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Sample records for 15n-labed glycine synthesis

  1. Cytochrome c catalyzes the in vitro synthesis of arachidonoyl glycine

    SciTech Connect

    McCue, Jeffrey M.; Driscoll, William J.; Mueller, Gregory P.

    2008-01-11

    Long chain fatty acyl glycines are an emerging class of biologically active molecules that occur naturally and produce a wide array of physiological effects. Their biosynthetic pathway, however, remains unknown. Here we report that cytochrome c catalyzes the synthesis of N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly) from arachidonoyl coenzyme A and glycine in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The identity of the NAGly product was verified by isotope labeling and mass analysis. Other heme-containing proteins, hemoglobin and myoglobin, were considerably less effective in generating arachidonoyl glycine as compared to cytochrome c. The reaction catalyzed by cytochrome c in vitro points to its potential role in the formation of NAGly and other long chain fatty acyl glycines in vivo.

  2. Synthesis of water soluble glycine capped silver nanoparticles and their surface selective interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Agasti, Nityananda; Singh, Vinay K.; Kaushik, N.K.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles at ambient reaction conditions. • Glycine as stabilizing agent for silver nanoparticles. • Surface selective interaction of glycine with silver nanoparticles. • Glycine concentration influences crystalinity and optical property of silver nanoparticles. - Abstract: Synthesis of biocompatible metal nanoparticles has been an area of significant interest because of their wide range of applications. In the present study, we have successfully synthesized water soluble silver nanoparticles assisted by small amino acid glycine. The method is primarily based on reduction of AgNO{sub 3} with NaBH{sub 4} in aqueous solution under atmospheric air in the presence of glycine. UV–vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X–ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques used for characterization of resulting silver nanoparticles demonstrated that, glycine is an effective capping agent to stabilize silver nanoparticles. Surface selective interaction of glycine on (1 1 1) face of silver nanoparticles has been investigated. The optical property and crystalline behavior of silver nanoparticles were found to be sensitive to concentration of glycine. X–ray diffraction studies ascertained the phase specific interaction of glycine on silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles synthesized were of diameter 60 nm. We thus demonstrated an efficient synthetic method for synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles capped by amino acid under mild reaction conditions with excellent reproducibility.

  3. Unlike pregnant adult women, pregnant adolescent girls cannot maintain glycine flux during late pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During pregnancy, glycine and serine become more important because they are the primary suppliers of methyl groups for the synthesis of fetal DNA, and more glycine is required for fetal collagen synthesis as pregnancy progresses. In an earlier study, we reported that glycine flux decreased by 39% fr...

  4. Unlike pregnant adult women, pregnant adolescent girls cannot maintain glycine flux during late pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jean W; Thame, Minerva M; Gibson, Raquel; Baker, Tameka M; Tang, Grace J; Chacko, Shaji K; Jackson, Alan A; Jahoor, Farook

    2016-03-14

    During pregnancy, glycine and serine become more important because they are the primary suppliers of methyl groups for the synthesis of fetal DNA, and more glycine is required for fetal collagen synthesis as pregnancy progresses. In an earlier study, we reported that glycine flux decreased by 39% from the first to the third trimester in pregnant adolescent girls. As serine is a primary precursor for glycine synthesis, the objective of this study was to measure and compare glycine and serine fluxes and inter-conversions in pregnant adolescent girls and adult women in the first and third trimesters. Measurements were made after an overnight fast by continuous intravenous infusions of 2H2-glycine and 15N-serine in eleven adolescent girls (17·4 (se 0·1) years of age) and in ten adult women (25·8 (se 0·5) years of age) for 4 h. Adolescent girls had significantly slower glycine flux and they made less glycine from serine in the third (P<0·05) than in the first trimester. Baby birth length was significantly shorter of adolescent girls (P=0·04) and was significantly associated with third trimester glycine flux. These findings suggest that the pregnant adolescent cannot maintain glycine flux in late pregnancy compared with early pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine. It is possible that the inability to maintain glycine synthesis makes her fetus vulnerable to impaired cartilage synthesis, and thus linear growth.

  5. Glycine as a regulator of tryptophan-dependent pigment synthesis in Malassezia furfur.

    PubMed

    Barchmann, Thorsten; Hort, Wiebke; Krämer, Hans-Joachim; Mayser, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the addition of different amino nitrogens on growth, morphology and secondary metabolism of Malassezia furfur were investigated. After primary culture on Dixon agar, M. furfur CBS 1878 was transferred into a fluid medium together with the nitrogen sources, glycine (Gly) or tryptophan (Trp), or a combination of both. Growth was measured by means of a direct cell counting method and pigment synthesis was photometrically assessed. Addition of glycine resulted in an exponential increase in biomass, but not in pigment production. Tryptophan as the sole nitrogen source caused distinct brown staining of the medium, without increasing biomass. Simultaneous equimolar addition of both amino acids resulted in an initial increase in biomass as a sign of preferential metabolism of glycine, followed by a growth plateau and pigment production which, caused by higher biomass, occurred more rapidly than after addition of tryptophan alone. The yeast-cell morphology changed from round to oval. Addition of glycine to the tryptophan-containing liquid culture stopped pigment formation with simultaneous growth induction. These in vitro on-off phenomena depending on the nitrogen source might be significant in the pathogenesis of pityriasis versicolor: hyperhidrosis followed by preferential consumption of individual nitrogen sources such as glycine with exponential growth and thereafter transamination of tryptophan and TRP-dependent pigment synthesis.

  6. Prebiotic Synthesis of Glycine from Ethanolamine in Simulated Archean Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianlong; Tian, Ge; Gao, Jing; Han, Mei; Su, Rui; Wang, Yanxiang; Feng, Shouhua

    2016-09-23

    Submarine hydrothermal vents are generally considered as the likely habitats for the origin and evolution of early life on Earth. In recent years, a novel hydrothermal system in Archean subseafloor has been proposed. In this model, highly alkaline and high temperature hydrothermal fluids were generated in basalt-hosted hydrothermal vents, where H2 and CO2 could be abundantly provided. These extreme conditions could have played an irreplaceable role in the early evolution of life. Nevertheless, sufficient information has not yet been obtained for the abiotic synthesis of amino acids, which are indispensable components of life, at high temperature and alkaline condition. This study aims to propose a new method for the synthesis of glycine in simulated Archean submarine alkaline vent systems. We investigated the formation of glycine from ethanolamine under conditions of high temperature (80-160 °C) and highly alkaline solutions (pH = 9.70). Experiments were performed in an anaerobic environment under mild pressure (0.1-8.0 MPa) at the same time. The results suggested that the formation of glycine from ethanolamine occurred rapidly and efficiently in the presence of metal powders, and was favored by high temperatures and high pressures. The experiment provides a new pathway for prebiotic glycine formation and points out the phenomenal influence of high-temperature alkaline hydrothermal vents in origin of life in the early ocean.

  7. Prebiotic Synthesis of Glycine from Ethanolamine in Simulated Archean Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianlong; Tian, Ge; Gao, Jing; Han, Mei; Su, Rui; Wang, Yanxiang; Feng, Shouhua

    2016-09-01

    Submarine hydrothermal vents are generally considered as the likely habitats for the origin and evolution of early life on Earth. In recent years, a novel hydrothermal system in Archean subseafloor has been proposed. In this model, highly alkaline and high temperature hydrothermal fluids were generated in basalt-hosted hydrothermal vents, where H2 and CO2 could be abundantly provided. These extreme conditions could have played an irreplaceable role in the early evolution of life. Nevertheless, sufficient information has not yet been obtained for the abiotic synthesis of amino acids, which are indispensable components of life, at high temperature and alkaline condition. This study aims to propose a new method for the synthesis of glycine in simulated Archean submarine alkaline vent systems. We investigated the formation of glycine from ethanolamine under conditions of high temperature (80-160 °C) and highly alkaline solutions (pH = 9.70). Experiments were performed in an anaerobic environment under mild pressure (0.1-8.0 MPa) at the same time. The results suggested that the formation of glycine from ethanolamine occurred rapidly and efficiently in the presence of metal powders, and was favored by high temperatures and high pressures. The experiment provides a new pathway for prebiotic glycine formation and points out the phenomenal influence of high-temperature alkaline hydrothermal vents in origin of life in the early ocean.

  8. Synthesis of glycine-containing complexes in impacts of comets on early Earth.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Nir; Reed, Evan J; Fried, Laurence E; William Kuo, I-F; Maiti, Amitesh

    2010-11-01

    Delivery of prebiotic compounds to early Earth from an impacting comet is thought to be an unlikely mechanism for the origins of life because of unfavourable chemical conditions on the planet and the high heat from impact. In contrast, we find that impact-induced shock compression of cometary ices followed by expansion to ambient conditions can produce complexes that resemble the amino acid glycine. Our ab initio molecular dynamics simulations show that shock waves drive the synthesis of transient C-N bonded oligomers at extreme pressures and temperatures. On post impact quenching to lower pressures, the oligomers break apart to form a metastable glycine-containing complex. We show that impact from cometary ice could possibly yield amino acids by a synthetic route independent of the pre-existing atmospheric conditions and materials on the planet.

  9. Glyphosate and AMPA inhibit cancer cell growth through inhibiting intracellular glycine synthesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingli; Lambrechts, Mark J; Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; Ge, Dongxia; Yin, Rutie; Xi, Mingrong; You, Zongbing

    2013-01-01

    Glycine is a nonessential amino acid that is reversibly converted from serine intracellularly by serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Glyphosate and its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are analogs to glycine, thus they may inhibit serine hydroxymethyltransferase to decrease intracellular glycine synthesis. In this study, we found that glyphosate and AMPA inhibited cell growth in eight human cancer cell lines but not in two immortalized human normal prostatic epithelial cell lines. AMPA arrested C4-2B and PC-3 cancer cells in the G1/G0 phase and inhibited entry into the S phase of the cell cycle. AMPA also promoted apoptosis in C4-2B and PC-3 cancer cell lines. AMPA upregulated p53 and p21 protein levels as well as procaspase 9 protein levels in C4-2B cells, whereas it downregulated cyclin D3 protein levels. AMPA also activated caspase 3 and induced cleavage of poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase. This study provides the first evidence that glyphosate and AMPA can inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of cancer cells but not normal cells, suggesting that they have potentials to be developed into a new anticancer therapy.

  10. Synthesis of tricyclic indole-2-carboxylic [correction of caboxylic] acids as potent NMDA-glycine antagonists.

    PubMed

    Katayama, S; Ae, N; Nagata, R

    2001-05-18

    The practical synthesis of a series of tricyclic indole-2-carboxylic acids, 7-chloro-3-arylaminocarbonylmethyl-1,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenz[cd]indole-2-carboxylic acids, as a new class of potent NMDA-glycine antagonists is described. The synthetic route to the key intermediate 12a comprises a regioselective iodination of 4-chloro-2-nitrotoluene, modified Reissert indole synthesis, Jeffery's Heck-type reaction with allyl alcohol, Wittig-Horner-Emmons reaction, and iodination at the indole C-3 position. The key step in the route is an intramolecular cyclization of 12a to give the tricyclic indole structure. Two methods of cyclization, (1) an intramolecular radical cyclization of 12a and (2) a sequence of intramolecular Heck reaction of 12a followed by a 1,4-reduction, were performed. The resulting tricyclic indole diester 13a was selectively hydrolyzed to afford the desired tricyclic indole monocarboxylic acid 16 on a multihundred gram scale without any chromatographic purifications. Optical resolution of 16 to (-)-isomer 17 and (+)-isomer 18 was carried out, and the resulting isomers were derivatized, respectively. Evaluation of the optically active derivatives for affinity to the NMDA-glycine binding site using the radio ligand binding assay with [(3)H]-5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid revealed that the derivatives of (-)-isomer 17 were more potent than the others and that especially substituted anilide (-)-isomer 24 (K(i) = 0.8 nM) showed high affinity.

  11. Use of bis-(chiral alpha-methylbenzyl)glycine esters for synthesis of enantiopure beta-hydroxyamino esters.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Ayako; Norton, Emily B; Williamson, R Thomas; Ho, Douglas M; Sinishtaj, Sandra; Mansour, Tarek S

    2003-09-04

    [reaction: see text] Aldol reactions using bis-(chiral alpha-methylbenzyl)glycine esters with aldehydes gave excellent diastereoselectivity. Thus, an enantiopure ribosylglycine was prepared for the synthesis of analogues of the natural antibiotics muraymycin. This method was extended for formation of beta-hydroxyamino esters.

  12. GC/MS-based metabolomic studies reveal key roles of glycine in regulating silk synthesis in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quanmei; Liu, Xinyu; Zhao, Ping; Sun, Yanhui; Zhao, Xinjie; Xiong, Ying; Xu, Guowang; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-02-01

    Metabolic profiling of silkworm, especially the factors that affect silk synthesis at the metabolic level, is little known. Herein, metabolomic method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied to identify key metabolic changes in silk synthesis deficient silkworms. Forty-six differential metabolites were identified in Nd group with the defect of silk synthesis. Significant changes in the levels of glycine and uric acid (up-regulation), carbohydrates and free fatty acids (down-regulation) were observed. The further metabolomics of silk synthesis deficient silkworms by decreasing silk proteins synthesis using knocking out fibroin heavy chain gene or extirpating silk glands operation showed that the changes of the metabolites were almost consistent with those of the Nd group. Furthermore, the increased silk yields by supplying more glycine or its related metabolite confirmed that glycine is a key metabolite to regulate silk synthesis. These findings provide important insights into the regulation between metabolic profiling and silk synthesis.

  13. Enhanced synthesis of choline and glycine betaine in transgenic tobacco plants that overexpress phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Scott D.; Nuccio, Michael L.; Ziemak, Michael J.; Hanson, Andrew D.

    2001-01-01

    Choline (Cho) is the precursor of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine and is itself an essential nutrient for humans. Metabolic engineering of Cho biosynthesis in plants could therefore enhance both their resistance to osmotic stresses (drought and salinity) and their nutritional value. The key enzyme of the plant Cho-synthesis pathway is phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase, which catalyzes all three of the methylations required to convert phosphoethanolamine to phosphocholine. We show here that overexpressing this enzyme in transgenic tobacco increased the levels of phosphocholine by 5-fold and free Cho by 50-fold without affecting phosphatidylcholine content or growth. Moreover, the expanded Cho pool led to a 30-fold increase in synthesis of glycine betaine via an engineered glycine betaine pathway. Supplying the transgenics with the Cho precursor ethanolamine (EA) further enhanced Cho levels even though the supplied EA was extensively catabolized. These latter results establish that there is further scope for improving Cho synthesis by engineering an increased endogenous supply of EA and suggest that this could be achieved by enhancing EA synthesis and/or by suppressing its degradation. PMID:11481443

  14. Metabolic engineering of glycine betaine synthesis: plant betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases lacking typical transit peptides are targeted to tobacco chloroplasts where they confer betaine aldehyde resistance.

    PubMed

    Rathinasabapathi, B; McCue, K F; Gage, D A; Hanson, A D

    1994-01-01

    Certain higher plants synthesize and accumulate glycine betaine, a compound with osmoprotectant properties. Biosynthesis of glycine betaine proceeds via the pathway choline-->betaine aldehyde-->glycine betaine. Plants such as tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) which do not accumulate glycine betaine lack the enzymes catalyzing both reactions. As a step towards engineering glycine betaine accumulation into a non-accumulator, spinach and sugar beet complementary-DNA sequences encoding the second enzyme of glycine-betaine synthesis (betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, BADH, EC 1.2.1.8) were expressed in tobacco. Despite the absence of a typical transit peptide, BADH was targeted to the chloroplast in leaves of transgenic plants. Levels of extractable BADH were comparable to those in spinach and sugar beet, and the molecular weight, isoenzyme profile and Km for betaine aldehyde of the BADH enzymes from transgenic plants were the same as for native spinach or sugar beet BADH. Transgenic plants converted supplied betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine at high rates, demonstrating that they were able to transport betaine aldehyde across both the plasma membrane and the chloroplast envelope. The glycine betaine produced in this way was not further metabolized and reached concentrations similar to those in plants which accumulate glycine betaine naturally. Betaine aldehyde was toxic to non-transformed tobacco tissues whereas transgenic tissues were resistant due to detoxification of betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine. Betaine aldehyded ehydrogenase is therefore of interest as a potential selectable marker, as well as in the metabolic engineering of osmoprotectant biosynthesis.

  15. Synthesis and in vivo evaluation of gallium-68-labeled glycine and hippurate conjugates for positron emission tomography renography.

    PubMed

    Pathuri, Gopal; Hedrick, Andria F; January, Spenser E; Galbraith, Wendy K; Awasthi, Vibhudutta; Arnold, Charles D; Cowley, Benjamin D; Gali, Hariprasad

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate four new (68) Ga-labeled 1,4,7,10-cyclododeca-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)/1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid derived (NODAGA)-glycine/hippurate conjugates and select a lead candidate for potential application in positron emission tomography (PET) renography. The non-metallated conjugates were synthesized by a solid phase peptide synthesis method. The (68) Ga labeling was achieved by reacting an excess of the non-metallated conjugate with (68) GaCl4 (-) at pH -4.5 and 10-min incubation either at room temperature for NODAGA or 90 °C for DOTA. Radiochemical purity of all (68) Ga conjugates was found to be >98%. (68) Ga-NODAGA-glycine displayed the lowest serum protein binding (0.4%) in vitro among the four (68) Ga conjugates. Biodistribution of (68) Ga conjugates in healthy Sprague Dawley rats at 1-h post-injection revealed an efficient clearance from circulation primarily through the renal-urinary pathway with <0.2% of injected dose per gram remaining in the blood. The kidney/blood and kidney/muscle ratios of (68) Ga-NODAGA-glycine were significantly higher than other (68) Ga conjugates. On the basis of these results, (68) Ga-NODAGA-glycine was selected as the lead candidate. (68) Ga-NODAGA-glycine PET renograms obtained in healthy rats suggest (68) Ga-NODAGA-glycine as a PET alternate of (99m) Tc-Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA).

  16. Magnetic characteristics of MgFe2O4 nanoparticles obtained by glycine-nitrate synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhernovoi, A. I.; Komlev, A. A.; D'yachenko, S. V.

    2016-02-01

    The magnetic properties of magnesium-iron spinel (MgFe2O4) powdered nanoparticles obtained by glycine-nitrate synthesis are investigated by X-ray phase analysis and the NMR method. According to the results of X-ray phase analysis, the average size of the crystalline part of nanoparticles of the powder under investigation is 45 ± 4 nm. Magnetization J is determined using the formula J = (B/μ0)- H, where B and H are the induction and strength of the magnetic field in the sample, which are measured by the NMR method. The magnetic characteristics of MgFe2O4 are as follows: specific saturation magnetization J sat = 17.52 A m2/kg, specific residual magnetization J r = 5.73 A m2/kg, coercive force H c = 4600 A/m, and magnetic moment P sat = 371 × 10-20 A m2 in the magnetic saturation state and P r = 121 × 10-20 A m2 in the residual magnetization state.

  17. Glutamate, GABA, glycine and taurine modulate serotonin synthesis and release in rostral and caudal rhombencephalic raphe cells in primary cultures.

    PubMed

    Becquet, D; Hery, M; Francois-Bellan, A M; Giraud, P; Deprez, P; Faudon, M; Fache, M P; Hery, F

    1993-09-01

    Control of serotonin release and synthesis by amino acid neurotransmitters was investigated in rat rostral and caudal rhombencephalic raphe cells in primary cultures respectively. Endogenous amounts of taurine, glycine, GABA and glutamate were measured in both types of cultures. These amino acids were spontaneously released to the incubating medium. Exogenous taurine (10(-4) M) inhibited release and synthesis of newly formed [3H]serotonin [3H]5-HT from [3H]-tryptophan only in rostral raphe cells. Glycine (10(-3) M) decreased [3H]5-HT release in both types of cells, synthesis being diminished only in rostral raphe cells. Glycine inhibitory effect was totally blocked by strychnine (5 x 10(-5) M). GABA (10(-4) M) reduced [3H]5-HT metabolism in rostral as well as caudal raphe cells. This effect was totally antagonized in caudal and partially in rostral raphe cells by bicuculline (5 x 10(-5) M) a GABAA receptor antagonist. Baclofen (5 x 10(-5) M), a GABAB receptor agonist, induced a decrease of 5-HT release in rostral raphe cells. These observations suggest that monoamine release was entirely mediated by GABAA receptors in caudal raphe cells although GABAA and GABAB receptors were involved in control of 5-HT metabolism in rostral raphe cells. L-glutamate (10(-4) M) stimulated 5-HT metabolism in both types of cells, effect totally blocked by PK26124 (10(-6) M). N-methyl-D-aspartate (10(-4) M) enhanced 5-HT metabolism and the induced-effect was antagonized by the selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist D,L-2 amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid. Quisqualate (10(-5) M) stimulated [3H]5-HT release only in caudal raphe cells. This effect was mimicked by (RS)-a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, a quisqualate "ionotropic" receptor agonist, this increase being blocked by 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline 2,3-dione. These observations suggest that the glutamate stimulating-induced effect on serotonin metabolism is entirely mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor

  18. Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of new N-acylhydrazones containing glycine residue.

    PubMed

    Tian, Baohe; He, Meizi; Tan, Zhiwu; Tang, Shixing; Hewlett, Indira; Chen, Shuguang; Jin, Yinxue; Yang, Ming

    2011-03-01

    N-acylhydrazones containing glycine residue 3a-j and 8a-h were synthesized as HIV-1 capsid protein assembly inhibitors. The structures of the novel N-acylhydrazone derivatives were characterized using different spectroscopic methods. Antiviral activity demonstrated that compound 8c bearing 4-methylphenyl moiety was the most active with low cytotoxicity.

  19. Overexpression of ALDH10A8 and ALDH10A9 Genes Provides Insight into Their Role in Glycine Betaine Synthesis and Affects Primary Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Missihoun, Tagnon D; Willée, Eva; Guegan, Jean-Paul; Berardocco, Solenne; Shafiq, Muhammad R; Bouchereau, Alain; Bartels, Dorothea

    2015-09-01

    Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases oxidize betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine in species that accumulate glycine betaine as a compatible solute under stress conditions. In contrast, the physiological function of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase genes is at present unclear in species that do not accumulate glycine betaine, such as Arabidopsis thaliana. To address this question, we overexpressed the Arabidopsis ALDH10A8 and ALDH10A9 genes, which were identified to code for betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases, in wild-type A. thaliana. We analysed changes in metabolite contents of transgenic plants in comparison with the wild type. Using exogenous or endogenous choline, our results indicated that ALDH10A8 and ALDH10A9 are involved in the synthesis of glycine betaine in Arabidopsis. Choline availability seems to be a factor limiting glycine betaine synthesis. Moreover, the contents of diverse metabolites including sugars (glucose and fructose) and amino acids were altered in fully developed transgenic plants compared with the wild type. The plant metabolic response to salt and the salt stress tolerance were impaired only in young transgenic plants, which exhibited a delayed growth of the seedlings early after germination. Our results suggest that a balanced expression of the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase genes is important for early growth of A. thaliana seedlings and for salt stress mitigation in young seedlings.

  20. Effect of N-acetyl cysteine and glycine supplementation on growth performance, glutathione synthesis, anti-oxidative and immune ability of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shiwei; Zhou, Weiwen; Tian, Lixia; Niu, Jin; Liu, Yongjian

    2016-08-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and glycine supplementation on growth performance, glutathione (GSH) synthesis, anti-oxidative and immune ability of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Four practical diets were formulated, control, control +0.2% NAC, control +0.5% glycine, control +0.2% NAC +0.5% glycine. Each diet was randomly assigned to quadruplicate groups of 30 fish (approximately 9.5 g). The weight gain and specific growth rate were significantly increased with the supplementation of NAC and glycine. While they had no effect on feed efficiency feed intake and survival. Glutathion peroxidase (GPx) was increased by NAC and γ-glutamine cysteine synthase (γ-GCS) in plasma were increased by glycine. After the feeding trail, fish were challenged by Streptococcus iniae, fish fed the diet supplemented with NAC obtained significantly higher survival rate after 72 h challenge test. NAC also decreased malonaldehyde (MDA) in liver, increased glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in plasma, up-regulated mRNA expression of Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and GPx in liver and headkidney. Dietary supplementation of glycine increased the anti-oxidative ability of tilapia through increase anti-oxidative enzyme activity (SOD, glutathione reductase, myeloperoxidase) and up-regulate anti-oxidative gene expression (SOD). Immune ability only enhanced by the supplementation of NAC through increased interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression. These results clearly indicated that the supplementation of NAC and glycine can significantly improve the growth performance of tilapia, and NAC also enhance the anti-oxidative and immune capacity of tilapia, glycine could only enhance the anti-oxidative ability.

  1. Synthesis, growth and characterisations of semi-organic nonlinear optical crystal glycine barium nitrate (GBN).

    PubMed

    Varalakshmi, S; Ravi Kumar, S M; Elango, G; Ravisankar, R

    2014-12-10

    Transparent crystal of glycine barium nitrate (GBN) has been grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Powder XRD study reveals the crystalline nature of the grown sample. Single crystal XRD study shows that the GBN belongs to orthorhombic crystal system. FTIR spectral study confirms the presence of the functional groups in the grown crystal. The presence of wide transparency window in the UV-visible region makes GBN crystal suitable for opto-electronic device applications. The grown sample has SHG efficiency is 0.8 times that of standard KDP crystal. Dielectric studies reveal that both dielectric constant and dielectric loss decreases with increase in frequency. Photoconductivity study confirms the negative photoconducting nature of the crystal.

  2. Synthesis, growth and characterisations of semi-organic nonlinear optical crystal glycine barium nitrate (GBN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varalakshmi, S.; Ravi Kumar, S. M.; Elango, G.; Ravisankar, R.

    2014-12-01

    Transparent crystal of glycine barium nitrate (GBN) has been grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Powder XRD study reveals the crystalline nature of the grown sample. Single crystal XRD study shows that the GBN belongs to orthorhombic crystal system. FTIR spectral study confirms the presence of the functional groups in the grown crystal. The presence of wide transparency window in the UV-visible region makes GBN crystal suitable for opto-electronic device applications. The grown sample has SHG efficiency is 0.8 times that of standard KDP crystal. Dielectric studies reveal that both dielectric constant and dielectric loss decreases with increase in frequency. Photoconductivity study confirms the negative photoconducting nature of the crystal.

  3. Improved synthesis of glycine, taurine and sulfate conjugated bile acids as reference compounds and internal standards for ESI-MS/MS urinary profiling of inborn errors of bile acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Donazzolo, Elena; Gucciardi, Antonina; Mazzier, Daniela; Peggion, Cristina; Pirillo, Paola; Naturale, Mauro; Moretto, Alessandro; Giordano, Giuseppe

    2017-03-11

    Bile acid synthesis defects are rare genetic disorders characterized by a failure to produce normal bile acids (BAs), and by an accumulation of unusual and intermediary cholanoids. Measurements of cholanoids in urine samples by mass spectrometry are a gold standard for the diagnosis of these diseases. In this work improved methods for the chemical synthesis of 30 BAs conjugated with glycine, taurine and sulfate were developed. Diethyl phosphorocyanidate (DEPC) and diphenyl phosphoryl azide (DPPA) were used as coupling reagents for glycine and taurine conjugation. Sulfated BAs were obtained by sulfur trioxide-triethylamine complex (SO3-TEA) as sulfating agent and thereafter conjugated with glycine and taurine. All products were characterized by NMR, IR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The use of these compounds as internal standards allows an improved accuracy of both identification and quantification of urinary bile acids.

  4. Syn-Selective Synthesis of β-Branched α-Amino Acids by Alkylation of Glycine-Derived Imines with Secondary Sulfonates.

    PubMed

    Lou, Sha; McKenna, Grace M; Tymonko, Steven A; Ramirez, Antonio; Benkovics, Tamas; Conlon, David A; González-Bobes, Francisco

    2015-10-16

    A syn-selective synthesis of β-branched α-amino acids has been developed based on the alkylation of glycine imine esters with secondary sulfonates. The potassium counterion for the enolate, the solvent, and the leaving group on the electrophile were key levers to maximize the diasteroselectivity of the alkylation. The optimized conditions enabled a straightforward preparation of a number of β-branched α-amino acids that can be challenging to obtain.

  5. Effect of polynucleotides on the dimerization of glycine. [abiological protein synthesis in primitive earth conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizutani, H.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1981-01-01

    Results from experiments to determine the effect of polynucleotides on abiological formation of peptide bonds are reported. The reaction between glycine molecules in an aqueous phase in the presence of a condensing agent was chosen as a model, with polyphosphates being selected as the condensing agent for biologically relevant peptide formation. Four types of polynucleotides were used: polygluanic acid (G), polyuridic acid (U), polyadenylic acid (A), and polycytidylic acid (C); the effects of small anions, acetate, chloride, and phosphate, were also studied. Procedures are given, including concentrations, pH, and incubation time, and the type of amino acid analyzer. The diglycine yields were, in order of most to least: G, C, A, U, and are diagrammed as a function of time; rate of formation followed the same order of magnitude as the final yields. Anion presence displayed no discernible effect. The results are taken to indicate that polynucleotides do have an effect on the formation of peptide bonds, an effect significant in the understanding of chemical evolution.

  6. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases. Part 3: Michael addition reactions and miscellaneous transformations.

    PubMed

    Aceña, José Luis; Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Soloshonok, Vadim

    2014-09-01

    The major goal of this review is a critical discussion of the literature data on asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via Michael addition reactions involving Ni(II)-complexes of amino acids. The material covered is divided into two conceptually different groups dealing with applications of: (a) Ni(II)-complexes of glycine as C-nucleophiles and (b) Ni(II)-complexes of dehydroalanine as Michael acceptors. The first group is significantly larger and consequently subdivided into four chapters based on the source of stereocontrolling element. Thus, a chiral auxiliary can be used as a part of nucleophilic glycine Ni(II) complex, Michael acceptor or both, leading to the conditions of matching vs. mismatching stereochemical preferences. The particular focus of the review is made on the practical aspects of the methodology under discussion and mechanistic considerations.

  7. Beneficial Effects of the Amino Acid Glycine.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Torres, Israel; Zuniga-Munoz, Alejandra María; Guarner-Lans, Veronica

    2017-01-01

    Glycine is the smallest non-essential, neutral and metabolically inert amino acid, with a carbon atom bound to two hydrogen atoms, and to an amino and a carboxyl group. This amino acid is an essential substrate for the synthesis of several biologically important biomolecules and compounds. It participates in the synthesis of proteins, of the tripeptide glutathione and in detoxification reactions. It has a broad spectrum of anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective and immunomodulatory properties. To exert its actions, glycine binds to different receptors. The GlyR anion channel is the most studied receptor for glycine. However, there are GlyR-independent mechanisms for glycine cytoprotection and other possible binding molecules of glycine are the NMDA receptor and receptors GlyT1 and GlyT2. Although, in humans, the normal serum level of glycine is approximately 300 μM, increasing glycine intake can lead to blood levels of more than 900 μM that increase its benefic actions without having harmful side effects. The herbal pesticide glyphosate might disrupt glycine homeostasis. Many in vitro studies involving different cell types have demonstrated beneficial effects of the addition of glycine. Glycine also improved conditions of isolated perfused or stored organs. In vivo studies in experimental animals have also tested glycine as a protector molecule and some studies on the beneficial effects of glycine after its clinical application have been done. Although at high-doses, glycine may cause toxic effects, further studies are needed to investigate the safe range of usage of this aminoacid and to test the diverse routes of administration.

  8. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases; Part 1: alkyl halide alkylations.

    PubMed

    Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Aceña, José Luis; Moriwaki, Hiroki; Sato, Tatsunori; Soloshonok, Vadim A

    2013-10-01

    Alkylations of chiral or achiral Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases constitute a landmark in the development of practical methodology for asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids. Straightforward, easy preparation as well as high reactivity of these Ni(II) complexes render them ready available and inexpensive glycine equivalents for preparing a wide variety of α-amino acids, in particular on a relatively large scale. In the case of Ni(II) complexes containing benzylproline moiety as a chiral auxiliary, their alkylation proceeds with high thermodynamically controlled diastereoselectivity. Similar type of Ni(II) complexes derived from alanine can also be used for alkylation providing convenient access to quaternary, α,α-disubstituted α-amino acids. Achiral type of Ni(II) complexes can be prepared from picolinic acid or via recently developed modular approach using simple secondary or primary amines. These Ni(II) complexes can be easily mono/bis-alkylated under homogeneous or phase-transfer catalysis conditions. Origin of diastereo-/enantioselectivity in the alkylations reactions, aspects of practicality, generality and limitations of this methodology is critically discussed.

  9. Glycine Betaine Catabolism Contributes to Pseudomonas syringae Tolerance to Hyperosmotic Stress by Relieving Betaine-Mediated Suppression of Compatible Solute Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shanshan; Yu, Xilan

    2013-01-01

    Many bacteria can accumulate glycine betaine for osmoprotection and catabolize it as a growth substrate, but how they regulate these opposing roles is poorly understood. In Pseudomonas syringae B728a, expression of the betaine catabolism genes was reduced by an osmotic upshift to an intermediate stress level, consistent with betaine accumulation, but was increased by an upshift to a high stress level, as confirmed by an accompanying increase in degradation of radiolabeled betaine. Deletion of the gbcAB betaine catabolism genes reduced osmotolerance at a high osmolarity, and this reduction was due to the relief of betaine-mediated suppression of compatible solute synthesis. This conclusion was supported by the findings that, at high osmolarity, the ΔgbcAB mutant accumulated high betaine levels and low endogenous solutes and exhibited reduced expression of the solute synthesis genes. Moreover, the ΔgbcAB mutant and a mutant deficient in the synthesis of the compatible solutes NAGGN and trehalose exhibited similar reductions in osmotolerance and also in fitness on bean leaves. Activation of betaine catabolism at high osmotic stress resulted, in part, from induction of gbdR, which encodes the transcriptional activator GbdR. Betaine catabolism was subject to partial repression by succinate under hyperosmotic stress conditions, in contrast to strong repression in the absence of stress, suggesting that betaine functions both in nutrition and as an intracellular signal modulating solute synthesis under hyperosmotic stress conditions. Collectively, these results begin to provide a detailed mechanistic understanding of how P. syringae transitions from reliance on exogenously derived betaine to the use of endogenous solutes during adaptation to hyperosmotic conditions. PMID:23524610

  10. Stereoselective Michael Addition of Glycine Anions to Chiral Fischer Alkenylcarbene Complexes. Asymmetric Synthesis of beta-Substituted Glutamic Acids.

    PubMed

    Ezquerra, Jesús; Pedregal, Concepción; Merino, Isabel; Flórez, Josefa; Barluenga, José; García-Granda, Santiago; Llorca, María-Amparo

    1999-09-03

    The reaction of lithium enolates of achiral N-protected glycine esters with chiral alkoxyalkenylcarbene complexes of chromium provided the corresponding Michael adducts with either high anti or syn selectivity depending on the nature of the nitrogen protecting group, and high diastereofacial selectivity when carbene complexes containing the (-)-8-phenylmenthyloxy group were employed. Subsequent oxidation of the metal-carbene moiety followed by deprotection of the amine group and hydrolysis of both carboxylic esters afforded enantiomerically enriched 3-substituted glutamic acids of natural as well as unnatural stereochemistry. Alternatively, when the deprotection step was performed previously to the oxidation, cyclic aminocarbene complexes were formed, which finally led to optically active 3-substituted pyroglutamic acids.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of transition metal complexes with Schiff bases derived from 2-nitrobenzaldehyde with glycine and methionine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bibhesh K.; Rajour, Hemant K.; Prakash, Anant

    Schiff bases derived from 2-nitrobenzaldehyde with amino acids (glycine, methionine) and their Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized by various physico-chemical techniques. From spectral studies, it has been concluded that the ligands acts as bidentate molecule, coordinates metal through azomethine nitrogen and carboxylate oxygen. Mass spectrum explains the successive degradation of the molecular species in solution and justifies ML2 complexes. X-ray powder diffraction helps to determine the cell parameters of the complexes. Molecular structure of the complexes has been optimized by MM2 calculations and suggests a square planar geometry. The ligands and their metal complexes have been tested in vitro against Streptococcus, Staph, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherchia coli bacteria in order to assess their antibacterial potential. The results indicate that the biological activity increases on complexation.

  12. Synthesis, Spectroscopic, Molecular Structure, and Antibacterial Studies of Dibutyltin(IV) Schiff Base Complexes Derived from Phenylalanine, Isoleucine, and Glycine.

    PubMed

    Singh, Har Lal; Singh, Jangbhadur

    2014-01-01

    New series of organotin(IV) complexes and Schiff bases derived from amino acids have been designed and synthesized from condensation of 1H-indole-2,3-dione, 5-chloro-1H-indole-2,3-dione, and α-amino acids (phenylalanine, isoleucine, and glycine). All compounds are characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, and molecular weight determinations. Bonding of these complexes is discussed in terms of their UV-visible, infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H, (13)C, and (119)Sn NMR) spectral studies. The results suggest that Schiff bases behave as monobasic bidentate ligands and coordinate with dibutyltin(IV) in octahedral geometry according to the general formula [Bu2Sn(L)2]. Elemental analyses and NMR spectral data of the ligands with their dibutyltin(IV) complexes agree with their proposed distorted octahedral structures. Few representative compounds are tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (B. cereus, Staphylococcus spp.) and Gram-negative (E. coli, Klebsiella spp.) bacteria. The results show that the dibutyltin complexes are more reactive with respect to their corresponding Schiff base ligands.

  13. Synthesis, Spectroscopic, Molecular Structure, and Antibacterial Studies of Dibutyltin(IV) Schiff Base Complexes Derived from Phenylalanine, Isoleucine, and Glycine

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Har Lal; Singh, Jangbhadur

    2014-01-01

    New series of organotin(IV) complexes and Schiff bases derived from amino acids have been designed and synthesized from condensation of 1H-indole-2,3-dione, 5-chloro-1H-indole-2,3-dione, and α-amino acids (phenylalanine, isoleucine, and glycine). All compounds are characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, and molecular weight determinations. Bonding of these complexes is discussed in terms of their UV-visible, infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H, 13C, and 119Sn NMR) spectral studies. The results suggest that Schiff bases behave as monobasic bidentate ligands and coordinate with dibutyltin(IV) in octahedral geometry according to the general formula [Bu2Sn(L)2]. Elemental analyses and NMR spectral data of the ligands with their dibutyltin(IV) complexes agree with their proposed distorted octahedral structures. Few representative compounds are tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (B. cereus, Staphylococcus spp.) and Gram-negative (E. coli, Klebsiella spp.) bacteria. The results show that the dibutyltin complexes are more reactive with respect to their corresponding Schiff base ligands. PMID:25525422

  14. Glutathione synthesis is diminished in patients with uncontrolled diabetes and restored by dietary supplementation with cysteine and glycine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustained hyperglycemia is associated with low cellular levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH), which leads to tissue damage attributed to oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis that diminished GSH in adult patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes is attributed to decreased synthesis and ...

  15. Advanced asymmetric synthesis of (1R,2S)-1-amino-2-vinylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid by alkylation/cyclization of newly designed axially chiral Ni(II) complex of glycine Schiff base.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Aki; Shu, Shuangjie; Takeda, Ryosuke; Kawamura, Akie; Sato, Tatsunori; Moriwaki, Hiroki; Wang, Jiang; Izawa, Kunisuke; Aceña, José Luis; Soloshonok, Vadim A; Liu, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Asymmetric synthesis of (1R,2S)-1-amino-2-vinylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid (vinyl-ACCA) is in extremely high demand due to the pharmaceutical importance of this tailor-made, sterically constrained α-amino acid. Here we report the development of an advanced procedure for preparation of the target amino acid via two-step SN2 and SN2' alkylation of novel axially chiral nucleophilic glycine equivalent. Excellent yields and diastereoselectivity coupled with reliable and easy scalability render this method of immediate use for practical synthesis of (1R,2S)-vinyl-ACCA.

  16. Osmotic stress response in Acinetobacter baylyi: identification of a glycine-betaine biosynthesis pathway and regulation of osmoadaptive choline uptake and glycine-betaine synthesis through a choline-responsive BetI repressor.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Anica; Stahl, Julia; de Berardinis, Veronique; Müller, Volker; Averhoff, Beate

    2016-04-01

    Acinetobacter baylyi, a ubiquitous soil bacterium, can cope with high salinity by uptake of choline as precursor of the compatible solute glycine betaine. Here, we report on the identification of a choline dehydrogenase (BetA) and a glycine betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BetB) mediating the oxidation of choline to glycine betaine. The betAB genes were found to form an operon together with the potential transcriptional regulator betI. The transcription of the betIBA operon and the two recently identified choline transporters was upregulated in response to choline and choline plus salt. The finding that the osmo-independent transporter BetT1 undergoes a higher upregulation in response to choline alone than betT2 suggests that BetT1 does not primarily function in osmoadaptation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays led to the conclusion that BetI mediates transcriptional regulation of both, the betIBA gene operon and the choline transporters. BetI was released from the DNA in response to choline which together with the transcriptional upregulation of the bet genes in the presence of choline suggests that BetI is a choline sensing transcriptional repressor.

  17. Amino Acid Residues Critical for the Specificity for Betaine Aldehyde of the Plant ALDH10 Isoenzyme Involved in the Synthesis of Glycine Betaine1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Sánchez, Ángel G.; González-Segura, Lilian; Mújica-Jiménez, Carlos; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Montiel, Carmina; Martínez-Castilla, León P.; Muñoz-Clares, Rosario A.

    2012-01-01

    Plant Aldehyde Dehydrogenase10 (ALDH10) enzymes catalyze the oxidation of ω-primary or ω-quaternary aminoaldehydes, but, intriguingly, only some of them, such as the spinach (Spinacia oleracea) betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (SoBADH), efficiently oxidize betaine aldehyde (BAL) forming the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB), which confers tolerance to osmotic stress. The crystal structure of SoBADH reported here shows tyrosine (Tyr)-160, tryptophan (Trp)-167, Trp-285, and Trp-456 in an arrangement suitable for cation-π interactions with the trimethylammonium group of BAL. Mutation of these residues to alanine (Ala) resulted in significant Km(BAL) increases and Vmax/Km(BAL) decreases, particularly in the Y160A mutant. Tyr-160 and Trp-456, strictly conserved in plant ALDH10s, form a pocket where the bulky trimethylammonium group binds. This space is reduced in ALDH10s with low BADH activity, because an isoleucine (Ile) pushes the Trp against the Tyr. Those with high BADH activity instead have Ala (Ala-441 in SoBADH) or cysteine, which allow enough room for binding of BAL. Accordingly, the mutation A441I decreased the Vmax/Km(BAL) of SoBADH approximately 200 times, while the mutation A441C had no effect. The kinetics with other ω-aminoaldehydes were not affected in the A441I or A441C mutant, demonstrating that the existence of an Ile in the second sphere of interaction of the aldehyde is critical for discriminating against BAL in some plant ALDH10s. A survey of the known sequences indicates that plants have two ALDH10 isoenzymes: those known to be GB accumulators have a high-BAL-affinity isoenzyme with Ala or cysteine in this critical position, while non GB accumulators have low-BAL-affinity isoenzymes containing Ile. Therefore, BADH activity appears to restrict GB synthesis in non-GB-accumulator plants. PMID:22345508

  18. Exploring the evolutionary route of the acquisition of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase activity by plant ALDH10 enzymes: implications for the synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant ALDH10 enzymes are aminoaldehyde dehydrogenases (AMADHs) that oxidize different ω-amino or trimethylammonium aldehydes, but only some of them have betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) activity and produce the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB). The latter enzymes possess alanine or cysteine at position 441 (numbering of the spinach enzyme, SoBADH), while those ALDH10s that cannot oxidize betaine aldehyde (BAL) have isoleucine at this position. Only the plants that contain A441- or C441-type ALDH10 isoenzymes accumulate GB in response to osmotic stress. In this work we explored the evolutionary history of the acquisition of BAL specificity by plant ALDH10s. Results We performed extensive phylogenetic analyses and constructed and characterized, kinetically and structurally, four SoBADH variants that simulate the parsimonious intermediates in the evolutionary pathway from I441-type to A441- or C441-type enzymes. All mutants had a correct folding, average thermal stabilities and similar activity with aminopropionaldehyde, but whereas A441S and A441T exhibited significant activity with BAL, A441V and A441F did not. The kinetics of the mutants were consistent with their predicted structural features obtained by modeling, and confirmed the importance of position 441 for BAL specificity. The acquisition of BADH activity could have happened through any of these intermediates without detriment of the original function or protein stability. Phylogenetic studies showed that this event occurred independently several times during angiosperms evolution when an ALDH10 gene duplicate changed the critical Ile residue for Ala or Cys in two consecutive single mutations. ALDH10 isoenzymes frequently group in two clades within a plant family: one includes peroxisomal I441-type, the other peroxisomal and non-peroxisomal I441-, A441- or C441-type. Interestingly, high GB-accumulators plants have non-peroxisomal A441- or C441-type isoenzymes, while low-GB accumulators

  19. Cysteamine inhibition of (/sup 15/N)-glycine turnover in cystinosis and of glycine cleavage system in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Yudkoff, M.; Nissim, I.; Schneider, A.; Segal, S.

