ping; Li, X K

    2015-04-15

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) causes cell damage via oxidative stress. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an antioxidant enzyme that can protect cardiomyocytes against oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether the heme precursor 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) with sodium ferrous citrate (SFC) could protect cardiomyocytes from H2O2-induced hypertrophy via modulation of HO-1 expression. HL-1 cells pretreated with/without 5-ALA and SFC were exposed to H2O2 to induce a cardiomyocyte hypertrophy model. Hypertrophy was evaluated by planar morphometry, (3)H-leucine incorporation, and RT-PCR analysis of hypertrophy-related gene expressions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was assessed by 5/6-chloromethyl-2',7'-ichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetylester. HO-1 and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein expressions were analyzed by Western blot. In our experiments, HL-1 cells were transfected with Nrf2 siRNA or treated with a signal pathway inhibitor. We found several results. 1) ROS production, cell surface area, protein synthesis, and expressions of hypertrophic marker genes, including atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, atrial natriuretic factor, and β-myosin heavy chain, were decreased in HL-1 cells pretreated with 5-ALA and SFC. 2) 5-ALA and SFC increased HO-1 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner, associated with upregulation of Nrf2. Notably, Nrf2 siRNA dramatically reduced HO-1 expression in HL-1 cells. 3) ERK1/2, p38, and SAPK/JNK signaling pathways were activated and modulate 5-ALA- and SFC-enhanced HO-1 expression. SB203580 (p38 kinase), PD98059 (ERK), or SP600125 (JNK) inhibitors significantly reduced this effect. In conclusion, our data suggest that 5-ALA and SFC protect HL-1 cells from H2O2-induced cardiac hypertrophy via activation of the MAPK/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

  13. 5-Aminolevulinic acid with sodium ferrous citrate induces autophagy and protects cardiomyocytes from hypoxia-induced cellular injury through MAPK-Nrf-2-HO-1 signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingyi; Zhu, Ping; Fujino, Masayuki; Nishio, Yoshiaki; Chen, Jimei; Ito, Hidenori; Takahashi, Kiwamu; Nakajima, Motowo; Tanaka, Tohru; Zhao, Lingling; Zhuang, Jian; Li, Xiao-Kang

    2016-10-28

    Hypoxia causes cardiac disease via oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. 5-Aminolevulinic acid in combination with sodium ferrous citrate (ALA/SFC) has been shown to up-regulate heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and decrease macrophage infiltration and renal cell apoptosis in renal ischemia injury mice. However, its underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether ALA/SFC could protect cardiomyocytes from hypoxia-induced apoptosis by autophagy via HO-1 signaling. Murine atrial cardiomyocyte HL-1 cells were pretreated with ALA/SFC and then exposed to hypoxia. ALA/SFC pretreatment significantly attenuated hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis, reactive oxygen species production, and mitochondrial injury, while it increased cell viability and autophagy levels. HO-1 expression by ALA/SFC was associated with up-regulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf-2, whereas Nrf-2 siRNA dramatically reduced HO-1 expression. ERK1/2, p38, and SAPK/JNK pathways were activated by ALA/SFC and their specific inhibitors significantly reduced ALA/SFC-mediated HO-1 upregulation. Silencing of either Nrf-2 or HO-1and LY294002, inhibitor of autophagy, abolished the protective ability of ALA/AFC against hypoxia-induced injury and reduced ALA/SFC-induced autophagy. Taken together, our data suggest that ALA/SFC induces autophagy via activation of MAPK/Nrf-2/HO-1 signaling pathway to protect cardiomyocytes from hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pro-Inflammatory and Pro-Oxidant Status of Pancreatic Islet In Vitro Is Controlled by TLR-4 and HO-1 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Vivot, Kevin; Langlois, Allan; Bietiger, William; Dal, Stéphanie; Seyfritz, Elodie; Pinget, Michel; Jeandidier, Nathalie; Maillard, Elisa; Gies, Jean-Pierre; Sigrist, Séverine

    2014-01-01

    Since their isolation until implantation, pancreatic islets suffer a major stress leading to the activation of inflammatory reactions. The maintenance of controlled inflammation is essential to preserve survival and function of the graft. Identification and targeting of pathway(s) implicated in post-transplant detrimental inflammatory events, is mandatory to improve islet transplantation success. We sought to characterize the expression of the pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant mediators during islet culture with a focus on Heme oxygenase (HO-1) and Toll-like receptors-4 signaling pathways. Rat pancreatic islets were isolated and pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant status were evaluated after 0, 12, 24 and 48 hours of culture through TLR-4, HO-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, CCL-2 and IL-6 secretion, ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) production (Dihydroethidine staining, DHE) and macrophages migration. To identify the therapeutic target, TLR4 inhibition (CLI-095) and HO-1 activation (cobalt protoporphyrin,CoPP) was performed. Activation of NFκB signaling pathway was also investigated. After isolation and during culture, pancreatic islet exhibited a proinflammatory and prooxidant status (increase levels of TLR-4, COX-2, CCL-2, IL-6, and ROS). Activation of HO-1 or inhibition of TLR-4 decreased inflammatory status and oxidative stress of islets. Moreover, the overexpression of HO-1 induced NFκB phosphorylation while the inhibition of TLR-4 had no effect NFκB activation. Finally, inhibition of pro-inflammatory pathway induced a reduction of macrophages migration. These data demonstrated that the TLR-4 signaling pathway is implicated in early inflammatory events leading to a pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidant status of islets in vitro. Moreover, these results provide the mechanism whereby the benefits of HO-1 target in TLR-4 signaling pathway. HO-1 could be then an interesting target to protect islets before transplantation. PMID:25343247

  15. Propofol post-conditioning alleviates hepatic ischaemia reperfusion injury via BRG1-mediated Nrf2/HO-1 transcriptional activation in human and mice.

    PubMed

    Ge, Mian; Chen, Huixin; Zhu, Qianqian; Cai, Jun; Chen, Chaojin; Yuan, Dongdong; Jin, Yi; Yao, Weifeng; Hei, Ziqing

    2017-07-27

    To explore the effects of propofol post-conditioning (PPC) on hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion injury (HIRI) and the potential mechanisms that might be involved in the interaction of Brahma-related gene1(BRG1) and Nuclear-related factor 2(Nrf2). Patients were randomized into PPC(n = 16) and non-PPC(NPC)( n = 21) groups. Propofol(2 mg/kg) was infused within 10 min. of the onset of liver reperfusion during liver transplantation in the PPC group. Liver function tests, as well as Brg1, Nrf2, Heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) and NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase1(NQO1) expression levels were evaluated. CMV-Brg1 mice were designed to investigate the role of Brg1 overexpression during HIRI. Brg1 and Nrf2 siRNA were used to examine the relationship between Brg1 and Nrf2/HO-1 pathways in propofol-mediated effects in a human hepatocyte(L02) hypoxia/reoxygenation(H/R) model. In patients, PPC attenuated both donor liver pathological and function injury, and reducing oxidative stress markers, compared to the NPC group, 24 hrs after surgery. PPC increased liver Brg1, Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1 expression. In mice, PPC reduced HIRI by decreasing liver oxidative stress and activating Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, accompanied by up-regulation of BRG1 expression. BRG1 overexpression activated Nrf2/HO-1 transcription in CMV-BRG1 mice during HIRI. In vitro, PPC significantly elevated expression of Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1, resulting in a reduction of cell DCFH-DA and 8-isoprostane levels and decreased lactate dehydrogenase levels, leading to an overall increase in cell viability. Moreover, the protective effects of propofol were partially abrogated in Nrf2-knock-down or BRG1-knock-down hepatocytes. Nrf2-knock-down drastically reduced protein expression of HO-1 and NQO1, while Brg1-knock-down decreased HO-1 expression. Propofol post-conditioning alleviates HIRI through BRG1-mediated Nrf2/HO-1 transcriptional activation. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and

  16. SERPINB1 ameliorates acute lung injury in liver transplantation through ERK1/2-mediated STAT3-dependent HO-1 induction.

    PubMed

    Yao, Weifeng; Li, Haobo; Luo, Gangjian; Li, Xiang; Chen, Chaojin; Yuan, Dongdong; Chi, Xinjin; Xia, Zhengyuan; Hei, Ziqing

    2017-07-01

    Postoperative acute lung injury (ALI) is a severe complication after liver transplantation, which severely affects postoperative patients' survival. The underlying mechanism is largely unknown and effective treatment limited. We explored the role of serpin protease inhibitor B1 (SERPINB1), a potent inhibitor of neutrophil serine proteases, in ALI in liver transplantation and its interplay with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Sprague-Dawley rats underwent orthotopic autologous liver transplantation (OALT) were treated with recombinant SB1 (rSB1) in the absence or presence of STAT3 specific inhibitor, WP1066. Then SB1-siRNA was used to knockdown endogenous SERPINB1. Also, alveolar epithelial cells RLE-6TN and BEAS-2B were exposed to TNF-α without or with SERPINB1 and the roles of STAT3 and HO-1 were examined by respective gene knockdown. Finally, rats were treated with ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126, p38 MAPK inhibitor SB20358, or JNK inhibitor SP600125 after rSB1 pretreatment and then subjected to OALT. OALT resulted in increased pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, accompanied by severe lung injury that was coincident with increased pulmonary SERPINB1, HO-1, and STAT3. SERPINB1 gene knockdown increased post-OALT lung injury and pulmonary inflammation. rSB1 administration dose-dependently reduced post-OALT lung injury and decreased pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress with concomitant enhanced HO-1 and STAT3 protein expression. These protective effects of SERPINB1 were abolished by STAT3 inhibition. Similarly, in RLE-6TN cells and BEAS-2B cells, TNF-α induced cell injury and increased HO-1 and STAT3. SERPINB1 further increased HO-1 and STAT3 protein expression and attenuated TNF-α-induced cellular oxidative stress, apoptotic cells, and mitochondria damage, which were cancelled by STAT3 or HO-1 gene knockdown. Furthermore, these SERPINB1-mediated STAT3/HO-1 activation and pulmonary protective effects

  17. NS-398, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, inhibits proliferation of IL-1{beta}-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells by induction of {eta}{omicron}-1

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Hyoung Chul; Kim, Hee Sun; Lee, Kwang Youn; Chang, Ki Churl Kang, Young Jin

    2008-11-28

    We investigated whether NS-398, a selective inhibitor of COX-2, induces HO-1 in IL-1{beta}-stimulated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). NS-398 reduced the production of PGE{sub 2} without modulation of expression of COX-2 in IL-1{beta}-stimulated VSMC. NS-398 increased HO-1 mRNA and protein in a dose-dependent manner, but inhibited proliferation of IL-1{beta}-stimulated VSMC. Furthermore, SnPPIX, a HO-1 inhibitor, reversed the effects of NS-398 on PGE{sub 2} production, suggesting that COX-2 activity can be affected by HO-1. Hemin, a HO-1 inducer, also reduced the production of PGE{sub 2} and proliferation of IL-1{beta}-stimulated VSMC. CORM-2, a CO-releasing molecule, but not bilirubin inhibited proliferation of IL-1{beta}-stimulated VSMC. NS-398 inhibited proliferation of IL-1{beta}-stimulated VSMC in a HbO{sub 2}-sensitive manner. In conclusion, NS-398 inhibits proliferation of IL-1{beta}-stimulated VSMC by HO-1-derived CO. Thus, NS-398 may facilitate the healing process of vessels in vascular inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis.

  18. Overexpression of HO-1 Contributes to Sepsis-Induced Immunosuppression by Modulating the Th1/Th2 Balance and Regulatory T-Cell Function.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seong-Jin; Kim, So-Jin; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2017-05-15

    Countervailing anti-inflammatory response and immunosuppression can cause death in late sepsis. Depletion and dysfunction of T cells are critical for developing sepsis-induced immunosuppression. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has a regulatory effect on differentiation and function of T cells and anti-inflammatory properties. We therefore investigated the immunosuppressive role of HO-1 in sepsis with a focus on its effects on helper T-cell (Th) differentiation and regulatory T cells (Treg). Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Mice were intraperitoneally injected with zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP; 25 mg/kg), an HO-1 inhibitor, or hemin (20 mg/kg), an HO-1 inducer, at 24 and 36 hours post-CLP. Splenocytes were isolated 48 hours post-CLP. Mice were intranasally infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa 4 days post-CLP as a secondary pneumonia infection model. ZnPP improved survival and bacterial clearance, whereas hemin had the opposite effect in septic mice. CLP induced lymphocyte apoptosis and a proinflammatory Th1 to anti-inflammatory Th2 shift, which was attenuated by ZnPP. ZnPP attenuated the CLP-induced Treg population and protein expression of inhibitory costimulatory molecules. Furthermore, ZnPP improved survival in the secondary pneumonia infection model. Our findings suggest that HO-1 overexpression contributes to sepsis-induced immunosuppression during late phase sepsis by promoting Th2 polarization and Treg function.

  19. Cytoprotective effect exerted by geraniin in HepG2 cells is through microRNA mediated regulation of BACH-1 and HO-1.

    PubMed

    Aayadi, Hoda; Mittal, Smriti P K; Deshpande, Anjali; Gore, Makarand; Ghaskadbi, Saroj S

    2017-06-12

    Geraniin, a hydrolysable tannin, used in traditional medicine in Southeast Asia, is known to exhibit various biological activities. As an antioxidant it is known to up-regulate phase II enzyme Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). However its mechanism is not clearly understood. Nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2 related factor 2 (Nrf-2) is transcriptionally up-regulated by Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and retained in nucleus due to inactivated Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK-3β). Geraniin additionally down-regulates expression of microRNA 217 and 377 (miR-217 and miR-377) which target HO-1 mRNA. Expression of BTB and CNC homolog 1 (BACH-1), another regulator of HO-1, is also down-regulated by up-regulating microRNA 98 (miR-98), a negative regulator of BACH-1. Thus, geraniin up-regulates HO-1 expression both through activating its positive regulator Nrf-2 and by down-regulating its negative regulator BACH-1. Up-regulation of HO-1 also confers protection to HepG2 cells from tertiary butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) induced cytotoxicity.

  20. Penehyclidine Hydrochloride Pretreatment Ameliorates Rhabdomyolysis-Induced AKI by Activating the Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway and Allevi-ating Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Huang, XuDong; Zhang, LiXia; Yang, XinJun; Wang, LiHui; Chen, YunShuang; Wang, JingHua; Wu, GuangLi

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most severe complications of rhabdomyolysis (RM). The underlying mechanisms and potential preventions need to be investigated. Penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC) was reported to ameliorate renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, but the effect of PHC on RM-reduced AKI is unknown. In this study, we established a rat model of RM-induced AKI using an intramuscular glycerol injection in the hind limbs. Rats were pretreated with PHC before the glycerol injection, and the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor ZnPP was introduced to evaluate the effect of HO-1 on RM-induced AKI. PHC pretreatment ameliorated the pathological renal injury and renal dysfunction, and decreased the renal apoptosis rate in RM-induced AKI. PHC significantly up-regulated HO-1 expression, increased HO-1 enzymatic activity and decreased the accumulation of myoglobin in renal tissues. This effect was partly inhibited by ZnPP. PHC pretreatment also effectively up-regulated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and down-regulated glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and caspase-12 at both the gene and protein levels. These results suggest that the protective effects of PHC pretreatment on RM-induced AKI occur at least in part through activating the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway and alleviating endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in rat renal tissues. PMID:26987113

  1. Lycopene attenuates colistin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice via activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Dai, Chongshan; Tang, Shusheng; Deng, Sijun; Zhang, Shen; Zhou, Yan; Velkov, Tony; Li, Jian; Xiao, Xilong

    2015-01-01

    Nephrotoxicity is the major dose-limiting factor for the clinical use of colistin against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of lycopene on colistin-induced nephrotoxicity in a mouse model. Fifty mice were randomly divided into 5 groups: the control group (saline solution), the lycopene group (20 mg/kg of body weight/day administered orally), the colistin group (15 mg/kg/day administered intravenously), the colistin (15 mg/kg/day) plus lycopene (5 mg/kg/day) group, and the colistin (15 mg/kg/day) plus lycopene (20 mg/kg/day) group; all mice were treated for 7 days. At 12 h after the last dose, blood was collected for measurements of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine levels. The kidney tissue samples were obtained for examination of biomarkers of oxidative stress and apoptosis, histopathological assessment, and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. Colistin treatment significantly increased concentrations of BUN and serum creatinine, tubular apoptosis/necrosis, lipid peroxidation, and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) activity, while the treatment decreased the levels of endogenous antioxidant biomarkers glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Notably, the changes in the levels of all biomarkers were attenuated in the kidneys of mice treated with colistin by lycopene (5 or 20 mg/kg). Lycopene treatment, especially in the colistin plus lycopene (20 mg/kg) group, significantly downregulated the expression of NF-κB mRNA (P < 0.01) but upregulated the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and HO-1 mRNA (both P < 0.01) in the kidney compared with the results seen with the colistin group. Our data demonstrated that coadministration of 20 mg/kg/day lycopene can protect against colistin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. This effect may be attributed to the antioxidative property of lycopene and its ability to activate the Nrf2/HO

  2. Anti-oxidizing effect of the dichloromethane and hexane fractions from Orostachys japonicus in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells via upregulation of Nrf2 expression and activation of MAPK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyeong-Seon; Lee, Gyeong-Seon; Kim, Seon-Hee; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Suk, Dong-Hee; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2014-01-01

    Orostachys japonicus shows various biological activities. However, the molecular mechanisms remain unknown in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Here, we investigated the anti-oxidizing effect of the dichloromethane (DCM) and hexane fractions from O. japonicus (OJD and OJH) against oxidative stress in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated by LPS. OJD and OJH significantly increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Additionally, it was found that the expression of HO-1 was stimulated by Nrf2 activated via degradation of Keap1. ERK and p38 inhibitors repressed HO-1 induced by OJD and OJH in LPS-stimulated cells, respectively. In conclusion, these results suggest that OJD and OJH may block oxidative damage stimulated by LPS, via increasing the expression of HO-1 and Nrf2, and MAPK signaling pathway. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(2): 98-103] PMID:24219867

  3. Heme oxygenase-1 induction alters chemokine regulation and ameliorates human immunodeficiency virus-type-1 infection in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Zhao-Hua; Kumari, Namita; Nekhai, Sergei; Clouse, Kathleen A.; Wahl, Larry M.; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Dhawan, Subhash

    2013-06-07

    Highlights: •Lipopolysaccharide stimulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) ameliorated HIV-1 infection of primary human macrophages. •The partial protection by HO-1 against HIV infection was associated with induction of chemokines such as MIP1α and MIP1β. •This mechanism explains lipopolysaccharide-stimulated HO-1-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 infection of macrophages. -- Abstract: We have elucidated a putative mechanism for the host resistance against HIV-1 infection of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We show that LPS-activated MDM both inhibited HIV-1 entry into the cells and were refractory to post-entry productive viral replication. LPS-treated cells were virtually negative for mature virions as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. LPS activation of MDM markedly enhanced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a potent inducible cytoprotective enzyme. Increased HO-1 expression was accompanied by elevated production of macrophage inflammatory chemokines (MIP1α and MIP1β) by LPS-activated MDM, significantly decreased surface chemokine receptor-5 (CCR-5) expression, and substantially reduced virus replication. Treatment of cells with HO-1 inhibitor SnPP IX (tin protoporphyrin IX) attenuated the LPS-mediated responses, HIV-1 replication and secretion of MIP1α, MIP1β, and LD78β chemokines with little change in surface CCR-5 expression. These results identify a novel role for HO-1 in the modulation of host immune response against HIV infection of MDM.

  4. HO-1 induction in motor cortex and intestinal dysfunction in TDP-43 A315T transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yansu; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Kunxi; An, Ting; Shi, Pengxiao; Li, Zhongyao; Duan, Weisong; Li, Chunyan

    2012-06-15

    TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has been found to be related to the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43 A315T transgenic mice develop degeneration of specific motor neurons, and accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins has been observed in the pyramidal cells of motor cortex of these mice. In this study, we found stress-responsive HO-1 induction and no autophagic alteration in motor cortex of TDP-43 A315T transgenic mice. Glial activation, especially astrocytic proliferation, occurred in cortical layer 5 and sub-meningeal region. Interestingly, we noticed that progressively thinned colon, swollen small intestine and reduced food intake, rather than severe muscle weakness, contributed to the death of TDP-43 A315T transgenic mice. Increased TDP-43 accumulation in the myenteric nerve plexus and increased thickness of muscular layer of colon were related to the intestinal dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. HO1 mRNA and Protein do not Change in Parallel in Bronchial Biopsies of Patients After Long Term Exposure to Sulfur Mustard

    PubMed Central

    Nourani, Mohammad Reza; Yazdani, Samaneh; Roudkenar, Mehryar Habibi; Ebrahimi, Majid; Halabian, Raheleh; Mirbagheri, Leila; Ghanei, Mostafa; Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani

    2010-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM), is an alkylating agent and has been emerged as a chemical weapon in various battlefields. More recently, SM was employed in the Iraq conflict against Iranian military forces and civilians. Nowadays there are more than 40,000 people suffering from pulmonary lesions special chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) due to mustard gas in Iran. SM causes the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Heme oxygenases (HOs) are the rate-limiting enzyme for heme metabolism. Numerous studies have confirmed that HOs are concerned in diverse biological processes such as anti-oxidation. The present study was undertaken to consider the regulation of HO-1 and HO-2 n the human airway wall, and to suggest a probable role that HOs may play in cellular defense against oxidative stress due to SM. In this research ten unexposed SM individuals and twenty SM exposed patients were included. Evaluation of HO-1& HO -2 expressions in unexposed and SM exposed patients samples was performed by semiquantitative RT-PCR, real-time RT-PCR and Immunohistochemistry analysis. While unexposed SM samples expressed same levels of HOs, expression level of HO-1 was upregulated about 3.58 ± 1.93 folds in SM exposed patients in comparison with unexposed ones, we could not find any difference in expression of HO-2 n two groups. In contrast, Immunohistochemistry results showed negative HO-1 protein expression in SM injured patients. Our results revealed that HO1 may plays an important role in cellular protection against oxidative stress due to mustard gas toxicity in airway wall of SM exposed patients at mRNA level, but translational modifications might cause decrease in the amount of HO1 protein. PMID:20981135

  6. Mechanism of estrogen-mediated attenuation of hepatic injury following trauma-hemorrhage: Akt-dependent HO-1 up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jun-Te; Kan, Wen-Hong; Hsieh, Chi-Hsun; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Schwacha, Martin G; Bland, Kirby I; Chaudry, Irshad H

    2007-10-01

    Protein kinase B (Akt) is known to be involved in proinflammatory and chemotactic events in response to injury. Akt activation also leads to the induction of heme oxygenase (HO)-1. Up-regulation of HO-1 mediates potent, anti-inflammatory effects and attenuates organ injury. Although studies have shown that 17beta-estradiol (E2) prevents organ damage following trauma-hemorrhage, it remains unknown whether Akt/HO-1 plays any role in E2-mediated attenuation of hepatic injury following trauma-hemorrhage. To study this, male rats underwent trauma-hemorrhage (mean blood pressure, approximately 40 mmHg for 90 min), followed by fluid resuscitation. At the onset of resuscitation, rats were treated with vehicle, E2 (1 mg/kg body weight), E2 plus the PI-3K inhibitor (Wortmannin), or the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist (ICI 182,780). At 2 h after sham operation or trauma-hemorrhage, plasma alpha-GST and hepatic tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, IL-6, TNF-alpha, ICAM-1, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1, and MIP-2 levels were measured. Hepatic Akt and HO-1 protein levels were also determined. Trauma-hemorrhage increased hepatic injury markers (alpha-GST and MPO activity), cytokines, ICAM-1, and chemokine levels. These parameters were markedly improved in the E2-treated rats following trauma-hemorrhage. E2 treatment also increased hepatic Akt activation and HO-1 expression compared with vehicle-treated, trauma-hemorrhage rats, which were abolished by coadministration of Wortmannin or ICI 182,780. These results suggest that the salutary effects of E2 on hepatic injury following trauma-hemorrhage are in part mediated via an ER-related, Akt-dependent up-regulation of HO-1.

  7. MP4CO, a pegylated hemoglobin saturated with carbon monoxide, is a modulator of HO-1, inflammation, and vaso-occlusion in transgenic sickle mice

    PubMed Central

    Young, Mark; Chen, Chunsheng; Nguyen, Julia; Burhop, Kenneth; Tran, Phuc; Vercellotti, Gregory M.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic sickle mice expressing βS hemoglobin have activated vascular endothelium in multiple organs that exhibits enhanced expression of NF-ĸB and adhesion molecules and promotes microvascular stasis in sickle, but not normal, mice in response to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R), or heme. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) or administration of its products, carbon monoxide (CO) or biliverdin, inhibits microvascular stasis in sickle mice. Infusion of human hemoglobin conjugated with polyethylene glycol and saturated with CO (MP4CO) markedly induced hepatic HO-1 activity and inhibited NF-ĸB activation and H/R-induced microvascular stasis in sickle mice. These effects were mediated by CO; saline or MP4 saturated with O2 (MP4OX) had little to no effect on H/R-induced stasis, though unmodified oxyhemoglobin exacerbated stasis. The HO-1 inhibitor, tin protoporphyrin, blocked MP4CO protection, consistent with HO-1 involvement in the protection afforded by MP4CO. MP4CO also induced nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), an important transcriptional regulator of HO-1 and other antioxidant genes. In a heterozygous (hemoglobin-AS) sickle mouse model, intravenous hemin induced cardiovascular collapse and mortality within 120 minutes, which was significantly reduced by MP4CO, but not MP4OX. These data demonstrate that MP4CO induces cytoprotective Nrf2 and HO-1 and decreases NF-ĸB activation, microvascular stasis, and mortality in transgenic sickle mouse models. PMID:23908468

  8. Carnosic Acid Protects Mitochondria of Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells Exposed to Paraquat Through Activation of the Nrf2/HO-1Axis.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto; Peres, Alessandra; Ferreira, Gustavo Costa; Schuck, Patrícia Fernanda; Gama, Clarissa S; Bosco, Simone Morelo Dal

    2016-09-29

    Carnosic acid (CA; C20H28O4), which is also called salvin, is a major phenolic diterpene found in Rosmarinus officinalis L. and exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative properties. CA activates the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) transcription factor, leading to the upregulation of antioxidant and phase II detoxification enzymes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione reductase (GR), γ-glutamate-cysteine ligase (γ-GCL), and glutathione S-transferase (GST), among others. We have previously demonstrated that CA upregulates the total and mitochondrial synthesis of glutathione (GSH), causing mitochondrial protection against paraquat (PQ) and methylglyoxal (MG). Nonetheless, the complete mechanism by which CA prevented mitochondrial dysfunction was not clear yet. Here, we examine whether HO-1 would be involved in the CA-induced mechanism of mitochondrial protection in SH-SY5Y-treated cells. SH-SY5Y cells were pretreated with CA (1 μM) for 12 h prior to a challenge with PQ at 100 μM for additional 24 h. Zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP IX; a specific inhibitor of HO-1; 10 μM) was utilized prior to exposure to CA in order to investigate whether HO-1 was involved in the cytoprotective effects elicited by CA. We found that the CA-induced Nrf2-dependent HO-1 upregulation ameliorated, at least in part, the mitochondrial function in PQ-treated cells. Therefore, CA protected mitochondria of SH-SY5Y cells and exerted anti-apoptotic effects by activating the Nrf2/HO-1 axis.

  9. Berberine Hydrochloride Protects C2C12 Myoblast Cells Against Oxidative Stress-Induced Damage via Induction of Nrf-2-Mediated HO-1 Expression.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Preclinical Research The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of berberine hydrochloride (BBH), an isoquinoline alkaloid that can be isolated from a variety of herbs, on hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-induced oxidative stress in C2C12 myoblasts and to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in this process, especially the expression of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. BBH preconditioning attenuated H2 O2 -induced growth inhibition and DNA damage as well as apoptosis in C2C12 cells via suppression of the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Treatment with BBHride alone effectively upregulated the expression of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and elevated HO-1 activity. However, the protective effects of BBH against H2 O2 -induced ROS generation and cell growth reduction were abolished by an HO-1 inhibitor. Moreover, BBH-mediated induction and activation of HO-1 were reduced by genetic silencing of Nrf2 using small interfering RNA (siRNA). In addition, the effects of BBH against H2 O2 -induced ROS accumulation and growth inhibition were abrogated in C2C12 cells transfected with Nrf2 siRNA. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that BBH could protect C2C12 cells against oxidative stress-induced injury and this effect involved activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. Drug Dev Res, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid has an anti-oxidant effect via the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kusunoki, Chisato; Yang, Liu; Yoshizaki, Takeshi; Nakagawa, Fumiyuki; Ishikado, Atsushi; Kondo, Motoyuki; Morino, Katsutaro; Sekine, Osamu; Ugi, Satoshi; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA has a direct anti-oxidant effect in adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EPA and DHA induce HO-1 expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA and its end-product, 4-HHE, activates the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omega-3 PUFA protects against oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity. -- Abstract: Oxidative stress is produced in adipose tissue of obese subjects and has been associated with obesity-related disorders. Recent studies have shown that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ({omega}3-PUFA) has beneficial effects in preventing atherosclerotic diseases and insulin resistance in adipose tissue. However, the role of {omega}3-PUFA on adipocytes has not been elucidated. In this study, 3T3-L1 adipocytes were treated with {omega}3-PUFA and its metabolites, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or 4-hydroxy hexenal (4-HHE). {omega}3-PUFA and its metabolites dose-dependently increased mRNA and protein levels of the anti-oxidative enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1); whereas no changes in the well-known anti-oxidant molecules, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were observed. Knockdown of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) significantly reduced EPA, DHA or 4-HHE-induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression. Also, pretreatment with {omega}3-PUFA prevented H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cytotoxicity in a HO-1 dependent manner. In conclusion, treatment with EPA and DHA induced HO-1 through the activation of Nrf-2 and prevented oxidative stress in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This anti-oxidant defense may be of high therapeutic value for clinical conditions associated with systemic oxidative stress.

  11. Hawthorn Fruit Extract Elevates Expression of Nrf2/HO-1 and Improves Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeong-Hyun; Liu, Yanan; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2016-05-13

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) extract on the lipid profiles and antioxidant properties in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. After ovariectomy, the rats were randomly divided into four groups: the non-OVX control (Sham), the OVX-control (OVX), the OVX + 100 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OL), and the OVX + 200 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OH). The final body weights of the OVX group were significantly increased, but the increment was significantly decreased in hawthorn groups (p < 0.05). The serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were significantly elevated in the OVX group, whereas the hawthorn groups showed a significant decrease in these levels (p < 0.05). The hepatic triglyceride (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly reduced in the hawthorn groups compared with the OVX group (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly decreased in the OVX group, whereas the hawthorn groups exhibited a significant increase in expression (p < 0.05). The protein expressions of Nrf2, HO-1, and GPx were lower in the OVX group than the Sham group (p < 0.05). The oral administration of hawthorn extract reversed the suppression of protein levels. These results suggest that hawthorn extract could have protective effects in OVX rats by improving lipid profiles, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving the antioxidant defense system.

  12. Sclareol ameliorate lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury through inhibition of MAPK and induction of HO-1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yung-Hung; Deng, Jeng-Shyan; Pan, Hsin-Pao; Liao, Jung-Chun; Huang, Shyh-Shyun; Huang, Guan-Jhong

    2017-03-01

    Sclareol is a natural fragrance compound that is used widely in the cosmetic and food industries. This study examined the effect of sclareol on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Mice were treated with sclareol 1h before an intratracheal (I.T.) LPS challenge to induce an ALI model. The effects on lung tissue and lung injury were evaluated 6h after LPS induction. Pretreatment with sclareol noticeably improved the LPS-induced histological alterations and edema in lung tissue. Sclareol also inhibited the release of pro-inflammatory mediators. Differences in nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and IL-10 were found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) 6h after LPS-induced lung injury. This study also found a reduced number of total cells and reduced protein concentrations in the BALF. There were also changes in the pulmonary wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio, antioxidant enzyme activity, and myeloperoxidase activity in lung tissues. Sclareol effectively blocked the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and impeded the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). The compound boosted the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and inhibited the breakdown of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and inhibitor of kappa B (IκBα). To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that sclareol effectively inhibits acute lung edema, and the results suggest that sclareol may be a potential agent for the treatment of ALI. The potential therapeutic benefits may include the attenuation of LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation due to sclareol's effects on several pathways, including NF-κB, MAPKs and HO-1, as well as the regulation of antioxidant enzyme activity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Resolvin D1 reduces deterioration of tight junction proteins by upregulating HO-1 in LPS-induced mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wanli; Wang, Huiqing; Wang, Lei; Yao, Chengye; Yuan, Ruixia; Wu, Qingping

    2013-09-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by increased pulmonary permeability with high mortality. Resolvin D1 (RvD1), which has potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving activity, can attenuate pulmonary edema in the animal model of ALI. However, the mechanism underlying the protection of RvD1 on pulmonary edema is still unknown. Here we explore the effects and mechanism of RvD1 on the disruption of tight junction protein that results in the permeability edema in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. The severity of pulmonary edema was assessed by wet-to-dry rate and Evans blue infiltration; expressions of tight junction (TJ) proteins occludin and zona occludin-1 (ZO-1) were examined by immunofluorescence staining and western blot; mRNA in lung tissue was studied by real time-PCR; the TUNEL kit was performed for the detection of apoptosis of pulmonary barrier. Twenty-four hours after LPS inhalation by mice, wet-to-dry rate and Evans blue infiltration indicated that pretreatment with RvD1 relieved the pulmonary edema and pulmonary capillary permeability. Moreover, RvD1 attenuated the LPS-induced deterioration of TJ protein ZO-1 and occludin significantly. And we found that RvD1 increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression contributed to the protection on the deterioration of TJs. In addition, we found that RvD1 could reduce pulmonary cellular apoptosis in LPS-induced mice. In conclusion, RvD1 possesses the ability that relieves the pulmonary edema and restores pulmonary capillary permeability and reduces disruption of TJs in LPS-induced ALI of mice, at least in part, by upregulating HO-1 expression.

  14. Hawthorn Fruit Extract Elevates Expression of Nrf2/HO-1 and Improves Lipid Profiles in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jeong-Hyun; Liu, Yanan; Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida Bunge) extract on the lipid profiles and antioxidant properties in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. After ovariectomy, the rats were randomly divided into four groups: the non-OVX control (Sham), the OVX-control (OVX), the OVX + 100 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OL), and the OVX + 200 mg/kg b.w. of hawthorn extract (OH). The final body weights of the OVX group were significantly increased, but the increment was significantly decreased in hawthorn groups (p < 0.05). The serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were significantly elevated in the OVX group, whereas the hawthorn groups showed a significant decrease in these levels (p < 0.05). The hepatic triglyceride (TG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly reduced in the hawthorn groups compared with the OVX group (p < 0.05). The mRNA expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly decreased in the OVX group, whereas the hawthorn groups exhibited a significant increase in expression (p < 0.05). The protein expressions of Nrf2, HO-1, and GPx were lower in the OVX group than the Sham group (p < 0.05). The oral administration of hawthorn extract reversed the suppression of protein levels. These results suggest that hawthorn extract could have protective effects in OVX rats by improving lipid profiles, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving the antioxidant defense system. PMID:27187458

  15. α-Dihydroxychalcone-glycoside (α-DHC) isolated from the heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium inhibits LPS induced MAPK activation and up regulates HO-1 expression in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Prarthana; Saraswat, Ghungroo; Kabir, Syed N

    2014-05-15

    Three phenolic glycosides isolated from the heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium showed significant free radical and superoxide ion scavenging activity and antioxidant potential that were comparable to, or several folds higher than those of standard antioxidants, trolox and ascorbic acid. The effective concentrations of these compounds were far below their cytotoxic levels. Compound 3, which was characterized to be α-dihydroxychalcone-glycoside (α-DHC), was the most potent one. Subsequent studies demonstrated that α-DHC effectively reduced nitric oxide and cytokine production by the LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cell line. The compound effectively attenuated the expression of inflammation-mediating enzymes COX-2 and iNOS at the mRNA as well as protein levels in a concentration dependent manner. It prevented phosphorylation of all the three MAPKs (JNK, ERK, p38) and eventually blocked the activation of downstream elements contributing to inflammation. Phosphorylation of IκB-α and subsequent translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus were restricted, while the expression of stress responsive gene HO-1 was up-regulated. α-DHC targeted Keap-1 by modifying its cysteine thiols, dissociating it from Nrf-2 and facilitating nuclear entry of the latter; and this in turn induced HO-1 expression. Thus α-DHC exerts its anti-inflammatory activity in a dual manner: by down regulating MAPKs and restricting nuclear stabilization of NF-κB at one end, and by disrupting Nrf-2-Keap-1 complex on the other. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory potential together with its high therapeutic index envisages α-DHC as a prospective candidate molecule for the development of therapeutic strategy against inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The antioxidant effects of isorhamnetin contribute to inhibit COX-2 expression in response to inflammation: a potential role of HO-1.

