Science.gov

Sample records for 15degreec anaerobic wastewater

  1. Anaerobic wastewater treatment using anaerobic baffled bioreactor: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Siti Roshayu; Dahlan, Irvan

    2013-09-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment is receiving renewed interest because it offers a means to treat wastewater with lower energy investment. Because the microorganisms involved grow more slowly, such systems require clever design so that the microbes have sufficient time with the substrate to complete treatment without requiring enormous reactor volumes. The anaerobic baffled reactor has inherent advantages over single compartment reactors due to its circulation pattern that approaches a plug flow reactor. The physical configuration of the anaerobic baffled reactor enables significant modifications to be made; resulting in a reactor which is proficient of treating complex wastewaters which presently require only one unit, ultimately significant reducing capital costs. This paper also concerns about mechanism, kinetic and hydrodynamic studies of anaerobic digestion for future application of the anaerobic baffled reactor for wastewater treatment.

  2. Electrolysis-enhanced anaerobic digestion of wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tartakovsky, B; Mehta, P; Bourque, J-S; Guiot, S R

    2011-05-01

    This study demonstrates enhanced methane production from wastewater in laboratory-scale anaerobic reactors equipped with electrodes for water electrolysis. The electrodes were installed in the reactor sludge bed and a voltage of 2.8-3.5 V was applied resulting in a continuous supply of oxygen and hydrogen. The oxygen created micro-aerobic conditions, which facilitated hydrolysis of synthetic wastewater and reduced the release of hydrogen sulfide to the biogas. A portion of the hydrogen produced electrolytically escaped to the biogas improving its combustion properties, while another part was converted to methane by hydrogenotrophic methanogens, increasing the net methane production. The presence of oxygen in the biogas was minimized by limiting the applied voltage. At a volumetric energy consumption of 0.2-0.3 Wh/L(R), successful treatment of both low and high strength synthetic wastewaters was demonstrated. Methane production was increased by 10-25% and reactor stability was improved in comparison to a conventional anaerobic reactor.

  3. [Sulfa-drug wastewater treatment with anaerobic/aerobic process].

    PubMed

    Wu, L; Zhang, H; Zhu, H; Zhang, Z; Zhuang, Y; Dai, S

    2001-09-01

    Sulfa drug wastewater was treated with anaerobic/aerobic process. The removal ratios of TOC reached about 50% in anaerobic phase and about 70% in aerobic phase respectively, while volume loading rate of TOC was about 1.2 kg/(m3.d) in anaerobic phase and about 0.6 kg/(m3.d) in aerobic phase. Removal of TOC in anaerobic phase was attributed to the reduction of sulfate.

  4. Anaerobic filters for the treatment of coal gasification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Suidan, M T; Siekerka, G L; Kao, S W; Pfeffer, J T

    1983-06-01

    A process train consisting of the following sequence of unit processes, a berl-saddle-packed anaerobic filter, an expanded bed, granular activated carbon anaerobic filter, and an activated sludge nitrification system was evaluated for the treatment of a synthetically prepared coal gasification wastewater. The first-stage anaerobic filter resulted in very little removal of organic matter and no methane production. Excellent reduction in organic matter occurred in the granular activated carbon anaerobic filter. The removal mechanism was initially adsorptive and near the end of the study, removal of organic matter was primarily through conversion to methane gas. It is felt that the success of the activated carbon anaerobic filter was due to the ability of the activated carbon to sequester some components of the wastewater that were toxic to the mixed culture of anaerobic microorganisms. The activated sludge nitrification system resulted in complete ammonia oxidation and was very efficient in final effluent polishing.

  5. Neural fuzzy modeling of anaerobic biological wastewater treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tay, J.H.; Zhang, X.

    1999-12-01

    Anaerobic biological wastewater treatment systems are difficult to model because their performance is complex and varies significantly with different reactor configurations, influent characteristics, and operational conditions. Instead of conventional kinetic modeling, advanced neural fuzzy technology was employed to develop a conceptual adaptive model for anaerobic treatment systems. The conceptual neural fuzzy model contains the robustness of fuzzy systems, the learning ability of neural networks, and can adapt to various situations. The conceptual model was used to simulate the daily performance of two high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment systems with satisfactory results obtained.

  6. Antibiotics with anaerobic ammonium oxidation in urban wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ruipeng; Yang, Yuanming

    2017-05-01

    Biofilter process is based on biological oxidation process on the introduction of fast water filter design ideas generated by an integrated filtration, adsorption and biological role of aerobic wastewater treatment process various purification processes. By engineering example, we show that the process is an ideal sewage and industrial wastewater treatment process of low concentration. Anaerobic ammonia oxidation process because of its advantage of the high efficiency and low consumption, wastewater biological denitrification field has broad application prospects. The process in practical wastewater treatment at home and abroad has become a hot spot. In this paper, anammox bacteria habitats and species diversity, and anaerobic ammonium oxidation process in the form of diversity, and one and split the process operating conditions are compared, focusing on a review of the anammox process technology various types of wastewater laboratory research and engineering applications, including general water quality and pressure filtrate sludge digestion, landfill leachate, aquaculture wastewater, monosodium glutamate wastewater, wastewater, sewage, fecal sewage, waste water salinity wastewater characteristics, research progress and application of the obstacles. Finally, we summarize the anaerobic ammonium oxidation process potential problems during the processing of the actual waste water, and proposed future research focus on in-depth study of water quality anammox obstacle factor and its regulatory policy, and vigorously develop on this basis, and combined process optimization.

  7. Microbial aggregates in anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kosaric, N; Blaszczyk, R

    1990-01-01

    The phenomenon aggregation of anaerobic bacteria gives an opportunity to speed up the digestion rate during methanogenesis. The aggregates are mainly composed of methanogenic bacteria which convert acetate and H2/CO2 into methane. Other bacteria are also included in the aggregates but their concentration is rather small. The aggregates may also be formed during acetogenesis or even hydrolysis but such aggregates are not stable and disrupt quickly when not fed. A two stage process seems to be suitable when high concentrated solid waste must be treated. Special conditions are necessary to promote aggregate formation from methanogenic bacteria but aggregates once formed are stable without feeding even for a few years. The structure, texture and activity of bacterial aggregates depend on several parameters: (1)--temperature and pH, (2)--wastewater composition and (3)--hydrodynamic conditions within the reactor. The common influence of all these parameters is still rather unknown but some recommendations may be given. Temperature and pH should be maintained in the range which is optimal for methanogenic bacteria e.g. a temperature between 32 and 50 degrees C and a value pH between 6.5 and 7.5. Wastewaters should contain soluble wastes and the specific loading rate should be around one kgCOD(kgVSS)-1 d-1. The concentration of the elements influences aggregate composition and probably structure and texture. At high calcium concentration a change in the colour of the granules has been observed. Research is necessary to investigate the influence of other elements and organic toxicants on maintenance of the aggregates. Hydrodynamic conditions seem to influence the stability of the granules over long time periods. At low liquid stream rates, aggregates may starve and lysis within the aggregates is possible which results in hollowing of aggregates and their floating. At high liquid stream rates the aggregates may be disrupted and washed out of the reactor as a flocculent

  8. Bacterial ecology of abattoir wastewater treated by an anaerobic digestor

    PubMed Central

    Jabari, Linda; Gannoun, Hana; Khelifi, Eltaief; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Hamdi, Moktar; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater from an anaerobic treatment plant at a slaughterhouse was analysed to determine the bacterial biodiversity present. Molecular analysis of the anaerobic sludge obtained from the treatment plant showed significant diversity, as 27 different phyla were identified. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Thermotogae, Euryarchaeota (methanogens), and msbl6 (candidate division) were the dominant phyla of the anaerobic treatment plant and represented 21.7%, 18.5%, 11.5%, 9.4%, 8.9%, and 8.8% of the total bacteria identified, respectively. The dominant bacteria isolated were Clostridium, Bacteroides, Desulfobulbus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum. Our results revealed the presence of new species, genera and families of microorganisms. The most interesting strains were characterised. Three new bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion of abattoir wastewater were published. PMID:26887229

  9. Sequential anaerobic-adsorption treatment of chemical industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Daga, Kailash; Pallavi, V; Patel, Dharmendra

    2011-10-01

    Treatment technologies needed to reduce the pollutant load of chemical industry effluent have been found to involve exorbitantly high costs. The present investigation aimed to treat the wastewater from chemical industry by cost effective sequential anaerobic-adsorption treatment. Wastewaters from chemical industry that are rich in biodegradable organics are tested for anaerobic treatability. The efficiency of anaerobic reactor is relatively lower 79.3%, and therefore post treatment of effluent was done by adsorption using Poly vinyl alcohol coated Datura stramonium (PVAC-DS) as an adsorbent. An overall COD removal of 93.8 % was achieved after sequential Anaerobic-Adsorption treatment, which lead to a better final effluent and a more economical treatment system.

  10. Biochemical reaction engineering and process development in anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Aivasidis, Alexander; Diamantis, Vasileios

    2005-01-01

    Developments in production technology have frequently resulted in the concentrated local accumulation of highly organic-laden wastewaters. Anaerobic wastewater treatment, in industrial applications, constitutes an advanced method of synthesis by which inexpensive substrates are converted into valuable disproportionate products. A critical discussion of certain fundamental principles of biochemical reaction engineering relevant to the anaerobic mode of operation is made here, with special emphasis on the roles of thermodynamics, kinetics, mass and heat transfer, reactor design, biomass retention and recycling. The applications of the anaerobic processes are discussed, introducing the principles of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor and a fixed-bed loop reactor. The merits of staging reactor systems are presented using selected examples based on two decades of research in the field of anaerobic fermentation and wastewater treatment at the Forschungszentrum Julich (Julich Research Center, Germany). Wastewater treatment is an industrial process associated with one of the largest levels of mass throughput known, and for this reason it provides a major impetus to further developments in bioprocess technology in general.

  11. Invited review: anaerobic fermentation of dairy food wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hassan, A N; Nelson, B K

    2012-11-01

    Dairy food wastewater disposal represents a major environmental problem. This review discusses microorganisms associated with anaerobic digestion of dairy food wastewater, biochemistry of the process, factors affecting anaerobic digestion, and efforts to develop defined cultures. Anaerobic digestion of dairy food wastewater offers many advantages over other treatments in that a high level of waste stabilization is achieved with much lower levels of sludge. In addition, the process produces readily usable methane with low nutrient requirements and no oxygen. Anaerobic digestion is a series of complex reactions that broadly involve 2 groups of anaerobic or facultative anaerobic microorganisms: acidogens and methanogens. The first group of microorganisms breaks down organic compounds into CO(2) and volatile fatty acids. Some of these organisms are acetogenic, which convert long-chain fatty acids to acetate, CO(2), and hydrogen. Methanogens convert the acidogens' products to methane. The imbalance among the different microbial groups can lead not only to less methane production, but also to process failure. This is due to accumulation of intermediate compounds, such as volatile fatty acids, that inhibit methanogens. The criteria used for evaluation of the anaerobic digestion include levels of hydrogen and volatile fatty acids, methane:carbon ratio, and the gas production rate. A steady state is achieved in an anaerobic digester when the pH, chemical oxygen demand of the effluent, the suspended solids of the effluent, and the daily gas production remain constant. Factors affecting efficiency and stability of the process are types of microorganisms, feed C:N ratio, hydraulic retention time, reactor design, temperature, pH control, hydrogen pressure, and additives such as manure and surfactants. As anaerobic digesters become increasingly used in dairy plants, more research should be directed toward selecting the best cultures that maximize methane production from dairy

  12. Pretreatment of coking wastewater using anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR)*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Sun, Ying-lan; Li, Yu-ying

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was used to pretreat coking wastewater. Inoculated anaerobic granular biomass was acclimated for 225 d to the coking wastewater, and then the biochemical methane potential (BMP) of the coking wastewater in the acclimated granular biomass was measured. At the same time, some fundamental technological factors, such as the filling time and the reacting time ratio (t f/t r), the mixing intensity and the intermittent mixing mode, that affect anaerobic pretreatment of coking wastewater with ASBR, were evaluated through orthogonal tests. The COD removal efficiency reached 38%~50% in the stable operation period with the organic loading rate of 0.37~0.54 kg COD/(m3·d) at the optimum conditions of t f/t r, the mixing intensity and the intermittent mixing mode. In addition, the biodegradability of coking wastewater distinctly increased after the pretreatment using ASBR. At the end of the experiment, the microorganism forms on the granulated sludge in the ASBR were observed using SEM (scanning electron microscope) and fluoroscope. The results showed that the dominant microorganism on the granular sludge was Methanosaeta instead of Methanosarcina dominated on the inoculated sludge. PMID:16252347

  13. Low-temperature anaerobic digestion for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Rory M; Hughes, Dermot; Collins, Gavin; Mahony, Thérèse; O'Flaherty, Vincent

    2012-06-01

    Methanogenesis is an important biogeochemical process for the degradation of organic matter within cold environments, and is associated with the release of the potent greenhouse gas, methane. Cold methanogenesis has been harnessed, in engineered systems, as low-temperature anaerobic digestion (LTAD) for wastewater treatment and bioenergy generation. LTAD represents a nascent wastewater treatment biotechnology, which offers an attractive alternative to conventional aerobic and anaerobic processes. Successful, high-rate, LTAD of sewage and industrial wastewaters (e.g. from the brewery, food-processing and pharmaceutical sectors), with concomitant biogas generation, has been demonstrated at laboratory-scale and pilot-scale. A holistic, polyphasic approach, which integrates bioprocess, physiological and molecular biological datasets has been critical to the development of the LTAD concept. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Denitrification in anaerobic lagoons used to treat swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hunt, P G; Matheny, T A; Ro, K S; Vanotti, M B; Ducey, T F

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic lagoons are commonly used for the treatment of swine wastewater. Although these lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple, their physical, chemical, and biological processes are very complex. This study of anaerobic lagoons had two objectives: (i) to quantify denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) and (ii) to evaluate the influence of lagoon characteristics on the DEA. The DEA was measured by the acetylene inhibition method. Wastewater samples and physical and chemical measurements were taken from the wastewater column of nine anaerobic swine lagoons from May 2006 to May 2009. These lagoons were typical for anaerobic swine lagoons in the Carolinas relative to their size, operation, and chemical and physical characteristics. Their mean value for DEA was 87 mg N2O-N m(-3) d(-1). In a lagoon with 2-m depth, this rate of DEA would be compatible with 1.74 kg N ha(-1) d(-1) When nonlimiting nitrate was added, the highest DEA was compatible with 4.38 kg N ha(-1) d(-1) loss. Using stepwise regression for this treatment, the lagoon characteristics (i.e., soluble organic carbon, total nitrogen, temperature, and NO3-N) provided a final step model R2 of 0.69. Nitrous oxide from incomplete denitrification was not a significant part of the system nitrogen balance. Although alternate pathways of denitrification may exist within or beneath the wastewater column, this paper documents the lack of sufficient denitrification enzyme activity within the wastewater column of these anaerobic lagoons to support large N2 gas losses via classical nitrification and denitrification.

  15. Treatment of melanoidin wastewater by anaerobic digestion and coagulation.

    PubMed

    Arimi, Milton M; Zhang, Yongjun; Götz, Gesine; Geißen, Sven-Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Melanoidins are dark-coloured recalcitrant pollutants found in many industrial wastewaters including coffee-manufacturing effluent, molasses distillery wastewater (MDWW) and other wastewater with molasses as the raw material. The wastewaters are mostly treated with anaerobic digestion after some dilution to minimize the inhibition effect. However, the dark colour and recalcitrant dissolved organic carbon (DOC) mainly caused by melanoidin are not effectively removed. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of colour and remnant DOC by different coagulants from anaerobically digested MDWW. From the six coagulants tested, ferric chloride had the highest melanoidin (48%), colour (92.7%) and DOC (63.3%) removal at pH 5 and a dosage of 1.6 g/l. Both polymer and inorganic salt coagulants tested had optimal colour, melanoidin and DOC removal at acidic pH. The molecular size distribution of synthetic melanoidins by liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection indicated a preferential removal of high-molecular-weight melanoidins over low weight melanoidins by the coagulation. Further studies should focus on how to improve biodegradability of the treated effluent for it to be reused as dilution water for anaerobic digestion.

  16. Performance of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Svojitka, Jan; Dvořák, Lukáš; Studer, Martin; Straub, Jürg Oliver; Frömelt, Heinz; Wintgens, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Anaerobic treatment of wastewater and waste organic solvents originating from the pharmaceutical and chemical industries was tested in a pilot anaerobic membrane bioreactor, which was operated for 580days under different operational conditions. The goal was to test the long-term treatment efficiency and identify inhibitory factors. The highest COD removal of up to 97% was observed when the influent concentration was increased by the addition of methanol (up to 25gL(-1) as COD). Varying and generally lower COD removal efficiency (around 78%) was observed when the anaerobic membrane bioreactor was operated with incoming pharmaceutical wastewater as sole carbon source. The addition of waste organic solvents (>2.5gL(-1) as COD) to the influent led to low COD removal efficiency or even to the breakdown of anaerobic digestion. Changes in the anaerobic population (e.g., proliferation of the genus Methanosarcina) resulting from the composition of influent were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Anaerobic treatment of brewery wastewater with an internal membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, E R; van Buggenhout, S; van Ermen, S; De Smedt, M; Van Impe, J; Koning, J

    2001-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment is growing very popular these days because of low sludge production compared to activated sludge processes. The drawback of the process is the risk of sludge washout, especially when the formation of granular sludge is not expected. By using an internal anaerobic bioreactor this problem can be overcome. A lab scale internal anaerobic membrane bioreactor was operated at SEGHERSbetter technology for Water N.V. to which brewery wastewater was fed (COD=2300 mg/l). Hollow fibres were inserted into the anaerobic bioreactor, from which the effluent was extracted by underpressure. The COD-removal was excellent and very constant at a value of 95%. No suspended solids were present in the effluent. The membrane permeability stabilised at relatively low value of 18 l/m2.h.bar due to an irreversible adhesion of constituents in the bioreactor. No growth of biomass was found during two months of operation. Inocculated granular sludge fell apart into loose flocs within several weeks of the startup, not affecting biological performance. The internal anaerobic membrane bioreactor is a promising new area within the field of wastewater treatment. It is expected that this process will have an important future.

  18. Anaerobic treatment of winery wastewater in fixed bed reactors.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Rangaraj; Rajinikanth, Rajagopal; Thanikal, Joseph V; Ramanujam, Ramamoorty Alwar; Torrijos, Michel

    2010-06-01

    The treatment of winery wastewater in three upflow anaerobic fixed-bed reactors (S9, S30 and S40) with low density floating supports of varying size and specific surface area was investigated. A maximum OLR of 42 g/l day with 80 +/- 0.5% removal efficiency was attained in S9, which had supports with the highest specific surface area. It was found that the efficiency of the reactors increased with decrease in size and increase in specific surface area of the support media. Total biomass accumulation in the reactors was also found to vary as a function of specific surface area and size of the support medium. The Stover-Kincannon kinetic model predicted satisfactorily the performance of the reactors. The maximum removal rate constant (U(max)) was 161.3, 99.0 and 77.5 g/l day and the saturation value constant (K(B)) was 162.0, 99.5 and 78.0 g/l day for S9, S30 and S40, respectively. Due to their higher biomass retention potential, the supports used in this study offer great promise as media in anaerobic fixed bed reactors. Anaerobic fixed-bed reactors with these supports can be applied as high-rate systems for the treatment of large volumes of wastewaters typically containing readily biodegradable organics, such as the winery wastewater.

  19. Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste-recycling Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Gyuseong; Shin, Seung Gu; Lim, Juntaek; Jo, Minho; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2010-11-01

    Food waste-recycling (FWR) wastewater was evaluated as feedstock for two-stage anaerobic digestion at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The FWR wastewater tested contained high concentrations of organic materials and had chemical oxygen demand (COD) >130 g/L and volatile solids (VS) >55 g/L. Two identical two-stage anaerobic digesters were operated to investigate the performance at six HRTs ranging from 10-25 days. In the acidogenic reactor, the total carbohydrate reduction efficiency and volatile fatty acid production dramatically decreased when acidogenic HRT was <2.5 days (i.e., total two-stage HRT = 15 days). High organic removal ratios of 75.5-85.9% for COD and 68.8-83.6% for VS were achieved throughout the two-stage process. Methane production rate of 1.7-3.6 L-gas/L-reactorṡd was observed. These results suggested that two-stage anaerobic process was successful at the laboratory scale with FWR wastewater as feedstock.

  20. Hybrid modelling of anaerobic wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Karama, A; Bernard, O; Genovesi, A; Dochain, D; Benhammou, A; Steyer, J P

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid approach for the modelling of an anaerobic digestion process. The hybrid model combines a feed-forward network, describing the bacterial kinetics, and the a priori knowledge based on the mass balances of the process components. We have considered an architecture which incorporates the neural network as a static model of unmeasured process parameters (kinetic growth rate) and an integrator for the dynamic representation of the process using a set of dynamic differential equations. The paper contains a description of the neural network component training procedure. The performance of this approach is illustrated with experimental data.

  1. Involvement of protozoa in anaerobic wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Priya, M; Haridas, Ajit; Manilal, V B

    2007-12-01

    It is only very rarely recognised in literature that anaerobic reactors may contain protozoa in addition to various bacterial and archeal groups. The role of protozoa in anaerobic degradation was studied in anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) and batch tests. Anaerobic protozoa, especially the ciliated protozoa, have direct influence on the performance of CSTR at all organic loading rates (1-2g CODl(-1)d(-1)) and retention times (5-10 days). The studies revealed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal is strongly correlated to ciliate density in CSTR fed with oleate (suspended COD) and acetate (soluble COD). There was no significant difference in COD removal between reactors fed suspended COD and those fed soluble COD. However, the diversity and number of ciliates is greater in CSTR fed with particulate feed. The mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) representing biomass was significantly lower (16-34%) in CSTR with protozoa. In batch tests, increased COD removal and methane production was observed in sludge having ciliates as compared with sludge without protozoa. Methane production increased linearly with number of ciliates (R(2)=0.96) in batch tests with protozoa. Direct utilization of COD by flagellates and ciliates was observed in bacteria-suppressed cultures. The technological importance of these results is that reactors with protozoa-rich sludge can enhance the rate of mineralization of complex wastewater, especially wastewater containing particulate COD.

  2. Anaerobic treatment performance and microbial population of thermophilic upflow anaerobic filter reactor treating awamori distillery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yue-Qin; Fujimura, Yutaka; Shigematsu, Toru; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2007-10-01

    Distillery wastewater from awamori making was anaerobically treated for one year using thermophilic upflow anaerobic filter (UAF) reactors packed with pyridinium group-containing nonwoven fabric material. The microbial structure and spatial distribution of microorganisms on the support material were characterized using molecular biological methods. The reactor steadily achieved a high TOC loading rate of 18 g/l/d with approximately 80% TOC removal efficiency when non-diluted wastewater was fed. The maximum TOC loading rate increased to 36 g/l/d when treating thrice-diluted wastewater. However, the TOC removal efficiency and gas evolution rate decreased compared with that when non-diluted wastewater was used. Methanogens closely related to Methanosarcina thermophila and Methanoculleus bourgensis and bacteria in the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were predominant methanogens and bacteria in the thermophilic UFA reactor, as indicated by 16S rRNA gene clone analysis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) results showed that a large quantity of bacterial cells adhered throughout the whole support, and Methanosarcina-like methanogens existed mainly in the relative outside region while Methanoculleus cells were located in the relative inner part of the support. The support material used proved to be an excellent carrier for microorganisms, and a UAF reactor using this kind of support can be used for high-rate treatment of awamori/shochu distillery wastewater.

  3. Reduction of greenhouse gases from anaerobic piggery wastewater treatment by bromochloromethane in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Su, Jung-Jeng; Liu, Bee-Yang; Chang, Yuan-Chie

    2004-01-01

    This work establishes methods of reducing the amount of methane produced from the anaerobic treatment of piggery wastewater by either reducing the storage time before solid/liquid separation or inhibiting the activity of methanogens in anaerobic wastewater treatment system. Experimental results showed these two methods can be adopted effectively to reduce methane production resulting from anaerobic piggery wastewater treatment. First, the wastewater must be processed using solid/liquid separation immediately after washing pig houses. This process can reduce by 62% the biogas production and indirectly decrease the methane production from the anaerobic wastewater treatment reactor. Second, adding 10 mg L(-1) bromochloromethane (BCM) daily into the anaerobic wastewater treatment reactor can significantly reduce the amount of biogas and methane produced during the anaerobic fermentation process. Furthermore, biogas production can be completely inhibited after 4 days. Adding BCM (< or =10 mg L(-1)) to wastewater only slightly affected the efficiency of the anaerobic wastewater treatment process. Results in this study can provide the basis for further research on reduction of the amount of methane produced from anaerobic wastewater treatments.

  4. Modelling wastewater treatment in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Spagni, Alessandro; Ferraris, Marco; Casu, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modelling has been widely applied to membrane bioreactor (MBRs) processes. However, to date, very few studies have reported on the application of the anaerobic digestion model N.1 (ADM1) to anaerobic membrane processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of the ADM1 to a submerged anaerobic MBR (SAMBR) treating simulated industrial wastewater composed of cheese whey and sucrose. This study demonstrated that the biological processes involved in SAMBRs can be modelled by using the ADM1. Moreover, the results showed that very few modifications of the parameters describing the ADM1 were required to reasonably fit the experimental data. In particular, adaptation to the specific conditions of the coefficients describing the wastewater characterisation and the reduction of the hydrolysis rate of particulate carbohydrate (khyd,ch) from 0.25 d(-1) (as suggested by the ADM1 for high-rate mesophilic reactors) to 0.13 d(-1) were required to fit the experimental data.

  5. Anamet anaerobic-aerobic treatment of concentrated wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Frostell, B.

    1982-01-01

    The process, consisting of a closed anaerobic tank reactor with side mounted agitator and electric heaters to control temperature at 35-37 degrees, an external solids separator for recycle of anaerobic sludge, an open aerobic tank reactor with an air sparger at the bottom, and a conical settling clarifier to separate and recycle aerobic sludge, decreased the COD from 3-89 to 0.10-18 and the BOD5 from 1.4-26 to 0.03-0.30 g O2/L in dairy, vegetable cannery, beet sugar, wheat starch, mixed pulp and paper, citric acid, and rum distillery wastewater. Recoveries of CH4-containing gas produced by the process were 69-107% of theory. Total excess sludge production was only 0.05 kg/kg COD added or 0.06 kg/kg COD removed.

  6. Esters production via carboxylates from anaerobic paper mill wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Rodríguez, Carlos I; Moreno-González, Mónica; de Weerd, Florence A; Viswanathan, Vidhvath; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2017-02-10

    This paper describes a new option for integrated recovery and esterification of carboxylates produced by anaerobic digestion at a pH above the pKa. The carboxylates (acetate, propionate, butyrate, valerate and lactate) are recovered using a strong anion exchange resin in the bicarbonate form, and the resin is regenerated using a CO2-expanded alcohol technique, which allows for low chemicals consumption and direct esterification. Paper mill wastewater was used to study the effect of pH and the presence of other inorganic anions and cations on the adsorption and desorption with CO2-expanded methanol. Calcium, which is present in paper mill wastewater, can cause precipitation problems, especially at high pH. Esters yields ranged from 1.08±0.04mol methyl acetate/mol of acetatein to 0.57±0.02mol methyl valerate/mol of valeratein.

  7. Municipal-wastewater treatment using upflow-anaerobic filters.

    PubMed

    Manariotis, loannis D; Grigoropoulos, Sotirios G

    2006-03-01

    Three 12.5-L upflow-anaerobic filters (AF), with ceramic-saddle, plastic-ring, and crushed-stone packing, were used to evaluate the sustained treatment of municipal wastewater. The reactors were initially fed dogfood-fortified wastewater and then raw municipal wastewater, and operated at 25.4 degrees C (32 months) and 15.5 degrees C (2 months). During 23 months, the AF units treated municipal wastewater (mean chemical oxygen demand [COD] 442 mg/L and total suspended solids [TSS] 247 mg/L), the hydraulic retention time (HRT) ranged from 3.1 to 0.30 d (empty bed), and the organic loading rate ranged from 0.115 to 1.82 kg COD/m3d. At the higher temperature and an HRT (void volume) of 1.0 d, COD and TSS removals ranged from 74 to 79% and 95 to 96%, respectively; however, efficiencies declined substantially at HRT values less than 0.4 d. Reactor performance, under the same hydraulic and organic loadings, deteriorated with time and was adversely affected by lower temperature.

  8. Microbial Community Analysis of Anaerobic Reactors Treating Soft Drink Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Narihiro, Takashi; Kim, Na-Kyung; Mei, Ran; Nobu, Masaru K.; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2015-01-01

    The anaerobic packed-bed (AP) and hybrid packed-bed (HP) reactors containing methanogenic microbial consortia were applied to treat synthetic soft drink wastewater, which contains polyethylene glycol (PEG) and fructose as the primary constituents. The AP and HP reactors achieved high COD removal efficiency (>95%) after 80 and 33 days of the operation, respectively, and operated stably over 2 years. 16S rRNA gene pyrotag analyses on a total of 25 biofilm samples generated 98,057 reads, which were clustered into 2,882 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Both AP and HP communities were predominated by Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and candidate phylum KSB3 that may degrade organic compound in wastewater treatment processes. Other OTUs related to uncharacterized Geobacter and Spirochaetes clades and candidate phylum GN04 were also detected at high abundance; however, their relationship to wastewater treatment has remained unclear. In particular, KSB3, GN04, Bacteroidetes, and Chloroflexi are consistently associated with the organic loading rate (OLR) increase to 1.5 g COD/L-d. Interestingly, KSB3 and GN04 dramatically decrease in both reactors after further OLR increase to 2.0 g COD/L-d. These results indicate that OLR strongly influences microbial community composition. This suggests that specific uncultivated taxa may take central roles in COD removal from soft drink wastewater depending on OLR. PMID:25748027

  9. Anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper mill wastewater and sludge.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Torsten; Edwards, Elizabeth A

    2014-11-15

    Pulp and paper mills generate large amounts of waste organic matter that may be converted to renewable energy in form of methane. The anaerobic treatment of mill wastewater is widely accepted however, usually only applied to few selected streams. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates in full-scale reactors range between 30 and 90%, and methane yields are 0.30-0.40 m(3) kg(-1) COD removed. Highest COD removal rates are achieved with condensate streams from chemical pulping (75-90%) and paper mill effluents (60-80%). Numerous laboratory and pilot-scale studies have shown that, contrary to common perception, most other mill effluents are also to some extent anaerobically treatable. Even for difficult-to-digest streams such as bleaching effluents COD removal rates range between 15 and 90%, depending on the extent of dilution prior to anaerobic treatment, and the applied experimental setting. Co-digestion of different streams containing diverse substrate can level out and diminish toxicity, and may lead to a more robust microbial community. Furthermore, the microbial population has the ability to become acclimated and adapted to adverse conditions. Stress situations such as toxic shock loads or temporary organic overloading may be tolerated by an adapted community, whereas they could lead to process disturbance with an un-adapted community. Therefore, anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing elevated levels of inhibitors or toxicants should be initiated by an acclimation/adaptation period that can last between a few weeks and several months. In order to gain more insight into the underlying processes of microbial acclimation/adaptation and co-digestion, future research should focus on the relationship between wastewater composition, reactor operation and microbial community dynamics. The potential for engineering and managing the microbial resource is still largely untapped. Unlike in wastewater treatment, anaerobic digestion of mill biosludge (waste activated

  10. Novel Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment System for Energy Generation at Forward Operating Bases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    requiring a subsequent aerobic process to convert ammonia to nitrate. Ammonia is a critical contaminant in wastewater, as it represents a considerable...wastewater contaminants , including organics and ammonia, into harvesta- ble products for energy production. The system aims to combine sustaina- ble...TR-16-13 v Figures and Tables Figures Figure 1. The anaerobic wastewater treatment process strategically combines anaerobic membrane bioreactor

  11. Biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment under tetracycline antibiotic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Meiqing; Niu, Xiaojun; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jie; Yang, Jia; Wang, Wenqi; Yang, Zhiquan

    2016-06-01

    The effect of tetracycline (TC) antibiotic on biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment was studied. A lab-scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) with three compartments was used. The reactor was operated with synthetic wastewater in the absence of TC and in the presence of 250 μg/L TC for 90 days, respectively. The removal rate of TC, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), biogas compositions (hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2)), and total biogas production in each compartment were monitored in the two operational conditions. Results showed that the removal rate of TC was 14.97-67.97% in the reactor. The presence of TC had a large negative effect on CH4 and CO2 generation, but appeared to have a positive effect on H2 production and VFAs accumulation. This response indicated that the methanogenesis process was sensitive to TC presence, but the acidogenesis process was insensitive. This suggested that the presence of TC had less influence on the degradation of organic matter but had a strong influence on biogas generation. Additionally, the decrease of CH4 and CO2 generation and the increase of H2 and VFAs accumulation suggest a promising strategy to help alleviate global warming and improve resource recovery in an environmentally friendly approach.

  12. Biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment under tetracycline antibiotic pressure

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Meiqing; Niu, Xiaojun; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jie; Yang, Jia; Wang, Wenqi; Yang, Zhiquan

    2016-01-01

    The effect of tetracycline (TC) antibiotic on biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment was studied. A lab-scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) with three compartments was used. The reactor was operated with synthetic wastewater in the absence of TC and in the presence of 250 μg/L TC for 90 days, respectively. The removal rate of TC, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), biogas compositions (hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2)), and total biogas production in each compartment were monitored in the two operational conditions. Results showed that the removal rate of TC was 14.97–67.97% in the reactor. The presence of TC had a large negative effect on CH4 and CO2 generation, but appeared to have a positive effect on H2 production and VFAs accumulation. This response indicated that the methanogenesis process was sensitive to TC presence, but the acidogenesis process was insensitive. This suggested that the presence of TC had less influence on the degradation of organic matter but had a strong influence on biogas generation. Additionally, the decrease of CH4 and CO2 generation and the increase of H2 and VFAs accumulation suggest a promising strategy to help alleviate global warming and improve resource recovery in an environmentally friendly approach. PMID:27341657

  13. Biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment under tetracycline antibiotic pressure.

    PubMed

    Lu, Meiqing; Niu, Xiaojun; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jie; Yang, Jia; Wang, Wenqi; Yang, Zhiquan

    2016-06-24

    The effect of tetracycline (TC) antibiotic on biogas generation in anaerobic wastewater treatment was studied. A lab-scale Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) with three compartments was used. The reactor was operated with synthetic wastewater in the absence of TC and in the presence of 250 μg/L TC for 90 days, respectively. The removal rate of TC, volatile fatty acids (VFAs), biogas compositions (hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2)), and total biogas production in each compartment were monitored in the two operational conditions. Results showed that the removal rate of TC was 14.97-67.97% in the reactor. The presence of TC had a large negative effect on CH4 and CO2 generation, but appeared to have a positive effect on H2 production and VFAs accumulation. This response indicated that the methanogenesis process was sensitive to TC presence, but the acidogenesis process was insensitive. This suggested that the presence of TC had less influence on the degradation of organic matter but had a strong influence on biogas generation. Additionally, the decrease of CH4 and CO2 generation and the increase of H2 and VFAs accumulation suggest a promising strategy to help alleviate global warming and improve resource recovery in an environmentally friendly approach.

  14. Integrated application of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for the treatment of wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Latif, Muhammad Asif; Ghufran, Rumana; Wahid, Zularisam Abdul; Ahmad, Anwar

    2011-10-15

    The UASB process among other treatment methods has been recognized as a core method of an advanced technology for environmental protection. This paper highlights the treatment of seven types of wastewaters i.e. palm oil mill effluent (POME), distillery wastewater, slaughterhouse wastewater, piggery wastewater, dairy wastewater, fishery wastewater and municipal wastewater (black and gray) by UASB process. The purpose of this study is to explore the pollution load of these wastewaters and their treatment potential use in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket process. The general characterization of wastewater, treatment in UASB reactor with operational parameters and reactor performance in terms of COD removal and biogas production are thoroughly discussed in the paper. The concrete data illustrates the reactor configuration, thus giving maximum awareness about upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for further research. The future aspects for research needs are also outlined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Energy positive domestic wastewater treatment: the roles of anaerobic and phototrophic technologies.

    PubMed

    Shoener, B D; Bradley, I M; Cusick, R D; Guest, J S

    2014-05-01

    The negative energy balance of wastewater treatment could be reversed if anaerobic technologies were implemented for organic carbon oxidation and phototrophic technologies were utilized for nutrient recovery. To characterize the potential for energy positive wastewater treatment by anaerobic and phototrophic biotechnologies we performed a comprehensive literature review and analysis, focusing on energy production (as kJ per capita per day and as kJ m(-3) of wastewater treated), energy consumption, and treatment efficacy. Anaerobic technologies included in this review were the anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR), anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR), anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFB), upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR), microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), and microbial fuel cell (MFC). Phototrophic technologies included were the high rate algal pond (HRAP), photobioreactor (PBR), stirred tank reactor, waste stabilization pond (WSP), and algal turf scrubber (ATS). Average energy recovery efficiencies for anaerobic technologies ranged from 1.6% (MFC) to 47.5% (ABR). When including typical percent chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals by each technology, this range would equate to roughly 40-1200 kJ per capita per day or 110-3300 kJ m(-3) of treated wastewater. The average bioenergy feedstock production by phototrophic technologies ranged from 1200-4700 kJ per capita per day or 3400-13 000 kJ m(-3) (exceeding anaerobic technologies and, at times, the energetic content of the influent organic carbon), with usable energy production dependent upon downstream conversion to fuels. Energy consumption analysis showed that energy positive anaerobic wastewater treatment by emerging technologies would require significant reductions of parasitic losses from mechanical mixing and gas sparging. Technology targets and critical barriers for energy-producing technologies are identified, and the role of integrated anaerobic and

  16. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic biological treatment of colored wastewaters: case study of a textile dyeing factory wastewater.

    PubMed

    Abiri, Fardin; Fallah, Narges; Bonakdarpour, Babak

    2017-03-01

    In the present study the feasibility of the use of a bacterial batch sequential anaerobic-aerobic process, in which activated sludge was used in both parts of the process, for pretreatment of wastewater generated by a textile dyeing factory has been considered. Activated sludge used in the process was obtained from a municipal wastewater treatment plant and adapted to real dyeing wastewater using either an anaerobic-only or an anaerobic-aerobic process over a period of 90 days. The use of activated sludge adapted using the anaerobic-aerobic process resulted in a higher overall decolorization efficiency compared to that achieved with activated sludge adapted using the anaerobic-only cycles. Anaerobic and aerobic periods of around 34 and 22 hours respectively resulted in an effluent with chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color content which met the standards for discharge into the centralized wastewater treatment plant of the industrial estate in which the dyeing factory was situated. Neutralization of the real dyeing wastewater and addition of carbon source to it, both of which results in significant increase in the cost of the bacterial treatment process, was not found to be necessary to achieve the required discharge standards.

  17. Phosphorus removal from anaerobically digested swine wastewater through struvite precipitation.

    PubMed

    Jordaan, E M; Ackerman, J; Cicek, N

    2010-01-01

    Phosphorus removal from agricultural wastewater streams is an important aspect of managing surface water quality, due to the contribution of phosphorus to eutrophication. Removal of phosphorus through struvite precipitation allows for its recovery as a potential fertilizer, and by determining the best conditions for struvite precipitation the removal process can be optimized. The effects of pH, Mg:P ratio, and time on struvite precipitation from anaerobically digested swine manure effluent were investigated. Effluent with Mg:P ratios from 1.0:1 to 1.6:1 were adjusted to pH values between 7.5 and 9.5 and left to equilibrate for 24 h. Results indicate that phosphorus removal increased with increasing pH and Mg:P ratio; the maximum phosphorus removal achieved was 80% at pH 9.0 and a Mg:P ratio of 1.6:1. The purest struvite precipitate was found at pH 7.5, with calcium carbonate and struvite precipitating at higher pH values. A continuously stirred batch of centrate was adjusted to pH 8.4 to determine the struvite formation rate constant. The rate constant was found to be 1.55 h(-1), with 17% phosphorus removal during the first 20 min. The results indicate that struvite precipitation could be a viable method of phosphorus removal from anaerobically digested swine manure.

  18. Inactivation kinetics of anaerobic wastewater biofilms by free nitrous acid.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guangming; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that free nitrous acid (FNA) is biocidal to a broad range of microorganisms. Microorganisms residing in anaerobic sewer biofilms were found to be inactivated after a short (6-24 h) exposure to FNA. In this study, we investigate the inactivation kinetics of anaerobic sewer biofilms grown in real wastewater. Microbial viability of biofilms was determined using LIVE/DEAD staining. A two-fraction kinetic model was developed to simulate the inactivation of mixed culture in biofilms. The kinetic parameters were estimated by using Bayesian statistics. Model simulation found that a fraction (85 %) of the biofilm community was highly sensitive to FNA with a high inactivation rate, and a fraction (15 %) was tolerant to FNA and persisted after FNA treatment. This different susceptibility to FNA treatment was likely due to the diverse microbial community and biofilm protection. The fact that nearly 85 % microbes were inactivated confirmed that FNA is a strong biocide to mixed-culture biofilms. It was found that the inactivation rate constant was not affected by pH levels. The kinetic model was successfully used to optimize FNA dosage for sulfide control in sewer biofilms. Also, results suggest that a high FNA concentration is preferred than long exposure time to reduce the total chemical consumption.

  19. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment of selected azo dyes in wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Seshadri, S.; Bishop, P.L. . Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering); Agha, A.M. . Faculty of Civil Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    Azo dyes represent the largest class of dyes in use today. Current environmental concern with these dyes revolves around the potential carcinogenic health risk presented by these dyes or their intermediate biodegradation products when exposed to microflora in the human digestive tract. These dyes may build up in the environment, since many wastewater treatment plants allow these dyes to pass through the system virtually untreated. The initial step in the degradation of these dyes is the cleavage of the Azo bond. This cleavage is often impossible under aerobic conditions, but has been readily demonstrated under anaerobic conditions. The focus of the study was to determine the feasibility of using an anaerobic fluidized-bed reactor to accomplish this cleavage. The effects of typical process variables such as hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent dye concentration levels, and degree of bed fluidization on removal efficiencies were also studied. The four dyes selected for this study were Acid-Orange 7, Acid-Orange 8, Acid-Orange 10, and Acid-Red 14. The effectiveness of using a bench-scale-activated sludge reactor as a sequenced second stage was also examined. Results indicate that nearly complete cleavage of the Azo bond is easily accomplished for each of the four dyes under hydraulic retention times of either 12 or 24 h. Initial results indicate, though, that aromatic amine by-products remain. The sequenced second stage was able to remove the remaining Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) load to acceptable levels. Work is presently underway to determine the face of the anaerobic by-products in the aerobic second stage.

  20. Treatment of winery wastewater by an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Ruíz, C; Torrijos, M; Sousbie, P; Lebrato Martínez, J; Moletta, R; Delgenès, J P

    2002-01-01

    Treatment of winery wastewater was investigated using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR). Biogas production rate was monitored and permitted the automation of the bioreactor by a simple control system. The reactor was operated at an organic loading rate (ORL) around 8.6 gCOD/L.d with soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency greater than 98%, hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2.2 d and a specific organic loading rate (SOLR) of 0.96 gCOD/gVSS.d. The kinetics of COD and VFA removal were investigated for winery wastewater and for simple compounds such as ethanol, which is a major component of winery effluent, and acetate, which is the main volatile fatty acid (VFA) produced. The comparison of the profiles obtained with the 3 substrates shows that, overall, the acidification of the organic matter and the methanisation of the VFA follow zero order reactions, in the operating conditions of our study. The effect on the gas production rate resulted in two level periods separated by a sharp break when the acidification stage was finished and only the breaking down of the VFA continued.

  1. Submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment and energy generation.

    PubMed

    Bornare, J B; Adhyapak, U S; Minde, G P; Kalyan Raman, V; Sapkal, V S; Sapkal, R S

    2015-01-01

    Compared with conventional wastewater treatment processes, membrane bioreactors (MBRs) offer several advantages including high biodegradation efficiency, excellent effluent quality and smaller footprint. However, it has some limitations on account of its energy intensive operation. In recent years, there has been growing interest in use of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) due to their potential advantages over aerobic systems, which include low sludge production and energy generation in terms of biogas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a submerged AnMBR for the treatment of synthetic wastewater having 4,759 mg/l chemical oxygen demand (COD). The COD removal efficiency was over 95% during the performance evaluation study. Treated effluent with COD concentration of 231 mg/l was obtained for 25.5 hours hydraulic retention time. The obtained total organic carbon concentrations in feed and permeate were 1,812 mg/l and 89 mg/l, respectively. An average biogas generation and yield were 25.77 l/d and 0.36 m3/kg COD, respectively. Evolution of trans-membrane pressure (TMP) as a function of time was studied and an average TMP of 15 kPa was found suitable to achieve membrane flux of 12.17 l/(m2h). Almost weekly back-flow chemical cleaning of the membrane was found necessary to control TMP within the permissible limit of 20 kPa.

  2. A novel application of an anaerobic membrane process in wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    You, H S; Tseng, C C; Peng, M J; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Peng, S H

    2005-01-01

    The applications of membrane processes in anaerobic biological wastewater treatment still have some limitations due to severe membrane scaling and fouling, although they have been proven to achieve superior COD removal and biomass retention. An innovative anaerobic membrane process for wastewater treatment was conducted to control the membrane scaling problems. The process comprises an anaerobic reactor, an aerobic reactor, and a membrane separation tank. Anaerobic sludge from a full-scale UASB reactor treating food wastewater was inoculated to anaerobic and aerobic reactor to purify synthetic wastewater consisting of glucose and sodium acetate. The anaerobic reactor was operated in a sludge bed type without three-phase separator. The aerobic reactor can eliminate residual organics from the anaerobic reactor effluent using facultative microorganisms. To provide solid-liquid separation, hollow fiber ultrafiltration module was submerged in the separation tank. The results clearly show that the anaerobic membrane process combined methanogenic and aerobic COD reduction is a stable system. No fatal scaling was found after two months of operation even without chemical cleaning for the membrane. It was also found that inorganic precipitates formed in the aerobic reactor were reduced due to CO2 stripping in aerobic reactor. Another important finding was that the inorganic precipitates were entrapped into facultative aerobes floc. The ash/SS ratio of aerobes floc increased from 0.17 to 0.55 after 50 days of operation, which confirms this phenomenon. Based on our investigation, the new process can control scaling effectively to extend the membrane application in anaerobic treatment.

  3. Navigating wastewater energy recovery strategies: a life cycle comparison of anaerobic membrane bioreactor and conventional treatment systems with anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam L; Stadler, Lauren B; Cao, Ling; Love, Nancy G; Raskin, Lutgarde; Skerlos, Steven J

    2014-05-20

    The objective of this study was to evaluate emerging anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology in comparison with conventional wastewater energy recovery technologies. Wastewater treatment process modeling and systems analyses were combined to evaluate the conditions under which AnMBR may produce more net energy and have lower life cycle environmental emissions than high rate activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (HRAS+AD), conventional activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (CAS+AD), and an aerobic membrane bioreactor with anaerobic digestion (AeMBR+AD). For medium strength domestic wastewater treatment under baseline assumptions at 15 °C, AnMBR recovered 49% more energy as biogas than HRAS+AD, the most energy positive conventional technology considered, but had significantly higher energy demands and environmental emissions. Global warming impacts associated with AnMBR were largely due to emissions of effluent dissolved methane. For high strength domestic wastewater treatment, AnMBR recovered 15% more net energy than HRAS+AD, and the environmental emissions gap between the two systems was reduced. Future developments of AnMBR technology in low energy fouling control, increased flux, and management of effluent methane emissions would make AnMBR competitive with HRAS+AD. Rapid advancements in AnMBR technology must continue to achieve its full economic and environmental potential as an energy recovery strategy for domestic wastewater.

  4. Anaerobic treatability and biogas production potential studies of different agro-industrial wastewaters in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Demirer, G N; Duran, M; Ergüder, T H; Güven, E; Ugurlu, O; Tezel, U

    2000-01-01

    The anaerobic treatability and methane generation potential of the wastewaters of the three important agro-industries in Turkey, namely, cheese-making, poultry breeding and the olive-oil mill industries were studied. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) experiments were conducted for different initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations. The results indicate that anaerobic treatment was possible for all the wastewaters studied and the biogas produced had a high methane content.

  5. Application of anaerobic biological treatment for sulphate removal in viscose industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Parravicini, V; Svardal, K; Kroiss, H

    2007-01-01

    Long term lab-scale and bench-scale experiments were performed to investigate the feasibility of the anaerobic process to treat wastewater from a pulp and viscose fibre industry. Anaerobic wastewater treatment enables an advantageous combination of COD, sulphate and zinc removal from viscose wastewater. The aim of the investigations was to evaluate the influence of the free sulphide concentration on COD and sulphate removal efficiency and on the substrate competition between sulphate reducing and methanogenic bacteria. Since the wastewater did not contain enough COD for complete sulphate removal it was of major interest to determine favourable process conditions to steer the substrate competition in favour of sulphate reduction. Further experiments at bench-scale permitted us to evaluate applicable COD-loading rates and gain fundamental information about process stability and optimization for large-scale implementation. The present work will deal with the most relevant experimental results achieved and with important technological aspects of anaerobic treatment of viscose wastewater.

  6. Improvement of anaerobic digester performance by wastewater recirculation through an aerated membrane.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Swine wastewater from an anaerobic digester was recirculated through a silicone hose located in an external aeration chamber to determine its effect on wastewater malodorants and biogas composition. The silicone hose acted as a semipermeable membrane for the passage of small molecules. In the first...

  7. Wastewater polishing by a channelized macrophyte-dominated wetland and anaerobic digestion of the harvested phytomass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    : Constructed wetlands (CW) offer a mechanism to meet regulatory standards for wastewater treatment while minimizing energy inputs. To optimize CW wastewater polishing activities and investigate integration of CW with energy production from anaerobic digestion we constructed a pair of three-tier ch...

  8. Nitrification and denitrification gene abundances in swine wastewater anaerobic lagoons.

    PubMed

    Ducey, Thomas F; Shriner, Anthony D; Hunt, Patrick G

    2011-01-01

    Although anaerobic lagoons are used globally for livestock waste treatment, their detailed microbial cycling ofN is only beginning to become understood. Within this cycling, nitrification can be performed by organisms that produce the enzyme ammonia monooxygenase. For denitrification, the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide can be catalyzed by two forms of nitrite reductases, and N,O can be reduced by nitrous oxide reductase encoded by the gene nosZ The objectives of this investigation were to (i) quantify the abundance of the amoA, nirK, nirS, and nosZ genes; (ii) evaluate the influence of environmental conditions on their abundances; and (iii) evaluate their abundance relative to denitrification enzyme activity (DEA). Samples were analyzed via real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and collected from eight typical, commercial anaerobic, swine wastewater lagoons located in the Carolinas. The four genes assayed in this study were present in all eight lagoons. Their abundances relative to total bacterial populations were 0.04% (amoA), 1.33% (nirS), 5.29% (nirK), and 0.27% (nosZ). When compared with lagoon chemical characteristics, amoA and nirK correlated with several measured variables. Neither nirS nor nosZ correlated with any measured environmental variables. Although no gene measured in this study correlated with actual or potential DEA, nosZ copy numbers did correlate with the disparity between actual and potential DEA. Phylogenetic analysis ofnosZdid not reveal any correlations to DEA rates. As with other investigations, analyses of these genes provide useful insight while revealing the underlying greater complexity of N cycling within swine waste lagoons.

  9. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of biologically pretreated abattoir wastewaters in an upflow anaerobic filter.

    PubMed

    Gannoun, H; Bouallagui, H; Okbi, A; Sayadi, S; Hamdi, M

    2009-10-15

    The hydrolysis pretreatment of abattoir wastewaters (AW), rich in organic suspended solids (fats and protein) was studied in static and stirred batch reactors without aeration in the presence of natural microbial population acclimated in a storage tank of AW. Microbial analysis showed that the major populations which contribute to the pretreatment of AW belong to the genera Bacillus. Contrary to the static pretreatment, the stirred conditions favoured the hydrolysis and solubilization of 80% of suspended matter into soluble pollution. The pretreated AW, in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 days, was fed to an upflow anaerobic filter (UAF) at an HRT of 2 days. The performance of anaerobic digestion of biologically pretreated AW was examined under mesophilic (37 degrees C) and thermophilic (55 degrees C) conditions. The shifting from a mesophilic to a thermophilic environment in the UAF was carried out with a short start-up of thermophilic condition. The UAF ran at organic loading rates (OLRs) ranging from 0.9 to 6g COD/Ld in mesophilic conditions and at OLRs from 0.9 to 9 g COD/Ld in thermophilic conditions. COD removal efficiencies of 80-90% were achieved for OLRs up to 4.5 g COD/Ld in mesophilic conditions, while the highest OLRs i.e. 9 g COD/Ld led to efficiencies of 70-72% in thermophilic conditions. The biogas yield in thermophilic conditions was about 0.32-0.45 L biogas/g of COD removed for OLRs up to 4.5 g COD/Ld. For similar OLR, the UAF in mesophilic conditions showed lower percentage of methanization. Mesophilic anaerobic digestion has been shown to destroy pathogens partially, whereas the thermophilic process was more efficient in the removal of indicator microorganisms and pathogenic bacteria at different organic loading rates.

  10. Biohydrogen production and wastewater treatment from organic wastewater by anaerobic fermentation with UASB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lu; Li, Yong-feng; Wang, Yi-xuan; Yang, Chuan-ping

    2010-11-01

    In order to discuss the ability of H2-production and wastewater treatment, an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) using a synthesized substrate with brown sugar wastewater was conducted to investigate the hydrogen yield, hydrogen producing rate, fermentation type of biohydrogen production, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate, respectively. The results show that when the biomass of inoculants was 22.5 g SSṡL-1 and the influent concentration, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and initial pH were within the ranges of 4000˜6000 mg CODṡL-1, 8 h and 5-5.5, respectively, and the biohydrogen producing reactor could work effectively. The maximum hydrogen production rate is 5.98 Lṡd-1. Simultaneously, the concentration of ethanol and acetic acid is around 80% of the aqueous terminal production in the system, which presents the typical ethanol type fermentation. pH is at the range of 4˜4.5 during the whole performing process, however, the removal rate of COD is just about 20%. Therefore, it's still needs further research to successfully achieve the biohydrogen production and wastewater treatment, simultaneously.

  11. Modified anaerobic digestion elutriated phased treatment for the anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mo, Kyung; Lee, Wonbae; Kim, Moonil

    2017-02-01

    A modified anaerobic digestion elutriated phased treatment (MADEPT) process was developed for investigating anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and food wastewater. The anaerobic digestion elutriated phased treatment (ADEPT) process is similar to a two-phase system, however, in which the effluent from a methanogenic reactor recycles into an acidogenic reactor to elutriate mainly dissolved organics. Although ADEPT could reduce reactor volume significantly, the unsolubilized solids should be wasted from the system. The MADEPT process combines thermo-alkali solubilization with ADEPT to improve anaerobic performance and to minimize the sludge disposal. It was determined that the optimal volume mixing ratio of sewage sludge and food wastewater was 4 : 1 for the anaerobic co-digestion. The removal efficiencies of total chemical oxygen demand, volatile solids, and volatile suspended solids in the MADEPT process were 73%, 70%, and 64%, respectively. However, those in the ADEPT process were only 48%, 37%, and 40%, respectively, at the same hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7 days. The gas production of MADEPT was two times higher than that of ADEPT. The thermo-alkali solubilization increased the concentration of dissolved organics so that they could be effectively degraded in a short HRT, implying that MADEPT could improve the performance of ADEPT in anaerobic co-digestion.

  12. Simultaneous enzymatic hydrolysis and anaerobic biodegradation of lipid-rich wastewater from poultry industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dors, Gisanara; Mendes, Adriano A.; Pereira, Ernandes B.; de Castro, Heizir F.; Furigo, Agenor

    2013-03-01

    Simultaneous enzymatic hydrolysis and anaerobic biodegradation of lipid-rich wastewater from poultry industry with porcine pancreatic lipase at different concentrations (from 1.0 to 3.0 g L-1) were performed. The efficiency of the enzymatic pretreatment was measured by the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal and formation of methane. All samples pretreated with lipase showed a positive effect on the COD removal and formation of methane. After 30 days of anaerobic biodegradation the methane production varied from 569 ± 95 to 1,101 ± 10 mL for crude wastewater and pretreated at 3.0 g L-1 enzyme, respectively. COD removal of wastewater supplemented at different enzyme concentrations was found to be threefold higher than crude wastewater. The use of lipases seems to be a promising alternative for treating lipid-rich wastewaters such as those from the poultry industry.

  13. Source analysis of organic matter in swine wastewater after anaerobic digestion with EEM-PARAFAC.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhuo; Zheng, Ping; Ding, Aqiang; Zhang, Meng; Abbas, Ghulam; Li, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Swine wastewater is one of the most serious pollution sources, and it has attracted a great public concern in China. Anaerobic digestion technology is extensively used in swine wastewater treatment. However, the anaerobic digestion effluents are difficult to meet the discharge standard. The results from batch experiments showed that plenty of refractory organic matter remained in the effluents after mesophilic anaerobic digestion for 30 days. The effluent total COD (tCOD) and soluble COD (sCOD) were 483 and 324 mg/L, respectively, with the sCOD/tCOD ratio of 0.671. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) revealed that the dissolved organic matter in the effluents was tryptophan-like substance, humic acid substance, and fulvic acid substance. Based on the appearance time during anaerobic digestion, tryptophan-like substance and humic acid substance were inferred to originate from the raw swine wastewater, and the fulvic acid substance was inferred to be formed in the anaerobic digestion. This work has revealed the source of residual organic matter in anaerobic digestion of swine wastewater and has provided some valuable information for the post-treatment.

  14. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  15. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto,; Budiyono

    2015-12-29

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  16. Anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater with a staged anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor (SAF-MBR) system.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Rihye; Kim, Jeonghwan; McCarty, Perry L; Bae, Jaeho

    2012-09-01

    A laboratory-scale staged anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactor (SAF-MBR) system was used to treat a municipal wastewater primary-clarifier effluent. It was operated continuously for 192 days at 6-11 L/m(2)/h flux and trans-membrane pressure generally of 0.1 bar or less with no fouling control except the scouring effect of the fluidized granular activated carbon on membrane surfaces. With a total hydraulic retention time of 2.3h at 25°C, the average effluent chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand concentrations of 25 and 7 mg/L yielded corresponding removals of 84% and 92%, respectively. Also, near complete removal of suspended solids was obtained. Biosolids production, representing 5% of the COD removed, equaled 0.049 g VSS/g BOD(5) removed, far less than the case with comparable aerobic processes. The electrical energy required for the operation of the SAF-MBR system, 0.047 kW h/m(3), could be more than satisfied by using the methane produced.

  17. Resource recovery and epidemiology of anaerobic wastewater treatment process in a controlled ecological life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Ku-Yen; Hunt, Madelyn D.

    1995-01-01

    The results of work accomplished under two different areas: (1) Resource Recovery of an Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment process, and (2) Epidemiological Study of an Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment Process are documented. The first part of the work was to set up and test three anaerobic digesters and then run these three digesters with a NASA-simulated wastewater. The second part of the work was to use a multi-drug resistant strain of Salmonella choleraesuis as the indicator bacteria for the epidemiological study. Details of these two parts can be found in two master's theses and are described in Sections 3 and 4 of this report. Several important results condensed from these two parts are summarized in Section 2.

  18. The effects of operational and environmental variations on anaerobic wastewater treatment systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Leitão, Renato Carrhá; van Haandel, Adrianus Cornelius; Zeeman, Grietje; Lettinga, Gatze

    2006-06-01

    With the aim of improving knowledge about the stability and reliability of anaerobic wastewater treatment systems, several researchers have studied the effects of operational or environmental variations on the performance of such reactors. In general, anaerobic reactors are affected by changes in external factors, but the severity of the effect is dependent upon the type, magnitude, duration and frequency of the imposed changes. The typical responses include a decrease in performance, accumulation of volatile fatty acids, drop in pH and alkalinity, change in biogas production and composition, and sludge washout. This review summarises the causes, types and effects of operational and environmental variation on anaerobic wastewater treatment systems. However, there still remain some unclear technical and scientific aspects that are necessary for the improvement of the stability and reliability of anaerobic processes.

  19. Effects of household detergent on anaerobic fermentation of kitchen wastewater from food waste disposer.

    PubMed

    Lee, K H; Park, K Y; Khanal, S K; Lee, J W

    2013-01-15

    This study examines the effects of household detergent on anaerobic methane fermentation of wastewater from food waste disposers (FWDs). Anaerobic toxicity assay (ATA) demonstrated that methane production substantially decreased at a higher detergent concentration. The Gompertz three-parameter model fitted well with the ATA results, and both the extent of methane production (M) and methane production rate (R(m)) obtained from the model were strongly affected by the concentration of the detergent. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of the detergent was 603 mg/L based on R(m). Results from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) analysis of microbial culture revealed that deterioration of methane fermentation was attributed to impaired structure of anaerobic microbial membrane due to detergent. This study suggests that wastewater from FWD could be used for methane production, but it is necessary to reduce the concentration of detergent prior to anaerobic fermentation.

  20. Inhibitory effect of erythromycin, tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole antibiotics on anaerobic treatment of a pharmaceutical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Sevcan; Ince, Bahar; Ince, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals enter ecosystems, which causes changes to microbial community structure and development of resistant genes. Anaerobic treatments can be an alternative application for treatment of pharmaceutical wastewaters, which has high organic content. This study aims to develop an understanding of the effects of sulfamethoxazole-erythromycin-tetracycline (ETS), sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline (ST), erythromycin-sulfamethoxazole (ES) and erythromycin-tetracycline (ET) combinations on the anaerobic treatment of pharmaceutical industry wastewater. The results of this investigation revealed that bacteria have a competitive advantage over archaea under all antibiotic combinations. The ET reactor showed a better performance compared to other reactors; this could be due to antagonistic effects of sulfamethoxazole. Acute inhibition in the microbial community was also strongly affected by antibiotics concentrations. This indicated that the composition of the microbial community changed in association with anaerobic sequencing batch reactor performances. The results of this research support the idea that an acute test could be used to control and improve the anaerobic treatment system.

  1. Anaerobic biofilm reactors for dark fermentative hydrogen production from wastewater: A review.

    PubMed

    Barca, Cristian; Soric, Audrey; Ranava, David; Giudici-Orticoni, Marie-Thérèse; Ferrasse, Jean-Henry

    2015-06-01

    Dark fermentation is a bioprocess driven by anaerobic bacteria that can produce hydrogen (H2) from organic waste and wastewater. This review analyses a relevant number of recent studies that have investigated dark fermentative H2 production from wastewater using two different types of anaerobic biofilm reactors: anaerobic packed bed reactor (APBR) and anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR). The effect of various parameters, including temperature, pH, carrier material, inoculum pretreatment, hydraulic retention time, substrate type and concentration, on reactor performances was investigated by a critical discussion of the results published in the literature. Also, this review presents an in-depth study on the influence of the main operating parameters on the metabolic pathways. The aim of this review is to provide to researchers and practitioners in the field of H2 production key elements for the best operation of the reactors. Finally, some perspectives and technical challenges to improve H2 production were proposed.

  2. Anaerobic degradation of adsorbable organic halides (AOX) from pulp and paper industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Savant, D V; Abdul-Rahman, R; Ranade, D R

    2006-06-01

    Adsorbable organic halides (AOX) are generated in the pulp and paper industry during the bleaching process. These compounds are formed as a result of reaction between residual lignin from wood fibres and chlorine/chlorine compounds used for bleaching. Many of these compounds are recalcitrant and have long half-life periods. Some of them show a tendency to bioaccumulate while some are proven carcinogens and mutagens. Hence, it is necessary to remove or degrade these compounds from wastewater. Physical, chemical and electrochemical methods reported to remove AOX compounds are not economically viable. Different types of aerobic, anaerobic and combined biological treatment processes have been developed for treatment of pulp and paper industry wastewater. Maximum dechlorination is found to occur under anaerobic conditions. However, as these processes are designed specifically for reducing COD and BOD of wastewater, they do not ensure complete removal of AOX. This paper reviews the anaerobic biological treatments developed for pulp and paper industry wastewater and also reviews the specific micro-organisms reported to degrade AOX compounds under anaerobic conditions, their nutritional and biochemical requirements. It is imperative to consider these specific micro-organisms while designing an anaerobic treatment for efficient removal of AOX.

  3. Treatment of artificial soybean wastewater anaerobic effluent in a continuous aerobic-anaerobic coupled (CAAC) process with excess sludge reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Li, Xiaoxia; Fu, Weichao; Wu, Shihan; Li, Chun

    2012-12-01

    In this study, treatment of artificial soybean wastewater anaerobic effluent was studied in a continuous aerobic-anaerobic coupled (CAAC) process. The focus was on COD and nitrogen removal as well as excess sludge reduction. During the continuous operation without reflux, the COD removal efficiency was 96.5% at the optimal hydraulic retention time (HRT) 1.3 days. When HRT was shortened to 1.0 day, reflux from anaerobic zone to moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was introduced. The removal efficiencies of COD and TN were 94.4% and 76.0% at the optimal reflux ratio 30%, respectively. The sludge yield coefficient of CAAC was 0.1738, the simultaneous removal of COD and nitrogen with in situ sludge reduction could be achieved in this CAAC process. The sludge reduction mechanism was discussed by soluble components variation along the water flow.

  4. Modeling of two-phase anaerobic process treating traditional Chinese medicine wastewater with the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhaobo; Hu, Dongxue; Zhang, Zhenpeng; Ren, Nanqi; Zhu, Haibo

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the study was to implement a mathematical model to simulate two-phase anaerobic digestion (TPAD) process which consisted of an anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor in series treating traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wastewater. A model was built on the basis of Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) while considering complete mixing model for the CSTR, and axial direction discrete model and mixed series connection model for the UASB. The mathematical model was implemented with the simulation software package MATLABTM/Simulinks. System performance, in terms of COD removal, volatile fatty acids (VFA) accumulation and pH fluctuation, was simulated and compared with the measured values. The simulation results indicated that the model built was able to well predict the COD removal rate (-4.8-5.0%) and pH variation (-2.9-1.4%) of the UASB reactor, while failed to simulate the CSTR performance. Comparing to the measured results, the simulated acetic acid concentration of the CSTR effluent was underpredicted with a deviation ratios of 13.8-23.2%, resulting in an underprediction of total VFA and COD concentrations despite good estimation of propionic acid, butyric acid and valeric acid. It is presumed that ethanol present in the raw wastewater was converted into acetic acid during the acidification process, which was not considered by the model. Additionally, due to the underprediction of acetic acid the pH of CSTR effluent was overestimated.

  5. Anaerobic digestion of wastewater screenings for resource recovery and waste reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wid, N.; Horan, N. J.

    2016-06-01

    Wastewater screenings are produced during the first stage of the wastewater treatment process and at present are disposed of to landfill. This material may not only cause operational failure to the treatment system, but also lead to environmental problems. In view of the high organic content of screenings, anaerobic digestion method may not only offer the potential for energy recovery, but also nutrient. In this study the, anaerobic batch digestion was performed at different dry solids concentrations of screenings to study the potential of biogas and phosphorus recovery. The tests demonstrated wastewater screenings were amenable to anaerobic digestion with methane yield was 355 m3/kg VS, which are comparable to the previous results. The digestate was high in P content and can be recovered up to 41%. This study also shows that anaerobic digestion was not only to turn this waste into useful resources, but also has a potential in reducing the organic content up to 31% for safe disposal. In this way the amount of wastewater screenings going to landfill is not only can be reduced, but also valuable products such as methane and phosphorus can also be recovered.

  6. Microbial community analysis of swine wastewater anaerobic lagoons by next-generation DNA sequencing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anaerobic lagoons are a standard practice for the treatment of swine wastewater. This practice relies heavily on microbiological processes to reduce concentrated organic material and nutrients. Despite this reliance on microbiological processes, research has only recently begun to identify and enume...

  7. Enhanced anaerobic biodegradability of real coal gasification wastewater with methanol addition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Han, Hongjun; Yuan, Min; Li, Huiqiang

    2010-01-01

    Coal gasification effluent is a typical refractory industrial wastewater with a very poor anaerobic biodegradability due to its toxicity. Methanol was introduced to improve anaerobic biodegradability of real coal gasification wastewater, and the effect of methanol addition on the performance was investigated in a mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor with a hydraulic retention time of 24 hr. Experimental results indicated that anaerobic treatment of coal gasification wastewater was feasible with the addition of methanol. The corresponding maximum COD and phenol removal rates were 71% and 75%, respectively, with methanol concentration of 500 mg COD/L for a total organic loading rate of 3.5 kg COD/(m3 x day) and a phenol loading rate of 0.6 kg/(m3 x day). The phenol removal rate was not improved with a higher methanol concentration of 1000 mg COD/L. Substrate utilization rate (SUR) tests indicated that the SURs of phenol were 106, 132, and 83 mg phenol/(g VSS x day) at methanol concentrations of 250, 500, and 1000 mg COD/L, respectively, and only 45 mg phenol/(g VSS x day) in the control reactor. The presence of methanol could reduce the toxicity of coal gasification wastewater and increase the biodegradation of phenolic compounds.

  8. Biohydrogen Production from Cheese Processing Wastewater by Anaerobic Fermentation Using Mixed Microbial Communities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hydrogen (H2) production from simulated cheese processing wastewater via anaerobic fermentation was conducted using mixed microbial communities under mesophilic conditions. In batch H2 fermentation experiments H2 yields of 8 and 10 mM/g-COD fed were achieved at food-to-microorganism (F/M) ratios of ...

  9. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH4/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH4: 81.23% and CO2: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  10. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-29

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH{sub 4}/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH{sub 4}: 81.23% and CO{sub 2}: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  11. Selection of forward osmosis draw solutes for subsequent integration with anaerobic treatment to facilitate resource recovery from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Ashley J; Hai, Faisal I; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D

    2015-09-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) can be used to extract clean water and pre-concentrate municipal wastewater to make it amenable to anaerobic treatment. A protocol was developed to assess the suitability of FO draw solutes for pre-concentrating wastewater for potential integration with anaerobic treatment to facilitate resource recovery from wastewater. Draw solutes were evaluated in terms of their ability to induce osmotic pressure, water flux, and reverse solute flux. The compatibility of each draw solute with subsequent anaerobic treatment was assessed by biomethane potential analysis. The effect of each draw solute (at concentrations corresponding to the reverse solute flux at ten-fold pre-concentration of wastewater) on methane production was also evaluated. The results show that ionic organic draw solutes (e.g., sodium acetate) were most suitable for FO application and subsequent anaerobic treatment. On the other hand, the reverse solute flux of inorganic draw solutions could inhibit methane production from FO pre-concentrated wastewater.

  12. Anaerobic waste stabilization ponds: a low-cost contribution to a sustainable wastewater reuse cycle.

    PubMed

    Alexiou, G E; Mara, D D

    2003-01-01

    Waste stabilization ponds (WSP) have been used extensively all over Europe over the last 50 yr for the treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters. Models presented in manuals should be used only for guidance, and local experience from pilot and full-scale plants of a particular pond type is extremely valuable. Anaerobic WSP are single-stage, continuous- flow, anaerobic reactors operating at ambient temperatures and low volumetric organic loading as a pretreatment method. This article presents a literature review on the different available operational parameters of anaerobic ponds and examples from full-scale plant performance worldwide. On a wastewater management scheme, involving reuse for agriculture, the zero-energy demand of a waste stabilization pond series for the effective removal of organic and microbiological loading under existing legislation and guidelines will remain a valuable tool for sustainable development.

