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Sample records for 15n labeled proteins

  1. Stereospecific assignments of glycine in proteins by stereospecific deuteration and {sup 15}N labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, A.P.; Curley, R.W. Jr.; Panigot, M.J.; Fesik, S.W.

    1994-12-01

    Stereospecific assignments are important for accurately determining the three-dimensional structures of proteins through the use of multidimensional NMR techniques. It is especially important to stereospecifically assign the glycine {alpha}-protons in proteins because of the potential for different backbone conformations of this residue. These stereospecific assignments are critical for interpreting the {sup 3}J{sub NH,{alpha}H} coupling constants and NOEs involving the glycine {alpha}-protons that determine the conformation of this part of the protein. However, it is often difficult to unambiguously obtain the stereospecific assignments for glycine residues by using only NOE data. In this poster, we present a method for unambiguous, stereospecific assignment of the {alpha}-protons of glycine residues. This method involves synthesis of stereo-specifically deuterated and {sup 15}N-labeled Gly using a slightly modified procedure originally described by Woodard and coworkers for the stereoselective deuteration of glycine. The stereospecifically deuterated and {sup 15}N-labeled Gy has been incorporated into recombinant proteins expressed in both bacterial systems (FKBP) and mammalian cells (u-PA). Two- and three-dimensional isotope-filtered and isotope-edited NMR experiments were used to obtain the stereospecific assignments of the glycine {alpha}-protons for these proteins.

  2. Ner protein of phage Mu: Assignments using {sup 13}C/{sup 15}N-labeled protein

    SciTech Connect

    Strzelecka, T.; Gronenborn, A.M.; Clore, G.M.

    1994-12-01

    The Ner protein is a small (74-amino acid) DNA-binding protein that regulates a switch between the lysogenic and lytic stages of phage Mu. It inhibits expression of the C repressor gene and down-regulates its own expression. Two-dimensional NMR experiments on uniformly {sup 15}N-labeled protein provided most of the backbone and some of the sidechain proton assignments. The secondary structure determination using two-dimensional NOESY experiments showed that Ner consists of five {alpha}-helices. However, because most of the sidechain protons could not be assigned, the full structure was not determined. Using uniformly {sup 13}C/{sup 15}N-labeled Ner and a set of three-dimensional experiments, we were able to assign all of the backbone and 98% of the sidechain protons. In particular, the CBCANH and CBCA(CO)NH experiments were used to sequentially assign the C{alpha} and C{beta} resonances; the HCCH-CTOCSY and HCCH-COSY were used to assign sidechain carbon and proton resonances.

  3. Metabolic labeling with stable isotope nitrogen (15N) to follow amino acid and protein turnover of three plastid proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The length of time that a protein remains available to perform its function is significantly influenced by its turnover rate. Knowing the turnover rate of proteins involved in different processes is important to determining how long a function might progress even when the stimulus has been removed and no further synthesis of the particular proteins occurs. In this article, we describe the use of 15N-metabolic labeling coupled to GC-MS to follow the turnover of free amino acids and LC-MS/MS to identify and LC-MS to follow the turnover of specific proteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Results To achieve the metabolic labeling, the growth medium was formulated with standard Tris acetate phosphate medium (TAP) in which14NH4Cl was replaced with 15NH415NO3 and (14NH4)6Mo7O24.4H2O was replaced with Na2MoO4.2H2O. This medium designated 15N-TAP allowed CC-125 algal cells to grow normally. Mass isotopic distribution revealed successful 15N incorporation into 13 amino acids with approximately 98% labeling efficiency. Tryptic digestion of the 55 kDa SDS-PAGE bands from 14N- and 15N-labeled crude algal protein extracts followed by LC-MS/MS resulted in the identification of 27 proteins. Of these, five displayed peptide sequence confidence levels greater than 95% and protein sequence coverage greater than 25%. These proteins were the RuBisCo large subunit, ATP synthase CF1 alpha and beta subunits, the mitochondrial protein (F1F0 ATP synthase) and the cytosolic protein (S-adenosyl homocysteine hydroxylase). These proteins were present in both labeled and unlabeled samples. Once the newly synthesized 15N-labeled free amino acids and proteins obtained maximum incorporation of the 15N-label, turnover rates were determined after transfer of cells into 14N-TAP medium. The t½ values were determined for the three plastid proteins (RuBisCo, ATP synthase CF1 alpha and beta) by following the reduction of the 15N-fractional abundance over time. Conclusion We describe a more

  4. Interresidue carbonyl-carbonyl polarization transfer experiments in uniformly 13C, 15N-labeled peptides and proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janik, Rafal; Ritz, Emily; Gravelle, Andrew; Shi, Lichi; Peng, Xiaohu; Ladizhansky, Vladimir

    2010-03-01

    In this work, we demonstrate that Homonuclear Rotary Resonance Recoupling (HORROR) can be used to reintroduce carbonyl-carbonyl interresidue dipolar interactions and to achieve efficient polarization transfer between carbonyl atoms in uniformly 13C, 15N-labeled peptides and proteins. We show that the HORROR condition is anisotropically broadened and overall shifted to higher radio frequency intensities because of the CSA effects. These effects are analyzed theoretically using Average Hamiltonian Theory. At spinning frequencies used in this study, 22 kHz, this broadening is experimentally found to be on the order of a kilohertz at a proton field of 600 MHz. To match HORROR condition over all powder orientations, variable amplitude radio frequency (RF) fields are required, and efficient direct transfers on the order of 20-30% can be straightforwardly established. Two- and three-dimensional chemical shift correlation experiments establishing long-range interresidue connectivities (e.g., (N[i]-CO[i - 2])) are demonstrated on the model peptide N-acetyl-valine-leucine, and on the third immunoglobulin binding domain of protein G. Possible future developments are discussed.

  5. Determining degradation and synthesis rates of arabidopsis proteins using the kinetics of progressive 15N labeling of two-dimensional gel-separated protein spots.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Nelson, Clark J; Solheim, Cory; Whelan, James; Millar, A Harvey

    2012-06-01

    The growth and development of plant tissues is associated with an ordered succession of cellular processes that are reflected in the appearance and disappearance of proteins. The control of the kinetics of protein turnover is central to how plants can rapidly and specifically alter protein abundance and thus molecular function in response to environmental or developmental cues. However, the processes of turnover are largely hidden during periods of apparent steady-state protein abundance, and even when proteins accumulate it is unclear whether enhanced synthesis or decreased degradation is responsible. We have used a (15)N labeling strategy with inorganic nitrogen sources coupled to a two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis of two-dimensional IEF/SDS-PAGE gel spots to define the rate of protein synthesis (K(S)) and degradation (K(D)) of Arabidopsis cell culture proteins. Through analysis of MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectra from 120 protein spots, we were able to quantify K(S) and K(D) for 84 proteins across six functional groups and observe over 65-fold variation in protein degradation rates. K(S) and K(D) correlate with functional roles of the proteins in the cell and the time in the cell culture cycle. This approach is based on progressive (15)N labeling that is innocuous for the plant cells and, because it can be used to target analysis of proteins through the use of specific gel spots, it has broad applicability.

  6. Determining Degradation and Synthesis Rates of Arabidopsis Proteins Using the Kinetics of Progressive 15N Labeling of Two-dimensional Gel-separated Protein Spots*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Nelson, Clark J.; Solheim, Cory; Whelan, James; Millar, A. Harvey

    2012-01-01

    The growth and development of plant tissues is associated with an ordered succession of cellular processes that are reflected in the appearance and disappearance of proteins. The control of the kinetics of protein turnover is central to how plants can rapidly and specifically alter protein abundance and thus molecular function in response to environmental or developmental cues. However, the processes of turnover are largely hidden during periods of apparent steady-state protein abundance, and even when proteins accumulate it is unclear whether enhanced synthesis or decreased degradation is responsible. We have used a 15N labeling strategy with inorganic nitrogen sources coupled to a two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analysis of two-dimensional IEF/SDS-PAGE gel spots to define the rate of protein synthesis (KS) and degradation (KD) of Arabidopsis cell culture proteins. Through analysis of MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectra from 120 protein spots, we were able to quantify KS and KD for 84 proteins across six functional groups and observe over 65-fold variation in protein degradation rates. KS and KD correlate with functional roles of the proteins in the cell and the time in the cell culture cycle. This approach is based on progressive 15N labeling that is innocuous for the plant cells and, because it can be used to target analysis of proteins through the use of specific gel spots, it has broad applicability. PMID:22215636

  7. Robust and low cost uniform (15)N-labeling of proteins expressed in Drosophila S2 cells and Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells for NMR applications.

    PubMed

    Meola, Annalisa; Deville, Célia; Jeffers, Scott A; Guardado-Calvo, Pablo; Vasiliauskaite, Ieva; Sizun, Christina; Girard-Blanc, Christine; Malosse, Christian; van Heijenoort, Carine; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Krey, Thomas; Guittet, Eric; Pêtres, Stéphane; Rey, Félix A; Bontems, François

    2014-10-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy is a powerful tool to study structural and functional properties of proteins, provided that they can be enriched in stable isotopes such as (15)N, (13)C and (2)H. This is usually easy and inexpensive when the proteins are expressed in Escherichiacoli, but many eukaryotic (human in particular) proteins cannot be produced this way. An alternative is to express them in insect cells. Labeled insect cell growth media are commercially available but at prohibitive prices, limiting the NMR studies to only a subset of biologically important proteins. Non-commercial solutions from academic institutions have been proposed, but none of them is really satisfying. We have developed a (15)N-labeling procedure based on the use of a commercial medium depleted of all amino acids and supplemented with a (15)N-labeled yeast autolysate for a total cost about five times lower than that of the currently available solutions. We have applied our procedure to the production of a non-polymerizable mutant of actin in Sf9 cells and of fragments of eukaryotic and viral membrane fusion proteins in S2 cells, which typically cannot be produced in E. coli, with production yields comparable to those obtained with standard commercial media. Our results support, in particular, the putative limits of a self-folding domain within a viral glycoprotein of unknown structure.

  8. Uniform {sup 15}N- and {sup 15}N/{sup 13}C-labeling of proteins in mammalian cells and solution structure of the amino terminal fragment of u-PA

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, A.P.; Petros, A.M.; Meadows, R.P.; Mazar, A.P.; Nettesheim, D.G.; Pederson, T.M.; Fesik, S.W.

    1994-12-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) is a 54-kDa glycoprotein that catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, a broad-specificity protease responsible for the degradation of fibrin clots and extracellular matrix components. The u-PA protein consists of three individual modules: a growth factor domain (GFD), a kringle, and a serine protease domain. The amino terminal fragment (ATF) includes the GFD-responsible for u-PA binding to its receptor-and the kringle domains. This protein was expressed and uniformly {sup 15}N-and {sup 15}N/{sup 13}C-labeled in mammalian cells by methods that will be described. In addition, we present the three-dimensional structure of ATF that was derived from 1299 NOE-derived distance restraints along with the {phi} angle and hydrogen bonding restraints. Although the individual domains in the structures were highly converged, the two domains are structurally independent. The overall structures of the individual domains are very similar to the structures of homologous proteins. However, important structural differences between the growth factor domain of u-PA and other homologous proteins were observed in the region that has been implicated in binding the urokinase receptor. These results may explain, in part, why other growth factors show no appreciable affinity for the urokinase receptor.

  9. HCN, a triple-resonance NMR technique for selective observation of histidine and tryptophan side chains in 13C/15N-labeled proteins.

    PubMed

    Sudmeier, J L; Ash, E L; Günther, U L; Luo, X; Bullock, P A; Bachovchin, W W

    1996-12-01

    HCN, a new 3D NMR technique for stepwise coherence transfer from 1H to 13C to 15N and reverse through direct spin couplings 1JCH and 1JCN, is presented as a method for detection and assignment of histidine and tryptophan side-chain 1H, 13C, and 15N resonances in uniformly 13C/15N-labeled proteins. Product-operator calculations of cross-peak volumes vs adjustable delay tau 3 were employed for determination of optimal tau 3. For the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K SH3 domain, MW = 9.6 kD) at pH 6, H(C)N, the 1H/15N projection, produced observable cross peaks within 20 min. and was completely selective for the single tryptophan and single histidine. The 3D HCN experiment yielded well-defined cross peaks in 20 h for the 13C/15N-labeled origin-specific DNA binding domain from simian virus 40 T-antigen (T-ag-OBD131-259, MW = 15.4 kD) at pH 5.5. Resonances from all six histidines in T-ag-OBD were observed, and 11 of the 12 1H and 13C chemical shifts and 10 of the 12 15N chemical shifts were determined. The 13C dimension proved essential in assignment of the multiply overlapping 1H and 15N resonances. From the spectra recorded at a single pH, three of the imidazoles were essentially neutral and the other three were partially protonated (22-37%). HCN yielded strong cross peaks after 18 h on a 2.0 mM sample of phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF)-inhibited alpha-lytic protease (MW = 19.8 kD) at pH 4.4. No spectra have been obtained, however, of native or boronic acid-inhibited alpha-lytic protease after 18 h at various temperatures ranging from 5 to 55 degrees C, probably due to efficient relaxation of active-site imidazole 1H and/or 15N nuclei.

  10. HCN, A Triple-Resonance NMR Technique for Selective Observation of Histidine and Tryptophan Side Chains in 13C/ 15N-Labeled Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudmeier, James L.; Ash, Elissa L.; Günther, Ulrich L.; Luo, Xuelian; Bullock, Peter A.; Bachovchin, William W.

    1996-12-01

    HCN, a new 3D NMR technique for stepwise coherence transfer from1H to13C to15N and reverse through direct spin couplings1JCHand1JCN, is presented as a method for detection and assignment of histidine and tryptophan side-chain1H,13C, and15N resonances in uniformly13C/15N-labeled proteins. Product-operator calculations of cross-peak volumes vs adjustable delay τ3were employed for determination of optimal τ3. For the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K SH3 domain, MW = 9.6 kD) at pH 6, H(C)N, the1H/15N projection, produced observable cross peaks within 20 min. and was completely selective for the single tryptophan and single histidine. The 3D HCN experiment yielded well-defined cross peaks in 20 h for the13C/15N-labeled origin-specific DNA binding domain from simian virus 40 T-antigen (T-ag-OBD131-259, MW = 15.4 kD) at pH 5.5. Resonances from all six histidines in T-ag-OBD were observed, and 11 of the 121H and13C chemical shifts and 10 of the 1215N chemical shifts were determined. The13C dimension proved essential in assignment of the multiply overlapping1H and15N resonances. From the spectra recorded at a single pH, three of the imidazoles were essentially neutral and the other three were partially protonated (22-37%). HCN yielded strong cross peaks after 18 h on a 2.0 mMsample of phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF)-inhibited α-lytic protease (MW = 19.8 kD) at pH 4.4. No spectra have been obtained, however, of native or boronic acid-inhibited α-lytic protease after 18 h at various temperatures ranging from 5 to 55°C, probably due to efficient relaxation of active-site imidazole1H and/or15N nuclei.

  11. Efficient Measurement of 3JN,Cγ and 3JC‧,Cγ Coupling Constants of Aromatic Residues in 13C, 15N-Labeled Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhr, Frank; Rüterjans, Heinz

    2000-09-01

    An NMR pulse sequence is proposed for the simultaneous determination of side chain χ1 torsion-angle related 3JN,Cγ and 3JC‧,Cγ couplings in aromatic amino acid spin systems. The method is of the quantitative J correlation type and takes advantage of attenuated 15N and 1H transverse relaxation by means of the TROSY principle. Unlike previously developed schemes for the measurement of either of the two coupling types, spectra contain internal reference peaks that are usually recorded in separate experiments. Therefore, the desired information is extracted from a single rather than four data sets. The new method is demonstrated with uniformly 13C/15N labeled Desulfovibrio vulgaris flavodoxin, which contains 14 aromatic out of 147 total amino acid residues.

  12. Optimization of amino acid type-specific 13C and 15N labeling for the backbone assignment of membrane proteins by solution- and solid-state NMR with the UPLABEL algorithm.

    PubMed

    Hefke, Frederik; Bagaria, Anurag; Reckel, Sina; Ullrich, Sandra Johanna; Dötsch, Volker; Glaubitz, Clemens; Güntert, Peter

    2011-02-01

    We present a computational method for finding optimal labeling patterns for the backbone assignment of membrane proteins and other large proteins that cannot be assigned by conventional strategies. Following the approach of Kainosho and Tsuji (Biochemistry 21:6273-6279 (1982)), types of amino acids are labeled with (13)C or/and (15)N such that cross peaks between (13)CO(i - 1) and (15)NH(i) result only for pairs of sequentially adjacent amino acids of which the first is labeled with (13)C and the second with (15)N. In this way, unambiguous sequence-specific assignments can be obtained for unique pairs of amino acids that occur exactly once in the sequence of the protein. To be practical, it is crucial to limit the number of differently labeled protein samples that have to be prepared while obtaining an optimal extent of labeled unique amino acid pairs. Our computer algorithm UPLABEL for optimal unique pair labeling, implemented in the program CYANA and in a standalone program, and also available through a web portal, uses combinatorial optimization to find for a given amino acid sequence labeling patterns that maximize the number of unique pair assignments with a minimal number of differently labeled protein samples. Various auxiliary conditions, including labeled amino acid availability and price, previously known partial assignments, and sequence regions of particular interest can be taken into account when determining optimal amino acid type-specific labeling patterns. The method is illustrated for the assignment of the human G-protein coupled receptor bradykinin B2 (B(2)R) and applied as a starting point for the backbone assignment of the membrane protein proteorhodopsin.

  13. Synthesis and NMR of {sup 15}N-labeled DNA fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.A.

    1994-12-01

    DNA fragments labeled with {sup 15}N at the ring nitrogens and at the exocyclic amino groups can be used to obtain novel insight into interactions such as base pairing, hydration, drug binding, and protein binding. A number of synthetic routes to {sup 15}N-labeled pyrimidine nucleosides, purines, and purine nucleosides have been reported. Moreover, many of these labeled bases or monomers have been incorporated into nucleic acids, either by chemical synthesis or by biosynthetic procedures. The focus of this chapter will be on the preparation of {sup 15}N-labeled purine 2{prime}-deoxynucleosides, their incorporation into DNA fragments by chemical synthesis, and the results of NMR studies using these labeled DNA fragments.

  14. Affordable uniform isotope labeling with (2)H, (13)C and (15)N in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Sitarska, Agnieszka; Skora, Lukasz; Klopp, Julia; Roest, Susan; Fernández, César; Shrestha, Binesh; Gossert, Alvar D

    2015-06-01

    For a wide range of proteins of high interest, the major obstacle for NMR studies is the lack of an affordable eukaryotic expression system for isotope labeling. Here, a simple and affordable protocol is presented to produce uniform labeled proteins in the most prevalent eukaryotic expression system for structural biology, namely Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells. Incorporation levels of 80% can be achieved for (15)N and (13)C with yields comparable to expression in full media. For (2)H,(15)N and (2)H,(13)C,(15)N labeling, incorporation is only slightly lower with 75 and 73%, respectively, and yields are typically twofold reduced. The media were optimized for isotope incorporation, reproducibility, simplicity and cost. High isotope incorporation levels for all labeling patterns are achieved by using labeled algal amino acid extracts and exploiting well-known biochemical pathways. The final formulation consists of just five commercially available components, at costs 12-fold lower than labeling media from vendors. The approach was applied to several cytosolic and secreted target proteins.

  15. The “Speedy” Synthesis of Atom-Specific 15N Imino/Amido-Labeled RNA

    PubMed Central

    Kreutz, Christoph; Micura, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous reports on the synthesis of atom-specific 15N-labeled nucleosides exist, fast and facile access to the corresponding phosphoramidites for RNA solid-phase synthesis is still lacking. This situation represents a severe bottleneck for NMR spectroscopic investigations on functional RNAs. Here, we present optimized procedures to speed up the synthesis of 15N(1) adenosine and 15N(1) guanosine amidites, which are the much needed counterparts of the more straightforward-to-achieve 15N(3) uridine and 15N(3) cytidine amidites in order to tap full potential of 1H/15N/15N-COSY experiments for directly monitoring individual Watson–Crick base pairs in RNA. Demonstrated for two preQ1 riboswitch systems, we exemplify a versatile concept for individual base-pair labeling in the analysis of conformationally flexible RNAs when competing structures and conformational dynamics are encountered. PMID:26237536

  16. Preparation of 13C/15N-labeled oligomers using the polymerase chain reaction

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Xian; Gupta, Goutam; Bradbury, E. Morton

    2001-01-01

    Preparation of .sup.13 C/.sup.15 N-labeled DNA oligomers using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A PCR based method for uniform (.sup.13 C/.sup.15 N)-labeling of DNA duplexes is described. Multiple copies of a blunt-ended duplex are cloned into a plasmid, each copy containing the sequence of interest and restriction Hinc II sequences at both the 5' and 3' ends. PCR using bi-directional primers and uniformly .sup.13 C/.sup.15 N-labeled dNTP precursors generates labeled DNA duplexes containing multiple copies of the sequence of interest. Twenty-four cycles of PCR, followed by restriction and purification, gave the uniformly .sup.13 C/.sup.15 N-labeled duplex sequence with a 30% yield. Such labeled duplexes find significant applications in multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  17. Suppression of isotope scrambling in cell-free protein synthesis by broadband inhibition of PLP enymes for selective 15N-labelling and production of perdeuterated proteins in H2O.

    PubMed

    Su, Xun-Cheng; Loh, Choy-Theng; Qi, Ruhu; Otting, Gottfried

    2011-05-01

    Selectively isotope labelled protein samples can be prepared in vivo or in vitro from selectively labelled amino acids but, in many cases, metabolic conversions between different amino acids result in isotope scrambling. The best results are obtained by cell-free protein synthesis, where metabolic enzymes are generally less active, but isotope scrambling can never be suppressed completely. We show that reduction of E. coli S30 extracts with NaBH(4) presents a simple and inexpensive way to achieve cleaner selective isotope labelling in cell-free protein synthesis reactions. The purpose of the NaBH(4) is to inactivate all pyridoxal-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzymes by irreversible reduction of the Schiff bases formed between PLP and lysine side chains of the enzymes or amino groups of free amino acids. The reduced S30 extracts retain their activity of protein synthesis, can be stored as well as conventional S30 extracts and effectively suppress conversions between different amino acids. In addition, inactivation of PLP-dependent enzymes greatly stabilizes hydrogens bound to α-carbons against exchange with water, minimizing the loss of α-deuterons during cell-free production of proteins from perdeuterated amino acids in H(2)O solution. This allows the production of highly perdeuterated proteins that contain protons at all exchangeable positions, without having to back-exchange labile deuterons for protons as required for proteins that have been synthesized in D(2)O.

  18. Quantitative analysis of bacterial and mammalian proteomes using a combination of cysteine affinity tags and 15N-metabolic labeling.

    PubMed

    Conrads, T P; Alving, K; Veenstra, T D; Belov, M E; Anderson, G A; Anderson, D J; Lipton, M S; Pasa-Tolić, L; Udseth, H R; Chrisler, W B; Thrall, B D; Smith, R D

    2001-05-01

    We describe the combined use of 15N-metabolic labeling and a cysteine-reactive biotin affinity tag to isolate and quantitate cysteine-containing polypeptides (Cys-polypeptides) from Deinococcus radiodurans as well as from mouse B16 melanoma cells. D. radiodurans were cultured in both natural isotopic abundance and 15N-enriched media. Equal numbers of cells from both cultures were combined and the soluble proteins extracted. This mixture of isotopically distinct proteins was derivatized using a commercially available cysteine-reactive reagent that contains a biotin group. Following trypsin digestion, the resulting modified peptides were isolated using immobilized avidin. The mixture was analyzed by capillary reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) online with ion trap mass spectrometry (MS) as well as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS. The resulting spectra contain numerous pairs of Cyspolypeptides whose mass difference corresponds to the number of nitrogen atoms present in each of the peptides. Designation of Cys-polypeptide pairs is also facilitated by the distinctive isotopic distribution of the 15N-labeled peptides versus their 14N-labeled counterparts. Studies with mouse B16 cells maintained in culture allowed the observation of hundreds of isotopically distinct pairs of peptides by LC-FTICR analysis. The ratios of the areas of the pairs of isotopically distinct peptides showed the expected 1:1 labeling of the 14N and 15N versions of each peptide. An additional benefit from the present strategy is that the 15N-labeled peptides do not display significant isotope-dependent chromatographic shifts from their 14N-labeled counterparts, therefore improving the precision for quantitating peptide abundances. The methodology presented offers an alternate, cost-effective strategy for conducting global, quantitative proteomic measurements.

  19. (15)N CSA tensors and (15)N-(1)H dipolar couplings of protein hydrophobic core residues investigated by static solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Vugmeyster, Liliya; Ostrovsky, Dmitry; Fu, Riqiang

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we assess the usefulness of static (15)N NMR techniques for the determination of the (15)N chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) tensor parameters and (15)N-(1)H dipolar splittings in powder protein samples. By using five single labeled samples of the villin headpiece subdomain protein in a hydrated lyophilized powder state, we determine the backbone (15)N CSA tensors at two temperatures, 22 and -35 °C, in order to get a snapshot of the variability across the residues and as a function of temperature. All sites probed belonged to the hydrophobic core and most of them were part of α-helical regions. The values of the anisotropy (which include the effect of the dynamics) varied between 130 and 156 ppm at 22 °C, while the values of the asymmetry were in the 0.32-0.082 range. The Leu-75 and Leu-61 backbone sites exhibited high mobility based on the values of their temperature-dependent anisotropy parameters. Under the assumption that most differences stem from dynamics, we obtained the values of the motional order parameters for the (15)N backbone sites. While a simple one-dimensional line shape experiment was used for the determination of the (15)N CSA parameters, a more advanced approach based on the "magic sandwich" SAMMY pulse sequence (Nevzorov and Opella, 2003) was employed for the determination of the (15)N-(1)H dipolar patterns, which yielded estimates of the dipolar couplings. Accordingly, the motional order parameters for the dipolar interaction were obtained. It was found that the order parameters from the CSA and dipolar measurements are highly correlated, validating that the variability between the residues is governed by the differences in dynamics. The values of the parameters obtained in this work can serve as reference values for developing more advanced magic-angle spinning recoupling techniques for multiple labeled samples.

  20. Production of 15N-labeled α-amanitin in Galerina marginata

    PubMed Central

    DuBois, Brandon; Sgambelluri, R. Michael; Angelos, Evan R.; Li, Xuan; Holmes, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    α-Amanitin is the major causal constituent of deadly Amanita mushrooms that account for the majority of fatal mushroom poisonings worldwide. It is also an important biochemical tool for the study of its target, RNA polymerase II. The commercial supply of this bicyclic peptide comes directly from A. phalloides, the death cap mushroom, which is collected from its natural habitat. Isotopically labeled amanitin could be useful for clinical and forensic applications, but α-amanitin has not been chemically synthesized and A. phalloides cannot be cultured on artificial medium. Using Galerina marginata, an unrelated saprobic mushroom that grows and produces α-amanitin in culture, we describe a method for producing 15N-labeled α-amanitin using growth media containing 15N as sole nitrogen source. A key to success was preparing 15N-enriched yeast extract via a novel method designated “glass bead-assisted maturation.” In the presence of the labeled yeast extract and 15N-NH4Cl, α-amanitin was produced with >97% isotope enrichment. The labeled product was confirmed by HPLC, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and NMR. PMID:26100667

  1. Production of (15)N-labeled α-amanitin in Galerina marginata.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hong; DuBois, Brandon; Sgambelluri, R Michael; Angelos, Evan R; Li, Xuan; Holmes, Daniel; Walton, Jonathan D

    2015-09-01

    α-Amanitin is the major causal constituent of deadly Amanita mushrooms that account for the majority of fatal mushroom poisonings worldwide. It is also an important biochemical tool for the study of its target, RNA polymerase II. The commercial supply of this bicyclic peptide comes from Amanita phalloides, the death cap mushroom, which is collected from the wild. Isotopically labeled amanitin could be useful for clinical and forensic applications, but α-amanitin has not been chemically synthesized and A. phalloides cannot be cultured on artificial medium. Using Galerina marginata, an unrelated saprotrophic mushroom that grows and produces α-amanitin in culture, we describe a method for producing (15)N-labeled α-amanitin using growth media containing (15)N as sole nitrogen source. A key to success was preparing (15)N-enriched yeast extract via a novel method designated "glass bead-assisted maturation." In the presence of the labeled yeast extract and (15)N-NH4Cl, α-amanitin was produced with >97% isotope enrichment. The labeled product was confirmed by HPLC, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and NMR.

  2. Limitations in detection of 15N incorporation by mass spectrometry in protein-based stable isotope probing (protein-SIP).

    PubMed

    Taubert, Martin; von Bergen, Martin; Seifert, Jana

    2013-05-01

    The method of protein-based stable isotope probing (protein-SIP) has previously been shown to allow the modeling of carbon fluxes in microbial communities, thus tackling one of the key questions in microbial ecology. The method allows the analysis of stable isotope distribution in peptides, revealing metabolic activities of the species present in an ecosystem. Besides carbon, an application of protein-SIP with nitrogen is of interest for resolving the nitrogen fluxes in microbial communities. Thus, the sensitivity and reliability of a protein-SIP approach employing (15)N was analyzed. For this, cultivations of Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17483 with different ratios of (14)N/(15)N were performed, from 10 % down to 0.1 % (15)N. After incubation leading to complete labeling of biomass, proteins were extracted and separated by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis, followed by tryptic digest and UPLC Orbitrap MS/MS analysis. (15)N relative isotope abundance (RIA) was calculated based on isotopic patterns from identified peptides in mass spectra. Proteomics data have been deposited to ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000127. The distribution of (15)N RIA values among peptides was analyzed in samples with different (15)N amount, and potential causes for variations within individual samples of either technical or biological origin were investigated. Using a number of 50 peptides, significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in (15)N incorporation were found between samples of different (15)N RIA down to 0.1 %. The study demonstrates that protein-SIP using (15)N is sufficiently sensitive for quantitative investigation of microbial activity in nitrogen cycling processes.

  3. Compound-specific 15N analysis of amino acids in 15N tracer experiments provide an estimate of newly synthesised soil protein from inorganic and organic substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charteris, Alice; Michaelides, Katerina; Evershed, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Organic N concentrations far exceed those of inorganic N in most soils and despite much investigation, the composition and cycling of this complex pool of SOM remains poorly understood. A particular problem has been separating more recalcitrant soil organic N from that actively cycling through the soil system; an important consideration in N cycling studies and for the soil's nutrient supplying capacity. The use of 15N-labelled substrates as stable isotope tracers has contributed much to our understanding of the soil system, but the complexity and heterogeneity of soil organic N prevents thorough compound-specific 15N analyses of organic N compounds and makes it difficult to examine any 15N-labelled organic products in any detail. As a result, a significant proportion of previous work has either simply assumed that since the majority of soil N is organic, all of the 15N retained in the soil is organic N (e.g. Sebilo et al., 2013) or subtracted 15N-labelled inorganic compounds from bulk values (e.g. Pilbeam et al., 1997). While the latter approach is more accurate, these methods only provide an estimate of the bulk 15N value of an extremely complex and non-uniformly labelled organic pool. A more detailed approach has been to use microbial biomass extraction (Brookes et al., 1985) and subsequent N isotopic analysis to determine the 15N value of biomass-N, representing the fraction of 15N assimilated by microbes or the 15N cycling through the 'living' or 'active' portion of soil organic N. However, this extraction method can only generate estimates and some lack of confidence in its validity and reliability remains. Here, we present an alternative technique to obtain a measure of the assimilation of an applied 15N substrate by the soil microbial biomass and an estimate of the newly synthesized soil protein, which is representative of the magnitude of the active soil microbial biomass. The technique uses a stable isotope tracer and compound-specific 15N analysis, but

  4. Chemical synthesis of glycoproteins with the specific installation of gradient enriched 15N-labeled amino acids for getting insight into glycoprotein behavior.

    PubMed

    Kajihara, Yasuhiro; Nguyen, Minh Hien; Izumi, Masayuki; Sato, Hajime; Okamoto, Ryo

    2017-03-09

    We propose a novel partially 15N-labelling method for the amide backbone of a synthetic glycoprotein. By use of a chemical approach utilizing SPPS and NCL, we inserted thirteen 15N-labeled amino acids at specific positions of the protein backbone, while intentionally varying the enrichment of 15N atoms. This idea enables us to discriminate even the same type of amino acid based on the intensities of 1H-15N HSQC signals, thus allowing us to understand the dynamics of the local conformation of a synthetic homogeneous glycoprotein. Results suggested that the attachment of an oligosaccharide of either a bi-antennary complex-type or a high-mannose-type did not disturb protein conformation. However, T1 values suggested that the oligosaccharide influenced dynamics at the local conformation. Temperature-varied CD spectra and T1 values clearly indicated that oligosaccharides appeared to inhibit protein fluctuation or, in other words, stabilize protein structure.

  5. A facile method for expression and purification of 15N isotope-labeled human Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptides from E. coli for NMR-based structural analysis

    PubMed Central

    Armand, Tara; Ball, K. Aurelia; Chen, Anna; Pelton, Jeffrey G.; Wemmer, David E.; Head-Gordon, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting millions of people worldwide. AD is characterized by the presence of extracellular plaques composed of aggregated/oligomerized β-amyloid peptides with Aβ42 peptide representing a major isoform in the senile plaques. Given the pathological significance of Aβ42 in the progression of AD, there is considerable interest in understanding the structural ensembles for soluble monomer and oligomeric forms of Aβ42. This report describes an efficient method to express and purify high quality 15N isotope-labeled Aβ42 for structural studies by NMR. The protocol involves utilization of an auto induction system with 15N isotope labeled medium, for high-level expression of Aβ42 as a fusion with IFABP. After the over-expression of the 15N isotope-labeled IFABP-Aβ42 fusion protein in the inclusion bodies, pure 15N isotope-labeled Aβ42 peptide is obtained following a purification method that is streamlined and improved from the method originally developed for the isolation of unlabeled Aβ42 peptide (Garai et al., 2009). We obtain a final yield of ∼6 mg/L culture for 15N isotope-labeled Aβ42 peptide. Mass spectrometry and 1H–15N HSQC spectra of monomeric Aβ42 peptide validate the uniform incorporation of the isotopic label. The method described here is equally applicable for the uniform isotope labeling with 15N and 13C in Aβ42 peptide as well as its other variants including any Aβ42 peptide mutants. PMID:26231074

  6. Development and application of 15N-tracer substances for measuring the whole-body protein turnover rates in the human, especially in neonates: a review.

    PubMed

    Wutzke, Klaus D

    2012-06-01

    Our research group of the Children's Hospital of the University of Rostock (Rostock group) has long-time experience in (15)N-labelling and in using yeast protein and its hydrolysates for tracer kinetic studies to evaluate parameters of the whole-body protein metabolism in premature infants. The particular advantage of applying an economically convenient, highly (15)N-enriched, and completely labelled yeast protein for evaluating protein turnover rates is the fact that the (15)N dose is spread among all proteinogenic amino acids. The absorption has been improved by hydrolysing [(15)N]yeast protein with thermitase into a mixture of amino acids, dipeptides and tripeptides so that faecal analysis becomes unnecessary when determining turnover rates. The review shows that, in contrast to the application of single (15)N-labelled amino acids with resulting overestimation of protein turnover rates, the (15)N-labelled yeast protein thermitase hydrolysate represents the amino acid metabolism more closely without causing amino acid imbalances. The (15)N-labelled yeast protein thermitase hydrolysate leads to the estimation of reliable protein turnover rates, particularly in premature infants.

  7. Nitrogen removal in maturation ponds: tracer experiments with 15N-labelled ammonia.

    PubMed

    Camargo Valero, M A; Mara, D D

    2007-01-01

    A primary maturation pond (M1) was spiked with labelled ammonium chloride (15NH4Cl) to track ammonium transformations associated with algal uptake and subsequent sedimentation. Conventional sampling based on grab samples collected from M1 influent, water column and effluent, and processed for unfiltered and filtered TKN, ammonium, nitrite and nitrate, found low total nitrogen removal (8%) and high ammonium nitrogen removal (90%). Stable isotope analysis of 15N from suspended organic and ammonium nitrogen fractions in M1 effluent revealed that labelled ammonium was mainly found in the organic fraction (69% of the 15N recovered), rather than the inorganic fraction (5%). Algal uptake was the predominant pathway for ammonia removal, even though conditions were favourable for ammonia volatilization (8.9 < pH <10.1 units, 15.2 < temperature <18.8 degrees C). Total nitrogen was removed by ammonia volatilization at 15 g N/ha d (3%), organic nitrogen sedimentation at 105 g N/ha d (20%), and in-pond accumulation due to algal uptake at 377 g N/ha d (71%). Algal uptake of ammonium and subsequent sedimentation and retention in the benthic sludge, after partial ammonification of the algal organic nitrogen, is thus likely to be the dominant mechanism for permanent nitrogen removal in maturation ponds during warm summer months in England.

  8. Tracking the incorporation of 15N from labeled beech litter into mineral-organic associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleber, M.; Hatton, P.; Derrien, D.; Lajtha, K.; Zeller, B.

    2008-12-01

    Nitrogen containing organic compounds are thought to have a role in the complex web of processes that control the turnover time of soil organic matter. The sequential density fractionation technique is increasingly used for the purpose of investigating the association of organic materials with the mineral matrix. Organic materials in the denser fractions (>2.0 kg L-1) typically show 13C NMR signals indicative of carbohydrate and aliphatic structures, an absence of lignin and tannin structures and a narrow C:N ratio, suggesting a microbial origin of organic matter in these fractions. Here we take advantage of a labeling experiment conducted at two different sites in Germany and in France to investigate the incorporation of organic nitrogen into physical fractions of increasing density, representing a proximity gradient to mineral surfaces. 15N labeled beech litter was applied to two acidic forest topsoils 8 and 12 years ago. Although there are differences in the distribution patterns between the two soils, and the majority of the organic nitrogen was recovered in fractions representing organic matter of plant origin and not bound to the mineral matrix, our data clearly show that after a decade, significant amounts of the nitrogen had been incorporated in mineral-organic fractions of supposedly slow turnover. It remains to be shown to which extent the N in the densest fractions was incorporated by soil microbiota and associated with mineral surfaces in organic form or adsorbed to mineral surfaces in inorganic form (NH4+).

  9. Target-specific NMR detection of protein-ligand interactions with antibody-relayed (15)N-group selective STD.

    PubMed

    Hetényi, Anasztázia; Hegedűs, Zsófia; Fajka-Boja, Roberta; Monostori, Éva; Kövér, Katalin E; Martinek, Tamás A

    2016-12-01

    Fragment-based drug design has been successfully applied to challenging targets where the detection of the weak protein-ligand interactions is a key element. (1)H saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy is a powerful technique for this work but it requires pure homogeneous proteins as targets. Monoclonal antibody (mAb)-relayed (15)N-GS STD spectroscopy has been developed to resolve the problem of protein mixtures and impure proteins. A (15)N-labelled target-specific mAb is selectively irradiated and the saturation is relayed through the target to the ligand. Tests on the anti-Gal-1 mAb/Gal-1/lactose system showed that the approach is experimentally feasible in a reasonable time frame. This method allows detection and identification of binding molecules directly from a protein mixture in a multicomponent system.

  10. 3D NMR Experiments for Measuring 15N Relaxation Data of Large Proteins: Application to the 44 kDa Ectodomain of SIV gp41

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffrey, Michael; Kaufman, Joshua; Stahl, Stephen J.; Wingfield, Paul T.; Gronenborn, Angela M.; Clore, G. Marius

    1998-12-01

    A suite of 3D NMR experiments for measuring15N-{1H} NOE,15NT1, and15NT1ρvalues in large proteins, uniformly labeled with15N and13C, is presented. These experiments are designed for proteins that exhibit extensive spectral overlap in the 2D1H-15N HSQC spectrum. The pulse sequences are readily applicable to perdeuterated samples, which increases the spectral resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, thereby permitting the characterization of protein dynamics to be extended to larger protein systems. Application of the pulse sequences is demonstrated on a perdeuterated13C/15N-labeled sample of the 44 kDa ectodomain of SIV gp41.

  11. Novel labeling technique illustrates transfer of 15N2 from Sphagnum moss to vascular plants via diazotrophic nitrogen fixation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorp, N. R.; Vile, M. A.; Wieder, R.

    2013-12-01

    We used 15N2 gas to trace nitrogen (N) from biological N2-fixation to vascular plant uptake in an Alberta bog in order to determine if neighboring bog plants acquire recently fixed N from diazotrophs associating with Sphagnum mosses. Recent evidence indicates high rates of N2-fixation in Sphagnum mosses of Alberta bogs (Vile et al. 2013). Our previous work has shown that mosses can assimilate fixed N from associated diazotrophs as evidenced by the high N content of mosses despite minimal inputs from atmospheric deposition, retranslocation, and N mineralization. Therefore, the potential exists for vascular plants to obtain N from ';leaky' tissues of live mosses, however, this phenomenon has not been tested previously. Here we document the potential for relatively rapid transfer to vascular plants of N fixed by Sphagnum moss-associated diazotrophs. We utilized the novel approach of incubating mosses in 15N2 to allow the process of diazotrophic N2-fixation to mechanistically provide the 15N label, which is subsequently transferred to Sphagnum mosses. The potential for vascular bog natives to tap this N was assessed by planting the vascular plants in the labeled moss. Sphagnum mosses (upper 3 cm of live plants) were incubated in the presence of 98 atom % 15N2 gas for 48 hours. Two vascular plants common to Alberta bogs; Picea mariana and Vaccinium oxycoccus were then placed in the labeled mosses, where the mosses served as the substrate. Tissue samples from these plants were collected at three time points during the incubation; prior to 15N2 exposure (to determine natural abundance 15N), and at one and two months after 15N2 exposure. Roots and leaves were separated and run separately on a mass spectrometer to determine 15N concentrations. Sphagnum moss capitula obtained N from N2-fixation (δ15N of -2.43 × 0.40, 122.76 × 23.78, 224.92 × 68.37, 143.74 × 54.38 prior to, immediately after, and at 1 and 2 months after exposure to 15N2, respectively). Nitrogen was

  12. Production of 15N-Labelled Liquid Organic Fertilisers Based on Manure and Crop Residue for Use in Fertigation Studies.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Fernández, Carlos; Legaz, Francisco; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Large quantities of crop residue and animal manure from agricultural and livestock activities are annually produced worldwide. With proper management, these residues are potentially valuable sources of plant nutrients, mainly N. Recycling such subproducts in sustainably-based agricultural systems can minimise the use of mineral fertilisers, and hence reduce the potential risk of surface and groundwater pollution. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to obtain (small scale) two liquid labelled-organic fertilisers, an animal- and a vegetal-based organic (AO and VO, respectively) fertiliser, to be used as organic N sources in subsequent fertigation studies. Forage maize (Zea mays L.) grown under 15N-labelled fertiliser supply was used as raw material for VO fertiliser production, and also as 15N-labelled sheep feed to obtain 15N-labelled manure. The labelled faeces fraction was used as raw material for the AO fertiliser. The VO fertiliser was obtained after an acidic and an enzyme-driven hydrolysis. The AO fertiliser was obtained after acidic hydrolysis. The VO liquid fertiliser presented an N concentration of 330 mg·L-1, 85% of total N was organic, while ammonium and nitrate N accounted for 55% and 45% of the mineral nitrogen fraction, respectively. This fertiliser also exhibited high K, Ca and S concentrations and notable values for the remaining macro- and micronutrients. The AO liquid fertiliser had a similar total N concentration (496 mg·L-1, 82% of total N in an organic form) to that of VO, but its mineral N fraction significantly differed, which came in a predominantly (95%) ammonia form. It also had a high content of N, P, K and other macronutrients, and sufficient Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu and B levels, which suggests its suitability as a potential fertiliser. The percentage of 15N enrichment in both VO and AO liquid fertilisers exceeded 2% 15N atom excess, which enabled their use in subsequent assays run to assess nitrogen uptake efficiency.

  13. Nitrogen mineralization from selected /sup 15/N-labelled crop residues and humus as affected by inorganic nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The use of cover crops or crop residues as a source of N to succeeding crops has become a matter of increasing importance for economic and environmental reason. Greenhouse and field studies were conducted to determine the N contribution of four /sup 15/N labelled crop residues, rye (Secale cereale L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), crimson clover (Trifolium encarnatum L.), and hairy vetch (Vicia sativa L.), to successive crops and to evaluate the effect of different organic (ON) and inorganic N (IN) combinations on mineralization of the above residues. Total /sup 15/N recovery from the residues ranged from 51% to 85% and 4% to 74% for the greenhouse and field studies, respectively.

  14. Synthesis and biosynthesis of {sup 13}C-, {sup 15}N-labeled deoxynucleosides useful for biomolecular structural determinations

    SciTech Connect

    Ashburn, D.A.; Garcia, K.; Hanners, J.L.; Silks, L.A. III; Unkefer, C.J.

    1994-12-01

    Currently, there is a great emphasis on elucidating the structure, function, and dynamics of DNA. Much of the research involved in this study uses nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Effective use of NMR spectroscopy for DNA molecules with mw > 10,000 requires stable isotope enrichment. We present strategies for site-specific isotopic labeling of the purine bases adenosine and guanosine and the biosynthesis of (U-{sup 13}C, {sup 15}N) DNA from methylotropic bacteria. With commercially available 6-chloropurine, an effective two-step route leads to 2{prime}-deoxy-(amino-{sup 15}N)adenosine (dA). The resulting d(amino-{sup 15}N)A is used in a series of reactions to synthesize 2{prime}-deoxy-(2-{sup 13}C,1,amino-{sup 15}N{sub 2})guanosine or any combination thereof. An improved biosynthesis of labeled DNA has been accomplished using Methylobacterium extorquens AS1. Each liter of growth medium contains 4 g of methanol to yield 1 g of lyophilized cells. As much as 200 mg of RNA per liter of culture has been obtained. We are currently developing large-scale isolation protocols. General synthetic pathways to oligomeric DNA will be presented.

  15. Exploring the Nitrogen Ingestion of Aphids — A New Method Using Electrical Penetration Graph and 15N Labelling

    PubMed Central

    Kuhlmann, Franziska; Opitz, Sebastian E. W.; Inselsbacher, Erich; Ganeteg, Ulrika; Näsholm, Torgny; Ninkovic, Velemir

    2013-01-01

    Studying plant-aphid interactions is challenging as aphid feeding is a complex process hidden in the plant tissue. Here we propose a combination of two well established methods to study nutrient acquisition by aphids focusing on the uptake of isotopically labelled nitrogen (15N). We combined the Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) technique that allows detailed recording of aphid feeding behaviour and stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to precisely measure the uptake of nitrogen. Bird cherry-oat aphids Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Hemiptera, Aphididae) fed for 24 h on barley plants (Hordeum vulgare L., cultivar Lina, Poaceae) that were cultivated with a 15N enriched nutrient solution. The time aphids fed in the phloem was strongly positive correlated with their 15N uptake. All other single behavioural phases were not correlated with 15N enrichment in the aphids, which corroborates their classification as non-feeding EPG phases. In addition, phloem-feeding and 15N enrichment of aphids was divided into two groups. One group spent only short time in the phloem phase and was unsuccessful in nitrogen acquisition, while the other group displayed longer phloem-feeding phases and was successful in nitrogen acquisition. This suggests that several factors such as the right feeding site, time span of feeding and individual conditions play a role for the aphids to acquire nutrients successfully. The power of this combination of methods for studying plant-aphid interactions is discussed. PMID:24376642

  16. Exploring the nitrogen ingestion of aphids--a new method using electrical penetration graph and (15)N labelling.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, Franziska; Opitz, Sebastian E W; Inselsbacher, Erich; Ganeteg, Ulrika; Näsholm, Torgny; Ninkovic, Velemir

    2013-01-01

    Studying plant-aphid interactions is challenging as aphid feeding is a complex process hidden in the plant tissue. Here we propose a combination of two well established methods to study nutrient acquisition by aphids focusing on the uptake of isotopically labelled nitrogen ((15)N). We combined the Electrical Penetration Graph (EPG) technique that allows detailed recording of aphid feeding behaviour and stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to precisely measure the uptake of nitrogen. Bird cherry-oat aphids Rhopalosiphum padi L. (Hemiptera, Aphididae) fed for 24 h on barley plants (Hordeum vulgare L., cultivar Lina, Poaceae) that were cultivated with a (15)N enriched nutrient solution. The time aphids fed in the phloem was strongly positive correlated with their (15)N uptake. All other single behavioural phases were not correlated with (15)N enrichment in the aphids, which corroborates their classification as non-feeding EPG phases. In addition, phloem-feeding and (15)N enrichment of aphids was divided into two groups. One group spent only short time in the phloem phase and was unsuccessful in nitrogen acquisition, while the other group displayed longer phloem-feeding phases and was successful in nitrogen acquisition. This suggests that several factors such as the right feeding site, time span of feeding and individual conditions play a role for the aphids to acquire nutrients successfully. The power of this combination of methods for studying plant-aphid interactions is discussed.

  17. Reactions, characterization and uptake of ammoxidized kraft lignin labeled with 15N.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, F; Varela, G; Delgado, E; López-Dellamary, F; Zúñiga, V; González, V; Faix, O; Meier, D

    2007-05-01

    Ammoxidation of kraft lignin was carried out in a Parr reactor using (15)NH(3) as the main nitrogen source. Reaction parameters were set up until a total nitrogen content of approximately 13 wt.% in lignin was achieved, in accordance with conditions of previous studies. Analytical tools such as FTIR, Py-GC/MS, and solid state NMR were used in this research. The nature of nitrogen bondings is discussed. The incorporation of the (15)N from ammoxidized lignin was followed in pumpkins (Zucchini cucurbita pepo L.) by means of (15)N emission spectroscopy.

  18. Nitrogen assimilation and dissimilation by bacteria and benthic microalgae in tidal mudflat sediment in a 15N labeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dähnke, K.; Moneta, A.; Veuger, B.; Soetaert, K.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    In a short-term 15N-labeling experiment, we investigated the changes in relative utilization of reactive nitrogen in tidal flat sediment, focusing on the relative importance of assimilatory versus dissimilatory processes and the role of benthic microalgae therein. 15N-labeled ammonium and nitrate were added separately to homogenized tidal flat sediment, and 15N was subsequently traced into bulk sediment and inorganic nutrients in pore water. Integration of results in an N cycle model allowed us to quantify rates for the major assimilatory and dissimilatory processes in the sediment. Overall, the results indicate that the equilibrium between assimilation and dissimilation in this tidal mudflat is mainly dependent on the nitrogen source: Nitrate is utilized almost exclusively dissimilatory via denitrification, whereas ammonium is rapidly assimilated, with about a quarter of this assimilation due to BMA activity. The major influence of benthic microalgae is on assimilation of ammonium, ceasing BMA activity turns the sediments from a net ammonium sink to a net source. There is little evidence of dissimilative processes like nitrification in undisturbed sediments, but high initial nitrification rates suggest that in a dynamic environment like tidal flats, intense and fast nitrification/denitrification of ammonium is abundant. The driving mechanisms for assimilation or dissimilation accordingly appear to be ruled to a large extent by external physical forcing, with the entire system being capable of rapid shifts following environmental changes. Our combined experimental and model approach reveals that selective removal of labeled compounds takes place for both ammonium and nitrate. Mechanisms remain unclear, but this finding clearly challenges the traditional labeling approach and underscores the need to consider selective uptake in future labeling studies. Ignoring such selective uptake mechanisms will lead to misinterpretation of process rates when these are estimated

  19. Quantitative analysis of 15N labeled positional isomers of glutamine and citrulline via electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry of their dansyl derivatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enteral metabolism of glutamine and citrulline are intertwined because, while glutamine is one of the main fuel sources for the enterocyte, citrulline is one of its products. It has been shown that the administration of 15N labeled glutamine results in the incorporation of the 15N label into cit...

  20. Design and Operation of a Continuous 13C and 15N Labeling Chamber for Uniform or Differential, Metabolic and Structural, Plant Isotope Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Soong, Jennifer L; Reuss, Dan; Pinney, Colin; Boyack, Ty; Haddix, Michelle L; Stewart, Catherine E; Cotrufo, M. Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Tracing rare stable isotopes from plant material through the ecosystem provides the most sensitive information about ecosystem processes; from CO2 fluxes and soil organic matter formation to small-scale stable-isotope biomarker probing. Coupling multiple stable isotopes such as 13C with 15N, 18O or 2H has the potential to reveal even more information about complex stoichiometric relationships during biogeochemical transformations. Isotope labeled plant material has been used in various studies of litter decomposition and soil organic matter formation1-4. From these and other studies, however, it has become apparent that structural components of plant material behave differently than metabolic components (i.e. leachable low molecular weight compounds) in terms of microbial utilization and long-term carbon storage5-7. The ability to study structural and metabolic components separately provides a powerful new tool for advancing the forefront of ecosystem biogeochemical studies. Here we describe a method for producing 13C and 15N labeled plant material that is either uniformly labeled throughout the plant or differentially labeled in structural and metabolic plant components. Here, we present the construction and operation of a continuous 13C and 15N labeling chamber that can be modified to meet various research needs. Uniformly labeled plant material is produced by continuous labeling from seedling to harvest, while differential labeling is achieved by removing the growing plants from the chamber weeks prior to harvest. Representative results from growing Andropogon gerardii Kaw demonstrate the system's ability to efficiently label plant material at the targeted levels. Through this method we have produced plant material with a 4.4 atom%13C and 6.7 atom%15N uniform plant label, or material that is differentially labeled by up to 1.29 atom%13C and 0.56 atom%15N in its metabolic and structural components (hot water extractable and hot water residual components

  1. Design and operation of a continuous 13C and 15N labeling chamber for uniform or differential, metabolic and structural, plant isotope labeling.

    PubMed

    Soong, Jennifer L; Reuss, Dan; Pinney, Colin; Boyack, Ty; Haddix, Michelle L; Stewart, Catherine E; Cotrufo, M Francesca

    2014-01-16

    Tracing rare stable isotopes from plant material through the ecosystem provides the most sensitive information about ecosystem processes; from CO2 fluxes and soil organic matter formation to small-scale stable-isotope biomarker probing. Coupling multiple stable isotopes such as (13)C with (15)N, (18)O or (2)H has the potential to reveal even more information about complex stoichiometric relationships during biogeochemical transformations. Isotope labeled plant material has been used in various studies of litter decomposition and soil organic matter formation(1-4). From these and other studies, however, it has become apparent that structural components of plant material behave differently than metabolic components (i.e. leachable low molecular weight compounds) in terms of microbial utilization and long-term carbon storage(5-7). The ability to study structural and metabolic components separately provides a powerful new tool for advancing the forefront of ecosystem biogeochemical studies. Here we describe a method for producing (13)C and (15)N labeled plant material that is either uniformly labeled throughout the plant or differentially labeled in structural and metabolic plant components. Here, we present the construction and operation of a continuous (13)C and (15)N labeling chamber that can be modified to meet various research needs. Uniformly labeled plant material is produced by continuous labeling from seedling to harvest, while differential labeling is achieved by removing the growing plants from the chamber weeks prior to harvest. Representative results from growing Andropogon gerardii Kaw demonstrate the system's ability to efficiently label plant material at the targeted levels. Through this method we have produced plant material with a 4.4 atom%(13)C and 6.7 atom%(15)N uniform plant label, or material that is differentially labeled by up to 1.29 atom%(13)C and 0.56 atom%(15)N in its metabolic and structural components (hot water extractable and hot water

  2. Production of 15N-Labelled Liquid Organic Fertilisers Based on Manure and Crop Residue for Use in Fertigation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Martínez-Cuenca, Mary-Rus; Fernández, Carlos; Legaz, Francisco; Quiñones, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Large quantities of crop residue and animal manure from agricultural and livestock activities are annually produced worldwide. With proper management, these residues are potentially valuable sources of plant nutrients, mainly N. Recycling such subproducts in sustainably-based agricultural systems can minimise the use of mineral fertilisers, and hence reduce the potential risk of surface and groundwater pollution. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to obtain (small scale) two liquid labelled-organic fertilisers, an animal- and a vegetal-based organic (AO and VO, respectively) fertiliser, to be used as organic N sources in subsequent fertigation studies. Forage maize (Zea mays L.) grown under 15N-labelled fertiliser supply was used as raw material for VO fertiliser production, and also as 15N-labelled sheep feed to obtain 15N-labelled manure. The labelled faeces fraction was used as raw material for the AO fertiliser. The VO fertiliser was obtained after an acidic and an enzyme-driven hydrolysis. The AO fertiliser was obtained after acidic hydrolysis. The VO liquid fertiliser presented an N concentration of 330 mg·L-1, 85% of total N was organic, while ammonium and nitrate N accounted for 55% and 45% of the mineral nitrogen fraction, respectively. This fertiliser also exhibited high K, Ca and S concentrations and notable values for the remaining macro- and micronutrients. The AO liquid fertiliser had a similar total N concentration (496 mg·L-1, 82% of total N in an organic form) to that of VO, but its mineral N fraction significantly differed, which came in a predominantly (95%) ammonia form. It also had a high content of N, P, K and other macronutrients, and sufficient Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu and B levels, which suggests its suitability as a potential fertiliser. The percentage of 15N enrichment in both VO and AO liquid fertilisers exceeded 2% 15N atom excess, which enabled their use in subsequent assays run to assess nitrogen uptake efficiency. PMID:26982183

  3. Quantitative study on the fate of residual soil nitrate in winter wheat based on a 15N-labeling method

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing-Ting; Wang, Zhi-Min; Liang, Shuang-Bo; Zhang, Ying-Hua; Lu, Lai-Qing; Wang, Run-Zheng

    2017-01-01

    A considerable amount of surplus nitrogen (N), which primarily takes the form of nitrate, accumulates in the soil profile after harvesting crops from an intensive production system in the North China Plain. The residual soil nitrate (RSN) is a key factor that is included in the N recommendation algorithm. Quantifying the utilization and losses of RSN is a fundamental necessity for optimizing crop N management, improving N use efficiency, and reducing the impact derived from farmland N losses on the environment. In this study, a 15N-labeling method was introduced to study the fate of the RSN quantitatively during the winter wheat growing season by 15N tracer technique combined with a soil column study. A soil column with a 2 m height was vertically divided into 10 20-cm layers, and the RSN in each layer was individually labeled with a 15N tracer before the wheat was sown. The results indicated that approximately 17.68% of the crop N derived from RSN was located in the 0–2 m soil profile prior to wheat sowing. The wheat recovery proportions of RSN at various layers ranged from 0.21% to 33.46%. The percentages that still remained in the soil profile after the wheat harvest ranged from 47.08% to 75.44%, and 19.46–32.64% of the RSN was unaccounted for. Upward and downward movements in the RSN were observed, and the maximum upward and downward distances were 40 cm and 100 cm, respectively. In general, the 15N-labeling method contributes to a deeper understanding of the fates of the RSN. Considering the low crop recovery of the RSN from deep soil layers, water and N saving practices should be adopted during crop production. PMID:28170440

  4. Application of rate equations to ELDOR and saturation recovery experiments on 14N: 15N spin-label pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jun-Jie; Hyde, James S.

    Rate equations describing the time dependence of population differences of the five allowed transitions in an 14N 15N spin-label pair problem are set up. Included in the formulation are the three Heisenberg exchange rate constants and different nitrogen nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rates, electron spin-lattice relaxation rates, and populations for the 14N and 15N moieties. Using matrix algebra, stationary and time-dependent solutions are obtained in a unified theoretical framework. The calculations apply to stationary and pulse electron-electron double resonance and to saturation-recovery ESR. Particular emphasis is placed on short pulse initial excitation, where the transverse relaxation processes are sufficiently slow that only the population difference of the irradiated transition departs significantly from Boltzmann equilibrium during the excitation.

  5. Non-homogeneity of isotopic labelling in 15N gas flux studies: theory, some observations and possible lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Well, Reinhard; Buchen, Caroline; Deppe, Marianna; Eschenbach, Wolfram; Gattinger, Andreas; Giesemann, Anette; Krause, Hans-Martin; Lewicka-Szczebak, Dominika

    2015-04-01

    Quantifying dinitrogen (N2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from different soil N pools and processes can be accomplished using the 15N tracer technique but this is subject to four different sources of bias (i. - iv.). This approach includes 15N labelling of selected N pools in soil and subsequent isotope analysis of all relevant N pools as well as of gas samples from enclosures, i.e. mixtures of soil-derived and atmospheric N2 and N2O. Depending on the processes of interest, there may be 15N labelling of one or several N pools, were several labelling treatment are needed in the latter case (e.g. Müller et al., 2004). Measuring pool-derived N2 or N2O has been shown to include two calculation problems, (i.) arising from multiple pools (e.g. Arah, 1992) and (ii.) dealing with the non-random distribution of N2 and N2O mole masses (Hauck et al., 1958). Non-randomness can be solved if m/z 28, 29 and 30 are correctly analysed and the 15N enrichment of one (to distinguish two pools, i.e. soil and atmosphere) or two pools (in case of three pools) is known (Spott & Stange, 2008). Moreover (iii.), NO3- pools generating N2 and N2O via denitrification can be identical or different, e.g. if N2O evolved from higher enriched NO3- in deeper soil was more reduced to N2 compared to N2O evolved from N2O from shallow soil with lower enrichment, or vice versa. Apportioning N2O fluxes to NH4+ (nitrification and/or nitrifier denitrification) and NO3- (denitrification) is often conducted by NO3-labeling, measuring δ15N of emitted N2O and applying mixing equations were the measured 15N enrichment of NH4+and NO3-pool is used. However, this assumes that the average 15N enrichment of NH4+and NO3-in the soil is identical to the enrichment in the active soil domain producing N2 and/or N2O. Violation of this precondition must lead to bias in source apportionment (iv.), but to our knowledge this has not been investigated until now. Here we present conceptual models and model calculations

  6. Determination of 15N chemical shift anisotropy from a membrane-bound protein by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Manoj Kumar; Vivekanandan, Subramanian; Ahuja, Shivani; Pichumani, Kumar; Im, Sang-Choul; Waskell, Lucy; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2012-06-21

    Chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) tensors are essential in the structural and dynamic studies of proteins using NMR spectroscopy. Results from relaxation studies in biomolecular solution and solid-state NMR experiments on aligned samples are routinely interpreted using well-characterized CSA tensors determined from model compounds. Since CSA tensors, particularly the (15)N CSA, highly depend on a number of parameters including secondary structure, electrostatic interaction, and the amino acid sequence, there is a need for accurately determined CSA tensors from proteins. In this study, we report the backbone amide-(15)N CSA tensors for a 16.7-kDa membrane-bound and paramagnetic-heme containing protein, rabbit Cytochrome b(5) (cytb(5)), determined using the (15)N CSA/(15)N-(1)H dipolar transverse cross-correlation rates. The mean values of (15)N CSA determined for residues in helical, sheet, and turn regions are -187.9, -166.0, and -161.1 ppm, respectively, with an overall average value of -171.7 ppm. While the average CSA value determined from this study is in good agreement with previous solution NMR experiments on small globular proteins, the CSA value determined for residues in helical conformation is slightly larger, which may be attributed to the paramagnetic effect from Fe(III) of the heme unit in cytb(5). However, like in previous solution NMR studies, the CSA values reported in this study are larger than the values measured from solid-state NMR experiments. We believe that the CSA parameters reported in this study will be useful in determining the structure, dynamics, and orientation of proteins, including membrane proteins, using NMR spectroscopy.

  7. [Detection of microbial protein synthesis in the small intestine of sheep using an intraduodenal 15N-urea infusion].

    PubMed

    Bergner, H; Bartelt, J; Kijora, C; Götz, K P

    1991-10-01

    Sheep (3 animals, 50 kg LW) with reentrant cannulas in duodenum and at the end of the ileum received 700 g hay and 800 g alfalfa pellets per animal and day. In a previous 1st period of three days duodenal digesta and in a 2nd period of four days ileal digesta were collected and stored deep frozen. In the main period the digesta flow was interrupted for 28 hours. The duodenal and ileal digesta were collected quantitatively. The previously collected duodenal and ileal digesta portions were introduced hourly. The duodenal digesta was supplemented with 15N-labelled urea for a 24 hour period. 4.5% of the introduced 15N-excess were detected at the end of the ileum in the 24 hour period. 5.6% of the 15N-excess at the end of the ileum were incorporated in bacterial protein. It was measured that the ileal digesta contained 4.62 g N in the TCE precipitable fraction and 24.4% of the TCE precipitable N-fraction was bacterial nitrogen.

  8. Elemental formula annotation of polar and lipophilic metabolites using (13) C, (15) N and (34) S isotope labelling, in combination with high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Giavalisco, Patrick; Li, Yan; Matthes, Annemarie; Eckhardt, Aenne; Hubberten, Hans-Michael; Hesse, Holger; Segu, Shruthi; Hummel, Jan; Köhl, Karin; Willmitzer, Lothar

    2011-10-01

    The unbiased and comprehensive analysis of metabolites in any organism presents a major challenge if proper peak annotation and unambiguous assignment of the biological origin of the peaks are required. Here we provide a comprehensive multi-isotope labelling-based strategy using fully labelled (13) C, (15) N and (34) S plant tissues, in combination with a fractionated metabolite extraction protocol. The extraction procedure allows for the simultaneous extraction of polar, semi-polar and hydrophobic metabolites, as well as for the extraction of proteins and starch. After labelling and extraction, the metabolites and lipids were analysed using a high-resolution mass spectrometer providing accurate MS and all-ion fragmentation data, providing an unambiguous readout for every detectable isotope-labelled peak. The isotope labelling assisted peak annotation process employed can be applied in either an automated database-dependent or a database-independent analysis of the plant polar metabolome and lipidome. As a proof of concept, the developed methods and technologies were applied and validated using Arabidopsis thaliana leaf and root extracts. Along with a large repository of assigned elemental compositions, which is provided, we show, using selected examples, the accuracy and reliability of the developed workflow.

  9. High-throughput backbone resonance assignment of small 13C, 15N-labeled proteins by a triple-resonance experiment with four sequential connectivity pathways using chemical shift-dependent, apparent 1J ( 1H, 13C): HNCACB codedHAHB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegan, Scott; Kwiatkowski, Witek; Choe, Senyon; Riek, Roland

    2003-12-01

    The proposed three-dimensional triple-resonance experiment HNCACB codedHAHB correlates sequential 15N, 1H moieties via the chemical shifts of 13C α, 13C β, 1H α, and 1H β. The four sequential correlation pathways are achieved by the incorporation of the concept of chemical shift-coding [J. Biomol. NMR 25 (2003) 281] to the TROSY-HNCACB experiment. The monitored 1H α and 1H β chemical shifts are then coded in the line shape of the cross-peaks of 13C α, 13C β along the 13C dimension through an apparent residual scalar coupling, the size of which depends on the attached hydrogen chemical shift. The information of four sequential correlation pathways enables a rapid backbone assignment. The HNCACB codedHAHB experiment was applied to ˜85% labeled 13C, 15N-labeled amino-terminal fragment of Vaccinia virus DNA topoisomerase I comprising residues 1-77. After one day of measurement on a Bruker Avance 700 MHz spectrometer and 8 h of manual analysis of the spectrum 93% of the backbone assignment was achieved.

  10. Partitioning Residue-derived and Residue-induced Emissions of N2O Using 15N-labelled Crop Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, R. E.; Carverhill, J.; Lemke, R.; Knight, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of N2O emissions in Canada indicate that 17% of all agriculture-based emissions are associated with the decomposition of crop residues. However, research specific to the western Canadian prairies (including Saskatchewan) has shown that the N2O emission factor for N sources in this region typically ranges between 0.2 and 0.6%, which is well below the current IPCC default emission factor of 1.0%. Thus, it stands to reason that emissions from crop residues should also be lower than those calculated using the current IPCC emission factor. Current data indicates that residue decomposition, N mineralization and N2O production are affected by a number of factors such as C:N ratio and chemical composition of the residue, soil type, and soil water content; thus, a bench-scale incubation study was conducted to examine the effects of soil type and water content on N2O emissions associated with the decomposition of different crop residues. The study was carried out using soils from the Black, Dark Brown, Brown, and Gray soil zones and was conducted at both 50% and 70% water-filled pore space (WFPS); the soils were amended with 15N-labeled residues of wheat, pea, canola, and flax, or with an equivalent amount of 15N-labeled urea; 15N2O production was monitored using a Picarro G5101-i isotopic N2O analyzer. Crop residue additions to the soils resulted in both direct and indirect emissions of N2O, with residue derived emissions (RDE; measured as 15N2O) generally exceeding residue-induced emissions (RIE) at 50% WFPS—with RDEs ranging from 42% to 88% (mean = 58%) of the total N2O. Conversely, at 70% WFPS, RDEs were generally lower than RIEs—ranging from 21% to 83% (mean = 48%). Whereas both water content and soil type had an impact on N2O production, there was a clear and consistent trend in the emission factors for the residues; i.e., emissions were always greatest for the canola residue and lowest for the wheat residue and urea fertilizer; and intermediate for pea

  11. Development of equations to estimate microbial contamination in ruminal incubation residues of forage produced under tropical conditions using 15N as a label.

    PubMed

    Machado, P A S; Valadares Filho, S C; Detmann, E; Santos, S A; Valadares, R F D; Ducatti, C; Rotta, P P; Costa e Silva, L F

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to use (15)N to label microbial cells to allow development of equations for estimating the microbial contamination in ruminal in situ incubation residues of forage produced under tropical conditions. A total of 24 tropical forages were ruminal incubated in 3 steers at 3 separate times. To determine microbial contamination of the incubated residues, ruminal bacteria were labeled with (15)N by continuous intraruminal infusion 60 h before the first incubation and continued until the last day of incubation. Ruminal digesta was collected for the isolation of bacteria before the first infusion of (15)N on adaptation period and after the infusion of (15)N on collection period. To determine the microbial contamination of CP fractions, restricted models were compared with the full model using the model identity test. A value of the corrected fraction "A" was estimated from the corresponding noncorrected fraction by this equation: Corrected "A" fraction (A(CP)C) = 1.99286 + 0.98256 × A" fraction without correction (A(CP)WC). The corrected fraction "B" was estimated from the corresponding noncorrected fraction and from CP, NDF, neutral detergent insoluble protein (NDIP), and indigestible NDF (iNDF) using the equation corrected "B" fraction (B(CP)C) = -17.2181 - 0.0344 × fraction "B" without correction (B(CP)WC) + 0.65433 × CP + 1.03787 × NDF + 2.66010 × NDIP - 0.85979 × iNDF. The corrected degradation rate of "B" fraction (kd)was estimated using the equation corrected degradation rate of "B" fraction (kd(CP)C) = 0.04667 + 0.35139 × degradation rate of "B" fraction without correction (kd(CP)WC) + 0.0020 × CP - 0.00055839 × NDF - 0.00336 × NDIP + 0.00075089 × iNDF. This equation was obtained to estimate the contamination using CP of the feeds: %C = 79.21 × (1 - e(-0.0555t)) × e(-0.0874CP). It was concluded that A and B fractions and kd of CP could be highly biased by microbial CP contamination, and therefore these corrected values

  12. Choice of dietary protein of vegetarians and omnivores is reflected in their hair protein 13C and 15N abundance.

    PubMed

    Petzke, Klaus J; Boeing, Heiner; Metges, Cornelia C

    2005-01-01

    Stable isotopic (15N, 13C) composition of tissues depends on isotopic pattern of food sources. We investigated whether the isotopic compositions of human hair protein and amino acids reflect the habitual dietary protein intake. Hair samples were analyzed from 100 omnivores (selected randomly out of the 1987-1988 German nutrition survey VERA), and from 15 ovo-lacto-vegetarians (OLV), and from 6 vegans recruited separately. Hair bulk and amino acid specific isotopic compositions were analyzed by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS and GC/C/IRMS, respectively) and the results were correlated with data of the 7 day dietary records. Hair bulk 15N and 13C abundances clearly reflect the particular eating habits. Vegans can be distinguished from OLV and both are significantly distinct from omnivores in both 15N and 13C abundances. 15N and 13C abundances rose with a higher proportion of animal to total protein intake (PAPI). Individual proportions of animal protein consumption (IPAP) were calculated using isotopic abundances and a linear regression model using animal protein consumption data of vegans (PAPI = 0) and omnivores (mean PAPI = 0.639). IPAP values positively correlated with the intake of protein, meat, meat products, and animal protein. Distinct patterns for hair amino acid specific 15N and 13C abundances were measured but with lower resolution between food preference groups compared with bulk values. In conclusion, hair 13C and 15N values both reflected the extent of animal protein consumption. Bulk isotopic abundance of hair can be tested for future use in the validation of dietary assessment methods.