    PubMed

    Seo, Kyuhwa; Yang, Ji Hye; Kim, Sang Chan; Ku, Sae Kwang; Ki, Sung Hwan; Shin, Sang Mi

    2014-06-01

    Previously, we reported that isorhamnentin, a 3'-O-methylated metabolite of quercetin, reduced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO production. The present study further investigated the underlying mechanism of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of isorhamnentin. Administration of isorhamnetin decreased the number of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) positive cells in rats with carrageenan-induced paw edema. Isorhamnetin also suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced expression of COX-2 in cells. It is well known that LPS-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production leads to COX-2 induction. Isorhamnetin decreased LPS-induced ROS production and apoptosis. In addition, the basal expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was increased by isorhamnetin treatment in agreement with the increase in nuclear translocation of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), an essential transcription factor for the regulation of HO-1 expression. Moreover, pretreatment of tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP), a chemical inhibitor of HO-1, reversed the ability of isothamnetin to inhibit COX-2 expression. These results demonstrate that induction of HO-1 by isorhamnetin leads to a reduction in ROS production and its antioxidant property might contribute to the inhibition of COX-2 expression in response to inflammation.

  17. Preconditioning with low concentration NO attenuates subsequent NO-induced apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells via HO-1-dependent mitochondrial death pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Kwak, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Kyoung-Mi; Lee, Seahyoung; Lim, Hyun-Joung; Go, Sang-Hee; Eom, Sang-Mi; Park, Hyun-Young . E-mail: hypark65@nih.go.kr

    2006-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathways are important in both the maintenance of vascular homeostasis and disease progression. Overproduction of NO has been associated with ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Growing evidences suggest that NO preconditioning has cytoprotective effects against I/R injury. However, the mechanism with which NO mediates these effects remains to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanism of how NO preconditioning inhibits subsequent NO-induced apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC), specifically focusing on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). According to our data, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) increased HO-1 expression in a concentration dependent manner. Preconditioning with low concentration SNP (0.3 mM) inhibited subsequent high concentration SNP (1.5 mM)-induced apoptosis, and this effect was reversed by the HO-1 inhibitor SnPP. Low concentration SNP-mediated protection involved p38 kinase inactivation and increased Bcl-2 expression. Furthermore, mitochondrial membrane potential was concomitantly increased with decreased expressions of Bax, Apaf-1, and activity of caspase-3, which was reversed by SnPP treatment. Our results show that low concentration SNP preconditioning suppresses subsequent high concentration SNP-induced apoptosis by inhibiting p38 kinase and mitochondrial death pathway via HO-1-dependent mechanisms in VSMC.

  18. Protection of chlorophyllin against oxidative damage by inducing HO-1 and NQO1 expression mediated by PI3K/Akt and Nrf2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanlin; Guan, Li; Wang, Xifu; Wen, Tao; Xing, Junjie; Zhao, Jinyuan

    2008-04-01

    Green vegetables are thought to have a chemoprotective effect on the basis of epidemiologic evidence. This study investigated whether chlorophyllin (CHL) could induce antioxidant enzymes and confer protection against oxidative damage. The results showed that CHL could induce HO-1 and NQO1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) in a time- and dose-dependent manner and protect them against hydrogen peroxide caused oxidative damage. The induction of HO-1 and NQO1 by CHL was accompanied with the accumulation of transcription factor Nrf2 in nucleus and the activation of PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. Additionally, the specific inhibitor of PI3K/Akt could obviously decrease not only the induced expression of HO-1 and NQO1 but also the antioxidant effect of CHL. In conclusion, this study proved that CHL exerts antioxidant effect by inducing HO-1 and NQO1 expression mediated by PI3K/Akt and Nrf2. One thinks CHL may have promise to be prophylactic pharmaceuticals without adverse effects.

  19. Honokiol inhibits c-Met-HO-1 tumor-promoting pathway and its cross-talk with calcineurin inhibitor-mediated renal cancer growth.

    PubMed

    Balan, Murugabaskar; Chakraborty, Samik; Flynn, Evelyn; Zurakowski, David; Pal, Soumitro

    2017-07-19

    Honokiol (HNK) is a small molecule with potent anti-inflammatory and anti-tumorigenic properties; yet the molecular targets of HNK are not well studied. Hyperactivation of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met and overexpression of the cytoprotective enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) play a critical role in the growth and progression of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Interestingly, the calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) cyclosporine A (CsA), an immunosuppressant used to prevent allograft rejection, can also increase the risk of RCC in transplant patients. We studied the potential role of c-Met signaling axis on CNI-induced renal tumor growth and tested the anti-tumor efficacy of HNK. Importantly, CNI treatment promoted c-Met induction and enhanced c-Met-induced Ras activation. We found that HNK treatment effectively down-regulated both c-Met phosphorylation and Ras activation in renal cancer cells. It inhibited the expression of both c-Met- and CNI-induced HO-1, and promoted cancer cell apoptosis. In vivo, HNK markedly inhibited CNI-induced renal tumor growth; and it decreased the expression of phospho-c-Met and HO-1 and reduced blood vessel density in tumor tissues. Our results suggest a novel mechanism(s) by which HNK exerts its anti-tumor activity through the inhibition of c-Met-Ras-HO-1 axis; and it can have significant therapeutic potential to prevent post-transplantation cancer in immunosuppressed patients.

  20. Nrf2-Mediated HO-1 Induction Contributes to Antioxidant Capacity of a Schisandrae Fructus Ethanol Extract in C2C12 Myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ji Sook; Han, Min Ho; Kim, Gi-Young; Kim, Cheol Min; Kim, Byung Woo; Hwang, Hye Jin; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to confirm the protective effect of Schisandrae Fructus, which are the dried fruits of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill, against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms in C2C12 myoblasts. Preincubating C2C12 cells with a Schisandrae Fructus ethanol extract (SFEE) significantly attenuated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced inhibition of growth and induced scavenging activity against intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by H2O2. SFEE also inhibited comet tail formation and phospho-histone γH2A.X expression, suggesting that it prevents H2O2-induced cellular DNA damage. Furthermore, treating C2C12 cells with SFEE significantly induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2). However, zinc protoporphyrin IX, a potent inhibitor of HO-1 activity, significantly reversed the protective effects of SFEE against H2O2-induced growth inhibition and ROS generation in C2C12 cells. Additional experiments revealed that the potential of the SFEE to induce HO-1 expression and protect against H2O2-mediated cellular damage was abrogated by transient transfection with Nrf2-specific small interfering RNA, suggesting that the SFEE protected C2C12 cells against oxidative stress-induced injury through the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. PMID:25493944

  1. Characterization of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in human cancer cells: the importance of enhanced BTB and CNC homology 1 (Bach1) degradation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Hannafon, Bethany N; Wolf, Roman F; Zhou, Jundong; Avery, Jori E; Wu, Jinchang; Lind, Stuart E; Ding, Wei-Qun

    2014-05-01

    The effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in cancer cells has never been characterized. This study examines DHA-induced HO-1 expression in human cancer cell model systems. DHA enhanced HO-1 gene expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with maximal induction at 21 h of treatment. This induction of HO-1 expression was confirmed in vivo using a xenograft nude mouse model fed a fish-oil-enriched diet. The increase in HO-1 gene transcription induced by DHA was significantly attenuated by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine, suggesting the involvement of oxidative stress. This was supported by direct measurement of lipid peroxide levels after DHA treatment. Using a human HO-1 gene promoter reporter construct, we identified two antioxidant response elements (AREs) that mediate the DHA-induced increase in HO-1 gene transcription. Knockdown of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) expression compromised the DHA-induced increase in HO-1 gene transcription, indicating the importance of the Nrf2 pathway in this event. However, the nuclear protein levels of Nrf2 remained unchanged upon DHA treatment. Further studies demonstrated that DHA reduces nuclear Bach1 protein expression by promoting its degradation and attenuates Bach1 binding to the AREs in the HO-1 gene promoter. In contrast, DHA enhanced Nrf2 binding to the AREs without affecting nuclear Nrf2 expression levels, indicating a new cellular mechanism that mediates DHA's induction of HO-1 gene transcription. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of DHA-induced HO-1 expression in human malignant cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-induced heme oxygenase -1 (HO-1) expression in human cancer cells: the importance of enhanced BTB and CNC homology 1 (Bach1) degradation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuai; Hannafon, Bethany N.; Wolf, Roman F.; Zhou, Jundong; Avery, Jori E.; Wu, Jinchang; Lind, Stuart E.; Ding, Wei-Qun

    2014-01-01

    The effect of DHA on HO-1 expression in cancer cells has never been characterized. This study examines DHA-induced HO-1 expression in human cancer cell model systems. DHA enhanced HO-1 gene expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with maximal induction at 21 hours of treatment. This induction of HO-1 expression was confirmed in vivo using a xenograft nude mouse model fed a fish oil-enriched diet. The increase in HO-1 gene transcription induced by DHA was significantly attenuated by the antioxidant N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC), suggesting the involvement of oxidative stress. This was supported by direct measurement of lipid peroxide levels after DHA treatment. Using a human HO-1 gene promoter reporter construct, we identified two antioxidant response elements (AREs) that mediate the DHA-induced increase in HO-1 gene transcription. Knockdown of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) expression compromised the DHA-induced increase in HO-1 gene transcription, indicating the importance of the Nrf2 pathway in this event. However, the protein levels of Nrf2 remained unchanged upon DHA treatment. Further studies demonstrated that DHA reduces nuclear Bach1 protein expression by promoting its degradation and attenuates Bach1 binding to the AREs in the HO-1 gene promoter. In contrast, DHA enhanced Nrf2 binding to the AREs without affecting nuclear Nrf2 expression levels, indicating a new cellular mechanism that mediates DHA’s induction of HO-1 gene transcription. To our knowledge, this is the first characterization of DHA induced HO-1 expression in human malignant cells. PMID:24613086

  3. Hemin inhibits NO production by IL-1β-stimulated human astrocytes through induction of heme oxygenase-1 and reduction of p38 MAPK activation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 has been shown to attenuate oxidative injury and reduce apoptosis. HO-1 can be induced by various stimuli released during cellular injury, such as heme. Deleterious free heme is degraded by HO-1 to carbon monoxide, iron and biliverdin, which have potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that upregulation of HO-1 would inhibit production of the free radical (NO) by interlukin (IL)-1β-activated human astrocytes. Methods To measure NO production, inducible NO synthase (iNOS), HO-1 expression and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation we used hemin as an HO-1 inducer and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP) IX as an inhibitor of HO-1 activity in human astrocyte cultures prior to IL-1β exposure. Transfection of astrocyte cultures was performed using a pLEX expression vector carrying the human HO-1 sequence prior to IL-1β treatment. Supernatants of astrocyte cultures pretreated with inhibitors of p38 MAPK or MEK1/2 prior to IL-1β exposure were collected for NO assay. Results IL-1β treatment of astrocytes alone induced undetectable amounts of HO-1 protein by western blot. However, HO-1 mRNA expression was modestly up-regulated in response to IL-1β stimulation. Pretreatment with hemin alone substantially induced both HO-1 mRNA and protein expression, and HO-1 mRNA expression was further enhanced when hemin was combined with IL-1β treatment. In contrast, IL-1β-induced iNOS mRNA expression and NO production were markedly inhibited by hemin treatment. When pretreated with SnPP, the inhibitory effect of hemin on IL-1β-induced NO production and iNOS expression was reversed, suggesting the involvement of HO-1. IL-1β-induced p38 MAPK activation, which is known to be required for NO production, was also down-regulated by hemin. Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that up-regulation of HO-1 in astrocytes is associated with down-regulation of iNOS expression and thereby NO

  4. The anti-inflammatory effects of E-α-(p-methoxyphenyl)-2',3,4,4'-tetramethoxychalcone are mediated via HO-1 induction.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Kai B; Gothwal, Monika; Schallner, Nils; Ulbrich, Felix; Rücker, Hannelore; Amslinger, Sabine; Goebel, Ulrich

    2016-06-01

    Inflammation plays a central role in the pathophysiology of many diseases. The inducible enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protects cells against inflammation and can be induced by electrophilic compounds like the chalcones (1,3-diphenylprop-2-enones) from the class of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. We hypothesized that the synthetic chalcone E-α-(p-methoxyphenyl)-2',3,4,4'-tetramethoxychalcone (E-α-p-OMe-C6H4-TMC) exerts anti-inflammatory effects in RAW264.7, Jurkat lymphocytes and HK-2 cells via HO-1 induction. RAW264.7 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide prior to E-α-p-OMe-C6H4-TMC treatment. Subsequently, HO-1 protein induction and activity were analyzed, as well as expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, transcription factors and mitogen-activated protein kinases to evaluate the possible molecular mechanism. These results were confirmed in human cell lines (Jurkat T-lymphocytes and HK-2 epithelial cells). We found that the E-α-p-OMe-C6H4-TMC exerts significant anti-inflammatory effects in a dose dependent manner, showing no toxic effects in LPS-treated RAW264.7 macrophages. E-α-p-OMe-C6H4-TMC induced HO-1 and SOD-1 protein expression and HO-1 enzyme activity, reduced the upregulation of COX-2 and iNOS, while inducing the translocation of Nrf2. NF-κB activity was attenuated following E-α-p-OMe-C6H4-TMC treatment accompanied by the downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and MCP-1. Pretreatment with E-α-p-OMe-C6H4-TMC revealed significant changes in phosphorylation of ERK and p38, but not JNK. These anti-inflammatory effects of E-α-p-OMe-C6H4-TMC were approved in Jurkat and HK-2 cells, furthermore revealing a downregulation of IL-8 and IL-10. In conclusion, it is tempting to speculate about E-α-p-OMe-C6H4-TMC as a new and non-toxic agent, inducing HO-1 in cells. This opens up new opportunities regarding the development of therapeutic agents using beneficial effects of HO-1 and its products. Copyright © 2016

  5. Delayed treatment with oleanolic acid attenuates tubulointerstitial fibrosis in chronic cyclosporine nephropathy through Nrf2/HO-1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is known to protect against tissue injury by orchestrating antioxidant and detoxification responses to oxidative stress. This study investigated whether upregulation of Nrf2-dependent signaling by oleanolic acid (OA), which is known to activate Nrf2, could attenuate renal inflammation and fibrosis in cyclosporine (CsA)-induced kidney injury. Methods Male ICR mice were divided into four treatment groups: Vehicle (VH, n = 6), VH + OA (n = 6), CsA (n = 8), and CsA + OA (n = 8). For the OA-treated groups, OA (25 mg/kg/day) was administered by intraperitoneal injection for the final week of the 4-week experimental period. Renal function, morphologies and signaling were evaluated at the end of the study. Results Treatment with CsA resulted in decreased kidney function and urine osmolality and increased urine volume and urinary albumin levels. The CsA-induced changes were improved by OA treatment. Specifically, administration of OA decreased tubulointerstitial fibrosis and inflammation scores that were increased in CsA-treated mice. Furthermore, OA treatment decreased urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) levels. The beneficial effects of OA were attributed to an increased ratio of nuclear/total Nrf2 and subsequently enhanced expression of heme oxygenase (HO)-1, as well as a stable level of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) expression, indicating that OA enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2. Increased apoptotic cell death and a high ratio of B cell leukaemia/lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-associated X protein (Bax) to Bcl-2 in CsA-treated mice were also significantly ameliorated by OA treatment. Conclusion Our results suggest that OA activates Nrf2/HO-1 signaling in chronic CsA nephropathy, which may have beneficial effects on inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:24559268

  6. Agmatine Reduces Lipopolysaccharide-Mediated Oxidant Response via Activating PI3K/Akt Pathway and Up-Regulating Nrf2 and HO-1 Expression in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jianshen; Luo, Li; Hou, Fengyan; Fan, Xia; Yu, Jing; Ma, Wei; Tang, Wangqi; Yang, Xue; Zhu, Junyu; Kang, Wenyuan; Yan, Jun; Liang, Huaping

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages are key responders of inflammation and are closely related with oxidative stress. Activated macrophages can enhance oxygen depletion, which causes an overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and leads to further excessive inflammatory response and tissue damage. Agmatine, an endogenous metabolite of L-arginine, has recently been shown to have neuroprotective effects based on its antioxidant properties. However, the antioxidant effects of agmatine in peripheral tissues and cells, especially macrophages, remain unclear. In this study we explored the role of agmatine in mediating antioxidant effects in RAW 264.7 cells and studied its antioxidant mechanism. Our data demonstrate that agmatine is an activator of Nrf2 signaling that markedly enhances Nrf2 nuclear translocation, increases nuclear Nrf2 protein level, up-regulates the expression of the Nrf2 downstream effector HO-1, and attenuates ROS generation induced by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We further demonstrated that the agmatine-induced activation of Nrf2 is likely through the PI3K/Akt pathway. LY294002, a specific PI3K/Akt inhibitor, abolished agmatine-induced HO-1 up-regulation and ROS suppression significantly. Inhibiting HO-1 pathway significantly attenuated the antioxidant effect of agmatine which the products of HO-1 enzymatic activity contributed to. Furthermore, the common membrane receptors of agmatine were evaluated, revealing that α2-adrenoceptor, I1-imidazoline receptor or I2-imidazoline receptor are not required by the antioxidant properties of agmatine. Taken together, our findings revealed that agmatine has antioxidant activity against LPS-induced ROS accumulation in RAW 264.7 cells involving HO-1 expression induced by Nrf2 via PI3K/Akt pathway activation. PMID:27685463

  7. Andrographolide protects liver cells from H2O2 induced cell death by upregulation of Nrf-2/HO-1 mediated via adenosine A2a receptor signalling.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Smriti P K; Khole, Swati; Jagadish, Nidhi; Ghosh, Debjani; Gadgil, Vijay; Sinkar, Vilas; Ghaskadbi, Saroj S

    2016-11-01

    Andrographolide, principle constituent of Andrographis paniculata Nees is used in traditional medicine in Southeast Asia and is known to exhibit various biological activities. Its antioxidant activity is due to its ability to activate one of the antioxidant enzymes, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) which is regulated transcriptionally through Nrf-2. However, molecular mechanism underlying activation of Nrf-2/HO-1 has not yet been clearly understood. Protective effect of andrographolide against H2O2 induced cell death, reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation was observed in HepG2 cells. Ability of andrographolide to modulate G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) mediated signalling was determined using in silico docking and gene expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR, confocal microscopy and western blot analysis. We clearly show that andrographolide via adenosine A2A receptor signalling leads to activation of p38 MAP kinase, resulting in upregulation of Nrf-2, its translocation to nucleus and activation of HO-1. Additionally, it activates adenylate cyclase resulting in cAMP formation which in turn activates protein kinase A leading to inhibition of GSK-3β by phosphorylation. Inactivated GSK-3β leads to retention of Nrf-2 in the nucleus leading to sustained expression of HO-1 by binding to its antioxidant response element (ARE). Thus, andrographolide probably by binding to adenosine A2a receptor activates Nrf-2 transcription and also inhibits its exclusion from the nucleus by inactivating GSK-3β, together resulting in activation of HO-1. We speculate that andrographolide can be used as a therapeutic drug to combat oxidative stress implicated in pathogenesis of various diseases such as diabetes, osteoporosis, neurodegenerative diseases etc. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Resveratrol loaded solid lipid nanoparticles attenuate mitochondrial oxidative stress in vascular dementia by activating Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Aarti; Sunkaria, Aditya; Singhal, Nitin; Sandhir, Rajat

    2017-08-04

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is the leading cause of cognitive decline resulting from vascular lesions. Recent studies have shown that mitochondrial dysfunctions and oxidative stress are involved in cognitive decline. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the beneficial effects of resveratrol-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (R-SLNs) in permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) induced model of VaD. R-SLNs prepared had average size of 286 nm and 91.25% drug encapsulation efficiency with sustained release. Moreover, R-SLNs had 4.5 times higher levels of resveratrol (RSV) in brain compared to when administered as free RSV. Neurobehavioral analyses revealed that R-SLNs administration successfully ameliorated cognitive decline observed in BCCAO rats. Administration of R-SLNs to BCCAO animals showed significant reduction in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyls. In addition, R-SLNs significantly improved redox ratio and Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity. R-SLNs administration resulted in significant reduction in hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) levels, whereas, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) levels were increased after R-SLNs treatment. Taken together, the results demonstrate that R-SLNs could be a novel and promising therapeutic strategy in VaD as well in other age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Atractylenolide I restores HO-1 expression and inhibits Ox-LDL-induced VSMCs proliferation, migration and inflammatory responses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Zhi, Wenbing; Liu, Fang; He, Zehong; Wang, Xiuei; Niu, Xiaofeng

    2017-04-01

    Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is characterized by the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and inflammatory lesions. The aim of this study is to elucidate the effect of atractylenolide I (AO-I) on smooth muscle cell inflammation, proliferation and migration induced by oxidized modified low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL). Here, We found that atractylenolide I inhibited Ox-LDL-induced VSMCs proliferation and migration in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased the production of inflammatory cytokines and the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in VSMCs. The study also identified that AO-I prominently inhibited p38-MAPK and NF-κB activation. More importantly, the specific heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) IX partially abolished the beneficial effects of atractylenolide I on Ox-LDL-induced VSMCs. Furthermore, atractylenolide I blocked the foam cell formation in macrophages induced by Ox-LDL. In summary, inhibitory roles of AO-I in VSMCs proliferation and migration, lipid peroxidation and subsequent inflammatory responses might contribute to the anti-atherosclerotic property of AO-I. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Successive Component-separated Magnetic-Transitions on Pseudoternary Compounds Ho1-xGdxRh2Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigeoka, Toru; Morita, Tetsuhiro; Fujiwara, Tetsuya; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Uwatoko, Yoshiya

    Magnetic measurements on pseudoternary compounds Ho1-xGdxRh2Si2, which substitute Gd having no quadrupole for Ho, were performed. They exhibit a successive component-separated magnetic transition; the c- and ab-components of magnetic moments independently order at different temperatures TN1 and TN2, respectively. The partial ordered state, a frustration appears for TN1 >T >TN2: for the phase II in the magnetic phase diagrams. In the ordered phase, step-like metamagnetic processes appear for TN2 >T; two-step ones appear along the [001] and [100] directions, and a one-step one appears along the [110] direction. The B-T magnetic phase diagrams were constructed. There are six, four and three ordered phases in the B001-T, B100-T and B110-T phase diagram, respectively. Two diagrams of the basal plane directions, B100-T and B110-T, resemble each other. Some interesting or peculiar phase boundaries appear. The Gd composition x dependence of transition temperatures is determined. The transition temperatures TN1 and TN2 increase with increasing x. The x-dependency of TN1 is well scaled by the de Gennes factor: (g-1)2J(J+1) whereas the transition of TN2 is not scaled. Some magnetic features declare that quadrupole interactions play an important role in this compound system.

  11. Magnetism of Ho1-xTbxAl₂ alloys: Critical dependence of a first-order transition on Tb concentration

    DOE PAGES

    Khan, Mahmud; Mudryk, Ya.; Gschneidner, K. A.; ...

    2011-12-27

    HoAl₂ exhibits a first-order spin reorientation transition at 20 K, which is manifested as a sharp peak in the heat capacity. When Ho is partially replaced by only 5% of Tb, the sharp heat-capacity peak in Ho1-xTbxAl₂ (x = 0.05) disappears, and then reappears again for x ≥ 0.07. For x = 0.05, the anomaly corresponding to the spin reorientation transition is barely seen in the heat capacity, but as x exceeds 0.07 the weak anomaly transforms to a sharp peak. The spin reorientation transition temperature increases to 29 K for x = 0.05, and as x increases further themore » transition shifts to lower temperature and returns to ~20 K for x = 0.25. The transition is no longer observed when x exceeds 0.60. Temperature-dependent x-ray powder-diffraction data confirm the first-order nature of the spin reorientation transition for the alloy with x = 0.40, and indicate that the compound retains the room-temperature cubic structure within the sensitivity of the technique. Experimental observations are discussed considering the easy magnetization directions of HoAl₂ and TbAl₂.« less

  12. Localization of 14-3-3δ/ξ on the neuronal cell surface.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yasuhiro; Koma, Hiromi; Yagami, Tatsurou

    2015-11-01

    14-3-3 proteins are intracellularly expressed as ubiquitous adaptor proteins. Here, we found localization of 14-3-3δ/ξ on the neuronal cell surface. 14-3-3δ/ξ was identified as a membrane target for 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2). 15d-PGJ2 is a pathological mediator of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). A causative peptide for AD, amyloid β, is one of binding partner of 14-3-3δ/ξ. Non-permeabilized neurons were used to avoid the intracellular effects of anti-14-3-3δ/ξ antibody in the present study. The plasmalemmal 14-3-3δ/ξ, but not the cytosolic one, was stimulated by its specific antibody, resulting in neuronal cell death. The neurotoxicity of anti-14-3-3δ/ξ antibody was suppressed by an antioxidant, catalase. Catalase prevented neurons from anti-14-3-3δ/ξ antibody-generating neurotoxic H2O2. The neuroprotective effect of catalase was also detected with the post-treatment of neurons after the application of anti-14-3-3δ/ξ antibody. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade is a down-stream consequence of H2O2 exposure. A c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor suppressed anti-14-3-3δ/ξ antibody-induced neuronal cell death. To my knowledge, this is the first report that the antibody-stimulated plasmalemmal 14-3-3δ/ξ induced neuronal cell death. Furthermore, H2O2 and JNK contributed to the neurotoxicity of anti-14-3-3δ/ξ antibody as well as those of amyloid β and 15d-PGJ2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. α-Dihydroxychalcone-glycoside (α-DHC) isolated from the heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium inhibits LPS induced MAPK activation and up regulates HO-1 expression in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Prarthana; Saraswat, Ghungroo; Kabir, Syed N.

    2014-05-15

    Three phenolic glycosides isolated from the heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium showed significant free radical and superoxide ion scavenging activity and antioxidant potential that were comparable to, or several folds higher than those of standard antioxidants, trolox and ascorbic acid. The effective concentrations of these compounds were far below their cytotoxic levels. Compound 3, which was characterized to be α-dihydroxychalcone-glycoside (α-DHC), was the most potent one. Subsequent studies demonstrated that α-DHC effectively reduced nitric oxide and cytokine production by the LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cell line. The compound effectively attenuated the expression of inflammation-mediating enzymes COX-2 and iNOS at the mRNA as well as protein levels in a concentration dependent manner. It prevented phosphorylation of all the three MAPKs (JNK, ERK, p38) and eventually blocked the activation of downstream elements contributing to inflammation. Phosphorylation of IκB-α and subsequent translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus were restricted, while the expression of stress responsive gene HO-1 was up-regulated. α-DHC targeted Keap-1 by modifying its cysteine thiols, dissociating it from Nrf-2 and facilitating nuclear entry of the latter; and this in turn induced HO-1 expression. Thus α-DHC exerts its anti-inflammatory activity in a dual manner: by down regulating MAPKs and restricting nuclear stabilization of NF-κB at one end, and by disrupting Nrf-2–Keap-1 complex on the other. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory potential together with its high therapeutic index envisages α-DHC as a prospective candidate molecule for the development of therapeutic strategy against inflammatory disorders. - Highlights: • α-DHC isolated from Pterocarpus marsupium has significant antioxidant potential. • α-DHC inhibits NO, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. • α-DHC down-regulates of COX-2, iNOS expression in LPS-stimulated

  14. Cardioprotective effect of resveratrol via HO-1 expression involves p38 map kinase and PI-3-kinase signaling, but does not involve NFkappaB.

    PubMed

    Das, Samarjit; Fraga, Cesar G; Das, Dipak K

    2006-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxy stilbene), a phytoalexin found in the skin and seeds of grapes, can pharmacologically precondition (PC) the heart through a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent and adenosine receptors-mediated mechanism. Since NO can induce the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), we examined if HO-1 induction has a direct role in resveratrol-preconditioning of the heart. Eight groups of rats were studied during 7 days: (i) control rats; (ii) rats receiving resveratrol (gavage, 2.5 mg/kg); (iii) rats injected tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), a HO-1 inhibitor, i.p. on days 1, 3 and 6; (iv) rats injected 202190 (SB), a p38MAPK inhibitor, i.p. for 7 days; (v) rats injected 294002 (LY), a Akt inhibitor, i.p. for 7days; (vi) rats receiving resveratrol and SnPP; (vii) rats receiving resveratrol and SB; and (viii) rats receiving resveratrol and LY. After the treatments, the rats were sacrificed, and the hearts isolated and subjected to 30 min global ischemia followed by 2 h of reperfusion. The results shown a significant cardioprotection with resveratrol as evidenced by superior post-ischemic ventricular recovery, reduced myocardial infarct size, and decreased number of apoptotic cardiomyocytes. SnPP treatment abolished the cardioprotective effect of resveratrol. Resveratrol induced the activation of nuclear factor kappa-beta(NFkappaB), the phosphorylation of p38MAP kinase beta and Akt, as well as the inhibition of p38 MAP kinase alpha; all these effects but the activation of NFkappaB, were completely reversed by treatment with SnPP. These results indicate that resveratrol generates cardioprotection by preconditioning the heart by HO-1-mediated mechanisms, which are regulated by p38MAP kinase and Akt survival signaling, but non-dependent on NFkappaB activation.

  15. Deciphering an underlying mechanism of differential cellular effects of nanoparticles: an example of Bach-1 dependent induction of HO-1 expression by gold nanorod.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhenlin; Yang, Xiao; Li, Yiye; Li, Suping; Niu, Shiwen; Wu, Xiaochun; Wei, Jingyan; Nie, Guangjun

    2012-12-01

    Gold nanoparticles are extensively investigated for their potential biomedical applications. Therefore, it is pertinent to thoroughly evaluate their biological effects at different levels and their underlying molecular mechanism. Frequently, there are discrepancies about the biological effects of various gold nanoparticles among the reports dealing with different models. Most of the studies focused on the different biological effects of various nano-properties of the nanomaterials. We hypothesize that the biological models with different metabolic processes would be taken into account to explain the observed discrepancies of biological effects of nanomaterials. Herein, by using mouse embryo fibroblast cell line (MEF-1) and human embryonal lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5) as in vitro models, we studied the cellular effects of gold nanorods (AuNRs) coated with poly (diallyldimethyl ammonium chloride) (PDDAC), polyethylene glycol and polystyrene sulfonae (PSS). We found that all three AuNRs had no effects on cellular viability at the concentration of 1 nM; however, AuNRs that coated with PDDAC and PSS induced significant up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) which was believed to be involved in cellular defense activities in MEF-1 but not in MRC-5 cells. Further study showed that the low fundamental expression of transcription factor Bach-1, the major regulator of HO-1 expression, in MEF-1 was responsible for the up-regulation of HO-1 induced by the AuNRs. Our results indicate that although AuNRs we used are non-cytotoxic, they cell-specifically induce change of gene expression, such as HO-1. Our current study provides a good example to explain the molecular mechanisms of differential biological effects of nanomaterials in different cellular models. This finding raises a concern on evaluation of cellular effects of nanoparticles where the cell models should be critically considered.

  16. Sulforaphane preconditioning of the Nrf2/HO-1 defense pathway protects the cerebral vasculature against blood-brain barrier disruption and neurological deficits in stroke.

    PubMed

    Alfieri, Alessio; Srivastava, Salil; Siow, Richard C M; Cash, Diana; Modo, Michel; Duchen, Michael R; Fraser, Paul A; Williams, Steven C R; Mann, Giovanni E

    2013-12-01

    Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and cerebral edema are the major pathogenic mechanisms leading to neurological dysfunction and death after ischemic stroke. The brain protects itself against infarction via activation of endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms, and we here report the first evidence that sulforaphane-mediated preactivation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream target heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the cerebral vasculature protects the brain against stroke. To induce ischemic stroke, Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 70 min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) followed by 4, 24, or 72 h reperfusion. Nrf2 and HO-1 protein expression was upregulated in cerebral microvessels of peri-infarct regions after 4-72 h, with HO-1 preferentially associated with perivascular astrocytes rather than the cerebrovascular endothelium. In naïve rats, treatment with sulforaphane increased Nrf2 expression in cerebral microvessels after 24h. Upregulation of Nrf2 by sulforaphane treatment prior to transient MCAo (1h) was associated with increased HO-1 expression in perivascular astrocytes in peri-infarct regions and cerebral endothelium in the infarct core. BBB disruption, lesion progression, as analyzed by MRI, and neurological deficits were reduced by sulforaphane pretreatment. As sulforaphane pretreatment led to a moderate increase in peroxynitrite generation, we suggest that hormetic preconditioning underlies sulforaphane-mediated protection against stroke. In conclusion, we propose that pharmacological or dietary interventions aimed to precondition the brain via activation of the Nrf2 defense pathway in the cerebral microvasculature provide a novel therapeutic approach for preventing BBB breakdown and neurological dysfunction in stroke. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ginkgolide B protects against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity: enhancement of Akt-Nrf2-HO-1 signaling and reduction of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Ma, Weijun; Hu, Juan; Cheng, Ying; Wang, Junli; Zhang, Xiaotong; Xu, Min

    2015-05-01

    Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug for the treatment of various cancers. However, the ototoxicity severely limited its maximum dose. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Ginkgolide B (GB), a major component of Ginkgo biloba extracts, on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity and to elucidate the molecular mechanism in vitro and in vivo. In HEI-OC1 auditory cells, GB concentration-dependently inhibited the reduction of cell viability and increase in apoptosis exerted by cisplatin. Cisplatin-activated mitochondrial apoptotic molecular events were significantly inhibited by GB. In addition, GB notably suppressed the increase in NOX2 and p47(phox) expression and the decrease in nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in cisplatin-exposed cells. Inhibition of Nrf2 using SiRNA and blockage of HO-1 by zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) suppressed the protective effects of GB. Moreover, GB prevented cisplatin-induced reduction of Akt phosphorylation and LY294002, an inhibitor of PI3 K/Akt signaling, blocked the anti-apoptotic effect of GB in cisplatin-treated cells. Furthermore, the protective effect of GB was tested in cisplatin-exposed rats. GB treatment markedly protected animals against cisplatin-induced hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction. Inhibition of Akt and HO-1 significantly suppressed the improvement in hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction in GB-treated rats. We demonstrate that GB decreases ROS generation through reducing NOX2 expression and enhancing activity through Akt-Nrf2-HO-1 pathway, resulting in inhibition of mitochondrial apoptosis and final reduction of cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Our findings have gained an insight into the mechanism of GB-exerted protective effect against cisplatin-induced ototoxicity.

  18. Amelioration of Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury During Resuscitation from Hemorrhage by Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in a Conscious Mouse Model of Uncontrolled Hemorrhage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    synthetic triterpenoid that has been shown to possess potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, and is a potent inducer of HO-1. The...synthetic triterpenoid that has been shown to possess potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, and is a potent inducer of H0-1. The hypothesis... antioxidant properties, and is a potent inducer of H0-1 and is being investigated as an additive to a new resuscitation fluid that might being

  19. Ginkgo biloba Extract Prevents Female Mice from Ischemic Brain Damage and the Mechanism Is Independent of the HO1/Wnt Pathway.