  13. Design and analysis of a solar reactor for anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Yiannopoulos, Andreas Ch; Manariotis, Ioannis D; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this research was to design a solar heated reactor system to enhance the anaerobic treatment of wastewater or biological sludge at temperatures higher than the ambient air temperature. For the proposed reactor system, the solar energy absorbed by flat plate collectors was transferred to a heat storage tank, which continuously supplied an anaerobic-filter reactor with water at a maximum temperature of 35 degrees C. The packed reactor was a metallic cylindrical tank with a peripheral twin-wall enclosure. Inside this enclosure was circulated warm water from the heat storage tank. Furthermore, a mathematical model was developed for the prediction of the temperature distribution within the reactor under steady state conditions. Preliminary results based on model simulations performed with meteorological data from various geographical regions of the world suggested that the proposed solar reactor system could be a promising and environmentally friendly approach for anaerobic treatment of wastewater and biological sludge.

  14. Investigation and field testing of anaerobic biological treatment of pharmaceutical wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-30

    A study has been conducted that investigated and demonstrated the anaerobic biological treatment of wastewaters generated by the pharmaceuticals industry. This report presents the results of the multi-phase program and the conclusions and recommendations which have been derived from an analysis of the experimental data. The program was initiated in October 1985 and was conducted over a period of 26 months, at which point the experimental portions of the study were completed in December 1987. These can be divided to essentially three major tasks: screening assays to assess anaerobic treatability; bench-scale treatability investigations of the Merck Stonewall Plant wastewaters; and, pilot scale demonstration of anaerobic treatment. Each major element is discussed separately, addressing the design of the program (facilities), the experimental procedures, and finally the results of each task. The final section discusses the application of the technology to the pharmaceutical industry and the economic components associated with it. 2 refs., 54 figs., 35 tabs.

  15. Biogas production from anaerobic waste stabilisation ponds treating dairy and piggery wastewater in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J

    2007-01-01

    New Zealand has over 1000 anaerobic wastewater stabilisation ponds used for the treatment of wastewater from farms and industry. Traditional anaerobic ponds were not designed to optimise anaerobic digestion of wastewater biomass to produce biogas and these uncovered ponds allowed biogas to escape to the atmosphere. This release of biogas not only causes odour problems, but contributes to GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions and is wasteful of energy that could be captured and used. Biogas production from anaerobic stabilisation ponds treating piggery and dairy wastewater was measured using floating 25 m2 HDPE covers on the pond surface. Biogas composition was analysed monthly and gas production was continually monitored. Mean areal biogas (methane) production rates from piggery and dairy anaerobic ponds were 0.78 (0.53) m3/m2/d and 0.03 (0.023) m3/m2/d respectively. Average CH4 content of the piggery and dairy farm biogas were 72.0% and 80.3% respectively. Conversion of the average volume of methane gas that could be captured from the piggery and dairy farm ponds (393.4 m3/d and 40.7 m3/d) to electricity would reduce CO2 equivalent GHG emissions by 5.6 tonnes/d and 0.6 tonnes/d and generate 1,180 kWh/d and 122 kWh/d. These results suggest that anaerobic ponds in New Zealand release considerable amounts of GHG and that there is great potential for energy recovery.

  16. Study of hybrid vertical anaerobic sludge-aerobic biofilm membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Phattaranawik, Jirachote; Leiknes, TorOve

    2010-03-01

    Alternative design of a hybrid biofilm reactor was developed and evaluated experimentally in this article, aimed to minimize a suspended solid in the effluent and to manage an excess sludge produced in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) system. A hybrid vertical anaerobic sludge-aerated biofilm reactor (HyVAB) was proposed and coupled with external submerged membrane filtration for wastewater treatment application. The HyVAB featured an upper chamber of aerobic biofilm, a lower chamber of anaerobic activated sludge, and a roof-shaped separator located between the chambers, to prevent diffusion of dissolved oxygen to the anaerobic chamber. The lower chamber was used for anaerobic digestion of aerobic sludge waste. The effects of hydraulic retention time in the HyVAB on effluent quality and on membrane fouling were studied. The average suspended solids concentration in the effluent was found to be lower than 15 mg/L. The optimum operating conditions for the HyVAB MBR were investigated.

  17. Combining mixing regimes for optimized anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Kleerebezem, Robbert

    2003-01-01

    Operational practice of high-rate anaerobic bioreactors such as upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors is generally based on maximization of the biomass concentration and, in the case of more than one reactor compartment, operation in parallel. In this article, a modeling approach is used to postulate that the treatment performance of anaerobic bioreactors can be improved by simple operational measures. To achieve minimized effluent soluble substrate concentrations, operation of two reactors in series combined with active exchange of biomass between both reactors is suggested. In this way, substrate concentrations lower than the minimum achievable concentration in a completely mixed reactor can be achieved. It is furthermore suggested that maximized biomass concentrations (and solid retention times [SRTs]) do not necessarily lead to minimized effluent concentrations of organic material. At elevated SRTs, the soluble microbial products resulting from biomass turnover are shown to represent the main fraction of soluble organic material in the effluent of the reactor, limiting treatment efficiency.

  18. Anaerobic treatability of wastewater contaminated with propylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Sezgin, Naim; Tonuk, Gulseven Ubay

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biodegradability of propylene glycol in anaerobic conditions by using methanogenic culture. A master reactor was set up to develop a culture that would be acclimated to propylene glycol. After reaching steady-state, culture was transferred to serum bottles. Three reactors with same initial conditions were run for consistency. Propylene glycol was completely biodegradable under anaerobic methanogenic conditions. Semi-continuous reactors operated at a temperature of 35°C had consistently achieved a propylene glycol removal of higher than 95 % based on chemical oxygen demand (COD). It was found that in semi-continuous reactors, anaerobic treatment of propylene glycol at concentrations higher than 1,500 mg COD m(-3) day(-1) was not convenient due to instable effluent COD.

  19. Electricity assisted anaerobic treatment of salinity wastewater and its effects on microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxin; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie

    2012-07-01

    High salinity wastewater is often difficult to treat using common anaerobic technologies. Considering that high conductivity of salinity wastewater may enhance electrodes reaction to accelerate the decomposition of volatile fatty acids produced in anaerobic digestion, a pair of electrodes was packed into an anaerobic reactor (R1) with the aim to enhance the treatment of salinity wastewater. With increasing the salt concentration (NaCl) gradually from 0 to 50 g/L in 137 days' operation, COD removal in this reactor under the voltage for the electrodes of 1.2 V was well maintained at 93%, while the COD removal in a reference anaerobic reactor without electrodes (R2) decreased to 53%. When the voltage for R1 was cut off, about 10% COD removal was declined, which was still 30 percentage points higher than that in R2. The electrodes enhanced the biodegradation of volatile fatty acids, especially propionate. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis confirmed that the relative abundance of propionate-utilizing bacteria in R1 was significantly higher than that in R2. PCR-DGGE analysis of bacteria and archaea domains indicated that the electric field stimulation effectively enriched salt-adapted microorganisms during the treatment.

  20. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of Lurgi coal gasification wastewater in a UASB reactor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Li, Huiqiang; Yuan, Min

    2011-02-01

    Lurgi coal gasification wastewater (LCGW) is a refractory wastewater, whose anaerobic treatment has been a severe problem due to its toxicity and poor biodegradability. Using a mesophilic (35±2°C) reactor as a control, thermophilic anaerobic digestion (55±2°C) of LCGW was investigated in a UASB reactor. After 120 days of operation, the removal of COD and total phenols by the thermophilic reactor could reach 50-55% and 50-60% respectively, at an organic loading rate of 2.5 kg COD/(m(3) d) and HRT of 24 h; the corresponding efficiencies were both only 20-30% in the mesophilic reactor. After thermophilic digestion, the wastewater concentrations of the aerobic effluent COD could reach below 200 mg/L compared with around 294 mg/L if mesophilic digestion was done and around 375 mg/L if sole aerobic pretreatment was done. The results suggested that thermophilic anaerobic digestion improved significantly both anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation of LCGW.

  1. Nutrients removal and recovery from anaerobically digested swine wastewater by struvite crystallization without chemical additions.

    PubMed

    Song, Yong-Hui; Qiu, Guang-Lei; Yuan, Peng; Cui, Xiao-Yu; Peng, Jian-Feng; Zeng, Ping; Duan, Liang; Xiang, Lian-Cheng; Qian, Feng

    2011-06-15

    Anaerobically digested swine wastewater contains high concentrations of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N). A pilot-scale experiment was carried out for nutrients removal and recovery from anaerobically digested swine wastewater by struvite crystallization. In the pilot plant, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a continuous-flow reactor with struvite accumulation devices were designed and employed. The wastewater pH value was increased by CO(2) stripping, and the struvite crystallization process was performed without alkali and Mg(2+) additions. Results of the long-term operation of the system showed that, both reactors provided up to 85% P removal and recovery over wide ranges of aeration times (1.0-4.0 h), hydraulic retention times (HRT) (6.0-15.0 h) and temperatures (0-29.5°C) for an extended period of 247 d, in which approximate 30% of P was recovered by the struvite accumulation devices. However, 40-90% of NH(4)(+)-N removed was through air stripping instead of being immobilized in the recovered solids. The recovered products were detected and analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and chemical methods, which were proved to be struvite with purity of more than 90%. This work demonstrated the feasibility and effects of nutrients removal and recovery from anaerobically digested swine wastewater by struvite crystallization without chemical additions.

  2. Neutral fat hydrolysis and long-chain fatty acid oxidation during anaerobic digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater.

    PubMed

    Masse, L; Massé, D I; Kennedy, K J; Chou, S P

    2002-07-05

    Neutral fat hydrolysis and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) oxidation rates were determined during the digestion of slaughterhouse wastewater in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors operated at 25 degrees C. The experimental substrate consisted of filtered slaughterhouse wastewater supplemented with pork fat particles at various average initial sizes (D(in)) ranging from 60 to 450 microm. At the D(in) tested, there was no significant particle size effect on the first-order hydrolysis rate. The neutral fat hydrolysis rate averaged 0.63 +/- 0.07 d(-1). LCFA oxidation rate was modelled using a Monod-type equation. The maximum substrate utilization rate (kmax) and the half-saturation concentration (Ks) averaged 164 +/- 37 mg LCFA/L/d and 35 +/- 31 mg LCFA/L, respectively. Pork fat particle degradation was mainly controlled by LCFA oxidation rate and, to a lesser extent, by neutral fat hydrolysis rate. Hydrolysis pretreatment of fat-containing wastewaters and sludges should not substantially accelerate their anaerobic treatment. At a D(in) of 450 microm, fat particles were found to inhibit methane production during the initial 20 h of digestion. Inhibition of methane production in the early phase of digestion was the only significant effect of fat particle size on anaerobic digestion of pork slaughterhouse wastewater. Soluble COD could not be used to determine the rate of lipid hydrolysis due to LCFA adsorption on the biomass.

  3. Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment using an anaerobic/aerobic sequencing batch biofilter.

    PubMed

    Buitrón, Germán; Melgoza, Rosa Maria; Jiménez, Leonardo

    2003-01-01

    The performance of a sequencing batch biofilter integrating anaerobic/aerobic conditions in one tank to treat a pharmaceutical wastewater effluent was studied. A pilot reactor, packed with a porous volcanic stone (puzzolane) was used in the study. The reactor operated as a sequencing batch biofilter, SBB, with reaction times varying for the anaerobic stage from 8 to 24 h and for the aerobic one from 4 to 12 h. The volume of exchange was from 16 to 88%. The pharmaceutical wastewater contained organic chemicals including phenols and o-nitroaniline, a concentration of organic matter that varied from 28,400 to 72,200 mg/L (as total COD), 280 to 605 mg N-NH4/L. and 430 to 650 mg SST/L. In order to acclimatize the microorganisms to the industrial wastewater, the organic load was increased stepwise from 1 to 7.7 kg COD/m3/d. The adequate time was obtained when the removal efficiency of COD reached 80%, or more. Maximal removal loads, associated to high removal efficiencies (95-97% as COD), varied from 4.6 to 5.7 kg COD/m3/d. Under these conditions color removal was 80% as Pt-Co units. Microtox analysis was performed to the wastewater and to the anaerobic and aerobic stages. It was observed that the aerobic stage was the responsible for wastewater detoxification. Results showed that the anaerobic/aerobic SBB was able to treat efficiently initial concentrations of the raw effluent up to 28,400 mg COD/L.

  4. A novel fast mass transfer anaerobic inner loop fluidized bed biofilm reactor for PTA wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingwen; Zhao, Jinlong; Li, Kai; Xie, Shitao

    In this paper, a fast mass transfer anaerobic inner loop fluidized bed biofilm reactor (ILFBBR) was developed to improve purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater treatment. The emphasis of this study was on the start-up mode of the anaerobic ILFBBR, the hydraulic loadings and the operation stability. The biological morphology of the anaerobic biofilm in the reactors was also analyzed. The anaerobic column could operate successfully for 46 days due to the pre-aerating process. The anaerobic column had the capacity to resist shock loadings and maintained a high stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) and terephthalic acid removal rates at a hydraulic retention time of 5-10 h, even under conditions of organic volumetric loadings as high as 28.8 kg COD·m(-3).d(-1). The scanning electron microscope analysis of the anaerobic carrier demonstrated that clusters of prokaryotes grew inside of pores and that the filaments generated by pre-aeration contributed to the anaerobic biofilm formation and stability.

  5. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater with high salinity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xueqing; Lefebvre, Olivier; Ng, Kok Kwang; Ng, How Yong

    2014-02-01

    In this study, pharmaceutical wastewater with high total dissolved solids (TDSs) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) content was treated through a sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment process. For the anaerobic process, an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) was applied, and a COD removal efficiency of 41.3±2.2% was achieved with an organic loading rate of 8.11±0.31gCOD/L/d and a hydraulic retention time of 48h. To evaluate the salinity effect on the anaerobic process, salts in the wastewater were removed by ion exchange resin, and adverse effect of salinity was observed with a TDS concentration above 14.92g/L. To improve the anaerobic effluent quality, the UASB effluent was further treated by a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Both the UASB+MBR and UASB+SBR systems achieved excellent organic removal efficiency, with respective COD removal of 94.7% and 91.8%. The UASB+MBR system showed better performance in both organic removal and nitrification.

  6. Strategies for lipids and phenolics degradation in the anaerobic treatment of olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, M R; Costa, J C; Marques, I P; Alves, M M

    2012-04-15

    Strategies are proposed for the anaerobic treatment of lipid and phenolic-rich effluents, specifically the raw olive mill wastewater (OMW). Two reactors were operated under OMW influent concentrations from 5 to 48 g COD L(-1) and Hydraulic Retention Time between 10 and 5 days. An intermittent feeding was applied whenever the reactors showed a severe decay in the methane yield. This strategy improved the mineralization of oleate and palmitate, which were the main accumulated Long-Chain Fatty Acids (LCFA), and also promoted the removal of resilient phenolic compounds, reaching remarkable removal efficiencies of 60% and 81% for two parallel reactors at the end of a feed-less period. A maximum biogas production of 1.4m(3)m(-3)d(-1) at an Organic Loading Rate of 4.8 kg COD m(-3)d(-1) was obtained. Patterns of individual LCFA oxidation during the OMW anaerobic digestion are presented and discussed for the first time. The supplementation of a nitrogen source boosted immediately the methane yield from 21 and 18 to 76 and 93% in both reactors. The typical problems of sludge flotation and washout during the anaerobic treatment of this oily wastewater were overcome by biomass retention, according to the Inverted Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (IASB) reactor concepts. This work demonstrates that it is possible to avoid a previous detoxification step by implementing adequate operational strategies to the anaerobic treatment of OMW.

  7. Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Fraction from Hydrothermal Liquefied Algae Wastewater Byproduct

    DOE PAGES

    Fernandez, Sebastian; Srinivas, Keerthi; Schmidt, Andrew J.; ...

    2017-09-06

    We present that the wastewater stream from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) process used in biofuel production, contains a large amounts of organic compounds where several can be regarded as environmentally hazardous and requires significant treatment before disposal. In this study, semi-continuous anaerobic digestion is used to degrade the organic fraction of wastewater streams from HTL of the algae Tetraselmis (AgTet) and Chlorella (AgChlr). Results indicated high methane yields at 20-30% (v/v) HTL wastewater together with clarified manure, producing 327.2 mL/gVSin (or volatile solids in feed) for AgTet and 263.4 mL/gVSin for AgChlr. There was a significant reduction in methane production atmore » concentrations higher than 40% (v/v) HTL wastewater in the feed, possibly due to the accumulation of chloride salts or inhibitory compounds such as pyridines, piperidines and pyrrolidines. In conclusion, this was further confirmed by comparing COD, salt and the ammonia concentrations of the effluents after anaerobic digestion at different concentrations of wastewater in manure.« less

  8. Energetic and biochemical valorization of cork boiling wastewater by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Marques, Isabel Paula; Gil, Luís; La Cara, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    In addition to energy benefits, anaerobic digestion offers other interesting advantages. The cork industry is of great environmental, economic and social significance in the western Mediterranean region, with Portugal being the world-leading producer and exporter. Cork boiling wastewater (CBW) is a toxic and recalcitrant organic effluent produced by this sector, which constitutes a serious environmental hazard. However, there is no documented research on anaerobic treatment/valorization performed with this effluent. The work presented here was developed with the aim to use the anaerobic digestion process to convert the CBW polluting organic load into an energy carrier gas and valuable molecules for industry. No lag phases were observed and a methane yield of 0.126 to 0.142 m(3) kg(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD)added was registered in the mesophilic consortium experiments carried out in batch flasks at 37 ± 1°C. Anaerobic digestion can be advantageously connected to ultrafiltration or electrochemical processes, due to the following: 1) reduction of ellagic acid content and consequent decrease of CBW viscosity; and 2) increase in conductivity after the anaerobic process, avoiding the electrolyte application of the electrochemical process. The improvement of several CBW biochemical features shows that anaerobic digestion may provide additionally useful molecules. The rise in concentration of some of these compounds, belonging to the benzoic acid family (gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic and syringic acids), is responsible for the increase of antiradical activity of the phenolic fraction. Additionally, some enzymatic activity was also observed and while the laccase activity increased in the digested effluent by anaerobiosis, xylanase was formed in the process. The multidisciplinary approach adopted allowed the valorization of CBW in terms of energy and valuable biomolecules. By exploiting the anaerobic digestion process potential, a novel methodology to toxic

  9. Energetic and biochemical valorization of cork boiling wastewater by anaerobic digestion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In addition to energy benefits, anaerobic digestion offers other interesting advantages. The cork industry is of great environmental, economic and social significance in the western Mediterranean region, with Portugal being the world-leading producer and exporter. Cork boiling wastewater (CBW) is a toxic and recalcitrant organic effluent produced by this sector, which constitutes a serious environmental hazard. However, there is no documented research on anaerobic treatment/valorization performed with this effluent. The work presented here was developed with the aim to use the anaerobic digestion process to convert the CBW polluting organic load into an energy carrier gas and valuable molecules for industry. Results No lag phases were observed and a methane yield of 0.126 to 0.142 m3 kg-1 chemical oxygen demand (COD)added was registered in the mesophilic consortium experiments carried out in batch flasks at 37 ± 1°C. Anaerobic digestion can be advantageously connected to ultrafiltration or electrochemical processes, due to the following: 1) reduction of ellagic acid content and consequent decrease of CBW viscosity; and 2) increase in conductivity after the anaerobic process, avoiding the electrolyte application of the electrochemical process. The improvement of several CBW biochemical features shows that anaerobic digestion may provide additionally useful molecules. The rise in concentration of some of these compounds, belonging to the benzoic acid family (gallic, protocatechuic, vanillic and syringic acids), is responsible for the increase of antiradical activity of the phenolic fraction. Additionally, some enzymatic activity was also observed and while the laccase activity increased in the digested effluent by anaerobiosis, xylanase was formed in the process. Conclusions The multidisciplinary approach adopted allowed the valorization of CBW in terms of energy and valuable biomolecules. By exploiting the anaerobic digestion process potential, a

  10. Experimentation on the anaerobic filter reactor for biogas production using rural domestic wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leju Celestino Ladu, John; Lü, Xi-wu; Zhong, Zhaoping

    2017-08-01

    The biogas production from anaerobic filter (AF) reactor was experimented in Taihu Lake Environmental Engineering Research Center of Southeast University, Wuxi, China. Two rounds of experimental operations were conducted in a laboratory scale at different Hydraulic retention time (HRT) and wastewater temperature. The biogas production rate during the experimentation was in the range of 4.63 to 11.78 L/d. In the first experimentation, the average gas production rate was 10.08 L/d, and in the second experimentation, the average gas production rate was 4.97 L/d. The experimentation observed the favorable Hydraulic Retention Time and wastewater temperature in AF was three days and 30.95°C which produced the gas concentration of 11.78 L/d. The HRT and wastewater temperature affected the efficiency of the AF process on the organic matter removal and nutrients removal as well. It can be deduced from the obtained results that HRT and wastewater temperature directly affects the efficiency of the AF reactor in biogas production. In conclusion, anaerobic filter treatment of organic matter substrates from the rural domestic wastewater increases the efficiency of the AF reactor on biogas production and gives a number of benefits for the management of organic wastes as well as reduction in water pollution. Hence, the operation of the AF reactor in rural domestic wastewater treatment can play an important element for corporate economy of the biogas plant, socio-economic aspects and in the development of effective and feasible concepts for wastewater management, especially for people in rural low-income areas.

  11. Anaerobic treatment of antibiotic production wastewater pretreated with enhanced hydrolysis: Simultaneous reduction of COD and ARGs.

    PubMed

    Yi, Qizhen; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Yingxin; Tian, Zhe; Yang, Min

    2017-03-01

    The presence of high concentration antibiotics in wastewater can disturb the stability of biological wastewater treatment systems and promote generation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the treatment. To solve this problem, a pilot system consisting of enhanced hydrolysis pretreatment and an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor in succession was constructed for treating oxytetracycline production wastewater, and the performance was evaluated in a pharmaceutical factory in comparison with a full-scale anaerobic system operated in parallel. After enhanced hydrolysis under conditions of pH 7 and 85 °C for 6 h, oxytetracycline production wastewater with an influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 11,086 ± 602 mg L(-1) was directly introduced into the pilot UASB reactor. With the effective removal of oxytetracycline and its antibacterial potency (from 874 mg L(-1) to less than 0.61 mg L(-1) and from 900 mg L(-1) to less than 0.84 mg L(-1), respectively) by the enhanced hydrolysis pretreatment, an average COD removal rate of 83.2%, 78.5% and 68.9% was achieved at an organic loading rate of 3.3, 4.8 and 5.9 kg COD m(-3) d(-1), respectively. At the same time, the relative abundances of the total tetracycline (tet) genes and a mobile element (Class 1 integron (intI1)) in anaerobic sludge on day 96 were one order of magnitude lower than those in inoculated sludge on day 0 (P < 0.01). The reduction of ARGs was further demonstrated by metagenomic sequencing. By comparison, the full-scale anaerobic system treating oxytetracycline production wastewater with an influent COD of 3720 ± 128 mg L(-1) after dilution exhibited a COD removal of 51 ± 4% at an organic loading rate (OLR) 1.2 ± 0.2 kg m(-3) d(-1), and a total tet gene abundance in sludge was five times higher than the pilot-scale system (P < 0.01). The above result demonstrated that enhanced hydrolysis as a pretreatment method could enable efficient anaerobic treatment of

  12. Nutrient removal and microbial granulation in an anaerobic process treating inorganic and organic nitrogenous wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Y H; Kim, H C

    2004-01-01

    The sustainable anaerobic nitrogen removal and microbial granulation were investigated by using a laboratory anaerobic granular sludge bed reactor, treating synthetic (inorganic and organic) wastewater and piggery waste. From inorganic synthetic wastewater, lithoautotrophic ammonium oxidation to nitrite/nitrate was observed by an addition of hydroxylamine. Also, the results revealed that the Anammox intermediates (particularly, hydrazine) contents in the substrate would be one of the important parameters for success of the anaerobic nitrogen removal process. The results from organic synthetic wastewater show that if the Anammox organism were not great enough in the startup of the process, denitritation and anaerobic ammonification would be a process prior to the Anammox reaction. The anaerobic ammonium removal from the piggery waste was performed successfully, probably due to the Anammox intermediates contained in the substrate. This reactor shows a complex performance including the Anammox reaction and HAP crystallization, as well as having partial denitritation occurring simultaneously. From the activity test, the maximum specific N conversion rate was 0.1 g NH4-N/g VSS/day (0.77 g T-N/g VSS/day), indicating that potential denitritation is quite high. The NO2-N/NH4-N ratio to Anammox is 1.17. The colour of the biomass treating the piggery waste changed from black to dark red. It was also observed that the red-colored granular sludge had a diameter of 1-2 mm. The settleability assessment of the granular sludge revealed that the granular sludge had a good settleability even though it was worse than that of seed granular sludge.

  13. Anaerobic treatment of wastewaters generated during grain fermentation and distillation of alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Takamura, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment processes of grain fermentation wastewaters were investigated in this research. The study showed that bench-scale anaerobic stirred reactors were more applicable in treating the substrate than bench-scale anaerobic packed-bed reactors at a temperature of 35/sup 0/C. Results indicate that significant amounts of methane could be generated from the stabilization of the high strength (COD = 70,000 mg/L) acidic (pH less than or equal to4.2) grain fermentation wastewater. The study showed that anaerobic stirred reactors were applicable to the treatment of high strength wastewaters containing high suspended solids content. Anaerobic packed-bed reactors were applicable to soluble substrates. In terms of organic loading rates necessary for design purposes, stirred reactors were applicable at loading rates above 200 lb-COD/1000 ft/sup 3/-day while below this rate packed-bed reactors could be employed. Gas production yields were substantial for both the stirred and packed-bed reactors. Methane yields of 6.2 ft/sup 2/-CH/sub 4//lb-COD added and 6.4 ft/sup 3/-CH/sub 4//lb-COD added were observed for the stirred and packed-bed reactors operated at a theta/sub c/greater than or equal to30 days were 65% CH/sub 4/, 32% CO/sub 2/, and 3% N/sub 2/. Gas composition of packed-bed reactors operated at theta/sub h/greater than or equal to15 days were 65% CH/sub 4/, 32% CO/sub 2/ and 3% N/sub 2/.

  14. Improved water quality and reduction of odorous compounds in anaerobic lagoon columns receiving pre-treated pig wastewater

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Large volumes of wastewater from confined pig production are stored in anaerobic lagoons. Control methods are needed to reduce air pollution by foul odors released from these lagoons. In a pilot-scale experiment, we evaluated the effect of pig wastewater pre-treatment on reducing the concentration o...

  15. Impact of metallic and metal oxide nanoparticles on wastewater treatment and anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Zhang, Chiqian; Hu, Zhiqiang

    2013-01-01

    Metallic and metal oxide nanomaterials have been increasingly used in consumer products (e.g. sunscreen, socks), the medical and electronic industries, and environmental remediation. Many of them ultimately enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) or landfills. This review paper discusses the fate and potential effects of four types of nanoparticles, namely, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), nano ZnO, nano TiO2, and nano zero valent iron (NZVI), on waste/wastewater treatment and anaerobic digestion. The stabilities and chemical properties of these nanoparticles (NPs) result in significant differences in antimicrobial activities. Analysis of published data of metallic and metal oxide NPs suggests that oxygen is often a prerequisite for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) for AgNPs and NZVI, while illumination is necessary for ROS generation for nano TiO2 and nano ZnO. Furthermore, such nanoparticles are capable of being oxidized or dissolved in water and can release metal ions, leading to metal toxicity. Therefore, AgNPs and nano TiO2 are chemically stable NPs that have no adverse effects on microbes under anaerobic conditions. Although the toxicity of nanomaterials has been studied intensively under aerobic conditions, more research is needed to address their fate in anaerobic waste/wastewater treatment systems and their long-term effects on the environment.

  16. Simultaneous methanogenesis and denitrification of aniline wastewater by using anaerobic-aerobic biofilm system with recirculation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng; Sun, Dezhi; Chung, Jong-Shik

    2009-09-30

    Wastewater containing highly concentrated nitrogenous and aromatic compounds, such as aniline, is difficult to degrade and very toxic to microorganisms, especially to nitrifier. In order to remove both carbon and nitrogen from aniline wastewater, recently two biofilm reactors equipped with anaerobic-aerobic cycle and internal recirculation have demonstrated some potential in treating the wastewater. In such system, ammonification, methanogenesis and denitrification reactions occurred simultaneously in one anaerobic reactor, followed by COD removal and nitrification in the aerobic reactor. The effect of recirculation ratio on COD and nitrogen removal using such reactor arrangement was therefore investigated in the present work. The results showed that recirculation had little impact on the overall COD removal or denitrification activity in the anaerobic reactor at any tested ratio, 96-98% of overall COD removal efficiency was achieved with a final effluent COD value below 200mg/L. But nitrification and TN removal were strongly affected by recirculation. The nitrification rate reached a maximum of 0.48 kg N/(m(3)d) at recirculation ratio of 1 and complete nitrification was achieved at the recirculation ratios over 2. TN removal efficiency increased continuously and a sharp reduction of sludge production in the system was observed with increasing recirculation.

  17. Anaerobic co-digestion of glycerol and wastewater derived from biodiesel manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Siles, J A; Martín, M A; Chica, A F; Martín, A

    2010-08-01

    The anaerobic co-digestion of glycerol and wastewater derived from biodiesel manufacturing, in which COD was found to be 1054 and 428 g/L, respectively, was studied in batch laboratory-scale reactors at mesophilic temperature (35 degrees C). Glycerol was acidified with H(3)PO(4) in order to recover the alkaline catalyst employed in the transesterification reaction (KOH) as agricultural fertiliser (potassium phosphates). Wastewater was subjected to an electrocoagulation process in order to reduce its oil content. After mixing, the anaerobic revalorisation of the wastewater was studied employing inoculum-substrate ratios ranging from 5.02 to 1.48 g VSS/g COD and organic loading rates of 0.27-0.36 g COD/g VSS d. Biodegradability was found to be around 100%, while the methane yield coefficient was 310 mL CH(4)/g COD removed (1 atm, 25 degrees C). At the equilibrium time, the proportionality between r' and the load was constant, showing 1.55 mL CH(4)/(g VSS g COD h). The results showed that anaerobic co-digestion reduces the clean water and nutrient requirement, with the consequent economical and environmental benefit.

  18. The role of sulphidogenesis in anaerobic treatment phase of tannery wastewater treatment in advanced integrated wastewater pond system.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, I; Green, F B; Puhakka, J A

    2003-06-01

    An outdoor experiment was conducted to study the competition between Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) and Methanogenic Archaea (MA) in anaerobic treatment phase of tannery wastewater treatment in pilot-scale Advanced Facultative Pond (AFP). The relative electron flow towards sulphate reduction was higher (59-83%) than towards methanogenesis (17-41%), although the COD recovery within the reactor varied between 15 and 90%. The results also demonstrated that the flow of electrons towards SRB increased with increase of the sulphate concentration and decrease of the COD:SO4= ratio.

  19. Toxicity and biodegradability of olive mill wastewaters in batch anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdi, M. Universite de Provence, Marseille )

    1992-11-01

    The anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) were studied in batch anaerobic digestion experiments. Anaerobic digestion of OMW or the supernatant of its centrifugation, the methane production was achieved at up to 5-15% (V/V) dilution corresponding to only 5-20 g/L COD. The washed suspended solids of OMW were toxic at up to 80 g/L COD; however, the kinetic of biodegradability of OMW or the supernatant was faster than for suspended solids, which are constituted mealy of cellulose and lignin. The darkly colored polyphenols induce the problem of biodegradation of OMW, whereas the long chain fatty acids (LCFA), tannins and simple phenolic compounds are responsible for its toxicity for methanogenic bacteria. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Anaerobic degradation of dairy wastewater in intermittent UASB reactors: influence of effluent recirculation.

    PubMed

    Couras, C S; Louros, V L; Gameiro, T; Alves, N; Silva, A; Capela, M I; Arroja, L M; Nadais, H

    2015-01-01

    This work studied the influence of effluent recirculation upon the kinetics of anaerobic degradation of dairy wastewater in the feedless phase of intermittent upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors. Several laboratory-scale tests were performed with different organic loads in closed circuit UASB reactors inoculated with adapted flocculent sludge. The data obtained were used for determination of specific substrate removal rates and specific methane production rates, and adjusted to kinetic models. A high initial substrate removal was observed in all tests due to adsorption of organic matter onto the anaerobic biomass which was not accompanied by biological substrate degradation as measured by methane production. Initial methane production rate was about 45% of initial soluble and colloidal substrate removal rate. This discrepancy between methane production rate and substrate removal rate was observed mainly on the first day of all experiments and was attenuated on the second day, suggesting that the feedless period of intermittent UASB reactors treating dairy wastewater should be longer than one day. Effluent recirculation expressively raised the rate of removal of soluble and colloidal substrate and methane productivity, as compared with results for similar assays in batch reactors without recirculation. The observed bed expansion was due to the biogas production and the application of effluent recirculation led to a sludge bed contraction after all the substrates were degraded. The settleability of the anaerobic sludge improved by the introduction of effluent recirculation this effect being more pronounced for the higher loads.

  1. Anaerobic biodegradation of triphenylmethane dyes in a hybrid UASFB reactor for wastewater remediation.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Pijush Kanti; Ahmad, Rais; Usmani, Shams Qamar

    2010-11-01

    Anaerobic digestions have been proved more successful than aerobic systems for the degradation and destruction of dye-containing wastewaters. The performance of a hybrid up flow anaerobic sludge-filter bed (UASFB) reactor was tested with a synthetic wastewater containing Crystal violet (CV) as a carbon source and sodium acetate as a co-substrate. Continuous feeding of the reactor started with an initial OLR of 0.9 g COD/l-d and then it was increased step wise to 4 g COD l(-1) d(-1), while maintaining constant HRT (24 h). The optimum pH value and temperature for decolorization of crystal violet by this mixed culture species under anaerobic conditions were found to be 8-9 and 30-35°C respectively. N,N-dimethylaminophenol and N,N-bis (dimethylamino) benzophenone (Michler's Ketone) were detected as the degradative metabolites of Crystal Violet. Subsequently, N,N-dimethylaminophenol was further degraded to aniline in the reactor whereas Michler's ketone was not degraded under anaerobic conditions. The UASFB bioreactor was able to remove the CV completely up to a loading rate of 100 mg CV l(-1)d(-1).

  2. Improvement of COD removal by controlling the substrate degradability during the anaerobic digestion of recalcitrant wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Minako; Nagao, Norio; Kawasaki, Nobuyuki; Imai, Akio; Toda, Tatsuki

    2016-10-01

    The recalcitrant landfill leachate was anaerobically digested at various mixing ratios with labile synthetic wastewater to evaluate the degradation properties of recalcitrant wastewater. The proportion of leachate to the digestion system was increased in three equal steps, starting from 0% to 100%, and later decreased back to 0% with the same steps. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) for organic carbon and other components were calculated by analyzing the COD and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and the removal efficiencies of COD carbon and COD others were evaluated separately. The degradation properties of COD carbon and COD others shifted owing to changing of substrate degradability, and the removal efficiencies of COD carbon and COD others were improved after supplying 100% recalcitrant wastewater. The UV absorptive property and total organic carbon (TOC) of each molecular size using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-size exclusion chromatography (SEC) with UVA and TOC detectors were also investigated, and the degradability of different molecular sizes was determined. Although the SEC system detected extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which are produced by microbes in stressful environments, during early stages of the experiment, EPS were not detected after feeding 100% recalcitrant wastewater. These results suggest that the microbes had acclimatized to the recalcitrant wastewater degradation. The high removal rates of both COD carbon and COD others were sustained when the proportion of labile wastewater in the substrate was 33%, indicating that the effective removal of recalcitrant COD might be controlled by changing the substrate's degradability.

  3. Utilisation of wastewater nutrients for microalgae growth for anaerobic co-digestion.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Ashish K; Siljudalen, Jon; Trydal, Tina; Rusten, Bjørn

    2013-06-15

    The feasibility of growing microalgae in natural light using wastewater high in nutrients (N & P) for the production of more bioenergy was examined. The main retrofitting unit would be a photobioreactor for wastewater treatment plants (wwtp) having anaerobic digesters in close proximity. Theoretical microalgae production rates from different wastewater sources (municipal wwtp, source separation of human and animal wastewaters) were estimated using mass balance. Mass and energy balances for a conventional wwtp using chemically enhanced primary treatment was investigated for microalgae growth for a situation limited by availability of carbon dioxide (CO2) generated onsite and where additional CO2 was imported from outside source. Reject water from dewatering of anaerobically digested sludge from four wwtp around Oslo region were pretreated for improved light penetration and examined for microalgae growth. Several pre-treatment methods were investigated. Pretreatment using flocculation + settling + anthracite filtration yielded high light transmittance. A maximum microalgae growth rate of 13 g TSS/m(2)-d was achieved using this pretreated reject water. The challenges of integrating photobioreactors with existing units have been highlighted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sludge accumulation in polishing ponds treating anaerobically digested wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, P; van Haandel, A; Lettinga, G

    2002-01-01

    When ponds are used for wastewater treatment, settleable solids will form a steadily growing bottom sludge layer, which reduces their effective volume. Eventually this sludge must be removed to ensure that the pond maintains the required retention time to keep performing properly. The settleable solids may either be present in the influent or they are formed during the treatment as a result of algal flocculation. An experimental investigation was carried out to evaluate bottom sludge accumulation in a polishing pond used for treatment of UASB effluent. The mass and composition of the bottom sludge formed in a polishing pond was evaluated after the pilot scale pond had been in operation for 1 year and about 60 m3 of digested wastewater had been treated per m3 of pond. The bottom sludge mass represented a solids accumulation of 70 g per m3 of digested wastewater. About half of these solids were the result of settling of influent solids in the first part of the pond, while the other half was attributable to settling of algae, formed in the pond. It is concluded that the bottom sludge growth in a polishing pond is so low, that desludging during the useful life span of the pond will most likely not be necessary. This leads to the important conclusion that excess sludge discharge from UASB reactors (a major factor in operational costs) may be omitted, if a polishing pond is used for post-treatment. The bottom sludge had a high volatile solids concentration (58%) and the macronutrient fractions were also high (3.9% N and 1.1% P of the TSS mass). The bottom sludge was stable and could be dried directly without problems. The hygienic quality of the bottom sludge was very poor: about half the influent helminth eggs during one year of operation were found in the bottom sludge and the faecal coliform concentration was very high.

  5. Biodiesel production from Scenedesmus bijuga grown in anaerobically digested food wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Yun; Cho, Hyun Uk; Utomo, Joseph Christian; Choi, Yun-Nam; Xu, Xu; Park, Jong Moon

    2015-05-01

    Microalgae, Scenedesmus bijuga, was cultivated in anaerobically digested food wastewater effluent (FWE) to treat the wastewater and produce biodiesel simultaneously. Three different mixing ratios with municipal wastewater were compared for finding out proper dilution ratio in biodiesel production. Of these, 1/20 diluted FWE showed the highest biomass production (1.49 g/L). Lipid content was highest in 1/10 diluted FWE (35.06%), and the lipid productivity showed maximum value in 1/20 diluted FWE (15.59 mg/L/d). Nutrient removal was also measured in the cultivation. FAME compositions were mainly composed of C16-C18 (Over 98.94%) in S. bijuga. In addition, quality of FAMEs was evaluated by Cetane Number (CN) and Bis-allylic Position Equivalent (BAPE).

  6. Characteristics and anaerobic treatability of municipal and industrial estate wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, I; Blázquez, R; Soto, M

    2007-09-01

    Centralised treatment of domestic sewage coming from A Coruña city (250000 inhabitants) and several medium and small size villages (up to 15000 inhabitants) together with industrial estate effluents was planned. The area population is about 380000 inhabitants and the overall effluent will reach about 600000 equivalent inhabitants. The characteristics of different streams will determine the treatment alternatives and pre-treatment requirements for individual streams. Domestic sewage from A Coruña showed medium to high organic content (741 mg l(-1) of COD), while domestic sewage from small villages (Lorbé, Oleiros) and industrial estates (Sabón, A Grela) showed a high variability in organic content, with COD concentration ranging from 100 to 4000 mg L(-1) or more. About 50-65% COD corresponded to suspended solids, although some industrial effluents showed lower values. Characterized industrial effluents had lower concentration of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and higher concentration of sulphate and alkalinity than domestic sewage. Anaerobic biodegradability was about 80% for domestic sewage, and ranged from 20 to 100% for industrial estate effluents. Furthermore, some industrial streams showed high microbial toxicity. The results indicate that anaerobic treatment of these effluents is of interest. However, specific pre-treatment for some individual streams or the adoption of minimisation and prevention measures in order to reach total or partial detoxification is suggested.

  7. High-rate anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater at ambient operating temperatures: A review on benefits and drawbacks.

    PubMed

    Gomec, Cigdem Yangin

    2010-08-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge on high-rate anaerobic sewage treatment at ambient operating temperatures while presenting the benefits and drawbacks. Since domestic sewage is reported as the main point-source pollutant on a global scale, its treatment deserves ample research. In most of the cities and towns of some developing countries, wastewater produced in households is still discharged into the nearest water body without subjected any treatment. Therefore, simple, affordable, and effective sewage treatment systems are required. Anaerobic digestion of wastewater is reported as a sustainable alternative as recovery of energy is provided while nutrients are preserved for reuse. Anaerobic sewage treatment is certainly not limited to regions of hot climates but it also offers treatment potential in sub-tropical and even in moderate climatic regions due to their favorable temperature conditions. Since many sewage-like dilute wastewaters are discharged at low ambient temperatures especially under moderate climate conditions (15 to 20 degrees C), heating the wastewater to maintain mesophilic conditions (35 degrees C) for anaerobic treatment necessitates high energy and certainly high operating costs. Thus, the development of anaerobic treatment systems operated at ambient temperatures without doubt will have a great ecological and economic impact. High-rate anaerobic treatment systems, especially upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, have been occupying a noticeable position for sewage treatment in several tropical countries where artificial heating can be eliminated. However, in spite of their undeniable advantages, there are certain drawbacks of anaerobic sewage treatment at low operating temperatures which should be clarified. Among them, the main concern for anaerobic treatment application is its producing effluents that barely comply with the standarts for reuse in agriculture or discharge to the environment. Therefore, the effluents from

  8. Decolorizing and detoxifying textile wastewater, containing both soluble and insoluble dyes, in a full scale combined anaerobic/aerobic system.

    PubMed

    Frijters, C T M J; Vos, R H; Scheffer, G; Mulder, R

    2006-03-01

    The wastewater originating from the bleaching and dyeing processes in the textile factory Ten Cate Protect in Nijverdal (the Netherlands) was successfully treated in a sequential anaerobic/aerobic system. In the system, a combination of an anaerobic 70-m3 fluidized bed reactor and a 450-m3 aerobic basin with integrated tilted plate settlers, 80-95% of the color was removed. The color was largely removed in the preacidification basin and the anaerobic reactor. Color, deriving from both reactive as well as disperse, was anaerobically removed, indicating that these type of dyes were reduced to colorless products. Interestingly, the vat dyes, the anthraquinones and indigoids, which were thought to be removed mainly aerobically, were largely anaerobically decolorized. Apparently the anaerobic system is capable of effectively removing the color of both soluble as insoluble dyes. The treated effluent of the sequential anaerobic/aerobic treatment showed no toxicity towards the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fisheri (EC20 (95%) > 45%). Partially bypassing the anaerobic stage resulted in increased toxicity (EC20 (95%) of 9% and 14%) in the effluent of the aerobic treatment and caused significant decrease of color removal. The results of this study show a main contribution of anaerobic treatment in decolorizing and detoxifying the textile wastewater in the sequential anaerobic/aerobic system.

  9. Research on soybean protein wastewater treatment by the integrated two-phase anaerobic reactor

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yaqin

    2015-01-01

    The start-up tests of treating soybean protein wastewater by the integrated two-phase anaerobic reactor were studied. The results showed that the soybean protein wastewater could be successfully processed around 30 days when running under the situation of dosing seed sludge with the influent of approximately 2000 mg/L and an HRT of 40 h. When the start-up was finished, the removal rate of COD by the reactor was about 80%. In the zone I, biogas mainly revealed carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen (H2). Methane was the main component in the zone 2 which ranged from 53% to 59% with an average of 55%. The methane content in biogas increased from the zone I to II. It indicated that the methane-producing capacity of the anaerobic sludge increased. It was found that the uniquely designed two-phase integrated anaerobic reactor played a key role in treating soybean protein wastewater. The acidogenic fermentation bacteria dominated in the zone I, while methanogen became dominant in the zone II. It realized the relatively effective separation of hydrolysis acidification and methanogenesis process in the reactor, which was benefit to promote a more reasonable space distribution of the microbial communities in the reactor. There were some differences between the activities of the sludge in the two reaction zones of the integrated two-phase anaerobic reactor. The activity of protease was higher in the reaction zone I. And the coenzyme F420 in the reaction zone II was twice than that in the reaction zone I, which indicated that the activity of the methanogens was stronger in the reaction zone II. PMID:26288554

  10. Combined treatment of olive mill wastewater by Fenton's reagent and anaerobic biological process.

    PubMed

    Amor, Carlos; Lucas, Marco S; García, Juan; Dominguez, Joaquín R; De Heredia, J Beltrán; Peres, José A

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the application of Fenton's reagent process combined with anaerobic digestion to treat an olive mill wastewater (OMW). Firstly, OMW was pre-treated by chemical oxidation in a batch reactor with Fenton's reagent, using a fixed H2O2/COD ratio of 0.20, pH = 3.5 and a H2O2/Fe(2+) molar ratio of 15:1. This advanced oxidation treatment allowed reaching reductions of 17.6 and 82.5% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total polyphenols (TP), respectively. Secondly, OMW treatment by anaerobic digestion was performed using previously adapted microorganisms immobilized in Sepiolite. These biological tests were carried out varying the substrate concentration supplied to the reactor and COD conversions from 52 to 74% were obtained. Afterwards, Fenton's reagent followed by anaerobic digestion was applied to OMW treatment. This combined process presented a significant improvement on organic load removal, reaching COD degradations from 64 to 88%. Beyond the pollutant load removal, it was also monitored the yield of methane generated throughout anaerobic experiments. The methane produced ranged from 281 cm(3) to 322 cm(3) of CH4/g COD removed. Additionally, a methane generation kinetic study was performed using the Monod Model. The application of this model allowed observing a kinetic constant increase of the combined process (kFN = 0.036 h(-1)) when compared to the single anaerobic process (kF = 0.017 h(-1)).

  11. Treatment of low strength domestic wastewater by using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket process

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, N.H.; Torres, C.L.; Speece, R.E.

    1996-11-01

    The tropical environment of Puerto Rico offers great potential for using anaerobic treatment in place of conventional, aerobic activated sludge processes in the treatment of its warm, dilute municipal wastewaters. It will minimize the troublesome problem of land disposal of municipal sludges, achieve secondary effluent standards and not be an energy intensive form of treatment. When the infrastructure of sewage treatment needs to be improved, anaerobic sewage treatment may serve as one of the better alternatives. Anaerobic sewage treatment is a totally enclosed process. It has very little environmental impact on the surrounding areas of the treatment site. However, sometimes its effluent may cause serious odor problems. There are many small communities in Puerto Rico where the anaerobic process can be an ideal form of treatment for their sewage. This study is focused on using the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) process for treating raw domestic sewage. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the performance and stability of the UASB process for treating raw sewage and to ascertain the effect on efficiency of hydraulic detention time of the UASB reactor. A further key objective was to evaluate the impact on process performance of a packed bed solids removals device following the UASB reactor.

  12. Combined Industrial Wastewater Treatment in Anaerobic Bioreactor Posttreated in Constructed Wetland

    PubMed Central

    Zeb, Bibi Saima; Mahmood, Qaisar; Jadoon, Saima; Pervez, Arshid; Irshad, Muhammad; Bilal, Muhammad; Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetland (CW) with monoculture of Arundo donax L. was investigated for the posttreatment of anaerobic bioreactor (ABR) treating combined industrial wastewater. Different dilutions of combined industrial wastewater (20, 40, 60, and 80) and original wastewater were fed into the ABR and then posttreated by the laboratory scale CW. The respective removal efficiencies of COD, BOD, TSS, nitrates, and ammonia were 80%, 78–82%, 91.7%, 88–92%, and 100% for original industrial wastewater treated in ABR. ABR was efficient in the removal of Ni, Pb, and Cd with removal efficiencies in the order of Cd (2.7%) > Ni (79%) > Pb (85%). Posttreatment of the ABR treated effluent was carried out in lab scale CW containing A. donax L. CW was effective in the removal of COD and various heavy metals present in ABR effluents. The posttreatment in CW resulted in reducing the metal concentrations to 1.95 mg/L, 0 mg/L, and 0.004 mg/L for Ni, Pb, and Cd which were within the permissible water quality standards for industrial effluents. The treatment strategy was effective and sustainable for the treatment of combined industrial wastewater. PMID:24396832

  13. Anaerobic baffled reactor coupled with chemical precipitation for treatment and toxicity reduction of industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Laohaprapanona, Sawanya; Marquesa, Marcia; Hogland, William

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the reduction of soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs) and the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), formaldehyde (FA) and nitrogen from highly polluted wastewater generated during cleaning procedures in wood floor manufacturing using a laboratory-scale biological anaerobic baffled reactor followed by chemical precipitation using MgCI2 .6H20 + Na2HPO4. By increasing the hydraulic retention time from 2.5 to 3.7 and 5 days, the reduction rates of FA, DOC and CODs of nearly 100%, 90% and 83%, respectively, were achieved. When the Mg:N:P molar ratio in the chemical treatment was changed from 1:1:1 to 1.3:1:1.3 at pH 8, the NH4+ removal rate increased from 80% to 98%. Biologically and chemically treated wastewater had no toxic effects on Vibrio fischeri and Artemia salina whereas chemically treated wastewater inhibited germination of Lactuca sativa owing to a high salt content. Regardless of the high conductivity of the treated wastewater, combined biological and chemical treatment was found to be effective for the removal of the organic load and nitrogen, and to be simple to operate and to maintain. A combined process such as that investigated could be useful for on-site treatment of low volumes of highly polluted wastewater generated by the wood floor and wood furniture industries, for which there is no suitable on-site treatment option available today.

  14. Combined industrial wastewater treatment in anaerobic bioreactor posttreated in constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Zeb, Bibi Saima; Mahmood, Qaisar; Jadoon, Saima; Pervez, Arshid; Irshad, Muhammad; Bilal, Muhammad; Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetland (CW) with monoculture of Arundo donax L. was investigated for the posttreatment of anaerobic bioreactor (ABR) treating combined industrial wastewater. Different dilutions of combined industrial wastewater (20, 40, 60, and 80) and original wastewater were fed into the ABR and then posttreated by the laboratory scale CW. The respective removal efficiencies of COD, BOD, TSS, nitrates, and ammonia were 80%, 78-82%, 91.7%, 88-92%, and 100% for original industrial wastewater treated in ABR. ABR was efficient in the removal of Ni, Pb, and Cd with removal efficiencies in the order of Cd (2.7%) > Ni (79%) > Pb (85%). Posttreatment of the ABR treated effluent was carried out in lab scale CW containing A. donax L. CW was effective in the removal of COD and various heavy metals present in ABR effluents. The posttreatment in CW resulted in reducing the metal concentrations to 1.95 mg/L, 0 mg/L, and 0.004 mg/L for Ni, Pb, and Cd which were within the permissible water quality standards for industrial effluents. The treatment strategy was effective and sustainable for the treatment of combined industrial wastewater.

  15. Effects of domestic wastewater toxicity on anaerobic membrane-bioreactor (MBR) performances.

    PubMed

    Saddoud, Ahlem; Abdelkafi, Slim; Sayadi, Sami

    2009-12-01

    An anaerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) was operated for 367 days to treat domestic wastewater originating from the Sfax wastewater treatment plant. The results showed that the MBR was not very efficient because of the considerable fluctuations in the domestic wastewater composition and the presence of toxic compounds resulting from the industrial effluents in the Sfax region. The acute toxicity tests used for this purpose were the LUMIStox test with the luminescent marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the phytotoxicity test with Lepidium sativum. The results of these tests showed that the Sfax wastewaters were highly toxic. The rate of inhibition of Vibrio fischeri ranged from 11.7% to 95%. In all the samples tested, the germination index was less than 15%, as compared with the 100% germination index obtained with distilled water. In addition, the fact that the tendency towards microtoxicity and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) increased during the day, when industrial activities are most intense, confirms that these wastewaters are particularly toxic during the day.

  16. Influent wastewater microbiota and temperature influence anaerobic membrane bioreactor microbial community.

    PubMed

    Seib, M D; Berg, K J; Zitomer, D H

    2016-09-01

    Sustainable municipal wastewater recovery scenarios highlight benefits of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs). However, influences of continuous seeding by influent wastewater and temperature on attached-growth AnMBRs are not well understood. In this study, four bench-scale AnMBR operated at 10 and 25°C were fed synthetic (SPE) and then real (PE) primary effluent municipal wastewater. Illumina sequencing revealed different bacterial communities in each AnMBR in response to temperature and bioreactor configuration, whereas differences were not observed in archaeal communities. Activity assays revealed hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was the dominant methanogenic pathway at 10°C. The significant relative abundance of Methanosaeta at 10°C concomitant with low acetoclastic methanogenic activity may indicate possible Methanosaeta-Geobacter direct interspecies electron transfer. When AnMBR feed was changed to PE, continual seeding with wastewater microbiota caused AnMBR microbial communities to shift, becoming more similar to PE microbiota. Therefore, influent wastewater microbiota, temperature and reactor configuration influenced the AnMBR microbial community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Simultaneous wastewater treatment and biogas production using integrated anaerobic baffled reactor granular activated carbon from baker's yeast wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Mohamadi, Samira; Rahmatabadi, Sama; Hossini, Hooshyar; Motteran, Fabrício

    2017-08-30

    In this study, simultaneous degradation of organic matter and color removal from food processing industries wastewater using an integrated anaerobic baffled reactor granular activated carbon (IABRGAC) was investigated. Theretofore, effective parameters such as hydraulic retention time (HRT) and granular activated carbon (GAC) filling ratio were studied. The bioreactor was operated at 3, 4 and 5 d of HRT and GAC filling ratio of 20%, 35% and 50%. To analyze and optimize the independent operating variables, response surface methodology was applied. Operating condition was optimized for HRT (4 d) and GAC filling ratio (50%). Better COD (94.6%) and BOD (93.7%) removal efficiency occurred with loading COD of 15,000 mg/L, with diminished wastewater color around 54% and turbidity to 54 NTU. In addition, methane production, methane yielding rate (Ym) and specific methanogenic activity (SMA) test in an integrated system were investigated. The system IABRGAC was able to generate a volumetric rate about 0.31 and 0.44 L/g CODremoved d at the experimental condition. The Ym was between 0.31 and 0.44 L/g CODremoved.d and SMA was between 0.13 and 0.38 g COD/g volatile suspended solid. Based on results it can be concluded that the IABRGAC to be a successful pretreatment for highstrength wastewater before discharging the final effluent to sewerage and aerobic treating processes.

  18. Assessing the treatment of acetaminophen-contaminated brewery wastewater by an anaerobic packed-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Norhayati; Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali; Yong, Ee Ling; Yuzir, Ali; Sallis, Paul

    2016-03-01

    The treatment of high-strength organic brewery wastewater with added acetaminophen (AAP) by an anaerobic digester was investigated. An anaerobic packed-bed reactor (APBR) was operated as a continuous process with an organic loading rate of 1.5-g COD per litre per day and a hydraulic retention time of three days. The results of steady-state analysis showed that the greatest APBR performances for removing COD and TOC were as high as 98 and 93%, respectively, even though the anaerobic digestibility after adding the different AAP concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 mg L(-1) into brewery wastewater can affect the efficiency of organic matter removal. The average CH4 production decreased from 81 to 72% is counterbalanced by the increased CO2 production from 11 to 20% before and after the injection of AAP, respectively. The empirical kinetic models for substrate utilisation and CH4 production were used to predict that, under unfavourable conditions, the performance of the APBR treatment process is able to remove COD with an efficiency of only 6.8%.

  19. Specificity and potential applications of the biochemical acidogenic potential method for the anaerobic characterization of wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ruel, S Martin; Ginestet, P; Comeau, Y; Héduit, A

    2005-01-01

    The biochemical acidogenic potential (BAP) test is an anaerobic characterization method for wastewater. Fermentable organic fractions are obtained through modeling BAP test results. This method was compared to more common fractionation methods such as settling, coagulation, and respirometry, but no direct relationship was found. Biochemical acidogenic potential testing was thus considered to bring new and complementary information. The settleable matter accounted for approximately 50% of the fermentable matter, with a rate comparable to that of aerobic hydrolysis, suggesting a potential assimilable carbon source that could be liberated in sewers or in anaerobic processes. It was also observed that respirometry could underestimate the amount of fermentable substrates while overestimating that of hydrolyzable matter and of heterotrophic biomass involved in anaerobic processes. The BAP fractions are related to the wastewater capacity to produce volatile fatty acids, which are the main substrates of the micro-organisms responsible for enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). The potential contribution of the BAP fractionation to assist the design, operation, and modeling of the activated-sludge EBPR processes was discussed.

  20. Energy self-sufficient sewage wastewater treatment plants: is optimized anaerobic sludge digestion the key?

    PubMed

    Jenicek, P; Kutil, J; Benes, O; Todt, V; Zabranska, J; Dohanyos, M

    2013-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of primary and waste activated sludge generates biogas that can be converted into energy to power the operation of a sewage wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). But can the biogas generated by anaerobic sludge digestion ever completely satisfy the electricity requirements of a WWTP with 'standard' energy consumption (i.e. industrial pollution not treated, no external organic substrate added)? With this question in mind, we optimized biogas production at Prague's Central Wastewater Treatment Plant in the following ways: enhanced primary sludge separation; thickened waste activated sludge; implemented a lysate centrifuge; increased operational temperature; improved digester mixing. With these optimizations, biogas production increased significantly to 12.5 m(3) per population equivalent per year. In turn, this led to an equally significant increase in specific energy production from approximately 15 to 23.5 kWh per population equivalent per year. We compared these full-scale results with those obtained from WWTPs that are already energy self-sufficient, but have exceptionally low energy consumption. Both our results and our analysis suggest that, with the correct optimization of anaerobic digestion technology, even WWTPs with 'standard' energy consumption can either attain or come close to attaining energy self-sufficiency.

  1. Buoyant Filter Bio-Reactor (BFBR)--a novel anaerobic wastewater treatment unit.

    PubMed

    Panicker, Soosan J; Philipose, M C; Haridas, Ajit

    2008-01-01

    The Buoyant Filter Bio-Reactor (BFBR) is a novel and very efficient method for the treatment of complex wastewater. Sewage is a complex wastewater containing insoluble COD contributed by fat and proteins. The fat and proteins present in the domestic sewage cause operational problems and underperformance in the Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor, used now for treating sewage anaerobically. The biogas yield from the BFBR is 0.36 m3/kg COD reduced and the methane content was about 70-80%. Production of methane by anaerobic digestion of organic waste had the benefit of lower energy costs for treatment and is thus environmentally beneficial to the society by providing a clean fuel from renewable feed stocks. The BFBR achieved a COD removal efficiency of 80-90% for an organic loading rate of 4.5 kg/m3/d at a hydraulic retention time of 3.25 hours. The effluent COD was less than 100 mg/l, thus saving on secondary treatment cost. No pretreatment like sedimentation was required for the influent to the BFBR. The BFBR can produce low turbidity effluent as in the activated sludge process (ASP). The land area required for the BFBR treatment plant is less when compared to ASP plant. Hence the problem of scarcity of land for the treatment plant is reduced. The total expenditure for erecting the unit was less than 50% as that of conventional ASP for the same COD removal efficiency including land cost.

  2. Kinetics of an anaerobic moving bed reactor system treating synthetic milk wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ramakant; Satyanarayan, Shanta; Kaul, S N

    2002-10-01

    In the present study, anaerobic moving bed reactor called anaerobic rotating biological contactor treating synthetic milk wastewater operated at different organic loading rates and different hydraulic retention times, were evaluated to determine kinetic parameters for the substrate, biomass and biogas based on various models. The maximum substrate loading rate and half velocity constant were evaluated as 5.71 kgCOD/m3 x d and 1178 mg/L respectively by using Lineweaver-Burke plot. Maximum substrate removal efficiency and critical hydraulic retention time were compared with modified Young and McCarty model and the model is best fitted for the study. The complete removal of substrate cannot be expected due to presence of metabolic refractory material produced within the reactor system from influent system. Kinetic constants for maximum specific growth rate and decay coefficient were compared with the modified Monod model. Kornegay and Andrews model were used to evaluate the area capacity constant and half velocity constant. Kinetic constants for maximum specific gas production rate and proportionality constant were evaluated using Stover model. The gas production and quality are dependent on the substrate removal and substrate loading rate. The kinetic relationships derived from lab-scale experiment provided good estimates of the performance of pilot- and full-scale anaerobic rotating biological contactor packed with fibrous nylon pads and treating synthetic milk wastewater in terms of the effluent chemical oxygen demand concentrations and specific biogas production rates.

  3. Microbial community analysis of swine wastewater anaerobic lagoons by next-generation DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ducey, Thomas F; Hunt, Patrick G

    2013-06-01

    Anaerobic lagoons are a standard practice for the treatment of swine wastewater. This practice relies heavily on microbiological processes to reduce concentrated organic material and nutrients. Despite this reliance on microbiological processes, research has only recently begun to identify and enumerate the myriad and complex interactions that occur in this microbial ecosystem. To further this line of study, we utilized a next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology to gain a deeper insight into the microbial communities along the water column of four anaerobic swine wastewater lagoons. Analysis of roughly one million 16S rDNA sequences revealed a predominance of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) classified as belonging to the phyla Firmicutes (54.1%) and Proteobacteria (15.8%). At the family level, 33 bacterial families were found in all 12 lagoon sites and accounted for between 30% and 50% of each lagoon's OTUs. Analysis by nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) revealed that TKN, COD, ORP, TSS, and DO were the major environmental variables in affecting microbial community structure. Overall, 839 individual genera were classified, with 223 found in all four lagoons. An additional 321 genera were identified in sole lagoons. The top 25 genera accounted for approximately 20% of the OTUs identified in the study, and the low abundances of most of the genera suggests that most OTUs are present at low levels. Overall, these results demonstrate that anaerobic lagoons have distinct microbial communities which are strongly controlled by the environmental conditions present in each individual lagoon. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Aerobic inhibition assessment for anaerobic treatment effluent of antibiotic production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cetecioglu, Zeynep

    2014-02-01

    Biological treatment of antibiotic production effluents is an economical approach; however, there are still difficulties to overcome because of the recalcitrant characteristics of these compounds to biodegradation. This study aims to reveal that anaerobic treatment technology can be an option as pretreatment before the activated sludge system treatment to treat antibiotic production effluents. The ISO 8192 method was chosen to test the inhibitory effect of raw and treated antibiotic production effluents in this work. Inhibition tests, which were applied according to ISO 8192, highlighted that the anaerobic treatment effluent is less inhibitory than antibiotic production effluent for activated sludge system. Early EC50 concentrations (30-min values) of raw and treated wastewaters were lower than 180-min values. Also, triple effects (sulfamethoxazole-erythromycin-tetracycline) of antibiotics are more toxic than dual effects (sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline). In light of the experimental results obtained and their evaluation, it can be concluded that anaerobic digestion can be applied as a biological pretreatment method for pharmaceutical industry wastewater including antibiotic mixtures prior to aerobic treatment.

  5. Enhanced anaerobic degradability of highly polluted pesticides-bearing wastewater under thermophilic conditions.

    PubMed

    García-Mancha, N; Monsalvo, V M; Puyol, D; Rodriguez, J J; Mohedano, A F

    2017-10-05

    This work presents a sustainable and cost-competitive solution for hardly biodegradable pesticides-bearing wastewater treatment in an anaerobic expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor at mesophilic (35°C) and thermophilic (55°C). The reactor was operated in continuous mode during 160days, achieving an average COD removal of 33 and 44% under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. The increase of temperature improved the biomass activity and the production of methane by 35%. Around 96% of pesticides identified in raw wastewater were not detected in both mesophilic and thermophilic effluents. A dramatic selection of the microbial population in anaerobic granules was caused by the presence of pesticides, which also changed significantly when the temperature was increased. Pesticides caused a significant inhibition on methanogenesis, especially over acetoclastic methanogens. Aerobic biodegradability tests of the resulting anaerobic effluents revealed that aerobic post-treatment is also a feasible and effective option, yielding more than 60% COD reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Modeling simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal (SCNR) in anaerobic/anoxic reactor treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Carlos; Esquerre, Karla; Queiroz, Luciano Matos

    2016-07-15

    This paper presents a mathematical model based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to simulate the effects of nitrate concentration and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal (SCNR) in anaerobic/anoxic reactor treating domestic wastewater. The model was calibrated using previously published experimental data obtained from anaerobic batch tests for different COD/ [Formula: see text] ratios. Model simulations were performed to predict the SCNR in a completely mixed reactor (CSTR) operating under mesophilic conditions (35 °C). Six different scenarios were evaluated to investigate the performance of the SCNR based on typical influent characteristics of domestic wastewater. The variables analyzed were chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, nitrate concentration, methane production, nitrogen gas, volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration, pH and percentage of COD used by the denitrifying and methanogenic microorganisms. The HRT was decreased stepwise from 15 to 4 h. The results indicate that Scenario (S5) with a COD/ [Formula: see text] ratio equal to 10 and an HRT equal to 15 h ensures the occurrence of the stable SCNR. Furthermore, the accumulation of denitrification intermediates and a significant reduction in the biogas production when the organic matter is limited was verified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pyrosequencing reveals microbial community profile in anaerobic bio-entrapped membrane reactor for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kok Kwang; Shi, Xueqing; Ong, Say Leong; Ng, How Yong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, pharmaceutical wastewater with high salinity and total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) was treated by an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) and an anaerobic bio-entrapped membrane reactor (AnBEMR). The microbial populations and communities were analyzed using the 454 pyrosequencing method. The hydraulic retention time (HRT), membrane flux and mean cell residence time (MCRT) were controlled at 30.6h, 6L/m(2)h and 100d, respectively. The results showed that the AnBEMR achieved higher TCOD removal efficiency and greater biogas production compared to the AnMBR. Through DNA pyrosequencing analysis, both the anaerobic MBRs showed similar dominant groups of bacteria and archaea. However, phylum Elusimicrobia of bacteria was only detected in the AnBEMR; the higher abundance of dominant archaeal genus Methanimicrococcus found in the AnBEMR could play an important role in degradation of the major organic pollutant (i.e., trimethylamine) present in the pharmaceutical wastewater.

  8. Comparative study on toxicity evaluation of anaerobically treated parboiled rice manufacturing wastewater through fish bioassay.

    PubMed

    Giri, Dipti Ramesh; Singh, Ekta; Satyanarayan, Shanta

    2016-01-01

    Short term aquatic bioassay has been developed into a useful tool in water quality management. These tests give information on comparative toxicity of several compounds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of raw and anaerobically treated effluents of the parboiled rice manufacturing industry. The acute toxicity test was carried out by using the fish Lebistes reticulatus under laboratory conditions. LC50 values for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours ranged between 4.6 and 7.0% for the raw parboiled rice manufacturing wastewater. Two anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactors and two different media matrices, i.e. UV stabilized Biopac media and Fugino spirals, were used for the treatment of parboiled rice mill wastewater. Effluents from these two reactors depicted LC50 values in the range of 68-88% and 62-78% for Biopac and Fugino spiral packed reactors, respectively. From the results, it is evident that anaerobically treated effluents from Biopac packed reactor is marginally better than Fugino spiral packed reactor. Results subjected to statistical evaluation depicted regression coefficient of more than 0.9 indicating good correlation between the mortality and effluent concentration.

  9. Bioprospecting of microalgae for integrated biomass production and phytoremediation of unsterilized wastewater and anaerobic digestion centrate.

    PubMed

    Bohutskyi, Pavlo; Liu, Kexin; Nasr, Laila Khaled; Byers, Natalie; Rosenberg, Julian N; Oyler, George A; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Bouwer, Edward J

    2015-07-01

    Eighteen microalgae, including two local isolates, were evaluated for their ability to grow and remove nutrients from unsterilized primary or secondary wastewater effluents as well as wastewater supplemented with nutrient-rich anaerobic digester centrate (ADC). Most of the tested species except several phylogenetically clustered Chlorella sorokiniana including local isolates and Scenedesmus strains were unable to grow efficiently. This may reflect the presence of certain genetic traits important for robust growth in the unsterilized wastewater. The maximum algal-specific growth rates and biomass density obtained in these bacterial-contaminated cultures were in the range of 0.8-1 day(-1) and 250-350 mg L(-1), respectively. ADC supplementation was especially helpful to biologically treated secondary effluent with its lower initial macronutrient and micronutrient content. As a result of algal growth, total nitrogen and orthophosphate levels were reduced by as much as 90 and 70 %, respectively. Biological assimilation was estimated to be the main mechanism of nitrogen removal in primary and secondary effluents with ammonia volatilization and bacterial nitrification-denitrification contributing for cultures supplemented with ADC. Assimilation by algae served as the principal mechanism of orthophosphate remediation in secondary wastewater cultures, while chemical precipitation appeared also to be important for orthophosphate removal in primary wastewater. Overall, cultivation of microalgae in primary and primary + 5 % ADC may be more favorable from an economical and sustainability perspective due to elimination of the costly and energy-intensive biological treatment step. These findings demonstrate that unsterilized wastewater and ADC can serve as critical nutrient sources for biomass generation and that robust microalgae can be potent players in wastewater phytoremediation.

  10. Diversity and enrichment of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidizing bacteria from wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Luesken, Francisca A; van Alen, Theo A; van der Biezen, Erwin; Frijters, Carla; Toonen, Ger; Kampman, Christel; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Zeeman, Grietje; Temmink, Hardy; Strous, Marc; Op den Camp, Huub J M; Jetten, Mike S M

    2011-11-01

    Recently discovered microorganisms affiliated to the bacterial phylum NC10, named "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera", perform nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation. These microorganisms could be important players in a novel way of anaerobic wastewater treatment where ammonium and residual dissolved methane might be removed at the expense of nitrate or nitrite. To find suitable inocula for reactor startup, ten selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in The Netherlands were screened for the endogenous presence of M. oxyfera using molecular diagnostic methods. We could identify NC10 bacteria with 98% similarity to M. oxyfera in nine out of ten WWTPs tested. Sludge from one selected WWTP was used to start a new enrichment culture of NC10 bacteria. This enrichment was monitored using specific pmoA primers and M. oxyfera cells were visualized with fluorescence oligonucleotide probes. After 112 days, the enrichment consumed up to 0.4 mM NO(2)(-) per day. The results of this study show that appropriate sources of biomass, enrichment strategies, and diagnostic tools existed to start and monitor pilot scale tests for the implementation of nitrite-dependent methane oxidation in wastewater treatment at ambient temperature.