  13. High retention of (15) N-labeled nitrogen deposition in a nitrogen saturated old-growth tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Gurmesa, Geshere Abdisa; Lu, Xiankai; Gundersen, Per; Mao, Qinggong; Zhou, Kaijun; Fang, Yunting; Mo, Jiangming

    2016-11-01

    The effects of increased reactive nitrogen (N) deposition in forests depend largely on its fate in the ecosystems. However, our knowledge on the fates of deposited N in tropical forest ecosystems and its retention mechanisms is limited. Here, we report the results from the first whole ecosystem (15) N labeling experiment performed in a N-rich old-growth tropical forest in southern China. We added (15) N tracer monthly as (15) NH4(15) NO3 for 1 year to control plots and to N-fertilized plots (N-plots, receiving additions of 50 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) for 10 years). Tracer recoveries in major ecosystem compartments were quantified 4 months after the last addition. Tracer recoveries in soil solution were monitored monthly to quantify leaching losses. Total tracer recovery in plant and soil (N retention) in the control plots was 72% and similar to those observed in temperate forests. The retention decreased to 52% in the N-plots. Soil was the dominant sink, retaining 37% and 28% of the labeled N input in the control and N-plots, respectively. Leaching below 20 cm was 50 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) in the control plots and was close to the N input (51 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) ), indicating N saturation of the top soil. Nitrogen addition increased N leaching to 73 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) . However, of these only 7 and 23 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) in the control and N-plots, respectively, originated from the labeled N input. Our findings indicate that deposited N, like in temperate forests, is largely incorporated into plant and soil pools in the short term, although the forest is N-saturated, but high cycling rates may later release the N for leaching and/or gaseous loss. Thus, N cycling rates rather than short-term N retention represent the main difference between temperate forests and the studied tropical forest.

  14. Proteome turnover in the green alga Ostreococcus tauri by time course 15N metabolic labeling mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sarah F; Munagapati, Vijaya S; Salvo-Chirnside, Eliane; Kerr, Lorraine E; Le Bihan, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Protein synthesis and degradation determine the cellular levels of proteins, and their control hence enables organisms to respond to environmental change. Experimentally, these are little known proteome parameters; however, recently, SILAC-based mass spectrometry studies have begun to quantify turnover in the proteomes of cell lines, yeast, and animals. Here, we present a proteome-scale method to quantify turnover and calculate synthesis and degradation rate constants of individual proteins in autotrophic organisms such as algae and plants. The workflow is based on the automated analysis of partial stable isotope incorporation with (15)N. We applied it in a study of the unicellular pico-alga Ostreococcus tauri and observed high relative turnover in chloroplast-encoded ATPases (0.42-0.58% h(-1)), core photosystem II proteins (0.34-0.51% h(-1)), and RbcL (0.47% h(-1)), while nuclear-encoded RbcS2 is more stable (0.23% h(-1)). Mitochondrial targeted ATPases (0.14-0.16% h(-1)), photosystem antennae (0.09-0.14% h(-1)), and histones (0.07-0.1% h(-1)) were comparatively stable. The calculation of degradation and synthesis rate constants k(deg) and k(syn) confirms RbcL as the bulk contributor to overall protein turnover. This study performed over 144 h of incorporation reveals dynamics of protein complex subunits as well as isoforms targeted to different organelles.

  15. Dynamic changes of the Caenorhabditis elegans proteome during ontogenesis assessed by quantitative analysis with 15N metabolic labeling.

    PubMed

    Geillinger, Kerstin E; Kuhlmann, Katja; Eisenacher, Martin; Meyer, Helmut E; Daniel, Hannelore; Spanier, Britta

    2012-09-07

    The development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a highly dynamic process. Although various studies have assessed global transcriptome changes, information on the dynamics of the proteome during ontogenesis is not available. We metabolically labeled C. elegans by using ¹⁵N ammonium chloride as a precursor in Escherichia coli feeding bacteria grown in minimal media as a new cost-effective technique. Quantitative proteome analysis was performed by LC-MS/MS in animals harvested at different times during ontogenesis. We identified and quantified 245 proteins at all larval stages in two independent replicates. Between larval stages (20 and 40 h after hatching) 61 were found to change significantly in level. Among those ribosomal proteins, aminoacyl tRNA synthetases and enzymes of energy metabolism increased in abundance, while extracellular matrix proteins and muscle proteins dominated groups displaying reduced levels. Moreover, changes observed for selected proteins such as VIT-6 and SOD-1 matched with previously published findings confirming the validity of our approach. The metabolic labeling technique applied seems well suited to assess changes in the proteome changes of C. elegans in a quantitative manner during larval development. The data set generated provides the basis for further exploitation of the role of individual proteins or protein clusters during ontogenesis.

  16. Decomposition and nitrogen dynamics of (15)N-labeled leaf, root, and twig litter in temperate coniferous forests.

    PubMed

    van Huysen, Tiff L; Harmon, Mark E; Perakis, Steven S; Chen, Hua

    2013-12-01

    Litter nutrient dynamics contribute significantly to biogeochemical cycling in forest ecosystems. We examined how site environment and initial substrate quality influence decomposition and nitrogen (N) dynamics of multiple litter types. A 2.5-year decomposition study was installed in the Oregon Coast Range and West Cascades using (15)N-labeled litter from Acer macrophyllum, Picea sitchensis, and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Mass loss for leaf litter was similar between the two sites, while root and twig litter exhibited greater mass loss in the Coast Range. Mass loss was greatest from leaves and roots, and species differences in mass loss were more prominent in the Coast Range. All litter types and species mineralized N early in the decomposition process; only A. macrophyllum leaves exhibited a net N immobilization phase. There were no site differences with respect to litter N dynamics despite differences in site N availability, and litter N mineralization patterns were species-specific. For multiple litter × species combinations, the difference between gross and net N mineralization was significant, and gross mineralization was 7-20 % greater than net mineralization. The mineralization results suggest that initial litter chemistry may be an important driver of litter N dynamics. Our study demonstrates that greater amounts of N are cycling through these systems than may be quantified by only measuring net mineralization and challenges current leaf-based biogeochemical theory regarding patterns of N immobilization and mineralization.

  17. Insights into nitrogen allocation and recycling from nitrogen elemental analysis and 15N isotope labelling in 14 genotypes of willow.

    PubMed

    Brereton, Nicholas J B; Pitre, Frederic E; Shield, Ian; Hanley, Steven J; Ray, Michael J; Murphy, Richard J; Karp, Angela

    2014-11-01

    Minimizing nitrogen (N) fertilization inputs during cultivation is essential for sustainable production of bioenergy and biofuels. The biomass crop willow (Salix spp.) is considered to have low N fertilizer requirements due to efficient recycling of nutrients during the perennial cycle. To investigate how successfully different willow genotypes assimilate and allocate N during growth, and remobilize and consequently recycle N before the onset of winter dormancy, N allocation and N remobilization (to and between different organs) were examined in 14 genotypes of a genetic family using elemental analysis and (15)N as a label. Cuttings were established in pots in April and sampled in June, August and at onset of senescence in October. Biomass yield of the trees correlated well with yields recorded in the field. Genotype-specific variation was observed for all traits measured and general trends spanning these sampling points were identified when trees were grouped by biomass yield. Nitrogen reserves in the cutting fuelled the entirety of the canopy establishment, yet earlier cessation of this dependency was linked to higher biomass yields. The stem was found to be the major N reserve by autumn, which constitutes a major source of N loss at harvest, typically every 2-3 years. These data contribute to understanding N remobilization in short rotation coppice willow and to the identification of traits that could potentially be selected for in breeding programmes to further improve the sustainability of biomass production.

  18. Heavy water and 15N labeling with NanoSIMS analysis reveals growth-rate dependent metabolic heterogeneity in chemostats

    PubMed Central

    McGlynn, Shawn E.; Green-Saxena, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    To measure single cell microbial activity and substrate utilization patterns in environmental systems, we employ a new technique using stable isotope labeling of microbial populations with heavy water (a passive tracer) and 15N ammonium in combination with multi-isotope imaging mass spectrometry. We demonstrate simultaneous NanoSIMS analysis of hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen at high spatial and mass resolution, and report calibration data linking single cell isotopic compositions to the corresponding bulk isotopic equivalents for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Our results show that heavy water is capable of quantifying in situ single cell microbial activities ranging from generational time scales of minutes to years, with only light isotopic incorporation (∼0.1 atom % 2H). Applying this approach to study the rates of fatty acid biosynthesis by single cells of S. aureus growing at different rates in chemostat culture (∼6 hours, 1 day and 2 week generation times), we observe the greatest anabolic activity diversity in the slowest growing populations. By using heavy water to constrain cellular growth activity, we can further infer the relative contributions of ammonium vs. amino acid assimilation to the cellular nitrogen pool. The approach described here can be applied to disentangle individual cell activities even in nutritionally complex environments. PMID:25655651

  19. Insights into nitrogen allocation and recycling from nitrogen elemental analysis and 15N isotope labelling in 14 genotypes of willow

    PubMed Central

    Brereton, Nicholas J.B.; Pitre, Frederic E.; Shield, Ian; Hanley, Steven J.; Ray, Michael J.; Murphy, Richard J.; Karp, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Minimizing nitrogen (N) fertilization inputs during cultivation is essential for sustainable production of bioenergy and biofuels. The biomass crop willow (Salix spp.) is considered to have low N fertilizer requirements due to efficient recycling of nutrients during the perennial cycle. To investigate how successfully different willow genotypes assimilate and allocate N during growth, and remobilize and consequently recycle N before the onset of winter dormancy, N allocation and N remobilization (to and between different organs) were examined in 14 genotypes of a genetic family using elemental analysis and 15N as a label. Cuttings were established in pots in April and sampled in June, August and at onset of senescence in October. Biomass yield of the trees correlated well with yields recorded in the field. Genotype-specific variation was observed for all traits measured and general trends spanning these sampling points were identified when trees were grouped by biomass yield. Nitrogen reserves in the cutting fuelled the entirety of the canopy establishment, yet earlier cessation of this dependency was linked to higher biomass yields. The stem was found to be the major N reserve by autumn, which constitutes a major source of N loss at harvest, typically every 2–3 years. These data contribute to understanding N remobilization in short rotation coppice willow and to the identification of traits that could potentially be selected for in breeding programmes to further improve the sustainability of biomass production. PMID:24186940

  20. Decomposition and nitrogen dynamics of 15N-labeled leaf, root, and twig litter in temperate coniferous forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Huysen, Tiff L.; Harmon, Mark E.; Perakis, Steven S.; Chen, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Litter nutrient dynamics contribute significantly to biogeochemical cycling in forest ecosystems. We examined how site environment and initial substrate quality influence decomposition and nitrogen (N) dynamics of multiple litter types. A 2.5-year decomposition study was installed in the Oregon Coast Range and West Cascades using 15N-labeled litter from Acer macrophyllum, Picea sitchensis, and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Mass loss for leaf litter was similar between the two sites, while root and twig litter exhibited greater mass loss in the Coast Range. Mass loss was greatest from leaves and roots, and species differences in mass loss were more prominent in the Coast Range. All litter types and species mineralized N early in the decomposition process; only A. macrophyllum leaves exhibited a net N immobilization phase. There were no site differences with respect to litter N dynamics despite differences in site N availability, and litter N mineralization patterns were species-specific. For multiple litter × species combinations, the difference between gross and net N mineralization was significant, and gross mineralization was 7–20 % greater than net mineralization. The mineralization results suggest that initial litter chemistry may be an important driver of litter N dynamics. Our study demonstrates that greater amounts of N are cycling through these systems than may be quantified by only measuring net mineralization and challenges current leaf-based biogeochemical theory regarding patterns of N immobilization and mineralization.

  1. ENDOR and ESEEM of the 15N labelled radical cations of chlorophyll a and the primary donor P 700 in photosystem I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käβ, H.; Bittersmann-Weidlich, E.; Andréasson, L.-E.; Bönigk, B.; Lubitz, W.

    1995-05-01

    The hyperfine couplings of the nitrogen nuclei in the radical cations of both 15N-labelled chlorophyll a and the primary donor P 700 in Photosystem I of Synechococcus elongatus and spinach ( Spinacea oleracea) in frozen solutions were investigated by ENDOR and, for confirmation, by two-dimensional ESEEM techniques. In addition, 1H ENDOR experiments were performed on these compounds. The experimental 15N hyperfine couplings of the chlorophyll a radical cation are compared with theoretical ones obtained by RHF-INDO/SP calculations and with the respective hyperfine couplings in the closely related 15N-bacteriochlorophyll a radical cation. Based on the observed 15N and 1H hyperfine couplings two possible models are discussed for P 700+: (a) the special pair model with a strongly asymmetric spin density distribution over the dimer halves; (b) the model of a strongly perturbed chlorophyll a monomer.

  2. Principles of protein labeling techniques.

    PubMed

    Obermaier, Christian; Griebel, Anja; Westermeier, Reiner

    2015-01-01

    Protein labeling methods prior to separation and analysis have become indispensable approaches for proteomic profiling. Basically, three different types of tags are employed: stable isotopes, mass tags, and fluorophores. While proteins labeled with stable isotopes and mass tags are measured and differentiated by mass spectrometry, fluorescent labels are detected with fluorescence imagers. The major purposes for protein labeling are monitoring of biological processes, reliable quantification of compounds and specific detection of protein modifications and isoforms in multiplexed samples, enhancement of detection sensitivity, and simplification of detection workflows. Proteins can be labeled during cell growth by incorporation of amino acids containing different isotopes, or in biological fluids, cells or tissue samples by attaching specific groups to the ε-amino group of lysine, the N-terminus, or the cysteine residues. The principles and the modifications of the different labeling approaches on the protein level are described; benefits and shortcomings of the methods are discussed.

  3. Mammalian DNA δ15N exhibits 40‰ intramolecular variation and is unresponsive to dietary protein level

    PubMed Central

    Strable, Maggie S.; Tschanz, Carolyn L.; Varamini, Behzad; Chikaraishi, Yoshito; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We report the first high precision characterization of molecular and intramolecular δ15N of nucleosides derived from mammalian DNA. The influence of dietary protein level on brain amino acids and deoxyribonucleosides was determined to investigate whether high protein turnover would alter amino acid 15N or 13C. Pregnant guinea pig dams were fed control diets, or high or low levels of dietary protein throughout gestation, and all pups were fed control diets. Cerebellar DNA of offspring was extracted at 2 and 120 days of life, nucleosides isolated and δ15N and δ13C characterized. Mean diet δ15N = 0.45±0.33‰, compared to cerebellar whole tissue and DNA δ15N = +4.1±0.7‰ and −4.5±0.4‰, respectively. Cerebellar deoxythymidine (dT), deoxycytidine (dC), deoxyadenosine (dA), and deoxyguanosine (dG) δ15N were +1.4±0.4, −2.1±0.9, −7.2±0.3, and −10.4±0.5‰, respectively. There were no changes in amino acid or deoxyribonucleoside δ15N due to dietary protein level. Using known metabolic relationships, we developed equations to calculate the intramolecular δ15N originating from aspartate (asp) in purines (pur) or pyrimidines (pyr), glutamine (glu), and glycine (gly) to be δ15NASP-PUR, δ15NASP-PYR, δ15NGLN, and δ15NGLY +11.9±2.3‰, +7.0±2.0‰, −9.1±2.4‰, and −31.8±8.9‰, respectively. A subset of twelve amino acids from food and brain had mean δ15N of 4.3±3.2‰ and 13.8±3.1‰, respectively, and δ15N for gly and asp were 12.6±2.2‰ and 15.2±0.8‰, respectively. A separate isotope tracer study detected no significant turnover of cerebellar DNA in the first six months of life. The large negative δ15N difference between gly and cerebellar purine N at the gly (7) position implies either that there is a major isotope effect during DNA synthesis, or that in utero gly has a different isotope ratio during rapid growth and metabolism than in adult life. Our data show that cerebellar nucleoside intramolecular δ15N vary over more than

  4. Fermentation and Cost-Effective 13C/15N Labeling of the Nonribosomal Peptide Gramicidin S for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structure Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berditsch, Marina; Afonin, Sergii; Steineker, Anna; Orel, Nataliia; Jakovkin, Igor; Weber, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Gramicidin S (GS) is a nonribosomally synthesized decapeptide from Aneurinibacillus migulanus. Its pronounced antibiotic activity is attributed to amphiphilic structure and enables GS interaction with bacterial membranes. Despite its medical use for over 70 years, the peptide-lipid interactions of GS and its molecular mechanism of action are still not fully understood. Therefore, a comprehensive structural analysis of isotope-labeled GS needs to be performed in its biologically relevant membrane-bound state, using advanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Here, we describe an efficient method for producing the uniformly 13C/15N-labeled peptide in a minimal medium supplemented by selected amino acids. As GS is an intracellular product of A. migulanus, we characterized the producer strain DSM 5759 (rough-convex phenotype) and examined its biosynthetic activity in terms of absolute and biomass-dependent peptide accumulation. We found that the addition of either arginine or ornithine increases the yield only at very high supplementing concentrations (1% and 0.4%, respectively) of these expensive 13C/15N-labeled amino acids. The most cost-effective production of 13C/15N-GS, giving up to 90 mg per gram of dry cell weight, was achieved in a minimal medium containing 1% 13C-glycerol and 0.5% 15N-ammonium sulfate, supplemented with only 0.025% of 13C/15N-phenylalanine. The 100% efficiency of labeling is corroborated by mass spectrometry and preliminary solid-state NMR structure analysis of the labeled peptide in the membrane-bound state. PMID:25795666

  5. Nitrogen sources for current-year shoot growth in 50-year-old sessile oak trees: an in situ (15)N labeling approach.

    PubMed

    El Zein, Rana; Bréda, Nathalie; Gérant, Dominique; Zeller, Bernd; Maillard, P

    2011-12-01

    We used long-term in situ (15)N labeling of the soil to investigate the contribution of the two main nitrogen (N) sources (N uptake versus N reserves) to sun shoot growth from bud burst to full leaf expansion in 50-year-old sessile oaks. Recovery of (15)N by growing compartments (leaves, twigs and buds) and presence of (15)N in phloem sap were checked weekly. During the first 2 weeks following bud burst, remobilized N contributed ~90% of total N in growing leaves and twigs. Nitrogen uptake from the soil started concomitantly with N remobilization but contributed only slightly to bud burst. However, the fraction of total N due to N uptake increased markedly once bud burst had occurred, reaching 27% in fully expanded leaves and 18% in developed twigs. In phloem sap, the (15)N label appeared a few days after the beginning of labeling and increased until the end of bud burst, and then decreased at full leaf expansion in June. Of all the shoot compartments, leaves attracted most of the absorbed N, which accounted for 68% of new N in shoots, whereas twigs and new buds accounted for only 28 and 3%, respectively. New N allocated to leaves increased from unfolding to full expansion as total N concentration in the leaves decreased. Our results underline the crucial role played by stored N in rapid leaf growth and in the sustained growth of oak trees. Any factors that reduce N storage in autumn may therefore impair spring shoot growth.

  6. Evaluation of 2D-ESEEM data of 15N-labeled radical cations of the primary donor P 700 in photosystem I and chlorophyll a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käβ, H.; Lubitz, W.

    1996-03-01

    Hyperfine couplings (hfc's) of the nitrogen nuclei in the 15N-labeled radical cations of chlorophyll a and the primary donor P 700 in photosystem I of spinach were investigated in frozen solution by two-dimensional stimulated echo ESEEM. 15N hfc tensors were evaluated by comparison of the experimental data with simulations of the time domain and frequency domain ESEEM signals. The results are discussed in the framework of a chlorophyll a dimer model for the radical cation of P 700.

  7. Coupling sap flow velocity and amino acid concentrations as an alternative method to (15)N labeling for quantifying nitrogen remobilization by walnut trees.

    PubMed

    Frak, Ela; Millard, Peter; Le Roux, Xavier; Guillaumie, Sabine; Wendler, Renate

    2002-10-01

    The temporal dynamics of N remobilization was studied in walnut (Juglans nigra x regia) trees growing in sand culture. Trees were fed with labeled N ((15)N) during 1999 and unlabeled N in 2000. Total N and (15)N contents in different tree compartments were measured during 80 d after bud burst and were used to estimate N remobilization for spring growth. The seasonal (and occasionally diurnal) dynamics of the concentration and (15)N enrichment of the major amino acids in xylem sap were determined concurrently. Sap flow velocity was also measured for sample trees. A new approach coupling amino acid concentrations to sap flow velocity for quantifying N remobilization was tested. A decrease of the labeled N contents of medium roots, tap roots, and trunk was observed concurrently to the increase in the labeled N content of new shoots. Remobilized N represented from previous year storage 54% of N recovered in new shoots. Arginine, citruline, gamma-amino butyric acid, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid always represented around 80% of total amino acid and amide N in xylem sap and exhibited specific seasonal trends and significant diurnal trends. N translocation was mainly insured by arginine during the first 15 d after bud burst, and then by glutamic acid and citruline. The pattern of N remobilization estimated by the new approach was consistent with that measured by the classical labeling technique. Implications for quantifying N remobilization for large, field-growing trees are discussed.

  8. Coupling Sap Flow Velocity and Amino Acid Concentrations as an Alternative Method to 15N Labeling for Quantifying Nitrogen Remobilization by Walnut Trees1

    PubMed Central

    Frak, Ela; Millard, Peter; Le Roux, Xavier; Guillaumie, Sabine; Wendler, Renate

    2002-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of N remobilization was studied in walnut (Juglans nigra × regia) trees growing in sand culture. Trees were fed with labeled N (15N) during 1999 and unlabeled N in 2000. Total N and 15N contents in different tree compartments were measured during 80 d after bud burst and were used to estimate N remobilization for spring growth. The seasonal (and occasionally diurnal) dynamics of the concentration and 15N enrichment of the major amino acids in xylem sap were determined concurrently. Sap flow velocity was also measured for sample trees. A new approach coupling amino acid concentrations to sap flow velocity for quantifying N remobilization was tested. A decrease of the labeled N contents of medium roots, tap roots, and trunk was observed concurrently to the increase in the labeled N content of new shoots. Remobilized N represented from previous year storage 54% of N recovered in new shoots. Arginine, citruline, γ-amino butyric acid, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid always represented around 80% of total amino acid and amide N in xylem sap and exhibited specific seasonal trends and significant diurnal trends. N translocation was mainly insured by arginine during the first 15 d after bud burst, and then by glutamic acid and citruline. The pattern of N remobilization estimated by the new approach was consistent with that measured by the classical labeling technique. Implications for quantifying N remobilization for large, field-growing trees are discussed. PMID:12376667

  9. The Kinetics of Intramolecular Distribution of 15N in Uric Acid after Administration of [15N]Glycine A REAPPRAISAL OF THE SIGNIFICANCE OF PREFERENTIAL LABELING OF N-(3 + 9) OF URIC ACID IN PRIMARY GOUT

    PubMed Central

    Sperling, Oded; Wyngaarden, James B.; Starmer, C. Frank

    1973-01-01

    The concept of an abnormality of glutamine metabolism in primary gout was first proposed on the basis of isotope data: when [15N]glycine was administered to gouty subjects, there was disproportionately great enrichment of N-(3 + 9) of uric acid, which derive from the amide-N of glutamine. An unduly high concentration of 15N in glutamine was postulated, and attributed to a hypothetical defect in catabolism of glutamine. Excess glutamine was proposed as the driving force of uric acid overproduction. We have reexamined this proposition in four gouty subjects: one mild overproducer of uric acid with “idiopathic gout,” one marked overproducer with high-grade but “partial” hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase deficiency, and two extraordinary overproducers with superactive phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetases. In the last three, the driving force of excessive purine biosynthesis is a known surplus of α-5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate. Disproportionately high labeling of N-(3 + 9) was present in all four gouty subjects, most marked in the most flamboyant overproducers. The precursor glucine pool was sampled by periodic administration of benzoic acid and isolation of urinary hippuric acid. Similarly, the precursor glutamine pool was sampled by periodic administration of phenylacetic acid and isolation of the amide-N of urinary phenylacetylglutamine. The time course of 15N enrichment of hippurate differed from that of the amide-N of glutamine. Whereas initial enrichment values of hippurate were very high, those of glutamine-amide-N were low, increasing to a maximum at about 3 h, and then declining less rapidly than those of hippurate. However, enrichment values of hippurate and of phenacetyl glutamine were normal in all of the gouty subjects studied. Thus, preferential enrichment of N-(3 + 9) in gouty overproducers given [15N]glycine does not necessarily reflect a specific abnormality of glutamine metabolism, but rather appears to be a kinetic

  10. 1H, 13C and 15N NMR assignments of a calcium-binding protein from Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Verma, Deepshikha; Bhattacharya, Alok; Chary, Kandala V R

    2016-04-01

    We report almost complete sequence specific (1)H, (13)C and (15)N NMR assignments of a 150-residue long calmodulin-like calcium-binding protein from Entamoeba histolytica (EhCaBP6), as a prelude to its structural and functional characterization.

  11. [Absorption and distribution of nitrogen from 15N labelled urea applied at core-hardening stage in winter jujube].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dengchao; Jiang, Yuanmao; Peng, Futian; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Xu; Ju, Xiaotang; Zhang, Fusuo

    2006-01-01

    The study with pot experiment showed that at the rapid-swelling stage of winter jujube fruit, the percent of nitrogen derived from fertilizer (Ndff%) was the highest (10.64%) in fine roots, followed by new-growth nutritive organs. The absorbed urea-15N decreased in leaves and deciduous supers, and accumulated preferentially in root systems after harvest. The Ndff% in coarse roots was the highest (3.69%) before budding stage, while that in new-growth organs (new branches, deciduous supers, leaves and flowers) was the highest at full-blooming stage. The urea-15N applied at core-hardening stage mainly allocated in nutritive organs (leaves, deciduous supers, roots) in the first year, with the distribution rate 54.01% in root systems in winter, which was higher than that in branches (45.99%). The 15N stored in main branches changed drastically from post-harvest to budding stage. Main branches could be regarded as the 'target organs' of N storage, while coarse roots were the 'long-term sink' of N storage. The N reserve distributed preferentially in contiguity organs, and the distribution center changed with the growth and development of winter jujube in next spring.

  12. Amino acids as a nitrogen source in temperate upland grasslands: the use of dual labelled ((13)C, (15)N) glycine to test for direct uptake by dominant grasses.

    PubMed

    Streeter, T C; Bol, R; Bardgett, R D

    2000-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that soil amino acids are a principal source of nitrogen (N) for certain plants, and especially those of N-limited environments. This study of temperate upland grasslands used glycine-2-(13)C-(15)N and ((15)NH4)(2)SO(4) labelling techniques to test the hypothesis that plant species which dominate 'unimproved' semi-natural grasslands (Festuca-Agrostis-Galium) are able to utilise amino acid N for growth, whereas those plants which dominate 'improved' grasslands (Lolium-Cynosurus), that receive regular applications of inorganic fertiliser, use inorganic N forms as their main N source. Data from field experiments confirmed that 'free' amino acids were more abundant in 'unimproved' than 'improved' grassland and that glycine was the dominant amino acid type (up to 42% of total). Secondly, the injection of representative amounts of glycine-2-(13)C-(15)N (4.76 and 42.86 mM) into intact soil cores from the two grassland types provided evidence of direct uptake of glycine by plants, with both (15)N and (13)C being detected in plant material of both grasslands. Finally, a microcosm experiment demonstrated no preferential uptake of amino acid N by the grasses which dominate the grassland types, namely Holcus lanatus, Festuca rubra, Agrostis capillaris from the 'unimproved' grassland, and Lolium perenne from the 'improved' grassland. Again, both (13)C and (15)N were detected in all grass species suggesting uptake of intact glycine by these plants.

  13. Proton-decoupled CPMG: a better experiment for measuring (15)N R2 relaxation in disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Yuwen, Tairan; Skrynnikov, Nikolai R

    2014-04-01

    (15)N R2 relaxation is one of the most informative experiments for characterization of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Small changes in nitrogen R2 rates are often used to determine how IDPs respond to various biologically relevant perturbations such as point mutations, posttranslational modifications and weak ligand interactions. However collecting high-quality (15)N relaxation data can be difficult. Of necessity, the samples of IDPs are often prepared with low protein concentration and the measurement time can be limited because of rapid sample degradation. Furthermore, due to hardware limitations standard experiments such as (15)N spin-lock and CPMG can sample the relaxation decay only to ca. 150ms. This is much shorter than (15)N T2 times in disordered proteins at or near physiological temperature. As a result, the sampling of relaxation decay profiles in these experiments is suboptimal, which further lowers the precision of the measurements. Here we report a new implementation of the proton-decoupled (PD) CPMG experiment which allows one to sample (15)N R2 relaxation decay up to ca. 0.5-1s. The new experiment has been validated through comparison with the well-established spin-lock measurement. Using dilute samples of denatured ubiquitin, we have demonstrated that PD-CPMG produces up to 3-fold improvement in the precision of the data. It is expected that for intrinsically disordered proteins the gains may be even more substantial. We have also shown that this sequence has a number of favorable properties: (i) the spectra are recorded with narrow linewidth in nitrogen dimension; (ii) (15)N offset correction is small and easy to calculate; (iii) the experiment is immune to various spurious effects arising from solvent exchange; (iv) the results are stable with respect to pulse miscalibration and rf field inhomogeneity; (v) with minimal change, the pulse sequence can also be used to measure R2 relaxation of (15)N(ε) spins in arginine side chains. We

  14. Amino acid-selective isotope labeling of proteins for nuclear magnetic resonance study: proteins secreted by Brevibacillus choshinensis.

    PubMed

    Tanio, Michikazu; Tanaka, Rikou; Tanaka, Takeshi; Kohno, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-15

    Here we report the first application of amino acid-type selective (AATS) isotope labeling of a recombinant protein secreted by Brevibacillus choshinensis for a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study. To prepare the 15N-AATS-labeled protein, the transformed B. choshinensis was cultured in 15N-labeled amino acid-containing C.H.L. medium, which is commonly used in the Escherichia coli expression system. The analyses of the 1H-15N heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) spectra of the secreted proteins with a 15N-labeled amino acid demonstrated that alanine, arginine, asparagine, cysteine, glutamine, histidine, lysine, methionine, and valine are suitable for selective labeling, although acidic and aromatic amino acids are not suitable. The 15N labeling for glycine, isoleucine, leucine, serine, and threonine resulted in scrambling to specific amino acids. These results indicate that the B. choshinensis expression system is an alternative tool for AATS labeling of recombinant proteins, especially secretory proteins, for NMR analyses.

  15. Combining combing and secondary ion mass spectrometry to study DNA on chips using 13C and 15N labeling

    PubMed Central

    Cabin-Flaman, Armelle; Monnier, Anne-Francoise; Coffinier, Yannick; Audinot, Jean-Nicolas; Gibouin, David; Wirtz, Tom; Boukherroub, Rabah; Migeon, Henri-Noël; Bensimon, Aaron; Jannière, Laurent; Ripoll, Camille; Norris, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry ( D-SIMS) imaging of combed DNA – the combing, imaging by SIMS or CIS method – has been developed previously using a standard NanoSIMS 50 to reveal, on the 50 nm scale, individual DNA fibers labeled with different, non-radioactive isotopes in vivo and to quantify these isotopes. This makes CIS especially suitable for determining the times, places and rates of DNA synthesis as well as the detection of the fine-scale re-arrangements of DNA and of molecules associated with combed DNA fibers. Here, we show how CIS may be extended to 13C-labeling via the detection and quantification of the 13C 14N - recombinant ion and the use of the 13C: 12C ratio, we discuss how CIS might permit three successive labels, and we suggest ideas that might be explored using CIS. PMID:27429742

  16. Proton-decoupled CPMG: A better experiment for measuring 15N R2 relaxation in disordered proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuwen, Tairan; Skrynnikov, Nikolai R.

    2014-04-01

    15N R2 relaxation is one of the most informative experiments for characterization of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs). Small changes in nitrogen R2 rates are often used to determine how IDPs respond to various biologically relevant perturbations such as point mutations, posttranslational modifications and weak ligand interactions. However collecting high-quality 15N relaxation data can be difficult. Of necessity, the samples of IDPs are often prepared with low protein concentration and the measurement time can be limited because of rapid sample degradation. Furthermore, due to hardware limitations standard experiments such as 15N spin-lock and CPMG can sample the relaxation decay only to ca. 150 ms. This is much shorter than 15N T2 times in disordered proteins at or near physiological temperature. As a result, the sampling of relaxation decay profiles in these experiments is suboptimal, which further lowers the precision of the measurements. Here we report a new implementation of the proton-decoupled (PD) CPMG experiment which allows one to sample 15N R2 relaxation decay up to ca. 0.5-1 s. The new experiment has been validated through comparison with the well-established spin-lock measurement. Using dilute samples of denatured ubiquitin, we have demonstrated that PD-CPMG produces up to 3-fold improvement in the precision of the data. It is expected that for intrinsically disordered proteins the gains may be even more substantial. We have also shown that this sequence has a number of favorable properties: (i) the spectra are recorded with narrow linewidth in nitrogen dimension; (ii) 15N offset correction is small and easy to calculate; (iii) the experiment is immune to various spurious effects arising from solvent exchange; (iv) the results are stable with respect to pulse miscalibration and rf field inhomogeneity; (v) with minimal change, the pulse sequence can also be used to measure R2 relaxation of 15Nε spins in arginine side chains. We anticipate that

  17. Intramolecular N-Glycan/Polypeptide Interactions Observed at Multiple N-Glycan Remodeling Steps through [13C,15N]-N-Acetylglucosamine Labeling of Immunoglobulin G1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Asparagine-linked (N) glycosylation is a common eukaryotic protein modification that affects protein folding, function, and stability through intramolecular interactions between N-glycan and polypeptide residues. Attempts to characterize the structure–activity relationship of each N-glycan are hindered by inherent properties of the glycoprotein, including glycan conformational and compositional heterogeneity. These limitations can be addressed by using a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance techniques following enzymatic glycan remodeling to simultaneously generate homogeneous glycoforms. However, widely applicable methods do not yet exist. To address this technological gap, immature glycoforms of the immunoglobulin G1 fragment crystallizable (Fc) were isolated in a homogeneous state and enzymatically remodeled with [13C,15N]-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). UDP-[13C,15N]GlcNAc was synthesized enzymatically in a one-pot reaction from [13C]glucose and [15N-amido]glutamine. Modifying Fc with recombinantly expressed glycosyltransferases (Gnt1 and Gnt2) and UDP-[13C,15N]GlcNAc resulted in complete glycoform conversion as judged by mass spectrometry. Two-dimensional heteronuclear single-quantum coherence spectra of the Gnt1 product, containing a single [13C,15N]GlcNAc residue on each N-glycan, showed that the N-glycan is stabilized through interactions with polypeptide residues. Similar spectra of homogeneous glycoforms, halted at different points along the N-glycan remodeling pathway, revealed the presence of an increased level of interaction between the N-glycan and polypeptide at each step, including mannose trimming, as the N-glycan was converted to a complex-type, biantennary form. Thus, conformational restriction increases as Fc N-glycan maturation proceeds. Gnt1 and Gnt2 catalyze fundamental reactions in the synthesis of every glycoprotein with a complex-type N-glycan; thus, the strategies presented herein can be applied to a broad range of glycoprotein

  18. The Cyanide Ligands of [FeFe] Hydrogenase: Pulse EPR Studies of 13C and 15N-Labeled H-Cluster

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The two cyanide ligands in the assembled cluster of [FeFe] hydrogenase originate from exogenous l-tyrosine. Using selectively labeled tyrosine substrates, the cyanides were isotopically labeled via a recently developed in vitro maturation procedure allowing advanced electron paramagnetic resonance techniques to probe the electronic structure of the catalytic core of the enzyme. The ratio of the isotropic 13C hyperfine interactions for the two CN– ligands—a reporter of spin density on their respective coordinating iron ions—collapses from ≈5.8 for the Hox form of hydrogenase to <2 for the CO-inhibited form. Additionally, when the maturation was carried out using [15N]-tyrosine, no features previously ascribed to the nitrogen of the bridging dithiolate ligand were observed suggesting that this bridge is not sourced from tyrosine. PMID:25133957

  19. Design and operation of a continuous 13C and 15N labeling chamber for uniform or differential, metabolic and structural, plant tissue isotope labeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tracing heavy stable isotopes from plant material through the ecosystem provides the most sensitive information about ecosystem processes; from CO2 fluxes and soil organic matter formation to small-scale stable-isotope biomarker probing. Coupling multiple stable isotopes such as 13C with 15N, 18O o...

  20. 13C- and 15N-Labeling Strategies Combined with Mass Spectrometry Comprehensively Quantify Phospholipid Dynamics in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Drechsler, Robin; Gafken, Philip R.; Olsen, Carissa Perez

    2015-01-01

    Membranes define cellular and organelle boundaries, a function that is critical to all living systems. Like other biomolecules, membrane lipids are dynamically maintained, but current methods are extremely limited for monitoring lipid dynamics in living animals. We developed novel strategies in C. elegans combining 13C and 15N stable isotopes with mass spectrometry to directly quantify the replenishment rates of the individual fatty acids and intact phospholipids of the membrane. Using multiple measurements of phospholipid dynamics, we found that the phospholipid pools are replaced rapidly and at rates nearly double the turnover measured for neutral lipid populations. In fact, our analysis shows that the majority of membrane lipids are replaced each day. Furthermore, we found that stearoyl-CoA desaturases (SCDs), critical enzymes in polyunsaturated fatty acid production, play an unexpected role in influencing the overall rates of membrane maintenance as SCD depletion affected the turnover of nearly all membrane lipids. Additionally, the compromised membrane maintenance as defined by LC-MS/MS with SCD RNAi resulted in active phospholipid remodeling that we predict is critical to alleviate the impact of reduced membrane maintenance in these animals. Not only have these combined methodologies identified new facets of the impact of SCDs on the membrane, but they also have great potential to reveal many undiscovered regulators of phospholipid metabolism. PMID:26528916

  1. Selecting matched root architecture in tree pairs to be used for assessing N 2 fixation based on soil- 15N-labelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasr, Hafedh; Ghorbel, Mohamed Habib; Wallander, Håkan; Dommergues, Yvon René

    2005-03-01

    It is commonly assumed that soil- 15N-labelling provides reliable estimates of N 2 fixation in trees by matching N 2-fixing and non-N 2-fixing tree pairs. As root system is a key parameter in determining suitability of the tree pairs, we compared root architecture of Acacia cyanophylla Lindl. and Casuarina glauca Sieber ex. Spreng. (two N 2-fixing trees) with Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. and Ceratonia siliqua L. (two non-N 2-fixing trees) at 4-year-old in Mediterranean-semiarid zone. The rhizobium strain used appeared more motile than Frankia strain. A. cyanophylla and E. camaldulensis had extensive rooting area and volume of fine roots, and both species tended to develop marked horizontal rooting, compared to C. glauca and C. siliqua. Characteristics of fine- and horizontal-root components can be used in selecting matched root systems of N 2-fixing and reference-paired trees. Root architecture of C. glauca was more similar to C. siliqua, than to E. camaldulensis, and that of A. cyanophylla was more similar to E. camaldulensis than to C. siliqua. Accordingly, E. camaldulensis is an appropriate reference to estimate actual N 2 fixation by A. cyanophylla, and C. siliqua is an appropriate reference for C. glauca, when using soil- 15N-labelling method in the prevailing site environment.

  2. Multi-Isotope Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry Combining Heavy Water 2H with 15N Labeling As Complementary Tracers for Metabolic Heterogeneity at the Single-Cell Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, S.; McGlynn, S.; Cowley, E.; Green, A.; Newman, D. K.; Orphan, V. J.

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic rates of microbial communities constitute a key physiological parameter for understanding the in situ growth constraints for life in any environment. Isotope labeling techniques provide a powerful approach for measuring such biological activity, due to the use of isotopically enriched substrate tracers whose incorporation into biological materials can be detected with high sensitivity by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Nano-meter scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) combined with stable isotope labeling provides a unique tool for studying the spatiometabolic activity of microbial populations at the single cell level in order to assess both community structure and population diversity. However, assessing the distribution and range of microbial activity in complex environmental systems with slow-growing organisms, diverse carbon and nitrogen sources, or heterotrophic subpopulations poses a tremendous technical challenge because the introduction of isotopically labeled substrates frequently changes the nutrient availability and can inflate or bias measures of activity. Here, we present the use of hydrogen isotope labeling with deuterated water as an important new addition to the isotopic toolkit and apply it for the determination of single cell microbial activities by NanoSIMS imaging. This tool provides a labeling technique that minimally alters any aquatic chemical environment, can be administered with strong labels even in minimal addition (natural background is very low), is an equally universal substrate for all forms of life even in complex, carbon and nitrogen saturated systems, and can be combined with other isotopic tracers. The combination of heavy water labeling with the most commonly used NanoSIMS tracer, 15N, is technically challenging but opens up a powerful new set of multi-tracer experiments for the study of microbial activity in complex communities. We present the first truly simultaneous single cell triple isotope system

  3. Balancing the (carbon) budget: Using linear inverse models to estimate carbon flows and mass-balance 13C:15N labelling experiments in low oxygen sediments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, William Ross; Van Oevelen, Dick; Witte, Ursula

    2013-04-01

    Over 1 million km2 of seafloor experience permanent low-oxygen conditions within oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). OMZs are predicted to grow as a consequence of climate change, potentially affecting oceanic biogeochemical cycles. The Arabian Sea OMZ impinges upon the western Indian continental margin at bathyal depths (150 - 1500m) producing a strong depth dependent oxygen gradient at the sea floor. The influence of the OMZ upon the short term processing of organic matter by sediment ecosystems was investigated using in situ stable isotope pulse chase experiments. These deployed doses of 13C:15N labeled organic matter onto the sediment surface at four stations from across the OMZ (water depth 540 - 1100 m; [O2] = 0.35 - 15 μM). In order to prevent experimentally anoxia, the mesocosms were not sealed. 13C and 15N labels were traced into sediment, bacteria, fauna and 13C into sediment porewater DIC and DOC. However, the DIC and DOC flux to the water column could not be measured, limiting our capacity to obtain mass-balance for C in each experimental mesocosm. Linear Inverse Modeling (LIM) provides a method to obtain a mass-balanced model of carbon flow that integrates stable-isotope tracer data with community biomass and biogeochemical flux data from a range of sources. Here we present an adaptation of the LIM methodology used to investigate how ecosystem structure influenced carbon flow across the Indian margin OMZ. We demonstrate how oxygen conditions affect food-web complexity, affecting the linkages between the bacteria, foraminifera and metazoan fauna, and their contributions to benthic respiration. The food-web models demonstrate how changes in ecosystem complexity are associated with oxygen availability across the OMZ and allow us to obtain a complete carbon budget for the stationa where stable-isotope labelling experiments were conducted.

  4. NMR studies on /sup 15/N-labeled creatine (CR), creatinine (CRN), phosphocreatine (PCR), and phosphocreatinine (PCRN), and on barriers to rotation in creatine kinase-bound creatine in the enzymatic reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, G.L.; Reddick, R.E.

    1986-05-01

    Recently, the authors have synthesized /sup 15/N-2-Cr, /sup 15/N-3-Crn, /sup 15/N-2-Crn, /sup 15/N-3-PCrn, /sup 15/N-3-PCr, and /sup 15/N-2-PCr. /sup 1/H, /sup 15/N, /sup 31/P NMR data show that Crn protonates exclusively at the non-methylated ring nitrogen, confirm that PCrn is phosphorylated at the exocyclic nitrogen, and demonstrate that the /sup 31/P-/sup 15/N one-bond coupling constant in /sup 15/N-3-PCr is 18 Hz, not 3 Hz as previously reported by Brindle, K.M., Porteous, R. and Radda, G.K.. The authors have found that creatine kinase is capable of catalyzing the /sup 14/N//sup 15/N positional isotope exchange of 3-/sup 15/N-PCr in the presence of MgADP, but not in its absence. Further, the exchange does not take place when labeled PCr is resynthesized exclusively from the ternary complex E X Cr X MgATP as opposed to either E X Cr or free Cr. This suggests that the enzyme both imparts an additional rotational barrier to creatine in the complex and catalyzes the transfer of phosphoryl group with essentially complete regiospecificity.

  5. Estimation of internal and external nitrogen for corals with a long-term 15N-labelling experiment and subsequent model calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Yasuaki; Grottoli, Andréa; Matsui, Yohei; Suzuki, Atsushi; Sakai, Kazuhiko

    2014-05-01

    Coral reef ecosystems maintain high primary productivity though the seawater is extremely oligotrophic. One of the hypotheses to explain this paradox is the recycling of nutrients in animal-algal symbiotic organisms such as corals. It is relatively easy to measure nutrient uptake rates by corals from seawater, but the proportion of internally circulating nutrients between the coral host and the endosymbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) is more challenging. Here, we performed a long-term and continuous 15N-labelling experiment to quantify the proportionate contribution of seawater (external N source) and the animal host (internal N source) to the total N influx in the endosymbiotic algae. Branches from the scleractinian corals Porites cylindrica and Montipora digitata from Okinawa, Japan, were cultured for 2 months in indoor, flow-through, filtered seawater tanks with the continuous supply of 15N-labelled nitrate. At the initial and after 2, 4, and 9 weeks of the study, coral branches were collected and the algal and animal fractions were separated for isotopic analyses. In both corals, the N isotope ratio of symbiotic algae exponentially increased and the values were much higher than those of the host tissue, suggesting that the algae had a faster turnover N time than the animal host. Algal and host N biomass normalized to the coral surface area slowly decreased in both coral species over the study period. To calculate the contribution of internal and external N, a simple mixing model of algal N metabolism was designed. Using differential equations of 15N balance and N biomass balance, F1 and F2 (external and internal N fluxes to symbiotic algae, respectively) were expressed as the functions of time. The model calculations showed that F2 was much higher than F1 in P. cylindrica and the percentage of internal N to the total influx N (PIN) was >70%. On the other hand, the contribution of F1 and F2 was comparable in M. digitata and the PIN was 40-70%. These results

  6. Competition for /sup 15/N labelled ammonium between Trifolium subterraneum L. and Lolium multiflorium L. when grown in a mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz Espinoza, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    Grasses and legumes are often grown in association in pastures because total herbage yield and forage quality is often higher than a monoculture grass sward. The competitive ability of the forage species for mineral N influences the stability of the mixed pasture. Mt. Barker subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) Gulf ryegrass (Lolium multiflorium L.) were grown in pure stands and in mixtures in 3.8 I pots filled with exploded vermiculite to quantity the competition for applied mineral nitrogen (N). The isotope dilution technique using /sup 15/NH/sub 4/ was used. Also, the effect of increasing rates of fertilizer N on nodulation and fixation by subterranean clover and the rate of N uptake of subterranean clover and ryegrass was measured. The acetylene-ethylene technique and nodulation rating were used to examine the effect of N fertilization on fixation and nodulation. The uptake of N fertilizer by subterranean clover and ryegrass in both pure stands and the mixtures increased as the rate of fertilizer N applied increased. When grown in a pure stand, subterranean clover recovered a comparable amount of fertilizer N, but when grown in mixture with ryegrass, subterranean clover recovered from 44 to 364 mg of N. Ryegrass recovered 2 times the amount of labelled N in 6 hours than subterranean clover. The rate of N uptake was not due to differences in root fresh weight or dry weight. Ryegrass appeared to be a better competitor for NH/sub 4/ than subterranean clover because of the greater rate of uptake.

  7. Modeling 15N NMR chemical shift changes in protein backbone with pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Penna, Giovanni; Mori, Yoshiharu; Kitahara, Ryo; Akasaka, Kazuyuki; Okamoto, Yuko

    2016-08-01

    Nitrogen chemical shift is a useful parameter for determining the backbone three-dimensional structure of proteins. Empirical models for fast calculation of N chemical shift are improving their reliability, but there are subtle effects that cannot be easily interpreted. Among these, the effects of slight changes in hydrogen bonds, both intramolecular and with water molecules in the solvent, are particularly difficult to predict. On the other hand, these hydrogen bonds are sensitive to changes in protein environment. In this work, the change of N chemical shift with pressure for backbone segments in the protein ubiquitin is correlated with the change in the population of hydrogen bonds involving the backbone amide group. The different extent of interaction of protein backbone with the water molecules in the solvent is put in evidence.

  8. Protein dynamics from chemical shift and dipolar rotational spin-echo sup 15 N NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Garbow, J.R.; Jacob, G.S.; Stejskal, E.O.; Schaefer, J. )

    1989-02-07

    The partial collapse of dipolar and chemical shift tensors for peptide NH and for the amide NH at cross-link sites in cell wall peptidoglycan, of intact lyophilized cells of Aerococcus viridans, indicates NH vector root-mean-square fluctuations of 23{degree}. This result is consistent with the local mobility calculated in typical picosecond regime computer simulations of protein dynamics in the solid state. The experimental root-mean-square angular fluctuations for both types of NH vectors increase to 37{degree} for viable wet cells at 10{degree}C. The similarity in mobilities for both general protein and cell wall peptidoglycan suggests that one additional motion in wet cells involves cooperative fluctuations of segments of cell walls, attached proteins, and associated cytoplasmic proteins.

  9. Modeling (15)N NMR chemical shift changes in protein backbone with pressure.

    PubMed

    La Penna, Giovanni; Mori, Yoshiharu; Kitahara, Ryo; Akasaka, Kazuyuki; Okamoto, Yuko

    2016-08-28

    Nitrogen chemical shift is a useful parameter for determining the backbone three-dimensional structure of proteins. Empirical models for fast calculation of N chemical shift are improving their reliability, but there are subtle effects that cannot be easily interpreted. Among these, the effects of slight changes in hydrogen bonds, both intramolecular and with water molecules in the solvent, are particularly difficult to predict. On the other hand, these hydrogen bonds are sensitive to changes in protein environment. In this work, the change of N chemical shift with pressure for backbone segments in the protein ubiquitin is correlated with the change in the population of hydrogen bonds involving the backbone amide group. The different extent of interaction of protein backbone with the water molecules in the solvent is put in evidence.

  10. Through-space (19) F-(15) N couplings for the assignment of stereochemistry in flubenzimine.

    PubMed

    Ghiviriga, Ion; Rubinski, Miles A; Dolbier, William R

    2016-07-01

    Through-space (19) F-(15) N couplings revealed the configuration of flubenzimine, with the CF3 group on N4 pointing towards the lone pair of N5. The (19) F-(15) N coupling constants were measured at natural abundance using a spin-state selective indirect-detection pulse sequence. As (15) N-labelled proteins are routinely synthesized for NMR studies, through-space (19) F-(15) N couplings have the potential to probe the stereochemistry of these proteins by (19) F labelling of some amino acids or can reveal the site of docking of fluorine-containing drugs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Use of a novel nitrification inhibitor to reduce nitrous oxide emission from (15)N-labelled dairy slurry injected into soil.

    PubMed

    Dittert, K; Bol, R; King, R; Chadwick, D; Hatch, D

    2001-01-01

    Recent recommendations for environmentally sound use of liquid animal manure often include injection of slurry into soil. Two of the most important undesired side effects, ammonia (NH(3)) volatilisation and odour emissions, are usually significantly reduced by slurry injection. On the other hand, because of the higher amount of nitrogen (N) remaining in soil, the risk of nitrate (NO(3)(-)) leaching and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions is increased. Thus, the reduction of local effects caused by NH(3) deposition, e.g. N enrichment and soil acidification, may be at the cost of large-scale effects such as ozone depletion and global warming as a result of emitted N(2)O. In this context, nitrification inhibitors can contribute significantly to a reduction in NO(3)(-) leaching and N(2)O production. A field experiment was carried out at IGER, North Wyke, which aimed to evaluate the effect of the new nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP/ENTEC). For this experiment, (15)N enriched dairy slurry was used and the isotopic label in soil N as well as in N(2)O were studied. After slurry injection into the grassland soil in August 2000, the major emissions of N(2)O occurred during the first ten days. As expected, high N(2)O emission rates and (15)N content of the emissions were concentrated on the slurry injection slots, showing a steep decrease towards the untreated centre-point between slurry injection slots. The nitrification inhibitor DMPP proved to be very efficient in reducing N(2)O emissions. At a rate of 2 kg DMPP ha(-1), the total amount of N(2)O emitted was reduced by 32%, when compared with slurry injection without DMPP. The isotopic label of the emitted N(2)O showed that during the 22-day experimental period, emissions from the slurry N pool were strongly reduced by DMPP from 0.93 kg N(2)O-N ha(-1) (-DMPP) to 0.50 kg N(2)O-N ha(-1) (+DMPP), while only a minor effect on emissions from the soil N pool was observed (0.69 to 0.60 kg N(2)O-N ha(-1

  12. Dynamics of exogenous nitrogen partitioning and nitrogen remobilization from vegetative organs in pea revealed by 15N in vivo labeling throughout seed filling.

    PubMed

    Schiltz, Séverine; Munier-Jolain, Nathalie; Jeudy, Christian; Burstin, Judith; Salon, Christophe

    2005-04-01

    The fluxes of (1) exogenous nitrogen (N) assimilation and (2) remobilization of endogenous N from vegetative plant compartments were measured by 15N labeling during the seed-filling period in pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Cameor), to better understand the mechanism of N remobilization. While the majority (86%) of exogenous N was allocated to the vegetative organs before the beginning of seed filling, this fraction decreased to 45% at the onset of seed filling, the remainder being directed to seeds. Nitrogen remobilization from vegetative parts contributed to 71% of the total N in mature seeds borne on the first two nodes (first stratum). The contribution of remobilized N to total seed N varied, with the highest proportion at the beginning of filling; it was independent of the developmental stage of each stratum of seeds, suggesting that remobilized N forms a unique pool, managed at the whole-plant level and supplied to all filling seeds whatever their position on the plant. Once seed filling starts, N is remobilized from all vegetative organs: 30% of the total N accumulated in seeds was remobilized from leaves, 20% from pod walls, 11% from roots, and 10% from stems. The rate of N remobilization was maximal when seeds of all the different strata were filling, consistent with regulation according to the N demand of seeds. At later stages of seed filling, the rate of remobilization decreases and may become controlled by the amount of residual N in vegetative tissues.

  13. Dynamics of Exogenous Nitrogen Partitioning and Nitrogen Remobilization from Vegetative Organs in Pea Revealed by 15N in Vivo Labeling throughout Seed Filling1

    PubMed Central

    Schiltz, Séverine; Munier-Jolain, Nathalie; Jeudy, Christian; Burstin, Judith; Salon, Christophe

    2005-01-01

    The fluxes of (1) exogenous nitrogen (N) assimilation and (2) remobilization of endogenous N from vegetative plant compartments were measured by 15N labeling during the seed-filling period in pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Caméor), to better understand the mechanism of N remobilization. While the majority (86%) of exogenous N was allocated to the vegetative organs before the beginning of seed filling, this fraction decreased to 45% at the onset of seed filling, the remainder being directed to seeds. Nitrogen remobilization from vegetative parts contributed to 71% of the total N in mature seeds borne on the first two nodes (first stratum). The contribution of remobilized N to total seed N varied, with the highest proportion at the beginning of filling; it was independent of the developmental stage of each stratum of seeds, suggesting that remobilized N forms a unique pool, managed at the whole-plant level and supplied to all filling seeds whatever their position on the plant. Once seed filling starts, N is remobilized from all vegetative organs: 30% of the total N accumulated in seeds was remobilized from leaves, 20% from pod walls, 11% from roots, and 10% from stems. The rate of N remobilization was maximal when seeds of all the different strata were filling, consistent with regulation according to the N demand of seeds. At later stages of seed filling, the rate of remobilization decreases and may become controlled by the amount of residual N in vegetative tissues. PMID:15793068

  14. Simple and accurate determination of global tau(R) in proteins using (13)C or (15)N relaxation data.

    PubMed

    Mispelter, J; Izadi-Pruneyre, N; Quiniou, E; Adjadj, E

    2000-03-01

    In the study of protein dynamics by (13)C or (15)N relaxation measurements different models from the Lipari-Szabo formalism are used in order to determine the motion parameters. The global rotational correlation time tau(R) of the molecule must be estimated prior to the analysis. In this Communication, the authors propose a new approach in determining an accurate value for tau(R) in order to realize the best fit of R(2) for the whole sequence of the protein, regardless of the different type of motions atoms may experience. The method first determines the highly structured regions of the sequence. For each corresponding site, the Lipari-Szabo parameters are calculated for R(1) and NOE, using an arbitrary value for tau(R). The chi(2) for R(2), summed over the selected sites, shows a clear minimum, as a function of tau(R). This minimum is used to better estimate a proper value for tau(R).

  15. Luminogenic "clickable" lanthanide complexes for protein labeling.

    PubMed

    Candelon, Nicolas; Hădade, Niculina D; Matache, Mihaela; Canet, Jean-Louis; Cisnetti, Federico; Funeriu, Daniel P; Nauton, Lionel; Gautier, Arnaud

    2013-10-14

    Development of lanthanide-based luminescent "switch-on" systems via azide-alkyne [3+2] cycloaddition is described. We used these for non-specific protein labeling and as tags for specific and selective activity-based protein labeling.

  16. (15)N Double-labeled guanosine from inosine through ring-opening-ring-closing and one-pot Pd-catalyzed C-O and C-N cross-coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Caner, Joaquim; Vilarrasa, Jaume

    2010-07-16

    [N,1-(15)N(2)]-Guanosine, or [1,NH(2)-(15)N(2)]-guanosine, and derivatives were prepared from tri-O-acetylinosine, via N-nitration and reaction with (15)NH(2)OH, followed by conversion of the (15)N-labeled 1-hydroxyinosine to the corresponding 2,6-dichloropurine riboside. The sequential one-pot C-O and C-N key couplings of this dichloro derivative with PhCH(2)OH and PhCO(15)NH(2) or (i)PrCO(15)NH(2) was achieved in good overall yields, with Pd(0)-Xantphos as the best choice of five different catalytic systems examined.

  17. Synthesis of 3H, 13C,2H3,15N and 14C-labelled SCH 466036, a histamine 3 receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Hesk, D; Borges, S; Dumpit, R; Hendershot, S; Koharski, D; Lavey, C; McNamara, P; Voronin, K

    2015-02-01

    The synthesis of [(3)H]SCH 466036, [Me-(3)H3]SCH 466036, [(13)C,(2)H3,(15)N]SCH 466036 and [(14)C]SCH 466036 is described. [(3)H]SCH 466036 was prepared in two steps via Raney Ni-catalysed exchange with tritiated water. [Me-(3)H3]SCH 466036 was prepared in a single step from [(3)H]methyl iodide in 45% yield. [(13)C,(2)H3,(15)N]SCH 466036 was prepared in two steps from [(15)N]hydroxylamine and [(13)C,(2)H3]methyl iodide with an overall yield of 16%. [(14)C]SCH 466036 was prepared in seven steps from [(14)C]potassium cyanide in an overall yield of 13%.

  18. Fully automated software solution for protein quantitation by global metabolic labeling with stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Bindschedler, L V; Cramer, R

    2011-06-15

    Metabolic stable isotope labeling is increasingly employed for accurate protein (and metabolite) quantitation using mass spectrometry (MS). It provides sample-specific isotopologues that can be used to facilitate comparative analysis of two or more samples. Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC) has been used for almost a decade in proteomic research and analytical software solutions have been established that provide an easy and integrated workflow for elucidating sample abundance ratios for most MS data formats. While SILAC is a discrete labeling method using specific amino acids, global metabolic stable isotope labeling using isotopes such as (15)N labels the entire element content of the sample, i.e. for (15)N the entire peptide backbone in addition to all nitrogen-containing side chains. Although global metabolic labeling can deliver advantages with regard to isotope incorporation and costs, the requirements for data analysis are more demanding because, for instance for polypeptides, the mass difference introduced by the label depends on the amino acid composition. Consequently, there has been less progress on the automation of the data processing and mining steps for this type of protein quantitation. Here, we present a new integrated software solution for the quantitative analysis of protein expression in differential samples and show the benefits of high-resolution MS data in quantitative proteomic analyses.

  19. Protein-energy status and 15N-glycine kinetic study of child a cirrhotic patients fed low- to high-protein energy diets.

    PubMed

    Dichi, I; Dichi, J B; Papini-Berto, S J; Angeleli, A Y; Bicudo, M H; Rezende, T A; Burini, R C

    1996-01-01

    In five male cirrhotic patients (Child A) and in four age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects, whole-body protein turnover was measured using a single oral dose of 15N-glycine as a tracer and urinary ammonia as end product. Subjects were studied in the fasting and feeding state, with different levels of protein and energy intake. The patients were underweight and presented lower plasma transthyretin and retinol-binding protein levels. When compared with controls, the kinetic studies showed patients to be hypometabolic in the fasting (D0) state and with the control diet [D1 = (0.85 g of protein/ 154 kJ) x kg-1.day-1]. However, when corrected by body weight, the kinetic differences between groups disappeared, whereas the N-retention in the feeding state showed better results for the patients due mainly to their efficient breakdown decrease. When fed high-level protein or energy diets [D1 = (0.9 g protein/195 kJ) and D3 = (1.56 g protein/158 kJ) x kg-1.day-1], the patients showed D0 = D1 = D2 < D3 for N-flux and (D0 = D1) < D3 (D2 is intermediary) for protein synthesis. Thus, the present data suggest that the remaining mass of the undernourished mild cirrhotic patients has fairly good protein synthesis activity and also that protein, rather than energy intake, would be the limiting factor for increasing their whole-body protein synthesis.

  20. Recombinant isotope labeled and selenium quantified proteins for absolute protein quantification.

    PubMed

    Zinn, Nico; Winter, Dominic; Lehmann, Wolf D

    2010-03-15

    A novel, widely applicable method for the production of absolutely quantified proteins is described, which can be used as internal standards for quantitative proteomic studies based on mass spectrometry. These standards are recombinant proteins containing an isotope label and selenomethionine. For recombinant protein expression, assembly of expression vectors fitted to cell-free protein synthesis was conducted using the gateway technology which offers fast access to a variety of genes via open reading frame libraries and an easy shuttling of genes between vectors. The proteins are generated by cell-free expression in a medium in which methionine is exchanged against selenomethionine and at least one amino acid is exchanged by a highly stable isotope labeled analogue. After protein synthesis and purification, selenium is used for absolute quantification by element mass spectrometry, while the heavy amino acids in the protein serve as reference in subsequent analyses by LC-ESI-MS or MALDI-MS. Accordingly, these standards are denominated RISQ (for recombinant isotope labeled and selenium quantified) proteins. In this study, a protein was generated containing Lys+6 ([(13)C(6)]-lysine) and Arg+10 ([(13)C(6),(15)N(4)]-arginine) so that each standard tryptic peptide contains a labeled amino acid. Apolipoprotein A1 was synthesized as RISQ protein, and its use as internal standard led to quantification of a reference material within the specified value. Owing to their cell-free expression, RISQ proteins do not contain posttranslational modifications. Thus, correct quantitative data by ESI- or MALDI-MS are restricted to quantifications based on peptides derived from unmodified regions of the analyte protein. Therefore, besides serving as internal standards, RISQ proteins stand out as new tools for quantitative analysis of covalent protein modifications.

  1. Shifts in relative tissue delta15N values in snowy egret nestlings with dietary mercury exposure: a marker for increased protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Shaw-Allen, Patricia L; Romanek, Christopher S; Bryan, A L; Brant, Heather; Jagoe, Charles H

    2005-06-01

    Shifts in tissue nitrogen isotope composition may be a more sensitive general indicator of stress than measurement of high-turnover defensive biomolecules such as metallothionein and glutathione. As a physical resource transmitted along the trophic web, perturbations in protein nitrogen metabolism may also help resolve issues concerning the effects of contaminants on organisms and their consequential hierarchical linkages in ecotoxicology. Snowy egret nestlings (Egretta thula) fed mercury-contaminated diets of constant nitrogen isotope composition exhibited increased relative delta15N values in whole liver (p = 0.0011) and the acid-soluble fraction (ASF) of the liver (p = 0.0005) when compared to nestlings fed a reference diet. When nitrogen isotope data were adjusted for the source term of the diet, liver mercury concentrations corresponded with both whole liver relative 15N enrichment (r2 = 0.79, slope 0.009, p < 0.0001) and relative 15N enrichment in the acid-soluble fraction of the liver (r2 = 0.85, slope 0.026, p < 0.0001). Meanwhile, significant differences were not observed in hepatic levels of the metal-binding peptides metallothionein and glutathione despite a nearly 3-fold difference in liver mercury content. Because increases in tissue delta15N values result from increased rates of protein breakdown relative to synthesis, we propose that the increased relative liver delta15N values reflect a shift in protein metabolism. The relationship between ASF and mercury was significantly stronger (p < 0.0001) than that for whole liver, suggesting that the relationship is driven by an increase in bodily derived amino acids in the acid-soluble, free amino acid pool.

  2. Affinity labeling of protein synthesis factors

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, D.D.; Dever, T.E.; Abramson, R.D.; Lobur, M.; Merrick, W.C.

    1986-05-01

    The authors laboratory is interested in determining those eukaryotic protein synthesis factors which interact with nucleotides and mRNA. To study the binding the authors have used the nucleotides, their analogs, and mRNA analogs as listed below: (1) UV cross-linking with normal (/sup 32/P)XTP; (2) Oxidized GTP; (3) 3'p-azido benzoyl GDP (GTP); (4) 5'p-fluoro sulfonyl benzoyl guanosine; (5) 5'p-fluoro sulfonyl benzoyl adenosine; (6) oxidized mRNA. Currently, they are continuing their efforts to specifically label the proteins, and they are also trying to isolate a single labeled tryptic peptide from the proteins.

  3. Trace fluorescent labeling for protein crystallization

    PubMed Central

    Pusey, Marc; Barcena, Jorge; Morris, Michelle; Singhal, Anuj; Yuan, Qunying; Ng, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence can be a powerful tool to aid in the crystallization of proteins. In the trace-labeling approach, the protein is covalently derivatized with a high-quantum-yield visible-wavelength fluorescent probe. The final probe concentration typically labels ≤0.20% of the protein molecules, which has been shown to not affect the crystal nucleation or diffraction quality. The labeled protein is then used in a plate-screening experiment in the usual manner. As the most densely packed state of the protein is the crystalline form, then crystals show as the brightest objects in the well under fluorescent illumination. A study has been carried out on the effects of trace fluorescent labeling on the screening results obtained compared with nonlabeled protein, and it was found that considering the stochastic nature of the crystal nucleation process the presence of the probe did not affect the outcomes obtained. Other effects are realised when using fluorescence. Crystals are clearly seen even when buried in precipitate. This approach also finds ‘hidden’ leads, in the form of bright spots, with ∼30% of the leads found being optimized to crystals in a single-pass optimization trial. The use of visible fluorescence also enables the selection of colors that bypass interfering substances, and the screening materials do not have to be UV-transparent. PMID:26144224

  4. The fates of 15N-labeled fertilizer in a wheat–soil system as influenced by fertilization practice in a loamy soil

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhaoming; Wang, Huoyan; Liu, Xiaowei; Lu, Dianjun; Zhou, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate fertilization practice is crucial to achieve maximum wheat grain yield with minimum nitrogen (N) loss. A field 15N micro-plot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of application methods [split application (SA) and band application (BA)] and N rates (60, 150 and 240 kg ha−1) on the wheat grain yield, urea-15N fate and N efficiency in Jiangyan County, China. At high N rates, wheat grain yield was significantly higher for SA than BA treatment, but there was no difference at the lower N rates. Plant N derived from fertilizer was higher in SA than in BA treatment. The high N fertilizer application increased total N uptake by wheat derived from fertilizer, but wheat plant N derived from soil was not affected by the N rate. Fertilizer-N recovery in SA treatment was higher than in BA treatment. Residual N recovery in the 0–80 cm soil layer was 31–51%, which decreased with increasing N rate. The highest N loss was found for BA treatment at the N application of 240 kg ha−1. The one-time BA of N fertilizer, especially for higher N rates, led to reduced wheat grain yield and N efficiency, and increased the N loss. PMID:27713476

  5. The fates of 15N-labeled fertilizer in a wheat–soil system as influenced by fertilization practice in a loamy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhaoming; Wang, Huoyan; Liu, Xiaowei; Lu, Dianjun; Zhou, Jianmin

    2016-10-01

    Appropriate fertilization practice is crucial to achieve maximum wheat grain yield with minimum nitrogen (N) loss. A field 15N micro-plot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of application methods [split application (SA) and band application (BA)] and N rates (60, 150 and 240 kg ha‑1) on the wheat grain yield, urea-15N fate and N efficiency in Jiangyan County, China. At high N rates, wheat grain yield was significantly higher for SA than BA treatment, but there was no difference at the lower N rates. Plant N derived from fertilizer was higher in SA than in BA treatment. The high N fertilizer application increased total N uptake by wheat derived from fertilizer, but wheat plant N derived from soil was not affected by the N rate. Fertilizer-N recovery in SA treatment was higher than in BA treatment. Residual N recovery in the 0–80 cm soil layer was 31–51%, which decreased with increasing N rate. The highest N loss was found for BA treatment at the N application of 240 kg ha‑1. The one-time BA of N fertilizer, especially for higher N rates, led to reduced wheat grain yield and N efficiency, and increased the N loss.

  6. REDOR NMR of stable-isotope-labeled protein binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, J.

    1994-12-01

    Rotational-echo, double resonance (REDOR) NMR, a new analytical spectroscopic technique for solids spinning at the magic angle, has been developed over the last 5 years. REDOR provides a direct measure of heteronuclear dipolar coupling between isolated pairs of labeled nuclei. In a solid with a {sup 13}C-{sup 15}N labeled pair, for example, the {sup 13}C rotational echoes that form each rotor period following a{sup 1}H-{sup 13}C cross-polarization transfer can be prevented from reaching full intensity by insertion of a {sup 15}N {pi} pulse each half rotor period. The REDOR difference (the difference between a {sup 13}C NMR spectrum obtained under these conditions and one obtained with no {sup 15}N {pi} pulses) has a strong dependence on the {sup 13}C-{sup 15}N dipolar coupling, and hence, the {sup 13}C-{sup 15}N internuclear distance. REDOR is described as double-resonance even though three radio frequencies (typically {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N) are used because the protons are removed from the important evolution part of the experiment by resonant decoupling. The dephasing of magnetization in REDOR arises from a local dipolar {sup 13}C-{sup 15}N field gradient and involves no polarization transfer. REDOR has no dependence on {sup 13}C or {sup 15}N chemical-shift tensors and does not require resolution of a {sup 13}C-{sup 15}N coupling in the chemical-shift dimension.

  7. RFP tags for labeling secretory pathway proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Liyang; Zhao, Yanhua; Xu, Pingyong; Huan, Shuangyan

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • Membrane protein Orai1 can be used to report the fusion properties of RFPs. • Artificial puncta are affected by dissociation constant as well as pKa of RFPs. • Among tested RFPs mOrange2 is the best choice for secretory protein labeling. - Abstract: Red fluorescent proteins (RFPs) are useful tools for live cell and multi-color imaging in biological studies. However, when labeling proteins in secretory pathway, many RFPs are prone to form artificial puncta, which may severely impede their further uses. Here we report a fast and easy method to evaluate RFPs fusion properties by attaching RFPs to an environment sensitive membrane protein Orai1. In addition, we revealed that intracellular artificial puncta are actually colocalized with lysosome, thus besides monomeric properties, pKa value of RFPs is also a key factor for forming intracellular artificial puncta. In summary, our current study provides a useful guide for choosing appropriate RFP for labeling secretory membrane proteins. Among RFPs tested, mOrange2 is highly recommended based on excellent monomeric property, appropriate pKa and high brightness.