    1981-01-01

    In order to clarify the hyperglycinemic effect of cysteamine treatment in children with nephropathic cystinosis, we measured (/sup 15/N)-glycine turnover in three affected patients. Administration of cysteamine lowered the glycine flux and the glycine metabolic clearance rate but did not alter the glycine pool size. Formation of (/sup 15/N)-serine from (/sup 15/N)-glycine was lower in untreated patients than in control subjects and was reduced still further by cysteamine. Studies in vitro with isolated rat liver mitochondria and acetone extracts of mitochondria indicated that even low cysteamine concentrations (0.1 mM) inhibited the glycine cleavage system in both the direction of glycine oxidation and glycine synthesis. Cysteamine was a more potent inhibitor of the glycine cleavage system than any other sulfhydryl containing compound. Although no ill effects of cysteamine treatment were immediately apparent, patients receiving cysteamine should be monitored carefully for the appearance of any neurologic symptoms which might be referable to inhibition of the glycine cleavage system.

  20. Aqueous V(V)-peroxo-amino acid chemistry. Synthesis, structural and spectroscopic characterization of unusual ternary dinuclear tetraperoxo vanadium(V)-glycine complexes.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, C; Kaliva, M; Venetis, J; Baran, P; Rodriguez-Escudero, I; Voyiatzis, G; Zervou, M; Salifoglou, A

    2009-01-19

    Vanadium participation in cellular events entails in-depth comprehension of its soluble and bioavailable forms bearing physiological ligands in aqueous distributions of binary and ternary systems. Poised to understand the ternary V(V)-H(2)O(2)-amino acid interactions relevant to that metal ion's biological role, we have launched synthetic efforts involving the physiological ligands glycine and H(2)O(2). In a pH-specific fashion, V(2)O(5), glycine, and H(2)O(2) reacted and afforded the unusual complexes (H(3)O)(2)[V(2)(O)(2)(mu(2):eta(2):eta(1)-O(2))(2)(eta(2)-O(2))(2)(C(2)H(5)NO(2))] x 5/4 H(2)O (1) and K(2)[V(2)(O)(2)(mu(2):eta(2):eta(1)-O(2))(2)(eta(2)-O(2))(2)(C(2)H(5)NO(2))] x H(2)O (2). 1 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1, with a = 7.805(4) A, b = 8.134(5) A, c = 12.010(7) A, alpha = 72.298(9) degrees, beta = 72.991(9) degrees, gamma = 64.111(9) degrees, V = 641.9(6) A(3), and Z = 2. 2 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1, with a = 7.6766(9) A, b = 7.9534(9) A, c = 11.7494(13) A, alpha = 71.768(2) degrees, beta = 73.233(2) degrees, gamma = 65.660(2) degrees, V = 610.15(12) A(3), and Z = 2. Both complexes 1 and 2 were characterized by UV/visible, LC-MS, FT-IR, Raman, NMR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and X-ray crystallography. The structures of 1 and 2 reveal the presence of unusual ternary dinuclear vanadium-tetraperoxo-glycine complexes containing [(V(V)=O)(O(2))(2)](-) units interacting through long V-O bonds and an effective glycinate bridge. The latter ligand is present in the dianionic assembly as a bidentate moiety spanning both V(V) centers in a zwitterionic form. The collective physicochemical properties of the two ternary species 1 and 2 project the chemical role of the low molecular mass biosubstrate glycine in binding V(V)-diperoxo units, thereby stabilizing a dinuclear V(V)-tetraperoxo dianion. Structural comparisons of the anions in 1 and 2 with other known dinuclear V(V)-tetraperoxo binary anionic species provide insight

  1. Chiral N-phosphonyl imine chemistry: asymmetric synthesis of alpha,beta-diamino esters by reacting phosphonyl imines with glycine enolates.

    PubMed

    Ai, Teng; Li, Guigen

    2009-07-15

    Chiral phosphonyl imines attached with N-isopropyl protection group were found to react with lithium glycine enolates under convenient conditions to give alpha,beta-diamino esters. Thirteen examples have been examined in good to excellent chemical yields (85-97%) diastereoselectivity (up to 99% de). By treating with HBr at room temperature, the chiral auxiliary can be readily removed and recycled. The absolute structure has been unambiguously determined by converting a product to a known sample.

  2. Synthesis, structure characterization and biological activity of selected metal complexes of sulfonamide Schiff base as a primary ligand and some mixed ligand complexes with glycine as a secondary ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharaby, Carmen M.; Amine, Mona F.; Hamed, Asmaa A.

    2017-04-01

    The current work reports synthesis of metal complexes and mixed ligand complexes of a novel sulfonamide Schiff base ligand (HL) resulted from the condensation of sulfametrole [N‧-(4-methoxy-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yl]sulfanilamide and acetyl-acetone as a primary ligand and glycine as a secondary ligand. The metal complexes and mixed ligand complexes of HL Schiff base ligand were synthesized and characterized using different physicochemical studies as elemental analyses, mass spectra, conductivity measurement, IR spectra, 1H NMR spectra, UV-vis Spectra, solid reflectance, magnetic susceptibility, thermal analyses (TGA and DTA) and their microbial and anticancer activities. The spectroscopic data of the complexes suggest their 1:2(L1:M) complex structures and 1:2:2(L1:L2:M) mixed ligand complex structures, where L1 = HL and L2 = glycine. Also, the spectroscopic studies suggested the octahedral structure for all complexes. The synthesized Schiff base, its metal and mixed ligand complexes were screened for their bacterial, antifungal and anticancer activity. The activity data show that the metal complexes and mixed ligand complexes exhibited promising microbial and anticancer activities than their parent HL Schiff base ligand, also the data show that the mixed ligand complexes more effective than the metal complexes.

  3. Glycine and Folate Ameliorate Models of Congenital Sideroblastic Anemia.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Murray, J Pedro; Prykhozhij, Sergey V; Dufay, J Noelia; Steele, Shelby L; Gaston, Daniel; Nasrallah, Gheyath K; Coombs, Andrew J; Liwski, Robert S; Fernandez, Conrad V; Berman, Jason N; McMaster, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    Sideroblastic anemias are acquired or inherited anemias that result in a decreased ability to synthesize hemoglobin in red blood cells and result in the presence of iron deposits in the mitochondria of red blood cell precursors. A common subtype of congenital sideroblastic anemia is due to autosomal recessive mutations in the SLC25A38 gene. The current treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia is chronic blood transfusion coupled with iron chelation. The function of SLC25A38 is not known. Here we report that the SLC25A38 protein, and its yeast homolog Hem25, are mitochondrial glycine transporters required for the initiation of heme synthesis. To do so, we took advantage of the fact that mitochondrial glycine has several roles beyond the synthesis of heme, including the synthesis of folate derivatives through the glycine cleavage system. The data were consistent with Hem25 not being the sole mitochondrial glycine importer, and we identify a second SLC25 family member Ymc1, as a potential secondary mitochondrial glycine importer. Based on these findings, we observed that high levels of exogenous glycine, or 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-Ala) a metabolite downstream of Hem25 in heme biosynthetic pathway, were able to restore heme levels to normal in yeast cells lacking Hem25 function. While neither glycine nor 5-Ala could ameliorate SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia in a zebrafish model, we determined that the addition of folate with glycine was able to restore hemoglobin levels. This difference is likely due to the fact that yeast can synthesize folate, whereas in zebrafish folate is an essential vitamin that must be obtained exogenously. Given the tolerability of glycine and folate in humans, this study points to a potential novel treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia.

  4. Glycine and Folate Ameliorate Models of Congenital Sideroblastic Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Dufay, J. Noelia; Steele, Shelby L.; Gaston, Daniel; Nasrallah, Gheyath K.; Coombs, Andrew J.; Liwski, Robert S.; Fernandez, Conrad V.; Berman, Jason N.; McMaster, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Sideroblastic anemias are acquired or inherited anemias that result in a decreased ability to synthesize hemoglobin in red blood cells and result in the presence of iron deposits in the mitochondria of red blood cell precursors. A common subtype of congenital sideroblastic anemia is due to autosomal recessive mutations in the SLC25A38 gene. The current treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia is chronic blood transfusion coupled with iron chelation. The function of SLC25A38 is not known. Here we report that the SLC25A38 protein, and its yeast homolog Hem25, are mitochondrial glycine transporters required for the initiation of heme synthesis. To do so, we took advantage of the fact that mitochondrial glycine has several roles beyond the synthesis of heme, including the synthesis of folate derivatives through the glycine cleavage system. The data were consistent with Hem25 not being the sole mitochondrial glycine importer, and we identify a second SLC25 family member Ymc1, as a potential secondary mitochondrial glycine importer. Based on these findings, we observed that high levels of exogenous glycine, or 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-Ala) a metabolite downstream of Hem25 in heme biosynthetic pathway, were able to restore heme levels to normal in yeast cells lacking Hem25 function. While neither glycine nor 5-Ala could ameliorate SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia in a zebrafish model, we determined that the addition of folate with glycine was able to restore hemoglobin levels. This difference is likely due to the fact that yeast can synthesize folate, whereas in zebrafish folate is an essential vitamin that must be obtained exogenously. Given the tolerability of glycine and folate in humans, this study points to a potential novel treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia. PMID:26821380

  5. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases. Part 2: aldol, Mannich addition reactions, deracemization and (S) to (R) interconversion of α-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Aceña, José Luis; Moriwaki, Hiroki; Sato, Tatsunori; Soloshonok, Vadim

    2013-11-01

    This review provides a comprehensive treatment of literature data dealing with asymmetric synthesis of α-amino-β-hydroxy and α,β-diamino acids via homologation of chiral Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases using aldol and Mannich-type reactions. These reactions proceed with synthetically useful chemical yields and thermodynamically controlled stereoselectivity and allow direct introduction of two stereogenic centers in a single operation with predictable stereochemical outcome. Furthermore, new application of Ni(II) complexes of α-amino acids Schiff bases for deracemization of racemic α-amino acids and (S) to (R) interconversion providing additional synthetic opportunities for preparation of enantiomerically pure α-amino acids, is also reviewed. Origin of observed diastereo-/enantioselectivity in the aldol, Mannich-type and deracemization reactions, generality and limitations of these methodologies are critically discussed.

  6. Hydrazone- and hydrazide-containing N-substituted glycines as peptoid surrogates for expedited library synthesis: application to the preparation of Tsg101-directed HIV-1 budding antagonists.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fa; Stephen, Andrew G; Adamson, Catherine S; Gousset, Karine; Aman, M Javad; Freed, Eric O; Fisher, Robert J; Burke, Terrence R

    2006-10-26

    Replacing the Pro6 in the p6(Gag)-derived 9-mer "P-E-P-T-A-P-P-E-E" with N-substituted glycine (NSG) residues is problematic. However, incorporation of hydrazone amides ("peptoid hydrazones") can be readily achieved in library fashion. Furthermore, reduction of these hydrazones to N-substituted "peptoid hydrazides" affords a facile route to library diversification. This approach is demonstrated by application to Tsg101-binding compounds designed as potential HIV budding antagonists. [reaction: see text

  7. Genetics Home Reference: glycine encephalopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... a molecule called glycine. This molecule is an amino acid , which is a building block of proteins. Glycine ... Additional Information & Resources MedlinePlus (3 links) Health Topic: Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders Health Topic: Genetic Brain Disorders Health ...

  8. New chiral didehydroamino acid derivatives from a cyclic glycine template with 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,4-oxazin-2-one structure: applications to the asymmetric synthesis of nonproteinogenic alpha-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, R; Falvello, L R; Galindo, N; Nájera, C

    2000-05-19

    New chiral (Z)-alpha,beta-didehydroamino acid (DDAA) derivatives with 3,5-dihydro-2H-1,4-oxazin-2-one structure 11a-f have been stereoselectively prepared after condensation of chiral glycine equivalent 7 with aldehydes in the presence of K(2)CO(3) under mild solid-liquid phase-transfer catalysis reaction conditions. These new systems have been used in diastereoselective cyclopropanation reactions using Corey's ylide for the asymmetric synthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acids (ACCs) such as allo-corononamic and allo-norcoronamic acids. The hydrogenation reaction of these systems at ambient pressure in the presence of formaldehyde affords saturated oxazinones and N-methylated oxazinones which have been transformed into the N-methyl-alpha-amino acids (N-MAAs) (S)-2-(methylamino)butanoic acid and (S)-N-methylleucine. In addition, the parent alpha, beta-didehydroalanine derivative 11g has been prepared by a direct aminomethylation-elimination sequence from 7 and Eschenmoser's salt and has been used in Diels-Alder cycloaddition with endo selectivity for the synthesis of the enantiomerically pure bicyclic alpha-amino acids (-)-2-aminobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic and (-)-2-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acids.

  9. GLYCINE RESISTANCE IN AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS

    PubMed Central

    Beardsley, Robert E.

    1962-01-01

    Beardsley, Robert E. (Manhattan College, New York, N. Y.). Glycine resistance in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J. Bacteriol. 83:6–13. 1962.—The application of the fluctuation test of Luria and Delbrück to the distribution of glycine-resistant bacteria among cultures of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain B6 indicates that resistance arises by mutation in the absence of glycine. On glycine-supplemented medium, additional resistant colonies arise during prolonged periods of incubation. Their appearance is proceded by L-form growth. In general, the number of generations over which glycine resistance is inherited in the absence of glycine is increased by serial transfers on the selection medium. In liquid medium containing glycine, sensitive bacteria form spheroplasts. Resistant bacteria continue to grow as rod forms. In the medium employed, spheroplasts are unstable. Images PMID:13866159

  10. Synthesis, structural characterization, in vitro antimicrobial and anticancer activity studies of ternary metal complexes containing glycine amino acid and the anti-inflammatory drug lornoxicam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Walaa H.; Mohamed, Gehad G.; El-Dessouky, Maher M. I.

    2015-02-01

    Mixed ligand complexes were synthesized using lornoxicam (LOR) as the primary ligand and glycine amino acid (HGly) as the secondary ligand. They were characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis, mass, 1H NMR, ESR spectral studies, TG-DTG, X-ray powder diffraction and physical analytical studies. From the molar conductance, magnetic moment and electronic spectral data of the synthesized complexes, general formulae of [M(LOR)2(Gly)]·Xn·yH2O where M = Cr(III) (X = Cl, n = 2, y = 3), Mn(II) (X = Cl, n = 1, y = 1), Co(II) (X = BF4, n = 1, y = 0), Ni(II) (X = Cl, n = 1, y = 0), Cu(II) (X = BF4, n = 1, y = 2) and Zn(II) (X = BF4, n = 1, y = 2) and (M = Fe(II) (X = BF4, n = 1, y = 1) and Fe(III) (X = Cl, n = 2, y = 1) with an octahedral structure were proposed. Thermal analyses show that the complexes lose water molecules of hydration initially and subsequently expel anionic parts and organic ligands in continuous steps. The kinetic parameters namely E, ΔH∗, ΔS∗ and ΔG∗ illustrate the spontaneous association of the metal and ligands in the formation of the complexes. The antimicrobial efficiency of the LOR and HGly ligands and the ternary complexes were examined by in vitro method against various pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains. The metal complexes were found to possess efficient antimicrobial properties compared to lornoxicam and most of these complexes could turn out to be excellent models for the design of effective antibiotic drug substances. Also, the two ligands, in comparison to ternary metal complexes are screened for their anticancer activity against breastic cancer cell line. The results showed that the metal complexes be more active than the parent LOR and glycine free ligands except Cr(III) ternary complex which was found to be inactive.

  11. Glycine and Glycine Receptor Signalling in Non-Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    den Eynden, Jimmy Van; Ali, Sheen Saheb; Horwood, Nikki; Carmans, Sofie; Brône, Bert; Hellings, Niels; Steels, Paul; Harvey, Robert J.; Rigo, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter acting mainly in the caudal part of the central nervous system. Besides this neurotransmitter function, glycine has cytoprotective and modulatory effects in different non-neuronal cell types. Modulatory effects were mainly described in immune cells, endothelial cells and macroglial cells, where glycine modulates proliferation, differentiation, migration and cytokine production. Activation of glycine receptors (GlyRs) causes membrane potential changes that in turn modulate calcium flux and downstream effects in these cells. Cytoprotective effects were mainly described in renal cells, hepatocytes and endothelial cells, where glycine protects cells from ischemic cell death. In these cell types, glycine has been suggested to stabilize porous defects that develop in the plasma membranes of ischemic cells, leading to leakage of macromolecules and subsequent cell death. Although there is some evidence linking these effects to the activation of GlyRs, they seem to operate in an entirely different mode from classical neuronal subtypes. PMID:19738917

  12. A new iron(III) complex of glycine derivative of amine-chloro substituted phenol ligand: Synthesis, characterization and catechol dioxygenase activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saberikia, Iraj; Safaei, Elham; Kowsari, Mohammad Hossein; Lee, Yong-Ill; Cotic, Patricia; Bruno, Giuseppe; Rudbari, Hadi Amiri

    2012-12-01

    A new iron(III) complex of the glycine derivative of amine-chloro substituted phenol ligand (H3LGDC) has been prepared and characterized by IR, 1H NMR, UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques, cyclic voltammetry, ESI-MS and magnetic susceptibility studies. X-ray analysis reveals that in iron complex of FeLGDC the iron(III) center has a distorted trigonal bipyramidal coordination sphere and is surrounded by an amine nitrogen, a carboxylate, a water and two phenolate oxygen atoms. The DFT calculations with the UB3LYP/6-311++G** level optimized structure of the complex are in good agreement with experimental X-ray structural data. The variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility indicates that FeLGDC is the paramagnetic high spin iron(III) complex. It has been shown that electrochemical oxidation of this complex is ligand-centered due to the oxidation of phenolate to the phenoxyl radicals. This enzyme mimic utilized molecular oxygen in carrying out the oxidative cleavage of catechols with complete conversion at room temperature.

  13. Decreased GmAGL15 expression and reduced ethylene synthesis may contribute to reduced somatic embryogenesis in a poorly embryogenic cultivar of Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qiaolin; Zheng, Yumei; Perry, Sharyn E

    2013-09-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is the process by which cells become dedifferentiated and reprogram to follow an embryogenic pathway. It is important for regeneration of transgenic plants as well as for propagation of certain genotypes. However, competence for SE varies, even among genotypes of a species, and the basis for this variation is not understood. We have found that the MADS-box transcription factor (Glycine max) AGAMOUS-Like 15 [(Gm)AGL15] promotes SE in Arabidopsis and in soybean when overexpressed. In soybean, part of the promotion of SE is via GmAGL15-mediated control of ethylene biosynthesis and response. Addition of ACC, the precursor to ethylene, to culture media enhanced SE in Arabidopsis and soybean. Transcription factors important for embryogenesis responded directly to GmAGL15 and to ethylene accumulation. Here we correlate ethylene production and patterns of gene expression with SE potential of soybean genotypes. However, other results indicate that there is not a complete positive correlation between ethylene production and SE, indicating that the interactions between hormones, gene expression and developmental outcomes are complex.

  14. GAS-PHASE SYNTHESIS OF PRECURSORS OF INTERSTELLAR GLYCINE: A COMPUTATIONAL STUDY OF THE REACTIONS OF ACETIC ACID WITH HYDROXYLAMINE AND ITS IONIZED AND PROTONATED DERIVATIVES

    SciTech Connect

    Barrientos, Carmen; Redondo, Pilar; Largo, Laura; Rayon, Victor M.; Largo, Antonio

    2012-04-01

    A computational study of the reactions of hydroxylamine and its ionized and protonated derivatives with acetic acid is provided. The reaction of neutral hydroxylamine with acetic acid, despite being clearly exothermic, involves a very large energy barrier. The reaction of ionized hydroxylamine with acetic acid is also clearly exothermic, but again a significant energy barrier is found (around 24 kcal mol{sup -1} at the CCSD(T) level). The reaction of the most stable protonated isomer of hydroxylamine, NH{sub 3}OH{sup +}, with acetic acid also involves a high barrier (more than 27 kcal mol{sup -1} at the CCSD(T) level). Only the higher energy isomer, NH{sub 2}OH{sup +}{sub 2}, leads to a sensibly lower energy barrier (about 2.3 kcal mol{sup -1} at the CCSD(T) level). Nevertheless, an estimate of the reaction coefficient at low temperatures such as those reigning in the interstellar medium gives very low values. Therefore, it seems that precursors of interstellar glycine could not be efficiently produced from the reactions of hydroxylamine-derived ions with acetic acid.

  15. Synthesis and NMR studies of malonyl-linked glycoconjugates of N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine. Building blocks for the construction of combinatorial glycopeptide libraries

    PubMed Central

    Nörrlinger, Markus; Hafner, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Summary Four glycoconjugate building blocks for the construction of combinatorial PNA like glycopeptide libraries were prepared in 75–79% yield by condensing tert-butyl N-[2-(N-9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonylamino)ethyl]glycinate (AEG) 5 with 3-oxo-3-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosylamino)- (6a), 3-oxo-3-(β-D-galactopyranosylamino)- (6b), 3-oxo-3-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosylamino)- (6c) and 3-oxo-3-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-galactopyranosylamino)propanoic acid (6d), respectively. The resulting AEG glycoconjugates 1a–d were converted into the corresponding free acids 2a–d in 97–98% yield by treatment with aqueous formic acid. The Fmoc group of compound 1c was removed and the intermediate amine 9 was condensed with 2a to afford the corresponding glycosylated AEG dipeptide 4 in 58% yield. All glycoconjugate building blocks showed the presence of cis and trans rotamers. Compounds 1a, 1b and 4 were subjected to temperature dependent 1H NMR spectroscopy in order to determine the coalescence temperature which resulted in calculated rotation barriers of 17.9–18.3 kcal/mol for the rotamers. PMID:27829900

  16. Synthesis and thermal characterization of new ternary chelates of piroxicam and tenoxicam with glycine and DL-phenylalanine and some transition metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayed, M. A.; El-Dien, F. A. Nour; Mohamed, Gehad G.; El-Gamel, Nadia E. A.

    2006-05-01

    The ternary chelates of piroxicam (Pir) and tenoxicam (Ten) with Fe(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) in the presence of various amino acids such as glycine (Gly) or DL-phenylalanine (PhA) were prepared and characterized with different physicochemical methods. IR spectra confirm that Pir and Ten behave as a neutral bidentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the pyridine- N and carbonyl group of the amide moiety. Gly molecule acted as a uninegatively monodentate ligand and coordinate to the metal ions through its deprotonated carboxylic group. In addition, PhA acted as a uninegatively bidentate ligand and coordinate to the metal ions through its deprotonated carboxylic and amino groups. The solid reflectance spectra and magnetic moment measurements confirm that all the chelates have octahedral geometrical structures while Cu(II)- and Zn(II)-ternary chelates with PhA have square planar geometrical structures. Thermal behaviour of the complexes is extensively studied using TG and DTA techniques. TG results show that water molecules (hydrated and coordinated) and anions are removed in the first and second steps while Gly, PhA, Pir and Ten are decomposed in the next and subsequent steps. The pyrolyses of the chelates into different gases are observed in the DTA curves as exo- or endothermic peaks. Also, phase transition states are observed in some chelates. Different thermodynamic parameters are calculated using Coats-Redfern method and the results are interpreted.

  17. Synthesis and thermal characterization of new ternary chelates of piroxicam and tenoxicam with glycine and DL-phenylalanine and some transition metals.

    PubMed

    Zayed, M A; El-Dien, F A Nour; Mohamed, Gehad G; El-Gamel, Nadia E A

    2006-05-01

    The ternary chelates of piroxicam (Pir) and tenoxicam (Ten) with Fe(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) in the presence of various amino acids such as glycine (Gly) or dl-phenylalanine (PhA) were prepared and characterized with different physicochemical methods. IR spectra confirm that Pir and Ten behave as a neutral bidentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the pyridine-N and carbonyl group of the amide moiety. Gly molecule acted as a uninegatively monodentate ligand and coordinate to the metal ions through its deprotonated carboxylic group. In addition, PhA acted as a uninegatively bidentate ligand and coordinate to the metal ions through its deprotonated carboxylic and amino groups. The solid reflectance spectra and magnetic moment measurements confirm that all the chelates have octahedral geometrical structures while Cu(II)- and Zn(II)-ternary chelates with PhA have square planar geometrical structures. Thermal behaviour of the complexes is extensively studied using TG and DTA techniques. TG results show that water molecules (hydrated and coordinated) and anions are removed in the first and second steps while Gly, PhA, Pir and Ten are decomposed in the next and subsequent steps. The pyrolyses of the chelates into different gases are observed in the DTA curves as exo- or endothermic peaks. Also, phase transition states are observed in some chelates. Different thermodynamic parameters are calculated using Coats-Redfern method and the results are interpreted.

  18. Glycine Transporters and Their Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilfillan, Robert; Kerr, Jennifer; Walker, Glenn; Wishart, Grant

    Glycine plays a ubiquitous role in many biological processes. In the central nervous system it serves as an important neurotransmitter acting as an agonist at strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and as an essential co-agonist with glutamate at the NMDA receptor complex. Control of glycine concentrations in the vicinity of these receptors is mediated by the specific glycine transporters, GlyT1 and GlyT2. Inhibition of these transporters has been postulated to be of potential benefit in several therapeutic indications including schizophrenia and pain. In this review we discuss our current knowledge of glycine transporters and focus on recent advances in the medicinal chemistry of GlyT1 and GlyT2 inhibitors.

  19. Reaction Behaviors of Glycine under Super- and Subcritical Water Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alargov, Dimitar K.; Deguchi, Shigeru; Tsujii, Kaoru; Horikoshi, Koki

    2002-02-01

    The influence of temperature and pressure on the dimerization and decomposition of glycine under simulated hydrothermal system conditions was studied by injecting a glycine solution into water in the sub- and supercritical state. The experiments at five different temperatures of supplied water - 250, 300, 350, 374, and 400 °C - were performed at 22.2 and 40.0 MPa. At 350 °C, experiments under 15.0-40.0 MPa were conducted. Diglycine, triglycine (trace), diketopiperazine, and an unidentified product with a high molecular mass (433 Da) were the main products of oligomerization. The results show that temperature and pressure influence the extent of dimerization and decomposition of glycine. The maximum of dimers formation was observed at 350 and 375 °C at 22.2 and 40.0 MPa, respectively, and coincided with a high rate of glycine decomposition. Glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, as well as other amino acids, were obtained by injecting a mixture of formaldehyde and ammonia. The results support the oligomerization and synthesis of amino acids in a submarine hydrothermal system.

  20. Comparing the in vivo glycine fluxes of adolescent girls and adult women during early and late pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During pregnancy, growth of the fetus depends on an adequate glycine supply because it is needed for synthesis of fetal DNA, collagen, and serine. Since pregnant adolescent girls give birth to lower birth weight babies, it is possible that they do not produce sufficient glycine to meet overall deman...

  1. Possible Transfer of Resistance to Heterodera glycines from Glycine tomentella to Glycine max

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, R. D.; Wang, S.; Singh, R. J.; Hymowitz, T.

    1998-01-01

    Eight wild perennial Glycine species (G. argyrea, G. canescens, G. curvata, G. cyrtoloba, G. latifolia, G. microphylla, G. tabacina, and G. tomentella) were evaluated for resistance to isolates of races 1, 3, and 14 of Heterodera glycines. In a second experiment, reproduction of isolates of races 3, 5, and 14 of H. glycines on five of the wild perennial species was determined. Seventy-one derived fertile lines (2n = 40) that were hybrids between G. max cv Clark 63 and G. tomentella also were evaluated for resistance to isolates of races 3, 5, and 14. All of the wild perennial Glycine species were resistant (Female Indices [FI] less than 10) to all of the isolates that were tested on them. In most cases no females matured. The soybean cvs. Clark 63 and Altona, which were tested at the same time as the hybrids, were susceptible to all isolates of H. glycines tested. When the tests were combined and a single FI calculated with the average number of females on Lee 74, one derived fertile line was resistant to race 3, three derived fertile lines were resistant to race 5, and five derived fertile lines were resistant to race 14. Thus, transfer of resistance to H. glycines from G. tomentella to G. max apparently occurred. PMID:19274245

  2. Influence of high glycine diets on the activity of glycine-catabolizing enzymes and on glycine catabolism in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Petzke, K.J.; Albrecht, V.; Przybilski, H.

    1986-05-01

    Male albino rats were adapted to isocaloric purified diets that differed mainly in their glycine and casein contents. Controls received a 30% casein diet. In experimental diets gelatin or gelatin hydrolysate was substituted for half of the 30% casein. An additional group was fed a glycine-supplemented diet, which corresponded in glycine level to the gelatin diet but in which the protein level was nearly the same as that of the casein control diet. Another group received a 15% casein diet. Rat liver glycine cleavage system, serine hydroxymethyltransferase and serine dehydratase activities were measured. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from the catabolism of /sup 14/C-labeled glycine was measured in vivo and in vitro (from isolated hepatocytes). Serine dehydratase and glycine cleavage system activities were higher in animals fed 30% casein diets than in those fed 15% casein diets. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase activity of the cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions was highest when a high glycine diet (glycine administered as pure, protein bound in gelatin or peptide bound in gelatin hydrolysate) was fed. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ formation from (1-/sup 14/C)- and (2-/sup 14/C)glycine both in vivo and in isolated hepatocytes was higher when a high glycine diet was fed than when a casein diet was fed. These results suggest that glycine catabolism is dependent on and adaptable to the glycine content of the diet. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase appears to play a major role in the regulation of glycine degradation via serine and pyruvate.

  3. Development of the Ireland-Claisen rearrangement of alkoxy- and aryloxy-substituted allyl glycinates.

    PubMed

    Tellam, James P; Carbery, David R

    2010-11-19

    The Ireland-Claisen rearrangement of 3-alkoxy- and 3-aryloxy-substituted allyl glycinates is presented. This [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement route offers direct access to syn β-alkoxy and β-aryloxy α-amino acid systems. In particular, N,N-diboc glycine esters rearrange with excellent diastereoselectivities (dr > 25:1). The synthesis of substrates, rearrangement optimization, and a discussion of stereoselection are presented.

  4. Preferential Pathway for Glycine Formation in Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilling, S.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Baptista, L.; Santos A. C., F.

    Interstellar clouds, similar to that from which the solar system was formed, contain many organic molecules including aldehydes, acids, ketones, and sugars Ehrenfreund & Charnley (2000). Those organic compounds have important functions in terrestrial biochemistry and could also have been important in prebiotic synthesis. The simplest amino acid, glycine (NH2CH2COOH), was recently detected in the hot molecular cores Sgr B2(N-LMH), Orion KL, and W51 e1/e2 Kuan et al. (2003). The formic acid (HCOOH) and acetic acid(CH3COOH) have also been detected in those regions Liu et al. (2002), Remijan et al. (2004). The goal of this work is to study experimentally photoionization and photodissociation processes of glycine precursor molecules, acetic acid and formic acid to elucidate a possible preferentially in the glycine synthesis between ice and gas phase. The measurements were taken at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), employing soft X-ray photons from a toroidal grating monochromator TGM) beamline (100 - 310 eV). The experimental set up consists of a high vacuum chamber with a Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TOF-MS). Mass spectra were obtained using PhotoElectron PhotoIon Coincidence (PEPICO) technique. Kinetic energy distributions and abundances for each ionic fragment have been obtained from the analysis of the corresponding peak shapes in the mass spectra. Dissociative and non-dissociative photoionization cross sections for both molecules were also determined Boechat-Roberty, Pilling & Santos (2005). Due to the high photodissociation cross section of formic acid it is possible that in PDRs regions, just after molecules evaporation from the grains surface, it is almost destructed by soft X-rays, justifying the observed low abundance of HCOOH in gaseous phase Ehrenfreund et al. (2001). Acetic acid have shown to be more stable to the ionizing field, and its main outcomes from dissociation process were the reactive ionic fragments COOH+ and CH3CO+. To

  5. 76 FR 55109 - Glycine From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Glycine From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year... glycine from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry... 2011), entitled Glycine from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-718 (Third Review). By order of...

  6. Glycine and a glycine dehydrogenase (GLDC) SNP as citalopram/escitalopram response biomarkers in depression: pharmacometabolomics-informed pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Ji, Y; Hebbring, S; Zhu, H; Jenkins, G D; Biernacka, J; Snyder, K; Drews, M; Fiehn, O; Zeng, Z; Schaid, D; Mrazek, D A; Kaddurah-Daouk, R; Weinshilboum, R M

    2011-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disease. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are an important class of drugs used in the treatment of MDD. However, many patients do not respond adequately to SSRI therapy. We used a pharmacometabolomics-informed pharmacogenomic research strategy to identify citalopram/escitalopram treatment outcome biomarkers. Metabolomic assay of plasma samples from 20 escitalopram remitters and 20 nonremitters showed that glycine was negatively associated with treatment outcome (P = 0.0054). This observation was pursued by genotyping tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genes encoding glycine synthesis and degradation enzymes, using 529 DNA samples from SSRI-treated MDD patients. The rs10975641 SNP in the glycine dehydrogenase (GLDC) gene was associated with treatment outcome phenotypes. Genotyping for rs10975641 was carried out in 1,245 MDD patients in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study, and its presence was significant (P = 0.02) in DNA taken from these patients. These results highlight a possible role for glycine in SSRI response and illustrate the use of pharmacometabolomics to "inform" pharmacogenomics.

  7. Aboveground Feeding by Soybean Aphid, Aphis glycines, Affects Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera glycines, Reproduction Belowground

    PubMed Central

    McCarville, Michael T.; Soh, David H.; Tylka, Gregory L.; O’Neal, Matthew E.

    2014-01-01

    Heterodera glycines is a cyst nematode that causes significant lost soybean yield in the U.S. Recent studies observed the aphid Aphis glycines and H. glycines interacting via their shared host, soybean, Glycine max. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to discern the effect of A. glycines feeding on H. glycines reproduction. An H. glycines-susceptible cultivar, Kenwood 94, and a resistant cultivar, Dekalb 27–52, were grown in H. glycines-infested soil for 30 and 60 d. Ten days after planting, plants were infested with either zero, five, or ten aphids. At 30 and 60 d, the number of H. glycines females and cysts (dead females) and the number of eggs within were counted. In general, H. glycines were less abundant on the resistant than the susceptible cultivar, and H. glycines abundance increased from 30 to 60 d. At 30 d, 33% more H. glycines females and eggs were produced on the resistant cultivar in the ten-aphid treatment compared to the zero-aphid treatment. However, at 30 d the susceptible cultivar had 50% fewer H. glycines females and eggs when infested with ten aphids. At 60 d, numbers of H. glycines females and cysts and numbers of eggs on the resistant cultivar were unaffected by A. glycines feeding, while numbers of both were decreased by A. glycines on the susceptible cultivar. These results indicate that A. glycines feeding improves the quality of soybean as a host for H. glycines, but at higher herbivore population densities, this effect is offset by a decrease in resource quantity. PMID:24466080

  8. Characterization of a chitin synthase encoding gene and effect of diflubenzuron in soybean aphid, Aphis glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chitin synthases are critical enzymes for synthesis of chitin and thus for subsequent growth and development in insects. We have identified and characterized a chitin synthase gene (CHS) from cDNA of Aphis glycines, the soybean aphid, a serious pest of soybean. The full-length cDNA of CHS in A. glyc...

  9. Stereospecific assignments of glycine in proteins by stereospecific deuteration and {sup 15}N labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, A.P.; Curley, R.W. Jr.; Panigot, M.J.; Fesik, S.W.

    1994-12-01

    Stereospecific assignments are important for accurately determining the three-dimensional structures of proteins through the use of multidimensional NMR techniques. It is especially important to stereospecifically assign the glycine {alpha}-protons in proteins because of the potential for different backbone conformations of this residue. These stereospecific assignments are critical for interpreting the {sup 3}J{sub NH,{alpha}H} coupling constants and NOEs involving the glycine {alpha}-protons that determine the conformation of this part of the protein. However, it is often difficult to unambiguously obtain the stereospecific assignments for glycine residues by using only NOE data. In this poster, we present a method for unambiguous, stereospecific assignment of the {alpha}-protons of glycine residues. This method involves synthesis of stereo-specifically deuterated and {sup 15}N-labeled Gly using a slightly modified procedure originally described by Woodard and coworkers for the stereoselective deuteration of glycine. The stereospecifically deuterated and {sup 15}N-labeled Gy has been incorporated into recombinant proteins expressed in both bacterial systems (FKBP) and mammalian cells (u-PA). Two- and three-dimensional isotope-filtered and isotope-edited NMR experiments were used to obtain the stereospecific assignments of the glycine {alpha}-protons for these proteins.

  10. Metabolism of glycine- and hydroxyproline-containing peptides by the isolated perfused rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Lowry, M; Hall, D E; Brosnan, J T

    1985-07-15

    Isolated perfused rat kidneys removed considerable quantities of glycyltyrosine, glycylhydroxyproline, tetraglycine and prolylhydroxyproline from the perfusate. The component amino acids are released into the perfusate and, in the case of the glycine-containing peptides, there is increased synthesis of serine. Removal of peptides was more than could be accounted for on the basis of filtration, so antiluminal metabolism is indicated. Metabolism of such peptides by the kidney may contribute to renal serine synthesis in vivo.

  11. Metabolism of glycine- and hydroxyproline-containing peptides by the isolated perfused rat kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, M; Hall, D E; Brosnan, J T

    1985-01-01

    Isolated perfused rat kidneys removed considerable quantities of glycyltyrosine, glycylhydroxyproline, tetraglycine and prolylhydroxyproline from the perfusate. The component amino acids are released into the perfusate and, in the case of the glycine-containing peptides, there is increased synthesis of serine. Removal of peptides was more than could be accounted for on the basis of filtration, so antiluminal metabolism is indicated. Metabolism of such peptides by the kidney may contribute to renal serine synthesis in vivo. PMID:4038280

  12. Synthesis, characterization and equilibrium studies of some potential antimicrobial and antitumor complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions involving 2-aminomethylbenzimidazole and glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljahdali, M.

    2013-08-01

    The ternary complexes of Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II) and Cd(II) with 2-aminomethylbenzimidazole (AMBI) and glycine as a representative example of amino acids have been isolated and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, ESR, UV-vis, magnetic moment, molar conductance and 1H NMR spectra. AMBI behaves as neutral bidentate ligands with coordination through imidazole and amino group nitrogens while the glycine amino acid behaves as a monodenate anion with coordination involving the amino group and carboxylate oxygen after deprotonation. The magnetic and spectral data indicates a square planar geometry for both Cu2+ and Ni2+ complexes and a tetrahedral geometry for both Zn2+ and Cd2+ complexes. The isolated chelates have been screened for their antifungal and antibacterial activities using the disc diffusion method. A cytotoxicity of the compounds against colon (HCT116) and larynx (HEP2) cancer cells have been studied. The stability constants of ternary M-AMBI-Gly complexes were determined potentiometrically in aqueous solution at I = 0.1 mol dm-3 NaCl.

  13. 76 FR 8771 - Glycine From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Glycine From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... concerning the antidumping duty order on glycine from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that... China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a...

  14. 75 FR 62141 - Glycine From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... COMMISSION Glycine From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on glycine from China. SUMMARY: The Commission... from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury. Pursuant...

  15. 21 CFR 172.812 - Glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.812 Glycine. The food additive glycine may be safely used for technological purposes in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive complies with...

  16. Glycine receptors and brain development

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Ariel; Nguyen, Laurent; Rigo, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are ligand-gated chloride ion channels that mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the spinal cord and the brainstem. There, they are mainly involved in motor control and pain perception in the adult. However, these receptors are also expressed in upper regions of the central nervous system, where they participate in different processes including synaptic neurotransmission. Moreover, GlyRs are present since early stages of brain development and might influence this process. Here, we discuss the current state of the art regarding GlyRs during embryonic and postnatal brain development in light of recent findings about the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control brain development. PMID:24155690

  17. Influence of Heterodera glycines on Interspecific and Intraspecific Competition Associated with Glycine max and Chenopodium album.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Bird, G W; Renner, K A

    1995-03-01

    The influence of Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode) on the interspecific and intraspecific competition associated with Glycine max (soybean) and Chenopodium album (common lambsquarters) was studied in 1988 and 1989 in three de Wit replacement series experiments in growth chambers and microplots. Glycine max was grown alone (1 plant/experimental unit), in intraspecific competition (2 plants/experimental unit), in interspecific competition with C. album, and in presence or absence of H. glycines. No significant effects of H. glycines and C. album on G. max growth were observed 14 days after planting. By 42 days after planting, both H. glycines and C. album had a negative (P = 0.05) influence on the growth of G. max. Relative crowding coefficients for G. max were lower and deviated (P = 0.05 and P = 0.001) from 1.0 in the presence of H. glycines, compared to that of C. album and early emerged C. album in the absence of the nematode, respectively. Glycine max, therefore, became less competitive than C. album. There was a trend that the presence of H. glycines decreased the competitiveness of G. max on measures of the aggressivity and relative mixture response. Heterodera glycines decreased the aggressivity of G. max (ca. 150-350%) and increased the relative effects of intraspecific interference on G. max (ca. 10-50%) and interspecific interference (ca. 60-350%) after 42 days of plant growth, compared with plants grown in the absence of H. glycines. No H. glycines x C. album interactions were detected. Observations showed that H. glycines and early emerged C. album inhibited the growth of G. max 5-13%, as measured by plant dry weight.

  18. Unique Immunogenic Proteins in Heterodera glycines Eggshells

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, M. J.; Schoelz, J. E.; Donald, P. A.; Niblack, T. L.

    1997-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies were raised against Heterodera glycines eggshells to determine the feasibility of developing an immunoassay for H. glycines eggs. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed from anfisera collected 10 weeks after the initial injection. From serial dilutions of sonicated eggshells or whole eggs, a sensitivity of detection to 5 ng/ml sonicated eggshells or 1 egg of H. glycines was determined. The method of eggshell preparation had no effect on the antibodies produced; however, the antibodies cross-reacted with sonicated J2 of H. glycines and eggs of Meloidogyne incognita and H. schachtii. Most of the proteins in both life stages of H. glycines and eggs of M. incognita and H. schachtii had similar migration properties when separated on SDS-PAGE gels and stained with Coomassie blue. Western blot analysis, with antisera adsorbed with homogenized J2 of H. glycines, showed proteins that were specifically localized to eggshells of H. glycines. Monoclonal antibodies might provide a useful immunoassay where polyclonal antibodies lack sufficient specificity. PMID:19274159

  19. Biosynthesis and uptake of glycine betaine as cold-stress response to low temperature in fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yue; Wang, Qiyao; Gao, Xiating; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2017-01-01

    Fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum, a mesophile bacterium, is usually found in estuarine and marine coastal ecosystems worldwide that pose a constant stress to local organism by its fluctuation in salinity as well as notable temperature change. Though V. anguillarum is able to proliferate while maintain its pathogenicity under low temperature (5-18°C), so far, coldadaption molecular mechanism of the bacteria is unknown. In this study, V. anguillarum was found possessing a putative glycine betaine synthesis system, which is encoded by betABI and synthesizes glycine betaine from its precursor choline. Furthermore, significant up-regulation of the bet gene at the transcriptional level was noted in log phase in response to cold-stress. Moreover, the accumulation of betaine glycine was only found appearing at low growth temperatures, suggesting that response regulation of both synthesis system and transporter system are cold-dependent. Furthermore, in-frame deletion mutation in the two putative ABC transporters and three putative BCCT family transporters associated with glycine betaine uptake could not block cellular accumulation of betaine glycine in V. anguillarum under coldstress, suggesting the redundant feature in V. anguillarum betaine transporter system. These findings confirmed that glycine betaine serves as an effective cold stress protectant and highlighted an underappreciated facet of the acclimatization of V. anguillarum to cold environments.