  11. An integrated anaerobic digestion and UV photocatalytic treatment of distillery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Apollo, Seth; Onyango, Maurice S; Ochieng, Aoyi

    2013-10-15

    Anaerobic up-flow fixed bed reactor and annular photocatalytic reactor were used to study the efficiency of integrated anaerobic digestion (AD) and ultraviolet (UV) photodegradation of real distillery effluent and raw molasses wastewater (MWW). It was found that UV photodegradation as a stand-alone technique achieved colour removal of 54% and 69% for the distillery and MWW, respectively, with a COD reduction of <20% and a negligible BOD reduction. On the other hand, AD as a single treatment technique was found to be effective in COD and BOD reduction with efficiencies of above 75% and 85%, respectively, for both wastewater samples. However, the AD achieved low colour removal efficiency, with an increase in colour intensity of 13% recorded when treating MWW while a colour removal of 51% was achieved for the distillery effluent. The application of UV photodegradation as a pre-treatment method to the AD process reduced the COD removal and biogas production efficiency. However, an integration in which UV photodegradation was employed as a post-treatment to the AD process achieved high COD removal of above 85% for both wastewater samples, and colour removal of 88% for the distillery effluent. Thus, photodegradation can be employed as a post-treatment technique to an AD system treating distillery effluent for complete removal of the biorecalcitrant and colour imparting compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of microalgae/activated sludge ratio on cooperative treatment of anaerobic effluent of municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Roudsari, Fatemeh Pourasgharian; Mehrnia, Mohammad Reza; Asadi, Akram; Moayedi, Zohreh; Ranjbar, Reza

    2014-01-01

    In this work, capability of the green microalga (MA), Chlorella vulgaris, in treating synthetic anaerobic effluent of municipal wastewater was investigated. While pure C. vulgaris (100 % MA) provided maximum soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) and N-NH4(+) removal efficiencies of 27 and 72 % respectively, addition of activated sludge (AS) to MA in different mass ratios (91, 80, 66.7, 9 % MA) improved wastewater treatment efficiency. Thus giving maximum sCOD and N-NH4(+) removal efficiencies 85 and 86.3 % (for MA/AS = 10/1), respectively. Utilizing AS without C. vulgaris, for treating the synthetic wastewater resulted in 87 % maximum sCOD and 42 % maximum N-NH4(+) removal efficiencies. Furthermore, algal growth and specific growth rates were measured in the systems with microalga as the dominant cellular population. As a result, faster algal growth was observed in mixed systems. Specific growth rate of C. vulgaris was 0.14 (day(-1)) in 100 % MA and 0.39 (day(-1)) in 80 % MA. Finally, data gathered by online measurement of dissolved oxygen indicate that algae-activated sludge mixture improves photosynthetic activity of examined microalga strain during anaerobic effluent treatment.

  13. Anaerobic digestion of municipal wastewater sludges using anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Nizar; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse

    2014-11-01

    The anaerobic digestion of primary sludge (PS) and thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) using an anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactor (AnFBR) employing zeolite particles as the carrier media was investigated at different organic loading rates (OLRs). PS was tested at OLRs from 4.2 to 39kgCOD/m(3)-d corresponding to hydraulic retention times (HRTs) from 1.0 to 8.9days. The highest COD removal and VSS destruction efficiencies for primary sludge of 85% and 88%, respectively, were achieved at an HRT of 8.9days and OLR of 4.2kgCOD/m(3)-d. For TWAS, VSS destruction efficiencies varied from 42% at an HRT of 2.6days and OLR of 13.1kgCOD/m(3)-d to 69% at an HRT of 8.8days and an OLR of 4.2kgCOD/m(3)-d. The first-order COD biodegradation rates in the AnFBR for PS and TWAS were 0.4d(-1) and 0.1d(-1), respectively, almost double the rates in conventional high-rate digesters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Steam-explosion pretreatment for enhancing anaerobic digestion of municipal wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Dereix, Marcela; Parker, Wayne; Kennedy, Kevin

    2006-05-01

    This study evaluated the use of steam explosion as a pretreatment for municipal wastewater treatment sludges and biosolids as a technique for enhancing biogas generation during anaerobic digestion. Samples of dewatered anaerobic digester effluent (biosolids) and a mixture of thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) and biosolids were steam-exploded under differing levels of intensity in this study. The results indicate that steam explosion can solublize components of these sludge streams. Increasing the intensity of the steam-explosion pressure and temperature resulted in increased solublization. The steam-explosion pretreatment also increased the bioavailability of sludge components under anaerobic digestion conditions. Increasing the steam-explosion intensity increased the ultimate yield of methane during anaerobic digestion. Batch anaerobic digestion tests suggested that pretreatment at 300 psi was the most optimal condition for enhanced biogas generation while minimizing energy input. Semicontinuous anaerobic digestion revealed that the results that were observed in the batch tests were sustainable in prolonged operation. Semicontinuous digestion of the TWAS/biosolids mixture that was pretreated at 300 psi generated approximately 50% more biogas than the controls. Semicontinuous digestion of the pretreated biosolids resulted in a 3-fold increase in biogas compared with the controls. Based on capillary suction test results, steam-explosion pretreatment at 300 psi improved the dewaterability of the final digested sludge by 32 and 45% for the TWAS/ biosolids mixture and biosolids, respectively, compared with controls. The energy requirements of the nonoptimized steam-explosion process were substantially higher than the additional energy produced from enhanced digestion of the pretreated sludge. Substantial improvements in energy efficiency will be required to make the process viable from an energy perspective.

  15. Anaerobic wastewater treatment of concentrated sewage using a two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket- anaerobic filter system.

    PubMed

    Halalsheh, Maha M; Abu Rumman, Zainab M; Field, Jim A

    2010-01-01

    A two-stage pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket - anaerobic filter (UASB-AF) reactors system treating concentrated domestic sewage was operated at 23 degrees C and at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15 and 4 h, respectively. Excess sludge from the downstream AF stage was returned to the upstream UASB reactor. The aim was to obtain higher sludge retention time (SRT) in the UASB reactor for better methanization of suspended COD. The UASB-AF system removed 55% and 65% of the total COD (COD(tot)) and suspended COD (COD(ss)), respectively. The calculated SRT in the UASB reactor ranged from 20-35 days. The AF reactor removed the washed out sludge from the first stage reactor with average COD(ss) removal efficiency of 55%. The volatile fatty acids concentration in the effluent of the AF was 39 mg COD/L compared with 78 mg COD/L measured for the influent. The slightly higher COD(tot) removal efficiency obtained in this study compared with a single stage UASB reactor was achieved at 17% reduction in the total volume.

  16. Integrated nanofiltration and upflow anaerobic sludge blanket treatment of textile wastewater for in-plant reuse.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Arlindo Canigo; Gonçalves, Isolina Cabral; de Pinho, Maria Norberta; Porter, John Jefferson

    2007-05-01

    The filtration characteristics of simulated dyeing effluents containing Acid Orange 7, sodium sulfate, and a pH buffer made of acetic acid and sodium acetate is described using a commercially available nanofiltration membrane. The original membrane filtration properties were characterized with deionized water to provide a baseline of membrane performance. At high volumetric concentration of the test solutions, greater than 98% rejection of dye and sodium sulfate were obtained. Rejection of buffering chemicals was approximately 50% in all experiments, giving a permeate water not suitable for reuse in most dyeing operations. The final composite concentrate had a chemical oxygen demand (COD) value > 2000 mg/L. No problems were encountered with anaerobic treatment of the concentrate obtained from the dyeing wastewater. Adjusting the sulfate concentration to give COD-to-sulfate ratios to 2.9, 5.4, and 18.2 in the reactor feed had no significant alterations in the performance of the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

  17. WASTEWATER reclamation and methane production using water hyacinth and anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, D.P.; DoLenc, D.A.; Reddy, K.R.; Schwegler, B.

    1983-06-01

    This paper describes the results of research in progress to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of utilizing water hyacinth ponds for treatment of domestic wastewater and the utilization of anaerobic digestion for conversion of the hyacinth crop and primary sludge to methane. The system concept illustrated in Figure I employs water hyacinth ponds for secondary and tertiary treatment of effluent from primary treatment (which removes settleable solids). Primary effluent supernatant is passed through water hyacinth ponds which effect organic and nutrient reduction. Collected primary sludge and harvested hyacinth are added as a blend to the anaerobic digestion process where a portion of the organic matter is converted to methane and carbon dioxide. The methane is separated from the carbon dioxide and used as an energy product.

  18. Kinetics of anaerobic digestion of soft drink wastewater in immobilized cell bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Borja, R; Banks, C J

    1994-07-01

    A kinetic study of the anaerobic digestion of soft drink wastewater was undertaken, using bioreactors containing various suspended supports (bentonite, zeolite, sepiolite, saponite and polyurethane foam), on to which the microorganisms effecting the purification were immobilized. Assuming the overall anaerobic digestion process conforms to first-order kinetics, the specific rate constants, K0, derived from the reactors with saponite and sepiolite (magnesium silicates) were approximately twice those from bentonite and zeolite (aluminium silicates) and almost five times higher than in the control reactor (without support); the polyurethane support showed an intermediate behaviour. The methanogenic activity increased linearly with COD load, with saponite and sepiolite supports showing the highest values. The average yield coefficient of methane was 325 cm3 CH4 STP g-1 COD and the percentage elimination of COD was 77.8%; these values were not significantly altered by the type of support used.

  19. Microalgae Cultivation on Anaerobic Digestate of Municipal Wastewater, Sewage Sludge and Agro-Waste

    PubMed Central

    Zuliani, Luca; Frison, Nicola; Jelic, Aleksandra; Fatone, Francesco; Bolzonella, David; Ballottari, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae are fast-growing photosynthetic organisms which have the potential to be exploited as an alternative source of liquid fuels to meet growing global energy demand. The cultivation of microalgae, however, still needs to be improved in order to reduce the cost of the biomass produced. Among the major costs encountered for algal cultivation are the costs for nutrients such as CO2, nitrogen and phosphorous. In this work, therefore, different microalgal strains were cultivated using as nutrient sources three different anaerobic digestates deriving from municipal wastewater, sewage sludge or agro-waste treatment plants. In particular, anaerobic digestates deriving from agro-waste or sewage sludge treatment induced a more than 300% increase in lipid production per volume in Chlorella vulgaris cultures grown in a closed photobioreactor, and a strong increase in carotenoid accumulation in different microalgae species. Conversely, a digestate originating from a pilot scale anaerobic upflow sludge blanket (UASB) was used to increase biomass production when added to an artificial nutrient-supplemented medium. The results herein demonstrate the possibility of improving biomass accumulation or lipid production using different anaerobic digestates. PMID:27735859

  20. Anaerobic digestion and gasification coupling for wastewater sludge treatment and recovery.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Nicolas; Rousse, Daniel R; Hausler, Robert

    2014-07-01

    Sewage sludge management is an energy intensive process. Anaerobic digestion contributes to energy efficiency improvement but is limited by the biological process. A review has been conducted prior to experimentation in order to evaluate the mass and energy balances on anaerobic digestion followed by gasification of digested sludge. The purpose was to improve energy recovery and reuse. Calculations were based on design parameters and tests that are conducted with the anaerobic digester of a local wastewater treatment plant and a small commercial gasification system. Results showed a very significant potential of energy recovery. More than 90% of the energy content from sludge was extracted. Also, approximately the same amount of energy would be transferred in both directions between the digester (biogas) and the gasifier (thermal energy). This extraction resulted in the same use of biogas as the reference scenario but final product was a totally dry biochar, which represented a fraction of the initial mass. Phosphorus was concentrated and significantly preserved. This analysis suggests that anaerobic digestion followed by dehydration, drying and gasification could be a promising and viable option for energy and nutrient recovery from municipal sludge in replacement of conventional paths.

  1. Ammonium and potassium removal for anaerobically digested wastewater using natural clinoptilolite followed by membrane pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuejun; Zeng, Le Larry; Li, Xiaomei; Park, Hung-Suck

    2008-02-28

    On the basis of the wastewater characteristic of anaerobically digested wastewater, this work studied the individual and simultaneous adsorption of ammonium and potassium ions by the natural clinoptilolite. Langmuir, Freundlich, Langmuir-Freundlich, and Toth model were employed to fit the experimental isotherm data and the fitting performances of different models were compared. Both the individual and simultaneous adsorption kinetics of ammonium and potassium were studied at various pHs and temperatures. The individual adsorption of ammonium was very fast and potassium uptake was even faster than that of ammonium. The adsorption approached equilibrium within 1h in most cases. Five models, including pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Vermeulen's model, squared driving force model and Elovich equation were used to fit the individual and simultaneous adsorption kinetics of ammonium and potassium. The validities of the fittings for the ammonium and potassium adsorption kinetics were also evaluated.

  2. Performance of an Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) in treatment of cassava wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz, Fernanda M.; Bruni, Aline T.; Del Bianchi, Vanildo L.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) was evaluated in the treatment of cassava wastewater, a pollutant residue. An ABR divided in four equal volume compartments (total volume 4L) and operated at 35ºC was used in cassava wastewater treatment. Feed tank chemical oxygen demand (COD) was varied from 2000 to 7000 mg L-1 and it was evaluated the most appropriated hydraulic retention time (HRT) for the best performance on COD removal. The ABR was evaluated by analysis of COD (colorimetric method), pH, turbidity, total and volatile solids, alkalinity and acidity. Principal component analysis (PCA) was carried to better understand data obtained. The system showed buffering ability as acidity decreased along compartments while alkalinity and pH values were increased. There was particulate material retention and COD removal varied from 83 to 92% for HRT of 3.5 days. PMID:24031316

  3. Modelling the energy demands of aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactors for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Martin, I; Pidou, M; Soares, A; Judd, S; Jefferson, B

    2011-07-01

    A modelling study has been developed in which the energy requirements of aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs) are assessed in order to compare these two wastewater treatment technologies. The model took into consideration the aeration required for biological oxidation in aerobic MBRs (AeMBRs), the energy recovery from methane production in anaerobic MBRs (AnMBRs) and the energy demands of operating submerged and sidestream membrane configurations. Aeration and membrane energy demands were estimated based on previously developed modelling studies populated with operational data from the literature. Given the difference in sludge production between aerobic and anaerobic systems, the model was benchmarked by assuming high sludge retention times or complete retention of solids in both AeMBRs and AnMBRs. Analysis of biogas production in AnMBRs revealed that the heat required to achieve mesophilic temperatures (35 degrees C) in the reactor was only possible with influent wastewater strengths above 4-5 g COD L(-1). The general trend of the submerged configuration, which is less energy intensive than the sidestream configuration in aerobic systems, was not observed in AnMBRs, mainly due to the wide variation in gas demand utilized in anaerobic systems. Compared to AeMBRs, for which the energy requirements were estimated to approach 2 kWh m(-3) (influent up to 1 g COD L(-1)), the energy demands associated with fouling control in AnMBRs were lower (0.80 kWh m(-3) for influent of 1.14 g COD L(-1)), although due to the low fluxes reported in the literature capital costs associated with membrane material would be three times higher than this.

  4. Ammonia stripping, activated carbon adsorption and anaerobic biological oxidation as process combination for the treatment of oil shale wastewater.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Verônica M F; do Nascimento, Felipe V; Cammarota, Magali C

    2016-10-01

    Anaerobic biodegradability of oil shale wastewater was investigated after the following pretreatment sequence: ammonia stripping and activated carbon adsorption. Anaerobic biological treatment of oil shale wastewater is technically feasible after stripping at pH 11 for reducing the N-NH3 concentration, adsorption with 5 g/L of activated carbon in order to reduce recalcitrance and pH adjustment with CO2 so that the sulphate concentration in the medium remains low. After this pretreatment sequence, it was possible to submit the wastewater without dilution to an anaerobic treatment with 62.7% soluble chemical oxygen demand removal and specific methane production of 233.2 mL CH4STP/g CODremoved.

  5. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket and aerated constructed wetlands for swine wastewater treatment: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Masi, F; Rizzo, A; Martinuzzi, N; Wallace, S D; Van Oirschot, D; Salazzari, P; Meers, E; Bresciani, R

    2017-07-01

    Swine wastewater management is often affected by two main issues: a too high volume for optimal reuse as a fertilizer and a too high strength for an economically sustainable treatment by classical solutions. Hence, an innovative scheme has been tested to treat swine wastewater, combining a low cost anaerobic reactor, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), with intensified constructed wetlands (aerated CWs) in a pilot scale experimental study. The swine wastewater described in this paper is produced by a swine production facility situated in North Italy. The scheme of the pilot plant consisted of: (i) canvas-based thickener; (ii) UASB; (iii) two intensified aerated vertical subsurface flow CWs in series; (iv) a horizontal flow subsurface CW. The influent wastewater quality has been defined for total suspended solids (TSS 25,025 ± 9,323 mg/l), organic carbon (chemical oxygen demand (COD) 29,350 ± 16,983 mg/l), total reduced nitrogen and ammonium (total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) 1,783 ± 498 mg/l and N-NH4(+) 735 ± 251 mg/l) and total phosphorus (1,285 ± 270 mg/l), with nitrates almost absent. The overall system has shown excellent performances in terms of TSS, COD, N-NH4(+) and TKN removal efficiencies (99.9%, 99.6%, 99.5%, and 99.0%, respectively). Denitrification (N-NO3(-) effluent concentration equal to 614 ± 268 mg/l) did not meet the Italian quality standards for discharging in water bodies, mainly because the organic carbon was almost completely removed in the intensified CW beds.

  6. Wastewater polishing by a channelized macrophyte-dominated wetland and anaerobic digestion of the harvested phytomass.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Michael F; Hare, Caden; Kozlowski, John; McCormick, Rachel S; Chen, Lily; Schneider, Linden; Parish, Meghan; Knight, Zane; Nelson, Timothy A; Grewell, Brenda J

    2013-01-01

    Constructed wetlands (CW) offer a mechanism to meet increasingly stringent regulatory standards for wastewater treatment while minimizing energy inputs. Additionally, harvested wetland phytomass subjected to anaerobic digestion can serve as a source of biogas methane. To investigate CW wastewater polishing activities and potential energy yield we constructed a pair of secondary wastewater-fed channelized CW modules designed to retain easily harvestable floating aquatic vegetation and maximize exposure of water to roots and sediment. Modules that were regularly harvested averaged a nitrate removal rate of 1.1 g N m(-2) d(-1); harvesting, sedimentation and gasification were responsible for 30.5%, 8.0% and 61.5% of the N losses, respectively. Selective harvesting of a module to maintain dominance of filamentous algae had no effect on nitrate removal rate but lowered productivity by one-half. The average monthly productivity for unselectively harvested modules was 9.3 ± 1.7 g dry wt. m(-2) d(-1) (±SE). Cessation of harvesting in one module resulted in a significant increase in nitrate removal rate and decrease in phosphate removal rate. Compared to the influent, the effluent of the harvested module had significantly lower levels of estrogenic activity, as determined by a quantitative PCR-based juvenile trout bioassay, and significantly lower densities of E. coli. In mixed vertical-flow reactors anaerobic co-digestion of equal dry weight proportions of harvested aquatic vegetation, wine yeast lees and dairy manure was greatly improved when the manure was replaced with the crude glycerol by-product of biodiesel production. Remaining solids were vermicomposted for use as a soil amendment. Our results indicate that incorporation of constructed wetlands into an integrated treatment system can simultaneously enhance the economic and energetic feasibility of wastewater and organic waste treatment processes.

  7. Anaerobic treatment of army ammunition production wastewater containing perchlorate and RDX.

    PubMed

    Atikovic, Emina; Suidan, Makram T; Maloney, Stephen W

    2008-08-01

    Perchlorate is an oxidizer that has been routinely used in solid rocket motors by the Department of Defense and National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Royal Demolition Explosive (RDX) is a major component of military high explosives and is used in a wide variety of munitions. Perchlorate bearing wastewater typically results from production of solid rocket motors, while RDX is transferred to Army industrial wastewaters during load, assemble and pack operations for new munitions, and hot water or steam washout for disposal and deactivation of old munitions (commonly referred to as demilitarization, or simply demil). Biological degradation in Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactors (AFBR), has been shown to be an effective method for the removal of both perchlorate and RDX in contaminated wastewater. The focus of this study was to determine the effectiveness of removal of perchlorate and RDX, individually and when co-mingled, using ethanol as an electron donor under steady state conditions. Three AFBRs were used to assess the effectiveness of this process in treating the wastewater. The performance of the bioreactors was monitored relative to perchlorate, RDX, and chemical oxygen demand removal effectiveness. The experimental results demonstrated that the biodegradation of perchlorate and RDX was more effective in bioreactors receiving the single contaminant than in the bioreactor where both contaminants were fed.

  8. Biological Phosphorus Removal During High-Rate, Low-Temperature, Anaerobic Digestion of Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Keating, Ciara; Chin, Jason P; Hughes, Dermot; Manesiotis, Panagiotis; Cysneiros, Denise; Mahony, Therese; Smith, Cindy J; McGrath, John W; O'Flaherty, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    We report, for the first time, extensive biologically mediated phosphate removal from wastewater during high-rate anaerobic digestion (AD). A hybrid sludge bed/fixed-film (packed pumice stone) reactor was employed for low-temperature (12°C) anaerobic treatment of synthetic sewage wastewater. Successful phosphate removal from the wastewater (up to 78% of influent phosphate) was observed, mediated by biofilms in the reactor. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis revealed the accumulation of elemental phosphorus (∼2%) within the sludge bed and fixed-film biofilms. 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining indicated phosphorus accumulation was biological in nature and mediated through the formation of intracellular inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) granules within these biofilms. DAPI staining further indicated that polyP accumulation was rarely associated with free cells. Efficient and consistent chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was recorded, throughout the 732-day trial, at applied organic loading rates between 0.4 and 1.5 kg COD m(-3) d(-1) and hydraulic retention times of 8-24 h, while phosphate removal efficiency ranged from 28 to 78% on average per phase. Analysis of protein hydrolysis kinetics and the methanogenic activity profiles of the biomass revealed the development, at 12°C, of active hydrolytic and methanogenic populations. Temporal microbial changes were monitored using Illumina MiSeq analysis of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences. The dominant bacterial phyla present in the biomass at the conclusion of the trial were the Proteobacteria and Firmicutes and the dominant archaeal genus was Methanosaeta. Trichococcus and Flavobacterium populations, previously associated with low temperature protein degradation, developed in the reactor biomass. The presence of previously characterized polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) such as Rhodocyclus, Chromatiales, Actinobacter, and Acinetobacter was recorded

  9. Biological Phosphorus Removal During High-Rate, Low-Temperature, Anaerobic Digestion of Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Ciara; Chin, Jason P.; Hughes, Dermot; Manesiotis, Panagiotis; Cysneiros, Denise; Mahony, Therese; Smith, Cindy J.; McGrath, John W.; O’Flaherty, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    We report, for the first time, extensive biologically mediated phosphate removal from wastewater during high-rate anaerobic digestion (AD). A hybrid sludge bed/fixed-film (packed pumice stone) reactor was employed for low-temperature (12°C) anaerobic treatment of synthetic sewage wastewater. Successful phosphate removal from the wastewater (up to 78% of influent phosphate) was observed, mediated by biofilms in the reactor. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis revealed the accumulation of elemental phosphorus (∼2%) within the sludge bed and fixed-film biofilms. 4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining indicated phosphorus accumulation was biological in nature and mediated through the formation of intracellular inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) granules within these biofilms. DAPI staining further indicated that polyP accumulation was rarely associated with free cells. Efficient and consistent chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was recorded, throughout the 732-day trial, at applied organic loading rates between 0.4 and 1.5 kg COD m-3 d-1 and hydraulic retention times of 8–24 h, while phosphate removal efficiency ranged from 28 to 78% on average per phase. Analysis of protein hydrolysis kinetics and the methanogenic activity profiles of the biomass revealed the development, at 12°C, of active hydrolytic and methanogenic populations. Temporal microbial changes were monitored using Illumina MiSeq analysis of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences. The dominant bacterial phyla present in the biomass at the conclusion of the trial were the Proteobacteria and Firmicutes and the dominant archaeal genus was Methanosaeta. Trichococcus and Flavobacterium populations, previously associated with low temperature protein degradation, developed in the reactor biomass. The presence of previously characterized polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) such as Rhodocyclus, Chromatiales, Actinobacter, and Acinetobacter was recorded

  10. High-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment: diversifying from end-of-the-pipe treatment to resource-oriented conversion techniques.

    PubMed

    van Lier, Jules B

    2008-01-01

    Decades of developments and implementations in the field of high-rate anaerobic wastewater treatment have put the technology at a competitive level. With respect to sustainability and cost-effectiveness, anaerobic treatment has a much better score than many alternatives. Particularly, the energy conservation aspect, i.e. avoiding the loss of energy for destruction of organic matter, while energy is reclaimed from the organic waste constituents in the form of biogas, was an important driver in the development of such systems. Invoked by the present greenhouse alert, the energy involved is nowadays translated into carbon credits, providing another incentive to further implement anaerobic technology. Anaerobic conversion processes, however, offer much more than cost-effective treatment systems. Selective recovery of metals, effective desulphurization, recovery of nutrients, reductive detoxification, and anaerobic oxidation of specific compounds are examples of the potentials of anaerobic treatment. This paper presents a survey on the state of the art of full-scale anaerobic high-rate treatment of industrial wastewaters and highlights current trends in anaerobic developments. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  11. A comparative study on the anaerobic membrane bioreactor performance during the treatment of domestic wastewaters of various origins.

    PubMed

    Saddoud, A; Ellouze, M; Dhouib, A; Sayadi, S

    2006-09-01

    This study examined the practical performance of a cross-flow ultrafiltration membrane coupled to an anaerobic bioreactor, for treatment of raw domestic wastewater (RDW), at a pilot-scale plant. Wastewaters used in this study originated from two different domestic wastewater treatment plans (DWTPs) (Sfax and Ksour Essef). During the treatment in the membrane bioreactor (MBR) of the RDW originating from Sfax DWTP, the bioreactor did not reach its stationary phase because the anaerobic biomass was unable to adapt to the wastewater. This was explained by the considerable fluctuations in the domestic wastewater composition and a possible contamination of Sfax wastewater by industrial discharges. However, the treatment of RDW originating from Ksour Essef (DWTP) was successful. In both cases, the treatment led to a total removal of all tested pathogens. The quality of treated wastewater fits largely with WHO guidelines for unrestricted irrigation. The phytotoxicity and the microtoxicity tests, using Lepidium sativum and Vibrio fischeri respectively, demonstrated that wastewater from Sfax exhibited higher toxicity than that from Ksour Sssef.

  12. Feasibility studies on the treatment of dairy wastewaters with upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, E V; Gajalakshmi, S; Sanjeevi, R; Jithesh, M N; Abbasi, S A

    2004-06-01

    The feasibility of using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors for the treatment of dairy wastewaters was explored. Two types of UASBs were used--one operating on anaerobic sludge granules developed by us from digested cowdung slurry (DCDS) and the other on the granules obtained from the reactors of M/s EID Parry treating sugar industry wastewaters. The reactors were operated at HRT of 3 and 12 h and on COD loading rates ranging from 2.4 kg per m3 of digester volume, per day to 13.5 kg m(-3) d(-1). At the 3 h HRT, the maximum COD reduction in the DCDS-seeded and the industrial sludge-seeded reactors was 95.6% and 96.3%, respectively, better than at 12 h HRT (90% and 92%, respectively). In both the reactors, the maximum, the second best, and the third best COD reduction occurred at the loading rates of 10.8, 8.6 and 7.2 kg m3 d(-1), respectively. At loading rates higher than 10.8 kg, the reactor performance dropped precipitously. Whereas in the first few months the reactors operating on sludge from EID Parry achieved better biodegradation of the waste, compared to the reactors operated on DCDS, the performance of the latter gradually improved and matched with the performance of the former.

  13. Kinetics of the biodegradation of green table olive wastewaters by aerobic and anaerobic treatments.

    PubMed

    Beltran, J; Gonzalez, T; Garcia, J

    2008-06-15

    The biodegradation of the organic pollutant matter present in green table olive wastewater (GTOW) is studied in batch reactors by an aerobic biodegradation and by an anaerobic digestion. In the aerobic biodegradation, the evolution of the substrate (in terms of chemical and biochemical oxygen demand), biomass, and total polyphenolic compounds present in the wastewater are followed during the process, and a kinetic study is performed using Contois' model, which when applied to the experimental results provides the kinetic parameter of this model, resulting in a modified Contois' equation (q=3.3S/(0.31S(0)X+X), gCOD/gVSS d(-1)). Other kinetic parameters were determined: the cellular yield coefficient (YX/S=5.7x10(-2) gVSS/gCOD) and the kinetic constant of cellular death phase (kd=0.16 d(-1)). Similarly, in the anaerobic digestion, the evolution of the substrate digested and the methane produced are followed, and the kinetic study is conducted using a modified Monod model combined with the Levenspiel model, due to the presence of inhibition effects. This model leads to the determination of the kinetic parameters: kinetic constant when no inhibitory substance is present (kM0=8.4x10(-2) h(-1)), critical substrate concentration of inhibition (TP*=0.34 g/L) and inhibitory parameter (n=2.25).

  14. Influence of biofilm density on anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor treating mustard tuber wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chai, Hongxiang; Kang, Wei

    2012-11-01

    Considering the characteristics of high salinity, high concentration of organic matter, and high biodegradability, a new and efficient anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR) was chosen as an anaerobic pretreatment unit to treat most organic compounds in mustard tuber wastewater. By changing the biofilm density of the reactor, the test was carried out to find out the influence of biofilm density on effluent COD, the content of the sludge dehydrogenase, and gas production rate. Results showed that under the condition of 30 °C, draining ratio of 1/3, and 2 days of hydraulic retention time, COD removal rate increased from 71.5 to 90.5 % when the biofilm density increased from 15 to 50 %; however, COD removal rate increased from 90.5 to 91.3 % when the biofilm density increased from 50 to 70 %. According to the influence of biofilm density on effluent COD, the content of the sludge dehydrogenase, and gas production rate, ASBBR should take 50 % biofilm density in mustard wastewater treatment. At the same time, these design parameters can be used to guide practical engineering.

  15. Treatment of slaughter wastewater by coagulation sedimentation-anaerobic biological filter and biological contact oxidation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, M.; Yu, P. F.; Fu, J. X.; Ji, X. Q.; Jiang, T.

    2017-08-01

    The optimal process parameters and conditions for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater by coagulation sedimentation-AF - biological contact oxidation process were studied to solve the problem of high concentration organic wastewater treatment in the production of small and medium sized slaughter plants. The suitable water temperature and the optimum reaction time are determined by the experiment of precipitation to study the effect of filtration rate and reflux ratio on COD and SS in anaerobic biological filter and the effect of biofilm thickness and gas water ratio on NH3-N and COD in biological contact oxidation tank, and results show that the optimum temperature is 16-24°C, reaction time is 20 min in coagulating sedimentation, the optimum filtration rate is 0.6 m/h, and the optimum reflux ratio is 300% in anaerobic biological filter reactor. The most suitable biological film thickness range of 1.8-2.2 mm and the most suitable gas water ratio is 12:1-14:1 in biological contact oxidation pool. In the coupling process of continuous operation for 80 days, the average effluent’s mass concentrations of COD, TP and TN were 15.57 mg/L, 40 mg/L and 0.63 mg/L, the average removal rates were 98.93%, 86.10%, 88.95%, respectively. The coupling process has stable operation effect and good effluent quality, and is suitable for the industrial application.

  16. Anaerobic-ion exchange (AN-IX) process for local-scale nitrogen recovery from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel P; Smith, Nathaniel T

    2015-11-01

    An anaerobic-ion exchange (AN-IX) process was developed for point-of-origin recovery of nitrogen from household wastewater. The process features upflow solids-blanket anaerobic treatment (ammonification) followed by ammonium ion exchange onto natural zeolite. The AN-IX system is configured as a series of linked upflow chambers that operate passively without energy input, and is amenable to intermittent and seasonal operation. A 57L prototype was operated for over 1.8 years treating actual wastewater under field conditions. Total nitrogen removal exceeded 96% through the first 160 days of operation and effluent ammonium nitrogen remained below detection for 300 days. Ion exchange chambers exhibited sequential NH4(+)-N breakthrough over extended operation and complete media exhaustion was approached at Day 355. The ammonium capacity of zeolite was estimated as 13.5mg NH4(+)-N per gram dry weight. AN-IX is a resilient and cost effective process for local-scale nitrogen recovery and reuse, suitable for small scale and larger systems.

  17. Membrane distillation combined with an anaerobic moving bed biofilm reactor for treating municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Shin, Jaewon; Won, Seyeon; Lee, Jung-Yeol; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Song, Kyung Guen

    2015-03-15

    A fermentative strategy with an anaerobic moving bed biofilm reactor (AMBBR) was used for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The feasibility of using a membrane separation technique for post-treatment of anaerobic bio-effluent was evaluated with emphasis on employing a membrane distillation (MD). Three different hydrophobic 0.2 μm membranes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), and polypropylene (PP) were examined in this study. The initial permeate flux of the membranes ranged from 2.5 to 6.3 L m(-2) h(-1) when treating AMBBR effluent at a temperature difference between the feed and permeate streams of 20 °C, with the permeate flux increasing in the order PP < PVDF < PTFE. The permeate flux of the PTFE membrane gradually decreased to 84% of the initial flux after the 45 h run for distillation, while a flux decline in MD with either the PVDF or PP membrane was not found under the identical distillation conditions. During long-term distillation with the PVDF membrane, total phosphorus was completely rejected and >98% rejection of dissolved organic carbon was also achieved. The characterization of wastewater effluent organic matter (EfOM) using an innovative suite of analytical tools verified that almost all of the EfOM was rejected via the PVDF MD treatment.

  18. Determination of operating conditions in an anaerobic acid-phase reactor treating dairy wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Kasapgil, B.; Ince, O.; Anderson, G.K.

    1996-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion of organic material is a multistep process. Two groups of bacteria, namely acidogenic and methanogenic bacteria, are responsible for the acidification and for the methane formation, respectively. The growth requirements of the two groups of bacteria are rather different. In order to create optimum conditions for the process, it was first proposed to separate the process into two phases. Operating variables applicable for the selection and enrichment of microbial populations in phased digesters include digester loading, hydraulic retention time (HRT), pH, temperature, reactor design, and operating mode. By proper manipulation of these operating parameters it is possible to prevent any significant growth of methane bacteria and at the same time achieve the required level of acidification in the first reactor. Further enrichment of two cultures is possible by biomass recycle around each phase. Since the 1970s, phase separation has been introduced into anaerobic digestion technology. However, data concerning the optimization of operating conditions in both acidogenic and methanogenic phase reactors are scarce. This study was therefore carried out for the purposes given below. These were: (1) to determine the best combination of pH and temperature within the ranges studied for the pre-acidification of dairy wastewater; (2) to determine the maximum acidogenic conversion from COD to VFAs, and (3) to determine the changes in the distribution of major VFAs being produced during the pre-acidification of dairy wastewater.

  19. Removal of steroid estrogens from municipal wastewater in a pilot scale expanded granular sludge blanket reactor and anaerobic membrane bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Ayumi; Mensah, Lawson; Cartmell, Elise; Lester, John N.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic treatment of municipal wastewater offers the prospect of a new paradigm by reducing aeration costs and minimizing sludge production. It has been successfully applied in warm climates, but does not always achieve the desired outcomes in temperate climates at the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) values of municipal crude wastewater. Recently the concept of ‘fortification' has been proposed to increase organic strength and has been demonstrated at the laboratory and pilot scale treating municipal wastewater at temperatures of 10–17°C. The process treats a proportion of the flow anaerobically by combining it with primary sludge from the residual flow and then polishing it to a high effluent standard aerobically. Energy consumption is reduced as is sludge production. However, no new treatment process is viable if it only addresses the problems of traditional pollutants (suspended solids – SS, BOD, nitrogen – N and phosphorus – P); it must also treat hazardous substances. This study compared three potential municipal anaerobic treatment regimes, crude wastewater in an expanded granular sludge blanket (EGSB) reactor, fortified crude wastewater in an EGSB and crude wastewater in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor. The benefits of fortification were demonstrated for the removal of SS, BOD, N and P. These three systems were further challenged with the removal of steroid estrogens at environmental concentrations from natural indigenous sources. All three systems removed these compounds to a significant degree, confirming that estrogen removal is not restricted to highly aerobic autotrophs, or aerobic heterotrophs, but is also a faculty of anaerobic bacteria. PMID:26212345

  20. Colour removal from a simulated dye wastewater using a two-phase anaerobic packed bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi Talarposhti, A; Donnelly, T; Anderson, G K

    2001-02-01

    In recent years, rapid technological advances in the textile and dyeing industry have yielded benefits to society but have also generated new and significant environmental problems. The treatment alternatives applicable for the removal of colour vary, depending upon the type of dye wastewater. A synthetic, simulated mixed dye waste (Basic Yellow 28, Basic Yellow 21, Basic Red 18.1, Basic Violet Red 16, Basic Red 46, Basic Blue 16, Basic Blue 41) representing a known waste from a fibre production factory, was investigated. The biological process of anaerobic digestion has been recognised as a simple and energy-efficient means of treating and stabilising a wide range of organic industrial wastewaters. This study sets out to demonstrate the effect of different loading rates, dye concentrations and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) on colour removal efficiency under mesophilic anaerobic conditions. The reactor was operated under mesophilic conditions at different organic loading rates (OLRs) and HRTs for nine months. The results of this study show that a 2-stage mesophilic anaerobic up-flow packed bed reactor can remove up to 90% of the colour from a mixed cationic dye containing 1000 mg/l of dye. Colour removal efficiency falls as the influent dye concentration increases, but rises with increased hydraulic retention time and increased organic loading. The primary colour removal mechanism was one of biosorption with subsequent biodegradation. Acetoclastic methanogens were moderately inhibited at low organic loading rates of 0.25 kg COD/m3 d, at which level, acidogenesis and acetogenesis appeared to be unaffected. Inhibition of acidogenesis became marked at higher OLRs (1 kg COD/m3 d) and when the HRT was reduced from 5 to 3 days.

  1. Inhibition of ammonia on anaerobic digestion of synthetic coal gasification wastewater and recovery using struvite precipitation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Ren, Xuesong; Yang, Kai; Hu, Zhenhu; Yuan, Shoujun

    2017-10-15

    Coal gasification wastewater (CGW) contains very high concentrations of phenols and ammonia. However, the potential impact of ammonia on the anaerobic digestion of phenols remained unclear. Firstly, the methanogens and phenols degraders had a good tolerance up to 1gL(-1) of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), but the substrate utilization rate for phenol, and specific methanogenic activity of sludge were decreased by 89% and 67% at 5g TAN L(-1), and 94% and 100% at 10g TAN L(-1), respectively. Secondly, the optimum struvite crystallization conditions (pH=8.5, 10g TAN L(-1), n(Mg(2+)):n(TAN):n(PO4(3-))=1:1:1) were obtained by the orthogonal tests. Thirdly, the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenols were recovered to around 82% and 66%, respectively in the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor using the pretreatment of struvite precipitation at 10g TAN L(-1) and 1g phenols L(-1). Therefore, anaerobic digestion coupled with struvite precipitation was considered as an alternative way for CGW treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Common key acidogen populations in anaerobic reactors treating different wastewaters: molecular identification and quantitative monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaai; Shin, Seung Gu; Han, Gyuseong; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Lee, Changsoo; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2011-04-01

    Bacterial population dynamics during the start-up of three lab-scale anaerobic reactors treating different wastewaters, i.e., synthetic glucose wastewater, whey permeate, and liquefied sewage sludge, were assessed using a combination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR techniques. The DGGE results showed that bacterial populations related to Aeromonas spp. and Clostridium sticklandii emerged as common and prominent acidogens in all reactors. Two real-time PCR primer/probe sets targeting Aeromonas or C. sticklandii were developed, and successfully applied to quantitatively investigate their dynamics in relation to changes in reactor performance. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that both Aeromonas- and C. sticklandii-related populations were highly abundant for acidogenic period in all reactors. Aeromonas populations accounted for up to 86.6-95.3% of total bacterial 16S rRNA genes during start-up, suggesting that, given its capability of utilizing carbohydrate, Aeromonas is likely the major acidogen group responsible for the rapid initial fermentation of carbohydrate. C. sticklandii, able to utilize specific amino acids only, occupied up to 8.5-55.2% of total bacterial 16S rRNA genes in the reactors tested. Growth of this population is inferred to be supported, at least in part, by non-substrate amino acid sources like cell debris or extracellular excretions, particularly in the reactor fed on synthetic glucose wastewater with no amino acid source. The quantitative dynamics of the two acidogen groups of interest, together with their putative functions, suggest that Aeromonas and C. sticklandii populations were numerically as well as functionally important in all reactors tested, regardless of the differences in substrate composition. Particularly, the members of Aeromonas supposedly play vital roles in anaerobic digesters treating various substrates under acidogenic, fermentative start-up conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd

  3. Two-phase anaerobic digestion within a solid waste/wastewater integrated management system

    SciTech Connect

    De Gioannis, G.; Diaz, L.F.; Muntoni, A. Pisanu, A.

    2008-07-01

    A two-phase, wet anaerobic digestion process was tested at laboratory scale using mechanically pre-treated municipal solid waste (MSW) as the substrate. The proposed process scheme differs from others due to the integration of the MSW and wastewater treatment cycles, which makes it possible to avoid the recirculation of process effluent. The results obtained show that the supplying of facultative biomass, drawn from the wastewater aeration tank, to the solid waste acidogenic reactor allows an improvement of the performance of the first phase of the process which is positively reflected on the second one. The proposed process performed successfully, adopting mesophilic conditions and a relatively short hydraulic retention time in the methanogenic reactor, as well as high values of organic loading rate. Significant VS removal efficiency and biogas production were achieved. Moreover, the methanogenic reactor quickly reached optimal conditions for a stable methanogenic phase. Studies conducted elsewhere also confirm the feasibility of integrating the treatment of the organic fraction of MSW with that of wastewater.

  4. A combined upflow anaerobic sludge bed and trickling biofilter process for the treatment of swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bowei; Li, Jiangzheng; Buelna, Gerardo; Dubé, Rino; Le Bihan, Yann

    2016-01-01

    A combined upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-trickling biofilter (TBF) process was constructed to treat swine wastewater, a typical high-strength organic wastewater with low carbon/nitrogen ratio and ammonia toxicity. The results showed that the UASB-TBF system can remarkably enhance the removal of pollutants in the swine wastewater. At an organic loading rate of 2.29 kg/m(3) d and hydraulic retention time of 48 h in the UASB, the chemical oxygen demand (COD), Suspended Solids and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen removals of the combined process reached 83.6%, 84.1% and 41.2%, respectively. In the combined system the UASB served as a pretreatment process for COD removal while nitrification and denitrification occurred only in the TBF process. The TBF performed reasonably well at a surface hydraulic load as high as 0.12 m(3)/m(2) d. Since the ratio of influent COD to total mineral nitrogen was less than 3.23, it is reasonable to suggest that the wood chips in TBF can serve as a new carbon source for denitrification.

  5. Potentials of anaerobic membrane bioreactors to overcome treatment limitations induced by industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Dereli, Recep Kaan; Ersahin, Mustafa Evren; Ozgun, Hale; Ozturk, Izzet; Jeison, David; van der Zee, Frank; van Lier, Jules B

    2012-10-01

    This review presents a comprehensive summary on applications of anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology for industrial wastewaters in view of different aspects including treatability and filterability. AnMBRs present an attractive option for the treatment of industrial wastewaters at extreme conditions, such as high salinity, high temperature, high suspended solids concentrations, and toxicity that hamper granulation and retention of biomass or reduce the biological activity. So far, most of the research has been conducted at laboratory scale; however, also a number of full-scale AnMBR systems is currently being operated worldwide. Membrane fouling, a multivariable process, is still a research quest that requires further investigation. In fact, membrane fouling and flux decline present the most important reasons that hamper the wide-spread application of full-scale reactors. This paper addresses a detailed assessment and discussion on treatability and filterability of industrial wastewaters in both lab- and full-scale AnMBR applications, the encountered problems and future opportunities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A plant-wide energy model for wastewater treatment plants: application to anaerobic membrane bioreactor technology.

    PubMed

    Pretel, R; Robles, A; Ruano, M V; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to propose a detailed and comprehensive plant-wide model for assessing the energy demand of different wastewater treatment systems (beyond the traditional activated sludge) in both steady- and unsteady-state conditions. The proposed model makes it possible to calculate power and heat requirements (W and Q, respectively), and to recover both power and heat from methane and hydrogen capture. In order to account for the effect of biological processes on heat requirements, the model has been coupled to the extended version of the BNRM2 plant-wide mathematical model, which is implemented in DESSAS simulation software. Two case studies have been evaluated to assess the model's performance: (1) modelling the energy demand of two urban wastewater treatment plants based on conventional activated sludge and submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technologies in steady-state conditions and (2) modelling the dynamics of reactor temperature and heat requirements in an AnMBR plant in unsteady-state conditions. The results indicate that the proposed model can be used to assess the energy performance of different wastewater treatment processes and would thus be useful, for example, WWTP design or upgrading or the development of new control strategies for energy savings.

  7. Effect of Cambi Thermal Hydrolysis Process-Anaerobic digestion treatment on concentrations on phthalate plasticisers in wastewater sludge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The impact of the recently implemented Cambi Thermal Hydrolysis Process™-Anaerobic Digestion (TH-AD) solids treatment method on concentrations of 4 phthalate plasticisers in wastewater sludge samples was explored in this study. Samples were analysed for diisononyl phthalate (DiNP), diisodecyl phthal...

  8. Effect of the chlortetracycline addition method on methane production from the anaerobic digestion of swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Wen, Xin; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yongde; Ma, Baohua; Liao, Xindi; Liang, Juanboo; Wu, Yinbao

    2014-10-01

    Effects of antibiotic residues on methane production in anaerobic digestion are commonly studied using the following two antibiotic addition methods: (1) adding manure from animals that consume a diet containing antibiotics, and (2) adding antibiotic-free animal manure spiked with antibiotics. This study used chlortetracycline (CTC) as a model antibiotic to examine the effects of the antibiotic addition method on methane production in anaerobic digestion under two different swine wastewater concentrations (0.55 and 0.22mg CTC/g dry manure). The results showed that CTC degradation rate in which manure was directly added at 0.55mg CTC/g (HSPIKE treatment) was lower than the control values and the rest of the treatment groups. Methane production from the HSPIKE treatment was reduced (p<0.05) by 12% during the whole experimental period and 15% during the first 7days. The treatments had no significant effect on the pH and chemical oxygen demand value of the digesters, and the total nitrogen of the 0.55mg CTC/kg manure collected from mediated swine was significantly higher than the other values. Therefore, different methane production under different antibiotic addition methods might be explained by the microbial activity and the concentrations of antibiotic intermediate products and metabolites. Because the primary entry route of veterinary antibiotics into an anaerobic digester is by contaminated animal manure, the most appropriate method for studying antibiotic residue effects on methane production may be using manure from animals that are given a particular antibiotic, rather than adding the antibiotic directly to the anaerobic digester.

  9. Central treatment of different emulsion wastewaters by an integrated process of physicochemically enhanced ultrafiltration and anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijun; Xiao, Ping; Wang, Dongsheng

    2014-05-01

    The feasibility of an integrated process of ultrafiltration (UF) enhanced by combined chemical emulsion breaking with vibratory shear and anaerobic/aerobic biofilm reactor for central treatment of different emulsion wastewaters was investigated. Firstly, it was found that calcium chloride exhibited better performance in oil removal than other inorganic salts. Chemical demulsification pretreatment could efficiently improve oil removal and membrane filtration in emulsion wastewater treatment by VSEP. According to aerobic batch bioassay, UF permeate exhibited good biodegradability and could be further treated with biological process. Additionally, pilot test indicated that anaerobic-aerobic biofilm exhibited an excellent ability against rise in organic loading and overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of biological system was more than 93% of which 82% corresponded to the anaerobic process and 11% to the aerobic degradation. The final effluent of integrated process could meet the "water quality standards for discharge to municipal sewers" in China.

  10. Potential use of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste in anaerobic co-digestion with wastewater in submerged anaerobic membrane technology.

    PubMed

    Moñino, P; Jiménez, E; Barat, R; Aguado, D; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2016-10-01

    Food waste was characterized for its potential use as substrate for anaerobic co-digestion in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor pilot plant that treats urban wastewater (WW). 90% of the particles had sizes under 0.5mm after grinding the food waste in a commercial food waste disposer. COD, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were 100, 2 and 20 times higher in food waste than their average concentrations in WW, but the relative flow contribution of both streams made COD the only pollutant that increased significantly when both substrates were mixed. As sulphate concentration in food waste was in the same range as WW, co-digestion of both substrates would increase the COD/SO4-S ratio and favour methanogenic activity in anaerobic treatments. The average methane potential of the food waste was 421±15mLCH4g(-1)VS, achieving 73% anaerobic biodegradability. The anaerobic co-digestion of food waste with WW is expected to increase methane production 2.9-fold. The settleable solids tests and the particle size distribution analyses confirmed that both treatment lines of a conventional WWTP (water and sludge lines) would be clearly impacted by the incorporation of food waste into its influent. Anaerobic processes are therefore preferred over their aerobic counterparts due to their ability to valorise the high COD content to produce biogas (a renewable energy) instead of increasing the energetic costs associated with the aeration process for aerobic COD oxidation.

  11. Study on submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) treating high suspended solids raw tannery wastewater for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Umaiyakunjaram, R; Shanmugam, P

    2016-09-01

    This study deals with the treatment of high suspended solids raw tannery wastewater using flat sheet Submerged Anaerobic Membrane (0.4μm) Bioreactor (SAMBR) acclimatized with hypersaline anaerobic seed sludge for recovering biogas. The treatability of SAMBR achieved higher CODremoval efficiency (90%) and biogas yield (0.160L.g(-1) CODremoved) coincided with high r(2) values between permeate flux and TSS (0.95), biogas and COD removed (0.96). The acidification of hypersaline influent wastewater by biogas mixing with high CO2, achieved quadruplet benefit of gas liquid and solid separation, in-situ pH and NH3 control, in-situ CH4 enrichment, and prevention of membrane fouling. The initial high VFA became stable as time elapsed reveals the hydrolysing ability of particulate COD into soluble COD and into biogas, confirms the suitability of SAMBR for high suspended solids tannery wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Heavy metal removal from synthetic wastewaters in an anaerobic bioreactor using stillage from ethanol distilleries as a carbon source.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, M M M; da Costa, A C A; Leite, S G F; Sant'Anna, G L

    2007-11-01

    This work was conducted to investigate the possibility of using stillage from ethanol distilleries as substrate for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) growth and to evaluate the removal efficiency of heavy metals present in wastewaters containing sulfates. The experiments were carried out in a continuous bench-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor (13 l) operated with a hydraulic retention time of 18 h. The bioreactor was inoculated with 7 l of anaerobic sludge. Afterwards, an enrichment procedure to increase SRB numbers was started. After this, cadmium and zinc were added to the synthetic wastewater, and their removal as metal sulfide was evaluated. The synthetic wastewater used represented the drainage from a dam of a metallurgical industry to which a carbon source (stillage) was added. The results showed that high percentages of removal (>99%) of Cd and Zn were attained in the bioreactor, and that the removal as sulfide precipitates was not the only form of metal removal occurring in the bioreactor environment.

  13. Anaerobic

    MedlinePlus

    ... more prolonged exercise like walking or jogging. Anaerobic reactions are faster. We need them during shorter, more intense activities like sprinting. Anaerobic exercise leads to a buildup of lactic acid in our tissues. We need oxygen to remove ...

  14. Anaerobic treatment of wastewater with high suspended solids from a bulk drug industry using fixed film reactor (AFFR).

    PubMed

    Rao, A Gangagni; Naidu, G Venkata; Prasad, K Krishna; Rao, N Chandrasekhar; Mohan, S Venkata; Jetty, Annapurna; Sarma, P N

    2004-07-01

    Studies are carried out on the treatment of wastewater from a bulk drug industry using an anaerobic fixed film reactor (AFFR) designed and fabricated in the laboratory. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total dissolved solids (TDS) of the wastewater are found to be very high with low Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to COD ratio and high total suspended solid (TSS) concentration. Acclimatization of seed consortia and start up of the reactor is carried out by directly using the wastewater, which resulted in reducing the period of startup to 30 days. The reactor is studied at different organic loading rates (OLR) and it is found that the optimum OLR is 10 kg COD/m3/day. The wastewater under investigation, which is having considerable quantity of SS, is treated anaerobically without any pretreatment. The COD and BOD of the reactor outlet wastewater are monitored and reduction at steady state and optimum OLR is observed to be 60-70% of COD and 80-90% of BOD. The reactor is subjected to organic shock loads at two different OLR and it is observed that the reactor could withstand shocks and performance could be restored to normalcy at that OLR. The results obtained indicated that AFFR could be used efficiently for the treatment of wastewater from a bulk drug industry having high COD, TDS and TSS. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Anaerobic treatment of wastewater with high suspended solids from a bulk drug industry using fixed film reactor (AFFR).

    PubMed

    Gangagni Rao, A; Venkata Naidu, G; Krishna Prasad, K; Chandrasekhar Rao, N; Venkata Mohan, S; Jetty, Annapurna; Sarma, P N

    2005-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the treatment of wastewater from a bulk drug industry using an anaerobic fixed film reactor (AFFR) designed and fabricated in the laboratory. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total dissolved solids (TDS) of the wastewater were found to be very high with low biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) to COD ratio and high total suspended solid (TSS) concentration. Acclimatization of seed consortia and startup of the reactor was carried out by directly using the wastewater, which resulted in reducing the period of startup to 30 days. The reactor was studied at different organic loading rates (OLR) and it was found that the optimum OLR was 10 kg COD/m(3)/day. The wastewater under investigation, which had a considerable quantity of SS, was treated anaerobically without any pretreatment. COD and BOD of the reactor outlet wastewater were monitored and at steady state and optimum OLR 60-70% of COD and 80-90% of BOD were removed. The reactor was subjected to organic shock loads at two different OLR and the reaction could withstand the shocks and performance could be restored to normalcy at that OLR. The results obtained indicated that AFFR could be used efficiently for the treatment of wastewater from a bulk drug industry having high COD, TDS and TSS.

  16. Anaerobic Digestion of Algae Biomass to Produce Energy during Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shanshan; Colosi, Lisa M

    2016-01-01

    Water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) are asked to improve both energy efficiency and nutrient removal efficacy. Integration of algaculture offers several potential synergies that could address these goals, including an opportunity to leverage anaerobic digestion at WRRFs. In this study, bench-scale experiments are used to measure methane yield during co-digestion of Scenedesmus dimorphus or mixed WRRF-grown algae with WRRF biosolids. The results indicate that normalized methane yield decreases with increasing algae content in a manner than can be reasonably well fit using linear regression (R(2) = 67%). It is thus possible to predict methane yield for any mixture of algae and biosolids based on the methane yield of the biosolids alone. Using revised methane yields, the energy return on investment of a typical WRRF increases from 0.53 (without algae) to 0.66 (with algae). Thus, algae-based wastewater treatment may hold promise for improving WRRF energy efficiency without compromising effluent quality.

  17. Composition and uses of anaerobic digestion derived biogas from wastewater treatment facilities in North America.

    PubMed

    Lackey, Jillian C; Peppley, B; Champagne, P; Maier, A

    2015-08-01

    A study was conducted to determine the current knowledge of biogas production and its use at municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across North America. Information was provided by municipal WWTPs across Canada and the US. It was determined that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and silicon (Si) compounds had sufficient variability to be of concern. The only biogas production trend that could be identified was a possible seasonal relationship with sludge input and biogas production. Secondary analysis was performed to observe trends in biogas usage in urban areas larger than 150,000 in the US and 50,000 in Canada; 66% of facilities had anaerobic digestion systems and, of those, only 35% had an energy recovery system. Climatic, population, and socio-political influences on the trends were considered. The primary conclusion was that more data is required to perform significant analyses on biogas production and composition variation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Estimates of methane loss and energy recovery potential in anaerobic reactors treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lobato, L C S; Chernicharo, C A L; Souza, C L

    2012-01-01

    This work aimed at developing a mathematical model that could estimate more precisely the fraction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) recovered as methane in the biogas and which, effectively, represented the potential for energy recovery in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors treating domestic wastewater. The model sought to include all routes of conversion and losses in the reactor, including the portion of COD used for the reduction of sulfates and the loss of methane in the residual gas and dissolved in the effluent. Results from the production of biogas in small- and large-scale UASB reactors were used to validate the model. The results showed that the model allowed a more realistic estimate of biogas production and of its energy potential.

  19. Development and permeability of a dynamic membrane for anaerobic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Luca; Cossu, Raffaello; Saleem, Mubashir; Spagni, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    Dynamic membranes (DMs) have recently been proposed as an alternative to microfiltration and ultrafiltration in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) in order to contain capital and management costs. This study aims to develop an anaerobic dynamic MBR for wastewater treatment by using a large pore-sized mesh. The study demonstrated that a DM can be developed by using a mesh of 200μm pore-size and applying low cross flow velocity. The bench-scale reactor achieved COD removal efficiency between 65% and 92% and proved to be able to remove approximately 99% of the mixed liquor suspended solids, maintaining a solids retention time well above 200d. A significant quantity of biogas was produced by the external dynamic membrane module and was released with the effluent stream. The flux-step experiment, designed to estimate the critical flux in ultrafiltration MBR, can also be used for monitoring the development and stability of DMs.

  20. Anaerobic treatment and biogas recovery for sago wastewater management using a fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Saravanane, R; Murthy, D V; Krishnaiah, K

    2001-01-01

    Starch manufacturing industrial units, such as sago mills, both at medium and large scale, suffer from inadequate treatment and disposal problems due to high concentration of suspended solid content present in the effluent. In order to investigate the viability of treatment of sago effluent, a laboratory scale study was conducted. The treatment of sago effluent was studied in a continuous flow anaerobic fluidized bed reactor. The start-up of the reactor was carried out using a mixture of digested supernatant sewage sludge and cow dung slurry in different proportions. The effect of operating variables such as COD of the effluent, bed expansion, minimum fluidization velocity on efficiency of treatment and recovery of biogas was investigated. The treated wastewater was analysed for recycling and reuse to ensure an alternative for sustainable water resourse management. The maximum efficiency of treatment was found to be 82% and the nitrogen enriched digested sludge was recommended for agricultural use.

  1. Low-temperature anaerobic treatment of low-strength pentachlorophenol-bearing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lopez, J; Monsalvo, V M; Puyol, D; Mohedano, A F; Rodriguez, J J

    2013-07-01

    The anaerobic treatment of low-strength wastewater bearing pentachlorophenol (PCP) at psychro-mesophilic temperatures has been investigated in an expanded granular sludge bed reactor. Using an upward flow rate of 4 m h(-1), a complete removal of PCP, as well as COD removal and methanization efficiencies higher than 75% and 50%, respectively, were achieved. Methanogenesis and COD consumption were slightly affected by changes in loading rate, temperature (17-28°C) and inlet concentrations of urea and oils. Pentachlorophenol caused an irreversible inhibitory effect over both acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, being the later more resistant to the toxic effect of pentachlorophenol. An auto-inhibition phenomenon was observed at PCP concentrations higher than 10 mg L(-1), which was accurately predicted by a Haldane-like model. The inhibitory effect of PCP over the COD consumption and methane production was modelled by modified pseudo-Monod and Roediger models, respectively.

  2. Elemental copper nanoparticle toxicity to different trophic groups involved in anaerobic and anoxic wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Estrella, Jorge; Puyol, Daniel; Gallagher, Sara; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A

    2015-04-15

    Elemental copper nanoparticles (Cu(0) NPs) are potentially inhibitory to the different key microbial trophic groups involved in biological wastewater treatment processes. Cu-based NPs are known to be toxic to methanogens at low concentrations. However, very little is known about the toxic effect of Cu(0) NPs on other microbial groups involved in either upper trophic levels of anaerobic digestion or anoxic nitrogen removal processes. This study evaluated the toxicity of Cu(0) NPs to glucose fermentation, syntrophic propionate oxidation and denitrification in shaken batch bioassays with soluble substrates. Batch experiments were also supplemented with CuCl2 to evaluate the inhibitory impact of soluble Cu(II) ions. Syntrophic propionate oxidation and glucose fermentation were the least and most inhibited processes with inhibition constant (Ki) values of 0.202 and 0.047 mM of added Cu(0) NPs, respectively. Further analyses revealed that the Ki values calculated as a function of the free soluble Cu concentration were <0.003 mM for every biological process tested and most of these Ki values were similar in order of magnitude regardless of whether the Cu source was CuCl2 or Cu(0) NPs. The results taken as a whole indicate that Cu(0) NPs are toxic to all the microbial processes studied. Therefore, Cu(0) NPs can potentially be an important inhibitor of anaerobic wastewater treatment processes that rely on these trophic groups. The evidence suggests that the inhibitory impact of Cu(0) NPs was mainly due to the release of toxic Cu(II) ions originating from the corrosion and dissolution of Cu(0) NPs.

  3. Performance of anaerobic thermophilic fluidized bed in the treatment of cutting-oil wastewater.

    PubMed

    Perez, M; Rodriguez-Cano, R; Romero, L I; Sales, D

    2007-12-01

    This paper examines the effect of organic loading rate on the removal efficiency of COD and TOC anaerobic thermophilic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) in the treatment of cutting-oil wastewater at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) conditions. The essays are development at laboratory scale using a porous support medium. The AFBR reactor was subjected to a programme of steady-state operation over a range of hydraulic retention times, HRTs, in the range 12-2h and organic loading rates, OLRs, between 11.9 and 51.3kgCOD/m(3)d. The highest efficiency was 95.9% for an OLR of 13kgCOD/m(3)d and HRT of 11h. Over an operating period of 92 days, an OLR of 51.3kgCOD/m(3)d was achieved with 67.1% COD removal efficiency (71.3% TOC) in the experimental AFBR reactor. Although the level of biogas generation was not high, the anaerobic fluidized bed technology provided significant advantages over the conventional physico-chemical treatment applied in the factory. The effluent had a better quality (lower organic loading) and it was possible to reuse it in different applications in the factory (e.g., irrigation of gardens). The biological treatment did not lead to the generation of oily sludge, which is considered as hazardous waste by legislation. Furthermore, a continuous stream is produced and this reduced the impact of large flows discharged 4-5 times per week to the urban collector and MWWTP (municipal wastewater treatment plant).

  4. Chemical characterization and anaerobic biodegradability of hydrothermal liquefaction aqueous products from mixed-culture wastewater algae.

    PubMed

    Tommaso, Giovana; Chen, Wan-Ting; Li, Peng; Schideman, Lance; Zhang, Yuanhui

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the chemical characteristics and the anaerobic degradability of the aqueous product from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL-ap) from the conversion of mixed-culture algal biomass grown in a wastewater treatment system. The effects of the HTL reaction times from 0 to 1.5 h, and reaction temperatures from 260 °C to 320 °C on the anaerobic degradability of the HTL-ap were quantified using biomethane potential assays. Comparing chemical oxygen demand data for HTL-ap from different operating conditions, indicated that organic matter may partition from organic phase to aqueous phase at 320 °C. Moderate lag phase and the highest cumulative methane production were observed when HTL-ap was obtained at 320 °C. The longest lag phase and the smallest production rate were observed in the process fed with HTL-ap obtained at 300 °C. Nevertheless, after overcoming adaptation issues, this HTL-ap led to the second highest accumulated specific methane production. Acetogenesis was identified as a possible rate-limiting pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of a combined anaerobic and aerobic system for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater.

    PubMed

    López-López, A; Vallejo-Rodríguez, R; Méndez-Romero, D C

    2010-03-01

    A laboratory scale anaerobic/aerobic (An/Ar) system, comprising an anaerobic filter (AF) coupled to an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR), was developed to treat wastewater from a slaughterhouse. The AF operated with organic loadings (OL) from 3.7 to 16.5 kg m(-3) d(-1) and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) ranging from 16 to 72 h. The efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was between 50 and 81% and was shown to be related inversely to the value of the OL. The production rate of methane was in the region of 411 mL per g of COD removed. On the other hand, the degradation of organic matter (OM) by an aerobic pathway in the SBR followed first-order kinetics with regard to OM concentration; 85% of the remaining OM from the AF was eliminated within 6 h of aeration, and over 95% of total OM was eliminated as COD within 9 h. The optimal treatment conditions in this system were found at OL = 11.0 kg m-3 d(-1) and HRT = 24 h in the AF, whereas the SBR was most efficient at 9 h of aeration.

  6. Start-up of an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor treating synthetic carbohydrate rich wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yeshanew, Martha M; Frunzo, Luigi; Luongo, Vincenzo; Pirozzi, Francesco; Lens, Piet N L; Esposito, Giovanni

    2016-12-15

    The present work studied the start-up process of a mesophilic (37 ± 2 °C) anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 days using synthetic carbohydrate rich wastewater. Anox Kaldness-K1 carriers were used as biofilm carrier material. The reactor performance and biofilm formation were evaluated during the process. The start-up process at lower liquid recirculation flow rate enhanced the biofilm formation and reactor performance. The organic substrate composition had a major impact on early colonization of methanogenic archaea onto the surface of the Kaldness carriers during the start-up process. Specific organic substrates favouring the growth of methanogenic archaea, such as acetate, are preferred in order to facilitate the subsequent biofilm formation and AFBR start-up. The supply of 'bio-available' nutrients and trace elements, in particular iron, had an important role on optimal methanogenic activity and speeding-up of the biofilm development on the Kaldness carriers. This paper provides possible strategies to optimize the various operational parameters that influence the initial biofilm formation and development in an AFBR and similar high rate anaerobic reactors, hence can be used to reduce the long time required for process start-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A built-in zero valent iron anaerobic reactor to enhance treatment of azo dye wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaobin; Jing, Yanwen; Quan, Xie; Liu, Yiwen; Onu, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Waste scrap iron was packed into an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor to form a zero valent iron (ZVI) - UASB reactor system for treatment of azo dye wastewater. The ZVI acted as a reductant to decrease ORP in the reactor by more than 40 mv and functioned as an acid buffer to increase the pH in the reactor from 5.44 to 6.29, both of which improved the performance of the anaerobic reactor. As a result, the removal of color and COD in this reactor was 91.7% and 53%, respectively, which was significantly higher than that of a reference UASB reactor without ZVI. The UV-visible spectrum demonstrated that absorption bands of the azo dye from the ZVI-UASB reactor were substantially reduced. The ZVI promoted methanogenesis, which was confirmed by an increase in CH(4) content in the biogas from 47.9% to 64.8%. The ZVI bed was protected well from rusting, which allowed it to function stably. The effluent could be further purified only by pH adjustment because the Fe(2+) released from ZVI served as a flocculent.

  8. Anaerobic digestion of raw and thermally hydrolyzed wastewater solids under various operational conditions.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Christopher A; Tanneru, Charan T; Banjade, Sarita; Murthy, Sudhir N; Novak, John T

    2011-09-01

    In this study, high-solids anaerobic digestion of thermally pretreated wastewater solids (THD) was compared with conventional mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD). Operational conditions, such as pretreatment temperature (150 to 170 degrees C), solids retention time (15 to 20 days), and digestion temperature (37 to 42 degrees C), were varied for the seven THD systems operated. Volatile solids reduction (VSR) by THD ranged from 56 to 62%, compared with approximately 50% for MAD. Higher VSR contributed to 24 to 59% increased biogas production (m3/kg VSR-d) from THD relative to MAD. The high-solids conditions of the THD feed resulted in high total ammonia-nitrogen (proportional to solids loading) and total alkalinity concentrations in excess of 14 g/L as calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Increased pH in THD reactors caused 5 to 8 times more un-ionized ammonia to be present than in MAD, and this likely led to inhibition of aceticlastic methanogens, resulting in accumulation of residual volatile fatty acids between 2 and 6 g/L as acetic acid. The THD produced biosolids cake that possessed low organic sulfur-based biosolids odor and dewatered to between 33 and 39% total solids. Dual conditioning with cationic polymer and ferric chloride was shown to be an effective strategy for mitigating dissolved organic nitrogen and UV-quenching compounds in the return stream following centrifugal dewatering of THD biosolids.

  9. Comparative performance of UASB and anaerobic hybrid reactors for the treatment of complex phenolic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Anushuya; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2012-11-01

    The performance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and an anaerobic hybrid reactor (AHR) was investigated for the treatment of simulated coal wastewater containing toxic phenolics at different hydraulic retention times (0.75-0.33d). Fast start-up and granulation of biomass could be achieved in an AHR (45d) than UASB (58d) reactor. Reduction of HRT from 1.5 to 0.33d resulted in a decline in phenolics removal efficiency from 99% to 77% in AHR and 95% to 68% in UASB reactor respectively. AHR could withstand 2.5 times the selected phenolics loading compared to UASB reactor that could not withstand even 1.2 times the selected phenolics loading. Residence time distribution (RTD) study revealed a plug flow regime in the AHR and completely mixed regime in UASB reactor respectively. Energy economics of the reactors revealed that 12,159MJd(-1) more energy can be generated using AHR than UASB reactor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of SRT on nitrate formation during autotrophic nitrogen removal of anaerobically treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Po-Heng; Kwak, Wonji; Bae, Jeaho; McCarty, Perry L

    2013-01-01

    Autotrophic nitrogen removal, coupling nitritation (ammonium to nitrite) with anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), offers a promising nitrogen-removal alternative, especially for post-treatment of anaerobically-treated wastewater. However, previous reports suggest that less than 90% total nitrogen removal should be expected with this process alone because over 10% of the ammonium removed will be converted to nitrate. This is caused because nitrite conversion to nitrate is required for reduction of carbon dioxide to cell carbon. However, recent research results suggest that more limited nitrate formation of only a few per cent sometimes occurs. It was hypothesized such lower nitrate yields may result from use of long solids retention times (SRT) where net biological yields are low, and providing that the ratio of oxygen added to influent ammonium concentrations is maintained at or below 0.75 mol/mol. Overall reaction equations were developed for each process and combined to evaluate the potential effect of SRT on process stoichiometry. The results support the use of a long SRT to reduce net cell yield, which in turn results in a small percentage conversion to nitrate during ammonium removal and high total nitrogen removals in the range of 90 to 94%.