  8. Simultaneous Site-Specific Dual Protein Labeling Using Protein Prenyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Blanden, Melanie J; Sudheer, Ch; Gangopadhyay, Soumyashree A; Rashidian, Mohammad; Hougland, James L; Distefano, Mark D

    2015-12-16

    Site-specific protein labeling is an important technique in protein chemistry and is used for diverse applications ranging from creating protein conjugates to protein immobilization. Enzymatic reactions, including protein prenylation, have been widely exploited as methods to accomplish site-specific labeling. Enzymatic prenylation is catalyzed by prenyltransferases, including protein farnesyltransferase (PFTase) and geranylgeranyltransferase type I (GGTase-I), both of which recognize C-terminal CaaX motifs with different specificities and transfer prenyl groups from isoprenoid diphosphates to their respective target proteins. A number of isoprenoid analogues containing bioorthogonal functional groups have been used to label proteins of interest via PFTase-catalyzed reaction. In this study, we sought to expand the scope of prenyltransferase-mediated protein labeling by exploring the utility of rat GGTase-I (rGGTase-I). First, the isoprenoid specificity of rGGTase-I was evaluated by screening eight different analogues and it was found that those with bulky moieties and longer backbone length were recognized by rGGTase-I more efficiently. Taking advantage of the different substrate specificities of rat PFTase (rPFTase) and rGGTase-I, we then developed a simultaneous dual labeling method to selectively label two different proteins by using isoprenoid analogue and CaaX substrate pairs that were specific to only one of the prenyltransferases. Using two model proteins, green fluorescent protein with a C-terminal CVLL sequence (GFP-CVLL) and red fluorescent protein with a C-terminal CVIA sequence (RFP-CVIA), we demonstrated that when incubated together with both prenyltransferases and the selected isoprenoid analogues, GFP-CVLL was specifically modified with a ketone-functionalized analogue by rGGTase-I and RFP-CVIA was selectively labeled with an alkyne-containing analogue by rPFTase. By switching the ketone-containing analogue to an azide-containing analogue, it was

  9. Trace fluorescent labeling for protein crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Pusey, Marc Barcena, Jorge; Morris, Michelle; Singhal, Anuj; Yuan, Qunying; Ng, Joseph

    2015-06-27

    The presence of a covalently bound fluorescent probe at a concentration of <0.5% does not affect the outcome of macromolecule crystallization screening experiments. Additionally, the fluorescence can be used to determine new, not immediately apparent, lead crystallization conditions. Fluorescence can be a powerful tool to aid in the crystallization of proteins. In the trace-labeling approach, the protein is covalently derivatized with a high-quantum-yield visible-wavelength fluorescent probe. The final probe concentration typically labels ≤0.20% of the protein molecules, which has been shown to not affect the crystal nucleation or diffraction quality. The labeled protein is then used in a plate-screening experiment in the usual manner. As the most densely packed state of the protein is the crystalline form, then crystals show as the brightest objects in the well under fluorescent illumination. A study has been carried out on the effects of trace fluorescent labeling on the screening results obtained compared with nonlabeled protein, and it was found that considering the stochastic nature of the crystal nucleation process the presence of the probe did not affect the outcomes obtained. Other effects are realised when using fluorescence. Crystals are clearly seen even when buried in precipitate. This approach also finds ‘hidden’ leads, in the form of bright spots, with ∼30% of the leads found being optimized to crystals in a single-pass optimization trial. The use of visible fluorescence also enables the selection of colors that bypass interfering substances, and the screening materials do not have to be UV-transparent.

  10. Grass species influence on plant N uptake - Determination of atmospheric N deposition to a semi-natural peat bog site using a 15N labelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurkuck, Miriam; Brümmer, Christian; Spott, Oliver; Flessa, Heinz; Kutsch, Werner L.

    2014-05-01

    Large areas of natural peat bogs in Northwestern Germany have been converted to arable land and were subjected to draining and peat cutting in the past. The few protected peatland areas remaining are affected by high nitrogen (N) deposition. Our study site - a moderately drained raised bog - is surrounded by highly fertilized agricultural land and livestock production. In this study, we used a 15N pool dilution technique called 'Integrated Total Nitrogen Input' (ITNI) to quantify annual deposition of atmospheric N into biomonitoring pots over a two-year period. Since it considers direct N uptake by plants, it was expected to result in higher N input than conventional methods for determination of N deposition (e.g. micrometeorological approaches, bulk N samplers). Using Lolium multiflorum and Eriophorum vaginatum as monitor plants and low, medium and high levels of fertilization, we aimed to simulate increasing N deposition to planted pots and to allocate airborne N after its uptake by the soil-plant system in aboveground biomass, roots and soil. Increasing N fertilization was positively correlated with biomass production of Eriophorum vaginatum, whereas atmospheric plant N uptake decreased and highest airborne N input of 899.8 ± 67.4 µg N d-1 pot-1 was found for low N fertilization. In contrast, Lolium multiflorum showed a clear dependency of N supply on plant N uptake and was highest (688.7 ± 41.4 µg N d-1 pot-1) for highly fertilized vegetation pots. Our results suggest that grass species respond differently to increasing N input. While crop grasses such as Lolium multiflorum take up N according to N availability, species adopted to nutrient-limited conditions like Eriophorum vaginatum show N saturation effects with increasing N supply. Total airborne N input ranged from about 24 to 66 kg N ha-1 yr-1 dependent on the used indicator plant and the amount of added fertilizer. Parallel determination of atmospheric N deposition using a micrometeorological approach

  11. Isotopic labeling of mammalian G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) heterologously expressed in Caenorhabditis elegans*

    PubMed Central

    Salom, David; Cao, Pengxiu; Yuan, Yiyuan; Miyagi, Masaru; Feng, Zhaoyang; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution structural determination and dynamic characterization of membrane proteins by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) require their isotopic labeling. Although a number of labeled eukaryotic membrane proteins have been successfully expressed in bacteria, they lack posttranslational modifications and usually need to be refolded from inclusion bodies. This shortcoming of bacterial expression systems is particularly detrimental for the functional expression of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the largest family of drug targets, due to their inherent instability. In this work we show that proteins expressed by a eukaryotic organism can be isotopically labeled and produced with a quality and quantity suitable for NMR characterization. Using our previously described expression system in Caenorhabditis elegans, we showed the feasibility of labeling proteins produced by these worms with 15N,13C by providing them with isotopically labeled bacteria. 2H labeling also was achieved by growing C. elegans in presence of 70% heavy water. Bovine rhodopsin, simultaneously expressed in muscular and neuronal worm tissues, was employed as the ‘test’ GPCR to demonstrate the viability of this approach. Although the worms’ cell cycle was slightly affected by the presence of heavy isotopes, the final protein yield and quality was appropriate for NMR structural characterization. PMID:25461480

  12. Ecotoxicity of cadmium in a soil collembolan-predatory mite food chain: Can we use the (15)N labeled litter addition method to assess soil functional change?

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dong; Ke, Xin; Wu, Longhua; Li, Zhu; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yongming

    2016-12-01

    Effects of cadmium (Cd) on predator-prey relationships and soil ecological function are poorly understood and there are few methods available to measure soil functional change. Thus, we structured a soil-dwelling food chain containing the predatory mite Hypoaspis aculeifer and its collembolan prey Folsomia candida to study the effects of Cd exposure for eight weeks in a spiked soil aged for five years. The (15)N labeled litter was added as food to analyze the change in nitrogen (N) transfer content. H. aculeifer reproduction and growth and the survival and reproduction of F. candida were all negatively affected by Cd exposure, and H. aculeifer reproduction was the most sensitive parameter. The sensitivity responses of F. candida and H. aculeifer were different from those using the previous single species test. The results suggest that predator-prey interactions might influence the toxicity of Cd by predation and food restriction. Cadmium lethal body concentrations of adults and juveniles of F. candida and H. aculeifer juveniles were 500-600, 180-270 and 8-10 μg g(-1), respectively. The content of N transfer from litter to animals in the food chain decreased significantly with increasing soil Cd concentration between 100 and 400 mg kg(-1). The results suggest that the (15)N labeled litter addition method is potentially useful for quantitative assessment of soil functional change for further risk assessment purposes.

  13. 1H, 15N and 13C resonance assignments of light organ-associated fatty acid-binding protein of Taiwanese fireflies.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Kai-Li; Lee, Yi-Zong; Chen, Yun-Ru; Lyu, Ping-Chiang

    2016-04-01

    Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are a family of proteins that modulate the transfer of various fatty acids in the cytosol and constitute a significant portion in many energy-consuming cells. The ligand binding properties and specific functions of a particular type of FABP seem to be diverse and depend on the respective binding cavity as well as the cell type from which this protein is derived. Previously, a novel FABP (lcFABP; lc: Luciola cerata) was identified in the light organ of Taiwanese fireflies. The lcFABP was proved to possess fatty acids binding capabilities, especially for fatty acids of length C14-C18. However, the structural details are unknown, and the structure-function relationship has remained to be further investigated. In this study, we finished the (1)H, (15)N and (13)C chemical shift assignments of (15)N/(13)C-enriched lcFABP by solution NMR spectroscopy. In addition, the secondary structure distribution was revealed based on the backbone N, H, Cα, Hα, C and side chain Cβ assignments. These results can provide the basis for further structural exploration of lcFABP.

  14. Enzymatic labeling of proteins: techniques and approaches.

    PubMed

    Rashidian, Mohammad; Dozier, Jonathan K; Distefano, Mark D

    2013-08-21

    Site-specific modification of proteins is a major challenge in modern chemical biology due to the large number of reactive functional groups typically present in polypeptides. Because of its importance in biology and medicine, the development of methods for site-specific modification of proteins is an area of intense research. Selective protein modification procedures have been useful for oriented protein immobilization, for studies of naturally occurring post-translational modifications, for creating antibody–drug conjugates, for the introduction of fluorophores and other small molecules on to proteins, for examining protein structure, folding, dynamics, and protein–protein interactions, and for the preparation of protein–polymer conjugates. One of the most important approaches for protein labeling is to incorporate bioorthogonal functionalities into proteins at specific sites via enzymatic reactions. The incorporated tags then enable reactions that are chemoselective, whose functional groups not only are inert in biological media, but also do not occur natively in proteins or other macromolecules. This review article summarizes the enzymatic strategies, which enable site-specific functionalization of proteins with a variety of different functional groups. The enzymes covered in this review include formylglycine generating enzyme, sialyltransferases, phosphopantetheinyltransferases, O-GlcNAc post-translational modification, sortagging, transglutaminase, farnesyltransferase, biotin ligase, lipoic acid ligase, and N-myristoyltransferase.

  15. 1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignments for Escherichia coli ytfP, a member of the broadly conserved UPF0131 protein domain family

    SciTech Connect

    Aramini, James M.; Swapna, G.V.T.; Huang, Yuanpeng; Rajan, Paranji K.; Xiao, Rong; Shastry, Ritu; Acton, Thomas; Cort, John R.; Kennedy, Michael A.; Montelione, Gaetano

    2005-11-01

    Protein ytfP from Escherichia coli (Swiss-Prot ID: YTFP-ECOLI; NESG target ID: ER111; Wunderlich et al., 2004) is a 113-residue member of the UPF0131 protein family (Pfam ID: PF03674) of unknown function. This domain family is found in organisms from all three kingdoms, archaea, eubacteria and eukaryotes. Using triple resonance NMR techniques, we have determined 97% of backbone and 91% of side chain 1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignments. The chemical shift and 3J(HN?Ha) scalar coupling data reveal a mixed a/b topology,????????. BMRB deposit with Accession No. 6448. Reference: Wunderlich et al. (2004) Proteins, 56, 181?187.

  16. 1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignments for the protein coded by gene locus BB0938 of Bordetella bronchiseptica

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, Paolo; Ramelot, Theresa A.; Xiao, Rong; Ho, Chi K.; Ma, LiChung; Acton, Thomas; Kennedy, Michael A.; Montelione, Gaetano

    2005-11-01

    The product of gene locus BB0938 from Bordetella bronchiseptica (Swiss-Prot ID: Q7WNU7-BORBR; NESG target ID: BoR11; Wunderlich et al., 2004; Pfam ID: PF03476) is a 128-residue protein of unknown function. This broadly conserved protein family is found in eubacteria and eukaryotes. Using triple resonance NMR techniques, we have determined 98% of backbone and 94% of side chain 1H, 13C, and 15N resonance assignments. The chemical shift and 3J(HN?Ha) scalar coupling data reveal a b topology with a seven-residue helical insert, ??????????. BMRB deposit with accession number 6693. Reference: Wunderlich et al. (2004) Proteins, 56, 181?187.

  17. sup 13 C and sup 15 N NMR studies on the interaction between 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine and lumazine protein

    SciTech Connect

    Vervoort, J.; Mueller, F. ); O'Kane, D.J.; Lee, J. ); Bacher, A.; Strobl, G. )

    1990-02-20

    The interaction between the prosthetic group 6,7-dimethyl-8-(1{prime}-D-ribityl)lumazine and the lumazine apoproteins from two marine bioluminescent bacteria, one from a relatively thermophilic species, Photobacterium leiognathi, and the other from a psychrophilic species, Photobacterium phosphoreum, was studied by {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N NMR using various selectively enriched derivatives. It is shown that the electron distribution in the protein-bound 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine differs from that of free 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine in buffer. The {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N chemical shifts indicate that the protein-bound 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine is embedded in a polar environment and that the ring system is strongly polarized. It is concluded that the two carbonyl groups play an important role in the polarization of the molecule. The N(3)-H group is not accessible to bulk solvent. The N(8) atom is sp{sup 2} hybridized and has {delta}+ character. Nuclear Overhauser effect studies indicate that the 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine ring is rigidly bound with no internal mobility. The NMR results indicate that the interaction between the ring system and the two apoproteins is almost the same.

  18. Beneficial effects of sustained activity on the use of dietary protein and carbohydrate traced with stable isotopes 15N and 13C in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Felip, O; Blasco, J; Ibarz, A; Martin-Perez, M; Fernández-Borràs, J

    2013-02-01

    To determine the effects of sustained swimming on the use and fate of dietary nutrients in gilthead sea bream, a group of fish were forced to undertake moderate and sustained swimming (1.5 BL s(-1)) for 3 weeks and compared with a control group undertaking voluntary activity. The exercise group showed a significant increase in specific growth rate (C: 1.13 ± 0.05; E: 1.32 ± 0.06 % day(-1), P < 0.05) with no significant change in food intake (C: 3.56 ± 0.20; E: 3.84 ± 0.03 % of body weight). The addition of (13)C-starch and (15)N-protein to a single meal of 1 % ration allowed analysis of the fate of both nutrients in several tissues and in their components, 6 and 24 h after force-feeding. In exercised fish improved redistribution of dietary components increased the use of carbohydrates and lipid as fuels. Gilthead sea bream have a considerable capacity for carbohydrate absorption irrespective of swimming conditions, but in trained fish (13)C rose in all liver fractions with no changes in store contents. This implies higher nutrient turnover with exercise. Higher retention of dietary protein (higher (15)N uptake into white muscle during the entire post-prandial period) was found under sustained exercise, highlighting the protein-sparing effect. The combined effects of a carbohydrate-rich, low-protein diet plus sustained swimming enhanced amino acid retention and also prevented excessive lipid deposition in gilthead sea bream.

  19. Selectively labeling the heterologous protein in Escherichia coli for NMR studies: a strategy to speed up NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Almeida, F C; Amorim, G C; Moreau, V H; Sousa, V O; Creazola, A T; Américo, T A; Pais, A P; Leite, A; Netto, L E; Giordano, R J; Valente, A P

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance is an important tool for high-resolution structural studies of proteins. It demands high protein concentration and high purity; however, the expression of proteins at high levels often leads to protein aggregation and the protein purification step can correspond to a high percentage of the overall time in the structural determination process. In the present article we show that the step of sample optimization can be simplified by selective labeling the heterologous protein expressed in Escherichia coli by the use of rifampicin. Yeast thioredoxin and a coix transcription factor Opaque 2 leucine zipper (LZ) were used to show the effectiveness of the protocol. The (1)H/(15)N heteronuclear correlation two-dimensional NMR spectrum (HMQC) of the selective (15)N-labeled thioredoxin without any purification is remarkably similar to the spectrum of the purified protein. The method has high yields and a good (1)H/(15)N HMQC spectrum can be obtained with 50 ml of M9 growth medium. Opaque 2 LZ, a difficult protein due to the lower expression level and high hydrophobicity, was also probed. The (15)N-edited spectrum of Opaque 2 LZ showed only the resonances of the protein of heterologous expression (Opaque 2 LZ) while the (1)H spectrum shows several other resonances from other proteins of the cell lysate. The demand for a fast methodology for structural determination is increasing with the advent of genome/proteome projects. Selective labeling the heterologous protein can speed up NMR structural studies as well as NMR-based drug screening. This methodology is especially effective for difficult proteins such as hydrophobic transcription factors, membrane proteins, and others.

  20. Selectively Labeling the Heterologous Protein in Escherichia coli for NMR Studies: A Strategy to Speed Up NMR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, F. C. L.; Amorim, G. C.; Moreau, V. H.; Sousa, V. O.; Creazola, A. T.; Américo, T. A.; Pais, A. P. N.; Leite, A.; Netto, L. E. S.; Giordano, R. J.; Valente, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance is an important tool for high-resolution structural studies of proteins. It demands high protein concentration and high purity; however, the expression of proteins at high levels often leads to protein aggregation and the protein purification step can correspond to a high percentage of the overall time in the structural determination process. In the present article we show that the step of sample optimization can be simplified by selective labeling the heterologous protein expressed in Escherichia coli by the use of rifampicin. Yeast thioredoxin and a coix transcription factor Opaque 2 leucine zipper (LZ) were used to show the effectiveness of the protocol. The 1H/15N heteronuclear correlation two-dimensional NMR spectrum (HMQC) of the selective 15N-labeled thioredoxin without any purification is remarkably similar to the spectrum of the purified protein. The method has high yields and a good 1H/15N HMQC spectrum can be obtained with 50 ml of M9 growth medium. Opaque 2 LZ, a difficult protein due to the lower expression level and high hydrophobicity, was also probed. The 15N-edited spectrum of Opaque 2 LZ showed only the resonances of the protein of heterologous expression (Opaque 2 LZ) while the 1H spectrum shows several other resonances from other proteins of the cell lysate. The demand for a fast methodology for structural determination is increasing with the advent of genome/proteome projects. Selective labeling the heterologous protein can speed up NMR structural studies as well as NMR-based drug screening. This methodology is especially effective for difficult proteins such as hydrophobic transcription factors, membrane proteins, and others.

  1. Chemical Ligation of Folded Recombinant Proteins: Segmental Isotopic Labeling of Domains for NMR Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Rong; Ayers, Brenda; Cowburn, David; Muir, Tom W.

    1999-01-01

    A convenient in vitro chemical ligation strategy has been developed that allows folded recombinant proteins to be joined together. This strategy permits segmental, selective isotopic labeling of the product. The src homology type 3 and 2 domains (SH3 and SH2) of Abelson protein tyrosine kinase, which constitute the regulatory apparatus of the protein, were individually prepared in reactive forms that can be ligated together under normal protein-folding conditions to form a normal peptide bond at the ligation junction. This strategy was used to prepare NMR sample quantities of the Abelson protein tyrosine kinase-SH(32) domain pair, in which only one of the domains was labeled with 15N Mass spectrometry and NMR analyses were used to confirm the structure of the ligated protein, which was also shown to have appropriate ligand-binding properties. The ability to prepare recombinant proteins with selectively labeled segments having a single-site mutation, by using a combination of expression of fusion proteins and chemical ligation in vitro, will increase the size limits for protein structural determination in solution with NMR methods. In vitro chemical ligation of expressed protein domains will also provide a combinatorial approach to the synthesis of linked protein domains.

  2. The 15N and 46R Residues of Highly Pathogenic Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Enhance Regulatory T Lymphocytes Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Juan; Li, Yufeng; Zhang, Qiaoya; Jiang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) negatively modulates host immune responses, resulting in persistent infection and immunosuppression. PRRSV infection increases the number of PRRSV-specific regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) in infected pigs. However, the target antigens for Tregs proliferation in PRRSV infection have not been fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated that the highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) induced more CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs than classical PRRSV (C-PRRSV) strain. Of the recombinant GP5, M and N proteins of HP-PRRSV expressed in baculovirus expression systems, only N protein induced Tregs proliferation. The Tregs assays showed that three amino-acid regions, 15–21, 42–48 and 88–94, in N protein played an important role in induction of Tregs proliferation with synthetic peptides covering the whole length of N protein. By using reverse genetic methods, it was firstly found that the 15N and 46R residues in PRRSV N protein were critical for induction of Tregs proliferation. The phenotype of induced Tregs closely resembled that of transforming-growth-factor-β-secreting T helper 3 Tregs in swine. These data should be useful for understanding the mechanism of immunity to PRRSV and development of infection control strategies in the future. PMID:26397116

  3. Discovery and validation of colonic tumor-associated proteins via metabolic labeling and stable isotopic dilution

    PubMed Central

    Huttlin, Edward L.; Chen, Xiaodi; Barrett-Wilt, Gregory A.; Hegeman, Adrian D.; Halberg, Richard B.; Harms, Amy C.; Newton, Michael A.; Dove, William F.; Sussman, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    The unique biology of a neoplasm is reflected by its distinct molecular profile compared with normal tissue. To understand tumor development better, we have undertaken a quantitative proteomic search for abnormally expressed proteins in colonic tumors from ApcMin/+ (Min) mice. By raising pairs of Min and wild-type mice on diets derived from natural-abundance or 15N-labeled algae, we used metabolic labeling to compare protein levels in colonic tumor versus normal tissue. Because metabolic labeling allows internal control throughout sample preparation and analysis, technical error is minimized as compared with in vitro labeling. Several proteins displayed altered expression, and a subset was validated via stable isotopic dilution using synthetic peptide standards. We also compared gene and protein expression among tumor and nontumor tissue, revealing limited correlation. This divergence was especially pronounced for species showing biological change, highlighting the complementary perspectives provided by transcriptomics and proteomics. Our work demonstrates the power of metabolic labeling combined with stable isotopic dilution as an integrated strategy for the identification and validation of differentially expressed proteins using rodent models of human disease. PMID:19805096

  4. Isotope labeling of proteins in insect cells.

    PubMed

    Skora, Lukasz; Shrestha, Binesh; Gossert, Alvar D

    2015-01-01

    Protein targets of contemporary research are often membrane proteins, multiprotein complexes, secreted proteins, or other proteins of human origin. These are difficult to express in the standard expression host used for most nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies, Escherichia coli. Insect cells represent an attractive alternative, since they have become a well-established expression system and simple solutions have been developed for generation of viruses to efficiently introduce the target protein DNA into cells. Insect cells enable production of a larger fraction of the human proteome in a properly folded way than bacteria, as insect cells have a very similar set of cytosolic chaperones and a closely related secretory pathway. Here, the limited and defined glycosylation pattern that insect cells produce is an advantage for structural biology studies. For these reasons, insect cells have been established as the most widely used eukaryotic expression host for crystallographic studies. In the past decade, significant advancements have enabled amino acid type-specific as well as uniform isotope labeling of proteins in insect cells, turning them into an attractive expression host for NMR studies.

  5. Site specific protein labeling by enzymatic posttranslational modification.

    PubMed

    Sunbul, Murat; Yin, Jun

    2009-09-07

    Site specific protein labeling plays a key role in elucidating the function of the proteins at the molecular level by revealing their locations in the cell, their interaction networks with other cellular components and the dynamic mechanisms of their bio-generation, trafficking and degradation in response to regulatory signals in a biological system. Site specific protein labeling is, in essence, artificial modification of proteins with new chemical entities at the posttranslational stage. Based on the analogy between protein labeling and protein posttranslational modification, enzymatic tools have been developed for site specific and efficient labeling of target proteins with chemical probes of diverse structures and functionalities. This perspective surveys a number of protein labeling methods based on the application of protein posttranslational modification enzymes.

  6. Sequential Immunoprecipitation of Secretory Vesicle Proteins from Biosynthetically Labelled Cells.

    PubMed

    Guest, Paul C

    2017-01-01

    Pulse radiolabelling of cells with radioactive amino acids is a common method for studying the biosynthesis of proteins. The labelled proteins can then be immunoprecipitated and analysed by electrophoresis and imaging techniques. This chapter presents a protocol for the biosynthetic labelling and immunoprecipitation of pancreatic islet proteins which are known to be affected in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia.

  7. Improved protein labeling by stannous tartrate reduction of pertechnetate

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, W.A.; DeLand, F.H.; Bennett, S.J.; Goldenberg, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    A procedure has been developed whereby small amounts of protein - specifically human serum albumin and immunoglobulin G - can be labeled with Tc-99m. Artifactual problems associated with electrolytic and stannous chloride labeling procedures are virtually eliminated. The procedure is satisfactory for labeling human serum albumin, normal goat immunoglobulin G, and goat anti-carcinoembryonic antigen immunoglobulin G.

  8. SIMS ion microscopy imaging of boronophenylalanine (BPA) and 13C15N-labeled phenylalanine in human glioblastoma cells: Relevance of subcellular scale observations to BPA-mediated boron neutron capture therapy of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Subhash; Lorey, Daniel R., II

    2007-02-01

    p-Boronophenylalanine (BPA) is a clinically approved boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) agent currently being used in clinical trials of glioblastoma multiforme, melanoma and liver metastases. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) observations from the Cornell SIMS Laboratory provided support for using a 6 h infusion of BPA, instead of a 2 h infusion, for achieving higher levels of boron in brain tumor cells. These observations were clinically implemented in Phase II experimental trials of glioblastoma multiforme in Sweden. However, the mechanisms for higher BPA accumulation with longer infusions have remained unknown. In this work, by using 13C15N-labeled phenylalanine and T98G human glioblastoma cells, comparisons between the 10B-delivery of BPA and the accumulation of labeled phenylalanine after 2 and 6 h treatments were made with a Cameca IMS-3f SIMS ion microscope at 500 nm spatial resolution in fast frozen, freeze-fractured, freeze-dried cells. Due to the presence of the Na-K-ATPase in the plasma membrane of most mammalian cells, the cells maintain an approximately 10/1 ratio of K/Na in the intracellular milieu. Therefore, the quantitative imaging of these highly diffusible species in the identical cell in which the boron or labeled amino acid was imaged provides a rule-of-thumb criterion for validation of SIMS observations and the reliability of the cryogenic sampling. The labeled phenylalanine was detected at mass 28, as the 28(13C15N)- molecular ion. Correlative analysis with optical and confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that fractured freeze-dried glioblastoma cells contained well-preserved ultrastructural details with three discernible subcellular regions: a nucleus or multiple nuclei, a mitochondria-rich perinuclear cytoplasmic region and the remaining cytoplasm. SIMS analysis revealed that the overall cellular signals of both 10B from BPA and 28CN- from labeled phenylalanine increased approximately 1.6-fold between the 2 and 6 h exposures

  9. Strategies for labeling proteins with PARACEST agents

    PubMed Central

    Vasalatiy, Olga; Zhao, Piyu; Woods, Mark; Marconescu, Andrei; Castillo-Muzquiz, Aminta; Thorpe, Philip; Kiefer, Garry E.; Sherry, A. Dean

    2011-01-01

    Reactive surface lysine groups on the chimeric monoclonal antibody (3G4) and on human serum albumin (HSA) were labeled with two different PARACEST chelates. Between 7.4 – 10.1 chelates were added per 3G4 molecule and between 5.6 – 5.9 chelates per molecule of HSA, depending upon which conjugation chemistry was used. The immunoreactivity of 3G4 as measured by ELISA assays was highly dependent upon the number of attached chelates: 88% immunoreactivity with 7.4 chelates per antibody versus only 17% immunoreactivity with 10.1 chelates per antibody. Upon conjugation to 3G4, the bound water lifetime of Eu-1 increased only marginally, up from 53 μs for the non-conjugated chelate to 65–77 μs for conjugated chelates. Conjugation of a chelate Eu-2 to HSA via a single side-chain group also resulted in little or no change in bound water lifetime (73–75 μs for both the conjugated and non-conjugated forms). These data indicate that exchange of water molecules protons between the inner-sphere site on covalently attached PARACEST agent and bulk water is largely unaffected by the mode of attachment of the agent to the protein and likely its chemical surroundings on the surface of the protein. PMID:20621494

  10. Relationship between systemic drug absorption and gastrointestinal transit after the simultaneous oral administration of carbamazepine as a controlled-release system and as a suspension of 15N-labelled drug to healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wilding, I R; Davis, S S; Hardy, J G; Robertson, C S; John, V A; Powell, M L; Leal, M; Lloyd, P; Walker, S M

    1991-11-01

    1. Plasma drug concentrations after a single oral administration of a suspension of carbamazepine (CBZ) and a 20/200 CBZ Oros osmotic pump system were measured in eight healthy male volunteers. The oral suspension contained 100 mg CBZ labelled with the stable isotope nitrogen-15, whilst the Oros contained 200 mg unlabelled CBZ. Plasma concentrations of [15N]-CBZ and CBZ were measured simultaneously by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 2. The position of the CBZ Oros (labelled with indium-111) in the gastrointestinal tract was followed by gamma scintigraphy. Plasma drug concentrations after the two treatments were used to relate pharmacokinetic with transit data. 3. The Oros was taken after breakfast and gastric emptying occurred between 1.1- greater than h post-dosing (median, 5.3 h). Small intestinal transit times ranged from 1.5- greater than 3.6 h, with a median of 2.2 h. There were wide individual variations in colonic transit, and the total transit time ranged from 10-60 h (median, 22 h). 4. Relative systemic bioavailability of CBZ from the Oros was reduced compared with that from the suspension (mean dose normalised AUC ratio = 0.69 +/- 0.17; mean dose-normalised AUC ratio = 0.85 +/- 0.13, allowing for actual release from the Oros system). 5. The in vivo absorption of drug into the systemic circulation from the Oros was estimated using the Wagner-Nelson method. This showed that absorption of CBZ was rapid when the Oros was present in the stomach and small intestine, the rate being determined by the release of drug from the system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Dynamics of Nitrogen Uptake and Mobilization in Field-grown Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) From Stem Extension to Harvest. II. An 15N-labelling-based Simulation Model of N Partitioning Between Vegetative and Reproductive Tissues

    PubMed Central

    MALAGOLI, P.; LAINE, P.; ROSSATO, L.; OURRY, A.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) has often been used as a catch crop to deal with the issue of N leaching, but for this to be effective, prediction of the crop's N uptake capability and N partitioning is required. The aim of this work was to build a compartmental model of N dynamics in oilseed rape, based on the kinetic description of N uptake, partitioning and mobilization in each organ. • Model In this study, logistic and exponential equations were fitted to the N relations of each compartment, especially the leaf at each node. Data previously obtained from an 15N-labelling field experiment was used to quantify the partitioning of total N content, the allocation of N taken up and subsequent changes in the sink/source status for endogenous N in each tissue throughout the growth cycle. • Key Results and Conclusions This modelling approach provides a unique tool for the quantitative estimation of cycling of endogenous N in relation to changes in N uptake at the whole-plant level. Furthermore, as oilseed rape is known to release large amounts of N to the soil during spring through leaf loss, this model was used to identify potential methods for improving the N harvest index of the crop. Simulations showed that N content or yield could be improved by 15 % by optimizing N transfer from vegetative to reproductive tissues and by reducing the residual %N (DW) in abscised leaves. PMID:15802311

  12. Engineering protein farnesyltransferase for enzymatic protein labeling applications.

    PubMed

    Dozier, Jonathan K; Khatwani, Santoshkumar L; Wollack, James W; Wang, Yen-Chih; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia; Distefano, Mark D

    2014-07-16

    Creating covalent protein conjugates is an active area of research due to the wide range of uses for protein conjugates spanning everything from biological studies to protein therapeutics. Protein Farnesyltransferase (PFTase) has been used for the creation of site-specific protein conjugates, and a number of PFTase substrates have been developed to facilitate that work. PFTase is an effective catalyst for protein modification because it transfers Farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) analogues to protein substrates on a cysteine four residues from the C-terminus. While much work has been done to synthesize various FPP analogues, there are few reports investigating how mutations in PFTase alter the kinetics with these unnatural analogues. Herein we examined how different mutations within the PFTase active site alter the kinetics of the PFTase reaction with a series of large FPP analogues. We found that mutating either a single tryptophan or tyrosine residue to alanine results in greatly improved catalytic parameters, particularly in kcat. Mutation of tryptophan 102β to alanine caused a 4-fold increase in kcat and a 10-fold decrease in KM for a benzaldehyde-containing FPP analogue resulting in an overall 40-fold increase in catalytic efficiency. Similarly, mutation of tyrosine 205β to alanine caused a 25-fold increase in kcat and a 10-fold decrease in KM for a coumarin-containing analogue leading to a 300-fold increase in catalytic efficiency. Smaller but significant changes in catalytic parameters were also obtained for cyclo-octene- and NBD-containing FPP analogues. The latter compound was used to create a fluorescently labeled form of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF), a protein of therapeutic importance. Additionally, computational modeling was performed to study how the large non-natural isoprenoid analogues can fit into the active sites enlarged via mutagenesis. Overall, these results demonstrate that PFTase can be improved via mutagenesis in ways that will be useful

  13. Proteins with High Turnover Rate in Barley Leaves Estimated by Proteome Analysis Combined with in Planta Isotope Labeling1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Clark J.; Alexova, Ralitza; Jacoby, Richard P.; Millar, A. Harvey

    2014-01-01

    Protein turnover is a key component in cellular homeostasis; however, there is little quantitative information on degradation kinetics for individual plant proteins. We have used 15N labeling of barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of free amino acids and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of proteins to track the enrichment of 15N into the amino acid pools in barley leaves and then into tryptic peptides derived from newly synthesized proteins. Using information on the rate of growth of barley leaves combined with the rate of degradation of 14N-labeled proteins, we calculate the turnover rates of 508 different proteins in barley and show that they vary by more than 100-fold. There was approximately a 9-h lag from label application until 15N incorporation could be reliably quantified in extracted peptides. Using this information and assuming constant translation rates for proteins during the time course, we were able to quantify degradation rates for several proteins that exhibit half-lives on the order of hours. Our workflow, involving a stringent series of mass spectrometry filtering steps, demonstrates that 15N labeling can be used for large-scale liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry studies of protein turnover in plants. We identify a series of abundant proteins in photosynthesis, photorespiration, and specific subunits of chlorophyll biosynthesis that turn over significantly more rapidly than the average protein involved in these processes. We also highlight a series of proteins that turn over as rapidly as the well-known D1 subunit of photosystem II. While these proteins need further verification for rapid degradation in vivo, they cluster in chlorophyll and thiamine biosynthesis. PMID:25082890

  14. An efficient on-column expressed protein ligation strategy: Application to segmental triple labeling of human apolipoprotein E3

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wentao; Zhang, Yonghong; Cui, Chunxian; Li, Qianqian; Wang, Jianjun

    2008-01-01

    Expressed protein ligation (EPL) is an intein-based approach that has been used for protein engineering and biophysical studies of protein structures. One major problem of the EPL is the low yield of final ligation product, primarily due to the complex procedure of the EPL, preventing EPL from gaining popularity in the research community. Here we report an efficient on-column EPL strategy, which focuses on enhancing the expression level of the intein-fusion protein that generates thioester for the EPL. We applied this EPL strategy to human apolipoprotein E (apoE) and routinely obtained 25–30 mg segmental, triple-labeled apoE from 1-L cell culture. The approaches reported here are general approaches that are not specific for apoE, thus providing a general strategy for a highly efficient EPL. In addition, we also report an isotopic labeling scheme that double-labels one domain and keeps the other domain of apoE deuterated. Such an isotopic labeling scheme can only be achieved using the EPL strategy. Our data indicated that the segmental triple-labeled apoEs using this labeling scheme produced high-quality, simplified NMR spectra, facilitating NMR spectral assignment. For large proteins, such as apoE, perdeuterated protein samples have to be used to reduce the linewidth of NMR signals, causing a major problem for the NOE-based NMR method, since perdeuterated proteins lack protons for NOE measurement. The new labeling strategy solves this problem and provides 13C/15N double-labeled, protonated protein domains, allowing for determination of high-resolution NMR structure of these large proteins. PMID:18305193

  15. Site-specific labeling of proteins for electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dambacher, Corey M.; Lander, Gabriel C.

    2015-01-01

    Electron microscopy is commonly employed to determine the subunit organization of large macromolecular assemblies. However, the field lacks a robust molecular labeling methodology for unambiguous identification of constituent subunits. We present a strategy that exploits the unique properties of an unnatural amino acid in order to enable site-specific attachment of a single, readily identifiable protein label at any solvent-exposed position on the macromolecular surface. Using this method, we show clear labeling of a subunit within the 19S proteasome lid subcomplex that has not been amenable to labeling by traditional approaches. PMID:26409249

  16. Labeling strategy and signal broadening mechanism of Protein NMR spectroscopy in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yansheng; Liu, Xiaoli; Chen, Yanhua; Xu, Guohua; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Zeting; Yao, Chendie; Liu, Maili; Li, Conggang

    2015-06-08

    We used Xenopus laevis oocytes, a paradigm for a variety of biological studies, as a eukaryotic model system for in-cell protein NMR spectroscopy. The small globular protein GB1 was one of the first studied in Xenopus oocytes, but there have been few reports since then of high-resolution spectra in oocytes. The scarcity of data is at least partly due to the lack of good labeling strategies and the paucity of information on resonance broadening mechanisms. Here, we systematically evaluate isotope enrichment and labeling methods in oocytes injected with five different proteins with molecular masses of 6 to 54 kDa. (19) F labeling is more promising than (15) N, (13) C, and (2) H enrichment. We also used (19) F NMR spectroscopy to quantify the contribution of viscosity, weak interactions, and sample inhomogeneity to resonance broadening in cells. We found that the viscosity in oocytes is only about 1.2 times that of water, and that inhomogeneous broadening is a major factor in determining line width in these cells.

  17. Differential protein labeling based on electrochemically generated reactive intermediates.

    PubMed

    Büter, Lars; Faber, Helene; Wigger, Tina; Vogel, Martin; Karst, Uwe

    2015-10-06

    A specific labeling method for cysteine moieties in proteins was developed. Electrochemical oxidation of phenolic compounds such as phenol or acetaminophen leads to the generation of the reactive intermediates benzoquinone and N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine, which can subsequently react with nucleophilic thiol functions in peptides or proteins. Differential labeling of cysteine residues was successfully demonstrated with native as well as heavy-isotope labeled forms of the corresponding labeling compounds. The specific mass differences on the peptide level were successfully analyzed by mass spectrometry for the tripeptide glutathione. Free cysteines in various proteins such as β-lactoglobulin A, human serum albumin, hemoglobin, and human carbonic anhydrase I were successfully labeled. Tryptic digestion of differentially labeled carbonic anhydrase I and hemoglobin allowed the identification of the binding site in the proteins. The obtained mass difference allowed an easy identification of the cysteine containing peptides. With these experiments, it was successfully demonstrated that the developed method can serve as a tool for counting cysteine moieties in proteins and, thus, be used as an additional technique in protein identification experiments.

  18. Chemoenzymatic Reversible Immobilization and Labeling of Proteins without Prior Purification

    PubMed Central

    Rashidian, Mohammad; Song, James M.; Pricer, Rachel E.; Distefano, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Site-specific chemical modification of proteins is important for many applications in biology and biotechnology. Recently, our laboratory and others have exploited the high specificity of the enzyme protein farnesyltransferase (PFTase) to site-specifically modify proteins through the use of alternative substrates that incorporate bioorthogonal functionality including azides and alkynes. In this study, we evaluate two aldehyde-containing molecules as substrates for PFTase and as reactants in both oxime and hydrazone formation. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a model system, we demonstrate that the purified protein can be enzymatically modified with either analogue to yield aldehyde-functionalized proteins. Oxime or hydrazone formation was then employed to immobilize, fluorescently label or PEGylate the resulting aldehyde-containing proteins. Immobilization via hydrazone formation was also shown to be reversible via transoximization with a fluorescent alkoxyamine. After characterizing this labeling strategy using pure protein, the specificity of the enzymatic process was used to selectively label GFP present in crude E. coli extract followed by capture of the aldehyde-modified protein using hydrazide-agarose. Subsequent incubation of the immobilized protein using a fluorescently labeled or PEGylated alkoxyamine resulted in the release of pure GFP containing the desired site-specific covalent modifications. This procedure was also employed to produce PEGylated glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), a protein with potential therapeutic activity for diabetes. Given the specificity of the PFTase-catalyzed reaction coupled with the ability to introduce a CAAX-box recognition sequence onto almost any protein, this method shows great potential as a general approach for the selective immobilization and labeling of recombinant proteins present in crude cellular extract without prior purification. Beyond generating site-specifically modified proteins

  19. Chemoenzymatic reversible immobilization and labeling of proteins without prior purification.

    PubMed

    Rashidian, Mohammad; Song, James M; Pricer, Rachel E; Distefano, Mark D

    2012-05-23

    Site-specific chemical modification of proteins is important for many applications in biology and biotechnology. Recently, our laboratory and others have exploited the high specificity of the enzyme protein farnesyltransferase (PFTase) to site-specifically modify proteins through the use of alternative substrates that incorporate bioorthogonal functionality including azides and alkynes. In this study, we evaluate two aldehyde-containing molecules as substrates for PFTase and as reactants in both oxime and hydrazone formation. Using green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a model system, we demonstrate that the purified protein can be enzymatically modified with either analogue to yield aldehyde-functionalized proteins. Oxime or hydrazone formation was then employed to immobilize, fluorescently label, or PEGylate the resulting aldehyde-containing proteins. Immobilization via hydrazone formation was also shown to be reversible via transoximization with a fluorescent alkoxyamine. After characterizing this labeling strategy using pure protein, the specificity of the enzymatic process was used to selectively label GFP present in crude E. coli extract followed by capture of the aldehyde-modified protein using hydrazide-agarose. Subsequent incubation of the immobilized protein using a fluorescently labeled or PEGylated alkoxyamine resulted in the release of pure GFP containing the desired site-specific covalent modifications. This procedure was also employed to produce PEGylated glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), a protein with potential therapeutic activity for diabetes. Given the specificity of the PFTase-catalyzed reaction coupled with the ability to introduce a CAAX-box recognition sequence onto almost any protein, this method shows great potential as a general approach for selective immobilization and labeling of recombinant proteins present in crude cellular extract without prior purification. Beyond generating site-specifically modified proteins, this

  20. Fluorescent labeling of tetracysteine-tagged proteins in intact cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Carsten; Gaietta, Guido; Zürn, Alexander; Adams, Stephen R; Terrillon, Sonia; Ellisman, Mark H; Tsien, Roger Y; Lohse, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a general protocol for labeling proteins with the membrane-permeant fluorogenic biarsenical dye fluorescein arsenical hairpin binder–ethanedithiol (FlAsH-EDT2). Generation of the tetracysteine-tagged protein construct by itself is not described, as this is a protein-specific process. This method allows site-selective labeling of proteins in living cells and has been applied to a wide variety of proteins and biological problems. We provide here a generally applicable labeling procedure and discuss the problems that can occur as well as general considerations that must be taken into account when designing and implementing the procedure. The method can even be applied to proteins with expression below 1 pmol mg−1 of protein, such as G protein–coupled receptors, and it can be used to study the intracellular localization of proteins as well as functional interactions in fluorescence resonance energy transfer experiments. The labeling procedure using FlAsH-EDT2 as described takes 2–3 h, depending on the number of samples to be processed. PMID:20885379

  1. An Overview of Label-free Electrochemical Protein Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Vestergaard, Mun'delanji; Kerman, Kagan; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2007-01-01

    Electrochemical-based protein sensors offer sensitivity, selectivity and reliability at a low cost, making them very attractive tools for protein detection. Although the sensors use a broad range of different chemistries, they all depend on the solid electrode surface, interactions with the target protein and the molecular recognition layer. Traditionally, redox enzymes have provided the molecular recognition elements from which target proteins have interacted with. This necessitates that the redox-active enzymes couple with electrode surfaces and usually requires the participation of added diffusional components, or assembly of the enzymes in functional chemical matrices. These complications, among many others, have seen a trend towards non-enzymatic-based electrochemical protein sensors. Several electrochemical detection approaches have been exploited. Basically, these have fallen into two categories: labeled and label-free detection systems. The former rely on a redox-active signal from a reporter molecule or a label, which changes upon the interaction of the target protein. In this review, we discuss the label-free electrochemical detection of proteins, paying particular emphasis to those that exploit intrinsic redox-active amino acids.

  2. Compound-specific 15N stable isotope probing of N assimilation by the soil microbial biomass: a new methodological paradigm in soil N cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charteris, A. F.; Knowles, T. D. J.; Michaelides, K.; Evershed, R. P.

    2015-10-01

    A compound-specific nitrogen-15 stable isotope probing (15N-SIP) technique is described which allows investigation of the fate of inorganic- or organic-N amendments to soils. The technique uses gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) to determine the δ15N values of individual amino acids (AAs; determined as N-acetyl, O-isopropyl derivatives) as proxies of biomass protein production. The δ15N values are used together with AA concentrations to quantify N assimilation of 15N-labelled substrates by the soil microbial biomass. The utility of the approach is demonstrated through incubation experiments using inorganic 15N-labelled substrates ammonium (15NH4+) and nitrate (15NO3-) and an organic 15N-labelled substrate, glutamic acid (15N-Glu). Assimilation of all the applied substrates was undetectable based on bulk soil properties, i.e. % total N (% TN), bulk soil N isotope composition and AA concentrations, all of which remained relatively constant throughout the incubation experiments. In contrast, compound-specific AA δ15N values were highly sensitive to N assimilation, providing qualitative and quantitative insights into the cycling and fate of the applied 15N-labelled substrates. The utility of this 15N-AA-SIP technique is considered in relation to other currently available methods for investigating the microbially-mediated assimilation of nitrogenous substrates into the soil organic N pool. This approach will be generally applicable to the study of N cycling in any soil, or indeed, in any complex ecosystem.

  3. Characterization of bromine-77-labeled proteins prepared using bromoperoxidase

    SciTech Connect

    McElvany, K.D.; Welch, M.J.

    1980-10-01

    The halogenating enzyme bromoperoxidase, isolated from the red algae Bonnemaisonia hamifera and Penicillus capitatus, was used to catalyze the radiohalogenation of proteins at neutral pH. Human serum albumin and canine fibrinogen were halogenated as model compounds; the proteins were labeled with Br-77, produced by the /sup 75/As(..cap alpha..,2n)/sup 77/Br reaction. For each enzyme, the essential reaction parameters (including the concentrations of hydrogen peroxide or of protein, the amount of enzyme used to catalyze the reaction, the pH of the reaction mixture, and the reaction time) were varied to obtain conditions that resulted in the highest yield of radiolabeled protein. The labeled proteins prepared with bromoperoxidase are stable with respect to loss of the radiolabel by hydrolysis and retain their biologic activity. The extension of this method to radiobromination of other types of compounds for imaging and receptor studies seems promising.

  4. Sequence-specific {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N resonance assignments for intestinal fatty-acid-binding protein complexed with palmitate (15.4 kDA)

    SciTech Connect

    Hodsdon, M.E.; Toner, J.J.; Cistola, D.P.

    1994-12-01

    Intestinal fatty-acid-binding protein (I-FABP) belongs to a family of soluble, cytoplasmic proteins that are thought to function in the intracellular transport and trafficking of polar lipids. Individual members of this protein family have distinct specificities and affinities for fatty acids, cholesterol, bile salts, and retinoids. We are comparing several retinol- and fatty-acid-binding proteins from intestine in order to define the factors that control molecular recognition in this family of proteins. We have established sequential resonance assignments for uniformly {sup 13}C/{sup 15}N-enriched I-FABP complexed with perdeuterated palmitate at pH7.2 and 37{degrees}C. The assignment strategy was similar to that introduced for calmodulin. We employed seven three-dimensional NMR experiments to establish scalar couplings between backbone and sidechain atoms. Backbone atoms were correlated using triple-resonance HNCO, HNCA, TOCSY-HMQC, HCACO, and HCA(CO)N experiments. Sidechain atoms were correlated using CC-TOCSY, HCCH-TOCSY, and TOCSY-HMQC. The correlations of peaks between three-dimensional spectra were established in a computer-assisted manner using NMR COMPASS (Molecular Simulations, Inc.) Using this approach, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N resonance assignments have been established for 120 of the 131 residues of I-FABP. For 18 residues, amide {sup 1}H and {sup 15}N resonances were unobservable, apparently because of the rapid exchange of amide protons with bulk water at pH 7.2. The missing amide protons correspond to distinct amino acid patterns in the protein sequence, which will be discussed. During the assignment process, several sources of ambiguity in spin correlations were observed. To overcome this ambiguity, the additional inter-residue correlations often observed in the HNCA experiment were used as cross-checks for the sequential backbone assignments.

  5. Characterization of mammalian glucose transport proteins using photoaffinity labeling techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Wadzinski, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    A carrier-free radioiodinated phenylazide derivative of forskolin, 3-iodo-4-azidophenethylamido-7-O-succinyl-deacetyl-forskolin (({sup 125}I)IAPS-forskolin), has been shown to be a highly selective photoaffinity probe for the human erythrocyte glucose transported and the glucose transport proteins found in several mammalian tissues and cultured cells where the glucose transport protein is present at a low concentration. The photoincorporation of ({sup 125}I)IAPS-forskolin into these glucose transporters was blocked by D- (but not L-) glucose, cytochalasin B, and forskolin. In addition to labeling the mammalian glucose transport proteins, ({sup 125}I)IAPS-forskolin also labeled the L-arabinose transporter from E. coli. In muscle and adipose tissues, glucose transport is markedly increased in response to insulin. ({sup 125}I)IAPS-forskolin was shown to selectivity tag the glucose transporter in membranes derived from these cells. In addition, the covalent derivatization of the transport protein in subcellular fractions of the adipocyte has provided a means to study the hormonal regulation of glucose transport. ({sup 125}I)IAPS-forskolin has also been used to label the purified human erythrocyte glucose transporter. The site of insertion has therefore been localized by analysis of the radiolabeled peptides which were produced following chemical and proteolytic digestion of the labeled transport protein.

  6. NMR study of non-structural proteins--part I: (1)H, (13)C, (15)N backbone and side-chain resonance assignment of macro domain from Mayaro virus (MAYV).

    PubMed

    Melekis, Efstathios; Tsika, Aikaterini C; Lichière, Julie; Chasapis, Christos T; Margiolaki, Irene; Papageorgiou, Nicolas; Coutard, Bruno; Bentrop, Detlef; Spyroulias, Georgios A

    2015-04-01

    Macro domains are ADP-ribose-binding modules present in all eukaryotic organisms, bacteria and archaea. They are also found in non-structural proteins of several positive strand RNA viruses such as alphaviruses. Here, we report the high yield expression and preliminary structural analysis through solution NMR spectroscopy of the macro domain from New World Mayaro Alphavirus. The recombinant protein was well-folded and in a monomeric state. An almost complete sequence-specific assignment of its (1)H, (15)N and (13)C resonances was obtained and its secondary structure determined by TALOS+.

  7. Dynamic nuclear polarization of membrane proteins: covalently bound spin-labels at protein-protein interfaces.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Benjamin J; Dzikovski, Boris G; Pawsey, Shane; Caporini, Marc; Rosay, Melanie; Freed, Jack H; McDermott, Ann E

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate that dynamic nuclear polarization of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers may be achieved using a novel polarizing agent: pairs of spin labels covalently bound to a protein of interest interacting at an intermolecular interaction surface. For gramicidin A, nitroxide tags attached to the N-terminal intermolecular interface region become proximal only when bimolecular channels forms in the membrane. We obtained signal enhancements of sixfold for the dimeric protein. The enhancement effect was comparable to that of a doubly tagged sample of gramicidin C, with intramolecular spin pairs. This approach could be a powerful and selective means for signal enhancement in membrane proteins, and for recognizing intermolecular interfaces.

  8. Protein specific fluorescent microspheres for labelling a protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Highly fluorescent, stable and biocompatible microspheres are obtained by copolymerizing an acrylic monomer containing a covalent bonding group such as hydroxyl, amine or carboxyl, for example, hydroxyethylmethacrylate, with an addition polymerizable fluorescent comonomer such as dansyl allyl amine. A lectin or antibody is bound to the covalent site to provide cell specificity. When the microspheres are added to a cell suspension the marked microspheres will specifically label a cell membrane by binding to a specific receptor site thereon. The labeled membrane can then be detected by fluorescence of the fluorescent monomer.

  9. TRAMPLE: the transmembrane protein labelling environment.

    PubMed

    Fariselli, Piero; Finelli, Michele; Rossi, Ivan; Amico, Mauro; Zauli, Andrea; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Casadio, Rita

    2005-07-01

    TRAMPLE (http://gpcr.biocomp.unibo.it/biodec/) is a web application server dedicated to the detection and the annotation of transmembrane protein sequences. TRAMPLE includes different state-of-the-art algorithms for the prediction of signal peptides, transmembrane segments (both beta-strands and alpha-helices), secondary structure and fast fold recognition. TRAMPLE also includes a complete content management system to manage the results of the predictions. Each user of the server has his/her own workplace, where the data can be stored, organized, accessed and annotated with documents through a simple web-based interface. In this manner, TRAMPLE significantly improves usability with respect to other more traditional web servers.

  10. Labeling proteins on live mammalian cells using click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Nikić, Ivana; Kang, Jun Hee; Girona, Gemma Estrada; Aramburu, Iker Valle; Lemke, Edward A

    2015-05-01

    We describe a protocol for the rapid labeling of cell-surface proteins in living mammalian cells using click chemistry. The labeling method is based on strain-promoted alkyne-azide cycloaddition (SPAAC) and strain-promoted inverse-electron-demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition (SPIEDAC) reactions, in which noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) bearing ring-strained alkynes or alkenes react, respectively, with dyes containing azide or tetrazine groups. To introduce ncAAs site specifically into a protein of interest (POI), we use genetic code expansion technology. The protocol can be described as comprising two steps. In the first step, an Amber stop codon is introduced--by site-directed mutagenesis--at the desired site on the gene encoding the POI. This plasmid is then transfected into mammalian cells, along with another plasmid that encodes an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA (RS/tRNA) pair that is orthogonal to the host's translational machinery. In the presence of the ncAA, the orthogonal RS/tRNA pair specifically suppresses the Amber codon by incorporating the ncAA into the polypeptide chain of the POI. In the second step, the expressed POI is labeled with a suitably reactive dye derivative that is directly supplied to the growth medium. We provide a detailed protocol for using commercially available ncAAs and dyes for labeling the insulin receptor, and we discuss the optimal surface-labeling conditions and the limitations of labeling living mammalian cells. The protocol involves an initial cloning step that can take 4-7 d, followed by the described transfections and labeling reaction steps, which can take 3-4 d.

  11. Application of SAIL phenylalanine and tyrosine with alternative isotope-labeling patterns for protein structure determination.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Mitsuhiro; Ono, Akira M; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Kainosho, Masatsune

    2010-01-01

    The extensive collection of NOE constraint data involving the aromatic ring signals is essential for accurate protein structure determination, although it is often hampered in practice by the pervasive signal overlapping and tight spin couplings for aromatic rings. We have prepared various types of stereo-array isotope labeled phenylalanines (epsilon- and zeta-SAIL Phe) and tyrosine (epsilon-SAIL Tyr) to overcome these problems (Torizawa et al. 2005), and proven that these SAIL amino acids provide dramatic spectral simplification and sensitivity enhancement for the aromatic ring NMR signals. In addition to these SAIL aromatic amino acids, we recently synthesized delta-SAIL Phe and delta-SAIL Tyr, which allow us to observe and assign delta-(13)C/(1)H signals very efficiently. Each of the various types of SAIL Phe and SAIL Tyr yields well-resolved resonances for the delta-, epsilon- or zeta-(13)C/(1)H signals, respectively, which can readily be assigned by simple and robust pulse sequences. Since the delta-, epsilon-, and zeta-proton signals of Phe/Tyr residues give rise to complementary NOE constraints, the concomitant use of various types of SAIL-Phe and SAIL-Tyr would generate more accurate protein structures, as compared to those obtained by using conventional uniformly (13)C, (15)N-double labeled proteins. We illustrated this with the case of an 18.2 kDa protein, Escherichia coli peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase b (EPPIb), and concluded that the combined use of zeta-SAIL Phe and epsilon-SAIL Tyr would be practically the best choice for protein structural determinations.

  12. pH-dependent random coil (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N chemical shifts of the ionizable amino acids: a guide for protein pK a measurements.

    PubMed

    Platzer, Gerald; Okon, Mark; McIntosh, Lawrence P

    2014-11-01

    The pK a values and charge states of ionizable residues in polypeptides and proteins are frequently determined via NMR-monitored pH titrations. To aid the interpretation of the resulting titration data, we have measured the pH-dependent chemical shifts of nearly all the (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N nuclei in the seven common ionizable amino acids (X = Asp, Glu, His, Cys, Tyr, Lys, and Arg) within the context of a blocked tripeptide, acetyl-Gly-X-Gly-amide. Alanine amide and N-acetyl alanine were used as models of the N- and C-termini, respectively. Together, this study provides an essentially complete set of pH-dependent intra-residue and nearest-neighbor reference chemical shifts to help guide protein pK a measurements. These data should also facilitate pH-dependent corrections in algorithms used to predict the chemical shifts of random coil polypeptides. In parallel, deuterium isotope shifts for the side chain (15)N nuclei of His, Lys, and Arg in their positively-charged and neutral states were also measured. Along with previously published results for Asp, Glu, Cys, and Tyr, these deuterium isotope shifts can provide complementary experimental evidence for defining the ionization states of protein residues.

  13. Fluorescence properties of o-aminobenzoyl-labeled proteins.

    PubMed

    Churchich, J E

    1993-09-01

    Isatoic anhydride reacts with nucleophile groups of proteins to yield o-aminobenzoyl protein conjugates. The fluorescence emitted by the chromophore decays in a multiexponential manner with average fluorescence lifetimes ranging from 9.9 to 10.7 ns. The steady emission anisotropy, measured upon excitation at 330 nm, is influenced by the molecular mass of the protein to which o-aminobenzoyl is attached. The fluorescence properties of o-aminobenzoyl are suitable for rotational correlation time measurements of proteins smaller than 65 kDa. The technique of emission anisotropy can be used to detect interactions between proteins in solution, provided one of the proteins is labeled with o-aminobenzoyl.

  14. Cysteine-Specific Labeling of Proteins with a Nitroxide Biradical for Dynamic Nuclear Polarization NMR.

    PubMed

    Voinov, Maxim A; Good, Daryl B; Ward, Meaghan E; Milikisiyants, Sergey; Marek, Antonin; Caporini, Marc A; Rosay, Melanie; Munro, Rachel A; Ljumovic, Milena; Brown, Leonid S; Ladizhansky, Vladimir; Smirnov, Alex I

    2015-08-13

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enhances the signal in solid-state NMR of proteins by transferring polarization from electronic spins to the nuclear spins of interest. Typically, both the protein and an exogenous source of electronic spins, such as a biradical, are either codissolved or suspended and then frozen in a glycerol/water glassy matrix to achieve a homogeneous distribution. While the use of such a matrix protects the protein upon freezing, it also reduces the available sample volume (by ca. a factor of 4 in our experiments) and causes proportional NMR signal loss. Here we demonstrate an alternative approach that does not rely on dispersing the DNP agent in a glassy matrix. We synthesize a new biradical, ToSMTSL, which is based on the known DNP agent TOTAPOL, but also contains a thiol-specific methanethiosulfonate group to allow for incorporating this biradical into a protein in a site-directed manner. ToSMTSL was characterized by EPR and tested for DNP of a heptahelical transmembrane protein, Anabaena sensory rhodopsin (ASR), by covalent modification of solvent-exposed cysteine residues in two (15)N-labeled ASR mutants. DNP enhancements were measured at 400 MHz/263 GHz NMR/EPR frequencies for a series of samples prepared in deuterated and protonated buffers and with varied biradical/protein ratios. While the maximum DNP enhancement of 15 obtained in these samples is comparable to that observed for an ASR sample cosuspended with ~17 mM TOTAPOL in a glycerol-d8/D2O/H2O matrix, the achievable sensitivity would be 4-fold greater due to the gain in the filling factor. We anticipate that the DNP enhancements could be further improved by optimizing the biradical structure. The use of covalently attached biradicals would broaden the applicability of DNP NMR to structural studies of proteins.

  15. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization of membrane proteins: covalently bound spin-labels at protein-protein interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Benjamin J; Dzikovski, Boris G.; Pawsey, Shane; Caporini, Marc; Rosay, Melanie; Freed, Jack H.; McDermott, Ann E.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers may be achieved using a novel polarizing agent: pairs of spin labels covalently bound to a protein of interest interacting at an intermolecular interaction surface. For gramicidin A, nitroxide tags attached to the N-terminal intermolecular interface region become proximal only when bimolecular channels forms in the membrane. We obtained signal enhancements of 6-fold for the dimeric protein. The enhancement affect was comparable to that of a doubly tagged sample of gramicidin C, with intramolecular spin pairs. This approach could be a powerful and selective means for signal enhancement in membrane proteins, and for recognizing intermolecular interfaces. PMID:25828256

  16. Sequential assignment of 1H, 15N, 13C resonances and secondary structure of human calmodulin-like protein determined by NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Qian, H.; Rogers, M. S.; Schleucher, J.; Edlund, U.; Strehler, E. E.; Sethson, I.

    1998-01-01

    Human calmodulin-like protein (CLP) is closely related to vertebrate calmodulin, yet its unique cell specific expression pattern, overlapping but divergent biochemical properties, and specific target proteins suggest that it is not an isoform of calmodulin. To gain insight into the structural differences that may underlie the difference target specificities and biochemical properties of CLP when compared to calmodulin, we determined the sequential backbone assignment and associated secondary structure of 144 out of the 148 residues of Ca2+-CLP by using multinuclear multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. Despite a very high overall degree of structural similarity between CLP and calmodulin, a number of significant differences were found mainly in the length of alpha-helices and in the central nonhelical flexible region. Interestingly, the regions of greatest primary sequence divergence between CLP and calmodulin in helices III and VIII displayed only minor secondary structure differences. The data suggest that the distinct differences in target specificity and biochemical properties of CLP and calmodulin result from the sum of several minor structural and side-chain changes spread over multiple domains in these proteins. PMID:9828009

  17. Fluorescently labeled pulmonary surfactant protein C in spread phospholipid monolayers.

    PubMed Central

    Nag, K; Perez-Gil, J; Cruz, A; Keough, K M

    1996-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant, a lipid-protein complex, secreted into the fluid lining of lungs prevents alveolar collapse at low lung volumes. Pulmonary surfactant protein C (SP-C), an acylated, hydrophobic, alpha-helical peptide, enhances the surface activity of pulmonary surfactant lipids. Fluorescein-labeled SP-C (F-SP-C) (3, 6, 12 wt%) in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), and DPPC:dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) [DPPC:DPPG 7:3 mol/mol] in spread monolayers was studied by epifluorescence microscopy. Mass spectometry of F-SP-C indicated that the protein is partially deacylated and labeled with 1 mol fluorescein/1 mol protein. The protein partitioned into the fluid, or liquid expanded, phase. Increasing amounts of F-SP-C in DPPC or DPPC:DPPG monolayers decreased the size and total amounts of the condensed phase at all surface pressures. Calcium (1.6 mM) increased the amount of the condensed phase in monolayers of DPPC:DPPG but not of DPPC alone, and such monolayers were also perturbed by F-SP-C. The study indicates that SP-C perturbs the packing of neutral and anionic phospholipid monolayers even when the latter systems are condensed by calcium, indicating that interactions between SP-C and the lipids are predominantly hydrophobic in nature. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 7 PMID:8804608

  18. Escherichia coli cell-free protein synthesis and isotope labeling of mammalian proteins.

    PubMed

    Terada, Takaho; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the cell-free protein synthesis method, using an Escherichia coli cell extract. This is a cost-effective method for milligram-scale protein production and is particularly useful for the production of mammalian proteins, protein complexes, and membrane proteins that are difficult to synthesize by recombinant expression methods, using E. coli and eukaryotic cells. By adjusting the conditions of the cell-free method, zinc-binding proteins, disulfide-bonded proteins, ligand-bound proteins, etc., may also be produced. Stable isotope labeling of proteins can be accomplished by the cell-free method, simply by using stable isotope-labeled amino acid(s) in the cell-free reaction. Moreover, the cell-free protein synthesis method facilitates the avoidance of stable isotope scrambling and dilution over the recombinant expression methods and is therefore advantageous for amino acid-selective stable isotope labeling. Site-specific stable isotope labeling is also possible with a tRNA molecule specific to the UAG codon. By the cell-free protein synthesis method, coupled transcription-translation is performed from a plasmid vector or a PCR-amplified DNA fragment encoding the protein. A milligram quantity of protein can be produced with a milliliter-scale reaction solution in the dialysis mode. More than a thousand solution structures have been determined by NMR spectroscopy for uniformly labeled samples of human and mouse functional domain proteins, produced by the cell-free method. Here, we describe the practical aspects of mammalian protein production by the cell-free method for NMR spectroscopy.

  19. Labeling proteins inside living cells using external fluorophores for microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Kai Wen; Ishitsuka, Yuji; Ren, Pin; Youn, Yeoan; Deng, Xiang; Ge, Pinghua; Lee, Sang Hak; Belmont, Andrew S; Selvin, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Site-specific fluorescent labeling of proteins inside live mammalian cells has been achieved by employing Streptolysin O, a bacterial toxin which forms temporary pores in the membrane and allows delivery of virtually any fluorescent probes, ranging from labeled IgG’s to small ligands, with high efficiency (>85% of cells). The whole process, including recovery, takes 30 min, and the cell is ready to be imaged immediately. A variety of cell viability tests were performed after treatment with SLO to ensure that the cells have intact membranes, are able to divide, respond normally to signaling molecules, and maintains healthy organelle morphology. When combined with Oxyrase, a cell-friendly photostabilizer, a ~20x improvement in fluorescence photostability is achieved. By adding in glutathione, fluorophores are made to blink, enabling super-resolution fluorescence with 20–30 nm resolution over a long time (~30 min) under continuous illumination. Example applications in conventional and super-resolution imaging of native and transfected cells include p65 signal transduction activation, single molecule tracking of kinesin, and specific labeling of a series of nuclear and cytoplasmic protein complexes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20378.001 PMID:27935478

  20. Polar Versus Non-polar Local Ordering at Mobile Sites in Proteins: Slowly Relaxing Local Structure Analysis of (15)N Relaxation in the Third Immunoglobulin-Binding Domain of Streptococcal Protein G.

    PubMed

    Tchaicheeyan, Oren; Meirovitch, Eva

    2016-01-28

    We developed recently the slowly relaxing local structure (SRLS) approach for studying restricted motions in proteins by NMR. The spatial restrictions have been described by potentials comprising the traditional L = 2, K = 0, 2 spherical harmonics. However, the latter are associated with non-polar ordering whereas protein-anchored probes experience polar ordering, described by odd-L spherical harmonics. Here we extend the SRLS potential to include the L = 1, K = 0, 1 spherical harmonics and analyze (15)N-(1)H relaxation from the third immunoglobulin-binding domain of streptococcal protein G (GB3) with the polar L = 1 potential (coefficients c0(1) and c1(1)) or the non-polar L = 2 potential (coefficients c0(2) and c2(2)). Strong potentials, with ⟨c0(1)⟩ ∼ 60 for L = 1 and ⟨c0(2)⟩ ∼ 20 for L = 2 (in units of kBT), are detected. In the α-helix of GB3 the coefficients of the rhombic terms are c1(1) ∼ c2(2) ∼ 0; in the preceding (following) chain segment they are ⟨c1(1)⟩ ∼ 6 for L = 1 and ⟨c2(2)⟩ ∼ 14 for L = 2 (⟨c1(1)⟩ ∼ 3 for L = 1 and ⟨c2(2)⟩ ∼ 7 for L = 2). The local diffusion rate, D2, lies in the 5 × 10(9)-1 × 10(11) s(-1) range; it is generally larger for L = 1. The main ordering axis deviates moderately from the N-H bond. Corresponding L = 1 and L = 2 potentials and probability density functions are illustrated for residues A26 of the α-helix, Y3 of the β1-strand, and L12 of the β1/β2 loop; they differ considerably. Polar/orientational ordering is shown to be associated with GB3 binding to its cognate Fab fragment. The polarity of the local ordering is clearly an important factor.

  1. Selective {sup 2}H and {sup 13}C labeling in NMR analysis of solution protein structure and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    LeMaster, D.M.

    1994-12-01

    Preparation of samples bearing combined isotope enrichment patterns has played a central role in the recent advances in NMR analysis of proteins in solution. In particular, uniform {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N enrichment has made it possible to apply heteronuclear multidimensional correlation experiments for the mainchain assignments of proteins larger than 30 KDa. In contrast, selective labeling approaches can offer advantages in terms of the directedness of the information provided, such as chirality and residue type assignments, as well as through enhancements in resolution and sensitivity that result from editing the spectral complexity, the relaxation pathways and the scalar coupling networks. In addition, the combination of selective {sup 13}C and {sup 2}H enrichment can greatly facilitate the determination of heteronuclear relaxation behavior.

  2. A Monte Carlo/simulated annealing algorithm for sequential resonance assignment in solid state NMR of uniformly labeled proteins with magic-angle spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tycko, Robert; Hu, Kan-Nian

    2010-08-01

    We describe a computational approach to sequential resonance assignment in solid state NMR studies of uniformly 15N, 13C-labeled proteins with magic-angle spinning. As input, the algorithm uses only the protein sequence and lists of 15N/ 13C α crosspeaks from 2D NCACX and NCOCX spectra that include possible residue-type assignments of each crosspeak. Assignment of crosspeaks to specific residues is carried out by a Monte Carlo/simulated annealing algorithm, implemented in the program MC_ASSIGN1. The algorithm tolerates substantial ambiguity in residue-type assignments and coexistence of visible and invisible segments in the protein sequence. We use MC_ASSIGN1 and our own 2D spectra to replicate and extend the sequential assignments for uniformly-labeled HET-s(218-289) fibrils previously determined manually by Siemer et al. (J. Biomol. NMR, 34 (2006) 75-87) from a more extensive set of 2D and 3D spectra. Accurate assignments by MC_ASSIGN1 do not require data that are of exceptionally high quality. Use of MC_ASSIGN1 (and its extensions to other types of 2D and 3D data) is likely to alleviate many of the difficulties and uncertainties associated with manual resonance assignments in solid state NMR studies of uniformly labeled proteins, where spectral resolution and signal-to-noise are often sub-optimal.

  3. Efficient sortase-mediated N-terminal labeling of TEV protease cleaved recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Sarpong, Kwabena; Bose, Ron

    2017-03-15

    A major challenge in attaching fluorophores or other handles to proteins is the availability of a site-specific labeling strategy that provides stoichiometric modification without compromising protein integrity. We developed a simple approach that combines TEV protease cleavage, sortase modification and affinity purification to N-terminally label proteins. To achieve stoichiometrically-labeled protein, we included a short affinity tag in the fluorophore-containing peptide for post-labeling purification of the modified protein. This strategy can be easily applied to any recombinant protein with a TEV site and we demonstrate this on Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and Membrane Scaffold Protein (MSP) constructs.

  4. Drop Coating Deposition Raman Spectroscopy of Fluorescein Isothiocyanate Labeled Protein

    PubMed Central

    Vangala, Karthikeshwar; Jiang, Dongping; Zou, Sige; Pechan, Tibor

    2011-01-01

    Using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the model protein normal Raman spectra of Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) -conjugated protein was systematically studied for the first time using both solution and the drop coating deposition Raman (DCDR) sampling techniques. The FITC-BSA Raman spectra are dominated by the FITC Raman features that are strongly pH dependent. Current DCDR detection sensitivity obtained with a 10:1 FITC-BSA conjugate is 45 fmol in terms of total protein consumption and ~15 attomol at laser probed volume. Unlike the FITC-BSA solution Raman spectra where the FITC Raman features are photostable, concurrent FITC fluorescence and Raman photobleaching is observed in the DCDR spectra of FITC-BSA. While the FITC Raman photobleaching follows a single exponential decay function with a time constant independent of the FITC labeling ratio, the fluorescence background photobleaching is much more complicated and it depends strongly on the FITC labeling ratio and sample conditions. Mechanistically, the FITC Raman photobleaching is believed to be due to photochemical reaction of the FITC molecules in the electronically excited state. The FITC fluorescence photobleaching involves both concentration quenching and photochemical quenching, and the latter may involve a photochemical intermediate that is fluorescence inactive but Raman active. PMID:20925976

  5. NMR study of non-structural proteins--part II: (1)H, (13)C, (15)N backbone and side-chain resonance assignment of macro domain from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV).