    PubMed

    Tulsulkar, Jatin; Glueck, Bryan; Hinds, Terry D; Shah, Zahoor A

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that gender differences exist in experimental or clinical stroke with respect to brain damage and loss of functional outcome. We have previously reported neuroprotective properties of Ginkgo biloba/EGb 761® (EGb 761) in transient and permanent mouse models of brain ischemia using male mice, and the mechanism of action was attributed to the upregulation of the heme oxygenase 1 (HO1)/Wnt pathway. Here, we sought to investigate whether EGb 761's protective effect in ovariectomized female mice following stroke is also mediated by the HO1/Wnt pathway. Female mice were ovariectomized (OVX) to remove the protective effect of estrogen and were treated with EGb 761 for 7 days prior to inducing permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) and allowed to survive for an additional 7 days. At day 8, animals were sacrificed, and the brains were harvested for infarct volume analysis, western blots, and immunohistochemistry. The OVX female mice treated with EGb 761 showed significantly lower infarct size as compared to Veh/OVX animals. EGb 761 treatment in female mice inhibited apoptosis by preventing caspase-3 cleavage and blocking the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. EGb 761 pretreatment significantly enhanced neurogenesis in OVX mice as compared to the Veh/OVX group and significantly upregulated androgen receptor expression with no changes in HO1/Wnt signaling. These results suggest that EGb 761 prevented brain damage in OVX female mice by improving grip strength and neurological deficits, and the mechanism of action is not through HO1/Wnt but via blocking the extrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  20. Salvianolic acid A ameliorates the integrity of blood-spinal cord barrier via miR-101/Cul3/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, De-Shui; Wang, Yan-Song; Bi, Yun-Long; Guo, Zhan-Peng; Yuan, Ya-Jiang; Tong, Song-Ming; Su, Rui-Chao; Ge, Li-Hao; Wang, Jian; Pan, Ya-Li; Guan, Ting-Ting; Cao, Yang

    2017-02-15

    Salvianolic acid A (Sal A), a bioactive compound isolated from the Chinese medicinal herb Danshen, is used for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. However, the protective function of Sal A on preserving the role of blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) after spinal cord injury (SCI) is unclear. The present study investigated the effects and mechanisms of Sal A (2.5, 5, 10mg/kg, i.p.) on BSCB permeability at different time-points after compressive SCI in rats. Compared to the SCI group, treatment with Sal A decreased the content of the Evans blue in the spinal cord tissue at 24h post-SCI. The expression levels of tight junction proteins and HO-1 were remarkably increased, and that of p-caveolin-1 protein was greatly decreased after SCI Sal A. The effect of Sal A on the expression level of ZO-1, occluding, and p-caveolin-1 after SCI was blocked by the HO-1 inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP). Also, Sal A inhibited the level of apoptosis-related proteins and improved the motor function until 21days after SCI. In addition, Sal A significantly increased the expression of microRNA-101 (miR-101) in the RBMECs under hypoxia. AntagomiR-101 markedly increased the RBMECs permeability and the expression of the Cul3 protein by targeting with 3'-UTR of its mRNA. The expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and HO-1 was significantly increased after agomiR-101 treatment. Therefore, Sal A could improve the recovery of neurological function after SCI, which could be correlated with the repair of BSCB integrity by the miR-101/Cul3/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

  1. Curcumin attenuates quinocetone induced apoptosis and inflammation via the opposite modulation of Nrf2/HO-1 and NF-kB pathway in human hepatocyte L02 cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Chongshan; Li, Bin; Zhou, Yan; Li, Daowen; Zhang, Shen; Li, Hui; Xiao, Xilong; Tang, Shusheng

    2016-09-01

    The potential toxicity of quinocetone (QCT) has raised widely concern, but its mechanism is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of curcumin on QCT induced apoptosis and the underlying mechanism in human hepatocyte L02 cells. The results showed that QCT treatment significantly decreased the cell viability of L02 cell and increased the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which was attenuated by curcumin pre-treatment at 1.25, 2.5 and 5 μM. Compared to the QCT alone group, curcumin pre-treatment significantly attenuated QCT induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. In addition, curcumin pretreatment markedly attenuated QCT-induced increase of iNOS activity and NO production in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, curcumin pretreatment markedly down-regulated the expression of nuclear factor -kB (NF-kB) and iNOS mRNAs, but up-regulated the expressions of Nrf2 and HO-1 mRNAs, compared to the QCT alone group. Zinc protoporphyrin IX, a HO-1 inhibitor, markedly partly abolished the cytoprotective effect of curcumin against QCT-induced caspase activation, NF-kB mRNA expression. These results indicate that curcumin could effectively inhibit QCT induced apoptosis and inflammatory response in L02 cells, which may involve the activation of Nrf2/HO-1 and inhibition of NF-kB pathway.

  2. Antioxidant efficacy and the upregulation of Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression by (+)-lariciresinol, a lignan isolated from Rubia philippinensis, through the activation of p38

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Vivek K.; Alam, Md Badrul; Quan, Khong Trong; Kwon, Kyoo-Ri; Ju, Mi-Kyoung; Choi, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Jong Sung; Yoon, Jung-In; Majumder, Rajib; Rather, Irfan A.; Kim, Kangmin; Lee, Sang-Han; Na, MinKyun

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the antioxidative activity of (+)-lariciresinol (LRSL), an optically active lignan isolated from Rubia philippinensis in several in vitro assays. LRSL was also subjected to evaluate its inhibitory effect against the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) cells. The results showed that LRSL possessed very strong radical scavenging activity and reducing power, as well as inhibited ROS generation in a dose-dependent manner without showing any cytotoxicity. The transcriptional and translational levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) were markedly higher in the sample treated group. LRSL treatment also increased the transcriptional and translational activities of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf-2) with a corresponding increase in the transcriptional and translational activities of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). LRSL activated p38 and treatments with SB239063 (a p38 inhibitor) suppressed the LRSL-induced activation of Nrf2, resulting in a decrease in HO-1 expression. Collectively, the data demonstrated that LRSL has potent antioxidative activity, decreasing ROS generation in RAW 264.7 cells and increasing the transcriptional and translational levels of antioxidant enzymes by activating Nrf2-mediated HO-1 induction via p38 signaling. PMID:28378774

  3. Casein Glycomacropeptide Hydrolysates Exert Cytoprotective Effect against Cellular Oxidative Stress by Up-Regulating HO-1 Expression in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tiange; Chen, Bin; Du, Min; Song, Jiajia; Cheng, Xue; Wang, Xu; Mao, Xueying

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered as an important mediator in the progression of metabolic disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential hepatoprotective effects and mechanisms of bovine casein glycomacropeptide hydrolysates (GHP) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in HepG2 cells. Results showed that GHP significantly blocked H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and cell viability reduction in a dose-dependent manner. Further, GHP concentration-dependently induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and increased nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation. Moreover, pretreatment of GHP increased the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), which were shown to contribute to Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression. Taken together, GHP protected HepG2 cells from oxidative stress by activation of Nrf2 and HO-1 via p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Our findings indicate that bovine casein glycomacropeptide hydrolysates might be a potential ingredient in the treatment of oxidative stress-related disorders and further studies are needed to investigate the protective effects in vivo. PMID:28098837

  4. Prevention of cold ischemia/rewarming-induced ERK 1/2, p38 kinase and HO-1 activation by trophic factor supplementation of UW solution.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young Sam; Foley, John D; Russell, Paul; McAnulty, Jonathan F; Murphy, Christopher J

    2008-08-01

    We have previously shown that trophic factor supplementation (TFS) of University of Wisconsin (UW) solution reduced early apoptotic changes in vascular endothelial cells. Here, we examine the effect of TFS on cell signaling pathways related to cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis after cold ischemic storage. In this study, the effect of TFS on the phosphorylation of signaling molecules ERK (extracellular regulated-signaling kinase) 1/2 and p38 MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinases) and of HO-1 (hemeoxygenase-1), relative to changes seen in unmodified UW solution, were determined by Western blot in cells stored under cold ischemic conditions. Primary cultures of canine kidney proximal tubule cells (CKPTC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used in this study. There was a significant decrease, relative to UW solution, after 1 min rewarming in ERK 1 and 2 activity in CKPTCs. For p38 MAPK, a significant decrease after 5 min rewarming was seen in CKPTC (p<0.05) while significant reductions relative to UW solution were seen in HUVECs after both 1 and 5 min rewarming (p<0.05). Phosphorylated HO-1 was also decreased by 43% and 50% in HUVECs, relative to UW solution, after 1 and 5 min rewarming (p<0.05 at each time point). Collectively, TFS not only limits ERK 1/2 and p38 MAPK activity induced by cold ischemic injury and subsequent rewarming, but also substantially restricted increases in HO-1 phosphorylation.

  5. Commiphora molmol Modulates Glutamate-Nitric Oxide-cGMP and Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 Pathways and Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Hematological Alterations in Hyperammonemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Alqahtani, Sultan; Othman, Sarah I.; Germoush, Mousa O.; Hussein, Omnia E.; Al-Basher, Gadh; Khim, Jong Seong; Al-Qaraawi, Maha A.; Al-Harbi, Hanan M.; Fadel, Abdulmannan; Allam, Ahmed A.

    2017-01-01

    Hyperammonemia is a serious complication of liver disease and may lead to encephalopathy and death. This study investigated the effects of Commiphora molmol resin on oxidative stress, inflammation, and hematological alterations in ammonium chloride- (NH4Cl-) induced hyperammonemic rats, with an emphasis on the glutamate-NO-cGMP and Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 signaling pathways. Rats received NH4Cl and C. molmol for 8 weeks. NH4Cl-induced rats showed significant increase in blood ammonia, liver function markers, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Concurrent supplementation of C. molmol significantly decreased circulating ammonia, liver function markers, and TNF-α in hyperammonemic rats. C. molmol suppressed lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide and enhanced the antioxidant defenses in the liver, kidney, and cerebrum of hyperammonemic rats. C. molmol significantly upregulated Nrf2 and HO-1 and decreased glutamine and nitric oxide synthase, soluble guanylate cyclase, and Na+/K+-ATPase expression in the cerebrum of NH4Cl-induced hyperammonemic rats. Hyperammonemia was also associated with hematological and coagulation system alterations. These alterations were reversed by C. molmol. Our findings demonstrated that C. molmol attenuates ammonia-induced liver injury, oxidative stress, inflammation, and hematological alterations. This study points to the modulatory effect of C. molmol on glutamate-NO-cGMP and Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 pathways in hyperammonemia. Therefore, C. molmol might be a promising protective agent against hyperammonemia. PMID:28744340

  6. Andrographolide Activates Keap1/Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 Pathway in HT22 Cells and Suppresses Microglial Activation by Aβ42 through Nrf2-Related Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji Yeon; Pyo, Euisun; An, Jin-Pyo; Kim, Jinwoong; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Therapeutic approach of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been gradually diversified. We examined the therapeutic and preventive potential of andrographolide, which is a lactone diterpenoid from Andrographis paniculata, and focused on the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)/nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)-mediated heme oxygenase (HO)-1-inducing effects and the inhibitory activity of amyloid beta (Aβ)42-induced microglial activation related to Nrf2 and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB)-mediated inflammatory responses. Andrographolide induced the expression and translocation of Nrf2 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, thereby activating antioxidant response element (ARE) gene transcription and HO-1 expression in murine hippocampal HT22 cells. Andrographolide eliminated intracellular Aβ42 in BV-2 cells and decreased the production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, prostaglandin (PG)E2, and nitric oxide (NO) because of artificial phagocytic Aβ42. It decreased pNF-κB accumulation in the nucleus and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) and cyclooxygenase II (COX-II) in the microglial BV-2 cell line. In summary, andrographolide activates Nrf2-mediated HO-1 expression and inhibits Aβ42-overexpressed microglial BV-2 cell activation. These results suggested that andrographolide might have the potential for further examination of the therapeutics of AD. PMID:28373747

  7. The role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the regulation of inflammatory reaction, neuronal cell proliferation and apoptosis in rats after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xuezheng; Mu, Linshen

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the regulation of inflammatory reaction, neuronal cell proliferation and apoptosis in rats after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods Thirty-six adult Sprague Dawley (SD) male rats were randomly divided into sham operation, ICH and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) group. Rats (except for the sham operation group) were given 50 μL stereotactic injection of autologous blood from the femoral artery into the caudate nucleus, to establish an ICH model. In addition, rats in the ZPP group were given 10 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection of ZPP. At day 3 postoperative, neurobehavioral changes and brain water content were evaluated, brain tissue HO-1 expression was detected with immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), brain tissue apoptosis was evaluated with TUNEL method, Caspase 3, Caspase 8 and Caspase 9 activity were detected with colorimetric method, level of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 were measured with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while Bcl-2, Bax, p-NF-κB p65 and p-IκBα protein expression were detected with Western blot. Results ICH group compared to sham operation: HO-1 positive rate and mRNA expression were increased, neurological deficit score and cell apoptosis rate were increased, Caspase 3, Caspase 8 and Caspase 9 activity were increased, level of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 were increased, Bcl-2 expression was downregulated, Bax, p-NF-κB p65 and p-IκBα expression were upregulated. The differences were statistically significant (P<0.01). ZPP group compared to ICH: HO-1 positive rate and mRNA expression were decreased, neurological deficit score and cell apoptosis rate were decreased, Caspase 3, Caspase 8, Caspase 9 activity were decreased, level of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 were decreased, Bcl-2 expression was upregulated, Bax, p-NF-κB p65 and p-IκBα expression were downregulated, and the differences were statistically

  8. CYP2E1-mediated oxidative stress regulates HO-1 and GST expression in maneb- and paraquat-treated rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Israr; Shukla, Smriti; Singh, Deepali; Chauhan, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Brajesh Kumar; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Pandey, Haushila Prasad; Singh, Chetna

    2014-08-01

    Cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1), glutathione-S-transferase A4-4 (GSTA4-4), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are implicated in maneb- and paraquat-induced toxicity leading to various pathological conditions. The study aimed to investigate the role of CYP2E1 in maneb- and paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and its crosstalk with iNOS-mediated nitrosative stress and GSTA4-4-linked protective effect, if any and their consequent links with the nuclear factor erythoid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Rats were treated with/without maneb and/or paraquat for 1, 2, and 3 weeks along with vehicle controls. Subsets of rats were also treated with diallyl sulfide (DAS) or aminoguanidine (AG) along with the respective controls. Maneb and paraquat augmented the reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and 4-hydroxy nonenal (4-HNE) contents, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the PMNs. However, maneb and paraquat attenuated the reduced glutathione (GSH) level and the expression/activity of total GST and GST-pi. Maneb and paraquat increased the expression/activity of CYP2E1, GSTA4-4, iNOS, Nrf2 and HO-1, and nitrite content. CYP2E1 inhibitor, DAS noticeably alleviated maneb- and paraquat-induced ROS, LPO, 4-HNE, SOD, Nrf2 and HO-1, GST, GSH, and GST-pi while iNOS, nitrite content and GSTA4-4 levels were unchanged. Conversely, AG, an iNOS inhibitor, attenuated maneb- and paraquat-directed changes in nitrite, LPO, iNOS but it did not alter ROS, GSH, SOD, GST, GST-pi, Nrf2, HO-1, CYP2E1, and GSTA4-4. The results demonstrate that CYP2E1 induces iNOS-independent free radical generation and subsequently modulates the Nrf2-dependent HO-1 and 4-HNE-mediated GST expression in maneb- and paraquat-treated PMNs.

  9. Novel roles of c-Met in the survival of renal cancer cells through the regulation of HO-1 and PD-L1 expression.

    PubMed

    Balan, Murugabaskar; Mier y Teran, Eduardo; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Gasser, Martin; Choueiri, Toni K; Freeman, Gordon; Pal, Soumitro

    2015-03-27

    The receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met is overexpressed in renal cancer cells and can play major role in the growth and survival of tumor. We investigated how the c-Met-mediated signaling through binding to its ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) can modulate the apoptosis and immune escape mechanism(s) of renal cancer cells by the regulations of novel molecules heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and programmed death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1). We found that HGF/c-Met-mediated signaling activated the Ras/Raf pathway and down-regulated cancer cell apoptosis; and it was associated with the overexpression of cytoprotective HO-1 and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2/Bcl-xL. c-Met-induced HO-1 overexpression was regulated at the transcriptional level. Next, we observed that c-Met induction markedly up-regulated the expression of the negative co-stimulatory molecule PD-L1, and this can be prevented following treatment of the cells with pharmacological inhibitors of c-Met. Interestingly, HGF/c-Met-mediated signaling could not induce PD-L1 at the optimum level when either Ras or HO-1 was knocked down. To study the functional significance of c-Met-induced PD-L1 expression, we performed a co-culture assay using mouse splenocytes (expressing PD-L1 receptor PD-1) and murine renal cancer cells (RENCA, expressing high PD-L1). We observed that the splenocyte-mediated apoptosis of cancer cells during co-culture was markedly increased in the presence of either c-Met inhibitor or PD-L1 neutralizing antibody. Finally, we found that both c-Met and PD-L1 are significantly up-regulated and co-localized in human renal cancer tissues. Together, our study suggests a novel mechanism(s) by which c-Met can promote increased survival of renal cancer cells through the regulation of HO-1 and PD-L1.

  10. Novel Roles of c-Met in the Survival of Renal Cancer Cells through the Regulation of HO-1 and PD-L1 Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Balan, Murugabaskar; Mier y Teran, Eduardo; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Gasser, Martin; Choueiri, Toni K.; Freeman, Gordon; Pal, Soumitro

    2015-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met is overexpressed in renal cancer cells and can play major role in the growth and survival of tumor. We investigated how the c-Met-mediated signaling through binding to its ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) can modulate the apoptosis and immune escape mechanism(s) of renal cancer cells by the regulations of novel molecules heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and programmed death-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1). We found that HGF/c-Met-mediated signaling activated the Ras/Raf pathway and down-regulated cancer cell apoptosis; and it was associated with the overexpression of cytoprotective HO-1 and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2/Bcl-xL. c-Met-induced HO-1 overexpression was regulated at the transcriptional level. Next, we observed that c-Met induction markedly up-regulated the expression of the negative co-stimulatory molecule PD-L1, and this can be prevented following treatment of the cells with pharmacological inhibitors of c-Met. Interestingly, HGF/c-Met-mediated signaling could not induce PD-L1 at the optimum level when either Ras or HO-1 was knocked down. To study the functional significance of c-Met-induced PD-L1 expression, we performed a co-culture assay using mouse splenocytes (expressing PD-L1 receptor PD-1) and murine renal cancer cells (RENCA, expressing high PD-L1). We observed that the splenocyte-mediated apoptosis of cancer cells during co-culture was markedly increased in the presence of either c-Met inhibitor or PD-L1 neutralizing antibody. Finally, we found that both c-Met and PD-L1 are significantly up-regulated and co-localized in human renal cancer tissues. Together, our study suggests a novel mechanism(s) by which c-Met can promote increased survival of renal cancer cells through the regulation of HO-1 and PD-L1. PMID:25645920

  11. Associations of proteins relevant to MAPK signaling pathway (p38MAPK-1,HIF-1 and HO-1) with coronary lesion characteristics and prognosis of peri-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liqiu; Cao, Xufen; Zeng, Saitian; Li, Zhe; Lian, Zheng; Wang, Jiawang; Lv, Fengfeng; Wang, Yunfei; Li, Yanshen

    2016-11-08

    The present study was intended to explore whether three proteins within MAPK signaling pathway (i.e. p38MAPK-1, HIF-1 and HO-1) were correlated with peri-menopausal women's coronary lesion features and prognosis. Altogether 1449 peri-menopausal women were divided into non-coronary artery disease (CAD) group (n = 860) and CAD group (n = 589), including 167 pre-menopausal CAD populations and 422 post-menopausal CAD populations. General information about CAD risk parameters were gathered, including age, family history of CAD or hypertension or diabetes mellitus, bilirubin, cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and so on. Coronary angiography results were judged, and CAD score was calculated with application of Genisin scoring method. Besides, detection of MAPK-1 levels was implemented with Strept Avidin-Biotin Complex (SABC) method, while HIF-1 and HO-1 expressions in the serum were determined utilizing ELISA detection kit. Correlations among protein expressions, characteristics of coronary lesions and prognosis of CAD populations were finally evaluated. Hypertension, hyperlipoidemia, diabetes and smoking history were more prevalent among postmenopausal CAD women than premenopausal CAD women (P < 0.05). Furthermore, postmenopausal women seemed to be significantly associated with multiple (i.e. double and triple) vessel lesions and severe lesion types (type B and C), when compared with premenopausal CAD group (P < 0.05). Similarly, remarkably elevated expressions of p38MAPK-1, HIF-1 and HO-1 were found within postmenopausal CAD populations in comparison to premenopausal ones (P < 0.05). The internal CysC, hs-CRP, TG and LDL-C concentrations all accorded with the following tendency: postmenopausal CAD women > premenopausal CAD women > non-CAD women. Moreover, p38MAPK-1, HIF-1 and HO-1 expressions were up-regulated with increasing number of vessel lesions and

  12. Taurine Chloramine Stimulates Efferocytosis Through Upregulation of Nrf2-Mediated Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression in Murine Macrophages: Possible Involvement of Carbon Monoxide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wonki; Kim, Hoon-Ui; Lee, Ha-Na; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Kim, Chaekyun; Cha, Young-Nam; Joe, Yeonsoo; Chung, Hun Taeg; Jang, Jaebong; Kim, Kyeojin; Suh, Young-Ger; Jin, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Jin Kyung; Surh, Young-Joon

    2015-07-10

    To examine the pro-resolving effects of taurine chloramine (TauCl). TauCl injected into the peritoneum of mice enhanced the resolution of zymosan A-induced peritonitis. Furthermore, when the macrophages obtained from peritoneal exudates were treated with TauCl, their efferocytic ability was elevated. In the murine macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells exposed to TauCl, the proportion of macrophages engulfing the apoptotic neutrophils was also increased. In these macrophages treated with TauCl, expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was elevated along with increased nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). TauCl binds directly to Kelch-like ECH association protein 1 (Keap1), which appears to retard the Keap1-driven degradation of Nrf2. This results in stabilization and enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and upregulation of HO-1 expression. TauCl, when treated to peritoneal macrophages isolated from either Nrf2 or HO-1 wild-type mice, stimulated efferocytosis (phagocytic engulfment of apoptotic neutrophils by macrophages), but not in the macrophages from Nrf2 or HO-1 knockout mice. Furthermore, transcriptional expression of some scavenger receptors recognizing the phosphatidylserines exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells was increased in RAW264.7 cells treated with TauCl. Pharmacologic inhibition of HO-1 activity or knockdown of HO-1 gene in RAW264.7 cells abolished the TauCl-induced efferocytosis, whereas both overexpression of HO-1 and treatment with carbon monoxide (CO), the product of HO, potentiated the efferocytic activity of macrophages. This work provides the first evidence that TauCl stimulates efferocytosis by macrophages. The results of this study suggest the therapeutic potential of TauCl in the management of inflammatory disorders. TauCl can facilitate resolution of inflammation by increasing the efferocytic activity of macrophages through Nrf2-mediated HO-1 upregulation and subsequent production of CO.

  13. PPARγ-induced Upregulation of CD36 Enhances Hematoma Resolution and Attenuates Long-term Neurological Deficits after Germinal Matrix Hemorrhage in Neonatal Rats

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Jerry J.; Klebe, Damon; Rolland, William B.; Lekic, Tim; Krafft, Paul R.; Zhang, John H.

    2016-01-01

    Germinal matrix hemorrhage remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants in the United States with little progress made in its clinical management. Survivors are often afflicted with long-term neurological sequelae, including cerebral palsy, mental retardation, hydrocephalus, and psychiatric disorders. Blood clots disrupting normal cerebrospinal fluid circulation and absorption after germinal matrix hemorrhage are thought to be important contributors towards post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus development. We evaluated if upregulating CD36 scavenger receptor expression in microglia and macrophages through PPARγ stimulation, which was effective in experimental adult cerebral hemorrhage models and is being evaluated clinically, will enhance hematoma resolution and ameliorate long-term brain sequelae using a neonatal rat germinal matrix hemorrhage model. PPARγ stimulation (15d-PGJ2) increased short-term PPARγ and CD36 expression levels as well as enhanced hematoma resolution, which was reversed by a PPARγ antagonist (GW9662) and CD36 siRNA. PPARγ stimulation (15d-PGJ2) also reduced long-term white matter loss and post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilation as well as improved neurofunctional outcomes, which were reversed by a PPARγ antagonist (GW9662). PPARγ-induced upregulation of CD36 in macrophages and microglia is, therefore, critical for enhancing hematoma resolution and ameliorating long-term brain sequelae. PMID:26739391

  14. PPARγ-induced upregulation of CD36 enhances hematoma resolution and attenuates long-term neurological deficits after germinal matrix hemorrhage in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Flores, Jerry J; Klebe, Damon; Rolland, William B; Lekic, Tim; Krafft, Paul R; Zhang, John H

    2016-03-01

    Germinal matrix hemorrhage remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants in the United States with little progress made in its clinical management. Survivors are often afflicted with long-term neurological sequelae, including cerebral palsy, mental retardation, hydrocephalus, and psychiatric disorders. Blood clots disrupting normal cerebrospinal fluid circulation and absorption after germinal matrix hemorrhage are thought to be important contributors towards post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus development. We evaluated if upregulating CD36 scavenger receptor expression in microglia and macrophages through PPARγ stimulation, which was effective in experimental adult cerebral hemorrhage models and is being evaluated clinically, will enhance hematoma resolution and ameliorate long-term brain sequelae using a neonatal rat germinal matrix hemorrhage model. PPARγ stimulation (15d-PGJ2) increased short-term PPARγ and CD36 expression levels as well as enhanced hematoma resolution, which was reversed by a PPARγ antagonist (GW9662) and CD36 siRNA. PPARγ stimulation (15d-PGJ2) also reduced long-term white matter loss and post-hemorrhagic ventricular dilation as well as improved neurofunctional outcomes, which were reversed by a PPARγ antagonist (GW9662). PPARγ-induced upregulation of CD36 in macrophages and microglia is, therefore, critical for enhancing hematoma resolution and ameliorating long-term brain sequelae.

  15. [Influence of tert-butylhydroquinone on the islets function and expression of HO-1 and VEGF in retina of type 2 diabetic rats].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siyuan; Tian, Min; Li, Jingyan; Han, Peiyan; Huang, Qi; Lyu, Hongbin

    2016-05-01

    To observe the effect of tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) on the islets function and expression of HO-1 and VEGF in retina of type 2 diabetic rats. Experimental study. Forty healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats with 6 weeks old were given high-fat and high-sugar diet for 4 weeks and then intraperitoneal injection with streptozotocin(STZ) 30mg/kg to induce diabetic model. Model group were further randomly divided into normal group and model group. Ten age matched health rats were chosen as control group. 4 and 12 weeks later, weight of rats , fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting serum insulin (FINS), the levels of serum liqids were measured. The HO-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in retina were determined by immunohistochmistry and quantitative real-time PCR. The differences of the mean values among the three groups were analyzed by one-factor analysis of variance. The multiple comparisons of the mean values among the three groups were analyzed by LSD-t analysis. Type 2 diabetic model was successfully established in 32 rats, the success rate was 80.0%. Compared with normal gourp, plasma triglyceride (TG), plasma total cholesterol (TC) and plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) of diabetic rats increased dramatically, and plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL-C) decreased. FBG was significant different between all groups(χ(2)4w=10.631, P4W=0.005; χ(2)12w=15.053, P12w=0.001), and was significantly increased in tBHQ intervention group than that in diabetic group at the end of 12 week. The levels of FINS and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were significantly higher , and insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was significantly lower in diabetic and tBHQ intervention group compared with normal group(P<0.05), but there is no significantly difference between diabetic and tBHQ intervention group(P>0.05). The immunohistochemistry staining results showed the protein leveI of retinal HO-1 (F4w=689.535, P4w=0.000; F12w=287.988, P12w=0

  16. Antrodia camphorata Potentiates Neuroprotection against Cerebral Ischemia in Rats via Downregulation of iNOS/HO-1/Bax and Activated Caspase-3 and Inhibition of Hydroxyl Radical Formation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Po-Sheng; Lin, Po-Yen; Chang, Chao-Chien; Yu, Meng-Che; Yen, Ting-Lin; Lan, Chang-Chou; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Yang, Chih-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata) is a fungus generally used in Chinese folk medicine for treatment of viral hepatitis and cancer. Our previous study found A. camphorata has neuroprotective properties and could reduce stroke injury in cerebral ischemia animal models. In this study, we sought to investigate the molecular mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of A. camphorata in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats. A selective occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) with whole blood clots was used to induce ischemic stroke in rats and they were orally treated with A. camphorata (0.25 and 0.75 g/kg/day) alone or combined with aspirin (5 mg/kg/day). To provide insight into the functions of A. camphorata mediated neuroprotection, the expression of Bax, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and activated caspase-3 was determined by Western blot assay. Treatment of aspirin alone significantly reduced the expressions of HO-1 (P < 0.001), iNOS (P < 0.001), and Bax (P < 0.01) in ischemic regions. The reduction of these expressions was more potentiated when rats treated by aspirin combined with A. camphorata (0.75 g/kg/day). Combination treatment also reduced apoptosis as measured by a significant reduction in active caspase-3 expression in the ischemic brain compared to MCAO group (P < 0.01). Moreover, treatment of A. camphorata significantly (P < 0.05) reduced fenton reaction-induced hydroxyl radical (OH•) formation at a dose of 40 mg/mL. Taken together, A. camphorata has shown neuroprotective effects in embolic rats, and the molecular mechanisms may correlate with the downregulation of Bax, iNOS, HO-1, and activated caspase-3 and the inhibition of OH• signals. PMID:26379739

  17. Antrodia camphorata Potentiates Neuroprotection against Cerebral Ischemia in Rats via Downregulation of iNOS/HO-1/Bax and Activated Caspase-3 and Inhibition of Hydroxyl Radical Formation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Po-Sheng; Lin, Po-Yen; Chang, Chao-Chien; Yu, Meng-Che; Yen, Ting-Lin; Lan, Chang-Chou; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Yang, Chih-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Antrodia camphorata (A. camphorata) is a fungus generally used in Chinese folk medicine for treatment of viral hepatitis and cancer. Our previous study found A. camphorata has neuroprotective properties and could reduce stroke injury in cerebral ischemia animal models. In this study, we sought to investigate the molecular mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of A. camphorata in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats. A selective occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) with whole blood clots was used to induce ischemic stroke in rats and they were orally treated with A. camphorata (0.25 and 0.75 g/kg/day) alone or combined with aspirin (5 mg/kg/day). To provide insight into the functions of A. camphorata mediated neuroprotection, the expression of Bax, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and activated caspase-3 was determined by Western blot assay. Treatment of aspirin alone significantly reduced the expressions of HO-1 (P < 0.001), iNOS (P < 0.001), and Bax (P < 0.01) in ischemic regions. The reduction of these expressions was more potentiated when rats treated by aspirin combined with A. camphorata (0.75 g/kg/day). Combination treatment also reduced apoptosis as measured by a significant reduction in active caspase-3 expression in the ischemic brain compared to MCAO group (P < 0.01). Moreover, treatment of A. camphorata significantly (P < 0.05) reduced fenton reaction-induced hydroxyl radical (OH(•)) formation at a dose of 40 mg/mL. Taken together, A. camphorata has shown neuroprotective effects in embolic rats, and the molecular mechanisms may correlate with the downregulation of Bax, iNOS, HO-1, and activated caspase-3 and the inhibition of OH(•) signals.

  18. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid agonist regulates human mesenchymal stem cell-derived adipocytes through activation of HO-1-pAKT signaling and a decrease in PPARγ.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Vanella, Luca; Inoue, Kazuyoshi; Burgess, Angela; Gotlinger, Katherine; Manthati, Vijaya Lingam; Koduru, Sreenivasulu Reddy; Zeldin, Darryl C; Falck, John R; Schwartzman, Michal L; Abraham, Nader G

    2010-12-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expressed substantial levels of CYP2J2, a major CYP450 involved in epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) formation. MSCs synthesized significant levels of EETs (65.8 ± 5.8 pg/mg protein) and dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs) (15.83 ± 1.62 pg/mg protein), suggesting the presence of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). The addition of an sEH inhibitor to MSC culture decreased adipogenesis. EETs decreased MSC-derived adipocytes in a concentration-dependent manner, 8,9- and 14,15-EET having the maximum reductive effect on adipogenesis. We examined the effect of 12-(3-hexylureido)dodec-8(Z)-enoic acid, an EET agonist, on MSC-derived adipocytes and demonstrated an increased number of healthy small adipocytes, attenuated fatty acid synthase (FAS) levels (P < 0.01), and reduced PPARγ, C/EBPα, FAS, and lipid accumulation (P < 0.05). These effects were accompanied by increased levels of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and adiponectin (P < 0.05), and increased glucose uptake (P < 0.05). Inhibition of HO activity or AKT by tin mesoporphyrin (SnMP) and LY2940002, respectively, reversed EET-induced inhibition of adipogenesis, suggesting that activation of the HO-1-adiponectin axis underlies EET effect in MSCs. These findings indicate that EETs decrease MSC-derived adipocyte stem cell differentiation by upregulation of HO-1-adiponectin-AKT signaling and play essential roles in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation by inhibiting PPARγ, C/EBPα, and FAS and in stem cell development. These novel observations highlight the seminal role of arachidonic acid metabolism in MSCs and suggest that an EET agonist may have potential therapeutic use in the treatment of dyslipidemia, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome.

  19. Pinocembrin Suppresses H2O2-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction by a Mechanism Dependent on the Nrf2/HO-1 Axis in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto; da Costa Ferreira, Gustavo; Brasil, Flávia Bittencourt; Peres, Alessandra

    2017-01-13

    Mitochondria are susceptible to redox impairment, which has been associated with neurodegeneration. These organelles are both a source and target of reactive species. In that context, there is increasing interest in finding natural compounds that modulate mitochondrial function and mitochondria-related signaling in order to prevent or to treat diseases involving mitochondrial impairment. Herein, we investigated whether and how pinocembrin (PB) would prevent mitochondrial dysfunction elicited by the exposure of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). PB (25 μM) was administrated for 4 h before H2O2 treatment (300 μM for 24 h). PB prevented H2O2-induced loss of cell viability mitochondrial depolarization in SH-SY5Y cells. PB also attenuated redox impairment in mitochondrial membranes. The production of superoxide anion radical (O2(-•)) and nitric oxide (NO(•)) was alleviated by PB in cells exposed to H2O2. PB suppressed the H2O2-induced inhibition of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes aconitase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehydrogenase. Furthermore, PB induced anti-inflammatory effects by abolishing the H2O2-dependent activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and upregulation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The PB-induced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects are dependent on the heme oxygenate-1 (HO-1) enzyme and on the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), since HO-1 inhibition (with 0.5 μM ZnPP IX) or Nrf2 silencing (with small interfering RNA (siRNA)) abolished the effects of PB. Overall, PB afforded cytoprotection by the Nrf2/HO-1 axis in H2O2-treated SH-SY5Y cells.

  20. Heat shock proteins in the brain: role of Hsp70, Hsp 27, and HO-1 (Hsp32) and their therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Frank R; Zhan, Xinhua; Liu, Da-Zhi

    2013-12-01

    Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are induced by heat shock via heat shock factor proteins binding to heat shock elements in their promoters. Hsp70 is massively induced in response to misfolded proteins following cerebral ischemia in all cell types but is induced mainly in neurons in the ischemic penumbra. Overexpression of Hsp70 via transgenes and viruses or systemic administration of Hsp70 fusion proteins that allow it to cross the blood brain barrier protects the brain against ischemia in most reported studies. Hsp27 can exist as unphosphorylated large oligomers that prevent misfolded protein aggregates and improve cell survival. P-Hsp27 small oligomers bind specific protein targets to improve survival. In the brain, protein kinase D phosphorylates Hsp27 following ischemia which then binds apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 to prevent MKK4/7, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, and Jun-induced apoptosis, and decrease infarct volumes following focal cerebral ischemia. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) metabolizes heme to carbon monoxide, ferrous ion, and biliverdin. CO activates cGMP to promote vasodilation, and biliverdin is converted to bilirubin which can serve as an anti-oxidant, both of which may contribute to the reported protective role of HO-1 in cerebral ischemia and subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, ferrous ion can react with hydrogen peroxide to produce pro-oxidant hydroxyl radicals which may explain the harmful role of HO-1 in intracerebral hemorrhage. Heat shock proteins as a class have great potential as treatments for cerebrovascular disease and have yet to be tested in the clinic.