  11. Biological H2 potential harvested from complex gelatinaceous wastewater via attached versus suspended growth culture anaerobes.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Alsayed; Elsamadony, Mohamed; El-Dissouky, Ali; Elhusseiny, Amel; Tawfik, Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    The effect of cultural growth treating gelatinaceous wastewater on hydrogen fermentative was assessed using up-flow multi-stage anaerobic sponge reactor (UMASR) and anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (AnSBR). Both reactors were operated at five hydraulic retention times (HRTs). UMASR achieved the maximum COD removal efficiency of 60.2±4.4% at HRT of 48h. Moreover, UMASR exhibited superiority in the course of carbohydrates and proteins removal efficiencies' of 100 and 52.5±2.4% due to high amylase and protease activities' of 4.1±0.3 and 0.032±0.002U, respectively. Contrariwise, AnSBR assigned for the peak hydrogen production rate of 1.17±0.14L/L/day at HRT of 24-h. Lipase activity was quite high (0.307±0.023U) in AnSBR resulting in removal efficiency of 35.2±2.1% for lipids. Stover-Kincannon model emphasized that UMASR required lesser volume than AnSBR to sustain the same substrate degradation efficacy. Nevertheless, the net gain energy harvested from AnSBR surpassed UMASR by 4.0-folds at HRT of 24-h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of microbial community during biofilm development in an anaerobic wastewater treatment reactor.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Nuria; Díaz, Emiliano Enrique; Amils, Ricardo; Sanz, José L

    2008-07-01

    The formation, structure, and biodiversity of a multispecies anaerobic biofilm inside an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactor fed with brewery wastewater was examined using complementary microbial ecology methods such us fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and cloning. The biofilm development can be roughly divided into three stages: an initial attachment phase (0-36 h) characterized by random adhesion of the cells to the surface; a consolidation phase (from 36 h to 2 weeks) defined by the appearance of microcolonies; and maturation phase (from 2 weeks to 2 months). During the consolidation period, proteobacteria with broad metabolic capabilities, mainly represented by members of alpha-Proteobacteria class (Oleomonas, Azospirillum), predominated. Beta-, gamma-, delta- (both syntrophobacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria) and epsilon- (Arcobacter sp.) Proteobacteria were also noticeable. Archaea first appeared during the consolidation period. A Methanospirillum-like methanogen was detected after 36 h, and this was followed by the detection of Methanosarcina, after 4 days of biofilm development. The mature biofilm displayed a hill and valley topography with cells embedded in a matrix of exopolymers where the spatial distribution of the microorganisms became well-established. Compared to the earlier phases, the biodiversity had greatly increased. Although alpha-Proteobacteria remained as predominant, members of the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidete, and Thermotogae were also detected. Within the domain Archaea, the acetoclastic methanogen Methanosaeta concilii become dominant. This study provides insights on the trophic web and the shifts in population during biofilm development in an UASB reactor.

  13. Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and piggery wastewater: focusing on the role of trace elements.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Lee, Yong-Woo; Jahng, Deokjin

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and piggery wastewater, and to identify the key factors governing the co-digestion performance. The analytical results indicated that the food waste contained higher energy potential and lower concentrations of trace elements than the piggery wastewater. Anaerobic co-digestion showed a significantly improved biogas productivity and process stability. The results of co-digestion of the food waste with the different fractions of the piggery wastewater suggested that trace element might be the reason for enhancing the co-digestion performance. By supplementing the trace elements, a long-term anaerobic digestion of the food waste only resulted in a high methane yield of 0.396 m(3)/kg VS(added) and 75.6% of VS destruction with no significant volatile fatty acid accumulation. These results suggested that the typical Korean food waste was deficient with some trace elements required for anaerobic digestion.

  14. Application of acidogenic fixed-bed reactor prior to anaerobic membrane bioreactor for sustainable slaughterhouse wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Saddoud, Ahlem; Sayadi, Sami

    2007-11-19

    High rate anaerobic treatment systems such as anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AMBR) are less popular for slaughterhouse wastewater due to the presence of high fat oil and suspended matters in the effluent. This affects the performance and efficiency of the treatment system. In this work, AMBR has been tried for slaughterhouse wastewater treatment. After the start up period, the reactor was operated with an average organic loading rate (OLR) of 4.37 kg TCODm(-3)d(-1) with gradual increase to an average of 13.27 kg TCODm(-3)d(-1). At stable conditions, the treatment efficiency was high with an average COD and BOD(5) reduction of 93.7 and 93.96%, respectively. However, a reduction in the AMBR performance was shown with the increase of the OLR to 16.32 kg TCODm(-3)d(-1). The removal efficiencies of SCOD and BOD(5) were drastically decreased to below 53.6 and 73.3%, respectively. The decrease of the AMBR performance was due to the accumulation of VFAs. Thus, a new integrated system composed of a FBR for the acidogenesis step followed by the AMBR for methanogenesis step was developed. At high ORL, the integrated system improved the performance of the anaerobic digestion and it successfully overcame the VFA accumulation problem in the AMBR. The anaerobic treatment led to a total removal of all tested pathogens. Thus, the microbiological quality of treated wastewater fits largely with WHO guidelines.

  15. Inhibition of anaerobic wastewater treatment after long-term exposure to low levels of CuO nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Otero-González, Lila; Field, Jim A; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2014-07-01

    CuO nanoparticles (NPs) are released into wastewater due to the widespread use and generation as by-product in various applications (e.g. semiconductor manufacturing). However, information on the behavior and impact of CuO NPs on wastewater treatment processes is very limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fate and long-term effect of CuO NPs (average size = 37 nm) on high-rate anaerobic bioreactors. A laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was operated with a synthetic wastewater containing low concentrations of CuO NPs (1.4 mg Cu L(-1)) and a mixture of volatile fatty acids for 107 days. CuO NPs were largely removed during anaerobic treatment and on the average only 20-32% of the NPs fed to the reactor escaped with the effluent. Scanning electron microscopy and chemical analysis confirmed that CuO NPs were partitioned into the anaerobic sludge. While short-term exposure to CuO NPs (1.4 mg Cu L(-1)) only caused minor inhibition to methanogenesis, extended exposure caused severe toxicity and reduced the acetoclastic methanogenic activity by more than 85%. Moreover, the reactor performance was completely disrupted and the methane production decreased by more than 50%. The study is the first to demonstrate a significant long-term effect of low levels of CuO NPs on methanogenesis.

  16. Distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in anaerobic digestion and land application of swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sui, Qianwen; Zhang, Junya; Chen, Meixue; Tong, Juan; Wang, Rui; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-06-01

    Swine farm and the adjacent farmland are hot spots of ARGs. However, few studies have investigated the on-site occurrence of ARGs distributed in the process of anaerobic digestion (AD) followed by land application of swine wastewater. Two typical swine farms, in southern and northern China respectively, with AD along with land application were explored on ARG distributions. ARGs were highly abundant in raw swine wastewater, AD effectively reduced the copy number of all detected ARGs (0.21-1.34 logs removal), but the relative abundance with different resistance mechanisms showed distinctive variation trends. The reduction efficiency of ARGs was improved by stable operational temperature and longer solid retention time (SRT) of AD. ARGs in soil characterized the contamination from the irrigation of the digested liquor. The total ARGs quantity in soil fell down by 1.66 logs in idle period of winter compared to application period of summer in the northern region, whereas the total amount was steady with whole-year application in south. Some persistent (sul1 and sul2) and elevated ARGs (tetG and ereA) in AD and land application need more attention.

  17. Fractionation of heavy metals in sludge from anaerobic wastewater stabilization ponds in southern Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, E.

    2006-07-01

    The analysis of heavy metals is a very important task to assess the potential environmental and health risk associated with the sludge coming from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, it is necessary to apply sequential extraction techniques to obtain suitable information about their bioavailability or toxicity. In this paper, a sequential extraction scheme according to the Standard, Measurements and Testing Programme of the European Commission was applied to sludge samples collected from ten anaerobic wastewater stabilization ponds (WSPs) located in southern Spain. Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti and Zn were determined in the sludge extracts by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. In relation to current international legislation for the use of sludge for agricultural purposes, none of the metal concentrations exceeded maximum permitted levels. Overall, heavy metals were mainly associated with the two less-available fractions (34% oxidizable metal and 55% residual metal). Only Mn and Zn showed the highest share of the available (exchangeable and reducible) fractions (25-48%)

  18. Anaerobic waste activated sludge co-digestion with olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Athanasoulia, E; Melidis, P; Aivasidis, A

    2012-01-01

    Co-digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) with agro-industrial organic wastewaters is a technology that is increasingly being applied in order to produce increased gas yield from the biomass. In this study, the effect of olive mill wastewater (OMW) on the performance of a cascade of two anaerobic continuous stirred tank (CSTR) reactors treating thickened WAS at mesophilic conditions was investigated. The objectives of this work were (a) to evaluate the use of OMW as a co-substrate to improve biogas production, (b) to determine the optimum hydraulic retention time that provides an optimised biodegradation rate or methane production, and (c) to study the system stability after OMW addition in sewage sludge. The biogas production rate at steady state conditions reached 0.73, 0.63, 0.56 and 0.46 l(biogas)/l(reactor)/d for hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 12.3, 14, 16.4 and 19.7 d. The average removal of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) ranged between 64 and 72% for organic loading rates between 0.49 and 0.75 g sCOD/l/d. Reduction in the volatile suspended solids ranged between 27 and 30%. In terms of biogas selectivity, values of 0.6 l(biogas)/g tCOD removed and 1.1 l(biogas)/g TVS removed were measured.

  19. Biogas and biohydrogen production potential of high strength automobile industry wastewater during anaerobic degradation.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Mini; Winter, Josef

    2013-10-15

    High strength automobile industry wastewater, collected from decanters (DECA) of the pre-treatment plant after oil, grease and sludge separation, was investigated for production of methane in the absence and presence of glucose or excess aerobic sludge (AS) from a lab scale suspension reactor as co-substrates. The highest methane production from DECA wastewater was 335.4 L CH4/kg CODsoluble removal which decreased in the presence of the co-substrates to 232.5 (with 2 g/L glucose) and to 179 (with 40% AS) L CH4/kg CODsoluble removal, respectively. Around 95% of total methane was produced within 5 days of incubation of DECA at 37 °C when no co-substrate was added. Addition of co-substrates did not improve biodegradation of DECA but overall methane production from DECA + co-substrates was increased due to co-substrate biodegradation. The anaerobic inoculum, capable of producing 2.4 mol of hydrogen/mol of glucose under zinc induced inhibitory conditions, was unable to produce hydrogen from DECA as substrate under the same conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance and energy economics of mesophilic and thermophilic digestion in anaerobic hybrid reactor treating coal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Anushuya; Surampalli, Rao Y

    2013-01-01

    Two anaerobic hybrid AHRs (AHR), mesophilic (35 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) were operated with coal wastewater at different hydraulic retention times (HRT) ranging from 3-0.5 to 3.12-0.6d with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.12-6.72 g L(-1) d(-1). Synthetic coal wastewater with an average chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 2240 mg L(-1) and phenolics concentration of 752 mg L(-1) was used as substrate. At each HRT, the thermophilic AHR gave a better performance, measured in terms of phenolics/COD removal and gas production. The specific methane yield was also higher for thermophilic AHR at each HRT compared to mesophilic one. The volatile fatty acid concentration in the effluent increased with the lowering of HRT. The Stover-Kincannon model was applicable at both temperatures and showed higher substrate utilization in thermophilic AHR. Energy economic study of the AHRs revealed that 11,938 MJ d(-1) more energy can be generated using thermophilic AHR than mesophilic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Microalgal growth in municipal wastewater treated in an anaerobic moving bed biofilm reactor.

    PubMed

    Hultberg, Malin; Olsson, Lars-Erik; Birgersson, Göran; Gustafsson, Susanne; Sievertsson, Bertil

    2016-05-01

    Nutrient removal from the effluent of an anaerobic moving bed biofilm reactor (AnMBBR) treated with microalgae was evaluated. Algal treatment was highly efficient in removal of nutrients and discharge limits were met after 3days. Extending the cultivation time from 3 to 5days resulted in a large increase in biomass, from 233.3±49.3 to 530.0±72.1mgL(-1), despite nutrients in the water being exhausted after 3days (ammonium 0.04mgL(-1), orthophosphate <0.05mgL(-1)). Biomass productivity, lipid content and quality did not differ in microalgal biomass produced in wastewater sampled before the AnMBBR. The longer cultivation time resulted in a slight increase in total lipid concentration and a significant decrease in linolenic acid concentration in all treatments. Differences were observed in chemical oxygen demand, which decreased after algal treatment in wastewater sampled before the AnMBBR whereas it increased after algal treatment in the effluent from the AnMBBR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anaerobic hydrolysis of a municipal wastewater in a pilot-scale digester.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, J A; Zapico, C A; Gómez, M; Presas, J; Soto, M

    2003-01-01

    Raw domestic wastewater from the city of Santiago de Compostela (Northwest Spain) was fed into a pilot-scale hydrolytic up flow sludge bed (HUSB) digester with an active volume of 25.5 m3. The total influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) ranged from 360 to 470 mg/l, the influent SS varied from 190 to 370 mg/l, and the temperature was between 17 degrees and 20 degrees C. The organic load rate (OLR) applied increased step by step from 1.2 to 3.9 kgCOD/m3 x d, while the hydraulic retention time (HRT) decreased from 7.1 h to 2.9 h. A high suspended solids (SS) removal of about 82-85% from the influent was reached, most of which (81 to 88%) was eliminated by hydrolysis, while the rest remained in the purge stream. The total COD removal ranged from 46 to 59%. On the other hand, a high acidification of the COD remaining in the effluent was obtained, so the percent COD in the form of volatile fatty acids (VFA(COD)) with respect to total effluent COD was about 43% for the highest HRT applied, and about 27% for the lowest HRT. The soluble to total COD ratio (CODs/CODt) increased from 25-32% for the influent to 71-86% for the effluent. The results obtained confirm the viability and interest of direct anaerobic hydrolytic pre-treatment of domestic wastewater.

  3. Pilot-scale study of an anaerobic baffled reactor for the treatment of domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dama, P; Bell, J; Foxon, K M; Brouckaert, C J; Huang, T; Buckley, C A; Naidoo, V; Stuckey, D

    2002-01-01

    Large proportions of South Africans live in areas with inadequate sanitation and a poor infrastructure for waterborne sanitation. Service providers are looking for alternative wastewater treatment options. The anaerobic baffled reactor is being considered as a decentralised sanitation option in these areas. A 3,200 L reactor was built and is currently being evaluated at a wastewater treatment works. The reactor was built based on experiences gained from working with a laboratory reactor (10 L) and predicted flow patterns observed on a computational fluid dynamics model. The design and construction of the reactor will be discussed in this paper. The feed to the reactor consists of screen degritted sewage and the flow to the reactor is maintained by means of a programmable logic controller. The pilot-plant layout is discussed in this paper. Samples are analysed for chemical oxygen demand, pH, alkalinity, ammonia, phosphorus, solids and ash content. Reductions of between 70 and 80% are obtained for COD and the pH values for the effluent samples are within the discharge limits.

  4. Removal of nutrients from undiluted anaerobically treated piggery wastewater by improved microalgae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingzi; Yang, Yi; Chen, Zhihong; Chen, Yanzhen; Wen, Yangmin; Chen, Bilian

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed at improving the adaptability and biodegradability of tested microalgae in undiluted anaerobic fermentation slurry of piggery wastewater. For that, a two-stage method based on UV irradiation followed by gradual domestication was developed. The distinctness of this method was the elimination of a screening procedure and just needed the UV-irradiated cells with appropriate survival to be subjected to gradual domestication. The microalgae treated with the method not only grew well in undiluted slurry, but achieved outstanding removal efficiencies in total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP). Large-scale application was conducted in an open raceway pond, and the concentrations of TN and TP after treatment were 43.80mg/L (removal rate of 89.5%) and 5.83mg/L (removal rate of 85.3%) respectively, which greatly excelled the Chinese discharge standards for livestock and poultry wastewater. The strategy is therefore a promising method for microalgae to purify piggery slurry containing high nutrient contents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Low energy single-staged anaerobic fluidized bed ceramic membrane bioreactor (AFCMBR) for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad; McCarty, Perry L; Shin, Chungheon; Bae, Jaeho; Kim, Jeonghwan

    2017-03-06

    An aluminum dioxide (Al2O3) ceramic membrane was used in a single-stage anaerobic fluidized bed ceramic membrane bioreactor (AFCMBR) for low-strength wastewater treatment. The AFCMBR was operated continuously for 395days at 25°C using a synthetic wastewater having a chemical oxygen demand (COD) averaging 260mg/L. A membrane net flux as high as 14.5-17L/m(2)h was achieved with only periodic maintenance cleaning, obtained by adding 25mg/L of sodium hypochlorite solution. No adverse effect of the maintenance cleaning on organic removal was observed. An average SCOD in the membrane permeate of 23mg/L was achieved with a 1h hydraulic retention time (HRT). Biosolids production averaged 0.014±0.007gVSS/gCOD removed. The estimated electrical energy required to operate the AFCMBR system was 0.039kWh/m(3), which is only about 17% of the electrical energy that could be generated with the methane produced.

  6. Nitrate stimulation of indigenous nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidising bacterial community in wastewater anaerobic biofilms.

    PubMed

    Garcia-de-Lomas, Juan; Corzo, Alfonso; Carmen Portillo, M; Gonzalez, Juan M; Andrades, Jose A; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesáreo; Garcia-Robledo, Emilio

    2007-07-01

    The role of the nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidising bacteria (NR-SOB) in the nitrate-mediated inhibition of sulfide net production by anaerobic wastewater biofilms was analyzed in two experimental bioreactors, continuously fed with the primary effluent of a wastewater treatment plant, one used as control (BRC) and the other one supplemented with nitrate (BRN). This study integrated information from H(2)S and pH microelectrodes, RNA-based molecular techniques, and the time course of biofilm growth and bioreactors water phase. Biofilms were a net source of sulfide for the water phase (2.01 micromol S(2-)(tot)m(-2)s(-1)) in the absence of nitrate dosing. Nitrate addition effectively led to the cessation of sulfide release from biofilms despite which a low rate of net sulfate reduction activity (0.26 micromol S(2-)(tot)m(-2)s(-1)) persisted at a deep layer within the biofilm. Indigenous NR-SOB including Thiomicrospira denitrificans, Arcobacter sp., and Thiobacillus denitrificans were stimulated by nitrate addition resulting in the elimination of most sulfide from the biofilms. Active sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) represented comparable fractions of total metabolically active bacteria in the libraries obtained from BRN and BRC. However, we detected changes in the taxonomic composition of the SRB community suggesting its adaptation to a higher level of NR-SOB activity in the presence of nitrate.

  7. Microbial population dynamics in an anaerobic CSTR treating a chemical synthesis-based pharmaceutical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Oz, Nilgun Ayman; Ince, Orhan; Ince, Bahar Kasapgil; Akarsubasi, Alper Tunga; Eyice, Ozge

    2003-01-01

    Effects of a chemical synthesis based pharmaceutical wastewater on performance of an anaerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR), activity of acetoclastic methanogens and microbial composition were evaluated under various influent compositions. Initially, the CSTR was fed with glucose up to an organic loading rate (OLR) of 6 kg COD/m3 x d corresponding to an F/M ratio of 0.43 with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2.5 days. A COD removal efficiency of 92% and a methane yield of 0.32 m3 CH4/kg COD(removed) were achieved whilst specific methanogenic activity (SMA) was found to be 336mL CH4/gTVS x d. After the CSTR was fed with pre-aerated wastewater diluted by glucose in different dilution ratios of 10% (w/v), 30% (w/v), 70% (w/v), and 100% (w/v) pre-aerated wastewater, gradual decreases in COD removal efficiency to 71%, methane yield to 0.28 m3CH4/kg COD(removed) and SMA to 166 mL CH4/gTVS d occurred whilst volatile fatty acid concentration reached to 1474 mg/L. After the raw wastewater diluted with the pre-aerated wastewater was fed into the CSTR in increasing ratios of 10% (w/v), 30% (w/v), and 60% (w/v), there was a proportional deterioration in performance in terms of COD removal efficiency, methane yield and acetoclastic methanogenic activity. Epifluorescence microscopy of the seed sludge revealed that Methanococcus-like species, short, and medium rods were found to be equally dominant. The short and medium rod species remained equally dominant groups in the CSTR throughout the feeding regime whilst Methanococcus-like species and long rods were found to be in insignificant numbers at the end of the study. Changes in archael diversity were determined using molecular analyses such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and denaturent gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Results showed that overall archeal diversity did not change much whereas changes in composition of eubacterial population occurred.

  8. Modelling of the mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater with olive mill solid waste using anaerobic digestion model No. 1 (ADM1).

    PubMed

    Boubaker, Fezzani; Ridha, Ben Cheikh

    2008-09-01

    The anaerobic digestion model No. 1 (ADM1), conceived by the international water association (IWA) task group for mathematical modelling of anaerobic digestion processes is a structured generic model which includes multiples steps describing biochemical and physicochemical processes encountered in the anaerobic degradation of complex organic substrates and a common platform for further model enhancement and validation of dynamic simulations for a variety of anaerobic processes. In this study the ADM1 model was modified and applied to simulate the mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater (OMW) with olive mill solid waste (OMSW). The ADM1 equations were coded and implemented using the simulation software package MATLAB/Simulink. The most sensitive parameters were calibrated and validated using updated experimental data of our previous work. The results indicated that the ADM1 model could simulate with good accuracy: gas flows, methane and carbon-dioxide contents, pH and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) concentrations of effluents for various feed concentrations digested at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and especially at HRTs of 36 and 24 days. Furthermore, effluent alkalinity and ammonium nitrogen were successfully predicted by the model at HRTs of 12 and 24 days for some feed concentrations.

  9. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation in sediments of surface flow constructed wetlands treating swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Liu, Feng; Jia, Fen; Hu, Ya-Jun; Lai, Cui; Li, Xi; Luo, Pei; Xiao, Run-Lin; Li, Yong; Wu, Jin-Shui

    2017-02-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) was suggested to be involved in the nitrogen (N) removal process in constructed wetlands (CWs). Nevertheless, its occurrence and role in CWs treating swine wastewater have not been well evaluated yet. In this study, we investigated the diversity, activity, and role of anammox bacteria in sediments of mesoscale surface flow CWs (SFCWs) subjected to different N loads of swine wastewater. We found that anammox bacteria were abundant in SFCW sediments, as indicated by 7.5 × 10(5) to 3.5 × 10(6) copies of the marker hzsB gene per gram of dry soil. Based on stable isotope tracing, potential anammox rates ranged from 1.03 to 12.5 nmol N g(-1) dry soil h(-1), accounting for 8.63-57.1% of total N2 production. We estimated that a total N removal rate of 0.83-2.68 kg N year(-1) was linked to the anammox process, representing ca. 10% of the N load. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) revealed the presence of multiple co-occurring anammox genera, including "Candidatus Brocadia" as the most common one, "Ca. Kuenenia," "Ca. Scalindua," and four novel unidentified clusters. Correlation analyses suggested that the activity and abundance of anammox bacteria were strongly related to sediments pH, NH4(+)-N, and NO2(-)-N. In conclusion, our results confirmed the presence of diverse anammox bacteria and indicated that the anammox process could serve as a promising N removal pathway in the treatment of swine wastewater by SFCWs.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of wastewater derived from the pressing of orange peel generated in orange juice production.

    PubMed

    Siles, José Angel; de Los Angeles Martín, María; Martín, Antonio; Raposo, Francisco; Borja, Rafael

    2007-03-07

    A study of the anaerobic digestion of wastewater from the pressing of orange peel generated in orange juice production was carried out in a laboratory-scale completely stirred tank reactor at mesophilic temperature (37 degrees C). Prior to anaerobic treatment the raw wastewater was subjected to physicochemical treatment using aluminum sulfate as a flocculant and to pH reduction using a solution of sulfuric acid. The reactor was batch fed at COD loads of 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, and 5.0 g of COD. The process was very stable for all of the loads studied, with mean pH and alkalinity values of 7.5 and 3220 mg of CaCO3/L, respectively. The anaerobic digestion of this substrate was found to follow a first-order kinetic model, from which the specific rate constants for methane production, K(G), were determined. The K(G) values decreased considerably from 0.0672 to 0.0078 L/(g h) when the COD load increased from 1.5 to 5.0 g of COD, indicating an inhibition phenomenon in the system studied. The proposed model predicted the behavior of the reactor very accurately, showing deviations of <5% between the experimental and theoretical values of methane production. The methane yield coefficient was found to be 295 mL of CH4 STP/g of COD removed, whereas the mean biodegradability of the substrate (TOC) was 88.2%. A first-order kinetic model for substrate (TOC) consumption allowed determination of the specific rate constants for substrate uptake, K(C), which also decreased with increasing loading, confirming the above-mentioned inhibition process. Finally, the evolution of the individual volatile fatty acid concentrations (acetic, C2; propionic, C3; butyric, C4; isobutyric, iC4; valeric, C5; isovaleric, iC5; and caproic, C6) with digestion time for all loads used was also studied. The main acids generated were acetic and propionic for all loads studied, facilitating the conversion into methane.

  11. Efficiency influence of exogenous betaine on anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor treating high salinity mustard tuber wastewater.

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Kong, Xiang-Juan; Chai, Hong-Xiang; Fan, Ming-Yu; Du, Jun

    2012-01-01

    When treating a composite mustard tuber wastewater with high concentrations of salt (about 20 g Cl(-) L(-1)) and organics (about 8000 mg L(-1) COD) by an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR) in winter, both high salinity and low temperature will inhibit the activity of anaerobic microorganisms and lead to low treatment efficiency. To solve this problem, betaine was added to the influent to improve the activity of the anaerobic sludge, and an experimental study was carried to investigate the influence of betaine on treating high salinity mustard tuber wastewater by the ASBBR. The results show that, when using anaerobic acclimated sludge in the ASBBR, and controlling biofilm density at 50% and water temperature at 8-12 degrees C, the treatment efficiency of the reactor could be improved by adding the betaine at different concentrations. The efficiency reached the highest when the optimal dosage ofbetaine was 0.5 mmol L(-1). The average effluent COD, after stable acclimation, was 4461 mg L(-1). Relative to ASBBR without adding betaine, the activity of the sludge increased significantly. Meanwhile, the dehydrogenase activity of anaerobic microorganisms and the COD removal efficiency were increased by 18.6% and 18.1%, respectively.

  12. Textile wastewater treatment in a bench-scale anaerobic-biofilm anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactor combined with nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Grilli, Selene; Piscitelli, Daniela; Mattioli, Davide; Casu, Stefania; Spagni, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the treatability of textile wastewaters in a bench-scale experimental system, comprising an anaerobic biofilter, an anoxic reactor and an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR). The MBR effluent was thereafter treated by a nanofiltration (NF) membrane. The proposed system was demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of the textile wastewater under the operating conditions applied in the study. The MBR system achieved a good COD (90-95%) removal; due to the presence of the anaerobic biofilter, also effective color removal was obtained (70%). The addition of the NF membrane allowed the further improvement in COD (50-80%), color (70-90%) and salt removal (60-70% as conductivity). In particular the NF treatment allowed the almost complete removal of the residual color and a reduction of the conductivity such as to achieve water quality suitable for reuse.

  13. Anaerobic co-digestion of Tunisian green macroalgae Ulva rigida with sugar industry wastewater for biogas and methane production enhancement.

    PubMed

    Karray, Raida; Karray, Fatma; Loukil, Slim; Mhiri, Najla; Sayadi, Sami

    2017-03-01

    Ulva rigida is a green macroalgae, abundantly available in the Mediterranean which offers a promising source for the production of valuable biomaterials, including methane. In this study, anaerobic digestion assays in a batch mode was performed to investigate the effects of various inocula as a mixture of fresh algae, bacteria, fungi and sediment collected from the coast of Sfax, on biogas production from Ulva rigida. The results revealed that the best inoculum to produce biogas and feed an anaerobic reactor is obtained through mixing decomposed macroalgae with anaerobic sludge and water, yielding into 408mL of biogas. The process was then investigated in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) which led to an overall biogas production of 375mL with 40% of methane. Further co-digestion studies were performed in an anaerobic up-flow bioreactor using sugar wastewater as a co-substrate. A high biogas production yield of 114mL g(-1) VSadded was obtained with 75% of methane. The co-digestion proposed in this work allowed the recovery of natural methane, providing a promising alternative to conventional anaerobic microbial fermentation using Tunisian green macroalgae. Finally, in order to identify the microbial diversity present in the reactor during anaerobic digestion of Ulva rigida, the prokaryotic diversity was investigated in this bioreactor by the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method targeting the 16S rRNA gene.

  14. Performance and microbial community composition in a long-term sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor operation treating coking wastewater.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Dev Raj; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Zhe; Gao, Yingxin; Yang, Min

    2016-09-01

    The combined anaerobic-aerobic biosystem is assumed to consume less energy for the treatment of high strength industrial wastewater. In this study, pollutant removal performance and microbial diversity were assessed in a long-term (over 300 days) bench-scale sequential anaerobic-aerobic bioreactor treating coking wastewater. Anaerobic treatment removed one third of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and more than half of the phenols with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 42 h, while the combined system with total HRT of 114 h removed 81.8, 85.6, 99.9, 98.2, and 85.4 % of COD, total organic carbon (TOC), total phenols, thiocyanate, and cyanide, respectively. Two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry showed complete removal of phenol derivatives and nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) via the combined system, with the anaerobic process alone contributing 58.4 and 58.6 % removal on average, respectively. Microbial activity in the bioreactors was examined by 454 pyrosequencing of the bacterial, archaeal, and fungal communities. Proteobacteria (61.2-93.4 %), particularly Betaproteobacteria (34.4-70.1 %), was the dominant bacterial group. Ottowia (14.1-46.7 %), Soehngenia (3.0-8.2 %), and Corynebacterium (0.9-12.0 %), which are comprised of phenol-degrading and hydrolytic bacteria, were the most abundant genera in the anaerobic sludge, whereas Thiobacillus (6.6-43.6 %), Diaphorobacter (5.1-13.0 %), and Comamonas (0.2-11.1 %) were the major degraders of phenol, thiocyanate, and NHCs in the aerobic sludge. Despite the low density of fungi, phenol degrading oleaginous yeast Trichosporon was abundant in the aerobic sludge. This study demonstrated the feasibility and optimization of less energy intensive treatment and the potential association between abundant bacterial groups and biodegradation of key pollutants in coking wastewater.

  15. Modelling the anaerobic digestion of wastewater derived from the pressing of orange peel produced in orange juice manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Santos, María de Los Angeles Martín; López, José Angel Siles; Pérez, Arturo Francisco Chica; Martín, Antonio Martín

    2010-06-01

    A kinetic model of the anaerobic digestion of wastewater derived from the pressing of orange peel is proposed. The process was conducted in a laboratory-scale, completely stirred tank reactor operating in batch mode at mesophilic temperature. The anaerobic biodegradability of the physical-chemical pre-treated wastewater was found to be 84%, while methane yield coefficient was 297NmL CH(4)/g COD removed. The mathematical model based on six segregated differential equations simulated the evolution of the concentration of carbon in different forms from biodegradable and non-biodegradable substrate. The transformation steps followed first or second-order kinetics. The kinetic constants corresponding to these stages were found to decrease markedly with the load added to the reactor, showing the occurrence of an inhibition process. The small deviations obtained between the experimental and simulated values demonstrated the suitability of the mathematical model in predicting the behaviour of the microorganisms involved in the anaerobic digestion of this wastewater.

  16. Effects of different carriers on biogas production and microbial community structure during anaerobic digestion of cassava ethanol wastewater.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhou; Chen, Feier; Zhong, Chao; Zhou, Jun; Wu, Xiayuan; Yong, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Hua; Jiang, Min; Jia, Honghua; Wei, Ping

    2017-09-01

    In this study, an anaerobic bioreactor (AB) with no added fillers (ABWF), a packed-bed bioreactor with a porous ceramic filler (ABCF), and another packed-bed bioreactor filled with graphite felt (ABGF) were established for anaerobic digestion of cassava ethanol wastewater. The results showed that ABCF exhibited excellent wastewater treatment performance in a stable process that was superior to ABWF and ABGF, with the following characteristics: a high chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 98.06% and maximum biogas production of 3200 mL/d at a total reactor volume of 3.46 L. Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis revealed that differences existed among the microbial communities of the three ABs that were in accordance with the operational characteristics. The ABCF system displayed maximum bacterial diversity, whereas the ABWF system exhibited moderate richness and the ABGF system possessed the lowest species richness. The ABCF system was more stable than the ABWF and ABGF systems during anaerobic digestion of cassava ethanol wastewater. Different functional microbial communities that are responsible for the degradation of certain compounds were also identified in the ABCF and ABGF systems. Our results demonstrate that ceramic materials should be considered an appropriate support for the immobilization of cells.

  17. Modified ADM1 for high-rate anaerobic co-digestion of thermally pre-treated brewery surplus yeast wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Liam; Gutbrod, Alexander; Domes, Herbert; Groß, Frauke; Méndez-Contreras, Juan M; Delgado, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    Co-digestion of surplus yeast with brewery wastewater is a potentially economical method for recovering energy, in the form of biogas, from this difficult to dispose of by-product. In this work a modified version of the ADM1 (Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1) was calibrated for an anaerobic digester fed with thermally pre-treated brewery yeast surplus wastewater. The model could predict changes to reactor methane production and reduction of biodegradable matter when fed with both pre-treated and untreated yeast surplus wastewater at varying loading rates. Model calibration focused on low temperature thermal pre-treatment as experiments into a combined thermal-alkaline pre-treatment did not show any significant improvements. A low temperature pre-treatment of 60 °C for 30 minutes was sufficient for yeast inactivation and allowed for stable and more efficient operation of the high-rate anaerobic digester over a period of 232 days. The low temperature and time for pre-treatment also reduced the evaporation of easily biodegradable residual ethanol present in the influent, while still maintaining a low level of suspended matter. Inline measurements of gas composition, production and effluent chemical oxygen demand were sufficient for reliable model calibration of these same outputs. More detailed characterization of influent and effluent is required if organic acid concentrations for pH control are needed.

  18. Saccharofermentans acetigenes gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic bacterium isolated from sludge treating brewery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shuangya; Niu, Lili; Zhang, Yongxiang

    2010-12-01

    A spore-forming anaerobic bacterium, designated strain P6(T), was isolated from the sludge of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating brewery wastewater. Cells were Gram-positive, oval and 0.6-0.9 μm by 1.2-1.8 μm in size. Growth was observed at 20-42 °C and at pH 5.0-7.5. It fermented several hexoses, polysaccharides and alcohols. Sucrose and aesculin could also be fermented. The main end products of fermentation from glucose were acetate, lactate and fumarate; trace CO(2) and H(2) were also produced. The DNA G+C content of strain P6(T) was 55.6 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(14 : 0) 3-OH. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain P6(T) represented a novel phyletic sublineage in clostridial cluster III, and showed <91 % similarity to the type strains of recognized species in this cluster. Phenotypically, the new isolate was distinguished from its phylogenetic relatives (e.g. Clostridium straminisolvens, Clostridium thermocellum, Acetivibrio cellulolyticus and Clostridium aldrichii) by producing acid from glucose and its inability to degrade cellulose. On the basis of evidence from this polyphasic study, strain P6(T) is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Saccharofermentans acetigenes gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Saccharofermentans acetigenes is P6(T) (=JCM 14006(T) =AS 1.5064(T)).

  19. Anaerobic/aerobic treatment of a petrochemical wastewater from two aromatic transformation processes by fluidized bed reactors.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Arriaga, Edson B; Ramirez-Camperos, Esperanza; Moeller-Chavez, Gabriela E; García-Sanchez, Liliana

    2012-01-01

    An integrated fluidized bed reactor (FBR) has been employed as the treatment for petrochemical industry wastewaters with high organic matter and aromatic compounds, under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The system was operated at hydraulic residence time (HRT) of 2.7 and 2.2 h in the anaerobic and aerobic reactor, respectively. The degree of fluidization in the beds was 30%. This system showed a high performance on the removal of organic matter and aromatic compounds. At different organic loading rates (OLR), the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in the anaerobic reactor was close to 85% and removals of the COD up to 94% were obtained in the aerobic reactor. High removals of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and naphthalene were achieved in this study.

  20. Treatment of high-strength pharmaceutical wastewater by electrocoagulation combined with anaerobic process.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, A M; Satyanarayan, S; Ramakant, S

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses a combined treatment system comprising electrocoagulation (EC) as a pre-treatment followed by anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (AFFBR) for treatment of high strength pharmaceutical wastewater. The effect of various operating parameters such as pH, current density and electrolysis duration on COD, BOD and colour removal was studied. The maximum removals for COD, BOD and colour under optimal operating conditions i.e. pH 7.2, current density (CD) of 80 A/m(2) and electrolysis time of 25 minutes were 24%, 35% and 70.25% respectively. Increase in current density has resulted in decrease in electrolysis duration with marginal improvement in treatment efficiency. The efficiency of removal is discussed in terms of kg COD(r) A(-1)m(-2)h(-1) and energy consumption as Wh kg(-1)COD(r). The effluents obtained after EC were treated by AFFBR at various organic loading rates (OLRs) and hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The results indicated removals in the range of 80-90% for COD and 86-94% for BOD respectively, at OLRs between 0.6 to 4.0 Kg COD/m(3) d at an HRT of 2 days. The total gas quantity increased with increase in both HRT and OLR up to a loading of 6 Kg COD/m(3)/d but it did not commensurate with organic load. The results indicated that the combined treatment option is competitive and can be used effectively for high strength wastewaters.

  1. Development of an energy-saving anaerobic hybrid membrane bioreactors for 2-chlorophenol-contained wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun-Kun; Pan, Xin-Rong; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Li, Wen-Wei; Shi, Bing-Jing; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-12-01

    A novel energy-saving anaerobic hybrid membrane bioreactor (AnHMBR) with mesh filter, which takes advantage of anaerobic membrane bioreactor and fixed-bed biofilm reactor, is developed for low-strength 2-chlorophenol (2-CP)-contained wastewater treatment. In this system, the anaerobic membrane bioreactor is stuffed with granular activated carbon to construct an anaerobic hybrid fixed-bed biofilm membrane bioreactor. The effluent turbidity from the AnHMBR system was low during most of the operation period, and the chemical oxygen demand and 2-CP removal efficiencies averaged 82.3% and 92.6%, respectively. Furthermore, a low membrane fouling rate was achieved during the operation. During the AnHMBR operation, the only energy consumption was for feed pump. And a low energy demand of 0.0045-0.0063kWhm(-3) was estimated under the current operation conditions. All these results demonstrated that this novel AnHMBR is a sustainable technology for treating 2-CP-contained wastewater. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An advanced anaerobic biofilter with effluent recirculation for phenol removal and methane production in treatment of coal gasification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Yajie; Tabassum, Salma; Zhang, Zhenjia

    2016-09-01

    An advanced anaerobic biofilter (AF) was introduced for the treatment of coal gasification wastewater (CGW), and effluent recirculation was adopted to enhance phenol removal and methane production. The results indicated that AF was reliable in treating diluted CGW, while its efficiency and stability were seriously reduced when directly treating raw CGW. However, its performance could be greatly enhanced by effluent recirculation. Under optimal effluent recirculation of 0.5 to the influent, concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenol in the effluent could reach as low as 234.0 and 14.2mg/L, respectively. Also, the rate of methane production reached 169.0mLCH4/L/day. Though CGW seemed to restrain the growth of anaerobic microorganisms, especially methanogens, the inhibition was temporary and reversible, and anaerobic bacteria presented strong tolerance. The activities of methanogens cultivated in CGW could quickly recover on feeding with glucose wastewater (GW). However, the adaptability of anaerobic bacteria to the CGW was very poor and the activity of methanogens could not be improved by long-term domestication. By analysis using the Haldane model, it was further confirmed that high effluent recirculation could result in high activity for hydrolytic bacteria and substrate affinity for toxic matters, but only suitable effluent recirculation could result in high methanogenic activity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic decolourization of a real textile wastewater in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Tomei, M Concetta; Mosca Angelucci, Domenica; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2016-12-15

    This work describes the application of a solid-liquid two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) for the removal of colour from a real textile wastewater containing reactive azo-dyes. Four polymers were tested over the pH range of 4-9 to select the most effective absorbant to be used as the partitioning phase in the TPPB. The best results were obtained with Hytrel 8206 at pH4 achieving ~70% colour removal, based on the dominant wavelength, in the first 5h of contact time, and 84% after 24h. Wastewater treatment was undertaken in a solid-liquid TPPB operated with Hytrel 8206 in sequential anaerobic-aerobic configuration. The reaction time of 23h was equally distributed between the anaerobic and aerobic phases and, to favour colour uptake, the pH was controlled at 4.5 in the first 4h of the anaerobic phase, and then increased to 7.5. Colour removal (for the dominant wavelength, 536nm) increased from 70 to 85% by modifying the bioreactor operation from single-phase to TPPB mode. Based on COD measurements nearly complete biodegradation of the intermediates produced in the anaerobic phase was obtained, both in the single-phase and two-phase mode, with better performance of the TPPB system reaching 75% CODDye removal.

  4. Effects of domestic wastewater treated by anaerobic stabilization on soil pollution, plant nutrition, and cotton crop yield.

    PubMed

    Uzen, Nese; Cetin, Oner; Unlu, Mustafa

    2016-12-01

    This study has aimed to determine the effects of treated wastewater on cotton yield and soil pollution in Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey during 2011 and 2012. The treated wastewater was provided from the reservoir operated as anaerobic stabilization. After treatment, suspended solids (28-60 mg/l), biological oxygen demand (29-30 mg/l), and chemical oxygen demand (71-112 mg/l) decreased significantly compared to those in the wastewater. There was no heavy metal pollution in the water used. There were no significant amounts of coliform bacteria, fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli compared to untreated wastewater. The cottonseed yield (31.8 g/plant) in the tanks where no commercial fertilizers were applied was considerably higher compared to the yield (17.2 g/plant) in the fertilized tanks where a common nitrogenous fertilizer was utilized. There were no significant differences between the values of soil pH. Soil electrical conductivity (EC) after the experiment increased from 0.8-1.0 to 0.9-1.8 dS/m. Heavy metal pollution did not occur in the soil and plants, because there were no heavy metals in the treated wastewater. It can be concluded that treated domestic wastewater could be used to grow in a controlled manner crops, such as cotton, that would not be used directly as human nutrients.

  5. Metagenomics shows that low-energy anaerobic-aerobic treatment reactors reduce antibiotic resistance gene levels from domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Christgen, Beate; Yang, Ying; Ahammad, S Z; Li, Bing; Rodriquez, D Catalina; Zhang, Tong; Graham, David W

    2015-02-17

    Effective domestic wastewater treatment is among our primary defenses against the dissemination of infectious waterborne disease. However, reducing the amount of energy used in treatment processes has become essential for the future. One low-energy treatment option is anaerobic-aerobic sequence (AAS) bioreactors, which use an anaerobic pretreatment step (e.g., anaerobic hybrid reactors) to reduce carbon levels, followed by some form of aerobic treatment. Although AAS is common in warm climates, it is not known how its compares to other treatment options relative to disease transmission, including its influence on antibiotic resistance (AR) in treated effluents. Here, we used metagenomic approaches to contrast the fate of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARG) in anaerobic, aerobic, and AAS bioreactors treating domestic wastewater. Five reactor configurations were monitored for 6 months, and treatment performance, energy use, and ARG abundance and diversity were compared in influents and effluents. AAS and aerobic reactors were superior to anaerobic units in reducing ARG-like sequence abundances, with effluent ARG levels of 29, 34, and 74 ppm (198 ppm influent), respectively. AAS and aerobic systems especially reduced aminoglycoside, tetracycline, and β-lactam ARG levels relative to anaerobic units, although 63 persistent ARG subtypes were detected in effluents from all systems (of 234 assessed). Sulfonamide and chloramphenicol ARG levels were largely unaffected by treatment, whereas a broad shift from target-specific ARGs to ARGs associated with multi-drug resistance was seen across influents and effluents. AAS reactors show promise for future applications because they can reduce more ARGs for less energy (32% less energy here), but all three treatment options have limitations and need further study.

  6. Effect of organic load on decolourization of textile wastewater containing acid dyes in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    PubMed

    Wijetunga, Somasiri; Li, Xiu-Fen; Jian, Chen

    2010-05-15

    Textile wastewater (TW) is one of the most hazardous wastewater for the environment when discharged without proper treatment. Biological treatment technologies have shown encouraging results over the treatment of recalcitrant compounds containing wastewaters. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) was evaluated in terms of colour and the reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with different organic loads using TW containing dyes belonging to different chemical groups. The study was performed using six different dye concentrations (10mg/L, 25mg/L, 50mg/L, 100mg/L, 150 mg/L, 300 mg/L) with three COD levels ( approximately 1000 mg/L, approximately 2000 mg/L, approximately 3000 mg/L). Decolourization, COD removal and reactor stability were monitored. Over 85% of colour removal was observed with all dye concentrations with three organic loads. Acid Red 131 and Acid Yellow 79 were decolourized through biodegradation while Acid Blue 204 was decolourized due to adsorption onto anaerobic granules. COD removal was high in all dye concentrations, regardless of co-substrate levels. The reactor did not show any instability during the study. The activity of granules was not affected by the dyes. Methanothrix like bacteria were the dominant group in granules before introducing TW, however, they were reduced and cocci-shape microorganism increased after the treatment of textile wastewater. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Entrapped cells-based-anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating domestic wastewater: Performances, fouling, and bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Juntawang, Chaipon; Rongsayamanont, Chaiwat; Khan, Eakalak

    2017-11-01

    A laboratory scale study on treatment performances and fouling of entrapped cells-based-anaerobic membrane bioreactor (E-AnMBR) in comparison with suspended cells-based-bioreactor (S-AnMBR) treating domestic wastewater was conducted. The difference between E-AnMBR and S-AnMBR was the uses of cells entrapped in phosphorylated polyvinyl alcohol versus planktonic cells. Bulk organic removal efficiencies by the two AnMBRs were comparable. Lower concentrations of suspended biomass, bound extracellular polymeric substances and soluble microbial products in E-AnMBR resulted in less fouling compared to S-AnMBR. S-AnMBR provided 7 days of operation time versus 11 days for E-AnMBR before chemical cleaning was required. The less frequent chemical cleaning potentially leads to a longer membrane life-span for E-AnMBR compared to S-AnMBR. Phyla Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes and Acidobacteria were dominant in cake sludge from both AnMBRs but their abundances were different between the two AnMBRs, suggesting influence of cell entrapment on the bacteria community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Combined anaerobic-ozonation process for treatment of textile wastewater: removal of acute toxicity and mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Punzi, Marisa; Nilsson, Filip; Anbalagan, Anbarasan; Svensson, Britt-Marie; Jönsson, Karin; Mattiasson, Bo; Jonstrup, Maria

    2015-07-15

    A novel set up composed of an anaerobic biofilm reactor followed by ozonation was used for treatment of artificial and real textile effluents containing azo dyes. The biological treatment efficiently removed chemical oxygen demand and color. Ozonation further reduced the organic content of the effluents and was very important for the degradation of aromatic compounds, as shown by the reduction of UV absorbance. The acute toxicity toward Vibrio fischeri and the shrimp Artemia salina increased after the biological treatment. No toxicity was detected after ozonation with the exception of the synthetic effluent containing the highest concentration, 1 g/l, of the azo dye Remazol Red. Both untreated and biologically treated textile effluents were found to have mutagenic effects. The mutagenicity increased even further after 1 min of ozonation. No mutagenicity was however detected in the effluents subjected to longer exposure to ozone. The results of this study suggest that the use of ozonation as short post-treatment after a biological process can be beneficial for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds and the removal of toxicity of textile wastewater. However, monitoring of toxicity and especially mutagenicity is crucial and should always be used to assess the success of a treatment strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Printing and dyeing wastewater treatment using combined process of anaerobic bioreactor and MBR].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiang; Liu, Jun-xin

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes a labor-scale experiment for printing and dyeing wastewater treatment of woolen mill using a combined process of an anaerobic reactor and a membrane bioreactor (MBR). The experimental results showed that when the concentration of COD, BOD5 and color in the influent were 128-321 mg/L, 36-95 mg/L and 40-70 dilution times (DT), the average concentrations of COD, BOD5, color and turbidity in the effluent were 36.9 mg/L, 3.7 mg/L, 21 DT and 0.24 NTU, respectively, and the corresponding removal rates were 80.3%, 95%, 59% and 99.3%, respectively. A new integrated membrane bioreactor by gravity drain of liquid level in the bioreactor was developed in this study. It not only lessens suction pump for effluent and controlling unit comparing to the traditional integrated membrane bioreactor, but also has the characters of high and continuous flux, concise configuration and simple operation and maintenance. According to the experimental results, the air flow rate through the membrane module is a significant factor to affect the flux rate and cake layer deposited on the membrane. With application of optimal air flow rate, it is effective to reduce membrane fouling and maintain high flux rate.

  10. Anaerobic digestion of post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater for improved energy efficiency of hydrothermal bioenergy processes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Schideman, Lance; Zheng, Mingxia; Martin-Ryals, Ana; Li, Peng; Tommaso, Giovana; Zhang, Yuanhui

    2015-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a promising process for converting wet biomass and organic wastes into bio-crude oil. It also produces an aqueous product referred to as post-hydrothermal liquefaction wastewater (PHWW) containing up to 40% of the original feedstock carbon, which reduces the overall energy efficiency of the HTL process. This study investigated the feasibility of using anaerobic digestion (AD) to treat PHWW, with the aid of activated carbon. Results showed that successful AD occurred at relatively low concentrations of PHWW (≤ 6.7%), producing a biogas yield of 0.5 ml/mg CODremoved, and ∼53% energy recovery efficiency. Higher concentrations of PHWW (≥13.3%) had an inhibitory effect on the AD process, as indicated by delayed, slower, or no biogas production. Activated carbon was shown to effectively mitigate this inhibitory effect by enhancing biogas production and allowing digestion to proceed at higher PHWW concentrations (up to 33.3%), likely due to sequestering toxic organic compounds. The addition of activated carbon also increased the net energy recovery efficiency of AD with a relatively high concentration of PHWW (33.3%), taking into account the energy for producing activated carbon. These results suggest that AD is a feasible approach to treat PHWW, and to improve the energy efficiency of the HTL processes.

  11. Life cycle assessment of introducing an anaerobic digester in a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Spain.

    PubMed

    Blanco, David; Collado, Sergio; Laca, Adriana; Díaz, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is being established as a standard technology to recover some of the energy contained in the sludge in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as biogas, allowing an economy in electricity and heating and a decrease in climate gas emission. The purpose of this study was to quantify the contributions to the total environmental impact of the plant using life cycle assessment methodology. In this work, data from real operation during 2012 of a municipal WWTP were utilized as the basis to determine the impact of including AD in the process. The climate change human health was the most important impact category when AD was included in the treatment (Scenario 1), especially due to fossil carbon dioxide emissions. Without AD (Scenario 2), increased emissions of greenhouse gases, mostly derived from the use of electricity, provoked a rise in the climate change categories. Biogas utilization was able to provide 47% of the energy required in the WWTP in Scenario 1. Results obtained make Scenario 1 the better environmental choice by far, mainly due to the use of the digested sludge as fertilizer.

  12. Anaerobic digestion of wastewater from the fruit juice industry: experiments and modeling.

    PubMed

    Zerrouki, Souhaib; Rihani, Rachida; Bentahar, Fatiha; Belkacemi, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of wastewater from the fruit juice industry was carried out in a batch digester. To study the effect of the pH values as well as the nutrient medium on the fermentation process, different parameters were monitored under mesophilic temperature, such as cumulative biogas volume, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total sugar, and biomass growth. It was found that for all cases, the COD concentration decreased with time. The lowest value reached was obtained when the nutrient medium was added; it was about 110 g/L after 480 h. In such cases, the COD removal reached about 80%; the highest cumulative biogas volume of about 5,515.8 NmL was reached after 480 h testing; and the lowest value reached was about 2,862.3 NmL in the case of peach-substrate containing sodium sulfite. The addition of nutrient medium improved the cumulative biogas production as well as the COD abatement. Measurement of the biogas composition highlighted three gaseous components, namely, methane (56.52%), carbon dioxide (20.14%), and hydrogen sulfide (23.34%). The modified Gompertz equation and the first-order kinetic model were used to describe the cumulative biogas production and the organic matter removal, respectively. A good agreement was found between simulated and experimental data.

  13. A comprehensive microbial insight into two-stage anaerobic digestion of food waste-recycling wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung Gu; Han, Gyuseong; Lim, Juntaek; Lee, Changsoo; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2010-09-01

    Microbial community structures were assessed in a two-stage anaerobic digestion system treating food waste-recycling wastewater. The reactors were operated for 390 d at 10 different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) ranging from 25 to 4 d. Stable operation was achieved with the overall chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 73.0-85.9% at organic loading rate of up to 35.6 g COD/L·d. Performance of the acidogenic reactors, however, changed significantly during operation. This change coincided with transition of the bacterial community from one dominated by Aeriscardovia- and Lactobacillus amylovorus-related species to one dominated by Lactobacillus acetotolerans- and Lactobacillus kefiri-like organisms. In methanogenic reactors, the microbial community structures also changed at this stage along with the shift from Methanoculleus- to Methanosarcina-like organisms. This trend was confirmed by the non-metric multidimensional scaling joint plot of microbial shifts along with performance parameters. These results indicated that the overall process performance was relatively stable compared to the dynamic changes in the microbial structures and the acidogenic performance.

  14. Modeling and biokinetics in anaerobic acidogenesis of starch-processing wastewater to acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Johng-Hwa; Lee, Sangyoung; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2004-01-01

    Starch-processing wastewater was anaerobically treated to produce acetic acid in laboratory-scale, continuously stirred tank reactors. The optimal conditions, in which the maximum acetic acid production occurred, were 0.56 d hydraulic retention time, pH 5.9, and 36.1 degrees C. Acetic acid production at the optimum conditions was 672 +/- 20 mg total organic carbon(equivalent) L(-)(1), which indicated a 75% conversion efficiency of influent total organic carbon into acetic acid. A fourth order Runge-Kutta approximation was used to determine the Monod kinetics of the acidogens by using unsteady-state data from continuous unsteady-state experiments at the optimum conditions. The model outputs and experimental data fit together satisfactorily, suggesting that the unsteady-state approach was appropriate for the evaluation of acidogenic biokinetics. These included micro(m), K(s), Y, and k(d), which were evaluated as being 0.13 h(-)(1), 25 mg total carbohydrate (TC) L(-)(1), 0.38 mg volatile suspended solid mg(-)(1) TC, and 0.002 h(-)(1), respectively.

  15. Anaerobic Codigestion of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge with Food Waste: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Rajendram, William

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the codigestion of food manufacturing and processing wastes (FW) with sewage sludge (SS), that is, municipal wastewater treatment plant primary sludge and waste activated sludge. Bench scale mesophilic anaerobic reactors were fed intermittently with varying ratio of SS and FW and operated at a hydraulic retention time of 20 days and organic loading of 2.0 kg TS/m3·d. The specific biogas production (SBP) increased by 25% to 50% with the addition of 1%–5% FW to SS which is significantly higher than the SBP from SS of 284 ± 9.7 mLN/g VS added. Although the TS, VS, and tCOD removal slightly increased, the biogas yield and methane content improved significantly and no inhibitory effects were observed as indicated by the stable pH throughout the experiment. Metal screening of the digestate suggested the biosolids meet the guidelines for use as a soil conditioner. Batch biochemical methane potential tests at different ratios of SS : FW were used to determine the optimum ratio using surface model analysis. The results showed that up to 47-48% FW can be codigested with SS. Overall these results confirm that codigestion has great potential in improving the methane yield of SS. PMID:27689091

  16. Treatment of corn ethanol distillery wastewater using two-stage anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Ráduly, B; Gyenge, L; Szilveszter, Sz; Kedves, A; Crognale, S

    In this study the mesophilic two-stage anaerobic digestion (AD) of corn bioethanol distillery wastewater is investigated in laboratory-scale reactors. Two-stage AD technology separates the different sub-processes of the AD in two distinct reactors, enabling the use of optimal conditions for the different microbial consortia involved in the different process phases, and thus allowing for higher applicable organic loading rates (OLRs), shorter hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and better conversion rates of the organic matter, as well as higher methane content of the produced biogas. In our experiments the reactors have been operated in semi-continuous phase-separated mode. A specific methane production of 1,092 mL/(L·d) has been reached at an OLR of 6.5 g TCOD/(L·d) (TCOD: total chemical oxygen demand) and a total HRT of 21 days (5.7 days in the first-stage, and 15.3 days in the second-stage reactor). Nonetheless the methane concentration in the second-stage reactor was very high (78.9%); the two-stage AD outperformed the reference single-stage AD (conducted at the same reactor loading rate and retention time) by only a small margin in terms of volumetric methane production rate. This makes questionable whether the higher methane content of the biogas counterbalances the added complexity of the two-stage digestion.

  17. Performance of sulfidogenic anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) treating acidic and zinc-containing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Bayrakdar, Alper; Sahinkaya, Erkan; Gungor, Murat; Uyanik, Sinan; Atasoy, A Dilek

    2009-10-01

    The applicability of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) was investigated for the treatment of acidic (pH 4.5-7.0) wastewater containing sulfate (1000-2000 mg/L) and Zn (65-200mg/L) at 35 degrees C. The ABR consisted of four equal stages and lactate was supplemented (COD/SO(4)(2-)=0.67) as carbon and energy source for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The robustness of the system was studied by decreasing pH and increasing Zn, COD, and sulfate loadings. Sulfate-reduction efficiency quickly increased during the start-up period and reached 80% within 45 days. Decreasing feed pH, increasing feed sulfate and Zn concentrations did not adversely affect system performance as sulfate reduction and COD removal efficiencies were within 62-90% and 80-95%, respectively. Although feed pH was steadily decreased from 7.0 to 4.5, effluent pH was always within 6.8-7.5. Over 99% Zn removal was attained throughout the study due to formation of Zn-sulfide precipitate.

  18. Performances of anaerobic and aerobic membrane bioreactors for the treatment of synthetic textile wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yurtsever, Adem; Sahinkaya, Erkan; Aktaş, Özgür; Uçar, Deniz; Çınar, Özer; Wang, Zhiwei

    2015-09-01

    This study aims at comparatively evaluating anaerobic and aerobic MBRs for the treatment of azo-dye containing synthetic wastewater. Also, the filtration performances of AnMBR and AeMBR were compared under similar operating conditions. In both MBRs, high COD removal efficiencies were observed. Although almost complete color removal was observed in AnMBR, only partial (30-50%) color removal was achieved in AeMBR. AnMBR was successfully operated up to 9 L/(m(2)h) (LMH) and no chemical cleaning was required at 4.5 LMH for around 50 days. AeMBR was operated successfully up to 20 LMH. The filtration resistance of AnMBR was generally higher compared to AeMBR although reversible fouling rates were comparable. In both MBRs, offline chemical cleaning with NaOCl and sulfuric acid almost completely removed irreversible fouling and the resistances of chemically cleaned membranes were close to those of new membranes.

  19. Online oxygen control for sulfide oxidation in anaerobic treatment of high-sulfate wastewater.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Samir Kumar; Huang, Ju-Chang

    2006-04-01

    A new technique for sulfide control was investigated in an upflow-anaerobic filter (UAF) treating high-strength, sulfate-rich wastewater. The technique used periodic oxygen injection using oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) as a controlling parameter to regulate oxygen injection. The UAF was operated at a constant influent total-organic carbon of 6740 mg/L but with different influent sulfates of 1000, 3000, and 6000 mg/L. At 1000 and 3000 mg/L influent sulfates, the produced sulfide did not impose any inhibition to methane-producing bacteria (MPB). However, at 6000 mg/L influent sulfate, the produced dissolved sulfide of 804 mg S/L (free sulfide = 280 mg S/L) severely inhibited the methanogenesis, but not the sulfidogenesis. Upon oxygen injection at elevated ORP of -265 mV, sulfides were almost completely eliminated with a concomitant improvement in methane yield by 46%. If oxygenation was excessive because of an oversetting of ORP, the excess oxygen could be used rapidly by facultative heterotrophs, thereby protecting the MPB from oxygen stress. Regarding online sulfide oxidation, it was found that the biogas and injected oxygen needed to pass through an aqueous layer containing trace metals, which were found to have a significant catalytic effect on abiotic sulfide oxidation.

  20. ORP-based oxygenation for sulfide control in anaerobic treatment of high-sulfate wastewater.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Samir Kumar; Huang, Ju-Chang

    2003-05-01

    A series of chemostat studies were conducted at a constant influent total organic carbon of 3750 mg/L (equivalent chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 10,000 mg/L) but at different influent sulfates of 1000, 3000 and 5000 mg/L in order to investigate the feasibility of online sulfide toxicity control through periodic oxygenation to the recycled biogas stream. The oxygen dosing for sulfide oxidation was regulated by using oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) as a controlling parameter. During oxygenation at elevated ORPs of -230 and -180 mV (50 and 100 mV above natural ORP of -280 mV, respectively), the dissolved and gaseous sulfides were completely eliminated which resulted in a concomitant improvement in methane yield by 56.3% at 5000 mg/L influent sulfate. However, at influent sulfates of 1000 and 3000 mg/L, both methane generation rate and sulfate removal efficiency were dropped appreciably at elevated ORPs. Facultative heterotrophs were found to consume as high as 66.3% of the influent COD during oxygenation. For effective sulfide oxidation at lower sulfate levels, it was no longer required to raise the ORP by as much as 50 or 100 mV. The actual needed ORP increase depended on the influent sulfate. This study had proven that the ORP-controlled oxygenation was reliable for achieving consistent online sulfide control during anaerobic treatment of high-sulfate wastewater.

  1. Performance of anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactors using effluents of microbial fuel cells treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Yeol; Yang, Wulin; Ye, Yaoli; LaBarge, Nicole; Logan, Bruce E

    2016-05-01

    Anaerobic fluidized membrane bioreactors (AFMBRs) have been mainly developed as a post-treatment process to produce high quality effluent with very low energy consumption. The performance of an AFMBR was examined using the effluent from a microbial fuel cell (MFC) treating domestic wastewater, as a function of AFMBR hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and organic matter loading rates. The MFC-AFMBR achieved 89 ± 3% removal of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), with an effluent of 36 ± 6 mg-COD/L over 112 days operation. The AFMBR had very stable operation, with no significant changes in COD removal efficiencies, for HRTs ranging from 1.2 to 3.8h, although the effluent COD concentration increased with organic loading. Transmembrane pressure (TMP) was low, and could be maintained below 0.12 bar through solids removal. This study proved that the AFMBR could be operated with a short HRT but a low COD loading rate was required to achieve low effluent COD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sugar and volatile fatty acids dynamic during anaerobic treatment of olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, L R; Gomes, A C; Lopes, A; Albuquerque, A; Simões, R M

    2016-01-01

    Biogas production has been the main route used to exploit olive mill wastewater (OMW), after pretreatment and/or in combination with other effluents, but more recently the production of chemicals and biopolymers by biotechnological routes has deserved increasing attention by the scientific community. The present paper aims to explore the potential of fresh OMW as a source of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and biogas. The time profile of VFAs production and the corresponding sugar consumption was followed by high-performance liquid chromatography, in batch anaerobic assays. The experimental results have revealed the very high potential of the OMW for the production of VFAs, mainly due to the high sugar concentration in the effluent (37.8 g/L) and its complete conversion into VFAs, in a time period of 2-3 days. The most abundant VFAs were acetic (48-50%), n-butanoic (12-27%), iso-pentanoic (12-14%) and propanoic (5-13%). The ratio of VFA containing even and odd carbon chains increased with the reduction in the initial chemical oxygen demand concentration of the samples used in the experiments. The conversion of the VFAs to biogas was inhibited at concentrations of 3.5 g/L of VFAs.

  3. Trace metals supplementation in anaerobic membrane bioreactors treating highly saline phenolic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Sierra, Julian David; Lafita, Carlos; Gabaldón, Carmen; Spanjers, Henri; van Lier, Jules B

    2017-06-01

    Biomass requires trace metals (TM) for maintaining its growth and activity. This study aimed to determine the effect of TM supplementation and partitioning on the specific methanogenic activity (SMA), with a focus on cobalt and tungsten, during the start-up of two lab-scale Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors (AnMBRs) treating saline phenolic wastewater. The TM partitioning revealed a strong accumulation of sodium in the biomass matrix and a wash-out of the majority of TM in the reactors, which led to an SMA decrease and a low COD removal of about 30%. The SMA exhibits a maximum at about 6g Na(+) L(-1) and nearly complete inhibition at 34g Na(+) L(-1). The dose of 0.5mgL(-1) of tungsten increases the SMA by 17%, but no improvement was observed with the addition of cobalt. The results suggested that TM were not bioavailable at high salinity. Accordingly, an increased COD removal was achieved by doubling the supply of TM.

  4. Performance and granulation in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating saline sulfate wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Yu, Lian; Yu, Deshuang; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Peiyu; Ji, Zhongguang

    2014-02-01

    An upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor was employed to treat saline sulfate wastewater. Mesophilic operation (35 ± 0.5 °C) was performed with hydraulic retention time fixed at 16 h. When the salinity was 28 g L(-1), the chemical oxygen demand and sulfate removal efficiencies were 52 and 67 %, respectively. The salinity effect on sulfate removal was less than that on organics removal. The methane productions were 887 and 329 cm(3) L(-1) corresponding to the NaCl concentrations of 12 and 28 g L(-1), respectively. High salinity could stimulate microbes to produce more extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) and granulation could be performed better. Besides, with the high saline surroundings, a great deal of Na(+) compressed the colloidal electrical double-layer, neutralized the negative charge of the sludge particles and decreased their electrostatic repulsion. The repulsion barrier disappeared and coagulation took place. The maximum size of granules was 5 mm, which resulted from the coupled triggering forces of high EPSs and Na(+) contents. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were dominant in the high saline surroundings while the methane-producing archaea dominated in the low saline surroundings. The SRB were affected least by the salinity.

  5. Wastewater reclamation and methane production using water hyacinth and anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, D.P.; Dolenc, D.A.; Schwegler, B.; Reddy, K.R.

    1983-01-01

    Research reported here supports the conclusion that water hyacinth ponds are effective in the secondary treatment of domestic wastewater and under these conditions exhibited an average growth yield of 60 dry tons/ha-yr. However, treatment efficiencies and growth yields vary significantly in response to factors which include: (1) of nutrients in the pond influent; (2) residence times and water depth; (3) cultural techniques such as plant density and harvest frequency; (4) environmental conditions such as temperature, frost, etc.; and (5) insect infestation. These variables are under more intense study using smaller scale experiments. The results of these studies will be employed to determine optimum conditions for operation of the larger ponds. Work thus far completed on the anaerobic digestion of hyacinth and sludge has provided information on feed properties, feed biodegradabilities, digestion efficiencies under conventional digestion, nutritional balance, and the effects of blend constituents on methane yield and production rate. It is known that these feeds can be digested without external nutrient addition or pH control. The kinetics and efficiencies are comparable to those of other biomass or waste feeds; in fact, the yield from primary sludge is the highest we have seen reported for particulate feeds. Two conventional digester designs are currently exhibiting a significant increase in feed conversion to methane. Future laboratory research will continue to focus on advanced digestion and pretreatment for improvement of conversion efficiencies and net energy production. This will be complemented by operation of a larger scale experimental test unit.

  6. Fouling cake layer in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating saline wastewaters: curse or a blessing?

    PubMed

    Vyrides, I; Stuckey, D C

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of inhibitory (saline) wastewaters is known to produce considerable amounts of soluble microbial products (SMPs), and this has been implicated in membrane fouling; the fate of these SMPs was of considerable interest in this work. This study also investigated the contribution of SMPs to membrane fouling of the; (a) cake layer/biofilm layer, (b) the compounds below the biofilm/cake layer and strongly attached to the surface of the membrane, (c) the compounds in the inner pores of the membrane, and (d) the membrane. It was found that the cake/biofilm layer was the main reason for fouling of the membrane. Interestingly, the bacteria attached to the cake/biofilm layer showed higher biodegradation rates compared with the bacteria in suspension. Moreover, the bacteria attached to the cake layer showed higher amounts of attached extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) compared with the bacteria in suspension, possibly due to accumulation of the released EPS from suspended biomass in the cake/biofilm layer. Molecular weight (MW) analysis of the effluent and reactor bulk showed that the cake layer can retain a large fraction of the SMPs in the reactor and prevent them from being released into the effluent. Hence, while cake layers lead to lower fluxes in submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAMBRS), and hence higher costs, they can improve the quality of the reactor effluent.

  7. Membrane biofilm development improves COD removal in anaerobic membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam L; Skerlos, Steven J; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2015-09-01

    Membrane biofilm development was evaluated to improve psychrophilic (15°C) anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treatment of domestic wastewater. An AnMBR containing three replicate submerged membrane housings with separate permeate collection was operated at three levels of membrane fouling by independently controlling biogas sparging for each membrane unit. High membrane fouling significantly improved permeate quality, but resulted in dissolved methane in the permeate at a concentration two to three times the equilibrium concentration predicted by Henry's law. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA targeting Bacteria and Archaea and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting the methyl coenzyme-M reductase (mcrA) gene in methanogens indicated that the membrane biofilm was enriched in highly active methanogens and syntrophic bacteria. Restoring fouled membranes to a transmembrane pressure (TMP) near zero by increasing biogas sparging did not disrupt the biofilm's treatment performance, suggesting that microbes in the foulant layer were tightly adhered and did not significantly contribute to TMP. Dissolved methane oversaturation persisted without high TMP, implying that methanogenesis in the biofilm, rather than high TMP, was the primary driving force in methane oversaturation. The results describe an attractive operational strategy to improve treatment performance in low-temperature AnMBR by supporting syntrophy and methanogenesis in the membrane biofilm through controlled membrane fouling.

  8. Application of sugarcane bagasse for passive anaerobic biotreatment of sulphate rich wastewaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Ali; Qazi, Javed Iqbal

    2016-06-01

    Biological treatment of sulphate-rich wastewaters employing dissimilatory sulphate reducing bacteria as remedial agents is an attractive technique and has gained importance in the last few years. Industrial effluents enriched with sulphates are generally deficient in electron donors. And thus cannot be treated biologically without supplementation of carbon through an external source. For scalable operations, however, the carbon source must not be expensive. In this context, present study reports the efficiency of biological sulphate reduction using sugarcane bagasse as a cost-effective carbon source. An average 0.00391 ± 0.001 gL-1 day-1 (3.91 mgL-1 day-1) sulphate reduction was observed reaching maximally to 0.00466 ± 0.001 gL-1 day-1 (4.66 mgL-1 day-1) while employing Desulfovibrio fructosovorans-HAQ2 and Desulfovibrio piger-HAQ6 in a 60-day trial of anaerobic incubation using sugarcane bagasse as growth substrate. These findings will be helpful in developing economical bioremediation processes tending to operate for a longer period of time to reduce sulphate contents of contaminated waters.