  20. The Infrared Spectrum of Matrix Isolated Aminoacetonitrile: A Precursor to the Amino Acid Glycine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Sandford, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    We present infrared (IR) spectral data from matrix isolation experiments and density functional theory calculations on the pre-biologically interesting molecule aminoacetonitrile, a precursor to glycine. We find that this nitrile has an unusually weak nitrile (C=N) stretch in the infrared, in contrast to expectations based on measurements and models of other nitriles under astrophysical conditions. The absence of an observable nitrile absorption feature in the infrared will make the IR search for this molecule considerably more difficult, and will raise estimates of upper limits on nitriles in interstellar and outer Solar System ices. This is also of relevance to assessing the formation routes of the amino acid glycine, since aminoacetonitrile is the putative precursor to glycine via the Strecker synthesis, the mechanism postulated to have produced the amino acids in meteorites.

  1. Glycine receptor antibodies in PERM and related syndromes: characteristics, clinical features and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-González, Alexander; Leite, M. Isabel; Waters, Patrick; Woodhall, Mark; Coutinho, Ester; Balint, Bettina; Lang, Bethan; Pettingill, Philippa; Carr, Aisling; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Press, Raomand; Lunn, Michael P.; Lim, Ming; Maddison, Paul; Meinck, H.-M.; Vandenberghe, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The clinical associations of glycine receptor antibodies have not yet been described fully. We identified prospectively 52 antibody-positive patients and collated their clinical features, investigations and immunotherapy responses. Serum glycine receptor antibody endpoint titres ranged from 1:20 to 1:60 000. In 11 paired samples, serum levels were higher than (n = 10) or equal to (n = 1) cerebrospinal fluid levels; there was intrathecal synthesis of glycine receptor antibodies in each of the six pairs available for detailed study. Four patients also had high glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (>1000 U/ml), and one had high voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibody (2442 pM). Seven patients with very low titres (<1:50) and unknown or alternative diagnoses were excluded from further study. Three of the remaining 45 patients had newly-identified thymomas and one had a lymphoma. Thirty-three patients were classified as progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus, and two as stiff person syndrome; five had a limbic encephalitis or epileptic encephalopathy, two had brainstem features mainly, two had demyelinating optic neuropathies and one had an unclear diagnosis. Four patients (9%) died during the acute disease, but most showed marked improvement with immunotherapies. At most recent follow-up, (2–7 years, median 3 years, since first antibody detection), the median modified Rankin scale scores (excluding the four deaths) decreased from 5 at maximal severity to 1 (P < 0.0001), but relapses have occurred in five patients and a proportion are on reducing steroids or other maintenance immunotherapies as well as symptomatic treatments. The glycine receptor antibodies activated complement on glycine receptor-transfected human embryonic kidney cells at room temperature, and caused internalization and lysosomal degradation of the glycine receptors at 37°C. Immunoglobulin G antibodies bound to rodent spinal cord and brainstem co-localizing with

  2. Characterization and regulation of glycine transport in Fusarium oxysporum var. lini.

    PubMed

    Castro, I M; Lima, A A; Nascimento, A F; Ruas, M M; Nicoli, J R; Brandão, R L

    1996-08-01

    Glycine was transported in Fusarium oxysporum cells, grown on glycine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, by a facilitated diffusion transport system with a half-saturation constant (Ks) of 11 mM and a maximum velocity (Vmax) of 1.2 mM (g dry weight)-1 h-1 at pH 5.0 and 26 degrees C. Under conditions of nitrogen starvation, the same system was present together with a high-affinity one (Ks) of about 47 microM and Vmax of about 60 microM (g dry weight)-1 h-1). The low-affinity system was more specific than the high-affinity system. Cells grown on gelatine showed the same behavior. In cells grown on glucose-gelatine medium, the low-affinity system was poorly expressed even after carbon and nitrogen starvation. Moreover, addition of glucose to cells grown on glycine and resuspended in mineral medium caused an increase of the glycine transport probably due to a boost in protein synthesis. This stimulation did not affect the Ks of the low-affinity system. These results demonstrate that, as is the case for other eukaryotic systems, F. oxysporum glycine transport is under control of nitrogen sources but its regulation by carbon sources appears to be more complex.

  3. The glycine transport inhibitor sarcosine is an NMDA receptor co-agonist that differs from glycine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai Xia; Hyrc, Krzysztof; Thio, Liu Lin

    2009-01-01

    Sarcosine is an amino acid involved in one-carbon metabolism and a promising therapy for schizophrenia because it enhances NMDA receptor (NMDAR) function by inhibiting glycine uptake. The structural similarity between sarcosine and glycine led us to hypothesize that sarcosine is also an agonist like glycine. We examined this possibility using whole-cell recordings from cultured embryonic mouse hippocampal neurons. We found that sarcosine is an NMDAR co-agonist at the glycine binding site. However, sarcosine differed from glycine because less NMDAR desensitization occurred with sarcosine than with glycine as the co-agonist. This finding led us to examine whether the physiological effects of NMDAR activation with these two co-agonists are the same. The difference in desensitization probably accounts for rises in intracellular Ca2+, as assessed by the fluorescent indicator fura-FF, being larger when NMDAR activation occurred with sarcosine than with glycine. In addition, Ca2+-activated K+ currents following NMDAR activation were larger with sarcosine than with glycine. Compared to glycine, NMDAR-mediated autaptic currents decayed faster with sarcosine suggesting that NMDAR deactivation also differs with these two co-agonists. Despite these differences, NMDAR-dependent neuronal death as assessed by propidium iodide was similar with both co-agonists. The same was true for neuronal bursting. Thus, sarcosine may enhance NMDAR function by more than one mechanism and may have different effects from other NMDAR co-agonists. PMID:19433577

  4. Crystal structure, solvothermal synthesis, thermogravimetric studies and DFT calculations of a five-coordinate cobalt(II) compound based on the N,N-bis-(2-hy-droxy-eth-yl)glycine anion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanling; Liu, Xianrong; Wang, Qijun; Wang, Lisheng; Song, Baoling

    2016-10-01

    The reaction of CoCl2·6H2O, N,N-bis-(2-hy-droxy-eth-yl)glycine and tri-ethyl-amine (Et3N) in ethanol solution under solvothermal conditions produced crystals of [N,N-bis-(2-hy-droxy-eth-yl)glycinato]chloridocobalt(II), [Co(C6H12NO4)Cl]. The Co(II) ion is coordinated in a slightly distorted trigonal-bipyramidal environment which is defined by three O atoms occupying the equatorial plane and the N and Cl atoms in the apical sites. In the crystal, two types of O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds connect the mol-ecules, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (001). The mol-ecular structure of the title compound confirms the findings of FTIR, elemental analysis, ESI-MS analysis and TG analysis. By using the density functional theory (DFT) (B3LYP) method with 6-31G(d) basis set, the molecular structure has been calculated and optimized.

  5. Organic foliar Milstop shows efficacy against soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) on soybean (Glycine max)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) has been produced in the United States since 1765. Soybean aphids (Aphis glycines Matsumura) were first detected on soybean in the United States in 2000 and now cause an estimated yield loss of up to US$4.9 billion annually. Organic soybean producers have few insecti...

  6. Changes in Heterodera glycines Egg Population Density in Continuous Glycine max over Four Years

    PubMed Central

    Donald, P. A.; Donald, W. W.; Keaster, A. J.; Kremer, R. J.; Kendig, J. A.; Sims, B. S.; Mihail, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, is found throughout soybean production areas of the United States, but the nematode's distribution is not uniform within states, counties, and individual fields. The goal of this research was to determine the spatial pattern of H. glycines population density in a field in southeastern Missouri and whether it changed over time in the absence of management practices. Geostatistical methods were used to describe and map the distribution of H. glycines over 4 years in a soybean (Glycine max) field in southeastern Missouri. Semivariograms and kriging, an interpolation method, were used to prepare isoarithmic contour maps and associated error maps. In the field studied, fall H. glycines population density (Pf) was poorly related to density the following spring (Pi). The distribution of peak H. glycines population density within the field changed from year to year, although high densities were often detected in the same general region of the field. The patchiness of H. glycines distribution within a field was verified. Yield was not related to H. glycines egg population density at planting, indicating that unmeasured variables were also reducing yield. PMID:19270874

  7. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2016-07-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  8. Three transport systems for the osmoprotectant glycine betaine operate in Bacillus subtilis: characterization of OpuD.

    PubMed Central

    Kappes, R M; Kempf, B; Bremer, E

    1996-01-01

    The accumulation of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine from exogenous sources provides a high degree of osmotic tolerance to Bacillus subtilis. We have identified, through functional complementation of an Escherichia coli mutant defective in glycine betaine uptake, a new glycine betaine transport system from B. subtilis. The DNA sequence of a 2,310-bp segment of the cloned region revealed a single gene (opuD) whose product (OpuD) was essential for glycine betaine uptake and osmoprotection in E. coli. The opuD gene encodes a hydrophobic 56.13-kDa protein (512 amino acid residues). OpuD shows a significant degree of sequence identity to the choline transporter BetT and the carnitine transporter CaiT from E. coli and a BetT-like protein from Haemophilus influenzae. These membrane proteins form a family of transporters involved in the uptake of trimethylammonium compounds. The OpuD-mediated glycine betaine transport activity in B. subtilis is controlled by the environmental osmolarity. High osmolarity stimulates de novo synthesis of OpuD and activates preexisting OpuD proteins to achieve maximal glycine betaine uptake activity. An opuD mutant was constructed by marker replacement, and the OpuD-mediated glycine betaine uptake activity was compared with that of the previously identified multicomponent OpuA and OpuC (ProU) glycine betaine uptake systems. In addition, a set of mutants was constructed, each of which synthesized only one of the three glycine betaine uptake systems. These mutants were used to determine the kinetic parameters for glycine betaine transport through OpuA, OpuC, and OpuD. Each of these uptake systems shows high substrate affinity, with Km values in the low micromolar range, which should allow B. subtilis to efficiently acquire the osmoprotectant from the environment. The systems differed in their contribution to the overall glycine betaine accumulation and osmoprotection. A triple opuA, opuC, and opuD mutant strain was isolated, and it showed no

  9. GcsR, a TyrR-Like Enhancer-Binding Protein, Regulates Expression of the Glycine Cleavage System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Sarwar, Zaara; Lundgren, Benjamin R.; Grassa, Michael T.; Wang, Michael X.; Gribble, Megan; Moffat, Jennifer F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glycine serves as a major source of single carbon units for biochemical reactions within bacterial cells. Utilization of glycine is tightly regulated and revolves around a key group of proteins known as the glycine cleavage system (GCS). Our lab previously identified the transcriptional regulator GcsR (PA2449) as being required for catabolism of glycine in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. In an effort to clarify and have an overall better understanding of the role of GcsR in glycine metabolism, a combination of transcriptome sequencing and electrophoretic mobility shift assays was used to identify target genes of this transcriptional regulator. It was found that GcsR binds to an 18-bp consensus sequence (TGTAACG-N4-CGTTCCG) upstream of the gcs2 operon, consisting of the gcvH2, gcvP2, glyA2, sdaA, and gcvT2 genes. The proteins encoded by these genes, namely, the GCS (GcvH2-GcvP2-GcvT2), serine hydroxymethyltransferase (GlyA2), and serine dehydratase (SdaA), form a metabolic pathway for the conversion of glycine into pyruvate, which can enter the central metabolism. GcsR activates transcription of the gcs2 operon in response to glycine. Interestingly, GcsR belongs to a family of transcriptional regulators known as TyrR-like enhancer-binding proteins (EBPs). Until this study, TyrR-like EBPs were only known to function in regulating aromatic amino acid metabolism. GcsR is the founding member of a new class of TyrR-like EBPs that function in the regulation of glycine metabolism. Indeed, homologs of GcsR and its target genes are present in almost all sequenced genomes of the Pseudomonadales order, suggesting that this genetic regulatory mechanism is a common theme for pseudomonads. IMPORTANCE Glycine is required for various cellular functions, including cell wall synthesis, protein synthesis, and the biosynthesis of several important metabolites. Regulating levels of glycine metabolism allows P. aeruginosa to maintain the metabolic flux

  10. Comparative metabolomics in Glycine max and Glycine soja under salt stress to reveal the phenotypes of their offspring.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonghai; Lam, Honming; Pi, Erxu; Zhan, Qinglei; Tsai, Sauna; Wang, Chunmei; Kwan, Yiuwa; Ngai, Saiming

    2013-09-11

    Metabolomics is developing as an important functional genomics tool for understanding plant systems' response to genetic and environmental changes. Here, we characterized the metabolic changes of cultivated soybean C08 (Glycine max L. Merr) and wild soybean W05 (Glycine soja Sieb.et Zucc.) under salt stress using MS-based metabolomics, in order to reveal the phenotypes of their eight hybrid offspring (9H0086, 9H0124, 9H0391, 9H0736, 9H0380, 9H0400, 9H0434, and 9H0590). Total small molecule extracts of soybean seedling leaves were profiled by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry (LC-FT/MS). We found that wild soybean contained higher amounts of disaccharides, sugar alcohols, and acetylated amino acids than cultivated soybean, but with lower amounts of monosaccharides, carboxylic acids, and unsaturated fatty acids. Further investigations demonstrated that the ability of soybean to tolerate salt was mainly based on synthesis of compatible solutes, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, cell membrane modifications, and induction of plant hormones. On the basis of metabolic phenotype, the salt-tolerance abilities of 9H0086, 9H0124, 9H0391, 9H0736, 9H0380, 9H0400, 9H0434, and 9H0590 were discriminated. Our results demonstrated that MS-based metabolomics provides a fast and powerful approach to discriminate the salt-tolerance characteristics of soybeans.

  11. A Rigorous Attempt to Verify Interstellar Glycine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, L. E.; Lovas, F. J.; Hollis, J. M.; Friedel, D. N.; Jewell, P. R.; Remijan, A.; Ilyushin, V. V.; Alekseev, E. A.; Dyubko, S. F.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, Kuan, Charnley, and co-workers reported the detection of interstellar glycine (NH2CH2COOH) based on observations of 27 lines in 19 different spectral bands in one or more of the sources Sgr BP(N-LMH), Orion KL, and W51 e1/e2. They supported their detection report with rotational temperature diagrams for all three sources. In this paper, we present essential criteria which can be used in a straightforward analysis technique to confirm the identity of an interstellar asymmetric rotor such as glycine. We use new laboratory measurements of glycine as a basis for applying this analysis technique, both to our previously unpublished 12 m telescope data and to the previously published SEST data of Nummelin and colleagues. We conclude that key lines necessary for an interstellar glycine identification have not yet been found. We identify several common molecular candidates that should be examined further as more likely carriers of the lines reported as glycine. Finally, we illustrate that rotational temperature diagrams used without the support of correct spectroscopic assignments are not a reliable tool for the identification of interstellar molecules. Subject headings: ISM: abundances - ISM: clouds - ISM: individual (Sagittarius B2[N-

  12. Synthesis and structural characterization of ternary Cu (II) complexes of glycine with 2,2'-bipyridine and 2,2'-dipyridylamine. The DNA-binding studies and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mervat S; Shoukry, Azza A; Ali, Ayat G

    2012-02-01

    In this study two new complexes [Cu(bpy)(Gly)Cl]·2H(2)O (1) and [Cu(dpa)(Gly)Cl]·2H(2)O (2) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine; dpa=2,2'-dipyridylamine, Gly=glycine) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TGA, UV-vis and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The binding properties of the complexes with CT-DNA were investigated by electronic absorption spectra. The intrinsic binding constants (K(b)) calculated from UV-vis absorption studies were 1.84 × 10(3) M(-1) and 3.1 × 10(3) M(-1) for complexes 1 and 2 respectively. Thermal denaturation has been systematically studied by spectrophotometric method and the calculated ΔT(m) was nearly 5 °C for each complex. All the results suggest that the interaction modes between the complexes and CT-DNA were electrostatic and/or groove binding. The redox behavior of the two complexes was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Both complexes, in presence and absence of CT-DNA show a quasi-reversible wave corresponding to Cu(II)/Cu(I) redox couple. The change in E(1/2), ΔE and I(pc)/I(pa) ascertain the interaction of complexes 1 and 2 with CT-DNA. Further insight into the binding of complexes with CT-DNA has been made by gel electrophoresis, where the binding of complexes is confirmed through decreasing the mobility and intensity of DNA bands. In addition, the antitumor activity of the complexes was tested on two cancer cell lines; the breast cancer (MCF7) and the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2), as well as one normal cell line; the human normal melanocytes (HFB4). The results showed that complex 1 was more potent antitumor agent than complex 2. The in-vitro antimicrobial activity of the two complexes was carried out using the disc diffusion method against different species of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The activity data showed that complex 2 was more active in inhibiting the growth of the tested organisms.

  13. Synthesis and structural characterization of ternary Cu (II) complexes of glycine with 2,2'-bipyridine and 2,2'-dipyridylamine. The DNA-binding studies and biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Mervat S.; Shoukry, Azza A.; Ali, Ayat G.

    2012-02-01

    In this study two new complexes [Cu(bpy)(Gly)Cl]·2H 2O ( 1) and [Cu(dpa)(Gly)Cl]·2H 2O ( 2) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; dpa = 2,2'-dipyridylamine, Gly = glycine) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TGA, UV-vis and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The binding properties of the complexes with CT-DNA were investigated by electronic absorption spectra. The intrinsic binding constants ( Kb) calculated from UV-vis absorption studies were 1.84 × 10 3 M -1 and 3.1 × 10 3 M -1 for complexes 1 and 2 respectively. Thermal denaturation has been systematically studied by spectrophotometric method and the calculated Δ Tm was nearly 5 °C for each complex. All the results suggest that the interaction modes between the complexes and CT-DNA were electrostatic and/or groove binding. The redox behavior of the two complexes was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Both complexes, in presence and absence of CT-DNA show a quasi-reversible wave corresponding to Cu II/Cu I redox couple. The change in E1/2, Δ E and Ipc/ Ipa ascertain the interaction of complexes 1 and 2 with CT-DNA. Further insight into the binding of complexes with CT-DNA has been made by gel electrophoresis, where the binding of complexes is confirmed through decreasing the mobility and intensity of DNA bands. In addition, the antitumor activity of the complexes was tested on two cancer cell lines; the breast cancer (MCF7) and the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2), as well as one normal cell line; the human normal melanocytes (HFB4). The results showed that complex 1 was more potent antitumor agent than complex 2. The in-vitro antimicrobial activity of the two complexes was carried out using the disc diffusion method against different species of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The activity data showed that complex 2 was more active in inhibiting the growth of the tested organisms.

  14. The N-methyl D-aspartate receptor glycine site and D-serine metabolism: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Schell, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    The N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) type of glutamate receptor requires two distinct agonists to operate. Glycine is assumed to be the endogenous ligand for the NMDA receptor glycine site, but this notion has been challenged by the discovery of high levels of endogenous d-serine in the mammalian forebrain. I have outlined an evolutionary framework for the appearance of a glycine site in animals and the metabolic events leading to high levels of D-serine in brain. Sequence alignments of the glycine-binding regions, along with the scant experimental data available, suggest that the properties of invertebrate NMDA receptor glycine sites are probably different from those in vertebrates. The synthesis of D-serine in brain is due to a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (B(6))-requiring serine racemase in glia. Although it remains unknown when serine racemase first evolved, data concerning the evolution of B(6) enzymes, along with the known occurrences of serine racemases in animals, point to D-serine synthesis arising around the divergence time of arthropods. D-Serine catabolism occurs via the ancient peroxisomal enzyme d-amino acid oxidase (DAO), whose ontogenetic expression in the hindbrain of mammals is delayed until the postnatal period and absent from the forebrain. The phylogeny of D-serine metabolism has relevance to our understanding of brain ontogeny, schizophrenia and neurotransmitter dynamics. PMID:15306409

  15. Antidepressants modulate glycine action in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Khae Hawn; Kang, Ki-Woon; Kang, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Tae-Wook; Park, Hun-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2015-12-01

    Antidepressants are drugs that relieve symptoms of depressive disorders. Fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran are different types of antidepressants, and they have widely been used for relieving of depression symptoms. In the present study, the effects of fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran on the glycine-induced ion current by nystatin-perforated patch clamp and on the amplitude of field potential in the hippocampal CA1 region by multichannel extracellular recording, MED64, system, were studied. In the present results, fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran reduced glycine-induced ion current in the hippocampal CA1 neurons in nystatin-perforated patch clamp method. These drugs enhanced the amplitude of the field potential in the hippocampal CA1 region in MED64 system. These results suggest that antidepressants may increase neuronal activity by enhancing field potential through inhibition on glycine-induced ion current.

  16. Antidepressants modulate glycine action in rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Khae Hawn; Kang, Ki-Woon; Kang, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Tae-Wook; Park, Hun-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Antidepressants are drugs that relieve symptoms of depressive disorders. Fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran are different types of antidepressants, and they have widely been used for relieving of depression symptoms. In the present study, the effects of fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran on the glycine-induced ion current by nystatin-perforated patch clamp and on the amplitude of field potential in the hippocampal CA1 region by multichannel extracellular recording, MED64, system, were studied. In the present results, fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran reduced glycine-induced ion current in the hippocampal CA1 neurons in nystatin-perforated patch clamp method. These drugs enhanced the amplitude of the field potential in the hippocampal CA1 region in MED64 system. These results suggest that antidepressants may increase neuronal activity by enhancing field potential through inhibition on glycine-induced ion current. PMID:26730381

  17. Anticoagulant Effects of Heparin Complexes with Prolyl-Glycine Peptide and Glycine and Proline Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Grigorieva, M E; Obergan, T Yu; Maystrenko, E S; Kalugina, M D

    2016-05-01

    The study demonstrates the formation of heparin complexes with prolyl-glycine peptide and proline and glycine amino acids. The method was developed for in vitro production of these complexes at 1:1 dipeptide to heparin molar ratio and 2:1 amino acid to heparin molar ratio. These complexes, unlike the constituents, proline and glycine, exhibited significant anticoagulant, antiplatelet, and fibrin-depolymerization activities of varying degree in vitro and in vivo. The heparin-dipeptide complex produced maximum effect. The dipeptide by itself also showed anticoagulant properties, but less pronounced than in the complex with heparin.

  18. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor....

  19. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor....

  20. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor....

  1. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor....

  2. GABA and glycine actions on spinal motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Krnjević, K; Puil, E; Werman, R

    1977-06-01

    Applied microiontophoretically in the spinal cord of cats, glycine is consistently more powerful than gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in raising the membrane conductance of lumbosacral motoneurons (mean ratio of equipotent iontophoretic currents tested on same cells is 5.6:1). This is the reverse of the situation in cerebral cortex. The effect of glycine is well maintained during applications lasting about 1 min, but that of GABA, after an early peak, drops to a much lower plateau (mean plateau-over-peak ratio is 0.23). The reversal potentials for the action of GABA and glycine are initially similar but they behave differently during a prolonged application; that for glycine usually remains constant or becomes more negative whereas that for GABA tends to shift in the positive direction. Various explanations of these phenomena are considered. It is suggested that a single process, electrogenic uptake of GABA, may account for both desensitization (by removing GABA from its site of action) and the positive shift in GABA reversal potential (became uptake is probably associated with an influx of Na+).

  3. Engineering and characterization of fluorogenic glycine riboswitches

    PubMed Central

    Ketterer, Simon; Gladis, Lukas; Kozica, Adnan; Meier, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    A set of 12 fluorogenic glycine riboswitches with different thermodynamic and kinetic response properties was engineered. For the design of functional riboswitches, a three-part RNA approach was applied based on the idea of linking a RNA sensor, transmitter and actuator part together. For the RNA sensor and actuator part, we used the tandem glycine aptamer structure from Bacillus subtillis, and fluorogenic aptamer Spinach, respectively. To achieve optimal signal transduction from the sensor to the actuator, a riboswitch library with variable transmitter was screened with a microfluidic large-scale integration chip. This allowed us to establish the complete thermodynamic binding profiles of the riboswitch library. Glycine dissociation constants of the 12 strong fluorescence response riboswitches varied between 99.7 and 570 μM. Furthermore, the kinetic glycine binding (kon), and dissociation (koff) rates, and corresponding energy barriers of the 10 strongest fluorescence response riboswitches were determined with the same chip platform. kon and koff were in the order of 10−3s−1 and 10−2s−1, respectively. Conclusively, we demonstrate that systematic screening of synthetic and natural linked RNA parts with microfluidic chip technology is an effective approach to rapidly generate fluorogenic metabolite riboswitches with a broad range of biophysical response properties. PMID:27220466

  4. Identification of Rotylenchulus reniformis resistant Glycine lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of resistance to reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is the first step in developing resistant soybean (Glycine max) cultivars that will benefit growers in the Mid South. This study was conducted to identify soybean (G. max and G. soja) lines with resistance to this pathogen....

  5. A Novel Glycinate-based Body Wash

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Jamie; Ananthapadmanabhan, K.P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the properties of a novel body wash containing the mild surfactant glycinate. Design: Biochemical and clinical assays. Setting: Research laboratories and clinical sites in the United States and Canada. Participants: Women 18 to 65 years of age (cleansing efficacy); male and female subjects 26 to 63 years of age with mild or moderate dryness and erythema (leg-controlled application test); subjects 5 to 65 years of age with mild-to-moderate eczema (eczema compatibility); and women 18 to 64 years of age (home use). Measurements: Assessments across studies included colorimetric dye exclusion to assess skin damage potential (corneosurfametry), efficacy of cosmetic product removal from skin, change from baseline in visual dryness, change from baseline in Eczema Area and Severity Index, and self-perceived eczema attributes and self-reported product preference. Results: The glycinate-based cleanser demonstrated mildness to skin components when evaluated in a corneosurfametry assay. Short-term use under exaggerated wash conditions in subjects with dryness scores <3 and erythema scores <2 (both on a 0-6 scale) indicated an initial reduction in visual dryness. In subjects with eczema, normal use resulted in significant improvements (p<0.05) at Week 4 compared with baseline in skin dryness (change from baseline = −0.73), rash (−0.56), itch (−0.927), tightness (−0.585), and all eczema (−0.756). The glycinate-based body wash removed 56 percent of a long-lasting cosmetic foundation from skin compared with less than 30 percent removed by two competitive products tested. The glycinate-based body wash was preferred over a competitive mild cleansing product overall. Conclusion: The patented glycinate-containing body wash demonstrated better product mildness and patient-preferred attributes and clinical benefits. PMID:23882306

  6. Oral glycine administration increases brain glycine/creatine ratios in men: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Marc J.; Prescot, Andrew P.; Ongur, Dost; Evins, A. Eden; Barros, Tanya L.; Medeiros, Carissa L.; Covell, Julie; Wang, Liqun; Fava, Maurizio; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2009-01-01

    Oral high-dose glycine administration has been used as an adjuvant treatment for schizophrenia to enhance glutamate neurotransmission and mitigate glutamate system hypofunction thought to contribute to the disorder. Prior studies in schizophrenia subjects documented clinical improvements after 2 weeks of oral glycine administration, suggesting that brain glycine levels are sufficiently elevated to evoke a clinical response within that time frame. However, no human study has reported on brain glycine changes induced by its administration. We utilized a noninvasive proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) technique termed echo time-averaged (TEAV) 1H-MRS, which permits noninvasive quantification of brain glycine in vivo, to determine whether 2 weeks of oral glycine administration (peak dose of 0.8g/kg/day) increased brain glycine/creatine (Gly/Cr) ratios in 11 healthy adult men. In scans obtained 17 hours after the last glycine dose, brain (Gly/Cr) ratios were significantly increased. The data indicate that it is possible to measure brain glycine changes with proton spectroscopy. Developing a more comprehensive understanding of human brain glycine dynamics may lead to optimized use of glycine site agonists and glycine transporter inhibitors to treat schizophrenia, and possibly to treat other disorders associated with glutamate system dysfunction. PMID:19556112

  7. Compositions containing poly ([gamma]glutamylcysteinyl)glycines

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, P.J.; Delhaize, E.; Robinson, N.J.; Unkefer, C.J.; Furlong, C.

    1992-02-18

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting the removal, and the apparatus used in effecting the removal are described. One or more of the polypeptides, poly ([gamma]glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly ([gamma]glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form. 1 figs.

  8. Compositions containing poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Paul J.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Robinson, Nigel J.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Furlong, Clement

    1992-01-01

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  9. Multifarious Beneficial Effect of Nonessential Amino Acid, Glycine: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Razak, Meerza Abdul; Begum, Pathan Shajahan

    2017-01-01

    Glycine is most important and simple, nonessential amino acid in humans, animals, and many mammals. Generally, glycine is synthesized from choline, serine, hydroxyproline, and threonine through interorgan metabolism in which kidneys and liver are the primarily involved. Generally in common feeding conditions, glycine is not sufficiently synthesized in humans, animals, and birds. Glycine acts as precursor for several key metabolites of low molecular weight such as creatine, glutathione, haem, purines, and porphyrins. Glycine is very effective in improving the health and supports the growth and well-being of humans and animals. There are overwhelming reports supporting the role of supplementary glycine in prevention of many diseases and disorders including cancer. Dietary supplementation of proper dose of glycine is effectual in treating metabolic disorders in patients with cardiovascular diseases, several inflammatory diseases, obesity, cancers, and diabetes. Glycine also has the property to enhance the quality of sleep and neurological functions. In this review we will focus on the metabolism of glycine in humans and animals and the recent findings and advances about the beneficial effects and protection of glycine in different disease states. PMID:28337245

  10. Differentiation of Malassezia furfur and Malassezia sympodialis by glycine utilization.

    PubMed

    Murai, T; Nakamura, Y; Kano, R; Watanabe, S; Hasegawa, A

    2002-06-01

    The genus Malassezia has been revised to include six lipophilic species and one nonlipophilic species. These Malassezia species have been investigated to differentiate their morphological and physiological characteristics. However, assimilation of amino acids as a nitrogen source by these species was not well elucidated. In the present study, isolates of Malassezia species were examined with a glycine medium (containing 7-266 mmol glycine, 7.4 mmol KH(2)PO(4), 4.1 mmol MgSO(4)7H(2)O, 29.6 mmol thiamine, 0.5% Tween-80 and 2% agar) and a modified Dixon glycine medium (0.6% peptone, 3.6% malt extract, 2% ox-bile, 1% Tween-40, 0.2% glycerol, 0.2% oleic acid, 7 mmol glycine and 2% agar). All M. furfur isolates developed on the glycine medium, assimilating glycine at concentrations of at least 7 mmol l(-1). However, the other six Malassezia species were unable to grow on the glycine medium. Also, many colonies of M. furfur grew rapidly, within 2-3 days on the modified Dixon glycine medium, although the other six species showed slow and poor development. From these results, it was suggested that M. furfur might be able to utilize glycine as a single nitrogen source, which the other Malassezia species could not. Therefore, glycine medium was recommended for the differentiation of M. furfur from other species of Malassezia.

  11. Evaluation of mechanical properties of some glycine complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaraju, D.; Raja Shekar, P. V.; Chandra, Ch. Sateesh; Rao, K. Kishan; Krishna, N. Gopi

    2014-04-24

    The variation of Vickers hardness with load for (101) glycine zinc chloride (GZC), (001) glycine lithium sulphate (GLS), (001) triglycine sulphate (TGS) and (010) glycine phosphite (GPI) crystals was studied. From the cracks initiated along the corners of the indentation impression, crack lengths were measured and the fracture toughness value and brittle index number were determined. The hardness related parameters viz. yield strength and Young’s modulus were also estimated. The anisotropic nature of the crystals was studied using Knoop indentation technique.

  12. Structural Basis of Cooperative Ligand Binding by the Glycine Riboswitch

    SciTech Connect

    E Butler; J Wang; Y Xiong; S Strobel

    2011-12-31

    The glycine riboswitch regulates gene expression through the cooperative recognition of its amino acid ligand by a tandem pair of aptamers. A 3.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of the tandem riboswitch from the glycine permease operon of Fusobacterium nucleatum reveals the glycine binding sites and an extensive network of interactions, largely mediated by asymmetric A-minor contacts, that serve to communicate ligand binding status between the aptamers. These interactions provide a structural basis for how the glycine riboswitch cooperatively regulates gene expression.

  13. Stoichiometry of the heparin-Cu2+-glycine mixed-ligand complex according to differential thermal analysis and IR spectroscopy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feofanova, M. A.; Frantseva, Yu. V.; Zhuravlev, E. V.; Baranova, N. V.; Ryasenskii, S. S.

    2015-02-01

    A method or the synthesis, isolation, and purification of a mixed-ligand complex of heparin with copper and glycine cations was suggested. The complex was studied by elemental, thermal, and spectral analyses. The elemental and crystalline hydrate compositions of the complex were determined and the molecular formula was suggested to be Na3CuHepGly · 2H2O.

  14. Glycine-coated photoluminescent silver nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravets, Vira V.; Culhane, Kyle; Dmitruk, Igor M.; Pinchuk, Anatoliy O.

    2012-03-01

    We present experimental results on the multicolor (blue and green) photoluminescence from glycine-coated silver nanoclusters and small nanoparticles which can be used as novel probes for bio-imaging. Glycine-coated silver nanoclusters and nanoparticles were synthesized using thermal reduction of silver nitrate in a glycine matrix, according to a modified procedure described in literature. The size characterization with mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering showed that the diameters of luminescent silver nanoclusters and small nanoparticles vary from 0.5 nm to 17 nm. Extinction spectroscopy revealed that the absorption band of the luminescent nanoclusters and nanoparticles was blue-shifted as compared to the nonluminescent larger silver nanoparticles. This effect indicated the well-known size dependence of the surface plasmon resonance in silver. The most pronounced photoluminescence peak was observed around 410 nm (characteristic SPR wavelength for silver) which strongly suggests the enhancement of the photoluminescence from silver nanoparticles by the SPR. The relative quantum yield of the photoluminescence of silver nanoclusters and nanoparticles was evaluated to be 0.09. In terms of their small size, brightness and photostability, noble metal nanoclusters and nanoparticles hold the most promise as candidates for biological cell imaging, competing with commonly used semiconductor quantum dots, fluorescent proteins and organic dyes. When applied to the problem of intracellular imaging, metal nanoclusters and small nanoparticles offer advantages over their much larger sized semiconductor counterparts in terms of ease of biological delivery. In addition, noble metal nanoparticles and nanoclusters are photostable. The high quantum yield (QY) of the photoluminescence emission signal enables the isolation of their photoluminescence from the cellular autofluorescence in cell imaging, improving the image contrast.

  15. Poly(gamma-glutamylcysteinyl)glycine: its role in cadmium resistance in plant cells.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, P J; Unkefer, C J; Doolen, J A; Watt, K; Robinson, N J

    1987-01-01

    Angiosperms can be selected for the ability to grow in the presence of normally toxic concentrations of certain trace metal ions. Addition of Cd and Cu to Cd-resistant Datura innoxia cell cultures results in the rapid synthesis and accumulation of sulfur-rich, metal-binding polypeptides. The structure of these compounds was determined using amino acid analysis, 13C NMR, and site-specific enzymic digestion. These compounds are poly(gamma-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines. Greater than 80% of the cellular Cd is bound to the bis and tris forms in Cd-resistant cells. There is a direct correlation between the maximum accumulation of the metal-binding polypeptides and the concentration of toxic ions to which the cells are resistant. In the presence of metal ions, the polypeptides form multimeric aggregates that can be resolved by gel chromatography. Cd binds to both the high and low molecular weight aggregates, whereas Cu preferentially binds to the higher molecular weight forms. The presence of gamma-carboxamide linkages between glutamyl and adjacent cysteinyl residues indicates that these polypeptides are products of biosynthetic pathways. Poly(gamma-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines bind metals and, in this respect, appear to be functional analogs of the protein metallothionein. However, in the absence of supraoptimal concentrations of trace metal ions, the functions of metallothionein in animals and microorganisms and poly(gamma-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines in plants may differ. PMID:3477793

  16. Rapid, activity-independent turnover of vesicular transmitter content at a mixed glycine/GABA synapse

    PubMed Central

    Apostolides, Pierre F.; Trussell, Laurence O.

    2013-01-01

    The release of neurotransmitter via the fusion of transmitter-filled, presynaptic vesicles is the primary means by which neurons relay information. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms that supply neurotransmitter destined for vesicle filling, the endogenous transmitter concentrations inside presynaptic nerve terminals or the dynamics of vesicle refilling after exocytosis. We addressed these issues by recording from synaptically-coupled pairs of glycine/GABA co-releasing interneurons (cartwheel cells) of the mouse dorsal cochlear nucleus. We find that the plasma membrane transporter GlyT2 and the intracellular enzyme glutamate decarboxylase supply the majority of glycine and GABA, respectively. Pharmacological block of GlyT2 or glutamate decarboxylase led to rapid and complete rundown of transmission, whereas increasing GABA synthesis via intracellular glutamate uncaging dramatically potentiated GABA release within one minute. These effects were surprisingly independent of exocytosis, indicating that pre-filled vesicles re-equilibrated upon acute changes in cytosolic transmitter. Titration of cytosolic transmitter with postsynaptic responses indicated that endogenous, non-vesicular glycine/GABA levels in nerve terminals are 5 to 7 mM, and that vesicular transport mechanisms are not saturated under basal conditions. Thus, cytosolic transmitter levels dynamically set the strength of inhibitory synapses in a release-independent manner. PMID:23486948

  17. Allylation of aldehydes and imines: promoted by reuseable polymer-supported sulfonamide of N-glycine.

    PubMed

    Li, Gui-long; Zhao, Gang

    2006-02-16

    [reaction: see text] A allylation of aldehydes and imines (generated in situ from aldehydes and amines) with allyltributyltin promoted by recoverable and reusable the polymer-supported sulfonamide of N-glycine has been developed. Good to high yields were obtained in various cases. Most of the SnBu(3) residue can be recovered as Bu(3)SnCl. Highly stereoselective synthesis of N-Boc-(2S,3S)-3-hydroxy-2-phenylpiperidine 7 was achieved by using the P4a-mediated allylation of Boc-l-phenylglycinal as a key step.

  18. The Glycine Transport Inhibitor Sarcosine Is an Inhibitory Glycine Receptor Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai Xia; Lyons-Warren, Ariel; Thio, Liu Lin

    2009-01-01

    Summary Sarcosine is an endogenous amino acid that is a competitive inhibitor of the type I glycine transporter (GlyT1), an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) co-agonist, and an important intermediate in one-carbon metabolism. Its therapeutic potential for schizophrenia further underscores its clinical importance. The structural similarity between sarcosine and glycine and sarcosine's ability to serve as an NMDAR co-agonist led us to examine whether sarcosine is also an agonist at the inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR). We examined this possibility using whole-cell recordings from cultured embryonic mouse hippocampal neurons and found that sarcosine evoked a dose-dependent, strychnine sensitive, Cl- current that cross-inhibited glycine currents. Sarcosine evoked this current with Li+ in the extracellular solution to block GlyT1, in neurons treated with the essentially irreversible GlyT1 inhibitor N[3-(4′-fluorophenyl)-3-(4′-phenylphenoxy)propyl]sarcosine (NFPS), and in neurons plated in the absence of glia. These results indicate that the sarcosine currents did not result from GlyT1 inhibition or heteroexchange. We conclude that sarcosine is a GlyR agonist. PMID:19619564

  19. Evaluating Progeny of Glycine max by Glycine tomentella for Novel Disease Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hybridization with wild relatives of crops is an important tool for improving traits such as disease resistance and our objective is to expand the use of wild relatives for disease resistance in soybean. Glycine tomentella (2n=78) is a wild, perennial species in the tertiary gene pool of soybean (G....

  20. Acute copper toxicity following copper glycinate injection.

    PubMed

    Oon, S; Yap, C-H; Ihle, B U

    2006-11-01

    We present a patient who developed multi-organ failure due to severe copper toxicity following attempted suicide by s.c. injection of copper glycinate. Acute copper toxicity is rare in the developed world, although it occurs more frequently in developing world countries, where it is a common mode of suicide. Acute toxicity usually results from oral ingestion and there are several local and systemic effects. Specific management can be difficult as there is little evidence regarding the efficacy of chelating agents in acute toxicity.

  1. Evidence from glycine transfer RNA of a frozen accident at the dawn of the genetic code

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Harold S; Tate, Warren P

    2008-01-01

    Background Transfer RNA (tRNA) is the means by which the cell translates DNA sequence into protein according to the rules of the genetic code. A credible proposition is that tRNA was formed from the duplication of an RNA hairpin half the length of the contemporary tRNA molecule, with the point at which the hairpins were joined marked by the canonical intron insertion position found today within tRNA genes. If these hairpins possessed a 3'-CCA terminus with different combinations of stem nucleotides (the ancestral operational RNA code), specific aminoacylation and perhaps participation in some form of noncoded protein synthesis might have occurred. However, the identity of the first tRNA and the initial steps in the origin of the genetic code remain elusive. Results Here we show evidence that glycine tRNA was the first tRNA, as revealed by a vestigial imprint in the anticodon loop sequences of contemporary descendents. This provides a plausible mechanism for the missing first step in the origin of the genetic code. In 448 of 466 glycine tRNA gene sequences from bacteria, archaea and eukaryote cytoplasm analyzed, CCA occurs immediately upstream of the canonical intron insertion position, suggesting the first anticodon (NCC for glycine) has been captured from the 3'-terminal CCA of one of the interacting hairpins as a result of an ancestral ligation. Conclusion That this imprint (including the second and third nucleotides of the glycine tRNA anticodon) has been retained through billions of years of evolution suggests Crick's 'frozen accident' hypothesis has validity for at least this very first step at the dawn of the genetic code. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr Eugene V. Koonin, Dr Rob Knight and Dr David H Ardell. PMID:19091122

  2. Thinking outside the synapse: glycine at extrasynaptic NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Gray, John A; Nicoll, Roger A

    2012-08-03

    In this issue, Papouin et al. show that glycine is the endogenous coagonist for extrasynaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs), unlike at synapses where the coagonist is d-serine. By enzymatically degrading endogenous glycine, they begin to address the enigmatic physiological and pathological roles for extrasynaptic NMDARs.

  3. Molecular dynamics simulation of aqueous solutions of glycine betaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civera, Monica; Fornili, Arianna; Sironi, Maurizio; Fornili, Sandro L.

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation is used to investigate hydration properties of glycine betaine in a large range of solute concentrations. Statistical analyses of the system trajectories evidence microscopic details suggesting an interpretation of experimental results recently obtained for aqueous solutions of trimethylamine- N-oxide, a bioprotectant closely related to glycine betaine.

  4. Glycine betaine as a direct substrate for methanogens (Methanococcoides spp.).

    PubMed

    Watkins, Andrew J; Roussel, Erwan G; Parkes, R John; Sass, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Nine marine methanogenic Methanococcoides strains, including the type strains of Methanococcoides methylutens, M. burtonii, and M. alaskense, were tested for the utilization of N-methylated glycines. Three strains (NM1, PM2, and MKM1) used glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) as a substrate for methanogenesis, partially demethylating it to N,N-dimethylglycine, whereas none of the strains used N,N-dimethylglycine or sarcosine (N-methylglycine). Growth rates and growth yields per mole of substrate with glycine betaine (3.96 g [dry weight] per mol) were similar to those with trimethylamine (4.11 g [dry weight] per mol). However, as glycine betaine is only partially demethylated, the yield per methyl group was significantly higher than with trimethylamine. If glycine betaine and trimethylamine are provided together, trimethylamine is demethylated to dimethyl- and methylamine with limited glycine betaine utilization. After trimethylamine is depleted, dimethylamine and glycine betaine are consumed rapidly, before methylamine. Glycine betaine extends the range of substrates that can be directly utilized by some methanogens, allowing them to gain energy from the substrate without the need for syntrophic partners.

  5. Characterization of seed storage proteins of several perennial glycine species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial Glycine species, distant relatives of soybean, have been recognized as a potential source of new genetic diversity for soybean improvement. The subgenus Glycine includes around 30 perennial species, which are well adapted to drought conditions and possess resistance to a number of soybean ...

  6. New soybean accessions evaluated for reaction to Heterodera glycines populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is a serious pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the USA and worldwide. Annual yield losses in the USA are estimated to be over $1 billion. These losses have remained stable with the use of resistant cultivars but over time nematode...

  7. New soybean accessions identified with resistance to Heterodera glycines populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is a serious root-parasite of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], in USA and worldwide. Annual yield losses in USA are estimated to be nearly $1 billion. These losses have remained stable at current levels with the use of resistant cultivars bu...

  8. Population genetic structure of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is an invasive pest of cultivated soybean [Glycine max (L.)] in North America. After the initial invasion in 2000, the aphid has quickly spread across most of the U.S. and Canada, suggesting large scale dispersals and rapid adaptations to new environment...