  1. The Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway Mediates the Antagonist Effect of L-Arginine On Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Tong, Fei; Zhou, Xinmei

    2017-08-30

    Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is the most common cause of acute renal injury. I/R-induced oxidative stress is involved in the development of acute renal injury, which can be reversed by supplementation with L-arginine, a precursor of nitric oxide (NO). This study was conducted to evaluate alterations in the expression of transcription factors [nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), nuclear factor-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1)] and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in the kidney of I/R-induced injury rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to bilateral renal ischemia for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. Group 1, Sham; group 2, I/R; group 3, L-arginine; and group 4, L-arginine+zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP). The levels of serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum nitric oxide (NO), histic malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were determined, and the expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1, NF-κB, and HSP70 were evaluated. The treatment of rats with L-arginine produced a significant reduction in the levels of BUN, Scr, MDA and a significant enhancement in the level of NO and in the activity of SOD compared to renal I/R groups. The expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1, and HSP70 were strongly increased, and the expression of NF-κB and production of ROS were significantly decreased in the L-arginine group compared to that of the I/R group. ZnPP increased renal damage and displayed effects opposite to those of L-arginine. These findings suggested that L-arginine/NO reduces renal dysfunction associated with I/R of the kidney and may act as a trigger to regulate the NF-κB, HSP70 and Nrf2/HO-1 signaling cascades. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Synergistic cardioprotective effects of Danshensu and hydroxysafflor yellow A against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury are mediated through the Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    HU, TIANXIN; WEI, GUO; XI, MIAOMIAO; YAN, JIAJIA; WU, XIAOXIAO; WANG, YANHUA; ZHU, YANRONG; WANG, CHAO; WEN, AIDONG

    2016-01-01

    In clinical practice, the traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, Radix Salvia Miltiorrhiza and Carthamus tinctorius L., are usually prescribed in combination due to their significant cardioprotective effects. However, the mechanisms responsible for these combined effects remain unknown. Thus, in this study, we investigated the mechanisms responsible for the combined effects of Danshensu (DSS) and hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) by establishing a rat model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R), as well as a model of hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) using H9c2 cells. The combination index (CI) was calculated using the median-effect method. DSS and HSYA in combination led to a CI value of <1 as regards infarct size in vivo and cell viability in vitro. The rats with MI/R injury that were treated with DSS and/or HSYA were found to have significantly lower levels of creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and a lower expressoin of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and markedly enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Our in vitro experiments revealed that the cells treated with DSS and/or HSYA had a reduced lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and a decreased percentage of cell apoptosis (increased Bcl-2/Bax ratio, decreased expression of cleaved caspase-3). DSS and HSYA increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), the phosphorylation of Akt and the trans-location of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Furthermore, the Akt inhibitor, LY294002, partially hampered the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1. The HO-1 inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP-IX), did not decrease the expression of p-Akt and Nrf2, although it abolished the anti-apoptotic and antioxidant effects of DSS and HSYA. The findings of our study thus demonstrate that DSS and HSYA confer synergistic cardioprotective effects through the Akt/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway, to certain extent, by enhancing the antioxidant defense system and exerting

  3. Baicalein inhibition of oxidative-stress-induced apoptosis via modulation of ERKs activation and induction of HO-1 gene expression in rat glioma cells C6

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.-C. . E-mail: yc3270@tmu.edu.tw; Chow, J.-M.; Lin, C.-W.; Wu, C.-Y.; Shen, S.-C.

    2006-10-15

    In the present study, we examined the protective mechanism of baicalein (BE) and its glycoside, baicalin (BI), on hydrogen-peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2})-induced cell death in rat glioma C6 cells. Results of the MTT assay, LDH release assay, and morphological observation showed that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition reduced the viability of C6 cells, and this was prevented by the addition of BE but not BI. Incubation of C6 cells with BE significantly decreased the intracellular peroxide level induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} according to flow cytometric analysis using DCHF-DA as a fluorescent substrate. Suppression of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced apoptotic events including DNA ladders, hypodiploid cells, and activation of caspases 3, 8, and, 9 by BE but not BI was identified in C6 cells. The cytotoxicity and phosphorylation of ERK proteins induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were blocked by the ERK inhibitor PD98059. Catalase addition prevented H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced ROS production, ERKs protein phosphorylation, and cell death, and BE dose-dependently inhibited H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced ERK protein phosphorylation in C6 cells. These data suggest that ROS-scavenging activity is involved in BE prevention of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cell death via blocking ERKs activation. Additionally, BE but not BI induced heat shock protein 32 (HSP32; HO-1) protein expression in both time- and dose-dependent manners, but not heme oxygenase 2 (HO-2), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), or heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) protein expression. In the absence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, BE induces ERKs protein phosphorylation, and HO-1 protein expression induced by BE was blocked by the addition of cycloheximide, actinomycin D, and the ERK inhibitor PD98059. The addition of the HO inhibitor ZnPP inhibited the protective effect of BE against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cytotoxicity in C6 cells according to the MTT assay and apoptotic morphology under microscopic observation, accompanied by blocking the ROS-scavenging activity of BE

  4. Increase of IFN-γ and TNF-α production in CD107a + NK-92 cells co-cultured with cervical cancer cell lines pre-treated with the HO-1 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Lomelí, Paulina; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Hernández-Flores, Georgina; Jave-Suárez, Luis Felipe; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Lerma-Díaz, José Manuel; Domínguez-Rodríguez, Jorge Ramiro; Sánchez-Reyes, Karina; Ortiz-Lazareno, Pablo Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells eliminate virus-infected and tumor cells through the release of perforins and granzymes; they also produce Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), which induce apoptosis in target cells. Many tumors express Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), and this expression has been associated with avoiding immunosuppression and apoptosis. In this work, HO-1+ Cervical cancer cell (CCC) lines were pre-treated with HO-1 inhibitor and we assessed whether this inhibition enhanced the sensitivity of CCC to NK cell activity. We assessed the expression of HO-1 in HeLa, SiHa, and C-33A CCC by Flow cytometry (FC). CCC were pre-treated with SnPP or ZnPP HO-1 inhibitors. After that, NK-92 cells were co-cultured with HeLa, SiHa, and C-33A CCC pre-treated or not with HO-1 inhibitors, and the expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, CD107a, Granzyme B, NKp44, NKp46, NKp30, and NKG2D was evaluated by FC. CCC lines HeLa, SiHa, and C-33A expressed HO-1. Inhibition of HO-1 in these cells increased the expression of IFN-γ and TNF-α in CD107a + NK-92 cells. We observed a reduction in the expression of NKG2D, NKp46, and NKp30 in NK cells co-cultured with HeLa and SiHa cells, and when HeLa and SiHa cells were pre-treated with the HO-1 inhibitors, the expression of NKG2D and NKp30 in NK cells was restored. We observed a similar effect in NK cells co-cultured with C-33A cells in NKp30 expression. Inhibition of HO-1 in CCC induces an increase in IFN-γ and TNF-α production in CD107a + NK-92 cells and restores NKG2D, NKp46 and NKp30 downmodulation in NK cells.

  5. Ellagic acid exerts protective effect in intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease: Possible involvement of ERβ/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Rabiee, Nafiseh; Zabihnejad, Sedigheh; Roghani, Mehrdad

    2017-02-23

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a prevalent movement disorder in the elderly with progressive loss of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons and incapacitating motor and non-motor complications. Ellagic acid is a natural phenolic compound with potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we investigated its possible neuroprotective effect in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of PD. Intrastriatal 6-OHDA-lesioned rats were pretreated with ellagic acid at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day for 1 week. Results showed that ellagic acid attenuates apomorphine-induced rotational bias and lowers the latency to initiate and the total time in the narrow beam task and this beneficial effect was partially abrogated following intracerebroventricular microinjection of estrogen receptor β (ERβ) antagonist. Furthermore, ellagic acid reduced striatal malondialdehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and DNA fragmentation, and improved monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B), nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). Meanwhile, ellagic acid prevented loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons within substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC). These findings indicate neuroprotective potential of ellagic acid in 6-OHDA rat model of PD via amelioration of apoptosis and oxidative stress, suppression of MAO-B, and its favorable influence is partly reliant on ERβ/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling cascade.

  6. Neolignans from Aristolochia fordiana Prevent Oxidative Stress-Induced Neuronal Death through Maintaining the Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway in HT22 Cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Gui-Hua; Chen, Zi-Wei; Lin, Ting-Ting; Tan, Min; Gao, Xiao-Yun; Bao, Jing-Mei; Cheng, Zhong-Bin; Sun, Zhang-Hua; Huang, Gang; Yin, Sheng

    2015-08-28

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of the stems of Aristolochia fordiana led to the isolation of six new dihydrobenzofuran neolignans (1-3 and 7-9), three new 2-aryldihydrobenzofurans (4-6), a new 8-O-4' neolignan (10), and 14 known analogues (11-24). The structures of compounds 1-10 were established by spectroscopic methods, and their absolute configurations were determined by analyses of the specific rotation and electronic circular dichroism data. The neuroprotective effects of compounds 1-24 against glutamate-induced cell death were tested in hippocampal neuronal cell line HT22. Compounds 17 and 20-24 exhibited moderate neuroprotective activity by increasing the endogenous antioxidant defense system. In addition, the neolignans activated the Nrf2 (nuclear factor E2-related factor 2) pathway, resulting in the increase of the expression of endogenous antioxidant protein HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1). The active compounds also preserved the levels of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 (B cell lymphoma/leukemia-2), which was decreased by glutamate. Collectively, these results suggested that the active neolignans protect neurons against glutamate-induced cell death through maintaining the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway as well as preserving the Bcl-2 protein and might be promising novel beneficial agents for oxidative stress-associated diseases.

  7. Nrf2/HO-1 mediates the neuroprotective effect of mangiferin on early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage by attenuating mitochondria-related apoptosis and neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zefeng; Guo, Songxue; Wang, Junxing; Shen, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jianmin; Wu, Qun

    2017-09-19

    Early brain injury (EBI) is involved in the process of cerebral tissue damage caused by subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and multiple mechanisms, such as apoptosis and inflammation, participate in its development. Mangiferin (MF), a natural C-glucoside xanthone, has been reported to exert beneficial effects against several types of organ injury by influencing various biological progresses. The current study aimed to investigate the potential of MF to protect against EBI following SAH via histological and biological assessments. A rat perforation model of SAH was established, and MF was subsequently administered via intraperitoneal injection at a low and a high dose. High-dose MF significantly lowered the mortality of SAH animals and ameliorated their neurological deficits and brain edema. MF also dose-relatedly attenuated SAH-induced oxidative stress and decreased cortical cell apoptosis by influencing mitochondria-apoptotic proteins. In addition, MF downregulated the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-κB as well as the production of inflammatory cytokines, and the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 was upregulated by MF. The abovementioned findings indicate that MF is neuroprotective against EBI after SAH and Nrf2/HO-1 cascade may play a key role in mediating its effect through regulation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-κB.

  8. Novel imidazole derivatives as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2) inhibitors and their cytotoxic activity in human-derived cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Loredana; Pittalà, Valeria; Romeo, Giuseppe; Modica, Maria N; Marrazzo, Agostino; Siracusa, Maria A; Sorrenti, Valeria; Di Giacomo, Claudia; Vanella, Luca; Parayath, Neha N; Greish, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Heme oxygenase (HO) is a cytoprotective enzyme that can be overexpressed in some pathological conditions, including certain cancers. In this work, novel imidazole derivatives were designed and synthesized as inhibitors of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2). In these compounds the imidazole ring, crucial for the activity, is connected to a hydrophobic group, represented by aryloxy, benzothiazole, or benzoxazole moieties, by means of alkyl or thioalkyl chains of different length. Many of the tested compounds were potent and/or selective against one of the two isoforms of HO. Furthermore, most of the pentyl derivatives showed to be better inhibitors of HO-2 with respect to HO-1, revealing a critical role of the alkyl chain in discriminating between the two isoenzymes. Compounds which showed the better profile of HO inhibition were selected and tested to evaluate their cytotoxic properties in prostate and breast cancer cell lines (DU-145, PC3, LnCap, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-7). In these assays, aryloxyalkyl derivatives resulted more cytotoxic than benzothiazolethioalkyl ones; in particular compound 31 was active against all the cell lines tested, confirming the anti-proliferative properties of HO inhibitors and their potential use in the treatment of specific cancers.

  9. The cytoprotective effect of isorhamnetin against oxidative stress is mediated by the upregulation of the Nrf2-dependent HO-1 expression in C2C12 myoblasts through scavenging reactive oxygen species and ERK inactivation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to confirm the protective effects of isorhamnetin against oxidative stress-induced cellular damage. Our results indicated that isorhamnetin inhibited the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced growth inhibition and exhibited scavenging activity against the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mouse-derived C2C12 myoblasts. Isorhamnetin also significantly attenuated H2O2-induced DNA damage and apoptosis, and increased the levels of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its phosphorylation associated with the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). However, the protective effects of isorhamnetin on H2O2-induced ROS and growth inhibition were significantly abolished by an HO-1 competitive inhibitor. Moreover, the potential of isorhamnetin to mediate HO-1 induction and protect against H2O2-mediated growth inhibition was abrogated by transient transfection with Nrf2-specific small interfering RNA. Additionally, isorhamnetin induced the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 MAPK. However, the specific inhibitor of ERK, but not JNK and p38 MAPK, was able to abolish the HO-1 upregulation and the Nrf2 phosphorylation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that isorhamnetin augments the cellular antioxidant defense capacity by activating the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway involving the activation of the ERK pathway, thus protecting the C2C12 cells from H2O2-induced cytotoxicity.

  10. Mechanistic study on the biological effects of silver and gold nanoparticles in Caco-2 cells--induction of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway by high concentrations of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Aueviriyavit, Sasitorn; Phummiratch, Duangkamol; Maniratanachote, Rawiwan

    2014-01-03

    The most commonly used metal nanoparticles (NPs) across diverse applications, including in agro-food applications, include silver (AgNPs) and gold (AuNPs). In the present study, we aimed to investigate the biological responses and possible toxicological effects of AgNPs and AuNPs in the Caco-2 cells as an in vitro human GI tract model. Both AgNPs and AuNPs were internalized into the cytoplasm of Caco-2 cells, but not within the nucleus and only exposure to high concentrations of AgNPs, but not AuNPs, caused acute cytotoxicity and depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, only AgNPs significantly depleted the total intracellular glutathione level, induced the activation of the stress-responsive gene, Nrf2, and dramatically increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Furthermore, siRNA silencing of Nrf2 transcripts significantly reduced the AgNP-induced HO-1 mRNA induction, suggesting a key role for Nrf2 in the control of HO-1 expression. Taken together, AgNPs but not AuNPs induced acute cytotoxicity and cellular responses via the oxidative stress-related activation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway in Caco-2 cells. The expression of HO-1 transcripts may be useful as a sensitive marker for safety evaluation of AgNPs in the GI tract of humans. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The cytoprotective effects of ethanol extract of Ecklonia cava against oxidative stress are associated with upregulation of Nrf2-mediated HO-1 and NQO-1 expression through activation of the MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the cytoprotective effect of Ecklonia cava against oxidative stress in C2C12 myoblasts. The ethanol extract of E. cava (EEEC) prevented hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂)-induced inhibition of the growth of C2C12 myoblasts and exhibited scavenging activity against intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by H₂O₂. EEEC treatment attenuated H2O2-induced comet tail formation and phospho-histone γH2A.X expression. Furthermore, EEEC treatment enhanced the level of the phosphorylated form of nuclear factor erythroid 2- related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its nuclear translocation, which was associated with the induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NADPH-quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1). Zinc protoporphyrin IX, a HO-1 competitive inhibitor, significantly abolished the protective effects of EEEC against H₂O₂-induced ROS generation and growth inhibition in C2C12 myoblasts. Transient transfection with Nrf2-specific small interfering RNA restored the elevated HO-1 and NQO-1 expression and the phosphorylation of Nrf2 to near normal levels. The EEEC treatment also induced the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and specific inhibitors of MAPKs abolished upregulated HO-1 and NQO-1, as well as the phosphorylation of Nrf2. Taken together, these data suggest that EEEC attenuates oxidative stress by activating Nrf2-mediated HO-1 and inducing NQO-1 via the activation of MAPK signaling pathways.

  12. Preconditioning with Gua Lou Gui Zhi decoction enhances H2O2-induced Nrf2/HO-1 activation in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Mao, Jingjie; Li, Zuanfang; Lin, Ruhui; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Lin, Jiumao; Peng, Jun; Chen, Lidian

    2015-09-01

    Spasticity is common in various central neurological conditions, including after a stroke. Such spasticity may cause additional problems, and often becomes a primary concern for afflicted individuals. A number of studies have identified nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) as a key regulator in the adaptive survival response to oxidative stress. Elevated expression of Nrf2, combined with heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) resistance, in the central nervous system is known to elicit key internal and external oxidation protection. Gua Lou Gui Zhi decoction (GLGZD) is a popular traditional Chinese formula with a long history of clinical use in China for the treatment of muscular spasticity following a stroke, epilepsy or a spinal cord injury. However, the mechanism underlying the efficacy of the medicine remains unclear. In the present study, the antioxidative effects of GLGZD were evaluated and the underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated, using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12 cells) as an in vitro oxidative stress model of neural cells. Upon application of different concentrations of GLGZD, a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and ATP measurement were conducted to assess the impact on PC12 cell proliferation. In addition, inverted microscopy observations, and the MTT and ATP assessments, revealed that GLGZD attenuated H2O2-induced oxidative damage and signaling repression in PC12 cells. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Nrf2 and HO-1, which are associated with oxidative stress, were analyzed using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and confocal microscopy. Confocal microscopy observations, as well as the quantitative PCR assay, revealed that GLGZD exerted a neuroprotective function against H2O2-induced oxidative damage in PC12 cells. Therefore, the results demonstrated that GLGZD protected PC12 cells injured by H2O2, which may be

  13. Baicalein protects against retinal ischemia by antioxidation, antiapoptosis, downregulation of HIF-1α, VEGF, and MMP-9 and upregulation of HO-1.

    PubMed

    Chao, Hsiao-Ming; Chuang, Min-Jay; Liu, Jorn-Hon; Liu, Xiao-Qian; Ho, Li-Kang; Pan, Wynn H T; Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Liu, Chi-Ming; Tsai, Shen-Kou; Kong, Chi-Woon; Lee, Shou-Dong; Chen, Mi-Mi; Chao, Fang-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Retinal ischemia-associated ocular disorders are vision threatening. This study examined whether the flavonoid baicalein is able to protect against retinal ischemia/reperfusion. Using rats, the intraocular pressure was raised to 120 mmHg for 60 min to induce retinal ischemia. In vitro, an ischemic-like insult, namely oxidative stress, was established by incubating dissociated retinal cells with 100 μM ascorbate and 5 μM FeSO4 (iron) for 1 h. The rats or the dissociated cells had been pretreated with baicalein (in vivo: 0.05 or 0.5 nmol; in vitro: 100 μM), vehicle (1% ethanol), or trolox (in vivo: 5 nmol; in vitro: 100 μM or 1 mM). The effects of these treatments on the retina or the retinal cells were evaluated by electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining, Western blotting, or in vitro dichlorofluorescein assay. In addition, real-time-polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the retinal expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). The retinal changes after ischemia included a decrease in the electroretinogram b-wave amplitude, a loss of choline acetyltransferase immunolabeling amacrine cell bodies/neuronal processes, an increase in vimentin immunoreactivity, which is a marker for Müller cells, an increase in apoptotic cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer linked to a decrease in the Bcl-2 protein, and changes in the mRNA levels of HIF-1α, VEGF, MMP-9, and HO-1. Of clinical importance, the ischemic detrimental effects were concentration dependently and/or significantly (0.05 nmol and/or 0.5 nmol) altered when baicalein was applied 15 min before retinal ischemia. Most of all, 0.5 nmol baicalein significantly reduced the upregulation of MMP-9; in contrast, 5 nmol trolox only had a weak attenuating effect. In dissociated retinal cells subjected to ascorbate

  14. Statement of retraction. Cardioprotective effect of resveratrol via HO-1 expression involves p38 map kinase and PI-3-kinase signaling, but does not involve NFkB.

    PubMed

    Davies, Michael; Roulleau, Joris

    2012-03-01

    Free Radical Research, October 2006; 40(10): 1066-1075 (Received 30 March 2006) The Editor, Editorial Board and Publisher of Free Radical Research hereby retract the following article from publication in the journal: SAMARJIT DAS, CESAR G. FRAGA & DIPAK K. DAS. 2006. Cardioprotective effect of resveratrol via HO-1 expression involves p38 map kinase and PI-3-kinase signaling, but does not involve NFkB. Free Radical Research, October 2006; 40(10): 1066-1075. This article has been found to contain fabricated data during a research misconduct investigation by the University of Connecticut Health Center. Specifically, the institution has determined that images appearing in Figure 4 of that paper contain instances of data fabrication. As a consequence, and as per accepted best practice, the article is withdrawn from all print and electronic editions.

  15. Carnosic Acid Induces Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Paraquat-Treated SH-SY5Y Cells Through a Mechanism Involving a Crosstalk Between the Nrf2/HO-1 Axis and NF-κB.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcos Roberto; de Souza, Izabel Cristina Custódio; Fürstenau, Cristina Ribas

    2017-01-12

    Carnosic acid (CA) is a phenolic diterpene obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. and has demonstrated cytoprotective properties in several experimental models. CA exerts antioxidant effects by upregulating the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which controls the expression of antioxidant and phase II detoxification enzymes. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression is modulated by Nrf2 and has been demonstrated as part of the mechanism underlying the CA-induced cytoprotection. Nonetheless, it remains to be studied whether and how HO-1 would mediate CA-elicited anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, we have investigated here whether and how CA would prevent paraquat (PQ)-induced inflammation-related alterations in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. SH-SY5Y cells were pretreated for 12 h with CA at 1 μM before exposure to PQ for further 24 h. CA suppressed the PQ-induced alterations on the levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) through a mechanism involving the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 axis. Furthermore, we observed a crosstalk between the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway and the activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factor, since administration of ZnPP IX (specific inhibitor of HO-1) or Nrf2 knockdown using small interfering RNA (siRNA) abolished the anti-inflammatory effects induced by CA. Moreover, administration of SN50 (specific inhibitor of NF-κB) inhibited the PQ-induced inflammation-related effects in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, CA exerted anti-inflammatory effects in SH-SY5Y cells through an Nrf2/HO-1 axis-dependent manner associated with downregulation of NF-κB.

  16. Lycopene ameliorates atrazine-induced oxidative damage in adrenal cortex of male rats by activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Abass, Marwa Ahmed; Elkhateeb, Shereen Ahmed; Abd El-Baset, Samia Adel; Kattaia, Asmaa Alhosiny; Mohamed, Eman Mosallam; Atteia, Hebatallah Husseini

    2016-08-01

    Atrazine (ATZ) is one of the most commonly used herbicides contaminating plants, soil and water resources. Several strategies have been used to counteract ATZ toxicity. Here, we tested the hypothesis that lycopene could ameliorate ATZ-induced toxicity in the adrenal cortex. For this purpose, 35 adult male albino rats were randomized into five equal groups: untreated control, vehicle control (received 0.5 mL corn oil/day), lycopene (treated with lycopene dissolved in 0.5 mL corn oil, 10 mg/kg b.w./day), ATZ (received ATZ dissolved in 0.5 mL corn oil 300 mg/kg b.w./day), and ATZ + lycopene (treated with ATZ and lycopene at the same previously mentioned doses). All treatments were given by oral gavage for 4 weeks. We found that ATZ exposure significantly increased relative adrenal weight, plasma ACTH levels, and adrenal oxidative stress as manifested by elevated malondialdehyde levels, decreased reduced glutathione content and depressed antioxidant enzyme activities in adrenal cortex tissues with respect to control groups. Furthermore, the transcription of adrenal cortex nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), nuclear factor kappa B, and caspase-3 genes was increased significantly compared with the control groups. This was accompanied with DNA fragmentation and structural and ultrastructural changes in zona glomerulosa and zona fasiculata of the adrenal cortex. Notably, all these changes were partially ameliorated in rats treated concomitantly with ATZ and lycopene. Our results showed that lycopene exerts protective effects against ATZ-induced toxicity in rat adrenal cortex. These effects may be attributed to the antioxidative property of lycopene and its ability to activate the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

  17. Mangiferin Mitigates Gastric Ulcer in Ischemia/ Reperfused Rats: Involvement of PPAR-γ, NF-κB and Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud-Awny, Magdy; Attia, Ahmed S; Abd-Ellah, Mohamed F; El-Abhar, Hanan Salah

    2015-01-01

    Mangiferin (MF), a xanthonoid from Mangifera indica, has been proved to have antisecretory and antioxidant gastroprotective effects against different gastric ulcer models; however, its molecular mechanism has not been previously elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test its modulatory effect on several signaling pathways using the ischemia/reperfusion model for the first time. Animals were treated with MF, omeprazole (OMP), and the vehicle. The mechanistic studies revealed that MF mediated its gastroprotective effect partly via inducing the expression of Nrf2, HO-1 and PPAR-γ along with downregulating that of NF-κB. Surprisingly, the effect of MF, especially the high dose, exceeded that mediated by OMP except for Nrf2. The molecular results were reflected on the biomarkers measured, where the antioxidant effect of MF was manifested by increasing total antioxidant capacity and glutathione, besides normalizing malondialdehyde level. Additionally, MF decreased the I/R-induced nitric oxide elevation, an effect that was better than that of OMP. In the serum, MF, dose dependently, enhanced endothelial nitric oxide synthase, while reduced the inducible isoform. Regarding the anti-inflammatory effect of MF, it reduced serum level of IL-1β and sE-selectin, effects that were mirrored on the tissue level of myeloperoxidase, the neutrophil infiltration marker. In addition, MF possessed an antiapoptotic character evidenced by elevating Bcl-2 level and reducing that of caspase-3 in a dose related order. As a conclusion, the intimated gastroprotective mechanisms of MF are mediated, partially, by modulation of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis possibly via the Nrf2/HO-1, PPAR-γ/NF-κB signaling pathways.

  18. Long-term aerobic exercise protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by modulating the expression of IL-6 and HO-1.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Mariana Yasue Saito; Seelaender, Marilia; Castoldi, Angela; de Almeida, Danilo Candido; Bacurau, Aline Villa Nova; Andrade-Oliveira, Vinicius; Enjiu, Lucas Maceratesi; Pisciottano, Marcus; Hayashida, Caroline Yuri; Hiyane, Meire Ioshie; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Camara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Amano, Mariane Tami

    2014-01-01

    Nephrotoxicity is substantial side effect for 30% of patients undergoing cancer therapy with cisplatin and may force them to change or even abandon the treatment. Studies regarding aerobic exercise have shown its efficacy for the treatment of many types of diseases and its capacity to reduce tumors. However, little is known about the impact of physical exercise on cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). In the present study, our aim was to investigate the role of physical exercise in AKI induced by cisplatin. We submitted C57Bl6 male mice to seven weeks of chronic exercise on a training treadmill and treated them with single i.p. injection of cisplatin (20 mg/kg) in the last week. Exercise efficacy was confirmed by an increased capillary-to-fiber ratio in the gastrocnemius muscle of exercised groups (EX and CIS-EX). The group submitted to exercise before cisplatin administration (CIS-EX) exhibited less weight loss and decreased serum urea levels compared to the cisplatin group (CIS). Exercise also showed a protective role against cisplatin-induced cell death in the kidney. The CIS-EX group showed a lower inflammatory response, with less TNF and IL-10 expression in the kidney and serum. In the same group, we observed an increase of IL-6 and HO-1 expression in the kidney. Taken together, our results indicate that chronic aerobic exercise is able to attenuate AKI by inducing IL-6 and HO-1 production, which results in lower inflammatory and apoptotic profiles in the kidney.

  19. Hydrogen sulfide inhibits nitric oxide production and nuclear factor-kappaB via heme oxygenase-1 expression in RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Oh, Gi-Su; Pae, Hyun-Ock; Lee, Bok-Soo; Kim, Byeong-Nam; Kim, Jong-Moon; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Jeon, Seon Bok; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Chae, Han-Jung; Chung, Hun-Taeg

    2006-07-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), a regulatory gaseous molecule that is endogenously synthesized by cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) and/or cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) from L-cysteine (L-Cys) metabolism, is a putative vasodilator, and its role in nitric oxide (NO) production is unexplored. Here, we show that at noncytotoxic concentrations, H(2)S was able to inhibit NO production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression via heme oxygenase (HO-1) expression in RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Both H(2)S solution prepared by bubbling pure H(2)S gas and NaSH, a H(2)S donor, dose dependently induced HO-1 expression through the activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Pretreatment with H(2)S or NaHS significantly inhibited LPS-induced iNOS expression and NO production. Moreover, NO production in LPS-stimulated macrophages that are expressing CSE mRNA was significantly reduced by the addition of L-Cys, a substrate for H(2)S, but enhanced by the selective CSE inhibitor beta-cyano-L-alanine but not by the CBS inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid. While either blockage of HO activity by the HO inhibitor, tin protoporphyrin IX, or down-regulation of HO-1 expression by HO-1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) reversed the inhibitory effects of H(2)S on iNOS expression and NO production, HO-1 overexpression produced the same inhibitory effects of H(2)S. In addition, LPS-induced nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation was diminished in RAW264.7 macrophages preincubated with H(2)S. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of H(2)S on NF-kappaB activation was reversed by the transient transfection with HO-1 siRNA, but was mimicked by either HO-1 gene transfection or treatment with carbon monoxide (CO), an end product of HO-1. CO treatment also inhibited LPS-induced NO production and iNOS expression via its inactivation of NF-kappaB. Collectively, our results suggest that H(2)S can inhibit NO production and NF-kappaB activation in LPS-stimulated

  20. Molecular basis for the direct inhibition of AP-1 DNA binding by 15-deoxy-Delta 12,14-prostaglandin J2.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sala, Dolores; Cernuda-Morollón, Eva; Cañada, F Javier

    2003-12-19

    Cyclopentenone prostaglandins may interfere with cellular functions by multiple mechanisms. The cyclopentenone 15-deoxy-Delta 12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) has been reported to inhibit the activity of the transcription factor AP-1 in several experimental settings. We have explored the possibility of a direct interaction of 15d-PGJ2 with AP-1 proteins. Here we show that 15d-PGJ2 covalently modifies c-Jun and directly inhibits the DNA binding activity of AP-1. The modification of c-Jun occurs both in vitro and in intact cells as detected by labeling with biotinylated 15d-PGJ2 and mass spectrometry analysis. Attachment of the cyclopentenone prostaglandin occurs at cysteine 269, which is located in the c-Jun DNA binding domain. In addition, 15d-PGJ2 can promote the oligomerization of a fraction of c-Jun through the formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds or 15d-PGJ2-bonded dimers. Our results identify a novel site of interaction of 15d-PGJ2 with the AP-1 activation pathway that may contribute to the complex effects of cyclopentenone prostaglandins on the cellular response to pro-inflammatory agents. They also show the first evidence for the induction of protein cross-linking by 15d-PGJ2.

  1. Contribution of covalent protein modification to the antiinflammatory effects of cyclopentenone prostaglandins.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sala, Dolores; Cernuda-Morollón, Eva; Pineda-Molina, Estela; Cañada, F Javier

    2002-11-01

    Cyclopentenone prostaglandins, which are produced during inflammatory processes, may exert a negative feedback on inflammation. These reactive compounds may form covalent adducts with thiol groups in glutathione or in proteins. The transcription factor NF-kappaB is key for the expression of numerous proinflammatory genes. We have observed that treatment of mesangial cells with 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) inhibits the cytokine-elicited DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB, both in intact cells and in isolated nuclear extracts, thus suggesting a direct effect on DNA binding. By using a biotinylated 15d-PGJ(2) derivative, we have observed that 15d-PGJ(2) forms an adduct with the p50 subunit of NF-kappaB, as shown by Western blot and detection with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated streptavidin. In contrast, a p50 construct that bears a mutation in the cysteine residue involved in DNA binding (Cys62Ser) and is not susceptible to inhibition by 15d-PGJ(2) does not incorporate biotinylated 15d-PGJ(2). The labeling of several polypeptides after incubation of cells with biotinylated 15d-PGJ(2) suggests that there may be multiple targets for modification by 15d-PGJ(2). We propose that the covalent modification of NF-kappaB (and potentially other proteins) by 15d-PGJ(2) may contribute to the antiinflammatory effects of this prostaglandin.

  2. Baicalein Protects Against Retinal Ischemia by Antioxidation, Antiapoptosis, Downregulation of HIF-1α, VEGF, and MMP-9 and Upregulation of HO-1

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Min-Jay; Liu, Xiao-Qian; Ho, Li-Kang; Pan, Wynn H.T.; Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Liu, Chi-Ming; Tsai, Shen-Kou; Kong, Chi-Woon; Lee, Shou-Dong; Chen, Mi-Mi; Chao, Fang-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Retinal ischemia-associated ocular disorders are vision threatening. This study examined whether the flavonoid baicalein is able to protect against retinal ischemia/reperfusion. Methods Using rats, the intraocular pressure was raised to 120 mmHg for 60 min to induce retinal ischemia. In vitro, an ischemic-like insult, namely oxidative stress, was established by incubating dissociated retinal cells with 100 μM ascorbate and 5 μM FeSO4 (iron) for 1 h. The rats or the dissociated cells had been pretreated with baicalein (in vivo: 0.05 or 0.5 nmol; in vitro: 100 μM), vehicle (1% ethanol), or trolox (in vivo: 5 nmol; in vitro: 100 μM or 1 mM). The effects of these treatments on the retina or the retinal cells were evaluated by electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining, Western blotting, or in vitro dichlorofluorescein assay. In addition, real-time-polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the retinal expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Results The retinal changes after ischemia included a decrease in the electroretinogram b-wave amplitude, a loss of choline acetyltransferase immunolabeling amacrine cell bodies/neuronal processes, an increase in vimentin immunoreactivity, which is a marker for Müller cells, an increase in apoptotic cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer linked to a decrease in the Bcl-2 protein, and changes in the mRNA levels of HIF-1α, VEGF, MMP-9, and HO-1. Of clinical importance, the ischemic detrimental effects were concentration dependently and/or significantly (0.05 nmol and/or 0.5 nmol) altered when baicalein was applied 15 min before retinal ischemia. Most of all, 0.5 nmol baicalein significantly reduced the upregulation of MMP-9; in contrast, 5 nmol trolox only had a weak

  3. Quercetin Attenuates Manganese-Induced Neuroinflammation by Alleviating Oxidative Stress through Regulation of Apoptosis, iNOS/NF-κB and HO-1/Nrf2 Pathways.