  9. Membrane biofilm development improves COD removal in anaerobic membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Adam L; Skerlos, Steven J; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2015-01-01

    Membrane biofilm development was evaluated to improve psychrophilic (15°C) anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treatment of domestic wastewater. An AnMBR containing three replicate submerged membrane housings with separate permeate collection was operated at three levels of membrane fouling by independently controlling biogas sparging for each membrane unit. High membrane fouling significantly improved permeate quality, but resulted in dissolved methane in the permeate at a concentration two to three times the equilibrium concentration predicted by Henry’s law. Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA targeting Bacteria and Archaea and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting the methyl coenzyme-M reductase (mcrA) gene in methanogens indicated that the membrane biofilm was enriched in highly active methanogens and syntrophic bacteria. Restoring fouled membranes to a transmembrane pressure (TMP) near zero by increasing biogas sparging did not disrupt the biofilm’s treatment performance, suggesting that microbes in the foulant layer were tightly adhered and did not significantly contribute to TMP. Dissolved methane oversaturation persisted without high TMP, implying that methanogenesis in the biofilm, rather than high TMP, was the primary driving force in methane oversaturation. The results describe an attractive operational strategy to improve treatment performance in low-temperature AnMBR by supporting syntrophy and methanogenesis in the membrane biofilm through controlled membrane fouling. PMID:26238293

  10. Investigation of Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor/ Aerobic Moving Bed Bio Reactor (AFBR/MMBR) System for Treatment of Currant Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    JAFARI, Jalil; MESDAGHINIA, Alireza; NABIZADEH, Ramin; FARROKHI, Mehrdad; MAHVI, Amir Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anaerobic treatment methods are more suitable for the treatment of concentrated wastewater streams, offer lower operating costs, the production of usable biogas product. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of an Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor (AFBR)-Aerobic Moving Bed Bio Reactor (MBBR) in series arrangement to treat Currant wastewater. Methods: The bed materials of AFBR were cylindrical particles made of PVC with a diameter of 2–2.3 mm, particle density of 1250 kg/m3. The volume of all bed materials was 1.7 liter which expanded to 2.46 liters in fluidized situation. In MBBR, support media was composed of 1.5 liters Bee-Cell 2000 having porosity of 87% and specific surface area of 650m2/m3. Results: When system operated at 35 ºC, chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies were achieved to 98% and 81.6% for organic loading rates (OLR) of 9.4 and 24.2 g COD/l.d, and hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 48 and 18 h, in average COD concentration feeding of 18.4 g/l, respectively. Conclusion: The contribution of AFBR in total COD removal efficiency at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 9.4 g COD/l.d was 95%, and gradually decreased to 76.5% in OLR of 24.2 g COD/l.d. Also with increasing in organic loading rate the contribution of aerobic reactor in removing COD gradually decreased. In this system, the anaerobic reactor played the most important role in the removal of COD, and the aerobic MBBR was actually needed to polish the anaerobic treated wastewater. PMID:26056640

  11. Anaerobic Methyl tert-Butyl Ether-Degrading Microorganisms Identified in Wastewater Treatment Plant Samples by Stable Isotope Probing

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weimin; Sun, Xiaoxu

    2012-01-01

    Anaerobic methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) degradation potential was investigated in samples from a range of sources. From these 22 experimental variations, only one source (from wastewater treatment plant samples) exhibited MTBE degradation. These microcosms were methanogenic and were subjected to DNA-based stable isotope probing (SIP) targeted to both bacteria and archaea to identify the putative MTBE degraders. For this purpose, DNA was extracted at two time points, subjected to ultracentrifugation, fractioning, and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP). In addition, bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed. The SIP experiments indicated bacteria in the phyla Firmicutes (family Ruminococcaceae) and Alphaproteobacteria (genus Sphingopyxis) were the dominant MTBE degraders. Previous studies have suggested a role for Firmicutes in anaerobic MTBE degradation; however, the putative MTBE-degrading microorganism in the current study is a novel MTBE-degrading phylotype within this phylum. Two archaeal phylotypes (genera Methanosarcina and Methanocorpusculum) were also enriched in the heavy fractions, and these organisms may be responsible for minor amounts of MTBE degradation or for the uptake of metabolites released from the primary MTBE degraders. Currently, limited information exists on the microorganisms able to degrade MTBE under anaerobic conditions. This work represents the first application of DNA-based SIP to identify anaerobic MTBE-degrading microorganisms in laboratory microcosms and therefore provides a valuable set of data to definitively link identity with anaerobic MTBE degradation. PMID:22327600

  12. Acclimatization process of tofu wastewater on hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor using polyvinyl chloride rings as a growth medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanqoritha, Nyimas; Turmuzi, Muhammad; Derlini

    2017-05-01

    The appropriate process to resolve sewage contamination which have a high organic using anaerobic technology. Hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor is one of the anaerobic process which consists of a suspended growth media and attached growth media. The reactor has the ability to work at high load rate, sludge produced easily settles, high biomass and the separation of gas, solid and liquid excelent. The purpose of research is to study the acclimatization process in the reactor of Hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket using a polyvinl chloride ring as the attached growth medium. Reactor of Hybrid Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket use a working volume of 8.6 L. The operation consisting of 3 L suspended reactor and 5.6 L attached reactor. Acclimatization is conducted by providing the substrate from the smallest concentration of COD up to a concentration that will be processed. During the 50th day, acclimatization process assumed the bacteria begin to work, indicated by the dissolved COD and VSS decrease and biogas production. Due to the wastewater containing the high of protein in consequence operational parameters should be controlled and some precautions should be taken to prevent process partially or totally inhibited.

  13. Performance of anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in the treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater containing erythromycin and sulfamethoxazole mixture.

    PubMed

    Aydin, S; Ince, B; Cetecioglu, Z; Ozbayram, E G; Shahi, A; Okay, O; Arikan, O; Ince, O

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the joint effects of erythromycin-sulfamethoxazole (ES) combinations on anaerobic treatment efficiency and the potential for antibiotic degradation during anaerobic sequencing batch reactor operation. The experiments involved two identical anaerobic sequencing batch reactors. One reactor, as control unit, was fed with synthetic wastewater while the other reactor (ES) was fed with a synthetic substrate mixture including ES antibiotic combinations. The influence of ES antibiotic mixtures on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, volatile fatty acid production, antibiotic degradation, biogas production, and composition were investigated. The influent antibiotic concentration was gradually increased over 10 stages, until the metabolic collapse of the reactors, which occurred at 360 days for the ES reactor. The results suggest that substrate/COD utilization and biogas/methane generation affect performance of the anaerobic reactors at higher concentration. In addition, an average of 40% erythromycin and 37% sulfamethoxazole reduction was achieved in the ES reactor. These results indicated that these antibiotics were partly biodegradable in the anaerobic reactor system.

  14. Bacterial and archaeal community distribution and stabilization of anaerobic sludge in a strengthen circulation anaerobic (SCA) reactor for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Xu, Hui; Wang, Junfeng; Song, Xinshan; Wang, Yuhui; Li, Fang; Tian, Qing; Ma, Chunyan; Wang, Daoyuan; Bai, Junhong; Sand, Wolfgang

    2017-08-10

    In this study, a SCA reactor was employed for municipal wastewater treatment at a mesophilic temperature (30°C) under different hydraulic retention times (HRT) and upflow velocities (Vup) to investigate granule sludge stability and spatial microbial distribution. The stable COD removal efficiency readied at HRT of 15, 12, 9 and 6h, and Vup ranging from 0.6 to 5.9mh(-1). EPS fraction analysis of granule sludge shows that municipal wastewater was mainly attributed to the enrichment influence of polysaccharide and tightly bound-EPS. SEM images exhibited that the stability and floating of anaerobic granular sludge may be promoted in the primary three-phase separator area because the channels of the granules was clogged by EPS. The SMA and high-throughput sequencing analysis indicated acetoclastic methanogens and hydrogenotrophic methanogens played an important role in formation and maintenance of the anaerobic granule sludge in low and high organic load rate operation conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Abundance and distribution of Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin resistance genes in an anaerobic-aerobic system treating spiramycin production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Miaomiao; Ding, Ran; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Yingxin; Tian, Zhe; Zhang, Tong; Yang, Min

    2014-10-15

    The behaviors of the Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin (MLS) resistance genes were investigated in an anaerobic-aerobic pilot-scale system treating spiramycin (SPM) production wastewater. After screening fifteen typical MLS resistance genes with different mechanisms using conventional PCR, eight detected genes were determined by quantitative PCR, together with three mobile elements. Aerobic sludge in the pilot system exhibited a total relative abundance of MLS resistance genes (per 16S rRNA gene) 2.5 logs higher than those in control samples collected from sewage and inosine wastewater treatment systems (P < 0.05), implying the presence of SPM could induce the production of MLS resistance genes. However, the total relative gene abundance in anaerobic sludge (4.3 × 10(-1)) was lower than that in aerobic sludge (3.7 × 10(0)) despite of the higher SPM level in anaerobic reactor, showing the advantage of anaerobic treatment in reducing the production of MLS resistance genes. The rRNA methylase genes (erm(B), erm(F), erm(X)) were the most abundant in the aerobic sludge (5.3 × 10(-1)-1.7 × 10(0)), followed by esterase gene ere(A) (1.3 × 10(-1)) and phosphorylase gene mph(B) (5.7 × 10(-2)). In anaerobic sludge, erm(B), erm(F), ere(A), and msr(D) were the major ones (1.2 × 10(-2)-3.2 × 10(-1)). These MLS resistance genes (except for msr(D)) were positively correlated with Class 1 integron (r(2) = 0.74-0.93, P < 0.05), implying the significance of horizontal transfer in their proliferation.

  16. Modelling hydraulic transport and anaerobic uptake by PAOs and GAOs during wastewater feeding in EBPR granular sludge reactors.

    PubMed

    Weissbrodt, David G; Holliger, Christof; Morgenroth, Eberhard

    2017-03-21

    New-generation bioprocesses using granular sludge aim for a high-rate removal of nutrients from wastewater with low footprint. Achieving enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) relies on the design of sludge beds and wastewater feeding conditions to optimally load the biomass and to select for polyphosphate- (PAOs) over glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) and other heterotrophs. A hydraulic-metabolic mathematical model was developed to elucidate the impact of hydraulic transport patterns and environmental conditions on the PAO/GAO competition during up-flow feeding through an EBPR granular sludge bed. Tracer experiments highlighted plug-flow regimes with dispersion under both rapid (9 m h(-1) , Rebed  = 1.6, Pez  = 7.2, Pet  = 4.6) and slow (0.9 m h(-1) , Rebed  = 0.2, Pez  = 21.3, Pet  = 3.4) feeding. Non-turbulent regimes (Rebed < 10(3) ) promote a safe implementation of simultaneous fill/draw. Feeding time, pH, and temperature significantly impacted bacterial competition for carbon uptake under anaerobic slow feeding. Feeding duration should be designed to avoid full depletion of intracellular storage polymers within static granules. PAOs bear twice longer feeding than GAOs by using both polyphosphate and glycogen hydrolysis to sustain anaerobic C-uptake. Alkaline conditions (pH 7.25-8.0) by, e.g., dosing lime in the feed select for PAOs independently of temperature (10 - 30°C). A twice higher bed is required for full anaerobic conversions at 10 rather than 20 °C. Biosystem responses for anaerobic C-uptake can be anticipated using the model toward designing robust anaerobic selectors to manage the microbial resource in EBPR granular sludge. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Bioelectrochemical enhancement of anaerobic methanogenesis for high organic load rate wastewater treatment in a up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yaobin; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Yu, Qilin

    2014-01-01

    A coupling process of anaerobic methanogenesis and electromethanogenesis was proposed to treat high organic load rate (OLR) wastewater. During the start-up stage, acetate removal efficiency of the electric-biological reactor (R1) reached the maximization about 19 percentage points higher than that of the control anaerobic reactor without electrodes (R2), and CH4 production rate of R1 also increased about 24.9% at the same time, while additional electric input was 1/1.17 of the extra obtained energy from methane. Coulombic efficiency and current recorded showed that anodic oxidation contributed a dominant part in degrading acetate when the metabolism of methanogens was low during the start-up stage. Along with prolonging operating time, aceticlastic methanogenesis gradually replaced anodic oxidation to become the main pathway of degrading acetate. When the methanogens were inhibited under the acidic conditions, anodic oxidation began to become the main pathway of acetate decomposition again, which ensured the reactor to maintain a stable performance. FISH analysis confirmed that the electric field imposed could enrich the H2/H+-utilizing methanogens around the cathode to help for reducing the acidity. This study demonstrated that an anaerobic digester with a pair of electrodes inserted to form a coupling system could enhance methanogenesis and reduce adverse impacts. PMID:25322701

  18. Optimization of wastewater feeding for single-cell protein production in an anaerobic wastewater treatment process utilizing purple non-sulfur bacteria in mixed culture condition.

    PubMed

    Honda, Ryo; Fukushi, Kensuke; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2006-10-01

    Impacts of operation timing of feeding and withdrawal on anaerobic wastewater treatment utilizing purple non-sulfur bacteria have been investigated in mixed culture condition with acidogenic bacteria. Simulated wastewater containing glucose was treated in a laboratory-scale chemostat reactor, changing the timing of wastewater feeding and withdrawal. Rhodopseudomonas palustris, which does not utilize glucose as a substrate, was inoculated in the reactor. Rps. palustris was detected by a fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique using the specific Rpal686 probe. As a result, population ratios of Rps. palustris were over 20% through the operation. Rps. palustris could grow by utilizing metabolites of acidogenic bacteria that coexisted in the reactor. A morning feed was effective for a good growth of purple non-sulfur bacteria. A protein content of cultured bacteria was the highest when wastewater was fed in the morning. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal was 94% independent of the timing control. Consequently, feeding in the morning is the optimum feed-timing control from the aspects of growth of purple non-sulfur bacteria and single-cell protein production.

  19. Application of the upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) process for treatment of complex wastewaters at low temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, I.W.; Lettinga, G.

    1985-10-01

    The feasibility of the upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) process for the treatment of potato starch wastewater at low ambient temperatures was demonstrated by operating two 5.65 l reactors at 14 degrees C and 20 degrees C, respectively. The organic space loading rates achieved in these laboratory-scale reactors were 3 kg COD/cubic m/day at 14 degrees C and 4-5 kg COD/cubic m/day at 20 degrees C. The corresponding sludge loading rates were 0.12 kg COD/kg VSS/day at 14 degrees C and 0.16-0.18 kg COD/kg VSS/day at 20 degrees C. These findings are of considerable practical importance because application of anaerobic treatment at low ambient temperatures will lead to considerable savings in energy needed for operating the process. As compared with various other anaerobic wastewater treatment processes, a granular sludge upflow process represents one of the best options developed so far. Although the overall sludge yield under psychrophilic conditions is slightly higher than under optimal mesophilic conditions, this doesn't seriously hamper the operation of the process. The extra sludge yield, due to accumulation of slowly hydrolyzing substrate ingredients, was 4.75% of the COD input at 14 degrees C and 1.22% of the COD input at 20 degrees C. 26 references.

  20. Analysis of organic compounds' degradation and electricity generation in anaerobic fluidized bed microbial fuel cell for coking wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinmin; Wu, Jianjun; Guo, Qingjie

    2017-02-22

    A single-chambered packing-type anaerobic fluidized microbial fuel cell (AFBMFC) with coking wastewater (CWW) as fuel was built to treat CWW, which not only has high treating efficiency, but also can convert organic matter in wastewater into electricity. AFBMFC was constructed by using anaerobic sludge that was domesticated as inoculation sludge, which was used to biochemically treat CWW. The organic compounds in CWW were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction step by step every day. The extraction phase was concentrated by a rotary evaporator and a nitrogen sweeping device and was analyzed by GC-MS. And the electricity-generation performances of AFBMFC were investigated. The results show that the composition of CWW was complicated, which mainly contains hydrocarbons, phenols, nitrogenous organic compounds, alcohols and aldehydes, esters and acids and so on. After a cycle of anaerobic biochemical treatment, the content of organic compounds in the effluent decreased significantly. After the treatment of AFBMFC, 99.9% phenols, 98.4% alcohol and aldehydes and 95.3% nitrogenous compounds were biodegraded. In the effluent, some new compounds (such as tricosane and dibutyl phthalate) were produced. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) of CWW decreased from 3372 to 559 mg/L in the closed-circuit microbial fuel cell, and the COD removal was 83.4 ± 1.0%. The maximum power density of AFBMFC was 2.13 ± 0.01 mW m(-2).

  1. Performance evaluation of a two-phase anaerobic digestion process of synthetic domestic wastewater at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, L; Montalvo, S; Coronado, E; Chamy, R; Poirrier, P; Crutchik, D; Sánchez, E; De La Rubia, M A; Borja, R

    2009-06-01

    A two-phase anaerobic digestion process of synthetic domestic wastewater was studied at ambient temperature in mild to cold climates. The hydrolytic stage was carried out in a continuous stirred tank reactor with an effective volume of 1.2 L. The hydrolytic reactor operated at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) in the range of 1.3 to 2.7 h, which allowed for optimum HRT to be obtained in order to achieve a maximum amount of soluble COD. For the methanogenic stage, an up-flow anaerobic filter with a volume of 1.35 L and corrugated plastic rings as biomass immobilization support were used. During the investigation, the ambient temperature ranged between 21 degrees C and 24 degrees C. Synthetic domestic wastewater with a COD of 700 mg/L was used as substrate. The study was performed at total organic loading rates (OLR(T)) of 2.0-4.3 g COD/L. d, with a global HRT (including both hydrolytic and methanogenic stages) of 2.8-5.8 hours. A maximum percentage of organic matter removed of 88% was achieved at a global HRT of 5.8 hours. Under these operating conditions, the production of biogas was 97% higher than that obtained in the one-phase anaerobic digestion process. Additionally, the kinetics involved in the hydrolytic stage was determined using the Contois kinetic model, which adequately predicted the experimental results.

  2. Coupling of iron shavings into the anaerobic system for enhanced 2,4-dinitroanisole reduction in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ou, Changjin; Shen, Jinyou; Zhang, Shuai; Mu, Yang; Han, Weiqing; Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Wang, Lianjun

    2016-09-15

    Packing of iron powder into anaerobic system is attractive for enhancing removal of recalcitrant pollutants from wastewater, but is limited by various inherent drawbacks of iron powder, such as easy precipitation and poor mass transfer. To address the above issues, iron shavings were packed into an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) for enhancing 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) reduction in this study, with system stability and microbial biodiversity emphasized. The results showed that both DNAN reduction and 2,4-diaminoanisole (DAAN) formation could be notably improved in the iron shavings coupled UASB system. Moreover, the ability to resist environmental stress was also strengthened through the addition of iron shavings in the UASB reactor. Compared with a loose and rough surface of the sludge in the control UASB reactor, the sludge in the coupled system presented a compact, rigid and granular appearance under iron shavings simulation. Furthermore, high throughput sequencing analysis indicated that the diversity of microbial community in the iron shavings coupled UASB system was significantly higher than that of the control UASB reactor. Additionally, species related to DNAN reduction and methane production were enriched in the coupled system. The observed long-term stable performance highlights the full-scale application potential of iron shavings coupled anaerobic sludge process for the treatment of nitroaromatic compounds containing wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrolytic anaerobic reactor and aerated constructed wetland systems for municipal wastewater treatment - HIGHWET project.

    PubMed

    Pascual, A; de la Varga, D; Arias, C A; Van Oirschot, D; Kilian, R; Álvarez, J A; Soto, M

    2017-01-01

    The HIGHWET project combines the hydrolytic up-flow sludge bed (HUSB) anaerobic digester and constructed wetlands (CWs) with forced aeration for decreasing the footprint and improving effluent quality. The HIGHWET plant in A Coruña (NW of Spain) treating municipal wastewater consists of a HUSB and four parallel subsurface horizontal flow (HF) CWs. HF1, HF2 and HF3 units are fitted with forced aeration, while the control HF4 is not aerated. All the HF units are provided with effluent recirculation, but different heights of gravel bed (0.8 m in HF1 and HF2, and 0.5 m in HF3 and HF4) are implemented. Besides, a tobermorite-enriched material was added in the HF2 unit in order to improve phosphorus removal. The HUSB 76-89% of total suspended solids (TSS) and about 40% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD). Aerated HF units reached above 96% of TSS, COD and BOD at a surface loading rate of 29-47 g BOD5/m(2)·d. An aeration regime ranging from 5 h on/3 h off to 3 h on/5 h off was found to be adequate to optimize nitrogen removal, which ranged from 53% to 81%. Average removal rates of 3.4 ± 0.4 g total nitrogen (TN)/m(2)·d and 12.8 ± 3.7 g TN/m(3)·d were found in the aerated units, being 5.5 and 4.1 times higher than those of the non-aerated system. The tobermorite-enriched HF2 unit showed a distinct higher phosphate (60-67%) and total phosphorus (54%) removal.

  4. Haloimpatiens lingqiaonensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic bacterium isolated from paper-mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dildar; Zhang, Nai-Fang; Sun, Cong; Zhang, Wen-Wu; Han, Shuai-Bo; Pan, Jie; Wu, Min; Th, Dilbar; Zhu, Xu-Fen

    2015-11-11

    An anaerobic bacterium, strain ZC-CMC3T, was isolated from a wastewater sample in Zhejiang, China. Cells were Gram-positive, peritrichous, non-spore-forming and rod-shaped (0.6-1.2 × 2.9-5.1 μm). Strain ZC-CMC3T was able to grow at 25-48 °C (optimum 43 °C), and pH 5.5-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0). NaCl concentration range of growth was 0-3 % (w/v) with the optimum 0 %. Catalase- and Oxidase- negative. The major polar lipids of the isolate were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, several phospholipids and glycolipids. Main fermentation products from PYG medium were formate, acetate, lactate and ethanol. Substrates which could be utilized were peptone, tryptone, yeast extract and beef extract. No respiratory quinone was detected. The mainly fatty acids were C14:0, C16:0, C16:1 cis 7 and C16:1 cis 9. The DNA G+C content was 30.0 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolate belonged to the family Clostridiaceae. The most closely phylogenetic related species was Oceanirhabdus sediminicola NH-JN4T (with 92.8 % sequence similarity) and Clostridium tepidiprofundi SG 508T (with 92.6 % sequence similarity). On the basis of phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics, we propose that strain ZC-CMC3T as a novel species of a novel genus in the family Clostridiaceae, for which the name Haloimpatiens lingqiaonensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of type species is ZC-CMC3T (KCTC 15321T = JCM 19210T= CCTCC AB 2013104T).

  5. Fuzzy-logic modeling of Fenton's oxidation of anaerobically pretreated poultry manure wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yetilmezsoy, Kaan

    2012-07-01

    A multiple inputs and multiple outputs (MIMO) fuzzy-logic-based model was proposed to estimate color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies in the post-treatment of anaerobically pretreated poultry manure wastewater effluent using Fenton's oxidation process. Three main input variables including initial pH, Fe+2, and H2O2 dosages were fuzzified in a new numerical modeling scheme by the use of an artificial intelligence-based approach. Trapezoidal membership functions with eight levels were conducted for the fuzzy subsets, and a Mamdani-type fuzzy inference system was used to implement a total of 70 rules in the IF-THEN format. The product (prod) and the center of gravity (centroid) methods were applied as the inference operator and defuzzification methods, respectively. Fuzzy-logic predicted results were compared with the outputs of two first-order polynomial regression models derived in the scope of this study. Estimated results were also compared to the multiple regression approach by means of various descriptive statistical indicators, such as root mean-squared error, index of agreement, fractional variance, proportion of systematic error, etc. Results of the statistical analysis clearly revealed that, compared to conventional regression models, the proposed MIMO fuzzy-logic model produced very smaller deviations and demonstrated a superior predictive performance on forecasting of color and COD removal efficiencies with satisfactory determination coefficients over 0.98. Due to high capability of the fuzzy-logic methodology in capturing the non-linear interactions, it was demonstrated that a complex dynamic system, such as Fenton's oxidation, could be easily modeled.

  6. Treatment process and toxicities assessment of wastewater issued from anaerobic digestion of household wastes.

    PubMed

    Djelal, Hayet; Tahrani, Leyla; Fathallah, Salem; Cabrol, Audrey; Mansour, Hedi Ben

    2014-02-01

    Modern society grapples with large amounts of household waste. The anaerobic digestion of this waste offers a promising source for energy-rich biogas production but generates high toxic effluents that require treatment before reuse or disposal into the environment. This study aimed to investigate three techniques, namely coagulation/flocculation, electro-coagulation, and activated sludge, in terms of efficiency in the treatment of these effluents. It also aimed to assess their toxicity effects on the germination and growth of durum wheat Triticum aestivum L. seeds before and after 6 days of treatment. Activated sludge was most efficient in reducing chemical oxygen demand, turbidity, and conductivity (95.7 %, 15.8 %, and 37.5 %, respectively). The effluent treated with this technique induced a marked delay in germination (low mean time of germination) and a significant reduction in the percentages of seed germination and root and leaf growths. It was also noted to strongly induce lipid peroxidation in roots and leaves, which presumably explained the germination/growth inhibition of the wheat seeds. The effluent also induced marked lipid peroxidation effects and strongly inhibited the activities of butyrylcholinesterase in mice bone marrows. The effluent shows a high ability to inhibit the growth of three microalgae; these endpoints are useful tools to biomonitor the physico-chemical quality of this wastewater. Overall, while no significant alterations were observed in terms of animal and vegetable toxicities when the effluent was treated by coagulation/flocculation, activated sludge treatment proved efficient in reducing the toxicities induced by the untreated effluents. The results indicate that the application of this technique is promising with regards to attaining efficient, eco-friendly, and cost-effective strategies for the management and treatment of household waste.

  7. Brassicibacter mesophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a strictly anaerobic bacterium isolated from food industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ming-Xu; Zhang, Wen-Wu; Zhang, Yan-Zhou; Tan, Hai-Qin; Zhang, Xin-Qi; Wu, Min; Zhu, Xu-Fen

    2012-12-01

    A novel mesophilic, strictly anaerobic bacterium, strain BM(T), was isolated from food industry wastewater. The cells were motile, non-spore-forming rods and stained Gram-negative. Growth of strain BM(T) was observed at 16-44 °C (optimum 37 °C) and pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.5). The NaCl concentration range for growth was 0-8% (optimum 1.5%, w/v). Strain BM(T) was chemo-organotrophic, using a few sugars and amino acids as sole carbon and energy sources. The fermentation products from peptone-yeast extract broth were propionate, formate, acetate, ethanol and isovalerate. Indole, NH(3) and H(2)S were produced from peptone. No respiratory quinones could be detected. The major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0) (39.3%), iso-C(15:0) dimethyl acetal (10.1%), anteiso-C(15:0) (7.6%), C(14:0) (6.1%) and C(16:0) (5.6%). The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol and a number of unidentified aminoglycolipids, glycolipids and phospholipids. The DNA G+C content was 28.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain BM(T) was related to various genera of the family Clostridiaceae, and its closest relatives were Sporosalibacterium faouarense SOL3f37(T) (94.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Proteiniborus ethanoligenes GW(T) (92.1%) and Clostridiisalibacter paucivorans 37HS60(T) (92.0%). In recognition of its distinct phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, isolate BM(T) is proposed to represent a novel species of a new genus, Brassicibacter mesophilus gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Brassicibacter mesophilus is BM(T) ( = JCM 16868(T)  = DSM 24659(T)).

  8. Kinetic evaluation and performance of a mesophilic anaerobic contact reactor treating medium-strength food-processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sentürk, E; Ince, M; Onkal Engin, G

    2010-06-01

    High rate mesophilic anaerobic contact reactors (MACR) represent a proven sustainable technology for a wide range of different industrial effluents. These reactors demonstrate quite similar features to their aerobic counterparts, activated sludge systems. A lab-scale high rate mesophilic anaerobic contact reactor was operated with wastewater originated from a potato-processing plant, at six different loading rates of 1.1-5g COD/L per day. The operational performance of MACR was monitored from start-up by assessing COD removal efficiency, total volatile fatty acid production and biogas composition. Furthermore, various kinetic models have been successfully applied to the experimental data to determine substrate balance, maximum utilization rate and volumetric methane production. The COD removal efficiencies were found to be 78-92% and the methane percentage of the biogas produced was 80-89%. Additionally, the methane yield coefficient was found to be 0.394 L CH(4)/gTCOD(rem).

  9. High-strength fermentable wastewater reclamation through a sequential process of anaerobic fermentation followed by microalgae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Wenqiang; Chen, Taojing; Wang, Liang; Wu, Minghong; Zhao, Quanyu; Wei, Wei

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the sequential process of anaerobic fermentation followed by microalgae cultivation was evaluated from both nutrient and energy recovery standpoints. The effects of different fermentation type on the biogas generation, broth metabolites' composition, algal growth and nutrients' utilization, and energy conversion efficiencies for the whole processes were discussed. When the fermentation was designed to produce hydrogen-dominating biogas, the total energy conversion efficiency (TECE) of the sequential process was higher than that of the methane fermentation one. With the production of hydrogen in anaerobic fermentation, more organic carbon metabolites were left in the broth to support better algal growth with more efficient incorporation of ammonia nitrogen. By applying the sequential process, the heat value conversion efficiency (HVCE) for the wastewater could reach 41.2%, if methane was avoided in the fermentation biogas. The removal efficiencies of organic metabolites and NH4(+)-N in the better case were 100% and 98.3%, respectively.

  10. Impact of high external circulation ratio on the performance of anaerobic reactor treating coal gasification wastewater under thermophilic condition.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shengyong; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Hou, Baolin; Li, Kun

    2015-09-01

    A laboratory-scale external circulation anaerobic reactor (ECAR) was developed to treat actual coal gasification wastewater. The external circulation ratio (R) was selected as the main operating variable for analysis. From the results, with the hydraulic retention time of 50h, pH > 8.0 and R of 3, the COD, total phenols, volatile phenol and NH4(+)-N removal efficiencies were remarkably increased to 10 ± 2%, 22 ± 5%, 18 ± 1%, and -1 ± 2%, respectively. Besides, increasing R resulted in more transformation from bound extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to free EPS in the liquid and the particle size distribution of anaerobic granular sludge accumulated in the middle size range of 1.0-2.5mm. Results showed the genus Saccharofermentans dominanted in the ECAR and the bacterial community shift was observed at different external circulation ratio, influencing the pollutants removal profoundly.

  11. Advanced regeneration and fixed-bed study of ammonium and potassium removal from anaerobic digested wastewater by natural zeolite.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuejun; Zeng, Larry; Jin, Xin

    2013-05-01

    Highly efficient regeneration of natural zeolite was developed in conjunction with the removal of high concentrations of ammonia and potassium from the reverse osmosis effluent of anaerobic-digested wastewater by fixed-bed ion exchange. The elution and uptake behavior of ammonium and potassium in the fixed bed were studied. Both batch desorption tests and on-column regeneration were conducted to develop an optimum regeneration condition compatible with the wastewater requirements. The effectiveness of ammonium elution increased with increasing alkaline concentration. The increase of salt dose significantly enhanced the ammonium maximum in the elution solution. Complete ammonium elution was achieved in 6 bed volumes (BV) when the alkaline and salt concentrations were respectively 0.1 mol/L and 18.6 g/L at a flow rate of 2.5-3.0 BV/hr. Due to the higher affinity of potassium with natural clinoptilolite, complete potassium elution was not achieved in all cases.

  12. Improvement of the anaerobic treatment of potato processing wastewater in a UASB reactor by co-digestion with glycerol.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingxing; Van Wambeke, Mariane; Carballa, Marta; Verstraete, Willy

    2008-05-01

    The effect of three different types of glycerol on the performance of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors treating potato processing wastewater was investigated. High COD removal efficiencies were obtained in both control and supplemented UASB reactors (around 85%). By adding 2 ml glycerol product per liter of raw wastewater, the biogas production could be increased by 0.74 l biogas ml(-1) glycerol product, which leads to energy values in the range of 810-1270 kWh(electric) per m(3) product. Moreover, a better in-reactor biomass yield was observed for the supplemented UASB reactor (0.012 g VSS g(-1) COD(removed)) compared to the UASB control (0.002 g VSS g(-1) COD(removed)), which suggests a positive effect of glycerol on the sludge blanket growth.

  13. The effect of enzymatic pre-hydrolysis of dairy wastewater on the granular and immobilized microbial community in anaerobic bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Cammarota, Magali C; Rosa, Daniela R; Duarte, Iolanda C S; Saavedra, Nora K; Varesche, Maria B A; Zaiat, Marcelo; Freire, Denise M G

    2013-01-01

    The effect of a lipase-rich enzyme preparation produced by the fungus Penicillium sp. on solid-state fermentation was evaluated in two anaerobic bioreactors (up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and horizontal-flow anaerobic immobilized biomass (HAIB)) treating dairy wastewater with 1200 mg oil and grease/L. The oil and grease hydrolysis step was carried out with 0.1% (w/v) of the solid enzymatic preparation at 30 degrees C for 24 h. This resulted in a final concentration of free acids eight times higher than the initial value. The bioreactors operated at 30 degrees C with hydraulic retention times of 12 h (HAIB) and 20 h (UASB) for a period of 430 days, and had high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies (around 90%) when fed with pre-hydrolyzed wastewater. There was, however, an increase in the effluent oil and grease concentration (from values as low as 17 mg/L to values above 150 mg/L in the UASB bioreactor, and from 38-242 mg/L in the HAIB bioreactor), and oil and grease accumulation in the biomass throughout the operational period (the oil and grease content reached 1.7 times that found in the inoculum of the UASB bioreactor). The HAIB bioreactor gave better results because the support for biomass immobilization acted as a filter, retaining oil and grease at the entry of the bioreactor. The molecular analysis of the Bacteria and Archaea domains revealed significant differences in the microbial profiles in experiments conducted with and without the pre-hydrolysis step. The differences observed in the overall parameters could be related to the microbial diversity of the anaerobic sludge.

  14. Thermophilic treatment of acidified and partially acidified wastewater using an anaerobic submerged MBR: Factors affecting long-term operational flux.

    PubMed

    Jeison, D; van Lier, J B

    2007-09-01

    The long-term operation of two thermophilic anaerobic submerged membrane bioreactors (AnSMBRs) was studied using acidified and partially acidified synthetic wastewaters. In both reactors, cake formation was identified as the key factor governing critical flux. Even though cake formation was observed to be mostly reversible, particle deposition proceeds fast once the critical flux is exceeded. Very little irreversible fouling was observed during long-term operation, irrespective of the substrate. Critical flux values at the end of the reactors operation were 7 and 3L/m(2)h for the AnSMBRs fed with acidified and partially acidified wastewaters, respectively, at a gas superficial velocity of 70m/h. Small particle size was identified as the responsible parameter for the low observed critical flux values. The degree of wastewater acidification significantly affected the physical properties of the sludge, determining the attainable flux. Based on the fluxes observed in this research, the membrane costs would be in the range of 0.5euro/m(3) of treated wastewater. Gas sparging was ineffective in increasing the critical flux values. However, preliminary tests showed that cross-flow operation may be a feasible alternative to reduce particle deposition.

  15. Simultaneous removal of ammonium-nitrogen and sulphate from wastewaters with an anaerobic attached-growth bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Q I; Li, W; You, S J

    2006-01-01

    Some industrial wastewaters may contain ammonium-nitrogen and/or sulphate, which need to be removed before their discharge into natural water bodies to eliminate their severe pollution. In this paper, simultaneous removal of ammonium-nitrogen and sulphate with an anaerobic attached-growth bioreactor of 3.8 L incubated with sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) was investigated. Artificial wastewater containing sodium sulphate as electron acceptor, ammonium chlorine as electron donor and glucose as carbon source for bacteria growth was used as the feed for the bioreactor. The loading rates of ammonium-nitrogen, sulphate and COD were 2.08 gN/m3 x d, 2.38 gS/m3 x d, 104.17 gCOD/m3 x d, respectively, with a N/S ratio of 1:1.14. The results demonstrated that removal rates of ammonium-nitrogen, sulphate and COD could reach 43.35%, 58.74% and 91.34%, respectively. Meanwhile, sulphur production was observed in effluent as well as molecular nitrogen in biogas, whose amounts increased with time substantially, suggesting the occurrence of simultaneous removal of ammonium-nitrogen and sulphate. This novel reaction provided the possibility to eliminate ammonium-nitrogen and sulphate simultaneously with accomplishment of COD removal from wastewater, making wastewater treatment more economical and sustainable.

  16. Anaerobic treatment of sulfate-rich wastewater in an anaerobic sequential batch reactor (AnSBR) using butanol as the carbon source.

    PubMed

    Sarti, Arnaldo; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2011-06-01

    Biological sulfate reduction was studied in a laboratory-scale anaerobic sequential batch reactor (14 L) containing mineral coal for biomass attachment. The reactor was fed industrial wastewater with increasingly high sulfate concentrations to establish its application limits. Special attention was paid to the use of butanol in the sulfate reduction that originated from melamine resin production. This product was used as the main organic amendment to support the biological process. The reactor was operated for 65 cycles (48 h each) at sulfate loading rates ranging from 2.2 to 23.8 g SO(4)(2-)/cycle, which corresponds to sulfate concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 g SO(4)(2-) L(-1). The sulfate removal efficiency reached 99% at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 g SO(4)(2-) L(-1). At higher sulfate concentrations (2.0 and 3.0 g SO(4)(2-) L(-1)), the sulfate conversion remained in the range of 71-95%. The results demonstrate the potential applicability of butanol as the carbon source for the biological treatment of sulfate in an anaerobic batch reactor.

  17. Salimesophilobacter vulgaris gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic bacterium isolated from paper-mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Zhou; Fang, Ming-Xu; Zhang, Wen-Wu; Li, Tian-Tian; Wu, Min; Zhu, Xu-Fen

    2013-04-01

    A novel anaerobic, heterotrophic bacterium, designated strain Zn2(T), was isolated from the wastewater of a paper mill in Zhejiang, China. Cells were gram-type-positive rods, 0.5-0.8 µm wide and 2-4 µm long, and were motile by a lateral flagellum. The ranges of temperature and pH for growth were 10-50 °C and pH 6.0-9.5. Optimal growth occurred at 35 °C and pH 7.3-7.5. The strain did not require NaCl for growth, but its inclusion in the medium improved growth (optimum concentration 6 %). Substrates utilized as sole carbon sources were peptone, tryptone, Casamino acids, D-xylose, salicin, glycerol, formate, acetate and propionate. The main products of carbohydrate fermentation were acetate, formate, propionate and lactate. Elemental sulfur, thiosulfate and Fe(III) were used as electron acceptors, but sulfate, sulfite, nitrate, nitrite and Mn(IV) were not. Growth was inhibited by the addition of 10 µg ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline or chloramphenicol ml(-1). iso-C15 : 0, C14 : 0, C16 : 0, C16 : 1 cis9 and C18 : 1 cis9 were the major fatty acids. Strain Zn2(T) did not contain any detectable menaquinones or ubiquinones. The main polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, two unknown phospholipids and four unknown glycolipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 37 mol%, as determined by HPLC. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain Zn2(T) was a member of family Clostridiaceae, and was most closely related to the type strains of Geosporobacter subterraneus, Thermotalea metallivorans and Caminicella sporogenes, showing 91.2, 90.3 and 91.1 % sequence similarity, respectively. On the basis of its phenotypic and genotypic properties, strain Zn2(T) is suggested to represent a novel species of a new genus, for which the name Salimesophilobacter vulgaris gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Salimesophilobacter vulgaris is Zn2(T) ( = DSM 24770(T)

  18. Treating wastewater with high oil and grease content using an Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR). Filtration and cleaning assays.

    PubMed

    Diez, V; Ramos, C; Cabezas, J L

    2012-01-01

    An Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (AnMBR) pilot plant was studied to improve certain operational conditions of AnMBRs that treat high oil and grease wastewaters discharged from a snacks factory. A comparison of its performance and behavior was made with an upflow anaerobic reactor throughout the first eight weeks of its operation. Raw snack food wastewater was characterized by oil and grease concentrations of up to 6,000 mg/l, with chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)) concentrations of up to 22,000 and 10,300 mg/l, respectively. The AnMBR achieved COD removal efficiencies of 97% at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 5.1 kg COD/m(3) d. The filtration flux, and the suction, backwash and relaxation times for each cycle were all varied: an 11 min filtration time involving 10 s pre-relaxation, 20 s backwash and 70 s post-relaxation was finally selected. The filtration flux for long-term operation was between 6.5 and 8.0 l/m(2) h. The study also tested physical cleaning strategies such as intensive backwashing cycles and extended relaxation mode, and different chemical cleaning methods, such as chemically enhanced backwash on air and chemical cleaning by immersion.

  19. Fate of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles during Anaerobic Digestion of Wastewater and Post-Treatment Processing of Sewage Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Lombi, Enzo; Donner, Erica; Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Turney, Terence W.; Naidu, Ravi; Miller, Bradley W.; Scheckel, Kirk G.

    2013-01-14

    The rapid development and commercialization of nanomaterials will inevitably result in the release of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment. As NPs often exhibit physical and chemical properties significantly different from those of their molecular or macrosize analogs, concern has been growing regarding their fate and toxicity in environmental compartments. The wastewater-sewage sludge pathway has been identified as a key release pathway leading to environmental exposure to NPs. In this study, we investigated the chemical transformation of two ZnO-NPs and one hydrophobic ZnO-NP commercial formulation (used in personal care products), during anaerobic digestion of wastewater. Changes in Zn speciation as a result of postprocessing of the sewage sludge, mimicking composting/stockpiling, were also assessed. The results indicated that 'native' Zn and Zn added either as a soluble salt or as NPs was rapidly converted to sulfides in all treatments. The hydrophobicity of the commercial formulation retarded the conversion of ZnO-NP. However, at the end of the anaerobic digestion process and after postprocessing of the sewage sludge (which caused a significant change in Zn speciation), the speciation of Zn was similar across all treatments. This indicates that, at least for the material tested, the risk assessment of ZnO-NP through this exposure pathway can rely on the significant knowledge already available in regard to other 'conventional' forms of Zn present in sewage sludge.

  20. Anaerobic digestion of microalgal bacterial flocs from a raceway pond treating aquaculture wastewater: need for a biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Van Den Hende, Sofie; Laurent, Cedric; Bégué, Marine

    2015-11-01

    An outdoor raceway pond with microalgal bacterial flocs (MaB-flocs) is a novel sunlight-based system to treat pikeperch aquaculture wastewater while producing biomass. The harvested MaB-floc biomass (33tonTSha(-1)y(-1)) needs further valorization. Therefore, the biochemical methane yield (BMY) of MaB-floc biomass was determined in batch experiments. The results show significant differences between the BMY of MaB-flocs amongst their harvest dates (128-226NLCH4kg(-1)VS), a low anaerobic digestion conversion efficiency (25.0-36.2%), a moderate chlorophyll a removal (51.5-86.9%) and a low biogas profit (<0.01€m(-3)wastewater). None of the pretreatment methods screened (freezing, thermal, microwave, ultrasonic and chlorination, flue gas sparging, and acid) can be recommended due to a low BMY improvement and/or unfavorable energy balance. Therefore, anaerobic digestion of this MaB-floc biomass should only be granted a supporting role within a biorefinery concept.

  1. Effects of the incorporation of drinking water sludge on the anaerobic digestion of domestic wastewater sludge for methane production.

    PubMed

    Torres-Lozada, Patricia; Díaz-Granados, José Sánchez; Parra-Orobio, Brayan Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Water purification and wastewater treatment generate sludge, which must be adequately handled to prevent detrimental effects to the environment and public health. In this study, we examined the influence of the application of settled sludge from a drinking water treatment plant (S(DWTP)) on the anaerobic digestion (AD) of the thickened primary sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (S(WWTP)) which uses chemically assisted primary treatment (CAPT). On both plants the primary coagulant is ferric chloride. The study was performed at laboratory scale using specific methanogenic activity (SMA) tests, in which mixtures of S(WWTP)-S(DWTP) with the ratios 100:00, 80:20, 75:25, 70:30 and 00:100 were evaluated. Methane detection was also performed by gas chromatography for a period of 30 days. Our results show that all evaluated ratios that incorporate S(DWTP), produce an inhibitory effect on the production of methane. The reduction in methane production ranged from 26% for the smallest concentration of S(DWTP) (20%) to more than 70% for concentrations higher than 25%. The results indicated that the hydrolytic stage was significantly affected, with the hydrolysis constant Kh also reduced by approximately 70% (0.24-0.26 day(-1) for the different ratios compared with 0.34 day(-1) for the S(WWTP) alone). This finding demonstrates that the best mixtures to be considered for anaerobic co-digestion must contain a fraction of S(DWTP) below 20%.

  2. Biogas-pH automation control strategy for optimizing organic loading rate of anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating high COD wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dawei; Liu, Jibao; Sui, Qianwen; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-03-01

    Control of organic loading rate (OLR) is essential for anaerobic digestion treating high COD wastewater, which would cause operation failure by overload or less efficiency by underload. A novel biogas-pH automation control strategy using the combined gas-liquor phase monitoring was developed for an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating high COD (27.53 g·L(-1)) starch wastewater. The biogas-pH strategy was proceeded with threshold between biogas production rate >98 Nml·h(-1) preventing overload and pH>7.4 preventing underload, which were determined by methane production kinetics and pH titration of methanogenesis slurry, respectively. The OLR and the effluent COD were doubled as 11.81 kgCOD·kgVSS(-1)·d(-1) and halved as 253.4 mg·L(-1), respectively, comparing with a constant OLR control strategy. Meanwhile COD removal rate, biogas yield and methane concentration were synchronously improved to 99.1%, 312 Nml·gCODin(-1) and 74%, respectively. Using the biogas-pH strategy, AnMBR formed a "pH self-regulation ternary buffer system" which seizes carbon dioxide and hence provides sufficient buffering capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Temporal variation in methanogen communities of four different full-scale anaerobic digesters treating food waste-recycling wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joonyeob; Hwang, Byungchul; Koo, Taewoan; Shin, Seung Gu; Kim, Woong; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2014-09-01

    Methanogen communities were investigated using 454 pyrosequencing in four different full-scale anaerobic digesters treating food waste-recycling wastewater. Seasonal samples were collected for 2 years, and 24 samples were available for microbial analysis from a plug flow thermophilic (PT) digester, a continuously-stirred tank thermophilic (CT) digester, an upflow anerobic sludge blanket mesophilic (UM) digester, and a continuously-stirred tank mesophilic (CM) digester. Methanoculleus, Methanobacterium, Methanothermobacter, and Methanosaeta were revealed to be key methanogens in full-scale anaerobic digestion process treating food waste-recycling wastewater. In the PT digester, Methanoculleus was dominant (96.8%). In the CT digester, Methanoculleus was dominant (95.4%) during the first year of operation, but the dominant genus was shifted to Methanothermobacter (98.5%) due to pH increase. In the UM digester, Methanosaeta was dominant (87.2%). In the CM digester, Methanoculleus was constantly dominant (74.8%) except during CM5 when Methanosaeta was dominant (62.6%) due to the low residual acetate concentration (0.1 g/L). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modeling of the denitrification/anaerobic digestion process of salmon fishery wastewater in a biofilm tubular reactor.

    PubMed

    Huiliñir, César; Aspé, Estrella; Roeckel, Marlene

    2011-06-01

    The literature has paid scarce attention to the modeling of the denitrification-anaerobic digestion process in packed bed biofilm tubular reactors used to treat wastewater. The present study obtained a steady-state model for industrial salmon fishery wastewater treatment in a biofilm tubular reactor, including pH as a variable and the effect of biomass on hydrolysis. The axial profile of the reactor components and process efficiency were predicted with deviations below 6%. The optimal operating zone for the process was found at hydraulic retention time (HRT)>1.5d and inlet protein concentration (S(prot,0))<3000 mgTOCL(-1). Based on our results, we concluded that the removal of organic matter and nitrogen compounds depended mainly on HRT. The effluent pH was mainly affected by the C/N ratio, where a decrease increases pH. Organic matter removal was related with the anaerobic digestion process, while denitrification influenced mostly nitrate and nitrite removal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of methanogenic community structure and anaerobic process performance treating swine wastewater between pilot and optimized lab scale bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woong; Cho, Kyungjin; Lee, Seungyong; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2013-10-01

    To investigate methanogenic community structure and process performance of anaerobic digestion treating swine wastewater at different scale, a pilot plant with 20 m(3) of effective working volume and lab scale methanogenic digester with 6L working volume were operated for 71 days and 6 turnover periods, respectively. During the steady state of anaerobic digestion, COD and VS removal efficiency in pilot plant were 65.3±3.2, 51.6±4.3%, respectively, which was similar to those in lab scale. However, calculated VFAs removal efficiency and methane yield were lower in pilot plant than in lab scale digester. Also, organics removal efficiencies, which consist of total carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids, were different between pilot and lab scale. These results were thought to be due to the ratio of carbohydrates to proteins in the raw swine wastewater. As a result of qualitative microbial analysis, Methanoculleus receptaculii, and Methanoculleus bourgensis, were commonly concerned with methane production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor as post treatment of existing combined anaerobic tank treating natural rubber processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Watari, Takahiro; Cuong Mai, Trung; Tanikawa, Daisuke; Hirakata, Yuga; Hatamoto, Masashi; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Fukuda, Masao; Nguyen, Ngoc Bich; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Conventional aerated tank technology is widely applied for post treatment of natural rubber processing wastewater in Southeast Asia; however, a long hydraulic retention time (HRT) is required and the effluent standards are exceeded. In this study, a downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor was installed as post treatment of anaerobic tank effluent in a natural rubber factory in South Vietnam and the process performance was evaluated. The DHS reactor demonstrated removal efficiencies of 64.2 ± 7.5% and 55.3 ± 19.2% for total chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total nitrogen, respectively, with an organic loading rate of 0.97 ± 0.03 kg-COD m(-3) day(-1) and a nitrogen loading rate of 0.57 ± 0.21 kg-N m(-3) day(-1). 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis of the sludge retained in the DHS also corresponded to the result of reactor performance, and both nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria were detected in the sponge carrier. In addition, anammox bacteria was found in the retained sludge. The DHS reactor reduced the HRT of 30 days to 4.8 h compared with the existing algal tank. This result indicates that the DHS reactor could be an appropriate post treatment for the existing anaerobic tank for natural rubber processing wastewater treatment.

  7. Using mushroom farm and anaerobic digestion wastewaters as supplemental fertilizer sources for growing container nursery stock in a closed system.

    PubMed

    Chong, C; Purvis, P; Lumis, G; Holbein, B E; Voroney, R P; Zhou, H; Liu, H-W; Alam, M Z

    2008-04-01

    Wastewaters from farm and composting operations are often rich in select nutrients that potentially can be reutilized in crop production. Liners of silverleaf dogwood (Cornus alba L. 'Argenteo-marginata'), common ninebark [Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maxim.], and Anthony Waterer spirea (Spiraeaxbumalda Burvénich 'Anthony Waterer') were grown in 6L containers filled with a bark-based commercial mix. Plants were fertigated daily via a computer-controlled multi-fertilizer injector with three recirculated fertilizer treatments: (1) a stock (control) solution with complete macro- and micro-nutrients, electrical conductivity (EC) 2.2 dS m(-1); (2) wastewater from a mushroom farm; and (3) process wastewater from anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste. The wastewaters used in both treatments 2 and 3 were diluted with tap water, and the computer was programmed to amend, dispense and recirculate nutrients based on the same target EC as in treatment 1. For comparison, there was a traditional controlled-release fertilizer treatment [Nutryon 17-5-12 (17N-2P-10K) plus micro-nutrients topdressed at a rate of 39 g/plant, nutrients not recirculated]. All three species responded similarly to the three recirculated fertilizer treatments. Growth with the recirculated treatments was similar and significantly higher than that obtained with controlled-release fertilizer. Throughout the study, the EC measured in wastewater-derived nutrient solutions, and also in the container substrate, were similar or close to those of the control treatment, although there were small to large differences among individual major nutrients. There was no sign of nutrient deficiency or toxicity symptoms to the plants. Small to moderate excesses in concentrations of SO(4), Na, and/or Cl were physiologically tolerable to the species.

  8. Evaluation of system performance and microbial communities of a bioaugmented anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating pharmaceutical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kok Kwang; Shi, Xueqing; Ng, How Yong

    2015-09-15

    In this study, a control anaerobic membrane bioreactor (C-AnMBR) and a bioaugmented anaerobic membrane bioreactor (B-AnMBR) were operated for 210 d to treat pharmaceutical wastewater. Both the bioreactors were fed with the pharmaceutical wastewater containing TCOD of 16,249 ± 714 mg/L and total dissolved solids (TDS) of 29,450 ± 2209 mg/L with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 13.0 ± 0.6 kgCOD/m(3)d. Under steady-state condition, an average total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency of 46.1 ± 2.9% and 60.3 ± 2.8% was achieved by the C-AnMBR and the B-AnMBR, respectively. The conventional anaerobes in the C-AnMBR cannot tolerate the hypersaline conditions well, resulting in lower TCOD removal efficiency, biogas production and methane yield than the B-AnMBR seeded from the coastal shore. Pyrosequencing analysis indicated that marine bacterial species (Oliephilus sp.) and halophilic bacterial species (Thermohalobacter sp.) were only present in the B-AnMBR; these species could possibly degrade complex and recalcitrant organic matter and withstand hypersaline environments. Two different dominant archaeal communities, genus Methanosaeta (43.4%) and Methanolobus (61.7%), were identified as the dominant methanogens in the C-AnMBR and the B-AnMBR, respectively. The species of genus Methanolobus was reported resistant to penicillin and required sodium and magnesium for growth, which could enable it to thrive in the hypersaline environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Anaerobic digestion of olive mill wastewaters in biofilm reactors packed with granular activated carbon and "Manville" silica beads.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Lorenzo; Berselli, Sara; Fava, Fabio; Petrangeli-Papini, Marco; Marchetti, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is one of the most promising technologies for disposing olive mill wastewaters (OMWs). The process is generally carried out in the conventional contact bioreactors, which however are often unable to efficiently remove OMW phenolic compounds, that therefore occur in the effluents. The possibility of mitigating this problem by employing an anaerobic OMW-digesting microbial consortium passively immobilized in column reactors packed with granular activated carbon (GAC) or "Manville" silica beads (SB) was here investigated. Under batch conditions, both GAC- and SB-packed-bed biofilm reactors exhibited OMW COD and phenolic compound removal efficiencies markedly higher (from 60% to 250%) than those attained in a parallel anaerobic dispersed growth reactor developed with the same inoculum; GAC-reactor exhibited COD and phenolic compound depletion yields higher by 62% and 78%, respectively, than those achieved with the identically configured SB-biofilm reactor. Both biofilm reactors also mediated an extensive OMW remediation under continuous conditions, where GAC-reactor was much more effective than the corresponding SB-one, and showed a tolerance to high and variable organic loads along with a volumetric productivity in terms of COD and phenolic compound removal significantly higher than those averagely displayed by most of the conventional and packed-bed laboratory-scale reactors previously proposed for the OMW digestion.

  10. Treatment of phenolics, aromatic hydrocarbons, and cyanide-bearing wastewater in individual and combined anaerobic, aerobic, and anoxic bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Naresh K; Philip, Ligy

    2015-01-01

    Studies were conducted on a mixture of pollutants commonly found in coke oven wastewater (CWW) to evaluate the biodegradation of various pollutants under anaerobic, aerobic, and anoxic conditions. The removal of the pollutants was monitored during individual bioreactor operation and using a combination of bioreactors operating in anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic sequence. While studying the performance of individual reactors, it was observed that cyanide removal (83.3 %) was predominant in the aerobic bioreactor, while much of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) (69 %) was consumed in the anoxic bioreactor. With the addition of cyanide, the COD removal efficiency was affected in all the bioreactors, and several intermediates were detected. While treating synthetic CWW using the combined bioreactor system, the overall COD removal efficiency was 86.79 % at an OLR of 2.4 g COD/L/day and an HRT of 96 h. The removal efficiency of 3,5-xylenol and cyanide, with inlet concentration of 150 and 10 mg/L, was found to be 91.8 and 93.6 % respectively. It was found that the impact of xylenol on the performance of the bioreactors was less than cyanide toxicity. Molecular analysis using T-RFLP revealed the dominance of strictly aerobic, mesophilic proteobacterium, Bosea minatitlanensis, in the aerobic bioreactor. The anoxic bioreactor was dominant with Rhodococcus pyridinivorans, known for its remarkable aromatic decomposing activity, while an unclassified Myxococcales bacterium was identified as the predominant bacterial species in the anaerobic bioreactor.

  11. Steady performance of a zero valent iron packed anaerobic reactor for azo dye wastewater treatment under variable influent quality.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaobin; Liu, Yiwen; Jing, Yanwen; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Quan, Xie

    2012-01-01

    Zero valent iron (ZVI) is expected to help create an enhanced anaerobic environment that might improve the performance of anaerobic treatment. Based on this idea, a novel ZVI packed upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (ZVI-UASB) reactor was developed to treat azo dye wastewater with variable influent quality. The results showed that the reactor was less influenced by increases of Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B concentration from 50 to 1000 mg/L and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from 1000 to 7000 mg/L in the feed than a reference UASB reactor without the ZVI. The ZVI decreased oxidation-reduction potential in the reactor by about 80 mV. Iron ion dissolution from the ZVI could buffer acidity in the reactor, the amount of which was related to the COD concentration. Fluorescence in situ hybridization test showed the abundance of methanogens in the sludge of the ZVI-UASB reactor was significantly greater than that of the reference one. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that the ZVI increased the diversity of microbial strains responsible for high efficiency.

  12. Treatment of food processing wastewater in a full-scale jet biogas internal loop anaerobic fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chaohai; Zhang, Tao; Feng, Chunhua; Wu, Haizhen; Deng, Zhiyi; Wu, Chaofei; Lu, Bin

    2011-04-01

    A full-scale jet biogas internal loop anaerobic fluidized bed (JBILAFB) reactor, which requires low energy input and allows enhanced mass transfer, was constructed for the treatment of food processing wastewater. This reactor has an active volume of 798 m(3) and can treat 33.3 m(3) wastewater per hour. After pre-treating the raw wastewater by settling, oil separating and coagulation-air floating processes, the reactor was operated with a relatively shorter start-up time (55 days). Samples for the influent and effluent of the JBILAFB reactor were taken and analyzed daily for the whole process including both the start-up and stable running periods. When the volumetric COD loading fluctuated in the range of 1.6-5.6 kg COD m(-3) day(-1), the COD removal efficiency, the volatile fatty acid(VFA)/alkalinity ratio, the maximum biogas production and the content of CH(4) in total biogas of the reactor were found to be 80.1 ± 5%, 0.2-0.5, 348.5 m(3 )day(-1) and 94.5 ± 2.5%, respectively. Furthermore, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) results showed that anaerobic granular sludge and microorganism particles with biofilm coexisted in the reactor, and that the bacteria mainly in bacilli and cocci were observed as predominant species. All the data demonstrated that the enhanced mass transfer for gas, liquid and solid phases was achieved, and that the formation of microorganism granules and the removal of inhibitors increased the stability of the system.

  13. Metagenomic Reconstruction of Key Anaerobic Digestion Pathways in Municipal Sludge and Industrial Wastewater Biogas-Producing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Mingwei; Wilkins, David; Chen, Jiapeng; Ng, Siu-Kin; Lu, Hongyuan; Jia, Yangyang; Lee, Patrick K. H.

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a microbial process widely used to treat organic wastes. While the microbes involved in digestion of municipal sludge are increasingly well characterized, the taxonomic and functional compositions of AD digesters treating industrial wastewater have been understudied. This study examined metagenomes from a biogas-producing digester treating municipal sludge in Shek Wu Hui (SWH), Hong Kong and an industrial wastewater digester in Guangzhou (GZ), China, and compared their taxonomic composition and reconstructed biochemical pathways. Genes encoding carbohydrate metabolism and protein metabolism functions were overrepresented in GZ, while genes encoding functions related to fatty acids, lipids and isoprenoids were overrepresented in SWH, reflecting the plants’ feedstocks. Mapping of genera to functions in each community indicated that both digesters had a high level of functional redundancy, and a more even distribution of genera in GZ suggested that it was more functionally stable. While fermentation in both samples was dominated by Clostridia, SWH had an overrepresentation of Proteobacteria, including syntrophic acetogens, reflecting its more complex substrate. Considering the growing importance of biogas as an alternative fuel source, a detailed mechanistic understanding of AD is important and this report will be a basis for further study of industrial wastewater AD. PMID:27252693

  14. Environmental impact of submerged anaerobic MBR (SAnMBR) technology used to treat urban wastewater at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Pretel, R; Robles, A; Ruano, M V; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the environmental impact of a submerged anaerobic MBR (SAnMBR) system in the treatment of urban wastewater at different temperatures: ambient temperature (20 and 33°C), and a controlled temperature (33°C). To this end, an overall energy balance (OEB) and life cycle assessment (LCA), both based on real process data, were carried out. Four factors were considered in this study: (1) energy consumption during wastewater treatment; (2) energy recovered from biogas capture; (3) potential recovery of nutrients from the final effluent; and (4) sludge disposal. The OEB and LCA showed SAnMBR to be a promising technology for treating urban wastewater at ambient temperature (OEB=0.19 kW h m(-3)). LCA results reinforce the importance of maximising the recovery of nutrients (environmental impact in eutrophication can be reduced up to 45%) and dissolved methane (positive environmental impact can be obtained) from SAnMBR effluent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High-load domestic wastewater treatment using a combined anaerobic-aerobic bio-filter with coal cinder as medium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaoxing; Lei, Yuxin; Xi, Yin; Liao, Zaiyi; Zhang, Xia

    2017-03-13

    A combined anaerobic-aerobic bio-filter technology was used for field treatment of high-organic-load domestic wastewater with coal cinder as the bio-filter medium. The effects of parameters, including hydraulic retention time (HRT) and backflow ratio, on the decrease in the chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH3-N, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and turbidity were investigated. The results showed the obvious influence of the HRT and ratio of backflow on wastewater treatment. Under the optimal HRT condition of 18 h, the removal efficiencies of COD, NH3-N, TN, TP, and turbidity were 67.9%, 95.6%, 30.4%, 65.6%, and 83.8%, respectively. When the backflow ratio (2:1) was added to the treatment system, the TN removal obviously increased, and the removal efficiencies of COD, NH3-N, TN, TP, and turbidity were 88.1%, 91.7%, 69.9%, 69.6%, and 97.5%, respectively. These results indicated that the combined technology has the potential as a treatment method for high-organic-load domestic wastewater.

  16. Integrated anaerobic ammonium oxidization with partial denitrification process for advanced nitrogen removal from high-strength wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shenbin; Du, Rui; Niu, Meng; Li, Baikun; Ren, Nanqi; Peng, Yongzhen

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a novel integrated anaerobic ammonium oxidization with partial denitrification process (termed as ANAMMOX-PD) was developed for advanced nitrogen removal from high-strength wastewater, which excess NO3(-)-N produced by ANAMMOX was fed into PD reactor for NO2(-)-N production and then refluxing to ANAMMOX reactor for further removal. Results showed that total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency as high as 97.8% was achieved and effluent TN-N was below 20mg/L at influent TN-N of 820mg/L. Furthermore, the feasibility of simultaneously treating domestic wastewater was demonstrated in ANAMMOX-PD process, and NH4(+)-N removal efficiency of 96.7% was obtained. The nitrogen removal was mainly carried out through ANAMMOX pathway, and high-throughput sequencing revealed that Candidatus_Brocadia was the major ANAMMOX species. The presented process could effectively solve the problem of excess nitrate residual in ANAMMOX effluent, which hold a great potential in application of currently ANAMMOX treating high-strength wastewater (e.g. sludge digestion supernatant).

  17. Significance of dissolved methane in effluents of anaerobically treated low strength wastewater and potential for recovery as an energy product: A review

    EPA Science Inventory

    The need for energy efficient Domestic Wastewater (DWW) treatment is increasing annually with population growth and expanding global energy demand. Anaerobic treatment of low strength DWW produces methane which can be used to as an energy product. Temperature sensitivity, low rem...

  18. Significance of dissolved methane in effluents of anaerobically treated low strength wastewater and potential for recovery as an energy product: A review

    EPA Science Inventory

    The need for energy efficient Domestic Wastewater (DWW) treatment is increasing annually with population growth and expanding global energy demand. Anaerobic treatment of low strength DWW produces methane which can be used to as an energy product. Temperature sensitivity, low rem...

  19. Comprehensive microbial analysis of combined mesophilic anaerobic-thermophilic aerobic process treating high-strength food wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon; Kim, Mi-Sun; Sommer, Sven G

    2015-04-15

    A combined mesophilic anaerobic-thermophilic aerobic process was used to treat high-strength food wastewater in this study. During the experimental period, most of solid residue from the mesophilic anaerobic reactor (R1) was separated by centrifugation and introduced into the thermophilic aerobic reactor (R2) for further digestion. Then, thermophilic aerobically-digested sludge was reintroduced into R1 to enhance reactor performance. The combined process was operated with two different Runs: Run I with hydraulic retention time (HRT) = 40 d (corresponding OLR = 3.5 kg COD/m(3) d) and Run II with HRT = 20 d (corresponding OLR = 7 kg COD/m(3)). For a comparison, a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic reactor (R3) was operated concurrently with same OLRs and HRTs as the combined process. During the overall digestion, all reactors showed high stability without pH control. The combined process demonstrated significantly higher organic matter removal efficiencies (over 90%) of TS, VS and COD and methane production than did R3. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) results indicated that higher populations of both bacteria and archaea were maintained in R1 than in R3. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed relatively high abundance of phylum Actinobacteria in both R1 and R2, and a predominance of phyla Synergistetes and Firmicutes in R3 during Run II. Furthermore, R1 and R2 shared genera (Prevotella, Aminobacterium, Geobacillus and Unclassified Actinobacteria), which suggests synergy between mesophilic anaerobic digestion and thermophilic aerobic digestion. For archaea, in R1 methanogenic archaea shifted from genus Methanosaeta to Methanosarcina, whereas genera Methanosaeta, Methanobacterium and Methanoculleus were predominant in R3. The results demonstrated dynamics of key microbial populations that were highly consistent with an enhanced reactor performance of the combined process.

  20. Comparison of semi-batch vs. continuously fed anaerobic bioreactors for the treatment of a high-strength, solids-rich pumpkin-processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    del Agua, Isabel; Usack, Joseph G; Angenent, Largus T

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare two different high-rate anaerobic bioreactor configurations--the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) and the upflow anaerobic solid removal (UASR) reactor--for the treatment of a solid-rich organic wastewater with a high strength. The two, 4.5-L reactors were operated in parallel for close to 100 days under mesophilic conditions (37°C) with non-granular biomass by feeding a pumpkin wastewater with ∼4% solids. The organic loading rate of pumpkin wastewater was increased periodically to a maximum of 8 g COD L(-1) d(-1) by shortening the hydraulic retention time to 5.3 days. Compositional analysis of pumpkin wastewater revealed deficiencies in the trace metal cobalt and alkalinity. With supplementation, the ASBR outperformed the UASR reactor with total chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of 64% and 53%, respectively, achieving a methane yield of 0.27 and 0.20 L CH4 g(-1) COD fed to the ASBR and UASR, respectively. The better performance realized with the ASBR and this specific wastewater was attributed to its semi-batch, dynamic operating conditions rather than the continuous operating conditions of the UASR reactor.

  1. Biological wastewater treatment by a bioreactor with repeated coupling of aerobes and anaerobes aiming at on-site reduction of excess sludge.

    PubMed

    Yu, Anfeng; Feng, Quan; Liu, Zehua; Zhou, Yunan; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2006-01-01

    Activated sludge has been widely used in wastewater treatment throughout the world. However, the biggest disadvantage of this method is the by-production of excess sludge in a large amount, resulting in difficulties in operation and high costs for wastewater treatment. Technological innovations for wastewater treatment capable of reducing excess sludge have thus become research topics of interest in recent years. In our present research, we developed a new biological wastewater treatment process by repeated coupling of aerobes and anaerobes (rCAA) to reduce the excess sludge during the treatment of wastewater. During 460-day continuous running, COD (300-700 mg/L) and TOC (100-350 mg/L) were effectively removed, of which the removal rate was above 80 and 90%, respectively. SS in the effluent was 13 mg/L on average in the rCAA bioreactor without a settling tank. The on-site reduction of the excess sludge in the rCAA might be contributed by several mechanisms. The degradation of the grown aerobes after moving into the anaerobic regions was considered to be one of the most important factors. Besides, the repeatedly coupling of aerobes and anaerobes could also result in a complex microbial community with more metazoans and decoupling of the microbial anabolism and catabolism.

  2. Mitigating ammonia inhibition of thermophilic anaerobic treatment of digested piggery wastewater: use of pH reduction, zeolite, biomass and humic acid.

    PubMed

    Ho, L; Ho, G

    2012-09-15

    High free ammonia released during anaerobic digestion of livestock wastes is widely known to inhibit methanogenic microorganisms and result in low methane production. This was encountered during our earlier thermophilic semi-continuously fed continuously-stirred tank reactor (CSTR) treatment of piggery wastewater. This study explored chemical and biological means to mitigate ammonia inhibition on thermophilic anaerobic treatment of piggery wastewater with the aim to increase organic volatile carbon reduction and methane production. A series of thermophilic anaerobic batch experiments were conducted on the digested piggery effluent to investigate the effects of pH reduction (pH 8.3 to 7.5, 7.0 and 6.5) and additions of biomass (10% v/v and 19% v/v anaerobic digested piggery biomass and aerobic-anaerobic digested municipal biomass), natural zeolite (10, 15 and 20 g/L) and humic acid (1, 5 and 10 g/L) on methane production at 55 °C for 9-11 days. Reduction of the wastewater pH from its initial pH of 8.3 to 6.5 produced the greatest stimulation of methane production (3.4 fold) coupled with reductions in free ammonia (38 fold) and total volatile fatty acids (58% TVFA), particularly acetate and propionate. Addition of 10-20 g/L zeolite to piggery wastewater with and without pH reduction to 6.5 further enhanced total VFA reduction and methane production over their respective controls, with 20 g/L zeolite producing the highest enhancement effect despite the ammonia-nitrogen concentrations of the treated wastewaters remaining high. Without pH reduction, zeolite concentration up to 20 g/L was required to achieve comparable methane enhancement as the pH-reduced wastewater at pH 6.5. Although biomass (10% v/v piggery and municipal wastes) and low humic acid (1 and 5 g/L) additions enhanced total VFA reduction and methane production, they elevated the residual effluent total COD concentrations over the control wastewaters (pH-unadjusted and pH-reduced) unlike zeolite

  3. The contribution of thermophilic anaerobic digestion to the stable operation of wastewater sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Zábranská, J; Dohányos, M; Jenícek, P; Zaplatílková, P; Kutil, J

    2002-01-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge has been successfully operated in full-scale tanks almost three years. The higher loading capacity and specific biogas production rate in comparison with mesophilic digestion was proved. Thermophilic anaerobic sludge is also more resistant against foaming problems. Biogas from thermophilic tanks contains less hydrogen sulphide and other malodorous substances. Pathogens removal rate is apparently more efficient in the thermophilic process.

  4. The investigation of effect of organic carbon sources addition in anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen) sequencing batch reactor for nutrients removal from wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiong; Tong, Juan; Li, Hongjing; Chen, Yinguang

    2009-05-01

    The effect of addition of organic carbon sources (acetic acid and waste activated sludge alkaline fermentation liquid) on anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen, 0.15-0.45 mg/L) biological municipal wastewater treatment was investigated. The results showed that carbon source addition affected not only the transformations of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), glycogen, nitrogen and phosphorus, but the net removal of nitrogen and phosphorus. The removal efficiencies of TN and TP were, respectively, 61% and 61% without organic carbon source addition, 81% and 95% with acetic acid addition, and 83% and 97% with waste activated sludge alkaline fermentation liquid addition. It seems that the alkaline fermentation liquid of waste biosolids generated in biological wastewater treatment plant can be used to replace acetic acid as an additional carbon source to improve the anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen) municipal wastewater nutrients removal although its use was observed to cause a slight increase of effluent BOD and COD concentrations.

  5. Cleaner production of citric acid by recycling its extraction wastewater treated with anaerobic digestion and electrodialysis in an integrated citric acid-methane production process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Su, Xian-Feng; Bao, Jia-Wei; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-01-01

    To solve the pollution problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid production, an integrated citric acid-methane production process was proposed. Extraction wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation, thus eliminating wastewater discharge and reducing water consumption. Excessive Na(+) contained in ADE could significantly inhibit citric acid fermentation in recycling and was removed by electrodialysis in this paper. Electrodialysis performance was improved after pretreatment of ADE with air stripping and activated carbon adsorption to remove precipitable metal ions and pigments. Moreover, the concentrate water was recycled and mixed with feed to improve the water recovery rate above 95% in electrodialysis treatment, while the dilute water was collected for citric acid fermentation. The removal rate of Na(+) in ADE was above 95% and the citric acid production was even higher than that with tap water.