  9. Glycine toxicity and unexpected intra-operative death.

    PubMed

    Byard, R W; Harrison, R; Wells, R; Gilbert, J D

    2001-09-01

    A rare complication of the use of glycine irrigation fluid during prostatic surgery in a 69-year-old man is described. Following cystolithopexy and transurethral resection of the prostate for benign prostatomegaly, abdominal distension developed with increasing ventilatory pressures. Despite retroperitoneal fluid evacuation at subsequent urgent laparotomy, cardiac arrest occurred that was not amenable to resuscitation. At autopsy a traumatic defect in the posterior bladder wall filled with calculus debris was confirmed that did not communicate with the peritoneal cavity. Hyponatremia with markedly elevated levels of blood, urine, and body fluid glycine were demonstrated. Death was, therefore, attributed to glycine toxicity following tracking of glycine through a surgical defect in the posterior bladder wall. Careful dissection of surgical sites is required in such cases to demonstrate any additional trauma that may be associated with the fatal episode. Analysis of body fluids for glycine and electrolytes is also necessary to assist in the determination of possible mechanisms of death.

  10. Arachidonic acid inhibits glycine transport in cultured glial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zafra, F; Alcantara, R; Gomeza, J; Aragon, C; Gimenez, C

    1990-01-01

    The effects of arachidonic acid on glycine uptake, exchange and efflux in C6 glioma cells were investigated. Arachidonic acid produced a dose-dependent inhibition of high-affinity glycine uptake. This effect was not due to a simple detergent-like action on membranes, as the inhibition of glycine transport was most pronounced with cis-unsaturated long-chain fatty acids, whereas saturated and trans-unsaturated fatty acids had relatively little or no effect. Endogenous unsaturated non-esterified fatty acids may exert a similar inhibitory effect on the transport of glycine. The mechanism for this inhibitory effect has been examined in a plasma membrane vesicle preparation derived from C6 cells, which avoids metabolic or compartmentation interferences. The results suggest that part of the selective inhibition of glycine transport by arachidonic acid could be due to the effects of the arachidonic acid on the lipid domain surrounding the carrier. PMID:2121132

  11. Nitrate and amino acid availability affects glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine in response to changes of salinity in a halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica.

    PubMed

    Waditee-Sirisattha, Rungaroon; Kageyama, Hakuto; Fukaya, Minoru; Rai, Vandna; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-12-01

    A halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica thrives in extreme salinity with accumulation of a potent osmoprotectant glycine betaine. Recently, this cyanobacterium was shown to accumulate sunscreen molecule mycosporine-2-glycine significantly at high salinity. In this study, we investigated effects of nitrate and amino acid provision on the accumulation of glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine. With elevated nitrate concentrations at high salinity, intracellular levels of both metabolites were enhanced. Six-fold high nitrate concentration increased the relative amounts of glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine to be 1.5 and 2.0 folds compared with control condition : Increased levels were time- and dose-dependent manner. Exogenous supply of glycine/serine at high salinity resulted in the similar trends as observed in excess nitrate experiment. Intracellular level of glycine betaine increased ∼1.6 folds with glycine/serine supplementation. These supplementations also caused the increased level of mycosporine-2-glycine, namely 1.4 and 2 folds by glycine and serine, respectively. The transcription of glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine biosynthetic genes was strongly induced under high-nitrate-salt condition. These results suggest the dependence of glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine productions on substrate availability, and the effect of nitrate was possibly associated with stimulation of osmoprotectant increment in this extremophile.

  12. Glycine phases formed from frozen aqueous solutions: Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surovtsev, N. V.; Adichtchev, S. V.; Malinovsky, V. K.; Ogienko, A. G.; Drebushchak, V. A.; Manakov, A. Yu.; Ancharov, A. I.; Yunoshev, A. S.; Boldyreva, E. V.

    2012-08-01

    Glycine phases formed when aqueous solutions were frozen and subsequently heated under different conditions were studied by Raman scattering, x-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Crystallization of ice Ih was observed in all the cases. On cooling at the rates of 0.5 K/min and 5 K/min, glassy glycine was formed as an intermediate phase which lived about 1 min or less only, and then transformed into β-polymorph of glycine. Quench cooling of glycine solutions (15% w/w) in liquid nitrogen resulted in the formation of a mixture of crystalline water ice Ih and a glassy glycine, which could be preserved at cryogenic temperatures (80 K) for an indefinitely long time. This mixture remained also quite stable for some time after heating above the cryogenic temperature. Subsequent heating under various conditions resulted in the transformation of the glycine glass into an unknown crystalline phase (glycine "X-phase") at 209-216 K, which at 218-226 K transformed into β-polymorph of glycine. The "X-phase" was characterized by Raman spectroscopy; it could be obtained in noticeable amounts using a special preparation technique and tentatively characterized by x-ray powder diffraction (P2, a = 6.648 Å, b = 25.867 Å, c = 5.610 Å, β = 113.12°); the formation of "X-phase" from the glycine glassy phase and its transformation into β-polymorph were followed by DSC. Raman scattering technique with its power for unambiguous identification of the crystalline and glassy polymorphs without limitation on the crystallite size helped us to follow the phase transformations during quenching, heating, and annealing. The experimental findings are considered in relation to the problem of control of glycine polymorphism on crystallization.

  13. The Effect of Dietary Glycine on the Hepatic Tumor Promoting Activity of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bunaciu, Rodica Petruta; Tharappel, Job C.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Korwel, Izabela; Robertson, Larry W.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Spear, Brett T.; Glauert, Howard P.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitious lipophilic environmental pollutants. Some of the PCB congeners and mixtures of congeners have tumor promoting activity in rat liver. The mechanism of their activity is not fully understood and is likely to be multifactorial. The aim of this study was to investigate if the resident liver macrophages, Kupffer cells, are important in the promoting activity of PCBs. The hypothesis of this study was that the inhibition of Kupffer cell activity would inhibit hepatic tumor promotion by PCBs in rats. To test our hypothesis, we studied the effects of Kupffer cell inhibition by dietary glycine (an inhibitor of Kupffer cell secretory activity) in a rat two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model using 2,2’,4,4’,5,5’-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153, a non-dioxin-like PCB) or 3,3’,4,4’-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77, a dioxin-like PCB) as promoters. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 150 mg/kg) was administered to female Sprague Dawley rats, which were then placed on an unrefined diet containing 5% glycine (or casein as nitrogen control) starting two weeks after DEN administration. On the third day after starting the diets, rats received PCB-77 (300 μmol/kg), PCB-153 (300 μmol/kg), or corn oil by i.p. injection. The rats received a total of 4 PCB injections, administered every 14 days. The rats were euthanized on the 10th day after the last PCB injection, and the formation of altered hepatic foci expressing placental glutathione S-transferase (PGST) and the rate of DNA synthesis in these foci and in the normal liver tissue were determined. Glycine did not significantly affect foci number or volume. PCB-153 did not significantly increase the focal volume, but increased the number of foci per liver, but only in the rats not fed glycine; PCB-77 increased both the foci number and their volume in both glycine-fed and control rats. Glycine did not alter the PCB content of the liver, but did increase the activity of 7-benzyloxyresorufin O

  14. Clostridium sticklandii glycine reductase selenoprotein A gene: cloning, sequencing, and expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, G E; Stadtman, T C

    1992-01-01

    Gene grdA, which encodes selenoprotein A of the glycine reductase complex from Clostridium sticklandii, was identified and characterized. This gene encodes a protein of 158 amino acids with a calculated M(r) of 17,142. The known sequence of 15 amino acids around the selenocysteine residue and the known carboxy terminus of the protein are correctly predicted by the nucleotide sequence. An opal termination codon (TGA) corresponding to the location of the single selenocysteine residue in the polypeptide was found in frame at position 130. The C. sticklandii grdA gene was inserted behind the tac promotor of an Escherichia coli expression vector. An E. coli strain transformed with this vector produced an 18-kDa polypeptide that was not detected in extracts of nontransformed cells. Affinity-purified anti-C. sticklandii selenoprotein A immunoglobulin G reacted specifically with this polypeptide, which was indistinguishable from authentic C. sticklandii selenoprotein A by immunological analysis. Addition of the purified expressed protein to glycine reductase protein components B and C reconstituted the active glycine reductase complex. Although synthesis of enzymically active protein A depended on the presence of selenium in the growth medium, formation of immunologically reactive protein did not. Moreover, synthesis of enzymically active protein in a transformed E. coli selD mutant strain indicated that there is a nonspecific mechanism of selenocysteine incorporation. These findings imply that mRNA secondary structures of C. sticklandii grdA are not functional for UGA-directed selenocysteine insertion in the E. coli expression system. Images PMID:1429431

  15. Clostridium sticklandii glycine reductase selenoprotein A gene: cloning, sequencing, and expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Garcia, G E; Stadtman, T C

    1992-11-01

    Gene grdA, which encodes selenoprotein A of the glycine reductase complex from Clostridium sticklandii, was identified and characterized. This gene encodes a protein of 158 amino acids with a calculated M(r) of 17,142. The known sequence of 15 amino acids around the selenocysteine residue and the known carboxy terminus of the protein are correctly predicted by the nucleotide sequence. An opal termination codon (TGA) corresponding to the location of the single selenocysteine residue in the polypeptide was found in frame at position 130. The C. sticklandii grdA gene was inserted behind the tac promotor of an Escherichia coli expression vector. An E. coli strain transformed with this vector produced an 18-kDa polypeptide that was not detected in extracts of nontransformed cells. Affinity-purified anti-C. sticklandii selenoprotein A immunoglobulin G reacted specifically with this polypeptide, which was indistinguishable from authentic C. sticklandii selenoprotein A by immunological analysis. Addition of the purified expressed protein to glycine reductase protein components B and C reconstituted the active glycine reductase complex. Although synthesis of enzymically active protein A depended on the presence of selenium in the growth medium, formation of immunologically reactive protein did not. Moreover, synthesis of enzymically active protein in a transformed E. coli selD mutant strain indicated that there is a nonspecific mechanism of selenocysteine incorporation. These findings imply that mRNA secondary structures of C. sticklandii grdA are not functional for UGA-directed selenocysteine insertion in the E. coli expression system.

  16. Quantum chemical calculations of glycine glutaric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arioǧlu, ćaǧla; Tamer, Ömer; Avci, Davut; Atalay, Yusuf

    2017-02-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of glycine glutaric acid were performed by using B3LYP levels with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The theoretical structural parameters such as bond lengths and bond angles are in a good agreement with the experimental values of the title compound. HOMO and LUMO energies were calculated, and the obtained energy gap shows that charge transfer occurs in the title compound. Vibrational frequencies were calculated and compare with experimental ones. 3D molecular surfaces of the title compound were simulated using the same level and basis set. Finally, the 13C and 1H NMR chemical shift values were calculated by the application of the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method.

  17. Positive Modulation of the Glycine Receptor by Means of Glycine Receptor–Binding Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Aneiros, Eduardo; Blank, Michael; Mueller, Johan; Nyman, Eva; Blind, Michael; Dabrowski, Michael A.; Andersson, Christin V.; Sandberg, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    According to the gate control theory of pain, the glycine receptors (GlyRs) are putative targets for development of therapeutic analgesics. A possible approach for novel analgesics is to develop a positive modulator of the glycine-activated Cl− channels. Unfortunately, there has been limited success in developing drug-like small molecules to study the impact of agonists or positive modulators on GlyRs. Eight RNA aptamers with low nanomolar affinity to GlyRα1 were generated, and their pharmacological properties analyzed. Cytochemistry using fluorescein-labeled aptamers demonstrated GlyRα1-dependent binding to the plasma membrane but also intracellular binding. Using a fluorescent membrane potential assay, we could identify five aptamers to be positive modulators. The positive modulation of one of the aptamers was confirmed by patch-clamp electrophysiology on L(tk) cells expressing GlyRα1 and/or GlyRα1β. This aptamer potentiated whole-cell Cl− currents in the presence of low concentrations of glycine. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration ever of RNA aptamers acting as positive modulators for an ion channel. We believe that these aptamers are unique and valuable tools for further studies of GlyR biology and possibly also as tools for assay development in identifying small-molecule agonists and positive modulators. PMID:26071243

  18. [Changes of polyamines level in Glycine soja and Glycine max seedlings under NaCl stress].

    PubMed

    Yu, Bingjun; Ji, Xiaojia; Liu, Jun; Liu, Youliang

    2004-07-01

    With internationally common-used Glycine max (the salt-tolerant Lee68) and Glycine soja (the salt-sensitive N23232) as reference, this paper studied the polyamines (PAs) contents and polyamine oxidase (PAO) activities in the highly salt-tolerant BB52 (Glycine soja) seedlings, which showed that under 150mmol x L(-1) NaCl stress for 2d, the decrease of Put and Spd contents was more significant, but that of Spd content was less significant in roots of BB52 than in those of Lee68 and N23232. For leaves, the decrease of Put and increase of Spd contents were markedly observed in BB52. The ascent of (Spm + Spd)/Put ratios and descent of Put/PAs ratios showed a positive relation to their salt tolerance. The PAO activity in roots and leaves was all increased, and most obvious in N23232. The relationship between PAs levels in BB52 and its salt tolerance was also discussed.

  19. Suppression of glycine-15N incorporation into urinary uric acid by adenine-8-13C in normal and gouty subjects

    PubMed Central

    Seegmiller, J. Edwin; Klinenberg, James R.; Miller, John; Watts, R. W. E.

    1968-01-01

    Adenine inhibited the de novo synthesis of purines in both normal and gouty man as shown by inhibition of the incorporation of glycine-15N into urinary uric acid without altering the incorporation of glycine-15N into urinary creatinine. The diminished purine synthesis did not result in a diminution in the 24 hr excretion of uric acid. This observation was explainable in part by the prompt conversion of adenine to uric acid. In addition to this direct conversion, adenine-8-13C provided a slow and prolonged contribution to urinary uric acid. A feedback inhibition of purine synthesis by nucleotides derived from adenine provides the best interpretation of these results. PMID:5645862

  20. Chemical synthesis of (22E)-3alpha,6alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Tetrahydroxy-5beta-chol-22-en-24-oic acid and its N-acylamidated conjugates with glycine or taurine: precursors of the [22,23-(3)H] labelled tracers.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shoujiro; Adachi, Yuuki; Kakiyama, Genta; Shimada, Miki; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi; Iida, Takashi

    2010-08-01

    (22E)-3alpha,6alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Tetrahydroxy-5beta-chol-22-en-24-oic acid and its N-acylamidated conjugates with glycine or taurine were synthesized from cholic acid. The key reactions employed are: 1) degradation of the side chain in intermediary C(24) 3alpha,6alpha,7alpha,12alpha-tetrahydroxylated bile acid to the corresponding C(22) 23,24-dinor-aldehyde, followed by Wittig reaction with methyl (triphenylphosphoranylidene)acetate and 2) N-acylamidation of the unconjugated tetrahydroxy-Delta(22)-5beta-cholenoic acid with glycine (or taurine) in the presence of diethylphosphorocyanide and triethylamine as coupling reagents.

  1. Glycine input induces the synaptic facilitation in salamander rod photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wen; Jiang, Zheng; Li, Baoqin

    2008-11-01

    Glycinergic synapses in photoreceptors are made by centrifugal feedback neurons in the network, but the function of the synapses is largely unknown. Here we report that glycinergic input enhances photoreceptor synapses in amphibian retinas. Using specific antibodies against a glycine transporter (GlyT2) and glycine receptor beta subunit, we identified the morphology of glycinergic input in photoreceptor terminals. Electrophysiological recordings indicated that 10 muM glycine depolarized rods and activated voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels in the neurons. The effects facilitated glutamate vesicle release in photoreceptors, meanwhile increased the spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in Off-bipolar cells. Endogenous glycine feedback also enhanced glutamate transmission in photoreceptors. Additionally, inhibition of a Cl(-) uptake transporter NKCC1 with bumetanid effectively eliminated glycine-evoked a weak depolarization in rods, suggesting that NKCC1 maintains a high Cl(-) level in rods, which causes to depolarize in responding to glycine input. This study reveals a new function of glycine in retinal synaptic transmission.

  2. Strychnine-sensitive glycine responses of neonatal rat hippocampal neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, S; Cherubini, E

    1991-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings employing current and voltage clamp techniques were used to study the effects of glycine on rat CA3 hippocampal neurones during the first 3 weeks of postnatal (P) life. 2. Glycine (0.3-1 mM) depolarized neurones from rats less than 4 days old (P4). Neurones from older neonates (P5-P7) were hyperpolarized by glycine, whereas adult neurones were unaffected. 3. Both depolarizing and hyperpolarizing responses were associated with large conductance increases; they reversed polarity at a potential which changed with the extracellular chloride concentration. The responses persisted in tetrodotoxin (1 microM) or in a solution with a much reduced calcium concentration. 4. Strychnine (1 microM) but not bicuculline (10-50 microM) antagonized the effects of glycine. The action of strychnine was apparently competitive with a dissociation constant of 350 nM. 5. In voltage clamp experiments, glycine elicited a non-desensitizing outward current at -60 mV. When a maximal concentration of glycine was applied at the same time as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the conductance increase induced by the two agonists was additive, suggesting the activation of different populations of channels. 6. Concentrations of glycine lower than 100 microM did not affect membrane potential. However, at 30-50 microM glycine increased the frequency of spontaneous GABA-mediated synaptic responses; this action was not blocked by strychnine. 7. It is concluded that during the first 2 weeks of life glycine acts at strychnine-sensitive receptors to open chloride channels. PMID:1804982

  3. Putative glycine receptors in Hydra: a biochemical and behavioural study.

    PubMed

    Pierobon, P; Minei, R; Porcu, P; Sogliano, C; Tino, A; Marino, G; Biggio, G; Concas, A

    2001-11-01

    Glycine acts as an inhibitory transmitter in the lower brain stem and spinal cord of vertebrate species, while very few data are yet available to support a similar role in invertebrate nervous systems. Here we report the identification and characterization of glycine receptors in the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) by biochemical and behavioural studies. Saturation experiments revealed the occurrence of one population of binding sites of nanomolar affinity (KD = 33 nm) and low capacity (Bmax = 79 fmol/mg protein) for [(3)H]strychnine. The addition of glycine or taurine (0.1 microm-1 mm) produced a dose-dependent inhibition of [(3)H]strychnine binding. Beta-alanine (0.1-1 mm) did not significantly affect [(3)H]strychnine binding. The pharmacological properties of these receptors compare with those of vertebrate glycine receptors. Stimulation of Hydra polyps by reduced glutathione resulted in a significant increase in the duration of mouth opening in the presence of glycine, taurine or beta-alanine. The enhancement of the response was related both to amino acid (10-100 microm) and to glutathione concentration (1-10 microm). The effects of glycine or its agonists were suppressed by strychnine (1-10 microm). D-serine, a glycine agonist at the vertebrate NMDA receptor, produced opposite effects to those of glycine. The effects of d-serine were suppressed by 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid but not by strychnine. In vitro, [(3)H]strychnine binding was not displaced by d-serine. These results indicate a dual action of glycine in Hydra tissues. The hypothesis that NMDA receptors may also be present in this elementary nervous system is proposed.

  4. DETECTABILITY OF GLYCINE IN SOLAR-TYPE SYSTEM PRECURSORS

    SciTech Connect

    Jiménez-Serra, Izaskun; Testi, Leonardo; Caselli, Paola; Viti, Serena E-mail: ltesti@eso.org E-mail: sv@star.ucl.ac.uk

    2014-06-01

    Glycine (NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOH) is the simplest amino acid relevant to life. Its detection in the interstellar medium is key to understanding the formation mechanisms of pre-biotic molecules and their subsequent delivery onto planetary systems. Glycine has been extensively searched for toward hot molecular cores, although these studies did not yield any firm detection. In contrast to hot cores, low-mass star forming regions, in particular their earliest stages represented by cold pre-stellar cores, may be better suited for the detection of glycine as well as more relevant to the study of pre-biotic chemistry in young solar system analogs. We present one-dimensional spherically symmetric radiative transfer calculations of the glycine emission expected to arise from the low-mass pre-stellar core L1544. Water vapor has recently been reported toward this core, indicating that a small fraction of the grain mantles in L1544 (∼0.5%) has been injected into the gas phase. Assuming that glycine is photo-desorbed together with water in L1544, and considering a solid abundance of glycine on ices of ∼10{sup –4} with respect to water, our calculations reveal that several glycine lines between 67 GHz and 80 GHz have peak intensities larger than 10 mK. These results show for the first time that glycine could reach detectable levels in cold objects such as L1544. This opens up the possibility of detecting glycine, and other pre-biotic species, at the coldest and earliest stages in the formation of solar-type systems with near-future instrumentation such as the Band 2 receivers of ALMA.

  5. Accumulation of 52 kDa glycine rich protein in auxin-deprived strawberry fruits and its role in fruit growth. [Fragaria ananassa

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, A.S.N.; Poovaiah, B.W.

    1987-04-01

    Growth of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch) receptacles can be stopped at any stage by deachening the fruits and can be resumed by exogenous application of auxin. In their earlier studies they demonstrated auxin regulated polypeptide changes at different stages of strawberry fruit development. Removal of achenes from fruits to deprive auxin resulted in the accumulation of 52 KDa polypeptide. This polypeptide is associated with cell wall and its concentration is increased in a time-dependent manner in auxin deprived receptacles. Incorporation studies with (/sup 35/S) methionine showed the promotion of labelling of 52 kDa polypeptide in the auxin-deprived receptacles within 12 h after removal of the achenes. Amino acid analysis revealed that the 52 KDa polypeptide is rich in glycine. Their studies, with normal and mutant strawberry receptacles, indicate that the synthesis and accumulation of this glycine rich protein correlates with cessation of receptacle growth. These results suggest a role for the glycine rich protein in growth.

  6. Nucleotide Accumulation Induced in Staphylococcus aureus by Glycine

    PubMed Central

    Strominger, Jack L.; Birge, Claire H.

    1965-01-01

    Strominger, Jack L. (Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Mo.), and Claire H. Birge. Nucleotide accumulation induced in Staphylococcus aureus by glycine. J. Bacteriol. 89:1124–1127. 1965.—High concentrations of glycine induce accumulation of four uridine nucleotides in Staphylococcus aureus. Investigations of their structure suggest that these compounds are uridine diphosphate (UDP)-acetylmuramic acid, UDP-acetylmuramyl-gly-d-glu-l-lys, UDP-acetylmuramyl-l-ala-d-glu-l-lys and UDP-acetylmuramyl-gly-d-glu-l-lys-d-ala-d-ala. The mechanism by which glycine may induce uridine nucleotide accumulation and protoplast formation is discussed. Images PMID:14276106

  7. Cyanide Formation from Oxidation of Glycine by a Pseudomonas Species

    PubMed Central

    Wissing, Frode

    1974-01-01

    With whole cells of a hydrogen cyanide-producing bacterium strain C, of the genus Pseudomonas, it was found that the oxygen necessary for the oxidation of glycine to cyanide could be replaced by various artificial electron acceptors. The order of reactivity was: oxygen > phenazine methosulphate > methylene blue > 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol > ferricyanide. Cyanide production was inhibited by pyrrolnitrin, a well-known inhibitor of many flavine enzymes. The molar ratio of added glycine to cyanide produced was found to be 1.09. With whole bacteria the apparent Km (glycine) for the cyanide production was found to be 5.0 × 10−4 M. PMID:4813896

  8. Cyanide formation from oxidation of glycine of Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Wissing, F

    1974-03-01

    With whole cells of a hydrogen cyanide-producing bacterium strain C, of the genus Pseudomonas, it was found that the oxygen necessary for the oxidation of glycine to cyanide could be replaced by various artificial electron acceptors. The order of reactivity was: oxygen > phenazine methosulphate > methylene blue > 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol > ferricyanide. Cyanide production was inhibited by pyrrolnitrin, a well-known inhibitor of many flavine enzymes. The molar ratio of added glycine to cyanide produced was found to be 1.09. With whole bacteria the apparent K(m) (glycine) for the cyanide production was found to be 5.0 x 10(-4) M.

  9. Glycine receptor heterogeneity in rat spinal cord during postnatal development.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, C M; Hoch, W; Betz, H

    1988-01-01

    Two different isoforms of the inhibitory glycine receptor were identified during postnatal development of rat spinal cord. A neonatal form characterized by low strychnine binding affinity, altered antigenicity, and a ligand binding subunit differing in mol. wt (49 kd) from that of the adult receptor (48 kd) predominates at birth (70% of the total receptor protein). Separation from the adult form could be achieved by either use of a selective antibody or glycine gradient elution of 2-aminostrychnine affinity columns. Both isoforms co-purify with the mol. wt 93 kd peripheral membrane protein of the postsynaptic glycine receptor complex. Images PMID:2850172

  10. An automated and efficient conformational search of glycine and a glycine-water heterodimer both in vacuum and in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Stable conformers and the conformational isomerization pathways of glycine and the glycine-H2O heterodimer were explored using an efficient automated conformational searching method. The Gibbs energies of the conformers and transition structures of glycine and a glycine-H2O heterodimer at 400, 298, and 150 K were also calculated. In addition, estimated ratios of conformers, assuming thermodynamic equilibrium, were calculated and compared with the results of spectroscopic experiments. Solvent effects were introduced into the exploration process using the polarizable continuum model (PCM), and conversion (tautomerization) pathways from neutral to zwitterionic states for both glycine and a glycine-H2O heterodimer in aqueous solution were compared.

  11. 77 FR 21532 - Glycine From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Partial Affirmative Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... that certain Chinese glycine further processed in India did not change the country of origin of such... determine whether U.S. imports of glycine exported by AICO and Paras, and made from Chinese- origin glycine... from companies in China, processing and/or repackaging the Chinese-origin glycine, and then...

  12. Isolation of a mRNA encoding a glycine-proline-rich beta-keratin expressed in the regenerating epidermis of lizard.

    PubMed

    Dalla Valle, Luisa; Toffolo, Vania; Belvedere, Paola; Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2005-12-01

    During scale regeneration in lizard tail, an active differentiation of beta-keratin synthesizing cells occurs. The cDNA and amino acid sequence of a lizard beta-keratin has been obtained from mRNA isolated from regenerating epidermis. Degenerate oligonucleotides, selected from the translated amino acid sequence of a lizard claw protein, were used to amplify a specific lizard keratin cDNA fragment from the mRNA after reverse transcription with poly dT primer and subsequent polymerase chain reaction (3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis, 3'-RACE). The new sequence was used to design specific primers to obtain the complete cDNA sequence by 5'-RACE. The 835-nucleotide cDNA sequence encodes a glycine-proline-rich protein containing 163 amino acids with a molecular mass of 15.5 kDa; 4.3% of its amino acids is represented by cysteine, 4.9% by tyrosine, 8.0% by proline, and 29.4% by glycine. Tyrosine is linked to glycine, and proline is present mainly in the central region of the protein. Repeated glycine-glycine-X and glycine-X amino acid sequences are localized near the N-amino and C-terminal regions. The protein has the central amino acid region similar to that of claw-feather, whereas the head and tail regions are similar to glycine-tyrosine-rich proteins of mammalian hairs. In situ hybridization analysis at light and electron microscope reveals that the corresponding mRNA is expressed in cells of the differentiating beta-layers of the regenerating scales. The synthesis of beta-keratin from its mRNA occurs among ribosomes or is associated with the surface of beta-keratin filaments.

  13. Green Tea and Glycine Modulate the Activity of Metalloproteinases and Collagen in the Tendinitis of the Myotendinous Junction of the Achilles Tendon.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Cristiano Pedrozo; De Oliveira, LetÍCia Prado; Da Ré Guerra, Flávia; Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra; Pimentel, Edson Rosa

    2016-07-01

    The myotendinous junction (MTJ) is the weakest element in the muscle-tendon unit of the heel, and thus the most susceptible to injuries. The scarcity of adequate treatments means that tendinitis is a major concern to athletes and other groups who depend on their physical fitness, although green tea and glycine have both been shown to have beneficial effects on the inflammation. The present study investigated the remodeling effects of green tea and glycine in the MTJ of rats with tendinitis. For this, male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: animals without tendinitis and animals with tendinitis; animals with tendinitis supplied with green tea; animals with tendinitis supplied with a glycine diet; animals with tendinitis supplied with a green tea and glycine diet. Tendinitis was induced and the treatment with green tea (700 mg/kg/day) and a 5% glycine diet lasted 7 days. The treatments regulated the activity of metalloproteinases (MMP)-2, -8, and -9, and induced the synthesis of type I collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and non-collagenous proteins. Changes were also noted in the compaction of the collagen molecules and the amount of tenocytes. When combined, green tea and glycine modulated the inflammatory process and induced the synthesis of the elements involved in the post-lesion recovery of the tissue. The data from the MTJ were different when compared with results already published using the whole Achilles tendon. These data indicate that each region of the inflamed tendon can exhibit different responses during the treatment and therefore, modify its extracellular matrix components to facilitate recovery and repair. Anat Rec, 299:918-928, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant ectoine, but not glycine betaine, is critical for survival of osmotically stressed Vibrio parahaemolyticus cells.

    PubMed

    Ongagna-Yhombi, Serge Y; Boyd, E Fidelma

    2013-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophile present in marine and estuarine environments, ecosystems characterized by fluctuations in salinity and temperature. One strategy to thrive in such environments is the synthesis and/or uptake of compatible solutes. The V. parahaemolyticus genome contains biosynthesis systems for both ectoine and glycine betaine, which are known to act as compatible solutes in other species. We showed that V. parahaemolyticus had a 6% NaCl tolerance when grown in M9 minimal medium with 0.4% glucose (M9G) with a >5-h lag phase. By using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-NMR) analysis, we determined that cells synthesized ectoine and glutamate in a NaCl-dependent manner. The most effective compatible solutes as measured by a reduction in lag-phase growth in M9G with 6% NaCl (M9G 6% NaCl) were in the order glycine betaine > choline > proline = glutamate > ectoine. However, V. parahaemolyticus could use glutamate or proline as the sole carbon source, but not ectoine or glycine betaine, which suggests that these are bona fide compatible solutes. Expression analysis showed that the ectA and betA genes were more highly expressed in log-phase cells, and expression of both genes was induced by NaCl up-shock. Under all conditions examined, the ectA gene was more highly expressed than the betA gene. Analysis of in-frame deletions in betA and ectB and in a double mutant showed that the ectB mutant was defective for growth, and this defect was rescued by the addition of glycine betaine, proline, ectoine, and glutamate, indicating that these compounds are compatible solutes for this species. The presence of both synthesis systems was the predominant distribution pattern among members of the Vibrionaceae family, suggesting this is the ancestral state.

  15. Comparison of Enzymatic Traits between Native and Recombinant Glycine Sarcosine N-Methyltransferase from Methanohalophilus portucalensis FDF1T.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shu-Jung; Deng, Yu-Chen; Lai, Mei-Chin

    2016-01-01

    The halophilic methanoarchaeon Methanohalophilus portucalensis FDF1T possesses the ability to synthesize the osmolyte betaine from its precursor, glycine, in response to extracellular salt stress through a three-step transmethylation process. Analysis of recombinant glycine sarcosine N-methyltransferase (rGSMT) and recombinant sarcosine dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase (rSDMT) from Escherichia coli indicated that betaine synthesis is rate-limited by rGSMT and is constitutively activated by rSDMT. Therefore, it is of interest to purify native GSMT from Methanohalophilus portucalensis to further compare its enzymatic characteristics and kinetics with rGSMT. In this study, native GSMT was purified through DEAE ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography with 95% purity. The enzymatic characteristics of GSMT and rGSMT showed similar trends of activities that were activated by high concentrations of monovalent cations. Both were feedback-inhibited by the end product, betaine, and competitively inhibited by S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). Native GSMT was 2-fold more sensitive to SAH than rGSMT. Notably, comparison of the kinetic parameters illustrated that the turnover rate of glycine methylation of GSMT was promoted by potassium ions, whereas rGSMT was activated by increasing protein-glycine binding affinity. These results suggest that GSMT and rGSMT may have different levels of post-translational modifications. Our preliminary mass spectrometry evidence indicated that there was no detectable phosphosite on GSMT after the complicated purification processes, whereas purified rGSMT still possessed 23.1% of its initial phosphorylation level. We believe that a phosphorylation-mediated modification may be involved in the regulation of this energy consuming betaine synthesis pathway during the stress response in halophilic methanoarchaea.

  16. Comparison of Enzymatic Traits between Native and Recombinant Glycine Sarcosine N-Methyltransferase from Methanohalophilus portucalensis FDF1T

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Shu-Jung; Deng, Yu-Chen; Lai, Mei-Chin

    2016-01-01

    The halophilic methanoarchaeon Methanohalophilus portucalensis FDF1T possesses the ability to synthesize the osmolyte betaine from its precursor, glycine, in response to extracellular salt stress through a three-step transmethylation process. Analysis of recombinant glycine sarcosine N-methyltransferase (rGSMT) and recombinant sarcosine dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase (rSDMT) from Escherichia coli indicated that betaine synthesis is rate-limited by rGSMT and is constitutively activated by rSDMT. Therefore, it is of interest to purify native GSMT from Methanohalophilus portucalensis to further compare its enzymatic characteristics and kinetics with rGSMT. In this study, native GSMT was purified through DEAE ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography with 95% purity. The enzymatic characteristics of GSMT and rGSMT showed similar trends of activities that were activated by high concentrations of monovalent cations. Both were feedback-inhibited by the end product, betaine, and competitively inhibited by S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). Native GSMT was 2-fold more sensitive to SAH than rGSMT. Notably, comparison of the kinetic parameters illustrated that the turnover rate of glycine methylation of GSMT was promoted by potassium ions, whereas rGSMT was activated by increasing protein-glycine binding affinity. These results suggest that GSMT and rGSMT may have different levels of post-translational modifications. Our preliminary mass spectrometry evidence indicated that there was no detectable phosphosite on GSMT after the complicated purification processes, whereas purified rGSMT still possessed 23.1% of its initial phosphorylation level. We believe that a phosphorylation-mediated modification may be involved in the regulation of this energy consuming betaine synthesis pathway during the stress response in halophilic methanoarchaea. PMID:28036340

  17. Enhancement of glycine receptor function by ethanol: role of phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Paola Mascia, Maria; Wick, Marilee J; Martinez, Larry D; Harris, R Adron

    1998-01-01

    The effects of several kinase inhibitors (staurosporine, GF 109203X, H89, KN62, genistein) and of the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A were studied on the ethanol potentiation and on the function of homomeric α1 glycine receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes using a two electrode voltage clamp recording technique.The function of the homomeric α1 glycine receptor was not modified in Xenopus oocytes pretreated with kinase inhibitors or with the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A.The potentiation of the glycine receptor function induced by ethanol (10–200 mM) was significantly reduced in Xenopus oocytes pretreated with the PKC inhibitors staurosporine or GF 109203X.No differences in propofol (2.5 μM) or halothane (250 μM) actions were found after exposure of Xenopus oocytes to staurosporine.No differences in ethanol sensitivity were found after exposure of Xenopus oocytes expressing glycine α1 receptors to H89, KN62, genistein or to the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A.The mutant α1 (S391A), in which the PKC phosphorylation site at serine 391 was mutated to alanine, was less sensitive to the effects of ethanol than was the α1 wild type receptor. Moreover, the ethanol potentiation of the glycine receptor function was not affected by treatment with staurosporine in oocytes expressing α1 (S391A).The splice variant of the α1 glycine receptor subunit, α1ins, containing eight additional amino acids and a potential phosphorylation site for PKA, did not differ from wild type for sensitivity to ethanol.These results indicate that phosphorylation by PKC of the homomeric α1 glycine receptor subunit modulates ethanol potentiation, but not the function of the glycine receptor. PMID:9786497

  18. Spectral Luminescent Properties of the Glycine Molecule in a Gas Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    General, A. A.; Migovich, M. I.; Kelman, V. A.; Zhmenyak, Yu. V.; Zvenigorodsky, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    We have experimentally studied the luminescence spectra of glycine powder in the plasma of a repetitively pulsed longitudinal discharge in argon-glycine and helium-glycine mixtures. We have identified the main fragments of the glycine molecule emitting in the 200-1000 nm region. The emitting molecules due to fragmentation of glycine and dissociation of the carboxyl (-COOH) and amino (-NH2) groups are nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and cyanogen molecules.

  19. Growth of gamma glycine crystal and its characterisation.

    PubMed

    Peter, M Esthaku; Ramasamy, P

    2010-05-01

    Single crystal of gamma-glycine, an organic nonlinear optical material, has been grown by solvent evaporation technique from a mixture of aqueous solutions of glycine and potassium nitrate, lithium nitrate at room temperature. Gamma glycine crystals have been grown up to the dimension of 20mmx15mmx12mm. Powder X-ray diffraction of the grown crystal was recorded and indexed. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies were carried out and the unit cell parameters were compared with the literature values. The gamma-phase of glycine is confirmed by single crystal XRD and FTIR spectral analysis. The crystals were characterised by UV-vis-NIR transmission spectrum in the range 200-1100nm. The second harmonic generation conversion efficiency of gamma-glycine crystal was twice the efficiency of KDP crystal. Thermal characteristics of gamma-glycine crystals were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis, which shows the thermal stability of the grown crystals. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss measurements were carried out at different temperatures and frequencies. The microhardness of the grown crystals has been studied using Vicker's microhardness tester.

  20. Glycine betaine uptake after hyperosmotic shift in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed Central

    Farwick, M; Siewe, R M; Krämer, R

    1995-01-01

    Osmoregulatory uptake of glycine betaine in whole cells of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 (wild type) was studied. The cells actively take up glycine betaine when they are osmotically shocked. The total accumulation and uptake rate were dependent on the osmotic strength of the medium. Kinetic analysis revealed a high-affinity transport system (Km, 8.6 +/- 0.4 microM) with high maximum velocity (110 nmol.min-1.mg [dry weight]-1). Glycine betaine functioned as a compatible solute when added to the medium and allowed growth at an otherwise inhibitory osmotic strength of 1.5 M NaCl. Proline and ectoine could also be used as osmoprotectants. Glycine betaine is neither synthesized nor metabolized by C. glutamicum. The glycine betaine transport system is constitutively expressed at a basal level of activity. It can be induced up to eightfold by osmotic stress and is strongly regulated at the level of activity. The transport system is highly specific and has its pH optimum in the slightly alkaline range at about pH 8. The uptake of the zwitterionic glycine betaine is mediated by a secondary symport system coupled to cotransport of at least two Na+ ions. It is thus driven both by the membrane potential and the Na+ gradient. An extremely high accumulation (internal/external) ratio of up to 4 x 10(6) was measured, which represents the highest accumulation ratio observed for any transport system. PMID:7642496

  1. Effect of temperature and pressure on the protonation of glycine

    PubMed Central

    Izatt, R. M.; Oscarson, J. L.; Gillespie, S. E.; Grimsrud, H.; Renuncio, J. A. R.; Pando, C.

    1992-01-01

    Flow calorimetry has been used to study the interaction of glycine with protons in water at temperatures of 298.15, 323.15, and 348.15 K and pressures up to 12.50 MPa. By combining the measured heat for glycine solutions titrated with NaOH with the heat of ionization for water, the enthalpy of protonation of glycine is obtained. The reaction is exothermic at all temperatures and pressures studied. The effect of pressure on the enthalpy of reaction is very small. The experimental heat data are analyzed to yield equilibrium constant (K), enthalpy change (ΔH), and entropy change (ΔS) values for the protonation reaction as a function of temperature. These values are compared with those reported previously at 298.15 K. The ΔH and ΔS values increase (become more positive), whereas log K values decrease, as temperature increases. The trends for ΔH and ΔS with temperature are opposite to those reported previously for the protonation of several alkanolamines. However, log K values for proton interaction with both glycine and the alkanolamines decrease with increasing temperature. The effect of the nitrogen atom substituent on log K for protonation of glycine and alkanolamines is discussed in terms of changes in long-range and short-range solvent effects. These effects are used to explain the difference in ΔH and ΔS trends between glycine protonation and those found earlier for alkanolamine protonation. PMID:19431832

  2. Molecular basis for substrate discrimination by glycine transporters.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, Robert J; Shaddick, Kim; Ju, Pengchu

    2007-05-11

    Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brain stem, where it acts on strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors, and is also an excitatory neurotransmitter throughout the brain and spinal cord, where it acts on the N-methyl-d-aspartate family of receptors. There are two Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent glycine transporters, GLYT1 and GLYT2, which control extracellular glycine concentrations and these transporters show differences in substrate selectivity and blocker sensitivity. A bacterial Na(+)-dependent leucine transporter (LeuT(Aa)) has recently been crystallized and its structure determined. When the amino acid residues within the leucine binding site of LeuT(Aa) are aligned with residues of the two glycine transporters there are a number of identical residues and also some key differences. In this report, we demonstrate that the LeuT(Aa) structure represents a good working model of the Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent neurotransmitters and that differences in substrate selectivity can be attributed to a single difference of a glycine residue in transmembrane domain 6 of GLYT1 for a serine residue at the corresponding position of GLYT2.

  3. Comparative mapping of the wild perennial Glycine latifolia and soybean (G. max) reveals extensive chromosome rearrangements in the genus Glycine.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sungyul; Thurber, Carrie S; Brown, Patrick J; Hartman, Glen L; Lambert, Kris N; Domier, Leslie L

    2014-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Mer.), like many cultivated crops, has a relatively narrow genetic base and lacks diversity for some economically important traits. Glycine latifolia (Benth.) Newell & Hymowitz, one of the 26 perennial wild Glycine species related to soybean in the subgenus Glycine Willd., shows high levels of resistance to multiple soybean pathogens and pests including Alfalfa mosaic virus, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. However, limited information is available on the genomes of these perennial Glycine species. To generate molecular resources for gene mapping and identification, high-density linkage maps were constructed for G. latifolia using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated by genotyping by sequencing and evaluated in an F2 population and confirmed in an F5 population. In each population, greater than 2,300 SNP markers were selected for analysis and segregated to form 20 large linkage groups. Marker orders were similar in the F2 and F5 populations. The relationships between G. latifolia linkage groups and G. max and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) chromosomes were examined by aligning SNP-containing sequences from G. latifolia to the genome sequences of G. max and P. vulgaris. Twelve of the 20 G. latifolia linkage groups were nearly collinear with G. max chromosomes. The remaining eight G. latifolia linkage groups appeared to be products of multiple interchromosomal translocations relative to G. max. Large syntenic blocks also were observed between G. latifolia and P. vulgaris. These experiments are the first to compare genome organizations among annual and perennial Glycine species and common bean. The development of molecular resources for species closely related to G. max provides information into the evolution of genomes within the genus Glycine and tools to identify genes within perennial wild relatives of cultivated soybean that could be beneficial to soybean production.

  4. Inoculation Method for Studying Early Responses of Glycine max to Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, R.; Knap, H. T.; Lewis, S. A.

    1998-01-01

    An inoculation technique was developed for studying molecular responses of soybean to the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines). Effect of inoculum age (0-7 days after eggs were released from cysts) and inoculation site (meristem, elongation, or differentiation zone) on infection were tested on four soybean genotypes. Two genotypes (PI 437654 and cv. Peking) were resistant and two (cv. Essex and cv. Hutcheson) were susceptible to race 3 of H. glycines. Inoculum consisting of second-stage juveniles (J2) was prepared by gently agitating nematode eggs at 75 revolutions per minute at 28 °C for various intervals. Infection rates were monitored cytologically. The most consistent infection rate was obtained with 48-hour-old inoculum containing more than 80% J2. More than 100 juveniles/root were observed after inoculation with the 48-hour-old inoculum placed at the root elongation zone, in both resistant and susceptible soybeans. Horizontal orientation of roots during inoculation, the use of concentrated J2 inoculurn (500 J2 in 125 μl/root), and restriction of inoculum to the root elongation zone facilitated synchronous root infection. PMID:19274216

  5. [Relationship between chloride tolerance and polyamine accumulation in Glycine max, Glycine soja, and their hybrid seedlings].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuan-Qin; Yu, Bing-Jun; Liu, You-Liang

    2007-02-01

    The seedlings of the F4 hybrid strain 'JB185' selected for salt tolerance generation by generation, their parents Glycine max cv. Jackson and Glycine soja population 'BB52' were treated with different NaCl concentrations and iso-osmotic (-0.53 MPa) PEG-6000, NaCl, Na+ (without Cl-) and Cl- (without Na+) solutions for 6 d. The results showed that: (1) The relative electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves of the above three soybean seedlings showed an increase trend when the NaCl concentration was elevated, but chlorophyll contents decreased except the significant increase in 'BB52' and 'JB185' under NaCl 50 mmol/L stress. The change in 'JB185' was between its parents. (2) Under different iso-osmotic stresses, the relative electrolyte leakage and MDA contents in leaves of three soybean seedlings also increased mostly, the changes in 'BB52' and 'JB185' under Na+ (without Cl-) stress were more than those under Cl- (without Na+) stress. The free and bound Put, Spd and Spm contents in leaves all increased when compared with the control, the ratios of free (Spd+Spm)/Put and total bound polyamines in 'BB52' and 'JB185' seedlings under Na+ (without Cl-) treatment were the lowest one among three iso-osmotic salt stresses. The results indicate that the F4 hybrid strain 'JB185' is more sensitive to Na+ than Cl- as its wild parent 'BB52' population.