    PubMed

    Bahar, Entaz; Kim, Ji-Ye; Yoon, Hyonok

    2017-09-15

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element required for the development of human body and acts as an enzyme co-factor or activator for various reactions of metabolism. While essential in trace amounts, excessive Mn exposure can result in toxic accumulations in human brain tissue and resulting extrapyramidal symptoms called manganism similar to idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Quercetin (QCT) has been demonstrated to play an important role in altering the progression of neurodegenerative diseases by protecting against oxidative stress. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of QCT on Mn-induced neurotoxicity and the underlying mechanism in SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cell line and Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rat brain. The results showed that Mn treatment significantly decreased the cell viability of SK-N-MC cell and increased the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which was attenuated by QCT pretreatment at 10 and 20 µg/mL. Compared to the Mn alone group, QCT pretreatment significantly attenuated Mn-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. Meanwhile, QCT pretreatment markedly downregulated the NF-κB but upregulated the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and Nrf2 proteins, compared to the Mn alone group. Our result showed the beneficial effect of QCT on hematological parameters against Mn in rat brain. QCT decrease reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protein carbonyl levels and increased Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity induced in Mn-treated rats. QCT administration caused a significant reduction in the Mn-induced neuroinflammation by inhibiting the expression of inflammatory markers such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). QCT lowered the Mn elevated levels of various downstream apoptotic markers, including Bax, cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-3 and polymerase-1 (PARP-1), while QCT treatment upregulated

  4. A Novel Danshensu-Tetramethylpyrazine Conjugate DT-010 Provides Cardioprotection through the PGC-1α/Nrf2/HO-1 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Hu, Huihui; Luo, Jingxiong; Deng, Huixing; Yu, Pei; Zhang, Zaijun; Zhang, Gaoxiao; Shan, Luchen; Wang, Yuqiang

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the cardioprotective mechanisms of action of DT-010, a novel danshensu-tetramethylpyrazine conjugate. DT-010 significantly preserved cell viability and suppressed cell apoptosis in H9c2 cells injured by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP), iodoacetic acid (IAA) and hypoxia-reoxygenation. In addition, DT-010 pre-treatment reduced the intracellular level of free radicals including superoxide anion (·O2(-)), hydroxyl radical (·OH) and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO(-)) after t-BHP exposure. Moreover, DT-010 up-regulated the protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) and nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) as well as mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in H9c2 cells. DT-010 also triggered Nrf2 nuclear translocation. In a rat myocardial ischemia-reperfusion model, DT-010 significantly alleviated myocardial infarction. The results indicated that DT-010 may be a promising candidate for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, particularly myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury.

  5. Paeonol and danshensu combination attenuates apoptosis in myocardial infarcted rats by inhibiting oxidative stress: Roles of Nrf2/HO-1 and PI3K/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hua; Song, Fan; Duan, Lin-Rui; Sheng, Juan-Juan; Xie, Yan-Hua; Yang, Qian; Chen, Ying; Dong, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Bang-Le; Wang, Si-Wang

    2016-01-01

    Paeonol and danshensu is the representative active ingredient of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs Cortex Moutan and Radix Salviae Milthiorrhizae, respectively. Paeonol and danshensu combination (PDSS) has putative cardioprotective effects in treating ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, the evidence for the protective effect is scarce and the pharmacological mechanisms of the combination remain unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of PDSS on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction in rats and to elucidate the potential mechanism. Assays of creatine kinase-MB, cardiac troponin I and T and histopathological analysis revealed PDSS significantly prevented myocardial injury induced by ISO. The ISO-induced profound elevation of oxidative stress was also suppressed by PDSS. TUNEL and caspase-3 activity assay showed that PDSS significantly inhibited apoptosis in myocardia. In exploring the underlying mechanisms of PDSS, we found PDSS enhanced the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 in myocardial injured rats. Furthermore, PDSS increased phosphorylated PI3K and Akt, which may in turn activate antioxidative and antiapoptotic signaling events in rat. These present findings demonstrated that PDSS exerts significant cardioprotective effects against ISO-induced myocardial infarction in rats. The protective effect is, at least partly, via activation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling and involvement of the PI3K/Akt cell survival signaling pathway. PMID:27021411

  6. Characterization of the antioxidant properties of pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN)-induction of the intrinsic antioxidative system heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1).

    PubMed

    Daiber, Andreas; Münzel, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Organic nitrates are among the oldest and yet most commonly employed drugs in the chronic therapy of coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure. While they have long been used in clinical practise, our understanding of their mechanism of action and of their side effects remains incomplete. To date, the most commonly employed nitrates are isosorbide mononitrate (ISMN), isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), and nitroglycerin (GTN). Another nitrate, pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN), has long been employed in eastern European countries and is currently being reintroduced also in western countries. So far, PETN is the only organic nitrate in clinical use, which is devoid of induction of oxidative stress and related side-effects such as endothelial dysfunction and nitrate tolerance. Some of these effects are related to special pharmacokinetics of PETN, but upon chronic administration, PETN also induces antioxidative pathways at the genomic level, resulting in increased expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and ferritin, both possessing highly protective properties. There is good experimental evidence that at least part of the beneficial profile of long-term PETN treatment is based on activation of the heme oxygenase-1/ferritin system.

  7. Grape seed proanthocyanidins protects against cadmium induced oxidative pancreatitis in rats by attenuating oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis via Nrf-2/HO-1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Nazima; Manoharan, Vaihundam; Miltonprabu, Selvaraj

    2016-06-01

    The present study has been designed and carried out to explore the role of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSP) in the pancreas of cadmium (Cd)-induced cellular oxidative stress-mediated toxicity in rats. Four groups of healthy rats were given oral doses of Cd (5-mg/kg BW) and to identify the possible mechanism of action of GSP 100-mg/kg BW was selected and was given 90 min before Cd intoxication. The causative molecular and cellular mechanism of Cd was determined using various biochemical assays, histology, western blotting and ELISA. Cd intoxication revealed increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL1β and IFN-γ), reduced levels of cellular defense proteins (Nrf-2 and HO-1) and glucose transporter (GLUT-2 and GLUT-4) along with the enhanced levels of signaling molecules of apoptosis (cleaved Caspase-12/9/8/3) in the pancreas of Cd-intoxicated rats. Results suggested that the treatment with GSP reduced blood glucose level, increased plasma insulin and mitigated oxidative stress-related markers. GSP protects pancreatic tissue by attenuated inflammatory responses and inhibited apoptosis. This uniqueness and absence of any detectable adverse effect of GSP proposes the possibility of using it as an effective protector in the oxidative stress-mediated pancreatic dysfunction in rats.

  8. Lagerstroemia speciosa L. attenuates apoptosis in isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxic mice by inhibiting oxidative stress: possible role of Nrf2/HO-1.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Kuncha, Madhusudana; Rachamalla, Shyam Sunder; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial oxidative stress leading to apoptosis and remodeling is the major consequence of ischemic heart disease. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Lagerstroemia speciosa L. leave (LS) extract containing 1 % corosolic acid in the context of cardiovascular disorder by using isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial injury mouse model. Serum was analyzed for specific cardiac injury biomarkers. Cardiac tissue was examined for lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content, antioxidant (GSH, GR, GPx, GST, SOD, CAT, NQO1, and HO-1), and apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3, Bax, Bcl-2, p53, and DNA fragmentation) status. Myocardial protein expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in different experimental groups was evaluated. Pathological changes in heart tissue and activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were also analyzed. Our results demonstrated that LS pretreatment augmented myocardial antioxidant status and attenuated myocardial oxidative stress. Myocardial apoptosis as well as MMPs activities was significantly prevented by LS pretreatment in ISO-induced mice. In addition, the immunoblot of Nrf2 revealed that LS pretreatment enhanced the nuclear protein expression of Nrf2 when compared to ISO control group. Thus, the overall results indicate that LS has cardioprotective effect and may prevent the myocardial stress by suppressing apoptosis through up-regulation of myocardial antioxidant levels.

  9. Tryptanthrin Suppresses the Activation of the LPS-Treated BV2 Microglial Cell Line via Nrf2/HO-1 Antioxidant Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Young-Won; Cheon, So Yeong; Park, Sung Yun; Song, Juhyun; Lee, Ju-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Microglia are the resident macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS) and play essential roles in neuronal homeostasis and neuroinflammatory pathologies. Recently, microglia have been shown to contribute decisively to neuropathologic processes after ischemic stroke. Furthermore, natural compounds have been reported to attenuate inflammation and pathologies associated with neuroinflammation. Tryptanthrin (indolo[2,1-b]quinazoline-6,12-dione) is a phytoalkaloid with known anti-inflammatory effects in cells. In present study, the authors confirmed middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) injury triggers the activation of microglia in brain tissue, and investigated whether tryptanthrin influences the function of mouse murine BV2 microglia under LPS-induced inflammatory conditions in vitro. It was found tryptanthrin protected BV2 microglia cells against LPS-induced inflammation and inhibited the induction of M1 phenotype microglia under inflammatory conditions. In addition, tryptanthrin reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in BV2 microglia cells via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) signaling and NF-κB signaling. The authors suggest that tryptanthrin might alleviate the progress of neuropathologies by controlling microglial functions under neuroinflammatory conditions. PMID:28210215

  10. Arctigenin Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Pulmonary Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in a Mouse Model via Suppression of MAPK, HO-1, and iNOS Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-zhou; Jiang, Zheng-kui; He, Bao-xia; Liu, Xian-ben

    2015-08-01

    Arctigenin, a bioactive component of Arctium lappa (Nubang), has anti-inflammatory activity. Here, we investigated the effects of arctigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. Mice were divided into four groups: control, LPS, LPS + DMSO, and LPS + Arctigenin. Mice in the LPS + Arctigenin group were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of arctigenin 1 h before an intratracheal administration of LPS (5 mg/kg). Lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs) were collected. Histological changes of the lung were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Arctigenin decreased LPS-induced acute lung inflammation, infiltration of inflammatory cells into BALF, and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, arctigenin pretreatment reduced the malondialdehyde level and increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and glutathione peroxidase/glutathione disulfide ratio in the lung. Mechanically, arctigenin significantly reduced the production of nitric oxygen and inducible nitric oxygen synthase (iNOS) expression, enhanced the expression of heme oxygenase-1, and decreased the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Arctigenin has anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects on LPS-induced acute lung injury, which are associated with modulation of MAPK, HO-1, and iNOS signaling.

  11. Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD[P]H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) by a phenolic antioxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and its metabolite, tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) in primary-cultured human and rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Keum, Young-Sam; Han, Yong-Hae; Liew, Celine; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Xu, Changjiang; Yuan, Xiaoling; Shakarjian, Michael P; Chong, Saeho; Kong, Ah-Ng

    2006-11-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of a phenolic antioxidant, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and its metabolite, tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) on the induction of HO-1, NQO1 and Nrf2 proteins and their regulatory mechanisms in primary-cultured hepatocytes. After exposure of BHA and tBHQ to primary-cultured rat and human hepatocytes and mouse neonatal fibroblasts (MFs), Western blot, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and microarray analysis were conducted. Induction of HO-1, NQO1 and Nrf2 proteins and activation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 were observed after BHA and tBHQ treatments in primary-cultured rat and human hepatocytes. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR study and microarray analysis revealed that HO-1 and NQO1 were transcriptionally activated in primary-cultured rat hepatocytes and a substantial transcriptional activation, including HO-1 occurred in primary-cultured human hepatocytes after BHA treatment. Whereas BHA failed to induce HO-1 in wild-type and Nrf2 knock-out MFs, tBHQ strongly induced HO-1 in wild-type, but not in Nrf2 knock-out MFs. Our data demonstrate that both BHA and tBHQ are strong chemical inducers of HO-1, NQO1 and Nrf2 proteins in primary-cultured human and rat hepatocytes with the activation of MAPK ERK1/2 and JNK1/2. However, in MFs, BHA failed to induce HO-1, whereas tBHQ strongly induced HO-1 in Nrf2 wild-type but not in Nrf2 knock-out, suggesting that Nrf2 is indispensable for tBHQ-induced HO-1 in MF.

  12. 15-Deoxy-Delta 12,14-prostaglandin J2 inhibition of NF-kappaB-DNA binding through covalent modification of the p50 subunit.

    PubMed

    Cernuda-Morollón, E; Pineda-Molina, E; Cañada, F J; Pérez-Sala, D

    2001-09-21

    Cyclopentenone prostaglandins display anti-inflammatory activities and interfere with the signaling pathway that leads to activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB. Here we explore the possibility that the NF-kappaB subunit p50 may be a target for the cyclopentenone 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)). This prostaglandin inhibited the DNA binding ability of recombinant p50 in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition required the cyclopentenone moiety and could be prevented but not reverted by glutathione and dithiothreitol. Moreover, a p50 mutant with a C62S mutation was resistant to inhibition, indicating that the effect of 15d-PGJ(2) was probably due to its interaction with cysteine 62 in p50. The covalent modification of p50 by 15d-PGJ(2) was demonstrated by reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis that showed an increase in retention time and in the molecular mass of 15d-PGJ(2)-treated p50, respectively. The interaction between p50 and 15d-PGJ(2) was relevant in intact cells. 15d-PGJ(2) effectively inhibited cytokine-elicited NF-kappaB activity in HeLa without reducing IkappaBalpha degradation or nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB subunits. 15d-PGJ(2) reduced NF-kappaB DNA binding activity in isolated nuclear extracts, suggesting a direct effect on NF-kappaB proteins. Finally, treatment of HeLa with biotinylated-15d-PGJ(2) resulted in the formation of a 15d-PGJ(2)-p50 adduct as demonstrated by neutravidin binding and immunoprecipitation. These results clearly show that p50 is a target for covalent modification by 15d-PGJ(2) that results in inhibition of DNA binding.

  13. Forsythiae Fructus Inhibits B16 Melanoma Growth Involving MAPKs/Nrf2/HO-1 Mediated Anti-Oxidation and Anti-Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jiaolin; Ding, Renbo; Zou, Lidi; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Kai; Liu, Fang; Li, Peng; Chen, Meiwan; Wan, Jian-Bo; Su, Huanxing; Wang, Yitao; He, Chengwei

    2016-01-01

    Forsythiae Fructus, the fruits of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, Lianqiao in Chinese, is one of the most fundamental herbs in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It is a typical heat-clearing and detoxicating herb, according to TCM theory. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of Forsythiae Fructus aqueous extract (FAE) on B16-F10 melanoma cells in vivo. The transplanted B16-F10 melanoma in C57BL/6 mice was established and used for the evaluation of the in vivo antitumor effect of FAE. FAE strongly inhibited the growth of B16-F10 cells in vitro and the tumor in vivo. The survival time of tumor-bearing mice was significantly prolonged by FAE. FAE inhibited cancer cell proliferation and angiogenesis in the tumor, as indicated by the decreased expressions of Ki67 and CD31. The levels of ROS, MDA, TNF-[Formula: see text] and IL-6 decreased, while GSH increased in the FAE treatment group, indicating FAE possesses strong anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. The expression of anti-oxidant proteins Nrf-2 and HO-1, tumor suppressors P53 and p-PTEN, and the MAPK pathways in tumor tissues were upregulated by FAE treatment. These data demonstrated that FAE exhibited strong antitumor activity against B16-F10 murine melanoma both in vitro and in vivo. The antitumor effect of FAE involved decreases in oxidative stress and inflammation in the tumor, which is closely related to the heat-clearing and detoxicating properties of FAE.

  14. Beneficial effects of Camellia Oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.) on ketoprofen-induced gastrointestinal mucosal damage through upregulation of HO-1 and VEGF.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Ting; Wu, Shu-Li; Ho, Cheng-Ying; Huang, Shang-Ming; Cheng, Chun-Lung; Yen, Gow-Chin

    2014-01-22

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ketoprofen, are generally used to treat pain and inflammation and as pyretic agents in clinical medicine. However, the usage of these drugs may lead to oxidative injury to the gastrointestinal mucosa. Camellia oil ( Camellia oleifera Abel.) is commonly used in Taiwan and China as cooking oil. Traditional remedies containing this oil exert beneficial health effects on the bowel, stomach, liver, and lungs. However, the effects of camellia oil on ketoprofen-induced oxidative gastrointestinal mucosal lesions remain unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of camellia oil on ketoprofen-induced acute gastrointestinal ulcers. The results showed that treatment of Int-407 cells with camellia oil (50-75 μg/mL) not only increased the levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mRNA expression but also increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) protein secretion, which served as a mucosal barrier against gastrointestinal oxidative injury. Moreover, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats treated with camellia oil (2 mL/kg/day) prior to the administration of ketoprofen (50 mg/kg/day) successfully inhibited COX-2 protein expression, inhibited the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and nitrite oxide (NO), reversed the impairment of the antioxidant system, and decreased oxidative damage in the gastrointestinal mucosa. More importantly, pretreatment of SD rats with camellia oil strongly inhibited gastrointestinal mucosal injury induced by ketoprofen, which was proved by the histopathological staining of gastrointestinal tissues. Our data suggest that camellia oil exerts potent antiulcer effects against oxidative damage in the stomach and intestine induced by ketoprofen.

  15. The apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide, D-4F, alleviates ox-LDL-induced oxidative stress and promotes endothelial repair through the eNOS/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Donghui; Ding, Zhenzhen; Wu, Mengzhang; Xu, Wenqi; Qian, Mingming; Du, Qian; Zhang, Le; Cui, Ye; Zheng, Jianlan; Chang, He; Huang, Caihua; Lin, Donghai; Wang, Yan

    2017-04-01

    Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) mimetic peptide exerts many anti-atherogenic properties. However, the underlying mechanisms related to the endothelial protective effects remain elusive. In this study, the apoA-I mimetic peptide, D-4F, was used. Proliferation assay, wound healing, and transwell migration experiments showed that D-4F improved the impaired endothelial proliferation and migration resulting from ox-LDL. Endothelial adhesion molecules expression and monocyte adhesion assay demonstrated that D-4F inhibited endothelial inflammation. Caspase-3 activation and TUNEL stain indicated that D-4F reduced endothelial cell apoptosis. A pivotal anti-oxidant enzyme, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was upregulated by D-4F. The Akt/AMPK/eNOS pathways were involved in the expression of HO-1 induced by D-4F. Moreover, the anti-oxidation, pro-proliferation, and pro-migration capacities of D-4F were diminished by the inhibitors of both eNOS (L-NAME) and HO-1 (Znpp). Additionally, downregulation of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) by siRNA abolished the activation of Akt, AMPK and eNOS, and reduced the upregulation of HO-1 triggered by D-4F. Furthermore, D-4F promoted the reendothelialization of injured intima in carotid artery injury model of C57BL/6J mice in vivo. In summary, these findings suggested that D-4F might be a powerful candidate in the protection of endothelial cells and the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. 20C, a bibenzyl compound isolated from Gastrodia elata, protects PC12 cells against rotenone-induced apoptosis via activation of the Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ju-Yang; Yuan, Yu-He; Yan, Jia-Qing; Wang, Ya-Nan; Chu, Shi-Feng; Zhu, Cheng-Gen; Guo, Qing-Lan; Shi, Jian-Gong; Chen, Nai-Hong

    2016-06-01

    Our preliminary study shows that a bibenzyl compound isolated from Gastrodia elata, 2-[4-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)benzyl]-4-(4-hydroxybenzyl)phenol (designated 20C), protects PC12 cells against H2O2-induced injury. In this study we investigated whether 20C exerted neuroprotective action in a cell model of Parkinson's disease. A cell model of Parkinson's disease was established in PC12 cells by exposure to rotenone (4 μmol/L) for 48 h. Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed, and intracellular ROS level and the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were detected. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-3, and oxidative stress-related proteins Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1 were examined using Western blotting. The mRNA levels of HO-1 and NQO1 were determined with RT-PCR. The nuclear translocation of Nrf2 was observed with immunofluorescence staining. Treatment with rotenone significantly increased the number of apoptotic cells, accompanied by marked increases in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. Rotenone also increased ROS accumulation, reduced MMP, and increased the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 as well as the mRNA and protein levels of the Nrf2 downstream target genes HO-1 and NQO1 in PC12 cells. Co-treatment with 20C (0.01-1 μmol/L) dose-dependently attenuated rotenone-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in PC12 cells. Nrf2 knockdown by siRNA partially reversed the protective effects of 20C in rotenone-treated PC12 cells. The bibenzyl compound 20C protects PC12 cells from rotenone-induced apoptosis, at least in part, via activation of the Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 signaling pathway.

  17. 20C, a bibenzyl compound isolated from Gastrodia elata, protects PC12 cells against rotenone-induced apoptosis via activation of the Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ju-yang; Yuan, Yu-he; Yan, Jia-qing; Wang, Ya-nan; Chu, Shi-feng; Zhu, Cheng-gen; Guo, Qing-lan; Shi, Jian-gong; Chen, Nai-hong

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Our preliminary study shows that a bibenzyl compound isolated from Gastrodia elata, 2-[4-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)benzyl]-4-(4-hydroxybenzyl)phenol (designated 20C), protects PC12 cells against H2O2-induced injury. In this study we investigated whether 20C exerted neuroprotective action in a cell model of Parkinson's disease. Methods: A cell model of Parkinson's disease was established in PC12 cells by exposure to rotenone (4 μmol/L) for 48 h. Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed, and intracellular ROS level and the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were detected. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome c, cleaved caspase-3, and oxidative stress-related proteins Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1 were examined using Western blotting. The mRNA levels of HO-1 and NQO1 were determined with RT-PCR. The nuclear translocation of Nrf2 was observed with immunofluorescence staining. Results: Treatment with rotenone significantly increased the number of apoptotic cells, accompanied by marked increases in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. Rotenone also increased ROS accumulation, reduced MMP, and increased the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 as well as the mRNA and protein levels of the Nrf2 downstream target genes HO-1 and NQO1 in PC12 cells. Co-treatment with 20C (0.01–1 μmol/L) dose-dependently attenuated rotenone-induced apoptosis and oxidative stress in PC12 cells. Nrf2 knockdown by siRNA partially reversed the protective effects of 20C in rotenone-treated PC12 cells. Conclusion: The bibenzyl compound 20C protects PC12 cells from rotenone-induced apoptosis, at least in part, via activation of the Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 signaling pathway. PMID:27180985

  18. Combination of quercetin, cinnamaldehyde and hirudin protects rat dorsal root ganglion neurons against high glucose-induced injury through Nrf-2/HO-1 activation and NF-κB inhibition.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yue; Liang, Xiao-Chun; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Qing; Wu, Qun-Li; Qu, Ling

    2017-09-01

    To examine the effects of the combination of quercetin (Q), cinnamaldehyde (C) and hirudin (H), a Chinese medicine formula on high glucose (HG)-induced apoptosis of cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. DRG neurons exposed to HG (45 mmol/L) for 24 h were employed as an in vitro model of diabetic neuropathy. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and apoptosis were determined. The expression of nuclear factor of Kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitory kappa Bα(IκBα), phosphorylated IκBα and Nf-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) were examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot assay. The expression of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and caspase-3 were also examined by RT-PCR and Western blot assay. HG treatment markedly increased DRG neuron apoptosis via increasing intracellular ROS level and activating the NF-κB signaling pathway (P<0.05). Co-treatment with Q, C, H and their combination decreased HG-induced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The expressions of NF-κB, IL-6 and TNF-α were down-regulated, and Nrf2/HO-1 expression was up-regulated (P<0.05 or P<0.01). QCH has better effect in scavenging ROS, activating Nrf-2/HO-1, and down-regulating the NF-κB pathway than other treatment group. DRG neurons' apoptosis was increased in diabetic conditions, which was reduced by QCH formula treatment. The possible reason could be activating Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway, scavenging ROS, and inhibition of NF-κB activation. The effect of QCH combination was better than each monomer or the combination of the two monomers.

  19. 4-Ketopinoresinol, a novel naturally occurring ARE activator, induces the Nrf2/HO-1 axis and protects against oxidative stress-induced cell injury via activation of PI3K/AKT signaling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huang-Hui; Chen, Yu-Tsen; Huang, Yen-Wen; Tsai, Hui-Ju; Kuo, Ching-Chuan

    2012-03-15

    The Nrf2/ARE pathway plays an important role in inducing phase II detoxifying enzymes and antioxidant proteins and has been considered a potential target for cancer chemoprevention because it eliminates harmful reactive oxygen species or reactive intermediates generated from carcinogens. The objectives of this study were to identify novel Nrf2/ARE activators and to investigate the mechanistic signaling pathway involved in the activation of Nrf2-mediated cytoprotective effects against oxidative-induced cell injury. A stable ARE-driven luciferase reporter cell line was established to screen a potentially cytoprotective compound. 4-Ketopinoresinol (4-KPR), the (α-γ) double-cyclized type of lignan obtained from adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf), activates ARE-driven luciferase activity more effectively than the classical ARE activator tert-butylhydroquinone. 4-KPR treatment resulted in a transient increase in AKT phosphorylation and subsequent phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2, along with increased expression of ARE-dependent cytoprotective genes, such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), aldo-keto reductases, and glutathione synthetic enzyme. 4-KPR suppresses oxidative stress-induced DNA damage and cell death via upregulation of HO-1. Inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling by chemical inhibitors or RNA interference not only suppressed 4-KPR-induced Nrf2/HO-1 activation, but also eliminated the cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage. These observations in an ARE-regulated gene system suggest that 4-KPR is a novel Nrf2/ARE-mediated transcription activator, activates the Nrf2/HO-1 axis, and protects against oxidative stress-induced cell injury via activation of PI3K/AKT signaling.

  20. Electrophilic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands have potent antifibrotic effects in human lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Heather E; Kulkarni, Ajit; Lehmann, Geniece M; Garcia-Bates, Tatiana M; Thatcher, Thomas H; Huxlin, Krystel R; Phipps, Richard P; Sime, Patricia J

    2009-12-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive scarring disease with no effective treatment. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta is up-regulated in fibrotic diseases, where it stimulates differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and production of excess extracellular matrix. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma is a transcription factor that regulates adipogenesis, insulin sensitization, and inflammation. We report here that a novel PPARgamma ligand, 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO), is a potent inhibitor of TGF-beta-stimulated differentiation of human lung fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, and suppresses up-regulation of alpha-smooth muscle actin, fibronectin, collagen, and the novel myofibroblast marker, calponin. The inhibitory concentration causing a 50% decrease in aSMA for CDDO was 20-fold lower than the endogenous PPARgamma ligand, 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15 d-PGJ(2)), and 400-fold lower than the synthetic ligand, rosiglitazone. Pharmacologic and genetic approaches were used to demonstrate that CDDO mediates its activity via a PPARgamma-independent pathway. CDDO and 15 d-PGJ(2) contain an alpha/beta unsaturated ketone, which acts as an electrophilic center that can form covalent bonds with cellular proteins. Prostaglandin A(1) and diphenyl diselenide, both strong electrophiles, also inhibit myofibroblast differentiation, but a structural analog of 15 d-PGJ(2) lacking the electrophilic center is much less potent. CDDO does not alter TGF-beta-induced Smad or AP-1 signaling, but does inhibit acetylation of CREB binding protein/p300, a critical coactivator in the transcriptional regulation of TGF-beta-responsive genes. Overall, these data indicate that certain PPARgamma ligands, and other small molecules with electrophilic centers, are potent inhibitors of critical TGF-beta-mediated profibrogenic activities through pathways independent of PPARgamma. As the inhibitory concentration causing a 50% decrease in a

  1. Acute toxicity of a commercial glyphosate formulation on European sea bass juveniles (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): gene expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (ho-1), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and aromatases (cyp19a and cyp19b).

    PubMed

    Prevot-D'Alvise, N; Richard, S; Coupé, S; Bunet, R; Grillasca, J P

    2013-12-31

    Acute toxicity of Roundup, a commercial glyphosate--based herbicide, was evaluated in a teleost marine fish, the European sea bass, after 96 h of exposure. The LC50 96-h value of Roundup was 529 mg/L. Juveniles (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) were exposed to a sublethal concentration (35% of the LC50, i.e. 193 mg/L) of Roundup for 96-h. The study of heme oxygenase-1 (ho-1) gene expression was performed in four tissues (liver, gills, brain and gonads) and highlighted the disruption of antioxidant defence system. Results showed that ho-1 mRNA levels in liver and gills significantly decreased (p<0.001 and p<0.01 respectively) in fish exposed to 193 mg/L of Roundup, whereas in brain and gonads, ho-1 mRNA level was not altered. The analysis of acetylcholinesterase expression was used to evaluate the overall neurotoxicity of the herbicide and aromatase genes to assess the alteration of the endocrine system. Results showed that AChE and cyp19b gene transcriptions significantly increased (p<0.01) in brain of sea bass, whereas aromatase gene expression (cyp19a) in gonads was not significantly altered. Our results showed complex tissue-specific transcriptional responses after 96 h of exposure to a sublethal concentration. All these disruptions confirmed the deleterious effects of this glyphosate-based herbicide in a marine species.

  2. Anti-Fibrotic Effect of Losartan, an Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker, Is Mediated through Inhibition of ER Stress via Up-Regulation of SIRT1, Followed by Induction of HO-1 and Thioredoxin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyosang; Baek, Chung Hee; Lee, Raymond Bok; Chang, Jai Won; Yang, Won Seok; Lee, Sang Koo

    2017-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is increasingly identified as modulator of fibrosis. Losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, has been widely used as the first choice of treatment in chronic renal diseases. We postulated that anti-fibrotic effect of losartan is mediated through inhibition of ER stress via SIRT1 (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1) hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1)/thioredoxin pathway. Renal tubular cells, tunicamycin (TM)-induced ER stress, and unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mouse model were used. Expression of ER stress was assessed by Western blot analysis and immunohistochemical stain. ER stress was induced by chemical ER stress inducer, tunicamycin, and non-chemical inducers such as TGF-β, angiotensin II, high glucose, and albumin. Losartan suppressed the TM-induced ER stress, as shown by inhibition of TM-induced expression of GRP78 (glucose related protein 78) and p-eIF2α (phosphospecific-eukaryotic translation initiation factor-2α), through up-regulation of SIRT1 via HO-1 and thioredoxin. Losartan also suppressed the ER stress by non-chemical inducers. In both animal models, losartan reduced the tubular expression of GRP78, which were abolished by pretreatment with sirtinol (SIRT1 inhibitor). Sirtinol also blocked the inhibitory effect of losartan on the UUO-induced renal fibrosis. These findings provide new insights into renoprotective effects of losartan and suggest that SIRT1, HO-1, and thioredoxin may be potential pharmacological targets in kidney diseases under excessive ER stress condition. PMID:28146117

  3. The effect of moderate-intensity exercise on the expression of HO-1 mRNA and activity of HO in cardiac and vascular smooth muscle of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Ren, Cailing; Qi, Jie; Li, Wanwei; Zhang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the effects of moderate-intensity training on the activity of heme oxygenase (HO) and expression of HO-1 mRNA in the aorta and the cardiac muscle of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). After 9 weeks of swimming exercise, the activity of HO and expression of HO-1 mRNA in the SHRs were measured. The resting blood pressure in the exercise group was increased by 1.7% (P > 0.05), whereas it was significantly elevated by 10.3% (P < 0.01) in the SHR rats. Compared with animals in the control and sedentary groups, the expression level of HO-1 mRNA of aorta and cardiac muscle in the exercise group was significantly enhanced (P < 0.01). The HO activity and the content of plasma carbon monoxide (CO) in the sedentary group were dramatically decreased (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) compared with the control group. HO activity and content of plasma CO in the exercise group were significantly higher compared with those in the sedentary group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). The HO/CO metabolic pathway might be involved in the regulation of blood pressure of the SHR models.

  4. Protein thiol modification by 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 addition in mesangial cells: role in the inhibition of pro-inflammatory genes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gómez, Francisco J; Cernuda-Morollón, Eva; Stamatakis, Konstantinos; Pérez-Sala, Dolores

    2004-11-01

    The cyclopentenone prostaglandin and PPARgamma agonist 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) displays anti-inflammatory effects in several experimental models. Direct modification of protein thiols is arising as an important mechanism of cyclopentenone prostaglandin action. However, little is known about the extent or specificity of this process. Mesangial cells (MC) play a key role in glomerulonephritis. In this work, we have studied the selectivity of protein modification by 15d-PGJ(2) in MC, and the correlation with the modulation of several proinflammatory genes. MC incubation with biotinylated 15d-PGJ(2) results in the labeling of a distinct set of proteins as evidenced by two-dimensional electrophoresis. 15d-PGJ(2) binds to nuclear and cytosolic targets as detected by fluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation. The pattern of biotinylated 15d-PGJ(2)-modified polypeptides is readily distinguishable from that of total protein staining or labeling with biotinylated iodoacetamide. 15d-PGJ(2) addition requires the double bond in the cyclopentane ring. 9,10-Dihydro-15d-PGJ(2), a 15d-PGJ(2) analog that shows the same potency as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonist in MC but lacks the cyclopentenone moiety, displays reduced ability to modify proteins and to block 15d-PGJ(2) binding. Micromolar concentrations of 15d-PGJ(2) inhibit cytokine-elicited levels of inducible nitricoxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in MC. In contrast, 9,10-dihydro-15d-PGJ(2) does not reproduce this inhibition. 15d-PGJ(2) effect is not blocked by the PPARgamma antagonist 2-chloro-5-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide (GW9662). Moreover, compounds possessing an alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl group, like 2-cyclopenten-1-one and 2-cyclohexen-1-one, reduce pro-inflammatory gene expression. These observations indicate that covalent modification of cellular thiols by 15d-PGJ(2) is a selective process that plays an important

  5. PPAR-γ ligands repress TGFβ-induced myofibroblast differentiation by targeting the PI3K/Akt pathway: implications for therapy of fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Ajit A; Thatcher, Thomas H; Olsen, Keith C; Maggirwar, Sanjay B; Phipps, Richard P; Sime, Patricia J

    2011-01-06

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) induced differentiation of human lung fibroblasts to myofibroblasts is a key event in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Although the typical TGFβ signaling pathway involves the Smad family of transcription factors, we have previously reported that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) ligands inhibit TGFβ-mediated differentiation of human lung fibroblasts to myofibroblasts via a Smad-independent pathway. TGFβ also activates the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathway leading to phosphorylation of Akt(S473). Here, we report that PPAR-γ ligands, 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO) and 15-deoxy-(12,14)-15d-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), inhibit human myofibroblast differentiation of normal and idiopathic pulmonary fibrotic (IPF) fibroblasts, by blocking Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 by a PPAR-γ-independent mechanism. The PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and a dominant-negative inactive kinase-domain mutant of Akt both inhibited TGFβ-stimulated myofibroblast differentiation, as determined by Western blotting for α-smooth muscle actin and calponin. Prostaglandin A(1) (PGA(1)), a structural analogue of 15d-PGJ(2) with an electrophilic center, also reduced TGFβ-driven phosphorylation of Akt, while CAY10410, another analogue that lacks an electrophilic center, did not; implying that the activity of 15d-PGJ(2) and CDDO is dependent on their electrophilic properties. PPAR-γ ligands inhibited TGFβ-induced Akt phosphorylation via both post-translational and post-transcriptional mechanisms. This inhibition is independent of MAPK-p38 and PTEN but is dependent on TGFβ-induced phosphorylation of FAK, a kinase that acts upstream of Akt. Thus, PPAR-γ ligands inhibit TGFβ signaling by affecting two pro-survival pathways that culminate in myofibroblast differentiation. Further studies of PPAR-γ ligands and small electrophilic molecules may lead to a new generation of anti

  6. Estradiol Stimulates Capillary Formation by Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells: Role of ER-α/β, Heme Oxygenase-1 and Tyrosine Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Baruscotti, Isabella; Barchiesi, Federica; Jackson, Edwin K; Imthurn, Bruno; Stiller, Ruth; Kim, Jai-Hyun; Schaufelberger, Sara; Rosselli, Marinella; Hughes, Christopher CW; Dubey, Raghvendra K.