    PubMed

    Makrynitsa, Garyfallia I; Ntonti, Dioni; Marousis, Konstantinos D; Tsika, Aikaterini C; Lichière, Julie; Papageorgiou, Nicolas; Coutard, Bruno; Bentrop, Detlef; Spyroulias, Georgios A

    2015-10-01

    Macro domains consist of 130-190 amino acid residues and appear to be highly conserved in all kingdoms of life. Intense research on this field has shown that macro domains bind ADP-ribose and other similar molecules, but their exact function still remains intangible. Macro domains are highly conserved in the Alphavirus genus and the Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a member of this genus that causes fatal encephalitis to equines and humans. In this study we report the high yield recombinant expression and preliminary solution NMR study of the macro domain of VEEV. An almost complete sequence-specific assignment of its (1)H, (15)N and (13)C resonances was obtained and its secondary structure predicted by TALOS+. The protein shows a unique mixed α/β-fold.

  6. Solid-State 15N NMR of 15N-Labeled Nylon 6 and Nylon 11

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-22

    S. Veeman, E. M. Menger, W. Ritchey, and E. de Boer, Macromolecules, 1979, 12, 924. 2. A. N. Garroway , W. M. Ritchey and W. B. Moniz, Macromolecules...S. Veeman and E. M. Menger, Bull. Magn. Reson., 1980, 2, 77. 26. D. L. VanderHart and A. N. Garroway , J. Chem. Phys., 1979, 71, 2773. 27. M. D

  7. δ15N Value Does Not Reflect Fasting in Mysticetes

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Alex; Giménez, Joan; Gómez–Campos, Encarna; Cardona, Luís; Borrell, Asunción

    2014-01-01

    The finding that tissue δ15N values increase with protein catabolism has led researchers to apply this value to gauge nutritive condition in vertebrates. However, its application to marine mammals has in most occasions failed. We investigated the relationship between δ15N values and the fattening/fasting cycle in a model species, the fin whale, a migratory capital breeder that experiences severe seasonal variation in body condition. We analyzed two tissues providing complementary insights: one with isotopic turnover (muscle) and one that keeps a permanent record of variations in isotopic values (baleen plates). In both tissues δ15N values increased with intensive feeding but decreased with fasting, thus contradicting the pattern previously anticipated. The apparent inconsistency during fasting is explained by the fact that a) individuals migrate between different isotopic isoscapes, b) starvation may not trigger significant negative nitrogen balance, and c) excretion drops and elimination of 15N-depleted urine is minimized. Conversely, when intensive feeding is resumed in the northern grounds, protein anabolism and excretion start again, triggering 15N enrichment. It can be concluded that in whales and other mammals that accrue massive depots of lipids as energetic reserves and which have limited access to drinking water, the δ15N value is not affected by fasting and therefore cannot be used as an indicatior of nutritive condition. PMID:24651388

  8. Kinetic 15N-isotope effects on algal growth

    PubMed Central

    Andriukonis, Eivydas; Gorokhova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Stable isotope labeling is a standard technique for tracing material transfer in molecular, ecological and biogeochemical studies. The main assumption in this approach is that the enrichment with a heavy isotope has no effect on the organism metabolism and growth, which is not consistent with current theoretical and empirical knowledge on kinetic isotope effects. Here, we demonstrate profound changes in growth dynamics of the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata grown in 15N-enriched media. With increasing 15N concentration (0.37 to 50 at%), the lag phase increased, whereas maximal growth rate and total yield decreased; moreover, there was a negative relationship between the growth and the lag phase across the treatments. The latter suggests that a trade-off between growth rate and the ability to adapt to the high 15N environment may exist. Remarkably, the lag-phase response at 3.5 at% 15N was the shortest and deviated from the overall trend, thus providing partial support to the recently proposed Isotopic Resonance hypothesis, which predicts that certain isotopic composition is particularly favorable for living organisms. These findings confirm the occurrence of KIE in isotopically enriched algae and underline the importance of considering these effects when using stable isotope labeling in field and experimental studies. PMID:28281640

  9. Kinetic 15N-isotope effects on algal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriukonis, Eivydas; Gorokhova, Elena

    2017-03-01

    Stable isotope labeling is a standard technique for tracing material transfer in molecular, ecological and biogeochemical studies. The main assumption in this approach is that the enrichment with a heavy isotope has no effect on the organism metabolism and growth, which is not consistent with current theoretical and empirical knowledge on kinetic isotope effects. Here, we demonstrate profound changes in growth dynamics of the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata grown in 15N-enriched media. With increasing 15N concentration (0.37 to 50 at%), the lag phase increased, whereas maximal growth rate and total yield decreased; moreover, there was a negative relationship between the growth and the lag phase across the treatments. The latter suggests that a trade-off between growth rate and the ability to adapt to the high 15N environment may exist. Remarkably, the lag-phase response at 3.5 at% 15N was the shortest and deviated from the overall trend, thus providing partial support to the recently proposed Isotopic Resonance hypothesis, which predicts that certain isotopic composition is particularly favorable for living organisms. These findings confirm the occurrence of KIE in isotopically enriched algae and underline the importance of considering these effects when using stable isotope labeling in field and experimental studies.

  10. Labeling and purification of cellulose-binding proteins for high resolution fluorescence applications.

    PubMed

    Moran-Mirabal, Jose M; Corgie, Stephane C; Bolewski, Jacob C; Smith, Hanna M; Cipriany, Benjamin R; Craighead, Harold G; Walker, Larry P

    2009-10-01

    The study of enzymatic reactions through fluorescence spectroscopy requires the use of bright, functional fluorescent molecules. In the case of proteins, labeling with fluorescent dyes has been carried out through covalent reactions with specific amino acids. However, these reactions are probabilistic and can yield mixtures of unlabeled and labeled enzymes with catalytic activities that can be modified by the addition of fluorophores. To have meaningful interpretations of results from the study of labeled enzymes, it is then necessary to reduce the variability in physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the labeled products. In this paper, a solid phase labeling protocol is described as an advantageous alternative to free solution labeling of cellulose-binding proteins and is applied to tag cellulases with three different fluorophores. The products from the labeling reactions were purified to remove the unreacted dye and separate labeled and unlabeled enzymes. Characterization of the catalytic and spectroscopic properties of the isolated labeled species confirmed that highly homogeneous populations of labeled cellulases can be achieved. The protocol for the separation of labeled products is applicable to any mixture of labeled proteins, making this an attractive methodology for the production of labeled proteins suitable for single molecule fluorescence spectroscopy.

  11. Photoaffinity labelling of high affinity dopamine binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, G.M.; McCarry, B.E.; Mishra, R.K.

    1986-03-01

    A photoactive analogue of the dopamine agonist 2-amino-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronapthalene (ADTN) has been synthesized and used to photoaffinity label dopamine binding proteins prepared from bovine caudate nucleus. N-(3-)N'-4-azidobenzamidol)-aminopropyl)-aminopropyl)-ADTN (AzB-AP-ADTN) was incubated with caudate membranes and irradiated with UV light. Membranes were then repeatedly washed by centrifugation to remove excess photolabel. A binding assay, using (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390 (a D/sub 1/ specific antagonist), was then performed to evaluate the loss of receptor density in the photolyzed preparation. AzB-AP-ADTN irreversibly blocked (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390 binding in a dose-dependent manner. Scatchard analysis revealed a decrease in the B/sub max/, with no significant change in the K/sub d/, of (/sup 3/H)-SCH 23390 binding. Compounds which compete for D/sub 1/ receptor binding (such as dopamine, SKF 38393 or apomorphine), proteted the SCH 23390 binding site from inactivation. This data would suggest that the novel photoaffinity ligand, AzB-AP-ADTN, can covalently label the D/sub 1/ (adenylate cyclase linked) dopamine receptor.

  12. Accurate measurements of 13C-13C distances in uniformly 13C-labeled proteins using multi-dimensional four-oscillating field solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straasø, Lasse Arnt; Nielsen, Jakob Toudahl; Bjerring, Morten; Khaneja, Navin; Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2014-09-01

    Application of sets of 13C-13C internuclear distance restraints constitutes a typical key element in determining the structure of peptides and proteins by magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Accurate measurements of the structurally highly important 13C-13C distances in uniformly 13C-labeled peptides and proteins, however, pose a big challenge due to the problem of dipolar truncation. Here, we present novel two-dimensional (2D) solid-state NMR experiments capable of extracting distances between carbonyl (13C') and aliphatic (13Caliphatic) spins with high accuracy. The method is based on an improved version of the four-oscillating field (FOLD) technique [L. A. Straasø, M. Bjerring, N. Khaneja, and N. C. Nielsen, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 225103 (2009)] which circumvents the problem of dipolar truncation, thereby offering a base for accurate extraction of internuclear distances in many-spin systems. The ability to extract reliable accurate distances is demonstrated using one- and two-dimensional variants of the FOLD experiment on uniformly 13C,15N-labeled-L-isoleucine. In a more challenging biological application, FOLD 2D experiments are used to determine a large number of 13C'-13Caliphatic distances in amyloid fibrils formed by the SNNFGAILSS fibrillating core of the human islet amyloid polypeptide with uniform 13C,15N-labeling on the FGAIL fragment.

  13. Site-directed spin labeling of proteins for distance measurements in vitro and in cells.

    PubMed

    Roser, P; Schmidt, M J; Drescher, M; Summerer, D

    2016-06-15

    Site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) in combination with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy allows studying the structure, dynamics, and interactions of proteins via distance measurements in the nanometer range. We here give an overview of available spin labels, the strategies for their introduction into proteins, and the associated potentials for protein structural studies in vitro and in the context of living cells.

  14. Protein Retention Assessment of Four Levels of Poultry By-Product Substitution of Fishmeal in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Diets Using Stable Isotopes of Nitrogen (δ15N) as Natural Tracers

    PubMed Central

    Badillo, Daniel; Herzka, Sharon Z.; Viana, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    This is second part from an experiment where the nitrogen retention of poultry by-product meal (PBM) compared to fishmeal (FM) was evaluated using traditional indices. Here a quantitative method using stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (δ15N values) as natural tracers of nitrogen incorporation into fish biomass is assessed. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed for 80 days on isotopically distinct diets in which 0, 33, 66 and 100% of FM as main protein source was replaced by PBM. The diets were isonitrogenous, isolipidic and similar in gross energy content. Fish in all treatments reached isotopic equilibrium by the end of the experiment. Two-source isotope mixing models that incorporated the isotopic composition of FM and PBM as well as that of formulated feeds, empirically derived trophic discrimination factors and the isotopic composition of fish that had reached isotopic equilibrium to the diets were used to obtain a quantitative estimate of the retention of each source of nitrogen. Fish fed the diets with 33 and 66% replacement of FM by PBM retained poultry by-product meal roughly in proportion to its level of inclusion in the diets, whereas no differences were detected in the protein efficiency ratio. Coupled with the similar biomass gain of fishes fed the different diets, our results support the inclusion of PBM as replacement for fishmeal in aquaculture feeds. A re-feeding experiment in which all fish were fed a diet of 100% FM for 28 days indicated isotopic turnover occurred very fast, providing further support for the potential of isotopic ratios as tracers of the retention of specific protein sources into fish tissues. Stable isotope analysis is a useful tool for studies that seek to obtain quantitative estimates of the retention of different protein sources. PMID:25226392

  15. Protein retention assessment of four levels of poultry by-product substitution of fishmeal in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) diets using stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N) as natural tracers.

    PubMed

    Badillo, Daniel; Herzka, Sharon Z; Viana, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    This is second part from an experiment where the nitrogen retention of poultry by-product meal (PBM) compared to fishmeal (FM) was evaluated using traditional indices. Here a quantitative method using stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (δ(15)N values) as natural tracers of nitrogen incorporation into fish biomass is assessed. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were fed for 80 days on isotopically distinct diets in which 0, 33, 66 and 100% of FM as main protein source was replaced by PBM. The diets were isonitrogenous, isolipidic and similar in gross energy content. Fish in all treatments reached isotopic equilibrium by the end of the experiment. Two-source isotope mixing models that incorporated the isotopic composition of FM and PBM as well as that of formulated feeds, empirically derived trophic discrimination factors and the isotopic composition of fish that had reached isotopic equilibrium to the diets were used to obtain a quantitative estimate of the retention of each source of nitrogen. Fish fed the diets with 33 and 66% replacement of FM by PBM retained poultry by-product meal roughly in proportion to its level of inclusion in the diets, whereas no differences were detected in the protein efficiency ratio. Coupled with the similar biomass gain of fishes fed the different diets, our results support the inclusion of PBM as replacement for fishmeal in aquaculture feeds. A re-feeding experiment in which all fish were fed a diet of 100% FM for 28 days indicated isotopic turnover occurred very fast, providing further support for the potential of isotopic ratios as tracers of the retention of specific protein sources into fish tissues. Stable isotope analysis is a useful tool for studies that seek to obtain quantitative estimates of the retention of different protein sources.

  16. Advances in chemical labeling of proteins in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qi; Bruchez, Marcel P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The pursuit of quantitative biological information with imaging requires robust labeling approaches that can be used in multiple applications and with a variety of detectable colors and properties. In addition to conventional fluorescent proteins, chemists and biologists have come together to provide a range of approaches that combine dye chemistry with the convenience of genetic targeting. This hybrid-tagging approach combines the rational design of properties available through synthetic dye chemistry with the robust biological targeting available with genetic encoding. In this review, we discuss the current range of approaches that have been exploited for dye targeting, or targeting and activation, and some of the recent applications that are uniquely enabled by these hybrid-tagging approaches. PMID:25743694

  17. Traceless affinity labeling of endogenous proteins for functional analysis in living cells.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takahiro; Hamachi, Itaru

    2012-09-18

    Protein labeling and imaging techniques have provided tremendous opportunities to study the structure, function, dynamics, and localization of individual proteins in the complex environment of living cells. Molecular biology-based approaches, such as GFP-fusion tags and monoclonal antibodies, have served as important tools for the visualization of individual proteins in cells. Although these techniques continue to be valuable for live cell imaging, they have a number of limitations that have only been addressed by recent progress in chemistry-based approaches. These chemical approaches benefit greatly from the smaller probe sizes that should result in fewer perturbations to proteins and to biological systems as a whole. Despite the research in this area, so far none of these labeling techniques permit labeling and imaging of selected endogenous proteins in living cells. Researchers have widely used affinity labeling, in which the protein of interest is labeled by a reactive group attached to a ligand, to identify and characterize proteins. Since the first report of affinity labeling in the early 1960s, efforts to fine-tune the chemical structures of both the reactive group and ligand have led to protein labeling with excellent target selectivity in the whole proteome of living cells. Although the chemical probes used for affinity labeling generally inactivate target proteins, this strategy holds promise as a valuable tool for the labeling and imaging of endogenous proteins in living cells and by extension in living animals. In this Account, we summarize traceless affinity labeling, a technique explored mainly in our laboratory. In our overview of the different labeling techniques, we emphasize the challenge of designing chemical probes that allow for dissociation of the affinity module (often a ligand) after the labeling reaction so that the labeled protein retains its native function. This feature distinguishes the traceless labeling approach from the traditional

  18. Expression of the GM2-activator protein in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, purification, isotopic labeling, and biophysical characterization.

    PubMed

    Wendeler, Michaela; Hoernschemeyer, Joerg; John, Michael; Werth, Norbert; Schoeniger, Maike; Lemm, Thorsten; Hartmann, Rudolf; Kessler, Horst; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2004-03-01

    , and glycosylation pattern of the recombinant protein. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy allowed the interaction of GM2AP with immobilized liposomes to be studied. A modified version of FM22 minimal medium was then used in the cost-effective (15)N-labeling of GM2AP to assess its amenability for the structural investigation by NMR spectroscopy. Initial (15)N,(1)H-HSQC experiments show a well-folded protein and provide evidence for extensive conformational exchange processes within the molecule.

  19. Dual labeling of a binding protein allows for specific fluorescence detection of native protein.

    PubMed

    Karlström, A; Nygren, P A

    2001-08-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer has been investigated in the context of specific detection of unlabeled proteins. A model system based on the staphylococcal protein A (SPA)-IgG interaction was designed, in which a single domain was engineered to facilitate site-specific incorporation of fluorophores. An Asn23Cys mutant of the B domain from SPA was expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently labeled at the introduced unique thiol and at an amino group, using N-iodoacetyl-N'-(5-sulfo-1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine (1,5-IAEDANS) and succinimidyl 6-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)hexanoate (NBD-X, SE), respectively. Biosensor analysis of purified doubly labeled protein showed that high-affinity binding to the Fc region of IgG was retained. The fluorescence emission spectrum of the doubly labeled protein showed a shift in the relative emission of the two fluorophores in the presence of Fc3(1) fragments, which bind specifically to the B domain. In addition, the fluorescence emission ratio 480/525 nm was shown to increase with increasing concentration of Fc3(1), whereas the presence of a control protein did not affect the emission ratio over the same concentration range.

  20. Stable Isotope Labeling Strategy for Protein-Ligand Binding Analysis in Multi-Component Protein Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeArmond, Patrick D.; West, Graham M.; Huang, Hai-Tsang; Fitzgerald, Michael C.

    2011-03-01

    Described here is a stable isotope labeling protocol that can be used with a chemical modification- and mass spectrometry-based protein-ligand binding assay for detecting and quantifying both the direct and indirect binding events that result from protein-ligand binding interactions. The protocol utilizes an H{2/16}O2 and H{2/18}O2 labeling strategy to evaluate the chemical denaturant dependence of methionine oxidation in proteins both in the presence and absence of a target ligand. The differential denaturant dependence to the oxidation reactions performed in the presence and absence of ligand provides a measure of the protein stability changes that occur as a result of direct interactions of proteins with the target ligand and/or as a result of indirect interactions involving other protein-ligand interactions that are either induced or disrupted by the ligand. The described protocol utilizes the 18O/16O ratio in the oxidized protein samples to quantify the ligand-induced protein stability changes. The ratio is determined using the isotopic distributions observed for the methionine-containing peptides used for protein identification in the LC-MS-based proteomics readout. The strategy is applied to a multi-component protein mixture in this proof-of-principle experiment, which was designed to evaluate the technique's ability to detect and quantify the direct binding interaction between cyclosporin A and cyclophilin A and to detect the indirect binding interaction between cyclosporin A and calcineurin (i.e., the protein-protein interaction between cyclophilin A and calcineurin that is induced by cyclosporin A binding to cyclophilin A).

  1. Site specific chemoselective labelling of proteins with robust and highly sensitive Ru(II) bathophenanthroline complexes.

    PubMed

    Uzagare, Matthew C; Claussnitzer, Iris; Gerrits, Michael; Bannwarth, Willi

    2012-03-21

    The bioorthogonal and chemoselective fluorescence labelling of several cell-free synthesized proteins containing a site-specifically incorporated azido amino acid was possible using different alkyne-functionalized Ru(II) bathophenanthroline complexes. We were able to achieve a selective labelling even in complex mixtures of proteins despite the fact that ruthenium dyes normally show a high tendency for unspecific interactions with proteins and are commonly used for total staining of proteins. Since the employed Ru complexes are extremely robust, photo-stable and highly sensitive, the approach should be applicable to the production of labelled proteins for single molecule spectroscopy and fluorescence-based interaction studies.

  2. Dye-Doped Silica Nanoparticle Labels/Protein Microarray for Detection of Protein Biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hong; Huo, Qisheng; Varnum, Susan M.; Liu, Guodong; Wang, Jun; Nie, Zimin; Liu, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-10-20

    Biomarkers serve as indicators of biological and pathological processes, or physiological and pharmacological responses to a drug treatment. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a biomarker with its important biological and pathological functions, has been studied for decades. Conventional fluorescence immunoassay has been widely used for analysis of biomakers like IL-6. However, single fluorophore labeling shows its limitations of low intensity and poor stability. We report a dye-encapsulated silica nanoparticle as a label, with the advantages of high fluorescence intensity, photostability, and biocompatibility, in conjunction with microarray technology for sensitive immunoassay of IL-6 on a microarray format. The tris (2,2’-bipyridyl)ruthenium (II)chloride hexahydrate (Rubpy) dye incorporated into silica nanoparticles using a simple one-step microemulsion synthesis step. The nanoparticles are uniform in size with a diameter of 50 nm. The microarray fluorescent immunoassay approach based on dye-doped silica nanoparticle labels has high sensitivity for practical applications with a limit of detection for IL-6 down to 0.1 ng mL-1. The calibration curve is linear over the range from 0.1 ng mL-1 to 10 ng mL-1. Furthermore, results illustrated that the assay is highly specific for IL-6 in the presence of range of cytokines or proteins. The RuDS dye-labeled nanoparticles in connection with protein microarrays show the promise for clinical diagnosis of biomarkers.

  3. Heterogeneous distribution of dye-labelled biomineralizaiton proteins in calcite crystals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuang; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-12-17

    Biominerals are highly ordered crystals mediated by organic matters especially proteins in organisms. However, how specific proteins are distributed inside biominerals are not well understood. In the present study, we use fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to label extracted proteins from the shells of bivalve Pinctada fucata. By confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), we observe a heterogeneous distribution of dye-labelled proteins inside synthetic calcite at the microscale. Proteins from the prismatic calcite layers accumulate at the edge of crystals while proteins from the nacreous aragonite layers accumulate at the center of crystals. Raman and X-ray powder diffraction show that both the proteins cannot alter the crystal phase. Scanning electron microscope demonstrates both proteins are able to affect the crystal morphology. This study may provide a direct approach for the visualization of protein distributions in crystals by small-molecule dye-labelled proteins as the additives in the crystallization process and improve our understanding of intracrystalline proteins distribution in biogenic calcites.

  4. Changes in labeling of soluble and solubilized hippocampus proteins after a learning experiment in rats.

    PubMed

    Popov, N; Schulzeck, S; Matthies, H

    1976-01-01

    At various intervals after acquisition of a brightness discrimination in rats labeled leucine was intraventricularly applied. Hippocampus tissue was fractionated in soluble and solubilized insoluble protein fractions. Protein content and labeling of several electrophoretically resolved bands showed a biphasic time course: a first increase was observed 20 minutes after training including preferably soluble proteins, whereas a second increase (about eight hours after training) was mainly related to solubilized insoluble proteins.

  5. Combining DNP NMR with segmental and specific labeling to study a yeast prion protein strain that is not parallel in-register.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Kendra K; Michaelis, Vladimir K; Caporini, Marc A; Andreas, Loren B; Debelouchina, Galia T; Griffin, Robert G; Lindquist, Susan

    2017-04-04

    The yeast prion protein Sup35NM is a self-propagating amyloid. Despite intense study, there is no consensus on the organization of monomers within Sup35NM fibrils. Some studies point to a β-helical arrangement, whereas others suggest a parallel in-register organization. Intermolecular contacts are often determined by experiments that probe long-range heteronuclear contacts for fibrils templated from a 1:1 mixture of (13)C- and (15)N-labeled monomers. However, for Sup35NM, like many large proteins, chemical shift degeneracy limits the usefulness of this approach. Segmental and specific isotopic labeling reduce degeneracy, but experiments to measure long-range interactions are often too insensitive. To limit degeneracy and increase experimental sensitivity, we combined specific and segmental isotopic labeling schemes with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR. Using this combination, we examined an amyloid form of Sup35NM that does not have a parallel in-register structure. The combination of a small number of specific labels with DNP NMR enables determination of architectural information about polymeric protein systems.

  6. N-terminal chemical protein labeling using the naturally split GOS-TerL intein.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Anne-Lena; Mootz, Henning D

    2017-03-23

    Chemoselective and regioselective chemical protein labeling is of great importance, yet no current technique is sufficiently general and simple to perform. Protein trans-splicing by split inteins can be used to ligate short tags with chemical labels to either the N or the C terminus of a protein. The CysTag approach exploits split intein fragments without a cysteine fused with such a short tag containing a single cysteine that is easily amenable to selective modification using classical cysteine bioconjugation. Labeling of the protein of interest is achieved through transfer of the pre-labeled tag by protein trans-splicing. This protocol keeps other cysteines unmodified. While split inteins for C-terminal CysTag labeling were previously reported, no high-yielding and naturally split intein for N-terminal labeling has been available. In this work, the recently discovered GOS-TerL intein was explored as the only known naturally split intein that both lacks a cysteine in its N-terminal fragment and is active under ambient conditions. Thioredoxin as a model protein and a camelid nanobody were labeled with a synthetic fluorophore by transferring the pre-labeling CysTag in the protein trans-splicing reaction with yields of about 50 to 90%. The short N-terminal intein fragment was also chemically synthesized with a tag to enable protein labeling by semi-synthetic protein trans-splicing. Our results expand the scope of the CysTag labeling strategy, which achieves selective chemical modification without the requirement for sophisticated biorthogonal functional groups and rather builds on the plethora of commercially available reagents directed at the thiol side chain of cysteine. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Extensive labeling with [3H]ethanolamine of a hydrophilic protein of animal cells.

    PubMed

    Tisdale, E J; Tartakoff, A M

    1988-06-15

    Murine T-lymphomas and Thy-1- mutants were labeled overnight with [3H]ethanolamine to detect proteins which possess a glycophospholipid anchor. When labeled cells were treated with 10% trichloroacetic acid and then analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography, both Thy-1 and a second intensely labeled protein (46 kDa) were observed. The presence of the radiolabeled 46-kDa protein in wild type and class E Thy-1 negative cells (cells in which Thy-1 is synthesized but cannot be labeled with [3H]ethanolamine) suggested incorporation into a distinct moiety. Labeling of the 46-kDa protein with [3H]ethanolamine is rapidly inhibited by cycloheximide. Further characterization of the 46-kDa protein by subcellular fractionation and Triton X-114 partitioning indicated that the protein is located in the cytosol. The protein is basic and does not bind to either concanavalin A or wheat germ agglutinin. Labeling of a 46-kDa protein has also been demonstrated in Chinese hamster ovary, COS, rat myeloma, cloned human T-lymphocytes, and HeLa cells. Pronase digestion of the [3H]ethanolamine-labeled 46-kDa protein of wild type lymphoma cells generated a nonbasic and polar labeled fragment which is labile to strong acid and base ([3H]ethanolamine is liberated), insensitive to periodate oxidation and alkaline phosphatase, and does not bind to concanavalin A or wheat germ agglutinin. Judging from methylation studies, the labeled ethanolamine residue does not contain a free amino group. Based on these results, we report a novel post-translational modification of selected protein(s) by the covalent addition of [3H]ethanolamine.

  8. A novel method for determination of the (15) N isotopic composition of Rubisco in wheat plants exposed to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Aranjuelo, Iker; Molero, Gemma; Avice, Jean Christophe; Bourguignon, Jacques

    2015-02-01

    Although ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) is mostly known as a key enzyme involved in CO2 assimilation during the Calvin cycle, comparatively little is known about its role as a pool of nitrogen storage in leaves. For this purpose, we developed a protocol to purify Rubisco that enables later analysis of its (15) N isotope composition (δ(15) N) at the natural abundance and (15) N-labeled plants. In order to test the utility of this protocol, durum wheat (Triticum durum var. Sula) exposed to an elevated CO2 concentration (700 vs 400 µmol mol(-1) ) was labeled with K(15) NO3 (enriched at 2 atom %) during the ear development period. The developed protocol proves to be selective, simple, cost effective and reproducible. The study reveals that (15) N labeling was different in total organic matter, total soluble protein and the Rubisco fraction. The obtained data suggest that photosynthetic acclimation in wheat is caused by Rubisco depletion. This depletion may be linked to preferential nitrogen remobilization from Rubisco toward grain filling.

  9. Probing Protein Structure by Amino Acid-Specific Covalent Labeling and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Vanessa Leah; Vachet, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    For many years, amino acid-specific covalent labeling has been a valuable tool to study protein structure and protein interactions, especially for systems that are difficult to study by other means. These covalent labeling methods typically map protein structure and interactions by measuring the differential reactivity of amino acid side chains. The reactivity of amino acids in proteins generally depends on the accessibility of the side chain to the reagent, the inherent reactivity of the label and the reactivity of the amino acid side chain. Peptide mass mapping with ESI- or MALDI-MS and peptide sequencing with tandem MS are typically employed to identify modification sites to provide site-specific structural information. In this review, we describe the reagents that are most commonly used in these residue-specific modification reactions, details about the proper use of these covalent labeling reagents, and information about the specific biochemical problems that have been addressed with covalent labeling strategies. PMID:19016300

  10. Protein-retention expansion microscopy of cells and tissues labeled using standard fluorescent proteins and antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Tillberg, Paul W.; Chen, Fei; Piatkevich, Kiryl D.; Zhao, Yongxin; Yu, Chih-Chieh (Jay); English, Brian P.; Gao, Linyi; Martorell, Anthony; Suk, Ho-Jun; Yoshida, Fumiaki; DeGennaro, Ellen M.; Roossien, Douglas H.; Gong, Guanyu; Seneviratne, Uthpala; Tannenbaum, Steven R.; Desimone, Robert; Cai, Dawen; Boyden, Edward S.

    2016-01-01

    Expansion microscopy (ExM) enables imaging of preserved specimens with nanoscale precision on diffraction limited instead of specialized super-resolution microscopes. ExM works by physically separating fluorescent probes after anchoring them to a swellable gel. The first expansion microscopy method was unable to retain native proteins in the gel and used custom made reagents not widely available. Here, we describe protein retention ExM (proExM), a variant of ExM that anchors proteins to the swellable gel allowing the use of conventional fluorescently labeled antibodies and streptavidin, and fluorescent proteins. We validate and demonstrate utility of proExM for multi-color super-resolution (~70 nm) imaging of cells and mammalian tissues on conventional microscopes. PMID:27376584

  11. Hydroponic isotope labeling of entire plants and high-performance mass spectrometry for quantitative plant proteomics.

    PubMed

    Bindschedler, Laurence V; Mills, Davinia J S; Cramer, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Hydroponic isotope labeling of entire plants (HILEP) combines hydroponic plant cultivation and metabolic labeling with stable isotopes using (15)N-containing inorganic salts to label whole and mature plants. Employing (15)N salts as the sole nitrogen source for HILEP leads to the production of healthy-looking plants which contain (15)N proteins labeled to nearly 100%. Therefore, HILEP is suitable for quantitative plant proteomic analysis, where plants are grown in either (14)N- or (15)N-hydroponic media and pooled when the biological samples are collected for relative proteome quantitation. The pooled (14)N-/(15)N-protein extracts can be fractionated in any suitable way and digested with a protease for shotgun proteomics, using typically reverse phase liquid chromatography nanoelectrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (RPLC-nESI-MS/MS). Best results were obtained with a hybrid ion trap/FT-MS mass spectrometer, combining high mass accuracy and sensitivity for the MS data acquisition with speed and high-throughput MS/MS data acquisition, increasing the number of proteins identified and quantified and improving protein quantitation. Peak processing and picking from raw MS data files, protein identification, and quantitation were performed in a highly automated way using integrated MS data analysis software with minimum manual intervention, thus easing the analytical workflow. In this methodology paper, we describe how to grow Arabidopsis plants hydroponically for isotope labeling using (15)N salts and how to quantitate the resulting proteomes using a convenient workflow that does not require extensive bioinformatics skills.

  12. Determining the Composition and Stability of Protein Complexes Using an Integrated Label-Free and Stable Isotope Labeling Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Greco, Todd M.; Guise, Amanda J.; Cristea, Ileana M.

    2016-01-01

    In biological systems, proteins catalyze the fundamental reactions that underlie all cellular functions, including metabolic processes and cell survival and death pathways. These biochemical reactions are rarely accomplished alone. Rather, they involve a concerted effect from many proteins that may operate in a directed signaling pathway and/or may physically associate in a complex to achieve a specific enzymatic activity. Therefore, defining the composition and regulation of protein complexes is critical for understanding cellular functions. In this chapter, we describe an approach that uses quantitative mass spectrometry (MS) to assess the specificity and the relative stability of protein interactions. Isolation of protein complexes from mammalian cells is performed by rapid immunoaffinity purification, and followed by in-solution digestion and high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis. We employ complementary quantitative MS workflows to assess the specificity of protein interactions using label-free MS and statistical analysis, and the relative stability of the interactions using a metabolic labeling technique. For each candidate protein interaction, scores from the two workflows can be correlated to minimize nonspecific background and profile protein complex composition and relative stability. PMID:26867737

  13. Learning to Extract Gene-Protein Names from Weakly-Labeled Text

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    gene -protein entities. We trained a VP -HMM extractor on the training corpus of YAPEX using Minorthird’s default features. The GENIA dataset...Learning to Extract Gene -Protein Names from Weakly-Labeled Text Richard C. Wang, Anthony Tomasic, Robert E. Frederking...Extract Gene -Protein Names from Weakly-Labeled Text 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  14. Selective labeling of polypeptides using protein farnesyltransferase via rapid oxime ligation.

    PubMed

    Rashidian, Mohammad; Dozier, Jonathan K; Lenevich, Stepan; Distefano, Mark D

    2010-12-21

    An aldehyde-containing alternative substrate for protein farnesyltransferase was prepared and shown to be enzymatically incorporated into a peptide and a protein. The protein was subsequently immobilized onto aminooxy-functionalized agarose beads or labeled with a fluorophore. This method for protein modification provides an alternative to the commonly employed Cu(I)-catalyzed click reaction.

  15. Selective Labeling of Polypeptides Using Protein Farnesyltransferase via Rapid Oxime Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Rashidian, Mohammad; Dozier, Jonathan K.; Lenevich, Stepan; Distefano, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    An aldehyde-containing alternative substrate for protein farnesyltransferase was prepared and shown to be enzymatically incorporated into a peptide and a protein. The protein was subsequently immobilized onto aminooxy-functionalized agarose beads or labeled with a fluorophore. This method for protein modification provides an alternative to the commonly employed Cu(I)-catalyzed click reaction PMID:20967387

  16. Dye-doped silica nanoparticle labels/protein microarray for detection of protein biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hong; Huo, Qisheng; Varnum, Susan; Wang, Jun; Liu, Guodong; Nie, Zimin; Liu, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-11-01

    We report a dye-encapsulated silica nanoparticle as a label, with the advantages of high fluorescence intensity, photostability, and biocompatibility, in conjunction with microarray technology for sensitive immunoassay of a biomarker, interleukin-6 (IL-6), on a microarray format. The tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(ii) chloride hexahydrate (Rubpy) dye was incorporated into silica nanoparticles using a simple one-step microemulsion synthesis. In this synthesis process, Igepal CA520 was used as the surfactant, therefore, no requirement of cosolvent during the synthesis and the particle size was reduced comparing to the commonly used Triton surfactant system. The nanoparticles are uniform in size with a diameter of 50 nm. The microarray fluorescent immunoassay approach based on dye-doped silica nanoparticle labels has high sensitivity for practical applications with a limit of detection for IL-6 down to 0.1 ng mL(-1). The calibration curve is linear over the range from 0.1 ng mL(-1) to 10 ng mL(-1). Furthermore, results illustrated that the assay is highly specific for IL-6 in the presence of range of cytokines or proteins. The RuDS dye-labeled nanoparticles in connection with protein microarrays show the promise for clinical diagnosis of biomarkers.

  17. Modeling the contribution of individual proteins to mixed skeletal muscle protein synthetic rates over increasing periods of label incorporation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Benjamin F; Wolff, Christopher A; Peelor, Fredrick F; Shipman, Patrick D; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2015-03-15

    Advances in stable isotope approaches, primarily the use of deuterium oxide ((2)H2O), allow for long-term measurements of protein synthesis, as well as the contribution of individual proteins to tissue measured protein synthesis rates. Here, we determined the influence of individual protein synthetic rates, individual protein content, and time of isotopic labeling on the measured synthesis rate of skeletal muscle proteins. To this end, we developed a mathematical model, applied the model to an established data set collected in vivo, and, to experimentally test the impact of different isotopic labeling periods, used (2)H2O to measure protein synthesis in cultured myotubes over periods of 2, 4, and 7 days. We first demonstrated the influence of both relative protein content and individual protein synthesis rates on measured synthesis rates over time. When expanded to include 286 individual proteins, the model closely approximated protein synthetic rates measured in vivo. The model revealed a 29% difference in measured synthesis rates from the slowest period of measurement (20 min) to the longest period of measurement (6 wk). In support of these findings, culturing of C2C12 myotubes with isotopic labeling periods of 2, 4, or 7 days revealed up to a doubling of the measured synthesis rate in the shorter labeling period compared with the longer period of labeling. From our model, we conclude that a 4-wk period of labeling is ideal for considering all proteins in a mixed-tissue fraction, while minimizing the slowing effect of fully turned-over proteins. In addition, we advocate that careful consideration must be paid to the period of isotopic labeling when comparing mixed protein synthetic rates between studies.

  18. Site-specific labeling of proteins via sortase: protocols for the molecular biologist.

    PubMed

    Popp, Maximilian Wei-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Creation of site-specifically labeled protein bioconjugates is an important tool for the molecular biologist and cell biologist. Chemical labeling methods, while versatile with respect to the types of moieties that can be attached, suffer from lack of specificity, often targeting multiple positions within a protein. Here we describe protocols for the chemoenzymatic labeling of proteins at the C-terminus using the bacterial transpeptidase, sortase A. We detail a protocol for the purification of an improved pentamutant variant of the Staphylococcus aureus enzyme (SrtA 5(o)) that exhibits vastly improved kinetics relative to the wild-type enzyme. Importantly, a protocol for the construction of peptide probes compatible with sortase labeling using techniques that can be adapted to any cellular/molecular biology lab with no existing infrastructure for synthetic chemistry is described. Finally, we provide an example of how to optimize the labeling reaction using the improved SrtA 5(o) variant.

  19. Labeling Cell Surface GPIs and GPI-Anchored Proteins through Metabolic Engineering with Artificial Inositol Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lili; Gao, Jian; Guo, Zhongwu

    2015-08-10

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring of proteins to the cell surface is important for various biological processes, but GPI-anchored proteins are difficult to study. An effective strategy was developed for the metabolic engineering of cell-surface GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins by using inositol derivatives carrying an azido group. The azide-labeled GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins were then tagged with biotin on live cells through a click reaction, which allows further elaboration with streptavidin-conjugated dyes or other molecules. The strategy can be used to label GPI-anchored proteins with various tags for biological studies.

  20. Correlative fluorescence and electron microscopy of quantum dot labeled proteins on whole cells in liquid.

    PubMed

    Peckys, Diana B; Dukes, Madeline J; de Jonge, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Correlative fluorescence microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) of cells fully immersed in liquid is a new methodology with many application areas. Proteins, in live cells immobilized on microchips, are labeled with fluorescent quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles. In this protocol, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is labeled. The cells are fixed after a selected labeling time, for example, 5 min as needed to form EGFR dimers. The microchip with cells is then imaged with fluorescence microscopy. Thereafter, the microchip with the labeled cells and one with a spacer are assembled in a special microfluidic device and imaged with STEM.

  1. Genetically Encoded Spin Labels for In Vitro and In-Cell EPR Studies of Native Proteins.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M J; Fedoseev, A; Summerer, D; Drescher, M

    2015-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy in combination with site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) is a powerful approach to study the structure, dynamics, and interactions of proteins. The genetic encoding of the noncanonical amino acid spin-labeled lysine 1 (SLK-1) eliminates the need for any chemical labeling steps in SDSL-EPR studies and enables the investigation of native, endogenous proteins with minimal structural perturbation, and without the need to create unique reactive sites for chemical labeling. We report detailed experimental procedures for the efficient synthesis of SLK-1, the expression and purification of SLK-1-containing proteins under conditions that ensure maximal integrity of the nitroxide radical moiety, and procedures for intramolecular EPR distance measurements in proteins by double electron-electron resonance.

  2. Genetically encoded protein photocrosslinker with a transferable mass spectrometry-identifiable label

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Song, Haiping; He, Dan; Zhang, Shuai; Dai, Shizhong; Lin, Shixian; Meng, Rong; Wang, Chu; Chen, Peng R.

    2016-01-01

    Coupling photocrosslinking reagents with mass spectrometry has become a powerful tool for studying protein–protein interactions in living systems, but it still suffers from high rates of false-positive identifications as well as the lack of information on interaction interface due to the challenges in deciphering crosslinking peptides. Here we develop a genetically encoded photo-affinity unnatural amino acid that introduces a mass spectrometry-identifiable label (MS-label) to the captured prey proteins after photocrosslinking and prey–bait separation. This strategy, termed IMAPP (In-situ cleavage and MS-label transfer After Protein Photocrosslinking), enables direct identification of photo-captured substrate peptides that are difficult to uncover by conventional genetically encoded photocrosslinkers. Taking advantage of the MS-label, the IMAPP strategy significantly enhances the confidence for identifying protein–protein interactions and enables simultaneous mapping of the binding interface under living conditions. PMID:27460181

  3. Preparation and characterization of 15N-enriched, size-defined heparan sulfate precursor oligosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Sigulinsky, Crystal; Babu, Ponnusamy; Victor, Xylophone V.; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

    2009-01-01

    We report the preparation of size-defined [15N]N-acetylheparosan oligosaccharides from Escherichia coli-derived 15N-enriched N-acetylheparosan. Optimized growth conditions of E. coli in minimal media containing 15NH4Cl yielded [15N]N-acetylheparosan on a preparative scale. Depolymerization of [15N]N-acetylheparosan by heparitinase I yielded resolvable, even-numbered oligosaccharides ranging from disaccharide to icosaccharide. Anion-exchange chromatography-assisted fractionation afforded size-defined [15N]N-acetylheparosan oligosaccharides identifiable by ESI-TOFMS. These isotopically labeled oligosaccharides will prove to be valuable research tools for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of heparin and heparan sulfate oligosaccharides and for the study of their structural biology. PMID:19945695

  4. 15N and13C NMR investigation of hydroxylamine-derivatized humic substances

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Arterburn, J.B.; Mikita, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Five fulvic and humic acid samples of diverse origins were derivatized with 15N-labeled hydroxylamine and analyzed by liquid-phase 15N NMR spectrometry. The 15N NMR spectra indicated that hydroxylamine reacted similarly with all samples and could discriminate among carbonyl functional groups. Oximes were the major derivatives; resonances attributable to hydroxamic acids, the reaction products of hydroxylamine with esters, and resonances attributable to the tautomeric equilibrium position between the nitrosophenol and monoxime derivatives of quinones, the first direct spectroscopic evidence for quinones, also were evident. The 15N NMR spectra also suggested the presence of nitriles, oxazoles, oxazolines, isocyanides, amides, and lactams, which may all be explained in terms of Beckmann reactions of the initial oxime derivatives. INEPT and ACOUSTIC 15N NMR spectra provided complementary information on the derivatized samples. 13C NMR spectra of derivatized samples indicated that the ketone/quinone functionality is incompletely derivatized with hydroxylamine. ?? 1991 American Chemical Society.

  5. Metal-enhanced intrinsic fluorescence of proteins and label-free bioassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Krishanu; Szmacinski, Henryk; Chowdhury, Mustafa H.; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    2010-02-01

    Most of the applications of fluorescence require the use of labeled drugs and labeled biomolecules. Due to the need of labeling biomolecules with extrinsic fluorophores, there is a rapidly growing interest in methods which provide label-free detection (LFD). Proteins are highly fluorescent, which is due primarily to tryptophan residues. However, since most proteins contain tryptophan, this emission is not specific for proteins of interest in a biological sample. This is one of the reasons of not utilizing intrinsic tryptophan emission from proteins to detect specific proteins. Here, we present the intrinsic fluorescence for several proteins bound to the silver or aluminum metal nanostructured surfaces. We demonstrate the metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) of proteins with different numbers of tryptophan residues. Large increases in fluorescence intensity and decreases in lifetime provide the means of direct detection of bound protein without separation from the unbound. We present specific detection of individual types of proteins and measure the binding kinetics of proteins such as IgG and streptavidin. Additionally, specific detection of IgG and streptavidin has been accomplished in the presence of large concentrations of other proteins in sample solutions. These results will allow design of surface-based assays with biorecognitive layer that specifically bind the protein of interest and thus enhance its intrinsic fluorescence. The present study demonstrates the occurrence of MEF in the UV region and thus opens new possibilities to study tryptophan-containing proteins without labeling with longer wavelength fluorophores and provides an approach to label-free detection of biomolecules.

  6. Application of multiplexed cysteine-labeled complex protein sample for 2D electrophoretic gel alignment.

    PubMed

    Haimi, Perttu; Sikorskaite-Gudziuniene, Sidona; Baniulis, Danas

    2015-06-01

    The analysis of cellular subproteomes by 2DE is hampered by the difficulty of aligning gel images from samples that have very different protein composition. Here, we present a sensitive and cost-effective fluorescent labeling method for analyzing protein samples that is not dependent on their composition. The alignment is guided by inclusion of a complex mixture of proteins that is co-run with the sample. Maleimide-conjugated fluorescent dyes Dy-560 and Dy-635 are used to label the cysteine residues of the sample of interest and the alignment standard, respectively. The two differently labeled mixtures are then combined and separated on a 2D gel and, after selective fluorescence detection, an unsupervised image registration process is used to align the protein patters. In a pilot study, this protocol significantly improved the accuracy of alignment of nuclear proteins with total cellular proteins.

  7. Gd(iii) and Mn(ii) complexes for dynamic nuclear polarization: small molecular chelate polarizing agents and applications with site-directed spin labeling of proteins.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Monu; Bahrenberg, Thorsten; Can, Thach V; Caporini, Marc A; Silvers, Robert; Heiliger, Jörg; Smith, Albert A; Schwalbe, Harald; Griffin, Robert G; Corzilius, Björn

    2016-10-21

    We investigate complexes of two paramagnetic metal ions Gd(3+) and Mn(2+) to serve as polarizing agents for solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of (1)H, (13)C, and (15)N at magnetic fields of 5, 9.4, and 14.1 T. Both ions are half-integer high-spin systems with a zero-field splitting and therefore exhibit a broadening of the mS = -1/2 ↔ +1/2 central transition which scales inversely with the external field strength. We investigate experimentally the influence of the chelator molecule, strong hyperfine coupling to the metal nucleus, and deuteration of the bulk matrix on DNP properties. At small Gd-DOTA concentrations the narrow central transition allows us to polarize nuclei with small gyromagnetic ratio such as (13)C and even (15)N via the solid effect. We demonstrate that enhancements observed are limited by the available microwave power and that large enhancement factors of >100 (for (1)H) and on the order of 1000 (for (13)C) can be achieved in the saturation limit even at 80 K. At larger Gd(iii) concentrations (≥10 mM) where dipolar couplings between two neighboring Gd(3+) complexes become substantial a transition towards cross effect as dominating DNP mechanism is observed. Furthermore, the slow spin-diffusion between (13)C and (15)N, respectively, allows for temporally resolved observation of enhanced polarization spreading from nuclei close to the paramagnetic ion towards nuclei further removed. Subsequently, we present preliminary DNP experiments on ubiquitin by site-directed spin-labeling with Gd(3+) chelator tags. The results hold promise towards applications of such paramagnetically labeled proteins for DNP applications in biophysical chemistry and/or structural biology.

  8. Introduction to Spin Label Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melanson, Michelle; Sood, Abha; Torok, Fanni; Torok, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    An undergraduate laboratory exercise is described to demonstrate the biochemical applications of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The beta93 cysteine residue of hemoglobin is labeled by the covalent binding of 3-maleimido-proxyl (5-MSL) and 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1-oxyl-3-methyl methanethiosulfonate (MTSL), respectively. The excess…

  9. Multi-label learning with fuzzy hypergraph regularization for protein subcellular location prediction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Tang, Yuan Yan; Chen, C L Philip; Fang, Bin; Lin, Yuewei; Shang, Zhaowei

    2014-12-01

    Protein subcellular location prediction aims to predict the location where a protein resides within a cell using computational methods. Considering the main limitations of the existing methods, we propose a hierarchical multi-label learning model FHML for both single-location proteins and multi-location proteins. The latent concepts are extracted through feature space decomposition and label space decomposition under the nonnegative data factorization framework. The extracted latent concepts are used as the codebook to indirectly connect the protein features to their annotations. We construct dual fuzzy hypergraphs to capture the intrinsic high-order relations embedded in not only feature space, but also label space. Finally, the subcellular location annotation information is propagated from the labeled proteins to the unlabeled proteins by performing dual fuzzy hypergraph Laplacian regularization. The experimental results on the six protein benchmark datasets demonstrate the superiority of our proposed method by comparing it with the state-of-the-art methods, and illustrate the benefit of exploiting both feature correlations and label correlations.

  10. Differential Labeling of Cell-surface and Internalized Proteins after Antibody Feeding of Live Cultured Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Kathryn M.; Kennedy, Matthew J.; Gunnersen, Jenny M.

    2014-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the cell-surface localization of a putative transmembrane receptor in cultured neurons, we labeled the protein on the surface of live neurons with a specific primary antibody raised against an extracellular portion of the protein. Given that receptors are trafficked to and from the surface, if cells are permeabilized after fixation then both cell-surface and internal protein will be detected by the same labeled secondary antibody. Here, we adapted a method used to study protein trafficking (“antibody feeding”) to differentially label protein that had been internalized by endocytosis during the antibody incubation step and protein that either remained on the cell surface or was trafficked to the surface during this period. The ability to distinguish these two pools of protein was made possible through the incorporation of an overnight blocking step with highly-concentrated unlabeled secondary antibody after an initial incubation of unpermeabilized neurons with a fluorescently-labeled secondary antibody. After the blocking step, permeabilization of the neurons allowed detection of the internalized pool with a fluorescent secondary antibody labeled with a different fluorophore. Using this technique we were able to obtain important information about the subcellular location of this putative receptor, revealing that it was, indeed, trafficked to the cell-surface in neurons. This technique is broadly applicable to a range of cell types and cell-surface proteins, providing a suitable antibody to an extracellular epitope is available. PMID:24561550

  11. Steroselective synthesis and application of L-( sup 15 N) amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Unkefer, C.J. ); Lodwig, S.N. . Div. of Science)

    1991-01-01

    We have developed two general approaches to the stereoselective synthesis of {sup 15}N- and {sup 13}C-labeled amino acids. First, labeled serine, biosynthesized using the methylotrophic bacterium M. extorquens AM1, serves as a chiral precursor for the synthesis of other amino acids. For example, pyridoxal phosphate enzymes can be used for the conversion of L-({alpha}-{sup 15}N)serine to L-({alpha}-{sup 15}N)tyrosine, L-({alpha}-{sup 15}N)tryptophan, and L-({alpha}-{sup 15}N)cysteine. In the second approach, developed by Oppolzer and Tamura, an electrophilic amination'' reagent, 1-chloro-1-nitrosocyclohexane, was used to convert chiral enolates into L-{alpha}-amino acids. We prepared 1-chloro-1-({sup 15}N) nitrosocyclohexane and used it to aminate chiral enolates to produce L-({alpha}-{sup 15}N)amino acids. The stereoselectivity of this scheme using the Oppolzer sultam chiral auxiliary is remarkable, producing enantiomer ratios of 200 to 1. 22 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Multi-label multi-kernel transfer learning for human protein subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Mei, Suyu

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed much progress in computational modelling for protein subcellular localization. However, the existing sequence-based predictive models demonstrate moderate or unsatisfactory performance, and the gene ontology (GO) based models may take the risk of performance overestimation for novel proteins. Furthermore, many human proteins have multiple subcellular locations, which renders the computational modelling more complicated. Up to the present, there are far few researches specialized for predicting the subcellular localization of human proteins that may reside in multiple cellular compartments. In this paper, we propose a multi-label multi-kernel transfer learning model for human protein subcellular localization (MLMK-TLM). MLMK-TLM proposes a multi-label confusion matrix, formally formulates three multi-labelling performance measures and adapts one-against-all multi-class probabilistic outputs to multi-label learning scenario, based on which to further extends our published work GO-TLM (gene ontology based transfer learning model for protein subcellular localization) and MK-TLM (multi-kernel transfer learning based on Chou's PseAAC formulation for protein submitochondria localization) for multiplex human protein subcellular localization. With the advantages of proper homolog knowledge transfer, comprehensive survey of model performance for novel protein and multi-labelling capability, MLMK-TLM will gain more practical applicability. The experiments on human protein benchmark dataset show that MLMK-TLM significantly outperforms the baseline model and demonstrates good multi-labelling ability for novel human proteins. Some findings (predictions) are validated by the latest Swiss-Prot database. The software can be freely downloaded at http://soft.synu.edu.cn/upload/msy.rar.

  13. Isotope coded protein labeling coupled immunoprecipitation (ICPL-IP): a novel approach for quantitative protein complex analysis from native tissue.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Andreas; Fuerholzner, Bettina; Kinkl, Norbert; Boldt, Karsten; Ueffing, Marius

    2013-05-01

    High confidence definition of protein interactions is an important objective toward the understanding of biological systems. Isotope labeling in combination with affinity-based isolation of protein complexes has increased in accuracy and reproducibility, yet, larger organisms--including humans--are hardly accessible to metabolic labeling and thus, a major limitation has been its restriction to small animals, cell lines, and yeast. As composition as well as the stoichiometry of protein complexes can significantly differ in primary tissues, there is a great demand for methods capable to combine the selectivity of affinity-based isolation as well as the accuracy and reproducibility of isotope-based labeling with its application toward analysis of protein interactions from intact tissue. Toward this goal, we combined isotope coded protein labeling (ICPL)(1) with immunoprecipitation (IP) and quantitative mass spectrometry (MS). ICPL-IP allows sensitive and accurate analysis of protein interactions from primary tissue. We applied ICPL-IP to immuno-isolate protein complexes from bovine retinal tissue. Protein complexes of immunoprecipitated β-tubulin, a highly abundant protein with known interactors as well as the lowly expressed small GTPase RhoA were analyzed. The results of both analyses demonstrate sensitive and selective identification of known as well as new protein interactions by our method.

  14. Structural determination of larger proteins using stable isotope labeling and NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Unkefer, C.; Hernandez, G.; Springer, P.; Trewhella, J.; Blumenthal, D.; Lidstrom, M.

    1996-04-01

    The project sought to employ stable isotope labeling and NMR spectroscopy to study protein structures and provide insight into important biochemical problems. A methylotrophic bacterial expression system has been developed for uniform deuterium and carbon-13 labeling of proteins for structural studies. These organisms grow using methanol as the sole source of carbon and energy. Because isotopically labeled methanol is relatively inexpensive, the methylotrophs are ideal for expressing proteins labeled uniformly with deuterium and/or carbon-13. This expression system has been employed to prepare deuterated troponin C. NMR spectroscopy measurements have been made on the inhibitory peptide from troponin I (residues 96--115), both as the free peptide and the peptide complexed with deuterated troponin C. Proton-NMR spectroscopy resonance-signal assignments have been made for the free peptide.

  15. Simultaneous dual protein labeling using a triorthogonal reagent.

    PubMed

    Rashidian, Mohammad; Kumarapperuma, Sidath C; Gabrielse, Kari; Fegan, Adrian; Wagner, Carston R; Distefano, Mark D

    2013-11-06

    Construction of heterofunctional proteins is a rapidly emerging area of biotherapeutics. Combining a protein with other moieties, such as a targeting element, a toxic protein or small molecule, and a fluorophore or polyethylene glycol (PEG) group, can improve the specificity, functionality, potency, and pharmacokinetic profile of a protein. Protein farnesyl transferase (PFTase) is able to site-specifically and quantitatively prenylate proteins containing a C-terminal CaaX-box amino acid sequence with various modified isoprenoids. Here, we describe the design, synthesis, and application of a triorthogonal reagent, 1, that can be used to site-specifically incorporate an alkyne and aldehyde group simultaneously into a protein. To illustrate the capabilities of this approach, a protein was enzymatically modified with compound 1 followed by oxime ligation and click reaction to simultaneously incorporate an azido-tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA) fluorophore and an aminooxy-PEG moiety. This was performed with both a model protein [green fluorescent protein (GFP)] as well as a therapeutically useful protein [ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF)]. Next, a protein was enzymatically modified with compound 1 followed by coupling to an azido-bis-methotrexate dimerizer and aminooxy-TAMRA. Incubation of that construct with a dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)-DHFR-anti-CD3 fusion protein resulted in the self-assembly of nanoring structures that were endocytosed into T-leukemia cells and visualized therein. These results highlight how complex multifunctional protein assemblies can be prepared using this facile triorthogonal approach.

  16. Dynamic Proteomics: In Vivo Proteome-Wide Measurement of Protein Kinetics Using Metabolic Labeling.

    PubMed

    Holmes, W E; Angel, T E; Li, K W; Hellerstein, M K

    2015-01-01

    Control of biosynthetic and catabolic rates of polymers, including proteins, stands at the center of phenotype, physiologic adaptation, and disease pathogenesis. Advances in stable isotope-labeling concepts and mass spectrometric instrumentation now allow accurate in vivo measurement of protein synthesis and turnover rates, both for targeted proteins and for unbiased screening across the proteome. We describe here the underlying principles and operational protocols for measuring protein dynamics, focusing on metabolic labeling with (2)H2O (heavy water) combined with tandem mass spectrometric analysis of mass isotopomer abundances in trypsin-generated peptides. The core principles of combinatorial analysis (mass isotopomer distribution analysis or MIDA) are reviewed in detail, including practical advantages, limitations, and technical procedures to ensure optimal kinetic results. Technical factors include heavy water labeling protocols, optimal duration of labeling, clean up and simplification of sample matrices, accurate quantitation of mass isotopomer abundances in peptides, criteria for adequacy of mass spectrometric abundance measurements, and calculation algorithms. Some applications are described, including the noninvasive "virtual biopsy" strategy for measuring molecular flux rates in tissues through measurements in body fluids. In addition, application of heavy water labeling to measure flux lipidomics is noted. In summary, the combination of stable isotope labeling, particularly from (2)H2O, with tandem mass spectrometric analysis of mass isotopomer abundances in peptides, provides a powerful approach for characterizing the dynamics of proteins across the global proteome. Many applications in research and clinical medicine have been achieved and many others can be envisioned.

  17. Application of Noncanonical Amino Acids for Protein Labeling in a Genomically Recoded Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kipper, Kalle; Lundius, Ebba G; Ćurić, Vladimir; Nikić, Ivana; Wiessler, Manfred; Lemke, Edward A; Elf, Johan

    2017-02-17

    Small synthetic fluorophores are in many ways superior to fluorescent proteins as labels for imaging. A major challenge is to use them for a protein-specific labeling in living cells. Here, we report on our use of noncanonical amino acids that are genetically encoded via the pyrrolysyl-tRNA/pyrrolysyl-RNA synthetase pair at artificially introduced TAG codons in a recoded E. coli strain. The strain is lacking endogenous TAG codons and the TAG-specific release factor RF1. The amino acids contain bioorthogonal groups that can be clicked to externally supplied dyes, thus enabling protein-specific labeling in live cells. We find that the noncanonical amino acid incorporation into the target protein is robust for diverse amino acids and that the usefulness of the recoded E. coli strain mainly derives from the absence of release factor RF1. However, the membrane permeable dyes display high nonspecific binding in intracellular environment and the electroporation of hydrophilic nonmembrane permeable dyes severely impairs growth of the recoded strain. In contrast, proteins exposed on the outer membrane of E. coli can be labeled with hydrophilic dyes with a high specificity as demonstrated by labeling of the osmoporin OmpC. Here, labeling can be made sufficiently specific to enable single molecule studies as exemplified by OmpC single particle tracking.

  18. Selective Labeling of Proteins on Living Cell Membranes Using Fluorescent Nanodiamond Probes

    PubMed Central

    Sotoma, Shingo; Iimura, Jun; Igarashi, Ryuji; Hirosawa, Koichiro M.; Ohnishi, Hidenori; Mizukami, Shin; Kikuchi, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Takahiro K.; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Tochio, Hidehito

    2016-01-01

    The impeccable photostability of fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) is an ideal property for use in fluorescence imaging of proteins in living cells. However, such an application requires highly specific labeling of the target proteins with FNDs. Furthermore, the surface of unmodified FNDs tends to adsorb biomolecules nonspecifically, which hinders the reliable targeting of proteins with FNDs. Here, we combined hyperbranched polyglycerol modification of FNDs with the β-lactamase-tag system to develop a strategy for selective imaging of the protein of interest in cells. The combination of these techniques enabled site-specific labeling of Interleukin-18 receptor alpha chain, a membrane receptor, with FNDs, which eventually enabled tracking of the diffusion trajectory of FND-labeled proteins on the membrane surface. PMID:28335184

  19. Multi-instance multi-label distance metric learning for genome-wide protein function prediction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yonghui; Min, Huaqing; Song, Hengjie; Wu, Qingyao

    2016-08-01

    Multi-instance multi-label (MIML) learning has been proven to be effective for the genome-wide protein function prediction problems where each training example is associated with not only multiple instances but also multiple class labels. To find an appropriate MIML learning method for genome-wide protein function prediction, many studies in the literature attempted to optimize objective functions in which dissimilarity between instances is measured using the Euclidean distance. But in many real applications, Euclidean distance may be unable to capture the intrinsic similarity/dissimilarity in feature space and label space. Unlike other previous approaches, in this paper, we propose to learn a multi-instance multi-label distance metric learning framework (MIMLDML) for genome-wide protein function prediction. Specifically, we learn a Mahalanobis distance to preserve and utilize the intrinsic geometric information of both feature space and label space for MIML learning. In addition, we try to deal with the sparsely labeled data by giving weight to the labeled data. Extensive experiments on seven real-world organisms covering the biological three-domain system (i.e., archaea, bacteria, and eukaryote; Woese et al., 1990) show that the MIMLDML algorithm is superior to most state-of-the-art MIML learning algorithms.

  20. Structural Analysis of Guanylyl Cyclase-Activating Protein-2 (GCAP-2) Homodimer by Stable Isotope-Labeling, Chemical Cross-Linking, and Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettelkau, Jens; Thondorf, Iris; Theisgen, Stephan; Lilie, Hauke; Schröder, Thomas; Arlt, Christian; Ihling, Christian H.; Sinz, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    The topology of the GCAP-2 homodimer was investigated by chemical cross-linking and high resolution mass spectrometry. Complementary conducted size-exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation studies indicated that GCAP-2 forms a homodimer both in the absence and in the presence of Ca2+. In-depth MS and MS/MS analysis of the cross-linked products was aided by 15 N-labeled GCAP-2. The use of isotope-labeled protein delivered reliable structural information on the GCAP-2 homodimer, enabling an unambiguous discrimination between cross-links within one monomer (intramolecular) or between two subunits (intermolecular). The limited number of cross-links obtained in the Ca2+-bound state allowed us to deduce a defined homodimeric GCAP-2 structure by a docking and molecular dynamics approach. In the Ca2+-free state, GCAP-2 is more flexible as indicated by the higher number of cross-links. We consider stable isotope-labeling to be indispensable for deriving reliable structural information from chemical cross-linking data of multi-subunit protein assemblies.

  1. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Nanoparticles as Optical Labels for Imaging Cell Surface Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLaughlin, Christina M.

    Assaying the expression of cell surface proteins has widespread application for characterizing cell type, developmental stage, and monitoring disease transformation. Immunophenotyping is conducted by treating cells with labelled targeting moieties that have high affinity for relevant surface protein(s). The sensitivity and specificity of immunophenotyping is defined by the choice of contrast agent and therefore, the number of resolvable signals that can be used to simultaneously label cells. Narrow band width surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles are proposed as optical labels for multiplexed immunophenotying. Two types of surface coatings were investigated to passivate the gold nanoparticles, incorporate SERS functionality, and to facilitate attachment of targeting antibodies. Thiolated poly(ethylene glycol) forms dative bonds with the gold surface and is compatible with multiple physisorbed Raman-active reporter molecules. Ternary lipid bilayers are used to encapsulate the gold nanoparticles particles, and incorporate three different classes of Raman reporters. TEM, UV-Visible absorbance spectroscopy, DLS, and electrophoretic light scattering were used characterize the particle coating. Colourimetric protein assay, and secondary antibody labelling were used to quantify the antibody conjugation. Three different in vitromodels were used to investigate the binding efficacy and specificity of SERS labels for their biomarker targets. Primary human CLL cells, LY10 B lymphoma, and A549 adenocarcinoma lines were targeted. Dark field imaging was used to visualize the colocalization of SERS labels with cells, and evidence of receptor clustering was obtained based on colour shifts of the particles' Rayleigh scattering. Widefield, and spatially-resolved Raman spectra were used to detect labels singly, and in combination from labelled cells. Fluorescence flow cytometry was used to test the particles' binding specificity, and SERS from labelled cells was also

  2. Increased Protein Structural Resolution from Diethylpyrocarbonate-based Covalent Labeling and Mass Spectrometric Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuping; Vachet, Richard W.

    2012-04-01

    Covalent labeling and mass spectrometry are seeing increased use together as a way to obtain insight into the 3-dimensional structure of proteins and protein complexes. Several amino acid specific (e.g., diethylpyrocarbonate) and non-specific (e.g., hydroxyl radicals) labeling reagents are available for this purpose. Diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) is a promising labeling reagent because it can potentially probe up to 30% of the residues in the average protein and gives only one reaction product, thereby facilitating mass spectrometric analysis. It was recently reported, though, that DEPC modifications are labile for some amino acids. Here, we show that label loss is more significant and widespread than previously thought, especially for Ser, Thr, Tyr, and His residues, when relatively long protein digestion times are used. Such label loss ultimately decreases the amount of protein structural information that is obtainable with this reagent. We find, however, that the number of DEPC modified residues and, thus, protein structural information, can be significantly increased by decreasing the time between the covalent labeling reaction and the mass spectrometric analysis. This is most effectively accomplished using short (e.g., 2 h) proteolytic digestions with enzymes such as immobilized chymotrypsin or Glu-C rather than using methods (e.g., microwave or ultrasonic irradiation) that accelerate proteolysis in other ways. Using short digestion times, we show that the percentage of solvent accessible residues that can be modified by DEPC increases from 44% to 67% for cytochrome c, 35% to 81% for myoglobin, and 76% to 95% for β-2-microglobulin. In effect, these increased numbers of modified residues improve the protein structural resolution available from this covalent labeling method. Compared with typical overnight digestion conditions, the short digestion times decrease the average distance between modified residues from 11 to 7 Å for myoglobin, 13 to 10 Å for

  3. Fluorescence labeling of carbon nanotubes and visualization of a nanotube-protein hybrid under fluorescence microscope.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Shige H; Khan, Shahbaz; Maruyama, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Yoshikazu; Takeyasu, Kunio

    2011-04-11

    Biological applications of carbon nanotubes have been hampered by the inability to visualize them using conventional optical microscope, which is the most common tool for the observation and measurement of biological processes. Recently, a number of fluorescence labeling methods for biomolecules and various fluorescence probes have been developed and widely utilized in biological fields. Therefore, labeling carbon nanotubes with such fluorophores under physiological conditions will be highly useful in their biological applications. In this Article, we present a method to fluorescently label nanotubes by combining a detergent and a fluorophore commonly used in biological experiments. Fluorophores carrying an amino group (Texas Red hydrazide or BODIPY FL-hydrazide) were covalently attached to the hydroxyl groups of Tween 20 using carbonyldiimidazole. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that nanotubes were efficiently solubilized and labeled by this fluorescently labeled detergent. By using this technique, we also demonstrated multicolor fluorescence imaging of a nanotube-protein hybrid.

  4. Efficient segmental isotope labeling of multi-domain proteins using Sortase A.

    PubMed

    Freiburger, Lee; Sonntag, Miriam; Hennig, Janosch; Li, Jian; Zou, Peijian; Sattler, Michael

    2015-09-01

    NMR studies of multi-domain protein complexes provide unique insight into their molecular interactions and dynamics in solution. For large proteins domain-selective isotope labeling is desired to reduce signal overlap, but available methods require extensive optimization and often give poor ligation yields. We present an optimized strategy for segmental labeling of multi-domain proteins using the S. aureus transpeptidase Sortase A. Critical improvements compared to existing protocols are (1) the efficient removal of cleaved peptide fragments by centrifugal filtration and (2) a strategic design of cleavable and non-cleavable affinity tags for purification. Our approach enables routine production of milligram amounts of purified segmentally labeled protein for NMR and other biophysical studies.

  5. Plasma Biomarker Discovery Using 3D Protein Profiling Coupled with Label-Free Quantitation

    PubMed Central

    Beer, Lynn A.; Tang, Hsin-Yao; Barnhart, Kurt T.; Speicher, David W.

    2011-01-01

    In-depth quantitative profiling of human plasma samples for biomarker discovery remains quite challenging. One promising alternative to chemical derivatization with stable isotope labels for quantitative comparisons is direct, label-free, quantitative comparison of raw LC–MS data. But, in order to achieve high-sensitivity detection of low-abundance proteins, plasma proteins must be extensively pre-fractionated, and results from LC–MS runs of all fractions must be integrated efficiently in order to avoid misidentification of variations in fractionation from sample to sample as “apparent” biomarkers. This protocol describes a powerful 3D protein profiling method for comprehensive analysis of human serum or plasma proteomes, which combines abundant protein depletion and high-sensitivity GeLC–MS/MS with label-free quantitation of candidate biomarkers. PMID:21468938

  6. GFP-like fluorophores as DNA labels for studying DNA-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Jan; Ménová, Petra; Pohl, Radek; Orság, Petr; Fojta, Miroslav; Hocek, Michal

    2012-09-21

    GFP-like 3,5-difluoro-4-hydroxybenzylideneimidazolinone (FBI) and 3,5-bis(methoxy)-4-hydroxy-benzylideneimidazolinone (MBI) labels were attached to dCTP through a propargyl linker, and the resulting labeled nucleotides (dC(MBI)TP and dC(FBI)TP) were used for a facile enzymatic synthesis of oligonucleotide or DNA probes by polymerase-catalyzed primer extension. The MBI/FBI-labeled DNA probes exerted low fluorescence that was increased 2-3.2 times upon binding of a protein. The concept was demonstrated on sequence-specific binding of p53 to dsDNA and on nonspecific binding of single strand binding protein to an oligonucleotide. The FBI label was also used for a time-resolved experiment monitoring a single-nucleotide incorporation followed by primer extension by Vent(exo-) polymerase.

  7. Patterns of 15N assimilation and growth of methanotrophic ANME-2 archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria within structured syntrophic consortia revealed by FISH-SIMS.

    PubMed

    Orphan, Victoria J; Turk, Kendra A; Green, Abigail M; House, Christopher H

    2009-07-01

    Methane release from the oceans is controlled in large part by syntrophic interactions between anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (DSS), frequently found as organized consortia. An understanding of the specifics of this symbiotic relationship and the metabolic heterogeneity existing between and within individual methane-oxidizing aggregates is currently lacking. Here, we use the microanalytical method FISH-SIMS (fluorescence in situ hybridization-secondary ion mass spectrometry) to describe the physiological traits and anabolic activity of individual methanotrophic consortia, specifically tracking (15)N-labelled protein synthesis to examine the effects of organization and size on the metabolic activity of the syntrophic partners. Patterns of (15)N distribution within individual aggregates showed enhanced (15)N assimilation in ANME-2 cells relative to the co-associated DSS revealing a decoupling in anabolic activity between the partners. Protein synthesis in ANME-2 cells was sustained throughout the core of individual ANME-2/DSS consortia ranging in size range from 4 to 20 μm. This indicates that metabolic activity of the methane-oxidizing archaea is not limited to, or noticeably enhanced at the ANME-2/DSS boundary. Overall, the metabolic activity of both syntrophic partners within consortia was greater than activity measured in representatives of the ANME-2 and DSS observed alone, with smaller ANME-2/DSS aggregates displaying a tendency for greater (15)N uptake and doubling times ranging from 3 to 5 months. The combination of (15)N-labelling and FISH-SIMS provides an important perspective on the extent of heterogeneity within methanotrophic aggregates and may aid in constraining predictive models of activity and growth by these syntrophic consortia.