  6. Rapid Multistep Synthesis of a Bioactive Peptidomimetic Oligomer for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utku, Yeliz; Rohatgi, Abhinav; Yoo, Barney; Kirshenbaum, Kent; Zuckermann, Ronald N.; Pohl, Nicola L.

    2010-01-01

    Peptidomimetic compounds are increasingly important in drug-discovery applications. We introduce the synthesis of an N-substituted glycine oligomer, a bioactive "peptoid" trimer. The six-step protocol is conducted on solid-phase resin, enabling the synthesis to be performed by undergraduate organic chemistry students. This synthesis lab was…

  7. Diversity of endophytic fungi in Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Elio Gomes; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; da Silva, Cynthia Cânedo; Bento, Claudia Braga Pereira; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Endophytic fungi are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing disease during part of their life cycle. With the isolation and identification of these fungi, new species are being discovered, and ecological relationships with their hosts have also been studied. In Glycine max, limited studies have investigated the isolation and distribution of endophytic fungi throughout leaves and roots. The distribution of these fungi in various plant organs differs in diversity and abundance, even when analyzed using molecular techniques that can evaluate fungal communities in different parts of the plants, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results show there is greater species richness of culturable endophytic filamentous fungi in the leaves G. max as compared to roots. Additionally, the leaves had high values for diversity indices, i.e. Simpsons, Shannon and Equitability. Conversely, dominance index was higher in roots as compared to leaves. The fungi Ampelomyces sp., Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Diaporthe helianthi, Guignardia mangiferae and Phoma sp. were more frequently isolated from the leaves, whereas the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Fusarium sp. were prevalent in the roots. However, by evaluating the two communities by DGGE, we concluded that the species richness was higher in the roots than in the leaves. UPGMA analysis showed consistent clustering of isolates; however, the fungus Leptospora rubella, which belongs to the order Dothideales, was grouped among species of the order Pleosporales. The presence of endophytic Fusarium species in G. max roots is unsurprising, since Fusarium spp. isolates have been previously described as endophyte in other reports. However, it remains to be determined whether the G. max Fusarium endophytes are latent pathogens or non-pathogenic forms that benefit the plant. This study provides a broader knowledge of the distribution of the fungal

  8. A Role for Accumbal Glycine Receptors in Modulation of Dopamine Release by the Glycine Transporter-1 Inhibitor Org25935

    PubMed Central

    Lidö, Helga Höifödt; Ericson, Mia; Marston, Hugh; Söderpalm, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Accumbal glycine modulates basal and ethanol-induced dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (nAc) as well as voluntary ethanol consumption. Also, systemic administration of the glycine transporter-1 inhibitor Org25935 elevates dopamine levels in nAc, prevents a further ethanol-induced dopamine elevation and robustly and dose-dependently decreases ethanol consumption in rats. Here we investigated whether Org25935 applied locally in nAc modulates dopamine release, and whether accumbal glycine receptors or NMDA receptors are involved in this tentative effect. We also addressed whether Org25935 and ethanol applied locally in nAc interact with dopamine levels, as seen after systemic administration. We used in vivo microdialysis coupled to HPLC-ED in freely moving male Wistar rats to monitor dopamine output in nAc after local perfusion of Org25935 alone, with ethanol, or Org25935-perfusion after pre-treatment with the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine or the NMDA receptor glycine site antagonist L-701.324. Local Org25935 increased extracellular dopamine levels in a subpopulation of rats. Local strychnine, but not systemic L-701.324, antagonized the dopamine-activating effect of Org25935. Ethanol failed to induce a dopamine overflow in the subpopulation responding to Org25935 with a dopamine elevation. The study supports a role for accumbal glycine receptors rather than NMDA receptor signaling in the dopamine-activating effect of Org25935. The results further indicate that the previously reported systemic Org25935–ethanol interaction with regard to accumbal dopamine is localized to the nAc. This adds to the growing evidence for the glycine receptor as an important player in the dopamine reward circuitry and in ethanol's effects within this system. PMID:21556278

  9. Thermoluminescence of novel MgO-CeO2 obtained by a glycine-based solution combustion method.

    PubMed

    Barrón, Victor Ramón Orante; Ochoa, Flor María Escobar; Vázquez, Catalina Cruz; Bernal, Rodolfo

    2016-11-01

    Thermoluminescence dosimetry properties of novel MgO-CeO2 obtained by solution combustion synthesis in a glycine-nitrate process, are presented for the very first time. X-ray diffraction indicates the presence of cubic MgO and cerianite (CeO2) for the annealed powder samples. Dosimetry features such as linear behaviour of the dose response without saturation in the dose interval studied, as well as asymptotic behaviour of the thermoluminescent signal fading place MgO-CeO2 phosphor as a promising material for low-dose radiation dosimetry applications.

  10. Glycine Betaine, Carnitine, and Choline Enhance Salinity Tolerance and Prevent the Accumulation of Sodium to a Level Inhibiting Growth of Tetragenococcus halophila

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Hervé; Le Marrec, Claire; Blanco, Carlos; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    Natural-abundance 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance was used to probe the intracellular organic solute content of the moderately halophilic bacterium Tetragenococcus halophila. When grown in complex growth media supplemented or not with NaCl, T. halophila accumulates glycine betaine and carnitine. Unlike other moderate halophiles, T. halophila was not able to produce potent osmoprotectants (such as ectoines and glycine betaine) through de novo synthesis when cultured in defined medium under hyperosmotic constraint. Addition of 2 mM carnitine, glycine betaine, or choline to defined medium improved growth parameters, not only at high salinity (up to 2.5 M NaCl) but also in media lacking NaCl. These compounds were taken up when available in the surrounding medium. The transport activity occurred at low and high salinities and seems to be constitutive. Glycine betaine and carnitine were accumulated by T. halophila in an unmodified form, while exogenously provided choline led to an intracellular accumulation of glycine betaine. This is the first evidence of the existence of a choline-glycine betaine pathway in a lactic acid bacterium. An assay showed that the compatible solutes strikingly repressed the accumulation of glutamate and slightly increased the intracellular potassium level only at high salinity. Interestingly, osmoprotectant-treated cells were able to maintain the intracellular sodium concentration at a relatively constant level (200 to 300 nmol/mg [dry weight]), independent of the NaCl concentration of the medium. In contrast, in the absence of osmoprotectant, the intracellular sodium content increased sharply from 200 to 2,060 nmol/mg (dry weight) when the salinity of the medium was raised from 1 to 2 M. Indeed, the imported compatible solutes play an actual role in regulating the intracellular Na+ content and confer a much higher salt tolerance to T. halophila. PMID:10653711

  11. Comparison of Small RNA Profiles of Glycine max and Glycine soja at Early Developmental Stages

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuzhe; Mui, Zeta; Liu, Xuan; Yim, Aldrin Kay-Yuen; Qin, Hao; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Chan, Ting-Fung; Yiu, Siu-Ming; Lam, Hon-Ming; Lim, Boon Leong

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and phased small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs; from PHAS loci), play key roles in plant development. Cultivated soybean, Glycine max, contributes a great deal to food production, but, compared to its wild kin, Glycine soja, it may lose some genetic information during domestication. In this work, we analyzed the sRNA profiles of different tissues in both cultivated (C08) and wild soybeans (W05) at three stages of development. A total of 443 known miRNAs and 15 novel miRNAs showed varying abundances between different samples, but the miRNA profiles were generally similar in both accessions. Based on a sliding window analysis workflow that we developed, 50 PHAS loci generating 55 21-nucleotide phasiRNAs were identified in C08, and 46 phasiRNAs from 41 PHAS loci were identified in W05. In germinated seedlings, phasiRNAs were more abundant in C08 than in W05. Disease resistant TIR-NB-LRR genes constitute a very large family of PHAS loci. PhasiRNAs were also generated from several loci that encode for NAC transcription factors, Dicer-like 2 (DCL2), Pentatricopeptide Repeat (PPR), and Auxin Signaling F-box 3 (AFB3) proteins. To investigate the possible involvement of miRNAs in initiating the PHAS-phasiRNA pathway, miRNA target predictions were performed and 17 C08 miRNAs and 15 W05 miRNAs were predicted to trigger phasiRNAs biogenesis. In summary, we provide a comprehensive description of the sRNA profiles of wild versus cultivated soybeans, and discuss the possible roles of sRNAs during soybean germination. PMID:27929436

  12. Comparison of Small RNA Profiles of Glycine max and Glycine soja at Early Developmental Stages.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuzhe; Mui, Zeta; Liu, Xuan; Yim, Aldrin Kay-Yuen; Qin, Hao; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Chan, Ting-Fung; Yiu, Siu-Ming; Lam, Hon-Ming; Lim, Boon Leong

    2016-12-06

    Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and phased small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs; from PHAS loci), play key roles in plant development. Cultivated soybean, Glycine max, contributes a great deal to food production, but, compared to its wild kin, Glycine soja, it may lose some genetic information during domestication. In this work, we analyzed the sRNA profiles of different tissues in both cultivated (C08) and wild soybeans (W05) at three stages of development. A total of 443 known miRNAs and 15 novel miRNAs showed varying abundances between different samples, but the miRNA profiles were generally similar in both accessions. Based on a sliding window analysis workflow that we developed, 50 PHAS loci generating 55 21-nucleotide phasiRNAs were identified in C08, and 46 phasiRNAs from 41 PHAS loci were identified in W05. In germinated seedlings, phasiRNAs were more abundant in C08 than in W05. Disease resistant TIR-NB-LRR genes constitute a very large family of PHAS loci. PhasiRNAs were also generated from several loci that encode for NAC transcription factors, Dicer-like 2 (DCL2), Pentatricopeptide Repeat (PPR), and Auxin Signaling F-box 3 (AFB3) proteins. To investigate the possible involvement of miRNAs in initiating the PHAS-phasiRNA pathway, miRNA target predictions were performed and 17 C08 miRNAs and 15 W05 miRNAs were predicted to trigger phasiRNAs biogenesis. In summary, we provide a comprehensive description of the sRNA profiles of wild versus cultivated soybeans, and discuss the possible roles of sRNAs during soybean germination.

  13. Glycine transporter inhibitors as therapeutic agents for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest that a dysfunction in the glutamatergic neurotransmission via the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors contributes to the pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases including schizophrenia. The potentiation of NMDA receptor function may be a useful approach for the treatment of diseases associated with NMDA receptor hypofunction. One possible strategy is to increase synaptic levels of glycine by blocking the glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1) in glia cells, since glycine acts as a co-agonist site on the NMDA receptor. In this article, the author reviews the recent important patents on GlyT-1 inhibitors for treatment of schizophrenia and other psychiatric diseases associated with the NMDA receptor hypofunction.

  14. Suppressed expression of choline monooxygenase in sugar beet on the accumulation of glycine betaine.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Nana; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kitou, Kunihide; Sahashi, Kosuke; Tamagake, Hideto; Tanaka, Yoshito; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-11-01

    Glycine betaine (GB) is an important osmoprotectant and synthesized by two-step oxidation of choline. Choline monooxygenase (CMO) catalyzes the first step of the pathway and is believed to be a rate limiting step for GB synthesis. Recent studies have shown the importance of choline-precursor supply for GB synthesis. In order to investigate the role of CMO for GB accumulation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), transgenic plants carrying the antisense BvCMO gene were developed. The antisense BvCMO plants showed the decreased activity of GB synthesis from choline compared to wild-type (WT) plants which is well related to the suppressed level of BvCMO protein. However, GB contents were similar between transgenic and WT plants with the exception of young leaves and storage roots. Transgenic plants showed enhanced susceptibility to salt stress than WT plants. These results suggest the importance of choline-precursor-supply for GB accumulation, and young leaves and storage root are sensitive sites for GB accumulation.

  15. Gas-phase interactions of organotin compounds with glycine.

    PubMed

    Latrous, Latifa; Tortajada, Jeanine; Haldys, Violette; Léon, Emmanuelle; Correia, Catarina; Salpin, Jean-Yves

    2013-07-01

    Gas-phase interactions of organotins with glycine have been studied by combining mass spectrometry experiments and quantum calculations. Positive-ion electrospray spectra show that the interaction of di- and tri-organotins with glycine results in the formation of [(R)2Sn(Gly)-H](+) and [(R)3Sn(Gly)](+) ions, respectively. Di-organotin complexes appear much more reactive than those involving tri-organotins. (MS/MS) spectra of the [(R)3Sn(Gly)](+) ions are indeed simple and only show elimination of intact glycine, generating the [(R)3Sn](+) carbocation. On the other hand, MS/MS spectra of [(R)2Sn(Gly)-H](+) complexes are characterized by numerous fragmentation processes. Six of them, associated with elimination of H2O, CO, H2O + CO and formation of [(R)2SnOH](+) (-57 u),[(R)2SnNH2](+) (-58 u) and [(R)2SnH](+) (-73 u), are systematically observed. Use of labeled glycines notably concludes that the hydrogen atoms eliminated in water and H2O + CO are labile hydrogens. A similar conclusion can be made for hydrogens of [(R2)SnOH](+) and [(R2)SnNH2](+) ions. Interestingly, formation [(R)2SnH](+) ions is characterized by a migration of one the α hydrogen of glycine onto the metallic center. Finally, several dissociation routes are observed and are characteristic of a given organic substituent. Calculations indicated that the interaction between organotins and glycine is mostly electrostatic. For [(R)2Sn(Gly)-H](+) complexes, a preferable bidentate interaction of the type η(2)-O,NH2 is observed, similar to that encountered for other metal ions. [(R)3Sn](+) ions strongly stabilize the zwitterionic form of glycine, which is practically degenerate with respect to neutral glycine. In addition, the interconversion between both forms is almost barrierless. Suitable mechanisms are proposed in order to account for the most relevant fragmentation processes.

  16. Calculating chemical equilibria in the heparin-Co2+ ion-glycine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feofanova, M. A.; Frantseva, Yu. V.; Zhuravlev, E. V.; Ryasensky, S. S.; Baranova, N. V.

    2013-08-01

    Results from investigating interactions in the heparin-Co2+ ion-glycine system are presented. The stoichiometry of cobalt complexes with heparin and glycine compositions CoOHHtpGly4- and CoHepGly3- is established.

  17. Some Operational Characteristics of Glycine Release in Rat Retina: The Role of Reverse Mode Operation of Glycine Transporter Type-1 (GlyT-1) in Ischemic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Hanuska, Adrienn; Szénási, Gábor; Albert, Mihaly; Koles, Laszlo; Varga, Agoston; Szabo, Andras; Matyus, Peter; Harsing, Laszlo G

    2016-02-01

    Rat posterior eyecups containing the retina were prepared, loaded with [(3)H]glycine and superfused in order to determine its release originated from glycinergic amacrine cells and/or glial cells. Deprivation of oxygen and glucose from the Krebs-bicarbonate buffer used for superfusion evoked a marked increase of [(3)H]glycine release, an effect that was found to be external Ca(2+)-independent. Whereas oxygen and glucose deprivation increased [(3)H]glycine release, its uptake was reduced suggesting that energy deficiency shifts glycine transporter type-1 operation from normal to reverse mode. The increased release of [(3)H]glycine evoked by oxygen and glucose deprivation was suspended by addition of the non-competitive glycine transporter type-1 inhibitor NFPS and the competitive inhibitor ACPPB further suggesting the involvement of this transporter in the mediation of [(3)H]glycine release. Oxygen and glucose deprivation also evoked [(3)H]glutamate release from rat retina and the concomitantly occurring release of the NMDA receptor agonist glutamate and the coagonist glycine makes NMDA receptor pathological overstimulation possible in hypoxic conditions. [(3)H]Glutamate release was suspended by addition of the excitatory amino acid transporter inhibitor TBOA. Sarcosine, a substrate inhibitor of glycine transporter type-1, also increased [(3)H]glycine release probably by heteroexchange shifting transporter operation into reverse mode. This effect of sarcosine was also external Ca(2+)-independent and could be suspended by NFPS. Energy deficiency in retina induced by ouabain, an inhibitor of the Na(+)-K(+)-dependent ATPase, and by rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor added with the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose, led to increase of retinal [(3)H]glycine efflux. These effects of ouabain and rotenone/2-deoxy-D-glucose could also be blocked by NFPS pointed to the preferential reverse mode operation of glycine transporter type-1 as a consequence of

  18. Infrared laser induced conformational and structural changes of glycine and glycine·water complex in low-temperature matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coussan, Stéphane; Tarczay, György

    2016-01-01

    Conformational and structural changes of matrix-isolated glycine and glycine·water complexes induced by the selective MIR excitation of the fundamental OH and NH stretching vibrational modes were studied. The observed spectral changes are consistent with the former assignments based on matrix-isolation IR spectroscopy combined with NIR laser irradiation. Since fewer conformational barriers can be reached by MIR than by NIR excitations, fewer processes are promoted effectively by MIR radiation. The comparison of spectral changes induced by selective MIR and NIR excitations can facilitate the conformational analysis of complex molecular systems and it can also yield information on the barrier heights.

  19. Dynamics of Forward and Reverse Transport by the Glial Glycine Transporter, Glyt1b

    PubMed Central

    Aubrey, Karin R.; Vandenberg, Robert J.; Clements, John D.

    2005-01-01

    Glycine is a coagonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Changes in extracellular glycine concentration may modulate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function and excitatory synaptic transmission. The GLYT1 glycine transporter is present in glia surrounding excitatory synapses, and plays a key role in regulating extracellular glycine concentration. We investigated the kinetic and other biophysical properties of GLYT1b, stably expressed in CHO cells, using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Application of glycine produced an inward current, which decayed within a few seconds to a steady-state level. When glycine was removed, a transient outward current was observed, consistent with reverse transport of accumulated glycine. The outward current was enhanced by elevating intracellular or lowering extracellular [Na+], and was modulated by changes in extracellular [glycine] and time of glycine application. We developed a model of GLYT1b function, which accurately describes the time course of the transporter current under a range of experimental conditions. The model predicts that glial uptake of glycine will decay toward zero during a sustained period of elevated glycine concentration. This property of GLYT1b may permit spillover from glycinergic terminals to nearby excitatory terminals during a prolonged burst of inhibitory activity, and reverse transport may extend the period of elevated glycine concentration beyond the end of the inhibitory burst. PMID:15951392

  20. Glycine transport inhibitors for the treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kenji

    2010-05-27

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that hypofunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors might be implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, suggesting that increasing NMDA receptor function via pharmacological manipulation could provide a new strategy for the management of schizophrenia. Currently, the glycine modulatory sites on NMDA receptors present the most attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of schizophrenia. One means of enhancing NMDA receptor neurotransmission is to increase the availability of the obligatory co-agonist glycine at modulatory sites on the NMDA receptors through the inhibition of glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1) on glial cells. Clinical studies have demonstrated that the GlyT-1 inhibitor sarcosine (N-methyl glycine) shows antipsychotic activity in patients with schizophrenia. Accordingly, a number of pharmaceutical companies have developed novel and selective GlyT-1 inhibitors for the treatment of schizophrenia. This paper provides an overview of the various GlyT-1 inhibitors and their therapeutic potential.

  1. Glycine Transport Inhibitors for the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that hypofunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors might be implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, suggesting that increasing NMDA receptor function via pharmacological manipulation could provide a new strategy for the management of schizophrenia. Currently, the glycine modulatory sites on NMDA receptors present the most attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of schizophrenia. One means of enhancing NMDA receptor neurotransmission is to increase the availability of the obligatory co-agonist glycine at modulatory sites on the NMDA receptors through the inhibition of glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1) on glial cells. Clinical studies have demonstrated that the GlyT-1 inhibitor sarcosine (N-methyl glycine) shows antipsychotic activity in patients with schizophrenia. Accordingly, a number of pharmaceutical companies have developed novel and selective GlyT-1 inhibitors for the treatment of schizophrenia. This paper provides an overview of the various GlyT-1 inhibitors and their therapeutic potential. PMID:21253021

  2. Glomus fasciculatum, a Weak Pathogen of Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Francl, L. J.; Dropkin, V. H.

    1985-01-01

    The occurrence ofchlamydospores of Glomus fasciculatum (Gf) within cysts of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, and the effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae on nematode population dynamics and soybean (Glycine max) plant growth were investigated. Chlamydospores occupied 1-24% of cysts recovered from field soil samples. Hyphae of Missouri isolate Gfl penetrated the female nematode cuticle shortly after she ruptured the root epidermis. Convoluted hyphae filled infected eggs, and sporogenesis occurred within infected eggs. G. microcarpum, G. mosseae, and two isolates of Gf were inoculated with H. glycines on plants of 'Essex' soybeans. Each of the two Gf isolates infected about 1% of the nematode eggs in experimental pot cuhures. The Gfl isolate decreased the number of first-generation adult females 26%, compared with the nonmycorrhizal control. The total numbers of first-generation plus second-generation adult females were similar for both Gf isolates and 29-41% greater than the nonmycorrhizal control. Soybean plants with Gf and H. glycines produced more biomass than did nonmycorrhizal plants with nematodes, but only Gfl delayed leaf senescence. PMID:19294126

  3. Multicellular Secretory Trichome Development on Soybean and Related Glycine Gynoecia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multicellular glandular trichomes form on gynoecia of wild Glycine annual species, annual soybean cultivars, and wild perennial species. These trichomes occur on gynoecia of annual taxa from ovary base to style base, and along style of perennial species. Trichomes form at least two days prior to ant...

  4. Evaluation of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] F1 Hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterosis is an important factor in development of hybrid cultivars. Few heterosis studies have been done in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. This is because manual cross-pollination is difficult and time consuming, and not conducive as an economical way to produce large quantities of hybrid seed...

  5. 21 CFR 520.550 - Dextrose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Dextrose/glycine... therapy. Oral therapy in these cases is too slow. Animals which cannot drink after initial...

  6. Lignin Degradation by Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by the soilborne fungal pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, is one of the most important diseases of soybean. Lignin degradation may play a role in the infection, colonization, and survival of the fungus in root tissue . Lignin degradation by F. solani f. sp...

  7. 21 CFR 522.518 - Cupric glycinate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cupric glycinate injection. 522.518 Section 522.518 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  8. 21 CFR 522.518 - Cupric glycinate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cupric glycinate injection. 522.518 Section 522.518 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  9. 21 CFR 522.518 - Cupric glycinate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cupric glycinate injection. 522.518 Section 522.518 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  10. 21 CFR 522.518 - Cupric glycinate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cupric glycinate injection. 522.518 Section 522.518 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  11. 21 CFR 522.518 - Cupric glycinate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cupric glycinate injection. 522.518 Section 522.518 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  12. PKCβ–dependent phosphorylation of the glycine transporter 1

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Medrano, Javier; Castrejon-Tellez, Vicente; Fernando, Plenge; Ramirez, Ivan; Miranda, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The extracellular levels of the neurotransmitter glycine in the brain are tightly regulated by the glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) and the clearance rate for glycine depends on its rate of transport and the levels of cell surface GlyT1. Over the years, it has been shown that PKC tightly regulates the activity of several neurotransmitter transporters. In the present work, by stably expressing three N-terminus GlyT1 isoforms in porcine aortic endothelial cells and assaying for [32P]-orthophosphate metabolic labeling, we demonstrated that the isoforms GlyT1a, GlyT1b, and GlyT1c were constitutively phosphorylated, and that phosphorylation was dramatically enhanced, in a time dependent fashion, after PKC activation by phorbol ester. The phosphorylation was PKC-dependent, since pre-incubation of the cells with bisindolylmaleimide I, a selective PKC inhibitor, abolished the phorbol ester-induced phosphorylation. Blotting with specific anti-phospho-tyrosine antibodies did not yield any signal that could correspond to GlyT1 tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that the phosphorylation occurs at serine and/or threonine residues. In addition, a 23-40% -inhibition on Vmax was obtained by incubation with phorbol ester without a significant change on the apparent Km value. Furthermore, pre-incubation of the cells with the selective PKCα/β inhibitor Gö6976 abolished the downregulation effect of phorbol ester on uptake and phosphorylation, whereas the selective PKCβ inhibitors (PKCβ inhibitor or LY333531) prevented the phosphorylation without affecting glycine uptake, defining a specific role of classical PKC on GlyT1 uptake and phosphorylation. Taken together, these data suggest that phosphorylation that conventional PKCα/β regulates the uptake of glycine, whereas PKCβ is responsible for GlyT1 phosphorylation. PMID:21864610

  13. P2Y Purinergic Regulation of the Glycine Neurotransmitter Transporters*

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Esperanza; Zafra, Francisco; Pérez-Sen, Raquel; Delicado, Esmerilda G.; Miras-Portugal, Maria Teresa; Aragón, Carmen; López-Corcuera, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    The sodium- and chloride-coupled glycine neurotransmitter transporters (GLYTs) control the availability of glycine at glycine-mediated synapses. The mainly glial GLYT1 is the key regulator of the glycine levels in glycinergic and glutamatergic pathways, whereas the neuronal GLYT2 is involved in the recycling of synaptic glycine from the inhibitory synaptic cleft. In this study, we report that stimulation of P2Y purinergic receptors with 2-methylthioadenosine 5′-diphosphate in rat brainstem/spinal cord primary neuronal cultures and adult rat synaptosomes leads to the inhibition of GLYT2 and the stimulation of GLYT1 by a paracrine regulation. These effects are mainly mediated by the ADP-preferring subtypes P2Y1 and P2Y13 because the effects are partially reversed by the specific antagonists N6-methyl-2′-deoxyadenosine-3′,5′-bisphosphate and pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-6-azo(2-chloro-5-nitrophenyl)-2,4-disulfonate and are totally blocked by suramin. P2Y12 receptor is additionally involved in GLYT1 stimulation. Using pharmacological approaches and siRNA-mediated protein knockdown methodology, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms of GLYT regulation. Modulation takes place through a signaling cascade involving phospholipase C activation, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production, intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, protein kinase C stimulation, nitric oxide formation, cyclic guanosine monophosphate production, and protein kinase G-I (PKG-I) activation. GLYT1 and GLYT2 are differentially sensitive to NO/cGMP/PKG-I both in brain-derived preparations and in heterologous systems expressing the recombinant transporters and P2Y1 receptor. Sensitivity to 2-methylthioadenosine 5′-diphosphate by GLYT1 and GLYT2 was abolished by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of nitric-oxide synthase. Our data may help define the role of GLYTs in nociception and pain sensitization. PMID:21245148

  14. Guanidinoethyl sulphonate is a glycine receptor antagonist in striatum.

    PubMed

    Sergeeva, Olga A; Chepkova, Aisa N; Haas, Helmut L

    2002-11-01

    1. Guanidinoethyl sulphonate (GES) is an analogue of taurine and an inhibitor of taurine transport. Interactions of GES with GABA(A) and glycine receptors are studied by whole cell recording and fast drug application in isolated striatal neurons of the mouse. 2. We confirm that GES is a weak agonist at GABA(A) receptors, and is able to antagonize GABA-evoked responses. GES did not gate GlyR. 3. GES antagonized glycine responses in a concentration-dependent and surmountable manner. Glycine dose-response curves were shifted to the right by GES (0.5 mM), yielding EC(50)s and Hill coefficients of 62 micro M and 2.5 in control, 154 micro M and 1.3 in the presence of GES. 4. GlyR-mediated taurine responses were competitively antagonized by GES. Taurine dose-response curves, in contrast to the glycine dose-response curves were shifted by GES to the right in a parallel manner. 5. The GlyR-block by GES was not voltage-dependent. 6. In contrast to our findings in the mouse, in rat striatal neurons which lack expression of the alpha3 GlyR subunit, GES shifted the glycine dose-response curve to the right in a parallel way without affecting the maximal response. Subtype-specificity of the GES action at GlyR must await further investigation in artificial expression systems. 7. We conclude that GES is a competitive antagonist at GlyR. The antagonistic action of GES at inhibitory ionotropic receptors can explain its epileptogenic action. Care must be taken with the interpretation of data on GES evoked taurine release.

  15. Genotype Response of Soybean (Glycine max) Whole Plants and Hairy Roots to Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium solani f. sp. Glycines, a soilborne fungus, infects soybean roots and causes sudden death syndrome. The response of 13 soybean genotypes to the pathogen infection was tested with potted greenhouse grown plants and with cultured hairy roots. The taproots of all genotypes grown plants measure...

  16. Syncytium gene expression in Glycine max [PI88788} roots undergoing a resistant reaction of the parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolate Heterodera glycines feeding sites (syncytia) from the (G. max) genotype PI 88788. Syncytia at various stages of the resistant response were isolated from roots 3, 6 and 9 days post infection (dpi). At 3 dpi, the analyses revealed highly induced...

  17. Catalysis of Dialanine Formation by Glycine in the Salt-Induced Peptide Formation Reaction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwannachot, Yuttana; Rode, Bernd M.

    1998-02-01

    Mutual catalysis of amino acids in the salt-induced peptide formation (SIPF) reaction is demonstrated for the case of glycine/alanine. The presence of glycine enhances dialanine formation by a factor up to 50 and enables dialanine formation at much lower alanine concentrations. The actual amounts of glycine play an important role for this catalytic effect, the optimal glycine concentration is 1/8 of the alanine concentration. The mechanism appears to be based on the formation of the intermediate Gly-Ala-Ala tripeptide, connected to one coordination site of copper(II) ion, and subsequent hydrolysis to dialanine and glycine.

  18. Chiral glycine formation on cold interstellar grains by quantum tunneling hydrogen-deuterium substitution reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Naoki; Osamura, Yoshihiro; Kouchi, Akira

    2015-08-01

    We report experimental evidence that chiral glycine (NH2CHDCOOH) is formed by the surface reaction of normal glycine (NH2CH2COOH) solid with deuterium (D) atom at 12 K under the simulative conditions of interstellar molecular clouds. Chiral glycine formation is most likely initiated by the tunneling abstraction reaction of H atom by D atom followed by the addition of D atom to the glycine radical (NH2CHCOOH). Given that chiral glycine can form in such a primordial low-temperature environment, it might source molecular chirality as molecular clouds evolve into planetary systems.

  19. [The metabolism of [2-(14)C] glycine in rat tissues in vivo].

    PubMed

    Brodin, S V; Ianovych, V H

    1996-01-01

    It is found that two hours after intraperitoneal injection of [2-(14)C] glycine to rats its higher amount (83.6%) is used in the protein synthesis and 16.4% is catabolized. The carbonic chain of the amino acid is used to the greater extent in the synthesis of lipids than in the oxidation and glucogenesis. Radioactivity of the proteins in the investigated organs and tissues of rats varies within L7-50.6 thou. DPM per 100 mg of wet tissue and decreases in a series: small intestine mucosa, kidneys, liver, stomach mucosa, heart, lungs, cardiac muscle, skin, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, brain. Radioactivity of lipids is within the limits of 0.2-5.1 thou. DPM per 100 mg of wet tissue 11.7-81.6% of protein radioactivity) and decreases in a series: liver, adipose tissue, kidneys, lungs, cardiac muscle, stomach mucosa, skin, skeletal muscle, brain. The total radioactivity of glucose+glycogen varies within 0.05-0.34 thou. DPM per 100 mg of wet tissue (0.8-10.7% of protein radioactivity) and decreases is a series: kidneys, liver, brain, skeletal muscle.

  20. Nanostructured Cu-CGO anodes fabricated using a microwave-assisted glycine-nitrate process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Shabana P. S.; Somalu, Mahendra R.; Muchtar, Andanastuti

    2016-11-01

    This work reports a study of nanostructured copper-doped gadolinium cermet (Cu-CGO) composite anodes prepared via conventional synthesis (CS) and microwave-synthesis (MS) involving the glycine-nitrate process (GNP). A detailed investigation on the mechanical properties, electrical conductivity and electrochemical performance of prepared Cu0.5(Ce0.9Gd0.1)0.5O2-δ anodes is included. The prepared samples were characterized by techniques, such as XRD, EDX, SEM and electrical characterizations. After reduction in 10% H2 and 90% N2, the DC conductivities of the Cu-CGO anodes prepared via CS-GNP and MS-GNP are found to be 5.43×103 and 1.09×104 S cm-1 at 700 °C, respectively. The electrochemical performances of the spin-coated anode symmetrical cells sintered at 700 °C are evaluated at cell operating temperatures of 600, 700 and 800 °C. The lowest area specific resistance (ASR) values for the Cu-CGO/CGO/Cu-CGO symmetrical cells prepared via the MS-GNP route at operating temperatures of 600, 700 and 800 °C are found to be 0.34, 0.71 and 1.10 Ω cm2, respectively. The as-prepared (via MS-GNP) Cu-CGO anode exhibits excellent electrical and electrochemical performance consistent with the uniform nanostructured morphology compared with the anode prepared via CS-GNP.

  1. The effects of glycine, L-threonine, and L-cystine supplementation to a 9% casein diet on the conversions of L-tryptophan to nicotinamide and to serotonin in rats.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Imai, Shoko; Nakata, Chifumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Nicotinamide and serotonin are synthesized from L-tryptophan in mammals. It is important to know the nutritional factors affecting the synthesis of nicotinamide and serotonin. We investigated the effects of amino acid composition. Young adult rats were fed ad libitum for 21 d a low-protein (9% casein) diet([1] control), or one of the low protein diets supplemented with following amino acids: [2] glycine, L-threonine, and L-cystine, [3] L-threonine and L-cystine, [4] glycine and L-cystine, and [5] glycine and L-threonine. The amounts of glycine, L-threonine and L-cystine supplementations were 2%, 0.078%, and 0.2%, respectively, and the amino acid contents of all diet were adjusted with supplementation of L-glutamic acid. The body weight gain, food efficiency ratio, and the amino acid nutrition biomarker, which is the urinary excretion ratio of (N(1)-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide+N(1)-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide)/N(1)-methylnicotinamide, improved by adding the amino acids glycine, L-threonine and L-cystine to a 9% casein diet. The conversion percentage of L-tryptophan to nicotinamide decreased with the addition of the amino acids glycine, L-threonine and L-cystine to a 9% casein diet, while the concentrations of serotonin in the brain, stomach and small intestine were not affected at all. The effects of each amino acid on body weight gain and the conversion ratios were also investigated. Glycine did not affect these variables. L-Cystine improved the body weight gain, the food efficiency ratio and the urine ratio, and decreased the conversion percentage. L-Threonine did not affect body weight gain or food efficiency ratio; however, it improved the urine ratio and decreased the conversion percentage.

  2. Estrogen-like osteoprotective effects of glycine in in vitro and in vivo models of menopause.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ho; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2016-03-01

    Recently, the placenta mesotherapy has been widely used to treat menopause. Placenta contains amino acids, peptides, minerals, and estrogen. Here, we investigated the estrogen-like osteoprotective effects of glycine (a main ingredient of placenta) in in vitro and in vivo models of menopause. We assessed the effect of glycine on MG-63 osteoblast cell line, MCF-7 estrogen-dependent cell line, and ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Glycine significantly increased the MG-63 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase were increased by glycine in MG-63 cells. Glycine also increased the BrdU-incorporation and Ki-67 mRNA expression in MCF-7 cells. Glycine induced the up-regulation of estrogen receptor-β mRNA expression and estrogen-response element-luciferase activity in MG-63 and MCF-7 cells. In OVX mice, glycine was administered orally at a daily dose of 10 mg/kg per day for 8 weeks. Glycine resulted in the greatest decrease in weight gain caused by ovariectomy. Meanwhile, vaginal weight reduced by ovariectomy was increased by glycine. Glycine significantly increased the ALP activity in OVX mice. MicroCT-analysis showed that glycine significantly enhanced bone mineral density, trabecular number, and connectivity density in OVX mice. Moreover, glycine significantly increased the serum 17β-estradiol levels reduced by ovariectomy. Glycine has an estrogen-like osteoprotective effect in menopause models. Therefore, we suggest that glycine may be useful for the treatment of menopause.

  3. NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} catalysts prepared by combustion reaction using glycine as fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, Elvia; Figueiredo de Melo Costa, Ana Cristina; Lino de Freita, Normanda; Lucena Lira, Helio de; Goldschmidt Aliaga Kiminami, Ruth Herta; Gama, Lucianna

    2011-09-15

    Graphical abstract: The reaction temperature was found to remain is practically constant throughout the interval preceding ignition, after which the temperature increased abruptly, reaching the maximum combustion temperature. All the reactions occurred in a matter of minutes, i.e., 5.8, 5.8 and 6 min, respectively, for compositions GES, 10GE and 20GE. Among the benefits of the combustion synthesis method are low processing cost, energy efficiency, high production rate and, especially, short reaction periods when compared with conventional methods (solid state reaction) to prepare ceramic oxide powders that require high calcination temperatures and long reaction periods. Highlights: {yields} We use a simple, fast and inexpensive technique for processing NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} catalyst nanopowders. {yields} We study the preparation of powders with nanometric sized particles. {yields} This material is extremely attractive for use in the development of new catalysts for a variety of chemical processes. {yields} Nanometric sized particles depend of the amount of glycine used in the synthesis process. -- Abstract: The aim of this work is to evaluate the influence of glycine fuel used in a stoichiometric proportion and with a 10% and 20% excess of this fuel in the preparation of NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} catalyst by combustion reaction. The powders were characterized by XRD, textural analysis by the BET nitrogen adsorption method, particle size distribution, and FTIR. The results show the presence of NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} as a major phase and traces of NiO and Ni in all the catalysts studied here. The crystallite sizes were 22 nm in the stoichiometric composition and 18 and 9 nm, respectively, in the composition containing 10% and 20% excess glycine. The powder obtained from all the compositions presented morphological characteristics with irregular plate-shaped agglomerates. The increase in excess glycine caused the particle size in the three compositions to decrease to 59, 54 and

  4. Interactions between glycine transporter type 1 (GlyT-1) and some inhibitor molecules - glycine transporter type 1 and its inhibitors (review).

    PubMed

    Harsing, Laszlo G; Zsilla, G; Matyus, P; Nagy, K M; Marko, B; Gyarmati, Zs; Timar, J

    2012-03-01

    Glycine is a mandatory positive allosteric modulator of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type ionotropic glutamate receptors in the central nervous system. Elevation of glycine concentrations by inhibition of its reuptake in the vicinity of NMDA receptors may positively influence receptor functions as glycine B binding site on NR1 receptor subunit is not saturated in physiological conditions. Synaptic and extrasynaptic concentrations of glycine are regulated by its type-1 glycine transporter, which is primarily expressed in astroglial and glutamatergic cell membranes. Alteration of synaptic glycine levels may have importance in the treatment of various forms of endogenous psychosis characterized by hypofunctional NMDA receptors. Several lines of evidence indicate that impaired NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in development of the negative (and partly the positive) symptoms and the cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. Inhibitors of glycine transporter type-1 may represent a newly developed therapeutic intervention in treatment of this mental illness. We have synthesized a novel series of N-substituted sarcosines, analogues of the glycine transporter-1 inhibitor NFPS (N-[3-(4'-fluorophenyl)-3-(4'-phenylphenoxy)-propyl]sarcosine). Of the pyridazinone-containing compounds, SzV-1997 was found to be a potent glycine transporter-1 inhibitor in rat brain synaptosomes and it markedly increased extracellular glycine concentrations in conscious rat striatum. SzV-1997 did not exhibit toxic symptoms such as hyperlocomotion, restless movements, respiratory depression, and lethality, characteristic for NFPS. Besides pyridazinone-based, sarcosine-containing glycine transporter-1 inhibitors, a series of substrate-type amino acid inhibitors was investigated in order to obtain better insight into the ligand-binding characteristics of the substrate binding cavity of the transporter.

  5. Dissociation of gaseous zwitterion glycine-betaine by slow electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopyra, J.; Abdoul-Carime, H.

    2010-05-01

    In this work, we investigate dissociation processes induced by low-energy electrons to gas phase N,N,N-trimethylglycine [glycine-betaine, (CH3)3N+CH2COO-] molecules. Glycine-betaine represents a model system for zwitterions. All negative fragments are observed to be produced only at subelectronic excitation energies (<4 eV). With the exception of the loss of a neutral H atom that could arise from any CH bond breaking, we tentatively suggest that the zwitterion dissociates exclusively from the fragmentation of the cation site of the molecule, subsequent to the attachment of the excess electron. Within the context of radiation induced damage to biological systems, the present findings contribute to a more complete description of the fragmentation mechanism occurring to amino acids, peptides, and proteins since they adopt usually a zwitterion structure.

  6. Glycine: an important potential component of spinal shock.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R K; Robertson, C S; Goodman, J C

    1993-08-01

    Amino acid neurotransmitters (AANTs) play a major role in maintenance of muscle tone. Abnormal AANT concentrations are associated with hyper- or hypotonic states. Flaccidity from spinal shock commonly occurs after spinal cord injury (SCI) and may be associated with changes in AANT concentrations. Ischemic SCIs created in the lumbar region of rabbits by intraaortic balloon occlusion produced spastic or flaccid injuries. Microdialysis sampling of AANTs from the injured segmental structures was done 3 days after SCI. Evoked potentials were used to monitor spinal cord stability. No significant changes in AANT levels occurred in the spastic or flaccid group after 4 hour sampling. However, flaccid animals had baseline glycine levels 2-3 times higher (p < 0.001) than spastic animals or controls. High concentrations of the inhibitory AANT glycine is associated with flaccidity following SCI, or spinal shock, but not spasticity. Glycinergic compounds directed toward suppression of excess muscle tone deserve further study.

  7. Soft x-ray ionization induced fragmentation of glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itälä, E.; Kooser, K.; Rachlew, E.; Huels, M. A.; Kukk, E.

    2014-06-01

    X-ray absorption commonly involves dissociative core ionization producing not only momentum correlated charged fragments but also low- and high-energy electrons capable of inducing damage in living tissue. This gives a natural motivation for studying the core ionization induced fragmentation processes in biologically important molecules such as amino acids. Here the fragmentation of amino acid glycine following carbon 1s core ionization has been studied. Using photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence technique, a detailed analysis on fragmentation of the sample molecule into pairs of momentum correlated cations has been carried out. The main characteristics of core ionization induced fragmentation of glycine were found to be the rupture of the C-Cα bond and the presence of the CNH_2^+ fragment.

  8. Soft x-ray ionization induced fragmentation of glycine.

    PubMed

    Itälä, E; Kooser, K; Rachlew, E; Huels, M A; Kukk, E

    2014-06-21

    X-ray absorption commonly involves dissociative core ionization producing not only momentum correlated charged fragments but also low- and high-energy electrons capable of inducing damage in living tissue. This gives a natural motivation for studying the core ionization induced fragmentation processes in biologically important molecules such as amino acids. Here the fragmentation of amino acid glycine following carbon 1s core ionization has been studied. Using photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence technique, a detailed analysis on fragmentation of the sample molecule into pairs of momentum correlated cations has been carried out. The main characteristics of core ionization induced fragmentation of glycine were found to be the rupture of the C-Cα bond and the presence of the CNH(2)(+) fragment.

  9. Soft x-ray ionization induced fragmentation of glycine

    SciTech Connect

    Itälä, E.; Kooser, K.; Rachlew, E.; Huels, M. A.; Kukk, E.

    2014-06-21

    X-ray absorption commonly involves dissociative core ionization producing not only momentum correlated charged fragments but also low- and high-energy electrons capable of inducing damage in living tissue. This gives a natural motivation for studying the core ionization induced fragmentation processes in biologically important molecules such as amino acids. Here the fragmentation of amino acid glycine following carbon 1s core ionization has been studied. Using photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence technique, a detailed analysis on fragmentation of the sample molecule into pairs of momentum correlated cations has been carried out. The main characteristics of core ionization induced fragmentation of glycine were found to be the rupture of the C–C{sub α} bond and the presence of the CNH{sub 2}{sup +} fragment.