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) repair damaged endothelium and promote capillary formation, processes involving receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Because estradiol augments vascular repair, we hypothesize that estradiol increases EPC proliferation and capillary formation via RTK activation and induction of HO-1. Physiological concentrations of estradiol (10nmol/L) increased EPC-induced capillarysprout and lumenformation in matrigel/fibrin/collagensystems. Propyl-pyrazole-triol [PPT; 100nmol/L; estrogen receptor (ER)-α agonist], but not by diarylpropionitrile (ER-β agonist), mimicked the stimulatory effects of estradiol on capillary formation, and methyl-piperidino-pyrazole (ER-α antagonist) abolished the effects of estradiol and PPT. Three different RTK activators [vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor and stromal derived growth factor-1] mimicked the capillary-stimulating effects of estradiol and PPT. SU5416 (RTK inhibitor)blocked the stimulatory effects of estradiol and PPT on capillary formation. Estradiol increased HO-1 expressionby 2–3 fold, an effect blocked by SU5416, and PPT mimicked the effects of estradiol on HO-1. The ability of estradiol to enhance capillary formation, increaseexpressionof HO-1, and augment phosphorylation ofERK1/2, Akt, and VEGF receptor-2 were mimicked by its cell-impermeable analog BSA-estradiol. Actinomycin (transcription inhibitor) did not alter the effects of estradiol on RTK activity or VEGF secretion. We conclude that estradiol via ER-α promotes EPC-mediated capillary formation by a mechanism that involves non-genomic activation of RTKs and HO-1 activation. Estradiol in particular and ER-αagonists in general may promote healing of injured vascular beds by promoting EPC activity leading to more rapid endothelial recovery and capillary formation following injury. PMID:20644008

  7. 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 Induces Apoptosis and Upregulates SOCS3 in Human Thyroid Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Trindade-da-Silva, Carlos Antônio; Reis, Carolina Fernandes; Vecchi, Lara; Napimoga, Marcelo Henrique; Sperandio, Marcelo; Matias Colombo, Bruna França; Alves, Patrícia Terra; Ward, Laura Sterian; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos; Goulart, Luiz Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The cyclopentenone prostaglandin 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) is a natural ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) and a potential mediator of apoptosis in cancer cells. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of 15d-PGJ2 in human thyroid papillary carcinoma cells (TPC-1) using different doses of 15d-PGJ2 (0.6 to 20 μM) to determine IC50 (9.3 μM) via the MTT assay. The supernatant culture medium of the TPC-1 cells that was treated either with 15d-PGJ2 or with vehicle (control) for 24 hours was assessed for IL-6 secretion via CBA assay. RT-qPCR was used to evaluate mRNA expression of IL-6, SOCS1, SOCS3, and STAT3. TPC-1 cells treated with 15d-PGJ2 decreased the secretion and expression of IL-6 and STAT3, while it increased SOCS1 and SOCS3. Overall, we demonstrated that 15d-PGJ2 downregulated IL-6 signaling pathway and led TPC-1 cells into apoptosis. In conclusion, 15d-PGJ2 shows the potential to become a new therapeutic approach for thyroid tumors. PMID:27190500

  8. Biosynthesis of 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 and the ligation of PPARγ

    PubMed Central

    Bell-Parikh, L. Chastine; Ide, Tomomi; Lawson, John A.; McNamara, Peter; Reilly, Muredach; FitzGerald, Garret A.

    2003-01-01

    15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2) has been identified as an endogenous ligand for PPARγ, inducing adipogenesis in vitro. Additional roles for this molecule in the propagation and resolution of inflammation, ligation of NF-κB, and mediation of apoptosis have been proposed. However, quantitative, physiochemical evidence for the formation of 15d-PGJ2 in vivo is lacking. We report that 15d-PGJ2 is detectable using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry–mass spectrometry at low picomolar concentrations in the medium of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. However, despite induction of COX-2, production of PGs, including 15d-PGJ2, does not increase during adipocyte differentiation, a process unaltered by COX inhibition. 15d-PGJ2 is detectable as a minor product of COX-2 in human urine. However, its biosynthesis is unaltered during or after COX activation in vivo by LPS. Furthermore, the biosynthesis of 15d-PGJ2 is not augmented in the joint fluid of patients with arthritis, nor is its urinary excretion increased in patients with diabetes or obesity. 15d-PGJ2 is not the endogenous mediator of PPARγ-dependent adipocyte activation and is unaltered in clinical settings in which PPARγ activation has been implicated. PMID:12975479

  9. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligand, 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2, reduces neutrophil migration via a nitric oxide pathway.

    PubMed

    Napimoga, Marcelo H; Vieira, Silvio M; Dal-Secco, Daniela; Freitas, Andressa; Souto, Fabrício O; Mestriner, Fabiola L; Alves-Filho, José C; Grespan, Renata; Kawai, Toshihisa; Ferreira, Sérgio H; Cunha, Fernando Q

    2008-01-01

    Ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma), such as 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) have been implicated as a new class of anti-inflammatory compounds with possible clinical applications. Based on this concept, this investigation was designed to determine the effect of 15d-PGJ2-mediated activation of PPAR-gamma ligand on neutrophil migration after an inflammatory stimulus and clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms using a mouse model of peritonitis. Our results demonstrated that 15d-PGJ2 administration decreases leukocyte rolling and adhesion to the inflamed mesenteric tissues by a mechanism dependent on NO. Specifically, pharmacological inhibitors of NO synthase remarkably abrogated the 15d-PGJ2-mediated suppression of neutrophil migration to the inflammatory site. Moreover, inducible NOS-/- mice were not susceptible to 15d-PGJ2-mediated suppression of neutrophil migration to the inflammatory sites when compared with their wild type. In addition, 15d-PGJ2-mediated suppression of neutrophil migration appeared to be independent of the production of cytokines and chemokines, since their production were not significantly affected in the carrageenan-injected peritoneal cavities. Finally, up-regulation of carrageenan-triggered ICAM-1 expression in the mesenteric microcirculation vessels was abrogated by pretreatment of wild-type mice with 15d-PGJ2, whereas 15d-PGJ2 inhibited F-actin rearrangement process in neutrophils. Taken together these findings demonstrated that 15d-PGJ2 suppresses inflammation-initiated neutrophil migration in a mechanism dependent on NO production in mesenteric tissues.

  10. 15-deoxy-?(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 as a potential TRPV1-dependent atopic dermatitis enhancer.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Takahiro; Takahashi, Katsuhiko; Matsubara, Yui; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Mori, Yasuo; Uchida, Koji

    2014-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a recurrent chronic inflammatory skin condition characterized by a complex pathogenesis, including skin barrier dysfunctions, allergy/immunology, and pruritus.In AD lesions, mast cells migrate into the epidermis, and exert their biological effects by releasing paracrine mediators. TRPV1, a non-selective cation channel widely expressed in skin tissues, has been shown to contribute to the development of diverse dermatoses and pruritus. In the present study, we identified a TRPV1 agonist as a neuritogenic enhancer produced from mast cells and characterized a possible molecular mechanism for the TRPV1-dependent neuritogenesis in AD. Based on the hypothesis that activated mast cells produce a TRPV1-dependent neuritogenic enhancer,we screened a number of inflammatory mediators for the neuritogenic-promoting activityand identified a PGD2 metabolite, 15-deoxy-?(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), as a potential neuritogenic enhancer derived from mast cells. 15d-PGJ2 significantly enhanced the nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neuritogenesis in PC12 cells, and its enhancing potency was attributed to the electrophilic center of 15d-PGJ2. 15d-PGJ2 indeed activated TRPV1, leading to a significant increase in the intracellular Ca(2) level. In addition, the treatment of PC12 cells with biotinylated 15d-PGJ2 resulted in the formation of a 15d-PGJ2-TRPV1 adduct, indicating that 15d-PGJ2 directly modified the TRPV1 in the cells. Furthermore, 15d-PGJ2 facilitated the NGF-dependent signal transductions including ERK and JNK pathways in a Ca(2 ?)-dependent manner. These findings suggest that 15d-PGJ2 enhances NGF signaling via TRPV1-dependent Ca(2) influx, thereby acting as a potential neuritogenic enhancer in AD. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Morin exerts cytoprotective effects against oxidative stress in C2C12 myoblasts via the upregulation of Nrf2-dependent HO-1 expression and the activation of the ERK pathway.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moon Hee; Han, Min Ho; Lee, Dae-Sung; Park, Cheol; Hong, Su-Hyun; Kim, Gi-Young; Hong, Sang Hoon; Song, Kyoung Seob; Choi, Il-Whan; Cha, Hee-Jae; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated the cytoprotective efficacy of morin, a natural flavonoid, against oxidative stress and elucidated the underlying mechanisms in C2C12 myoblasts. Our results indicated that morin treatment prior to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) exposure significantly increased cell viability and prevented the generation of reactive oxygen species. H2O2-induced comet-like DNA formation and γH2AX phosphorylation were also markedly suppressed by morin with a parallel inhibition of apoptosis in C2C12 myoblasts, suggesting that morin prevented H2O2-induced cellular DNA damage. Furthermore, morin markedly enhanced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) associated with the induction and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the inhibition of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) expression. Notably, these events were eliminated by transient transfection with Nrf2‑specific small interfering RNA. Additional experiments demonstrated that the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway by morin was mediated by the extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) signaling cascade. This phenomenon was confirmed with suppressed Nrf2 phosphorylation and consequently diminished HO-1 expression in cells treated with a pharmacological inhibitor of ERK. Collectively, these results demonstrated that morin augments the cellular antioxidant defense capacity through the activation of Nrf2/HO‑1 signaling, which involves the activation of the ERK pathway, thereby protecting C2C12 myoblasts from H2O2-induced oxidative cytotoxicity.

  12. Resveratrol pretreatment attenuates injury and promotes proliferation of neural stem cells following oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation by upregulating the expression of Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1 in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Changbo; Cheng, Wei; Yu, Pingping; Wang, Li; Zhou, Lulin; Zeng, Li; Yang, Qin

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the use of drugs and other methods for protecting implanted neural stem cells (NSCs) from the adverse environment of injured tissue for successful cell therapy. Resveratrol can modify cardiac stem cells to enhance their survival and differentiation, however, its effect and the mechanism underlying its neuroprotective effect on NSCs following stroke remain to be fully elucidated. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) signaling is important in antioxidative stress, and the role of Nrf-2 signaling in the enhanced neuroprotection of NSCs by resveratrol following stroke also remains to be elucidated. In the present study, NSCs were pretreated with resveratrol prior to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) in vitro. The survival, apoptosis and proliferation of the NSCs were assessed using an MTT assay, Hoechst 33258 staining of nuclei and flow cytometry, respectively. In addition, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), level of malondiadehyde (MDA) and content of glutathione (GSH) were determined. The protein expressions levels of Nrf-2, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1), and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) were detected using western blot analysis. It was found that resveratrol markedly enhanced NSC survival and proliferation, decreased apoptosis and the levels of MDA, and increased the activity of SOD and content of GSH in a concentration-dependent manner following OGD/R injury in vitro. In addition, the protein expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1 were significantly upregulated. These findings suggested that resveratrol attenuated injury and promoted proliferation of the NSCs, at least in part, by upregulating the expression of Nrf2, HO-1 and NQO1 following OGD/R injury in vitro. PMID:27573874

  13. Identification of a Potent Apoptotic Peptide Produced by Fibroblasts; Studies Towards the Design of a Novel Agent for Breast Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-05

    M., and Evans, R. M. (1995). 15-Deoxy-delta 12, 14-prostaglandin J2 is a ligand for the adipocyte determination factor PPAR gamma . Cell 83, 803-12...from apoptosis. This suggests that 15d-PGJ2 inhibits the production but not the activity of the apoptotic peptide. 15d-PGJ2 is a potent agonist for...on cellular proteins [20]. Therefore, we tested whether or not CAY10410, a 15d-PGJ2 analog that is a PPARγ agonist but cannot form adducts with

  14. Increased generation of cyclopentenone prostaglandins after brain ischemia and their role in aggregation of ubiquitinated proteins in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hao; Li, Wenjin; Ahmad, Muzamil; Rose, Marie E.; Miller, Tricia M.; Yu, Mei; Chen, Jie; Pascoe, Jordan L.; Poloyac, Samuel M.; Hickey, Robert W.; Graham, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    The cyclopentenone prostaglandin (CyPG) J2 series, including prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2), Δ12-PGJ2 and 15-deoxy-Δ12, 14 -prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), are active metabolites of PGD2, exerting multiple effects on neuronal function. However, the physiologic relevance of these effects remains uncertain as brain concentrations of CyPGs have not been precisely determined. In this study, we found that free PGD2 and the J2 series CyPGs (PGJ2, Δ12-PGJ2 and 15d-PGJ2) were increased in post-ischemic rat brain as detected by UPLC-MS/MS with 15d-PGJ2 being the most abundant CyPG. These increases were attenuated by pre-treating with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor piroxicam. Next, effects of chronic exposure to 15d-PGJ2 were examined by treating primary neurons with 15d-PGJ2, CAY10410 (a 15d-PGJ2 analog lacking the cyclopentenone ring structure), or vehicle for 24 h to 96 h. Because we found that the concentration of free 15d-PGJ2 decreased rapidly in cell culture medium, freshly prepared medium containing 15d-PGJ2, CAY10410 or vehicle was changed twice daily to maintain steady extracellular concentrations. Incubation with 2.5 μM 15d-PGJ2, but not CAY10410, increased neuronal cell death without induction of caspase-3 or PARP cleavage, consistent with a primarily necrotic mechanism for 15d-PGJ2-induced cell death which was further supported by TUNEL assay results. Ubiquitinated protein accumulation and aggregation was observed after 96 h 15d-PGJ2 incubation, accompanied by compromised 20S proteasome activity. Unlike another proteasome inhibitor, MG132, 15d-PGJ2 treatment did not activate autophagy or induce aggresome formation. Therefore, the cumulative cytotoxic effects of increased generation of CyPGs after stroke may contribute to delayed post-ischemic neuronal injury. PMID:23355003

  15. 4,7-Dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,3-benzodioxole from Antrodia camphorata inhibits LPS-induced inflammation via suppression of NF-κB and induction HO-1 in RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Shie, Pei-Hsin; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Lay, Horng-Liang; Huang, Guan-Jhong

    2016-02-01

    Several benzenoid compounds have been isolated from Antrodia camphorata are known to have excellent anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of 4,7-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,3-benzodioxole (DMB), one of the major benzenoid compounds isolated from the mycelia of A. camphorata. DMB significantly decreased the LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory molecules, such as nitric oxide (NO), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, DMB suppressed the protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, DMB significantly suppressed LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and this inhibition was found to be associated with decreases in the phosphorylation and degradation of its inhibitor, inhibitory κB-α (IκB-α). Moreover, we found that DMB markedly inhibited the protein expression level of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Furthermore, treatment with DMB significantly increased hemoxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression in RAW264.7 cells, which is further confirmed by hemin, a HO-1 enhancer, significantly attenuated the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory molecules and iNOS and TLR4 protein levels. Taken together, the present study suggests that DMB may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  16. Ferulic Acid Protects Against Lead Acetate-Induced Inhibition of Neurite Outgrowth by Upregulating HO-1 in PC12 Cells: Involvement of ERK1/2-Nrf2 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chun-Lei; Zhao, Xue-Mei; Niu, Ying-Cai

    2016-11-01

    Prenatal lead exposure is associated with poor intellectual development in children. However, there are few breakthroughs in therapeutic intervention of developmental lead neurotoxicity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the hypothesis that ferulic acid-mediated promotion of neurite outgrowth following lead exposure might mainly result from its antioxidant capability by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Exposure of PC12 cells to lead acetate inhibits neurite outgrowth and causes oxidative stress as measured by ROS, LPO, GSH/GSSG, and NAD(+)/NADH. FA treatment significantly, although not completely, protected the cells against lead acetate-induced neurite outgrowth inhibition. The effects of FA could be blocked by PD98059, zinc protoporphyrin (Zn-PP), and Nrf2 shRNA. In addition, FA induced heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) gene expression, enhanced antioxidant response element (ARE) promoter activity, promoted ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and Nrf2 translocation in PC12 cells exposed to lead acetate. ERK1/2 locate upstream of Nrf2 and regulate Nrf2-dependent HO-1 expression in antioxidative effects of FA. Our results suggest that FA is a promising candidate for treatment of developmental lead neurotoxicity. These promising findings warrant future investigation evaluating the FA-mediated potentiation of neurite outgrowth following lead exposure in vivo.

  17. Involvement of the activation of Nrf2/HO-1, p38 MAPK signaling pathways and endoplasmic reticulum stress in furazolidone induced cytotoxicity and S phase arrest in human hepatocyte L02 cells: modulation of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Dai, Chongshan; Lei, Lei; Li, Bin; Lin, Yang; Xiao, Xilong; Tang, Shusheng

    2017-03-01

    Furazolidone (FZD) is extensively used as the antiprotozoal and antibacterial drug in clinic. The previous study has shown that curcumin pretreatment could improve FZD induced cytotoxicity by inhibiting oxidative stress and mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. The current study aimed to investigate the potential roles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) signaling pathway in curcumin against FZD cytotoxicity by using human hepatocyte L02 cells. The results showed that curcumin could markedly attenuate FZD induced cytotoxicity. Compared with FZD alone group, curcumin pretreatment significantly reduced the expression of phospho (p)-p38, cyclin D1, p-checkpoint kinase 1 (ChK1) and breast cancer associated gene 1 (BRCA1) protein, followed to attenuate S phase arrest. Meanwhile, curcumin pretreatment prevented FZD induced ER stress, evidenced by the inhibition of glucose-regulated protein 78 and DNA damage inducible gene 153/C/EBP-homologous protein (GADD153/CHOP) protein expression. Moreover, compared with the control, FZD exposure activated the protein and mRNA expression levels of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), which were further activated by curcumin treatment. These results reveal that curcumin could prevent FZD induced cytotoxicity and S phase arrest, which may involve the activation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway and the inhibition of p38 MAPK pathway and ER stress.

  18. Inhibition of microRNA-153 protects neurons against ischemia/reperfusion injury in an oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation cellular model by regulating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Ji, Qiong; Gao, Jianbo; Zheng, Yan; Liu, Xueli; Zhou, Qiangqiang; Shi, Canxia; Yao, Meng; Chen, Xia

    2017-02-28

    MicroRNAs are emerging as critical regulators in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury; however, their exact roles remain poorly understood. miR-153 is reported to be a neuron-related miRNA involved in neuroprotection. In this study, we aimed to investigate the precise role of miR-153 in regulating neuron survival during cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury using an oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R) cellular model. We found that miR-153 was significantly upregulated in neurons subjected to OGD/R treatment. Inhibition of miR-153 significantly attenuated OGD/R-induced injury and oxidative stress in neurons. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was identified as a target gene of miR-153. Inhibition of miR-153 significantly promoted the expression of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). However, silencing of Nrf2 significantly blocked the protective effects of miR-153 inhibition. Our study indicates that the inhibition of miR-153 protects neurons against OGD/R-induced injury by regulating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling and suggests a potential therapeutic target for cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  19. Comparative cytoprotective effects of carbocysteine and fluticasone propionate in cigarette smoke extract-stimulated bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pace, Elisabetta; Ferraro, Maria; Di Vincenzo, Serena; Cipollina, Chiara; Gerbino, Stefania; Cigna, Diego; Caputo, Valentina; Balsamo, Rossella; Lanata, Luigi; Gjomarkaj, Mark

    2013-11-01

    Cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) induce oxidative stress, an important feature in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and oxidative stress contributes to the poor clinical efficacy of corticosteroids in COPD patients. Carbocysteine, an antioxidant and mucolytic agent, is effective in reducing the severity and the rate of exacerbations in COPD patients. The effects of carbocysteine on CSE-induced oxidative stress in bronchial epithelial cells as well as the comparison of these antioxidant effects of carbocysteine with those of fluticasone propionate are unknown. The present study was aimed to assess the effects of carbocysteine (10(-4) M) in cell survival and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (by flow cytometry) as well as total glutathione (GSH), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), nuclear-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC-2) expression/activation in CSE-stimulated bronchial epithelial cells (16-HBE) and to compare these effects with those of fluticasone propionate (10(-8) M). CSE, carbocysteine or fluticasone propionate did not induce cell necrosis (propidium positive cells) or cell apoptosis (annexin V-positive/propidium-negative cells) in 16-HBE. CSE increased ROS production, nuclear Nrf2 and HO-1 in 16-HBE. Fluticasone propionate did not modify intracellular ROS production, GSH and HDCA-2 but reduced Nrf2 and HO-1 in CSE-stimulated 16-HBE. Carbocysteine reduced ROS production and increased GSH, HO-1, Nrf2 and HDAC-2 nuclear expression/activity in CSE-stimulated cells and was more effective than fluticasone propionate in modulating the CSE-mediated effects. In conclusion, the present study provides compelling evidences that the use of carbocysteine may be considered a promising strategy in diseases associated with corticosteroid resistance.

  20. A Novel Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor (PPAR)γ Agonist 2-Hydroxyethyl 5-chloro-4,5-didehydrojasmonate Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Colitis.

    PubMed

    Choo, Jieun; Lee, Yunna; Yan, Xin-Jia; Noh, Tae Hwan; Kim, Seong Jin; Son, Sujin; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Moon, Hyung Ryong; Jung, Jee H; Im, Eunok

    2015-10-16

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease with increasing incidence and prevalence worldwide. Here we investigated the newly synthesized jasmonate analogue 2-hydroxyethyl 5-chloro-4,5-didehydrojasmonate (J11-Cl) for its anti-inflammatory effects on intestinal inflammation. First, to test whether J11-Cl can activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), we performed docking simulations because J11-Cl has a structural similarity with anti-inflammatory 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), one of the endogenous ligands of PPARγ. J11-Cl bound to the ligand binding domain of PPARγ in the same manner as 15d-PGJ2 and rosiglitazone, and significantly increased transcriptional activity of PPARγ. In animal experiments, colitis was significantly reduced in mice with J11-Cl treatment, determined by analyses of survival rate, body weight changes, clinical symptoms, and histological evaluation. Moreover, J11-Cl decreased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, IL-8, and G-CSF as well as chemokines including chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL)20, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)2, CXCL3, and chemokine (C-X3-C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1) in colon tissues, and LPS or TNF-α-stimulated macrophages and epithelial cells. In contrast, production of anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-2 and IL-4 as well as the proliferative factor, GM-CSF, was increased by J11-Cl. Furthermore, inhibition of MAPKs and NF-κB activation by J11-Cl was also observed. J11-Cl reduced intestinal inflammation by increasing the transcriptional activity of PPARγ and modulating inflammatory signaling pathways. Therefore, our study suggests that J11-Cl may serve as a novel therapeutic agent against IBD. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma block activation of pancreatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Masamune, Atsushi; Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Satoh, Masahiro; Sakai, Yoshitaka; Satoh, Akihiko; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2002-01-04

    Activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of pancreatic fibrosis and inflammation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) is a ligand-activated transcription factor which controls growth, differentiation, and inflammation in different tissues. Roles of PPAR-gamma activation in PSCs are poorly characterized. Here we examined the effects of PPAR-gamma ligands on the key parameters of PSC activation. PSCs were isolated from rat pancreas tissue, and used in their culture-activated, myofibroblast-like phenotype. Activation of PPAR-gamma was induced with 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) or with troglitazone. Expression of PPAR-gamma was predominantly localized in the nuclei, and PPAR-gamma was transcriptionally active after ligand stimulation. PPAR-gamma ligands inhibited platelet-derived growth factor-induced proliferation. This effect was associated with inhibition of cell cycle progression beyond the G1 phase. PPAR-gamma ligands decreased alpha-smooth muscle actin protein expression and alpha1(I) procollagen and prolyl 4-hydroxylase(alpha) mRNA levels. Activation of PPAR-gamma also resulted in the inhibition of inducible monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression. 15d-PGJ2, but not troglitazone, inhibited the degradation of IkappaB-alpha and consequent NF-kappaB activation. In conclusion, activation of PPAR-gamma inhibited profibrogenic and proinflammatory actions in activated PSCs, suggesting a potential application of PPAR-gamma ligands in the treatment of pancreatic fibrosis and inflammation.

  2. Oxidized lipids activate autophagy in a JNK-dependent manner by stimulating the endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

    PubMed

    Haberzettl, Petra; Hill, Bradford G

    2013-01-01

    Excessive production of unsaturated aldehydes from oxidized lipoproteins and membrane lipids is a characteristic feature of cardiovascular disease. Our previous studies show that unsaturated lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes such as 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal (HNE) promote autophagy in rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC). In this study, we examined the mechanism by which HNE induces autophagy. Exposure of RASMC to HNE led to the modification of several proteins, most of which were identified by mass spectrometry and confocal microscopy to be localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). HNE stimulated the phosphorylation of PKR-like ER kinase and eukaryotic initiation factor 2α and increased heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) abundance. HNE treatment also increased LC3-II formation and the phosphorylation of JNK and p38. Pharmacological inhibition of JNK, but not p38, prevented HNE-induced HO-1 expression and LC3-II formation. Inhibition of JNK increased cell death in HNE-treated cells. Pretreatment with the chemical chaperone phenylbutryic acid prevented LC3-II formation as well as JNK phosphorylation and HO-1 induction. Taken together, these data suggest that autophagic responses triggered by unsaturated aldehydes could be attributed, in part, to ER stress, which stimulates autophagy by a JNK-dependent mechanism and promotes cell survival during oxidative stress.

  3. Heme oxygenase-1 mediates the anti-inflammatory effect of mushroom Phellinus linteus in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Chul; Choi, Joung-Woo; Hong, Hye-Young; Lee, Sin-Ae; Hong, Suntaek; Park, Eun-Hee; Kim, Seong-Jin; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2006-07-19

    This work aimed to elucidate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of the n-BuOH subfraction (PL) prepared from fruiting bodies of Phellinus linteus. PL induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) of the RAW264.7 macrophages in concentration- and time-dependent manner. It suppressed induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and subsequent production of nitric oxide (NO) through down-regulation of iNOS promoter activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Zn(II) protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), a specific inhibitor of HO-1, partly blocked suppression by PL on iNOS promoter activity and NO production, which were elevated in LPS-stimulated macrophages. LPS was able to enhance NO production via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and c-Jun induction. ZnPP prevented PL from down-regulating ROS generation and JNK activation in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Taken together, PL shows its anti-inflammatory activity via mediation of HO-1 in an in vitro inflammation model.

  4. Z-ligustilide ameliorated ultraviolet B-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine production in human keratinocytes through upregulation of Nrf2/HO-1 and suppression of NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhouwei; Uchi, Hiroshi; Morino-Koga, Saori; Shi, Weimin; Furue, Masutaka

    2015-09-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB), a harmful environmental factor, is responsible for a variety of skin disorders including skin inflammation through reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory mediator production. Here, we investigated the effect of Z-ligustilide (Z-lig), an active ingredient isolated from the medicinal plants Cnidium officinale and Angelica acutiloba, on UVB-induced ROS generation and inflammatory mediator production in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) as well as its underlying mechanisms. Z-lig significantly rescued UVB-induced NHEKs damage in a dosage-dependent manner. Pretreatment of NHEKs with Z-lig inhibited UVB-induced ROS production in NHEKs. Both silencing the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the supplement of tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP), a haeme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor, cancelled the inhibitory effect of Z-lig on UVB-induced ROS upregulation in NHEKs. Moreover, pretreatment of NHEKs with Z-lig reduced UVB-induced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-dependent inflammatory mediators (IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1) production at both mRNA and protein level. In the presence of Z-lig, UVB-induced NF-κB subunit p65 nuclear translocation was abolished, and the IκBα degradation was suppressed. Taken together, these findings suggest that Z-lig can suppress UVB-induced ROS generation through Nrf2/HO-1 upregulation and inflammation by suppressing the NF-κB pathway, suggesting that Z-lig may be beneficial in protecting skin from UVB exposure. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. 15-Deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 exerts pro- and anti-inflammatory effects in mesangial cells in a concentration-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Alma E; Sánchez-Gómez, Francisco J; Díez-Dacal, Beatriz; Oeste, Clara L; Pérez-Sala, Dolores

    2012-02-01

    Cyclopentenone prostaglandins play a modulatory role in inflammation, in part through their ability to covalently modify key proinflammatory proteins. Using mesangial cells as a cellular model of inflammation we have observed that 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) exerts a biphasic effect on cell activation by cytokines, with nanomolar concentrations eliciting an amplification of nitric oxide (NO) production and iNOS and COX-2 levels, and concentrations of 5 μM and higher inhibiting proinflammatory gene expression. An analog of 15d-PGJ(2) lacking the cyclopentenone structure (9,10-dihydro-15d-PGJ(2)) showed reduced ability to elicit both types of effects, suggesting that the electrophilic nature of 15d-PGJ(2) is important for its biphasic action. Interestingly, the switch from stimulatory to inhibitory actions occurred within a narrow concentration range and correlated with the ability of 15d-PGJ(2) to induce heme oxygenase 1 and γ-GCSm expression. These events are highly dependent on the triggering of the antioxidant response, which is considered as a sensor of thiol group modification. Indeed, the levels of the master regulator of the antioxidant response Nrf2 increased upon treatment with concentrations of 15d-PGJ(2) above 5 μM, an effect that could not be mimicked by 9,10-dihydro-15d-PGJ(2). Thus, an interplay of redox and electrophilic signalling mechanisms can be envisaged by which 15d-PGJ(2), as several other redox mediators, could contribute both to the onset and to the resolution of inflammation in a context or concentration-dependent manner.

  6. 15-Deoxy-Delta-12,14-Prostaglandin J2 Inhibits Lung Inflammation and Remodeling in Distinct Murine Models of Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Diego S.; Anjos-Valotta, Edna A.; do Nascimento, Caio V. M. F.; Pires, Ana Lucia A.; Napimoga, Marcelo H.; Carvalho, Vinícius F.; Torres, Rafael C.; e Silva, Patrícia M. R.; Martins, Marco A.

    2017-01-01

    15-deoxy-Δ-12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) has been described as an anti-inflammatory lipid mediator in several in vitro and in vivo studies, but its effect on allergic pulmonary inflammation remains elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic potential of 15d-PGJ2 based on distinct murine models of allergic asthma triggered by either ovalbumin (OVA) or house dust mite extract (HDM). Characteristics of lung inflammation, airway hyper-reactivity (AHR), mucus exacerbation, and lung remodeling in sensitized A/J mice treated or not with 15d-PGJ2 were assessed. 15d-PGJ2 treatments were carried out systemically or topically given via subcutaneous injection or intranasal instillation, respectively. Analyses were carried out 24 h after the last allergen provocation. Irrespective of the route of administration, 15d-PGJ2 significantly inhibited the peribronchial accumulation of eosinophils and neutrophils, subepithelial fibrosis and also mucus exacerbation caused by either OVA or HDM challenge. The protective effect of 15d-PGJ2 occurred in parallel with inhibition of allergen-induced AHR and lung tissue production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, IL-17, and TNF-α. Finally, 15d-PGJ2 was found effective in inhibiting NF-κB phosphorylation upon HDM challenge as measured by Western blotting. In conclusion, our findings suggest that 15d-PGJ2 can reduce crucial features of asthma, including AHR, lung inflammation, and remodeling in distinct murine models of the disease. These effects are associated with a decrease in lung tissue generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines by a mechanism related to downregulation of NF-κB phosphorylation. PMID:28713373

  7. Anti-neuro-inflammatory effects of Nardostachys chinensis in lipopolysaccharide-and lipoteichoic acid-stimulated microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Young; Kim, Young Hun; Park, Geuntae

    2016-05-01

    Excessive microglial cell activation is related to the progression of chronic neuro-inflammatory disorders. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression mediated by the NFE2-related factor (Nrf-2) pathway is a key regulator of neuro-inflammation. Nardostachys chinensis is used as an anti-malarial, anti-nociceptive, and neurotrophic treatment in traditional Asian medicines. In the present study, we examined the effects of an ethyl acetate extract of N. chinensis (EN) on the anti-neuro-inflammatory effects mediated by HO-1 up-regulation in Salmonella lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or Staphylococcus aureus lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Our results indicated that EN suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine production and induced HO-1 transcription and translation through Nrf-2/antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling. EN markedly inhibited LPS- and LTA-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) as well as phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT). Furthermore, EN protected hippocampal HT22 cells from indirect neuronal toxicity mediated by LPS- and LTA-treated microglial cells. These results suggested that EN impairs LPS- and LTA-induced neuro-inflammatory responses in microglial cells and confers protection against indirect neuronal damage to HT22 cells. In conclusion, our findings indicate that EN could be used as a natural anti-neuro-inflammatory and neuroprotective agent. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Extract of Ziziphus jujuba Fruit (Jujube) Stimulates Expression of Enzymes Responsible for Heme Recycle via Anti-oxidant Response Element in Cultured Murine Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianping; Lam, Candy T W; Li, Zhonggui; Yao, Ping; Lin, Huangquan; Dong, Tina T X; Tsim, Karl W K

    2016-02-01

    Jujube, the fruit of Ziziphus jujuba Mill., is a functional food and commonly used as a health supplement worldwide. To study the beneficial role of jujube in heme iron recycling during erythrophagocytosis, the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), biliverdin reductase A and B, and ferroportin were determined in jujube-treated cultured RAW 264.7 macrophages. Application of a chemically standardized jujube water extract in cultured RAW 264.7 cells for 24 h stimulated the expressions of HO-1, biliverdin reductase A, biliverdin reductase B, and ferroportin in a concentration-dependent manner, having the maximal responses from twofolds to threefolds. A plasmid containing anti-oxidant response element, a regulator for HO-1 transcription, was transfected into RAW 264.7 cells. Application of jujube water extract onto the transfected macrophages stimulated the anti-oxidant response element-mediated transcriptional activity by twofolds. These results supported the potential capacity of jujube by regulating expressions of heme iron recycling genes in cultured macrophages.

  9. Protective effect of Xuebijing injection on D-galactosamine- and lipopolysaccharide-induced acute liver injury in rats through the regulation of p38 MAPK, MMP-9 and HO-1 expression by increasing TIPE2 expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Wei; Liu, Rong; Wu, Hai-Yin; Zhang, Wei; Xia, Jing; Dong, Min-Na; Yu, Wen; Wang, Qiang; Xie, Feng-Mei; Wang, Rui; Huang, Yun-Qiao; Qian, Chuan-Yun

    2016-11-01

    Xuebijing injection (XBJ) has long been used to treat infectious diseases in China. The therapeutic effect of XBJ is probably associated with anti-inflammatory effects. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for the effects of XBJ remain unknown. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the protective effects of XBJ in a rat model of D-galactosamine (D-Gal)- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced acute liver injury. In the present study, the rats were injected with D-Gal and LPS intraperitoneally to induce acute liver injury. Two hours prior to D-Gal and LPS administration, the treatment group was administered XBJ by intravenous infusion. The effects of XBJ on D-Gal- and LPS-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑alpha‑induced protein 8-like 2 (TIPE2), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) as well as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling was examined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), western blot analysis, immunofluorescence, as well as by analysing the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the transaminases, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in the rat liver tissues were also measured. For histological analysis, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained liver samples were evaluated. The results showed that XBJ upregulated TIPE2 and HO-1 expression, reduced the expression of NF-κB65 and MMP-9, inhibited the LPS-induced gene expression of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK, decreased the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6, IL-13 and TNF-α], inhibited ALT and AST activity, and ameliorated D-Gal- and LPS-induced liver injury. The histological results also demonstrated that XBJ attenuated D-Gal- and LPS-induced liver inflammation. It was found that XBJ may

  10. Protective effect of Xuebijing injection on D-galactosamine- and lipopolysaccharide-induced acute liver injury in rats through the regulation of p38 MAPK, MMP-9 and HO-1 expression by increasing TIPE2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming-Wei; Liu, Rong; Wu, Hai-Yin; Zhang, Wei; Xia, Jing; Dong, Min-Na; Yu, Wen; Wang, Qiang; Xie, Feng-Mei; Wang, Rui; Huang, Yun-Qiao; Qian, Chuan-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Xuebijing injection (XBJ) has long been used to treat infectious diseases in China. The therapeutic effect of XBJ is probably associated with anti-inflammatory effects. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for the effects of XBJ remain unknown. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the protective effects of XBJ in a rat model of D-galactosamine (D-Gal)- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver injury. In the present study, the rats were injected with D-Gal and LPS intraperitoneally to induce acute liver injury. Two hours prior to D-Gal and LPS administration, the treatment group was administered XBJ by intravenous infusion. The effects of XBJ on D-Gal- and LPS-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced protein 8-like 2 (TIPE2), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) as well as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling was examined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), western blot analysis, immunofluorescence, as well as by analysing the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the transaminases, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in the rat liver tissues were also measured. For histological analysis, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained liver samples were evaluated. The results showed that XBJ upregulated TIPE2 and HO-1 expression, reduced the expression of NF-κB65 and MMP-9, inhibited the LPS-induced gene expression of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK, decreased the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-6, IL-13 and TNF-α], inhibited ALT and AST activity, and ameliorated D-Gal- and LPS-induced liver injury. The histological results also demonstrated that XBJ attenuated D-Gal- and LPS-induced liver inflammation. It was found that XBJ may prevent LPS-induced pro

  11. Enhancement of the Effect of Methyl Pyropheophorbide-a-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy was Achieved by Increasing ROS via Inhibition of Nrf2-HO-1 or Nrf2-ABCG2 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Tian, Si; Yong, Min; Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Li; Pan, Li; Chen, Qing; Li, Kai-Ting; Kong, Yu-Han; Jiang, Yuan; Yu, Ting-He; Yu, Le-Hua; Bai, Ding-Qun

    2017-03-27

    Emerging evidence indicates that the transcription factor nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (-NRF2) plays an essential role in cellular defense against oxidative stress; its activation has been related to cytoprotection. Here, we investigated the role of Nrf2 in improving the efficacy of methyl pyropheophorbide-a-mediated photodynamic therapy (Mppa-PDT) via the downregulation of Nrf2 in human ovarian cancer A2780 cells and SKOV3 cells. We found that Nrf2 translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in vitro and in vivo, and the expression of Nrf2 and P-Nrf2 increased through a possible mechanism regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) after Mppa-PDT treatment. Furthermore, cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by Mppa-PDT increased after Nrf2down-regulation. Nrf2 down -regulation increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels by attenuating antioxidants or pumping Mppa out of cells, which resulted from the inhibition of Nrf2-HO-1 or Nrf2-ABCG2 signaling. In addition, SKOV3 cells exhibited increased resistance to Mppa-PDT, and the expression levels of P-Nrf2 and ABCG2 were higher in SKOV3 cells than in A2780 cells, suggesting that Nrf2-ABCG2 signaling might be involved in the intrinsic resistanceto Mppa-PDT. Taken together, these results provided evidence that Nrf2 down-regulation can enhance the effect of Mppa-PDT.