  8. Heterogeneous distribution of dye-labelled biomineralizaiton proteins in calcite crystals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chuang; Xie, Liping; Zhang, Rongqing

    2015-01-01

    Biominerals are highly ordered crystals mediated by organic matters especially proteins in organisms. However, how specific proteins are distributed inside biominerals are not well understood. In the present study, we use fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to label extracted proteins from the shells of bivalve Pinctada fucata. By confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), we observe a heterogeneous distribution of dye-labelled proteins inside synthetic calcite at the microscale. Proteins from the prismatic calcite layers accumulate at the edge of crystals while proteins from the nacreous aragonite layers accumulate at the center of crystals. Raman and X-ray powder diffraction show that both the proteins cannot alter the crystal phase. Scanning electron microscope demonstrates both proteins are able to affect the crystal morphology. This study may provide a direct approach for the visualization of protein distributions in crystals by small-molecule dye-labelled proteins as the additives in the crystallization process and improve our understanding of intracrystalline proteins distribution in biogenic calcites. PMID:26675363

  9. Live-cell protein labelling with nanometre precision by cell squeezing

    PubMed Central

    Kollmannsperger, Alina; Sharei, Armon; Raulf, Anika; Heilemann, Mike; Langer, Robert; Jensen, Klavs F.; Wieneke, Ralph; Tampé, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Live-cell labelling techniques to visualize proteins with minimal disturbance are important; however, the currently available methods are limited in their labelling efficiency, specificity and cell permeability. We describe high-throughput protein labelling facilitated by minimalistic probes delivered to mammalian cells by microfluidic cell squeezing. High-affinity and target-specific tracing of proteins in various subcellular compartments is demonstrated, culminating in photoinduced labelling within live cells. Both the fine-tuned delivery of subnanomolar concentrations and the minimal size of the probe allow for live-cell super-resolution imaging with very low background and nanometre precision. This method is fast in probe delivery (∼1,000,000 cells per second), versatile across cell types and can be readily transferred to a multitude of proteins. Moreover, the technique succeeds in combination with well-established methods to gain multiplexed labelling and has demonstrated potential to precisely trace target proteins, in live mammalian cells, by super-resolution microscopy. PMID:26822409

  10. Specific fluorescent labeling of chicken myofibril Z-line proteins catalyzed by guinea pig liver transglutaminase

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    Guinea pig liver transglutaminase has been found to catalyze the covalent incorporation of dansylcadaverine into chicken skeletal muscle myofibril proteins. Epifluorescence microscopy reveals that the incorporated dansylcadaverine is specifically localized at or near the myofibril Z line. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) indicates that actin constitutes a major fraction of the labeled material; the Z-line proteins alpha-actinin and desmin also show significant labeling, as well as tropomyosin, several additional unidentified proteins, and material with an extremely high molecular weight. The Z-line-specific fluorescence can be removed by brief trypsinization, which releases fluorescent alpha-actinin into the supernate. The majority of the fluorescent protein species are resistant to extraction by either 0.6 M KCl or KI. These results, in conjunction with the microscopic localization, suggest that the dansyl- labeled proteins are constituents of the myofibril Z line. A significant amount of fluorescently labeled transglutaminase is also present in labeled myofibrils, which is resistant to extraction with either 0.6 M KCl or KI. This result indicates a strong, noncovalent interaction between the transglutaminase molecule and the myofibril Z line. PMID:38257

  11. Room-Temperature Distance Measurements of Immobilized Spin-Labeled Protein by DEER/PELDOR

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Virginia; Swanson, Michael A.; Clouston, Laura J.; Boratyński, Przemysław J.; Stein, Richard A.; Mchaourab, Hassane S.; Rajca, Andrzej; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2015-01-01

    Nitroxide spin labels are used for double electron-electron resonance (DEER) measurements of distances between sites in biomolecules. Rotation of gem-dimethyls in commonly used nitroxides causes spin echo dephasing times (Tm) to be too short to perform DEER measurements at temperatures between ∼80 and 295 K, even in immobilized samples. A spirocyclohexyl spin label has been prepared that has longer Tm between 80 and 295 K in immobilized samples than conventional labels. Two of the spirocyclohexyl labels were attached to sites on T4 lysozyme introduced by site-directed spin labeling. Interspin distances up to ∼4 nm were measured by DEER at temperatures up to 160 K in water/glycerol glasses. In a glassy trehalose matrix the Tm for the doubly labeled T4 lysozyme was long enough to measure an interspin distance of 3.2 nm at 295 K, which could not be measured for the same protein labeled with the conventional 1-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-pyrroline-3-(methyl)methanethio-sulfonate label. PMID:25762332

  12. Intein applications: from protein purification and labeling to metabolic control methods.

    PubMed

    Wood, David W; Camarero, Julio A

    2014-05-23

    The discovery of inteins in the early 1990s opened the door to a wide variety of new technologies. Early engineered inteins from various sources allowed the development of self-cleaving affinity tags and new methods for joining protein segments through expressed protein ligation. Some applications were developed around native and engineered split inteins, which allow protein segments expressed separately to be spliced together in vitro. More recently, these early applications have been expanded and optimized through the discovery of highly efficient trans-splicing and trans-cleaving inteins. These new inteins have enabled a wide variety of applications in metabolic engineering, protein labeling, biomaterials construction, protein cyclization, and protein purification.

  13. Selective labelling of cell-surface proteins using CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes.

    PubMed

    Hagner-McWhirter, Asa; Winkvist, Maria; Bourin, Stephanie; Marouga, Rita

    2008-11-26

    Surface proteins are central to the cell's ability to react to its environment and to interact with neighboring cells. They are known to be inducers of almost all intracellular signaling. Moreover, they play an important role in environmental adaptation and drug treatment, and are often involved in disease pathogenesis and pathology (1). Protein-protein interactions are intrinsic to signaling pathways, and to gain more insight in these complex biological processes, sensitive and reliable methods are needed for studying cell surface proteins. Two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis is used extensively for detection of biomarkers and other targets in complex protein samples to study differential changes. Cell surface proteins, partly due to their low abundance (1 2% of cellular proteins), are difficult to detect in a 2-D gel without fractionation or some other type of enrichment. They are also often poorly represented in 2-D gels due to their hydrophobic nature and high molecular weight (2). In this study, we present a new protocol for intact cells using CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes for specific labeling and detection of this important group of proteins. The results showed specific labeling of a large number of cell surface proteins with minimal labeling of intracellular proteins. This protocol is rapid, simple to use, and all three CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dyes (Cy 2, Cy 3 and Cy 5) can be used to label cell-surface proteins. These features allow for multiplexing using the 2-D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) with Ettan DIGE technology and analysis of protein expression changes using DeCyder 2-D Differential Analysis Software. The level of cell-surface proteins was followed during serum starvation of CHO cells for various lengths of time (see Table 1). Small changes in abundance were detected with high accuracy, and results are supported by defined statistical methods.

  14. Visualizing Water Molecules in Transmembrane Proteins Using Radiolytic Labeling Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Orban, T.; Gupta, S; Palczewski, K; Chance, M

    2010-01-01

    Essential to cells and their organelles, water is both shuttled to where it is needed and trapped within cellular compartments and structures. Moreover, ordered waters within protein structures often colocalize with strategically placed polar or charged groups critical for protein function, yet it is unclear if these ordered water molecules provide structural stabilization, mediate conformational changes in signaling, neutralize charged residues, or carry out a combination of all these functions. Structures of many integral membrane proteins, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), reveal the presence of ordered water molecules that may act like prosthetic groups in a manner quite unlike bulk water. Identification of 'ordered' waters within a crystalline protein structure requires sufficient occupancy of water to enable its detection in the protein's X-ray diffraction pattern, and thus, the observed waters likely represent a subset of tightly bound functional waters. In this review, we highlight recent studies that suggest the structures of ordered waters within GPCRs are as conserved (and thus as important) as conserved side chains. In addition, methods of radiolysis, coupled to structural mass spectrometry (protein footprinting), reveal dynamic changes in water structure that mediate transmembrane signaling. The idea of water as a prosthetic group mediating chemical reaction dynamics is not new in fields such as catalysis. However, the concept of water as a mediator of conformational dynamics in signaling is just emerging, because of advances in both crystallographic structure determination and new methods of protein footprinting. Although oil and water do not mix, understanding the roles of water is essential to understanding the function of membrane proteins.

  15. Stem injection of 15N-NH4NO3 into mature Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis).

    PubMed

    Nair, Richard; Weatherall, Andrew; Perks, Mike; Mencuccini, Maurizio

    2014-10-01

    Stem injection techniques can be used to introduce (15)N into trees to overcome a low variation in natural abundance and label biomass with a distinct (15)N signature, but have tended to target small and young trees, of a variety of species, with little replication. We injected 98 atom% (15)N ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) solution into 13 mature, 9- to 13-m tall edge-profile Sitka spruce trees in order to produce a large quantity of labelled litter, examining the distribution of the isotope throughout the canopy after felling in terms of both total abundance of (15)N and relative distribution of the isotope throughout individual trees. Using a simple mass balance of the canopy alone, based on observed total needle biomass and modelled branch biomass, all of the isotope injected was accounted for, evenly split between needles and branches, but with a high degree of variability both within individual trees, and among trees. Both (15)N abundance and relative within-canopy distribution were biased towards the upper and middle crown in foliage. Recovery of the label in branches was much more variable than in needles, possibly due to differences in nitrogen allocation for both growth and storage, which differ seasonally between foliage and woody biomass.

  16. The 15N isotope to evaluate fertilizer nitrogen absorption efficiency by the coffee plant.

    PubMed

    Fenilli, Tatiele A B; Reichart, Klaus; Bacchi, Osny O S; Trivelin, Paulo C O; Dourado-Neto, Durval

    2007-12-01

    The use of the 15N label for agronomic research involving nitrogen (N) cycling and the fate of fertilizer-N is well established, however, in the case of long term experimentation with perennial crops like citrus, coffee and rubber tree, there are still shortcomings mainly due to large plant size, sampling procedures, detection levels and interferences on the system. This report tries to contribute methodologically to the design and development of 15N labeled fertilizer experiments, using as an example a coffee crop fertilized with 15N labeled ammonium sulfate, which was followed for two years. The N of the plant derived from the fertilizer was studied in the different parts of the coffee plant in order to evaluate its distribution within the plant and the agronomic efficiency of the fertilizer application practice. An enrichment of the fertilizer-N of the order of 2% 15N abundance was sufficient to study N absorption rates and to establish fertilizer-N balances after one and two years of coffee cropping. The main source of errors in the estimated values lies in the inherent variability among field replicates and not in the measurements of N contents and 15N enrichments of plant material by mass-spectrometry.

  17. Hydrophilic trans-Cyclooctenylated Noncanonical Amino Acids for Fast Intracellular Protein Labeling.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Eszter; Nikić, Ivana; Varga, Balázs R; Aramburu, Iker Valle; Kang, Jun Hee; Fackler, Oliver T; Lemke, Edward A; Kele, Péter

    2016-08-17

    Introduction of bioorthogonal functionalities (e.g., trans-cyclooctene-TCO) into a protein of interest by site-specific genetic encoding of non-canonical amino acids (ncAAs) creates uniquely targetable platforms for fluorescent labeling schemes in combination with tetrazine-functionalized dyes. However, fluorescent labeling of an intracellular protein is usually compromised by high background, arising from the hydrophobicity of ncAAs; this is typically compensated for by hours-long washout to remove excess ncAAs from the cellular interior. To overcome these problems, we designed, synthesized, and tested new, hydrophilic TCO-ncAAs. One derivative, DOTCO-lysine was genetically incorporated into proteins with good yield. The increased hydrophilicity shortened the excess ncAA washout time from hours to minutes, thus permitting rapid labeling and subsequent fluorescence microscopy.

  18. Internal Dynamics of the 3-Pyrroline-N-Oxide Ring in Spin-Labeled Proteins.

    PubMed

    Consentius, Philipp; Loll, Bernhard; Gohlke, Ulrich; Alings, Claudia; Müller, Carsten; Müller, Robert; Teutloff, Christian; Heinemann, Udo; Kaupp, Martin; Wahl, Markus C; Risse, Thomas

    2017-03-16

    Site-directed spin labeling is a versatile tool to study structure as well as dynamics of proteins using EPR spectroscopy. Methanethiosulfonate (MTS) spin labels tethered through a disulfide linkage to an engineered cysteine residue were used in a large number of studies to extract structural as well as dynamic information on the protein from the rotational dynamics of the nitroxide moiety. The ring itself was always considered to be a rigid body. In this contribution, we present a combination of high-resolution X-ray crystallography and EPR spectroscopy of spin-labeled protein single crystals demonstrating that the nitroxide ring inverts fast at ambient temperature while exhibiting nonplanar conformations at low temperature. We have used quantum chemical calculations to explore the potential energy that determines the ring dynamics as well as the impact of the geometry on the magnetic parameters probed by EPR spectroscopy.

  19. Live Imaging of Endogenous PSD-95 Using ENABLED: A Conditional Strategy to Fluorescently Label Endogenous Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Dale A.; Tillo, Shane E.; Yang, Guang; Rah, Jong-Cheol; Melander, Joshua B.; Bai, Suxia; Soler-Cedeño, Omar; Qin, Maozhen; Zemelman, Boris V.; Guo, Caiying

    2014-01-01

    Stoichiometric labeling of endogenous synaptic proteins for high-contrast live-cell imaging in brain tissue remains challenging. Here, we describe a conditional mouse genetic strategy termed endogenous labeling via exon duplication (ENABLED), which can be used to fluorescently label endogenous proteins with near ideal properties in all neurons, a sparse subset of neurons, or specific neuronal subtypes. We used this method to label the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95 with mVenus without overexpression side effects. We demonstrated that mVenus-tagged PSD-95 is functionally equivalent to wild-type PSD-95 and that PSD-95 is present in nearly all dendritic spines in CA1 neurons. Within spines, while PSD-95 exhibited low mobility under basal conditions, its levels could be regulated by chronic changes in neuronal activity. Notably, labeled PSD-95 also allowed us to visualize and unambiguously examine otherwise-unidentifiable excitatory shaft synapses in aspiny neurons, such as parvalbumin-positive interneurons and dopaminergic neurons. Our results demonstrate that the ENABLED strategy provides a valuable new approach to study the dynamics of endogenous synaptic proteins in vivo. PMID:25505322

  20. An Efficient Site-Specific Method for Irreversible Covalent Labeling of Proteins with a Fluorophore.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiaquan; Hanne, Jeungphill; Britton, Brooke M; Shoffner, Matthew; Albers, Aaron E; Bennett, Jared; Zatezalo, Rachel; Barfield, Robyn; Rabuka, David; Lee, Jong-Bong; Fishel, Richard

    2015-11-19

    Fluorophore labeling of proteins while preserving native functions is essential for bulk Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) interaction and single molecule imaging analysis. Here we describe a versatile, efficient, specific, irreversible, gentle and low-cost method for labeling proteins with fluorophores that appears substantially more robust than a similar but chemically distinct procedure. The method employs the controlled enzymatic conversion of a central Cys to a reactive formylglycine (fGly) aldehyde within a six amino acid Formylglycine Generating Enzyme (FGE) recognition sequence in vitro. The fluorophore is then irreversibly linked to the fGly residue using a Hydrazinyl-Iso-Pictet-Spengler (HIPS) ligation reaction. We demonstrate the robust large-scale fluorophore labeling and purification of E.coli (Ec) mismatch repair (MMR) components. Fluorophore labeling did not alter the native functions of these MMR proteins in vitro or in singulo. Because the FGE recognition sequence is easily portable, FGE-HIPS fluorophore-labeling may be easily extended to other proteins.

  1. Site-specific fluorescent labeling to visualize membrane translocation of a myristoyl switch protein

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sung-Tae; Lim, Sung In; Kiessling, Volker; Kwon, Inchan; Tamm, Lukas K.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence approaches have been widely used for elucidating the dynamics of protein-membrane interactions in cells and model systems. However, non-specific multi-site fluorescent labeling often results in a loss of native structure and function, and single cysteine labeling is not feasible when native cysteines are required to support a protein’s folding or catalytic activity. Here, we develop a method using genetic incorporation of non-natural amino acids and bio-orthogonal chemistry to site-specifically label with a single fluorescent small molecule or protein the myristoyl-switch protein recoverin, which is involved in rhodopsin-mediated signaling in mammalian visual sensory neurons. We demonstrate reversible Ca2+-responsive translocation of labeled recoverin to membranes and show that recoverin favors membranes with negative curvature and high lipid fluidity in complex heterogeneous membranes, which confers spatio-temporal control over down-stream signaling events. The site-specific orthogonal labeling technique is promising for structural, dynamical, and functional studies of many lipid-anchored membrane protein switches. PMID:27605302

  2. Imaging Complex Protein Metabolism in Live Organisms by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy with Isotope Labeling

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Protein metabolism, consisting of both synthesis and degradation, is highly complex, playing an indispensable regulatory role throughout physiological and pathological processes. Over recent decades, extensive efforts, using approaches such as autoradiography, mass spectrometry, and fluorescence microscopy, have been devoted to the study of protein metabolism. However, noninvasive and global visualization of protein metabolism has proven to be highly challenging, especially in live systems. Recently, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy coupled with metabolic labeling of deuterated amino acids (D-AAs) was demonstrated for use in imaging newly synthesized proteins in cultured cell lines. Herein, we significantly generalize this notion to develop a comprehensive labeling and imaging platform for live visualization of complex protein metabolism, including synthesis, degradation, and pulse–chase analysis of two temporally defined populations. First, the deuterium labeling efficiency was optimized, allowing time-lapse imaging of protein synthesis dynamics within individual live cells with high spatial–temporal resolution. Second, by tracking the methyl group (CH3) distribution attributed to pre-existing proteins, this platform also enables us to map protein degradation inside live cells. Third, using two subsets of structurally and spectroscopically distinct D-AAs, we achieved two-color pulse–chase imaging, as demonstrated by observing aggregate formation of mutant hungtingtin proteins. Finally, going beyond simple cell lines, we demonstrated the imaging ability of protein synthesis in brain tissues, zebrafish, and mice in vivo. Hence, the presented labeling and imaging platform would be a valuable tool to study complex protein metabolism with high sensitivity, resolution, and biocompatibility for a broad spectrum of systems ranging from cells to model animals and possibly to humans. PMID:25560305

  3. Heterogenous turnover of sperm and seminal vesicle proteins in the mouse revealed by dynamic metabolic labeling.

    PubMed

    Claydon, Amy J; Ramm, Steven A; Pennington, Andrea; Hurst, Jane L; Stockley, Paula; Beynon, Robert

    2012-06-01

    Plasticity in ejaculate composition is predicted as an adaptive response to the evolutionary selective pressure of sperm competition. However, to respond rapidly to local competitive conditions requires dynamic modulation in the production of functionally relevant ejaculate proteins. Here we combine metabolic labeling of proteins with proteomics to explore the opportunity for such modulation within mammalian ejaculates. We assessed the rate at which proteins are synthesized and incorporated in the seminal vesicles of male house mice (Mus musculus domesticus), where major seminal fluid proteins with potential roles in sperm competition are produced. We compared rates of protein turnover in the seminal vesicle with those during spermatogenesis, the timing of which is well known in mice. The subjects were fed a diet containing deuterated valine ([(2)H(8)]valine) for up to 35 days, and the incorporation of dietary-labeled amino acid into seminal vesicle- or sperm-specific proteins was assessed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of samples recovered from the seminal vesicle lumen and cauda epididymis, respectively. Analyses of epididymal contents were consistent with the known duration of spermatogenesis and sperm maturation in this species and in addition revealed evidence for a subset of epididymal proteins subject to rapid turnover. For seminal vesicle proteins, incorporation of the stable isotope was evident from day 2 of labeling, reaching a plateau of labeling by day 24. Hence, even in the absence of copulation, the seminal vesicle proteins and certain epididymal proteins demonstrate considerable turnover, a response that is consonant with the capacity to rapidly modulate protein production. These techniques can now be used to assess the extent of phenotypic plasticity in mammalian ejaculate production and allocation according to social and environmental cues of sperm competition.

  4. Fluorescein Derivatives as Bifunctional Molecules for the Simultaneous Inhibiting and Labeling of FTO Protein.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianlu; Hong, Tingting; Huang, Yue; Su, Haomiao; Wu, Fan; Chen, Yi; Wei, Lai; Huang, Wei; Hua, Xiaoluan; Xia, Yu; Xu, Jinglei; Gan, Jianhua; Yuan, Bifeng; Feng, Yuqi; Zhang, Xiaolian; Yang, Cai-Guang; Zhou, Xiang

    2015-11-04

    The FTO protein is unequivocally reported to play a critical role in human obesity and in the regulation of cellular levels of m(6)A modification, which makes FTO a significant and worthy subject of study. Here, we identified that fluorescein derivatives can selectively inhibit FTO demethylation, and the mechanisms behind these activities were elucidated after we determined the X-ray crystal structures of FTO/fluorescein and FTO/5-aminofluorescein. Furthermore, these inhibitors can also be applied to the direct labeling and enrichment of FTO protein combined with photoaffinity labeling assay.

  5. 2D Gel Electrophoresis of Insulin Secretory Granule Proteins from Biosynthetically Labelled Pancreatic Islets.

    PubMed

    Guest, Paul C

    2017-01-01

    Pulse radiolabelling of cells with radioactive amino acids such is a common method for investigating the biosynthetic rates of proteins. In this way, the abundance of newly synthesized proteins can be determined by several proteomic techniques including 2D gel electrophoresis (2DE). This chapter describes a protocol for labelling pancreatic islets with (35)S-methionine in the presence of low and high concentrations of glucose, followed by subcellular fractionation enrichment of secretory granule proteins and analysis of the granule protein contents by 2DE. This demonstrated that the biosynthetic rates of most of the granule proteins are co-ordinately regulated in the presence of stimulatory glucose concentrations.

  6. Detection of an azido-(/sup 14/C)-atrazine labeled protein transferred to nitrocellulose paper

    SciTech Connect

    Ivey, S.; Metz, J.G.; Berg, S.P.

    1986-04-01

    An electrophoretically similar protein in spinach and maize can be covalently labeled with azido-(/sup 14/C)-atrazine and separated by 10-18% gradient LDS-PAGE. The protein profile can be transferred to nitrocellulose paper (ncp) by western blotting. The ncp containing the protein profile is sliced into 2 mm slices and counted with liquid scintillation. The labeled protein migrates as a diffuse band with a Mr of 34 kD. This band migrates at a higher Mr (40 kD) under different gel conditions. The ncp dissolves in the organic scintillation cocktail thus providing a more sensitive and quantitative detection of the /sup 14/C. This technique allows the simultaneous immunological and radiochemical identification of many electrophoretically separable proteins.

  7. Long-term 15N tracking from biological N fixation across different plant and humus components of the boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroniz-Crespo, Maria; Jones, David L.; Zackrisson, Olle; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; DeLuca, Thomas H.

    2014-05-01

    Biological N2 fixation by cyanobacteria associated with feather mosses is an important cog in the nitrogen (N) cycle of boreal forests; still, our understanding of the turnover and fate of N fixed by this association remains greatly incomplete. The 15N signature of plants and soil serves as a powerful tool to explore N dynamics in forest ecosystems. In particular, in the present study we aimed to investigate the contribution of N2 fixation to δ15N signatures of plants and humus component of the boreal forest. Here we present results from a long-term (7 years) tacking of labelled 15N2 across the humus layer, seedlings of the tree species Pinus sylvestris, two common dwarf shrub species (Empetrum hermaphroditum and Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and the feather moss Pleurozium schreibery. The enriched experiment was conducted in 2005 in a natural boreal forest in northern Sweden. Two different treatments (10% 15N2 headspace enrichment and control) were setup in nine different plots (0.5 x 0.5 m) within the forest. We observed a significant reduction of δ15N signature of the 15N-enriched moss that could be explained by a growth dilution effect. Nevertheless, after 5 years since 15N2 enrichment some of the label 15N was still detected on the moss and in particular in the dead tissue. We could not detect a clear transfer of the labelled 15N2 from the moss-cyanobacteria system to other components of the ecosystem. However, we found consistence relationship through time between increments of δ15N signature of some of the forest components in plots which exhibited higher N fixation rates in the moss. In particular, changes in natural abundance δ15N that could be associated with N fixation were more apparent in the humus layer, the dwarf shrub Vaccinium vitis-idaea and the pine seedlings when comparing across plots and years.

  8. Exploring intrinsically disordered proteins using site-directed spin labeling electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Le Breton, Nolwenn; Martinho, Marlène; Mileo, Elisabetta; Etienne, Emilien; Gerbaud, Guillaume; Guigliarelli, Bruno; Belle, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are highly variable biological systems, not only in their structures but also in their dynamics. The most extreme example of dynamics is encountered within the family of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs), which are proteins lacking a well-defined 3D structure under physiological conditions. Among the biophysical techniques well-suited to study such highly flexible proteins, Site-Directed Spin Labeling combined with EPR spectroscopy (SDSL-EPR) is one of the most powerful, being able to reveal, at the residue level, structural transitions such as folding events. SDSL-EPR is based on selective grafting of a paramagnetic label on the protein under study and is limited neither by the size nor by the complexity of the system. The objective of this mini-review is to describe the basic strategy of SDSL-EPR and to illustrate how it can be successfully applied to characterize the structural behavior of IDPs. Recent developments aimed at enlarging the panoply of SDSL-EPR approaches are presented in particular newly synthesized spin labels that allow the limitations of the classical ones to be overcome. The potentialities of these new spin labels will be demonstrated on different examples of IDPs. PMID:26042221

  9. Noninvasive imaging of protein metabolic labeling in single human cells using stable isotopes and Raman microscopy.

    PubMed

    van Manen, Henk-Jan; Lenferink, Aufried; Otto, Cees

    2008-12-15

    We have combined nonresonant Raman microspectroscopy and spectral imaging with stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) to selectively detect the incorporation of deuterium-labeled phenylalanine, tyrosine, and methionine into proteins in intact, single HeLa cells. The C-D stretching vibrational bands in these amino acids are observed in the 2100-2300 cm(-1) spectral region that is devoid of vibrational contributions from other, nondeuterated intracellular constituents. We found that incubation with deuterated amino acids for 8 h in cell culture already led to clearly detectable isotope-related signals in Raman spectra of HeLa cells. As expected, the level of isotope incorporation into proteins increased with incubation time, reaching 55% for deuterated phenylalanine after 28 h. Raman spectral imaging of HeLa cells incubated with deuterium-labeled amino acids showed similar spatial distributions for both isotope-labeled and unlabeled proteins, as evidenced by Raman ratio imaging. The SILAC-Raman methodology presented here combines the strengths of stable isotopic labeling of cells with the nondestructive and quantitative nature of Raman chemical imaging and is likely to become a powerful tool in both cell biology applications and research on tissues or whole organisms.

  10. Uniformly sup 13 C-labeled algal protein used to determine amino acid essentiality in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Berthold, H.K.; Hachey, D.L.; Reeds, P.J.; Klein, P.D. ); Thomas, O.P. ); Hoeksema, S. )

    1991-09-15

    The edible alga Spirulina platensis was uniformly labeled with {sup 13}C by growth in an atmosphere of pure {sup 13}CO{sub 2}. The labeled biomass was then incorporated into the diet of a laying hen for 27 days. The isotopic enrichment of individual amino acids in egg white and yolk proteins, as well as in various tissues of the hen at the end of the feeding period, was analyzed by negative chemical ionization gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The amino acids of successive eggs showed one of two exclusive enrichment patterns: complete preservation of the intact carbon skeleton or extensive degradation and resynthesis. The same observation was made in tissue proteins. These patterns were cleanly divided according to known nutritional amino acid essentiality/nonessentiality but revealed differences in labeling among the nonessential amino acids: most notable was that proline accretion was derived entirely from the diet. Feeding uniformly {sup 13}C-labeled algal protein and recovering and analyzing de novo-synthesized protein provides a useful method to examine amino acid metabolism and determine conditional amino acid essentially in vivo.

  11. In Vitro Dynamic Visualization Analysis of Fluorescently Labeled Minor Capsid Protein IX and Core Protein V by Simultaneous Detection

    PubMed Central

    Ugai, Hideyo; Wang, Minghui; Le, Long P.; Matthews, David A.; Yamamoto, Masato; Curiel, David T.

    2009-01-01

    Oncolytic adenoviruses represent a promising therapeutic medicine for human cancer therapy, but successful translation to human clinical trials requires careful evaluation of these viral characteristics. While the function of the adenovirus proteins have been analyzed in detail, the dynamics of adenovirus infection remain largely unknown due to technological constraints which prevent adequate tracking of the adenovirus particles after infection. Fluorescent labeling of the adenoviral particles is one new strategy designed to directly analyze dynamic processes of viral infection in virus-host cell interactions. We hypothesized that the double labeling technique of adenovirus with fluorescent proteins would allow us to properly analyze intracellular viruses and the fate of viral proteins in live analysis of adenovirus as compared to a single labeling. Thus, we generated a fluorescently labeled adenovirus with both a red fluorescent minor capsid protein IX (pIX-mRFP1) and a green fluorescent minor core protein V (pV-EGFP), resulting in Ad5-IX-mRFP1-E3-V-EGFP. The fluorescent signals for pIX-mRFP1 and pV-EGFP were detected within 10 min in living cells. However, the growth curve analysis of Ad5-IX-mRFP1-E3-V-EGFP showed approximately 150-fold reduced production of the viral progeny at 48 hours post-infection (h.p.i.) as compared to Ad5. Interestingly, pIX-mRFP1 and pV-EGFP were initially localized in the cytoplasm and the nucleolus, respectively, at 18 h.p.i. These proteins were observed in the nucleus during the late stage of infection and the relocalization of the proteins was observed in an adenoviral replication-dependent manner. These results indicate that the simultaneous detection of adenovirus using dual-fluorescent proteins is suitable for real-time analysis, including identification of infected cells, and monitoring viral spread, which will be required for complete evaluation of oncolytic adenoviruses. PMID:19853616

  12. On chip preconcentration and fluorescence labeling of model proteins using monolithic columns: device fabrication, optimization, and automation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rui; Pagaduan, Jayson V.; Yu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Microfluidic systems are developed with monolithic columns for preconcentration and on-chip labeling of model proteins. Monoliths are prepared in microchannels via photopolymerization, and the properties of monoliths are optimized by varying the composition and concentration of monomers to improve flow and extraction. On-chip labeling of proteins is achieved by driving solutions through the monolith using voltage and incubating fluorescent dye with protein retained in the monolith. Subsequently, the labeled proteins are eluted by applying voltages to reservoirs on the microdevice and then detected by laser-induced fluorescence. Monoliths prepared from octyl methacrylate show the best combination of protein retention while still allowing unattached fluorescent label to be eluted in a separate fraction with 50% acetonitrile. Finally, automated on-chip extraction and fluorescence labeling of a model protein is successfully demonstrated. This work provides facile sample pretreatment, and therefore offers promising potential for future integrated bioanalysis microchips. PMID:25012353

  13. Labeled Protein Recognition at a Membrane Bilayer Interface by Embedded Synthetic Receptors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Self-folding deep cavitands embedded in a supported lipid bilayer are capable of recognizing suitably labeled proteins at the bilayer interface. The addition of a choline derived binding “handle” to a number of different proteins allows their selective noncovalent recognition, with association constants on the order of 105 M–1. The proteins are displayed at the water:bilayer interface, and a single binding handle allows recognition of the large, charged protein by a small molecule synthetic receptor via complementary shape and charge interactions. PMID:25130415

  14. Label-free microscale thermophoresis discriminates sites and affinity of protein-ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Susanne A I; Wienken, Christoph J; Geissler, Sandra; Jerabek-Willemsen, Moran; Duhr, Stefan; Reiter, Alwin; Trauner, Dirk; Braun, Dieter; Baaske, Philipp

    2012-10-15

    Look, no label! Microscale thermophoresis makes use of the intrinsic fluorescence of proteins to quantify the binding affinities of ligands and discriminate between binding sites. This method is suitable for studying binding interactions of very small amounts of protein in solution. The binding of ligands to iGluR membrane receptors, small-molecule inhibitorss to kinase p38, aptamers to thrombin, and Ca(2+) ions to synaptotagmin was quantified.

  15. Axonal transport of proteins. A new view using in vivo covalent labeling

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    The injection of [2,3-3H]N-succinimidyl propionate ([3H]N-SP) into the rat sciatic nerve was used to covalently label both intra- and extra- axonal proteins. While extra-axonal proteins (e.g., myelin proteins) remained in the injection site, the intra-axonal proteins were transported in both the anterograde and retrograde directions. The mobile labeled proteins appeared to move by normal axonal transport processes because: (a) autoradiographic studies showed that they were localized exclusively within the axon at considerable distances from the injection site, (b) specific and identifiable proteins (by SDS gel electrophoresis) moved at expected rates in the anterograde direction, and (c) an entirely different profile of proteins moved in the anterograde vs. retrograde direction. This novel experimental approach to axonal transport, which is independent of de novo protein synthesis, provided a unique view of slow anterograde transport, and particularly of retrograde transport of endogenous proteins. A large quantity of a 68,000 mol wt proteins, moving at approximately 3-6 mm/day, dominated the retograde transport profile. [3H]N-SP, therefore, represents a new and unique "vital stain" which may find many applications in cell biology. PMID:6154709

  16. Examining the conformational dynamics of membrane proteins in situ with site-directed fluorescence labeling.

    PubMed

    Richards, Ryan; Dempski, Robert E

    2011-05-29

    Two electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology (TEVC) is a powerful tool to investigate the mechanism of ion transport1 for a wide variety of membrane proteins including ion channels, ion pumps, and transporters. Recent developments have combined site-specific fluorophore labeling alongside TEVC to concurrently examine the conformational dynamics at specific residues and function of these proteins on the surface of single cells. We will describe a method to study the conformational dynamics of membrane proteins by simultaneously monitoring fluorescence and current changes using voltage-clamp fluorometry. This approach can be used to examine the molecular motion of membrane proteins site-specifically following cysteine replacement and site-directed fluorophore labeling. Furthermore, this method provides an approach to determine distance constraints between specific residues. This is achieved by selectively attaching donor and acceptor fluorophores to two mutated cysteine residues of interest. In brief, these experiments are performed following functional expression of the desired protein on the surface of Xenopus leavis oocytes. The large surface area of these oocytes enables facile functional measurements and a robust fluorescence signal. It is also possible to readily change the extracellular conditions such as pH, ligand or cations/anions, which can provide further information on the mechanism of membrane proteins. Finally, recent developments have also enabled the manipulation of select internal ions following co-expression with a second protein. Our protocol is described in multiple parts. First, cysteine scanning mutagenesis proceeded by fluorophore labeling is completed at residues located at the interface of the transmembrane and extracellular domains. Subsequent experiments are designed to identify residues which demonstrate large changes in fluorescence intensity (<5%) upon a conformational change of the protein. Second, these changes in fluorescence

  17. EPR assessment of protein sites for incorporation of Gd(III) MRI contrast labels

    PubMed Central

    Lagerstedt, Jens O.; Petrlova, Jitka; Hilt, Silvia; Marek, Antonin; Chung, Youngran; Sriram, Renuka; Budamagunta, Madhu S.; Desreux, Jean F.; Thonon, David; Jue, Thomas; Smirnov, Alex I.; Voss, John C.

    2013-01-01

    We have engineered Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), a major protein constituent of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), to contain DOTA-chelated Gd(III) as an MRI contrast agent for the purpose of imaging reconstituted HDL (rHDL) biodistribution, metabolism, and regulation in vivo. This protein contrast agent was obtained by reacting the thiol-reactive Gd[MTS-ADO3A] label with Cys engineered at four distinct positions (52, 55, 76 and 80) in apoA-I. MRI of infused mice previously showed that the Gd-labeled apoA-I migrates to both the liver and the kidney, the organs responsible for HDL catabolism; however, the contrast properties of apoA-I are superior when the ADO3A moiety is located at position 55, compared to the protein labeled at positions 52, 76 or 80. It is shown here that continuous wave X-band (9 GHz) EPR spectroscopy is capable of detecting differences in the Gd(III) signal when comparing the labeled protein in the lipid-free to the rHDL state. Furthermore, the values of NMR relaxivity obtained for labeled variants in both the lipid-free and rHDL states correlate to the product of the X-band Gd(III) spectral width and the collision frequency between a nitroxide spin label and a polar relaxation agent. Consistent with its superior relaxivity measured by NMR, the rHDL-associated apoA-I containing the Gd[MTS-ADO3A] probe attached to position 55 displays favorable dynamic and water accessibility properties as determined by X-band EPR. While room temperature EPR requires >1 mM Gd(III)-labeled and only >10 μM nitroxide-labeled protein to resolve the spectrum, the volume requirement is exceptionally low (~5μL). Thus, X-band EPR provides a practical assessment for the suitability of imaging candidates containing the site-directed ADO3A contrast probe. PMID:23606429

  18. Live imaging of GFP-labeled proteins in Drosophila oocytes.

    PubMed

    Pokrywka, Nancy Jo

    2013-03-29

    The Drosophila oocyte has been established as a versatile system for investigating fundamental questions such as cytoskeletal function, cell organization, and organelle structure and function. The availability of various GFP-tagged proteins means that many cellular processes can be monitored in living cells over the course of minutes or hours, and using this technique, processes such as RNP transport, epithelial morphogenesis, and tissue remodeling have been described in great detail in Drosophila oocytes. The ability to perform video imaging combined with a rich repertoire of mutants allows an enormous variety of genes and processes to be examined in incredible detail. One such example is the process of ooplasmic streaming, which initiates at mid-oogenesis. This vigorous movement of cytoplasmic vesicles is microtubule and kinesin-dependent and provides a useful system for investigating cytoskeleton function at these stages. Here I present a protocol for time lapse imaging of living oocytes using virtually any confocal microscopy setup.

  19. Colloidal quantum dots for fluorescent labels of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladyshev, P.; Kouznetsov, V.; Martinez Bonilla, C.; Dezhurov, S.; Krilsky, D.; Vasiliev, A.; Morenkov, O.; Vrublevskaya, V.; Tsygankov, P.; Ibragimova, S.; Rybakova, A.

    2016-10-01

    The work is devoted to the synthesis of colloidal quantum dots (QDs) and their bioconjugates with proteins. Various QDs were obtained as well with synthesis method in an organic solvent followed by hydrophilization and functionalization or synthesis in aqueous phase provides obtaining hydrophilic QDs directly. Particular attention is paid to the synthesis of QDs as fluorescent tags in the near infrared where minimum absorption occurs and the fluorescence of biological tissue and synthetic materials used in analytical systems. A method for the QDs synthesis of type fluorescent core/shell CdTeSe/CdS/CdZnS-PolyT with mixed telluride, selenide cadmium core with a high quantum yield and high resistance to photoaging. It is shown that these quantum dots may be effectively used in the immunoassay.

  20. Tritium labelling of a cholesterol amphiphile designed for cell membrane anchoring of proteins.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Balázs; Orbán, Erika; Kele, Zoltán; Tömböly, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    Cell membrane association of proteins can be achieved by the addition of lipid moieties to the polypeptide chain, and such lipid-modified proteins have important biological functions. A class of cell surface proteins contains a complex glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) glycolipid at the C-terminus, and they are accumulated in cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains, that is, lipid rafts. Semisynthetic lipoproteins prepared from recombinant proteins and designed lipids are valuable probes and model systems of the membrane-associated proteins. Because GPI-anchored proteins can be reinserted into the cell membrane with the retention of the biological function, they are appropriate candidates for preparing models via reduction of the structural complexity. A synthetic headgroup was added to the 3β-hydroxyl group of cholesterol, an essential lipid component of rafts, and the resulting cholesterol derivative was used as a simplified GPI mimetic. In order to quantitate the membrane integrated GPI mimetic after the exogenous addition to live cells, a tritium labelled cholesterol anchor was prepared. The radioactive label was introduced into the headgroup, and the radiolabelled GPI mimetic anchor was obtained with a specific activity of 1.37 TBq/mmol. The headgroup labelled cholesterol derivative was applied to demonstrate the sensitive detection of the cell membrane association of the anchor under in vivo conditions.

  1. Efficient Synthesis of Nicotinamide-1-15N for Ultrafast NMR Hyperpolarization Using Parahydrogen

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinamide (a vitamin B3 amide) is one of the key vitamins as well as a drug for treatment of M. tuberculosis, HIV, cancer, and other diseases. Here, an improved Zincke reaction methodology is presented allowing for straightforward and scalable synthesis of nicotinamide-1-15N with an excellent isotopic purity (98%) and good yield (55%). 15N nuclear spin label in nicotinamide-1-15N can be NMR hyperpolarized in seconds using parahydrogen gas. NMR hyperpolarization using the process of temporary conjugation between parahydrogen and to-be-hyperpolarized biomolecule on hexacoordinate iridium complex via the Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange (SABRE) method significantly increases detection sensitivity (e.g., >20 000-fold for nicotinamide-1-15N at 9.4 T) as has been shown by Theis T. et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc.2015, 137, 1404), and hyperpolarized in this fashion, nicotinamide-1-15N can be potentially used to probe metabolic processes in vivo in future studies. Moreover, the presented synthetic methodology utilizes mild reaction conditions, and therefore can also be potentially applied to synthesis of a wide range of 15N-enriched N-heterocycles that can be used as hyperpolarized contrast agents for future in vivo molecular imaging studies. PMID:26999571

  2. Quantum dots as bio-labels for the localization of a small plant adhesion protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravindran, Sathyajith; Kim, Sunran; Martin, Rebecca; Lord, Elizabeth M.; Ozkan, Cengiz S.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, semiconducting nanoparticles have been successfully applied in live mammalian cell cultures, as alternative biological labels for multicolour imaging, by verifying known physiological processes. Here, we report the application of semiconducting nanoparticles to live plant cells in culture. Utilizing this technique, we have uncovered new knowledge regarding the localization of a plant pollen tube adhesion protein, stigma/stylar cysteine-rich adhesin (SCA). The potential of these nanoparticles is evident when the results were compared with conventional immunolocalization methods using fluorescently labelled antibodies.

  3. Conjugation-induced fluorescent labeling of proteins and polymers using dithiomaleimides.

    PubMed

    Robin, Mathew P; Wilson, Paul; Mabire, Anne B; Kiviaho, Jenny K; Raymond, Jeffery E; Haddleton, David M; O'Reilly, Rachel K

    2013-02-27

    Dithiomaleimides (DTMs) with alkyl substituents are shown to be a novel class of highly emissive fluorophores. Variable solubility and further functionalization can easily be tailored through the choice of N and S substituents. Inclusion of a DTM unit into a ROP/RAFT initiator or insertion into the disulfide bond of salmon calcitonin (sCT) demonstrates the utility for fluorescent labeling of polymers and proteins. Simultaneous PEGylation and fluorescent labeling of sCT is also demonstrated, using the DTM unit as both a linker and a fluorophore. It is anticipated that DTMs will offer an attractive alternative to commonly used bulky, planar fluorophores.

  4. A photoactivable phospholipid analogue that specifically labels membrane cytoskeletal proteins of intact erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhan, D.; Williamson, P.; Schlegel, R.A. )

    1989-08-22

    A radioactive photoactivable analogue of phosphatidylethanolamine, 2-(2-azido-4-nitrobenzoyl)-1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho({sup 14}C)ethanolamine(({sup 14}C)AzPE), was synthesized. Upon incubation with erythrocytes in the dark, about 90% of ({sup 14}C)AzPE spontaneously incorporated into the cells; of this fraction, about 90% associated with the membrane, all of it noncovalently. Upon photoactivation, 3-4% of the membrane-associated probe was incorporated into protein. Analysis of this fraction by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, as well as extraction of labeled membranes with alkali or detergent, showed that the probe preferentially labeled cytoskeletal proteins. ({sup 14}C)AzPE appears to be a useful tool for the study of lipid-protein interactions at the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane of intact cells.

  5. Photoaffinity labeling of regulatory subunits of protein kinase A in cardiac cell fractions of rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mednieks, M. I.; Popova, I.; Grindeland, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    Photoaffinity labeling in heart tissue of rats flown on Cosmos 2044 was used to measure the regulatory (R) subunits of adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. A significant decrease of RII subunits in the particulate cell fraction extract (S2; P less than 0.05 in all cases) was observed when extracts of tissue samples from vivarium controls were compared with those from flight animals. Photoaffinity labeling of the soluble fraction (S1) was observed to be unaffected by spaceflight or any of the simulation conditions. Proteins of the S2 fraction constitute a minor (less than 10 percent) component of the total, whereas the S1 fraction contained most of the cell proteins. Changes in a relatively minor aspect of adenosine monophosphate-mediated reactions are considered to be representative of a metabolic effect.

  6. Identification of Asp isomerization in proteins by ¹⁸O labeling and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jennifer; Katta, Viswanatham

    2012-01-01

    Isomerization of aspartic acid (Asp) to isoaspartic acid (isoAsp) via succinimide intermediate is a common route of degradation for proteins that can affect their structural integrity. As Asp/isoAsp is isobaric in mass, it is difficult to identify the site of modification by LC-MS/MS peptide mapping. Here, we describe an approach to label the Asp residue involved in isomerization at the protein level by hydrolyzing the succinimide intermediate in H₂¹⁸O. Tryptic digestion of this labeled protein will result in peptides containing the site of isomerization being 2 Da heavier than the ¹⁶O-containing counterparts, due to ¹⁸O incorporation during the hydrolysis process. Comparison of tandem mass spectra of isomerized peptides with and without ¹⁸O incorporation allows easy identification of the Asp residue involved. This method proved to be especially useful in identifying the sites when isomerization occurs in Asp-Asp motifs.

  7. In Vivo Proximity Labeling for the Detection of Protein–Protein and Protein–RNA Interactions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and sensitive detection of protein–protein and protein–RNA interactions is key to understanding their biological functions. Traditional methods to identify these interactions require cell lysis and biochemical manipulations that exclude cellular compartments that cannot be solubilized under mild conditions. Here, we introduce an in vivo proximity labeling (IPL) technology that employs an affinity tag combined with a photoactivatable probe to label polypeptides and RNAs in the vicinity of a protein of interest in vivo. Using quantitative mass spectrometry and deep sequencing, we show that IPL correctly identifies known protein–protein and protein–RNA interactions in the nucleus of mammalian cells. Thus, IPL provides additional temporal and spatial information for the characterization of biological interactions in vivo. PMID:25311790

  8. The First in Vivo Observation of 13C- 15N Coupling in Mammalian Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamori, Keiko; Ross, Brian D.

    2001-12-01

    [5-13C,15N]Glutamine, with 1J(13C-15N) of 16 Hz, was observed in vivo in the brain of spontaneously breathing rats by 13C MRS at 4.7 T. The brain [5-13C]glutamine peak consisted of the doublet from [5-13C,15N]glutamine and the center [5-13C,14N]glutamine peak, resulting in an apparent triplet with a separation of 8 Hz. The time course of formation of brain [5-13C,15N]glutamine was monitored in vivo with a time resolution of 20-35 min. This [5-13C,15N]glutamine was formed by glial uptake of released neurotransmitter [5-13C]glutamate and its reaction with 15NH3 catalyzed by the glia-specific glutamine synthetase. The neurotransmitter glutamate C5 was selectively13C-enriched by intravenous [2,5-13C]glucose infusion to 13C-label whole-brain glutamate C5, followed by [12C]glucose infusion to chase 13C from the small and rapidly turning-over glial glutamate pool, leaving 13C mainly in the neurotransmitter [5-13C]glutamate pool, which is sequestered in vesicles until release. Hence, the observed [5-13C,15N]glutamine arises from a coupling between 13C of neuronal origin and 15N of glial origin. Measurement of the rate of brain [5-13C,15N]glutamine formation provides a novel noninvasive method of studying the kinetics of neurotransmitter uptake into glia in vivo, a process that is crucial for protecting the brain from glutamate excitotoxicity.

  9. Green fluorescent protein labeling of food pathogens Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Gensberger, Eva Theres; Kostić, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    Labeling of bacteria with marker genes, such as green fluorescent protein, is a useful and practicable tool for tracking and enumerating bacterial cells in a complex environment e.g. discrimination from the indigenous background population. In this study, novel TurboGFP prokaryotic expression vector was utilized for labeling of Yersinia species. Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A, biovar 2, biovar 4 and Y. pseudotuberculosis were successfully transformed with the vector and expressed bright green fluorescence that was even detectable visually by eye. No adverse effects were observed in growth behavior of the labeled strains compared to wild type (parental) strains and vector maintenance for longer time periods could be achieved for Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A, Y. enterocolitica biovar 2 and Y. pseudotuberculosis.

  10. Labeling cell-surface proteins via antibody quantum dot streptavidin conjugates.

    PubMed

    Mason, John N; Tomlinson, Ian D; Rosenthal, Sandra J; Blakely, Randy D

    2005-01-01

    The quantum dot is a novel fluorescent platform that has the potential to become an alternative to conventional organic dyes used to label biological probes such as antibodies or ligands. Compared to typical fluorescent organic dyes, cadmium selenide/zinc sulfide core-shell nanocrystals, or quantum dots, have greater photostability, resist metabolic and chemical degradation, are nontoxic, and display broad emission and narrow excitation bands. When conjugated to generic adaptor molecules such as streptavidin, quantum dots can be used to label different biotinylated antibodies or ligands without having to customize the quantum dot surface chemistry for each antibody or ligand. In this chapter, we outline the methodology for using streptavidin quantum dots to label biotinylated antibodies that target cell-surface ectodomain proteins on both living and fixed cells.

  11. Isotope Labeling for Solution and Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy of Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Verardi, Raffaello; Traaseth, Nathaniel J.; Masterson, Larry R.; Vostrikov, Vitaly V.; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we summarize the isotopic labeling strategies used to obtain high-quality solution and solid-state NMR spectra of biological samples, with emphasis on integral membrane proteins (IMPs). While solution NMR is used to study IMPs under fast tumbling conditions, such as in the presence of detergent micelles or isotropic bicelles, solid-state NMR is used to study the structure and orientation of IMPs in lipid vesicles and bilayers. In spite of the tremendous progress in biomolecular NMR spectroscopy, the homogeneity and overall quality of the sample is still a substantial obstacle to overcome. Isotopic labeling is a major avenue to simplify overlapped spectra by either diluting the NMR active nuclei or allowing the resonances to be separated in multiple dimensions. In the following we will discuss isotopic labeling approaches that have been successfully used in the study of IMPs by solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. PMID:23076578

  12. Two Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis of Insulin Secretory Granule Proteins from Biosynthetically-Labeled Pancreatic Islets.

    PubMed

    Guest, Paul C

    2017-01-01

    Pulse-chase radiolabeling of cells with radioactive amino acids is a common method for tracking the biosynthesis of proteins. Radiolabeled newly synthesized proteins can be analyzed by a number of techniques such as two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). This chapter presents a protocol for the biosynthetic labeling of pancreatic islets with (35)S-methionine in the presence of basal and stimulatory concentrations of glucose, followed by subcellular fractionation to produce a secretory granule fraction and analysis of the granule protein contents by 2DE. This provides a means of determining whether or not the biosynthetic rates of the entire granule constituents are coordinately regulated.

  13. Development of a Small Peptide Tag for Covalent Labeling of Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Fujie; Fuller, Roberta; Asawapornmongkol, Lily; Warsinke, Axel; Gobuty, Sarah; Barbas, Carlos F.

    2008-01-01

    A 21-mer peptide that can be used to covalently introduce synthetic molecules into proteins has been developed. Phage displayed peptide libraries were subjected to reaction-based selection with 1,3-diketones. The peptide was further evolved by addition of a randomized region and reselection for improved binding. The resulting 21-mer peptide had a reactive amino group that formed an enaminone with 1,3-diketone and was used as a tag for labeling of maltose binding protein. Using this peptide tag and 1,3-diketone derivatives, a variety of molecules such as reporter probes and functionalities may be covalently introduced into proteins of interest. PMID:17602682

  14. Simulating the Distance Distribution between Spin-Labels Attached to Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    EPR/DEER spectroscopy is playing an increasingly important role in the characterization of the conformational states of proteins. In this study, force field parameters for the bifunctional spin-label (RX) used in EPR/DEER are parametrized and tested with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The dihedral angles connecting the Cα atom of the backbone to the nitroxide ring moiety of the RX spin-label attached to i and i + 4 positions in a polyalanine α-helix agree very well with those observed in the X-ray crystallography. Both RXi,i+4 and RXi,i+3 are more rigid than the monofunctional spin-label (R1) commonly used in EPR/DEER, while RXi,i+4 is more rigid and causes less distortion in a protein backbone than RXi,i+3. Simplified dummy spin-label models with a single effective particle representing the RXi,i+3 and RXi,i+4 are also developed and parametrized from the all-atom simulations. MD simulations with dummy spin-labels (MDDS) provide distance distributions that can be directly compared to distance distributions obtained from EPR/DEER to rapidly assess if a hypothetical three-dimensional (3D) structural model is consistent with experiment. The dummy spin-labels can also be used in the restrained-ensemble MD (re-MD) simulations to carry out structural refinement of 3D models. Applications of this methodology to T4 lysozyme, KCNE1, and LeuT are shown to provide important insights about their conformational dynamics. PMID:25645890

  15. Label-free quantitative analysis for studying the interactions between nanoparticles and plasma proteins.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Anna Laura; Caracciolo, Giulio; Caruso, Giuseppe; Cavaliere, Chiara; Pozzi, Daniela; Samperi, Roberto; Laganà, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    A shotgun proteomics approach was used to compare human plasma protein binding capability with cationic liposomes, DNA-cationic lipid complexes (lipoplexes), and lipid-polycation-DNA (LPD) complexes. Nano-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a high-resolution LTQ Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer was used to characterize and compare their protein corona. Spectral counting and area under curve methods were used to perform label-free quantification. Substantial qualitative and quantitative differences were found among proteins bound to the three different systems investigated. Protein variety found on lipoplexes and LPD complexes was richer than that found on cationic liposomes. There were also significant differences between the amounts of protein. Such results could help in the design of gene-delivery systems, because some proteins could be more selectively bound rather than others, and their bio-distribution could be driven in vivo for more efficient and effective gene therapy.

  16. Dual-Quantum-Dots-Labeled Lateral Flow Strip Rapidly Quantifies Procalcitonin and C-reactive Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, XiaoPing; Huang, YunYe; Lin, ZhongShi; Xu, Liang; Yu, Hao

    2016-03-01

    In the article, a dual-quantum-dots-labeled (dual-QDs-labeled) lateral flow strip (LFS) method was developed for the simultaneous and rapid quantitative detection of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in the blood. Two QD-antibody conjugates with different fluorescence emission spectra were produced and sprayed on the LFS to capture PCT and CRP in the blood. Furthermore, a double antibody sandwich method for PCT and, meanwhile, a competitive inhibition method for CRP were employed in the LFS. For PCT and CRP in serum assayed by the dual-QDs-labeled LFS, their detection sensitivities reached 0.1 and 1 ng/mL, respectively, and their linear quantitative detection ranges were from 0.3 to 200 ng/mL and from 50 to 250 μg/mL, respectively. There was little evidence that the PCT and CRP assays would be interfered with each other. The correlations for testing CRP and PCT in clinical samples were 99.75 and 97.02 %, respectively, between the dual-QDs-labeled LFS we developed and commercial methods. The rapid quantification of PCT and CRP on dual-QDs-labeled LFS is of great clinical value to distinguish inflammation, bacterial infection, or viral infection and to provide guidance for the use of antibiotics or other medicines.

  17. Sparse (13)C labelling for solid-state NMR studies of P. pastoris expressed eukaryotic seven-transmembrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Liu, Chang; Fan, Ying; Munro, Rachel A; Ladizhansky, Vladimir; Brown, Leonid S; Wang, Shenlin

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate a novel sparse (13)C labelling approach for methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris expression system, towards solid-state NMR studies of eukaryotic membrane proteins. The labelling scheme was achieved by co-utilizing natural abundance methanol and specifically (13)C labelled glycerol as carbon sources in the expression medium. This strategy improves the spectral resolution by 1.5 fold, displays site-specific labelling patterns, and has advantages for collecting long-range distance restraints for structure determination of large eukaryotic membrane proteins by solid-state NMR.

  18. Micromorphological characterization and label-free quantitation of small rubber particle protein in natural rubber latex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sai; Liu, Jiahui; Wu, Yanxia; You, Yawen; He, Jingyi; Zhang, Jichuan; Zhang, Liqun; Dong, Yiyang

    2016-04-15

    Commercial natural rubber is traditionally supplied by Hevea brasiliensis, but now there is a big energy problem because of the limited resource and increasing demand. Intensive study of key rubber-related substances is urgently needed for further research of in vitro biosynthesis of natural rubber. Natural rubber is biosynthesized on the surface of rubber particles. A membrane protein called small rubber particle protein (SRPP) is a key protein associated closely with rubber biosynthesis; however, SRPP in different plants has been only qualitatively studied, and there are no quantitative reports so far. In this work, H. brasiliensis was chosen as a model plant. The microscopic distribution of SRPP on the rubber particles during the washing process was investigated by transmission electron microscopy-immunogold labeling. A label-free surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor was developed to quantify SRPP in H. brasiliensis for the first time. The immunosensor was then used to rapidly detect and analyze SRPP in dandelions and prickly lettuce latex samples. The label-free SPR immunosensor can be a desirable tool for rapid quantitation of the membrane protein SRPP, with excellent assay efficiency, high sensitivity, and high specificity. The method lays the foundation for further study of the functional relationship between SRPP and natural rubber content.

  19. Monitoring Astrocytic Proteome Dynamics by Cell Type-Specific Protein Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Anke; Stellmacher, Anne; Freitag, Christine E.; Landgraf, Peter; Dieterich, Daniela C.

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the nervous system to undergo long-term plasticity is based on changes in cellular and synaptic proteomes. While many studies have explored dynamic alterations in neuronal proteomes during plasticity, there has been less attention paid to the astrocytic counterpart. Indeed, progress in identifying cell type-specific proteomes is limited owing to technical difficulties. Here, we present a cell type-specific metabolic tagging technique for a mammalian coculture model based on the bioorthogonal amino acid azidonorleucine and the mutated Mus musculus methionyl-tRNA synthetaseL274G enabling azidonorleucine introduction into de novo synthesized proteins. Azidonorleucine incorporation resulted in cell type-specific protein labeling and retained neuronal or astrocytic cell viability. Furthermore, we were able to label astrocytic de novo synthesized proteins and identified both Connexin-43 and 60S ribosomal protein L10a upregulated upon treatment with Brain-derived neurotrophic factor in astrocytes of a neuron-glia coculture. Taken together, we demonstrate the successful dissociation of astrocytic from neuronal proteomes by cell type-specific metabolic labeling offering new possibilities for the analyses of cell type-specific proteome dynamics. PMID:26690742

  20. Metabolism in rats of selenium from intrinsically and extrinsically labeled isolated soy protein

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, A.C.; Weaver, C.M.

    1986-10-01

    Absorption, retention and tissue accumulation by rats of /sup 75/Se from intrinsically labeled isolated soy protein were compared with utilization of /sup 75/Se from the extrinsic sources of (/sup 75/Se)selenite, (/sup 75/Se)selenate or (/sup 75/Se)selenomethionine. Extrinsic sources of selenium were given by gavage or mixed with isolated soy protein. There were no differences in absorption and retention of /sup 75/Se from intrinsically labeled soy diet compared to the three extrinsically labeled soy diets. Of the three extrinsic sources tested, /sup 75/Se from selenate was better absorbed than from selenite or selenomethionine when incorporated into a soy diet. Absorption of /sup 75/Se was significantly lower when given to animals in gavage solution than when mixed with soy diets. After a 14-d test period, retention of /sup 75/Se was the same for all four soy diet groups. In gavaged groups, /sup 75/Se from selenomethionine was retained to a greater extent than /sup 75/Se from selenite. The liver, testes and kidney accumulated more /sup 75/Se from the test meal than did the blood and lungs. In the testes more /sup 75/Se from selenite and selenate was accumulated than from selenomethionine-labeled diets. Selenium absorption from the soy isolate source was very high (86-96%), indicating that, although soy does not normally contain high levels of selenium, the selenium present is well absorbed from this plant source.

  1. Temporal proteomic analysis and label-free quantification of viral proteins of an invertebrate iridovirus.

    PubMed

    İnce, İkbal Agah; Boeren, Sjef; van Oers, Monique M; Vlak, Just M

    2015-01-01

    Invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (IIV-6) is a nucleocytoplasmic virus with a ~212 kb linear dsDNA genome that encodes 215 putative ORFs. The IIV-6 virion-associated proteins consist of at least 54 virally encoded proteins. One of our previous findings showed that most of these proteins are encoded by genes from the early transcriptional class. This indicated that these structural proteins may not only function in the formation of the virion, but also in the initial stage of viral infection. In the current study, we followed the protein expression profile of IIV-6 over time in Drosophila S2 cells by label-free quantification using a proteomic approach. A total of 95 virally encoded proteins were detected in infected cells, of which 37 were virion proteins. The expressed IIV-6 virion proteins could be categorized into three main clusters based on their expression profiles: proteins with stably low expression levels during infection, proteins with exponentially increasing expression levels during infection and proteins that were initially highly abundant, but showed slightly reduced levels after 48 h post-infection. We thus provided novel information on the kinetics of virion and infected cell-specific protein levels that assists in our understanding of gene regulation in this lesser-known DNA virus model.

  2. NMR assignment method for amide signals with cell-free protein synthesis system.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Toshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods are widely used to determine the three-dimensional structures of proteins, to estimate protein folding, and to discover high-affinity ligands for proteins. However, one of the problems to apply such NMR methods to proteins is that we should obtain mg quantities of (15)N and/or (13)C labeled pure proteins of interest. Here, we describe the method to produce dual amino acid-selective (13)C-(15)N labeled proteins for NMR study using the improved wheat germ cell-free system, which enables sequence-specific assignments of amide signals simply even for very large protein.

  3. Diffusion technique for 15N and inorganic N analysis of low-N aqueous solutions and Kjeldahl digests.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui Rui; Dittert, Klaus

    2008-06-01

    Diffusion of ammonia is a common sample preparation method for the stable isotope analysis of inorganic nitrogen in aqueous solution. Classical diffusion methods usually require 6-12 days of diffusion and often focus on (15)N/(14)N analysis only. More recent studies have discussed whether complete N recovery was necessary for the precise analysis of stable N isotope ratios. In this paper we present a newly revised diffusion technique that allows correct and simultaneous determination of total N and (15)N at% from aqueous solutions and Kjeldahl digests, with N concentrations down to sub-0.5-mg N L(-1) levels, and it is tested under different conditions of (15)N isotope labelling. With the modification described, the diffusion time was reduced to 72 h, while the ratios of measured and expected (15)N at% were greater than 99% and the simultaneous recovery of total N was >95%. Analysis of soil microbial biomass N and its (15)N/(14)N ratio is one of the most important applications of this diffusion technique. An experiment with soil extracts spiked with (15)N-labelled yeast showed that predigestion was necessary to prevent serious N loss during Kjeldahl digestion of aqueous samples (i.e. soil extracts). The whole method of soil microbial biomass N preparation for (15)N/(14)N analysis included chloroform fumigation, predigestion, Kjeldahl digestion and diffusion. An experiment with soil spiked with (15)N-labelled yeast was carried out to evaluate the method. Results showed a highly significant correlation of recovered and added N, with the same recovery rate (0.21) of both total N and (15)N. A k(N) value of 0.25 was obtained based on the data. In conclusion, the diffusion method works for soil extracts and microbial biomass N determination and hence could be useful in many types of soil/water studies.

  4. Integrated microchip-device for the digestion, separation and postcolumn labeling of proteins and peptides.

    PubMed

    Gottschlich, N; Culbertson, C T; McKnight, T E; Jacobson, S C; Ramsey, J M

    2000-08-04

    A microchip device was demonstrated that integrated enzymatic reactions, electrophoretic separation of the reactants from the products and post-separation labeling of proteins and peptides prior to detection. A tryptic digestion of oxidized insulin B-chain was performed in 15 min under stopped flow conditions in a heated channel, and the separation was completed in 1 min. Localized thermal control of the reaction channel was achieved using a resistive heating element. The separated reaction products were then labeled with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) and detected by laser-induced fluorescence. A second reaction at elevated temperatures was also demonstrated for the on-chip reduction of disulfide bridges using insulin as a model protein. This device represents one of the highest levels, to date, of monolithic integration of chemical processes on a microchip.

  5. Nonorthogonal tRNAcysAmber for protein and nascent chain labeling

    PubMed Central

    Koubek, Jiří; Chen, Yet-Ran; Cheng, Richard Ping; Huang, Joseph Jen-Tse

    2015-01-01

    In vitro-transcribed suppressor tRNAs are commonly used in site-specific fluorescence labeling for protein and ribosome-bound nascent chains (RNCs) studies. Here, we describe the production of nonorthogonal Bacillus subtilis tRNAcysAmber from Escherichia coli, a process that is superior to in vitro transcription in terms of yield, ease of manipulation, and tRNA stability. As cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase was previously shown to aminoacylate tRNAcysAmber with lower efficiency, multiple tRNA synthetase mutants were designed to optimize aminoacylation. Aminoacylated tRNA was conjugated to a fluorophore to produce BODIPY FL-cysteinyl-tRNAcysAmber, which was used to generate ribosome-bound nascent chains of different lengths with the fluorophore incorporated at various predetermined sites. This tRNA tool may be beneficial in the site-specific labeling of full-length proteins as well as RNCs for biophysical and biological research. PMID:26194135

  6. Detection of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene-Utilizing Anaerobic Bacteria by 15N and 13C Incorporation ▿

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Erin M.; Young, Lily Y.; McGuinness, Lora M.; Kerkhof, Lee J.

    2010-01-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (15N or 13C labeled) was added to Norfolk Harbor sediments to test whether anaerobic bacteria use TNT for growth. Stable-isotope probing (SIP)-terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) detected peaks in the [15N]TNT cultures (60, 163, and 168 bp). The 60-bp peak was also present in the [13C]TNT cultures and was related to Lysobacter taiwanensis. PMID:20081008

  7. Live-Cell Labeling of Specific Protein Glycoforms by Proximity-Enhanced Bioorthogonal Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Peter V.; de Almeida-Escobedo, Gabriela; de Groot, Amber E.; McKechnie, Julia L.

    2016-01-01

    Reagents for detecting post-translational modifications in the context of their protein scaffold are powerful tools, but are challenging to develop for glycosylated epitopes. We describe a strategy for detecting protein-specific glycosylation through the use of cyclooctyne-aptamer conjugates. These molecules selectively ligate to azidosugar-labeled glycans exclusively on a target protein on live cells. We characterized aptamer conjugates against two different cell surface glycoproteins and show that these reagents are amenable to detecting protein sialoforms by mass spectrometry, Western blotting, and flow cytometry. Given the abundance of aptamers that bind cell surface targets, we expect this technology will be a useful platform for investigating the roles of protein-specific glycosylation in various cellular contexts. PMID:26280358

  8. Radioactive labeling of proteins in cultured postimplantation mouse embryos. II. Dose and time dependency

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, J.; Klose, J. )

    1989-07-01

    The conditions for optimum incorporation of radioactive amino acids into proteins of cultured postimplantation mouse embryos were investigated under the aspect of using these proteins for two-dimensional electrophoretic separations and fluorography. The aim was to obtain highly radioactively labeled proteins under conditions as physiological as possible. Mouse embryos of Days 8, 10, and 11 of gestation were cultured in Tyrode's solution. Incubation time and concentration of ({sup 3}H (or {sup 14}C))amino acids in the culture medium were varied over a broad range. Embryos were prepared with placenta and yolk sac or without any embryonic envelopes. After culturing, the physiologic-morphologic state of the embryos was registered on the basis of several criteria. The radioactivity taken up by the total protein of each embryo was determined and calculated in disintegrations per minute per milligram protein per embryo. To approach our aim, embryos of different developmental stages had to be cultured under different conditions. A good compromise for Day-8, Day-10, and Day-11 embryos was: embryos prepared with yolk sac (opened) and placenta, 150 microCi radioactive amino acids added per milliliter medium, incubation for 4 to 5 h. For maximum labeling of proteins it is advisable to culture Day-10 embryos without embryonic envelopes under particular conditions.

  9. Polyglutaraldehyde - A new reagent for coupling proteins to microspheres and for labeling cell-surface receptors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, A.; Levy, J.; Margel, S.

    1978-01-01

    Glutaraldehyde polymerized in basic aqueous solutions was found to react with low molecular weight amines, immunoglobulins and hemoglobin. The polyglutaraldehyde was covalently bound to hydrophilic microspheres. The rate of addition of proteins to the polyglutaraldehyde-derivatized microspheres was investigated spectrophotometrically as a function of pH and temperature. The reaction of polyglutaraldehyde was found to be faster than that of the monomer. The findings led to successful labeling of human lymphocyte subpopulations.

  10. [Determination of the distance between spin labels and the paramagnetic center in spin-labeled proteins according to parameters of the saturation curves of the label EPR spectra at 77 degrees K].

    PubMed

    Kulikov, A V

    1976-01-01

    A new method of estimation of the distance between spins of the spin-label and paramagnetic center is suggested. Method is based on the quantitative analys of saturation curve of spin-label EPR spectra at 77 degrees K. New approaches have been tested using haemoglobin labeled on SH-groups with various iminoxyl radicals. Values of the distances between labels and haem estimated from the saturation curve parameters and by current methods and values of distances estimated from X-ray data are in good agreement. In the case of rapid spin relaxation of he paramagnetic center, the new method allows one to determine a farther distance. Results of the present work make it possible to investigat by the spin-label technique the structure of haem-containing propeins and the structure of other proteins with known spin relaxation time of paramagnetic center.

  11. Validation of membrane protein topology models by oxidative labeling and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yan; Ruan, Xiang; Valvano, Miguel A; Konermann, Lars

    2012-05-01

    Computer-assisted topology predictions are widely used to build low-resolution structural models of integral membrane proteins (IMPs). Experimental validation of these models by traditional methods is labor intensive and requires modifications that might alter the IMP native conformation. This work employs oxidative labeling coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) as a validation tool for computer-generated topology models. ·OH exposure introduces oxidative modifications in solvent-accessible regions, whereas buried segments (e.g., transmembrane helices) are non-oxidizable. The Escherichia coli protein WaaL (O-antigen ligase) is predicted to have 12 transmembrane helices and a large extramembrane domain (Pérez et al., Mol. Microbiol. 2008, 70, 1424). Tryptic digestion and LC-MS/MS were used to map the oxidative labeling behavior of WaaL. Met and Cys exhibit high intrinsic reactivities with ·OH, making them sensitive probes for solvent accessibility assays. Overall, the oxidation pattern of these residues is consistent with the originally proposed WaaL topology. One residue (M151), however, undergoes partial oxidation despite being predicted to reside within a transmembrane helix. Using an improved computer algorithm, a slightly modified topology model was generated that places M151 closer to the membrane interface. On the basis of the labeling data, it is concluded that the refined model more accurately reflects the actual topology of WaaL. We propose that the combination of oxidative labeling and MS represents a useful strategy for assessing the accuracy of IMP topology predictions, supplementing data obtained in traditional biochemical assays. In the future, it might be possible to incorporate oxidative labeling data directly as constraints in topology prediction algorithms.

  12. Validation of Membrane Protein Topology Models by Oxidative Labeling and Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yan; Ruan, Xiang; Valvano, Miguel A.; Konermann, Lars

    2012-05-01

    Computer-assisted topology predictions are widely used to build low-resolution structural models of integral membrane proteins (IMPs). Experimental validation of these models by traditional methods is labor intensive and requires modifications that might alter the IMP native conformation. This work employs oxidative labeling coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) as a validation tool for computer-generated topology models. ṡOH exposure introduces oxidative modifications in solvent-accessible regions, whereas buried segments (e.g., transmembrane helices) are non-oxidizable. The Escherichia coli protein WaaL (O-antigen ligase) is predicted to have 12 transmembrane helices and a large extramembrane domain (Pérez et al., Mol. Microbiol. 2008, 70, 1424). Tryptic digestion and LC-MS/MS were used to map the oxidative labeling behavior of WaaL. Met and Cys exhibit high intrinsic reactivities with ṡOH, making them sensitive probes for solvent accessibility assays. Overall, the oxidation pattern of these residues is consistent with the originally proposed WaaL topology. One residue (M151), however, undergoes partial oxidation despite being predicted to reside within a transmembrane helix. Using an improved computer algorithm, a slightly modified topology model was generated that places M151 closer to the membrane interface. On the basis of the labeling data, it is concluded that the refined model more accurately reflects the actual topology of WaaL. We propose that the combination of oxidative labeling and MS represents a useful strategy for assessing the accuracy of IMP topology predictions, supplementing data obtained in traditional biochemical assays. In the future, it might be possible to incorporate oxidative labeling data directly as constraints in topology prediction algorithms.