  10. Ruthenium-Nitrosyl Complexes with Glycine, l-Alanine, l-Valine, l-Proline, d-Proline, l-Serine, l-Threonine, and l-Tyrosine: Synthesis, X-ray Diffraction Structures, Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Properties, and Antiproliferative Activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The reactions of [Ru(NO)Cl5]2– with glycine (Gly), l-alanine (l-Ala), l-valine (l-Val), l-proline (l-Pro), d-proline (d-Pro), l-serine (l-Ser), l-threonine (l-Thr), and l-tyrosine (l-Tyr) in n-butanol or n-propanol afforded eight new complexes (1–8) of the general formula [RuCl3(AA–H)(NO)]−, where AA = Gly, l-Ala, l-Val, l-Pro, d-Pro, l-Ser, l-Thr, and l-Tyr, respectively. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), 1H NMR, UV–visible and ATR IR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and X-ray crystallography. X-ray crystallography studies have revealed that in all cases the same isomer type (from three theoretically possible) was isolated, namely mer(Cl),trans(NO,O)-[RuCl3(AA–H)(NO)], as was also recently reported for osmium analogues with Gly, l-Pro, and d-Pro (see Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem.2013, 639, 1590–1597). Compounds 1, 4, 5, and 8 were investigated by ESI-MS with regard to their stability in aqueous solution and reactivity toward sodium ascorbate. In addition, cell culture experiments in three human cancer cell lines, namely, A549 (nonsmall cell lung carcinoma), CH1 (ovarian carcinoma), and SW480 (colon carcinoma), were performed, and the results are discussed in conjunction with the lipophilicity of compounds. PMID:24555845

  11. Microbial Community Responses to Glycine Addition in Kansas Prairie Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottos, E.; Roy Chowdhury, T.; White, R. A., III; Brislawn, C.; Fansler, S.; Kim, Y. M.; Metz, T. O.; McCue, L. A.; Jansson, J.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in sequencing technologies are rapidly expanding our abilities to unravel aspects of microbial community structure and function in complex systems like soil; however, characterizing the highly diverse communities is problematic, due primarily to challenges in data analysis. To tackle this problem, we aimed to constrain the microbial diversity in a soil by enriching for particular functional groups within a community through addition of "trigger substrates". Such trigger substrates, characterized by low molecular weight, readily soluble and diffusible in soil solution, representative of soil organic matter derivatives, would also be rapidly degradable. A relatively small energy investment to maintain the cell in a state of metabolic alertness for such substrates would be a better evolutionary strategy and presumably select for a cohort of microorganisms with the energetics and cellular machinery for utilization and growth. We chose glycine, a free amino acid (AA) known to have short turnover times (in the range of hours) in soil. As such, AAs are a good source of nitrogen and easily degradable, and can serve as building blocks for microbial proteins and other biomass components. We hypothesized that the addition of glycine as a trigger substrate will decrease microbial diversity and evenness, as taxa capable of metabolizing it are enriched in relation to those that are not. We tested this hypothesis by incubating three Kansas native prairie soils with glycine for 24 hours at 21 degree Celsius, and measured community level responses by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, metagenomics, and metatranscriptomics. Preliminary evaluation of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed minor changes in bacterial community composition in response to glycine addition. We will also present data on functional gene abundance and expression. The results of these analyses will be useful in designing sequencing strategies aimed at dissecting and deciphering complex microbial communities.

  12. Positive regulation of the Escherichia coli glycine cleavage enzyme system.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, R L; Steiert, P S; Stauffer, G V

    1993-01-01

    A new mutation in Escherichia coli, designated gcvA1, that results in noninducible expression of both gcv and a gcvT-lacZ gene fusion was isolated. A plasmid carrying the wild-type gcvA gene complemented the mutation and restored glycine-inducible gcv and gcvT-lacZ gene expression. These results suggest that gcvA encodes a positive-acting regulatory protein that acts in trans to increase expression of gcv. PMID:8423160

  13. Ferroelectric films of deuterated glycine phosphite: Structure and dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashova, E. V.; Krichevtsov, B. B.; Svinarev, F. B.; Lemanov, V. V.

    2013-05-01

    Polycrystalline textured films of deuterated glycine phosphite consisting of single-crystal blocks with lateral dimensions ˜(50-100) μm and a thickness d ˜ (1-5) μm have been grown by evaporation on NdGaO3(100) and α-Al2O3 substrates with preliminarily deposited interdigitated electrodes, as well as on Al substrates. The c* ( Z) crystallographic axis in the blocks is normal to the film plane, and the a ( X) axis and the polar axis b ( Y) are oriented in the film plane. The temperature dependences of the capacitance of the structures measured with the interdigitated electrode system reveal a strong dielectric anomaly at the film transition to the ferroelectric state. The phase transition temperature T c depends on the degree of deuteration D of the glycine phosphite. The maximum value T c = 275 K obtained in the structures studied corresponds to a degree of deuteration of the glycine phosphite D ˜ 50%. The frequency behavior of the dielectric hysteresis loops in glycine phosphite films differs radically from that of the previously studied films of deuterated betaine phosphite, which evidences that polarization switching in these structures proceeds by different mechanisms. It has been that application of a dc bias to the electrodes changes the shape of the dielectric hysteresis loops and shifts them along the electric field axis. The shift of the loops depends on the sign, magnitude, and time of application of the bias. Possible mechanisms underlying the induced unipolarity are discussed.

  14. Multicomponent synthesis of acylated short peptoids with antifungal activity against plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Galetti, Matías D; Cirigliano, Adriana M; Cabrera, Gabriela M; Ramírez, Javier A

    2012-02-01

    In this article, we describe the synthesis of a small library of short peptoids composed of four glycine residues and acylated with a fatty acid that showed a remarkable in vitro activity against two fungal plant pathogens. Their straightforward synthesis implied two consecutive Ugi reactions and can be efficiently extended to the construction of highly diverse libraries.

  15. Heterodera glycines cysts contain an extensive array of endoproteases as well as inhibitors of proteases in H. glycines and Meloidogyne incognita infective juvenile stages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heterodera glycines cysts contain proteases, and inhibitors of protease activities in various nematode species. In this investigation, proteases in H. glycines cysts were identified using a commercially available FRET-peptide library comprising 512 peptide pools qualified to detect up to 4 endoprot...

  16. Glycine transporter-1: a new potential therapeutic target for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The hypofunction hypothesis of glutamatergic neurotransmission via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia suggests that increasing NMDA receptor function via pharmacological manipulation could provide a new therapeutic strategy for schizophrenia. The glycine modulatory site on NMDA receptor complex is the one of the most attractive therapeutic targets for schizophrenia. One means of enhancing NMDA receptor neurotransmission is to increase the availability of the obligatory co-agonist glycine at modulatory site on the NMDA receptors through the inhibition of glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1) on glial cells. Some clinical studies have demonstrated that the GlyT-1 inhibitor sarcosine (N-methylglycine) shows antipsychotic activity in patients with schizophrenia. Currently, a number of pharmaceutical companies have been developing novel and selective GlyT-1 inhibitors for the treatment of schizophrenia. A recent double blind phase II study demonstrated that the novel GlyT-1 inhibitor RG1678 has a robust and clinically meaningful effect in patients with schizophrenia. In this article, the author reviews the recent findings on the GlyT-1 as a potential therapeutic target of schizophrenia.

  17. Interaction between ATP, metal ions, glycine, and several minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rishpon, J.; Ohara, P. J.; Lawless, J. G.; Lahav, N.

    1982-01-01

    Interactions between ATP, glycine and montmorillonite and kaolinite clay minerals in the presence of various metal cations are investigated. The adsorption of adenine nucleotides on clays and Al(OH)3 was measured as a function of pH, and glycine condensation was followed in the presence of ATP, ZnCl2, MgCl2 and either kaolinite or montmorillonite. The amounts of ATP and ADP adsorbed are found to decrease with increasing Ph, and to be considerably enhanced in experiments with Mg(2+)- and Zn(2+)-montmorillonite with respect to Na(+)-montmorillonite. The effects of divalent cations are less marked in kaolinite. Results for Al(OH)3 show the importance of adsorption at clay platelet edges at high pH. The decomposition of ATP during drying at high temperature is observed to be inhibited by small amounts of clay, vacuum, or Mg(2+) or Zn(2+) ions, and to be accompanied by peptide formation in the presence of glycine. Results suggest the importance of Zn(2+) and Mg(2+) in chemical evolution.

  18. Flow Cytometric Analysis and Sorting of Heterodera glycines Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Tylka, G. L.; Niblack, T. L.; Walk, T. C.; Harkins, K. R.; Barnett, L.; Baker, N. K.

    1993-01-01

    A nondestructive technique was developed to characterize and separate eggs of soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, by developmental stage using flow cytometry. Eggs from cysts cultured on susceptible soybean roots were suspended in 0.1% xanthan gum or 59% sucrose and loaded into either a Coulter EPICS 752 or EPICS 753 flow cytometer. Eggs were analyzed and sorted according to forward angle and 90° light scatter, flow cytometric parameters that are relative measures of object size and granularity, respectively. Mature eggs containing vermiform juveniles were less granular and slightly larger than eggs in earlier stages of embryogeny, allowing for separation of mature eggs from immature eggs. The effectiveness of flow cytometric sorting was evaluated by comparing the developmental stages of subpopulations of unsorted and sorted eggs. Of a subpopulation of unsorted eggs, 62% contained vermiform juveniles, whereas 85 to 95% of sorted subpopulations of larger, less granular eggs contained vermiform juveniles. Suspending H. glycines eggs in 0.1% xanthan gum or 59% sucrose for flow cytometric analysis had no effect on subsequent egg hatch in vitro. This technique is an efficient and effective means to collect large, relatively homogeneous quantities of H. glycines eggs in early or late embryogeny, and would likely be useful for analyzing and sorting eggs of other nematode species for use in developmental, genetic, or physiological research, or for identification and collection of parasitized eggs. PMID:19279815

  19. The mitochondrial genome of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Tracey; Farrugia, Daniel; Barrett, Jeff; Chitwood, David J; Rowe, Janet; Subbotin, Sergei; Dowton, Mark

    2011-07-01

    We sequenced the entire coding region of the mitochondrial genome of Heterodera glycines. The sequence obtained comprised 14.9 kb, with PCR evidence indicating that the entire genome comprised a single, circular molecule of approximately 21-22 kb. The genome is the most T-rich nematode mitochondrial genome reported to date, with T representing over half of all nucleotides on the coding strand. The genome also contains the highest number of poly(T) tracts so far reported (to our knowledge), with 60 poly(T) tracts ≥ 12 Ts. All genes are transcribed from the same mitochondrial strand. The organization of the mitochondrial genome of H. glycines shows a number of similarities compared with Radopholus similis, but fewer similarities when compared with Meloidogyne javanica. Very few gene boundaries are shared with Globodera pallida or Globodera rostochiensis. Partial mitochondrial genome sequences were also obtained for Heterodera cardiolata (5.3 kb) and Punctodera chalcoensis (6.8 kb), and these had identical organizations compared with H. glycines. We found PCR evidence of a minicircular mitochondrial genome in P. chalcoensis, but at low levels and lacking a noncoding region. Such circularised genome fragments may be present at low levels in a range of nematodes, with multipartite mitochondrial genomes representing a shift to a condition in which these subgenomic circles predominate.

  20. FMRFamide-like Immunoactivity in Heterodera glycines (Nemata: Tylenchida)

    PubMed Central

    Masler, E. P.; Kovaleva, E. S.; Sardanelli, S.

    1999-01-01

    Material antigenically related to the neuromodulatory peptide FMRFamide was detected and examined in preparations of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, and in the free-living nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Panagrellus redivivus. FMRFamide-related peptides were quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Specific activities were remarkably similar among all of the vermiform members of the three species. FMRFamide-related peptide immunoactivity was present in both sexes and all stages of H. glycines examined. The highest specific activity was present in second-stage juveniles and in males, and the lowest in white and yellow females. Total FMRFamide-related peptide level per individual was highest in brown females, with 90% of the activity associated with the eggs. Peptide levels in these eggs and in second-stage juveniles were comparable and increased in adults, especially in females. Chromatographic analysis of FMRFamide-related peptide preparations from H. glycines juveniles, C. elegans, and P. redivivus revealed distinct qualitative differences between the infective plant parasite and the free-living nematodes. PMID:19270893

  1. Cometary Glycine Detected in Stardust-Returned Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    In January 2006, NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth. The Stardust cometary collector consisted of aerogel cells lined with aluminum foils designed to capture impacting particles and facilitate removal of the aerogel. Preliminary examinations of these comet-exposed materials revealed a suite of organic compounds, including several amines and amino acids which were later examined in more detail. Methylamine (NH2CH3) and ethylamine (NH2C2H5) were detected in the exposed aerogel at concentrations greatly exceeding those found in control samples, while the amino acid glycine (NH2CH2COOH) was detected in several foil samples as well as in the comet-exposed aerogel. None of these three compounds had been previously detected in comets, although methylamine had been observed in the interstellar medium. Although comparison with control samples suggested that the detected glycine was cometary. the previous work was not able to conclusively identify its origin. Here, we present the results of compound-specific carbon isotopic analysis of glycine in Stardust cometary collector foils. Several foils from the interstellar side of the Stardust collector were also analyzed for amino acid abundance, but concentrations were too low to perform isotopic ana!ysis.

  2. Glycine transporter type 1 blockade changes NMDA receptor-mediated responses and LTP in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells by altering extracellular glycine levels

    PubMed Central

    Martina, Marzia; Gorfinkel, Yelena; Halman, Samantha; Lowe, John A; Periyalwar, Pranav; Schmidt, Christopher J; Bergeron, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region requires the activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs). NMDAR activation in turn requires membrane depolarization as well as the binding of glutamate and its coagonist glycine. Previous pharmacological studies suggest that the glycine transporter type 1 (GlyT1) maintains subsaturating concentrations of glycine at synaptic NMDARs. Antagonists of GlyT1 increase levels of glycine in the synaptic cleft and, like direct glycine site agonists, can augment NMDAR currents and NMDAR-mediated functions such as LTP. In addition, stimulation of the glycine site initiates signalling through the NMDAR complex, priming the receptors for clathrin-dependent endocytosis. We have used a new potent GlyT1 antagonist, CP-802,079, with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in acute rat hippocampal slices to determine the effect of GlyT1 blockade on LTP. Reverse microdialysis experiments in the hippocampus of awake, freely moving rats, showed that this drug elevated only the extracellular concentration of glycine. We found that CP-802,079, sarcosine and glycine significantly increased the amplitude of the NMDAR currents and LTP. In contrast, application of higher concentrations of CP-802,079 and glycine slightly reduced NMDAR currents and did not increase LTP. Overall, these data suggest that the level of glycine present in the synaptic cleft tightly regulates the NMDAR activity. This level is kept below the ‘set point’ of the NMDAR internalization priming mechanism by the presence of GlyT1-dependent uptake. PMID:15064326

  3. Genetics Home Reference: arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... E, Uldry J. Creatine deficiency syndromes and the importance of creatine synthesis in the brain. Amino Acids. ... Synthesis and transport of creatine in the CNS: importance for cerebral functions. J Neurochem. 2010 Oct;115( ...

  4. Glycine's radiolytic destruction in ices: first in situ laboratory measurements for Mars.

    PubMed

    Gerakines, Perry A; Hudson, Reggie L

    2013-07-01

    We report new laboratory studies of the radiation-induced destruction of glycine-containing ices for a range of temperatures and compositions that allow extrapolation to martian conditions. In situ infrared spectroscopy was used to study glycine decay rates as a function of temperature (from 15 to 280 K) and initial glycine concentrations in six mixtures whose compositions ranged from dry glycine to H2O+glycine (300:1). Results are presented in several systems of units, with cautions concerning their use. The half-life of glycine under the surface of Mars is estimated as an extrapolation of this data set to martian conditions, and trends in decay rates are described as are applications to Mars' near-surface chemistry.

  5. A DFT study of adsorption of glycine onto the surface of BC2N nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, Alireza; Azmoodeh, Zivar; Javan, Masoud Bezi; Lemeski, E. Tazikeh; Karami, Leila

    2016-10-01

    A theoretical study of structure and the energy interaction of amino acid glycine (NH2CH2COOH) with BC2N nanotube is crucial for apperception behavior occurring at the nanobiointerface. Herein, we studied the adsorption of glycine in their radical and zwitterionic forms upon the surface of BC2N nanotube using M06 functional and 6-311G** standard basis set. We also considered the different orientations of the glycine amino acid on the surface of adsorbent. Further, we found out that the stability of glycine from its carbonyl group is higher than hydroxyl and amine groups. Our results also indicated that the electronic structure of BC2N nanotube on the adsorption of glycine from its amine group is more altered than the other groups. Our study exhibits that opto-electronic property of adsorbent is changed after the glycine adsorption.

  6. Converting enzyme inhibition and the glomerular hemodynamic response to glycine in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Slomowitz, L A; Peterson, O W; Thomson, S C

    1999-07-01

    GFR normally increases during glycine infusion. This response is absent in humans and rats with established diabetes mellitus. In diabetic patients, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) restores the effect of glycine on GFR. To ascertain the glomerular hemodynamic basis for this effect of ACEI, micropuncture studies were performed in male Wistar-Froemter rats after 5 to 6 wk of insulin-treated streptozotocin diabetes. The determinants of single-nephron GFR (SNGFR) were assessed in each rat before and during glycine infusion. Studies were performed in diabetics, diabetics after 5 d of ACEI (enalapril in the drinking water), and weight-matched controls. Diabetic rats manifest renal hypertrophy and glomerular hyperfiltration but not glomerular capillary hypertension. ACEI reduced glomerular capillary pressure, increased glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient, and did not mitigate hyperfiltration. In controls, glycine increased SNGFR by 30% due to increased nephron plasma flow. In diabetics, glycine had no effect on any determinant of SNGFR. In ACEI-treated diabetics, the SNGFR response to glycine was indistinguishable from nondiabetics, but the effect of glycine was mediated by greater ultrafiltration pressure rather than by greater plasma flow. These findings demonstrate that: (1) The absent response to glycine in established diabetes does not indicate that renal functional reserve is exhausted by hyperfiltration; and (2) ACEI restores the GFR response to glycine in established diabetes, but this response is mediated by increased ultrafiltration pressure rather than by increased nephron plasma flow.

  7. Synaptic inhibition by glycine acting at a metabotropic receptor in tiger salamander retina.

    PubMed

    Hou, Mingli; Duan, Lei; Slaughter, Malcolm M

    2008-06-15

    Glycine is the lone fast neurotransmitter for which a metabotropic pathway has not been identified. In retina, we found a strychnine-insensitive glycine response in bipolar and ganglion cells. This glycine response reduced high voltage-activated calcium current. It was G-protein mediated and protein kinase A dependent. The EC(50) of the metabotropic glycine response is 3 mum, an order of magnitude lower than the ionotropic glycine receptor in the same retina. The bipolar cell glutamatergic input to ganglion cells was suppressed by metabotropic glycine action. The synaptic output of about two-thirds of bipolar cells and calcium current in two-thirds of ganglion cells are sensitive to the action of glycine at metabotropic receptors, suggesting this signal regulates specific synaptic pathways in proximal retina. This study resolves the curious absence of a metabotropic glycine pathway in the nervous system and reveals that the major fast inhibitory neurotransmitters, GABA and glycine, both activate G-protein-coupled pathways as well.

  8. On the stability of glycine-water clusters with excess electron: Implications for photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Doo-Sik; Kang, Ae-Ri; Lee, Sungyul; Kim, Bongsoo; Kyu Kim, Sang; Neuhauser, Daniel

    2005-02-01

    Calculations are presented for the glycine-(H2O)n- (n=0-2) anionic clusters with excess electron, with the glycine core in the canonical or zwitterion form. A variety of conformers are predicted, and their relative energy is examined to estimate thermodynamic stability. The dynamic (proton transfer) pathways between the anionic clusters with the canonical and the zwitterion glycine core are examined. Small barrier heights for isomerization from the zwitterion glycine-(H2O)2- anion to those with canonical glycine core suggest that the former conformers may be kinetically unstable and unfavorable for detection of neutral glycine zwitterion-(H2O)n (n=1,2) clusters by photodetachment, in accordance with the photoelectron spectroscopic experiments by Bowen and co-workers [Xu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 119, 10696 (2003)]. The calculated stability of the glycine-(H2O)n- anion clusters with canonical glycine core relative to those with zwitterion core indicates that the observation of the anionic conformers with the canonical glycine core would be much more feasible, as revealed by Johnson and co-workers [Diken et al. J. Chem. Phys. 120, 9902 (2004)].

  9. Active transport of. gamma. -aminobutyric acid and glycine into synaptic vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kish, P.E.; Fischer-Bovenkerk, C.; Ueda, T. )

    1989-05-01

    Although {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine are recognized as major amino acid inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, their storage is poorly understood. In this study the authors have characterized vesicular GABA and glycine uptakes in the cerebrum and spinal cord, respectively. They present evidence that GABA and glycine are each taken up into isolated synaptic vesicles in an ATP-dependent manner and that the uptake is driven by an electrochemical proton gradient. Uptake for both amino acids exhibited kinetics with low affinity similar to a vesicular glutamate uptake. The ATP-dependent GABA uptake was not inhibited by the putative amino acid neurotransmitters glycine, taurine, glutamate, or aspartate or by GABA analogs, agonists, and antagonists. Similarly, ATP-dependent glycine uptake was hardly affected by GABA, taurine, glutamate, or aspartate or by glycine analogs or antagonists. The GABA uptake was not affected by chloride, which is in contrast to the uptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, whereas the glycine uptake was slightly stimulated by low concentrations of chloride. Tissue distribution studies indicate that the vesicular uptake systems for GABA, glycine, and glutamate are distributed in different proportions in the cerebrum and spinal cord. These results suggest that the vesicular uptake systems for GABA, glycine, and glutamate are distinct from each other.

  10. Deep-space glycine formation via Strecker-type reactions activated by ice water dust mantles. A computational approach.

    PubMed

    Rimola, Albert; Sodupe, Mariona; Ugliengo, Piero

    2010-01-01

    A Strecker-type synthesis of glycine by reacting NH(3), H(2)C=O and HCN in presence of ice water (H(2)O-ice) as a catalyst has been theoretically studied at B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level within a cluster approach in order to mimic reactions occurring in the interstellar and circumstellar medium (ICM). Results indicate that, despite the exoergonic character of the considered reactions occurring at the H(2)O-ice surface, the kinetics are slow due to relatively high electronic energy barriers (ΔU(0)(≠)=15-45 kcal mol(-1)). Reactions occurring within H(2)O-ice cavities, in which ice bulk effects have been modeled by assuming a dielectric continuum (ε=78), show energy barriers low enough to allow NH(2)CH(2)OH formation but not NH=CH2 (ΔU(0)(≠)= 2 and 21 kcal mol(-1), respectively) thus hindering the NH(2)CH(2)CN formation, i.e. the precursor of glycine, through Strecker channels. Moreover, hydrolysis of NH(2)CH(2)CN to give glycine is characterized by high electronic energy barriers (ΔU(0)(≠)=27-34 kcal mol(-1)) and cannot readily occur at cryogenic temperatures. Nevertheless, the facts that NH=CH(2) formation can readily be achieved through the radical-radical HCN+2H - NH−−>CH2 reaction [D. E. Woon, Astrophys. J., 2002, 571, L177-L180], and that present results indicate that the Strecker step of NH=CH(2)+HCN−−>NH(2)CH(2)CN exhibits a relative low energy barrier (ΔU(0)(≠)=8–9 kcal mol(-1)), suggest that a combination of these two mechanisms allows for the formation of NH(2)CH(2)CN in the ICM. These results strengthen the thesis that NH(2)CH(2)CN could have been formed and protected by icy dust particles, and then delivered through micro-bombardments onto the early Earth, leading to glycine formation upon contact with the primordial ocean.

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of 2-chloro N-[(S)-{(S)-1-[11 C]methylpiperidin-2-yl} (phenyl)methyl]3-trifluoromethyl-benzamide ([11 C]N-methyl-SSR504734) as a PET radioligand for glycine transporter 1

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dysfunction of the glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) has been suggested to be involved in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. GlyT1 inhibitors have therefore been considered to have antipsychotic therapeutic potential. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging probes for GlyT1 are, consequently, expected to be useful for investigating the mechanism of such disease conditions and for measuring occupancy of GlyT1 inhibitors in vivo. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of 2-chloro N-[(S)-{(S)-1-[11 C]methylpiperidin-2-yl} (phenyl)methyl] 3-trifluoromethyl-benzamide ([11 C]N-methyl-SSR504734) as a PET imaging agent for GlyT1. Methods [11 C]N-methyl-SSR504734 was synthesized by N-[11 C]methylation of SSR504734 via [11 C]CH3OTf. In vitro brain distribution of [11 C]N-methyl-SSR504734 was tested in whole-hemisphere autoradiography (ARG) on human brain slices. Initial PET studies were performed using a cynomolgus monkey at baseline and after pretreatment with 0.1 to 1.5 mg/kg of SSR504734. Then, PET studies using rhesus monkeys were performed with arterial blood sampling at baseline and after pretreatment with 1.5 to 4.5 mg/kg SSR504734. Distribution volumes (VT) were calculated with a two-tissue compartment model, and GlyT1 occupancy by SSR504734 was estimated using a Lassen plot approach. Results [11 C]N-methyl-SSR504734 was successfully synthesized in moderate radiochemical yield and high specific radioactivity. In the ARG experiments, [11 C]N-methyl-SSR504734 showed specific binding in the white matter and pons. In the initial PET experiments in a cynomolgus monkey, [11 C]N-methyl-SSR504734 showed high brain uptake and consistent distribution with previously reported GlyT1 expression in vivo (thalamus, brainstem > cerebellum > cortical regions). However, the brain uptake increased after pretreatment with SSR504734. Further PET studies in rhesus monkeys showed a similar increase of brain uptake after

  12. Silyl imine electrophiles in enantioselective catalysis: a Rosetta Stone for peptide homologation, enabling diverse N-protected aryl glycines from aldehydes in three steps.

    PubMed

    Makley, Dawn M; Johnston, Jeffrey N

    2014-06-06

    We report that N-(trimethylsilyl)imines serve in the Bis(AMidine)-catalyzed addition of bromonitromethane with a high degree of enantioselection. This allows for the production of a range of protected α-bromo nitroalkane donors (including Fmoc) for use in Umpolung Amide Synthesis (UmAS). Hence, peptide homologation with nonnatural aryl glycine amino acids is achieved in three steps from aromatic aldehydes, which are plentiful and inexpensive. Epimerization during the homologation step is circumvented by avoiding an α-amino acid intermediate.

  13. Silyl Imine Electrophiles in Enantioselective Catalysis: A Rosetta Stone for Peptide Homologation, Enabling Diverse N-Protected Aryl Glycines from Aldehydes in Three Steps

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report that N-(trimethylsilyl)imines serve in the Bis(AMidine)-catalyzed addition of bromonitromethane with a high degree of enantioselection. This allows for the production of a range of protected α-bromo nitroalkane donors (including Fmoc) for use in Umpolung Amide Synthesis (UmAS). Hence, peptide homologation with nonnatural aryl glycine amino acids is achieved in three steps from aromatic aldehydes, which are plentiful and inexpensive. Epimerization during the homologation step is circumvented by avoiding an α-amino acid intermediate. PMID:24828455

  14. N-[[(Mercaptoacetyl)amino]benzoyl]glycines as mucolytic agents.

    PubMed

    Martin, T A; Comer, W T

    1985-07-01

    m- and p-aminobenzoic acids were converted to the title compounds by sequential use of ClCH2COCl, SOCl2, glycine methyl or ethyl ester, AcSK, and hydrolysis. The title compounds and a number of salts were compared for mucolytic activity, toxicity, stability, and hygroscopicity. When compared to N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), the compounds exhibit several times the in vitro mucolytic activity of NAC on a molar basis. The most promising candidate appears to be the sodium salt 3.5H2O 2 of the meta series.

  15. Purification and Properties of Arginase from Soybean, Glycine max, Axes

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung Hoon; Cho, Young Dong

    1990-01-01

    Arginase (EC 3.5.3.1) was purified to homogeneity from cytosol of soybean, Glycine max, axes by chromatographic separations on Sephadex G-200, DEAE-sephacel, hydroxyapatite, and arginine-affinity columns. The molecular weight of the enzyme estimated by pore gradient gel electrophoresis was 240,000, while sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gave a single band at the molecular weight of 60,000. The optimal pH for activity was 9.5 and the Km value was 83 millimolar. The enzyme was stimulated by polyamines such as putrescine. Images Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:16667583

  16. Dehydration Injury in Germinating Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Senaratna, Tissa; McKersie, Bryan D.

    1983-01-01

    The sensitivity of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Maple Arrow) seeds to dehydration changed during germination. Seeds were tolerant of dehydration to 10% moisture if dried at 6 hours of imbibition, but were susceptible to dehydration injury if dried at 36 hours of imbibition. Dehydration injury appeared as loss of germination, slower growth rates of isolated axes, hypocotyl and root curling, and altered membrane permeability. Increased electrolyte leakage due to dehydration treatment was observed only from isolated axes but not from cotyledons, suggesting that cotyledons are more tolerant of dehydration. The transition from a dehydration-tolerant to a dehydration-susceptible state coincided with radicle elongation. However, the prevention of cell elongation by osmotic treatment in polyethylene glycol (−6 bars) or imbibition in 20 micrograms per milliliter cycloheximide did not prevent the loss of dehydration tolerance suggesting that neither cell elongation nor cytoplasmic protein synthesis was responsible for the change in sensitivity of soybean seeds to dehydration. Furthermore, the rate of dehydration or rate of rehydration did not alter the response to the dehydration stress. PMID:16663056

  17. Development of glycine-α-methyl-proline-containing tripeptides with neuroprotective properties.

    PubMed

    Cacciatore, Ivana; Fornasari, Erika; Di Stefano, Antonio; Marinelli, Lisa; Cerasa, Laura Serafina; Turkez, Hasan; Aydin, Elanur; Moretto, Alessandro; Ferrone, Alessio; Pesce, Mirko; di Giacomo, Viviana; Reale, Marcella; Costantini, Erica; Di Giovanni, Pamela; Speranza, Lorenza; Felaco, Mario; Patruno, Antonia

    2016-01-27

    Herein is described the synthesis of novel glycine-α-methyl-proline-containing tripeptides (GP(Me)X tripeptides namely GP(Me)R, GP(Me)K, and GP(Me)H) with the aim of obtaining derivatives highly stable in human plasma and able to counteract neuroinflammatory processes that are distinctive of neurodegenerative pathologies. The syntheses of GP(Me)R, GP(Me)K, and GP(Me)H were all achieved both by introducing the Pro(Me) residue into the Gly-Pro-Arg (GPR) sequence in place of the native Pro in P2 position and replacing the basic amino acid Arg in P3 position by Lys or His. Results showed that all novel GP(Me)X tripeptides are stable in human plasma (t1/2 > 51 h) and that GP(Me)H - generating stable intramolecular H-bond in a C11-turn by interaction of His imidazole ring and Gly carbonyl group - restored physiological levels of nitric oxide deriving from neuronal NOS (nNOS) activity, thus preventing the inflammatory response by suppression of the NF-kB activity and, consequently, the expression of inflammatory genes such as inducibile NOS (iNOS). Therefore, GP(Me)H could be a lead compound for further development of peptidomimetics able to contrast neuroinflammatory processes.

  18. De novo synthesis of purine nucleotides in different fiber types of rat skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Tullson, P.C.; John-Alder, H.; Hood, D.A.; Terjung, R.L.

    1986-03-01

    The contribution of de novo purine nucleotide synthesis to nucleotide metabolism in skeletal muscles is not known. The authors have determined rates of de novo synthesis in soleus (slow-twitch red), red gastrocnemius (fast-twitch red), and white gastrocnemius (fast-twitch white) using the perfused rat hindquarter. /sup 14/C glycine incorporation into ATP was linear after 1 and 2 hours of perfusion with 0.2 mM added glycine. The intracellular (I) and extracellular (E) specific activity of /sup 14/C glycine was determined by HPLC of phenylisothiocyanate derivatives of neutralized PCA extracts. The rates of de novo synthesis when expressed relative to muscle ATP content show slow and fast-twitch red muscles to be similar and about twice as great as fast-twitch white muscles. This could represent a greater turnover of the adenine nucleotide pool in more oxidative red muscle types.

  19. Water oxidation by a nickel-glycine catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Ghirlanda, Giovanna; Allen, James P

    2014-07-23

    The utilization of solar energy requires an efficient means for its storage as chemical energy. In bioinspired artificial photosynthesis, light energy can be used to drive water oxidation, but catalysts that produce molecular oxygen from water are needed to avoid excessive driving potentials. In this paper, we demonstrate the utility of a novel complex utilizing earth-abundant Ni in combination with glycine as an efficient catalyst with a modest overpotential of 0.475 ± 0.005 V at a current density of 1 mA/cm(2) at pH 11. Catalysis requires the presence of the amine moiety with the glycine most likely coordinating the Ni in a 4:1 molar ratio. The production of molecular oxygen at a high potential is verified by measurement of the change in oxygen concentration, yielding a Faradaic efficiency of 60 ± 5%. The catalytic species is most likely a heterogeneous Ni-hydroxide formed by electrochemical oxidation. This Ni species can achieve a current density of 4 mA/cm(2) that persists for at least 10 h. Based upon the observed pH dependence of the current amplitude and oxidation/reduction peaks, the catalytic mechanism is an electron-proton coupled process.

  20. Glycine Substitutions in Collagen Heterotrimers Alter Triple Helical Assembly.

    PubMed

    Clements, Katherine A; Acevedo-Jake, Amanda M; Walker, Douglas R; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D

    2017-02-13

    Osteogenesis imperfecta typically results from missense mutations in the collagen genome where the required glycine residues are replaced with another amino acid. Many models have attempted to replicate the structure of mutated collagen on the triple helix level. However, composition and register control of the triple helix is complicated and requires extreme precision, especially when these destabilizing mutations are present. Here we present mutations to a composition- and register-controlled AAB helix where one of the requisite glycines in the A chain of the triple helix is changed to serine or alanine. We see a loss of compositional control when the A chain is mutated, resulting in an A'BB composition that minimizes the number of mutations included in the triple helix. However, when both A and B chains are mutated and no nonmutated peptide chains are available, the designed A'A'B' composition is reestablished. Our work shows the ability of the mutations to influence and alter the composition and register of the collagen triple helix.

  1. Growth of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride and its characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, G.; Pari, S.

    2016-11-01

    Single crystal of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride by slow evaporation method is reported. The grown crystal characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, UV-Vis-NIR and fluorescence spectroscopy. It is established that the crystal falls under the monoclinic system and space group P21/c with the cell parameters as: a=8.565 Å, b=12.943 Å, c=6.272 Å, α=γ=90°, β=103.630º. UV-Vis-NIR spectrum shows indirect allowed transition with a band gap of 5.21 eV and other optical properties are measured. The crystal is also shown to have a high transmittance in the visible region. The third order nonlinear property and optical limiting have been investigated using Z-Scan technique. Complex impedance spectrum measured at the dc conductivity. Dependence of dielectric constant, dielectric loss and ac conductivity on frequency at different temperature of applied ac field is analyzed. The mechanical behavior has been assessed by Vickers microhardness indenter. The thermal behavior of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride was analyzed using TG/DTA thermal curves. From the thermal study, the material was found to possess thermal stability up to 174 °C. The predicted NLO properties, UV-Vis transmittance and Z-scan studies indicate that is an attractive material for photonics optical limiting applications.

  2. Pressure Effects on the Abiotic Polymerization of Glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, Shohei; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Nakazawa, Hiromoto

    2007-06-01

    Polymerization experiments were performed using dry glycine under various pressures of 5 100 MPa at 150°C for 1 32 days. The series of experiments was carried out under the assumption that the pore space of deep sediments was adequate for dehydration polymerization of pre-biotic molecules. The products show various colors ranging from dark brown to light yellow, depending on the pressure. Visible and infrared spectroscopy reveal that the coloring is the result of formation of melanoidins at lower pressures. High-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses of the products show that: (1) glycine in all the experimental runs oligomerizes from 2-mer to 10-mer; (2) the yields are dependent on pressure up to 25 MPa and decrease slightly thereafter; and (3) polymerization progressed for the first 8 days, while the amounts of oligomers remained constant for longer-duration runs of up to 32 days. These results suggest that pressure inhibits the decomposition of amino acids and encourages polymerization in the absence of a catalyst. Our results further imply that abiotic polymerization could have occurred during diagenesis in deep sediments rather than in oceans.

  3. Chemical speciation of adsorbed glycine on metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jeong Woo; James, Joanna N.; Sholl, David S.

    2011-07-01

    Experimental studies have reported that glycine is adsorbed on the Cu(110) and Cu(100) surfaces in its deprotonated form at room temperature, but in its zwitterionic form on Pd(111) and Pt(111). In contrast, recent density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicated that the deprotonated molecules are thermodynamically favored on Cu(110), Cu(100), and Pd(111). To explore the source of this disagreement, we have tested three possible hypotheses. Using DFT calculations, we first show that the kinetic barrier for the deprotonation reaction of glycine on Pd(111) is larger than on Cu(110) or Cu(100). We then report that the presence of excess hydrogen would have little influence on the experimentally observed results, especially for Pd(111). Lastly, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate that the aggregates of zwitterionic species on Pt(111) are energetically preferred to those of neutral species. Our results strongly suggest that the formation of aggregates with relatively large numbers of adsorbed molecules is favored under experimentally relevant conditions and that the adsorbate-adsorbate interactions in these aggregates stabilize the zwitterionic species.

  4. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  6. Behavioral differences of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita infective juveniles exposed to root extracts in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The in vitro behaviors of infective juveniles (J2) of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita were compared in the presence and absence of plant root extracts. In an agar plate attraction-retention assay, H. glycines was 15-fold more responsive to a chemical attractant (CaCl2; P < 0.05) than w...

  7. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... patterns in food technology. Therefore, the Food and Drug Administration no longer regards glycine and its... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. 170.50 Section 170.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  8. Transcriptional responses of tolerant and susceptible soybeans to soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) herbivory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, was introduced in 2000 to North America and has become one of the most significant pests to soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, production. Possible solutions to this problem are the use of resistant plants and the understanding of the genes involved in pl...

  9. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-02-17

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower (15)N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher (15)N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most (15)N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution.

  10. Pathogenicity of Pratylenchus penetrans, Heterodera glycines, and Meloidogyne incognita on Soybean Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Melakeberhan, Haddish

    1998-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Heterodera glycines, Meloidogyne incognita, and Pratylenchus penetrans on H. glycines-resistant 'Bryan,' tolerant-susceptible 'G88-20092,' and intolerant-susceptible 'Tracy M' soybean cultivars was tested using plants grown in 800 cm³ of soil in 15-cm-diam. clay pots in three greenhouse experiments. Plants were inoculated with 0, 1,000, 3,000, or 9,000 H. glycines race 3 or M. incognita eggs, or vermiform stages of P. penetrans/pot. Forty days after inoculation, nmnbers of all three nematodes, except H. glycines on Bryan, generally increased with increasing inoculum levels in Experiment I. Heterodera glycines and M. incognita significantly decreased growth only of Tracy M. At 45 and 57 days after inoculation with 6,000 individuals/pot in experiments II and III, respectively, significantly more P. penetrans and M. incognita than H. glycines were found on Bryan. However, H. glycines and M. incognita population densities were greater than P. penetrans on G88-20092 and Tracy M. Growth of Tracy M infected by H. glycines and M. incognita and growth of G88-20092 infected by M. incognita decreased in Experiment III. Pratylenchus penetrans did not affect plant growth. Reduction in plant growth differed according to the particular nematode species and cultivar, indicating that nematodes other than the species for which resistance is targeted can have different effects on cultivars of the same crop species. PMID:19274203

  11. Beta-alanine and taurine as endogenous agonists at glycine receptors in rat hippocampus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahiro; Gähwiler, Beat H; Gerber, Urs

    2002-02-15

    Electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of glycine receptors were characterized in hippocampal organotypic slice cultures. In the presence of ionotropic glutamate and GABA(B) receptor antagonists, pressure-application of glycine onto CA3 pyramidal cells induced a current associated with increased chloride conductance, which was inhibited by strychnine. Similar chloride currents could also be induced with beta-alanine or taurine. Whole-cell glycine responses were significantly greater in CA3 pyramidal cells than in CA1 pyramidal cells and dentate granule cells, while responses to GABA were similar among these three cell types. Although these results demonstrate the presence of functional glycine receptors in the hippocampus, no evidence for their activation during synaptic stimulation was found. Gabazine, a selective GABA(A) receptor antagonist, totally blocked evoked IPSCs in CA3 pyramidal cells. Glycine receptor activation is not dependent on transporter-controlled levels of extracellular glycine, as no chloride current was observed in response to sarcosine, an inhibitor of glycine transporters. In contrast, application of guanidinoethanesulfonic acid, an uptake inhibitor of beta-alanine and taurine, induced strychnine-sensitive chloride current in the presence of gabazine. These data indicate that modulation of transporters for the endogenous amino acids, beta-alanine and taurine, can regulate tonic activation of glycine receptors, which may function in maintenance of inhibitory tone in the hippocampus.

  12. Protease inhibition by Heterodera glycines cyst content: evidence for effects on the Meloidogyne incognita proteasome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteases from Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita juveniles were inhibited by heat-stable content of H. glycines female cysts (HglCE), and by the plant polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). General protease activities detected using the nematode peptide KSAYMRFa were inhibited by EG...

  13. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-02-01

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m‑2 s‑1) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower 15N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher 15N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most 15N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution.

  14. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  17. Impact of Herbicides on Heterodera glycines Susceptible and Resistant Soybean Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, C. A.; Noel, G. R.; Grau, C. R.; Gaska, J. M.; Kurtzweil, N. C.; MacGuidwin, A. E.; Wax, L. M.; Hartman, G. L.; Pedersen, W. L.

    2003-01-01

    Several abiotic and biotic stresses can affect soybean in a growing season. Heterodera glycines, soybean cyst nematode, reduces yield of soybean more than any other pathogen in the United States. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted to determine whether preemergence and postemergence herbicides modified the reproduction of H. glycines, and to determine the effects of possible interactive stresses caused by herbicides and H. glycines on soybean growth and yield. Heterodera glycines reproduction factor (Rf) generally was less on resistant than susceptible cultivars, resulting in a yield advantage for resistant cultivars. The yield advantage of resistant cultivars was due to more pods per plant on resistant than susceptible cultivars. Pendimethalin reduced H. glycines Rf on the susceptible cultivars in 1998 at Champaign, Illinois, and in greenhouse studies reduced dry root weight of H. glycines-resistant and susceptible cultivars, therefore reducing Rf on the susceptible cultivars. The interactive stresses from acifluorfen or imazethapyr and H. glycines reduced the dry shoot weight of the resistant cultivar Jack in a greenhouse study. Herbicides did not affect resistant cultivars' ability to suppress H. glycines Rf; therefore, growers planting resistant cultivars should make herbicide decisions based on weeds present and cultivar tolerance to the herbicide. PMID:19265980

  18. Benzo(A)pyrene induced glycine N-methyltransferase messenger rna expression in Fundulus heteroclitus embryos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) is a mediator in the methionine and folate cycles, and is responsible for the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to glycine forming S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) and sarcosine. All the known DNA methyltransferases use SAM as a methyl donor th...

  19. Lack of positive allosteric modulation of mutated alpha(1)S267I glycine receptors by cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Foadi, Nilufar; Leuwer, Martin; Demir, Reyhan; Dengler, Reinhard; Buchholz, Vanessa; de la Roche, Jeanne; Karst, Matthias; Haeseler, Gertrud; Ahrens, Jörg

    2010-05-01

    Loss of inhibitory synaptic transmission within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord plays a key role in the development of chronic pain following inflammation or nerve injury. Inhibitory postsynaptic transmission in the adult spinal cord involves mainly glycine. Ajulemic acid and HU210 are non-psychotropic, synthetic cannabinoids. Cannabidiol is a non-psychotropic plant constituent of cannabis sativa. There are hints that non-cannabinoid receptor mechanisms of these cannabinoids might be mediated via glycine receptors. In this study, we investigated the impact of the amino acid residue serine at position 267 on the glycine-modulatory effects of ajulemic acid, cannabidiol and HU210. Mutated alpha(1)S267I glycine receptors transiently expressed in HEK293 cells were studied by utilising the whole-cell clamp technique. The mutation of the alpha(1) subunit TM2 serine residue to isoleucine abolished the co-activation and the direct activation of the glycine receptor by the investigated cannabinoids. The nature of the TM2 (267) residue of the glycine alpha(1) subunit is crucial for the glycine-modulatory effect of ajulemic acid, cannabidiol and HU210. An investigation of the impact of such mutations on the in vivo interaction of cannabinoids with glycine receptors should permit a better understanding of the molecular determinants of action of cannabinoids.