  6. Anaerobic digestion of ice-cream wastewater: A comparison of single and two-phase reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Borja, R.; Banks, C.J.

    1995-03-01

    The anaerobic digestion of ice-cream wastewater, a complex substrate which includes milk proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids, has received little attention. Work using an aerobic contact system showed that at a 7.5-d hydraulic retention time (HRT), with an organic loading rate of 1.7 g COD/Ld and influent TSS (total suspended solids) of 5870 mg/L, the effluent COD was 628 mg/L, BOD was 91 mg/L and TSS was 674. Anaerobic filters have also been used at organic loadings of 6 kg COD/m{sup 3}d applied at a HRT of 0.42 day, with COD removals of 80%. Goodwing showed that this waste was capable of being treated by the UASB process with granulation commencing after 60-70 days, and gas production ranging between 0.73 and 0.93 L CH{sub 4}/g COD removed with loading rates between 0.7 and 3.0 g TOC/Ld. Two-phase anaerobic digestion is an innovative fermentation mode that has recently received increased attention. The kinetically dissimilar fermentation phases, hydrolysis-acidification and acetogenesis-methanation are operated in two separate reactors; the first of which is maintained at a very short HRT. The effluent from the first, acid-forming, phase is used as the substrate for the methane-phase reactor which has a longer HRT or cell immobilization. The aim of this work was to compare the methane production capability and performance of a single-phase upflow fixed bed reactor with a two-phase digestion system. The two-phase digestion system consists of a completely mixed reactor for the acidogenic reaction and an upflow fixed bed reactor for the methanogenic reaction. Because of the high lipid content and COD of ice cream wastewater off site disposal has proved to be both expensive and poses problems to the receiving effluent treatment plant. For this reason the potential for a rapid anaerobic stabilization of the waste, with energy recovery in the form of methane gas, has been investigated in an attempt to minimize plant size and maximize gas production. 9 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Treatment of food waste recycling wastewater using anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactor for biogas production in mainstream treatment process of domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yeongmi; Hermanowicz, Slawomir W; Park, Chanhyuk

    2017-10-15

    A bench-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) equipped with submerged flat-sheet ceramic membranes was operated at mesophilic conditions (30-35 °C) treating domestic wastewater (DWW) supplemented with food wasterecycling wastewater (FRW) to increase the organic loading rate (OLR) for better biogas production. Coupling ceramic membrane filtration with AnMBR treatment provides an alternative strategy for high organic wastewater treatment at short hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with the potential benefits of membrane fouling because they have a high hydrophilicity and more robust at extreme conditions. The anaerobic ceramic MBR (AnCMBR) treating mixture of actual FRW with DWW (with an influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 2,115 mg/L) was studied to evaluate the treatment performance in terms of organic matter removal and methane production. COD removal during actual FRW with DWW operation averaged 98.3 ± 1.0% corresponding to an average methane production of 0.21 ± 0.1 L CH4/g CODremoved. Biogas sparging, relaxation and permeate back-flushing were concurrently employed to manage membrane fouling. A flux greater than 9.2 L m(-2) h(-1) (LMH) was maintained at 13 h HRT for approximately 200 days without chemical cleaning at an OLR of 2.95 kg COD m(-3) d(-1). On day 100, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-gel beads were added into the AnCMBR to alleviate the membrane fouling, suggesting that their mechanical scouring effect contributed positively in reducing the fouling index (FI). Although these bio-carriers might accelerate the breaking up of bio-flocs, which released a higher amount of soluble microbial products (SMP), a 95.4% SMP rejection was achieved. Although the retention efficiency of dissolved organic carbons (DOC) was 91.4% across the ceramic membrane, a meaningful interpretation of organic carbon detection (OCD) fingerprints was conducted to better understand the ceramic membrane performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Is denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation-centered technologies a solution for the sustainable operation of wastewater treatment Plants?

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongbo; Wang, Yali; Liu, Yiwen; Ngo, Huu Hao; Lian, Yu; Zhao, Jianwei; Chen, Fei; Yang, Qi; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Xiaoming

    2017-06-01

    With the world's increasing energy crisis, society is growingly considered that the operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) should be shifted in sustainable paradigms with low energy input, or energy-neutral, or even energy output. There is a lack of critical thinking on whether and how new paradigms can be implemented in WWTPs based on the conventional process. The denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) process, which uses methane and nitrate (or nitrite) as electron donor and acceptor, respectively, has recently been discovered. Based on critical analyses of this process, DAMO-centered technologies can be considered as a solution for sustainable operation of WWTPs. In this review, a possible strategy with DAMO-centered technologies was outlined and illustrated how this applies for the existing WWTPs energy-saving and newly designed WWTPs energy-neutral (or even energy-producing) towards sustainable operations.

  9. Bacterial and methanogenic archaeal communities during the single-stage anaerobic digestion of high-strength food wastewater.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyun Min; Kim, Ji Hyun; Ha, Jeong Hyub; Park, Jong Moon

    2014-08-01

    Single-stage anaerobic digestion (AD) was operated to treat high-strength food wastewater (FWW) derived from food waste recycling facilities at two different organic loading rates (OLRs) of 3.5 (Phase I) and 7 (Phase II) kgCOD/m(3)d. Changes in composition of microbial communities were investigated using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and barcoded-pyrosequencing. At the high FWW loading rate, AD showed efficient performance (i.e., organic matter removal and methane production). Bacterial communities were represented by the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Synergistetes and Actinobacteria. During the entire digestion process, the relative abundance phylum Chloroflexi decreased significantly. The qPCR analysis demonstrated that the methanogenic communities shifted from aceticlastic (Methanosarcinales) to hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales) with high increase in the proportion of syntrophic bacterial communities. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed a strong relationship between reactor performance and microbial community shifts.

  10. Microbial characterization and degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate in an anaerobic reactor treating wastewater containing soap powder.

    PubMed

    Carosia, Mariana Fronja; Okada, Dagoberto Yukio; Sakamoto, Isabel Kimiko; Silva, Edson Luiz; Varesche, Maria Bernadete Amâncio

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) in an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) treating wastewater containing soap powder as LAS source. At Stage I, the AFBR was fed with a synthetic substrate containing yeast extract and ethanol as carbon sources, and without LAS; at Stage II, soap powder was added to this synthetic substrate obtaining an LAS concentration of 14 ± 3 mg L(-1). The compounds of soap powder probably inhibited some groups of microorganisms, increasing the concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA) from 91 to 143 mg HAc L(-1). Consequently, the LAS removal rate was 48 ± 10% after the 156 days of operation. By sequencing, 16S rRNA clones belonging to the phyla Proteobacteria and Synergistetes were identified in the samples taken at the end of the experiment, with a remarkable presence of Dechloromonas sp. and Geobacter sp. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Feasibility tests for treating shampoo and hair colorant wastewaters using anaerobic processes.

    PubMed

    Ahammad, Shaikh Z; Yakubu, A; Dolfing, J; Mota, C; Graham, D W

    2012-01-01

    Wastes from the personal care product (PCP) industry are often high in biodegradable carbon, which makes them amenable to aerobic biological treatment, although process costs are usually high due to aeration inefficiencies, high electricity demand and production of large amounts of sludge. As such, anaerobic treatment technologies are being considered to lower net energy costs by reducing air use and increasing methane production. To assess the amenability of PCP wastes to anaerobic treatment, methane yields and rates were quantified in different anaerobic reactors treating typical PCP wastes, including wastes from shampoo and hair colorant products. Overall, shampoo wastes were more amenable to methanogenesis with almost double the methane yields compared with colour wastes. To assess relevant microbial guilds, qPCR was performed on reactor biomass samples. Methanosaetaceae abundances were always significantly higher than Methanosarcinaceae and Methanomicrobiales abundances (P < 0.05), and did not differ significantly between waste types. Although colour wastes were less amenable to anaerobic treatment than shampoo wastes, differences cannot be explained by relative microbial abundances and probably result from the presence of inhibiting compounds in hair colorants (e.g., oxidants) at higher levels. Results showed that anaerobic technologies have great potential for treating PCP wastes, but additional work is needed to establish the basis of elevated methane yields and inhibition, especially when colorant wastes are present.

  12. Effects of dissolved organic matters (DOMs) on membrane fouling in anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactors (AnCMBRs) treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yue, Xiaodi; Koh, Yoong Keat Kelvin; Ng, How Yong

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) have been regarded as a potential solution to achieve energy neutrality in the future wastewater treatment plants. Coupling ceramic membranes into AnMBRs offers great potential as ceramic membranes are resistant to corrosive chemicals such as cleaning reagents and harsh environmental conditions such as high temperature. In this study, ceramic membranes with pore sizes of 80, 200 and 300 nm were individually mounted in three anaerobic ceramic membrane bioreactors (AnCMBRs) treating real domestic wastewater to examine the treatment efficiencies and to elucidate the effects of dissolved organic matters (DOMs) on fouling behaviours. The average overall chemical oxygen demands (COD) removal efficiencies could reach around 86-88%. Although CH4 productions were around 0.3 L/g CODutilised, about 67% of CH4 generated was dissolved in the liquid phase and lost in the permeate. When filtering mixed liquor of similar properties, smaller pore-sized membranes fouled slower in long-term operations due to lower occurrence of pore blockages. However, total organic removal efficiencies could not explain the fouling behaviours. Liquid chromatography-organic carbon detection, fluorescence spectrophotometer and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence and ultra-violet detectors were used to analyse the DOMs in detail. The major foulants were identified to be biopolymers that were produced in microbial activities. One of the main components of biopolymers--proteins--led to different fouling behaviours. It is postulated that the proteins could pass through porous cake layers to create pore blockages in membranes. Hence, concentrations of the DOMs in the soluble fraction of mixed liquor (SML) could not predict membrane fouling because different components in the DOMs might have different interactions with membranes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Response of anaerobic granular sludge to a shock load of zinc oxide nanoparticles during biological wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Mu, Hui; Zheng, Xiong; Chen, Yinguang; Chen, Hong; Liu, Kun

    2012-06-05

    The increasing use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in consumer and industrial products highlights a need to understand their potential environmental impacts. In this study, the response of anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) to a shock load of ZnO NPs during anaerobic biological wastewater treatment was reported. It was observed that the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of AGS and the methane production were not significantly influenced at ZnO NPs of 10 and 50 mg per gram of total suspended solids (mg/g-TSS), but they were decreased when the dosage of ZnO NPs was greater than 100 mg/g-TSS. The visualization of EPS structure with multiple fluorescence labeling and confocal laser scanning microscope revealed that ZnO NPs mainly caused the decrease of proteins by 69.6%. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis further indicated that the C-O-C group of polysaccharides and carboxyl group of proteins in EPS were also changed in the presence of ZnO NPs. The decline of EPS induced by ZnO NPs resulted in their deteriorating protective role on the inner microorganisms of AGS, which was in correspondence with the observed lower general physiological activity of AGS and the death of microorganisms. Further investigation showed that the negative influence of ZnO NPs on methane production was due to their severe inhibition on the methanization step.

  14. Removal of Total Coliforms, Thermotolerant Coliforms, and Helminth Eggs in Swine Production Wastewater Treated in Anaerobic and Aerobic Reactors

    PubMed Central

    Zacarias Sylvestre, Silvia Helena; Lux Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme; de Oliveira, Roberto Alves

    2014-01-01

    The present work evaluated the performance of two treatment systems in reducing indicators of biological contamination in swine production wastewater. System I consisted of two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, with 510 and 209 L in volume, being serially arranged. System II consisted of a UASB reactor, anaerobic filter, trickling filter, and decanter, being also organized in series, with volumes of 300, 190, 250, and 150 L, respectively. Hydraulic retention times (HRT) applied in the first UASB reactors were 40, 30, 20, and 11 h in systems I and II. The average removal efficiencies of total and thermotolerant coliforms in system I were 92.92% to 99.50% and 94.29% to 99.56%, respectively, and increased in system II to 99.45% to 99.91% and 99.52% to 99.93%, respectively. Average removal rates of helminth eggs in system I were 96.44% to 99.11%, reaching 100% as in system II. In reactor sludge, the counts of total and thermotolerant coliforms ranged between 105 and 109 MPN (100 mL)−1, while helminth eggs ranged from 0.86 to 9.27 eggs g−1 TS. PMID:24812560

  15. Monitoring bacterial and archaeal community shifts in a mesophilic anaerobic batch reactor treating a high-strength organic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changsoo; Kim, Jaai; Shin, Seung Gu; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2008-09-01

    Shifts in bacterial and archaeal communities, associated with changes in chemical profiles, were investigated in an anaerobic batch reactor treating dairy-processing wastewater prepared with whey permeate powder. The dynamics of bacterial and archaeal populations were monitored by quantitative real-time PCR and showed good agreement with the process data. A rapid increase in bacterial populations and a high rate of substrate fermentation were observed during the initial period. Growth and regrowth of archaeal populations occurred with biphasic production of methane, corresponding to the diauxic consumption of acetate and propionate. Bacterial community structure was examined by denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting 16S rRNA genes. An Aeromonas-like organism was suggested to be mainly responsible for the rapid fermentation of carbohydrate during the initial period. Several band sequences closely related to the Clostridium species, capable of carbohydrate fermentation, lactate or ethanol fermentation, and/or homoacetogenesis, were also detected. Statistical analyses of the DGGE profiles showed that the bacterial community structure, as well as the process performance, varied with the incubation time. Our results demonstrated that the bacterial community shifted, reflecting the performance changes and, particularly, that a significant community shift corresponded to a considerable process event. This suggested that the diagnosis of an anaerobic digestion process could be possible by monitoring bacterial community shifts.

  16. Application and kinetic evaluation of upflow anaerobic biofilm reactor for nitrogen removal from wastewater by Anammox process

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The lab-scale upflow anaerobic biofilm reactor was successfully operated for the treatment of synthetic wastewater with high nitrogen load by Anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process. During the entire period of operation, the reactor temperature was kept at 35±1°C. The operational strategy consisted of both increasing the ammonium and nitrite concentrations from 60 to 700mgN/L and from 80 to 920 mgN/L, respectively and decreasing the hydraulic retention time from 24 to 6 h, at each step. The highest achieved removal efficiency of ammonium and nitrite were 91 and 93%, respectively. Consequently, due to their acceptable performance for nitrogen removal in previous researches, modified Stover-Kincannon and Grau second-order models were used in this study. According to the experiment results, the model validity testing showed that the Stover-Kincannon model was a little more appropriate for the description of nitrogen removal in the reactor, even though both models gave high correlation coefficients (R2=0.999). PMID:23414202

  17. Modified septic tank-anaerobic filter unit as a two-stage onsite domestic wastewater treatment system.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Meena Kumari; Khursheed, Anwar; Kazmi, Absar Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    This study demonstrates the performance evaluation of a uniquely designed two-stage system for onsite treatment of domestic wastewater. The system consisted of two upflow anaerobic bioreactors, a modified septic tank followed by an upflow anaerobic filter, accommodated within a single cylindrical unit. The system was started up without inoculation at 24 h hydraulic retention time (HRT). It achieved a steady-state condition after 120 days. The system was observed to be remarkably efficient in removing pollutants during steady-state condition with the average removal efficiency of 88.6 +/- 3.7% for chemical oxygen demand, 86.3 +/- 4.9% for biochemical oxygen demand and 91.2 +/- 9.7% for total suspended solids. The microbial analysis revealed a high reduction (>90%) capacity of the system for indicator organism and pathogens. It also showed a very good endurance against imposed hydraulic shock load. Tracer study showed that the flow pattern was close to plug flow reactor. Mean HRT was also found to be close to the designed value.

  18. Observer-based input estimation in continuous anaerobic wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui-Medina, E A; Alcaraz-González, V; Méndez-Acosta, H O; González-Alvarez, V

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a "virtually controlled observer" (VCO) is proposed to estimate simultaneously the influent substrate concentration and unmeasured state variables in continuous anaerobic digestion processes. The hypothetical (unmeasured) influent substrate concentration is updated by a feedback control, which is regulated by the estimation error of a measured output. The proposed approach is firstly illustrated upon a simple continuous bioprocess. Then, the performance of the observer is tested via numerical simulations in a continuous anaerobic digestion model. Results showed that it is possible to estimate both, the influent substrate concentration and unmeasured states in the digester in the face of parametric uncertainties.

  19. Anaerobic microbial fuel cell treating combined industrial wastewater: Correlation of electricity generation with pollutants.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Umara; Jin, Wang; Pervez, Arshid; Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Tariq, Madiha; Shaheen, Shahida; Iqbal, Akhtar; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a new technology that not only generates energy but treats wastewater as well. A dual chamber MFC was operated under laboratory conditions. Wastewater samples from vegetable oil industries, metal works, glass and marble industries, chemical industries and combined industrial effluents were collected and each was treated for 98h in MFC. The treatment efficiency for COD in MFC was in range of 85-90% at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 96h and had significant impact on wastewater treatment as well. The maximum voltage of 890mV was generated when vegetable oil industries discharge was treated with columbic efficiency of 5184.7C. The minimum voltage was produced by Glass House wastewater which was 520mV. There was positive significant co-relation between COD concentration and generated voltage. Further research should be focused on the organic contents of wastewater and various ionic species affecting voltage generation in MFC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation of decolorization of textile wastewater in an anaerobic/aerobic biological activated carbon system (A/A BAC).

    PubMed

    Pasukphun, N; Vinitnantharat, S; Gheewala, S

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the decolorization in anaerobic/aerobic biological activated carbon (A/A BAC) system. The experiment was divided into 2 stages; stage I is batch test for preliminary study of dye removal equilibrium time. The preliminary experiment (stage I) provided the optimal data for experimental design of A/A BAC system in SBR (stage II). Stage II is A/A BAC system imitated Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) which consist of 5 main periods; fill, react, settle, draw and idle. React period include anaerobic phase followed by aerobic phase. The BAC main media; Granular Activated Carbon (GAC), Mixed Cultures (MC) and Biological Activated Carbon (BAC) were used for dye and organic substances removal in three different solutions; Desizing Agent Solution (DAS), dye Solution (DS) and Synthetic Textile Wastewater (STW). Results indicate that GAC adsorption plays role in dye removal followed by BAC and MC activities, respectively. In the presence desizing agent, decolorization by MC was improved because desizing agent acts as co-substrates for microorganisms. It was found that 50% of dye removal efficiency was achieved in Fill period by MC. GC/MS analysis was used to identify dye intermediate from decolorization. Dye intermediate containing amine group was found in the solution and on BAC surfaces. The results demonstrated that combination of MC and BAC in the system promotes decolorization and dye intermediate removal. In order to improve dye removal efficiency in an A/A BAC system, replacement of virgin GAC, sufficient co-substrates supply and the appropriate anaerobic: aerobic period should be considered.

  1. Start-up of a pilot-scale anaerobic fixed film reactor at low temperature treating slaughterhouse wastewater.

    PubMed

    del Pozo, R; Diez, V; Salazar, G

    2002-01-01

    A pilot-scale anaerobic fixed film reactor (AFFR) with vertically arranged PVC tubes as biomass carrier, treating poultry slaughterhouse wastewater was started-up in 74 days at temperatures between 20-24 degrees C. The start-up process consisted of a long acclimatization phase followed by a low loaded growth phase, a gradual increase of OLR upto 9.2 kg COD/m3d, and a final maturation phase at moderated loads of 2.7 kg COD/m3d at which total COD removal efficiencies of 57% were achieved. Alkalinity ratio IA:PA was found to be the best control parameter to avoid VFA accumulation. OLR increase based on pH control was not satisfactory because changes in CO2 solubility caused daily by temperature and flow variations led to pH oscillations of 0.2 units. The low wastewater alkalinity, 260 mg/l CaCO3 was insufficient to buffer the pH system, therefore the pH decrease associated with the VFA accumulation was not easily detected and could not be used as a way of OLR control. Organic matter removal took place by accumulation and biodegradation processes. Limitation in the reactor hydrodynamics and particulate fraction hydrolysis was detected at high flow rates.

  2. Investigating membrane fouling associated with GAC fluidization on membrane with effluent from anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactor in domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad; Kim, Jeonghwan

    2017-08-07

    Effect of mechanical scouring driven by granular activated carbon (GAC) fluidization on membrane fouling was investigated using a laboratory-scaled, fluidized membrane reactor filtering the effluent from anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactor (AFBR) in domestic wastewater treatment. The GAC particles were fluidized by recirculating a bulk solution only through the membrane reactor to control membrane fouling. The membrane fouling was compared with two different feed solutions, effluent taken from a pilot-scaled, AFBR treating domestic wastewater and its filtrate through 0.1-μm membrane pore size. The GAC fluidization driven by bulk recirculation through the membrane reactor was very effective to reduce membrane fouling. Membrane scouring under GAC fluidization decreased reversible fouling resistance effectively. Fouling mitigation was more pronounced with bigger GAC particles than smaller ones as fluidized media. Regardless of the fluidized GAC sizes, however, there was limited effect on controlling irreversible fouling caused by colloidal materials which is smaller than 0.1 μm. In addition, the deposit of GAC particles that ranged from 180 to 500 μm in size on membrane surface was very significant and accelerated fouling rate. Biopolymers rejected by the membranes were thought to play a role as binding these small GAC particles on membrane surface strongly.

  3. Anaerobic acidogenic digestion of olive mill wastewaters in biofilm reactors packed with ceramic filters or granular activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Lorenzo; Lampis, Silvia; Todaro, Daniela; Scoma, Alberto; Vallini, Giovanni; Marchetti, Leonardo; Majone, Mauro; Fava, Fabio

    2010-08-01

    Four identically configured anaerobic packed bed biofilm reactors were developed and employed in the continuous acidogenic digestion of olive mill wastewaters to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs), which can be exploited in the biotechnological production of polyhydroxyalkanoates. Ceramic porous cubes or granular activated carbon were used as biofilm supports. Aside packing material, the role of temperature and organic loading rate (OLR) on VFA production yield and mixture composition were also studied. The process was monitored through a chemical, microbiological and molecular biology integrated procedure. The highest wastewater acidification yield was achieved with the ceramic-based technology at 25 degrees C, with an inlet COD and an OLR of about 17 g/L and 13 g/L/day, respectively. Under these conditions, about the 66% of the influent COD (not including its VFA content) was converted into VFAs, whose final amount represented more than 82% of the influent COD. In particular, acetic, propionic and butyric acids were the main VFAs by composing the 55.7, 21.5 and 14.4%, respectively, of the whole VFA mixture. Importantly, the relative concentrations of acetate and propionate were affected by the OLR parameter. The nature of the packing material remarkable influenced the process performances, by greatly affecting the biofilm bacterial community structure. In particular, ceramic cubes favoured the immobilization of Firmicutes of the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Clostridium, which were probably involved in the VFA producing process.

  4. Treatment of agro-industrial wastewater using microalgae-bacteria consortium combined with anaerobic digestion of the produced biomass.

    PubMed

    Hernández, D; Riaño, B; Coca, M; García-González, M C

    2013-05-01

    Two combined processes were studied in order to produce second generation biofuels: microalgae biomass production and its further use to produce biogas. Two 5 L photobioreactors for treating wastewater from a potato processing industry (from now on RPP) and from a treated liquid fraction of pig manure (from now on RTE) were inoculated with Chlorella sorokiniana and aerobic bacteria at 24±2.7 °C and 6000 lux for 12 h per day of light supply. The maximum biomass growth was obtained for RTE wastewater, with 26.30 mg dry weight L(-1) d(-1). Regarding macromolecular composition of collected biomass, lipid concentration reached 30.20% in RPP and 4.30% in RTE. Anaerobic digestion results showed that methane yield was highly influenced by substrate/inoculum ratio and by lipids concentration of the biomass, with a maximum methane yield of 518 mL CH4 g COD(-1)added using biomass with a lipid content of 30% and a substrate/inoculum ratio of 0.5.

  5. Hydrolysis, acidification and methanogenesis during low-temperature anaerobic digestion of dilute dairy wastewater in an inverted fluidised bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Bialek, Katarzyna; Cysneiros, Denise; O'Flaherty, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    The application of low-temperature (10 °C) anaerobic digestion (LtAD) for the treatment of complex dairy-based wastewater in an inverted fluidised bed (IFB) reactor was investigated. Inadequate mixing intensity provoked poor hydrolysis of the substrate (mostly protein), which resulted in low chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency throughout the trial, averaging ~69 % at the best operational period. Overgrowth of the attached biomass to the support particles (Extendospheres) induced bed stratification by provoking agglutination of the particles and supporting their washout by sedimentation, which contributed to unstable bioprocess performance at the organic loading rates (OLRs) between 0.5 and 5 kg COD m(-3) day(-1). An applied OLR above 2 kg COD m(-3) day(-1) additionally promoted acidification and strongly influenced the microbial composition and dynamics. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens appeared to be the mostly affected group by the Extendospheres particle washout as a decrease in their abundance was observed by quantitative PCR analysis towards the end of the trial, although the specific methanogenic activity and maximum substrate utilisation rate on H2/CO2 indicated high metabolic activity and preference towards hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis of the reactor biomass at this stage. The bacterial community in the bioreactor monitored via denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) also suggested an influence of OLR stress on bacterial community structure and population dynamics. The data presented in this work can provide useful information in future optimisation of fluidised reactors intended for digestion of complex industrial wastewaters during LtAD.

  6. Anaerobic digestion of dairy wastewater by inverse fluidization: the inverse fluidized bed and the inverse turbulent bed reactors.

    PubMed

    Arnaiz, C; Buffiere, P; Elmaleh, S; Lebrato, J; Moletta, R

    2003-11-01

    This paper describes the application of the inverse fluidization technology to the anaerobic digestion of dairy wastewater. Two reactors were investigated: the inverse fluidized bed reactor and the inverse turbulent reactor. In these reactors, a granular floating solid is expanded by a down-flow current of effluent or an up-flow current of gas, respectively. The carrier particles (Extendospheres) were chosen for their large specific surface area (20,000 m2m(-3)) and their low energy requirements for fluidization (gas velocity of 1.5 mm s(-1), 5.4 m h(-1)). Organic load was increased stepwise by reducing hydraulic retention time from more than 60 days to 3 days, while maintaining constant the feed COD concentration. Both reactors achieved more than 90% of COD removal, at an organic loading rate of 10-12 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1), respectively. The performances observed were similar or even higher than that of other previously tested fluidized bed technologies treating the same wastewater. It was found that the main advantages of this system are: low energy requirement, because of the low fluidization velocities required; there is no need of a settling device, because solids accumulate at the bottom of the reactor, so they can be easily drawn out and particles with high-biomass content can be easily recovered. Lipid phosphate concentration has been revealed as a good method for biomass estimation in biofilms since it only includes living biomass.

  7. Global Profiling of Metabolite and Lipid Soluble Microbial Products in Anaerobic Wastewater Reactor Supernatant Using UPLC-MS(E).

    PubMed

    Tipthara, Phornpimon; Kunacheva, Chinagarn; Soh, Yan Ni Annie; Wong, Stephen C C; Pin, Ng Sean; Stuckey, David C; Boehm, Bernhard O

    2017-02-03

    Identification of soluble microbial products (SMPs) released during bacterial metabolism in mixed cultures in bioreactors is essential to understanding fundamental mechanisms of their biological production. SMPs constitute one of the main foulants (together with colloids and bacterial flocs) in membrane bioreactors widely used to treat and ultimately recycle wastewater. More importantly, the composition and origin of potentially toxic, carcinogenic, or mutagenic SMPs in renewable/reused water supplies must be determined and controlled. Certain classes of SMPs have previously been studied by GC-MS, LC-MS, and MALDI-ToF MS; however, a more comprehensive LC-MS-based method for SMP identification is currently lacking. Here we develop a UPLC-MS approach to profile and identify metabolite SMPs in the supernatant of an anaerobic batch bioreactor. The small biomolecules were extracted into two fractions based on their polarity, and separate methods were then used for the polar and nonpolar metabolites in the aqueous and lipid fractions, respectively. SMPs that increased in the supernatant after feed addition were identified primarily as phospholipids, ceramides, with cardiolipins in the highest relative abundance, and these lipids have not been previously reported in wastewater effluent.

  8. Synthesis of nano-zeolite from coal fly ash and its potential for nutrient sequestration from anaerobically digested swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoyan; Wendell, Khunjar; Zhu, Jun; Li, Jiangli; Yu, Xianxian; Zhang, Zhijian

    2012-04-01

    The treatment of anaerobically digested swine wastewater (ADSW) is problematic due to its high nutrient concentration. This study investigated the simultaneous sequestration of ammonium (N) and phosphate (P) from ADSW using nano-zeolites synthesized from fly ash (ZFA). The nanometer-scale crystalline structures plentiful of zeolite-NaP1 coating on ZFA particle increased the levels of specific surface area and cation exchange capacity at times of 40 and 104, compared to raw fly ash. Kinetic N and P sorption experiments with ZFA were well described by both the Langmuir and Freundlich models, suggesting the co-existence of homogeneous and heterogeneous sorption mechanisms. N and P removal efficiencies ranged from 41% to 95% and 75% to 98%, respectively, across a range of ZFA doses (from 0.25 to 8g/100ml). Collectively, application of the laboratory-synthesized ZFA can alleviate the nutrient loads in ADSW and therefore modify the ratio of N:P in wastewater beneficial for subsequent biological treatment. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bioelectrochemical treatment of paper and pulp wastewater in comparison with anaerobic process: integrating chemical coagulation with simultaneous power production.

    PubMed

    Krishna, K Vamshi; Sarkar, Omprakash; Venkata Mohan, S

    2014-12-01

    The efficiency of a bioelectrochemical treatment system (BET) to treat complex paper and pulp wastewater at two different pH conditions (6 and 7) in comparison with conventional anaerobic treatment process (AnT) was evaluated. Among the operating conditions, BET showed good treatment efficiency at pH 7 in terms of COD (BET/AnT: 55%/51%), nitrates (33.5%/19.1%), phosphates (33%/19%) and sulfates (58%/41%) in removal. The effluent obtained from BET system was subjected to coagulation for further treatment which showed good COD removal (BET/AnT, 95%/69%) and color (100%/68%). Bioelectrochemical analysis revealed higher catalytic currents in BET than AnT specific to oxidation and reduction. Besides, derivative of cyclic voltammetric scans (DCV) also supported the involvement of various membrane bound electron transferring complexes like FAD(H) bound enzymes, ubiquinone, NADH(+)/H(+) bound enzymes, etc. Experimental results demonstrated that BET system can be a viable platform to treat complex wastewaters with simultaneous energy recovery in integrated approach.

  10. Sustainable organic loading rate and energy recovery potential of mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chun-Hai; Harb, Moustapha; Amy, Gary; Hong, Pei-Ying; Leiknes, TorOve

    2014-08-01

    The overall performance of a mesophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) for synthetic municipal wastewater treatment was investigated under a range of organic loading rate (OLR). A very steady and high chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (around 98%) was achieved over a broad range of volumetric OLR of 0.8-10 gCOD/L/d. The sustainable volumetric and sludge OLR satisfying a permeate COD below 50 mg/L for general reuse was 6 gCOD/L/d and 0.63 gCOD/gMLVSS (mixed liquor volatile suspended solids)/d, respectively. At a high sludge OLR of over 0.6 gCOD/gMLVSS/d, the AnMBR achieved high methane production of over 300 ml/gCOD (even approaching the theoretical value of 382 ml/gCOD). A low biomass production of 0.015-0.026 gMLVSS/gCOD and a sustainable flux of 6L/m(2)/h were observed. The integration of a heat pump and forward osmosis into the mesophilic AnMBR process would be a promising way for net energy recovery from typical municipal wastewater in a temperate area.

  11. Removal of organics and nutrients from food wastewater using combined thermophilic two-phase anaerobic digestion and shortcut biological nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fenghao; Lee, Seungho; Kim, Moonil

    2011-10-15

    A process combining pilot-scale two-phase anaerobic digestion and shortcut biological nitrogen removal (SBNR) was developed to treat organics and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from food wastewater. The thermophilic two-phase anaerobic digestion process was investigated without adjusting the pH of the wastewater for the pre-acidification process. The digested food wastewater was treated using the SBNR process without supplemental carbon sources or alkalinity. Under these circumstances, the combined system was able to remove about 99% of COD, 88% of TN, and 97% of TP. However, considerable amounts of nutrients were removed due to chemical precipitation processes between the anaerobic digestion and SBNR. The average TN removal efficiency of the SBNR process was about 74% at very low C/N (TCOD/TN) ratio of 2. The SBNR process removed about 39% of TP from the digested food wastewater. Conclusively, application of the combined system improved organic removal efficiency while producing valuable energy (biogas), removed nitrogen at a low C/N ratio, and conserved additional resources (carbon and alkalinity). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental profile of typical anaerobic/anoxic/oxic wastewater treatment systems meeting increasingly stringent treatment standards from a life cycle perspective.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Liu, Junxin; Ren, Nan-Qi; Duan, Zuoshan

    2012-12-01

    Stringent new legislation for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is currently motivating innovation and optimization of wastewater treatment technologies. Evaluating the environmental performance of a wastewater treatment system is a necessary precursor before proposing implementation of WWTPs designed to address the global requirements for reduced resource use, energy consumption and environmental emissions. However, developing overly-sophisticated treatment methods may lead to negative environmental effects. This study was conducted to employ a process modeling approach from a life cycle perspective to construct and evaluate six anaerobic/anoxic/oxic wastewater treatment systems that include a water line, sludge line and bioenergy recovery system and was designed to meet different treatment standards in China. The results revealed that improved treatments optimized for local receiving watercourses can be realized at the cost of higher resource consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Optimal Scenarios were also identified from different positive perspectives.

  13. Operating aerobic wastewater treatment at very short sludge ages enables treatment and energy recovery through anaerobic sludge digestion.

    PubMed

    Ge, Huoqing; Batstone, Damien J; Keller, Jurg

    2013-11-01

    Conventional abattoir wastewater treatment processes for carbon and nutrient removal are typically designed and operated with a long sludge retention time (SRT) of 10-20 days, with a relatively high energy demand and physical footprint. The process also generates a considerable amount of waste activated sludge that is not easily degradable due to the long SRT. In this study, an innovative high-rate sequencing batch reactor (SBR) based wastewater treatment process with short SRT and hydraulic retention time (HRT) is developed and characterised. The high-rate SBR process was shown to be most effective with SRT of 2-3 days and HRT of 0.5-1 day, achieving >80% reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phosphorus and approximately 55% nitrogen removal. A majority of carbon removal (70-80%) was achieved by biomass assimilation and/or accumulation, rather than oxidation. Anaerobic degradability of the sludge generated in the high-rate SBR process was strongly linked to SRT, with measured degradability extent being 85% (2 days SRT), 73% (3 days), and 63% (4 days), but it was not influenced by digestion temperature. However, the rate of degradation for 3 and 4 days SRT sludge was increased by 45% at thermophilic conditions compared to mesophilic conditions. Overall, the treatment process provides a very compact and energy efficient treatment option for highly degradable wastewaters such as meat and food processing, with a substantial space reduction by using smaller reactors and a considerable net energy output through the reduced aerobic oxidation and concurrent increased methane production potential through the efficient sludge digestion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Anaerobic fluid-bed treatment of coal conversion wastewater: Fifth quarterly technical progress report for the period August 15 to November 15, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Suidan, M.T.; Pfeffer, J.T.; Nakhala, G.F.; Traegner, U.K.

    1987-01-01

    Anaerobic fluidized-bed granular activated carbon (GAC) reactors have been proven successful for the treatment of biologically inhibiting wastewaters such as coal conversion wastewaters. However, in treating such wastewaters which contain compounds that not only resist biodegradation, BUT ALSO INHIBIT THE DEGRADATION OF OTHER COMPOUNDS, adsorption on granular activated carbon represents a viable strategy for the removal of these inhibitory compounds. Since the adsorptive capacity of the reactor media is limited, partial replacement of the carbon bed is then necessary to maintain the concentration of inhibitory compounds below threshold levels. The hydraulic detention time and the associated carbon inventory maintenance represent the single most important capital cost parameter. The objectives of this research are to determine, using experimental and modeling strategies, the effects of hydraulic detention time and the schedule of GAC replacement on the performance of these fluidized bed GAC anaerobic reactors. This objective is realized by the following activities: operation of two expanded-bed GAC anaerobic reactors at empty-bed hydraulic detention times of 1.0 and 0.5 days. These reactors will be referred to as reactors 1 and 2, respectively. The wastewater fed to the two reactors includes phenol, acetic acid and o-cresol as model compounds of a real coal conversion wastewater. Development of a mathematical model of the expanded-bed GAC anaerobic reactor incorporating the various interactions that occur in this process such as biodegradation, adsorption on GAC, and the regular replacement of reactor GAC with virgin media. 1 ref., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  15. Recovery of methane from combined industrial and municipal wastewater by anaerobic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, T.L.

    1987-02-01

    A brief description of selected programs to recover methane from waste waters is provided. Projects described include Lubbock Feedlot at Lubbock, Texas, ANFLOW Plant at Knoxville, Tennessee, RefCoM Plant at Pompano Beach, Florida, and Bacardi Corp. Anaerobic Treatment Plant at San Juan, Puerto Rico. 8 refs.

  16. Treatment of dye works wastewater using anaerobic-oxic biological filter reactor packed with carbon fibre and aerated with micro-bubbles.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, T; Yamamoto-Ikemoto, R; Sakurai, E

    2006-01-01

    A new anaerobic-oxic biological filter reactor, which was packed with carbon fibre and aerated with micro-bubbles, was proposed. The reactor performance was examined using dye works wastewater compared with the activated sludge reactor. Effluent SS from the experimental reactor was significantly lower than that from the activated sludge reactor, and transparency was higher. Temperatures of the activated sludge reactor were over 35 degrees C and DOC removal ratios were 40-80% depending on the influent wastewater. On the other hand, the DOC removal efficiency of the experimental reactor was over 70%, when the reactor temperature was over 22 degrees C. In the anaerobic zone, sulphate reduction occurred predominantly and acetate was produced. In the oxic reactor, sulphur oxidation and organic removal occurred. When the amount of sulphate reduction in the anaerobic zone increased, DOC and colour in effluent decreased. The sulphate reducing activity of biofilm at 30 degrees C was three times higher than those at 20 degrees C. The sulphate reducing activity of biofilm in the oxic zone was higher than those in the anaerobic zone, meaning that the sulphate reduction-oxidation cycles were established in the biofilm of the oxic zone. Microbial community of sulphate reducing bacteria was examined by in situ hybridisation with 16S rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes. Desulfobulbus spp. was most common sulphate reducing bacteria in the anaerobic zone. In the oxic zone, Desulfobulbus spp. and Desulfococcus spp. were observed.

  17. Treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater using a sequential anaerobic-aerobic moving-bed biofilm reactor system based on suspended ceramsite.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mang; Gu, Li-Peng; Xu, Wen-Hao

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a novel suspended ceramsite was prepared, which has high strength, optimum density (close to water), and high porosity. The ceramsite was used to feed a moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system with an anaerobic-aerobic (A/O) arrangement to treat petroleum refinery wastewater for simultaneous removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the anaerobic-aerobic MBBR system was varied from 72 to 18 h. The anaerobic-aerobic system had a strong tolerance to shock loading. Compared with the professional emission standard of China, the effluent concentrations of COD and NH3-N in the system could satisfy grade I at HRTs of 72 and 36 h, and grade II at HRT of 18 h. The average sludge yield of the anaerobic reactor was estimated to be 0.0575 g suspended solid/g CODremoved. This work demonstrated that the anaerobic-aerobic MBBR system using the suspended ceramsite as bio-carrier could be applied to achieving high wastewater treatment efficiency.

  18. Anammox for nitrogen removal from anaerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater: Effect of COD/N ratios on process performance and bacterial community structure.

    PubMed

    Leal, Cíntia Dutra; Pereira, Alyne Duarte; Nunes, Fernando Terra; Ferreira, Luísa Ornelas; Coelho, Aline Carolina Cirilo; Bicalho, Sarah Kinaip; Mac Conell, Erika F Abreu; Ribeiro, Thiago Bressani; de Lemos Chernicharo, Carlos Augusto; de Araújo, Juliana Calábria

    2016-07-01

    Long-term effects of COD/N ratios on the nitrogen removal performance and bacterial community of an anammox reactor were evaluated by adding a synthetic medium (with glucose) and real anaerobic effluent to a SBR. At a COD/N ratio of 2.8 (COD, 390mg·L(-1)) ammonium removal efficiency was 66%, while nitrite removal remained high (99%). However, at a COD/N ratio of 5.0 (COD, 300mg·L(-1)), ammonium and nitrite removal efficiencies were high (84% and 99%, respectively). High COD, nitrite, and ammonium removal efficiencies (80%, 90% and 95%, respectively) were obtained on adding anaerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater (with nitrite) to the reactor. DGGE revealed that the addition of anaerobic effluent changed the bacterial community structure and selected for DNA sequences related to Brocadia sinica and Chloroflexi. Adding glucose and anaerobic effluent increased denitrifiers concentration threefold. Thus, the possibility of using the anammox process to remove nitrogen from anaerobically pre-treated municipal wastewater was demonstrated.

  19. Using floating vegetation to remove nutrients from an anaerobic swine wastewater lagoon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methods are needed for utilizing nutrients contained within animal wastewater lagoons. One potential method for removing nutrients is to have vegetation growing in the lagoon. A study was conducted from 2005-2007 to determine the feasibility of growing vegetation on floating platforms on a single ...

  20. Anaerobic co-digestion of surplus yeast and wastewater to increase energy recovery in breweries.

    PubMed

    Neira, K; Jeison, D

    2010-01-01

    Surplus yeast is a residue produced during brewery process, which presents high contents of organic matter. Biogas production from yeast could significantly contribute to bioenergy production in breweries, via biogas generation. Co-digestion of surplus yeast and brewery wastewater in a single treatment step would simplify the technical and economical requirements for the transformation of both residues into biogas. The feasibility of such co-digestion process was studied by means of batch tests and a lab-scale UASB reactor operation. The effect of applying three pre-treatments (thermal, chemical and mechanical) to the surplus yeast was also studied. Results showed that co-digestion of yeast and brewery wastewater is feasible, since no negative effects of the joint digestion were observed. Pre-treatments tested in this research produced no significant improvements on biogas yield or digestion rates. Even though no negative effects were observed when digesting wastewater and yeast in a UASB reactor after 70 days, long-term studies would be needed in order to detect potential negative effects over granular sludge development, sometimes observed during the treatment of some wastewaters containing suspended solids.

  1. Application of a novel sampling bailer device for the analysis of dissolved methane concentrations in municipal wastewater during and following anaerobic treatment.

    PubMed

    Beale, David J; Muster, Tim H; Low, Jason; Trickey, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Modern wastewater utilities need to be able to measure and quantify the amount of methane from their treatment facilities in order to understand the potential energy that can be produced and the amount of methane being lost. This paper describes the application of a novel sampling bailer designed for the collection of wastewater samples that minimises methane losses. Samples collected during and following anaerobic treatment from a wastewater treatment plant using a novel sampling bailer were analysed using a previously optimised analytical method. Analysis of wastewater and anaerobic pond samples using current industry approaches resulted in dissolved methane concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 14.33 mg L(-1). In comparison, the modified sampling protocol resulted in concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 18.73 mg L(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSD%) of low level spikes (5.0 mg L(-1) and 0.1 mg L(-1) methane; n = 5) were found to be 2.3 and 10.3, respectively. Statistical analysis of the dissolved methane concentrations using the two different approaches demonstrated a significant difference in the recovered dissolved methane concentrations, indicating there is a greater methane recovery potential in wastewater treatment plants than previously realised, when collected using the novel sampling bailer and analysed following the optimised analytical protocol.

  2. Acute toxicity reduction and toxicity identification in pigment-contaminated wastewater during anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A/A/O) treatment process.

    PubMed

    Deng, Minjie; Zhang, Ying; Quan, Xie; Na, Chunhong; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Wei; Han, Shuping; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2017-02-01

    In China, a considerable part of industrial wastewater effluents are discharged into the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) after pretreatment in their own wastewater treatment plants. Even though the industrial effluents meet the professional emission standards, many micro-pollutants still remained, and they could be resistant in the municipal WWTPs with conventional activated sludge process. Pigment wastewater was chosen in this study, and the acute toxicity reduction and identification of the pigment-contaminated wastewater treated by the conventional anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A/A/O) process were evaluated. Results indicated that the raw pigment-contaminated wastewater was acutely toxic to Photobacterium phosphoreum (P. phosphoreum), Daphnia magna (D. magna) and Danio rerio (D. rerio). The acute toxicity was decreased in some degree after A/A/O treatment, but the final effluent still exhibited acute toxicity to D. magna and D. rerio with the toxic units (TU) of 1.1 and 2.0, respectively. Chemical analyses showed the presence of various refractory and toxic nitrogen-containing polycyclic and heterocyclic compounds in the pigment-contaminated wastewater. Toxicity identification by combining chemical analyses and correlation analysis showed that N-containing refractory organic toxicants were the main toxicity source for the pigment-contaminated wastewater, and several toxicants showed significant correlation with P. phosphoreum and D. magna. This study indicated that the A/A/O process was not efficient for pigment-contaminated wastewater treatment, and it was irradiative for technology improvement in the WWTPs receiving pretreated industrial wastewater effluents.

  3. Potential of wastewater-treating anaerobic granules for biomethanation of synthesis gas.

    PubMed

    Guiot, Serge R; Cimpoia, Ruxandra; Carayon, Gaël

    2011-03-01

    Gasification of biomass produces a mixture of gas (mainly carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO(2)), and hydrogen (H(2))) called synthesis gas, or syngas, by thermal degradation without combustion. Syngas can be used for heat or electricity production by thermochemical processes. This project aims at developing an alternative way to bioupgrade syngas into biogas (mainly methane), via anaerobic fermentation. Nonacclimated industrial granular sludge to be used as reactor inoculum was initially evaluated for mesophilic carboxydotrophic methanogenesis potential in batch tests at 4 and 8 mmol CO/g VSS.d, in the absence and presence of H(2) and CO(2), respectively. Granular sludge was then introduced into a 30 L gas-lift reactor and supplied with CO, to study the production of methane and other metabolites, at different gas dilutions as well as feeding and recirculation rates. A maximal CO conversion efficiency of 75%, which was gas-liquid mass transfer limited, occurred at a CO partial pressure of 0.6 atm combined with a gas recirculation ratio of 20:1. The anaerobic granule potential for methanogenesis from CO was likely hydrogenotrophic, combined with CO-dependent H(2) formation, either under mesophilic or thermophilic conditions. Thermophilic conditions provide the anaerobic granules with a CO-bioconversion potential significantly larger (5-fold) than under mesophilic conditions, so long as the gas-liquid transfer is alleviated.

  4. Pharmaceutically active compounds in sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic and aerobic digestion, wastewater stabilization ponds and composting.

    PubMed

    Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2015-01-15

    Sewage sludge disposal onto lands has been stabilized previously but still many pollutants are not efficiently removed. Special interest has been focused on pharmaceutical compounds due to their potential ecotoxicological effects. Nowadays, there is scarce information about their occurrence in different sludge stabilization treatments. In this work, the occurrence of twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds has been studied in sludge from four sludge stabilization treatments: anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, composting and lagooning. The types of sludge evaluated were primary, secondary, anaerobically-digested and dehydrated, composted, mixed, aerobically-digested and dehydrated and lagoon sludge. Nineteen of the twenty-two pharmaceutically active compounds monitored were detected in sewage sludge. The most contaminated samples were primary sludge, secondary sludge and mixed sludge (the average concentrations of studied compounds in these sludges were 179, 310 and 142 μg/kg dm, respectively) while the mean concentrations found in the other types of sewage sludge were 70 μg/kg dm (aerobically-digested sludge), 63 μg/kg dm (lagoon sludge), 12 μg/kg dm (composted sludge) and 8 μg/kg dm (anaerobically-digested sludge). The antibiotics ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were found at the highest concentration levels in most of the analyzed sludge samples (up to 2660 and 4328 μg/kg dm, respectively). Anaerobic-digestion treatment reduced more considerably the concentration of most of the studied compounds than aerobic-digestion (especially in the case of bezafibrate and fluoroquinolones) and more than anaerobic stabilization ponds (in the case of acetaminophen, atenolol, bezafibrate, carbamazepine, 17α-ethinylestradiol, naproxen and salicylic acid). Ecotoxicological risk assessment, of sludge application onto soils, has also been evaluated. Risk quotients, expressed as the ratio between the predicted environmental concentration and the predicted non

  5. Model development and evaluation of methane potential from anaerobic co-digestion of municipal wastewater sludge and un-dewatered grease trap waste.

    PubMed

    Yalcinkaya, Sedat; Malina, Joseph F

    2015-06-01

    The performance of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal wastewater sludge with un-dewatered grease trap waste was assessed using modified biochemical methane potential tests under mesophilic conditions (35°C). Methane potentials, process inhibition and chemical behavior of the process were analyzed at different grease trap waste feed ratios on volatile solids basis. Nonlinear regression analyses of first order reaction and modified Gompertz equations were performed to assist in interpretation of the experimental results. Methane potential of un-dewatered grease trap waste was measured as 606 mL CH4/g VS(added), while methane potential of municipal wastewater sludge was only 223 mL CH4/g VS(added). The results indicated that anaerobic digestion of grease trap waste without dewatering yields less methane potential than concentrated/dewatered grease trap waste because of high wastewater content of un-dewatered grease trap waste. However, anaerobic co-digestion of municipal wastewater sludge and grease trap waste still yields over two times more methane potential and approximately 10% more volatile solids reduction than digestion of municipal wastewater sludge alone. The anaerobic co-digestion process inhibitions were reported at 70% and greater concentrated/dewatered grease trap waste additions on volatile solids basis in previous studies; however, no inhibition was observed at 100% un-dewatered grease trap waste digestion in the present study. These results indicate that anaerobic co-digestion of un-dewatered grease trap waste may reduce the inhibition risk compared to anaerobic co-digestion of concentrated/dewatered grease trap waste. In addition, a mathematical model was developed in this study for the first time to describe the relationship between grease trap waste feed ratio on volatile solids basis and resulting methane potential. Experimental data from the current study as well as previous biochemical methane potential studies were successfully fit to this

  6. Waste to energy applications in the Wisconsin canning industry: Economic and environmental evaluation of anaerobic treatment of vegetable processing wastewaters using a fixed film reactor: Project report

    SciTech Connect

    Stack, C.R.; Stover, E.L.

    1987-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the economic and environmental consequences of anaerobic wastewater treatment applied to a vegetable canning plant owned by Our Best Foods, Inc., Pulaski, Wisconsin. A pilot scale, upflow fixed film anaerobic reactor was utilized to determine pollutant removal efficiency, operational parameters, and basis of design of conceptual full scale conceptual full scale systems. Hydraulic retention times (HRT) as low as twelve hours and organic loading rates as high as 1.6 pounds total chemical oxygen demand (COD) per cubic foot of media per day were achieved during the pilot study. The total and soluble COD removals averaged 59% and 79% respectively for the duration of the study. The biogas produced from the anaerobic treatment pilot system typically contained 60 to 65% methane. About 3.0 cubic feet of methane (5.5 cubic feet of biogas) were produced at standard temperature and pressure (STP) per one pound of total COD removed. Wastewaters used in this study were found to be highly variable in their strength and chemical composition. Based upon the results of the pilot study, the projected economics of different hypothetical wastewater treatment options were examined and compared to the economics of the present waste disposal program. 18 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Performance of a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor with forward osmosis membrane for low-strength wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Gu, Yangshuo; Cao, Chuqing; Zhang, Jun; Ng, Jing-Wen; Tang, Chuyang

    2014-03-01

    A submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor with forward osmosis membrane (FO-AnMBR) was operated at 25 °C for the treatment of synthetic wastewater. As the experiment progressed, the water flux reduced due to the membrane fouling and the increasing salinity in the reactor, and achieved at around 3.5 LMH in one cycle. It was worth noting that the level of salinity in the reactor was not a concern in terms of inhibition or toxic effects on the biological processes. The FO-AnMBR process exhibited greater than 96% removal of organic carbon, nearly 100% of total phosphorus and 62% of ammonia-nitrogen, respectively, suggesting a better removal efficiency than the conventional anaerobic membrane bioreactor. The methane and carbon dioxide compositions achieved concentrations of around 65%-78% and 22%-35%, respectively; and no obvious difference in the biogas composition was observed with the changes of conductivity. With respect to the methane yield, an average value of 0.21 L CH4 g(-1) COD was obtained, exhibiting the feasibility of energy recovery by this FO-AnMBR system. Additionally, an increase in the salinity enhanced the accumulation of soluble microbial products, especially for the proteins with 88.9% increment as the conductivity increased from 1.2 to 17.3 ms cm(-1). In contrast, a relatively stable concentration of extracellular polymer substances (EPS) was observed, indicating that the influence of conductivity on EPS cannot be directly correlated.

  8. The Buoyant Filter Bioreactor: a high-rate anaerobic reactor for complex wastewater--process dynamics with dairy effluent.

    PubMed

    Haridas, Ajit; Suresh, S; Chitra, K R; Manilal, V B

    2005-03-01

    A novel high-rate anaerobic reactor, called "Buoyant Filter Bioreactor" (BFBR), has been developed for treating lipid-rich complex wastewater. The BFBR is able to decouple the biomass and insoluble COD retention time from the hydraulic retention time by means of a granular filter bed made of buoyant polystyrene beads. Filter clogging is prevented by an automatic backwash driven by biogas release, which fluidizes the granular filter bed in a downward direction. During filter backwash, the solids captured in the filter are reintroduced into the reaction zone of the reactor. The reaction zone is provided with a mixing system, which is independent of the hydraulic retention time. The performance of a laboratory-scale BFBR was studied for the treatment of dairy effluent, chosen as a model complex wastewater. The dairy effluent was not pre-treated for fat removal. The BFBR was operated over 400 d and showed greater than 85% COD removal at 10 kg COD/(m3/d). The COD conversion to methane in the BFBR was essentially complete. The BFBR performance improved with age, and with feed containing 3200 mg COD/l, the treated effluent had 120 mg COD/l and no turbidity. The hold-up of degradable biosolids, including scum, inside the BFBR was estimated using starvation tests. When load is increased, scum accumulates inside the BFBR and then decays after undergoing change from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. This is explained as the accumulation of fat solids, its conversion to insoluble long chain fatty acids and its further solubilization and degradation.

  9. Factors affecting hydrogen production from cassava wastewater by a co-culture of anaerobic sludge and Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    PubMed

    Reungsang, Alissara; Sangyoka, Suksaman; Chaiprasert, Pawinee; Imai, Tsuyoshi

    2007-10-15

    Series of batch experiments were used to investigate the effects of environmental factors, i.e., total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations, initial pH, illumination pattern and stirring conditions on hydrogen production from cassava wastewater by a co-culture of anaerobic sludge and Rhodospirillum rubrum. The maximum of the hydrogen yield of 150.46 and 340.19 mL g-COD(-1) was obtained at the total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations of 0.2 and 0.04 M, respectively. An effect of initial pH was investigated at COD:N:P ratio of 100:10:1. Results indicated that an optimum initial pH for hydrogen production was pH 7 with a high hydrogen yield of 158.78 mL g-COD(-1) was obtained. No significantly different (p < 0.05) in the effect of illumination pattern (24 h of light and 12 h dark/light cycle) on hydrogen production were observed under continuous-illumination and periodic-illumination with hydrogen yield of 131.84 and 126.92 mL g-COD(-1), respectively. Therefore, a periodic-illumination was applicable in hydrogen fermentation due to its cost-effective. Hydrogen fermentation with a stirring at 100 rpm provided more effective hydrogen production (164.83 mL g-COD(-1)) than static-fermentation (93.93 mL g-COD(-1)). The major soluble products from hydrogen fermentation were acetic and butyric acids, in the ranges of 28.33-48.30 and 35.23-66.07%, respectively, confirming an ability of a co-culture to produce hydrogen from cassava wastewater.

  10. Continuous anaerobic bioreactor with a fixed-structure bed (ABFSB) for wastewater treatment with low solids and low applied organic loading content.

    PubMed

    Mockaitis, G; Pantoja, J L R; Rodrigues, J A D; Foresti, E; Zaiat, M

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes a new type of anaerobic bioreactor with a fixed-structure bed (ABFSB) in which the support for the biomass consists of polyurethane foam strips placed along the length of the bioreactor. This configuration prevents the accumulation of biomass or solids in the bed as well as clogging and channeling effects. In this study, complex synthetic wastewater with a chemical oxygen demand of 404.4 mg O(2) L(-1) is treated by the reactor. The ABFSB, which has a working volume of 4.77 L, was inoculated with anaerobic sludge obtained from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor. A removal efficiency of 78 % for organic matter and an effluent pH of 6.97 were achieved. An analysis of the organic volatile acids produced by the ABFSB indicated that it operated under stable conditions during an experimental run of 36 days. The stable and efficient operation of the bioreactor was compared with the configurations of other anaerobic bioreactors used for complex wastewater treatment. The results of the study indicate that the ABFSB is a technological alternative to packed-bed bioreactors.

  11. Anaerobic fluid-bed treatment of coal conversion wastewater: Third quarterly technical progress report for the period February 16-May 15, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Suidan, M.T.; Pfeffer, J.T.; Nakhala, G.F.; Traegner, U.K.

    1987-06-01

    Anaerobic fluidized-bed GAC reactors have been proven successful for the treatment of biologically inhibiting wastewaters such as coal conversion wastewaters. However, in treating such wastewaters, which contain compounds that not only resist biodegradation but also inhibit the degradation of other compounds, adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC) is a viable strategy for the removal of these inhibitory compounds. Since the adsorptive capacity of the reactor media is limited, partial replacement of the carbon bed is then necessary to maintain the concentration of inhibitory compounds below threshold levels. The cost of the GAC replacement thus represents a major operating cost of the system. The hydraulic detention time and the associated carbon inventory represents the single most important capital cost parameter. The objectives of this research are to determine, using experimental and modeling strategies, the effects of hydraulic detention time and the schedule of GAC replacement on the performance of fluidized bed GAC anaerobic reactors during the treatment of coal conversion wastewater. This objective is realized by the described activities.

  12. Anaerobic fluid-bed treatment of coal conversion wastewater: Eighth quarterly technical progress report for the period May 15, 1988--August 15, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Suidan, M.T.; Pfeffer, J.T.; Nakhla, G.F.; Traegner, U.K.

    1988-01-01

    Anaerobic fluidized-bed GAC reactors have been proven successful for the treatment of biologically inhibiting wastewaters such as coal conversion wastewaters. However, in treating such wastewaters which contain compounds that not only resist biodegradation but also inhibit the degradation of other compounds, adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC) represents a viable strategy for the removal of these inhibitory compounds. Since the adsorptive capacity of the reactor media is limited, partial replacement of the carbon bed is then necessary to maintain the concentration of inhibitory compounds below threshold levels. The cost of the GAC replacement thus represents a major operating cost of the system. The hydraulic detention time and the associated carbon inventory represent the single most important capital cost parameter. The objectives of this research are to determine, using experimental and modeling strategies, the effects of hydraulic detention time and the schedule of GAC replacement on the performance of fluidized-bed GAC anaerobic reactors during the treatment of coal conversion wastewater. 1 ref., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Anaerobic fluid-bed treatment of coal conversion wastewater: Fourth quarterly technical progress report for the period May 15 to August 15, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Suidan, M.T.; Pfeffer, J.T.; Nakhala, G.F.; Traegner, U.K.

    1987-01-01

    Anaerobic fluidized-bed GAC reactors have been proven successful for the treatment of biologically inhibiting wastewaters such as coal conversion wastewaters. However, in treating such wastewaters which contain compounds that not only resist biodegradation but also inhibit the degradation of other compounds, adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC) is a viable strategy for the removal of these inhibitory compounds. Since the adsorptive capacity of the reactor media is limited, partial replacement of the carbon bed is then necessary to maintain the concentration of inhibitory compounds below threshold levels. The cost of the GAC replacement thus represents a major operating cost of the system. The hydraulic detention time and the associated carbon inventory represent the single most important capital cost parameter. The objectives of this research are to determine, using experimental and modeling strategies, the effects of hydraulic detention time and the schedule of GAC replacement on the performance of fluidized bed GAC anaerobic reactors during the treatment of coal conversion wastewater. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Evaluation of High Rate Algae Ponds for treatment of anaerobically digested wastewater: Effect of CO2 addition and modification of dilution rate.

    PubMed

    de Godos, I; Arbib, Z; Lara, E; Rogalla, F

    2016-11-01

    High Rate Algae Ponds (HRAP) are the simplest way to grow microalgae biomass and an interesting alternative for wastewater treatment. In this work the performance of these systems was evaluated using anaerobically digested wastewater as culture medium. Two variables were studied in long-term mode: the carbon dioxide supply and the modification of the dilution rates. The results showed that CO2 supply increases the productivity but less than expected considering the potential biomass generation calculated based on the ratios of carbon to nitrogen of microalgae and wastewater. The assimilation into biomass only accounted for 57% of the inlet nitrogen under the best conditions because nitrification and volatilization reduced the availability of this element. The operation under short hydraulic retention times presented a more interesting performance with higher biomass productivities. The biomass produced was efficiently harvested with in a Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) unit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Combination of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and partial nitritation/anammox moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Malovanyy, Andriy; Yang, Jingjing; Trela, Jozef; Plaza, Elzbieta

    2015-03-01

    In this study the combination of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor and a deammonification moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for mainstream wastewater treatment was tested. The competition between aerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was studied during a 5months period of transition from reject water to mainstream wastewater followed by a 16months period of mainstream wastewater treatment. The decrease of influent ammonium concentration led to a wash-out of suspended biomass which had a major contribution to nitrite production. Influence of a dissolved oxygen concentration and a transient anoxia mechanism of NOB suppression were studied. It was shown that anoxic phase duration has no effect on NOB metabolism recovery and oxygen diffusion rather than affinities of AOB and NOB to oxygen determine the rate of nitrogen conversion in a biofilm system. Anammox activity remained on the level comparable to reject water treatment systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ultrasound and ozone assisted biological degradation of thermally pretreated and anaerobically pretreated distillery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sangave, Preeti C; Gogate, Parag R; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2007-05-01

    The present work is aimed at increasing the overall efficiency of the treatment process of distillery spent wash using a combination of different treatment techniques. Initially the effluent samples were subjected to Thermal Pretreatment (TPT-DW) and anaerobic treatment (ANA-DW). Advanced oxidation techniques, viz., Ultrasound (US) and Ozone were then used for further COD reduction followed by the conventional aerobic oxidation using mixed microbial consortium. Pretreatment of TPT-DW with US and Ozone (as stand alone techniques) enhanced the subsequent aerobic oxidation rate. For US treated sample, a maximum of 13% COD reduction was attained at the end of 48 h of aerobic oxidation, while for the ozone treated effluent a maximum of 45.6% COD reduction was obtained as compared to mere 1.8% COD reduction for the control (TPT-DW directly subjected to aerobic oxidation) indicating a 25 times increase in the rate of aerobic biodegradation of ozonated sample. Anaerobically treated effluent sample (ANA-DW) could be successfully treated aerobically. In this case, however, the use of advanced oxidation techniques did not result in any synergistic effects. The rate of the aerobic oxidation was slightly higher for the control (ANA-DW directly subjected to aerobic oxidation) as compared to the sample pretreated using ultrasound or ozonation. TOC analysis revealed that between the two pretreatments studied, ozone was found to be superior over US as it led to both COD as well as TOC reduction during the aerobic oxidation step for ANA-DW effluent stream.

  17. Anaerobic co-digestion of aircraft deicing fluid and municipal wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Zitomer, D; Ferguson, N; McGrady, K; Schilling, J

    2001-01-01

    At many airports, aircraft deicing fluid and precipitation mix, becoming aircraft deicing runoff having a 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) of 10(2) to 10(6) mg/L. Publicly owned treatment works can be used for aerobic biological treatment; however, it may be more economical to use anaerobic digesters to codigest a mixture of aircraft deicing fluid and sludge. The objectives of this investigation were to determine benefits and appropriate propylene glycol aircraft deicing fluid loadings to anaerobic codigesters. Results demonstrate aircraft deicing fluid can be successfully codigested to produce methane; supernatant BOD5 and Kjeldahl nitrogen concentration were not higher in codigesters compared to a conventional digester. Aircraft deicing fluid loadings as high as 1.6 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L x d were sustainable in codigesters, whereas system fed only aircraft deicing fluid with nutrients and alkalinity achieved a loading of 0.65 g COD/L x d. The sludge used increased digester alkalinity and provided nitrogen, iron, nickel, cobalt, and biomass required for methanogenesis. The deicer provides organics for increased methane production.

  18. Effect of aluminium and sulphate on anaerobic digestion of sludge from wastewater enhanced primary treatment.

    PubMed

    Cabirol, N; Barragán, E J; Durán, A; Noyola, A

    2003-01-01

    The combined and individual effects of aluminium and sulphate at concentrations of 1,000 mg/l as Al(OH)3, and 150 mgSO4(2-)/L as K2SO4, respectively, on the anaerobic digestion of sludge from enhanced primary treatment (EPT) were evaluated in 1 L capacity semi continuous reactors. It was found that at 59 days, aluminium inhibits the specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of methanogenic and acetogenic bacteria resulting in a 50% to 72% decrease. Sulphate also inhibits (48% to 65%) the SMA of the same type of bacteria. Methanogenic and acetogenic bacteria were able to adapt, to a different extent, to the assayed concentrations of aluminium and sulphate. However, the combination of aluminium and sulphate resulted in a higher inhibition, especially of the hydrogenophilic methanogenic bacteria. Indeed, this effect remained during the time of the experiment, maintaining an inhibition of 44% at 114 days. Feeding with EPT sludge led to a bigger decrease in SMA of each bacterial group, with respect to the other treatments with time. It is concluded that the acidification of anaerobic reactors fed with EPT sludge is due, among other causes, to the concurrent presence of aluminium and sulphate.

  19. Anaerobic submerged membrane bioreactor (AnSMBR) for municipal wastewater treatment under mesophilic and psychrophilic temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Sosa, David; Helmreich, Brigitte; Netter, Thomas; Paris, Stefania; Bischof, Franz; Horn, Harald

    2011-11-01

    A pilot scale anaerobic submerged membrane bioreactor (AnSMBR) with an external filtration unit for municipal wastewater treatment was operated for 100 days. Besides gas sparging, additional shear was created by circulating sludge to control membrane fouling. During the first 69 days, the reactor was operated under mesophilic temperature conditions. Afterwards, the temperature was gradually reduced to 20 °C. A slow and linear increase in the filtration resistance was observed under critical flux conditions (7 L/(m2 h)) at 35 °C. However, an increase in the fouling rate probably linked to an accumulation of solids, a higher viscosity and soluble COD concentrations in the reactor was observed at 20 °C. The COD removal efficiency was close to 90% under both temperature ranges. Effluent COD and BOD5 concentrations were lower than 80 and 25 mg/L, respectively. Pathogen indicator microorganisms (fecal coliforms bacteria) were reduced by log(10)5. Hence, the effluent could be used for irrigation purposes in agriculture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance, kinetic, and biodegradation pathway evaluation of anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor in removing phthalic acid esters from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Ehsan; Yousefzadeh, Samira; Ansari, Mohsen; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Azari, Ali; Miri, Mohammad; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Kakavandi, Babak; Ahmadi, Peyman; Badi, Mojtaba Yegane; Gholami, Mitra; Sharafi, Kiomars; Karimaei, Mostafa; Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Brahmand, Masoud Binesh; Mohseni, Seyed Mohsen; Sarkhosh, Maryam; Rezaei, Soheila; Asgharnia, Hosseinali; Dehghanifard, Emad; Jafari, Behdad; Mortezapour, Alireza; Moghaddam, Vahid Kazemi; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Molla; Taghipour, Nader

    2017-02-20

    Emerging and hazardous environmental pollutants like phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are one of the recent concerns worldwide. PAEs are considered to have diverse endocrine disrupting effects on human health. Industrial wastewater has been reported as an important environment with high concentrations of PAEs. In the present study, four short-chain PAEs including diallyl phthalate (DAP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), and phthalic acid (PA) were selected as a substrate for anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (AnFFFBR). The process performances of AnFFFBR, and also its kinetic behavior, were evaluated to find the best eco-friendly phthalate from the biodegradability point of view. According to the results and kinetic coefficients, removing and mineralizing of DMP occurred at a higher rate than other phthalates. In optimum conditions 92.5, 84.41, and 80.39% of DMP, COD, and TOC were removed. DAP was found as the most bio-refractory phthalate. The second-order (Grau) model was selected as the best model for describing phthalates removal.

  1. Inhibitory Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on Removal of Organic Pollutants and Sulfate in an Anaerobic Biological Wastewater Treatment Process.

    PubMed

    Rasool, Kashif; Lee, Dae Sung

    2016-05-01

    The increasing use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in commercial products and industrial processes raises issues regarding the toxicity of sludge biomass in biological wastewater treatment plants, due to potential antimicrobial properties. This study investigated the effects of AgNPs on removal of organic pollutants and sulfate in an anaerobic biological sulfate reduction process. At AgNPs concentrations of up to 10 mg/L, no significant inhibition of sulfate and COD removal was observed. However, at higher concentrations (50-200 mg/L) sulfate and COD removal efficiencies were significantly decreased to 51.8% and 33.6%, respectively. Sulfate and COD reduction followed first-order kinetics at AgNPs concentrations of up to 10 mg/L and second-order kinetics at AgNPs concentrations of 50-200 mg/L. Lactate dehydrogenase release profiles showed increases in cytotoxicity at AgNPs concentrations greater than 50 mg/L suggesting cell membrane disruption. Analysis of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) from sulfidogenic sludge biomass and of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra showed a decrease in concentrations of carbohydrates, proteins, humic substances, and lipids in the presence of AgNPs. Moreover, the interaction of AgNPs with sludge biomass and the damage caused to cell walls were confirmed through scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  2. An enhanced anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating bamboo industry wastewater by bamboo charcoal addition: Performance and microbial community analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tian; Gao, Xinyi; Wang, Caiqin; Xu, Xiangyang; Zhu, Liang

    2016-11-01

    In this study, two anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) were operated for 150days to treat bamboo industry wastewater (BIWW), and one of them was enhanced with bamboo charcoal (B-AnMBR). During the steady period, average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of 94.5±2.9% and 89.1±3.1% were achieved in B-AnMBR and AnMBR, respectively. The addition of bamboo charcoal (BC) increased the amount of biomass and improved the performance of the systems. A higher biogas production and methane yield were also observed in B-AnMBR. Regarding the issue of membrane fouling, BC lowered the soluble microbial product (SMP) content by approximately 62.73mg/L and decreased the membrane resistance, thereby mitigating membrane fouling. Analysis of the microbial communities demonstrated that BC increased the microbial diversity and promoted the activity of Methanosaeta, Methanospirillum, and Methanobacterium, which are dominant in methane production.