  13. 1H, 13C, 15N resonance assignments of the extracellular loop 1 domain (ECL1) of Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 FtsX, an essential cell division protein

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yue; Bruce, Kevin E.; Rued, Britta; Winkler, Malcolm E.; Giedroc, David P.

    2015-01-01

    FtsX is an integral membrane protein from Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) that harbors an extracellular loop 1 domain (FtsXECL1Spn) that interacts with PcsB, an peptidoglycan hydrolase that is essential for cell growth and division. Here, we report nearly complete backbone and side chain resonance assignments and a secondary structural analysis of FtsXECL1Spn (residues 47–168 of FtsX) as first steps toward structure determination of FtsXECL1Spn. PMID:26370567

  14. Toward the fourth dimension of membrane protein structure: insight into dynamics from spin-labeling EPR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    McHaourab, Hassane S; Steed, P Ryan; Kazmier, Kelli

    2011-11-09

    Trapping membrane proteins in the confines of a crystal lattice obscures dynamic modes essential for interconversion between multiple conformations in the functional cycle. Moreover, lattice forces could conspire with detergent solubilization to stabilize a minor conformer in an ensemble thus confounding mechanistic interpretation. Spin labeling in conjunction with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy offers an exquisite window into membrane protein dynamics in the native-like environment of a lipid bilayer. Systematic application of spin labeling and EPR identifies sequence-specific secondary structures, defines their topology and their packing in the tertiary fold. Long range distance measurements (60 Å-80 Å) between pairs of spin labels enable quantitative analysis of equilibrium dynamics and triggered conformational changes. This review highlights the contribution of spin labeling to bridging structure and mechanism. Efforts to develop methods for determining structures from EPR restraints and to increase sensitivity and throughput promise to expand spin labeling applications in membrane protein structural biology.

  15. Microneedle Biosensor: A Method for Direct Label-free Real Time Protein Detection

    PubMed Central

    Esfandyarpour, Rahim; Esfandyarpour, Hesaam; Javanmard, Mehdi; Harris, James S.; Davis, Ronald W.

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the development of an array of electrical micro-biosensors in a microfluidic channel, called microneedle biosensors. A microneedle biosensor is a real-time, label-free, direct electrical detection platform, which is capable of high sensitivity detection, measuring the change in ionic current and impedance modulation, due to the presence or reaction of biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. In this study, we successfully fabricated and electrically characterized the sensors and demonstrated successful detection of target protein. In this study, we used biotinylated bovine serum albumin as the receptor and streptavidin as the target analyte PMID:23355762

  16. Immunoproteomics using polyclonal antibodies and stable isotope-labeled affinity-purified recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Edfors, Fredrik; Boström, Tove; Forsström, Björn; Zeiler, Marlis; Johansson, Henrik; Lundberg, Emma; Hober, Sophia; Lehtiö, Janne; Mann, Matthias; Uhlen, Mathias

    2014-06-01

    The combination of immuno-based methods and mass spectrometry detection has great potential in the field of quantitative proteomics. Here, we describe a new method (immuno-SILAC) for the absolute quantification of proteins in complex samples based on polyclonal antibodies and stable isotope-labeled recombinant protein fragments to allow affinity enrichment prior to mass spectrometry analysis and accurate quantification. We took advantage of the antibody resources publicly available from the Human Protein Atlas project covering more than 80% of all human protein-coding genes. Epitope mapping revealed that a majority of the polyclonal antibodies recognized multiple linear epitopes, and based on these results, a semi-automated method was developed for peptide enrichment using polyclonal antibodies immobilized on protein A-coated magnetic beads. A protocol based on the simultaneous multiplex capture of more than 40 protein targets showed that approximately half of the antibodies enriched at least one functional peptide detected in the subsequent mass spectrometry analysis. The approach was further developed to also generate quantitative data via the addition of heavy isotope-labeled recombinant protein fragment standards prior to trypsin digestion. Here, we show that we were able to use small amounts of antibodies (50 ng per target) in this manner for efficient multiplex analysis of quantitative levels of proteins in a human HeLa cell lysate. The results suggest that polyclonal antibodies generated via immunization of recombinant protein fragments could be used for the enrichment of target peptides to allow for rapid mass spectrometry analysis taking advantage of a substantial reduction in sample complexity. The possibility of building up a proteome-wide resource for immuno-SILAC assays based on publicly available antibody resources is discussed.

  17. Site-specific protein labeling with PRIME and chelation-assisted Click chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Uttamapinant, Chayasith; Sanchez, Mateo I.; Liu, Daniel S.; Yao, Jennifer Z.; White, Katharine A.; Grecian, Scott; Clarke, Scott; Gee, Kyle R.; Ting, Alice Y.

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes an efficient method to site-specifically label cell-surface or purified proteins with chemical probes in two steps: PRobe Incorporation Mediated by Enzymes (PRIME) followed by chelation-assisted copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). In the PRIME step, Escherichia coli lipoic acid ligase site-specifically attaches a picolyl azide derivative to a 13-amino acid recognition sequence that has been genetically fused onto the protein of interest. Proteins bearing picolyl azide are chemoselectively derivatized with an alkyne-probe conjugate by chelation-assisted CuAAC in the second step. We describe herein the optimized protocols to synthesize picolyl azide, perform PRIME labeling, and achieve CuAAC derivatization of picolyl azide on live cells, fixed cells, and purified proteins. Reagent preparations, including synthesis of picolyl azide probes and expression of lipoic acid ligase, take 12 d, while the procedure to perform site-specific picolyl azide ligation and CuAAC on cells or on purified proteins takes 40 min-3 h. PMID:23887180

  18. Automated selected reaction monitoring software for accurate label-free protein quantification.

    PubMed

    Teleman, Johan; Karlsson, Christofer; Waldemarson, Sofia; Hansson, Karin; James, Peter; Malmström, Johan; Levander, Fredrik

    2012-07-06

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) is a mass spectrometry method with documented ability to quantify proteins accurately and reproducibly using labeled reference peptides. However, the use of labeled reference peptides becomes impractical if large numbers of peptides are targeted and when high flexibility is desired when selecting peptides. We have developed a label-free quantitative SRM workflow that relies on a new automated algorithm, Anubis, for accurate peak detection. Anubis efficiently removes interfering signals from contaminating peptides to estimate the true signal of the targeted peptides. We evaluated the algorithm on a published multisite data set and achieved results in line with manual data analysis. In complex peptide mixtures from whole proteome digests of Streptococcus pyogenes we achieved a technical variability across the entire proteome abundance range of 6.5-19.2%, which was considerably below the total variation across biological samples. Our results show that the label-free SRM workflow with automated data analysis is feasible for large-scale biological studies, opening up new possibilities for quantitative proteomics and systems biology.

  19. Spectral-domain optical coherence phase microscopy for label-free multiplexed protein microarray assay.

    PubMed

    Joo, Chulmin; Ozkumur, Emre; Unlü, M Selim; Boer, Johannes F de

    2009-10-15

    Quantitative measurement of affinities and kinetics of various biomolecular interactions such as protein-protein, protein-DNA and receptor-ligand is central to our understanding of basic molecular and cellular functions and is useful for therapeutic evaluation. Here, we describe a laser-scanning quantitative imaging method, referred to as spectral-domain optical coherence phase microscopy, as an optical platform for label-free detection of biomolecular interactions. The instrument is based on a confocal interferometric microscope that enables depth-resolved quantitative phase measurements on sensor surface with high spatial resolution and phase stability. We demonstrate picogram per square millimeter surface mass sensitivity, and show its sensing capability by presenting static and dynamic detection of multiplexed protein microarray as immobilized antigens capture their corresponding antibodies.

  20. A Genetically Encoded Alkyne Directs Palladium-Mediated Protein Labeling on Live Mammalian Cell Surface

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The merging of site-specific incorporation of small bioorthogonal functional groups into proteins via amber codon suppression with bioorthogonal chemistry has created exciting opportunities to extend the power of organic reactions to living systems. Here we show that a new alkyne amino acid can be site-selectively incorporated into mammalian proteins via a known orthogonal pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNACUA pair and directs an unprecedented, palladium-mediated cross-coupling reaction-driven protein labeling on live mammalian cell surface. A comparison study with the alkyne-encoded proteins in vitro indicated that this terminal alkyne is better suited for the palladium-mediated cross-coupling reaction than the copper-catalyzed click chemistry. PMID:25347611

  1. Super-sensitivity in label-free protein sensing using a nanoslot nanolaser.

    PubMed

    Kita, Shota; Hachuda, Shoji; Otsuka, Shota; Endo, Tatsuro; Imai, Yasunori; Nishijima, Yoshiaki; Misawa, Hiroaki; Baba, Toshihiko

    2011-08-29

    Microphotonic sensors have been actively studied with increasing demands for label-free biosensing in medical diagnoses and life sciences. For high-throughput and low-cost sensing, a high sensitivity is crucial for eliminating the pre-concentration process, while a simple setup of sensors is also desirable. This paper demonstrates a super-sensitivity for protein, which satisfies these requirements. The key device is a photonic crystal nanolaser, in particular with a nanoslot. Even using a simple setup, the nanolaser achieves an extraordinary-low detection limit for BSA protein, i.e. 255 fM on an average, which cannot be explained by its bulk index sensitivity. The specific adsorption of the protein is observed only around the nanoslot with strong laser intensity. This suggests that the super-sensitivity arises from the effective trapping of protein in the nanoslot.

  2. Human Protein Subcellular Localization with Integrated Source and Multi-label Ensemble Classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaotong; Liu, Fulin; Ju, Ying; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Chunyu

    2016-06-01

    Predicting protein subcellular location is necessary for understanding cell function. Several machine learning methods have been developed for computational prediction of primary protein sequences because wet experiments are costly and time consuming. However, two problems still exist in state-of-the-art methods. First, several proteins appear in different subcellular structures simultaneously, whereas current methods only predict one protein sequence in one subcellular structure. Second, most software tools are trained with obsolete data and the latest new databases are missed. We proposed a novel multi-label classification algorithm to solve the first problem and integrated several latest databases to improve prediction performance. Experiments proved the effectiveness of the proposed method. The present study would facilitate research on cellular proteomics.

  3. The whispering gallery mode biosensor: label-free detection from virus to single protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holler, S.; Dantham, V. R.; Keng, D.; Kolchenko, V.; Arnold, S.; Mulroe, Brigid; Paspaley-Grbavac, M.

    2014-08-01

    The whispering gallery mode (WGM) biosensor is a micro-optical platform capable of sensitive label-free detection of biological particles. Described by the reactive sensing principle (RSP), this analytic formulation quantifies the response of the system to the adsorption of bioparticles. Guided by the RSP, the WGM biosensor enabling from detection of virus (e.g., Human Papillomavirus, HPV) to the ultimate goal of single protein detection. The latter was derived from insights into the RSP, which resulted in the development of a hybrid plasmonic WGM biosensor, which has recently demonstrated detection of individual protein cancer markers. Enhancements from bound gold nanoparticles provide the sensitivity to detect single protein molecules (66 kDa) with good signal-to-noise (S/N > 10), and project that detection of proteins as small as 5 kDa.

  4. Human Protein Subcellular Localization with Integrated Source and Multi-label Ensemble Classifier

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaotong; Liu, Fulin; Ju, Ying; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Chunyu

    2016-01-01

    Predicting protein subcellular location is necessary for understanding cell function. Several machine learning methods have been developed for computational prediction of primary protein sequences because wet experiments are costly and time consuming. However, two problems still exist in state-of-the-art methods. First, several proteins appear in different subcellular structures simultaneously, whereas current methods only predict one protein sequence in one subcellular structure. Second, most software tools are trained with obsolete data and the latest new databases are missed. We proposed a novel multi-label classification algorithm to solve the first problem and integrated several latest databases to improve prediction performance. Experiments proved the effectiveness of the proposed method. The present study would facilitate research on cellular proteomics. PMID:27323846

  5. Juvenile hormone-binding proteins of Melanoplus bivittatus identified by EFDA photoaffinity labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Winder, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    Proteins that bind juvenile hormone in the hemolymph and fat body of the grasshopper, Melanoplus bivittatus were identified by photoaffinity labeling with radiolabeled epoxyfarnesyl diazoacetate ({sup 3}H-EFDA), and were characterized by electrophoretic analysis. A protocol was developed which allowed detection of {sup 3}H-EFDA that was covalently linked to proteins upon exposure to ultraviolet light at 254 nm. Quantification of protein-linked {sup 3}H-EFDA by liquid scintillation spectrometry took advantage of the differential solubility of unlinked {sup 3}H-EFDA in toluene alone, and of the protein-linked {sup 3}H-EFDA in toluene plus the detergent, Triton X-100. Competition between EFDA and juvenile hormone (JH) for binding to JH-specific binding sites was measured by hydroxyapatite protein binding assays in the presence of radiolabeled JH or EFDA and competing non-radiolabeled hormone. The protein-linked EFDA was detected on fluorograms of SDS or nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels (PAGE), and by liquid scintillation spectrometry of membranes to which the proteins had been electrophoretically transferred. Proteins which specifically bound JH were identified by photolabeling proteins in the presence and absence of nonlabeled JH-III.

  6. Labeling cell surface GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins through cell metabolic engineering with artificial inositol derivatives**

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhongwu

    2015-01-01

    Protein GPI anchorage to the cell surface is important for various biological processes, but GPI-anchored proteins are difficult to study. This paper developed an effective strategy for metabolic engineering of cell surface GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins by using inositol derivatives carrying an azido group. The azide-labeled GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins on live cells were then tagged with biotin via click reaction and with a fluorescent molecule. The strategy can be used to label GPI-anchored proteins with various tags for biological studies. PMID:26102235

  7. Covalent binding of reduced metabolites of [{sup 15}N{sub 3}]TNT to soil organic matter during a bioremediation process analyzed by {sup 15}N NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Achtnich, C.; Fernandes, E.; Bollag, J.M.; Knackmuss, H.J.; Lenke, H.

    1999-12-15

    Evidence is presented for the covalent binding of biologically reduced metabolites of 2,4,6-{sup 15}N{sub 3}-trinitrotoluene (TNT) to different soil fractions, using liquid {sup 15}N NMR spectroscopy. A silylation procedure was used to release soil organic matter from humin and whole soil for spectroscopic measurements. TNT-contaminated soil was spiked with 2,4,6-{sup 15}N{sub 3}-trinitrotoluene and {sup 14}C-ring labeled TNT, before treatment in a soil slurry reactor. During the anaerobic/aerobic incubation the amount of radioactivity detected in the fulvic and humic acid fractions did not change significantly whereas the radioactivity bound to humin increased to 71%. The {sup 15}N NMR spectra of the fulvic acid samples were dominated by a large peak that corresponded to aliphatic amines or ammonia. In the early stages of incubation, {sup 15}N NMR analysis of the humic acids indicated bound azoxy compounds. The signals arising from nitro and azoxy groups disappeared with further anaerobic treatment. At the end of incubation, the NMR shifts showed that nitrogen was covalently bound to humic acid as substituted amines and amides. The NMR spectra of the silylated humin suggest formation of azoxy compounds and imine linkages. Bound metabolites possessing nitro groups were also detected. Primary amines formed during the anaerobic incubation disappeared during the aerobic treatment. Simultaneously, the amount of amides and tertiary amines increased. Nitro and azoxy groups of bound molecules were still present in humin at the end of the incubation period. Formation of azoxy compounds from partially reduced TNT followed by binding and further reduction appears to be an important mechanism for the immobilization of metabolites of TNT to soil.

  8. Conformational detection of prion protein with biarsenical labeling and FlAsH fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Bradley M.; Nisbet, Rebecca M.; Han, Sen; Cappai, Roberto; Hatters, Danny M.; Hill, Andrew F.

    2009-03-13

    Prion diseases are associated with the misfolding of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrP{sup C}) into a disease associated form (PrP{sup Sc}). Recombinant PrP can be refolded into either an {alpha}-helical rich conformation ({alpha}-PrP) resembling PrP{sup C} or a {beta}-sheet rich, protease resistant form similar to PrP{sup Sc}. Here, we generated tetracysteine tagged recombinant PrP, folded this into {alpha}- or {beta}-PrP and determined the levels of FlAsH fluorescence. Insertion of the tetracysteine tag at three different sites within the 91-111 epitope readily distinguished {beta}-PrP from {alpha}-PrP upon FlAsH labeling. Labelling of tetracysteine tagged PrP in the {alpha}-helical form showed minimal fluorescence, whereas labeling of tagged PrP in the {beta}-sheet form showed high fluorescence indicating that this region is exposed upon conversion. This highlights a region of PrP that can be implicated in the development of diagnostics and is a novel, protease free mechanism for distinguishing PrP{sup Sc} from PrP{sup C}. This technique may also be applied to any protein that undergoes conformational change and/or misfolding such as those involved in other neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's, Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of a 'fluorous' (fluorinated alkyl) affinity reagent that labels primary amine groups in proteins/peptides.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jiang; Cole, Richard B; Cai, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Strong non-covalent interactions such as biotin-avidin affinity play critical roles in protein/peptide purification. A new type of 'fluorous' (fluorinated alkyl) affinity approach has gained popularity due especially to its low level of non-specific binding to proteins/peptides. We have developed a novel water-soluble fluorous labeling reagent that is reactive (via an active sulfo-N-hydroxylsuccinimidyl ester group) to primary amine groups in proteins/peptides. After fluorous affinity purification, the bulky fluorous tag moiety and the long oligoethylene glycol (OEG) spacer of this labeling reagent can be trimmed via the cleavage of an acid labile linker. Upon collision-induced dissociation, the labeled peptide ion yields a characteristic fragment that can be retrieved from the residual portion of the fluorous affinity tag, and this fragment ion can serve as a marker to indicate that the relevant peptide has been successfully labeled. As a proof of principle, the newly synthesized fluorous labeling reagent was evaluated for peptide/protein labeling ability in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Results show that both the aqueous environment protein/peptide labeling and the affinity enrichment/separation process were highly efficient.

  10. Antigen Binding and Site-Directed Labeling of Biosilica-Immobilized Fusion Proteins Expressed in Diatoms

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Nicole R.; Hecht, Karen A.; Hu, Dehong; Orr, Galya; Xiong, Yijia; Squier, Thomas; Rorrer, Gregory L.; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2016-01-08

    The diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana was genetically modified to express biosilica-targeted fusion proteins incorporating a tetracysteine tag for site-directed labeling with biarsenical affinity probes and either EGFP or single chain antibody to test colocalization of probes with the EGFP-tagged recombinant protein or binding of biosilica-immobilized antibodies to large and small molecule antigens, respectively. Site-directed labeling with the biarsenical probes demonstrated colocalization with EGFP-encoded proteins in nascent and mature biosilica, supporting their use in studying biosilica maturation. Isolated biosilica transformed with a single chain antibody against either the Bacillus anthracis surface layer protein EA1 or small molecule explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT) effectively bound the respective antigens. A marked increase in fluorescence lifetime of the TNT surrogate Alexa Fluor 555-trinitrobenzene reflected the high binding specificity of the transformed isolated biosilica. These results demonstrated the potential use of biosilica-immobilized single chain antibodies as binders for large and small molecule antigens in sensing and therapeutics.

  11. Label-free protein profiling of adipose-derived human stem cells under hyperosmotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Elizabeth S; Brown, Lewis M; Bulinski, J Chloë; Hung, Clark T

    2011-07-01

    Our previous work suggested that treatment of cells with hyperosmotic media during 2D passaging primes cells for cartilage tissue engineering applications. Here, we used label-free proteomic profiling to evaluate the effects of control and hyperosmotic treatment environments on the phenotype of multipotent adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) cultivated with a chondrogenic growth factor cocktail. Spectra were recorded in a data-independent fashion at alternate low (precursor) and high (product) fragmentation voltages (MS(E)). This method was supplemented with data mining of accurate mass and retention time matches in precursor ion spectra across the experiment. The results indicated a complex cellular response to osmotic treatment, with a number of proteins differentially expressed between control and treated cell groups. The roles of some of these proteins have been documented in the literature as characteristic of the physiological states studied, especially aldose reductase (osmotic stress). This protein acted as a positive control in this work, providing independent corroborative validation. Other proteins, including 5'-nucleotidase and transgelin, have been previously linked to cell differentiation state. This study demonstrates that label-free profiling can serve as a useful tool in characterizing cellular responses to chondrogenic treatment regimes, recommending its use in optimization of cell priming protocols for cartilage tissue engineering.

  12. HaloTag: a novel protein labeling technology for cell imaging and protein analysis.

    PubMed

    Los, Georgyi V; Encell, Lance P; McDougall, Mark G; Hartzell, Danette D; Karassina, Natasha; Zimprich, Chad; Wood, Monika G; Learish, Randy; Ohana, Rachel Friedman; Urh, Marjeta; Simpson, Dan; Mendez, Jacqui; Zimmerman, Kris; Otto, Paul; Vidugiris, Gediminas; Zhu, Ji; Darzins, Aldis; Klaubert, Dieter H; Bulleit, Robert F; Wood, Keith V

    2008-06-20

    We have designed a modular protein tagging system that allows different functionalities to be linked onto a single genetic fusion, either in solution, in living cells, or in chemically fixed cells. The protein tag (HaloTag) is a modified haloalkane dehalogenase designed to covalently bind to synthetic ligands (HaloTag ligands). The synthetic ligands comprise a chloroalkane linker attached to a variety of useful molecules, such as fluorescent dyes, affinity handles, or solid surfaces. Covalent bond formation between the protein tag and the chloroalkane linker is highly specific, occurs rapidly under physiological conditions, and is essentially irreversible. We demonstrate the utility of this system for cellular imaging and protein immobilization by analyzing multiple molecular processes associated with NF-kappaB-mediated cellular physiology, including imaging of subcellular protein translocation and capture of protein--protein and protein--DNA complexes.

  13. Meet the neighbors: Mapping local protein interactomes by proximity-dependent labeling with BioID.

    PubMed

    Varnaitė, Renata; MacNeill, Stuart A

    2016-10-01

    Proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID) is a recently developed method that allows the identification of proteins in the close vicinity of a protein of interest in living cells. BioID relies on fusion of the protein of interest with a mutant form of the biotin ligase enzyme BirA (BirA*) that is capable of promiscuously biotinylating proximal proteins irrespective of whether these interact directly or indirectly with the fusion protein or are merely located in the same subcellular neighborhood. The covalent addition of biotin allows the labeled proteins to be purified from cell extracts on the basis of their affinity for streptavidin and identified by mass spectrometry. To date, BioID has been successfully applied to study a variety of proteins and processes in mammalian cells and unicellular eukaryotes and has been shown to be particularly suited to the study of insoluble or inaccessible cellular structures and for detecting weak or transient protein associations. Here, we provide an introduction to BioID, together with a detailed summary of where and how the method has been applied to date, and briefly discuss technical aspects involved in the planning and execution of a BioID study.

  14. Meet the neighbors: Mapping local protein interactomes by proximity‐dependent labeling with BioID

    PubMed Central

    Varnaitė, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Proximity‐dependent biotin identification (BioID) is a recently developed method that allows the identification of proteins in the close vicinity of a protein of interest in living cells. BioID relies on fusion of the protein of interest with a mutant form of the biotin ligase enzyme BirA (BirA*) that is capable of promiscuously biotinylating proximal proteins irrespective of whether these interact directly or indirectly with the fusion protein or are merely located in the same subcellular neighborhood. The covalent addition of biotin allows the labeled proteins to be purified from cell extracts on the basis of their affinity for streptavidin and identified by mass spectrometry. To date, BioID has been successfully applied to study a variety of proteins and processes in mammalian cells and unicellular eukaryotes and has been shown to be particularly suited to the study of insoluble or inaccessible cellular structures and for detecting weak or transient protein associations. Here, we provide an introduction to BioID, together with a detailed summary of where and how the method has been applied to date, and briefly discuss technical aspects involved in the planning and execution of a BioID study. PMID:27329485

  15. Using Fluorophore-labeled Oligonucleotides to Measure Affinities of Protein-DNA Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Brian J.; Larkin, Chris; Guja, Kip; Schildbach, Joel F.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in fluorescence emission intensity and anisotropy can reflect changes in the environment and molecular motion of a fluorophore. Researchers can capitalize on these characteristics to assess the affinity and specificity of DNA-binding proteins using fluorophore-labeled oligonucleotides. While there are many advantages to measuring binding using fluorescent oligonucleotides, there are also some distinct disadvantages. Here we describe some of the relevant issues for the novice, illustrating key points using data collected with the F plasmid relaxase domain and a variety of labeled oligonucleotides. Topics include selection of a fluorophore, experimental design using a fluorometer equipped with an automatic titrating unit, and analysis of direct binding and competition assays. PMID:19152864

  16. Isotope labeling for NMR studies of macromolecular structure and interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, P.E.

    1994-12-01

    Implementation of biosynthetic methods for uniform or specific isotope labeling of proteins, coupled with the recent development of powerful heteronuclear multidimensional NMR methods, has led to a dramatic increase in the size and complexity of macromolecular systems that are now amenable to NMR structural analysis. In recent years, a new technology has emerged that combines uniform {sup 13}C, {sup 15}N labeling with heteronuclear multidimensional NMR methods to allow NMR structural studies of systems approaching 25 to 30 kDa in molecular weight. In addition, with the introduction of specific {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N labels into ligands, meaningful NMR studies of complexes of even higher molecular weight have become feasible. These advances usher in a new era in which the earlier, rather stringent molecular weight limitations have been greatly surpassed and NMR can begin to address many central biological problems that involve macromolecular structure, dynamics, and interactions.

  17. A combined EPR and MD simulation study of a nitroxyl spin label with restricted internal mobility sensitive to protein dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oganesyan, Vasily S.; Chami, Fatima; White, Gaye F.; Thomson, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    EPR studies combined with fully atomistic Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations and an MD-EPR simulation method provide evidence for intrinsic low rotameric mobility of a nitroxyl spin label, Rn, compared to the more widely employed label MTSL (R1). Both experimental and modelling results using two structurally different sites of attachment to Myoglobin show that the EPR spectra of Rn are more sensitive to the local protein environment than that of MTSL. This study reveals the potential of using the Rn spin label as a reporter of protein motions.

  18. Accurate measurements of {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C distances in uniformly {sup 13}C-labeled proteins using multi-dimensional four-oscillating field solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Straasø, Lasse Arnt; Nielsen, Jakob Toudahl; Bjerring, Morten; Nielsen, Niels Chr.; Khaneja, Navin

    2014-09-21

    Application of sets of {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C internuclear distance restraints constitutes a typical key element in determining the structure of peptides and proteins by magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Accurate measurements of the structurally highly important {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C distances in uniformly {sup 13}C-labeled peptides and proteins, however, pose a big challenge due to the problem of dipolar truncation. Here, we present novel two-dimensional (2D) solid-state NMR experiments capable of extracting distances between carbonyl ({sup 13}C′) and aliphatic ({sup 13}C{sub aliphatic}) spins with high accuracy. The method is based on an improved version of the four-oscillating field (FOLD) technique [L. A. Straasø, M. Bjerring, N. Khaneja, and N. C. Nielsen, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 225103 (2009)] which circumvents the problem of dipolar truncation, thereby offering a base for accurate extraction of internuclear distances in many-spin systems. The ability to extract reliable accurate distances is demonstrated using one- and two-dimensional variants of the FOLD experiment on uniformly {sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-labeled-L-isoleucine. In a more challenging biological application, FOLD 2D experiments are used to determine a large number of {sup 13}C′-{sup 13}C{sub aliphatic} distances in amyloid fibrils formed by the SNNFGAILSS fibrillating core of the human islet amyloid polypeptide with uniform {sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-labeling on the FGAIL fragment.

  19. Application of green fluorescent protein-labeled assay for the study of subcellular localization of Newcastle disease virus matrix protein.

    PubMed

    Duan, Zhiqiang; Li, Qunhui; He, Liang; Zhao, Guo; Chen, Jian; Hu, Shunlin; Liu, Xiufan

    2013-12-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP) used as a powerful marker of gene expression in vivo has so far been applied widely in studying the localizations and functions of protein in living cells. In this study, GFP-labeled assay was used to investigate the subcellular localization of matrix (M) protein of different virulence and genotype Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains. The M protein of ten NDV strains fused with GFP (GFP-M) all showed nuclear-and-nucleolar localization throughout transfection, whereas that of the other two strains were observed in the nucleus and nucleolus early in transfection but in the cytoplasm late in transfection. In addition, mutations to the previously defined nuclear localization signal in the GFP-M fusion protein were studied as well. Single changes at positions 262 and 263 did not affect nuclear localization of M, while changing both of these arginine residues to asparagine caused re-localization of M mainly to the cytoplasm. The GFP-M was validated as a suitable system for studying the subcellular localization of M protein and could be used to assist us in further identifying the signal sequences responsible for the nucleolar localization and cytoplasmic localization of M protein.

  20. Global Analysis of Cellular Proteolysis by Selective Enzymatic Labeling of Protein N-Termini

    PubMed Central

    Wiita, Arun P.; Seaman, Julia E.; Wells, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Proteolysis is a critical modification leading to alteration of protein function with important outcomes in many biological processes. However, for the majority of proteases, we have an incomplete understanding of both cellular substrates and downstream effects. Here, we describe detailed protocols and applications for using the rationally engineered peptide ligase, subtiligase, to specifically label and capture protein N-termini generated by proteases either induced or added to complex biological samples. This method allows identification of the protein targets as well as their precise cleavage locations. This approach has revealed >8000 proteolytic sites in healthy and apoptotic cells including >1700 caspase cleavages. One can further determine substrate preferences through rate analysis with quantitative mass spectrometry, physiological substrate specificities, and even infer the identity of proteases operating in the cell. In this chapter, we also describe how this experimental method can be generalized to investigate proteolysis in any biological sample. PMID:24974296

  1. Label-free protein assay based on a nanomechanical cantilever array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arntz, Y.; Seelig, J. D.; Lang, H. P.; Zhang, J.; Hunziker, P.; Ramseyer, J. P.; Meyer, E.; Hegner, M.; Gerber, Ch

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate continuous label-free detection of two cardiac biomarker proteins (creatin kinase and myoglobin) using an array of microfabricated cantilevers functionalized with covalently anchored anti-creatin kinase and anti-myoglobin antibodies. This method allows biomarker proteins to be detected via measurement of surface stress generated by antigen-antibody molecular recognition. Reference cantilevers are used to eliminate thermal drifts, undesired chemical reactions and turbulences from injections of liquids by calculating differential deflection signals with respect to sensor cantilevers. The sensitivity achieved for myoglobin detection is below 20 µg ml-1. Both myoglobin and creatin kinase could be detected independently using cantilevers functionalized with the corresponding antibodies, in unspecific protein background. This approach permits the use of up to seven different antigen-antibody reactions simultaneously, including an additional thermomechanical and chemical in situ reference. Applications lie in the field of early and rapid diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction.

  2. Selective solubilization of membrane proteins differentially labeled by p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid in the presence of sucrose

    SciTech Connect

    M'Batchi, B.; Pichelin, D.; Delrot, S.

    1987-03-01

    Broadbean (Vicia faba L.) leaf discs have been incubated with the slowly permeant thiol reagent (/sup 203/Hg)-para-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (PCMBS) in the presence or in the absence of sucrose, and the release of PCMBS-labeled proteins has been monitored in media containing various concentrations of urea, ethylene glycol-bis-(..beta..-aminoethyl ether)-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), sodium cholate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100, octylglucoside or (3-(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio) 1-propane-sulfonate)(CHAPS). The proteins differentially labeled by PCMBS in the presence of sucrose which, on the basis of previous results, are assumed to included the sucrose carrier, were preferentially solubilized by 1% CHAPS, 1% octylglucoside, or 1% Triton X-100. Other PCMBS-labeled proteins (background proteins) could be partially removed by EGTA, urea, or 0.1% cholate. Sequential treatment by 10 mM EGTA and 1% CHAPS was found to give a fraction highly enriched in the differentially labeled proteins. Analysis of the specific activity of microsomal pellets suggests that the results obtained with leaf discs give a good account of what is occurring at the plasma membrane level. These data, which suggest that the proteins differentially labeled, by PCMBS in the presence of sucrose are intrinsic membrane proteins, can be used to solubilize these proteins from microsomal fractions.

  3. Using mass spectrometry to study the photo-affinity labeling of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leriche, Tammy; Skorey, Kathryn; Roy, Patrick; McKay, Dan; Bateman, Kevin P.

    2004-11-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a potential target for the treatment of Type II diabetes and several companies are developing small molecule inhibitors of this enzyme. Part of the characterization of these compounds as PTP1B inhibitors is the understanding of how they bind in the enzyme active site. The use of photo-activated inhibitors that target the active site can provide such insight. This paper describes the characterization of a photoprobe directed at the active site of PTP1B. Mass spectrometry revealed the specific binding of the probe to the intact protein. Digestion of the labeled protein followed by LC-MS and LC-MS/MS was used to show that the photoprobe binds to a specific active site amino acid. This was confirmed by comparison with the X-ray structure of PTP1B with a PTP1B inhibitor. The probe labels a conserved acidic residue (Asp) that is required for catalytic activity. This photoprobe may prove to be a useful tool for the development of a PTP1B inhibitor or for the study of PTPs in general.

  4. Ultrasensitive Label-Free Nanosensing and High-Speed Tracking of Single Proteins.

    PubMed

    Liebel, Matz; Hugall, James T; van Hulst, Niek F

    2017-02-08

    Label-free detection, analysis, and rapid tracking of nanoparticles is crucial for future ultrasensitive sensing applications, ranging from understanding of biological interactions to the study of size-dependent classical-quantum transitions. Yet optical techniques to distinguish nanoparticles directly among their background remain challenging. Here we present amplified interferometric scattering microscopy (a-iSCAT) as a new all-optical method capable of detecting individual nanoparticles as small as 15 kDa proteins that is equivalent to half a GFP. By balancing scattering and reflection amplitudes the interference contrast of the nanoparticle signal is amplified 1 to 2 orders of magnitude. Beyond high sensitivity, a-iSCAT allows high-speed image acquisition exceeding several hundreds of frames-per-second. We showcase the performance of our approach by detecting single Streptavidin binding events and by tracking single Ferritin proteins at 400 frames-per-second with 12 nm localization precision over seconds. Moreover, due to its extremely simple experimental realization, this advancement finally enables a cheap and routine implementation of label-free all-optical single nanoparticle detection platforms with sensitivity operating at the single protein level.

  5. F-18 Labeled Diabody-Luciferase Fusion Proteins for Optical-ImmunoPET

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Anna M

    2013-01-18

    The goal of the proposed work is to develop novel dual-labeled molecular imaging probes for multimodality imaging. Based on small, engineered antibodies called diabodies, these probes will be radioactively tagged with Fluorine-18 for PET imaging, and fused to luciferases for optical (bioluminescence) detection. Performance will be evaluated and validated using a prototype integrated optical-PET imaging system, OPET. Multimodality probes for optical-PET imaging will be based on diabodies that are dually labeled with 18F for PET detection and fused to luciferases for optical imaging. 1) Two sets of fusion proteins will be built, targeting the cell surface markers CEA or HER2. Coelenterazine-based luciferases and variant forms will be evaluated in combination with native substrate and analogs, in order to obtain two distinct probes recognizing different targets with different spectral signatures. 2) Diabody-luciferase fusion proteins will be labeled with 18F using amine reactive [18F]-SFB produced using a novel microwave-assisted, one-pot method. 3) Sitespecific, chemoselective radiolabeling methods will be devised, to reduce the chance that radiolabeling will inactivate either the target-binding properties or the bioluminescence properties of the diabody-luciferase fusion proteins. 4) Combined optical and PET imaging of these dual modality probes will be evaluated and validated in vitro and in vivo using a prototype integrated optical-PET imaging system, OPET. Each imaging modality has its strengths and weaknesses. Development and use of dual modality probes allows optical imaging to benefit from the localization and quantitation offered by the PET mode, and enhances the PET imaging by enabling simultaneous detection of more than one probe.

  6. Synthesis of 14C-Labelled Octahydor-1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazocine (HMx0 and 15N-Isotopic Hexahyrro-1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) for use in Microcosm Experiments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-02-01

    bioremediation process. To synthesize C(14)HMX, acetylation of labelled hexamethylenetetramine (C(14)HMTA) was done yielding 3,7-diacetyl-1,3,5,7... hexamethylenetetramine (N(15)HMTA) was done according to the Hale Process. N(15)HMTA was prepared by reaching cold formaldehyde with isotopic nitrogen-15 ammonium hydroxide.

  7. Correlating labeling chemistry and in-vitro test results with the biological behavior of radiolabeled proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies possess enormous potential for delivery of therapeutic amounts of radionuclides to target antigens in vivo, in particular for tumor imaging and therapy. Translation of this concept into practice has encountered numerous problems. Specifically whereas general protein radiolabeling methods are applicable to antibodies, immunological properties of the antibodies are often compromised resulting in reduced in-vivo specificity for the target antigens. The bifunctional chelating agent approach shows the most promise, however, development of other agents will be necessary for widespread usefulness of this technique. The effects of labeling chemistry on the in-vivo behavior of several monoclonal antibodies are described. 30 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Proteomic Analysis of Protein Turnover by Metabolic Whole Rodent Pulse-Chase Isotopic Labeling and Shotgun Mass Spectrometry Analysis.

    PubMed

    Savas, Jeffrey N; Park, Sung Kyu; Yates, John R

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of protein half-life and degradation dynamics has proven critically important to our understanding of a broad and diverse set of biological conditions ranging from cancer to neurodegeneration. Historically these protein turnover measures have been performed in cells by monitoring protein levels after "pulse" labeling of newly synthesized proteins and subsequent chase periods. Comparing the level of labeled protein remaining as a function of time to the initial level reveals the protein's half-life. In this method we provide a detailed description of the workflow required for the determination of protein turnover rates on a whole proteome scale in vivo. Our approach starts with the metabolic labeling of whole rodents by restricting all the nitrogen in their diet to exclusively nitrogen-15 in the form of spirulina algae. After near complete organismal labeling with nitrogen-15, the rodents are then switched to a normal nitrogen-14 rich diet for time periods of days to years. Tissues are harvested, the extracts are fractionated, and the proteins are digested to peptides. Peptides are separated by multidimensional liquid chromatography and analyzed by high resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry (MS). The nitrogen-15 containing proteins are then identified and measured by the bioinformatic proteome analysis tools Sequest, DTASelect2, and Census. In this way, our metabolic pulse-chase approach reveals in vivo protein decay rates proteome-wide.

  9. Liquid state DNP for water accessibility measurements on spin-labeled membrane proteins at physiological temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doll, Andrin; Bordignon, Enrica; Joseph, Benesh; Tschaggelar, René; Jeschke, Gunnar

    2012-09-01

    We demonstrate the application of continuous wave dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at 0.35 T for site-specific water accessibility studies on spin-labeled membrane proteins at concentrations in the 10-100 μM range. The DNP effects at such low concentrations are weak and the experimentally achievable dynamic nuclear polarizations can be below the equilibrium polarization. This sensitivity problem is solved with an optimized home-built DNP probe head consisting of a dielectric microwave resonator and a saddle coil as close as possible to the sample. The performance of the probe head is demonstrated with both a modified pulsed EPR spectrometer and a dedicated CW EPR spectrometer equipped with a commercial NMR console. In comparison to a commercial pulsed ENDOR resonator, the home-built resonator has an FID detection sensitivity improvement of 2.15 and an electron spin excitation field improvement of 1.2. The reproducibility of the DNP results is tested on the water soluble maltose binding protein MalE of the ABC maltose importer, where we determine a net standard deviation of 9% in the primary DNP data in the concentration range between 10 and 100 μM. DNP parameters are measured in a spin-labeled membrane protein, namely the vitamin B12 importer BtuCD in both detergent-solubilized and reconstituted states. The data obtained in different nucleotide states in the presence and absence of binding protein BtuF reveal the applicability of this technique to qualitatively extract water accessibility changes between different conformations by the ratio of primary DNP parameters ɛ. The ɛ-ratio unveils the physiologically relevant transmembrane communication in the transporter in terms of changes in water accessibility at the cytoplasmic gate of the protein induced by both BtuF binding at the periplasmic region of the transporter and ATP binding at the cytoplasmic nucleotide binding domains.

  10. Estimate of production of gaseous nitrogen in the human body based on (15)N analysis of breath N2 after administration of [(15)N2]urea.

    PubMed

    Junghans, Peter

    2013-01-01

    After oral administration of [(15)N2]urea (1.5 mmol, 95 atom% (15)N), we found that breath N2 was significantly (15)N-labelled. The result suggests that molecular nitrogen in breath must be partly produced endogenously. Based on a metabolic model, the endogenous N2 production was estimated to be 0.40±0.25 mmol kg(-1) d(-1) or 2.9±1.8 % of the total (urinary and faecal) N excretion in fasted healthy subjects (n=4). In patients infected with Helicobacter pylori (n=5), the endogenous N2 production was increased to 1.24±0.59 mmol kg(-1) d(-1) or 9.0±4.3 % of the total N excretion compared to the healthy controls (p<0.05). We conclude that N balance and gas exchange measurements may be affected by endogenously produced nitrogen, especially in metabolic situations with elevated nitrosation, for instance in oxidative and nitrosative stress-related diseases such as H. pylori infections.

  11. Methodology for Labeling Proteins and Peptides with Lead-212 (212Pb)

    PubMed Central

    Baidoo, Kwamena E.; Milenic, Diane E.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Alpha particles possess an exquisite degree of cytotoxicity when employed for targeted α–particle therapy (TAT) or radioimmunotherapy (RIT). 212Pb, which acts as an in vivo generator of the α-emitting nuclide 212Bi has shown great promise in pre-clinical studies when used to label the HER2 binding antibody, trastuzumab. Currently, the first RIT clinical trial employing 212Pb radiolabeled trastuzumab is in progress. This report provides detailed current protocol operations and steps that were generated for use in the clinical trial as well as the relevant pre-clinical experimentation, and describes in detail the labeling of proteins or peptides with 212Pb as provided via a 224Ra based generator system. Methods 212Pb was eluted from the 224Ra/212Pb generator using hydrochloric acid (2 M). The generator eluate was evaporated and digested with nitric acid (8M) followed by extraction of the 212Pb with dilute nitric acid (0.1 M). The dilute nitric acid solution of 212Pb was used to label the immunoconjugate Trastuzumab-TCMC (2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl-1,4,7,10-tetraaza-1,4,7,10,tetra-(2-carbamonylmethyl)-cyclododecane) at pH 5.5. Results Elution of 212Pb from the generator was efficient yielding > 90% of available 212Pb. Trastuzumab-TCMC was efficiently labeled with a radiochemical yield of 94 +/− 4% (n = 7) by ITLC and an isolated yield of 73 +/− 3 % (n = 7). Conclusions The results show the feasibility of generating radioimmunoconjugates and peptide conjugates for use as in vivo α generator systems in the clinic. The technology holds promise in applications involving the treatment of minimal disease such as micrometastases and residual tumor after surgical debulking, hematological cancers, infections, and compartmental cancers, such as ovarian cancer. PMID:23602604

  12. Separation of Anisotropy and Exchange Broadening Using 15N CSA- 15N- 1H Dipole-Dipole Relaxation Cross-Correlation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, Christian; Holak, Tad A.

    2000-08-01

    Based on the measurement of cross-correlation rates between 15N CSA and 15N-1H dipole-dipole relaxation we propose a procedure for separating exchange contributions to transverse relaxation rates (R2 = 1/T2) from effects caused by anisotropic rotational diffusion of the protein molecule. This approach determines the influence of anisotropy and chemical exchange processes independently and therefore circumvents difficulties associated with the currently standard use of T1/T2 ratios to determine the rotational diffusion tensor. We find from computer simulations that, in the presence of even small amounts of internal flexibility, fitting T1/T2 ratios tends to underestimate the anisotropy of overall tumbling. An additional problem exists when the N-H bond vector directions are not distributed homogeneously over the surface of a unit sphere, such as in helix bundles or β-sheets. Such a case was found in segment 4 of the gelation factor (ABP 120), an F-actin cross-linking protein, in which the diffusion tensor cannot be calculated from T1/T2 ratios. The 15N CSA tensor of the residues for this β-sheet protein was found to vary even within secondary structure elements. The use of a common value for the whole protein molecule therefore might be an oversimplification. Using our approach it is immediately apparent that no exchange broadening exists for segment 4 although strongly reduced T2 relaxation times for several residues could be mistaken as indications for exchange processes.

  13. Site-Specific N-Terminal Labeling of Peptides and Proteins using Butelase 1 and Thiodepsipeptide.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Giang K T; Cao, Yuan; Wang, Wei; Liu, Chuan Fa; Tam, James P

    2015-12-21

    An efficient ligase with exquisite site-specificity is highly desirable for protein modification. Recently, we discovered the fastest known ligase called butelase 1 from Clitoria ternatea for intramolecular cyclization. For intermolecular ligation, butelase 1 requires an excess amount of a substrate to suppress the reverse reaction, a feature similar to other ligases. Herein, we describe the use of thiodepsipeptide substrates with a thiol as a leaving group and an unacceptable nucleophile to render the butelase-mediated ligation reactions irreversible and in high yields. Butelase 1 also accepted depsipeptides as substrates, but unlike a thiodesipeptide, the desipeptide ligation was partially reversible as butelase 1 can tolerate an alcohol group as a poor nucleophile. The thiodesipeptide method was successfully applied in N-terminal labeling of ubiquitin and green fluorescent protein using substrates with or without a biotin group in high yields.

  14. Microwave-assisted 18O-labeling of proteins catalyzed by formic acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Wu, Hanzhi; Liu, Hongxia; Chen, Guonan; Cai, Zongwei

    2010-11-01

    Oxygen exchange may occur at carboxyl groups catalyzed by acid. The reaction, however, takes at least several days at room temperature. The long-time exchanging reaction often prevents its application from protein analysis. In this study, an (18)O-labeling method utilizing microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis was developed. After being dissolved in (16)O/(18)O (1:1) water containing 2.5% formic acid, protein samples were exposed to microwave irradiation. LC-MS/MS analysis of the resulted peptide mixtures indicated that oxygen in the carboxyl groups from glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and the C-terminal residues could be efficiently exchanged with (18)O within less than 15 min. The rate of back exchange was so slow that no detectable back exchange could be found during the HPLC run.

  15. Synthesis, characterization, and protein labeling of difunctional magnetic nanoparticles modified with thiazole orange dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Xuening; Zhu, Huifang; Zhou, Jianguo; Yu, Lu

    2014-03-01

    A dual functional nanoparticle was designed and synthesized by encapsulating magnetic core inside silica particles and subsequently a thiazole orange (TO) dye derivative was modified on the surface of the nanoparticles. The obtained particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscope, Uv-Vis spectrophotometer, fluorescence spectrophotometer, transmission electron microscope, dynamic light scattering, etc. The size of preliminary magnetic particles is ca. 7 nm, but after coating a silica layer and dye, the size of particles is increased to ca. 60 nm. The hydrodynamic diameter, water dispersibility, and zeta potential were also determined. The hydrodynamic diameter of particles with silica and dye is 65.2 and 70.5 nm, respectively, with positive zeta potential (25.1, 38.5 mV). Furthermore magnetic properties of the particles were measured and the experimental results suggested that it could meet the requirement of application as magnetic resonance imaging agent. Finally to verify the availability of the particles as fluorescent labeling, protein labeling experiment was performed using bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein and the results showed that the dual functional particle has higher affinity with BSA than TO molecule itself.

  16. Magneto-impedance based detection of magnetically labeled cancer cells and bio-proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devkota, J.; Howell, M.; Mohapatra, S.; Nhung, T. H.; Mukherjee, P.; Srikanth, H.; Phan, M. H.

    2015-03-01

    A magnetic biosensor with enhanced sensitivity and immobilized magnetic markers is essential for a reliable analysis of the presence of a biological entity in a fluid. Based on conventional approaches, however, it is quite challenging to create such a sensor. We report on a novel magnetic biosensor using the magneto-impedance (MI) effect of a Co-based amorphous ribbon with a microhole-patterned surface that fulfils these requirements. The sensor probe was fabricated by patterning four microholes, each of diameter 2 μm and depth 2 μm, on the ribbon surface using FIB lithography. The magnetically labeled Luis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) cancer cells and Bovine serum albumin (BSA) proteins were drop-casted on the ribbon surface, and MI was measured over 0.1 - 10 MHz frequency range. As the analytes were trapped into the microholes, their physical motion was minimized and interaction among the magnetic fields was strengthened, thus yielding a more reliable and sensitive detection of the biological entities. The presence of magnetically labeled LLC cells (8.25x105 cells/ml, 10 μl) and BSA proteins (2x1011 particles/ml, 10 μl) were found to result in a ~ 2% change in MI with respect to the reference signal.

  17. Traceless labeling of glycoproteins and its application to the study of glycoprotein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yung-Lin; Lee, Yen-Pin; Yang, Yen-Ling; Lin, Po-Chiao

    2014-02-21

    A new chemical method for the traceless labeling of glycoproteins with synthetic boronic acid (BA)-tosyl probes was successfully developed. The BA moiety acts as an affinity head to direct the formation of a cyclic boronate diester with the diol groups of glycans. Following this step, the electrophilic tosyl group is displaced by an SN2 reaction with a nucleophilic residue of the boronated glycoprotein, and finally, a reporter group is tagged onto the glycoprotein via an ether linkage. In the presence of polyols, a competition reaction recovers the native glycan of the tagged glycoprotein, conserving its biological significance. The BA-tosyl probes were used successfully for the specific labeling of glycosylated fetuins in a mixed protein pool and from crude Escherichia coli (E. coli) lysate. Further, a BA-tosyl-functionalized glass slide was used to fabricate glycoprotein microarrays with highly conserved glycans. By interacting with various lectins (carbohydrate-binding proteins), such as Concanavalin A (Con A) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), the types of carbohydrates and specific linkages of glycoproteins (α or β) could be systematically monitored. It is believed that the newly developed method will greatly accelerate the understanding of glycoproteins.

  18. Selective cell-surface labeling of the molecular motor protein prestin

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, Ryan M.; Silberg, Jonathan J.; Pereira, Fred A.; Raphael, Robert M.

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} Trafficking to the plasma membrane is required for prestin function. {yields} Biotin acceptor peptide (BAP) was fused to prestin through a transmembrane domain. {yields} BAP-prestin can be metabolically labeled with biotin in HEK293 cells. {yields} Biotin-BAP-prestin allows for selective imaging of fully trafficked prestin. {yields} The biotin-BAP-prestin displays voltage-sensitive activity. -- Abstract: Prestin, a multipass transmembrane protein whose N- and C-termini are localized to the cytoplasm, must be trafficked to the plasma membrane to fulfill its cellular function as a molecular motor. One challenge in studying prestin sequence-function relationships within living cells is separating the effects of amino acid substitutions on prestin trafficking, plasma membrane localization and function. To develop an approach for directly assessing prestin levels at the plasma membrane, we have investigated whether fusion of prestin to a single pass transmembrane protein results in a functional fusion protein with a surface-exposed N-terminal tag that can be detected in living cells. We find that fusion of the biotin-acceptor peptide (BAP) and transmembrane domain of the platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) to the N-terminus of prestin-GFP yields a membrane protein that can be metabolically-labeled with biotin, trafficked to the plasma membrane, and selectively detected at the plasma membrane using fluorescently-tagged streptavidin. Furthermore, we show that the addition of a surface detectable tag and a single-pass transmembrane domain to prestin does not disrupt its voltage-sensitive activity.

  19. Distance information for disordered proteins from NMR and ESR measurements using paramagnetic spin labels.

    PubMed

    Eliezer, David

    2012-01-01

    The growing recognition of the many roles that disordered protein states play in biology places an increasing importance on developing approaches to characterize the structural properties of this class of proteins and to clarify the links between these properties and the associated biological functions. Disordered proteins, when isolated in solution, do not adopt a fixed structure, but can and often do contain detectable and significant residual or transient structure, including both secondary and long-range structure. Such residual structure can play a role in nucleating local structural transitions as well as modulating intramolecular or intermolecular tertiary interactions, including those involved in ordered protein aggregation. An increasing array of tools has been recruited to help characterize the structural properties of disordered proteins. While a number of methods can report on residual secondary structure, detecting and quantifying transient long-range structure has proven to be more difficult. This chapter describes the use of paramagnetic spin labeling in combination with paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) in NMR spectroscopy and pulsed dipolar ESR spectroscopy (PDS) for this purpose.

  20. Structural transitions in full-length human prion protein detected by xenon as probe and spin labeling of the N-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Sunilkumar Puthenpurackal; Nair, Divya Gopalakrishnan; Schaal, Daniel; Barbosa de Aguiar, Marisa; Wenzel, Sabine; Kremer, Werner; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert

    2016-01-01

    Fatal neurodegenerative disorders termed transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are associated with the accumulation of fibrils of misfolded prion protein PrP. The noble gas xenon accommodates into four transiently enlarged hydrophobic cavities located in the well-folded core of human PrP(23–230) as detected by [1H, 15N]-HSQC spectroscopy. In thermal equilibrium a fifth xenon binding site is formed transiently by amino acids A120 to L125 of the presumably disordered N-terminal domain and by amino acids K185 to T193 of the well-folded domain. Xenon bound PrP was modelled by restraint molecular dynamics. The individual microscopic and macroscopic dissociation constants could be derived by fitting the data to a model including a dynamic opening and closing of the cavities. As observed earlier by high pressure NMR spectroscopy xenon binding influences also other amino acids all over the N-terminal domain including residues of the AGAAAAGA motif indicating a structural coupling between the N-terminal domain and the core domain. This is in agreement with spin labelling experiments at positions 93 or 107 that show a transient interaction between the N-terminus and the start of helix 2 and the end of helix 3 of the core domain similar to that observed earlier by Zn2+-binding to the octarepeat motif. PMID:27341298

  1. Structural transitions in full-length human prion protein detected by xenon as probe and spin labeling of the N-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sunilkumar Puthenpurackal; Nair, Divya Gopalakrishnan; Schaal, Daniel; Barbosa de Aguiar, Marisa; Wenzel, Sabine; Kremer, Werner; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert

    2016-06-24

    Fatal neurodegenerative disorders termed transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are associated with the accumulation of fibrils of misfolded prion protein PrP. The noble gas xenon accommodates into four transiently enlarged hydrophobic cavities located in the well-folded core of human PrP(23-230) as detected by [(1)H, (15)N]-HSQC spectroscopy. In thermal equilibrium a fifth xenon binding site is formed transiently by amino acids A120 to L125 of the presumably disordered N-terminal domain and by amino acids K185 to T193 of the well-folded domain. Xenon bound PrP was modelled by restraint molecular dynamics. The individual microscopic and macroscopic dissociation constants could be derived by fitting the data to a model including a dynamic opening and closing of the cavities. As observed earlier by high pressure NMR spectroscopy xenon binding influences also other amino acids all over the N-terminal domain including residues of the AGAAAAGA motif indicating a structural coupling between the N-terminal domain and the core domain. This is in agreement with spin labelling experiments at positions 93 or 107 that show a transient interaction between the N-terminus and the start of helix 2 and the end of helix 3 of the core domain similar to that observed earlier by Zn(2+)-binding to the octarepeat motif.

  2. TSH stimulates 32P-labeling of thyroid nuclear HMG 14, a protein associated with actively transcribed chromatin

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, E.; Palmer, R.J.; Spaulding, S.W.

    1982-04-01

    Thyroid slices were incubated with 32P with or without TSH. 32P-labeling of acid-soluble nuclear proteins was then examined by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. We found that TSH enhanced the labeling of the high mobility group protein HMG 14, a protein that is preferentially associated with actively transcribed chromatin. This observation suggests that changes in HMG 14 phosphorylation may be involved in mediating TSH-induced effects on the structure and function of active chromatin.

  3. Determining synthesis rates of individual proteins in zebrafish (Danio rerio) with low levels of a stable isotope labelled amino acid.

    PubMed

    Geary, Bethany; Magee, Kieran; Cash, Phillip; Young, Iain S; Whitfield, Phillip D; Doherty, Mary K

    2016-05-01

    The zebrafish is a powerful model organism for the analysis of human cardiovascular development and disease. Understanding these processes at the protein level not only requires changes in protein concentration to be determined but also the rate at which these changes occur on a protein-by-protein basis. The ability to measure protein synthesis and degradation rates on a proteome-wide scale, using stable isotope labelling in conjunction with mass spectrometry is now a well-established experimental approach. With the advent of more selective and sensitive mass spectrometers, it is possible to accurately measure lower levels of stable isotope incorporation, even when sample is limited. In order to challenge the sensitivity of this approach, we successfully determined the synthesis rates of over 600 proteins from the cardiac muscle of the zebrafish using a diet where either 30% or 50% of the L-leucine was replaced with a stable isotope labelled analogue ([(2) H7 ]L-leucine]. It was possible to extract sufficient protein from individual zebrafish hearts to determine the incorporation rate of the label into hundreds of proteins simultaneously, with the two labelling regimens showing a good correlation of synthesis rates.

  4. Multilayer polymer microchip capillary array electrophoresis devices with integrated on-chip labeling for high-throughput protein analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ming; Wang, Qingsong; Patterson, James E.; Woolley, Adam T.

    2011-01-01

    It is desirable to have inexpensive, high-throughput systems that integrate multiple sample analysis processes and procedures, for applications in biology, chemical analysis, drug discovery, and disease screening. In this paper, we demonstrate multilayer polymer microfluidic devices with integrated on-chip labeling and parallel electrophoretic separation of up to 8 samples. Microchannels were distributed in two different layers and connected through interlayer through-holes in the middle layer. A single set of electrophoresis reservoirs and one fluorescent label reservoir address parallel analysis units for up to 8 samples. Individual proteins and a mixture of cancer biomarkers have been successfully labeled on-chip and separated in parallel with this system. A detection limit of 600 ng/mL was obtained for heat shock protein 90. Our integrated on-chip labeling microdevices show great potential for low-cost, simplified, rapid and high-throughput analysis. PMID:21449615

  5. Multilayer polymer microchip capillary array electrophoresis devices with integrated on-chip labeling for high-throughput protein analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming; Wang, Qingsong; Patterson, James E; Woolley, Adam T

    2011-05-01

    It is desirable to have inexpensive, high-throughput systems that integrate multiple sample analysis processes and procedures, for applications in biology, chemical analysis, drug discovery, and disease screening. In this paper, we demonstrate multilayer polymer microfluidic devices with integrated on-chip labeling and parallel electrophoretic separation of up to eight samples. Microchannels were distributed in two different layers and connected through interlayer through-holes in the middle layer. A single set of electrophoresis reservoirs and one fluorescent label reservoir address parallel analysis units for up to eight samples. Individual proteins and a mixture of cancer biomarkers have been successfully labeled on-chip and separated in parallel with this system. A detection limit of 600 ng/mL was obtained for heat shock protein 90. Our integrated on-chip labeling microdevices show great potential for low-cost, simplified, rapid, and high-throughput analysis.

  6. A Large-Scale Quantitative Proteomic Approach to Identifying Sulfur Mustard-Induced Protein Phosphorylation Cascades

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    SILAC method employs 12C14N- and 13C15N-labeled amino acids added directly to the culture medium, resulting in isotopically “light” and “ heavy ” cell...populations, respectively. Protein samples collected from control (light-labeled) and experimental ( heavy -labeled) cells can then be mixed in equal...ratios, digested with trypsin, and analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The corresponding light and heavy peptides from the same protein will

  7. Genetic Incorporation of the Unnatural Amino Acid p-Acetyl Phenylalanine into Proteins for Site-Directed Spin Labeling

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Eric G.B.; Millhauser, Glenn L.

    2016-01-01

    Site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) is a powerful tool for the characterization of protein structure and dynamics; however, its application in many systems is hampered by the reliance on unique and benign cysteine substitutions for the site-specific attachment of the spin label. An elegant solution to this problem involves the use of genetically encoded unnatural amino acids (UAAs) containing reactive functional groups that are chemically orthogonal to those of the 20 amino acids found naturally in proteins. These unique functional groups can then be selectively reacted with an appropriately functionalized spin probe. In this chapter, we detail the genetic incorporation of the ketone-bearing amino acid p-acetyl phenylalanine (pAcPhe) into recombinant proteins expressed in E. coli. Incorporation of pAcPhe is followed by chemoselective reaction of the ketone side chain with a hydroxylamine-functionalized nitroxide to afford the spin-labeled side chain “K1,” and we present two protocols for successful K1 labeling of proteins bearing site-specific pAcPhe. We outline the basic requirements for pAcPhe incorporation and labeling, with an emphasis on practical aspects that must be considered by the researcher if high yields of UAA incorporation and efficient labeling reactions are to be achieved. To this end, we highlight recent advances that have led to increased yields of pAcPhe incorporation, and discuss the use of aniline-based catalysts allowing for facile conjugation of the hydroxylamine spin label under mild reaction conditions. To illustrate the utility of K1 labeling in proteins where traditional cysteine-based SDSL methods are problematic, we site-specifically K1 label the cellular prion protein at two positions in the C-terminal domain and determine the interspin distance using double electron–electron resonance EPR. Recent advances in UAA incorporation and ketone-based bioconjugation, in combination with the commercial availability of all requisite

  8. MEASURING OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS USING METABOLIC 2H-LABELING, HIGH-RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY AND AN ALGORITHM

    PubMed Central

    Kasumov, Takhar; Ilchenko, Sergey; Li, Ling; Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sadigov, Rovshan; Willard, Belinda; McCullough, Arthur J.; Previs, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    We recently developed a method for estimating protin dynamics in vivo with 2H2O using MALDI-TOF MS (Rachdaoui N. et al., MCP, 8, 2653-2662, 2009) and we confirmed that 2H-labeling of many hepatic free amino acids rapidly equilibrated with body water. Although this is a reliable method, it required modest sample purification and necessitated the determination of tissue-specific amino acid labeling. Another approach for quantifying protein kinetics is to measure the 2H-enrichments of body water (precursor) and protein-bound amino acid or proteolytic peptide (product) and to estimate how many copies of deuterium are incorporated into a product. In this study we have used nanospray LTQ-FTICR mass spectrometry to simultaneously measure the isotopic enrichment of peptides and protein-bound amino acids. A mathematical algorithm was developed to aid the data processing. The most notable improvement centers on the fact that the precursor:product labeling ratio can be obtained by measuring the labeling of water and a protein(s) (or peptides) of interest, therein minimizing the need to measure the amino acid labeling. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that this approach can detect the effect of nutritional status on albumin synthesis in rats given 2H2O. PMID:21256107

  9. Measuring protein synthesis using metabolic ²H labeling, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and an algorithm.

    PubMed

    Kasumov, Takhar; Ilchenko, Serguey; Li, Ling; Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sadygov, Rovshan G; Willard, Belinda; McCullough, Arthur J; Previs, Stephen

    2011-05-01

    We recently developed a method for estimating protein dynamics in vivo with heavy water ((2)H(2)O) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) [16], and we confirmed that (2)H labeling of many hepatic free amino acids rapidly equilibrated with body water. Although this is a reliable method, it required modest sample purification and necessitated the determination of tissue-specific amino acid labeling. Another approach for quantifying protein kinetics is to measure the (2)H enrichments of body water (precursor) and protein-bound amino acid or proteolytic peptide (product) and to estimate how many copies of deuterium are incorporated into a product. In the current study, we used nanospray linear trap Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LTQ FT-ICR MS) to simultaneously measure the isotopic enrichment of peptides and protein-bound amino acids. A mathematical algorithm was developed to aid the data processing. The most notable improvement centers on the fact that the precursor/product labeling ratio can be obtained by measuring the labeling of water and a protein (or peptide) of interest, thereby minimizing the need to measure the amino acid labeling. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that this approach can detect the effect of nutritional status on albumin synthesis in rats given (2)H(2)O.

  10. Identifying and quantitating conformational exchange in membrane proteins using site-directed spin labeling.

    PubMed

    Cafiso, David S

    2014-10-21

    Protein structures are not static but sample different conformations over a range of amplitudes and time scales. These fluctuations may involve relatively small changes in bond angles or quite large rearrangements in secondary structure and tertiary fold. The equilibrium between discrete structural substates on the microsecond to millisecond time scale is sometimes termed conformational exchange. Protein dynamics and conformational exchange are believed to provide the basis for many important activities, such as protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions, enzymatic activity and protein allostery; however, for many proteins, the dynamics and conformational exchange that lead to function are poorly defined. Spectroscopic methods, such as NMR, are among the most important methods to explore protein dynamics and conformational exchange; however, they are difficult to implement in some systems and with some types of exchange events. Site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) is an EPR based approach that is particularly well-suited to high molecular-weight systems such as membrane proteins. Because of the relatively fast time scale for EPR spectroscopy, it is an excellent method to examine exchange. Conformations that are in exchange are captured as distinct populations in the EPR spectrum, and this feature when combined with the use of methods that can shift the free energy of conformational substates allows one to identify regions of proteins that are in dynamic exchange. In addition, modern pulse EPR methods have the ability to examine conformational heterogeneity, resolve discrete protein states, and identify the substates in exchange. Protein crystallography has provided high-resolution models for a number of membrane proteins; but because of conformational exchange, these models do not always reflect the structures that are present when the protein is in a native bilayer environment. In the case of the Escherichia coli vitamin B12 transporter, BtuB, the energy

  11. [Use of immunogold labelling technique for immunoelectron microscope localization of proteins in Drosophila polytene chromosomes].

    PubMed

    Semeshin, V F; Shloma, V V; Andreeva, E N; Saumweber, H; Zhimulev, I F

    2003-01-01

    Using gold labeled antibodies, we developed and tested an immunoelectron microscope (IEM) method for detection of protein localization in Drosophila melanogaster polytene chromosomes. This method is based on procedures widely used for indirect immunofluorescent (IF) staining of salivary gland polytene chromosome squashes. The application of IEM was evaluated by using specific antibodies against proteins earlier localized in both decondensed (interbands and puffs) and compact (bands) regions of polytene chromosomes. In all the experiments, IEM and IF images for homologous chromosome regions were compared. When applied to regions of loose structures, IEM enabled us to localize, with high precision, signals in fine bands, interbands and puffs. There was a good correspondence between immunogold EM and IF data. However, there was no correspondence for dense bands: gold particles were distributed at their boundaries, while the entire bands showed bright fluorescence. This discrepancy probably resulted from a poor penetration of antibodies conjugated to gold particles in the tightly packaged structures. From the results obtained it may by concluded that the IEM method is advantageous for studying the fine protein topography of loose decompacted regions of polytene chromosomes. And this must be taken into consideration when protein localization in polytene chromosomes is performed.

  12. Is seeing believing? An assessment of the impact of fluorescent labelling on protein structure and interaction potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Michelle K.; James, Susan; McNamara, Ruth; McManus, Jennifer J.

    2014-03-01

    Fluorescent labelling is extensively used in conjunction with spectroscopy and microscopy for the in-vivo and in-vitro study of proteins. However, there is little data quantifying how this impacts on the protein in terms of its net interaction potential and its structure. Human ?D-crystallin (HGD), a protein found in the eye lens at high concentrations, undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) and has a well-studied phase diagram. LLPS is indicative of short-ranged attractive interactions between the proteins and the conditions this occurs under are sensitive to changes in the protein itself (e.g. mutations, dimer formation) and its environmental conditions (e.g. pH, salt concentration). HGD is produced recombinantly in E. coli and fluorescently labelled via covalent attachment after purification. Comparison of the coexistence curves for labelled and unlabelled protein indicates if there has been a change in the net interaction potential and various spectroscopic techniques are used to elucidate structural changes between the labelled and unlabelled protein. These studies are important for understanding the relationship between in-vitro phase diagram experiments and those conducted in complex biological fluids, such as plasma or cells where fluorescent tagging is required. The authors acknowledge Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) (grant number 11/RFP.1/PHY3165). J.J. McManus acknowledges SFI Stokes Lectureship.

  13. Subcellular localization of proteins in the anaerobic sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris via SNAP-tag labeling and photoconversion

    SciTech Connect

    Gorur, A.; Leung, C. M.; Jorgens, D.; Tauscher, A.; Remis, J. P.; Ball, D. A.; Chhabra, S.; Fok, V.; Geller, J. T.; Singer, M.; Hazen, T. C.; Juba, T.; Elias, D.; Wall, J.; Biggin, M.; Downing, K. H.; Auer, M.

    2010-06-01

    Systems Biology studies the temporal and spatial 3D distribution of macromolecular complexes with the aim that such knowledge will allow more accurate modeling of biological function and will allow mathematical prediction of cellular behavior. However, in order to accomplish accurate modeling precise knowledge of spatial 3D organization and distribution inside cells is necessary. And while a number of macromolecular complexes may be identified by its 3D structure and molecular characteristics alone, the overwhelming number of proteins will need to be localized using a reporter tag. GFP and its derivatives (XFPs) have been traditionally employed for subcelllar localization using photoconversion approaches, but this approach cannot be taken for obligate anaerobic bacteria, where the intolerance towards oxygen prevents XFP approaches. As part of the GTL-funded PCAP project (now ENIGMA) genetic tools have been developed for the anaerobe sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris that allow the high-throughput generation of tagged-protein mutant strains, with a focus on the commercially available SNAP-tag cell system (New England Biolabs, Ipswich, MA), which is based on a modified O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) tag, that has a dead-end reaction with a modified O6-benzylguanine (BG) derivative and has been shown to function under anaerobic conditions. After initial challenges with respect to variability, robustness and specificity of the labeling signal we have optimized the labeling. Over the last year, as a result of the optimized labeling protocol, we now obtain robust labeling of 20 out of 31 SNAP strains. Labeling for 13 strains were confirmed at least five times. We have also successfully performed photoconversion on 5 of these 13 strains, with distinct labeling patterns for different strains. For example, DsrC robustly localizes to the periplasmic portion of the inner membrane, where as a DNA-binding protein localizes to the center of the cell, where the

  14. Peptides and proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Bachovchin, W.W.; Unkefer, C.J.

    1994-12-01

    Advances in magnetic resonance and vibrational spectroscopy make it possible to derive detailed structural information about biomolecular structures in solution. These techniques are critically dependent on the availability of labeled compounds. For example, NMR techniques used today to derive peptide and protein structures require uniformity {sup 13}C-and {sup 15}N-labeled samples that are derived biosynthetically from (U-6-{sup 13}C) glucose. These experiments are possible now because, during the 1970s, the National Stable Isotope Resource developed algal methods for producing (U-6-{sup 13}C) glucose. If NMR techniques are to be used to study larger proteins, we will need sophisticated labelling patterns in amino acids that employ a combination of {sup 2}H, {sup 13}C, and {sup 15}N labeling. The availability of these specifically labeled amino acids requires a renewed investment in new methods for chemical synthesis of labeled amino acids. The development of new magnetic resonance or vibrational techniques to elucidate biomolecular structure will be seriously impeded if we do not see rapid progress in labeling technology. Investment in labeling chemistry is as important as investment in the development of advanced spectroscopic tools.

  15. 15N NMR of 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Goba, Inguna; Liepinsh, Edvards

    2013-07-01

    In this article, we describe the characteristic (15)N and (1)HN NMR chemical shifts and (1)J((15)N-(1)H) coupling constants of various symmetrically and unsymmetrically substituted 1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives. The NMR chemical shifts and coupling constants are discussed in terms of their relationship to structural features such as character and position of the substituent in heterocycle, N-alkyl substitution, nitrogen lone pair delocalization within the conjugated system, and steric effects.