  12. Berberine protects against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells and zebrafish through hormetic mechanisms involving PI3K/AKT/Bcl-2 and Nrf2/HO-1 pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Li, Chuwen; Chen, Shenghui; Li, Zhiping; Jia, Xuejing; Wang, Kai; Bao, Jiaolin; Liang, Yeer; Wang, Xiaotong; Chen, Meiwan; Li, Peng; Su, Huanxing; Wan, Jian-Bo; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen; Liu, Kechun; He, Chengwei

    2017-04-01

    Berberine (BBR) is a renowned natural compound that exhibits potent neuroprotective activities. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Hormesis is an adaptive mechanism generally activated by mild oxidative stress to protect the cells from further damage. Many phytochemicals have been shown to induce hormesis. This study aims to investigate whether the neuroprotective activity of BBR is mediated by hormesis and the related signaling pathways in 6-OHDA-induced PC12 cells and zebrafish neurotoxic models. Our results demonstrated that BBR induced a typical hormetic response in PC12 cells, i.e. low dose BBR significantly increased the cell viability, while high dose BBR inhibited the cell viability. Moreover, low dose BBR protected the PC12 cells from 6-OHDA-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis, whereas relatively high dose BBR did not show neuroprotective activity. The hormetic and neuroprotective effects of BBR were confirmed to be mediated by up-regulated PI3K/AKT/Bcl-2 cell survival and Nrf2/HO-1 antioxidative signaling pathways. In addition, low dose BBR markedly mitigated the 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic neuron loss and behavior movement deficiency in zebrafish, while high dose BBR only slightly exhibited neuroprotective activities. These results strongly suggested that the neuroprotection of BBR were attributable to the hormetic mechanisms via activating cell survival and antioxidative signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Lithospermic acid B protects beta-cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis by alleviating apoptotic pathways and activating anti-apoptotic pathways of Nrf2-HO-1 and Sirt1

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Byung-Wan; Chun, Sung Wan; Kim, Soo Hyun; Lee, Yongho; Kang, Eun Seok; Cha, Bong-Soo; Lee, Hyun Chul

    2011-04-01

    Lithospermic acid B (LAB) has been reported to protect OLETF rats, an established type 2 diabetic animal model, from the development of diabetes-related vascular complications. We investigated whether magnesium lithospermate B (LAB) has a protective role under cytokine-induced apoptosis in INS-1 cells in vitro and whether it slows the development of diabetes in OLETF rats in vivo. Pretreatment with 50 {mu}M LAB significantly reduced the 1000 U/mL INF-{gamma} and 100 U/mL IL-1{beta}-induced INS-1 cell death. LAB significantly alleviated cytokine-induced phosphorylations of p38 and JNK in accordance with a decrease in cleaved caspase-3 activity in beta-cells. LAB also protected against the cytokine-induced caspase-3 apoptotic pathway via significant activation of Nrf2-HO (heme-oxigenase)-1 and Sirt1 expression. OLETF rats treated with 40 mg/kg/day LAB showed a significant improvement in glucose tolerance compared to untreated OLETF control rats in vivo. Our results suggest that the cytoprotective effects of LAB on pancreatic {beta}-cells are related with both alleviating apoptotic pathways and activating anti-apoptotic pathways of Nrf2-HO-1 and Sirt1.

  14. Tomato powder impedes the development of azoxymethane-induced colorectal cancer in rats through suppression of COX-2 expression via NF-κB and regulating Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Tuzcu, Mehmet; Aslan, Abdullah; Tuzcu, Zeynep; Yabas, Mehmet; Bahcecioglu, Ibrahim Halil; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanifi; Kucuk, Omer; Sahin, Kazim

    2012-09-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Since dietary factors have been connected to a reduced risk of a diversity of human cancers, in this study we investigated the effects of tomato powder (TP) on the development of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colorectal cancer in Wistar rats, and possible mechanism(s) by which TP shows its chemopreventive activity. Here we show that TP added to feed at 5% rate decreases the rate of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and reduces the development of adenocarcinoma and growth of AOM-induced colorectal cancer in rats. In addition, we demonstrate that TP supplementation shows its chemopreventive activities through inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression via NF-κB pathway and promotion of apoptosis, as well as regulating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway in colorectal tissue of AOM-treated rats. Our findings identify an intimate connection between dietary supplementation of TP and the decreased risk of colorectal cancer in rats, and suggest that consumption of TP would be a natural candidate for the prevention of colorectal cancer in men.

  15. Zinc protoporphyrin inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-, lipoteichoic acid-, and peptidoglycan-induced nitric oxide production through stimulating iNOS protein ubiquitination

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, J.-M.; Lin, H.-Y.; Shen, S.-C.; Wu, M.-S.; Lin, C.-W.; Chiu, W.-T.; Lin, C.-H. Chen, Y.-C.

    2009-06-15

    In the present study, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), but not ferric protoporphyrin (FePP), tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), or zinc chloride (ZnCl{sub 2}), at the doses of 0.5, 1, and 2 {mu}M, dose-dependently inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and peptidoglycan (PGN)-induced inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production with an increase in heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) protein in RAW264.7 macrophages in a serum-free condition. NO inhibition and HO-1 induction by ZnPP were blocked by the separate addition of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). A decrease in the iNOS/NO ratio and an increase in HO-1 protein by ZnPP were identified in three different conditions including ZnPP pretreatment, ZnPP co-treatment, and ZnPP post-treatment with LPS and LTA. Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs) were detected in LPS-, LTA-, and PGN-treated RAW264.7 cells, and iNOS/NO production was blocked by adding the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, but not the ERK inhibitor, PD98059. However, ZnPP addition potentiated ERK and JNK protein phosphorylation stimulated by LPS, LTA, and PGN. Increases in total protein ubiquitination and ubiquitinated iNOS proteins were detected in ZnPP-treated macrophages elicited by LPS according to Western and immunoprecipitation/Western blotting assays, respectively. The decrease in LPS-induced iNOS protein by ZnPP was reversed by adding the proteasome inhibitors MG132 and lactacystin. The reduction in HO-1 protein induced by ZnPP via transfection of HO-1 small interfering RNA did not affect the inhibitory effect of ZnPP against LPS-induced iNOS/NO production and protein ubiquitination induced by ZnPP in macrophages. Data of the present study provide the first evidence to support ZnPP effectively inhibiting inflammatory iNOS/NO production through activation of protein ubiquitination in a HO-1-independent manner in macrophages.

  16. Zinc protoporphyrin inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-, lipoteichoic acid-, and peptidoglycan-induced nitric oxide production through stimulating iNOS protein ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Chow, Jyh-Ming; Lin, Hui-Yi; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Wu, Ming-Shun; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Chiu, Wen-Ta; Lin, Chien-Huang; Chen, Yen-Chou

    2009-06-15

    In the present study, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP), but not ferric protoporphyrin (FePP), tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), or zinc chloride (ZnCl(2)), at the doses of 0.5, 1, and 2 microM, dose-dependently inhibited lipopolysaccharide- (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and peptidoglycan (PGN)-induced inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) production with an increase in heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) protein in RAW264.7 macrophages in a serum-free condition. NO inhibition and HO-1 induction by ZnPP were blocked by the separate addition of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). A decrease in the iNOS/NO ratio and an increase in HO-1 protein by ZnPP were identified in three different conditions including ZnPP pretreatment, ZnPP co-treatment, and ZnPP post-treatment with LPS and LTA. Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs) were detected in LPS-, LTA-, and PGN-treated RAW264.7 cells, and iNOS/NO production was blocked by adding the JNK inhibitor, SP600125, but not the ERK inhibitor, PD98059. However, ZnPP addition potentiated ERK and JNK protein phosphorylation stimulated by LPS, LTA, and PGN. Increases in total protein ubiquitination and ubiquitinated iNOS proteins were detected in ZnPP-treated macrophages elicited by LPS according to Western and immunoprecipitation/Western blotting assays, respectively. The decrease in LPS-induced iNOS protein by ZnPP was reversed by adding the proteasome inhibitors MG132 and lactacystin. The reduction in HO-1 protein induced by ZnPP via transfection of HO-1 small interfering RNA did not affect the inhibitory effect of ZnPP against LPS-induced iNOS/NO production and protein ubiquitination induced by ZnPP in macrophages. Data of the present study provide the first evidence to support ZnPP effectively inhibiting inflammatory iNOS/NO production through activation of protein ubiquitination in a HO-1-independent manner in macrophages.

  17. Possible involvement of 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14) -prostaglandin J2 in the development of leptin resistance.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Toru; Matsuzaki, Syu; Miyahara, Tsuyoshi; Shimizu, Kaori; Hasegawa, Yuki; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is a worldwide health problem that urgently needs to be solved. Leptin is an anti-obesity hormone that activates satiety signals to the brain. Evidence to suggest that leptin resistance is involved in the development of obesity is increasing; however, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. We herein demonstrated that 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14) -prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2 ) was involved in the development of leptin resistance. A treatment with 15d-PGJ2 inhibited the leptin-induced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in neuronal cells (SH-SY5Y-Ob-Rb cells). Furthermore, the intracerebroventricular administration of 15d-PGJ2 reversed the inhibitory effects of leptin on food intake in rats. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) antagonist, GW9662, slightly reversed the inhibitory effects of 15d-PGJ2 on the leptin-induced activation of STAT3 in neuronal cells. The PPAR-γ agonist, rosiglitazone, also inhibited leptin-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. Therefore, the inhibitory effects of 15d-PGJ2 may be mediated through PPAR-γ. On the other hand, 15d-PGJ2 -induced leptin resistance may not be mediated by endoplasmic reticulum stress or suppressor of cytokine signaling 3. The results of the present study suggest that 15d-PGJ2 is a novel factor for the development of leptin resistance in obesity. Leptin resistance, an insensitivity to the actions of leptin, is involved in the development of obesity. Here, we found 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14) -prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2 ) may be involved in the development of leptin resistance. The present results suggest that the 15d-PGJ2 may be a novel factor for the development of leptin resistance in obesity. 15d-PGJ2 , 15-Deoxy-Δ(12,14) -prostaglandin J2; STAT3, signal tranducer and activator of transcription 3.

  18. 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 up-regulates death receptor 5 gene expression in HCT116 cells: involvement of reactive oxygen species and C/EBP homologous transcription factor gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Su, Rong-Ying; Chi, Kwan-Hwa; Huang, Duen-Yi; Tai, Ming-Hui; Lin, Wan-Wan

    2008-10-01

    Although 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15dPGJ(2)) was reported to up-regulate death receptor 5 (DR5) protein expression and sensitize TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity, its action mechanism remains unclear. Using HCT116 colon cancer cells, we found that sensitization of TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity by 15dPGJ(2) resulted from up-regulation of DR5 via gene transcription but was not associated with PPAR-gamma activation. Moreover, 15dPGJ(2) induced GRP78, XBP1, and C/EBP homologous transcription factor (CHOP) expression in HCT116 cells, confirming that 15dPGJ(2) is an endoplasmic reticulum stress inducer. Knockdown of the CHOP gene by siRNA attenuated DR5 up-regulation and the sensitized cytotoxicity in colon cancer HCT116 and SW480. With deletion plasmids of DR5 promoters, we found that the CHOP-binding site was involved in activating the DR5 gene by 15dPGJ(2). A mechanistic study showed the contributions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intracellular calcium in CHOP and DR5 gene up-regulation. 15dPGJ(2) was also found to induce DR5 in two prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and PC3. Although in LNCaP DR5 up-regulation was accompanied by CHOP expression by 15dPGJ(2), no significant increase in CHOP expression or DR5 promoter activity was observed in PC3 cells. Intriguingly, 15dPGJ(2) induced ROS and calcium production in PC3 cells. This inability to induce CHOP was not due to the p53-null in PC3 cells, as similar extents of increase in CHOP protein were found due to 15dPGJ(2) in both wild-type and p53-null HCT116 cells. In summary, the effect of up-regulation of DR5 by 15dPGJ(2) in colon cancer cells is independent of PPAR-gamma and p53 but relies on CHOP induction through gene transcription involving ROS and calcium.

  19. Identification of novel protein targets for modification by 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 in mesangial cells reveals multiple interactions with the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Stamatakis, Konstantinos; Sánchez-Gómez, Francisco J; Pérez-Sala, Dolores

    2006-01-01

    The cyclopentenone prostaglandin 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2) has been shown to display protective effects against renal injury or inflammation. In cultured mesangial cells (MC), 15d-PGJ2 inhibits the expression of proinflammatory genes and modulates cell proliferation. Therefore, cyclopentenone prostaglandins (cyPG) have been envisaged as a promise in the treatment of renal disease. The effects of 15d-PGJ2 may be dependent on or independent from its role as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonist. It was shown recently that an important determinant for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-independent effects of 15d-PGJ2 is the capacity to modify proteins covalently and alter their function. However, a limited number of protein targets have been identified to date. Herein is shown that a biotinylated derivative of 15d-PGJ2 recapitulates the effects of 15d-PGJ2 on the stress response and inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase levels and forms stable adducts with proteins in intact MC. Biotinylated 15d-PGJ2 was then used to identify proteins that potentially are involved in cyPG biologic effects. Extracts from biotinylated 15d-PGJ2-treated MC were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and the spots of interest were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Identified targets include proteins that are regulated by oxidative stress, such as heat-shock protein 90 and nucleoside diphosphate kinase, as well as proteins that are involved in cytoskeletal organization, such as actin, tubulin, vimentin, and tropomyosin. Biotinylated 15d-PGJ2 binding to several targets was confirmed by avidin pull-down. Consistent with these findings, 15d-PGJ2 induced early reorganization of vimentin and tubulin in MC. The cyclopentenone moiety and the presence of cysteine were important for vimentin rearrangement. These studies may contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of action and therapeutic potential of cyPG.

  20. Cordycepin, 3'-deoxyadenosine, prevents rat hearts from ischemia/reperfusion injury via activation of Akt/GSK-3β/p70S6K signaling pathway and HO-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Seok; Kang, Do-Hyun; Yang, Min-Kyu; Kang, Jun Chul; Jang, Yong Chang; Park, Jong Seok; Kim, Si-Kwan; Shin, Hwa-Sup

    2014-03-01

    Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine) isolated from Cordyceps militaris, a species of the fungal genus Cordyceps, has been shown to exhibit many pharmacological functions, such as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. In this study, we investigated the preventive role of cordycepin in ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury of isolated rat hearts and anesthetized rats. After Sprague-Dawley rats received cordycepin (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg) or control (0.5 % carboxyl methylcellulose) orally once a day for a week, hearts were isolated and mounted on Langendorff heart perfusion system. Isolated hearts were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer for 15-min pre-ischemic stabilization period and subjected to 30-min global ischemia and 30-min reperfusion. Cordycepin administration (10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased left ventricular developed pressure during the reperfusion period compared to that in the control group, but without any effect on coronary flow. Cordycepin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the phosphorylation of Akt/GSK-3β/p70S6K pathways, which are known to modulate multiple survival pathways. In addition, cordycepin decreased Bax and cleaved caspase-3 expression while increasing Bcl-2 expression, Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and heme oxygenase (HO-1) expression in isolated rat hearts. In anesthetized rats subjected to 30 min occlusion of left anterior descending coronary artery/2.5-h reperfusion, cordycepin (1, 3, and 10 mg/kg, i.v.) administered 15 min before the onset of ischemia dose-dependently decreased the infarct size in left ventricle. In conclusion, cordycepin could be an attractive therapeutic candidate with oral activity against I/R-associated heart diseases such as myocardial infarction.

  1. Antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of morin against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress are associated with the induction of Nrf-2‑mediated HO-1 expression in V79-4 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moon Hee; Cha, Hee-Jae; Choi, Eun Ok; Han, Min Ho; Kim, Sung Ok; Kim, Gi-Young; Hong, Su Hyun; Park, Cheol; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Jeong, Soon-Jeong; Jeong, Moon-Jin; Kim, Wun-Jae; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Natural phytochemicals of plant origin, including flavonoids, have been found to be potent antioxidants providing beneficial effects against oxidative stress-related diseases. The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant properties of morin, a flavonoid originally isolated from the flowering plants of the Moraceae family. Superoxide dismutase (SOD)‑like activity and 2,2'‑azino‑bis‑(3‑ethylbenzothiazoline‑6‑sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+) radical scavenging activity were determined. We also investigated the cytoprotective effects of morin against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)‑induced DNA damage and apoptosis in V79‑4 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts. Our results demonstrated that morin had strong scavenging effects against ABTS•+ radicals with enhanced SOD activity, which varied in a dose-dependent manner. Morin was found to reduce H2O2‑induced intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and nuclear DNA damage, and it recovered cell viability damaged by H2O2 via inhibition of mitochondrial dysfunction‑mediated apoptosis. Notably, the treatment of V79‑4 cells with morin markedly enhanced the expression of heme oxygenase‑1 (HO‑1) but not quinone oxidoreductase-1, which was associated with the increased expression and phosphorylation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the downregulation of Kelch‑like ECH‑associated protein 1 expression. Based on our findings, we conclude that morin effectively ameliorated oxidative stress‑induced DNA damage through intrinsic free radical scavenging activity and activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

  2. HSP32 (HO-1) inhibitor, copoly(styrene-maleic acid)-zinc protoporphyrin IX, a water-soluble micelle as anticancer agent: In vitro and in vivo anticancer effect.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jun; Greish, Khaled; Qin, Haibo; Liao, Long; Nakamura, Hideaki; Takeya, Motohiro; Maeda, Hiroshi

    2012-08-01

    We reported previously the antitumor effect of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibition by zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP). ZnPP per se is poorly water soluble and thus cannot be used as anticancer chemotherapeutic. Subsequently, we developed water-soluble micelles of ZnPP using styrene-maleic acid copolymer (SMA), which encapsulated ZnPP (SMA-ZnPP). In this report, the in vitro and in vivo therapeutic effects of SMA-ZnPP are described. In vitro experiments using 11 cultured tumor cell lines and six normal cell lines revealed a remarkable cytotoxicity of SMA-ZnPP against various tumor cells; average IC(50) is about 11.1 μM, whereas the IC(50) to various normal cells is significantly higher, that is, more than 50 μM. In the pharmacokinetic study, we found that SMA-ZnPP predominantly accumulated in the liver tissue after i.v. injection, suggesting its applicability for liver cancer. As expected, a remarkable antitumor effect was achieved in the VX-2 tumor model in the liver of rabbit that is known as one the most difficult tumor models to cure. Antitumor effect was also observed in murine tumor xenograft, that is, B16 melanoma and Meth A fibrosarcoma. Meanwhile, no apparent side effects were found even at the dose of ∼7 times higher concentration of therapeutics dose. These findings suggest a potential of SMA-ZnPP as a tool for anticancer therapy toward clinical development, whereas further investigations are warranted.

  3. RhGLP-1 (7-36) protects diabetic rats against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury via up-regulating expression of Nrf2/HO-1 and increasing the activities of SOD.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yi; Liu, Xiaofang; Zhao, Libo; Wei, Zhongna; Jiang, Daoli; Shao, Hua; Zang, Yannan; Xu, Jia; Wang, Qian; Liu, Yang; Peng, Ye; Yin, Xiaoxing

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed to explore the neuroprotective effect and possible mechanisms of rhGLP-1 (7-36) against transient ischemia/reperfusion injuries induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in type 2 diabetic rats. First, diabetic rats were established by a combination of a high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). Second, they were subjected to MCAO for 2 h, then treated with rhGLP-1 (7-36) (10, 20, 40 µg/kg i.p.) at the same time of reperfusion. In the following 3 days, they were injected with rhGLP-1 (7-36) at the same dose and route for three times each day. After 72 h, hypoglycemic effects were assessed by blood glucose changes, and neuroprotective effects were evaluated by neurological deficits, infarct volume and histomorphology. Mechanisms were investigated by detecting the distribution and expression of the nuclear factor erythroid-derived factor 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) in ischemic brain tissue, the levels of phospho-PI3 kinase (PI3K)/PI3K ratio and heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-l), as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA). Our results showed that rhGLP-1 (7-36) significantly reduced blood glucose and infarction volume, alleviated neurological deficits, enhanced the density of surviving neurons and vascular proliferation. The nuclear positive cells ratio and expression of Nrf2, the levels of P-PI3K/PI3K ratio and HO-l increased, the activities of SOD increased and the contents of MDA decreased. The current results indicated the protective effect of rhGLP-1 (7-36) in diabetic rats following MCAO/R that may be concerned with reducing blood glucose, up-regulating expression of Nrf2/HO-1 and increasing the activities of SOD.

  4. α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone: a protective peptide against chemotherapy-induced hair follicle damage?

    PubMed

    Böhm, M; Bodó, E; Funk, W; Paus, R

    2014-04-01

    Effective, safe and well-tolerated therapeutic and/or preventive regimens for chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) still remain to be developed. Because α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) exerts a number of cytoprotective effects and is well tolerated, we hypothesized that it may be a candidate CIA-protective agent. To explore, using a human in vitro model for chemotherapy-induced hair follicle (HF) dystrophy that employs the key cyclophosphamide metabolite (4-hydroperoxy-cyclophosphamide, 4-HC), whether α-MSH protects from 4-HC-induced HF dystrophy. Microdissected human scalp HFs from four individuals were treated with 4-HC, α-MSH and 4-HC plus α-MSH. Changes in HF cycling, melanin distribution and hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation/apoptosis were examined by quantitative (immune-) morphometry. Expression of the cytoprotective enzyme haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was determined by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in HF of two individuals. In 50% of the individuals α-MSH reduced melanin clumping as an early sign of 4-HC-induced disruption of follicular pigmentation. α-MSH reduced 4-HC-induced apoptosis in the HFs of one female patient. These protective effects of α-MSH were not associated with changes in 4-HC-induced catagen induction. α-MSH and 4-HC both increased HO-1 mRNA expression, while the combination of both agents had additive effects on HO-1 transcription. Exogenous α-MSH exerts moderate HF-protective effects against 4-HC-induced human scalp HF damage and upregulates the intrafollicular expression of a key cytoprotective enzyme. However, as substantial interindividual response variations were found, further studies are needed to probe α-MSH as a candidate CIA-protective agent. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. 15-Deoxy-delta 12-14-prostaglandin-J2 induces hypertrophy and loss of contractility in human testicular peritubular cells: implications for human male fertility.

    PubMed

    Schell, C; Albrecht, M; Spillner, S; Mayer, C; Kunz, L; Köhn, F M; Schwarzer, U; Mayerhofer, A

    2010-03-01

    The wall of the seminiferous tubules contains contractile smooth-muscle-like peritubular cells, thought to be important for sperm transport. Impaired spermatogenesis in men typically involves remodeling of this wall, and we now found that smooth muscle cell (SMC) markers, namely myosin heavy chain (MYH11) and smooth muscle actin (SMA) are often lost or diminished in peritubular cells of testes of men with impaired spermatogenesis. This suggests reduced contractility of the peritubular wall, which may contribute to sub- or infertility. In these cases, testicular expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) implies formation of prostaglandins (PGs). When screening different PGs for their ability to target human testicular peritubular cells (HTPCs), only a PG metabolite, 15-deoxy-Delta(12-14)-prostaglandin-J2 (15dPGJ2), was effective. In primary cultures of HTPCs, 15dPGJ2 increased cell size in a reversible manner. Importantly, 15dPGJ2 treatment resulted in a loss of typical differentiation markers for SMCs, namely MYH11, calponin, and SMA, whereas fibroblast markers were unchanged. Collagen gel contraction assays revealed that this loss correlates with a reduced ability to contract. Experiments with an antagonist (bisphenol A diglycidyl ether) and agonist (troglitazone) for a cognate 15dPGJ2 receptor (i.e. peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma) indicated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma is not directly involved. Rather, the mode of action of 15dPGJ2 involves reactive oxygen species. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine not only blocked ROS formation but also prevented the increase in cell size and the loss of contractility in HTPCs challenged with 15dPGJ2. We conclude that 15dPGJ2, via reactive oxygen species, influences SMC phenotype and contractility of human peritubular cells and possibly is involved in the development of human male sub-/infertility.

  6. Identification of a prostaglandin D2 metabolite as a neuritogenesis enhancer targeting the TRPV1 ion channel

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Takahiro; Takahashi, Katsuhiro; Matsubara, Yui; Inuzuka, Emi; Nakashima, Fumie; Takahashi, Nobuaki; Kozai, Daisuke; Mori, Yasuo; Uchida, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Mast cells play important roles in allergic inflammation by secreting various mediators. In the present study, based on the finding that the medium conditioned by activated RBL-2H3 mast cells enhanced the nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neuritogenesis of PC12 cells, we attempted to isolate an active compound from the mast cell conditioned culture medium. Our experiment identified 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2), one of the PGD2 metabolites, as a potential enhancer of neuritogenesis. 15d-PGJ2 strongly enhanced the neuritogenesis elicited by a low-concentration of NGF that alone was insufficient to induce the neuronal differentiation. This 15d-PGJ2 effect was exerted in a Ca2+-dependent manner, but independently of the NGF receptor TrkA. Importantly, 15d-PGJ2 activated the transient receptor potential vanilloid-type 1 (TRPV1), a non-selective cation channel, leading to the Ca2+ influx. In addition, we observed that (i) NGF promoted the insertion of TRPV1 into the cell surface membrane and (ii) 15d-PGJ2 covalently bound to TRPV1. These findings suggest that the NGF/15d-PGJ2-induced neuritogenesis may be regulated by two sets of mechanisms, one for the translocation of TRPV1 into the cell surface by NGF and one for the activation of TRPV1 by 15d-PGJ2. Thus, there is most likely a link between allergic inflammation and activation of the neuronal differentiation. PMID:26879669

  7. Cyclopentenone prostaglandin, 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-PGJ2, is metabolized by HepG2 cells via conjugation with glutathione.

    PubMed

    Brunoldi, Enrico M; Zanoni, Giuseppe; Vidari, Giovanni; Sasi, Soumya; Freeman, Michael L; Milne, Ginger L; Morrow, Jason D

    2007-10-01

    15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15-d-PGJ2) is a dehydration product of PGD2. This compound possesses a highly reactive polyunsaturated carbonyl moiety that is a substrate for Michael addition with thiol-containing biomolecules such as glutathione and cysteine residues on proteins. By reacting with glutathione and proteins, 15-d-PGJ2 is believed to exert potent biological activity. Despite the large number of publications that have ascribed bioactivity to this molecule, it is not known to what extent 15-d-PGJ2 is formed in vivo. Levels of free 15-d-PGJ2 measured in human biological fluids such as urine are low, and the biological importance of this compound has thus been questioned. Because of its reactivity, we hypothesized that 15-d-PGJ2 is present in vivo primarily as a Michael conjugate. Therefore, we undertook a detailed study of the metabolism of this compound in HepG2 cells that are known to metabolize other cyclopentenone eicosanoids. We report that HepG2 cells primarily convert 15-d-PGJ2 to a glutathione conjugate in which the carbonyl at C-11 is reduced to a hydroxyl. Subsequently, the glutathione portion of the molecule is hydrolyzed with loss of glutamic acid and glycine resulting in a cysteine conjugate. These findings confirm a general route for the metabolism of cyclopentenone eicosanoids in HepG2 cells and may pave the way for new insights regarding the formation of 15-d-PGJ2 in vivo.

  8. Sesamin inhibits IL-1β-stimulated inflammatory response in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes by activating Nrf2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kong, Pengyu; Chen, Guanghua; Jiang, Anlong; Wang, Yufu; Song, Chengchao; Zhuang, Jinpeng; Xi, Chunyang; Wang, Guangxi; Ji, Ye; Yan, Jinglong

    2016-12-13

    Sesamin, a bioactive component extracted from sesame, has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of sesamin on IL-1β-stimulated human osteoarthritis chondrocytes and investigated the possible mechanism. Results demonstrated that sesamin treatment significantly inhibited PGE2 and NO production induced by IL-1β. Sesamin inhibited MMP1, MMP3, and MMP13 production in IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes. Sesamin also inhibited IL-1β-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and IκBα. Meanwhile, sesamin was found to up-regulate the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1. However, Nrf2 siRNA reversed the anti-inflammatory effects of sesamin. In conclusion, our results suggested that sesamin showed anti-inflammatory effects in IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes by activating Nrf2 signaling pathway.

  9. Stimulating Curiosity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Necka, Edward

    1989-01-01

    Curiosity can be developed and nurtured through application of such educational principles as the rewarding of questioning, the use of open questions, delaying answers, accepting incompleteness in existing knowledge, etc. Teaching techniques for stimulating curiosity include brain questioning, role playing, hypothesizing, and pursuing curiosity.…

  10. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  11. Cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of onion peel extract on lipopolysaccharide stimulated human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungmi; Kim, Ji-Sang; Park, Eunju

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the cytotoxic activity of ethanol extract of onion peel (OPE) in HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was performed to determine the amounts of phenolic acids and flavonoids in OPE. In addition, the influence of OPE on antioxidant- and inflammation-associated gene expression was also determined in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated HT-29 cells. HPLC analysis showed that OPE contained well-known antioxidant compounds, including p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, epicatechin, and morin. After incubation with OPE, HT-29 cells showed either a loss of normal nuclear architecture or detachability from each other. The cytotoxic effects of OPE on HT-29 cells were confirmed by MTT and LDH release assays. LPS-induced oxidative conditions effectively downregulated TNF-α mRNA expression in OPE pretreated HT-29 cells compared with cells only stimulated with LPS. In addition, the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) detoxification genes (i.e., GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1) was upregulated after treatment with LPS at sublethal concentrations. However, the LPS-induced mRNA expression of HO-1 and GSTs was significantly attenuated by treatment with OPE. Therefore, onion peel extract is a promising component of future nutraceuticals and value-added products.

  12. Hepatic injury associated with Trypanosoma cruzi infection is attenuated by treatment with 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14) prostaglandin J2.

    PubMed

    Penas, Federico Nicolás; Cevey, Ágata Carolina; Siffo, Sofía; Mirkin, Gerardo Ariel; Goren, Nora Beatriz

    2016-11-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, causes an intense inflammatory response in several tissues, including the liver. Since this organ is central to metabolism, its infection may be reflected in the outcome of the disease. 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14) prostaglandin J2 (15dPGJ2), a natural agonist of peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ, has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects in the heart upon T. cruzi infection. However, its role in the restoration of liver function and reduction of liver inflammation has not been studied yet. BALB/c mice were infected with T. cruzi. The effects of in vivo treatment with 15dPGJ2 on liver inflammation and fibrosis, as well as on the GOT/GPT ratio were studied and the role of NF-κB pathway on 15dPGJ2-mediated effects was analysed. 15dPGJ2 reduced liver inflammatory infiltrates, proinflammatory enzymes and cytokines expression, restored the De Ritis ratio values to normal, reduced the deposits of interstitial and perisinusoidal collagen, reduced the expression of the pro-fibrotic cytokines and inhibited the translocation of the p65 NF-κB subunit to the nucleus. Thus, we showed that 15dPGJ2 is able to significantly reduce the inflammatory response and fibrosis and reduced enzyme markers of liver damage in mice infected with T. cruzi.

  13. 15-Deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin-J(2) reveals a new pVHL-independent, lysosomal-dependent mechanism of HIF-1alpha degradation.

    PubMed

    Olmos, Gemma; Arenas, María I; Bienes, Raquel; Calzada, María Jose; Aragonés, Julián; Garcia-Bermejo, Maria Laura; Landazuri, Manuel O; Lucio-Cazaña, Javier

    2009-07-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) protein is degraded under normoxia by its association to von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL) and further proteasomal digestion. However, human renal cells HK-2 treated with 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin-J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) accumulate HIF-1alpha in normoxic conditions. Thus, we aimed to investigate the mechanism involved in this accumulation. We found that 15d-PGJ(2) induced an over-accumulation of HIF-1alpha in RCC4 cells, which lack pVHL and in HK-2 cells treated with inhibitors of the pVHL-proteasome pathway. These results indicated that pVHL-proteasome-independent mechanisms are involved, and therefore we aimed to ascertain them. We have identified a new lysosomal-dependent mechanism of HIF-1alpha degradation as a target for 15d-PGJ(2) based on: (1) HIF-1alpha colocalized with the specific lysosomal marker Lamp-2a, (2) 15d-PGJ(2) inhibited the activity of cathepsin B, a lysosomal protease, and (3) inhibition of lysosomal activity did not result in over-accumulation of HIF-1alpha in 15d-PGJ(2)-treated cells. Therefore, expression of HIF-1alpha is also modulated by lysosomal degradation.

  14. Catalase Overexpression Prevents Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2–Related Factor 2 Stimulation of Renal Angiotensinogen Gene Expression, Hypertension, and Kidney Injury in Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Abdo, Shaaban; Shi, Yixuan; Otoukesh, Abouzar; Ghosh, Anindya; Lo, Chao-Sheng; Chenier, Isabelle; Filep, Janos G.; Ingelfinger, Julie R.; Zhang, Shao Ling

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of catalase (Cat) overexpression in renal proximal tubule cells (RPTCs) on nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) stimulation of angiotensinogen (Agt) gene expression and the development of hypertension and renal injury in diabetic Akita transgenic mice. Additionally, adult male mice were treated with the Nrf2 activator oltipraz with or without the inhibitor trigonelline. Rat RPTCs, stably transfected with plasmid containing either rat Agt or Nrf2 gene promoter, were also studied. Cat overexpression normalized systolic BP, attenuated renal injury, and inhibited RPTC Nrf2, Agt, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression in Akita Cat transgenic mice compared with Akita mice. In vitro, high glucose level, hydrogen peroxide, and oltipraz stimulated Nrf2 and Agt gene expression; these changes were blocked by trigonelline, small interfering RNAs of Nrf2, antioxidants, or pharmacological inhibitors of nuclear factor-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. The deletion of Nrf2-responsive elements in the rat Agt gene promoter abolished the stimulatory effect of oltipraz. Oltipraz administration also augmented Agt, HO-1, and Nrf2 gene expression in mouse RPTCs and was reversed by trigonelline. These data identify a novel mechanism, Nrf2-mediated stimulation of intrarenal Agt gene expression and activation of the renin-angiotensin system, by which hyperglycemia induces hypertension and renal injury in diabetic mice. PMID:24812425

  15. L-F001, a Multifunction ROCK Inhibitor Prevents 6-OHDA Induced Cell Death Through Activating Akt/GSK-3beta and Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway in PC12 Cells and Attenuates MPTP-Induced Dopamine Neuron Toxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Luo, Liting; Chen, Jingkao; Su, Dan; Chen, Meihui; Luo, Bingling; Pi, Rongbiao; Wang, Lan; Shen, Wei; Wang, Rikang

    2017-02-01

    Amounting evidences demonstrated that Rho/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) might be a novel target for the therapy of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, we synthesized L-F001 and revealed it was a potent ROCK inhibitor with multifunctional effects. Here we investigated the effects of L-F001 in PD models. We found that L-F001 potently attenuated 6-OHDA-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells and significantly decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), prevented the 6-OHDA-induced decline of mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular GSH levels. In addition, L-F001 increased Akt and GSK-3beta phosphorylation and induced the nuclear Nrf2 and HO-1 expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, L-F001 restored the levels of p-Akt and p-GSK-3beta (Ser9) as well as HO-1 expression reduced by 6-OHDA. Those effects were blocked by the specific PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, indicating the involvement of Akt/GSK-3beta pathway in the neuroprotective effect of L-F001. In addition, L-F001 significantly attenuated the tyrosinehydroxylase immunoreactive cell loss in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mice PD model. Together, our findings suggest that L-F001 prevents 6-OHDA-induced cell death through activating Akt/GSK-3beta and Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway and attenuates MPTP-induced dopaminergic neuron toxicity in mice. L-F001 might be a promising drug candidate for PD.