  3. Anaerobic treatment of rice winery wastewater in an upflow filter packed with steel slag under different hydraulic loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yeadam; Kim, Jaai; Hwang, Seokhwan; Lee, Changsoo

    2015-10-01

    Rice-washing drainage (RWD), a strong organic wastewater, was anaerobically treated using an upflow filter filled with blast-furnace slag. The continuous performance of the reactor was examined at varying hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The reactor achieved 91.7% chemical oxygen demand removal (CODr) for a 10-day HRT (0.6 g COD/Ld organic loading rate) and maintained fairly stable performance until the HRT was shortened to 2.2 days (CODr > 84%). Further decreases in HRT caused process deterioration (CODr < 50% and pH < 5.5 for a 0.7-day HRT). The methane production rate increased with decreasing HRT to reach the peak level for a 1.3-day HRT, whereas the yield was significantly greater for 3.4-day or longer HRTs. The substrate removal and methane production kinetics were successfully evaluated, and the generated kinetic models produced good performance predictions. The methanogenic activity of the reactor likely relies on the filter biofilm, with Methanosaeta being the main driver. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance and spatial community succession of an anaerobic baffled reactor treating acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Wei, Yongjun; Xiao, Wei; Zhou, Zhihua; Yan, Xing

    2011-08-01

    An anaerobic baffled reactor with four compartments (C1-C4) was successfully used for treatment of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation wastewater and methane production. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency was 88.2% with a CH(4) yield of 0.25L/(g COD(removed)) when organic loading rate (OLR) was 5.4kg CODm(-3)d(-1). C1 played the most important role in solvents (acetone, butanol and ethanol) and COD removal. Community structure of C2 was similar to that in C1 at stage 3 with higher OLR, but was similar to those in C3 and C4 at stages 1-2 with lower OLR. This community variation in C2 was consistent with its increased role in COD and solvent removal at stage 3. During community succession from C1 to C4 at stage 3, abundance of Firmicutes (especially OTUs ABRB07 and ABRB10) and Methanoculleus decreased, while Bacteroidetes and Methanocorpusculum became dominant. Thus, ABRB07 coupled with Methanoculleus and/or acetogen (ABRB10) may be key species for solvents degradation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Performance, kinetic, and biodegradation pathway evaluation of anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor in removing phthalic acid esters from wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Ehsan; Yousefzadeh, Samira; Ansari, Mohsen; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Azari, Ali; Miri, Mohammad; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Kakavandi, Babak; Ahmadi, Peyman; Badi, Mojtaba Yegane; Gholami, Mitra; Sharafi, Kiomars; Karimaei, Mostafa; Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Brahmand, Masoud Binesh; Mohseni, Seyed Mohsen; Sarkhosh, Maryam; Rezaei, Soheila; Asgharnia, Hosseinali; Dehghanifard, Emad; Jafari, Behdad; Mortezapour, Alireza; Moghaddam, Vahid Kazemi; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Molla; Taghipour, Nader

    2017-01-01

    Emerging and hazardous environmental pollutants like phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are one of the recent concerns worldwide. PAEs are considered to have diverse endocrine disrupting effects on human health. Industrial wastewater has been reported as an important environment with high concentrations of PAEs. In the present study, four short-chain PAEs including diallyl phthalate (DAP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), and phthalic acid (PA) were selected as a substrate for anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (AnFFFBR). The process performances of AnFFFBR, and also its kinetic behavior, were evaluated to find the best eco-friendly phthalate from the biodegradability point of view. According to the results and kinetic coefficients, removing and mineralizing of DMP occurred at a higher rate than other phthalates. In optimum conditions 92.5, 84.41, and 80.39% of DMP, COD, and TOC were removed. DAP was found as the most bio-refractory phthalate. The second-order (Grau) model was selected as the best model for describing phthalates removal. PMID:28216654

  6. Modelling of the temperature-phased batch anaerobic digestion of raw sludge from an urban wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Riau, Víctor; De la Rubia, M Angeles; Pérez, Montserrat; Martín, Antonio; Borja, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    The disposal of excess sludge from wastewater treatment plants is a serious problem that needs to be addressed. Temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) which combines thermophilic and mesophilic processes in one, brings together the advantages of both systems. The aim of the present work was to develop a simple kinetic model to describe the TPAD of sewage sludge in batch completely stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and to determine the kinetic parameters of both thermophilic and mesophilic stages. A zero-order kinetic equation described the thermophilic step after 2, 4 and 6 days of digestion time (experiment 1, 2 and 3, respectively), yet a first-order equation was found to be adequate to correlate the methane gas accumulated with time in the mesophilic step, the kinetic constant being 0.21 days(-1). The methane yield coefficient obtained was found to be almost proportional to the digestion time used in the thermophilic step with values of 0.067, 0.132 and 0.193 L CH(4) STP/g VS(added) for experiments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. By contrast, the kinetic constant of the mesophilic stage was not influenced by the digestion time used in the thermophilic phase.

  7. Anaerobic co-digestion of biodiesel waste glycerin with municipal wastewater sludge: microbial community structure dynamics and reactor performance.

    PubMed

    Razaviarani, Vahid; Buchanan, Ian D

    2015-04-01

    Two 10 L completely mixed reactors operating at 37°C and 20 days SRT were used to evaluate the relationships between reactor performance and microbial community dynamics during anaerobic co-digestion of biodiesel waste glycerin (BWG) with municipal wastewater sludge (MWS). The addition of up to 1.35% (v/v) BWG to reactor feeds yielded increased VS and COD removal together with enhanced the biogas production and methane yield. This represented 50% of the MWS feed COD. Pyrosequencing analysis showed Methanosaeta (acetoclastic) and Methanomicrobium (hydrogenotrophic) to be the methanogenic genera present in greatest diversity during stable reactor operation. Methanosaeta sequences predominated at the lowest BWG loading while those of Methanomicrobium were present in greatest abundance at the higher BWG loadings. Genus Candidatus cloacamonas was present in the greatest number of bacterial sequences at all loadings. Alkalinity, pH, biogas production and methane yield declined and VFA concentrations (especially propionate) increased during the highest BWG loading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of recirculation on the performance of anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (AnSBBR) treating hypersaline composite chemical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Mohan, S Venkata; Lalit Babu, V; Vijaya Bhaskar, Y; Sarma, P N

    2007-05-01

    Influence of recirculation on the performance of anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (AnSBBR) was studied in the process of treating hypersaline (total dissolved inorganic solids (TDIS) approximately 26 g/l) and low biodegradable (BOD/COD approximately 0.3) composite chemical wastewater. Significant enhancement in the substrate removal efficiency and biogas yield was observed after introducing the recirculation to the system. Maximum efficiency (COD removal efficiency - 51%; SDR - 3.14 kg COD/cum-day) was observed at recirculation to feed (R/F) ratio of 2 (OLR - 6.15 kg C OD/cum-day; HLR - 2.30 cum (liquid)/cum day; UFV(A) - 0.023 m/h). Subsequent increase of R/F to 3 (OLR - 6.15 kg COD/cum-day; HLR - 3.07cum (liquid)/cum-day; UFV(A) - 0.035 m/h) resulted in reduction in COD removal efficiency (32%; SDR - 1.97 kg COD/cum-day). The enhanced performance of the system due to the introduction of recirculation was attributed to the improvement in the mass transfer between the substrate present in the bulk liquid and the attached biofilm. The hydrodynamic behavior due to recirculation mode of operation reduced the concentration gradient (substrate inhibition) of substrate and reaction by-products (VFA) resulting in mixed flow conditions.

  9. Biological treatment of actual petrochemical wastewater using anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process and the microbial diversity analysis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Pengyuan; Chu, Libing; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-12-01

    A novel process integrating anaerobic hydrolysis-acidification (HA) and anoxic/oxic (A/O) reactors was developed to treat the actual petrochemical wastewater, which was operated for more than 8 months, the removal efficiency of COD and NH4(+)-N was monitored, and the microbial community was analyzed. The results showed that the effluent concentrations were maintained at around 99 and 1.3 mg/L, with the removal efficiency of 70.6 and 95.4 %, respectively at a total hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 h. The major pollutants in the influent were identified as hydrocarbons, aldehydes, heterocyclic matters, amines, alcohols, phenols, ketones, etc. by GC-MS analysis, while only heterocyclic compounds, ketones, and esters were detected in the effluent after HA-A/O treatment. Bacteria belonging to phyla Chloroflexi, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were highly enriched in the system. The predominant genera in HA, anoxic, and oxic tanks were Anaerolineaceae uncultured and Desulfobacter, Blastocatella and Anaerolineaceae uncultured, Saprospiraceae uncultured and Nitrosomonadaceae uncultured, respectively. The sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfobacter, Desulfofustis and Desulfomicrobium were detected only in HA reactor. The ammonium-oxidizing bacteria Nitrosomonadaceae and Nitrosomonas and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria Nitrospira were highly enriched in A/O reactor, which is consistent with the good nitrification performance.

  10. Experimental study of the anaerobic urban wastewater treatment in a submerged hollow-fibre membrane bioreactor at pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Giménez, J B; Robles, A; Carretero, L; Durán, F; Ruano, M V; Gatti, M N; Ribes, J; Ferrer, J; Seco, A

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of several operational variables on both biological and separation process performance in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor pilot plant that treats urban wastewater. The pilot plant is equipped with two industrial hollow-fibre ultrafiltration membrane modules (PURON® Koch Membrane Systems, 30 m² of filtration surface each). It was operated under mesophilic conditions (at 33 °C), 70 days of SRT, and variable HRT ranging from 20 to 6h. The effects of the influent COD/SO₄-S ratio (ranging from 2 to 12) and the MLTS concentration (ranging from 6 to 22 g L⁻¹) were also analysed. The main performance results were about 87% of COD removal, effluent VFA below 20 mg L⁻¹ and biogas methane concentrations over 55% v/v. Methane yield was strongly affected by the influent COD/SO₄-S ratio. No irreversible fouling problems were detected, even for MLTS concentrations above 22 g L⁻¹.

  11. Contribution of Liquid/Gas Mass-Transfer Limitations to Dissolved Methane Oversaturation in Anaerobic Treatment of Dilute Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Hyeongu; An, Junyeong; Reid, Robertson; Rittmann, Bruce E; Lee, Hyung-Sool

    2015-09-01

    The mechanisms controlling the accumulation of dissolved methane in anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) treating a synthetic dilute wastewater (a glucose medium) were assessed experimentally and theoretically. The AnMBR was maintained at a temperature of 24-26 °C as the organic loading rate increased from 0.39 to 1.1 kg COD/m(3)-d. The measured concentration of dissolved methane was consistently 2.2- to 2.5-fold larger than the concentration of dissolved methane at thermodynamic equilibrium with the measured CH4 partial pressure, and the fraction of dissolved methane was as high as 76% of the total methane produced. The low gas production rate in the AnMBR significantly slowed the mass transport of dissolved methane to the gas phase. Although the production rate of total methane increased linearly with the COD loading rate, the concentration of dissolved methane only slightly increased with an increasing organic loading rate, because the mass-transfer rate increased by almost 5-fold as the COD loading increased from 0.39 to 1.1 kg COD/m(3)-d. Thus, slow mass transport kinetics exacerbated the situation in which dissolved methane accounted for a substantial fraction of the total methane generated from the AnMBR.

  12. Performance of aerobic nitrite granules treating an anaerobic pre-treated wastewater originating from the potato industry.

    PubMed

    Dobbeleers, Thomas; Daens, Dominique; Miele, Solange; D'aes, Jolien; Caluwé, Michel; Geuens, Luc; Dries, Jan

    2017-02-01

    In this study nitrogen removal via nitrite >80% was achieved after approximately 80days in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating pre-treated industrial wastewater originating from the potato industry. Thereafter, SBR performance was investigated during the formation of aerobic nitrite granules (ANG). The first granules appeared after 26days leading to full granulation after 64days. ANG showed excellent settling properties, as the Sludge Volume Index (SVI) went down to 16mL/g and a SVI10/SVI30=1 was obtained. qPCR analysis showed that slow growing organisms, especially polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAO) were stimulated by an anaerobic feeding strategy. The average nitrogen removal was 95.3% over the entire operational period, and it mainly followed the "nitrite-route". Moreover, with ANG also phosphorus removal efficiencies up to 65.7% could be achieved. However, it has to be mentioned that nitrous oxide was an important denitrification product, which implies some environmental concerns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance and microbial community structure in an integrated anaerobic fluidized-bed membrane bioreactor treating synthetic benzothiazole contaminated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Hu, Qi; Chen, Chun-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Long; Gao, Da-Wen

    2017-07-01

    This study investigated the impact of benzothiazole on the performance and microbial community structures in an integrated anaerobic fluidized-bed membrane bioreactor fed with synthetic benzothiazole wastewater (with gradually increasing doses of benzothiazole (1-50mg/L)). The addition of benzothiazole had an adverse effect on volatile fatty acids accumulation (from 10.86mg/L to 57.83mg/L), and membrane fouling (service period from 5.9d to 5.3d). The removal efficiency of benzothiazole was 96.0%. Biodegradation was the major benzothiazole removal route and the biodegradation efficiency obviously improved from 25.7% to 98.3% after adaptation. Sludge 1 (collected on day 58 without benzothiazole) and sludge 2 (collected on day 185 with 50mg/L benzothiazole) were analyzed using the Illumina®MiSeq platform. The most abundant genera were Trichococcus (43.1% in sludge 1) and Clostridium sensu stricto (23.9% in sludge 2). The dominant genus of archaea was Methanosaeta (90.3% in sludge 1 and 80.8% in sludge 2). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Continuous hydrogen production from co-digestion of municipal food waste and kitchen wastewater in mesophilic anaerobic baffled reactor.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, A; El-Qelish, M

    2012-06-01

    This study was carried out to assess the impact of organic loading rate (OLR) on the performance of mesophilic anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) for H(2) production from a co-digestion of municipal food waste and kitchen wastewater. The reactor was operated at different organic loading rates (OLRs) of 29, 36 and 47 g COD(total)/Ld. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) was kept constant at 1.6d. The results showed that increasing the OLR from 29 to 36 g COD(total)/Ld, leads to a significant (p □ 0.01) drop in the H(2) production from 6.0±0.5 to 5.4±1.04 L H(2)/d, respectively. However, the H(2) production remained at the same level of 5.3±1.04 L H(2)/d at increasing the OLR from 36 to 47 g COD(total)/Ld. The H(2) generation was mainly due to conversion of COD (57%) and carbohydrate (81%). Protein and lipids conversion represents only 23.3% and 4.1% respectively for H(2) production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment of anaerobic digester effluents of nylon wastewater through chemical precipitation and a sequencing batch reactor process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiming; Song, Qianwu; Wang, Wenjun; Wu, Shaowei; Dai, Jiankun

    2012-06-30

    Chemical precipitation, in combination with a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) process, was employed to remove pollutants from anaerobic digester effluents of nylon wastewater. The effects of the chemicals along with various Mg:N:P ratios on the chemical precipitation (struvite precipitation) were investigated. When brucite and H(3)PO(4) were applied at an Mg:N:P molar ratio of 3:1:1, an ammonia-removal rate of 81% was achieved, which was slightly more than that (80%) obtained with MgSO(4)·7H(2)O and Na(2)HPO(4)·12H(2)O at Mg:N:P molar ratios greater than the stoichiometric ratio. To further reduce the ammonia loads of the successive biotreatment, an overdose of phosphate with brucite and H(3)PO(4) was applied during chemical precipitation. The ammonia-removal rate at the Mg:N:P molar ratio of 3.5:1:1.05 reached 88%, with a residual PO(4)-P concentration of 16 mg/L. The economic analysis showed that the chemical cost of chemical precipitation could be reduced by about 41% when brucite and H(3)PO(4) were used instead of MgSO(4)·7H(2)O and Na(2)HPO(4)·12H(2)O. The subsequent biological process that used a sequencing batch reactor showed high removal rates of contaminants. The quality of the final effluent met the requisite effluent-discharging standards.

  16. Sorption and Release of Organics by Primary, Anaerobic, and Aerobic Activated Sludge Mixed with Raw Municipal Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Modin, Oskar; Saheb Alam, Soroush; Persson, Frank; Wilén, Britt-Marie

    2015-01-01

    New activated sludge processes that utilize sorption as a major mechanism for organics removal are being developed to maximize energy recovery from wastewater organics, or as enhanced primary treatment technologies. To model and optimize sorption-based activated sludge processes, further knowledge about sorption of organics onto sludge is needed. This study compared primary-, anaerobic-, and aerobic activated sludge as sorbents, determined sorption capacity and kinetics, and investigated some characteristics of the organics being sorbed. Batch sorption assays were carried out without aeration at a mixing velocity of 200 rpm. Only aerobic activated sludge showed net sorption of organics. Sorption of dissolved organics occurred by a near-instantaneous sorption event followed by a slower process that obeyed 1st order kinetics. Sorption of particulates also followed 1st order kinetics but there was no instantaneous sorption event; instead there was a release of particles upon mixing. The 5-min sorption capacity of activated sludge was 6.5±10.8 mg total organic carbon (TOC) per g volatile suspend solids (VSS) for particulate organics and 5.0±4.7 mgTOC/gVSS for dissolved organics. The observed instantaneous sorption appeared to be mainly due to organics larger than 20 kDa in size being sorbed, although molecules with a size of about 200 Da with strong UV absorbance at 215–230 nm were also rapidly removed. PMID:25768429

  17. Performance, kinetic, and biodegradation pathway evaluation of anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor in removing phthalic acid esters from wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Ehsan; Yousefzadeh, Samira; Ansari, Mohsen; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Azari, Ali; Miri, Mohammad; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Kakavandi, Babak; Ahmadi, Peyman; Badi, Mojtaba Yegane; Gholami, Mitra; Sharafi, Kiomars; Karimaei, Mostafa; Ghoochani, Mahboobeh; Brahmand, Masoud Binesh; Mohseni, Seyed Mohsen; Sarkhosh, Maryam; Rezaei, Soheila; Asgharnia, Hosseinali; Dehghanifard, Emad; Jafari, Behdad; Mortezapour, Alireza; Moghaddam, Vahid Kazemi; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Molla; Taghipour, Nader

    2017-02-01

    Emerging and hazardous environmental pollutants like phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are one of the recent concerns worldwide. PAEs are considered to have diverse endocrine disrupting effects on human health. Industrial wastewater has been reported as an important environment with high concentrations of PAEs. In the present study, four short-chain PAEs including diallyl phthalate (DAP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), and phthalic acid (PA) were selected as a substrate for anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (AnFFFBR). The process performances of AnFFFBR, and also its kinetic behavior, were evaluated to find the best eco-friendly phthalate from the biodegradability point of view. According to the results and kinetic coefficients, removing and mineralizing of DMP occurred at a higher rate than other phthalates. In optimum conditions 92.5, 84.41, and 80.39% of DMP, COD, and TOC were removed. DAP was found as the most bio-refractory phthalate. The second-order (Grau) model was selected as the best model for describing phthalates removal.

  18. Dynamical model development and parameter identification for an anaerobic wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Bernard, O; Hadj-Sadok, Z; Dochain, D; Genovesi, A; Steyer, J P

    2001-11-20

    This paper deals with the development and the parameter identification of an anaerobic digestion process model. A two-step (acidogenesis-methanization) mass-balance model has been considered. The model incorporates electrochemical equilibria in order to include the alkalinity, which has to play a central role in the related monitoring and control strategy of a treatment plant. The identification is based on a set of dynamical experiments designed to cover a wide spectrum of operating conditions that are likely to take place in the practical operation of the plant. A step by step identification procedure to estimate the model parameters is presented. The results of 70 days of experiments in a 1-m(3) fermenter are then used to validate the model.

  19. Anaerobic treatment of complex chemical wastewater in a sequencing batch biofilm reactor: process optimization and evaluation of factor interactions using the Taguchi dynamic DOE methodology.

    PubMed

    Venkata Mohan, S; Chandrasekhara Rao, N; Krishna Prasad, K; Murali Krishna, P; Sreenivas Rao, R; Sarma, P N

    2005-06-20

    The Taguchi robust experimental design (DOE) methodology has been applied on a dynamic anaerobic process treating complex wastewater by an anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (AnSBBR). For optimizing the process as well as to evaluate the influence of different factors on the process, the uncontrollable (noise) factors have been considered. The Taguchi methodology adopting dynamic approach is the first of its kind for studying anaerobic process evaluation and process optimization. The designed experimental methodology consisted of four phases--planning, conducting, analysis, and validation connected sequence-wise to achieve the overall optimization. In the experimental design, five controllable factors, i.e., organic loading rate (OLR), inlet pH, biodegradability (BOD/COD ratio), temperature, and sulfate concentration, along with the two uncontrollable (noise) factors, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and alkalinity at two levels were considered for optimization of the anae robic system. Thirty-two anaerobic experiments were conducted with a different combination of factors and the results obtained in terms of substrate degradation rates were processed in Qualitek-4 software to study the main effect of individual factors, interaction between the individual factors, and signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio analysis. Attempts were also made to achieve optimum conditions. Studies on the influence of individual factors on process performance revealed the intensive effect of OLR. In multiple factor interaction studies, biodegradability with other factors, such as temperature, pH, and sulfate have shown maximum influence over the process performance. The optimum conditions for the efficient performance of the anaerobic system in treating complex wastewater by considering dynamic (noise) factors obtained are higher organic loading rate of 3.5 Kg COD/m3 day, neutral pH with high biodegradability (BOD/COD ratio of 0.5), along with mesophilic temperature range (40 degrees C), and

  20. Dynamics of brominated flame retardants removal in contaminated wastewater sewage sludge under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Stiborova, Hana; Vrkoslavova, Jana; Pulkrabova, Jana; Poustka, Jan; Hajslova, Jana; Demnerova, Katerina

    2015-11-15

    Disposal of solid waste to landfills from waste water sewage treatment plants (WWTPs) serves as a potential source of contamination by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). Native microbial communities have been found to degrade a variety of xenobiotics, such as PBDEs and HBCDs. This study investigates the potential of autochthonous microflora to remove 11 PBDE congeners and HBCDs in waste water sludge under anaerobic conditions. Laboratory microcosms were constructed with sewage sludge from the WWTPs of Hradec Kralove and Brno. BDE 209 was detected as the prevailing congener in concentrations 685 and 1403 ng/g dw and the total amounts of 10 lower PBDEs (BDE 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183) were 605 and 205 ng/g dw in sludge from Hradec Kralove and Brno, respectively. The levels of HBCD were detected in both sludge lower than 24 ng/g dw. The experiment was carried out for 15 months. After three months of incubation, HBCD was completely degraded to below detection limits. In sewage from both WWTPs, the higher brominated DEs were removed faster than the lower brominated congeners. One exception was tri-BDE, which was degraded completely within 15 months of cultivation. A significant increase in congener tetra-BDE 49 concentrations was observed over the course of the experiment in all tested sewage. The relative distribution of individual congeners among all PBDEs changed after 15 months of the incubation in favour of lower brominated congeners. This indicates that debromination is the major mechanism of anaerobic biodegradation. Despite of the increase of BDE 49, the overall removal of all 11 PBDEs achieved the levels of 47.4 and 68.7% in samples from WWTPs Hradec Kralove and Brno, respectively.

  1. Performance of staged and non-staged up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (USSB and UASB) reactors treating low strength complex wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sevilla-Espinosa, Susana; Solórzano-Campo, Maricela; Bello-Mendoza, Ricardo

    2010-09-01

    The use of anaerobic processes to treat low-strength wastewater has been increasing in recent years due to their favourable performance-costs balance. For optimal results, it is necessary to identify reactor configurations that are best suited for this kind of application. This paper reports on the comparative study carried out with two high-rate anaerobic reactor systems with the objective of evaluating their performances when used for the treatment of low-strength, complex wastewater. One of the systems is the commonly used up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The other is the up-flow staged sludge bed (USSB) system in which the reactor was divided longitudinally into 3, 5 and 7 compartments by the use of baffles. The reactors (9 l) were fed with a synthetic, soluble and colloidal waste (chemical oxygen demand (COD) < 1000 mg/l) and operated at 28 degrees C and 24 h hydraulic retention time. Intermediate flow hydraulics, between plug-flow and completely-mixed, in the UASB and 7 stages USSB reactors allowed efficient degradation of substrates with minimum effluent concentrations. Low number of compartments in the USSB reactors increased the levels of short-circuiting thus reducing substrate removal efficiencies. All reactors showed high COD removal efficiencies (93-98%) and thus can be regarded as suitable for the treatment of low strength, complex wastewater. Staged anaerobic reactors can be a good alternative for this kind of application provided they are fitted with a large enough (> or =7) number of compartments to fully take advantage of their strengths. Scale factors seem to have influenced importantly on the comparison between one and multi staged sludge-bed reactors and, therefore, observations made here could change at larger reactor volumes.

  2. Carbon and nitrogen removal from a wastewater of an industrial dairy laboratory with a coupled anaerobic filter-sequencing batch reactor system.

    PubMed

    Garrido, J M; Omil, F; Arrojo, B; Méndez, R; Lema, J M

    2001-01-01

    A set of two reactors, an Anaerobic Filter (AF) of 12 m3 and a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) of 28 m3, coupled in series, were used to treat the wastewaters from an industrial milk analysis laboratory. The characteristics of these effluents are similar to those discharged by dairy factories (average values around 10 kg COD/m3 and 0.20 kg N/m3). These wastewaters were produced as the result of the final mixture of the analysed milk samples, with a very high organic load, and other low strength effluents, such as sewage and other minor liquid streams generated in the laboratory. Two microbial growth inhibitors, sodium azide and chloramphenicol, were systematically added to the milk before its analysis. Preliminary results have shown that these compounds did apparently not inhibit the methanogenic activity of the anaerobic sludge. Toxicity determination, using the Microtox method, resulted in EC50 values for the wastewaters of 20 g/L, whereas the final effluent from the SBR was non toxic. A maximum OLR of 8 kg COD/m3.d was treated in the AF, being the maximum OLR in the SBR around 1.5-2 kg COD/m3.d. During operation, the soluble COD of the final effluent from the SBR was usually below 200 mg/L, and total nitrogen (mainly nitrate) below 10 mg N/L. Assimilation of nitrogen for growth and nitrification-denitrification were the main mechanisms of nitrogen removal from the wastewater. In the anaerobic system between 50-85% of the organic matter was converted into methane, being the remaining COD and most of the nitrogen removed in the suspended culture system. Overall COD removal in the treatment system was 98% and the nitrogen removal up to 99%. The combination of the AF and the SBR was advantageous resulting in a lower energy consumption and sludge generation in the treatment system.

  3. Co-conditioning of the anaerobic digested sludge of a municipal wastewater treatment plant with alum sludge: benefit of phosphorus reduction in reject water.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Zhao, Y Q; Babatunde, A O; Kearney, P

    2007-12-01

    In this study, alum sludge was introduced to co-conditioning and dewatering with an anaerobic digested sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant, to examine the role of the alum sludge in improving the dewaterbility of the mixed sludge and also in immobilizing phosphorus in the reject water. Experiments have demonstrated that the optimal mix ratio for the two sludges is 2:1 (anaerobic digested sludge:alum sludge: volume basis), and this can bring approximately 99% phosphorus reduction in the reject water through the adsorption of phosphorus by alum in the sludge. The phosphorus loading in wastewater treatment plants is itself derived from the recycling of reject water during the wastewater treatment process. Consequently, this co-conditioning and dewatering strategy can achieve a significant reduction in phosphorus loading in wastewater treatment plants. In addition, the use of the alum sludge has been shown to beneficially enhance the dewaterability of the resultant mixed sludge, by decreasing both the specific resistance to filtration and the capillary suction time. This is attributed to the alum sludge acting in charge neutralization and/or as adsorbent for phosphate in the aqueous phase of the sludge. Experiments have also demonstrated that the optimal polymer (Superfloc C2260, Cytec, Botlek, Netherlands) dose for the anaerobic digested sludge was 120 mg/L, while the optimal dose for the mixed sludge (mix ratio 2:1) was 15 mg/L, highlighting a huge savings in polymer addition. Therefore, from the technical perspective, the co-conditioning and dewatering strategy can be viewed as a "win-win" situation. However, for its full-scale application, integrated cost-effective analysis of process capabilities, sludge transport, increased cake disposal, additional administration, polymer saving, and so on, should be factored in.

  4. Enhancement of anaerobic digestion efficiency of wastewater sludge and olive waste: Synergistic effect of co-digestion and ultrasonic/microwave sludge pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Alagöz, B Aylin; Yenigün, Orhan; Erdinçler, Ayşen

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the effect of ultrasonic and microwave pre-treatment on biogas production from the anaerobic co-digestion of olive pomace and wastewater sludges. It was found that co-digestion of wastewater sludge with olive pomace yielded around 0.21 L CH4/g VS added, whereas the maximum methane yields from the mono-digestion of olive pomace and un-pretreated wastewater sludges were 0.18 and 0.16L CH4/g VS added. In the same way, compared to mono-digestion of these substrates, co-digestion increased methane production by 17-31%. The microwave and ultrasonic pre-treatments applied to sludge samples prior to co-digestion process led to further increase in the methane production by 52% and 24%, respectively, compared to co-digestion with un-pretreated wastewater sludge. The highest biogas and methane yields were obtained from the co-digestion of 30 min microwave pre-treated wastewater sludges and olive pomace to be 0.46 L/g VS added and 0.32 L CH4/g VS added, respectively.

  5. Development of a natural treatment system consisting of red ball earth and alfalfa for the post-treatment of anaerobically digested livestock wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaochen; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2014-01-01

    With the objective of developing a post-treatment process for anaerobically digested livestock wastewater, an innovative natural treatment system composed of two units is proposed. The first trickling filter unit further reduced biochemical oxygen demand and achieved a certain degree of nitrification. The second soil-plant unit was targeted at the removal and recovery of nutrients N, P and K. For the feasibility study, a bench-scale soil column test was carried out, in which red ball earth and alfalfa were utilized for treating synthetic nutrient-enriched wastewater. Through long-term operation, the nitrification function was well established in the top layers, especially the top 20 cm, although a supplementary denitrification process was still required before discharge. P and K were retained by the soil through different mechanisms, and their plant-available forms that remained in the soil were considered suitable for indirect nutrient reuse. As for alfalfa, with wastewater application it fixed more N from the atmosphere, and directly recovered 6% of P and 4% of K input from wastewater. More importantly, alfalfa was verified to have an indispensable role in stimulating the soil nitrifying microorganisms by sustaining their abundance during substrate (NH3) and oxygen scarcity, and enhancing cell-specific nitrification potential during substrate (NH3) and oxygen sufficiency. The proposed system is expected to be further improved, and adopted as a sound countermeasure for livestock wastewater pollution.

  6. Optimization of biological hydrogen production for anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and wastewater biosolids.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peiqing; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Nakhla, George

    2013-02-01

    Batch anaerobic co-digestion studies were conducted using 21 mixtures (M1-M21) of food waste (FW), primary sludge (PS), and waste activated sludge (WAS) at 37°C and an initial pH of 5.5±0.2. The results showed that co-digestion of FW and sludges had a positive impact on the hydrogen production. The maximum hydrogen yields by co-digestion of FW+PS, FW+WAS, and FW+PS+WAS were achieved at volumetric ratios of 75:25, 75:25, and 80:15:5, respectively, with corresponding optimal COD/N mass ratios of 26, 31 and 30, respectively. Furthermore, the synergistic effect of co-digestion was proven and quantified: the measured hydrogen productions were higher than the sums of the hydrogen productions calculated from each fraction, and the highest percentage increase above the calculated value of 101%, was achieved in the FW+PS+WAS mixture (80:15:5). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development and testing of a fully gravitational submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Ruiz, Santiago; Heaven, Sonia; Banks, Charles J

    2015-01-01

    A gravity-operated submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAnMBR) was set up in order to test its principle of operation as an alternative to conventional pumped permeation of the membrane. This operating mode allowed the membrane flux rate to be measured accurately whilst maintaining a constant transmembrane pressure (TMP), and allowed small transient variations in the flux rate to be observed. The reactor was operated at 36°C for a period of 115 days using a nutrient-balanced synthetic substrate with a high suspended solids concentration. Membrane cleaning was in situ by a gas scouring system using recirculation of headspace biogas. With an initial TMP of 7.0 kPa, the membrane flux slowly decreased due to membrane fouling and had not reached a constant value by day 71. The results indicated that the system was still acclimatizing up to 50 days after start-up; but from that point onwards, performance parameters became much more stable. A constant flux of 2.2 L m(-2) h(-1) was achieved over the last 45 days after the TMP was reduced to 2.3 kPa. The stable flux was maintained over this period and the loading raised to 1 g COD L(-1) d(-1) by increasing the influent strength. Under these conditions, the average chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency was 96% and the specific methane potential was 0.31 L CH4 g(-1) COD removed.

  8. A comparative study of the industrial discharges effect on the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in both experimental and pilot-plant scales.

    PubMed

    Saddoud, Ahlem; Abdelkafi, Slim; Aloui, Fathi; Sayadi, Sami

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of industrial discharges on the anaerobic treatment of domestic wastewater in both laboratory and pilot-plant scales at mesophilic conditions. The laboratory experiment results have shown the low process efficiency of anaerobic treatment of DW by the use of an adapted or a non-adapted methanogenic inoculum. These experiments performed in batch digesters were further confirmed by scaling up to a pilot-plant anaerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR). The treatment inefficiency in both laboratory and pilot-plant experiments could be related to the presence of toxic compounds due to the wastewater contamination by industrial discharges. The toxic character of DW was proved by the phytotoxicity and microtoxicity tests. Indeed, the luminescence inhibition percentages started at an average of 21% in the morning and reached more than 84% in the late afternoon. Moreover, the toxicity results have shown a direct relation with methanization results. Indeed, when the average microtoxicity increased to 73%, the average germination index value and the methanization efficiency expressed as the average methane percentage in the produced biogas decreased to 0% and 14.5%, respectively.

  9. The energy-saving anaerobic baffled reactor membrane bioreactor (EABR-MBR) system for recycling wastewater from a high-rise building.

    PubMed

    Ratanatamskul, Chavalit; Charoenphol, Chakraphan

    2015-01-01

    A novel energy-saving anaerobic baffled reactor-membrane bioreactor (EABR-MBR) system has been developed as a compact biological treatment system for reuse of water from a high-rise building. The anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) compartment had five baffles and served as the anaerobic degradation zone, followed by the aerobic MBR compartment. The total operating hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the EABR-MBR system was 3 hours (2 hours for ABR compartment and very short HRT of 1 hour for aerobic MBR compartment). The wastewater came from the Charoen Wisawakam building. The results showed that treated effluent quality was quite good and highly promising for water reuse purposes. The average flux of the membrane was kept at 30 l/(m2h). The EABR-MBR system could remove chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus from building wastewater by more than 90%. Moreover, it was found that phosphorus concentration was rising in the ABR compartment due to the phosphorus release phenomenon, and then the concentration decreased rapidly in the aerobic MBR compartment due to the phosphorus uptake phenomenon. This implies that phosphorus-accumulating organisms inside the EABR-MBR system are responsible for biological phosphorus removal. The research suggests that the EABR-MBR system can be a promising system for water reuse and reclamation for high-rise building application in the near future.

  10. Occurrence, fate, and mass balance of different classes of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in an anaerobic-anoxic-oxic wastewater treatment plant in Xiamen, China.

    PubMed

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Li, Yan; Wang, Yuwen; Chen, Wenjie; Wang, Han; Chen, Xiangqiang; Wu, Wei; Huang, Zhenyi; Yu, Chang-Ping; Sun, Qian

    2017-10-15

    In this study, the occurrence and fate of 49 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were investigated in an anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2/O) wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) for seven consecutive days using 24-h composite sampling technique. Special emphasis was placed to understand the distribution of PPCPs in dissolved and adsorbed phase, and to evaluate PPCP fate in different treatment units. Among the 49 PPCPs, 40 PPCPs in influent, 36 in effluent, 29 in sludge and 23 in suspended solids were detected at least once during sampling. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and a stimulant were predominant PPCPs in influent whereas antibiotics were predominant in sludge, effluent and suspended solids. Removal efficiencies from the aqueous phase based on the dissolved PPCPs showed variable contribution in removing different PPCPs under screen and grit chamber, anaerobic treatment, anoxic treatment, oxic treatment and sedimentation-UV treatments, with the highest removal percentage by anaerobic process in terms of both individual and overall treatment. Mass load analysis showed that 352 g PPCPs enter the WWTP daily while 14.5 g and 58.1 g were discharged through effluent and excess sludge to the receiving sea water and soil applications, respectively. Mass balance analysis based on both aqueous and suspended PPCPs showed 280 g (79.4%) mass of influent PPCPs was lost along the wastewater treatment processes, mainly due to degradation/transformation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. ANAMMOX-like performances for nitrogen removal from ammonium-sulfate-rich wastewater in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Prachakittikul, Pensiri; Wantawin, Chalermraj; Noophan, Pongsak Lek; Boonapatcharoen, Nimaradee

    2016-01-01

    Ammonium removal by the ANaerobic AMonium OXidation (ANAMMOX) process was observed through the Sulfate-Reducing Ammonium Oxidation (SRAO) process. The same concentration of ammonium (100 mg N L(-1)) was applied to two anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (AnSBRs) that were inoculated with the same activated sludge from the Vermicelli wastewater treatment process, while nitrite was fed in ANAMMOX and sulfate in SRAO reactors. In SRAO-AnSBR, in substrates that were fed with a ratio of NH4(+)/SO4(2-) at 1:0.4 ± 0.03, a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 48 h and without sludge draining, the Ammonium Removal Rate (ARR) was 0.02 ± 0.01 kg N m(-3).d(-1). Adding specific ANAMMOX substrates to SRAO-AnSBR sludge in batch tests results in specific ammonium and nitrite removal rates of 0.198 and 0.139 g N g(-1) VSS.d, respectively, indicating that the ANAMMOX activity contributes to the removal of ammonium in the SRAO process using the nitrite that is produced from SRAO. Nevertheless, the inability of ANAMMOX to utilize sulfate to oxidize ammonium was also investigated in batch tests by augmenting enriched ANAMMOX culture in SRAO-AnSBR sludge and without nitrite supply. The time course of sulfate in a 24-hour cycle of SRAO-AnSBR showed an increase in sulfate after 6 h. For enriched SRAO culture, the uptake molar ratio of NH4(+)/SO4(2-) at 8 hours in a batch test was 1:0.82 lower than the value of 1:0.20 ± 0.09 as obtained in an SRAO-AnSBR effluent, while the stoichiometric ratio of 1:0.5 that includes the ANAMMOX reaction was in this range. After a longer operation of more than 2 years without sludge draining, the accumulation of sulfate and the reduction of ammonium removal were observed, probably due to the gradual increase in the sulfur denitrification rate and the competitive use of nitrite with ANAMMOX. The 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and PCR cloning analyses resulted in the detection of the ANAMMOX

  12. Long term performance of membranes in an anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qirong; Parker, Wayne; Dagnew, Martha

    2016-02-01

    The long term impact of SRT (100-40 days) and recovery cleaning on membrane performance of an AnMBR treating authentic municipal wastewater in a large pilot plant was assessed. Successful operation of the pilot plant at a flux of 17 LMH was maintained for a period of 536 days during which the longest period of operation without recovery cleaning or membrane replacement was 178 days. Lower SRT (40 days) reduced the fouling propensity of the mixed liquor in terms of TSS concentration and the dewaterability indicators including colloidal COD (cCOD) concentration and capillary suction time (CST). Critical fluxes ranged from 21 to 23 LMH to 25-27 LMH for SRTs of 70 and 40 days respectively and this was consistent with the reduced concentrations of TSS and improved dewaterability under the latter conditions. Recovery cleaning was found to result in substantial reduction of resistance as indicated by both pilot plant operation and clean water flux tests. The long-term fouling rate was observed to be higher with cleaned membranes as compared to virgin membranes. The lower membrane fouling with virgin membranes suggested that accumulation of foulants, which were resistant to cleaning, caused the higher fouling rates for the cleaned membranes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal wastewater sludge with restaurant grease trap waste.

    PubMed

    Razaviarani, Vahid; Buchanan, Ian D; Malik, Shahid; Katalambula, Hassan

    2013-07-15

    The maximum feasible loading rate of grease trap waste (GTW) to the municipal wastewater sludge (MWS) was investigated using two 1300 L pilot-scale (1200 L active volume) digesters under mesophilic conditions at a 20 day solids retention time. During the co-digestion, the test reactor received a mixture of GTW and MWS while the control reactor received only MWS. The test digester loading was increased incrementally to a maximum of 280% of the control digester COD loading. The highest feasible GTW loading was determined to be 23% and 58% in terms of its total 1.58 kg VS/(m(3) d) and 3.99 kg COD/(m(3) d) loadings, respectively. This test digester COD loading represented 240% of the control digester COD loading. At this loading, test digester biogas production was 67% greater than that of the control. During the test digester quasi steady state loading period when VS from GTW represented 19% of its total VS loading, the test digester COD and VS removal rates were 2.5 and 1.5 fold those of the control digester, respectively. The test digester biogas production declined markedly when the percentage of VS from GTW in its feed was increased to 30% of its total VS loading. Causes of the reduced biogas production were investigated and attributed to inhibition due to long chain fatty acid accumulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of SRT and HRT on Bioprocess Performance in Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors Treating Municipal Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qirong; Parker, Wayne; Dagnew, Martha

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the impact of Solid Retention Time (SRT) (40 to 100 days) and Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) (2.5 to 8.5 hours) on the treatment of municipal wastewater in pilot and bench scale AnMBRs. The results revealed good permeate quality with respect to concentrations of COD (<40 mg/L) and BOD5 (<10 mg/L) was achieved under all conditions. Over the range of values tested SRT and HRTdid not significantly influence COD and BOD5 removal efficiencies. Extended SRTs resulted in reduced sludge production and enhanced methane production. Oversaturation of dissolved methane in permeate appears to have been responsible for a consistent lack of COD mass balance closure in all tests. After calibration of biokinetic coefficients, PetWin 4 (EnviroSim Canada) was found to effectively simulate the concentrations of particulate COD, readily biodegradable COD and acetic acid over a range of SRTs and HRTs. The calibrated saturation coefficients for hydrolysis and aceticlastic methanogenesis processes were comparable to those reported in literature. The saturation coefficient of fermentation was significantly lower than those reported in literature. The simulated methane mass flows were consistently higher than the measured values which was consistent with the lack of COD mass balance closure and was attributed to reduction of sulfate and oversaturation of the permeate with respect to Henry's Law.

  15. Integrating microbial fuel cells with anaerobic acidification and forward osmosis membrane for enhancing bio-electricity and water recovery from low-strength wastewater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinmeng; Wang, Xinhua; Wang, Zhiwei; Lu, Yuqin; Li, Xiufen; Ren, Yueping

    2017-03-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and forward osmosis (FO) are two emerging technologies with great potential for energy-efficient wastewater treatment. In this study, anaerobic acidification and FO membrane were simultaneously integrated into an air-cathode MFC (AAFO-MFC) for enhancing bio-electricity and water recovery from low-strength wastewater. During a long-term operation of approximately 40 days, the AAFO-MFC system achieved a continuous and relatively stable power generation, and the maximum power density reached 4.38 W/m(3). The higher bio-electricity production in the AAFO-MFC system was mainly due to the accumulation of ethanol resulted from anaerobic acidification process and the rejection of FO membrane. In addition, a proper salinity environment in the system controlled by the addition of MF membrane enhanced the electricity production. Furthermore, the AAFO-MFC system produced a high quality effluent, with the removal rates of organic matters and total phosphorus of more than 97%. However, the nitrogen removal was limited for the lower rejection of FO membrane. The combined biofouling and inorganic fouling were responsible for the lower water flux of FO membrane, and the Desulfuromonas sp. utilized the ethanol for bio-electricity production was observed in the anode. These results substantially improve the prospects for simultaneous wastewater treatment and energy recovery, and further studies are needed to optimize the system integration and operating parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sulphate-reducing laboratory-scale high-rate anaerobic reactors for treatment of metal- and sulphate-containing mine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tuppurainen, K O; Väisänen, A O; Rintala, J A

    2002-06-01

    Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were used in this study to evaluate the feasibility of the sulphate-reducing, anaerobic high-rate process to treat metal- and sulphate-containing mining wastewater (MWW). Four simultaneous reactors, inoculated with different inocula (mesophilic granular sludge from two UASB reactors, one treating sugar refinery wastewater and the other board mill wastewater) and operated with different loadings, were for 95 days fed with synthetic feed consisting of glucose and sulphate. In all reactors, 23-72% of sulphate and 12-93% of COD were removed. Subsequently, two reactors were fed with diluted MWW (zinc as the main metal) for 77 days with hydraulic retention times down to 8 hours. At the onset of the runs (until day 48), over 99.9% of zinc was removed in both reactors, after which removals fell to less than 30-80%. At the end of the runs, the highest zinc content (44 mg g(-1) TS) in the reactor sludges was 21 times higher than that in the inoculum. It cannot be concluded definitively that sulphide precipitation was the only mechanism of metal removal, for biosorption may have had a role to play in the process.

  17. Anaerobic fluid-bed treatment of coal conversion wastewater: Sixth quarterly technical progress report for the period November 15, 1987 to February 15, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Suidan, M.T.; Pfeffer, J.T.; Nakhla, G.F.; Traegner, U.K.

    1988-01-01

    Anaerobic fluidized-bed GAC reactors have been proven successful for the treatment of biolgoically inhibiting watewaters such as coal conversion wastewaters. However, in treating such wastewaters which contain compounds that not only resist biodegradation but also inhibit the degradation of other compounds, adsorption on granular activated carbon (GAC) represent a viable strategy for the removal of these inhibitory compounds. Since the adsorptive capacity of the reactor media is limited, partial replacement of the carbon bed is then necessary to maintain the concentration of inhibitory compounds below threshold levels. The cost of the GAC replacement thus represents a major operating cost of the system. The hydraulic detention time and the assoicated carbon inventory represent the single most important capital cost parameter. The objectives of this research are to determine, using experimental and modeling strategies, the effects of hydraulic detention time and the schedule of GAC replacement on the performance of fluidized bed GAC anaerobic reactors during the treatment of coal conversion wastewater. 1 ref., 1 tab.

  18. Comparative 16S rRNA gene surveys of granular sludge from three upflow anaerobic bioreactors treating purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater.

    PubMed

    Perkins, S D; Scalfone, N B; Angenent, L T

    2011-01-01

    The microbial communities from three upflow anaerobic bioreactors treating purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater were characterized with 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing surveys. Universal bacterial and archaeal primers were used to compare the bioreactor communities to each other. A total of 1,733 bacterial sequences and 383 archaeal sequences were characterized. The high number of Syntrophus spp. and Pelotomaculum spp. found within these reactors indicates efficient removal of benzoate and terephthalate. Under anaerobic conditions benzoate can be degraded through syntrophic associations between these bacteria and hydrogen-scavenging microbes, such as Desulfovibrio spp. and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, which remove H(2) to force the thermodynamically unfavourable reactions to take place. The authors did not observe a relatively high percentage of hydrogenotrophic methanogens with the archaeal gene survey because of a high acetate flux (acetate is a main component in PTA wastewater and is the main degradation product of terephthalate/benzoate fermentation), and because of the presence of Desulfovibrio spp. (a sulfate reducer that scavenges hydrogen). The high acetate flux also explains the high percentage of acetoclastic methanogens from the genus Methanosaeta among the archaeal sequences. A group of uncultured bacteria (OD1) may be involved in the degradation of p-toluate (4-methyl benzoate), which is a component of PTA wastewater.

  19. Effect of heterogeneous Fenton-like pre-treatment on anaerobic granular sludge performance and microbial community for the treatment of traditional Chinese medicine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Su, Chengyuan; Li, Weiguang; Lu, Yuxiang; Chen, Menglin; Huang, Zhi

    2016-08-15

    The effect of a heterogeneous Fenton-like pre-treatment on the anaerobic processes, characteristics and microbial community of sludge was investigated for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) wastewater containing rhein. When the concentrations of rhein were 50mg/L and 100mg/L, the toxic effect was physiological toxicity for anaerobic granular sludge. Using a single double circle (DC) reactor for the treatment of TCM wastewater containing rhein at concentrations of 15-20mg/L, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate was 69%, and coenzyme F420 was nearly undetectable in the 3D-excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra of soluble microbial products (SMP). The abundances of Methanoregula, Methanobacterium, Methanosphaerula were only 5.57%, 2.39% and 1.08% in the DC reactor, respectively. TCM wastewater containing rhein could be successfully treated by the combination of the heterogeneous Fenton-like pre-treatment and the DC reactor processes, and the COD removal rate reached 95%. Meanwhile, the abundances of Methanoregula, Methanobacterium, Methanosphaerula increased to 22.5%, 18.5%, and 13.87%, respectively. For the bacterial community, the abundance of Acidobacteria_Gp6 decreased from 6.99% to 1.07%, while the abundances of Acidobacteria_Gp1 and Acidobacteria_Gp2 increased from 1.61% to 6.55% and from 1.28% to 5.87%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Removal of estrogens in municipal wastewater treatment under aerobic and anaerobic conditions: consequences for plant optimization.

    PubMed

    Joss, Adriano; Andersen, Henrik; Ternes, Thomas; Richle, Philip R; Siegrist, Hansruedi

    2004-06-01

    The removal of estrogens (estrone E1, estradiol E2, and ethinylestradiol EE2) was studied in various municipal wastewater treatment processes equipped for nutrient removal. A biological degradation model is formulated, and kinetic parameters are evaluated with batch experiments under various redox conditions. The resulting model calculations are then compared with sampling campaigns performed on differenttypes of full-scale plant: conventional activated-sludge treatment, a membrane bioreactor, and a fixed-bed reactor. The results show a > 90% removal of all estrogens in the activated sludge processes. (Due to the analytical quantification limit and low influent concentrations, however, this removal efficiency represents only an observable minimum.) The removal efficiencies of 77% and > or = 90% for E1 and E2, respectively, in the fixed-bed reactor represent a good performance in view of the short hydraulic retention time of 35 min. The first-order removal-rate constant in batch experiments observed for E2 varied from 150 to 950 d(-1) for a 1 gSS L(-1) sludge suspension. The removal efficiency of E1 and EE2 clearly depends on the redox conditions, the maximum removal rate occurring under aerobic conditions when E1 was reduced to E2. Sampling campaigns on full-scale plants indicate that the kinetic values identified in batch experiments (without substrate addition) for the natural estrogens may overestimate the actual removal rates. Although this paper does not give direct experimental evidence, it seems that the substrate present in the raw influent competitively inhibits the degradation of E1 and E2. These compounds are therefore removed mainly in activated sludge compartments with low substrate loading. Theoretical evaluation leads us to expect that diffusive mass transfer inside the floc (but not across the laminar boundary layer) appreciably influences the observed degradation rates of E1 and E2, but not of EE2.

  1. Uncoupled hydrogen and volatile fatty acids generation in a two-step biotechnological anaerobic process fed with actual site wastewater.

    PubMed

    Monti, Matilde; Scoma, Alberto; Martinez, Gonzalo; Bertin, Lorenzo; Fava, Fabio

    2015-05-25

    Among agro-wastes, olive mill wastewater (OMW) truly qualifies as a high impact organic residue due to its biochemical-rich composition and high annual production. In the present investigation, dephenolized OMW (OMWdeph) was employed as the feedstock for a biotechnological two-stage anaerobic process dedicated to the production of biohydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs), respectively. To this end, two identically configured packed-bed biofilm reactors were operated sequentially. In the first, the hydraulic retention time was set to 1 day, whereas in the second it was equal to 5 days. The rationale was to decouple the hydrolysis of the organic macronutrients held by the OMWdeph, so as to quantitatively generate a biogas enriched in H2 (first stage aim), for the acidogenesis of the residual components left after hydrolysis, to then produce a highly concentrated mixture of VFAs (second stage aim). Results showed that the generation of H2 and VFAs was effectively split, with carbohydrates and lipids, respectively, being the main substrates of the two processes. About 250 ml H2 L(-1) day(-1) was produced, corresponding to a yield of 0.36 mol mol(-1) of consumed carbohydrates (expressed as glucose equivalents). The overall concentration of VFAs in the acidogenic process was 13.80 g COD L(-1), so that 2.76 g COD L(-1) day(-1) was obtained. Second generation biorefineries use a selected fraction of an organic waste to conduct a microbiologically-driven pathway towards the generation of one target molecule. With the proposed approach, a greater value of the waste was attained, since the multi-purpose two-stage process did not entail competition for substrates between the first and the second steps.

  2. Wastewater treatment using integrated anaerobic baffled reactor and Bio-rack wetland planted with Phragmites sp. and Typha sp.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Shervin; Akbarzadeh, Abbas; Woo, Kwang-Sung; Valipour, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the potential use of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) followed by Bio-rack wetland planted with Phragmites sp. and Typha sp. for treating domestic wastewater generated by small communities (751 mg COD/L, 500 SCOD mg/L, 348 mg BOD5/L). Two parallel laboratory-scale models showed that the process planted with Phragmites sp. and Typha sp. are capable of removing COD by 87% & 86%, SCOD by 90% & 88%, BOD5 by 93% & 92%, TSS by 88% & 86%, TN by 79% & 77%, PO4-P by 21% & 14% at an overall HRT of 21 (843 g COD/m(3)/day & 392 g BOD5/m(3)/day) and 27 (622 g COD/m(3)/day & 302 g BOD5/m(3)/day) hours, respectively. Microbial analysis indicated a high reduction in the MPN of total coliform and TVC as high as 99% at the outlet end of the processes. The vegetated system using Phragmites sp. showed significantly greater (p <0.05) pollutant removal efficiencies due to its extensive root and mass growth rate (p <0.05) of the plant compared to Typha sp. The Phragmites sp. indicated a higher relative growth rate (3.92%) than Typha sp. (0.90%). Microorganisms immobilized on the surface of the Bio-rack media (mean TVC: 2.33 × 10(7) cfu/cm(2)) were isolated, identified and observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This study illustrated that the present integrated processes could be an ideal approach for promoting a sustainable decentralization, however, Phragmites sp. would be more efficient rather than Typha sp.

  3. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation in traditional municipal wastewater treatment plants with low-strength ammonium loading: Widespread but overlooked.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanyun; Peng, Yongzhen; Ma, Bin; Wang, Shuying; Zhu, Guibing

    2015-11-01

    Occurrence of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in marine and freshwater systems has greatly changed our understanding of global nitrogen (N) cycle and promoted the investigation of the role and ecological features of anammox in anthropogenic ecosystems. This study focused on the spatio-temporal abundance, activity, and biodiversity of anammox bacteria in full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) via traditional nitrification/denitrification route with low-strength ammonium loading. The anammox bacteria were detected in all the treatment units at the five WWTPs tested, even in aerobic zones (dissolved oxygen >2 mg L(-1)) with abundance of 10(5)-10(7) hydrazine synthase (hzs) gene copies g(-1). The (15)N-isotope tracing technology revealed that the anammox rates in WWTPs ranged from 0.08 to 0.36 μmol N g(-1) h(-1) in winter and 0.12-1.20 μmol N g(-1) h(-1) in summer with contributions of 2.05-6.86% and 1.71-7.26% to N2 production, respectively. The diversity of anammox bacteria in WWTPs was distributed over only two genera, Brocadia and Kuenenia. Additionally, the exploration of potential interspecies relationships indicated that ammonia oxidation bacteria (AOB) was the major nitrite-substrate producer for anammox during nitrification, while Nitrospira, a nitrite oxidation bacteria (NOB), was the potential major competitor for nitrite. These results suggested the contribution of N-removal by the widespread of anammox has been overlooked in traditional municipal WWTPs, and the ecological habitats of anammox bacteria in anthropogenic ecosystems are much more abundant than previously assumed.

  4. Fate of parasites and pathogenic bacteria in an anaerobic hybrid reactor followed by downflow hanging sponge system treating domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, A; El-Zamel, T; Herrawy, A; El-Taweel, G

    2015-08-01

    Treatment of domestic wastewater in a pilot-scale upflow anaerobic hybrid (AH) reactor (0.9 m(3)) in combination with downflow hanging sponge (DHS) system (1.3 m(3)) was investigated. The combined system was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6.0 h for AH and 3.2 h for DHS system. The total process achieved a substantial reduction of COD(total) resulting in an average effluent concentration of only 39 ± 12 mg/l. Moreover, 90 ± 7% of ammonia was eliminated in the DHS system. Nitrate and nitrite data revealed that 49 ± 3.2% of the ammonia removal occurred through nitrification process. The removal efficiency of total coliform (TC), fecal coliform (FC), and fecal streptococci (FS) was relatively low in the AH reactor. The major portion of TC, FC, and FS was removed in the DHS system resulting to an average count of 1.7 × 10(5) ± 1.1 × 10(2)/100 ml for TC, 7.1 × 10(4) ± 1.2 × 10(2)/100 ml for FC, and 7.5 × 10(4) ± 1.3 × 10(2)/100 ml for FS in the final effluent. Likely, the combined system was very efficient for the removal of protozoological species such as sarcodins (Entamoeba cysts), flagellates (Giardia cysts), and ciliates (Balantidium cysts). This was not the case for coccidia (Cryptosporidium oocysts), where 36.4 and 27.3% were detected in the effluent of AH and DHS system, respectively. Only 10% of intestinal nematode and cestode ova were recorded in the effluent of AH reactor and were completely removed in the DHS system.

  5. Simultaneous Hydrogen and Methane Production Through Multi-Phase Anaerobic Digestion of Paperboard Mill Wastewater Under Different Operating Conditions.

    PubMed

    Farghaly, Ahmed; Tawfik, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Multi-phase anaerobic reactor for H2 and CH4 production from paperboard mill wastewater was studied. The reactor was operated at hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 12, 18, 24, and 36 h, and organic loading rates (OLRs) of 2.2, 1.5, 1.1, and 0.75 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/m(3) day, respectively. HRT of 12 h and OLR of 2.2 kg COD/m(3) day provided maximum hydrogen yield of 42.76 ± 14.5 ml/g CODremoved and volumetric substrate uptake rate (-rS) of 16.51 ± 4.43 mg COD/L h. This corresponded to the highest soluble COD/total COD (SCOD/TCOD) ratio of 56.25 ± 3.3 % and the maximum volatile fatty acid (VFA) yield (YVFA) of 0.21 ± 0.03 g VFA/g COD, confirming that H2 was mainly produced through SCOD conversion. The highest methane yield (18.78 ± 3.8 ml/g CODremoved) and -rS of 21.74 ± 1.34 mgCOD/L h were achieved at an HRT of 36 h and OLR of 0.75 kg COD/m(3) day. The maximum hydrogen production rate (HPR) and methane production rate (MPR) were achieved at carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio of 47.9 and 14.3, respectively. This implies the important effect of C/N ratio on the distinction between the dominant microorganism bioactivities responsible for H2 and CH4 production.

  6. Anaerobic treatment of industrial biodiesel wastewater by an ASBR for methane production.

    PubMed

    Silva, Renato C; Rodrigues, José A D; Ratusznei, Suzana M; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2013-05-01

    A mechanically stirred anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (5 L, 30 °C) containing granular biomass was used to treat the effluent of an industrial biodiesel production process with the purpose to produce methane. Process stability and efficiency were analyzed as a function of applied volumetric organic load (AVOL of 1,000 to 3,000 mgCOD/L), reactor feed time, and cycle length (8-h cycles with 10-min or 4-h feeding and 4-h cycles with 10-min or 2-h feeding). Batch operations (B) with 1,000 to 3,000 mgCOD/L involved 10-min feeding/discharge: (1) 1.0-L influent with 4-h cycle and (2) 2.0-L influent with 8-h cycle. Fed-batch operations (FB) with 1,000 to 3,000 mgCOD/L involved 10-min discharge and the following feeding: (1) 1.0-L influent in 2 h with 4-h cycle and (2) 2.0-L influent in 4 h with 8-h cycle. At 1,000 mgCOD/L (AVOL of 18 to 1.29 gCOD/Lday), kinetic parameter values were 1.03 and 0.92 h(-1) at conditions B-1000-4 h and FB-1000-8/4 h, respectively. At both conditions, removal efficiency was 88 %, and cycle length could be reduced to 3 h (B-1000-4 h) and 5 h (FB-1000-8/4 h). At 2,000 mgCOD/L (AVOL of 2.38 to 2.52 gCOD/Lday), kinetic parameter values were 1.08 and 0.99 h(-1) at conditions B-2000-4/2 h and FB-2000-8/4 h, respectively, and removal efficiencies were 83 and 81 %. Cycle length could be reduced to 3 h (B-2000-4/2 h) and 6 h (FB-2000-8/4 h). At 3,000 mgCOD/L (AVOL of 3.71 to 3.89 gCOD/Lday), conditions allowing stable operation were B-3000-4 h, FB-3000-8/4 h, and FB-3000-4/2 h. Stability could not be obtained at condition B-3000-8 h, and the best results were obtained at condition FB-3000-8/4 h. Specific methane production ranged from 41.1 to 93.7 NmLCH(4)/gCOD, demonstrating reactor application potential and operation flexibility.

  7. Multidimensional monitoring of anaerobic/aerobic azo dye based wastewater treatments by hyphenated UPLC-ICP-MS/ESI-Q-TOF-MS techniques.

    PubMed

    Frindt, Benjamin; Mattusch, Jürgen; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Griesbeck, Axel G; Rehorek, Astrid

    2017-04-01

    Sulfonated reactive azo dyes, such as Reactive Orange 107, are extensively used in textile industries. Conventional wastewater treatment systems are incapable of degrading and decolorizing reactive azo dyes completely from effluents, because of their stability and resistance to aerobic biodegradation. However, reactive azo dyes are degradable under anaerobic conditions by releasing toxic aromatic amines. To clarify reaction mechanisms and the present toxicity, the hydrolyzed Reactive Orange 107 was treated in anaerobic-aerobic two-step batch experiments. Sulfonated transformation products were identified employing coupled ICP-MS and Q-TOF-MS measurements. Suspected screening lists were generated using the EAWAG-BBD. The toxicity of the reactor content was determined utilizing online measurements of the inhibition of Vibrio fischeri. The OCHEM web platform for environmental modeling was instrumental in the estimations of the environmental impact of generated transformation products.

  8. Anaerobic granular sludge for simultaneous biomethanation of synthetic wastewater and CO with focus on the identification of CO-converting microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yuhang; Campanaro, Stefano; Kougias, Panagiotis; Treu, Laura; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Shicheng; Luo, Gang

    2017-09-09

    CO is a main component of syngas, which can be produced from the gasification of organic wastes and biomass. CO can be converted to methane by anaerobic digestion (AD), however, it is still challenging due to its toxicity to microorganisms and limited knowledge about CO converting microorganisms. In the present study, anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) was used for the simultaneous biomethanation of wastewater and CO. Batch experiments showed that AGS tolerated CO partial pressure as high as 0.5 atm without affecting its ability for synthetic wastewater degradation, which had higher tolerance of CO compared to suspended sludge (less than 0.25 atm) as previously reported. Continuous experiments in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors showed AGS could efficiently convert synthetic wastewater and CO into methane by applying gas-recirculation. The addition of CO to UASB reactor enhanced the hydrogenotrophic CO-oxidizing pathway, resulted in the increase of extracellular polymeric substances, changed the morphology of AGS and significantly altered the microbial community compositions of AGS. The microbial species relating with CO conversion and their functions were revealed by metagenomic analysis. It showed that 23 of the 70 reconstructed genome bins (GBs), most of which were not previously characterized at genomic level, were enriched and contained genes involved in CO conversion upon CO addition. CO-converting microorganisms might be taxonomically more diverse than previously known and have multi-functions in the AD process. The reductive tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in combination with the oxidation of the CO was probably crucial for CO utilization by the majority of the GBs in the present study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biodegradation and reversible inhibitory impact of sulfamethoxazole on the utilization of volatile fatty acids during anaerobic treatment of pharmaceutical industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cetecioglu, Zeynep; Ince, Bahar; Gros, Meritxell; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Barceló, Damia; Ince, Orhan; Orhon, Derin

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the chronic impact and biodegradability of sulfamethoxazole under anaerobic conditions. For this purpose, a lab-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor was operated in a sequence of different phases with gradually increasing sulfamethoxazole doses of 1 to 45 mg/L. Conventional parameters, such as COD, VFA, and methane generation, were monitored with corresponding antimicrobial concentrations in the reactor and the methanogenic activity of the sludge. The results revealed that anaerobic treatment was suitable for pharmaceutical industry wastewater with concentrations of up to 40 mg/L of sulfamethoxazole. Higher levels exerted toxic effects on the microbial community under anaerobic conditions, causing the inhibition of substrate/COD utilization and biogas generation and leading to a total collapse of the reactor. The adverse long-term impact was quite variable for fermentative bacteria and methanogenic achaea fractions of the microbial community based on changes inflicted on the composition of the residual organic substrate and mRNA expression of the key enzymes.

  10. Water treatment plant sludge discharge to wastewater treatment works: effects on the operation of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor and activated sludge systems.

    PubMed

    Asada, Lucia N; Sundefeld, Gilberto C; Alvarez, Carlos R; Filho, Sidney Seckler Ferreira; Piveli, Roque P

    2010-05-01

    This experiment examined the effects of the discharge of water treatment plant (WTP) sludge into the following three types of wastewater treatment systems: a pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, a pilot-scale activated sludge system, and a full-scale activated sludge sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The UASB reactor received 50 mg of suspended solids (SS) of WTP sludge per liter of wastewater in the first phase, and, in the second phase, it received 75 mg SS/L. The pilot-scale activated sludge system received 25 and 50 mg SS/L in the first and second phases, respectively. The full-scale WWTP (SBR) received approximately 74 mg SS/L. The results of the experiments showed that, despite some negative effects on nitrification, there were positive effects on phosphorus removal, and, furthermore, there was the addition of solids in all systems.

  11. Anaerobic fluid-bed treatment of coal conversion wastewater: Second quarterly technical progress report for the period November 16, 1986-February 15, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Suidan, M.T.; Pfeffer, J.T.; Nakhla, G.F.; Traegner, U.K.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of the research project are to determine, using simultaneous experimental and modeling strategies, the effects of the hydraulic detention time and the schedule of granular activated carbon (GAC) replacement on the performance of the expanded-bed GAC anaerobic reactor during the treatment of biologically inhibiting coal conversion wastewaters. The hydraulic detention time and the associated carbon inventory represents the single most important capital cost parameter while GAC replacement, which is needed to maintain the concentrations of toxic compounds below threshold levels, represents a major operating cost parameter.

  12. Abundance and distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in a full-scale anaerobic-aerobic system alternately treating ribostamycin, spiramycin and paromomycin production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mei; Dou, Xiaomin; Wang, Chunyan; Tian, Zhe; Yang, Min; Zhang, Yu

    2017-05-27

    The occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) has been intensively investigated for wastewater treatment systems treating single class of antibiotic in recent years. However, the impacts of alternately occurring antibiotics in antibiotic production wastewater on the behavior of ARGs in biological treatment systems were not well understood yet. Herein, techniques including high-capacity quantitative PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to investigate the behavior of ARGs in an anaerobic-aerobic full-scale system. The system alternately treated three kinds of antibiotic production wastewater including ribostamycin, spiramycin and paromomycin, which referred to stages 1, 2 and 3. The aminoglycoside ARGs (52.1-79.3%) determined using high-capacity quantitative PCR were the most abundant species in all sludge samples of the three stages. The total relative abundances of macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) resistance genes and aminoglycoside resistance genes measured using qPCR were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in aerobic sludge than in sewage sludge. However, the comparison of ARGs acquired from three alternate stages revealed that MLS genes and the aminoglycoside ARGs did not vary significantly (P > 0.05) in both aerobic and anaerobic sludge samples. In aerobic sludge, one acetyltransferase gene (aacA4) and the other three nucleotidyltransferase genes (aadB, aadA and aadE) exhibited positive correlations with intI1 (r (2) = 0.83-0.94; P < 0.05), implying the significance of horizontal transfer in their proliferation. These results and facts will be helpful to understand the abundance and distribution of ARGs from antibiotic production wastewater treatment systems.

  13. Development of natural treatment system consisting of black soil and Kentucky bluegrass for the post-treatment of anaerobically digested strong wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaochen; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2016-03-01

    To develop a sound post-treatment process for anaerobically-digested strong wastewater, a novel natural treatment system comprising two units is put forward. The first unit, a trickling filter, provides for further reduction of biochemical oxygen demand and adjustable nitrification. The subsequent soil-plant unit aims at removing and recovering the nutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). As a lab-scale feasibility study, a soil column test was conducted, in which black soil and valuable Kentucky bluegrass were integrated to treat artificial nutrient-enriched wastewater. After a long-term operation, the nitrification function was well established in the top layers, despite the need for an improved denitrification process prior to discharge. P and K were retained by the soil through distinct mechanisms. Since they either partially or totally remained in plant-available forms in the soil, indirect nutrient reuse could be achieved. As for Kentucky bluegrass, it displayed better growth status when receiving wastewater, with direct recovery of 8%, 6% and 14% of input N, P and K, respectively. Furthermore, the indispensable role of Kentucky bluegrass for better treatment performance was proved, as it enhanced the cell-specific nitrification potential of the soil nitrifying microorganisms inhabiting the rhizosphere. After further upgrade, the proposed system is expected to become a new solution for strong wastewater pollution. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Substrate removal kinetics in high-rate upflow anaerobic filters packed with low-density polyethylene media treating high-strength agro-food wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Rajinikanth; Torrijos, Michel; Kumar, Pradeep; Mehrotra, Indu

    2013-02-15

    The process kinetics for two upflow anaerobic filters (UAFs) treating high strength fruit canning and cheese-dairy wastewaters as feed were investigated. The experimental unit consisted of a 10-L (effective volume) reactor filled with low-density polyethylene media. COD removal efficiencies of about 80% were recorded at the maximum OLRs of 19 and 17 g COD L(-1) d(-1) for the fruit canning and cheese-dairy wastewaters, respectively. Modified Stover-Kincannon and second-order kinetic models were applied to data obtained from the experimental studies in order to determine the substrate removal kinetics. According to Stover-Kincannon model, U(max) and K(B) values were estimated as 109.9 and 109.7 g L(-1) d(-1) for fruit canning, and 53.5 and 49.7 g L(-1) d(-1) for cheese dairy wastewaters, respectively. The second order substrate removal rate k(2(s)) was found to be 5.0 and 1.93 d(-1) respectively for fruit canning and cheese dairy wastewaters. As both these models gave high correlation coefficients (R(2) = 98-99%), they could be used in predicting the behaviour or design of the UAF.

  15. A comparative study of anaerobic fixed film baffled reactor and up-flow anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor for biological removal of diethyl phthalate from wastewater: a performance, kinetic, biogas, and metabolic pathway study.