  16. In Vitro Osteogenic Potential of Green Fluorescent Protein Labelled Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Osteoprogenitors

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, Gopu; Li, Mingming; Zou, Yu; Li, Lulu; Handral, Harish K.; Rosa, Vinicus; Cao, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Cellular therapy using stem cells in bone regeneration has gained increasing interest. Various studies suggest the clinical utility of osteoprogenitors-like mesenchymal stem cells in bone regeneration. However, limited availability of mesenchymal stem cells and conflicting evidence on their therapeutic efficacy limit their clinical application. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are potentially an unlimited source of healthy and functional osteoprogenitors (OPs) that could be utilized for bone regenerative applications. However, limited ability to track hESC-derived progenies in vivo greatly hinders translational studies. Hence, in this study, we aimed to establish hESC-derived OPs (hESC-OPs) expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and to investigate their osteogenic differentiation potential in vitro. We fluorescently labelled H9-hESCs using a plasmid vector encoding GFP. The GFP-expressing hESCs were differentiated into hESC-OPs. The hESC-OPsGFP+ stably expressed high levels of GFP, CD73, CD90, and CD105. They possessed osteogenic differentiation potential in vitro as demonstrated by increased expression of COL1A1, RUNX2, OSTERIX, and OPG transcripts and mineralized nodules positive for Alizarin Red and immunocytochemical expression of osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase, and collagen-I. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that fluorescently labelled hESC-OPs can maintain their GFP expression for the long term and their potential for osteogenic differentiation in vitro. In future, these fluorescently labelled hESC-OPs could be used for noninvasive assessment of bone regeneration, safety, and therapeutic efficacy. PMID:28003831

  17. Identifying and Quantitating Conformational Exchange in Membrane Proteins Using Site-Directed Spin Labeling

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus Protein structures are not static but sample different conformations over a range of amplitudes and time scales. These fluctuations may involve relatively small changes in bond angles or quite large rearrangements in secondary structure and tertiary fold. The equilibrium between discrete structural substates on the microsecond to millisecond time scale is sometimes termed conformational exchange. Protein dynamics and conformational exchange are believed to provide the basis for many important activities, such as protein–protein and protein–ligand interactions, enzymatic activity and protein allostery; however, for many proteins, the dynamics and conformational exchange that lead to function are poorly defined. Spectroscopic methods, such as NMR, are among the most important methods to explore protein dynamics and conformational exchange; however, they are difficult to implement in some systems and with some types of exchange events. Site-directed spin labeling (SDSL) is an EPR based approach that is particularly well-suited to high molecular-weight systems such as membrane proteins. Because of the relatively fast time scale for EPR spectroscopy, it is an excellent method to examine exchange. Conformations that are in exchange are captured as distinct populations in the EPR spectrum, and this feature when combined with the use of methods that can shift the free energy of conformational substates allows one to identify regions of proteins that are in dynamic exchange. In addition, modern pulse EPR methods have the ability to examine conformational heterogeneity, resolve discrete protein states, and identify the substates in exchange. Protein crystallography has provided high-resolution models for a number of membrane proteins; but because of conformational exchange, these models do not always reflect the structures that are present when the protein is in a native bilayer environment. In the case of the Escherichia coli vitamin B12 transporter, Btu

  18. Advanced Developments of Electron Spin Labeling as High-Resolution Sensors of Protein Structure and Conformational Switching

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Myoglobin (Myb) and Cellular Retinol Binding Protein (CRBP) were prepared, and the corresponding EPR spectra analyzed by simulation techniques. In...unprecedented level of sophistication in interpretation of the EPR spectra of labeled proteins, and establish the feasibility of separating structural and...protein as well as local structure, but to date the level of interpretation has been largely qualitative and it has not been possible to separate the

  19. Topographic labelling of pore-forming proteins from the outer membrane of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Page, M G; Rosenbusch, J P

    1986-01-01

    The topography of three pore-forming proteins from the outer membrane of Escherichia coli has been explored by using two labelling techniques. Firstly, the distribution of nucleophilic residues has been investigated by selective chemical modification using arylglyoxals (for arginine residues), isothiocyanates (for lysine residues), carbodi-imides (for carboxy residues) and diazonium salts. Secondly, the membrane-embedded domains have been investigated by labelling with photoactivatable phospholipid analogues and a reagent that partitions into the membrane. Few nucleophilic groups are found to be freely accessible to pore-impermeant probes reacting in the aqueous medium. More groups are accessible to small, pore-permeant probes, suggesting that several groups of each sort are contained within the pore. In addition, there appear to be a number of arginine, lysine, carboxyl and many tyrosine residues that are rather inaccessible and that react only with small, hydrophobic probes, if at all. Amongst these more deeply buried residues there are four arginine residues and an as-yet-undetermined number of carboxy residues that appear to be essential to the structural integrity of the oligomeric molecule. Images Fig. 4. PMID:2428354

  20. High-throughput synthesis of stable isotope-labeled transmembrane proteins for targeted transmembrane proteomics using a wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system.

    PubMed

    Takemori, Nobuaki; Takemori, Ayako; Matsuoka, Kazuhiro; Morishita, Ryo; Matsushita, Natsuki; Aoshima, Masato; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Sawasaki, Tatsuya; Endo, Yaeta; Higashiyama, Shigeki

    2015-02-01

    Using a wheat germ cell-free protein synthesis system, we developed a high-throughput method for the synthesis of stable isotope-labeled full-length transmembrane proteins as proteoliposomes to mimic the in vivo environment, and we successfully constructed an internal standard library for targeted transmembrane proteomics by using mass spectrometry.

  1. Immunological comparison of the in vitro and in vivo labeled victorin binding protein from susceptible oats. [Avena sativa L

    SciTech Connect

    Wolpert, T.J.; Macko, V. )

    1991-03-01

    The fungus Cochliobolus victoriae causes victoria blight of oats and produces the host-specific toxin victorin. The reaction of oats to the fungus and its toxin is controlled by a single dominant gene whose product has been hypothesized to function as the site of action (receptor) of the toxin in susceptible oat genotypes. Previously, using a biologically active {sup 125}I derivative of the toxin, the authors identified a 100 kilodalton victorin-binding protein (VBP) which binds victorin in a ligand-specific manner and binds in vivo only in susceptible oat genotypes. However, a VBP in both the susceptible and resistant oat genotypes was identified by in vitro binding experiments. One interpretation of the lack of genotype-specific binding in vitro is that the 100 kilodalton protein detected in vitro is not the same 100 kilodalton protein detected in vivo. To clarify the relationship between the 100 kilodalton protein(s) labeled in vivo and in vitro, they developed antisera to the in vitro-labeled VBP from the susceptible genotype and demonstrated that these preparations react with the in vivo-labeled VBP from the susceptible genotype. This finding coupled with previous observations strongly suggest that the VBP observed in vivo is the same protein detected in vitro. Furthermore, the results support our previous observations which suggest that the VBPs labeled in vitro in susceptible and resistant genotypes are closely related or identical.

  2. Quantitative analysis of cell surface membrane proteins using membrane-impermeable chemical probe coupled with 18O labeling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haizhen; Brown, Roslyn N; Qian, Wei-Jun; Monroe, Matthew E; Purvine, Samuel O; Moore, Ronald J; Gritsenko, Marina A; Shi, Liang; Romine, Margaret F; Fredrickson, James K; Pasa-Tolić, Ljiljana; Smith, Richard D; Lipton, Mary S

    2010-05-07

    We report a mass spectrometry-based strategy for quantitative analysis of cell surface membrane proteome changes. The strategy includes enrichment of surface membrane proteins using a membrane-impermeable chemical probe followed by stable isotope (18)O labeling and LC-MS analysis. We applied this strategy for enriching membrane proteins expressed by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a Gram-negative bacterium with known metal-reduction capability via extracellular electron transfer between outer membrane proteins and extracellular electron receptors. LC/MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of about 400 proteins with 79% of them being predicted to be membrane localized. Quantitative aspects of the membrane enrichment were shown by peptide level (16)O and (18)O labeling of proteins from wild-type and mutant cells (generated from deletion of a type II secretion protein, GspD) prior to LC-MS analysis. Using a chemical probe labeled pure protein as an internal standard for normalization, the quantitative data revealed reduced abundances in Delta gspD mutant cells of many outer membrane proteins including the outer membrane c-type cytochromes OmcA and MtrC, in agreement with a previous report that these proteins are substrates of the type II secretion system.

  3. Natural-abundance 15N NMR studies of Turkey ovomucoid third domain. Assignment of peptide 15N resonances to the residues at the reactive site region via proton-detected multiple-quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Polo, Gilberto; Krishnamoorthi, R.; Markley, John L.; Live, David H.; Davis, Donald G.; Cowburn, David

    Heteronuclear two-dimensional 1H{ 15N} multiple-quantum (MQ) spectroscopy has been applied to a protein sample at natural abundance: ovomucoid third domain from turkey ( Meleagris gallopavo), a serine proteinase inhibitor of 56 amino acid residues. Peptide amide 1H NMR assignments obtained by two-dimensional 1H{ 1H} NMR methods (R. Krishnamoorthi and J. L. Markley, unpublished data) led to identification of the corresponding 1H{ 15N} MQ coherence cross peaks. From these, 15N NMR chemical shifts were determined for several specific backbone amide groups of amino acid residues located around the reactive site region of the inhibitor. The results suggest that amide 15N chemical shifts, which are readily obtained in this way, may serve as sensitive probes for conformational studies of proteins.

  4. Measurement of (15)N enrichment of glutamine and urea cycle amino acids derivatized with 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate using liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hidehiro; Karakawa, Sachise; Watanabe, Akiko; Kawamata, Yasuko; Kuwahara, Tomomi; Shimbo, Kazutaka; Sakai, Ryosei

    2015-05-01

    6-Aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate (AQC) is an amino acid-specific derivatizing reagent that has been used for sensitive amino acid quantification by liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the ability of this method to measure the isotopic enrichment of amino acids and to determine the positional (15)N enrichment of urea cycle amino acids (i.e., arginine, ornithine, and citrulline) and glutamine. The distribution of the M and M+1 isotopomers of each natural AQC-amino acid was nearly identical to the theoretical distribution. The standard deviation of the (M+1)/M ratio for each amino acid in repeated measurements was approximately 0.1%, and the ratios were stable regardless of the injected amounts. Linearity in the measurements of (15)N enrichment was confirmed by measuring a series of (15)N-labeled arginine standards. The positional (15)N enrichment of urea cycle amino acids and glutamine was estimated from the isotopic distribution of unique fragment ions generated at different collision energies. This method was able to identify their positional (15)N enrichment in the plasma of rats fed (15)N-labeled glutamine. These results suggest the utility of LC-MS/MS detection of AQC-amino acids for the measurement of isotopic enrichment in (15)N-labeled amino acids and indicate that this method is useful for the study of nitrogen metabolism in living organisms.

  5. Ribeye a-mCherry fusion protein: a novel tool for labeling synaptic ribbons of the hair cell.

    PubMed

    West, Megan C; McDermott, Brian M

    2011-04-30

    Synaptic ribbons are presynaptic cytomatrices that are required for efficient transfer of auditory information from hair cells to the central nervous system. In the hair cell, each electron-dense ribbon tethers numerous synaptic vesicles by fine filaments. The ribbon generally resides juxtaposed to the active zone plasma membrane. A dearth of appropriate tools to visualize the ribbon synapse has limited our knowledge of its development. Here we present the design and implementation of a method to visualize synaptic ribbons in hair cells. This scheme uses a tagged version of the protein Ribeye a, which is specific to ribbons. We generate the DNA construct Tg(pvalb3b:ribeye a-mCherry) to transgenically express the fusion protein Ribeye a-mCherry in zebrafish hair cells. The fusion protein localizes to the basolateral surface of the hair cell with a pattern similar to that of a hair cell labeled with an antiserum that recognizes ribeye proteins. Moreover, using this antiserum to label transgenics that express Ribeye a-mCherry, we demonstrate that the fusion protein and antibody-associated fluorescent signals overlap. In addition, ribbons labeled with the fusion protein are proximal to afferent nerve endings. Finally, the fusion protein labels hair-cell ribbons of zebrafish at different developmental time points. These findings indicate that the fusion protein is an effective tool to label ribbons in live and fixed hair cells, which will make it useful in the study of ribbon synapse development and to characterize zebrafish mutants with defects in synapse formation.

  6. Metabolic fate of [14C]-labeled meal protein amino acids in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoli; Flowers, Matthew; Friedrich, Kenneth; Horton, James; Pennington, James; Wells, Michael A

    2004-04-01

    We developed a method to follow the metabolic fate of [(14)C]-labeled Euglena gracilis protein amino acids in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes under three different adult nutritional regimes. Quantitative analysis of blood meal protein amino acid metabolism showed that most of the carbon of the amino acids was either oxidized to CO(2) or excreted as waste. Under the three different adult nutritional regimes, no significant differences in the metabolism of amino acids were found, which indicated that the female A. aegypti mosquitoes possess a substantial capacity of maintaining metabolic homeostasis during a gonotrophic cycle. The amount of maternal glycogen and lipid after egg laying were significantly lower in the mosquitoes that underwent a partial starvation before a blood meal and/or starvation after the blood meal. The content of egg lipid or protein or the number of eggs laid did not show a significant difference among the three different regimes, which indicates that stable fecundity of A. aegypti under the partial starvation before a blood meal and/or starvation after the blood meal seemed to result from a trade-off between current fecundity and future survival after the eggs laid. The methods described in this paper can be applied to a wide range of questions about the effects of environmental conditions on the utilization of blood meal amino acids.

  7. Phenylalanine δ15N in Paleo Archives as a New Proxy for δ15N of Exported Primary Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, M.; Batista, F. C.; Vokhshoori, N. L.; Brown, J. T.; Guilderson, T. P.; Ravelo, A. C.; Sherwood, O.

    2012-12-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis of individual amino acids (CSI-AA) is emerging as a powerful new tool for studying the paleo nitrogen cycle. Because most detrital organic nitrogen is composed of amino acids, CSI-AA can reveal the mechanistic basis for organic nitrogen diagenesis, preserve a record of past food web structure, and potentially reconstruct the δ15N values of past nitrate and primary production. Within the commonly measured amino acids, the δ15N value of phenylalanine (Phe) appears uniquely promising as a new proxy that reflects the nitrogen isotopic value of the original source. Phe δ15N values remain almost unchanged with trophic transfer through food webs, and also during at least the initial stages of organic matter degradation. Here we synthesize results from both bio-archives and recent sediments, which together suggest that at least in Holocene archives the Phe δ15N value does in fact record the average inorganic nitrogen δ15N value at the base of planktonic food webs. However, several important unknowns also remain. These include the extent of variation in amino acid isotopic fractionation patterns in phylogenetically distinct algal groups. The stability of Phe δ15N values in older sediments where organic matter has undergone extensive diagenesis is also an important research area, which may ultimately establish the temporal limit for application of this approach to study past geological epochs. Together, however, results to date suggest that of Phe δ15N values in paleo archives represent a novel molecular-level proxy which is not tied to any specific organism or group, but rather can provide an integrated estimate of δ15N value of exported primary production.

  8. Food Labeling

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the U.S. have food labels. On every food label you will see Serving size, number of servings, and number of calories per serving Information on the amount of dietary fat, cholesterol, dietary fiber, dietary sodium, carbohydrates, dietary proteins, vitamins, ...

  9. Application of meta- and para-Phenylenediamine as Enhanced Oxime Ligation Catalysts for Protein Labeling, PEGylation, Immobilization, and Release.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Mohammad M; Rashidian, Mohammad; Zhang, Yi; Distefano, Mark D

    2015-02-02

    Meta- and para-phenylenediamines have recently been shown to catalyze oxime and hydrazone ligation reactions at rates much faster than aniline, a commonly used catalyst. Here, we demonstrate how these new catalysts can be used in a generally applicable procedure for fluorescent labeling, PEGylation, immobilization, and release of aldehyde- and ketone- functionalized proteins. The chemical orthogonality of phenylenediamine-catalyzed oxime ligation versus copper-catalyzed click reaction has also been harnessed for simultaneous dual labeling of bifunctional proteins containing both aldehyde and alkyne groups in high yield.

  10. Combining automated peak tracking in SAR by NMR with structure-based backbone assignment from 15N-NOESY

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chemical shift mapping is an important technique in NMR-based drug screening for identifying the atoms of a target protein that potentially bind to a drug molecule upon the molecule's introduction in increasing concentrations. The goal is to obtain a mapping of peaks with known residue assignment from the reference spectrum of the unbound protein to peaks with unknown assignment in the target spectrum of the bound protein. Although a series of perturbed spectra help to trace a path from reference peaks to target peaks, a one-to-one mapping generally is not possible, especially for large proteins, due to errors, such as noise peaks, missing peaks, missing but then reappearing, overlapped, and new peaks not associated with any peaks in the reference. Due to these difficulties, the mapping is typically done manually or semi-automatically, which is not efficient for high-throughput drug screening. Results We present PeakWalker, a novel peak walking algorithm for fast-exchange systems that models the errors explicitly and performs many-to-one mapping. On the proteins: hBclXL, UbcH5B, and histone H1, it achieves an average accuracy of over 95% with less than 1.5 residues predicted per target peak. Given these mappings as input, we present PeakAssigner, a novel combined structure-based backbone resonance and NOE assignment algorithm that uses just 15N-NOESY, while avoiding TOCSY experiments and 13C-labeling, to resolve the ambiguities for a one-to-one mapping. On the three proteins, it achieves an average accuracy of 94% or better. Conclusions Our mathematical programming approach for modeling chemical shift mapping as a graph problem, while modeling the errors directly, is potentially a time- and cost-effective first step for high-throughput drug screening based on limited NMR data and homologous 3D structures. PMID:22536902

  11. Theoretical analysis of the importance of recycling in measurements of protein turnover by constant infusion of a labelled amino acid.

    PubMed

    Slevin, Keith; Waterlow, John

    2008-07-07

    In studies of whole body protein turnover, recycling of tracer from the breakdown of labelled protein is usually neglected; this neglect may introduce a significant error. A three-pool model with fast and slowly turning over protein pools has been used to calculate recycling rates over a range of sizes and turnover rates of the protein pools. Complete and approximate solutions of the equations are given. The recycling rate of 1% per hour would fit the available data on the turnover rates of human tissue proteins.

  12. Calcium translocation mechanism in sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles, deduced from location studies of protein-bound spin labels.

    PubMed Central

    Champeil, P; Rigaud, J L; Gary-Bobo, C M

    1980-01-01

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles were exposed to various thiol-directed spin labels, and the position of the label on the inner or outer vesicle surface was investigated as a function of the ATPase (adenosinetriphosphatase; ATP phosphohydrolase, EC 3.6.1.3) chemical state. Previous measurements of label accessibility to externally added ascorbate had been considered to suggest an external-internal transition of protein-bound labels, coupled with ion translocation [Tonomura, Y. & Morales, M.F. (1974) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 71, 3687-3691]. We show that these ascorbate studies do not lead to convincing conclusions. We demonstrate, on the contrary, that transition ions (nickel and ferricyanide) can be used as selective line-broadening agents for the signals arising from external labels. No significant difference in nickel- or ferricyanide-label interaction can be attributed to a different orientation of the label in any of the enzyme chemical states tested. Our results therefore contradict the current interpretation of ascorbate quenching experiments in terms of calcium ATPase rotatory motion; rather they are consistent with ion transport models involving only limited conformational rearrangements of the pump. PMID:6446710

  13. Solvent effects on 15N NMR coordination shifts.

    PubMed

    Kleinmaier, Roland; Arenz, Sven; Karim, Alavi; Carlsson, Anna-Carin C; Erdélyi, Máté

    2013-01-01

    (15)N NMR chemical shift became a broadly utilized tool for characterization of complex structures and comparison of their properties. Despite the lack of systematic studies, the influence of solvent on the nitrogen coordination shift, Δ(15)N(coord), was hitherto claimed to be negligible. Herein, we report the dramatic impact of the local environment and in particular that of the interplay between solvent and substituents on Δ(15)N(coord). The comparative study of CDCl(3) and CD(3)CN solutions of silver(I)-bis(pyridine) and silver(I)-bis(pyridylethynyl)benzene complexes revealed the strong solvent dependence of their (15)N NMR chemical shift, with a solvent dependent variation of up to 40 ppm for one and the same complex. The primary influence of the effect of substituent and counter ion on the (15)N NMR chemical shifts is rationalized by corroborating Density-Functional Theory (nor discrete Fourier transform) calculations on the B3LYP/6-311 + G(2d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. Cooperative effects have to be taken into account for a comprehensive description of the coordination shift and thus the structure of silver complexes in solution. Our results demonstrate that interpretation of Δ(15)N(coord) in terms of coordination strength must always consider the solvent and counter ion. The comparable magnitude of Δ(15)N(coord) for reported transition metal complexes makes the principal findings most likely general for a broad scale of complexes of nitrogen donor ligands, which are in frequent use in modern organometallic chemistry.

  14. 15N Hyperpolarization by Reversible Exchange Using SABRE-SHEATH

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    NMR signal amplification by reversible exchange (SABRE) is a NMR hyperpolarization technique that enables nuclear spin polarization enhancement of molecules via concurrent chemical exchange of a target substrate and parahydrogen (the source of spin order) on an iridium catalyst. Recently, we demonstrated that conducting SABRE in microtesla fields provided by a magnetic shield enables up to 10% 15N-polarization (Theis, T.; et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc.2015, 137, 1404). Hyperpolarization on 15N (and heteronuclei in general) may be advantageous because of the long-lived nature of the hyperpolarization on 15N relative to the short-lived hyperpolarization of protons conventionally hyperpolarized by SABRE, in addition to wider chemical shift dispersion and absence of background signal. Here we show that these unprecedented polarization levels enable 15N magnetic resonance imaging. We also present a theoretical model for the hyperpolarization transfer to heteronuclei, and detail key parameters that should be optimized for efficient 15N-hyperpolarization. The effects of parahydrogen pressure, flow rate, sample temperature, catalyst-to-substrate ratio, relaxation time (T1), and reversible oxygen quenching are studied on a test system of 15N-pyridine in methanol-d4. Moreover, we demonstrate the first proof-of-principle 13C-hyperpolarization using this method. This simple hyperpolarization scheme only requires access to parahydrogen and a magnetic shield, and it provides large enough signal gains to enable one of the first 15N images (2 × 2 mm2 resolution). Importantly, this method enables hyperpolarization of molecular sites with NMR T1 relaxation times suitable for biomedical imaging and spectroscopy. PMID:25960823

  15. Uptake of stormwater nitrogen in bioretention systems demonstrated from 15N tracer techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdeshel, D.; Hultine, K. R.; Pomeroy, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Bioretention stormwater management systems are engineered ecosystems that capture urban stormwater in order to reduce the harmful effects of stormwater pollution on receiving waters. Bioretention systems have been shown to be effective at reducing the volume of runoff, and thereby reduce the nutrient loading to receiving waters from urban areas. However, little work has been done to evaluate the treatment processes that are responsible for reductions in effluent nitrogen (N). We hypothesize that the pulses of inorganic nitrogen associated with urban runoff events are captured in the plat tissues within these systems and not adsorbed to the soil media, thus creating a long-term, sustainable treatment approach to reducing the total nutrient loading to receiving waters. Nitrogen treatment performance was tested on two bioretention systems in Salt Lake City, UT: 1) an upland native community that does not require irrigation in semi-arid climates, and 2) a wetland community that requires 250 l of daily irrigation to offset the relatively high evaporative demand in the region. Each cell is sized to treat a 2.5 cm storm from a 140 m2 impervious surface: the area of the bioretention system is 10 m2. To test the N removal performance of each system, runoff events were simulated to represent an average precipitation regime using a synthetic stormwater blend starting in January, 2012. Effluent was collected from an underdrain and analyzed for total nitrogen (TN); mass removal was calculated for each month by subtracting the TN mass added to the garden minus the TN mass that flowed out of the garden. To test the hypothesis that plants assimilate stormwater N, 4 g of 100 atom% 15N NH4NO3 tracer was used as the N source in the synthetic stormwater during the first 2,000 l synthetic storm event in May. This isotopic label was calculated to enrich the total N pool of each garden to 100‰ 15N/14Nair. New growth was harvested from each plant in both cells and analyzed for 15N

  16. Highly abundant defense proteins in human sweat as revealed by targeted proteomics and label free quantification mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Csősz, Éva; Emri, Gabriella; Kalló, Gergő; Tsaprailis, George; Tőzsér, József

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The healthy human skin with its effective antimicrobial defense system forms an efficient barrier against invading pathogens. There is evidence suggesting that the composition of this chemical barrier varies between diseases, making the easily-collected sweat an ideal candidate for biomarker discoveries. OBJECTIVE Our aim was to provide information about the normal composition of the sweat, and to study the chemical barrier found at the surface of skin. METHODS Sweat samples from healthy individuals were collected during sauna bathing, and the global protein panel was analyzed by label-free mass spectrometry. SRM-based targeted proteomic methods were designed and stable isotope labeled reference peptides were used for method validation. RESULTS 95 sweat proteins were identified, 20 of them were novel proteins. It was shown that dermcidin is the most abundant sweat protein, and along with apolipoprotein D, clusterin, prolactin inducible protein and serum albumin, they make up 91% of secreted sweat proteins. The roles of these highly abundant proteins were reviewed; all of which have protective functions, highlighting the importance of sweat glands in composing the first line of innate immune defense system, and maintaining the epidermal barrier integrity. CONCLUSION Our findings in regards to the proteins forming the chemical barrier of the skin as determined by label free quantification and targeted proteomics methods are in accordance with previous studies, and can be further used as a starting point for non-invasive sweat biomarker research. PMID:26307449

  17. Correlative fluorescence and scanning transmission electron microscopy of quantum dot-labeled proteins on whole cells in liquid.

    PubMed

    Peckys, Diana B; Bandmann, Vera; de Jonge, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Correlative fluorescence microscopy combined with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) of cells fully immersed in liquid is a new methodology with many application areas. Proteins, in live cells immobilized on microchips, are labeled with fluorescent quantum dot nanoparticles. In this protocol, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is labeled. The cells are fixed after a selected labeling time, for example, 5 min as needed to form EGFR dimers. The microchip with cells is then imaged with fluorescence microscopy. Thereafter, STEM can be accomplished in two ways. The microchip with the labeled cells and one microchip with a spacer are assembled into a special microfluidic device and imaged with dedicated high-voltage STEM. Alternatively, thin edges of cells can be studied with environmental scanning electron microscopy with a STEM detector, by placing a microchip with cells in a cooled wet environment.

  18. Near-complete 1H, 13C, 15N resonance assignments of dimethylsulfoxide-denatured TGFBIp FAS1-4 A546T.

    PubMed

    Kulminskaya, Natalia V; Yoshimura, Yuichi; Runager, Kasper; Sørensen, Charlotte S; Bjerring, Morten; Andreasen, Maria; Otzen, Daniel E; Enghild, Jan J; Nielsen, Niels Chr; Mulder, Frans A A

    2016-04-01

    The transforming growth factor beta induced protein (TGFBIp) is a major protein component of the human cornea. Mutations occurring in TGFBIp may cause corneal dystrophies, which ultimately lead to loss of vision. The majority of the disease-causing mutations are located in the C-terminal domain of TGFBIp, referred as the fourth fascilin-1 (FAS1-4) domain. In the present study the FAS1-4 Ala546Thr, a mutation that causes lattice corneal dystrophy, was investigated in dimethylsulfoxide using liquid-state NMR spectroscopy, to enable H/D exchange strategies for identification of the core formed in mature fibrils. Isotope-labeled fibrillated FAS1-4 A546T was dissolved in a ternary mixture 95/4/1 v/v/v% dimethylsulfoxide/water/trifluoroacetic acid, to obtain and assign a reference 2D (1)H-(15)N HSQC spectrum for the H/D exchange analysis. Here, we report the near-complete assignments of backbone and aliphatic side chain (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonances for unfolded FAS1-4 A546T at 25 °C.

  19. Appearance and distribution of surface proteins of the human erythrocyte membrane. An electron microscope and immunochemical labeling study.

    PubMed

    Shotton, D; Thompson, K; Wofsy, L; Branton, D

    1978-02-01

    We have used freeze-etching, before and after immunoferritin labeling, to visualize spectrin molecules and other surface proteins of the human erythrocyte membrane. After intramembrane particle aggregation was induced, spectrin molecules, identified by labeling with ferritin-conjugated antispectrin, were clustered on the cytoplasmic surface of the membrane in patches directly underlying the particle clusters. This labeling pattern confirms the involvement of spectrin in such particle aggregates, as previously inferred from indirect evidence. Ferritin-conjugated antihapten molecules, directed against external and cytoplasmic surface proteins of the erythrocyte membrane which had been covalently labeled nonspecifically with the hapten p-diazoniumphenyl-beta-D-lactoside, were similarly found in direct association with such intramembrane particle aggregates. This indicates that when spectrin and the intramembrane particles are aggregated, all the major proteins of the erythrocyte membrane are constrained to coaggregate with them. Although giving no direct information concerning the freedom of translational movement of proteins in the unperturbed erythrocyte membrane, these experiments suggest that a close dynamic association may exist between the integral and peripheral protein components of the membrane, such that immobilization of one component can restrict the lateral mobility of others.

  20. Chromophore-assisted light inactivation of HaloTag fusion proteins labeled with eosin in living cells.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Kiwamu; Matsuda, Tomoki; McDougall, Mark; Klaubert, Dieter H; Hasegawa, Akira; Los, Georgyi V; Wood, Keith V; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Nagai, Takeharu

    2011-05-20

    Chromophore-assisted light inactivation (CALI) is a potentially powerful tool for the acute disruption of a target protein inside living cells with high spatiotemporal resolution. This technology, however, has not been widely utilized, mainly because of the lack of an efficient chromophore as the photosensitizing agent for singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)) generation and the difficulty of covalently labeling the target protein with the chromophore. Here we choose eosin as the photosensitizing chromophore showing 11-fold more production of ((1)O(2)) than fluorescein and about 5-fold efficiency in CALI of β-galactosidase by using an eosin-labeled anti-β-galactosidase antibody compared with the fluorescein-labeled one. To covalently label target protein with eosin, we synthesize a membrane-permeable eosin ligand for HaloTag technology, demonstrating easy labeling and efficient inactivation of HaloTag-fused PKC-γ and aurora B in living cells. These antibody- and HaloTag-based CALI techniques using eosin promise effective biomolecule inactivation that is applicable to many cell biological assays in living cells.

  1. Stoichiometry of chromatin-associated protein complexes revealed by label-free quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics.

    PubMed

    Smits, Arne H; Jansen, Pascal W T C; Poser, Ina; Hyman, Anthony A; Vermeulen, Michiel

    2013-01-07

    Many cellular proteins assemble into macromolecular protein complexes. The identification of protein-protein interactions and quantification of their stoichiometry is therefore crucial to understand the molecular function of protein complexes. Determining the stoichiometry of protein complexes is usually achieved by mass spectrometry-based methods that rely on introducing stable isotope-labeled reference peptides into the sample of interest. However, these approaches are laborious and not suitable for high-throughput screenings. Here, we describe a robust and easy to implement label-free relative quantification approach that combines the detection of high-confidence protein-protein interactions with an accurate determination of the stoichiometry of the identified protein-protein interactions in a single experiment. We applied this method to two chromatin-associated protein complexes for which the stoichiometry thus far remained elusive: the MBD3/NuRD and PRC2 complex. For each of these complexes, we accurately determined the stoichiometry of the core subunits while at the same time identifying novel interactors and their stoichiometry.

  2. Differential isotope dansylation labeling combined with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry for quantification of intact and N-terminal truncated proteins.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yanan; Li, Liang

    2013-08-20

    The N-terminal amino acids of proteins are important structure units for maintaining the biological function, localization, and interaction networks of proteins. Under different biological conditions, one or several N-terminal amino acids could be cleaved from an intact protein due to processes, such as proteolysis, resulting in the change of protein properties. Thus, the ability to quantify the N-terminal truncated forms of proteins is of great importance, particularly in the area of development and production of protein-based drugs where the relative quantity of the intact protein and its truncated form needs to be monitored. In this work, we describe a rapid method for absolute quantification of protein mixtures containing intact and N-terminal truncated proteins. This method is based on dansylation labeling of the N-terminal amino acids of proteins, followed by microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis of the proteins into amino acids. It is shown that dansyl labeled amino acids are stable in acidic conditions and can be quantified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with the use of isotope analog standards.

  3. Binding of oxytocin and 8-arginine-vasopressin to neurophysin studied by /sup 15/N NMR using magnetization transfer and indirect detection via protons

    SciTech Connect

    Live, D.H.; Cowburn, D.

    1987-10-06

    NMR was used to monitor the binding to neurophysin of oxytocin and 8-arginine-vasopressin, /sup 15/N labeling being used to identify specific backbone /sup 15/N and /sup 1/H signals. The most significant effects of binding were large downfield shifts in the amino nitrogen resonance of Phe-3 of vasopressin and in its associated proton, providing evidence that the peptide bond between residues 2 and 3 of the hormones is hydrogen-bonded to the protein within hormone-neurophysin complexes. Suggestive evidence for hydrogen bonding of the amino nitrogen of Tyr-2 was also obtained in the form of decreased proton exchange rates on binding; however, the chemical shift changes of this nitrogen and its associated proton indicated that such hydrogen bonding, if present, is probably weak. Shifts in the amino nitrogen of Asn-5 and in the -NH protons of both Asn-5 and Cys-6 demonstrated that these residues are significantly perturbed by binding, suggesting conformational changes of the ring on binding and/or the presence of binding sites on the hormone outside the 1-3 region. No support was obtained for the thesis that there is a significant second binding site for vasopressin on each neutrophysin chain. The behavior of both oxytocin and vasopressin on binding was consistent with formation of 1:1 complexes in slow exchange with the free state under most pH conditions. At low pH there was evidence of an increased exchange rate. Additionally, broadening of /sup 15/N resonances in the bound state at low pH occurred without a corresponding change in the resonances of equilibrating free hormone. The results suggest significant conformational alteration in neurophysin-hormone complexes at low pH possibly associated with protonation of the carboxyl group of the hormone-protein salt bridge.

  4. Sparse Markov chain-based semi-supervised multi-instance multi-label method for protein function prediction.

    PubMed

    Han, Chao; Chen, Jian; Wu, Qingyao; Mu, Shuai; Min, Huaqing

    2015-10-01

    Automated assignment of protein function has received considerable attention in recent years for genome-wide study. With the rapid accumulation of genome sequencing data produced by high-throughput experimental techniques, the process of manually predicting functional properties of proteins has become increasingly cumbersome. Such large genomics data sets can only be annotated computationally. However, automated assignment of functions to unknown protein is challenging due to its inherent difficulty and complexity. Previous studies have revealed that solving problems involving complicated objects with multiple semantic meanings using the multi-instance multi-label (MIML) framework is effective. For the protein function prediction problems, each protein object in nature may associate with distinct structural units (instances) and multiple functional properties (class labels) where each unit is described by an instance and each functional property is considered as a class label. Thus, it is convenient and natural to tackle the protein function prediction problem by using the MIML framework. In this paper, we propose a sparse Markov chain-based semi-supervised MIML method, called Sparse-Markov. A sparse transductive probability graph is constructed to encode the affinity information of the data based on ensemble of Hausdorff distance metrics. Our goal is to exploit the affinity between protein objects in the sparse transductive probability graph to seek a sparse steady state probability of the Markov chain model to do protein function prediction, such that two proteins are given similar functional labels if they are close to each other in terms of an ensemble Hausdorff distance in the graph. Experimental results on seven real-world organism data sets covering three biological domains show that our proposed Sparse-Markov method is able to achieve better performance than four state-of-the-art MIML learning algorithms.

  5. Ligand-free palladium-mediated site-specific protein labeling inside gram-negative bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Lin, Shixian; Wang, Jie; Jia, Shang; Yang, Maiyun; Hao, Ziyang; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Peng R

    2013-05-15

    Palladium, a key transition metal in advancing modern organic synthesis, mediates diverse chemical conversions including many carbon-carbon bond formation reactions between organic compounds. However, expanding palladium chemistry for conjugation of biomolecules such as proteins, particularly within their native cellular context, is still in its infancy. Here we report the site-specific protein labeling inside pathogenic Gram-negative bacterial cells via a ligand-free palladium-mediated cross-coupling reaction. Two rationally designed pyrrolysine analogues bearing an aliphatic alkyne or an iodophenyl handle were first encoded in different enteric bacteria, which offered two facial handles for palladium-mediated Sonogashira coupling reaction on proteins within these pathogens. A GFP-based bioorthogonal reaction screening system was then developed, allowing evaluation of both the efficiency and the biocompatibilty of various palladium reagents in promoting protein-small molecule conjugation. The identified simple compound-Pd(NO3)2 exhibited high efficiency and biocompatibility for site-specific labeling of proteins in vitro and inside living E. coli cells. This Pd-mediated protein coupling method was further utilized to label and visualize a Type-III Secretion (T3S) toxin-OspF in Shigella cells. Our strategy may be generally applicable for imaging and tracking various virulence proteins within Gram-negative bacterial pathogens.

  6. Differential label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of avian eggshell matrix and uterine fluid proteins associated with eggshell mechanical property.

    PubMed

    Sun, Congjiao; Xu, Guiyun; Yang, Ning

    2013-12-01

    Eggshell strength is a crucial economic trait for table egg production. During the process of eggshell formation, uncalcified eggs are bathed in uterine fluid that plays regulatory roles in eggshell calcification. In this study, a label-free MS-based protein quantification technology was used to detect differences in protein abundance between eggshell matrix from strong and weak eggs (shell matrix protein from strong eggshells and shell matrix protein from weak eggshells) and between the corresponding uterine fluids bathing strong and weak eggs (uterine fluid bathing strong eggs and uterine fluid bathing weak eggs) in a chicken population. Here, we reported the first global proteomic analysis of uterine fluid. A total of 577 and 466 proteins were identified in uterine fluid and eggshell matrix, respectively. Of 447 identified proteins in uterine fluid bathing strong eggs, up to 357 (80%) proteins were in common with proteins in uterine fluid bathing weak eggs. Similarly, up to 83% (328/396) of the proteins in shell matrix protein from strong eggshells were in common with the proteins in shell matrix protein from weak eggshells. The large amount of common proteins indicated that the difference in protein abundance should play essential roles in influencing eggshell strength. Ultimately, 15 proteins mainly relating to eggshell matrix specific proteins, calcium binding and transportation, protein folding and sorting, bone development or diseases, and thyroid hormone activity were considered to have closer association with the formation of strong eggshell.

  7. Fluorescence labeling of carbonylated lipids and proteins in cells using coumarin-hydrazide.

    PubMed

    Vemula, Venukumar; Ni, Zhixu; Fedorova, Maria

    2015-08-01

    Carbonylation is a generic term which refers to reactive carbonyl groups present in biomolecules due to oxidative reactions induced by reactive oxygen species. Carbonylated proteins, lipids and nucleic acids have been intensively studied and often associated with onset or progression of oxidative stress related disorders. In order to reveal underlying carbonylation pathways and biological relevance, it is crucial to study their intracellular formation and spatial distribution. Carbonylated species are usually identified and quantified in cell lysates and body fluids after derivatization using specific chemical probes. However, spatial cellular and tissue distribution have been less often investigated. Here, we report coumarin-hydrazide, a fluorescent chemical probe for time- and cost-efficient labeling of cellular carbonyls followed by fluorescence microscopy to evaluate their intracellular formation both in time and space. The specificity of coumarin-hydrazide was confirmed in time- and dose-dependent experiments using human primary fibroblasts stressed with paraquat and compared with conventional DNPH-based immunocytochemistry. Both techniques stained carbonylated species accumulated in cytoplasm with strong perinuclear clustering. Using a complimentary array of analytical methods specificity of coumarin-hydrazide probe towards both protein- and lipid-bound carbonyls has been shown. Additionally, co-distribution of carbonylated species and oxidized phospholipids was demonstrated.

  8. Dynamic interactions of fluorescently labeled microtubule-associated proteins in living cells

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) from calf brain were fluorescently labeled with 6-iodoacetamido fluorescein (I-AF). The modified MAPs (especially enriched for MAP2) were fully active in promoting tubulin polymerization in vitro and readily associated with cytoplasmic filaments when microinjected into living cultured cells. Double-labeling experiments indicated that the microinjected AF-MAPs were incorporated predominantly, if not exclusively, into cytoplasmic microtubules in untreated cells or paracrystals induced within vinblastine-treated cells. Similar results were obtained with different cell types (neuronal, epithelial, and fibroblastic) of diverse origin (man, mouse, chicken, and rat kangaroo). Mobility measurements of the microinjected AF-MAPs using the method of fluorescence-photobleaching recovery (FPR) revealed two populations of AF-MAPs with distinct dynamic properties: One fraction represents the soluble pool of MAPs and is mobile with a diffusion coefficient of D = 3 X 10(-9) cm2/s. The other fraction of MAPs is associated with the microtubules and is essentially immobile on the time scale of FPR experiments. However, it showed slow fluorescence recovery with an apparent half time of approximately 5 min. The slow recovery of fluorescence on defined photobleached microtubules occurred most probably by the incorporation of AF-MAPs from the soluble cytoplasmic pool into the bleached area. The bleached spot on defined microtubules remained essentially immobile during the slow recovery phase. These results suggest that MAPs can associate in vivo with microtubules of diverse cell types and that treadmilling of MAP2-containing microtubules in vivo, if it exists, is slower than 4 micron/h. PMID:6547721

  9. Biological characterization of a new radioactive labeling reagent for bacterial penicillin-binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, D.A.; Wu, C.Y.; Blaszczak, L.C.; Seitz, D.E.; Halligan, N.G. )

    1990-05-01

    Radiolabeled penicillin G is widely used as the imaging agent in penicillin-binding protein (PBP) assays. The disadvantages of most forms of labeled penicillin G are instability on storage and the long exposure times usually required for autoradiography or fluorography of electrophoretic gels. We investigated the utility of radioiodinated penicillin V as an alternative reagent. Radioiodination of p-(trimethylstannyl)penicillin V with ({sup 125}I)Na, using a modification of the chloramine-T method, is simple, high yielding, and site specific. We demonstrated the general equivalence of commercially obtained ({sup 3}H)penicillin G and locally synthesized ({sup 125}I)penicillin V (IPV) in their recognition of bacterial PBPs. Profiles of PBPs in membranes from Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli, Providencia rettgeri, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus faecium labeled with IPV or (3H)penicillin G were virtually identical. Use of IPV as the imaging agent in competition experiments for determination of the affinities of various beta-lactam antibiotics for the PBPs of E. coli yielded results similar to those obtained in experiments with ({sup 3}H)penicillin G. Dried electrophoretic gels from typical PBP experiments, using IPV at 37.3 Ci/mmol and 30 micrograms/ml, exposed X-ray film in 8 to 24 h. The stability of IPV on storage at 4{degrees}C was inversely proportional to specific activity. At 37.3 Ci/mmol and 60 micrograms/ml, IPV retained useful activity for at least 60 days at 4{degrees}C. IPV represents a practical and stable reagent for rapid PBP assays.

  10. A novel method for trapping and analyzing 15N in NO for tracing NO sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Ronghua; Mulder, Jan; Dörsch, Peter

    2016-04-01

    15N isotope tracing is an effective and direct approach to investigate the biological and chemical sources of nitric oxide (NO) in soil. However, NO is highly reactive and rapidly converted to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in the presence of ozone. Various chemical conversions of NO to the more stable solutes nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) have been proposed, which allow analysing the 15N abundance without major fractionation. However, NO emissions from soils are usually small, posing major challenges to conversion efficiency and background contamination. Here we present a novel method in which NO is oxidized to NO2- by chromium trioxide (CrO3) prior to conversion to NO2- and NO3- in an alkaline hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solution. Immediately following trapping, manganese dioxide (MnO2) and 5M HCl are added to remove excess H2O2, and to adjust the pH to around 6.0-7.0, respectively. The resulting solution can be stored until analysis and is none-toxic, allowing to use a modified denitrifier method (Zhu et al., submitted), where NO2- and NO3- are reduced quantitatively to nitrous oxide (N2O). Optimum NO conversion rates of > 90% even at extremely low initial NO concentration were obtained with 4% H2O2, 0.5 M NaOH, and 0.5 L min-1 gas flow rate. In a laboratory test, using NO gas with different 15N signals produced from unlabelled and labelled NO2-, we found an overall precision of 0.4‰ for unlabelled and 49.7‰ for NO enriched with 1.0 atom% 15N, respectively. This indicates that this method can be used for both natural abundance studies of NO, as well as in labelling studies tracing NO sources. Zhu J, Yu L, Bakken LR, Mørkved PT, Mulder J, Dörsch P. Controlled induction of denitrification in Pseudomonas aureofaciens: a modified denitrifier method for 15N and 18O analysis in NO3- from natural water samples by IRMS. Submitted.

  11. Structural modeling of protein-RNA complexes using crosslinking of segmentally isotope-labeled RNA and MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Georg; Leitner, Alexander; Boudet, Julien; Campagne, Sébastien; von Schroetter, Christine; Moursy, Ahmed; Aebersold, Ruedi; Allain, Frédéric H-T

    2017-03-27

    Ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) are key regulators of cellular function. We established an efficient approach, crosslinking of segmentally isotope-labeled RNA and tandem mass spectrometry (CLIR-MS/MS), to localize protein-RNA interactions simultaneously at amino acid and nucleotide resolution. The approach was tested on polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1 and U1 small nuclear RNP. Our method provides distance restraints to support integrative atomic-scale structural modeling and to gain mechanistic insights into RNP-regulated processes.

  12. Combined affinity labelling and mass spectrometry analysis of differential cell surface protein expression in normal and prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hastie, Claire; Saxton, Malcolm; Akpan, Akunna; Cramer, Rainer; Masters, John R; Naaby-Hansen, Soren

    2005-09-01

    Differences in the expression of cell surface proteins between a normal prostate epithelial (1542-NP2TX) and a prostate cancer cell line (1542-CP3TX) derived from the same patient were investigated. A combination of affinity chromatographic purification of biotin-tagged surface proteins with mass spectrometry analysis identified 26 integral membrane proteins and 14 peripheral surface proteins. The findings confirm earlier reports of altered expression in prostate cancer for several cell surface proteins, including ALCAM/CD166, the Ephrin type A receptor, EGFR and the prostaglandin F2 receptor regulatory protein. In addition, several novel findings of differential expression were made, including the voltage-dependent anion selective channel proteins Porin 1 and 2, ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) and Scavenger receptor B1. Cell surface protein expression changed both qualitatively and quantitatively when the cells were grown in the presence of either or both interferon INFalpha and INFgamma. Costimulation with type I and II interferons had additive or synergistic effects on the membrane density of several, mainly peripherally attached surface proteins. Concerted upregulation of surface exposed antigens may be of benefit in immuno-adjuvant-based treatment of interferon-responsive prostate cancer. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that differences in the expression of membrane proteins between normal and prostate cancer cells are reproducibly detectable following vectorial labelling with biotin, and that detailed analysis of extracellular-induced surface changes can be achieved by combining surface-specific labelling with high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.

  13. Determination of the relative positions of amino acids by partial specific cleavages of end-labeled proteins.

    PubMed

    Jue, R A; Doolittle, R F

    1985-01-01

    We have developed a new method for obtaining information about protein sequences that uses an approach analogous to that used to determine DNA sequences. In essence, three steps are involved. First, a detectable label is attached exclusively to the amino terminus of a polypeptide. Next, the labeled chain is subjected to partial specific cleavage in a way that produces roughly equimolar amounts of fragments of different sizes. Cleavages for methionine, tryptophan, arginine, aspartyl-proline bonds, and asparaginyl-glycine bonds have been employed. Lastly, the labeled fragments are separated according to size by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The distribution of target amino acids along the polypeptide chain can be deduced from the specific pattern of labeled bands by reading the "ladder" in the same way that DNA sequencing gels are read. Although the method can be conducted with a radioactive label, we have chosen to use a fluorescent label. We have applied the method successfully to the three subunit chains of two different fibrinogens.

  14. Detection of calmodulin-binding proteins using a 32P-labeled GST-calmodulin fusion protein and a novel renaturation protocol.

    PubMed

    Fischer, R; Wei, Y; Berchtold, M

    1996-08-01

    To identify calmodulin-binding proteins in cellular extracts and tissue homogenates and to analyze purified calmodulin target proteins, overlay procedures using 125I-calmodulin or, more recently, nonradioactive biotinylated calmodulin have been widely used. Here we describe a rapid, alternative method for detecting calmodulin-binding proteins with a 32P-labeled calmodulin probe generated as a glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-fusion protein. We used a modified pGEX-2TK vector, which contains the flag epitope and the consensus sequence R-R-A-S, that can be phosphorylated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A. The fusion protein is easily purified from bacterial bysates by affinity chromatography using glutathione-Sepharose 4B beads. Phosphorylation of GST-calmodulin is performed directly on the beads and, after elution with reduced glutathione, the labeled calmodulin probe can be used for overlay experiments. We also describe a rapid renaturation protocol that enhances the signal for some but not all calmodulin-binding proteins and is used after the proteins have been transferred to nitrocellulose filters. Furthermore, we have compared the specificity and sensitivity of the 32P-labeled GST-calmodulin overlay with those of 125I-calmodulin and biotinylated calmodulin, clearly indicating that our newly developed protocol is a suitable alternative to conventionally used calmodulin overlay procedures.

  15. Photoaffinity labeling of serum vitamin D binding protein by 3-deoxy-3-azido-25-hydroxyvitamin D3

    SciTech Connect

    Link, R.P.; Kutner, A.; Schnoes, H.K.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1987-06-30

    3-Deoxy-3-azido-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was covalently incorporated in the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 binding site of purified human plasma vitamin D binding protein. Competition experiments showed that 3-deoxy-3-azido-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 bind at the same site on the protein. Tritiated 3-deoxy-3-azido-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was synthesized from tritiated 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, retaining the high specific activity of the parent compound. The tritiated azido label bound reversibly to human vitamin D binding protein in the dark and covalently to human vitamin D binding protein after exposure to ultraviolet light. Reversible binding of tritiated 3-deoxy-3-azido-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was compared to tritiated 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 binding to human vitamin D binding protein. Scatchard analysis of the data indicated equivalent maximum density binding sites with a KD,app of 0.21 nM for 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and a KD,app of 1.3 nM for the azido derivative. Covalent binding was observed only after exposure to ultraviolet irradiation, with an average of 3% of the reversibly bound label becoming covalently bound to vitamin D binding protein. The covalent binding was reduced 70-80% when 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was present, indicating strong covalent binding at the vitamin D binding site of the protein. When tritiated 3-deoxy-3-azido-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was incubated with human plasma in the absence and presence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 12% of the azido derivative was reversibly bound to vitamin D binding protein. After ultraviolet irradiation, four plasma proteins covalently bound the azido label, but vitamin D binding protein was the only protein of the four that was unlabeled in the presence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.

  16. Reliable Identification of Cross-Linked Products in Protein Interaction Studies by 13C-Labeled p-Benzoylphenylalanine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettelkau, Jens; Ihling, Christian H.; Frohberg, Petra; van Werven, Lars; Jahn, Olaf; Sinz, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    We describe the use of the 13C-labeled artificial amino acid p-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine (Bpa) to improve the reliability of cross-linked product identification. Our strategy is exemplified for two protein-peptide complexes. These studies indicate that in many cases the identification of a cross-link without additional stable isotope labeling would result in an ambiguous assignment of cross-linked products. The use of a 13C-labeled photoreactive amino acid is considered to be preferred over the use of deuterated cross-linkers as retention time shifts in reversed phase chromatography can be ruled out. The observation of characteristic fragment ions additionally increases the reliability of cross-linked product assignment. Bpa possesses a broad reactivity towards different amino acids and the derived distance information allows mapping of spatially close amino acids and thus provides more solid structural information of proteins and protein complexes compared to the longer deuterated amine-reactive cross-linkers, which are commonly used for protein 3D-structure analysis and protein-protein interaction studies.

  17. Site-Specific Labeling of Protein Kinase CK2: Combining Surface Display and Click Chemistry for Drug Discovery Applications †

    PubMed Central

    Nienberg, Christian; Retterath, Anika; Becher, Kira-Sophie; Saenger, Thorsten; Mootz, Henning D.; Jose, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Human CK2 is a heterotetrameric constitutively active serine/threonine protein kinase and is an emerging target in current anti-cancer drug discovery. The kinase is composed of two catalytic CK2α subunits and two regulatory CK2β subunits. In order to establish an assay to identify protein-protein-interaction inhibitors (PPI) of the CK2α/CK2β interface, a bioorthogonal click reaction was used to modify the protein kinase α-subunit with a fluorophore. By expanding the genetic code, the unnatural amino acid para azidophenylalanine (pAzF) could be incorporated into CK2α. Performing the SPAAC click reaction (Strain-Promoted Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition) by the use of a dibenzylcyclooctyne-fluorophore (DBCO-fluorophore) led to a specifically labeled human protein kinase CK2α. This site-specific labeling does not impair the phosphorylation activity of CK2, which was evaluated by capillary electrophoresis. Furthermore a dissociation constant (KD) of 631 ± 86.2 nM was determined for the substrate αS1-casein towards CK2α. This labeling strategy was also applied to CK2β subunit on Escherichia coli, indicating the site-specific modifications of proteins on the bacterial cell surface when displayed by Autodisplay. PMID:27355959

  18. Site-Specific Labeling of Protein Kinase CK2: Combining Surface Display and Click Chemistry for Drug Discovery Applications.

    PubMed

    Nienberg, Christian; Retterath, Anika; Becher, Kira-Sophie; Saenger, Thorsten; Mootz, Henning D; Jose, Joachim

    2016-06-27

    Human CK2 is a heterotetrameric constitutively active serine/threonine protein kinase and is an emerging target in current anti-cancer drug discovery. The kinase is composed of two catalytic CK2α subunits and two regulatory CK2β subunits. In order to establish an assay to identify protein-protein-interaction inhibitors (PPI) of the CK2α/CK2β interface, a bioorthogonal click reaction was used to modify the protein kinase α-subunit with a fluorophore. By expanding the genetic code, the unnatural amino acid para azidophenylalanine (pAzF) could be incorporated into CK2α. Performing the SPAAC click reaction (Strain-Promoted Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition) by the use of a dibenzylcyclooctyne-fluorophore (DBCO-fluorophore) led to a specifically labeled human protein kinase CK2α. This site-specific labeling does not impair the phosphorylation activity of CK2, which was evaluated by capillary electrophoresis. Furthermore a dissociation constant (KD) of 631 ± 86.2 nM was determined for the substrate αS1-casein towards CK2α. This labeling strategy was also applied to CK2β subunit on Escherichia coli, indicating the site-specific modifications of proteins on the bacterial cell surface when displayed by Autodisplay.

  19. 1H, 13C, and 15N backbone, side-chain, and heme chemical shift assignments for oxidized and reduced forms of the monoheme c-type cytochrome ApcA isolated from the acidophilic metal-reducing bacterium Acidiphilium cryptum.

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, John R.; Swenson, Michael; Magnuson, Timothy S.

    2011-03-04

    We report the 1H, 13C, and 15N chemical shift assignments of both oxidized and reduced forms of an abundant periplasmic c-type cytochrome, designated ApcA, from the acidophilic gram-negative facultatively anaerobic metal-reducing alpha-proteobacterium Acidiphilium cryptum. These resonance assignments prove that ApcA is a monoheme cytochrome c2 and the product of the Acry_2099 gene. An absence of resonance peaks in the NMR spectra for the 21 N-terminal residues suggests that a predicted N-terminal signal sequence is cleaved. We also describe the preparation and purification of the protein in labeled form from laboratory cultures of A. cryptum growing on 13C- and 15N- labeled substrates.

  20. (15)N investigation of nitrogen released from tobacco-waste to be utilized by maize crop.

    PubMed

    Karaman, M Rüştü; Brohi, A Reşit; Inal, Ali; Aydeniz, Akgün

    2004-12-01

    The (15)N study aimed to estimate the portion of nitrogen released from tobacco-waste to be utilized by maize crop. Tobacco-waste at the levels of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 g pot(-1) and ((15)NH(4))(2)SO(4) as nitrogen fertilizer labelled with 5 at.% exc. at the levels of 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 mg N pot(-1) together with a basal dressing of some nutrients were added to pots with Pioneer maize variety. After the harvest, dry matter yield was recorded and (15)N determinations and calculations were made. Tobacco-waste had a positive effect on the growth and on the nitrogen uptake of maize crop. Increasing the rates of tobacco-waste increased the dry matter yield of maize crop from 4.64 g pot(-1) (at control) to 7.22 g pot(-1) (at the tobacco-waste treatment of 8 g pot(-1)). The values of (15)N in the plant derived from nitrogenous fertilizer also increased with increasing nitrogen fertilizer levels, whereas they decreased from 0.427 % to 0.249 % with increasing tobacco-waste treatments from 0 to 8 g pot(-1), respectively. The average values of per cent nitrogen derived from nitrogenous fertilizer (Ndff) varied from 4.32 % to 7.95 % at the rates of 4-16 mg N pot(-1), respec-tively. However, Ndff decreased from 8.54 % to 4.99 % with increasing tobacco-waste treatments from 0 to 8 g pot(-1), respectively. Per cent nitrogen derived from tobacco-waste (Ndft) increased from 21.8 % to 38.5 % with increasing tobacco-waste treatments from 2 to 8 g pot(-1), respectively. The results have revealed that (15)N tracer technique was confidently used for the investigation of nitrogen levels released from tobacco-waste as organic waste to be utilized by maize crop.

  1. Determination of steady-state protein breakdown rate in vivo by the disappearance of protein-bound tracer-labeled amino acids: a method applicable in humans.

    PubMed

    Holm, Lars; O'Rourke, Bruce; Ebenstein, David; Toth, Michael J; Bechshoeft, Rasmus; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Kjaer, Michael; Matthews, Dwight E

    2013-04-15

    A method to determine the rate of protein breakdown in individual proteins was developed and tested in rats and confirmed in humans, using administration of deuterium oxide and incorporation of the deuterium into alanine that was subsequently incorporated into body proteins. Measurement of the fractional breakdown rate of proteins was determined from the rate of disappearance of deuterated alanine from the proteins. The rate of disappearance of deuterated alanine from the proteins was calculated using an exponential decay, giving the fractional breakdown rate (FBR) of the proteins. The applicability of this protein-specific FBR approach is suitable for human in vivo experimentation. The labeling period of deuterium oxide administration is dependent on the turnover rate of the protein of interest.

  2. Diffusion of Paramagnetically Labeled Proteins in Cartilage: Enhancement of the 1-D NMR Imaging Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foy, Brent D.; Blake, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Quantifying the diffusive transport of large molecules in avascular cartilage tissue is important both for planning potential pharamacological treatments and for gaining insight into the molecular-scale structure of cartilage. In this work, the diffusion coefficients of gadolinium-DTPA and Gd-labeled versions of four proteins-lysozyme, trypsinogen, ovalbumin, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) with molecular weights of 14,300, 24,000, 45,000, and 67,000, respectively-have been measured in healthy and degraded calf cartilage. The experimental technique relies on the effect of the paramagnetic on the relaxation properties of the surrounding water, combined with the time course of a 1-dimensional spatial profile of the water signal in the cartilage sample. The enhanced technique presented here does not require a prior measurement of the relaxivity of the paramagnetic compound in the sample of interest. The data are expressed as the ratio of the diffusion coefficient of a compound in cartilage to its diffusion coefficient in water. For healthy cartilage, this ratio was 0.34 ± 0.07 for Gd-DTPA, the smallest compound, and fell to 0.3 ± 0.1 for Gd-lysozyme, 0.08 ± 0.04 for Gd-trypsinogen, and 0.07 ± 0.04 for Gd-ovalbumin. Gd-BSA did not appear to enter healthy cartilage tissue beyond a surface layer. After the cartilage had been degraded by 24-h trypsinization, these ratios were 0.60 ± 0.03 for Gd-DTPA, 0.40 ± 0.08 for Gd-lysozyme, 0.42 ± 0.09 for Gd-trypsinogen, 0.16 ± 0.14 for Gd-ovalbumin, and 0.11 ± 0.05 for Gd-BSA. Thus, degradation of the cartilage led to increases in the diffusion coefficient of up to fivefold for the Gd-labeled proteins. These basic transport parameters yield insights on the nature of pore sizes and chemical-matrix interactions in the cartilage tissue and may prove diagnostically useful for identifying the degree and nature of damage to cartilage.

  3. Competitive labelling, a method for determining the reactivity of individual groups in proteins. The amino groups of porcine elastase

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, H.; Stevenson, K. J.; Hartley, B. S.

    1971-01-01

    1. A method is described for determining the ionization constants and reactivities of individual amino groups in proteins. The principle is that in the presence of a trace amount of radioactive label, the various reactive groups in a protein molecule will compete for the label and the amount incorporated into any one group will be determined by its nucleophilicity, pK and micro-environment. The relative amounts of label incorporated into various groups will be proportional to their second-order rate constants and by comparing these rate constants with those expected on the basis of a linear free-energy relationship obtained with a series of standard compounds, the micro-environment can be defined for a particular amino group. 2. The method consists of treating a protein and an internal standard with a limiting amount of radioactive reagent and then with an excess of unlabelled reagent to yield a chemically homogeneous but heterogeneously labelled compound. After appropriate enzymic digestion peptides containing each labelled group are isolated and their rates of reaction, relative to the internal standard, are determined from their specific radioactivities. The entire procedure is repeated at several pH values. 3. When the method was applied to the amino groups of porcine elastase by using tritiated acetic anhydride as the labelling reagent, the N-terminus was found to have pKa 9.7 and a much lower than normal reactivity. Lysine-87 and lysine-224 were found to have pKa 10.3 and normal reactivities. At pH values greater than 10.5 there are discontinuities in all the titration curves, indicating that the entire molecule is undergoing a structural reorganization. ImagesPLATE 3PLATE 1PLATE 2 PMID:5158490

  4. Stable isotope N-phosphorylation labeling for Peptide de novo sequencing and protein quantification based on organic phosphorus chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wu, Hanzhi; Lee, Kim-Chung; Liu, Hongxia; Zhao, Yufen; Cai, Zongwei; Jiang, Yuyang

    2012-12-04

    In this paper, we describe the development of a novel stable isotope N-phosphorylation labeling (SIPL) strategy for peptide de novo sequencing and protein quantification based on organic phosphorus chemistry. The labeling reaction could be performed easily and completed within 40 min in a one-pot reaction without additional cleanup procedures. It was found that N-phosphorylation labeling reagents were activated in situ to form labeling intermediates with high reactivity targeting on N-terminus and ε-amino groups of lysine under mild reaction conditions. The introduction of N-terminal-labeled phosphoryl group not only improved the ionization efficiency of peptides and increased the protein sequence coverage for peptide mass fingerprints but also greatly enhanced the intensities of b ions, suppressed the internal fragments, and reduced the complexity of the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) fragmentation patterns of peptides. By using nano liquid chromatography chip/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (nano LC-chip/TOF MS) for the protein quantification, the obtained results showed excellent correlation of the measured ratios to theoretical ratios with relative errors ranging from 0.5% to 6.7% and relative standard deviation of less than 10.6%, indicating that the developed method was reproducible and precise. The isotope effect was negligible because of the deuterium atoms were placed adjacent to the neutral phosphoryl group with high electrophilicity and moderately small size. Moreover, the SIPL approach used inexpensive reagents and was amenable to samples from various sources, including cell culture, biological fluids, and tissues. The method development based on organic phosphorus chemistry offered a new approach for quantitative proteomics by using novel stable isotope labeling reagents.

  5. Bioorthogonal labeling cell-surface proteins expressed in pancreatic cancer cells to identify potential diagnostic/therapeutic biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Haun, Randy S; Quick, Charles M; Siegel, Eric R; Raju, Ilangovan; Mackintosh, Samuel G; Tackett, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    To develop new diagnostic and therapeutic tools to specifically target pancreatic tumors, it is necessary to identify cell-surface proteins that may serve as potential tumor-specific targets. In this study we used an azido-labeled bioorthogonal chemical reporter to metabolically label N-linked glycoproteins on the surface of pancreatic cancer cell lines to identify potential targets that may be exploited for detection and/or treatment of pancreatic cancer. Labeled glycoproteins were tagged with biotin using click chemistry, purified by streptavidin-coupled magnetic beads, separated by gel electrophoresis, and identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS). MS/MS analysis of peptides from 3 cell lines revealed 954 unique proteins enriched in the azido sugar samples relative to control sugar samples. A comparison of the proteins identified in each sample indicated 20% of these proteins were present in 2 cell lines (193 of 954) and 17 of the proteins were found in all 3 cell lines. Five of the 17 proteins identified in all 3 cell lines have not been previously reported to be expressed in pancreatic cancer; thus indicating that novel cell-surface proteins can be revealed through glycoprotein profiling. Western analysis of one of these glycoproteins, ecto-5′-nucleotidase (NT5E), revealed it is expressed in 8 out of 8 pancreatic cancer cell lines examined. Further, immunohistochemical analysis of human pancreatic tissues indicates NT5E is significantly overexpressed in pancreatic tumors compared to normal pancreas. Thus, we have demonstrated that metabolic labeling with bioorthogonal chemical reporters can be used to selectively enrich and identify novel cell-surface glycoproteins expressed in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. PMID:26176765

  6. Modeling and measuring intracellular fluxes of secreted recombinant protein in Pichia pastoris with a novel 34S labeling procedure

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The budding yeast Pichia pastoris is widely used for protein production. To determine the best suitable strategy for strain improvement, especially for high secretion, quantitative data of intracellular fluxes of recombinant protein are very important. Especially the balance between intracellular protein formation, degradation and secretion defines the major bottleneck of the production system. Because these parameters are different for unlimited growth (shake flask) and carbon-limited growth (bioreactor) conditions, they should be determined under "production like" conditions. Thus labeling procedures must be compatible with minimal production media and the usage of bioreactors. The inorganic and non-radioactive 34S labeled sodium sulfate meets both demands. Results We used a novel labeling method with the stable sulfur isotope 34S, administered as sodium sulfate, which is performed during chemostat culivations. The intra- and extracellular sulfur 32 to 34 ratios of purified recombinant protein, the antibody fragment Fab3H6, are measured by HPLC-ICP-MS. The kinetic model described here is necessary to calculate the kinetic parameters from sulfur ratios of consecutive samples as well as for sensitivity analysis. From the total amount of protein produced intracellularly (143.1 μg g-1 h-1 protein per yeast dry mass and time) about 58% are degraded within the cell, 35% are secreted to the exterior and 7% are inherited to the daughter cells. Conclusions A novel 34S labeling procedure that enables in vivo quantification of intracellular fluxes of recombinant protein under "production like" conditions is described. Subsequent sensitivity analysis of the fluxes by using MATLAB, indicate the most promising approaches for strain improvement towards increased secretion. PMID:21703020

  7. [Dynamics of 15N-isobutylidene diurea (IBDU) in sheep. 1. IBDU conversion in the digestive tract].

    PubMed

    Görsch, R; Bergner, H; Adam, K

    1978-07-01

    Four Merino Landrace wethers averaging 47.6 kg body weight were adapted to a semi-synthetic diet containing as the only N-source 60 g of IBDU per day. After the adaptation phase, on the 1 st experimental day the IBDU of the morning feed was given in 15N-labelled form (701 mg 15N-excess). After 2 1/2, 7 1/4, 12 and 24 hours the experimental animals were killed without having been fed again. The comparison of the IBDU-concentrations in the content of the rumen bottom with the residual rumen content did not allow to draw conclusions regarding IBDU-sedimentation at the bottom of the rumen. For the 15N-decline in the rumen content, a relationship was established following y = 76.3 - 2.62 (r = 0.96) (see fig. 2). In the order of killing times the following 15N-IBDU amounts were retrieved (% of intake): I = 15.6%, II = 24.1%, III = 3.3% and IV = 3.6%. 7 1/4 hours after starting the experiment, 40% of the 15N-labelled material were found in the rumen in the form IBDU; after 12 hours it came to 10%. Except for sheep I, 15N-urea was not found but in small amounts. Only sheep I and III revealed IBDU-traces in the abomasum, but in the small intestine of all sheep 2 to 6% of the amount taken in. This fact is explained with the endogenous influx of IBDU from the blood. An additional experimental sheep provided with a ligature at the abomasum entry, revealed that IBDU is absorbed from the rumen and allowed to enter the individual segments of the intestine in small amounts.

  8. Photoactivable analogs for labeling 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 serum binding protein and for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 intestinal receptor protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutner, A.; Link, R. P.; Schnoes, H. K.; DeLuca, H. F.

    1986-01-01

    3-Azidobenzoates and 3-azidonitrobenzoates of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 as well as 3-deoxy-3-azido-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 3-deoxy-3-azido-1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 were prepared as photoaffinity labels for vitamin D serum binding protein and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 intestinal receptor protein. The compounds prepared were easily activated by short- or long-wavelength uv light, as monitored by uv and ir spectrometry. The efficacy of the compounds to compete with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 for the binding site of serum binding protein and receptor, respectively, was studied to evaluate the vitamin D label with the highest affinity for the protein. The presence of an azidobenzoate or azidonitrobenzoate substituent at the C-3 position of 25-OH-D3 significantly decreased (10(4)- to 10(6)-fold) the binding activity. However, the labels containing the azido substituent attached directly to the vitamin D skeleton at the C-3 position showed a high affinity, only 20- to 150-fold lower than that of the parent compounds with their respective proteins. Therefore, 3-deoxy-3-azidovitamins present potential ligands for photolabeling of vitamin D proteins and for studying the structures of the protein active sites.

  9. Surface-labelling studies on skeletal-muscle cells in vitro. Heterogeneity of iodinated cell-surface proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Cates, G A; Holland, P C

    1980-01-01

    1. Two distinct classes of protein were detected at the surface of chick-embryo skeletal-muscle cells after iodination of the cells in monolayer culture. 2. The two classes of iodinated proteins differed in their ability to co-purify with a vesicular plasma-membrane fraction prepared from surface-labelled cells. 3. One class consisted of predominantly high-molecular-weight glycoproteins that co-purified with the plasma-membrane fraction, but showed no significant qualitative or quantitative alterations in labelling with 125I and lactoperoxidase during myogenesis. 4. A second class of predominantly lower-molecular-weight proteins showed reproducible quantitative alterations in 125I-labelling during myogenesis but failed to co-purify with the plasma-membrane fraction. 5. This second class of proteins may represent matrix proteins involved in intercellular adhesion or adhesion of cells to the substratum. They are unlikely to be directly required for the process of plasma-membrane fusion during myogenesis, since they do not copurify with a vesicular plasma-membrane fraction known to be capable of Ca2+-dependent fusion in vitro. PMID:7370009

  10. 14N15N detectability in Pluto’s atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessup, Kandis Lea; Gladstone, G. R.; Heays, A. N.; Gibson, S. T.; Lewis, B. R.; Stark, G.

    2013-11-01

    Based on the vapor pressure behavior of Pluto’s surface ices, Pluto’s atmosphere is expected to be predominantly composed of N2 gas. Measurement of the N2 isotopologue 15N/14N ratio within Pluto’s atmosphere would provide important clues to the evolution of Pluto’s atmosphere from the time of formation to its present state. The most straightforward way of determining the N2 isotopologue 15N/14N ratio in Pluto’s atmosphere is via spectroscopic observation of the 14N15N gas species. Recent calculations of the 80-100 nm absorption behavior of the 14N2 and 14N15N isotopologues by Heays et al. (Heays, A.N. et al. [2011]. J. Chem. Phys. 135, 244301), Lewis et al. (Lewis, B.R., Heays, A.N., Gibson, S.T., Lefebvre-Brion, H., Lefebvre, R. [2008]. J. Chem. Phys. 129, 164306); Lewis et al. (Lewis, B.R., Gibson, S.T., Zhang, W., Lefebvre-Brion, H., Robbe, J.-M. [2005]. J. Chem. Phys. 122, 144302), and Haverd et al. (Haverd, V.E., Lewis, B.R., Gibson, S.T., Stark, G. [2005]. J. Chem. Phys. 123, 214304) show that the peak magnitudes of the 14N2 and 14N15N absorption bandhead cross-sections are similar, but the locations of the bandhead peaks are offset in wavelength by ∼0.05-0.1 nm. These offsets make the segregation of the 14N2 and 14N15N absorption signatures possible. We use the most recent N2 isotopologue absorption cross-section calculations and the atmospheric density profiles resulting from photochemical models developed by Krasnopolsky and Cruickshank (Krasnopolsky, V.A., Cruickshank, D.P. [1999]. J. Geophys. Res. 104, 21979-21996) to predict the level of solar light that will be transmitted through Pluto’s atmosphere as a function of altitude during a Pluto solar occultation. We characterize the detectability of the isotopic absorption signature per altitude assuming 14N15N concentrations ranging from 0.1% to 2% of the 14N2 density and instrumental spectral resolutions ranging from 0.01 to 0.3 nm. Our simulations indicate that optical depth of unity is

  11. Enhanced detection of quantum dots labeled protein by simultaneous bismuth electrodeposition into microfluidic channel.