  20. Increased production of alpha-amylase by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in the presence of glycine

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q.; Tsukagoshi, N.; Miyashiro, S.; Udaka, S.

    1983-07-01

    The production of alpha-amylase by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens increased by a factor of 300 when glycine was added to a chemically defined simple medium at the early-logarithmic phase of growth. Glycine was not metabolized to a significant extent under the conditions used, but it considerably prevented the lowering of the pH of the culture. (Refs. 10).

  1. Dynamic proteome analysis of roots of soybean compatible and incompatible to Heterodera glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To gain new insights into the mechanism of soybean (Glycine max) interaction with the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines), we compared protein expression profiles of soybean roots infected by the soybean cyst nematode. Proteins were extracted from roots of 3 and 8 days post-inoculation (dpi)...

  2. Heat-initiated prebiotic formation of peptides from glycine/aspartic acid and glycine/valine in aqueous environment and clay suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Chandra Kala; Lata, Hem; Pathak, Hari Datt; Mehata, Mohan Singh

    2009-04-01

    The effect of heat on the reaction system of glycine/aspartic acid and glycine/valine in the aqueous environment as well as in montmorillonite clay suspension with or without divalent cations (Ca2+, Mg2+ and Ni2+) has been investigated at 85°C±5°C for varying periods under prebiotic drying and wetting conditions. The resulting products were analysed and characterized by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Peptide formation appears to depend on the duration of heat effect, nature of reactant amino acids and, to some extent, on montmorillonite clay incorporated with divalent cations. In the glycine/aspartic acid system, oligomerization of glycine was limited up to trimer level (Gly)3 along with the formation of glycyl-aspartic acid, while linear and cyclic peptides of aspartic acid were not formed, whereas the glycine/valine system preferentially elongated homo-oligopeptide of glycine up to pentamer level (Gly)5 along with formation of hetero-peptides (Gly-Val and Val-Gly). These studies are relevant in the context of the prebiotic origin of proteins and the role of clay and metal ions in condensation and oligomerization of amino acids. The length of the bio-oligomer chain depends upon the reaction conditions. However, condensation into even a small length seems significant, as the same process would have taken millions of years in the primitive era of the Earth, leading to the first proteins.

  3. Glycine as a d-amino acid surrogate in the K+-selectivity filter

    PubMed Central

    Valiyaveetil, Francis I.; Sekedat, Matthew; MacKinnon, Roderick; Muir, Tom W.

    2004-01-01

    The K+ channel-selectivity filter consists of two absolutely conserved glycine residues. Crystal structures show that the first glycine in the selectivity filter, Gly-77 in KcsA, is in a left-handed helical conformation. Although the left-handed helical conformation is not favorable for the naturally occurring l-amino acids, it is favorable for the chirally opposite d-amino acids. Here, we demonstrate that Gly-77 can be replaced by d-Ala with almost complete retention of function. In contrast, substitution with an l-amino acid results in a nonfunctional channel. This finding suggests that glycine is used as a surrogate d-amino acid in the selectivity filter. The absolute conservation of glycine in the K+-selectivity filter can be explained as a result of glycine being the only natural amino acid that can play this role. PMID:15563591

  4. Taurine activates glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptors in rat substantia gelatinosa neurons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Kohno, Tatsuro; Georgiev, Stefan K; Ikoma, Miho; Ishii, Hideaki; Petrenko, Andrey B; Baba, Hiroshi

    2008-02-12

    Taurine has been suggested to modulate nociceptive information at the spinal cord level. In this study, the pharmacological properties of taurine were investigated in adult rat substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp method. We found that taurine seemed to have higher efficacy than glycine on glycine receptors in SG neurons. An increase in chloride conductance was responsible for taurine-induced currents. Taurine at 0.3 mM activated glycine receptors, whereas at 3 mM activated both glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptors. The currents activated by coapplication of taurine and glycine are cross inhibitive. Altogether these results show that taurine might represent another important neurotransmitter or modulator in SG neurons, which may be involved in antinociception.

  5. Fast heavy-ion radiation damage of glycine in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Shinji; Tsuchida, Hidetsugu; Furuya, Ryosuke; Majima, Takuya; Itoh, Akio

    2016-12-01

    Fast heavy-ion radiolysis of biomolecules in aqueous solution is investigated for an atomistic understanding of radiation damage to normal cells during heavy-particle beam therapy. The smallest amino acid glycine was used as a model biomaterial. Microjets of aqueous glycine solutions under vacuum were irradiated with 4.0-MeV carbon ions corresponding to energies in the Bragg peak region. To understand the effects of the water environment on molecular damage, the yield of glycine dissociation was measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The yield was significantly reduced relative to gas-phase glycine targets. This implies that the numerous water molecules surrounding a single glycine molecule act as a buffer that suppresses dissociation. This is an environmental effect similar to that observed for other biomolecular cluster targets.

  6. Host Suitability of Diverse Lines of Phaseolus vulgaris to Multiple Populations of Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James R.; Young, Lawrence D.

    2003-01-01

    The host suitability of diverse races and gene pools of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) for multiple isolates of Heterodera glycines was studied. Twenty P. vulgaris genotypes, representing three of the six races within the two major germplasm pools, were tested in greenhouse experiments to determine their host suitability to five H. glycines isolates. Phaseolus vulgaris genotypes differed in their host suitability to different H. glycines isolates. While some common bean lines were excellent hosts for some H. glycines isolates, no common bean line was a good host for all isolates. Some bean lines from races Durango and Mesoamerica, representing the Middle America gene pool, were resistant to all five nematode isolates. Other lines, from both the Andean and Middle America gene pools, had differential responses for host suitability to the different isolates of H. glycines. PMID:19265970

  7. Activation of synaptic and extrasynaptic glycine receptors by taurine in preoptic hypothalamic neurons.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Janardhan Prasad; Park, Soo Joung; Chun, Sang Woo; Cho, Dong Hyu; Han, Seong Kyu

    2015-11-03

    Taurine is an essential amino-sulfonic acid having a fundamental function in the brain, participating in both cell volume regulation and neurotransmission. Using a whole cell voltage patch clamp technique, the taurine-activated neurotransmitter receptors in the preoptic hypothalamic area (PHA) neurons were investigated. In the first set of experiments, different concentrations of taurine were applied on PHA neurons. Taurine-induced responses were concentration-dependent. Taurine-induced currents were action potential-independent and sensitive to strychnine, suggesting the involvement of glycine receptors. In addition, taurine activated not only α-homomeric, but also αβ-heteromeric glycine receptors in PHA neurons. Interestingly, a low concentration of taurine (0.5mM) activated glycine receptors, whereas a higher concentration (3mM) activated both glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors in PHA neurons. These results suggest that PHA neurons are influenced by taurine and respond via glycine and GABAA receptors.

  8. Glycine receptors mediate excitation of subplate neurons in neonatal rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Kilb, W; Hanganu, I L; Okabe, A; Sava, B A; Shimizu-Okabe, C; Fukuda, A; Luhmann, H J

    2008-08-01

    The development of the cerebral cortex depends on genetic factors and early electrical activity patterns that form immature neuronal networks. Subplate neurons (SPn) are involved in the construction of thalamocortical innervation, generation of oscillatory network activity, and in the proper formation of the cortical columnar architecture. Because glycine receptors play an important role during early corticogenesis, we analyzed the functional consequences of glycine receptor activation in visually identified SPn in neocortical slices from postnatal day 0 (P0) to P4 rats using whole cell and perforated patch-clamp recordings. In all SPn the glycinergic agonists glycine, beta-alanine, and taurine induced dose-dependent inward currents with the affinity for glycine being higher than that for beta-alanine and taurine. Glycine-induced responses were blocked by the glycinergic antagonist strychnine, but were unaffected by either the GABAergic antagonist gabazine, the N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor antagonist d-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, or picrotoxin and cyanotriphenylborate, antagonists of alpha-homomeric and alpha1-subunit-containing glycine receptors, respectively. Under perforated-patch conditions, glycine induced membrane depolarizations that were sufficient to trigger action potentials (APs) in most cells. Furthermore, glycine and taurine decreased the injection currents as well as the synaptic stimulation strength required to elicit APs, indicating that glycine receptors have a consistent excitatory effect on SPn. Inhibition of taurine transport and application of hypoosmolar solutions induced strychnine-sensitive inward currents, suggesting that taurine can act as a possible endogenous agonist on SPn. In summary, these results demonstrate that SPn express glycine receptors that mediate robust excitatory membrane responses during early postnatal development.

  9. Glycine prevents metabolic steatohepatitis in diabetic KK-Ay mice through modulation of hepatic innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Shiori; Ikejima, Kenichi; Arai, Kumiko; Yokokawa, Junko; Kon, Kazuyoshi; Yamashina, Shunhei; Watanabe, Sumio

    2016-12-01

    Strategies for prevention and treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis remain to be established. We evaluated the effect of glycine on metabolic steatohepatitis in genetically obese, diabetic KK-A(y) mice. Male KK-A(y) mice were fed a diet containing 5% glycine for 4 wk, and liver pathology was evaluated. Hepatic mRNA levels for lipid-regulating molecules, cytokines/chemokines, and macrophage M1/M2 markers were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Hepatic expression of natural killer (NK) T cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. Body weight gain was significantly blunted and development of hepatic steatosis and inflammatory infiltration were remarkably prevented in mice fed the glycine-containing diet compared with controls. Indeed, hepatic induction levels of molecules related to lipogenesis were largely blunted in the glycine diet-fed mice. Elevations of hepatic mRNA levels for TNFα and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 were also remarkably blunted in the glycine diet-fed mice. Furthermore, suppression of hepatic NK T cells was reversed in glycine diet-fed KK-A(y) mice, and basal hepatic expression levels of NK T cell-derived cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-13, were increased. Moreover, hepatic mRNA levels of arginase-1, a marker of macrophage M2 transformation, were significantly increased in glycine diet-fed mice. In addition, dietary glycine improved glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia in KK-A(y) mice. These observations clearly indicate that glycine prevents maturity-onset obesity and metabolic steatohepatitis in genetically diabetic KK-A(y) mice. The underlying mechanisms most likely include normalization of hepatic innate immune responses involving NK T cells and M2 transformation of Kupffer cells. It is proposed that glycine is a promising immunonutrient for prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome-related nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

  10. A THREE-PHASE CHEMICAL MODEL OF HOT CORES: THE FORMATION OF GLYCINE

    SciTech Connect

    Garrod, Robin T.

    2013-03-01

    A new chemical model is presented that simulates fully coupled gas-phase, grain-surface, and bulk-ice chemistry in hot cores. Glycine (NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOH), the simplest amino acid, and related molecules such as glycinal, propionic acid, and propanal, are included in the chemical network. Glycine is found to form in moderate abundance within and upon dust-grain ices via three radical-addition mechanisms, with no single mechanism strongly dominant. Glycine production in the ice occurs over temperatures {approx}40-120 K. Peak gas-phase glycine fractional abundances lie in the range 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11}-8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9}, occurring at {approx}200 K, the evaporation temperature of glycine. A gas-phase mechanism for glycine production is tested and found insignificant, even under optimal conditions. A new spectroscopic radiative-transfer model is used, allowing the translation and comparison of the chemical-model results with observations of specific sources. Comparison with the nearby hot-core source NGC 6334 IRS1 shows excellent agreement with integrated line intensities of observed species, including methyl formate. The results for glycine are consistent with the current lack of a detection of this molecule toward other sources; the high evaporation temperature of glycine renders the emission region extremely compact. Glycine detection with ALMA is predicted to be highly plausible, for bright, nearby sources with narrow emission lines. Photodissociation of water and subsequent hydrogen abstraction from organic molecules by OH, and NH{sub 2}, are crucial to the buildup of complex organic species in the ice. The inclusion of alternative branches within the network of radical-addition reactions appears important to the abundances of hot-core molecules; less favorable branching ratios may remedy the anomalously high abundance of glycolaldehyde predicted by this and previous models.

  11. 40 CFR 174.533 - Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant Acetolactate Synthase (GM-HRA) inert ingredient; exemption from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant... Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant Acetolactate Synthase (GM-HRA) inert ingredient; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Glycine max herbicide-resistant acetolactate synthase (GM-HRA)...

  12. 40 CFR 174.533 - Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant Acetolactate Synthase (GM-HRA) inert ingredient; exemption from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant... Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant Acetolactate Synthase (GM-HRA) inert ingredient; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Glycine max herbicide-resistant acetolactate synthase (GM-HRA)...

  13. Secondary fragmentation routes of glycine in ice under irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernet, A.; Pilme, J.; Ellinger, Y.

    2011-05-01

    The question of the relative stability of the complex organic molecules (COM) under the interstellar radiation field is a crucial question, especially in the context of the panspermia hypothesis for which their survival during the transfer from space to the Earth is a necessary condition for the appearance of life (Ehrenfreund et al 2001, 2002). Assuming that these species are originally embedded in interstellar grains, their resistance to the solar UV radiation in ice is a key issue. The case of glycine, H2NCH2COOH, has been considered recently in irradiation experiments carried out at the SOLEIL synchrotron facility. It appeared that glycine is partially protected by ice but also suffers some fragmentation leading in the end to CO2 and to CN containing species. Quantum chemical simulations have been performed in parallel for all the possible fragmentations of neutral, ionized, doubly ionized, protonated and zwitterionic glycine (Lattelais et al. 2010). This study has shown that the primary decomposition routes leading to fragments CH2COOH, H2NCH2, H2NCH2+, CH2COOH+, H2NCH3, and CO2 are energetically valid. The experiments have also shown that the role of water is mainly to increase the production of the end products in the photoreactions, most probably due to the reactions with the OH radicals formed during the irradiation of the ice. We present a theoretical study of the secondary fragmentation channels initiated by the OH radical by means of quantum chemical calculations using DFT and ab initio correlated methods (MP2,CCSD(T)). We have examined all the possible secondary fragmentations starting from the primary fragments mentioned above. We considered all species embedded in the dielectric continuum simulating an icy environment (comparison with the gas phase situation serves as reference). Thermodynamic stabilities as well as activation barriers have been determined. This study shows that the formation of the HCN molecule as end product is energetically

  14. Fast and reversible trapping of surface glycine receptors by gephyrin.

    PubMed

    Meier, J; Vannier, C; Sergé, A; Triller, A; Choquet, D

    2001-03-01

    Variations in receptor number at a given synapse are known to contribute to synaptic plasticity, but methods used to establish this idea usually do not allow for the determination of the dynamics of these phenomena. We used single-particle tracking to follow in real time, on the cell surface, movements of the glycine receptor (GlyR) with or without the GlyR stabilizing protein gephyrin. GlyR alternated within seconds between diffusive and confined states. In the absence of gephyrin, GlyR were mostly freely diffusing. Gephyrin induced long confinement periods spatially associated with submembranous clusters of gephyrin. However, even when most receptors were stabilized, they still frequently made transitions through the diffusive state. These data show that receptor number in a cluster results from a dynamic equilibrium between the pools of stabilized and freely mobile receptors. Modification of this equilibrium could be involved in regulation of the number of receptors at synapses.

  15. Degradation of glycine and alanine on irradiated quartz.

    PubMed

    Pawlikowski, Maciej; Benko, Aleksandra; Wróbel, Tomasz P

    2013-04-01

    Recent researches suggest participation of minerals in the formation of life under primordial conditions. Among all of the minerals, quartz seems to be one of the most probable to take part in such processes. However, an external source of energy is needed, e.g. electric discharge. A device simulating the proposed conditions was designed and was used to simulate prebiotic conditions. Investigation of processes occurring during the stimulation of quartz with electric discharge was studied by means of Ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy, in order to monitor the generation kinetics of free radicals. Additionally, infrared spectroscopy was applied to identify chemical reaction products created in a solution of alanine or glycine, in the presence of quartz treated with electric discharge. Formation of increased amounts of free radicals, compared to experiments performed without quartz and/or amino acid, is reported, along with identification of possible degradation products of alanine. No synthetic reactions were observed.

  16. Thermal effects of carbonated hydroxyapatite modified by glycine and albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerk, S. A.; Golovanova, O. A.; Kuimova, M. V.

    2017-01-01

    In this work calcium phosphate powders were obtained by precipitation method from simulated solutions of synovial fluid containing glycine and albumin. X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy determined that all samples are single-phase and are presented by carbonate containing hydroxyapatite (CHA). The thermograms of solid phases of CHA were obtained and analyzed; five stages of transformation in the temperature range of 25-1000°C were marked. It is shown that in this temperature range dehydration, decarboxylation and thermal degradation of amino acid and protein connected to the surface of solid phase occur. The tendency of temperature lowering of the decomposition of powders synthesized from a medium containing organic substances was determined. Results demonstrate a direct dependence between the concentration of the amino acid in a model solution and its content in the solid phase.

  17. Biofortification of soy (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) with strontium ions.

    PubMed

    Sowa, Ireneusz; Wójciak-Kosior, Magdalena; Strzemski, Maciej; Dresler, Sławomir; Szwerc, Wojciech; Blicharski, Tomasz; Szymczak, Grażyna; Kocjan, Ryszard

    2014-06-11

    Soy (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is an annual plant cultivated worldwide mostly for food. Moreover, due to its pharmacological properties it is widely used in pharmacy for alleviating the symptoms of osteoporosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the biofortification of soy treated with various concentrations of strontium. Soy was found to have a strong capacity to absorb Sr(2+) (bioconcentration factor higher than 1). A positive linear correlation (R(2) > 0.98) between the amount of strontium in the growth medium and its content in the plant was also observed. Moreover, at a concentration of 1.5 mM, strontium appeared to be nontoxic and even stimulated plant growth by approximately 19.4% and 22.6% of fresh weight for shoots and roots, respectively. Our research may be useful to obtain vegetable products or herbal preparations containing both phytoestrogens and strontium to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  18. Dislocations, microhardness and optical studies on glycine potassium nitrate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Ch. Sateesh; Nagaraju, D.; Shekar, P. V. Raja; Rao, T. Tirumal; Krishna, N. Gopi

    2015-06-01

    Single crystals of glycine potassium nitrate (GPN), a semiorganic nonlinear optical crystal, of dimensions 15×12×4 mm3 were grown in a period of 10 days. The defect content present in the crystals was estimated by chemical etching technique. The results indicate that the average dislocation density is about 4.1×103/cm2. The UV-Vis. studies indicate that the crystal has a wide transmission range. The Kurtz powder test indicates that the second harmonic generation efficiency of GPN is 2.5 times that of KDP. The load-hardness curves for GPN were studied over the load range 10-100 g. The anisotropy in hardness was studied using Knoop indentation technique.

  19. Peptide synthesis on glass substrate using acoustic droplet ejector.

    PubMed

    Youngki Choe; Shih-Jui Chen; Eun Sok Kim

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of a 9-mers-long peptide ladder structure of glycine on a modified glass surface using a nanoliter droplet ejector. To synthesize peptide on a glass substrate, SPOT peptide synthesis protocol was followed with a nozzleless acoustic droplet ejector being used to eject about 300 droplets of preactivated amino acid solution to dispense 60 nL of the solution per mer. The coupling efficiency of each mer was measured with FITC fluorescent tag to be 96%, resulting in net 70% efficiency for the whole 9-mer-long peptide of glycine. Usage of a nanoliter droplet ejector for SPOT peptide synthesis increases the density of protein array on a chip.

  20. Correlating Structural and Energetic Changes in Glycine Receptor Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Suzanne; Lynch, Joseph W.; Keramidas, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) mediate fast chemoelectrical transduction in the nervous system. The mechanism by which the energy of ligand binding leads to current-conducting receptors is poorly understood and may vary among family members. We addressed these questions by correlating the structural and energetic mechanisms by which a naturally occurring M1 domain mutation (α1Q−26′E) enhances receptor activation in homo- and heteromeric glycine receptors. We systematically altered the charge of spatially clustered residues at positions 19′ and 24′, in the M2 and M2-M3 linker domains, respectively, which are known to be critical to efficient receptor activation, on a background of α1Q−26′E. Changes in the durations of single receptor activations (clusters) and conductance were used to determine interaction coupling energies, which we correlated with conformational displacements as measured in pLGIC crystal structures. Presence of the α1Q−26′E enhanced cluster durations and reduced channel conductance in homo- and heteromeric receptors. Strong coupling between α1−26′ and α119′ across the subunit interface suggests an important role in receptor activation. A lack of coupling between α1−26′ and α124′ implies that 24′ mutations disrupt activation via other interactions. A similar lack of energetic coupling between α1−26′ and reciprocal mutations in the β subunit suggests that this subunit remains relatively static during receptor activation. However, the channel effects of α1Q−26′E on α1β receptors suggests at least one α1-α1 interface per pentamer. The coupling-energy change between α1−26′ and α119′ correlates with a local structural rearrangement essential for pLGIC activation, implying it comprises a key energetic pathway in activating glycine receptors and other pLGICs. PMID:25572390

  1. [Theory study on glycine linear oligopeptide vibrational spectrum frequency shift].

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhi-Peng; Li, Xin; Yang, Meng-Shi; Chen, Liang; Xu, Can; Chu, Xiu-Xiang

    2014-04-01

    By using the density functional theory, glycine linear oligopeptide of different lengths was geometrically optimized on the 6-31G (d) basis set level, their growth processes were simulated, and the average binding energy and vibration frequency were calculated with geometry. The results showed that the average binding energies tend to change in a regular pattern and stabilize with the number of residues increasing; With the oligopeptide chain bond length analysis it was found that the chain to the radial direction there is a opposite trend for chain and radial direction, which is anisotropic. It was found by the IR spectrum analysis that red shifts and blue shifts occur respectively when the same group of peptide bond vibrate, which is anisotropic; These phenomena originate from that quasi one-dimensional nanostructures lead to the anisotropy of the bond length; the induced effects, coupling effects and hydrogen bonding etc. between the same groups lead to the vibration frequency red shifts and blue shifts. The authors conclude that the growth of glycine linear oligopeptide is conducive to stability of the structure, and the authors infer that the oligopeptide has the tendency of self-assembled growth; Through the conformation and spectrum, the authors infer that there is a size effect in physical and chemical properties. The physical and chemical properties of peptide chain end group are extremely stable and unaffected by the impact of the oligopeptide chain length The results are significant to measuring the length and the number of residue of peptide, and to manufacturing the special features oligopeptide chain.

  2. A reliable method for spectrophotometric determination of glycine betaine in cell suspension and other systems.

    PubMed

    Valadez-Bustos, Ma Guadalupe; Aguado-Santacruz, Gerardo Armando; Tiessen-Favier, Axel; Robledo-Paz, Alejandrina; Muñoz-Orozco, Abel; Rascón-Cruz, Quintin; Santacruz-Varela, Amalio

    2016-04-01

    Glycine betaine is a quaternary ammonium compound that accumulates in a large variety of species in response to different types of stress. Glycine betaine counteracts adverse effects caused by abiotic factors, preventing the denaturation and inactivation of proteins. Thus, its determination is important, particularly for scientists focused on relating structural, biochemical, physiological, and/or molecular responses to plant water status. In the current work, we optimized the periodide technique for the determination of glycine betaine levels. This modification permitted large numbers of samples taken from a chlorophyllic cell line of the grass Bouteloua gracilis to be analyzed. Growth kinetics were assessed using the chlorophyllic suspension to determine glycine betaine levels in control (no stress) cells and cells osmotically stressed with 14 or 21% polyethylene glycol 8000. After glycine extraction, different wavelengths and reading times were evaluated in a spectrophotometer to determine the optimal quantification conditions for this osmolyte. Optimal results were obtained when readings were taken at a wavelength of 290 nm at 48 h after dissolving glycine betaine crystals in dichloroethane. We expect this modification to provide a simple, rapid, reliable, and cheap method for glycine betaine determination in plant samples and cell suspension cultures.

  3. D-Serine and Glycine Differentially Control Neurotransmission during Visual Cortex Critical Period

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Claire N. J.; Dallérac, Glenn; Le Roux, Nicolas; Sacchi, Silvia; Levasseur, Grégoire; Amar, Muriel; Pollegioni, Loredano; Mothet, Jean-Pierre; Fossier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a central role in synaptic plasticity. Their activation requires the binding of both glutamate and d-serine or glycine as co-agonist. The prevalence of either co-agonist on NMDA-receptor function differs between brain regions and remains undetermined in the visual cortex (VC) at the critical period of postnatal development. Here, we therefore investigated the regulatory role that d-serine and/or glycine may exert on NMDARs function and on synaptic plasticity in the rat VC layer 5 pyramidal neurons of young rats. Using selective enzymatic depletion of d-serine or glycine, we demonstrate that d-serine and not glycine is the endogenous co-agonist of synaptic NMDARs required for the induction and expression of Long Term Potentiation (LTP) at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Glycine on the other hand is not involved in synaptic efficacy per se but regulates excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission by activating strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors, then producing a shunting inhibition that controls neuronal gain and results in a depression of synaptic inputs at the somatic level after dendritic integration. In conclusion, we describe for the first time that in the VC both D-serine and glycine differentially regulate somatic depolarization through the activation of distinct synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors. PMID:27003418

  4. D-Serine and Glycine Differentially Control Neurotransmission during Visual Cortex Critical Period.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Claire N J; Dallérac, Glenn; Le Roux, Nicolas; Sacchi, Silvia; Levasseur, Grégoire; Amar, Muriel; Pollegioni, Loredano; Mothet, Jean-Pierre; Fossier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a central role in synaptic plasticity. Their activation requires the binding of both glutamate and d-serine or glycine as co-agonist. The prevalence of either co-agonist on NMDA-receptor function differs between brain regions and remains undetermined in the visual cortex (VC) at the critical period of postnatal development. Here, we therefore investigated the regulatory role that d-serine and/or glycine may exert on NMDARs function and on synaptic plasticity in the rat VC layer 5 pyramidal neurons of young rats. Using selective enzymatic depletion of d-serine or glycine, we demonstrate that d-serine and not glycine is the endogenous co-agonist of synaptic NMDARs required for the induction and expression of Long Term Potentiation (LTP) at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Glycine on the other hand is not involved in synaptic efficacy per se but regulates excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission by activating strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors, then producing a shunting inhibition that controls neuronal gain and results in a depression of synaptic inputs at the somatic level after dendritic integration. In conclusion, we describe for the first time that in the VC both D-serine and glycine differentially regulate somatic depolarization through the activation of distinct synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors.

  5. Spatial distribution of Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae): a summary of the suction trap network.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Nicholas P; O'Neal, Matthew E; Anderson, Paul F; Lagos, Doris; Voegtlin, David; Bailey, Wayne; Caragea, Petrutza; Cullen, Eileen; DiFonzo, Christina; Elliott, Kate; Gratton, Claudio; Johnson, Douglas; Krupke, Christian H; McCornack, Brian; O'Neil, Robert; Ragsdale, David W; Tilmon, Kelley J; Whitworth, Jeff

    2012-02-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an economically important pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, in the United States. Phenological information of A. glycines is limited; specifically, little is known about factors guiding migrating aphids and potential impacts of long distance flights on local population dynamics. Increasing our understanding of A. glycines population dynamics may improve predictions of A. glycines outbreaks and improve management efforts. In 2005 a suction trap network was established in seven Midwest states to monitor the occurrence of alates. By 2006, this network expanded to 10 states and consisted of 42 traps. The goal of the STN was to monitor movement of A. glycines from their overwintering host Rhamnus spp. to soybean in spring, movement among soybean fields during summer, and emigration from soybean to Rhamnus in fall. The objective of this study was to infer movement patterns of A. glycines on a regional scale based on trap captures, and determine the suitability of certain statistical methods for future analyses. Overall, alates were not commonly collected in suction traps until June. The most alates were collected during a 3-wk period in the summer (late July to mid-August), followed by the fall, with a peak capture period during the last 2 wk of September. Alate captures were positively correlated with latitude, a pattern consistent with the distribution of Rhamnus in the United States, suggesting that more southern regions are infested by immigrants from the north.

  6. Structural Insights into Ligand Recognition by a Sensing Domain of the Cooperative Glycine Riboswitch

    SciTech Connect

    L Huang; A Serganov; D Patel

    2011-12-31

    Glycine riboswitches regulate gene expression by feedback modulation in response to cooperative binding to glycine. Here, we report on crystal structures of the second glycine-sensing domain from the Vibrio cholerae riboswitch in the ligand-bound and unbound states. This domain adopts a three-helical fold that centers on a three-way junction and accommodates glycine within a bulge-containing binding pocket above the junction. Glycine recognition is facilitated by a pair of bound Mg{sup 2+} cations and governed by specific interactions and shape complementarity with the pocket. A conserved adenine extrudes from the binding pocket and intercalates into the junction implying that glycine binding in the context of the complete riboswitch could impact on gene expression by stabilizing the riboswitch junction and regulatory P1 helix. Analysis of riboswitch interactions in the crystal and footprinting experiments indicates that adjacent glycine-sensing modules of the riboswitch could form specific interdomain interactions, thereby potentially contributing to the cooperative response.

  7. Investigation of the mechanism of chlorination of glyphosate and glycine in water.

    PubMed

    Mehrsheikh, Akbar; Bleeke, Marian; Brosillon, Stephan; Laplanche, Alain; Roche, Pascal

    2006-09-01

    The chlorination reactions of glyphosate and glycine in water were thoroughly studied. Utilizing isotopically enriched (13C and 15N) samples of glycine and glyphosate and 1H, 13C, 31P, and 15N NMR spectroscopy we were able to identify all significant terminal chlorination products of glycine and glyphosate, and show that glyphosate degradation closely parallels that of glycine. We have determined that the C1 carboxylic acid carbon of glycine/glyphosate is quantitatively converted to CO2 upon chlorination. The C2 methylene carbon of glycine/glyphosate is converted to CO2 and methanediol. The relative abundance of these two products is a function of the pH of the chlorination reactions. Under near neutral to basic reaction conditions (pH 6-9), CO2 is the predominant product, whereas, under acidic reaction conditions (pH < 6) the formation of methanediol is favored. The C3 phosphonomethylene carbon of glyphosate is quantitatively converted to methanediol under all conditions tested. The nitrogen atom of glycine/glyphosate is transformed into nitrogen gas and nitrate, and the phosphorus moiety of glyphosate produces phosphoric acid upon chlorination. In addition to these terminal chlorination products, a number of labile intermediates were also identified including N-chloromethanimine, N-chloroaminomethanol, and cyanogen chloride. The chlorination products identified in this study are not unique to glyphosate and are similar to those expected from chlorination of amino acids, proteins, peptides, and many other natural organic matters present in drinking water.

  8. Purification and characterization of the glycine receptor of pig spinal cord

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, D.; Pfeiffer, F.; Simler, R.; Betz, H.

    1985-02-12

    A large-scale purification procedure was developed to isolate the glycine receptor of pig spinal cord by affinity chromatography on aminostrychnine agarose. After an overall purification of about 10,000-fold, the glycine receptor preparations contained three major polypeptides of Mr 48,000, 58,000, and 93,000. Photoaffinity labeling with (/sup 3/H)strychnine showed that the (/sup 3/H)strychnine binding site is associated with the Mr 48,000 and, to a much lesser extent, the Mr 58,000 polypeptides. (/sup 3/H)Strychnine binding to the purified receptor exhibited a dissociation constant K /sub D/ of 13.8 nM and was inhibited by the agonists glycine, taurine, and beta-alanine. Gel filtration and sucrose gradient centrifugation gave a Stokes radius of 7.1 nm and an apparent sedimentation coefficient of 9.6 S. Peptide mapping of the (/sup 3/H)strychnine-labeled Mr 48,000 polypeptides of purified pig and rat glycine receptor preparations showed that the strychnine binding region of this receptor subunit is highly conserved between these species. Also, three out of six monoclonal antibodies against the glycine receptor of rat spinal cord significantly cross-reacted with their corresponding polypeptides of the pig glycine receptor. These results show that the glycine receptor of pig spinal cord is very similar to the well-characterized rat receptor protein and can be purified in quantities sufficient for protein chemical analysis.

  9. Helix packing in polytopic membrane proteins: role of glycine in transmembrane helix association.

    PubMed Central

    Javadpour, M M; Eilers, M; Groesbeek, M; Smith, S O

    1999-01-01

    The nature and distribution of amino acids in the helix interfaces of four polytopic membrane proteins (cytochrome c oxidase, bacteriorhodopsin, the photosynthetic reaction center of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and the potassium channel of Streptomyces lividans) are studied to address the role of glycine in transmembrane helix packing. In contrast to soluble proteins where glycine is a noted helix breaker, the backbone dihedral angles of glycine in transmembrane helices largely fall in the standard alpha-helical region of a Ramachandran plot. An analysis of helix packing reveals that glycine residues in the transmembrane region of these proteins are predominantly oriented toward helix-helix interfaces and have a high occurrence at helix crossing points. Moreover, packing voids are generally not formed at the position of glycine in folded protein structures. This suggests that transmembrane glycine residues mediate helix-helix interactions in polytopic membrane proteins in a fashion similar to that seen in oligomers of membrane proteins with single membrane-spanning helices. The picture that emerges is one where glycine residues serve as molecular notches for orienting multiple helices in a folded protein complex. PMID:10465772

  10. Quest for Cells Responsible for Age-related Increase of Salivary Glycine and Proline.

    PubMed

    Hino, Shunsuke; Nishiyama, Akira; Matsuta, Tomohiko; Horie, Norio; Shimoyama, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Shoji; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that salivary glycine and proline levels are increased to nearly butanoate level in elderly people. In order to identify the source of glycine and proline, we performed high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of amino acid production to a total of seven oral cells before and after stimulation with inflammation inducers. We found that production of amino acids (per a given number of cells) by normal oral mesenchymal cells (gingival fibroblast, pulp cell, periodontal ligament fibroblast) was approximately three-fold that of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (HSC-2, HSC-3, HSC-4, Ca9-22), and that production of glycine and especially proline by all these seven cells was much lower than that of glutamine and glutamic acid. Treatment of three oral mesenchymal cells with interleukin (IL)-1β or lipopoly-saccharide (LPS) reproducibly increased the production of glutamic acid and glutamine, but not that of glycine and proline. Glycine and proline only marginally stimulated the IL-8 production by IL-1β-stimulated gingival fibroblast, whereas glycine dose-dependently inhibited the nitric oxide production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. These data demonstrated that normal oral mesenchymal cells are not the major source of glycine and proline that accumulates in the saliva of aged people, suggesting the involvement of the deregulation of collagen metabolism during aging.

  11. Glycine Transporter 1 is a Target for the Treatment of Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hai-Ying; van Vliet, Erwin; Bright, Kerry-Ann; Hanthorn, Marissa; Lytle, Nikki; Gorter, Jan; Aronica, Eleonora; Boison, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Glycine is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in brainstem and spinal cord, whereas in hippocampus glycine exerts dual modulatory roles on strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and on the strychnine-insensitive glycineB site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). In hippocampus, the synaptic availability of glycine is largely under control of glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1). Since epilepsy is a disorder of disrupted network homeostasis affecting the equilibrium of various neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, we hypothesized that changes in hippocampal GlyT1 expression and resulting disruption of glycine homeostasis might be implicated in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Using two different rodent models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) – the intrahippocampal kainic acid model of TLE in mice, and the rat model of tetanic stimulation-induced TLE – we first demonstrated robust overexpression of GlyT1 in the hippocampal formation, suggesting dysfunctional glycine signaling in epilepsy. Overexpression of GlyT1 in the hippocampal formation was corroborated in human TLE samples by quantitative real time PCR. In support of a role of dysfunctional glycine signaling in the pathophysiology of epilepsy, both the genetic deletion of GlyT1 in hippocampus and the GlyT1 inhibitor LY2365109 increased seizure thresholds in mice. Importantly, chronic seizures in the mouse model of TLE were robustly suppressed by systemic administration of the GlyT1 inhibitor LY2365109. We conclude that GlyT1 overexpression in the epileptic brain constitutes a new target for therapeutic intervention, and that GlyT1 inhibitors constitute a new class of antiictogenic drugs. These findings are of translational value since GlyT1 inhibitors are already in clinical development to treat cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia. PMID:26302655

  12. Activation of glycine receptors modulates spontaneous epileptiform activity in the immature rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rongqing; Okabe, Akihito; Sun, Haiyan; Sharopov, Salim; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L; Kolbaev, Sergei N; Fukuda, Atsuo; Luhmann, Heiko J; Kilb, Werner

    2014-01-01

    While the expression of glycine receptors in the immature hippocampus has been shown, no information about the role of glycine receptors in controlling the excitability in the immature CNS is available. Therefore, we examined the effect of glycinergic agonists and antagonists in the CA3 region of an intact corticohippocampal preparation of the immature (postnatal days 4–7) rat using field potential recordings. Bath application of 100 μm taurine or 10 μm glycine enhanced the occurrence of recurrent epileptiform activity induced by 20 μm 4-aminopyridine in low Mg2+ solution. This proconvulsive effect was prevented by 3 μm strychnine or after incubation with the loop diuretic bumetanide (10 μm), suggesting that it required glycine receptors and an active NKCC1-dependent Cl− accumulation. Application of higher doses of taurine (≥1 mm) or glycine (100 μm) attenuated recurrent epileptiform discharges. The anticonvulsive effect of taurine was also observed in the presence of the GABAA receptor antagonist gabazine and was attenuated by strychnine, suggesting that it was partially mediated by glycine receptors. Bath application of the glycinergic antagonist strychnine (0.3 μm) induced epileptiform discharges. We conclude from these results that in the immature hippocampus, activation of glycine receptors can mediate both pro- and anticonvulsive effects, but that a persistent activation of glycine receptors is required to suppress epileptiform activity. In summary, our study elucidated the important role of glycine receptors in the control of neuronal excitability in the immature hippocampus. PMID:24665103

  13. FDG-PET scan shows increased cerebral blood flow in rat after sublingual glycine application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagosklonov, Oleg; Podoprigora, Guennady I.; Davani, Siamak; Nartsissov, Yaroslav R.; Comas, Laurent; Boulahdour, Hatem; Cardot, Jean-Claude

    2007-02-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]-2-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) is being increasingly used in research. Isotope studies may be of help in an assessment of vasoactive potential of newly developed therapeutic preparations, including natural metabolites, like glycine. As a medicine, glycine was recently shown to have a positive therapeutic effect in the treatment of patients with neurological disorders based on vascular disturbances. By previous direct biomicroscopic investigations of pial microvessels in laboratory rats, an expressed vasodilatory effect of topically applied glycine was proved. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of glycine on the rat cerebral blood flow (CBF) using FDG-PET scan. A baseline study was started immediately after intravenous injection of 19 MBq of FDG in anesthetized rat. The PET images were acquired twice, one by one during 20 min. Two hours later, after sublingual application of glycine and the second FDG injection, the pair of PET scan was performed during 20 min as well. Finally, 4 days after the first studies, we repeated the PET scans in the same conditions after sublingual application of glycine. The quantitative analysis of FDG volume concentration (Bq/ml) in the rat brain demonstrated that in both studies after glycine administration, the FDG uptake increased at least 1.5 times in comparison with the baseline data. Moreover, the peak of the concentration was coming in more rapidly. These results confirm the enhancing effect of glycine on the rat CBF possibly because of its vasodilatory effect on brain microvessels. Therefore, FDG-PET technique contributes to better understanding of glycine pharmacokinetics.

  14. A search for the lowest-energy conformer of interstellar glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Snyder, L. E.; Suenram, R. D.; Lovas, F. J.

    1980-11-01

    The first search for the lowest-energy conformation of interstellar glycine has been carried out. An emission line has been detected in Sgr B2 which is coincident in frequency with the J(K-K+) = 14(1, 14)-13(1, 13) transition of conformer I glycine; while the carrier of the observed line is uncertain, no other frequency-coincident species are known, and hence glycine cannot be ruled out. Several previously unidentified lines have been identified as methyl formate. Evidence for the existence of the elusive interstellar ethylene oxide, the only reported interstellar ring-structure molecule, is discussed.

  15. The hydration of a zwitterion, glycine, as a function of pH.

    PubMed

    Tschapek, M; Wasowski, C

    1979-02-01

    1. The hydration numbers of glycine (concentrations 1--3 M), as a function of concentration, were determined by surface tension measurements, using octan-1-ol as a 'reference' substance. 2. The hydration number of glycine at the isoelectric point decreased from 17.7 to 10.7 upon increasing the concentration from 1 to 3 M. 3. The changes in hydration of glycine as a function of the pH are due to the difference between hydrations of the ionized functional groups (NH+3, COO-) and the added ions (Me+ A-).

  16. Quantitative Field Testing Heterodera glycines from Metagenomic DNA Samples Isolated Directly from Soil under Agronomic Production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Lawrence, Gary W.; Lu, Shien; Balbalian, Clarissa; Klink, Vincent P.

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative PCR procedure targeting the Heterodera glycines ortholog of the Caenorhabditis elegans uncoordinated-78 gene was developed. The procedure estimated the quantity of H. glycines from metagenomic DNA samples isolated directly from field soil under agronomic production. The estimation of H. glycines quantity was determined in soil samples having other soil dwelling plant parasitic nematodes including Hoplolaimus, predatory nematodes including Mononchus, free-living nematodes and biomass. The methodology provides a framework for molecular diagnostics of nematodes from metagenomic DNA isolated directly from field soil. PMID:24587100

  17. Lysis of Escherichia coli by Glycine Is Potentiated by Pyridoxine Starvation

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, Walter B.

    1973-01-01

    Pyridoxineless mutants of Escherichia coli are lysed in a few hours when starved for pyridoxine in a glucose minimal medium containing glycine at 10 mM. The lysis is prevented equally well by l-alanine and by d-alanine when either is present at 0.1 mM. The lysis is potentiated by 0.5 mM l-methionine. The peculiar susceptibility of E. coli B to glycine-mediated lysis during starvation for pyridoxine suggests that the starvation reduces the availability of some normal antagonist of glycine, presumably alanine. PMID:4583221

  18. The Sleep-Promoting and Hypothermic Effects of Glycine are Mediated by NMDA Receptors in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Nobuhiro; Sakai, Noriaki; Okuro, Masashi; Karakawa, Sachie; Tsuneyoshi, Yosuke; Kawasaki, Noriko; Takeda, Tomoko; Bannai, Makoto; Nishino, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The use of glycine as a therapeutic option for improving sleep quality is a novel and safe approach. However, despite clinical evidence of its efficacy, the details of its mechanism remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the site of action and sleep-promoting mechanisms of glycine in rats. In acute sleep disturbance, oral administration of glycine-induced non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and shortened NREM sleep latency with a simultaneous decrease in core temperature. Oral and intracerebroventricular injection of glycine elevated cutaneous blood flow (CBF) at the plantar surface in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in heat loss. Pretreatment with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists AP5 and CGP78608 but not the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine inhibited the CBF increase caused by glycine injection into the brain. Induction of c-Fos expression was observed in the hypothalamic nuclei, including the medial preoptic area (MPO) and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) shell after glycine administration. Bilateral microinjection of glycine into the SCN elevated CBF in a dose-dependent manner, whereas no effect was observed when glycine was injected into the MPO and dorsal subparaventricular zone. In addition, microinjection of D-serine into the SCN also increased CBF, whereas these effects were blocked in the presence of L-701324. SCN ablation completely abolished the sleep-promoting and hypothermic effects of glycine. These data suggest that exogenous glycine promotes sleep via peripheral vasodilatation through the activation of NMDA receptors in the SCN shell. PMID:25533534

  19. Soybean roots retain the seed urease isozyme synthesized during embryo development. [Glycine max (L. ) Merr

    SciTech Connect

    Torisky, R.S.; Polacco, J.C. )

    1990-10-01

    Roots of young soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) plants (up to 25 days old) contain two distinct urease isozymes, which are separable by hydroxyapatite chromatography. These two urease species (URE1 and URE2) differ in: (a) electrophoretic mobility in native gels, (b) pH dependence, and (c) recognition by a monoclonal antibody specific for the seed (embryo-specific) urease. By these parameters root URE1 urease is similar to the abundant embryo-specific urease isozyme, while root URE2 resembles the ubiquitous urease which has previously been found in all soybean tissues examined (leaf, embryo, seed coat, and cultured cells). The embryo-specific and ubiquitous urease isozymes are products of the Eu1 and Eu4 structural genes, respectively. Roots of the eu1-sun/eu1-sun genotype, which lacks the embryo-specific urease (i.e. seed urease-null), contain no URE1 urease activity. Roots of eu4/eu4, which lacks ubiquitous urease, lack the URE2 (leaflike) urease activity. From these genetic and biochemical criteria, then, we conclude that URE1 and URE2 are the embryo-specific and ubiquitous ureases, respectively. Adventitious roots generated from cuttings of any urease genotype lack URE1 activity. In seedling roots the seedlike (URE1) activity declines during development. Roots of 3-week-old plants contain 5% of the total URE1 activity of the radicle of 4-day-old seedlings, which, in turn, has approximately the same urease activity level as the dormant embryonic axis. The embryo-specific urease incorporates label from ({sup 35}S)methionine during embryo development but not during germination, indicating that there is no de novo synthesis of the embryo-specific (URE1) urease in the germinating root.