    PubMed

    Yousefzadeh, Samira; Ahmadi, Ehsan; Gholami, Mitra; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Azari, Ali; Ansari, Mohsen; Miri, Mohammad; Sharafi, Kiomars; Rezaei, Soheila

    2017-01-01

    Phthalic acid esters, including diethyl phthalate (DEP), which are considered as top-priority and hazardous pollutants, have received significant attention over the last decades. It is vital for industries to select the best treatment technology, especially when the DEP concentration in wastewater is high. Meanwhile, anaerobic biofilm-based reactors are considered as a promising option. Therefore, in the present study, for the biological removal of DEP from synthetic wastewater, two different anaerobic biofilm-based reactors, including anaerobic fixed film baffled reactor (AnFFBR) and up-flow anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (UAnFFFBR), were compared from kinetic and performance standpoints. As in the previous studies, only the kinetic coefficients have been calculated and the relationship between kinetic coefficients and their interpretation has not been evaluated, the other aim of the present study was to fill this research gap. In optimum conditions, 90.31 and 86.91% of COD as well as 91.11 and 88.72% of DEP removal were achieved for the AnFFBR and UAnFFFBR, respectively. According to kinetic coefficients (except biomass yield), the AnFFBR had better performance as it provided a more favorable condition for microbial growth. The Grau model was selected as the best mathematical model for designing and predicting the bioreactors' performance due to its high coefficients of determination (0.97 < R(2)). With regard to the insignificant variations of the calculated Grau kinetic coefficients (KG) when the organic loading rate (with constant HRT) increased, it can be concluded that both of the bioreactors can tolerate high organic loading rate and their performance is not affected by the applied DEP concentrations. Both the bioreactors were capable of treating low-to-high strength DEP wastewater; however, according to the experimental results and obtained kinetic coefficients, the AnFFBR indicated higher performance. Although the AnFFBR can be considered as a

  16. Modeling the anaerobic digestion of cane-molasses vinasse: extension of the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) with sulfate reduction for a very high strength and sulfate rich wastewater.

    PubMed

    Barrera, Ernesto L; Spanjers, Henri; Solon, Kimberly; Amerlinck, Youri; Nopens, Ingmar; Dewulf, Jo

    2015-03-15

    This research presents the modeling of the anaerobic digestion of cane-molasses vinasse, hereby extending the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 with sulfate reduction for a very high strength and sulfate rich wastewater. Based on a sensitivity analysis, four parameters of the original ADM1 and all sulfate reduction parameters were calibrated. Although some deviations were observed between model predictions and experimental values, it was shown that sulfates, total aqueous sulfide, free sulfides, methane, carbon dioxide and sulfide in the gas phase, gas flow, propionic and acetic acids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and pH were accurately predicted during model validation. The model showed high (±10%) to medium (10%-30%) accuracy predictions with a mean absolute relative error ranging from 1% to 26%, and was able to predict failure of methanogenesis and sulfidogenesis when the sulfate loading rate increased. Therefore, the kinetic parameters and the model structure proposed in this work can be considered as valid for the sulfate reduction process in the anaerobic digestion of cane-molasses vinasse when sulfate and organic loading rates range from 0.36 to 1.57 kg [Formula: see text]  m(-3) d(-1) and from 7.66 to 12 kg COD m(-3) d(-1), respectively.

  17. Determination and variation of core bacterial community in a two-stage full-scale anaerobic reactor treating high-strength pharmaceutical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ma, Haijun; Ye, Lin; Hu, Haidong; Zhang, Lulu; Ding, Lili; Ren, Hongqiang

    2017-08-25

    The functional characterization and temporal variation of anaerobic bacterial population is important to better understanding of microbial process of two-stage anaerobic reactor. However, due to the high diversity of anaerobic bacteria, close attention should be prioritized to be paid to the frequently abundant bacteria that were defined as core bacteria and putatively functionally important. Here in this study, using Miseq sequencing technology, the core bacterial community of 98 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was determined in a two-stage upflow blanket filter reactors treating pharmaceutical wastewater. The core bacterial community accounted for 61.66% of the total sequences and accurately predicted the sample location in the principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) scatter plot as the total bacterial OTUs did. The core bacterial community in the first-stage (FS) and second-stage (SS) reactors were generally distinct that FS core bacterial community was indicated to be more related to higher-level fermentation process and SS core bacterial community contained more microbes in syntrophic cooperation with methanogens. Moreover, the different responses of FS and SS core bacterial community to the temperature shock and influent disturbance caused by solid contamination were fully investigated. Co-occurring analysis at the order level implied that Bacteroidales, Selenomonadales, Anaerolineales, Syneristales and Thermotogales might play keystone roles in anaerobic digestion due to their high abundance and tight correlation with other microbes. These findings advanced our knowledge about the core bacteria community and its temporal variability for future comparative research and the improvement of the two-stage anaerobic system operation.

  18. Enhanced anaerobic degradation of Fischer-Tropsch wastewater by integrated UASB system with Fe-C micro-electrolysis assisted.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dexin; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Li, Kun; Xu, Hao; Fang, Fang; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong

    2016-12-01

    Coupling of the Fe-C micro-electrolysis (IC-ME) into the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) was developed for enhanced Fischer-Tropsch wastewater treatment. The COD removal efficiency and methane production in R3 with IC-ME assisted both reached up to 80.6 ± 1.7% and 1.38 ± 0.11 L/L·d that higher than those values in R1 with GAC addition (63.0 ± 3.4% and 0.95 ± 0.09 L/L·d) and R2 with ZVI addition (74.5 ± 2.8% and 1.21 ± 0.09 L/L·d) under the optimum HRT (5 d). The Fe corrosion as electron donor reduced the ORP values and stimulated the activities of hydrogenotrophic methanogens to lower H2 partial pressure in R2 and R3. Additionally, Fe(2+) as by-product of iron corrosion, its presence could effectively increase the percentage of protein content in tightly bound extracellular polymeric substances (TB-EPS) to promote better bioflocculation, increasing to 90.5 mg protein/g·VSS (R2) and 106.3 mg protein/g·VSS (R3) while this value in R1 was simply 56.6 mg protein/g·VSS. More importantly, compared with R1, the excess accumulation of propionic acid and butyric acid in system was avoided. The macroscopic galvanic cells around Fe-C micro-electrolysis carriers in R3, that larger than microscopic galvanic cells in R2, further accelerate to transfer the electrons from anodic Fe to cathodic carbon that enhance interspecies hydrogen transfer, making the decomposition of propionic acid and butyric acid more thermodynamically feasible, finally facilitate more methane production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An integrated microbial electrolysis-anaerobic digestion process combined with pretreatment of wastewater solids to improve hydrogen production

    DOE PAGES

    Beegle, Jeff R.; Borole, Abhijeet P.

    2017-08-17

    A combined anaerobic digestion (AD) and microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) system, named here as ADMEC, was investigated in this paper to evaluate the energy recovery from pretreated wastewater solids. Alkaline and thermal hydrolysis pretreatment methods increased the solubility of organic compounds present in the raw solids by 25% and 20%, respectively. The soluble phase from pretreatment was separated and used for microbial electrolysis, whereas the insoluble fraction was fed into semi-continuous digesters. The digester effluent was later utilized as a second MEC substrate. The pretreatment had variable effects on AD and MEC performance. The methane content in AD biogas wasmore » higher in pretreated groups, 78.29 ± 2.89% and 73.2 ± 1.79%, for alkaline and thermal, than the control, 50.26 ± 0.53%, but the overall biogas production rates were lower than the control, 20 and 30 mL CH4 gCOD-1 d-1 for alkaline and thermal compared to 80 mL CH4 gCOD-1 d-1. The effluent streams from thermally pretreated digesters were the best substrate for microbial electrolysis, in terms of hydrogen production and efficiency. The MECs produced 1.7 ± 0.2 L-H2 per L per day, 0.3 ± 0.1 L-H2 per L per day, and 0.29 ± 0.1 L-H2 per L per day, for thermal, alkaline, and control reactors. The productivity was lower compared to acetate and propionate controls, which yielded 5.79 ± 0.03 L-H2 per L per day and 3.49 ± 0.10 L-H2 per L per day, respectively. The pretreatment solubilized fractions were not ideal substrates for microbial electrolysis. Finally, a chemical oxygen demand (COD) mass balance showed that pretreatment shifts the electron flux away from methane and biomass sinks towards hydrogen production.« less

  20. Anaerobic treatment of a medium strength industrial wastewater at low-temperature and short hydraulic retention time: a pilot-scale experience.

    PubMed

    Esparza Soto, M; Solís Morelos, C; Hernández Torres, J J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of a pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor during the treatment of cereal-processing industry wastewater under low-temperature conditions (17 degrees C) for more than 300 days. The applied organic loading rate (OLR(appl)) was gradually increased from 4 to 6 and 8 kg COD(sol)/m3d by increasing the influent soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD(sol)), while keeping the hydraulic retention time constant (5.2 h). The removal efficiency was high (82 to 92%) and slightly decreased after increasing the influent COD(sol) and the OLR(appl). The highest removed organic loading rate (OLR(rem)) was reached when the UASB reactor was operated at 8 kg COD(sol)/m3d and it was two times higher than that obtained for an OLR(appl) of 4 kg COD(sol)/m3d. Some disturbances were observed during the experimentation. The formation of biogas pockets in the sludge bed significantly complicated the biogas production quantification, but did not affect the reactor performance. The volatile fatty acids in the effluent were low, but increased as the OLR(appl) increased, which caused an increment of the effluent COD(sol). Anaerobic treatment at low temperature was a good option for the biological pre-treatment of cereal processing industry wastewater.

  1. Simultaneous determination of anionic and nonionic surfactants in commercial laundry wastewater and anaerobic fluidized bed reactor effluent by online column-switching liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Motteran, Fabrício; Lima Gomes, Paulo C F; Silva, Edson L; Varesche, Maria Bernadete A

    2017-02-15

    This study presents a new method developed for the simultaneous determination of anionic surfactant (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate - LAS, 4 homologs) and nonionic surfactant (linear alcohol ethoxylate - LAE) in commercial laundry wastewater. The surfactants were identified and quantified using online column-switching solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Ten and three transitions (m/z) were identified for LAS and LAE, respectively. The detection and quantification limits were 75 and 200μg/L for LAS, respectively, and 75μg/L for LAE. This method was applied to the determination of the surfactants in the influent and effluent of an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor that was used for the treatment of commercial laundry wastewater. After 480days of operation with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 18h, the removal of 45.9±5.6% LAS and 99.2±4.3% LAE from an influent with surfactant concentrations of 26.1±12.9mg/L and 23.8±6.8mg/L, respectively, was obtained. Under these conditions, the breakage of longer-chain LAS homologs with the release of carbon units was observed with an increase in the number of shorter homolog chains. This SPE online sample treatment method is simple, fast and effective for the analysis of both surfactants. This technique is pioneering in its simultaneous measurement of two surfactant categories in anaerobic fluidized bed reactors.

  2. A balanced microbiota efficiently produces methane in a novel high-rate horizontal anaerobic reactor for the treatment of swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Duda, Rose Maria; da Silva Vantini, Juliana; Martins, Larissa Scattolin; de Mello Varani, Alessandro; Lemos, Manoel Victor Franco; Ferro, Maria Inês Tiraboschi; de Oliveira, Roberto Alves

    2015-12-01

    A novel combination of structurally simple, high-rate horizontal anaerobic reactors installed in series was used to treat swine wastewater. The reactors maintained stable pH, alkalinity, and volatile acid levels. Removed chemical oxygen demand (COD) represented 68% of the total, and the average specific methane production was 0.30L CH4 (g removed CODtot)(-1). In addition, next-generation sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR analyses were used to explore the methane-producing Archaea and microbial diversity. At least 94% of the sludge diversity belong to the Bacteria and Archaea, indicating a good balance of microorganisms. Among the Bacteria the Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the most prevalent phyla. Interestingly, up to 12% of the sludge diversity belongs to methane-producing orders, such as Methanosarcinales, Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales. In summary, this system can efficiently produce methane and this is the first time that horizontal anaerobic reactors have been evaluated for the treatment of swine wastewater. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of carbon source and COD/NO₃⁻-N ratio on anaerobic simultaneous denitrification and methanogenesis for high-strength wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Xie, Li; Chen, Jinrong; Wang, Rui; Zhou, Qi

    2012-06-01

    The effect of carbon source and COD/NO(3)(-)-N ratio on denitrification and methanogenesis in mixed methanogenic matrix was investigated in this study. Industrial wastewater, anaerobic treated cassava stillage (CS) and glucose synthetic wastewater were used as carbon sources respectively for comparison. Experimental results showed that denitrification was the main nitrate reduction pathway for all COD/NO(3)(-)-N ratios tested in two substrates. Simultaneous denitrification and methanogenesis occurred at COD/NO(3)(-)-N higher than 7 regardless of carbon sources. Incomplete denitrification was observed at COD/NO(3)(-)-N ratio below 7 in both the anaerobic effluent of CS and glucose-fed cultures due to the insufficient available organic carbon. The nature of carbon sources was observed to play a key role in the nitrate and organic carbon utilization rates. COD/NO(3)(-)-N ratio had a strong effect on the organic matter utilization pathways. Methanization consumed more organic matter than denitrification with further increase of COD/NO(3)(-)-N ratio above 7 in two substrates. Results of VFA variation suggested that propionate and butyrate were preferably utilized by the denitrifiers than acetate.

  4. Utilization of high-strength wastewater for the production of biogas as a renewable energy source using hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB) reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Shivayogimath, C.B.; Ramanujam, T.K.

    1998-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of distillery spentwash, a high-strength wastewater, was studied using a hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB) reactor for 240 days under ambient conditions. The HUASB reactor combined an open volume in the bottom two-thirds of the reactor for sludge blanket and polypropylene pall rings packing in the upper one-third of the reactor. The aim of the study was to achieve optimum biogas production and waste treatment. Using non-granular anaerobic sewage sludge as seed, the start-up of the HUASB reactor was successfully completed, with the production of active bacterial granules of 1--2 mm size, within 90 days. Examination of the bacterial granules under scanning electron microscope (SEM) revealed that Methanothrix like microorganisms were the dominant species besides Methanosarcina. An organic loading of 24 kg COD/m{sup 3}d at a low hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 hours was achieved with 82% reduction in COD. Biogas with high methane content (80%) was produced at these loadings. The specific biogas yield was 0.36 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/kg COD. Packing in the upper third of the reactor was very efficient as a gas-solid separator (GSS); and in addition it retained the biomass.

  5. Closed DHS system to prevent dissolved methane emissions as greenhouse gas in anaerobic wastewater treatment by its recovery and biological oxidation.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, N; Hatamoto, M; Sumino, H; Syutsubo, K; Yamaguchi, T; Ohashi, A

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic wastewater treatment has been focused on its eco-friendly nature in terms of the improved energy conservation and reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. However, the anaerobic process discharges unrecovered methane as dissolved methane. In this study, to prevent the emission of dissolved methane from up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors used to treat sewage and to recover it as useful gas, we employed a two-stage down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor as a post-treatment of the UASB reactor. The closed DHS reactor in the first stage was intended for the recovery of dissolved methane from the UASB reactor effluent; the reactor could successfully recover an average of 76.8% of the influent dissolved methane as useful gas (containing methane over 30%) with hydraulic retention time of 2 h. During the experimental period, it was possible to maintain the recovered methane concentrations greater than 30% by adjusting the air supply rate. The remaining dissolved methane after the first stage was treated by the next step. The second closed DHS reactor was operated for oxidation of the residual methane and polishing of the remaining organic carbons. The reactor had a high performance and the influent dissolved methane was mostly eliminated to approximately 0.01 mgCOD L(-1). The dissolved methane from the UASB reactor was completely eliminated--by more than 99%--by the post-treatment after the two-stage closed DHS system.

  6. Treatment of high-strength dairy wastewater in an anaerobic deep reservoir: analysis of the methanogenic fermentation pathway and the rate-limiting step.

    PubMed

    Arbeli, Ziv; Brenner, Asher; Abeliovich, Aharon

    2006-11-01

    The wastewater of the largest dairy factory in Israel (Tnuva, Tel-Yosef), discharging approximately 6000 tons BOD per year, is treated in two serial, deep reservoirs (anaerobic/facultative). In this study, which focused on the anaerobic reservoir, we combined in situ measurements (over 18 months) and supporting lab experiments, in order to evaluate its efficiency and to identify the rate-limiting step of the methanogenic fermentation pathway. The anaerobic reservoir could remove above 75% of the BOD and COD all year round, but this was not enough to prevent malodors during the winter. Acetate and propionate, products of lactose fermentation, were the predominant intermediate metabolites in the reservoir and their concentrations were strongly dependent on the temperature and the organic load. The combined effects of colder winter temperatures and seasonal increase of organic load, resulted in a decreased rate of propionate oxidation and a consequent accumulation of soluble BOD and COD. Laboratory batch experiments, conducted during this season, found propionate oxidation to be the rate-limiting step in the process, characterized by a lag period preceding its degradation.

  7. Microbial ecology overview during anaerobic codigestion of dairy wastewater and cattle manure and use in agriculture of obtained bio-fertilisers.

    PubMed

    Toumi, Jihen; Miladi, Baligh; Farhat, Amel; Nouira, Said; Hamdi, Moktar; Gtari, Maher; Bouallagui, Hassib

    2015-12-01

    The anaerobic co-digestion of dairy wastewater (DW) and cattle manure (CM) was examined and associated with microbial community's structures using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). The highest volatile solids (VS) reduction yield of 88.6% and biogas production of 0.87 L/g VS removed were obtained for the C/N ratio of 24.7 at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20 days. The bacterial DGGE profile showed significant abundance of Uncultured Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Synergistetes bacterium. The Syntrophomonas strains were discovered in dependent association to H2-using bacteria such as Methanospirillum sp., Methanosphaera sp. and Methanobacterium formicicum. These syntrophic associations are essential in anaerobic digesters allow them to keep low hydrogen partial pressure. However, high concentrations of VFA produced from dairy wastes acidification allow the growth of Methanosarcina species. The application of the stabilised anaerobic effluent on the agriculture soil showed significant beneficial effects on the forage corn and tomato plants growth and crops. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Response of anaerobic granular sludge to iron oxide nanoparticles and multi-wall carbon nanotubes during beet sugar industrial wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Ambuchi, John J; Zhang, Zhaohan; Shan, Lili; Liang, Dandan; Zhang, Peng; Feng, Yujie

    2017-03-31

    The accelerated use of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in the consumer and industrial sectors has triggered the need to understand their potential environmental impact. The response of anaerobic granular sludge (AGS) to IONPs and MWCNTs during the anaerobic digestion of beet sugar industrial wastewater (BSIW) was investigated in this study. The IONPs increased the biogas and subsequent CH4 production rates in comparison with MWCNTs and the control samples. This might be due to the utilization of IONPs and MWCNTs as conduits for electron transfer toward methanogens. The MWCNTs majorly enriched the bacterial growth, while IONP enrichment mostly benefitted the archaea population. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that AGS produced extracellular polymeric substances, which interacted with the IONPs and MWCNTs. This provided cell protection and prevented the nanoparticles from piercing through the membranes and thus cytotoxicity. The results provide useful information and insights on the adjustment of anaerobic microorganisms to the natural complex environment based on nanoparticles infiltration.

  9. Artificial intelligence based model for optimization of COD removal efficiency of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor in the saline wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Picos-Benítez, Alain R; López-Hincapié, Juan D; Chávez-Ramírez, Abraham U; Rodríguez-García, Adrián

    2017-03-01

    The complex non-linear behavior presented in the biological treatment of wastewater requires an accurate model to predict the system performance. This study evaluates the effectiveness of an artificial intelligence (AI) model, based on the combination of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic algorithms (GAs), to find the optimum performance of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) for saline wastewater treatment. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was predicted using conductivity, organic loading rate (OLR) and temperature as input variables. The ANN model was built from experimental data and performance was assessed through the maximum mean absolute percentage error (= 9.226%) computed from the measured and model predicted values of the COD. Accordingly, the ANN model was used as a fitness function in a GA to find the best operational condition. In the worst case scenario (low energy requirements, high OLR usage and high salinity) this model guaranteed COD removal efficiency values above 70%. This result is consistent and was validated experimentally, confirming that this ANN-GA model can be used as a tool to achieve the best performance of a UASB reactor with the minimum requirement of energy for saline wastewater treatment.

  10. Performance and model of a full-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) to treat the pharmaceutical wastewater containing 6-APA and amoxicillin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Hongcheng; Chen, Zhaobo; Ren, Nanqi; Wang, Aijie; Shi, Yue; Li, Xiaoming

    2011-01-30

    A full-scale test was conducted with an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) pre-treating pharmaceutical wastewater containing 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) and amoxicillin. The aim of the study is to investigate the performance of UASB in the condition of a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) loading rate from 12.57 to 21.02 kgm(-3)d(-1) and a wide pH from 5.57 to 8.26, in order to provide a reference for treating the similar chemical synthetic pharmaceutical wastewater containing 6-APA and amoxicillin. The results demonstrated that the UASB average percentage reduction in COD, 6-APA and amoxicillin were 52.2%, 26.3% and 21.6%, respectively. In addition, three models, built on the back propagation neural network (BPNN) theory and linear regression techniques were developed for the simulation of the UASB system performance in the biodegradation of pharmaceutical wastewater containing 6-APA and amoxicillin. The average error of COD, 6-APA and amoxicillin were -0.63%, 2.19% and 5.40%, respectively. The results indicated that these models built on the BPNN theory were well-fitted to the detected data, and were able to simulate and predict the removal of COD, 6-APA and amoxicillin by UASB. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrogen and lipid production from starch wastewater by co-culture of anaerobic sludge and oleaginous microalgae with simultaneous COD, nitrogen and phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong-Yu; Liu, Bing-Feng; Kong, Fanying; Zhao, Lei; Ren, Nanqi

    2015-11-15

    Anaerobic sludge (AS) and microalgae were co-cultured to enhance the energy conversion and nutrients removal from starch wastewater. Mixed ratio, starch concentration and initial pH played critical roles on the hydrogen and lipid production of the co-culture system. The maximum hydrogen production of 1508.3 mL L(-1) and total lipid concentration of 0.36 g L(-1) were obtained under the optimized mixed ratio (algae:AS) of 30:1, starch concentration of 6 g L(-1) and initial pH of 8. The main soluble metabolites in dark fermentation were acetate and butyrate, most of which can be consumed in co-cultivation. When sweet potato starch wastewater was used as the substrate, the highest COD, TN and TP removal and energy conversion efficiencies reached 80.5%, 88.7%, 80.1% and 34.2%, which were 176%, 178%, 200% and 119% higher than that of the control group (dark fermentation), respectively. This research provided a novel approach and achieved efficient simultaneous energy recovery and nutrients removal from starch wastewater by the co-culture system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Combination of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) for berberine reduction from wastewater and the effects of berberine on bacterial community dynamics.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Guanglei; Song, Yonghui; Zeng, Ping; Duan, Liang; Xiao, Shuhu

    2013-02-15

    Berberine is a broad-spectrum antibiotic extensively used in personal medication. The production of berberine results in the generation of wastewater containing concentrated residual berberine. However, few related studies up to date focus on berberine removal from wastewaters. In this study, a lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)-membrane bioreactor (MBR) process was developed for berberine removal from synthetic wastewater. The performance of the UASB-MBR system on berberine, COD and NH(4)(+)--N removal was investigated at different berberine loadings. And the effects of berberine on bacterial communities were evaluated using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Results showed that, as the increase of berberine loadings, UASB performance was affected remarkably, whereas, efficient and stable performance of MBR ensured the overall removal rates of berberine, COD and NH(4)(+)--N consistently reached up to 99%, 98% and 98%, respectively. Significant shifts of bacterial community structures were detected in both UASB and MBR, especially in the initial operations. Along with the increase of berberine loadings, high antibiotic resisting species and some functional species, i.e. Acinetobacter sp., Clostridium sp., Propionibacterium sp., and Sphingomonas sp. in UASB, as well as Sphingomonas sp., Methylocystis sp., Hydrogenophaga sp. and Flavobacterium sp. in MBR were enriched in succession. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of a three-phase separator configuration on the performance of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor treating wastewater from a fruit-canning factory.

    PubMed

    Wongnoi, Rachbordin; Songkasiri, Warinthorn; Phalakornkule, Chantaraporn

    2007-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of a three-phase separator configuration on the performance of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (USAB) treating wastewater from a fruit canning factory. The performances of two 30-L UASB reactors--one with a modified three-phase separator giving a spiral flow pattern and the other with a conventional configuration-were investigated in parallel. Wastewater, with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration between 2000 and 7000 mg/L, was obtained from a fruit-canning factory. Based on the effluent data of the first 100 operation days, the UASB with the three-phase separator giving spiral flow patterns yielded up to 25% lower biomass washout. It also showed better efficiencies in treating wastewater--up to 60% lower effluent COD, up to 20% higher COD percent removal, and up to 29% higher biogas production. This work presents evidence of an improvement on the conventional physical design of a UASB.

  14. Growth condition and bacterial community for maximum hydrolysis of suspended organic materials in anaerobic digestion of food waste-recycling wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kim, Man Deok; Song, Minkyung; Jo, Minho; Shin, Seung Gu; Khim, Jee Hyeong; Hwang, Seokhwan

    2010-02-01

    This paper reports the effects of changing pH (5-7) and temperature (T, 40-60 degrees C) on the efficiencies of bacterial hydrolysis of suspended organic matter (SOM) in wastewater from food waste recycling (FWR) and the changes in the bacterial community responsible for this hydrolysis. Maximum hydrolysis efficiency (i.e., 50.5% reduction of volatile suspended solids) was predicted to occur at pH 5.7 and T = 44.5 degrees C. Changes in short-chain volatile organic acid profiles and in acidogenic bacterial communities were investigated under these conditions. Propionic and butyric acids concentrations increased rapidly during the first 2 days of incubation. Several band sequences consistent with Clostridium spp. were detected using denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis. Clostridium thermopalmarium and Clostridium novyi seemed to contribute to butyric acid production during the first 1.5 days of acidification of FWR wastewater, and C. thermopalmarium was a major butyric acid producer afterward. C. novyi was an important propionic acid producer. These two species appear to be important contributors to hydrolysis of SOM in the wastewater. Other acidogenic anaerobes, Aeromonas sharmana, Bacillus coagulans, and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida, were also indentified.

  15. Efficient methanogenic degradation of alcohol ethoxylates and microbial community acclimation in treatment of municipal wastewater using a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yulun; Niu, Qigui; Kato, Hiroyuki; Sugo, Toshiki; Tian, Xike; Li, Yu-You

    2017-02-01

    The effect of alcohol ethoxylates on the treatment of municipal wastewater by a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor was investigated by a 400days operation including the treatment efficiency, methanogenic activity of sludge and microbial community structure. The results indicated that alcohol ethoxylates (5.0-200mg/L) was efficiently degraded and converted into methane due to the similar COD removal 95.5-98.8% and rising biogas production rate (2.30-4.25L/d) compared with control (96.8% and 2.55L/d). The microbes in sludge could copy with the presence of alcohol ethoxylates in wastewater by releasing more SMP and EPS, which caused a higher membrane fouling rate. Moreover, via long term acclimation, the specific methanogenic activity of sludge was greatly enhanced due to the changes of microbial community structure. Hence, the sludge self-acclimation to alcohol ethoxylates was responsible to the efficient methane recovery in treatment of municipal wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Occurrence and removal of six pharmaceuticals and personal care products in a wastewater treatment plant employing anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic and UV processes in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Sui, Qian; Lu, Shu-Guang; Zhao, Wen-Tao; Qiu, Zhao-Fu; Miao, Zhou-Wei; Yu, Gang

    2014-03-01

    The occurrence and removal of six pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) including caffeine (CF), N, N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), carbamazepine, metoprolol, trimethoprim (TMP), and sulpiride in a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Shanghai, China were studied in January 2013; besides, grab samples of the influent were also taken every 6 h, to investigate the daily fluctuation of the wastewater influent. The results showed the concentrations of the investigated PPCPs ranged from 17 to 11,400 ng/L in the WWTP. A low variability of the PPCP concentrations in the wastewater influent throughout the day was observed, with the relative standard deviations less than 25 % for most samples. However, for TMP and CF, the slight daily fluctuation still reflected their consumption patterns. All the target compounds except CF and DEET, exhibited poor removal efficiencies (<40 %) by biological treatment process, probably due to the low temperature in the bioreactor, which was unfavorable for activated sludge. While for the two biodegradable PPCPs, CF, and DEET, the anaerobic and oxic tank made contributions to their removal while the anoxic tank had a negative effect to their elimination. The tertiary UV treatment removed the investigated PPCPs by 5-38 %, representing a crucial polishing step to compensate for the poor removal by the biologic treatment process in winter.

  17. A Combined Activated Sludge Anaerobic Digestion Model (CASADM) to understand the role of anaerobic sludge recycling in wastewater treatment plant performance.

    PubMed

    Young, Michelle N; Marcus, Andrew K; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2013-05-01

    The Combined Activated Sludge-Anaerobic Digestion Model (CASADM) quantifies the effects of recycling anaerobic-digester (AD) sludge on the performance of a hybrid activated sludge (AS)-AD system. The model includes nitrification, denitrification, hydrolysis, fermentation, methanogenesis, and production/utilization of soluble microbial products and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). A CASADM example shows that, while effluent COD and N are not changed much by hybrid operation, the hybrid system gives increased methane production in the AD and decreased sludge wasting, both caused mainly by a negative actual solids retention time in the hybrid AD. Increased retention of biomass and EPS allows for more hydrolysis and conversion to methane in the hybrid AD. However, fermenters and methanogens survive in the AS, allowing significant methane production in the settler and thickener of both systems, and AD sludge recycle makes methane formation greater in the hybrid system.

  18. Assessing Methanobrevibacter smithii and Clostridium difficile as not conventional faecal indicators in effluents of a wastewater treatment plant integrated with sludge anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Romanazzi, Valeria; Bonetta, Silvia; Fornasero, Stefania; De Ceglia, Margherita; Gilli, Giorgio; Traversi, Deborah

    2016-12-15

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are an important source of surface water contamination by enteric pathogens, affecting the role of environmental water as a microbial reservoir. We describe the release to the environment of certain anaerobes of human and environmental concern. The work was focused on emerging microbial targets. They are tracing, by RT-qPCR, on WWTP effluents, both liquid and solid, when an anaerobic digestion step is included. The focus is placed on Clostridium spp. with the specific quantification of Clostridium perfringens, as typical bioindicator, and Clostridium difficile, as emerging pathogen not only confined into nosocomial infection. Moreover methanogens were quantified for their involvement in the anaerobic digestion, and in particular on Methanobrevibacter smithii as major methanogenic component of the human gut microbiome and as not conventional faecal indicator. In the water samples, a reduction, statistically significant, in all microbial targets was observed (p < 0.01), 2 log for the total bacteria, 1.4 log for the Clostridium spp. and M. smithii, 1 log for total methanogens, C. perfringens and C. difficile. The AD process contribute to a significant change in microbial levels into the sludge for total bacteria and total methanogens (p < 0.01), both when the input sludge are primary and secondary, while for the presence of Clostridium spp. and C. difficile there was not a significant change. The produced data are innovative showing which is the diffusion of such anaerobic microorganisms throughout the WWTP and opening a discussion on the implementation of possible techniques for a more efficient microbial removal from effluents, particularly bio-solids, to reduce the potential release of pathogens into the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. In-situ biogas sparging enhances the performance of an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) with mesh filter in low-strength wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Hu, Yi; Lu, Yong-Ze; Zeng, Raymond J; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    2016-07-01

    In the recent years, anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology is being considered as a very attractive alternative for wastewater treatment due to the striking advantages such as upgraded effluent quality. However, fouling control is still a problem for the application of AnMBR. This study investigated the performance of an AnMBR using mesh filter as support material to treat low-strength wastewater via in-situ biogas sparging. It was found that mesh AnMBR exhibited high and stable chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies with values of 95 ± 5 % and an average methane yield of 0.24 L CH4/g CODremoved. Variation of transmembrane pressure (TMP) during operation indicated that mesh fouling was mitigated by in-situ biogas sparging and the fouling rate was comparable to that of aerobic membrane bioreactor with mesh filter reported in previous researches. The fouling layer formed on the mesh exhibited non-uniform structure; the porosity became larger from bottom layer to top layer. Biogas sparging could not change the composition but make thinner thickness of cake layer, which might be benefit for reducing membrane fouling rate. It was also found that ultrasonic cleaning of fouled mesh was able to remove most foulants on the surface or pores. This study demonstrated that in-situ biogas sparging enhanced the performance of AnMBRs with mesh filter in low-strength wastewater treatment. Apparently, AnMBRs with mesh filter can be used as a promising and sustainable technology for wastewater treatment.

  20. Reactor performance and microbial community dynamics during anaerobic co-digestion of municipal wastewater sludge with restaurant grease waste at steady state and overloading stages.

    PubMed

    Razaviarani, Vahid; Buchanan, Ian D

    2014-11-01

    Linkage between reactor performance and microbial community dynamics was investigated during mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of restaurant grease waste (GTW) with municipal wastewater sludge (MWS) using 10L completely mixed reactors and a 20day SRT. Test reactors received a mixture of GTW and MWS while control reactors received only MWS. Addition of GTW to the test reactors enhanced the biogas production and methane yield by up to 65% and 120%, respectively. Pyrosequencing revealed that Methanosaeta and Methanomicrobium were the dominant acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogen genera, respectively, during stable reactor operation. The number of Methanosarcina and Methanomicrobium sequences increased and that of Methanosaeta declined when the proportion of GTW in the feed was increased to cause an overload condition. Under this overload condition, the pH, alkalinity and methane production decreased and VFA concentrations increased dramatically. Candidatus cloacamonas, affiliated within phylum Spirochaetes, were the dominant bacterial genus at all reactor loadings.

  1. Microbial Community Structure and Diversity in an Integrated System of Anaerobic-Aerobic Reactors and a Constructed Wetland for the Treatment of Tannery Wastewater in Modjo, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Desta, Adey Feleke; Assefa, Fassil; Leta, Seyoum; Stomeo, Francesca; Wamalwa, Mark; Njahira, Moses; Appolinaire, Djikeng

    2014-01-01

    A culture-independent approach was used to elucidate the microbial diversity and structure in the anaerobic-aerobic reactors integrated with a constructed wetland for the treatment of tannery wastewater in Modjo town, Ethiopia. The system has been running with removal efficiencies ranging from 94%–96% for COD, 91%–100% for SO42- and S2-, 92%–94% for BOD, 56%–82% for total Nitrogen and 2%–90% for NH3-N. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed and microbial community assemblies were determined by analysis of a total of 801 unique clone sequences from all the sites. Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU) - based analysis of the sequences revealed highly diverse communities in each of the reactors and the constructed wetland. A total of 32 phylotypes were identified with the dominant members affiliated to Clostridia (33%), Betaproteobacteria (10%), Bacteroidia (10%), Deltaproteobacteria (9%) and Gammaproteobacteria (6%). Sequences affiliated to the class Clostridia were the most abundant across all sites. The 801 sequences were assigned to 255 OTUs, of which 3 OTUs were shared among the clone libraries from all sites. The shared OTUs comprised 80 sequences belonging to Clostridiales Family XIII Incertae Sedis, Bacteroidetes and unclassified bacterial group. Significantly different communities were harbored by the anaerobic, aerobic and rhizosphere sites of the constructed wetland. Numerous representative genera of the dominant bacterial classes obtained from the different sample sites of the integrated system have been implicated in the removal of various carbon- containing pollutants of natural and synthetic origins. To our knowledge, this is the first report of microbial community structure in tannery wastewater treatment plant from Ethiopia. PMID:25541981

  2. Reduction of N2O and NO generation in anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen) biological wastewater treatment process by using sludge alkaline fermentation liquid.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Yinguang

    2011-03-15

    This paper reported an efficient method to significantly reduce nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and nitric oxide (NO) generation in anaerobic-aerobic (low dissolved oxygen) processes. It was found that by the use of waste-activated sludge alkaline fermentation liquid as the synthetic wastewater-carbon source, compared with the commonly used carbon source in the literature (e.g., acetic acid), the generation of N(2)O and NO was reduced by 68.7% and 50.0%, respectively, but the removal efficiencies of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) were improved. Both N(2)O and NO were produced in the low dissolved oxygen (DO) stage, and the use of sludge fermentation liquid greatly reduced their generation from the denitrification. The presences of Cu(2+) and propionic acid in fermentation liquid were observed to play an important role in the reduction of N(2)O and NO generation. The analysis of the activities of denitrifying enzymes suggested that sludge fermentation liquid caused the significant decrease of both nitrite reductase activity to NO reductase activity ratio and NO reductase activity to N(2)O reductase activity ratio, which resulted in the lower generation of NO and N(2)O. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis indicated that the number of glycogen accumulating bacteria, which was reported to be relevant to nitrous oxide generation, in sludge fermentation liquid reactor was much lower than that in acetic acid reactor. The quantitative detection of the nosZ gene, encoding nitrous oxide reductase, showed that the use of fermentation liquid increased the number of bacteria capable of reducing N(2)O to N(2). The feasibility of using sludge fermentation liquid to reduce NO and N(2)O generation in an anaerobic-low DO process was finally confirmed for a municipal wastewater.

  3. Significance of dissolved methane in effluents of anaerobically treated low strength wastewater and potential for recovery as an energy product: A review.

    PubMed

    Crone, Brian C; Garland, Jay L; Sorial, George A; Vane, Leland M

    2016-11-01

    The need for energy efficient Domestic Wastewater (DWW) treatment is increasing annually with population growth and expanding global energy demand. Anaerobic treatment of low strength DWW produces methane which can be used to as an energy product. Temperature sensitivity, low removal efficiencies (Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Suspended Solids (SS), and Nutrients), alkalinity demand, and potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have limited its application to warmer climates. Although well designed anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors (AnMBRs) are able to effectively treat DWW at psychrophilic temperatures (10-30 °C), lower temperatures increase methane solubility leading to increased energy losses in the form of dissolved methane in the effluent. Estimates of dissolved methane losses are typically based on concentrations calculated using Henry's Law but advection limitations can lead to supersaturation of methane between 1.34 and 6.9 times equilibrium concentrations and 11-100% of generated methane being lost in the effluent. In well mixed systems such as AnMBRs which use biogas sparging to control membrane fouling, actual concentrations approach equilibrium values. Non-porous membranes have been used to recover up to 92.6% of dissolved methane and well suited for degassing effluents of Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors which have considerable solids and organic contents and can cause pore wetting and clogging in microporous membrane modules. Microporous membranes can recover up to 98.9% of dissolved methane in AnMBR effluents which have low COD and SS concentrations. Sequential Down-flow Hanging Sponge (DHS) reactors have been used to recover between 57 and 88% of dissolved methane from Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor effluent at concentrations of greater than 30% and oxidize the rest for a 99% removal of total dissolved methane. They can also remove 90% of suspended solids and COD in UASB effluents and produce a high quality effluent. In

  4. Desulfotomaculum peckii sp. nov., a moderately thermophilic member of the genus Desulfotomaculum, isolated from an upflow anaerobic filter treating abattoir wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Jabari, Linda; Gannoun, Hana; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Hamdi, Moktar; Ollivier, Bernard; Fauque, Guy; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2013-06-01

    A novel anaerobic thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium designated strain LINDBHT1(T) was isolated from an anaerobic digester treating abattoir wastewaters in Tunisia. Strain LINDBHT1(T) grew at temperatures between 50 and 65 °C (optimum 55-60 °C), and at pH between 5.9 and 9.2 (optimum pH 6.0-6.8). Strain LINDBHT1(T) required salt for growth (1-40 g NaCl l(-1)), with an optimum of 20-30 g l(-1). In the presence of sulfate as terminal electron acceptor, strain LINDBHT1(T) used H2/CO2, propanol, butanol and ethanol as carbon and energy sources but fumarate, formate, lactate and pyruvate were not utilized. Butanol was converted to butyrate, while propanol and ethanol were oxidized to propionate and acetate, respectively. Sulfate, sulfite and thiosulfate were utilized as terminal electron acceptors but elemental sulfur, iron (III), fumarate, nitrate and nitrite were not used. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 44.4 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of the small-subunit rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain LINDBHT1(T) was affiliated to the genus Desulfotomaculum with the type strains of Desulfotomaculum halophilum and Desulfotomaculum alkaliphilum as its closest phylogenetic relatives (about 89% similarity). This strain represents a novel species of the genus Desulfotomaculum, Desulfotomaculum peckii sp. nov.; the type strain is LINDBHT1(T) (=DSM 23769(T)=JCM 17209(T)).

  5. Fate of pathogen indicators in a domestic blend of food waste and wastewater through a two-stage anaerobic digestion system.

    PubMed

    Rounsefell, B D; O'Sullivan, C A; Chinivasagam, N; Batstone, D; Clarke, W P

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a viable on-site treatment technology for rich organic waste streams such as food waste and blackwater. In contrast to large-scale municipal wastewater treatment plants which are typically located away from the community, the effluent from any type of on-site system is a potential pathogenic hazard because of the intimacy of the system to the community. The native concentrations of the pathogen indicators Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens and somatic coliphage were tracked for 30 days under stable operation (organic loading rate (OLR) = 1.8 kgCOD m(-3) day(-1), methane yield = 52% on a chemical oxygen demand (COD) basis) of a two-stage laboratory-scale digester treating a mixture of food waste and blackwater. E. coli numbers were reduced by a factor of 10(6.4) in the thermophilic stage, from 10(7.5±0.3) to 10(1.1±0.1) cfu 100 mL(-1), but regenerated by a factor of 10(4) in the mesophilic stage. Neither the thermophilic nor mesophilic stages had any significant impact on C. perfringens concentrations. Coliphage concentrations were reduced by a factor of 10(1.4) across the two stages. The study shows that anaerobic digestion only reduces pathogen counts marginally but that counts in effluent samples could be readily reduced to below detection limits by filtration through a 0.22 µm membrane, to investigate membrane filtration as a possible sanitation technique.

  6. A novel approach of anaerobic co-digestion between organic fraction of food waste and waste sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant: Effect of mixing ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nga, Dinh Thi; Ngoc, Tran Thi Minh; Van Ty, Nguyen; Thuan, Van Tan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mixing ratio of co-anaerobic digestion between dewatered waste sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plant (DS) and organic fraction of food waste (FW). The experiment was carried out in 3L reactors for 16 days at ambient temperature. Four mixing ratios of DW and FW was investigated including 100 % DS : 0 % FW (Run S100); 75% DS : 25 % FW (Run S75); 50% DS : 50% FW (Run S50); and 25% DS : 75% FW (Run S25) in term of VS concentration. As a result, the Run S50 achieved best performance among the four funs indicated in biogas accumulation of 32.48 L biogas and methane yield of 358.9 400ml CH4/g VS removal after 16 days operation at ambient temperature. Biogas accumulation of Run S25 was higher than that of Run S75. Run S100 produced the lowest of biogas of all runs. It is concluded that co-anaerobic digestion of different organic sources could enhance the performance of methane fermentation.

  7. Performance, kinetics behaviors and microbial community of internal circulation anaerobic reactor treating wastewater with high organic loading rate: Role of external hydraulic circulation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Gan; Li, Jun; Li, Yan; Wang, Zhu; Li, Wen-Tao; Li, Ai-Min

    2016-12-01

    Performance of internal circulation anaerobic reactor (IC) treating wastewater at high organic loading rate (OLR) and role of external hydraulic circulation were evaluated. When the OLR was increased from 2.50 to 18.94kgCOD/m(3)/d, COD removal decreased to 85% slightly and methane production increased to 4.49L/L/d with the upflow velocity of 1.0m/h resulted from the additional hydraulic circulation. Withdrawal of external hydraulic circulation led to decrease of COD removal to lower than 60% drastically and methane production by 81%. Accumulation of volatile fatty acids caused decline of pH to below 6.0 and the shift of substrate metabolic pathway to the hybrid fermentation. In addition, both maximum methane production rate and maximum substrate degradation rate obtained from mathematical models decreased significantly. Hydrogenotrophic methanogens including Methanobacterium and Methanocorpusculum predominated in the anaerobic sludge and the shift of microbial community was also observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals in a large scale membrane bioreactor plant combined with anaerobic-anoxic-oxic process for municipal wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunying; Xue, Wenchao; Zhou, Haidong; Huang, Xia; Wen, Xianghua

    2011-01-01

    The removal of eight typical endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in a full scale membrane bioreactor combined with anaerobic-anoxic-oxic process (A(2)/O-MBR) for municipal wastewater reclamation located in Beijing was investigated. These EDCs, including 4-octylphenol (4-OP), 4-n-nonylphenol (4-n-NP), bisphenol A (BPA), estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (17α-E2), 17β-estradiol (17β-E2), estriol (E3) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), were simultaneously analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after derivatization. The concentrations of eight EDCs were also measured in sludge of anaerobic, anoxic, oxic and membrane tanks to measure sludge-water distribution coefficients (K(d) values) as the indicator of adsorption propensity of target compound to sludge. The removal efficiencies of EDCs reached above 97%, except for 4-n-NP removal efficiency of 72%, 4-OP removal efficiency of 75% and EE2 removal efficiency of 87% in the A(2)/O-MBR process. The high K(d) values indicated that the sludge had a large adsorption capacity for these EDCs, and significantly contributed to removal of EDCs. Yeast estrogen screen assay was performed on samples to assess the total estrogenic activity by measuring the 17β-E2 equivalent quantity (EEQ), expressed in ng-EEQ/L. The measured EEQ value was markedly reduced from 72.1 ng-EEQ/L in the influent to 4.9 ng-EEQ/L in the effluent. Anoxic tank and anaerobic tank contributed to 80% and 37% in total EEQ removal, respectively.

  9. Co-digestion of press liquids of source-sorted municipal organic waste in anaerobic sludge treatment of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Effenberger, Johannes; Jahn, Lydia; Kuehn, Volker

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a semi-continuous laboratory-scale investigation of a potential co-substrate for mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. A feed liquid produced from source-sorted municipal organic waste by pretreatment with a screw press was subjected to the investigation. Quantities produced in press trials as well as the composition of the feed liquid are presented. Mass balances for N, P and chemical oxygen demand are given in order to verify the methane production of the feed liquid in co-digestion with sewage sludge at mesophilic conditions. Hydraulic retention time of the reactors were 14.7 to 16 d and organic loading rates were 1.5 to 2.7 kg volatile solids (VS) per cubic metre per day. The pretreatment by screw press is compared to the production of feed liquids with pulper-based pretreatment processes. While the addition of the feed liquid increased methane production by about 345 ml CH(4)/g VS(in), total solids of the feed liquid were reduced to about 63%. With respect to co-digestion at municipal wastewater treatment plants, several risks associated with the investigated feed liquid are outlined.

  10. Life cycle assessment of nutrient removal technologies for the treatment of anaerobic digestion supernatant and its integration in a wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Garcia, G; Frison, N; Vázquez-Padín, J R; Hospido, A; Garrido, J M; Fatone, F; Bolzonella, D; Moreira, M T; Feijoo, G

    2014-08-15

    The supernatant resulting from the anaerobic digestion of sludge generated by wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) is an attractive flow for technologies such as partial nitritation-anammox (CANON), nitrite shortcut (NSC) and struvite crystallization processes (SCP). The high concentration of N and P and its low flow rate facilitate the removal of nutrients under more favorable conditions than in the main water line. Despite their operational and economic benefits, the environmental burdens of these technologies also need to be assessed to prove their feasibility under a more holistic perspective. The potential environmental implications of these technologies were assessed using life cycle assessment, first at pilot plant scale, later integrating them in a modeled full WWTP. Pilot plant results reported a much lower environmental impact for N removal technologies than SCP. Full-scale modeling, however, highlighted that the differences between technologies were not relevant once they are integrated in a WWTP. The impacts associated with the WWTP are slightly reduced in all categories except for eutrophication, where a substantial reduction was achieved using NSC, SCP, and especially when CANON and SCP were combined. This study emphasizes the need for assessing wastewater treatment technologies as part of a WWTP rather than as individual processes and the utility of modeling tools for doing so. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance evaluation of anaerobic hybrid reactors with different packing media for treating wastewater of mild alkali treated rice straw in ethanol fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Narra, Madhuri; Balasubramanian, Velmurugan; Mehta, Himali; Dixit, Garima; Madamwar, Datta; Shah, Amita R

    2014-01-01

    Four anaerobic hybrid reactors with different packing media viz. gravel (R1), pumice stone (R2), polypropylene saddles (R3) and ceramic saddles (R4) were operated in semi-continuous mode. Biomethanation potential of the wastewater generated during alkali-treatment of rice straw in ethanol production process was investigated at ambient conditions. The reactors were operated with varying organic loading rates (0.861-4.313 g COD l(-1) d(-1)) and hydraulic retention time (3-15 days). Higher COD removal efficiency (69.2%) and methane yield (0.153 l CH4 g(-1) CODadded) were achieved in reactor R2 at 15 days HRT. Modified Stover-Kincannon model was applied to estimate the bio-kinetic coefficients and fitness of the model was checked by the regression coefficient for all the reactors. The model showed an excellent correlation between the experimental and predicted values. The present study demonstrated the treatment of wastewater from alkali treated rice straw for production of biogas.

  12. Effects of hydraulic retention time and nitrobenzene concentration on the performance of sequential upflow anaerobic filter and air lift reactors in treating nitrobenzene-containing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinhua; Chen, Guocai; Gu, Jingjing; Yin, Weizhao; Lu, Mengxiong; Li, Ping; Yang, Bo

    2014-11-01

    Sequential upflow anaerobic filter (UAF)/air lift (ALR) reactors were employed to investigate the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and nitrobenzene (NB) concentration on treatment of NB-containing wastewater. The results showed that NB was effectively reduced to aniline (AN) with glucose as co-substrate in the UAF reactor. The AN and the remaining intermediates after the UAF reactor were then efficiently degraded in the ALR reactor. A removal efficiency of 100% and 96% was obtained for NB and chemical oxygen demand (COD), respectively, using sequential UAF/ALR reactors with an HRT of 8-72 h in the UAF reactor and 2-18 h in the ALR reactor. The corresponding optimal influent NB concentration varied between 100 and 400 mg l(-1) to achieve the optimal NB and COD removal. The NB removal efficiency decreased to 90% and to 97% if the HRT in the UAF reactor decreased from 8 to 2 h and the influent NB concentration increased from 400 to 800 mg l(-1), respectively. The results showed that sequential UAF/ALR system can be operated at low HRTs and high NB concentrations without significantly affecting the removal efficiency of NB in the reactor system. The UAF/ALR system can provide an effective yet low cost method for treatment of NB-containing industrial wastewater.

  13. Back propagation neural network modelling of biodegradation and fermentative biohydrogen production using distillery wastewater in a hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor.

    PubMed

    Sridevi, K; Sivaraman, E; Mullai, P

    2014-08-01

    In a hybrid upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB) reactor, biodegradation in association with biohydrogen production was studied using distillery wastewater as substrate. The experiments were carried out at ambient temperature (34±1°C) and acidophilic pH of 6.5 with constant hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24h at various organic loading rates (OLRs) (1-10.2kgCODm(-3)d(-1)) in continuous mode. A maximum hydrogen production rate of 1300mLd(-1) was achieved. A back propagation neural network (BPNN) model with network topology of 4-20-1 using Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm was developed and validated. A total of 231 data points were studied to examine the performance of the HUASB reactor in acclimatisation and operation phase. The statistical qualities of BPNN models were significant due to the high correlation coefficient, R(2), and lower mean absolute error (MAE) between experimental and simulated data. From the results, it was concluded that BPNN modelling could be applied in HUASB reactor for predicting the biodegradation and biohydrogen production using distillery wastewater.

  14. Effect of ammonium nitrogen concentration on the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria community in a membrane bioreactor for the treatment of anaerobically digested swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sui, Qianwen; Liu, Chong; Dong, Hongmin; Zhu, Zhiping

    2014-09-01

    A membrane bioreactor (MBR) was developed for the treatment of anaerobically digested swine wastewater and to investigate the effect of ammonium nitrogen concentration on biological nitrogen removal and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) community structures. The MBR achieved a high NH4(+)-N removal efficiency of 0.08 kgNMLSS(-1)d(-1) and removed 95% of the influent NH4(+)-N. The TN removal rate was highest of 82.62% at COD/TN and BOD5/TN ratios of 8.76 ± 0.30 and 3.02 ± 0.09, respectively. With the decrease in ammonium nitrogen concentrations, the diversity of the AOB community declined and showed a simple pattern of DGGE. However, the AOB population size remained high, with abundance of 10(7)-10(9) copies mL(-1). With the decrease of ammonium nitrogen concentrations, Nitrosomonas eutropha gradually disappeared, whereas Nitrosomonas sp. OZK11 showed constant adaptability to survive during each treatment stage. The selective effect of ammonium concentration on AOB species could be due to the affinity for NH4(+)-N. In this study, the changes of ammonium nitrogen concentrations in digested swine wastewater were found to have selective effects on the composition of AOB community, and biological nitrogen removal was improved by optimising the influencing parameters.

  15. Impact of ozone pre-treatment on the performance of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket treating pre-treated grain distillery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Robertson, L; Britz, T J; Sigge, G O

    2014-01-01

    Two 2 L laboratory-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors were operated for 277 days. The substrate of the control reactor (Rc) contained grain distillery wastewater (GDWW) that had undergone coagulant pre-treatment, and the substrate of the second UASB reactor consisted of GDWW that had undergone coagulant pre-treatment and ozone pre-treatment (Ro). Both reactors treated pre-treated GDWW successfully at ca. 9 kgCOD m(-3) d(-1). Chemical oxygen demand (COD) reductions of ca. 96% for Rc and 93% for Ro were achieved. Fats, oils and grease (FOG) reductions (%) showed variations throughout the study, and reductions of ca. 88 and 92% were achieved for Rc and Ro, respectively. Rc produced more biogas, and the methane percentage was similar in both reactors. UASB granule washout in Rc suggested possible toxicity of unsaturated fatty acids present in non-ozonated substrate. The feasibility of FOG removal was demonstrated as both reactors successfully treated pre-treated GDWW. Better results were obtained for Ro effluent during post-ozonation. The ozone pre-treatment possibly led to easier degradable wastewater, and better results could potentially be obtained when other post-treatment steps are applied. Ozone pre-treatment did not, however, show an added benefit in the reactor performance results.

  16. Evaluation of an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor containing diatomite and maifanite for the improved treatment of petroleum wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunmao; Liang, Jiahao; Yoza, Brandon A; Li, Qing X; Zhan, Yali; Wang, Qinghong

    2017-11-01

    Novel diatomite (R1) and maifanite (R2) were utilized as support materials in an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor for the treatment of recalcitrant petroleum wastewater. At high organic loadings (11kg-COD/m(3)·d), these materials were efficient at reducing COD (92.7% and 93.0%) in comparison with controls (R0) (88.4%). Higher percentages of large granular sludge (0.6mm or larger) were observed for R1 (30.3%) and R2 (24.6%) compared with controls (22.6%). The larger portion of granular sludge provided a favorable habitat that resulted in greater microorganism diversity. Increased filamentous bacterial communities are believed to have promoted granular sludge formation promoting a conductive environment for stimulation methanogenic Archaea. These communities had enhanced pH tolerance and produced more methane. This study illustrates a new potential use of diatomite and maifanite as support materials in UASB reactors for increased efficiency when treating refractory wastewaters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biohydrogen production from chemical wastewater treatment in biofilm configured reactor operated in periodic discontinuous batch mode by selectively enriched anaerobic mixed consortia.

    PubMed

    Venkata Mohan, S; Vijaya Bhaskar, Y; Sarma, P N

    2007-06-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H(2)) production with simultaneous wastewater treatment was studied in biofilm configured periodic discontinuous/sequencing batch reactor using chemical wastewater as substrate. Anaerobic mixed consortia was sequentially pretreated with repeated heat-shock (100 degrees C; 2 h) and acid (pH-3.0; 24 h) treatment procedures to selectively enrich the H(2) producing mixed consortia prior to inoculation of the reactor. The bioreactor was operated at mesophilic (room) temperature (28+/-2 degrees C) under acidophilic conditions with a total cycle period of 24 h consisting of FILL (15 min), REACT (23 h), SETTLE (30 min) and DECANT (15 min) phases. Reactor was initially operated with synthetic wastewater (SW) at OLR of 4.8 kg COD/m(3)-day and subsequently operated using composite chemical wastewater (CW) at OLR of 5.6 kg COD/m(3)-day by adjusting pH to 6.0 prior to feeding to inhibit the methanogenic activity. H(2) evolution rate differed significantly with the nature of wastewater used as substrate [SW--volumetric H(2) production rate--12.89 mmol H(2)/m(3)-min and specific H(2) production rate--0.0084 mmol H(2)/min-g COD(L) (0.026 mmol H(2)/min-g COD(R)); CW--volumetric H(2) production rate--6.076 mmol H(2)/m(3)-min and specific H(2) production rate--0.0089 mmol H(2)/min-g COD(L) (0.033 mmol H(2)/min-g COD(R))]. Relatively rapid progress towards higher H(2) yield (2 h) was observed with SW compared to the CW (10 h). Substrate (COD) reduction of 32.4% (substrate degradation rate (SDR)--1.55 kg COD/m(3)-day) and 26.7% (SDR-1.49 kg COD/m(3)-day) was observed with SW and CW, respectively. The system showed rapid stabilization tendency (SW--37 days; CW--40 days) with respect to H(2) generation and COD reduction. H(2) evolution showed relatively good correlation with VFA concentration in the case of SW (R(2)-0.961) compared to CW (R(2)-0.912). A surge in pH values from 5.87 to 4.23 (SW) and 5.93 to 4.62 (CW) was observed during the cycle operation. Integration

  18. Modeling the performance of "up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket" reactor based wastewater treatment plant using linear and nonlinear approaches--a case study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kunwar P; Basant, Nikita; Malik, Amrita; Jain, Gunja

    2010-01-18

    The paper describes linear and nonlinear modeling of the wastewater data for the performance evaluation of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor based wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Partial least squares regression (PLSR), multivariate polynomial regression (MPR) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) modeling methods were applied to predict the levels of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the UASB reactor effluents using four input variables measured weekly in the influent wastewater during the peak (morning and evening) and non-peak (noon) hours over a period of 48 weeks. The performance of the models was assessed through the root mean squared error (RMSE), relative error of prediction in percentage (REP), the bias, the standard error of prediction (SEP), the coefficient of determination (R(2)), the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (E(f)), and the accuracy factor (A(f)), computed from the measured and model predicted values of the dependent variables (BOD, COD) in the WWTP effluents. Goodness of the model fit to the data was also evaluated through the relationship between the residuals and the model predicted values of BOD and COD. Although, the model predicted values of BOD and COD by all the three modeling approaches (PLSR, MPR, ANN) were in good agreement with their respective measured values in the WWTP effluents, the nonlinear models (MPR, ANNs) performed relatively better than the linear ones. These models can be used as a tool for the performance evaluation of the WWTPs. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Improving biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with a thermal dried mixture of food waste, cheese whey and olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Maragkaki, A E; Vasileiadis, I; Fountoulakis, M; Kyriakou, A; Lasaridi, K; Manios, T

    2017-08-11

    Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and other organic wastes at a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is a promising method for both energy and material recovery. However, transportation and storage of wastes to WWTP may be the bottleneck for the successful implementation of this technology. In case of wet wastes and wastewater it is possible to reduce their volume and as a result the transportation and storage cost by using a drying process. During this study, the optimization of biogas production from sewage sludge (SS) was attempted by co-digesting with a dried mixture of food waste, cheese whey and olive mill wastewater (FCO). A series of laboratory experiments were performed in continuously-operating reactors at 37°C, fed with thermal dried mixtures of FCO at concentrations of 3%, 5% and 7%. The overall process was designed with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24days. FCO addition can boost biogas yields if the mixture exceeds 3% (v/v) concentration in the feed. Any further increase of 5% FCO causes a small increase in biogas production. The reactor treating the sewage sludge produced 287ml CH4/Lreactor/d before the addition of FCO and 815ml CH4/Lreactor/d (5% v/v in the feed). The extra FCO-COD added (7% FCO v/v) to the feed did not have a negative effect on reactor performance, but seemed to have the same results. In all cases, the estimated biodegradability of mixtures was over 80%, while the VS removal was 22% for the maximum biomethane production (5% v/v). Moreover, co-digestion improved biogas production by 1.2-2.7 times. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Continuous micro-current stimulation to upgrade methanolic wastewater biodegradation and biomethane recovery in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Guangyin; Lu, Xueqin; Kobayashi, Takuro; Su, Lianghu; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Bakonyi, Péter; He, Yan; Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Nemestóthy, Nándor; Xu, Kaiqin; Zhao, Youcai

    2017-04-05

    The dispersion of granules in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor represents a critical technical issue in methanolic wastewater treatment. In this study, the potentials of coupling a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) into an UASB reactor for improving methanolic wastewater biodegradation, long-term process stability and biomethane recovery were evaluated. The results indicated that coupling a MEC system was capable of improving the overall performance of UASB reactor for methanolic wastewater treatment. The combined system maintained the comparatively higher methane yield and COD removal efficiency over the single UASB process through the entire process, with the methane production at the steady-state conditions approaching 1504.7 ± 92.2 mL-CH4 L(-1)-reactor d(-1), around 10.1% higher than the control UASB (i.e. 1366.4 ± 71.0 mL-CH4 L(-1)-reactor d(-1)). The further characterizations verified that the input of external power source could stimulate the metabolic activity of microbes and reinforced the EPS secretion. The produced EPS interacted with Fe(2+/3+) liberated during anodic corrosion of iron electrode to create a gel-like three-dimensional [-Fe-EPS-]n matrix, which promoted cell-cell cohesion and maintained the structural integrity of granules. Further observations via SEM and FISH analysis demonstrated that the use of bioelectrochemical stimulation promoted the growth and proliferation of microorganisms, which diversified the degradation routes of methanol, convert the wasted CO2 into methane and accordingly increased the process stability and methane productivity.

  1. Psychrophilic (6--15 {degree}C) high-rate anaerobic treatment of malting wastewater in a two-module expanded granular sludge bed system

    SciTech Connect

    Rebac, S.; Lier, J.B. van; Lens, P.; Cappellen, J. van; Vermeulen, M.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lettinga, G.; Dekkers, F.; Swinkels, K.T.M.

    1998-11-01

    Psychrophilic (6--15 C) anaerobic treatment of malting wastewater was investigated. A two-module expanded granular sludge bed reactor system with a total volume of 140 dm{sup 3} was used to treat malting wastewater having a soluble and total chemical oxygen demand (COD) between 233 and 1778 mg dm{sup {minus}3} and between 317 and 4422 mg dm{sup {minus}3}, respectively. The removal efficiencies at 6 C were 47 and 71% of the soluble and volatile fatty acids (VFA) COD, at organic loading rates (OLR) ranging between 3.3 and 5.8 kg of COD m{sup {minus}3} day{sup {minus}1}. The removal efficiencies at 10--15 C were 67--78 and 90--96% of the soluble and VFA COD at an OLR between 2.8 and 12.3 kg of COD m{sup {minus}3} day{sup {minus}1}. The specific methanogenic activity of the sludge present in each module increased 2--3-fold during system operation for 400 days. The relatively high concentration of suspended solids in the influent (25% of the total COD) caused a deterioration of the sludge bed in the first reactor module. This was aggravated by excessive growth of acidifying biomass, which persisted in the first module sludge bed and resulted in granular sludge flotation. However, the second module could accommodate the increased OLR, this providing a very high effluent quality (soluble COD < 200 mg dm{sup {minus}3}) of the total system. The stability of module 1 concerning suspended solids could be restored by presettling the wastewater.

  2. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF FUEL CELL OPERATION ON ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS AT THE YONKERS, NY, WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes the results of a 2-year field test to assess the performance of a specially modified commercial phosphoric acid 200 kW fuel cell power plant to recover energy from anaerobic digester gas (ADG) which has been cleansed of contaminants (sulfur and halide compoun...

  3. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF FUEL CELL OPERATION ON ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS AT THE YONKERS, NY, WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper summarizes the results of a 2-year field test to assess the performance of a specially modified commercial phosphoric acid 200 kW fuel cell power plant to recover energy from anaerobic digester gas (ADG) which has been cleansed of contaminants (sulfur and halide compoun...

  4. Transformation of Four Silver/Silver Chloride Nanoparticles during Anaerobic Treatment of Wastewater and Post-processing of Sewage Sludge

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing use of silver (Ag) nanoparticles [containing either elemental Ag (Ag-NPs) or AgCl (AgCl-NPs)] in commercial products such as textiles will most likely result in these materials reaching wastewater treatment plants. Previous studies indicate that a conversion of Ag-...

  5. Seasonal variation in heat fluxes, predicted emissions of malodorants, and wastewater quality of an anaerobic swine waste lagoon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The concentrations of p-cresol above a wastewater lagoon were modeled from February through June based on equations developed in a previous study. Using this model, in which p-cresol concentrations were calculated based on lagoon evaporation and net available radiation at the lagoon surface, predic...

  6. Transformation of Four Silver/Silver Chloride Nanoparticles during Anaerobic Treatment of Wastewater and Post-processing of Sewage Sludge

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increasing use of silver (Ag) nanoparticles [containing either elemental Ag (Ag-NPs) or AgCl (AgCl-NPs)] in commercial products such as textiles will most likely result in these materials reaching wastewater treatment plants. Previous studies indicate that a conversion of Ag-...

  7. Analysis of the methodology to determine anaerobic toxicity: evaluation of main compounds present in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs).

    PubMed

    Urra, J; Poirrier, P; Segovia, J; Lesty, Y; Chamy, R

    2008-01-01

    The influence of the concentration of biomass on the level of inhibition and anaerobic degradation kinetics in batch systems was studied with toxic compounds that can generate destabilization in the operation of sludge anaerobic digesters. The compounds were grouped in four families; long chain fatty acids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzene sulphonates and organic acids. For the organic acids, there is no effect due to the biomass concentration variation, therefore it is a competitive inhibition; but that doesn't happen with the remaining compounds, where there is a dependence on the complexity of their structure, becoming a non-competitive inhibition. In addition, it was observed that the degradation kinetics is affected, whether diminishing the methane production (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, linear alkylbenzene sulphonates, organics acids) or increasing the initial latency time (long chain fatty acids) without this becoming an obstacle to obtain the maximum methane productions for the latter ones.

  8. Reduction of greenhouse gases emissions during anoxic wastewater treatment by strengthening nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ru; Hu, Zhen; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Hao; Jiang, Liping; Ru, Dongyun

    2017-03-20

    Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) is a recently discovered process performed by NC10 phylum, which plays an important role in greenhouse gases (GHG) reduction. In this study, co-existence of n-damo bacteria and methanogens was successfully achieved by using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Reactor with inorganic carbon source (CO2/H2) showed the highest abundance of n-damo bacteria and the highest n-damo potential activity, resulted in its highest nitrogen removal rate. Significant reduction in GHG was obtained after introduction of n-damo process, especially for N2O. Furthermore, GHG emissions decreased with the increase of n-damo bacteria abundance. Community structure analysis found carbon source could influence the diversity of n-damo bacteria indirectly. And phylogenetic analysis showed that all the obtained sequences were assigned to group B, mainly due to in situ production and consumption of CH4.

  9. Long-term anaerobic digestion of microalgae grown in HRAP for wastewater treatment. Effect of microwave pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Passos, Fabiana; Hernández-Mariné, Mariona; García, Joan; Ferrer, Ivet

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes the anaerobic digestion of microalgal biomass from high rate ponds in continuous anaerobic reactors for biogas production. With hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 15 and 20 days, the volatile solids (VS) removal did not exceed 30%, and the methane production rate ranged between 0.12 and 0.14 L CH4/L day. To improve process performance, microwave irradiation at 900 W for 3 min (specific energy ∼70,000 kJ/kg VS) was applied as a pretreatment step. The VS removal increased to 40 and 45% at 15 and 20 days HRT, respectively. Consequently, the methane production rate increased to 0.16 and 0.20 L CH4/L day at 15 and 20 days HRT, respectively. Microscopic analysis confirmed cell wall damage, although generally without lysis, after irradiating microalgal biomass. However, the energy consumption was much higher than the extra energy production of the process. Indeed, microalgal biomass should not only be thickened but also dewatered if microwave irradiation was to be applied as a pretreatment to anaerobic digestion for biogas production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy recovery from wastewater treatment plants through sludge anaerobic digestion: effect of low-organic-content sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuyao; Li, Huan

    2017-09-18

    During anaerobic digestion, low-organic-content sludge sometimes is used as feedstock, resulting in deteriorated digestion performance. The operational experience of conventional anaerobic digestion cannot be applied to this situation. To investigate the feature of low-organic-content sludge digestion and explain its intrinsic mechanism, batch experiments were conducted using designed feedstock having volatile solids (VS) contents that were 30-64% of total solids (TS). The results showed that the accumulative biogas yield declined proportionally from 173.7 to 64.8 ml/g VS added and organic removal rate decreased from 34.8 to 11.8% with decreasing VS/TS in the substrate. The oligotrophic environment resulting from low-organic-content substrates led to decreased microbial activity and a switch from butyric fermentation to propionic fermentation. A first-order model described the biogas production from the batch experiments very well, and the degradation coefficient decreased from 0.159 to 0.069 day(-1), exhibiting a positive relation with organic content in substrate. The results observed here corroborated with data from published literature on anaerobic digestion of low-organic-content sludge and showed that it may not be feasible to recover energy from sludge with an organic content lower than 50% through mono digestion.

  11. Microbial community analysis in a combined anaerobic and aerobic digestion system for treatment of cellulosic ethanol production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shan, Lili; Yu, Yanling; Zhu, Zebing; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Haiman; Ambuchi, John J; Feng, Yujie

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the microbial diversity established in a combined system composed of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor, and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for treatment of cellulosic ethanol production wastewater. Excellent wastewater treatment performance was obtained in the combined system, which showed a high chemical oxygen demand removal efficiency of 95.8% and completely eliminated most complex organics revealed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed differences in the microbial community structures of the three reactors. Further identification of the microbial populations suggested that the presence of Lactobacillus and Prevotella in CSTR played an active role in the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The most diverse microorganisms with analogous distribution patterns of different layers were observed in the EGSB reactor, and bacteria affiliated with Firmicutes, Synergistetes, and Thermotogae were associated with production of acetate and carbon dioxide/hydrogen, while all acetoclastic methanogens identified belonged to Methanosaetaceae. Overall, microorganisms associated with the ability to degrade cellulose, hemicellulose, and other biomass-derived organic carbons were observed in the combined system. The results presented herein will facilitate the development of an improved cellulosic ethanol production wastewater treatment system.

  12. Examination of Bacterial Characteristics of Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors in Three Pilot-Scale Plants for Treating Low-Strength Wastewater by Application of the Colony-Forming-Curve Analysis Method

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Naoaki; Tokiwa, Yutaka; Tanaka, Yasuo; Fujiki, Kiichi; Taroda, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Kiyoshi

    1992-01-01

    Characteristic sludge ecosystems arising in anaerobic membrane bioreactors of three pilot-scale plants treating low-strength (less than 1 g of biological oxygen demand per liter) sewage or soybean-processing wastewater were examined by analysis of the colony-forming-curves (CFC) obtained by counting colonies at suitable intervals. The wastewaters, containing high amounts of suspended solids (SS) (SS/chemical oxygen demand ratio, 0.51 to 0.80), were treated by using two types of bioreactors: (i) a hydrolyzation reactor for solubilization and acidification of SS in wastewater and (ii) a methane fermentation reactor for producing methane. The colony counts for the two sewage treatment plants continued to increase even after 3 weeks of incubation, whereas those for soybean-processing wastewater reached an approximately constant level within 3 weeks of incubation. The CFCs were analyzed by correlating the rate of colony appearance on roll tubes with the physiological types of bacteria present in the bioreactors. It was found that there were large numbers of slow-colony-forming anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactors and that the viable populations consisted of a few groups with different growth rates. It is considered that the slow-growing colonies appearing after 10 days of incubation were the dominant microflora in the sewage treated by hydrolyzation reactors. In particular, highly concentrated sludge (30.0