    PubMed

    Medina-Sánchez, Mariana; Miserere, Sandrine; Cadevall, Miquell; Merkoçi, Arben

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we propose an electrochemical immunoassay into a disposable microfluidic platform, using quantum dots (QDs) as labels and their enhanced detection using bismuth as an alternative to mercury electrodes. CdSe@ZnS QDs were used to tag human IgG as a model protein and detected through highly sensitive stripping voltammetry of the dissolved metallic component (cadmium in our case). The modification of the screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs) was done by a simple electrodeposition of bismuth that was previously mixed with the sample containing QDs. A magneto-immunosandwich assay was performed using a micromixer. A magnet placed at its outlet in order to capture the magnetic beads used as solid support for the immunoassay. SPCEs were integrated at the end of the channel as detector. Different parameters such as bismuth concentration, flow rate, and incubation times, were optimized. The LOD for HIgG in presence of bismuth was 3.5 ng/mL with a RSD of 13.2%. This LOD was about 3.3-fold lower than the one obtained without bismuth. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the system was increased 100-fold respect to experiments carried out with classical screen-printed electrodes, both in presence of bismuth.

  12. Handheld imaging photonic crystal biosensor for multiplexed, label-free protein detection.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Sabrina; Bräu, Marion; Meyer, Björn-Ole; Karrock, Torben; Gutekunst, Sören B; Blohm, Lars; Selhuber-Unkel, Christine; Buhmann, Raymund; Nazirizadeh, Yousef; Gerken, Martina

    2015-10-01

    We present a handheld biosensor system for the label-free and specific multiplexed detection of several biomarkers employing a spectrometer-free imaging measurement system. A photonic crystal surface functionalized with multiple specific ligands forms the optical transducer. The photonic crystal slab is fabricated on a glass substrate by replicating a periodic grating master stamp with a period of 370 nm into a photoresist via nanoimprint lithography and deposition of a 70-nm titanium dioxide layer. Capture molecules are coupled covalently and drop-wise to the photonic crystal surface. With a simple camera and imaging optics the surface-normal transmission is detected. In the transmission spectrum guided-mode resonances are observed that shift due to protein binding. This shift is observed as an intensity change in the green color channel of the camera. Non-functionalized image sections are used for continuous elimination of background drift. In a first experiment we demonstrate the specific and time-resolved detection of 90.0 nm CD40 ligand antibody, 90.0 nM EGF antibody, and 500 nM streptavidin in parallel on one sensor chip. In a second experiment, aptamers with two different spacer lengths are used as receptor. The binding kinetics with association and dissociation of 250 nM thrombin and regeneration of the sensor surface with acidic tris-HCl-buffer (pH 5.0) is presented for two measurement cycles.

  13. Label-free electrochemical monitoring of protein addressing through electroactivated "click" chemistry on gold electrodes.

    PubMed

    Meini, Nadir; Ripert, Micaël; Chaix, Carole; Farre, Carole; De Crozals, Gabriel; Kherrat, Rochdi; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2014-05-01

    In this work, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), we have, for the first time, label-free monitored protein immobilization on a gold surface through a strategy of electroaddressing, compatible with the production of microarrays for multi-detection. This functionalization is achieved via the alkyne/azide cycloaddition, better known as the "click" reaction. The electroaddressing was applied to a polythiol hexynyl derivative previously grafted onto the gold surface. This compound consists of two dithiol phosphate groups and a hexynyl function and was synthesized through a supported synthesis approach, from a dithiol reagent, phosphoramidite (DTPA), and a hexynyl phosphoramidite. Next, an azide-PEG3-biotin derivative was grafted onto the modified gold surface by electro-chronocoulometry. The "click" reaction was controlled by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, showing the change in impedance only when the electroaddressing was performed at -300 mV. No effect on the EIS signal was observed when a positive potential was applied, confirming the specificity of the electroactivation. Biotin-modified electrodes were used to fix streptavidin and the immobilization was monitored using EIS. Fluorescent streptavidin-functionalized silica nanoparticles were also specifically grafted onto the biotinylated gold surface in order to confirm the "click" reaction using fluorescence microscopy. The obtained streptavidin platform was used to detect the surface coverage by biotinylated human serum albumin (HSA). The lowest detectable concentration is 10 pg/mL, and surface saturation is obtained with concentrations higher than 100 ng/mL.

  14. Handheld imaging photonic crystal biosensor for multiplexed, label-free protein detection

    PubMed Central

    Jahns, Sabrina; Bräu, Marion; Meyer, Björn-Ole; Karrock, Torben; Gutekunst, Sören B.; Blohm, Lars; Selhuber-Unkel, Christine; Buhmann, Raymund; Nazirizadeh, Yousef; Gerken, Martina

    2015-01-01

    We present a handheld biosensor system for the label-free and specific multiplexed detection of several biomarkers employing a spectrometer-free imaging measurement system. A photonic crystal surface functionalized with multiple specific ligands forms the optical transducer. The photonic crystal slab is fabricated on a glass substrate by replicating a periodic grating master stamp with a period of 370 nm into a photoresist via nanoimprint lithography and deposition of a 70-nm titanium dioxide layer. Capture molecules are coupled covalently and drop-wise to the photonic crystal surface. With a simple camera and imaging optics the surface-normal transmission is detected. In the transmission spectrum guided-mode resonances are observed that shift due to protein binding. This shift is observed as an intensity change in the green color channel of the camera. Non-functionalized image sections are used for continuous elimination of background drift. In a first experiment we demonstrate the specific and time-resolved detection of 90.0 nm CD40 ligand antibody, 90.0 nM EGF antibody, and 500 nM streptavidin in parallel on one sensor chip. In a second experiment, aptamers with two different spacer lengths are used as receptor. The binding kinetics with association and dissociation of 250 nM thrombin and regeneration of the sensor surface with acidic tris-HCl-buffer (pH 5.0) is presented for two measurement cycles. PMID:26504624

  15. Comparison of /sup 125/I-labeled and /sup 14/C-Labeled peptides of the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia Trachomatis Strain L2/434 separated by high-performance liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, R.C.; Caldwell, H.D.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if in-gel chloramine-T radioiodination adequately labels OM proteins to allow for accurate and precise structural comparison of these molecules. Therefore, intrinsically /sup 14/C-amino acid labeled proteins and /sup 125/I-labeled proteins were cleaved with two endopeptidic reagents and the peptide fragments separated by HPLC. A comparison of retention times of the fragments, as determined by differential radiation counting, thus indicated whether /sup 125/Ilabeling identified of all the peptide peaks seen in the /sup 14/Clabeled proteins. Results demonstrated that radioiodination yields complete and accurate information about the primary structure of outer membrane proteins. In addition, it permits the use of extremely small amounts of protein allowing for method optimization and multiple separations to insure reproducibility.

  16. Determination of protein conformation by isotopically labelled cross-linking and dedicated software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Tina; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Larsen, Nanna; Jørgensen, Flemming S.; Houen, Gunnar; Højrup, Peter

    2007-12-01

    Chemical cross-linking in conjunction with mass spectrometry (MS) can be used for sensitive and rapid investigation of the three-dimensional structure of proteins at low resolution. However, the resulting data are very complex, and on the bioinformatic side, there still exists an urgent need for improving computer software for (semi-) automated cross-linking data analysis. In this study, we have developed dedicated software for rapid and confident identification and validation of cross-linked species using an isotopic labelled cross-linker approach in combination with MS. Deuterated (+4 Da) and non-deuterated (+0 Da) bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate, BS3, was used as homobifunctional cross-linker to tag the cross-linked regions. Peptides generated from proteolysis were separated using high performance liquid chromatography, and peptide mass fingerprinting was obtained for the individual fractions using matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI TOF) MS. The resulting peptide mass lists were combined and transferred to the program, ProteinXXX, which generated the theoretical mass values of all combinations of cross-linked peptides and dead-end cross-links and compared this to the obtained mass lists. In addition, screening for 4 Da-separated signals aided the identification of potential cross-linked species. Sequence information of these candidates was then obtained using MALDI TOF TOF. The cross-linked peptides could then be validated based on the match of the fragmentation pattern and the theoretical values produced by ProteinXXX. This semi-automated interpretation provided a high analysis speed of cross-linking data, with efficient and confident identification of cross-linked species. Four experiments using different conditions showed a high degree of reproducibility as only 1 and 2 cross-links out of 36 identified was not observed in two experiments. The method was tested using human placenta calreticulin (CRT). Based on the identified cross

  17. Mem-ADSVM: A two-layer multi-label predictor for identifying multi-functional types of membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Wan, Shibiao; Mak, Man-Wai; Kung, Sun-Yuan

    2016-06-07

    Identifying membrane proteins and their multi-functional types is an indispensable yet challenging topic in proteomics and bioinformatics. However, most of the existing membrane-protein predictors have the following problems: (1) they do not predict whether a given protein is a membrane protein or not; (2) they are limited to predicting membrane proteins with single-label functional types but ignore those with multi-functional types; and (3) there is still much room for improvement for their performance. To address these problems, this paper proposes a two-layer multi-label predictor, namely Mem-ADSVM, which can identify membrane proteins (Layer I) and their multi-functional types (Layer II). Specifically, given a query protein, its associated gene ontology (GO) information is retrieved by searching a compact GO-term database with its homologous accession number. Subsequently, the GO information is classified by a binary support vector machine (SVM) classifier to determine whether it is a membrane protein or not. If yes, it will be further classified by a multi-label multi-class SVM classifier equipped with an adaptive-decision (AD) scheme to determine to which functional type(s) it belongs. Experimental results show that Mem-ADSVM significantly outperforms state-of-the-art predictors in terms of identifying both membrane proteins and their multi-functional types. This paper also suggests that the two-layer prediction architecture is better than the one-layer for prediction performance. For reader׳s convenience, the Mem-ADSVM server is available online at http://bioinfo.eie.polyu.edu.hk/MemADSVMServer/.

  18. 13C-NOESY-HSQC with Split Carbon Evolution for Increased Resolution with Uniformly Labeled Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baur, Matthias; Gemmecker, Gerd; Kessler, Horst

    1998-06-01

    Two new pulse sequences are presented for the recording of 2D13C-HSQC and 3D13C-NOESY-HSQC experiments, containing two consecutive carbon evolution periods. The two periods are separated by az-filter which creates a clean CxHz-quantum state for evolution in the second period. Each period is incremented (in anon-constant-time fashion) only to the extent that the defocusing of carbon inphase magnetization throughJ-coupling with neighboring carbons remains insignificant. Therefore,13C homonuclearJ-couplings are rendered ineffective, reducing the loss of signal and peak splitting commonly associated with long13C evolution times. The two periods are incremented according to a special acquisition protocol employing a13C-13C gradient echo to yield a data set analogous to one obtained by evolution over the added duration of both periods. The spectra recorded with the new technique on uniformly13C-labeled proteins at twice the evolution time of the standard13C-HSQC experiment display a nearly twofold enhancement of resolution in the carbon domain, while maintaining a good sensitivity even in the case of large proteins. Applied to the IIAManprotein ofE. coli(31 kDa), the13C-HSQC experiment recorded with a carbon evolution time of 2 × 8 ms showed a 36% decrease in linewidths compared to the standard13C-HSQC experiment, and theS/Nratio of representative cross-peaks was reduced to 40%. This reduction reflects mostly the typical loss of intensity observed when recording with an increased resolution. The13C-NOESY-HSQC experiment derived from the13C-HSQC experiment yielded additional NOE restraints between resonances which previously had been unresolved.

  19. Database of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled with CyDye DIGE Fluor saturation dye.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Kazuyasu; Kondo, Tadashi; Yokoo, Hideki; Okano, Tetsuya; Yamada, Masayo; Yamada, Tesshi; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Hirohashi, Setsuo

    2006-03-01

    CyDye DIGE Fluor saturation dye (saturation dye, GE Healthcare Amersham Biosciences) enables highly sensitive 2-D PAGE. As the dye reacts with all reduced cysteine thiols, 2-D PAGE can be performed with a lower amount of protein, compared with CyDye DIGE Fluor minimal dye (GE Healthcare Amersham Biosciences), the sensitivity of which is equivalent to that of silver staining. We constructed a 2-D map of the saturation dye-labeled proteins of a liver cancer cell line (HepG2) and identified by MS 92 proteins corresponding to 123 protein spots. Functional classification revealed that the identified proteins had chaperone, protein binding, nucleotide binding, metal ion binding, isomerase activity, and motor activity. The functional distribution and the cysteine contents of the proteins were similar to those in the most comprehensive 2-D database of hepatoma cells (Seow et al.., Electrophoresis 2000, 21, 1787-1813), where silver staining was used for protein visualization. Hierarchical clustering on the basis of the quantitative expression profiles of the 123 characterized spots labeled with two charge- and mass-matched saturation dyes (Cy3 and Cy5) discriminated between nine hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and primary cultured hepatocytes from five individuals, suggesting the utility of saturation dye and our database for proteomic studies of liver cancer.

  20. Adrenocortical nuclear progesterone-binding protein: Identification by photoaffinity labeling and evidence for deoxyribonucleic acid binding and stimulation by adrenocorticotropin

    SciTech Connect

    Demura, T.; Driscoll, W.J.; Lee, Y.C.; Strott, C.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Nuclei of the guinea pig adrenal cortex contain a protein that specifically binds progesterone and that, biochemically, is clearly distinct from the classical progesterone receptor. The adrenocortical nuclear progesterone-binding protein has now been purified more than 2000-fold by steroid-affinity chromatography with a 75% yield. The purified protein preparation demonstrated three major bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel of 79K, 74K, and 50K. To determine which of the three might represent the progesterone-binding protein, steroid photoaffinity labeling was performed which resulted in the specific and exclusive labeling of a 50K band. Thus, the adrenocortical nuclear progesterone-binding protein appears to be distinct from the classical progesterone receptor not only biochemically, but also on the basis of molecular size. To test whether the adrenocortical nuclear progesterone-binding protein can be hormonally stimulated, guinea pigs were treated with ACTH. The chronic administration of ACTH caused a 4- to 6-fold increase in the specific progesterone binding capacity without a change in the binding affinity. There appeared to be no significant difference in nuclear progesterone binding between the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis. This finding suggests a mediating role for the progesterone-binding protein in ACTH action. In addition, the nuclear progesterone-binding protein bound to nonspecific DNA sequences, further suggesting a possible transcriptional regulatory role.

  1. Combinations of fluorescently labeled pulmonary surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C in phospholipid films.

    PubMed Central

    Nag, K; Taneva, S G; Perez-Gil, J; Cruz, A; Keough, K M

    1997-01-01

    Hydrophobic pulmonary surfactant (PS) proteins B (SP-B) and C (SP-C) modulate the surface properties of PS lipids. Epifluorescence microscopy was performed on solvent-spread monolayers of fluorescently labeled porcine SP-B (R-SP-B, labeled with Texas Red) and SP-C (F-SP-C, labeled with fluorescein) in dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) (at protein concentrations of 10 and 20 wt%, and 10 wt% of both) under conditions of cyclic compression and expansion. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) spectroscopy of R-SP-B and F-SP-C indicated that the proteins were intact and labeled with the appropriate fluorescent probe. The monolayers were compressed and expanded for four cycles at an initial rate of 0.64 A2 x mol(-1) x s(-1) (333 mm2 x s x [-1]) up to a surface pressure pi approximately 65 mN/m, and pi-area per residue (pi-A) isotherms at 22 +/- 1 degrees C were obtained. The monolayers were microscopically observed for the fluorescence emission of the individual proteins present in the film lipid matrix, and their visual features were video recorded for image analysis. The pi-A isotherms of the DPPC/protein monolayers showed characteristic "squeeze out" effects at pi approximately 43 mN/m for R-SP-B and 55 mN/m for F-SP-C, as had previously been observed for monolayers of the native proteins in DPPC. Both proteins associated with the expanded (fluid) phase of DPPC monolayers remained in or associated with the monolayers at high pi (approximately 65 mN/m) and redispersed in the monolayer upon its reexpansion. At comparable pi and area/molecule of the lipid, the proteins reduced the amounts of condensed (gel-like) phase of DPPC monolayers, with F-SP-C having a greater effect on a weight basis than did R-SP-B. In any one of the lipid/protein monolayers the amounts of the DPPC in condensed phase were the same at equivalent pi during compression and expansion and from cycle to cycle. This indicated that only minor loss of components from these systems

  2. Binding of oxytocin and 8-arginine-vasopressin to neurophysin studied by 15N NMR using magnetization transfer and indirect detection via protons.

    PubMed

    Live, D H; Cowburn, D; Breslow, E

    1987-10-06

    NMR was used to monitor the binding to neurophysin of oxytocin and 8-arginine-vasopressin, 15N labeling being used to identify specific backbone 15N and 1H signals. The most significant effects of binding were large downfield shifts in the amino nitrogen resonance of Phe-3 of vasopressin and in its associated proton, providing evidence that the peptide bond between residues 2 and 3 of the hormones is hydrogen-bonded to the protein within hormone-neurophysin complexes. Suggestive evidence of hydrogen bonding of the amino nitrogen of Tyr-2 was also obtained in the form of decreased proton exchange rates on binding; however, the chemical shift changes of this nitrogen and its associated proton indicated that such hydrogen bonding, if present, is probably weak. Shifts in the amino nitrogen of Asn-5 and in the -NH protons of both Asn-5 and Cys-6 demonstrated that these residues are significantly perturbed by binding, suggesting conformational changes of the ring on binding and/or the presence of binding sites on the hormone outside the 1-3 region. No support was obtained for the thesis that there is a significant second binding site for vasopressin on each neurophysin chain. The behavior of both oxytocin and vasopressin on binding was consistent with formation of 1:1 complexes in slow exchange with the free state under most pH conditions. At low pH there was evidence of an increased exchange rate. Additionally, broadening of 15N resonances in the bound state at low pH occurred without a corresponding change in the resonances of equilibrating free hormone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Stepwise enrichment of 15N along food chains: Further evidence and the relation between δ 15N and animal age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minagawa, Masao; Wada, Eitaro

    1984-05-01

    The isotopic composition of nitrogen was measured in marine and fresh-water animals from the East China Sea, The Bering Sea, Lake Ashinoko and Usujiri intertidal zone. Primary producers, showed average δ15Nversus atmospheric nitrogen of +5.0%. (+3.4 to +7.5) in the Bering Sea and Lake Ashinoko, and +6.8%. (+6.0 to +7.6) in Usujiri intertidal zone. Blue green algae from the East China Sea show an average -0.55%. (-0.8 to +1.2). All consumers, Zooplankton, fish and bird exhibited Stepwise enrichment of 15N with increasing trophic level. The 15N enrichment at a single feeding process ranged from +1.3 to +5.3 averaging +3.4 ± 1.1%.. This isotopic fractionation seems to be independent of habitat. The effect of age in animals was obtained by analyzing two marine mussels. The soft tissue nitrogen showed +2.0%. enrichment relative to that of primary producers, and the magnitude was almost constant with shell ages ranging from 0 to 8 years. A similar 15N enrichment occurs in all Molluscs, Crustaceans, Insecta, Amphibia, Fish, Ave and Mammal species regardless of the difference in the form of excreted nitrogen and in laboratory cultured fish, brine shrimp and mice (+2.9 to +4.9%.). The excreted ammonia from guppy was sufficiently light to balance the concentration of 15N to animal body.

  4. Identification and Quantitation of Newly Synthesized Proteins in Escherichia coli by Enrichment of Azidohomoalanine-labeled Peptides with Diagonal Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Gertjan; Sprenger, Richard R.; Back, JaapWillem; Dekker, Henk L.; Nessen, Merel A.; van Maarseveen, Jan H.; de Koning, Leo J.; Hellingwerf, Klaas J.; de Jong, Luitzen; de Koster, Chris G.

    2009-01-01

    A method is presented to identify and quantify several hundreds of newly synthesized proteins in Escherichia coli upon pulse labeling cells with the methionine analogue azidohomoalanine (azhal). For the first 30 min after inoculation, a methionine-auxotrophic strain grows equally well on azhal as on methionine. Upon a pulse of 15 min and digestion of total protein, azhal-labeled peptides are isolated by a retention time shift between two reversed phase chromatographic runs. The retention time shift is induced by a reaction selective for the azido group in labeled peptides using tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine. Selectively modified peptides are identified by reversed phase liquid chromatography and on-line tandem mass spectrometry. We identified 527 proteins representative of all major Gene Ontology categories. Comparing the relative amounts of 344 proteins synthesized in 15 min upon a switch of growth temperature from 37 to 44 °C showed that nearly 20% increased or decreased more than 2-fold. Among the most up-regulated proteins many were chaperones and proteases in accordance with the cells response to unfolded proteins due to heat stress. Comparison of our data with results from previous microarray experiments revealed the importance of regulation of gene expression at the level of transcription of the most elevated proteins under heat shock conditions and enabled identification of several candidate genes whose expression may predominantly be regulated at the level of translation. This work demonstrates for the first time the use of a bioorthogonal amino acid for proteome-wide detection of changes in the amounts of proteins synthesized during a brief period upon variations in cellular growth conditions. Comparison of such data with relative mRNA levels enables assessment of the separate contributions of transcription and translation to the regulation of gene expression. PMID:19321432

  5. Deciphering systemic wound responses of the pumpkin extrafascicular phloem by metabolomics and stable isotope-coded protein labeling.

    PubMed

    Gaupels, Frank; Sarioglu, Hakan; Beckmann, Manfred; Hause, Bettina; Spannagl, Manuel; Draper, John; Lindermayr, Christian; Durner, Jörg

    2012-12-01

    In cucurbits, phloem latex exudes from cut sieve tubes of the extrafascicular phloem (EFP), serving in defense against herbivores. We analyzed inducible defense mechanisms in the EFP of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) after leaf damage. As an early systemic response, wounding elicited transient accumulation of jasmonates and a decrease in exudation probably due to partial sieve tube occlusion by callose. The energy status of the EFP was enhanced as indicated by increased levels of ATP, phosphate, and intermediates of the citric acid cycle. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry also revealed that sucrose transport, gluconeogenesis/glycolysis, and amino acid metabolism were up-regulated after wounding. Combining ProteoMiner technology for the enrichment of low-abundance proteins with stable isotope-coded protein labeling, we identified 51 wound-regulated phloem proteins. Two Sucrose-Nonfermenting1-related protein kinases and a 32-kD 14-3-3 protein are candidate central regulators of stress metabolism in the EFP. Other proteins, such as the Silverleaf Whitefly-Induced Protein1, Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase6, and Heat Shock Protein81, have known defensive functions. Isotope-coded protein labeling and western-blot analyses indicated that Cyclophilin18 is a reliable marker for stress responses of the EFP. As a hint toward the induction of redox signaling, we have observed delayed oxidation-triggered polymerization of the major Phloem Protein1 (PP1) and PP2, which correlated with a decline in carbonylation of PP2. In sum, wounding triggered transient sieve tube occlusion, enhanced energy metabolism, and accumulation of defense-related proteins in the pumpkin EFP. The systemic wound response was mediated by jasmonate and redox signaling.

  6. The effects of sex, tissue type, and dietary components on stable isotope discrimination factors (Δ13C and Δ15N) in mammalian omnivores.

    PubMed

    Kurle, Carolyn M; Koch, Paul L; Tershy, Bernie R; Croll, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    We tested the effects of sex, tissue, and diet on stable isotope discrimination factors (Δ(13)C and Δ(15)N) for six tissues from rats fed four diets with varied C and N sources, but comparable protein quality and quantity. The Δ(13)C and Δ(15)N values ranged from 1.7-4.1‰ and 0.4-4.3‰, respectively. Females had higher Δ(15)N values than males because males grew larger, whereas Δ(13)C values did not differ between sexes. Differences in Δ(13)C values among tissue types increased with increasing variability in dietary carbon sources. The Δ(15)N values increased with increasing dietary δ(15)N values for all tissues except liver and serum, which have fast stable isotope turnover times, and differences in Δ(15)N values among tissue types decreased with increasing dietary animal protein. Our results demonstrate that variability in dietary sources can affect Δ(13)C values, protein source affects Δ(15)N values even when protein quality and quantity are controlled, and the isotope turnover rate of a tissue can influence the degree to which diet affects Δ(15)N values.

  7. Identification of reactive cysteines in a protein using arsenic labeling and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Meiling; Wang, Hailin; Wang, Zhongwen; Li, Xing-Fang; Le, X Chris

    2008-08-01

    Trivalent arsenicals have high affinity for thiols (such as free cysteines) in proteins. We describe here the use of this property to develop a collision-induced dissociation (CID) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) technique for the identification of reactive cysteines in proteins. A trivalent arsenic species, dimethylarsinous acid (DMA (III)), with a residue mass (103.9607) and mass defect distinct from the normal 20 amino acids, was used to selectively label reactive cysteine residues in proteins. The CID fragment ions of the arsenic-labeled sequences shifted away from the more abundant normal fragments that would otherwise overlap with the ions of interest. Along with the internal and immonium ions, the arsenic-labeled fragment ions served as MS/MS signatures for identification of the binding sites and for assessment of the relative reactivity of individual cysteine residues in a protein. Using this method, we have identified two highly reactive binding sites in rat hemoglobin (Hb): Cys-13alpha and Cys-125beta. Cys-13alpha was bound to DMA (III) in the Hb of rats fed with arsenic, and this binding was responsible for arsenic accumulation in rat blood, while Cys-125beta was found to bind to glutathione in rat blood. This study revealed the relative reactivity of the cysteines in rat Hb in the following decreasing order: Cys-13alpha > Cys-111alpha > Cys-104alpha and Cys-13alpha > Cys-125beta > Cys-93beta. Arsenic-labeling is easy and fast for identification of active binding sites without enzymatic digestion and acid hydrolysis, and useful for characterization and identification of metal binding sites in other proteins.

  8. Single molecule super-resolution imaging of proteins in living Salmonella enterica using self-labelling enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Barlag, Britta; Beutel, Oliver; Janning, Dennis; Czarniak, Frederik; Richter, Christian P.; Kommnick, Carina; Göser, Vera; Kurre, Rainer; Fabiani, Florian; Erhardt, Marc; Piehler, Jacob; Hensel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of the subcellular localization, dynamics and interaction of proteins and protein complexes in prokaryotes is complicated by the small size of the cells. Super-resolution microscopy (SRM) comprise various new techniques that allow light microscopy with a resolution that can be up to ten-fold higher than conventional light microscopy. Application of SRM techniques to living prokaryotes demands the introduction of suitable fluorescent probes, usually by fusion of proteins of interest to fluorescent proteins with properties compatible to SRM. Here we describe an approach that is based on the genetically encoded self-labelling enzymes HaloTag and SNAP-tag. Proteins of interest are fused to HaloTag or SNAP-tag and cell permeable substrates can be labelled with various SRM-compatible fluorochromes. Fusions of the enzyme tags to subunits of a type I secretion system (T1SS), a T3SS, the flagellar rotor and a transcription factor were generated and analysed in living Salmonella enterica. The new approach is versatile in tagging proteins of interest in bacterial cells and allows to determine the number, relative subcellular localization and dynamics of protein complexes in living cells. PMID:27534893

  9. Use of label-free optical biosensors to detect modulation of potassium channels by G-protein coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Matthew R; Shamah, Steven M; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2014-02-10

    Ion channels control the electrical properties of neurons and other excitable cell types by selectively allowing ions to flow through the plasma membrane(1). To regulate neuronal excitability, the biophysical properties of ion channels are modified by signaling proteins and molecules, which often bind to the channels themselves to form a heteromeric channel complex(2,3). Traditional assays examining the interaction between channels and regulatory proteins require exogenous labels that can potentially alter the protein's behavior and decrease the physiological relevance of the target, while providing little information on the time course of interactions in living cells. Optical biosensors, such as the X-BODY Biosciences BIND Scanner system, use a novel label-free technology, resonance wavelength grating (RWG) optical biosensors, to detect changes in resonant reflected light near the biosensor. This assay allows the detection of the relative change in mass within the bottom portion of living cells adherent to the biosensor surface resulting from ligand induced changes in cell adhesion and spreading, toxicity, proliferation, and changes in protein-protein interactions near the plasma membrane. RWG optical biosensors have been used to detect changes in mass near the plasma membrane of cells following activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), receptor tyrosine kinases, and other cell surface receptors. Ligand-induced changes in ion channel-protein interactions can also be studied using this assay. In this paper, we will describe the experimental procedure used to detect the modulation of Slack-B sodium-activated potassium (KNa) channels by GPCRs.

  10. Development of Cy5.5-Labeled Hydrophobically Modified Glycol Chitosan Nanoparticles for Protein Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Amanda

    , Cy5.5, was used to label the glycol chitosan nanoparticles to enable the noninvasive imaging of living cells. A model protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA) was encapsulated within the glycol chitosan nanoparticles, and its loading efficiency was calculated to be 88%. Release profile of the BSA showed that only 4% (cumulative mass) was achieved by day 7. Minimal cytotoxicity was observed after delivery of the chitosan vehicle alone. To test degradation kinetics, the BSA-loaded nanoparticles were incubated with lysozyme for up to 3 hours and were applied in SDS-PAGE to determine if enzyme-catalyzed degradation triggered premature release of the encapsulated protein. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to visualize the spatiotemporal distribution of FITC-BSA-loaded glycol chitosan nanoparticles after delivery to the rat osteosarcoma (ROS17/2.8) and mouse calvaria-derived (MC3T3-E1) cells.

  11. Probabilistic Interaction Network of Evidence Algorithm and its Application to Complete Labeling of Peak Lists from Protein NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Arash; Assadi, Amir H.; Markley, John L.; Eghbalnia, Hamid R.

    2009-01-01

    The process of assigning a finite set of tags or labels to a collection of observations, subject to side conditions, is notable for its computational complexity. This labeling paradigm is of theoretical and practical relevance to a wide range of biological applications, including the analysis of data from DNA microarrays, metabolomics experiments, and biomolecular nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We present a novel algorithm, called Probabilistic Interaction Network of Evidence (PINE), that achieves robust, unsupervised probabilistic labeling of data. The computational core of PINE uses estimates of evidence derived from empirical distributions of previously observed data, along with consistency measures, to drive a fictitious system M with Hamiltonian H to a quasi-stationary state that produces probabilistic label assignments for relevant subsets of the data. We demonstrate the successful application of PINE to a key task in protein NMR spectroscopy: that of converting peak lists extracted from various NMR experiments into assignments associated with probabilities for their correctness. This application, called PINE-NMR, is available from a freely accessible computer server (http://pine.nmrfam.wisc.edu). The PINE-NMR server accepts as input the sequence of the protein plus user-specified combinations of data corresponding to an extensive list of NMR experiments; it provides as output a probabilistic assignment of NMR signals (chemical shifts) to sequence-specific backbone and aliphatic side chain atoms plus a probabilistic determination of the protein secondary structure. PINE-NMR can accommodate prior information about assignments or stable isotope labeling schemes. As part of the analysis, PINE-NMR identifies, verifies, and rectifies problems related to chemical shift referencing or erroneous input data. PINE-NMR achieves robust and consistent results that have been shown to be effective in subsequent steps of NMR structure determination. PMID

  12. Probabilistic interaction network of evidence algorithm and its application to complete labeling of peak lists from protein NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bahrami, Arash; Assadi, Amir H; Markley, John L; Eghbalnia, Hamid R

    2009-03-01

    The process of assigning a finite set of tags or labels to a collection of observations, subject to side conditions, is notable for its computational complexity. This labeling paradigm is of theoretical and practical relevance to a wide range of biological applications, including the analysis of data from DNA microarrays, metabolomics experiments, and biomolecular nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. We present a novel algorithm, called Probabilistic Interaction Network of Evidence (PINE), that achieves robust, unsupervised probabilistic labeling of data. The computational core of PINE uses estimates of evidence derived from empirical distributions of previously observed data, along with consistency measures, to drive a fictitious system M with Hamiltonian H to a quasi-stationary state that produces probabilistic label assignments for relevant subsets of the data. We demonstrate the successful application of PINE to a key task in protein NMR spectroscopy: that of converting peak lists extracted from various NMR experiments into assignments associated with probabilities for their correctness. This application, called PINE-NMR, is available from a freely accessible computer server (http://pine.nmrfam.wisc.edu). The PINE-NMR server accepts as input the sequence of the protein plus user-specified combinations of data corresponding to an extensive list of NMR experiments; it provides as output a probabilistic assignment of NMR signals (chemical shifts) to sequence-specific backbone and aliphatic side chain atoms plus a probabilistic determination of the protein secondary structure. PINE-NMR can accommodate prior information about assignments or stable isotope labeling schemes. As part of the analysis, PINE-NMR identifies, verifies, and rectifies problems related to chemical shift referencing or erroneous input data. PINE-NMR achieves robust and consistent results that have been shown to be effective in subsequent steps of NMR structure determination.

  13. Potential for assessing long-term dynamics in soil nitrogen availability from variations in delta15N of tree rings.

    PubMed

    Hart, S C; Classen, A T

    2003-03-01

    Numerous researchers have used the isotopic signatures of C, H, and O in tree rings to provide a long-term record of changes in the physiological status, climate, or water-source use of trees. The frequently limiting element N is also found in tree rings, and variation in its isotopic signature may provide insight into long-term changes in soil N availability of a site. However, research has suggested that N is readily translocated among tree ring of different years; such infidelity between the isotopic compositions of the N taken up from the soil and the N contained in the ring of that growth year would obscure the long-term N isotopic record. We used a 15-year 15N-tracer study to assess the degree of N translocation among tree rings in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees growing in a young, mixed-conifer plantation. We also measured delta13C and delta15N values in unlabeled trees to assess the degree of their covariance in wood tissue, and to explore the potential for a biological linkage between them. We found that the maximum delta15N values in rings from the labeled trees occurred in the ring formed one-year after the 15N was applied to the roots. The delta15N value of rings from labeled trees declined exponentially and bidirectionally from this maximum peak, toward younger and older rings. The unlabeled trees showed considerable interannual variation in the delta15N values of their rings (up to 3 and 5 per thousand), but these values correlated poorly between trees over time and differed by as much as 6 per thousand. Removal of extractives from the wood reduced their delta15N value, but the change was fairly small and consistent among unlabeled trees. The delta13C and delta15N values of tree rings were correlated over time in only one of the unlabeled trees. Across all trees, both delta13C values of tree rings and annual stem wood production were well correlated with annual precipitation, suggesting that soil water balance is an important environmental

  14. Native FKBP12 engineering by ligand-directed tosyl chemistry: labeling properties and application to photo-cross-linking of protein complexes in vitro and in living cells.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Tomonori; Tsukiji, Shinya; Hamachi, Itaru

    2012-02-01

    The ability to modify target "native" (endogenous) proteins selectively in living cells with synthetic molecules should provide powerful tools for chemical biology. To this end, we recently developed a novel protein labeling technique termed ligand-directed tosyl (LDT) chemistry. This method uses labeling reagents in which a protein ligand and a synthetic probe are connected by a tosylate ester group. We previously demonstrated its applicability to the selective chemical labeling of several native proteins in living cells and mice. However, many fundamental features of this chemistry remain to be studied. In this work, we investigated the relationship between the LDT reagent structure and labeling properties by using native FK506-binding protein 12 (FKBP12) as a target protein. In vitro experiments revealed that the length and rigidity of the spacer structure linking the protein ligand and the tosylate group have significant effects on the overall labeling yield and labeling site. In addition to histidine, which we reported previously, tyrosine and glutamate residues were identified as amino acids that are modified by LDT-mediated labeling. Through the screening of various spacer structures, piperazine was found to be optimal for FKBP12 labeling in terms of labeling efficiency and site specificity. Using a piperazine-based LDT reagent containing a photoreactive probe, we successfully demonstrated the labeling and UV-induced covalent cross-linking of FKBP12 and its interacting proteins in vitro and in living cells. This study not only furthers our understanding of the basic reaction properties of LDT chemistry but also extends the applicability of this method to the investigation of biological processes in mammalian cells.

  15. Survey of Surface Proteins from the Pathogenic Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae Strain 7448 Using a Biotin Cell Surface Labeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Reolon, Luciano Antonio; Martello, Carolina Lumertz; Schrank, Irene Silveira; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of the repertoire of proteins exposed on the cell surface by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae), the etiological agent of enzootic pneumonia in pigs, is critical to understand physiological processes associated with bacterial infection capacity, survival and pathogenesis. Previous in silico studies predicted that about a third of the genes in the M. hyopneumoniae genome code for surface proteins, but so far, just a few of them have experimental confirmation of their expression and surface localization. In this work, M. hyopneumoniae surface proteins were labeled in intact cells with biotin, and affinity-captured biotin-labeled proteins were identified by a gel-based liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry approach. A total of 20 gel slices were separately analyzed by mass spectrometry, resulting in 165 protein identifications corresponding to 59 different protein species. The identified surface exposed proteins better defined the set of M. hyopneumoniae proteins exposed to the host and added confidence to in silico predictions. Several proteins potentially related to pathogenesis, were identified, including known adhesins and also hypothetical proteins with adhesin-like topologies, consisting of a transmembrane helix and a large tail exposed at the cell surface. The results provided a better picture of the M. hyopneumoniae cell surface that will help in the understanding of processes important for bacterial pathogenesis. Considering the experimental demonstration of surface exposure, adhesion-like topology predictions and absence of orthologs in the closely related, non-pathogenic species Mycoplasma flocculare, several proteins could be proposed as potential targets for the development of drugs, vaccines and/or immunodiagnostic tests for enzootic pneumonia. PMID:25386928

  16. Multi-label ℓ2-regularized logistic regression for predicting activation/inhibition relationships in human protein-protein interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Suyu; Zhang, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks are naturally viewed as infrastructure to infer signalling pathways. The descriptors of signal events between two interacting proteins such as upstream/downstream signal flow, activation/inhibition relationship and protein modification are indispensable for inferring signalling pathways from PPI networks. However, such descriptors are not available in most cases as most PPI networks are seldom semantically annotated. In this work, we extend ℓ2-regularized logistic regression to the scenario of multi-label learning for predicting the activation/inhibition relationships in human PPI networks. The phenomenon that both activation and inhibition relationships exist between two interacting proteins is computationally modelled by multi-label learning framework. The problem of GO (gene ontology) sparsity is tackled by introducing the homolog knowledge as independent homolog instances. ℓ2-regularized logistic regression is accordingly adopted here to penalize the homolog noise and to reduce the computational complexity of the double-sized training data. Computational results show that the proposed method achieves satisfactory multi-label learning performance and outperforms the existing phenotype correlation method on the experimental data of Drosophila melanogaster. Several predictions have been validated against recent literature. The predicted activation/inhibition relationships in human PPI networks are provided in the supplementary file for further biomedical research. PMID:27819359

  17. Marking Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) With Rubidium or 15N.

    PubMed

    Klick, J; Yang, W Q; Bruck, D J

    2015-06-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) has caused significant economic damage to berry and stone fruit production regions. Markers that are systemic in plants and easily transferred to target organisms are needed to track D. suzukii exploitation of host resources and trophic interactions. High and low concentrations of the trace element, rubidium (Rb), and the stable isotope, 15N, were tested to mark D. suzukii larvae feeding on fruits of enriched strawberry plants grown in containers under greenhouse conditions. Fly marker content and proportion of flies marked 1, 7, and 14 d after emergence from enriched fruits and fly dry mass were analyzed. Nearly 100% of the flies analyzed 14 d after emerging from 15N-enriched plants were marked, whereas only 30-75% and 0-3% were marked 14 d after emerging from high and low Rb concentration plants, respectively. Rapid Rb decay, strong 15N persistence, and the economics of using these markers in the field to elucidate D. suzukii pest ecology are discussed.

  18. 15N chemical shift referencing in solid state NMR.

    PubMed

    Bertani, Philippe; Raya, Jésus; Bechinger, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy has much advanced during the last decade and provides a multitude of data that can be used for high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules, polymers, inorganic compounds or macromolecules. In some cases the chemical shift referencing has become a limiting factor to the precision of the structure calculations and we have therefore evaluated a number of methods used in proton-decoupled (15)N solid-state NMR spectroscopy. For (13)C solid-state NMR spectroscopy adamantane is generally accepted as an external standard, but to calibrate the (15)N chemical shift scale several standards are in use. As a consequence the published chemical shift values exhibit considerable differences (up to 22 ppm). In this paper we report the (15)N chemical shift of several commonly used references compounds in order to allow for comparison and recalibration of published data and future work. We show that (15)NH4Cl in its powdered form (at 39.3 ppm with respect to liquid NH3) is a suitable external reference as it produces narrow lines when compared to other reference compounds and at the same time allows for the set-up of cross-polarization NMR experiments. The compound is suitable to calibrate magic angle spinning and static NMR experiments. Finally the temperature variation of (15)NH4Cl chemical shift is reported.

  19. Evaluation of Fluorophores to Label SNAP-Tag Fused Proteins for Multicolor Single-Molecule Tracking Microscopy in Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Peter J.; Corrêa, Ivan R.; Sonntag, Michael H.; Ibach, Jenny; Brunsveld, Luc; Kanger, Johannes S.; Subramaniam, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Single-molecule tracking has become a widely used technique for studying protein dynamics and their organization in the complex environment of the cell. In particular, the spatiotemporal distribution of membrane receptors is an active field of study due to its putative role in the regulation of signal transduction. The SNAP-tag is an intrinsically monovalent and highly specific genetic tag for attaching a fluorescent label to a protein of interest. Little information is currently available on the choice of optimal fluorescent dyes for single-molecule microscopy utilizing the SNAP-tag labeling system. We surveyed 6 green and 16 red excitable dyes for their suitability in single-molecule microscopy of SNAP-tag fusion proteins in live cells. We determined the nonspecific binding levels and photostability of these dye conjugates when bound to a SNAP-tag fused membrane protein in live cells. We found that only a limited subset of the dyes tested is suitable for single-molecule tracking microscopy. The results show that a careful choice of the dye to conjugate to the SNAP-substrate to label SNAP-tag fusion proteins is very important, as many dyes suffer from either rapid photobleaching or high nonspecific staining. These characteristics appear to be unpredictable, which motivated the need to perform the systematic survey presented here. We have developed a protocol for evaluating the best dyes, and for the conditions that we evaluated, we find that Dy 549 and CF 640 are the best choices tested for single-molecule tracking. Using an optimal dye pair, we also demonstrate the possibility of dual-color single-molecule imaging of SNAP-tag fusion proteins. This survey provides an overview of the photophysical and imaging properties of a range of SNAP-tag fluorescent substrates, enabling the selection of optimal dyes and conditions for single-molecule imaging of SNAP-tagged fusion proteins in eukaryotic cell lines. PMID:25140415

  20. Probing Protein 3D Structures and Conformational Changes Using Electrochemistry-Assisted Isotope Labeling Cross-Linking Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qiuling; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Shiyong; Chen, Hao

    2016-05-01

    This study presents a new chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry (MS) method in combination with electrochemistry and isotope labeling strategy for probing both protein three-dimensional (3D) structures and conformational changes. For the former purpose, the target protein/protein complex is cross-linked with equal mole of premixed light and heavy isotope labeled cross-linkers carrying electrochemically reducible disulfide bonds (i.e., DSP-d0 and DSP-d8 in this study, DSP = dithiobis[succinimidyl propionate]), digested and then electrochemically reduced followed with online MS analysis. Cross-links can be quickly identified because of their reduced intensities upon electrolysis and the presence of doublet isotopic peak characteristics. In addition, electroreduction converts cross-links into linear peptides, facilitating MS/MS analysis to gain increased information about their sequences and modification sites. For the latter purpose of probing protein conformational changes, an altered procedure is adopted, in which the protein in two different conformations is cross-linked using DSP-d0 and DSP-d8 separately, and then the two protein samples are mixed in 1:1 molar ratio. The merged sample is subjected to digestion and electrochemical mass spectrometric analysis. In such a comparative cross-linking experiment, cross-links could still be rapidly recognized based on their responses to electrolysis. More importantly, the ion intensity ratios of light and heavy isotope labeled cross-links reveal the conformational changes of the protein, as exemplified by examining the effect of Ca(2+) on calmodulin conformation alternation. This new cross-linking MS method is fast and would have high value in structural biology. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  1. Probing Protein 3D Structures and Conformational Changes Using Electrochemistry-Assisted Isotope Labeling Cross-Linking Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Qiuling; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Shiyong; Chen, Hao

    2016-05-01

    This study presents a new chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry (MS) method in combination with electrochemistry and isotope labeling strategy for probing both protein three-dimensional (3D) structures and conformational changes. For the former purpose, the target protein/protein complex is cross-linked with equal mole of premixed light and heavy isotope labeled cross-linkers carrying electrochemically reducible disulfide bonds (i.e., DSP-d0 and DSP-d8 in this study, DSP = dithiobis[succinimidyl propionate]), digested and then electrochemically reduced followed with online MS analysis. Cross-links can be quickly identified because of their reduced intensities upon electrolysis and the presence of doublet isotopic peak characteristics. In addition, electroreduction converts cross-links into linear peptides, facilitating MS/MS analysis to gain increased information about their sequences and modification sites. For the latter purpose of probing protein conformational changes, an altered procedure is adopted, in which the protein in two different conformations is cross-linked using DSP-d0 and DSP-d8 separately, and then the two protein samples are mixed in 1:1 molar ratio. The merged sample is subjected to digestion and electrochemical mass spectrometric analysis. In such a comparative cross-linking experiment, cross-links could still be rapidly recognized based on their responses to electrolysis. More importantly, the ion intensity ratios of light and heavy isotope labeled cross-links reveal the conformational changes of the protein, as exemplified by examining the effect of Ca2+ on calmodulin conformation alternation. This new cross-linking MS method is fast and would have high value in structural biology.

  2. 15N and 13C NMR Determination of Allantoin Metabolism in Developing Soybean Cotyledons 1

    PubMed Central

    Coker, George T.; Schaefer, Jacob

    1985-01-01

    The metabolism of allantoin by immature cotyledons of soybean (Glycine max L. cv Elf) grown in culture was investigated using solid state 13C and 15N nuclear magnetic resonance. All of the nitrogens of allantoin were incorporated into protein in a manner similar to that of each other and to the amide nitrogen of glutamine. The C-2 of allantoin was not incorporated into cellular material; presumably it was lost as CO2. About 50% of the C-5 of allantoin was incorporated into cellular material as a methylene carbon; the other 50% was presumably also lost as CO2. The 13C-15N bonds of [5-13C;1-15N] and [2-13C;1,3-15N]allantoin were broken prior to the incorporation of the nitrogens into protein. These data are consistent with allantoin's degradation to two molecules of urea and one two-carbon fragment. Cotyledons grown on allantoin as a source of nitrogen accumulated 21% of the nitrogen of cotyledons grown on glutamine. Only 50% of the nitrogen of the degraded allantoin was incorporated into the cotyledon as organic nitrogen; the other 50% was recovered as NH4+ in the media in which the cotyledons had been grown. The latter results suggests that the lower accumulation of nitrogen by cotyledons grown on allantoin was in part due to failure to assimilate NH4+ produced from allantoin. The seed coats had a higher activity of glutamine synthetase and a higher rate of allantoin degradation than cotyledons indicating that seed coats play an important role in the assimilation and degradation of allantoin. PMID:16663995

  3. Label-free quantification proteomics reveals novel calcium binding proteins in matrix vesicles isolated from mineralizing Saos-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Cui, Yazhou; Luan, Jing; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Genglin; Zhang, Xiumei; Han, Jinxiang

    2013-06-01

    Matrix vesicles (MVs) involved in the initiation of mineralization by deposition of hydroxyapatite (HA) in their lumen are released by the budding of mineralization-competent cells during skeletogenesis and bone development. To identify additional mineralization-related proteins, MVs were isolated from non-stimulated and stimulated Saos-2 cells in culture via an Exoquick™ approach and the corresponding proteomes were identified and quantified with label-free quantitative proteome technology. The isolated MVs were confirmed by electron microscopy, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), biomarkers, and mineral formation analyses. Label-free quantitative proteome analysis revealed that 19 calcium binding proteins (CaBPs), including Grp94, calnexin, calreticulin, calmodulin, and S100A4/A10, were up-regulated in MVs of Saos-2 cells upon stimulation of mineralization. This result provides new clues to study the mechanism of the initiation of MV-mediated mineralization.

  4. Use of enzyme-labelled protein G assay for the detection of anti Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in wild animal sera.

    PubMed

    Deruaz, D; Eid, P; Deruaz, J; Sempéré, A; Bourgouin, C; Rodhain, F; Pérez-Eid, C

    1996-10-01

    A modified ELISA was developed for the detection of anti-Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) IgG antibodies in wild animal sera based on an Enzyme-Labelled-protein G Assay (ELGA). Microplates were coated with an extract of Bb sensu stricto strain (SVI) as antigen. Specific antibodies of the serum samples were detected by a peroxidase-labelled-protein G. Using comparative immunodiagnosis by means of a passive hemagglutination test (HA), ELGA was tested on 82 roe-deer blood samples. A correlation was found between the two methods (r = 0.66). Good reproducibility of titers was observed by ELGA technique. A minimal cross-reactivity was discovered with Leptospira. ELGA could facilitate the recognition of specific antibodies in collections of wild animal sera.

  5. Nitrogen input 15N-signatures are reflected in plant 15N natural abundances of N-rich tropical forest in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdisa Gurmesa, Geshere; Lu, Xiankai; Gundersen, Per; Yunting, Fang; Mo, Jiangming

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we tested the measurement of natural abundance of 15N15N) for its ability to assess changes in N cycling due to increased N deposition in two forest types; namely, an old-growth broadleaved forest and a pine forest, in southern China. We measured δ15N values of inorganic N in input and output fluxes under ambient N deposition, and N concentration and δ15N of major ecosystem compartments under ambient and increased N deposition. Our results showed that N deposition to the forests was 15N-depleted, and was dominated by NH4-N. Plants were 15N-depleted due to imprint from the 15N-depleted atmospheric N deposition. The old-growth forest had larger N concentration and was more 15N-enriched than the pine forest. Nitrogen addition did not significantly affect N concentration, but it significantly increased δ15N values of plants, and slightly more so in the pine forest, toward the 15N signature of the added N in both forests. The result indicates that the pine forest may rely more on the 15N-depleted deposition N. Soil δ15N values were slightly decreased by the N addition. Our result suggests that ecosystem δ15N is more sensitive to the changes in ecosystem N status and N cycling than N concentration in N-saturated sub-tropical forests.

  6. Proteome-wide Discovery and Characterizations of Nucleotide-binding Proteins with Affinity-labeled Chemical Probes

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yongsheng; Guo, Lei; Jiang, Xinning; Wang, Yinsheng

    2013-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding proteins play pivotal roles in many cellular processes including cell signaling. However, targeted study of sub-proteome of nucleotide-binding proteins, especially protein kinases and GTP-binding proteins, remained challenging. Here, we reported a general strategy in using affinity-labeled chemical probes to enrich, identify, and quantify ATP- and GTP-binding proteins in the entire human proteome. Our results revealed that the ATP/GTP affinity probes facilitated the identification of 100 GTP-binding proteins and 206 kinases with the use of low mg quantities of lysate of HL-60 cells. In combination with the use of SILAC-based quantitative proteomics method, we assessed the ATP/GTP binding selectivities of nucleotide-binding proteins at the global proteome scale. Our results confirmed known and, more importantly, unveiled new ATP/GTP-binding preferences of hundreds of nucleotide-binding proteins. Additionally, our strategy led to the identification of three and one unique nucleotide-binding motifs for kinases and GTP-binding proteins, respectively, and the characterizations of the nucleotide binding selectivities of individual motifs. Our strategy for capturing and characterizing ATP/GTP-binding proteins should be generally applicable for those proteins that can interact with other nucleotides. PMID:23413923

  7. Evaluation of stereo-array isotope labeling (SAIL) patterns for automated structural analysis of proteins with CYANA.

    PubMed

    Ikeya, Teppei; Terauchi, Tsutomu; Güntert, Peter; Kainosho, Masatsune

    2006-07-01

    Recently we have developed the stereo-array isotope labeling (SAIL) technique to overcome the conventional molecular size limitation in NMR protein structure determination by employing complete stereo- and regiospecific patterns of stable isotopes. SAIL sharpens signals and simplifies spectra without the loss of requisite structural information, thus making large classes of proteins newly accessible to detailed solution structure determination. The automated structure calculation program CYANA can efficiently analyze SAIL-NOESY spectra and calculate structures without manual analysis. Nevertheless, the original SAIL method might not be capable of determining the structures of proteins larger than 50 kDa or membrane proteins, for which the spectra are characterized by many broadened and overlapped peaks. Here we have carried out simulations of new SAIL patterns optimized for minimal relaxation and overlap, to evaluate the combined use of SAIL and CYANA for solving the structures of larger proteins and membrane proteins. The modified approach reduces the number of peaks to nearly half of that observed with uniform labeling, while still yielding well-defined structures and is expected to enable NMR structure determinations of these challenging systems.

  8. Site-specific labeling of proteins and peptides with trans-cyclooctene containing handles capable of tetrazine ligation.

    PubMed

    Wollack, James W; Monson, Benjamin J; Dozier, Jonathan K; Dalluge, Joseph J; Poss, Kristina; Hilderbrand, Scott A; Distefano, Mark D

    2014-08-01

    There is a growing library of functionalized non-natural substrates for the enzyme protein farnesyltransferase (PFTase). PFTase covalently attaches these functionalized non-natural substrates to proteins ending in the sequence CAAX, where C is a cysteine that becomes alkylated, A represents an aliphatic amino acid, and X is Ser, Met, Ala, or Gln. Reported substrates include a variety of functionalities that allow modified proteins to undergo subsequent bioconjugation reactions. To date the most common strategy used in this approach has been copper catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). While being fast and bioorthogonal CuAAC has limited use in live cell experiments due to copper's toxicity.(1) Here, we report the synthesis of trans-cyclooctene geranyl diphosphate. This substrate can be synthesized from geraniol in six steps and be enzymatically transferred to peptides and proteins that end in a CAAX sequence. Proteins and peptides site-specially modified with trans-cyclooctene geranyl diphosphate were subsequently targeted for further modification via tetrazine ligation. As tetrazine ligation is bioorthogonal, fast, and is contingent on ring strain rather than the addition of a copper catalyst, this labeling strategy should prove useful for labeling proteins where the presence of copper may hinder solubility or biological reactivity.

  9. Conformation of alamethicin in oriented phospholipid bilayers determined by (15)N solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed Central

    Bak, M; Bywater, R P; Hohwy, M; Thomsen, J K; Adelhorst, K; Jakobsen, H J; Sørensen, O W; Nielsen, N C

    2001-01-01

    The conformation of the 20-residue antibiotic ionophore alamethicin in macroscopically oriented phospholipid bilayers has been studied using (15)N solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in combination with molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. Differently (15)N-labeled variants of alamethicin and an analog with three of the alpha-amino-isobutyric acid residues replaced by alanines have been investigated to establish experimental structural constraints and determine the orientation of alamethicin in hydrated phospholipid (dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine) bilayers and to investigate the potential for a major kink in the region of the central Pro(14) residue. From the anisotropic (15)N chemical shifts and (1)H-(15)N dipolar couplings determined for alamethicin with (15)N-labeling on the Ala(6), Val(9), and Val(15) residues and incorporated into phospholipid bilayer with a peptide:lipid molar ratio of 1:8, we deduce that alamethicin has a largely linear alpha-helical structure spanning the membrane with the molecular axis tilted by 10-20 degrees relative to the bilayer normal. In particular, we find compatibility with a straight alpha-helix tilted by 17 degrees and a slightly kinked molecular dynamics structure tilted by 11 degrees relative to the bilayer normal. In contrast, the structural constraints derived by solid-state NMR appear not to be compatible with any of several model structures crossing the membrane with vanishing tilt angle or the earlier reported x-ray diffraction structure (Fox and Richards, Nature. 300:325-330, 1982). The solid-state NMR-compatible structures may support the formation of a left-handed and parallel multimeric ion channel. PMID:11509381

  10. Label-free detection of protein molecules secreted from an organ-on-a-chip model for drug toxicity assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Andres W.; Zhang, Yu S.; Aleman, Julio; Alerasool, Parissa; Dokmeci, Mehmet R.; Khademhosseini, Ali; Ye, Jing Yong

    2016-03-01

    Clinical attrition is about 30% from failure of drug candidates due to toxic side effects, increasing the drug development costs significantly and slowing down the drug discovery process. This partly originates from the fact that the animal models do not accurately represent human physiology. Hence there is a clear unmet need for developing drug toxicity assays using human-based models that are complementary to traditional animal models before starting expensive clinical trials. Organ-on-a-chip techniques developed in recent years have generated a variety of human organ models mimicking different human physiological conditions. However, it is extremely challenging to monitor the transient and long-term response of the organ models to drug treatments during drug toxicity tests. First, when an organ-on-a-chip model interacts with drugs, a certain amount of protein molecules may be released into the medium due to certain drug effects, but the amount of the protein molecules is limited, since the organ tissue grown inside microfluidic bioreactors have minimum volume. Second, traditional fluorescence techniques cannot be utilized for real-time monitoring of the concentration of the protein molecules, because the protein molecules are continuously secreted from the tissue and it is practically impossible to achieve fluorescence labeling in the dynamically changing environment. Therefore, direct measurements of the secreted protein molecules with a label-free approach is strongly desired for organs-on-a-chip applications. In this paper, we report the development of a photonic crystal-based biosensor for label-free assays of secreted protein molecules from a liver-on-a-chip model. Ultrahigh detection sensitivity and specificity have been demonstrated.

  11. Localization of 15N uptake in a Tibetan alpine Kobresia pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleuß, Per-Marten; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    The Kobresia Pygmea ecotone covers approximately 450.000 km2 and is of large global and regional importance due several socio-ecological aspects. For instance Kobresia pastures store high amounts of carbon, nitrogen and other nutrients, represent large grazing areas for herbivores, provide a fast regrowth after grazing events and protect against mechanical degradation and soil erosion. However, Kobresia pastures are assumed to be a grazing induced and are accompanied with distinct root mats varying in thickness between 5-30 cm. Yet, less is known about the morphology and the functions of this root mats, especially in the background of a progressing degradation due to changes of climate and management. Thus we aimed to identify the importance of single soil layers for plant nutrition. Accordingly, nitrogen uptake from different soil depths and its remain in above-ground biomass (AGB), belowground biomass (BGB) and soil were determined by using a 15N pulse labeling approach during the vegetation period in summer 2012. 15N urea was injected into six different soil depths (0.5 cm, 2.5 cm, 7.5 cm, 12.5 cm, 17.5 cm, 22.5 cm / for each 4 replicates) and plots were sampled 45 days after the labeling. For soil and BGB samples were taken in strict sample intervals of 0-1 cm, 1-5 cm, 5-10 cm, 10-15 cm, 15-20 cm, 20-25 cm. Results indicate that total recovery (including AGB, BGB and soil) was highest, if tracer was injected into the top 5 cm and subsequently decreased with decreasing injection depth. This is especially the case for the 15N recovery of BGB, which is clearly attributed to the root density and strongly decreased with soil depth. In contrast, the root activity derived from the 15N content of roots increased with soil depth, which is primary associated to a proportionate increase of living roots related to dead roots. However, most 15N was captured in plant biomass (67.5-85.3 % of total recovery), indicating high 15N uptake efficiency possibly due to N limitation

  12. Sensitive proton-detected solid-state NMR spectroscopy of large proteins with selective CH3 labelling: application to the 50S ribosome subunit

    PubMed Central

    Kurauskas, Vilius; Crublet, Elodie; Macek, Pavel; Kerfah, Rime; Gauto, Diego F.; Boisbouvier, Jérôme; Schanda, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Solid-state NMR spectroscopy allows the characterization of structure, interactions and dynamics of insoluble and/or very large proteins. Sensitivity and resolution are often major challenges for obtaining atomic-resolution information, in particular for very large protein complexes. Here we show that the use of deuterated, specifically CH3-labelled proteins result in significant sensitivity gains compared to previously employed CHD2 labelling, while line widths only marginally increase. We apply this labelling strategy to a 468 kDa-large dodecameric aminopeptidase, TET2, and the 1.6 MDa-large 50S ribosome subunit of Thermus thermophilus. PMID:27385633

  13. Assessment of Label-Free Quantification in Discovery Proteomics and Impact of Technological Factors and Natural Variability of Protein Abundance.

    PubMed

    Al Shweiki, Mhd Rami; Mönchgesang, Susann; Majovsky, Petra; Thieme, Domenika; Trutschel, Diana; Hoehenwarter, Wolfgang

    2017-04-07

    We evaluated the state of label-free discovery proteomics focusing especially on technological contributions and contributions of naturally occurring differences in protein abundance to the intersample variability in protein abundance estimates in this highly peptide-centric technology. First, the performance of popular quantitative proteomics software, Proteome Discoverer, Scaffold, MaxQuant, and Progenesis QIP, was benchmarked using their default parameters and some modified settings. Beyond this, the intersample variability in protein abundance estimates was decomposed into variability introduced by the entire technology itself and variable protein amounts inherent to individual plants of the Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0 accession. The technical component was considerably higher than the biological intersample variability, suggesting an effect on the degree and validity of reported biological changes in protein abundance. Surprisingly, the biological variability, protein abundance estimates, and protein fold changes were recorded differently by the software used to quantify the proteins, warranting caution in the comparison of discovery proteomics results. As expected, ∼99% of the proteome was invariant in the isogenic plants in the absence of environmental factors; however, few proteins showed substantial quantitative variability. This naturally occurring variation between individual organisms can have an impact on the causality of reported protein fold changes.

  14. Quantifying protein synthesis and degradation in Arabidopsis by dynamic 13CO2 labeling and analysis of enrichment in individual amino acids in their free pools and in protein.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Hirofumi; Obata, Toshihiro; Sulpice, Ronan; Fernie, Alisdair R; Stitt, Mark

    2015-05-01

    Protein synthesis and degradation represent substantial costs during plant growth. To obtain a quantitative measure of the rate of protein synthesis and degradation, we supplied (13)CO2 to intact Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Columbia-0 plants and analyzed enrichment in free amino acids and in amino acid residues in protein during a 24-h pulse and 4-d chase. While many free amino acids labeled slowly and incompletely, alanine showed a rapid rise in enrichment in the pulse and a decrease in the chase. Enrichment in free alanine was used to correct enrichment in alanine residues in protein and calculate the rate of protein synthesis. The latter was compared with the relative growth rate to estimate the rate of protein degradation. The relative growth rate was estimated from sequential determination of fresh weight, sequential images of rosette area, and labeling of glucose in the cell wall. In an 8-h photoperiod, protein synthesis and cell wall synthesis were 3-fold faster in the day than at night, protein degradation was slow (3%-4% d(-1)), and flux to growth and degradation resulted in a protein half-life of 3.5 d. In the starchless phosphoglucomutase mutant at night, protein synthesis was further decreased and protein degradation increased, while cell wall synthesis was totally inhibited, quantitatively accounting for the inhibition of growth in this mutant. We also investigated the rates of protein synthesis and degradation during leaf development, during growth at high temperature, and compared synthesis rates of Rubisco large and small subunits of in the light and dark.

  15. SAINT-MS1: protein-protein interaction scoring using label-free intensity data in affinity purification-mass spectrometry experiments.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyungwon; Glatter, Timo; Gstaiger, Mathias; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I

    2012-04-06

    We present a statistical method SAINT-MS1 for scoring protein-protein interactions based on the label-free MS1 intensity data from affinity purification-mass spectrometry (AP-MS) experiments. The method is an extension of Significance Analysis of INTeractome (SAINT), a model-based method previously developed for spectral count data. We reformulated the statistical model for log-transformed intensity data, including adequate treatment of missing observations, that is, interactions identified in some but not all replicate purifications. We demonstrate the performance of SAINT-MS1 using two recently published data sets: a small LTQ-Orbitrap data set with three replicate purifications of single human bait protein and control purifications and a larger drosophila data set targeting insulin receptor/target of rapamycin signaling pathway generated using an LTQ-FT instrument. Using the drosophila data set, we also compare and discuss the performance of SAINT analysis based on spectral count and MS1 intensity data in terms of the recovery of orthologous and literature-curated interactions. Given rapid advances in high mass accuracy instrumentation and intensity-based label-free quantification software, we expect that SAINT-MS1 will become a useful tool allowing improved detection of protein interactions in label-free AP-MS data, especially in the low abundance range.

  16. SAINT-MS1: protein-protein interaction scoring using label-free intensity data in affinity purification – mass spectrometry experiments

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyungwon; Glatter, Timo; Gstaiger, Mathias; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I.

    2013-01-01

    We present a statistical method SAINT-MS1 for scoring protein-protein interactions based on the label-free MS1 intensity data from affinity purification - mass spectrometry (AP-MS) experiments. The method is an extension of Significance Analysis of INTeractome (SAINT), a model-based method previously developed for spectral count data. We reformulated the statistical model for the log-transformed intensity data, including adequate treatment of missing observations, i.e. interactions whose quantitative data are inconsistent over replicate purifications. We demonstrate the performance of SAINT-MS1 using two recently published datasets: a small LTQ-Orbitrap dataset with three replicate purifications of single human bait protein and control purifications, and a larger drosophila dataset targeting insulin receptor/target of rapamycin signaling pathway generated using an LTQ-FT instrument. Using the drosophila dataset, we also compare and discuss the performance of SAINT analysis based on spectral count and MS1 intensity data in terms of the recovery of orthologous and literature-curated interactions. Given rapid advances in high mass accuracy instrumentation and intensity-based label-free quantification software, we expect that SAINT-MS1 will become a useful tool allowing improved detection of protein interactions in label-free AP-MS data, especially in the low abundance range. PMID:22352807

  17. Tracking the flow of bacterially derived 13C and 15N through soil faunal feeding channels.

    PubMed

    Crotty, F V; Blackshaw, R P; Murray, P J

    2011-06-15

    The soil food web has been referred to as a 'black box', a 'poor man's tropical rainforest' and an 'enigma', due to its opacity, diversity and the limited insight into feeding specificity. Here we investigate the flow of C and N through the soil food web as a way to gain understanding of the feeding interactions occurring. A bacterium, Pseudomonas lurida, was introduced to soil cores from two different habitats, a grassland and a woodland with the same soil type, enriched to 99 atom% in (13)C and (15)N, to trace the flow of bacterial C and N through the soil food web. Throughout the experiment the soil remained enriched in (13)C and (15)N. Almost all the invertebrates tested gained C and N enrichment indicative of the labelled bacteria, implying that bacterial feeding is a common mechanism within the soil. Only three groups were significantly enriched in both (13)C and (15)N in both habitats. These were Collembola (Entomobryomorpha), Acari (Oribatida), and Nematoda, indicating that these organisms are consuming the most bacteria within both systems. When the invertebrates were grouped into hypothesised trophic levels, those considered secondary decomposers were gaining the most enrichment across all invertebrates tested. This enrichment was also high in the micro-predators within the soil, implying that their main food source was the secondary decomposers, particularly the Collembola. Using an enriched bacterium to track the trophic transfer between organisms within the soil food web is a novel way of empirically showing that interactions are occurring, which normally cannot be seen.

  18. Synthesis and site-directed fluorescence labeling of azido proteins using eukaryotic cell-free orthogonal translation systems.

    PubMed

    Quast, Robert B; Claussnitzer, Iris; Merk, Helmut; Kubick, Stefan; Gerrits, Michael

    2014-04-15

    Eukaryotic cell-free systems based on wheat germ and Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells were equipped with an orthogonal amber suppressor tRNA-synthetase pair to synthesize proteins with a site-specifically incorporated p-azido-l-phenylalanine residue in order to provide their chemoselective fluorescence labeling with azide-reactive dyes by Staudinger ligation. The specificity of incorporation and bioorthogonality of labeling within complex reaction mixtures was shown by means of translation and fluorescence detection of two model proteins: β-glucuronidase and erythropoietin. The latter contained the azido amino acid in proximity to a signal peptide for membrane translocation into endogenous microsomal vesicles of the insect cell-based system. The results indicate a stoichiometric incorporation of the azido amino acid at the desired position within the proteins. Moreover, the compatibility of cotranslational protein translocation, including glycosylation and amber suppression-based incorporation of p-azido-l-phenylalanine within a cell-free system, is demonstrated. The presented approach should be particularly useful for providing eukaryotic and membrane-associated proteins for investigation by fluorescence-based techniques.

  19. Up-dated catalogue of HeLa cell proteins: percentages and characteristics of the major cell polypeptides labeled with a mixture of 16 /sup 14/C-labeled amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Bravo, R.; Celis, J.E.

    1982-04-01

    A total of 1357 polypeptides (946 acidic (isoelectric focusing) and 411 basic (nonequilibrium pH-gradient electrophoresis)) from human HeLa cells have been separated and catalogued with use of high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Of these polypeptides, 1266 were detected by labeling cells with (/sup 35/S)methionine, while the rest were revealed by silver staining or by labeling with a mixture of 16 /sup 14/C-labeled amino acids. For convenience, all these polypeptides have been numbered and are indicated in a large fold-out protein map. The percentages of the major /sup 14/C-labeled proteins have been determined, and for some we list a few characteristics such as: variation during the cell cycle; cellular distribution in cytoplasts and karyoplasts; presence in Triton- and salt-extracted cytoskeletons; and phosphorylation and sensitivity to neoplastic transformation.

  20. Covalent binding of aniline to humic substances. 2. 15N NMR studies of nucleophilic addition reactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Pettigrew, P.J.; Goldenberg, W.S.; Weber, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    Aromatic amines are known to undergo covalent binding with humic substances in the environment. Although previous studies have examined reaction conditions and proposed mechanisms, there has been no direct spectroscopic evidence for the covalent binding of the amines to the functional groups in humic substances. In order to further elucidate the reaction mechanisms, the Suwannee River and IHSS soil fulvic and humic acids were reacted with 15N-labeled aniline at pH 6 and analyzed using 15N NMR spectrometry. Aniline underwent nucleophilic addition reactions with the quinone and other carbonyl groups in the samples and became incorporated in the form of anilinohydroquinone, anilinoquinone, anilide, imine, and heterocyclic nitrogen, the latter comprising 50% or more of the bound amine. The anilide and anilinohydroquinone nitrogens were determined to be susceptible to chemical exchange by ammonia. In the case of Suwannee River fulvic acid, reaction under anoxic conditions and pretreatment with sodium borohydride or hydroxylamine prior to reaction under oxic conditions resulted in a decrease in the proportion of anilinohydroquinone nitrogen incorporated. The relative decrease in the incorporation of anilinohydroquinone nitrogen with respect to anilinoquinone nitrogen under anoxic conditions suggested that inter- or intramolecular redox reactions accompanied the nucleophilic addition reactions.

  1. Measuring denitrification after grassland renewal and grassland conversion to cropland by using the 15N gas-flux method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchen, Caroline; Eschenbach, Wolfram; Flessa, Heinz; Giesemann, Anette; Lewicka-Szczebak, Dominika; Well, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    Denitrification, the reduction of oxidized forms of inorganic N to N2O and N2 is an important pathway of gaseous nitrogen losses. Measuring denitrification, especially the reduction of N2O to N2, expressed in the product ratio (N2O/(N2O + N2)), is rather difficult and hence rarely performed under field conditions. But using the 15N gas-flux method allows determining N transformation processes in their natural environment. In order to develop effective climate mitigation strategies understanding the N2O source is essential. We used the 15N gas-flux method to determine N2O and N2 emissions following grass