  16. Detecting pM concentrations of prostaglandins in cell culture supernatants by capillary SCX-LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Sandra Rinne; Kleiveland, Charlotte Ramstad; Kassem, Moustapha; Lea, Tor; Lundanes, Elsa; Greibrokk, Tyge

    2008-08-01

    A highly sensitive, improved online strong cation exchange (SCX)--RP capillary liquid chromatographic (cLC) method with IT mass spectrometric (IT-MS/MS) detection for the simultaneous determination of prostaglandin (PG)A(1), PGD(2), PGE(1), PGE(2), PGF(2alpha), 8-iso-(8i)PGF(2alpha), 6-keto-(6k)PGF(1alpha), and 15-Delta(12, 14)-deoxy-PGJ(2) (15dPGJ(2)) in cell culture supernatants was developed and validated. Pretreatment of the cell culture supernatants included only dilution and filtration, and the analysis time including all sample preparation steps was 60 min per sample. Peptides/proteins contained in the matrix were removed by the SCX column. LODs in the range of 8-44 pg/mL (25-120 pM) cell culture supernatant were obtained. Excellent linearity (R(2) > 0.99) and satisfactory recoveries and within- and between-day precisions were obtained. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were stimulated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) or TNFalpha/IL-17, and PG production was analyzed using the developed method. The four PGs, 6kPGF(1a), PGF(1a), PGE(2), and PGE(1 )were detected both in nonstimulated and stimulated cells. The amount of PG produced by the cell increased when the cell was stimulated.

  17. Enteric glia modulate epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation through 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2

    PubMed Central

    Bach-Ngohou, Kalyane; Mahé, Maxime M; Aubert, Philippe; Abdo, Hind; Boni, Sébastien; Bourreille, Arnaud; Denis, Marc G; Lardeux, Bernard; Neunlist, Michel; Masson, Damien

    2010-01-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) and its major component, enteric glial cells (EGCs), have recently been identified as a major regulator of intestinal epithelial barrier functions. Indeed, EGCs inhibit intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation and increase barrier resistance and IEC adhesion via the release of EGC-derived soluble factors. Interestingly, EGC regulation of intestinal epithelial barrier functions is reminiscent of previously reported peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ)-dependent functional effects. In this context, the present study aimed at identifying whether EGC could synthesize and release the main PPARγ ligand, 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15dPGJ2), and regulate IEC functions such as proliferation and differentiation via a PPARγ dependent pathway. First, we demonstrated that the lipocalin but not the haematopoetic form for prostaglandin D synthase (PGDS), the enzyme responsible of 15dPGJ2 synthesis, was expressed in EGCs of the human submucosal plexus and of the subepithelium, as well as in rat primary culture of ENS and EGC lines. Next, 15dPGJ2 was identified in EGC supernatants of various EGC lines. 15dPGJ2 reproduced EGC inhibitory effects upon IEC proliferation, and inhibition of lipocalin PGDS expression by shRNA abrogated these effects. Furthermore, EGCs induced nuclear translocation of PPARγ in IEC, and both EGC and 15dPGJ2 effects upon IEC proliferation were prevented by the PPARγ antagonist GW9662. Finally, EGC induced differentiation-related gene expression in IEC through a PPARγ-dependent pathway. Our results identified 15dPGJ2 as a novel glial-derived mediator involved in the control of IEC proliferation/differentiation through activation of PPARγ. They also suggest that alterations of glial PGDS expression may modify intestinal epithelial barrier functions and be involved in the development of pathologies such as cancer or inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:20478974

  18. Targeting arachidonic acid pathway to prevent programmed hypertension in maternal fructose-fed male adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Tain, You-Lin; Lee, Wei-Chia; Wu, Kay L H; Leu, Steve; Chan, Julie Y H

    2016-12-01

    Hypertension can be programmed in response to nutritional insults in early life. Maternal high-fructose (HF) intake induced programmed hypertension in adult male offspring, which is associated with renal programming and arachidonic acid metabolism pathway. We examined whether early treatment with a soluble epoxide hydrolase (SEH) inhibitor, 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA) or 15-Deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostagandin J2 (15dPGJ2) can prevent HF-induced programmed hypertension. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats received regular chow or chow supplemented with fructose (60% diet by weight) during the whole period of pregnancy and lactation. Four groups of male offspring were studied: control, HF, HF+AUDA and HF+15dPGJ2. In HF+AUDA group, mother rats received AUDA 25 mg/L in drinking water during lactation. In the HF+15dPGJ2 group, male offspring received 15dPGJ2 1.5 mg/kg body weight by subcutaneous injection once daily for 1 week after birth. Rats were sacrificed at 12 weeks of age. Maternal HF-induced programmed hypertension is associated with increased renal protein level of SEH and oxidative stress, which early AUDA therapy prevents. Comparison of AUDA and 15dPGJ2 treatments demonstrated that AUDA was more effective in preventing HF-induced programmed hypertension. AUDA therapy increases angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) protein levels and PGE2 levels in adult offspring kidney exposed to maternal HF. 15dPGJ2 therapy increases plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) levels and decreases L-arginine-to-ADMA ratio. Better understanding of the impact of arachidonic acid pathway, especially inhibition of SEH, on renal programming may aid in developing reprogramming strategy to prevent programmed hypertension in children exposed to antenatal HF intake.

  19. Early postnatal treatment with soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor or 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostagandin J2 prevents prenatal dexamethasone and postnatal high saturated fat diet induced programmed hypertension in adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pei-Chen; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Yu, Hong-Ren; Lin, Yu-Ju; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Tsai, Ching-Chou; Huang, Li-Tung; Tain, You-Lin

    2016-07-01

    Prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure, postnatal high-fat (HF) intake, and arachidonic acid pathway are closely related to hypertension. We tested whether a soluble epoxide hydrolase (SEH) inhibitor, 12-(3-adamantan-1-yl-ureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA) or 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostagandin J2 (15dPGJ2) therapy can rescue programmed hypertension in the DEX+HF two-hit model. Four groups of Sprague Dawley rats were studied: control, DEX+HF, AUDA, and 15dPGJ2. Dexamethasone (0.1mg/kg body weight) was intraperitoneally administered to pregnant rats from gestational day 16-22. Male offspring received high-fat diet (D12331, Research Diets) from weaning to 4 months of age. In AUDA group, mother rats received 25mg/L in drinking water during lactation. In the 15dPGJ2 group, male offspring received 15dPGJ2 1.5mg/kg BW by subcutaneous injection once daily for 1 week after birth. We found postnatal HF diet aggravated prenatal DEX-induced programmed hypertension, which was similarly prevented by early treatment with AUDA or 15dPGJ2. The beneficial effects of AUDA and 15d-PGJ2 therapy include inhibition of SEH, increases of renal angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) protein levels, and restoration of nitric oxide bioavailability. Better understanding of the impact of arachidonic acid pathway in the two-hit model will help prevent programmed hypertension in children exposed to corticosteroids and postnatal HF intake.

  20. Vagus Nerve Stimulation

    MedlinePlus

    Vagus nerve stimulation Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Vagus nerve stimulation is a procedure that involves implantation of a device that stimulates the vagus nerve with electrical impulses. There's one vagus nerve on ...

  1. 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 induces expression of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase through Elk-1 activation in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Rim; Lee, Ha-Na; Lim, Kyu; Surh, Young-Joon; Na, Hye-Kyung

    2014-10-01

    Overproduction of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been reported to be implicated in carcinogenesis. The intracellular level of PGE2 is maintained not only by its biosynthesis, but also by inactivation/degradation. 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) is the key enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of oncogenic PGE2 to a biologically inactive keto metabolite. In the present study, we demonstrate that 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15 d-PGJ2), one of the terminal products of cyclooxygenase-2, updregulates the expression and the activity of 15-PGDH in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. By using deletion constructs of the 15-PGDH promoter, we have found that E-twenty six (Ets) is the most essential determinant for 15-PGDH induction. 15 d-PGJ2 induced phosphorylation of Elk-1, one of Ets transcription factor family members, in the nucleus. Knockdown of Elk-1 abolished the ability of 15 d-PGJ2 to upregulate 15-PGDH expression. Furthermore, 15 d-PGJ2-mediated activation of Elk-1 was found to be dependent on activation of extracellular-signal related kinase (ERK) 1/2. Treatment of U0126, a pharmacological inhibitor of MEK1/2-ERK, abolished phosphorylation and DNA binding of Elk-1 as well as 15-PGDH induction in 15 d-PGJ2-treated MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, 15 d-PGJ2 generated reactive oxygen species (ROS), which contribute to the expression of 15-PGDH as well as phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Elk-1. 15 d-PGJ2 inhibited the migration of MDA-MB-231 cells, which was attenuated by transient transfection with 15-PGDH siRNA. Taken together, these findings suggest that 15 d-PGJ2 induces the expression of 15-PGDH through ROS-mediated activation of ERK1/2 and subsequently Elk-1 in the MDA-MB-231 cells, which may contribute to tumor suppressive activity of this cyclopentenone prostaglandin.

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids in THP-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Guixiang; Etherton, Terry D.; Martin, Keith R.; Vanden Heuvel, John P.; Gillies, Peter J.; West, Sheila G.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M. . E-mail: pmk3@psu.edu

    2005-10-28

    The effects of linoleic acid (LA), {alpha}-linolenic acid (ALA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were compared to that of palmitic acid (PA), on inflammatory responses in human monocytic THP-1 cells. When cells were pre-incubated with fatty acids for 2-h and then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide for 24-h in the presence of fatty acids, secretion of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1{beta}, and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF{alpha}) was significantly decreased after treatment with LA, ALA, and DHA versus PA (P < 0.01 for all); ALA and DHA elicited more favorable effects. These effects were comparable to those for 15-deoxy-{delta}{sup 12,14}-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) and were dose-dependent. In addition, LA, ALA, and DHA decreased IL-6, IL-1{beta}, and TNF{alpha} gene expression (P < 0.05 for all) and nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B DNA-binding activity, whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) DNA-binding activity was increased. The results indicate that the anti-inflammatory effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids may be, in part, due to the inhibition of NF-{kappa}B activation via activation of PPAR{gamma}.

  3. Inhibitory Effects of Benzaldehyde Derivatives from the Marine Fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 on Inflammatory Mediators via the Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW264.7 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Su; Cui, Xiang; Lee, Dong-Sung; Ko, Wonmin; Sohn, Jae Hak; Yim, Joung Han; An, Ren-Bo; Kim, Youn-Chul; Oh, Hyuncheol

    2014-01-01

    Two benzaldehyde derivatives, flavoglaucin (1) and isotetrahydro-auroglaucin (2), were isolated from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 through bioassay- and 1H NMR-guided investigation. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. We demonstrated that compounds 1 and 2 markedly inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression without affecting cell viability. We also demonstrated that the compounds reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 inhibited LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by suppressing phosphorylation of IkappaB (IκB). These results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of these benzaldehyde derivatives in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were due to the inactivation of the NF-κB pathway. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression through the nuclear transcription factor-E2–related factor 2 (Nrf2) translocation. The inhibitory effects of compounds 1 and 2 on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and on NF-κB binding activity were reversed by HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP). Thus, the anti-inflammatory effects of compounds 1 and 2 also correlated with their ability of inducing HO-1 expression. PMID:25535073

  4. Inhibitory effects of benzaldehyde derivatives from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 on inflammatory mediators via the induction of heme oxygenase-1 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Su; Cui, Xiang; Lee, Dong-Sung; Ko, Wonmin; Sohn, Jae Hak; Yim, Joung Han; An, Ren-Bo; Kim, Youn-Chul; Oh, Hyuncheol

    2014-12-19

    Two benzaldehyde derivatives, flavoglaucin (1) and isotetrahydro-auroglaucin (2), were isolated from the marine fungus Eurotium sp. SF-5989 through bioassay- and 1H NMR-guided investigation. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of these compounds in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. We demonstrated that compounds 1 and 2 markedly inhibited LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production by suppressing inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression without affecting cell viability. We also demonstrated that the compounds reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 inhibited LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by suppressing phosphorylation of IkappaB (IκB). These results indicated that the anti-inflammatory effects of these benzaldehyde derivatives in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages were due to the inactivation of the NF-κB pathway. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression through the nuclear transcription factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) translocation. The inhibitory effects of compounds 1 and 2 on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and on NF-κB binding activity were reversed by HO-1 inhibitor tin protoporphyrin (SnPP). Thus, the anti-inflammatory effects of compounds 1 and 2 also correlated with their ability of inducing HO-1 expression.

  5. Haem arginate infusion stimulates haem oxygenase-1 expression in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Doberer, D; Haschemi, A; Andreas, M; Zapf, T-C; Clive, B; Jeitler, M; Heinzl, H; Wagner, O; Wolzt, M; Bilban, M

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Haem oxygenase 1 (HO-1) is an inducible protein that plays a major protective role in conditions such as ischaemia-reperfusion injury and inflammation. In this study, we have investigated the role of haem arginate (HA) in human male subjects in the modulation of HO-1 expression and its correlation with the GT length polymorphism (GTn) in the promoter of the HO-1 gene. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH In a dose-escalation, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, seven healthy male subjects with a homozygous short (S/S) and eight with a long (L/L) GTn genotype received intravenous HA. HO-1 protein expression and mRNA levels in peripheral blood monocytes, bilirubin, haptoglobin, haemopexin and haem levels were analysed over a 48 h observation period. KEY RESULTS We found that the baseline mRNA levels of HO-1 were higher in L/L subjects, while protein levels were higher in S/S subjects. HA induced a dose-dependent increase in the baseline corrected area under the curve values of HO-1 mRNA and protein over 48 h. The response of HO-1 mRNA was more pronounced in L/L subjects but the protein level was similar across the groups. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATION HA is an effective inducer of HO-1 in humans irrespective of the GTn genotype. The potential therapeutic application of HA needs to be evaluated in clinical trials. PMID:20718734

  6. Brain Stimulation in Addiction.

    PubMed

    Salling, Michael C; Martinez, Diana

    2016-11-01

    Localized stimulation of the human brain to treat neuropsychiatric disorders has been in place for over 20 years. Although these methods have been used to a greater extent for mood and movement disorders, recent work has explored brain stimulation methods as potential treatments for addiction. The rationale behind stimulation therapy in addiction involves reestablishing normal brain function in target regions in an effort to dampen addictive behaviors. In this review, we present the rationale and studies investigating brain stimulation in addiction, including transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, and deep brain stimulation. Overall, these studies indicate that brain stimulation has an acute effect on craving for drugs and alcohol, but few studies have investigated the effect of brain stimulation on actual drug and alcohol use or relapse. Stimulation therapies may achieve their effect through direct or indirect modulation of brain regions involved in addiction, either acutely or through plastic changes in neuronal transmission. Although these mechanisms are not well understood, further identification of the underlying neurobiology of addiction and rigorous evaluation of brain stimulation methods has the potential for unlocking an effective, long-term treatment of addiction.

  7. Direct evidence for the covalent modification of glutathione-S-transferase P1-1 by electrophilic prostaglandins: implications for enzyme inactivation and cell survival.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Gómez, Francisco J; Gayarre, Javier; Avellano, M Isabel; Pérez-Sala, Dolores

    2007-01-15

    Glutathione-S-transferases (GST) catalyze the conjugation of electrophilic compounds to glutathione, thus playing a key role in cell survival and tumor chemoresistance. Cyclopentenone prostaglandins (cyPG) are electrophilic eicosanoids that display potent antiproliferative properties, through multiple mechanisms not completely elucidated. Here we show that the cyPG 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2) binds to GSTP1-1 covalently, as demonstrated by mass spectrometry and by the use of biotinylated 15d-PGJ2. Moreover, cyPG inactivate GSTP1-1 irreversibly. The presence of the cyclopentenone moiety is important for these effects. Covalent interactions also occur in cells, in which 15d-PGJ2 binds to endogenous GSTP1-1, irreversibly reduces GST free-thiol content and inhibits GST activity. Protein delivery of GSTP1-1 improves cell survival upon serum deprivation whereas 15d-PGJ2-treated GSTP1-1 displays a reduced protective effect. These results show the first evidence for the formation of stable adducts between cyPG and GSTP1-1 and may offer new perspectives for the development of irreversible GST inhibitors as anticancer agents.

  8. 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2-Glycerol Ester, a Putative Metabolite of 2-Arachidonyl Glycerol, Activates Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor γ

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Priyadarshini; Kaplan, Barbara L. F.; Thompson, Jerry T.; Vanden Heuvel, John P.

    2011-01-01

    2-Arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG) is an endogenous arachidonic acid derivative capable of suppressing interleukin (IL)-2 production by activated T cells. 2-AG-mediated IL-2 suppression is dependent on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) metabolism and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) activation. The objective of the present studies was to examine whether 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2-glycerol ester (15d-PGJ2-G), a putative metabolite of 2-AG, can mimic the actions of 2-AG on IL-2 regulation through PPARγ activation. 15d-PGJ2-G bound PPARγ-ligand binding domain in a PPARγ competitive binding assay. 15d-PGJ2-G treatment activated PPARγ in a reporter assay, and PPARγ activation was attenuated when a PPARγ antagonist, 2-chloro-5-nitro-N-4-pyridinylbenzamide (T0070907), was present. 15d-PGJ2-G treatment suppressed IL-2 production by activated Jurkat cells, which was partially attenuated when pretreated with T0070907. Moreover, IL-2 suppression was pronounced when 15d-PGJ2-G was present 30 min before or after T-cell activation. Concordant with IL-2 suppression, 15d-PGJ2-G treatment decreased nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) transcriptional activity in transiently transfected Jurkat cells. It is noteworthy that T0070907 alone markedly increased NFAT reporter activity, suggesting the existence of endogenous PPARγ activation and modulation of NFAT. Because COX-2 metabolism of 2-AG is important for IL-2 suppression, the effect of 2-AG on COX-2 and PPARγ mRNA expression was investigated. 2-AG treatment decreased the up-regulation of COX-2 mRNA after T-cell activation, which suggests negative feedback limiting COX-2-mediated metabolism of 2-AG. PPARγ mRNA expression was increased upon activation, and 2-AG treatment produced a modest decrease in PPARγ mRNA expression. Collectively, our findings suggest that 15d-PGJ2-G activates PPARγ to decrease NFAT transcriptional activity and IL-2 expression in activated T cells. PMID:21511917

  9. Magnitude of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation is associated with important and seemingly opposite biological responses in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Clay, C E; Namen, A M; Atsumi, G; Trimboli, A J; Fonteh, A N; High, K P; Chilton, F H

    2001-09-01

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) has become a potential target for the prevention and treatment of breast cancer. However, recent in vitro and in vivo studies have raised the question of whether activation of PPARgamma leads to the promotion or reduction of tumor formation. Studies using several cancer cell lines, animal models, and a variety of PPARgamma agonists have shown discordant results, including changes in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of cancer cells and tumors. We studied the effects of low-, moderate-, and high-dose treatment of the PPARgamma ligands 15-deoxy-delta1214 prostaglandin J2 (15dPGJ2) and troglitazone (TGZ) on parameters of cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis in the epithelial breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The biologic effects of these compounds depend largely on ligand concentration and the degree of PPARgamma activation. For example, low concentrations of 15dPGJ2 (<2.5 microM) and TGZ (<5 microM) increased cellular proliferation, but concentrations of 15dPGJ2 > or = 10 microM and of TGZ at 100 microM blocked cell growth. TGZ (100 microM) slowed cell cycle progression, and 15dPGJ2 (10 microM) caused an S-phase arrest in the cell cycle and induced morphological characteristics consistent with apoptosis. Expression of CD36, a marker of differentiation in these cells, was induced by 2.5 microM 15dPGJ2 or 5 to 100 microM TGZ. However, higher concentrations of 15dPGJ2 did not alter CD36 expression. Transcriptional activation studies demonstrated that 15dPGJ2 is a more potent PPARgamma ligand than TGZ. Regardless of the ligand used, though, low transcriptional activation correlated with an increased cellular proliferation, whereas higher levels of activation correlated with cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. PPARgamma activation induces several important and seemingly opposite changes in neoplastic cells, depending on the magnitude of PPARgamma activation. These

  10. Peripheral nerve stimulation: definition.

    PubMed

    Abejón, David; Pérez-Cajaraville, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there has been a tremendous evolution in the field of neurostimulation, both from the technological point of view and from development of the new and different indications. In some areas, such as peripheral nerve stimulation, there has been a boom in recent years due to the variations in the surgical technique and the improved results documented by in multiple published papers. All this makes imperative the need to classify and define the different types of stimulation that are used today. The confusion arises when attempting to describe peripheral nerve stimulation and subcutaneous stimulation. Peripheral nerve stimulation, in its pure definition, involves implanting a lead on a nerve, with the aim to produce paresthesia along the entire trajectory of the stimulated nerve. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Factors stimulating bone formation.

    PubMed

    Lind, M; Bünger, C

    2001-10-01

    The aim of this review is to describe major approaches for stimulating bone healing and to review other factors affecting bone healing. Spinal bone fusion after surgery is a demanding process requiring optimal conditions for clinical success. Bone formation and healing can be enhanced through various methods. Experimental studies have revealed an array of stimulative measures. These include biochemical stimulation by use of hormones and growth factors, physical stimulation through mechanical and electromagnetic measures, and bone grafting by use of bone tissue or bone substitutes. Newer biological techniques such as stem cell transplantation and gene therapy can also be used to stimulate bone healing. Apart from bone transplantation, clinical experience with the many stimulation modalities is limited. Possible areas for clinical use of these novel methods are discussed.

  12. Cleome rutidosperma and Euphorbia thymifolia Suppress Inflammatory Response via Upregulation of Phase II Enzymes and Modulation of NF-κB and JNK Activation in LPS-Stimulated BV2 Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Wu, Pei-Shan; Wu, Ming-Jiuan

    2016-01-01

    Cleome rutidosperma DC. and Euphorbia thymifolia L. are herbal medicines used in traditional Indian and Chinese medicine to treat various illnesses. Reports document that they have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities; nonetheless, the molecular mechanisms involved in their anti-inflammatory actions have not yet been elucidated. The anti-neuroinflammatory activities and underlying mechanisms of ethanol extracts of Cleome rutidosperma (CR) and Euphorbia thymifolia (ET) were studied using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated microglial cell line BV2. The morphology changes and production of pro-inflammatory mediators were assayed. Gene expression of inflammatory genes such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, interleukin (IL)-1β, and CC chemokine ligand (CCL)-2, as well as phase II enzymes such as heme oxygenase (HO)-1, the modifier subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCLM) and NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1), were further investigated using reverse transcription quantitative-PCR (RT-Q-PCR) and Western blotting. The effects of CR and ET on mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathways were examined using Western blotting and specific inhibitors. CR and ET suppressed BV2 activation, down-regulated iNOS and COX-2 expression and inhibited nitric oxide (NO) overproduction without affecting cell viability. They reduced LPS-mediated tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-6 production, attenuated IL-1β and CCL2 expression, but upregulated HO-1, GCLM and NQO1 expression. They also inhibited p65 NF-κB phosphorylation and modulated Jun-N terminal kinase (JNK) activation in BV2 cells. SP600125, the JNK inhibitor, significantly augmented the anti-IL-6 activity of ET. NF-κB inhibitor, Bay 11-7082, enhanced the anti-IL-6 effects of both CR and ET. Znpp, a competitive inhibitor of HO-1, attenuated the anti-NO effects of CR and ET. Our results show that CR and ET exhibit anti

  13. Stimulant Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Park, Taryn M; Haning, William F

    2016-07-01

    Compared with other illicit substances, stimulants are not commonly used by adolescents; however, they represent a serious concern regarding substance use among youths. This article uses methamphetamine as a model for stimulant use in adolescents; cocaine and prescription stimulants are also mentioned. Methamphetamine use among adolescents and young adults is a serious health concern with potentially long-term physical, cognitive, and psychiatric consequences. Brain development and the effects of misusing stimulants align such that usage in adolescents can more dangerous than during adulthood. It seems helpful to keep in mind the differences between adolescents and young adults when implementing interventions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. AN ELISA ASSAY FOR HEME OXYGENASE (HO-1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ELISA assay for heme oxygenase (HO-l )

    Abstract

    A double antibody capture ELISA for the HO-l protein has been developed to separately quantitate HO-I protein. The use of 2.5% NP40 detergent greatly assists in freeing HO-l protein from membranes and/or other cel...

  15. AN ELISA ASSAY FOR HEME OXYGENASE (HO-1)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ELISA assay for heme oxygenase (HO-l )

    Abstract

    A double antibody capture ELISA for the HO-l protein has been developed to separately quantitate HO-I protein. The use of 2.5% NP40 detergent greatly assists in freeing HO-l protein from membranes and/or other cel...

  16. Inhibition of IkappaB kinase and IkappaB phosphorylation by 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) in activated murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Castrillo, A; Díaz-Guerra, M J; Hortelano, S; Martín-Sanz, P; Boscá, L

    2000-03-01

    Activation of the macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) induces the expression of gene products involved in host defense, among them type 2 nitric oxide synthase. Treatment of cells with 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15dPGJ(2)) inhibited the LPS- and IFN-gamma-dependent synthesis of NO, a process that was not antagonized by similar concentrations of prostaglandin J(2), prostaglandin E(2), or rosiglitazone, a peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligand. Incubation of activated macrophages with 15dPGJ(2) inhibited the degradation of IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta and increased their levels in the nuclei. NF-kappaB activity, as well as the transcription of NF-kappaB-dependent genes, such as those encoding type 2 nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2, was impaired under these conditions. Analysis of the steps leading to IkappaB phosphorylation showed an inhibition of IkappaB kinase by 15dPGJ(2) in cells treated with LPS and IFN-gamma, resulting in an impaired phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, at least in the serine 32 residue required for targeting and degradation of this protein. Incubation of partially purified activated IkappaB kinase with 2 microM 15dPGJ(2) reduced by 83% the phosphorylation in serine 32 of IkappaBalpha, suggesting that this prostaglandin exerts direct inhibitory effects on the activity of the IkappaB kinase complex. These results show rapid actions of 15dPGJ(2), independent of peroxisomal proliferator receptor gamma activation, in macrophages challenged with low doses of LPS and IFN-gamma.

  17. The point mutation UCH-L1 C152A protects primary neurons against cyclopentenone prostaglandin-induced cytotoxicity: implications for post-ischemic neuronal injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, H; Li, W; Rose, M E; Hickey, R W; Chen, J; Uechi, G T; Balasubramani, M; Day, B W; Patel, K V; Graham, S H

    2015-01-01

    Cyclopentenone prostaglandins (CyPGs), such as 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15dPGJ2), are reactive prostaglandin metabolites exerting a variety of biological effects. CyPGs are produced in ischemic brain and disrupt the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Ubiquitin-C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is a brain-specific deubiquitinating enzyme that has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Using tandem mass spectrometry (MS) analyses, we found that the C152 site of UCH-L1 is adducted by CyPGs. Mutation of C152 to alanine (C152A) inhibited CyPG modification and conserved recombinant UCH-L1 protein hydrolase activity after 15dPGJ2 treatment. A knock-in (KI) mouse expressing the UCH-L1 C152A mutation was constructed with the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technique. Brain expression and distribution of UCH-L1 in the KI mouse was similar to that of wild type (WT) as determined by western blotting. Primary cortical neurons derived from KI mice were resistant to 15dPGJ2 cytotoxicity compared with neurons from WT mice as detected by the WST-1 cell viability assay and caspase-3 and poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. This protective effect was accompanied with significantly less ubiquitinated protein accumulation and aggregation as well as less UCH-L1 aggregation in C152A KI primary neurons after 15dPGJ2 treatment. Additionally, 15dPGJ2-induced axonal injury was also significantly attenuated in KI neurons as compared with WT. Taken together, these studies indicate that UCH-L1 function is important in hypoxic neuronal death, and the C152 site of UCH-L1 has a significant role in neuronal survival after hypoxic/ischemic injury. PMID:26539913

  18. Inhibition of mitochondrial division through covalent modification of Drp1 protein by 15 deoxy-{Delta}{sup 12,14}-prostaglandin J2

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, Nandita; Kar, Rekha; Singha, Prajjal K.; Venkatachalam, Manjeri A.; McEwen, Donald G.; Saikumar, Pothana

    2010-04-23

    Arachidonic acid derived endogenous electrophile 15d-PGJ2 has gained much attention in recent years due to its potent anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory actions mediated through thiol modification of cysteine residues in its target proteins. Here, we show that 15d-PGJ2 at 1 {mu}M concentration converts normal mitochondria into large elongated and interconnected mitochondria through direct binding to mitochondrial fission protein Drp1 and partial inhibition of its GTPase activity. Mitochondrial elongation induced by 15d-PGJ2 is accompanied by increased assembly of Drp1 into large oligomeric complexes through plausible intermolecular interactions. The role of decreased GTPase activity of Drp1 in the formation of large oligomeric complexes is evident when Drp1 is incubated with a non-cleavable GTP analog, GTP{gamma}S or by a mutation that inactivated GTPase activity of Drp1 (K38A). The mutation of cysteine residue (Cys644) in the GTPase effector domain, a reported target for modification by reactive electrophiles, to alanine mimicked K38A mutation induced Drp1 oligomerization and mitochondrial elongation, suggesting the importance of cysteine in GED to regulate the GTPase activity and mitochondrial morphology. Interestingly, treatment of K38A and C644A mutants with 15d-PGJ2 resulted in super oligomerization of both mutant Drp1s indicating that 15d-PGJ2 may further stabilize Drp1 oligomers formed by loss of GTPase activity through covalent modification of middle domain cysteine residues. The present study documents for the first time the regulation of a mitochondrial fission activity by a prostaglandin, which will provide clues for understanding the pathological and physiological consequences of accumulation of reactive electrophiles during oxidative stress, inflammation and degeneration.

  19. Inhibition of mitochondrial division through covalent modification of Drp1 protein by 15 deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nandita; Kar, Rekha; Singha, Prajjal K; Venkatachalam, Manjeri A; McEwen, Donald G; Saikumar, Pothana

    2010-04-23

    Arachidonic acid derived endogenous electrophile 15d-PGJ2 has gained much attention in recent years due to its potent anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory actions mediated through thiol modification of cysteine residues in its target proteins. Here, we show that 15d-PGJ2 at 1 microM concentration converts normal mitochondria into large elongated and interconnected mitochondria through direct binding to mitochondrial fission protein Drp1 and partial inhibition of its GTPase activity. Mitochondrial elongation induced by 15d-PGJ2 is accompanied by increased assembly of Drp1 into large oligomeric complexes through plausible intermolecular interactions. The role of decreased GTPase activity of Drp1 in the formation of large oligomeric complexes is evident when Drp1 is incubated with a non-cleavable GTP analog, GTPgammaS or by a mutation that inactivated GTPase activity of Drp1 (K38A). The mutation of cysteine residue (Cys644) in the GTPase effector domain, a reported target for modification by reactive electrophiles, to alanine mimicked K38A mutation induced Drp1 oligomerization and mitochondrial elongation, suggesting the importance of cysteine in GED to regulate the GTPase activity and mitochondrial morphology. Interestingly, treatment of K38A and C644A mutants with 15d-PGJ2 resulted in super oligomerization of both mutant Drp1s indicating that 15d-PGJ2 may further stabilize Drp1 oligomers formed by loss of GTPase activity through covalent modification of middle domain cysteine residues. The present study documents for the first time the regulation of a mitochondrial fission activity by a prostaglandin, which will provide clues for understanding the pathological and physiological consequences of accumulation of reactive electrophiles during oxidative stress, inflammation and degeneration.

  20. The point mutation UCH-L1 C152A protects primary neurons against cyclopentenone prostaglandin-induced cytotoxicity: implications for post-ischemic neuronal injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, H; Li, W; Rose, M E; Hickey, R W; Chen, J; Uechi, G T; Balasubramani, M; Day, B W; Patel, K V; Graham, S H

    2015-11-05

    Cyclopentenone prostaglandins (CyPGs), such as 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15dPGJ2), are reactive prostaglandin metabolites exerting a variety of biological effects. CyPGs are produced in ischemic brain and disrupt the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Ubiquitin-C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is a brain-specific deubiquitinating enzyme that has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Using tandem mass spectrometry (MS) analyses, we found that the C152 site of UCH-L1 is adducted by CyPGs. Mutation of C152 to alanine (C152A) inhibited CyPG modification and conserved recombinant UCH-L1 protein hydrolase activity after 15dPGJ2 treatment. A knock-in (KI) mouse expressing the UCH-L1 C152A mutation was constructed with the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technique. Brain expression and distribution of UCH-L1 in the KI mouse was similar to that of wild type (WT) as determined by western blotting. Primary cortical neurons derived from KI mice were resistant to 15dPGJ2 cytotoxicity compared with neurons from WT mice as detected by the WST-1 cell viability assay and caspase-3 and poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. This protective effect was accompanied with significantly less ubiquitinated protein accumulation and aggregation as well as less UCH-L1 aggregation in C152A KI primary neurons after 15dPGJ2 treatment. Additionally, 15dPGJ2-induced axonal injury was also significantly attenuated in KI neurons as compared with WT. Taken together, these studies indicate that UCH-L1 function is important in hypoxic neuronal death, and the C152 site of UCH-L1 has a significant role in neuronal survival after hypoxic/ischemic injury.

  1. Inhibition of mitochondrial division through covalent modification of Drp1 protein by 15 Deoxy- Δ12,14 - Prostaglandin J2

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Nandita; Kar, Rekha; Singha, Prajjal K.; Venkatachalam, Manjeri A.; McEwen, Donald G.; Saikumar, Pothana

    2010-01-01

    Arachidonic acid derived endogenous electrophile 15d-PGJ2 has gained much attention in recent years due to its potent anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory actions mediated through thiol modification of cysteine residues in its target proteins. Here, we show that 15d-PGJ2 at 1µM concentration converts normal mitochondria into large elongated and interconnected mitochondria through direct binding to mitochondrial fission protein Drp1 and partial inhibition of its GTPase activity. Mitochondrial elongation induced by 15d-PGJ2 is accompanied by increased assembly of Drp1 into large oligomeric complexes through plausible intermolecular interactions. The role of decreased GTPase activity of Drp1 in the formation of large oligomeric complexes is evident when Drp1 is incubated with a non-cleavable GTP analog, GTPγS or by a mutation that inactivated GTPase activity of Drp1 (K38A). The mutation of cysteine residue (Cys644) in the GTPase effector domain, a reported target for modification by reactive electrophiles, to alanine mimicked K38A mutation induced Drp1 oligomerization and mitochondrial elongation, suggesting the importance of cysteine in GED to regulate the GTPase activity and mitochondrial morphology. Interestingly, treatment of K38A and C644A mutants with 15d-PGJ2 resulted in super oligomerization of both mutant Drp1s indicating that 15d-PGJ2 may further stabilize Drp1 oligomers formed by loss of GTPase activity through covalent modification of middle domain cysteine residues. The present study documents for the first time the regulation of a mitochondrial fission activity by a prostaglandin, which will provide clues for understanding the pathological and physiological consequences of accumulation of reactive electrophiles during oxidative stress, inflammation and degeneration. PMID:20307494