  20. Biosynthesis of pectic galactan by membrane-bound galactosyltransferase from soybean ( Glycine max Merr) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Tomoyuki; Mitome, Terukazu; Hatsushika, Hiroyuki; Haque, Md Ashraful; Kotake, Toshihisa; Tsumuraya, Yoichi

    2004-03-01

    We investigated the properties of a galactosyltransferase (GalT) that is involved in the synthesis of beta-(1-->4)-galactan side chains of pectins. A membrane preparation of etiolated 6-day-old soybean ( Glycine max Merr.) hypocotyls transferred [(14)C]Gal from UDP-[(14)C]Gal into intact and partially hydrolyzed lupin beta-(1-->4)-galactans of various chain lengths as exogenous acceptors, while activity to endogenous acceptors was negligible. Maximal activity occurred at pH 6.5 and 20-25 degrees C in the presence of 25 mM Mn(2+) and 0.75% Triton X-100. The transfer reaction onto the unmodified commercial pectic galactan ( M(r)>150000) from lupin we used was very low but increased when the M(r) of the galactan was reduced by partial acid hydrolysis. Among the partially hydrolyzed galactans, high- M(r) (average M(r) 60000) beta-(1-->4)-galactan was a more efficient acceptor [specific activity 2000-3000 pmol min(-1) (mg protein)(-1)] than low- M(r) (average M(r) 10000 and 5000) polymers. Digestion of the radiolabeled product from high- M(r) galactan with endo-beta-(1-->4)-galactanase released mainly radioactive beta-(1-->4)-galactobiose and Gal, indicating that the transfer of [(14)C]Gal occurred through beta-(1-->4)-linkages. HPLC analysis showed that the enzyme also catalyzes incorporation of Gal into pyridylaminated (PA) beta-(1-->4)-galactooligomers with degree of polymerization at least 5. Gal(7)-PA chains were elongated by attachment of one, two, or three Gal residues leading to the formation of Gal(8-10)-PA.

  1. Ethylene response pathway modulates attractiveness of plant roots to soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yanfeng; You, Jia; Li, Chunjie; Williamson, Valerie M.; Wang, Congli

    2017-01-01

    Plant parasitic nematodes respond to root exudates to locate their host roots. In our studies second stage juveniles of Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), quickly migrated to soybean roots in Pluronic F-127 gel. Roots of soybean and non-host Arabidopsis treated with the ethylene (ET)-synthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) were more attractive to SCN than untreated roots, and significantly more nematodes penetrated into roots. Moreover, Arabidopsis ET insensitive mutants (ein2, ein2-1, ein2-5, ein3-1, ein5-1, and ein6) were more attractive than wild-type plants. Conversely, the constitutive triple-response mutant ctr1-1, was less attractive to SCN. While ET receptor gain-of-function mutant ein4-1 attracted more SCN than the wild-type, there were no significant differences in attractiveness between another gain-of-function ET receptor mutant, etr1-3, or the loss-of-function mutants etr1-7 and ers1-3 and the wild type. Expression of the reporter construct EBS: β-glucuronidase (GUS) was detected in Arabidopsis root tips as early as 6 h post infection, indicating that ET signaling was activated in Arabidopsis early by SCN infection. These results suggest that an active ET signaling pathway reduces root attractiveness to SCN in a way similar to that reported for root-knot nematodes, but opposite to that suggested for the sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. PMID:28112257

  2. Glycine facilitates gamma-glutamylcysteinylethyl ester-mediated increase in liver glutathione level.

    PubMed

    Nishida, K; Ohta, Y; Ishiguro, I

    1997-08-27

    gamma-Glutamylcysteinylethyl ester (gamma-GCE) increases reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in GSH-depleted rat hepatocytes. Because glycine, a constituent of GSH, exists at 0.3 to 0.4 mM in rat plasma, we examined the influence of glycine added to the medium on the action of gamma-GCE to increase GSH levels in the rat hepatocytes. Glycine (0.2-0.8 mM) dose-dependently enhanced gamma-GCE-mediated increase in intracellular GSH levels with an increase in intracellular gamma-GCE levels. These results indicate that exogenous glycine facilitates gamma-GCE-mediated increase in intracellular GSH levels in rat hepatocytes possibly by enhancing the uptake of gamma-GCE into the cells.

  3. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for canopy wilting trait in soybean (Glycine max L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought stress adversely affects [Glycine max (L.) Merr] soybean at most developmental stages, which collectively results in yield reduction. Little information is available on relative contribution and chromosomal locations of quantitative trait loci (QTL) conditioning drought tolerance in soybean...

  4. Developmental stability of taurine's activation on glycine receptors in cultured neurons of rat auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zheng-Quan; Lu, Yun-Gang; Chen, Lin

    2008-01-03

    Taurine is an endogenous amino acid that can activate glycine and/or gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors in the central nervous system. During natural development, taurine's receptor target undergoes a shift from glycine receptors to GABA(A) receptors in cortical neurons. Here, we demonstrate that taurine's receptor target in cortical neurons remains stable during in vitro development. With whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we found that taurine always activated glycine receptors, rather than GABA(A) receptors, in neurons of rat auditory cortex cultured for 5-22 days. Our results suggest that the functional sensitivity of glycine and GABA(A) receptors to taurine is critically regulated by their developmental environments.

  5. Glycine in an electronically excited state: ab initio electronic structure and dynamical calculations.

    PubMed

    Muchová, Eva; Slavícek, Petr; Sobolewski, Andrzej L; Hobza, Pavel

    2007-06-21

    The goal of this study is to explore the photochemical processes following optical excitation of the glycine molecule into its two low-lying excited states. We employed electronic structure methods at various levels to map the PES of the ground state and the two low-lying excited states of glycine. It follows from our calculations that the photochemistry of glycine can be regarded as a combination of photochemical behavior of amines and carboxylic acid. The first channel (connected to the presence of amino group) results in ultrafast decay, while the channels characteristic for the carboxylic group occur on a longer time scale. Dynamical calculations provided the branching ratio for these channels. We also addressed the question whether conformationally dependent photochemistry can be observed for glycine. While electronic structure calculations favor this possibility, the ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) calculations showed only minor relevance of the reaction path resulting in conformationally dependent dynamics.

  6. The effect of glycine on the growth of calcium carbonate in alkaline silica gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Xiong; He, Kunhuan; Qian, Baosong; Deng, Qin; Lu, Laixian; Wang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Calcium carbonate was crystallized in alkaline silica gel with the presence of glycine. The crystallization proceeded with a counterdiffusion method by the reaction of calcium chloride and sodium carbonate. Optical microscopy observation showed a significant effect of glycine on the morphology control of calcite crystals. When the initial concentration of glycine was high enough (10 mg/mL, 20 mg/mL), spherical vaterite particles formed in alkaline silica gel concomitantly together with dumbbell shaped calcite particles. The in situ study by micro-Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that both vaterite and the concomitant calcite were stable phases during their growth processes since the initial appearance. A possible mechanism has been discussed to emphasize the effect of glycine on the nucleation of vaterite and the morphological control of calcite.

  7. 75 FR 63444 - Glycine From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... purity and is used as a sweetener/taste enhancer, a buffering agent, reabsorbable amino acid, chemical... glycine to the United States are manufactured by Paras, in India, from monochloro acetic acid and...

  8. Population Dynamics of Heterodera glycines and Soybean Response in Soils Treated with Selected Nematicides and Herbicides.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, D P; Corbin, F T; Nelson, L A

    1983-07-01

    Two field experiments were conducted in two locations to determine the effects of the nematicides aldicarb, phenamiphos, and ethoprop and/or the herbicides alachlor, linuron, or metribuzin on the population dynamics of Heterodera glycines and soybean growth and yield. Population densities of H. glycines were greater, at some time during the growing season, in several treatments with alachlor alone and in combination with nematicides. Numbers of H. glycines at harvest were greater in plots treated with aldicarb than in those treated with ethoprop or phenamiphos. The numbers in aldicarb treated plots were generally reduced when plots also received a herbicide. Soybean yields were negatively correlated with numbers of H. glycines eggs and juveniles in early to mid season but positively correlated with late season population densities.

  9. Peptide bond formation via glycine condensation in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Van Dornshuld, Eric; Vergenz, Robert A; Tschumper, Gregory S

    2014-07-24

    Four unique gas phase mechanisms for peptide bond formation between two glycine molecules have been mapped out with quantum mechanical electronic structure methods. Both concerted and stepwise mechanisms, each leading to a cis and trans glycylglycine product (four mechanisms total), were examined with the B3LYP and MP2 methods and Gaussian atomic orbital basis sets as large as aug-cc-pVTZ. Electronic energies of the stationary points along the reaction pathways were also computed with explicitly correlated MP2-F12 and CCSD(T)-F12 methods. The CCSD(T)-F12 computations indicate that the electronic barriers to peptide bond formation are similar for all four mechanisms (ca. 32-39 kcal mol(-1) relative to two isolated glycine fragments). The smallest barrier (32 kcal mol(-1)) is associated with the lone transition state for the concerted mechanism leading to the formation of a trans peptide bond, whereas the largest barrier (39 kcal mol(-1)) was encountered along the concerted pathway leading to the cis configuration of the glycylglycine dipeptide. Two significant barriers are encountered for the stepwise mechanisms. For both the cis and trans pathways, the early electronic barrier is 36 kcal mol(-1) and the subsequent barrier is approximately 1 kcal mol(-1) lower. A host of intermediates and transition states lie between these two barriers, but they all have very small relative electronic energies (ca. ± 4 kcal mol(-1)). The isolated cis products (glycylglycine + H2O) are virtually isoenergetic with the isolated reactants (within -1 kcal mol(-1)), whereas the trans products are about 5 kcal mol(-1) lower in energy. In both products, however, the water can hydrogen bond to the dipeptide and lower the energy by roughly 5-9 kcal mol(-1). This study indicates that the concerted process leading to a trans configuration about the peptide bond is marginally favored both thermodynamically (exothermic by ca. 5 kcal mol(-1)) and kinetically (barrier height ≈ 32 kcal mol(-1

  10. Alterations in brain extracellular dopamine and glycine levels following combined administration of the glycine transporter type-1 inhibitor Org-24461 and risperidone.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Katalin; Marko, Bernadett; Zsilla, Gabriella; Matyus, Peter; Pallagi, Katalin; Szabo, Geza; Juranyi, Zsolt; Barkoczy, Jozsef; Levay, Gyorgy; Harsing, Laszlo G

    2010-12-01

    The most dominant hypotheses for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia have focused primarily upon hyperfunctional dopaminergic and hypofunctional glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system. The therapeutic efficacy of all atypical antipsychotics is explained in part by antagonism of the dopaminergic neurotransmission, mainly by blockade of D(2) dopamine receptors. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia can be reversed by glycine transporter type-1 (GlyT-1) inhibitors, which regulate glycine concentrations at the vicinity of NMDA receptors. Combined drug administration with D(2) dopamine receptor blockade and activation of hypofunctional NMDA receptors may be needed for a more effective treatment of positive and negative symptoms and the accompanied cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. To investigate this type of combined drug administration, rats were treated with the atypical antipsychotic risperidone together with the GlyT-1 inhibitor Org-24461. Brain microdialysis was applied in the striatum of conscious rats and determinations of extracellular dopamine, DOPAC, HVA, glycine, glutamate, and serine concentrations were carried out using HPLC/electrochemistry. Risperidone increased extracellular concentrations of dopamine but failed to influence those of glycine or glutamate measured in microdialysis samples. Org-24461 injection reduced extracellular dopamine concentrations and elevated extracellular glycine levels but the concentrations of serine and glutamate were not changed. When risperidone and Org-24461 were added in combination, a decrease in extracellular dopamine concentrations was accompanied with sustained elevation of extracellular glycine levels. Interestingly, the extracellular concentrations of glutamate were also enhanced. Our data indicate that coadministration of an antipsychotic with a GlyT-1 inhibitor may normalize hypofunctional NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission with reduced

  11. Probing the modulation of acute ethanol intoxication by pharmacological manipulation of the NMDAR glycine coagonist site

    PubMed Central

    Debrouse, Lauren; Hurd, Benita; Kiselycznyk, Carly; Plitt, Aaron; Todaro, Alyssa; Mishina, Masayoshi; Grant, Seth; Camp, Marguerite; Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Holmes, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Stimulating the glycineB binding site on the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) has been proposed as a novel mechanism for modulating behavioral effects of ethanol (EtOH) that are mediated via the NMDAR, including acute intoxication. Here, we pharmacologically interrogated this hypothesis in mice. METHODS Effects of systemic injection of the glycineB agonist, D-serine, the GlyT-1 glycine transporter inhibitor, ALX-5407, and the glycineB antagonist, L-701,324, were tested for effects on EtOH-induced ataxia, hypothermia, loss of righting reflex duration (LORR) in C57BL/6J (B6) and 129S1/SvImJ (S1) inbred mice. Effects of the glycineB partial agonist, D-cycloserine, the GlyT-1 inhibitor, NFPS, and the glycineB antagonist, DCKA, on EtOH-induced LORR duration were also tested. Interaction effects on EtOH-induced LORR duration were examined via combined treatment with D-serine and ALX-5407, D-serine and MK-801, D-serine and L-701,324, as well as L-701,324 and ALX-5407, in B6 mice, as D-serine in GluN2A and PSD-95 KO mice. The effect of dietary depletion of Magnesium (Mg), an element which interacts the glycineB site, was also tested. RESULTS Neither D-serine, D-cycloserine, ALX-5407, nor NFPS significantly affected EtOH intoxication on any of the measures or strains studied. L-701,324, but not DCKA, dose-dependently potentiated the ataxia-inducing effects of EtOH and increased EtOH-induced (but not pentobarbital-induced) LORR duration. D-serine did not have interactive effects on EtOH-induced LORR duration when combined with ALX-5407. The EtOH-potentiating effects of L-701,324, but not MK-801, on LORR duration were prevented by D-serine, but not ALX-5407. Mg depletion potentiated LORR duration in B6 mice and was lethal in a large proportion of S1 mice. CONCLUSIONS GlycineB site activation failed to produce the hypothesized reduction in EtOH intoxication across a range of measures and genetic strains, but blockade of the glycineB site potentiated Et

  12. Agonist action of taurine on glycine receptors in rat supraoptic magnocellular neurones: possible role in osmoregulation.

    PubMed

    Hussy, N; Deleuze, C; Pantaloni, A; Desarménien, M G; Moos, F

    1997-08-01

    1. To evaluate the implication of taurine in the physiology of supraoptic neurones, we (i) investigated the agonist properties of taurine on glycine and GABAA receptors of supraoptic magnocellular neurones acutely dissociated from adult rats, using whole-cell voltage clamp, (ii) studied the effects of taurine and strychnine in vivo by extracellular recordings of supraoptic vasopressin neurones in anaesthetized rats, and (iii) measured the osmolarity-dependent release of endogenous taurine from isolated supraoptic nuclei by HPLC. 2. GABA, glycine and taurine evoked rapidly activating currents that all reversed close to the equilibrium potential for Cl-, indicating activation of Cl(-)-selective channels. Glycine-activated currents were reversibly blocked by strychnine (IC50 of 35 nM with 100 microM glycine), but were unaffected by the GABAA antagonist gabazine (1-3 microM). GABA-activated currents were reversibly antagonized by 3 microM gabazine, but not by strychnine (up to 1 microM). 3. Responses to 1 mM taurine were blocked by strychnine but not by gabazine and showed no additivity with glycine-induced currents, indicating selective activation of glycine receptors. Responses to 10 mM taurine were partially antagonized by gabazine, the residual current being blocked by strychnine. Thus, taurine is also a weak agonist of GABAA receptors. 4. In the presence of gabazine, taurine activated glycine receptors with an EC50 of 406 microM. Taurine activated at most 70% of maximal glycine currents, suggesting that it is a partial agonist of glycine receptors. 5. In vivo, locally applied strychnine (300 nM) increased and taurine (1 mM) decreased the basal electrical activity of vasopressin neurones in normally hydrated rats. The effect of strychnine was markedly more pronounced in water-loaded rats. 6. Taurine, which is concentrated in supraoptic glial cells, could be released from isolated supraoptic nuclei upon hyposmotic stimulation. Decreases in osmolarity of 15 and 30

  13. Core-level electronic structure of solid-phase glycine, glycyl-glycine, diglycyl-glycine, and polyglycine: X-ray photoemission analysis and Hartree-Fock calculations of their zwitterions.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Avisek; Zhao, Liyan; Zhang, Lei; Pradhan, Debabrata; Zhou, Xiaojing; Leung, K T

    2008-09-14

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to investigate the core-level electronic structures of glycine (G) and its peptides, including glycyl-glycine (GG), diglycyl-glycine (GGG), and polyglycine (poly-G), in their powder forms. Increasing the number of G units in the peptides does not change the locations of the respective C 1s, N 1s, and O 1s features corresponding to different functional groups: -COO(-), -NH(3)(+), >CH(2), and -CONH-. The electronic structures of the zwitterions of these molecules have been calculated as isolated molecules and as molecules in an aqueous environment under the periodic boundary conditions by quantum-mechanical and molecular mechanics methods. In the case of glycine zwitterion, the binding energies of the C 1s, N 1s, and O 1s XPS features are found to be in reasonable accord with the respective orbital energies obtained by Hartree-Fock self-consistent-field calculations, within the context of Koopmans' approximation. However, considerably worse agreement in the binding energies is found for the larger zwitterions (with the specific conformations considered in this work), indicating the need for higher-level calculations. The present work shows that optimizing the zwitterion in an aqueous environment under the periodic boundary conditions by molecular mechanics could be a very cost-effective approach for calculating the electronic structures of large, complex biomolecular systems.

  14. A Sensitive VLA Search for Small-Scale Glycine Emission Toward OMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Pedelty, J. A.; Snyder, L. E.; Jewell, P. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Palmer, Patrick; Liu, S.-Y.

    2002-01-01

    We have conducted a deep Q-band (lambda-7 mm) search with the Very Large Array (VLA) toward OMC-1 for the lowest energy conformation (conformer I) of glycine (NH2CH2COOH) in four rotational transitions: the 6(sub 15)- 5(sub 14), 6(sub 24)-5(sub 23), 7(sub 17- 6(sub 16), and 7(sub 07)-6(sub 06). Our VLA observations sample the smallest-scale structures to date in the search for glycine toward OMC-1. No glycine emission features were detected. Thus if glycine exists in OMC-1, either it is below our detection limit, or it is more spatially extended than other large molecules in this source, or it is primarily in its high energy form (conformer II). Our VLA glycine fractional abundance limits in OMC-1 are comparable to those determined from previous IRAM 30m measurements -- somewhat better or worse depending on the specific source model -- and the entire approximately 1 foot primary beam of the VLA was searched while sensitive to an areal spatial scale approximately 150 times smaller than the 24 inch beam of the IRAM single-element telescope. In the course of this work, we detected and imaged the 4(sub 14)-3(sub 13) A and E transitions of methyl formate (HCOOCH3) and also the 2(sub 02) - 1(sub 01) transition of formic acid (HCOOH). Since formic acid is a possible precursor to glycine, our glycine limits and formic acid results provide a constraint on this potential formation chemistry route for glycine in OMC-1.

  15. Presynaptic glycine receptors on GABAergic terminals facilitate discharge of dopaminergic neurons in ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jiang-Hong; Wang, Fushun; Krnjevic, Kresimir; Wang, Weizhen; Xiong, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Jingli

    2004-10-13

    GABA-mediated postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were recorded from dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of rats, in acute brain slices, and from enzymatically or mechanically dissociated neurons. In young rats (3-10 d of age), where GABA is excitatory, glycine (1-3 microm) and taurine (10-30 microm) increased the amplitude of evoked IPSCs (eIPSCs) and the frequency of spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) but had minimal postsynaptic effects. Strychnine (1 microm) blocked the action of glycine; when applied alone, it reduced the amplitude of eIPSCs and the frequency of sIPSCs, indicating a tonic facilitation of GABAergic excitation by some endogenous glycine agonist(s). In medium containing no Ca2+, or with Cd2+ or tetrodotoxin added, the amplitude and especially the frequency of sIPSCs greatly diminished. In many cells, glycine had no effect on remaining miniature IPSCs, suggesting a preterminal site of glycine receptors (GlyRs). Fura-2 fluorescent imaging showed a glycine-induced increase of [Ca2+] in nerve terminals (on DA neurons), which was suppressed by strychnine or 3 microm omega-conotoxin MVIIA. Therefore, the presynaptic GlyR-mediated facilitation of GABAergic transmission seems to be mediated by N- and/or P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. In older rats (22-30 d of age), where GABA causes inhibition, the effect of strychnine on GABAergic IPSCs was reversed to facilitation, indicating a tonic glycinergic inhibition of GABA release. Furthermore, glycine (1-3 microm) reduced the amplitude of eIPSCs and the frequency of sIPSCs. Hence, the overall effect of the presynaptic action of glycine is to enhance the firing of DA cells, both in very young and older rats.

  16. GABA and glycine are protective to mature but toxic to immature rat cortical neurons under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Qian, Hong; Xia, Ying

    2005-07-01

    Although recent studies suggest that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine may be 'inhibitory' to mature neurons, but 'excitatory' to immature neurons under normoxia, it is unknown whether inhibitory neurotransmitters are differentially involved in neuronal response to hypoxia in immature and mature neurons. In the present study, we exposed rat cortical neurons to hypoxia (1% O2) and examined the effects of three major inhibitory neurotransmitters (GABA, glycine and taurine) on the hypoxic neurons at different neuronal ages [days in vitro (DIV)4-20]. Our data showed that the cortical neurons expressed both GABA(A) and glycine receptors with differential developmental profiles. GABA (10-2000 microm) was neuroprotective to hypoxic neurons of DIV20, but enhanced hypoxic injury in neurons of Glycine at low concentrations (10-100 microm) exhibited a similar pattern to GABA. However, higher concentrations of glycine (1000-2000 microm) for long-term exposure (48-72 h) displayed neuroprotection at all ages (DIV4-20). Taurine (10-2000 microm), unlike GABA and glycine, displayed protection only in DIV4 neurons, and was slightly toxic to neurons>DIV4. In comparison with delta-opioid receptor (DOR)-induced protection in DIV20 neurons exposed to 72 h of hypoxia, glycine-induced protection was weaker than that of DOR but stronger than that of GABA and taurine. These data suggest that the effects of the inhibitory neurotransmitters on hypoxic cortical neurons are age-dependent, with GABA and glycine being neurotoxic to immature neurons and neuroprotective to mature neurons.

  17. Genetic Analysis of Seed Isoflavones, Protein, and Oil Contents in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-13

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Soybean (Glycine max L.) is an important crop in the US and worldwide. It has numerous health benefits because of its...for protein, oil, and isoflavones contents in three recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations of soybean . We have achieved 100% of the goals. We have...Contents in Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued

  18. Differential Sensitivity of Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera glycines to Selected Nematicides.

    PubMed

    Gourd, T R; Schmitt, D P; Barker, K R

    1993-12-01

    Differential sensitivity of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, M. javanica, and Heterodera glycines races 1 and 5 to the nonfumigant nematicides aldicarb, ethoprop, and fenamiphos was evaluated using a 48-hour root-penetration bioassay. Generally, H. glycines was more tolerant of the nematicides, especially ethoprop, than were the Meloidogyne species. Among Meloidogyne species, M. incognita was most sensitive to aldicarb and fenamiphos, but its reaction to ethoprop was similar to the other three Meloidogyne species.

  19. Differential cytoprotection by glycine against oxidant damage to proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Sogabe, K; Roeser, N F; Venkatachalam, M A; Weinberg, J M

    1996-09-01

    Tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) injured freshly isolated proximal tubules in an Fe-dependent fashion that was ameliorated by a lipophilic antioxidant, diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD), but was only minimally affected by glycine. Menadione-induced injury was Fe-independent and was unaffected by DPPD, but was strongly blocked by glycine. Fe was highly toxic when intracellular loading was facilitated by concomitant treatment with hydroxyquinoline (HQ). This toxicity was blocked by DPPD or chelating the Fe, but not by glycine. All of the lesions were characterized by severe depletion of glutathione and other soluble thiols. Menadione induced large increases in protein associated with the Triton-insoluble cytoskeleton and decreases in protein thiol content, consistent with extensive cross linking, but did not increase thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). tBHP and HQ + Fe had either no effect or only moderate, delayed effects on cytoskeletal proteins, but induced substantial increases of TBARS. Glycine did not the alter changes in cytoskeletal proteins, thiols, or TBARS produced by any of the agents. Protection against tBHP toxicity by deferoxamine and DPPD was accompanied by substantial suppression of TBARS accumulation. Superimposition of hypoxia during tBHP exposure reduced TBARS accumulation and restored cytoprotective activity to glycine. Thus, in contrast to its consistently strong cytoprotection against a number of other insults, glycine is only variably cytoprotective against oxidant lesions in freshly isolated proximal tubules. Extensive oxidative crosslinking of proteins is compatible with maintenance of glycine cytoprotection against lethal membrane damage. Fe-induced injury to proximal tubules associated with lipid peroxidation as manifested by TBARS formation is a relatively glycine-insensitive insult.

  20. Techniques for Isolation and Evaluation of Fungal Parasites of Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, D. G.; Riggs, R. D.

    1994-01-01

    A facultative fungal parasite, Arkansas Fungus 18 (ARF18), was isolated from at least 10 different sources of Heterodera glycines in different areas in the United States. Techniques used for isolation and in vitro evaluation of fungal parasites of H. glycines were described. Successful isolation of probable egg parasites depends on isolation from individual eggs. Selective isolation and a simple, yet definitive, screening system can increase the possibility of identifying effective biocontrol agents. PMID:19279930

  1. Allosteric modulation of glycine receptors is more efficacious for partial rather than full agonists.

    PubMed

    Bíró, Tímea; Maksay, Gábor

    2004-06-01

    Allosteric modulation of [3H]strychnine binding to glycine receptors (GlyRs) was examined in synaptosomal membranes of rat spinal cord. An allosteric model enabled us to determine the cooperativity factors of the allosteric agents with [3H]strychnine and glycine bindings (alpha and beta, respectively). We modified the allosteric model with a slope factor because the slope values of the displacement curves of partial agonists (beta-alanine, taurine and gamma-aminobutyric acid) were beyond unity. The slope factor was reduced only by 100 microM propofol. Further, propofol showed positive cooperativity (beta < 1) stronger with taurine than with glycine. The extent of the positive cooperativity of propofol was nearly independent from the potencies and structures of partial agonists. The steroidal alphaxalone and minaxolone also potentiated taurine better than glycine. Alphaxalone exerted weak negative cooperativity with [3H]strychnine binding. Displacement by taurine is attenuated by granisetron and m-chlorophenylbiguanide representing negative cooperativity (beta > 1) greater than with glycine. The results suggest a developmental role of elevated perinatal levels of taurine and neurosteroids as well as a better allosteric modulation of decreased agonist efficacies for impaired glycine receptor-ionophores.

  2. Osmotic control of glycine betaine biosynthesis and degradation in Rhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, L T; Pocard, J A; Bernard, T; Le Rudulier, D

    1988-01-01

    Intracellular accumulation of glycine betaine has been shown to confer an enhanced level of osmotic stress tolerance in Rhizobium meliloti. In this study, we used a physiological approach to investigate the mechanism by which glycine betaine is accumulated in osmotically stressed R. meliloti. Results from growth experiments, 14C labeling of intermediates, and enzyme activity assays are presented. The results provide evidence for the pathway of biosynthesis and degradation of glycine betaine and the osmotic effects on this pathway. High osmolarity in the medium decreased the activities of the enzymes involved in the degradation of glycine betaine but not those of enzymes that lead to its biosynthesis from choline. Thus, the concentration of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine is increased in stressed cells. This report demonstrates the ability of the osmolarity of the growth medium to regulate the use of glycine betaine as a carbon and nitrogen source or as an osmoprotectant. The mechanisms of osmoregulation in R. meliloti and Escherichia coli are compared. PMID:3290197

  3. Identification and characterization of barley mutants lacking glycine decarboxylase and carboxyl esterase activities

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, R.; Lewis, K.; Lea, P. )

    1990-05-01

    A barley mutant has been isolated, from a selection of fifty air-sensitive seed-lines, using a standard gel stain technique which lacks carboxyl esterase activity, but has normal levels of carbonic anhydrase. In addition, two barley mutants lacking the ability to convert glycine to serine in the mitochondria, have been characterized. Both plants accumulate glycine in air and are unable to metabolize ({sup 14}C)glycine in the short-term. When ({sup 14}C)glycine was supplied over 2h LaPr 85/55 metabolized 90%, whereas the second mutant (LaPr 87/30) metabolized 10%. Results indicate that the mutation in LaPr 85/55 is almost certainly in the glycine transporter into the mitochondrion. The mutation in LaPr 87/30 has been shown, using western blotting, to be in both the P and H proteins, two of four proteins which comprise glycine decarboxylase (P, H, T and L).

  4. Conformational variability of the glycine receptor M2 domain in response to activation by different agonists.

    PubMed

    Pless, Stephan A; Dibas, Mohammed I; Lester, Henry A; Lynch, Joseph W

    2007-12-07

    Models describing the structural changes mediating Cys loop receptor activation generally give little attention to the possibility that different agonists may promote activation via distinct M2 pore-lining domain structural rearrangements. We investigated this question by comparing the effects of different ligands on the conformation of the external portion of the homomeric alpha1 glycine receptor M2 domain. Conformational flexibility was assessed by tethering a rhodamine fluorophore to cysteines introduced at the 19' or 22' positions and monitoring fluorescence and current changes during channel activation. During glycine activation, fluorescence of the label attached to R19'C increased by approximately 20%, and the emission peak shifted to lower wavelengths, consistent with a more hydrophobic fluorophore environment. In contrast, ivermectin activated the receptors without producing a fluorescence change. Although taurine and beta-alanine were weak partial agonists at the alpha1R19'C glycine receptor, they induced large fluorescence changes. Propofol, which drastically enhanced these currents, did not induce a glycine-like blue shift in the spectral emission peak. The inhibitors strychnine and picrotoxin elicited fluorescence and current changes as expected for a competitive antagonist and an open channel blocker, respectively. Glycine and taurine (or beta-alanine) also produced an increase and a decrease, respectively, in the fluorescence of a label attached to the nearby L22'C residue. Thus, results from two separate labeled residues support the conclusion that the glycine receptor M2 domain responds with distinct conformational changes to activation by different agonists.

  5. A graphene nanoribbon neuro-sensor for glycine detection and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Faruque M.; Al-Dirini, Feras; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2014-06-01

    Glycine acts as a neurotransmitter in the Central Nervous System (CNS) and plays a vital role in processing of motor and sensory information that control movement, vision, and audition. Glycine detection and imaging can lead to a greater understanding of how this information is processed in the CNS. Here, we present a neuro-sensor for the detection and imaging of Glycine molecules, based on a zigzag Graphene Nanoribbon device structure. An energetically stable Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) center is introduced in the device to enable its use in neuronal imaging applications. We demonstrate, by using the Density Functional Theory and Nonequilibrium Green's Function method, that the device detects the attachment of a single Glycine molecule to its edges by significant changes in its conductance. The attachment of Glycine induces current channels around the NV center increasing the current flow through the device. In absence of Glycine, the presence of the NV center suppresses current flow through the device, significantly reducing its power consumption, and allowing for its use in proximity of living neuron cells.

  6. Environmental stress causes oxidative damage to plant mitochondria leading to inhibition of glycine decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nicolas L; Day, David A; Millar, A Harvey

    2002-11-08

    A cytotoxic product of lipid peroxidation, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), rapidly inhibited glycine, malate/pyruvate, and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent O2 consumption by pea leaf mitochondria. Dose- and time-dependence of inhibition showed that glycine oxidation was the most severely affected with a K(0.5) of 30 microm. Several mitochondrial proteins containing lipoic acid moieties differentially lost their reactivity to a lipoic acid antibody following HNE treatment. The most dramatic loss of antigenicity was seen with the 17-kDa glycine decarboxylase complex (GDC) H-protein, which was correlated with the loss of glycine-dependent O2 consumption. Paraquat treatment of pea seedlings induced lipid peroxidation, which resulted in the rapid loss of glycine-dependent respiration and loss of H-protein reactivity with lipoic acid antibodies. Pea plants exposed to chilling and water deficit responded similarly. In contrast, the damage to other lipoic acid-containing mitochondrial enzymes was minor under these conditions. The implication of the acute sensitivity of glycine decarboxylase complex H-protein to lipid peroxidation products is discussed in the context of photorespiration and potential repair mechanisms in plant mitochondria.

  7. Glycine decarboxylase deficiency causes neural tube defects and features of non-ketotic hyperglycinemia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Yun Jin; Leung, Kit-Yi; Savery, Dawn; Hutchin, Tim; Prunty, Helen; Heales, Simon; Brosnan, Margaret E.; Brosnan, John T.; Copp, Andrew J.; Greene, Nicholas D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Glycine decarboxylase (GLDC) acts in the glycine cleavage system to decarboxylate glycine and transfer a one-carbon unit into folate one-carbon metabolism. GLDC mutations cause a rare recessive disease non-ketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH). Mutations have also been identified in patients with neural tube defects (NTDs); however, the relationship between NKH and NTDs is unclear. We show that reduced expression of Gldc in mice suppresses glycine cleavage system activity and causes two distinct disease phenotypes. Mutant embryos develop partially penetrant NTDs while surviving mice exhibit post-natal features of NKH including glycine accumulation, early lethality and hydrocephalus. In addition to elevated glycine, Gldc disruption also results in abnormal tissue folate profiles, with depletion of one-carbon-carrying folates, as well as growth retardation and reduced cellular proliferation. Formate treatment normalizes the folate profile, restores embryonic growth and prevents NTDs, suggesting that Gldc deficiency causes NTDs through limiting supply of one-carbon units from mitochondrial folate metabolism. PMID:25736695

  8. Glycine-mediated changes of onset reliability at a mammalian central synapse.

    PubMed

    Kopp-Scheinpflug, C; Dehmel, S; Tolnai, S; Dietz, B; Milenkovic, I; Rübsamen, R

    2008-11-19

    Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter activating a chloride conductance in the mammalian CNS. In vitro studies from brain slices revealed a novel presynaptic site of glycine action in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) which increases the release of the excitatory transmitter glutamate from the calyx of Held. Here, we investigate the action of glycine on action potential firing of single MNTB neurons from the gerbil under acoustic stimulation in vivo. Iontophoretic application of the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine caused a significant decrease in spontaneous and sound-evoked firing rates throughout the neurons' excitatory response areas, with the largest changes at the respective characteristic frequency (CF). The decreased firing rate was accompanied by longer and more variable onset latencies of sound-evoked responses. Outside the neurons' excitatory response areas, firing rates increased during the application of strychnine due to a reduction of inhibitory sidebands, causing a broadening of frequency tuning. These results indicate that glycine enhances the efficacy for on-CF stimuli, while simultaneously suppressing synaptic transmission for off-CF stimuli. These in vivo results provide evidence of multiple excitatory and inhibitory glycine effects on the same neuronal population in the mature mammalian CNS.

  9. Ab initio investigation of the first hydration shell of protonated glycine

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Zhichao; Chen, Dong E-mail: boliu@henu.edu.cn; Zhao, Huiling; Li, Yinli; Zhu, Jichun; Liu, Bo E-mail: boliu@henu.edu.cn

    2014-02-28

    The first hydration shell of the protonated glycine is built up using Monte Carlo multiple minimum conformational search analysis with the MMFFs force field. The potential energy surfaces of the protonated glycine and its hydration complexes with up to eight water molecules have been scanned and the energy-minimized structures are predicted using the ab initio calculations. First, three favorable structures of protonated glycine were determined, and the micro-hydration processes showed that water can significantly stabilize the unstable conformers, and then their first hydration shells were established. Finally, we found that seven water molecules are required to fully hydrate the first hydration shell for the most stable conformer of protonated glycine. In order to analyse the hydration process, the dominant hydration sites located around the ammonium and carboxyl groups are studied carefully and systemically. The results indicate that, water molecules hydrate the protonated glycine in an alternative dynamic hydration process which is driven by the competition between different hydration sites. The first three water molecules are strongly attached by the ammonium group, while only the fourth water molecule is attached by the carboxyl group in the ultimate first hydration shell of the protonated glycine. In addition, the first hydration shell model has predicted most identical structures and a reasonable accord in hydration energy and vibrational frequencies of the most stable conformer with the conductor-like polarizable continuum model.

  10. Sublethal and hormesis effects of imidacloprid on the soybean aphid Aphis glycines.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yanyan; Xiao, Da; Li, Jinyu; Chen, Zhou; Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas; Gao, Xiwu; Song, Dunlun

    2015-04-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is a major pest in soybean crop. Current management of this pest relies mainly on insecticides applications, and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid has been proposed as an effective insecticide to control A. glycines in soybean field. Imidacloprid at lethal concentrations not only exerts acute toxicity to A. glycines, but also cause various biological changes when aphids are chronically exposed to lower concentrations. In this study, we assessed the effects of a low-lethal (0.20 mg L(-1)) and two sublethal (0.05 and 0.10 mg L(-1)) imidacloprid concentrations on various A. glycines life history traits. Aphid exposure to 0.20 mg L(-1) imidacloprid caused slower juvenile development, shorter reproductive period, and reduced adult longevity, fecundity and total lifespan. Stimulatory effects, i.e. hormesis, on reproduction and immature development duration were observed in aphids exposed to the lower sublethal imidacloprid concentrations. Consequently, the net reproduction rate (R 0) was significantly higher than in the control aphids. These findings stress the importance of the actual imidacloprid concentration in its toxicological properties on A. glycines. Therefore, our results would be useful for assessing the overall effects of imidacloprid on A. glycines and for optimizing integrated pest management programs targeting this pest.

  11. Osmotic control of glycine betaine biosynthesis and degradation in Rhizobium meliloti

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.T.; Pocard, J.A.; Bernard, T.; Le Rudulier, D.

    1988-07-01

    Intracellular accumulation of glycine betaine has been shown to confer an enhanced level of osmotic stress tolerance in Rhizobium meliloti. In this study, the authors used a physiological approach to investigate the mechanism by which glycine betaine is accumulated in osmotically stressed R. meliloti. Results from growth experiments, /sup 14/C labeling of intermediates, and enzyme activity assays are presented. The results provide evidence for the pathway of biosynthesis and degradation of glycine betaine and the osmotic effects on this pathway. High osmolarity in the medium decreased the activities of the enzymes involved in the degradation of glycine betaine but not those of enzymes that lead to its biosynthesis from choline. Thus, the concentration of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine is increased in stressed cells. This report demonstrates the ability of the osmolarity of the growth medium to regulate the use of glycine betaine as a carbon and nitrogen source or as an osmoprotectant. The mechanisms of osmoregulation in R. meliloti and Escherichia coli are compared.

  12. Cellular Transport and Membrane Dynamics of the Glycine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Dumoulin, Andrea; Triller, Antoine; Kneussel, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Regulation of synaptic transmission is essential to tune individual-to-network neuronal activity. One way to modulate synaptic strength is to regulate neurotransmitter receptor numbers at postsynaptic sites. This can be achieved either through plasma membrane insertion of receptors derived from intracellular vesicle pools, a process depending on active cytoskeleton transport, or through surface membrane removal via endocytosis. In parallel, lateral diffusion events along the plasma membrane allow the exchange of receptor molecules between synaptic and extrasynaptic compartments, contributing to synaptic strength regulation. In recent years, results obtained from several groups studying glycine receptor (GlyR) trafficking and dynamics shed light on the regulation of synaptic GlyR density. Here, we review (i) proteins and mechanisms involved in GlyR cytoskeletal transport, (ii) the diffusion dynamics of GlyR and of its scaffolding protein gephyrin that control receptor numbers, and its relationship with synaptic plasticity, and (iii) adaptative changes in GlyR diffusion in response to global activity modifications, as a homeostatic mechanism. PMID:20161805

  13. Ethylene directly inhibits foliar gas exchange in Glycine max

    SciTech Connect

    Gunderson, C.A.; Taylor, G.E. Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    Gas exchange of individual attached leaves of soybean, Glycine max (L,) Merr cv Davis, was monitored during exposure to exogenous ethylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) to test the hypothesis that the effects of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} on net photosynthesis (P{sub n}) and stomatal conductance to H{sub 2}O{sub 4} vapor (g{sub s}) are direct and not mediated by changes in leaf orientation to light. Leaflets were held perpendicular to incident light in a temperature-controlled cuvette throughout a 5.5 hour exposure to 10 microliters per liter C{sub 2}H{sub 4}. Declines in both P{sub N} and g{sub s} were evident within 2 hours and became more pronounced throughout the exposure period. In C{sub 2}H{sub 4} treated plants, P{sub N} and g{sub s} decreased to 80 and 62%, respectively, of the rates in control plants. Because epinastic movement of the leaflets was prohibited by the cuvette, the observed declines in P{sub N} and g{sub s} were a direct effect of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} rather than the result of reduced light interception caused by changing leaf angle.

  14. Viability of Heterodera glycines Exposed to Fungal Filtrates

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. Y.; Dickson, D. W.; Mitchell, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Filtrates from nematode-parasitic fungi have been reported to be toxic to plant-parasitic nematodes. Our objective was to determine the effects of fungal filtrates on second-stage juveniles and eggs of Heterodera glycines. Eleven fungal species that were isolated from cysts extracted from a soybean field in Florida were tested on J2, and five species were tested on eggs in vitro. Each fungal species was grown in Czapek-Dox broth and malt extract broth. No toxic activity was observed for fungi grown in Czapek-Dox broth. Filtrates from Paecilomyces lilacinus, Stagonospora heteroderae, Neocosmospora vasinfecta, and Fusarium solani grown in malt extract broth were toxic to J2, whereas filtrates from Exophiala pisciphila, Fusarium oxysporum, Gliocladium catenulatum, Pyrenochaeta terrestris, Verticillium chlamydosporium, and sterile fungi 1 and 2 were not toxic to J2. Filtrates of P. lilacinus, S. heteroderae, and N. vasinfecta grown in malt extract broth reduced egg viability, whereas F. oxysporum and P. terrestris filtrates had no effect on egg viability. PMID:19270965

  15. Orientation of glycine on silver nanoparticles: SERS studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parameswari, A.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin

    2016-05-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies of glycine (Gly) adsorbed on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was investigated by experimental and density functional theory approach. The AgNPs were prepared and characterized. The molecular structure of the Gly and Gly adsorbed on silver cluster were optimized by the DFT/B3PW91 method with LanL2DZ basis set. The calculated and observed vibrational frequencies were assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation. The perpendicular orientation of Gly on the silver surface was predicted from the enhanced Raman signal correspond to the C=O and C-H stretching vibrational modes. The frontier molecular orbitals analysis and molecular electrostatic potential calculation were carried out. The reduced band gap value was obtained for Gly adsorbed on silver nanoparticles, which paves the way for designing the bio molecular devices. The first order hyperpolarizability value for Ag-Gly is 461 times greater than the urea. Thus, Ag-Gly is a promising candidate for NLO materials.

  16. Proline and Glycine Betaine Influence Protein Solvation 1

    PubMed Central

    Paleg, Leslie G.; Stewart, George R.; Bradbeer, Joseph W.

    1984-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase from barley (Hordeum distichum L.) is precipitated by polyethylene glycol (PEG). Proline, in a concentration-dependent manner, reduces the amount of enzyme precipitated by PEG, although the effect of the imino acid can be counteracted by raising the level of PEG. The effect of PEG is a function of mer number and concentration and the influence of both elements can be ameliorated by proline. PEG-induced enzyme precipitation is a function of pH, as is its interaction with both proline and betaine in the reaction. The lack of effect of amount of enzyme on the proline and PEG effects supports the conclusion that, in this system, proline and PEG do not function through interaction with the protein. Other compounds, such as glycine, glucose, and sucrose, can decrease the PEG-induced precipitation of the enzyme, although glycerol was not active under the conditions employed. The results are consistent with the proposition that a protein-containing system in which high concentrations of proline and/or betaine are present, is better `protected' against the biologically unfavorable consequences of dehydration-induced thermodynamic perturbation. PMID:16663771

  17. Metabolic and Transcriptional Reprogramming in Developing Soybean (Glycine max) Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Collakova, Eva; Aghamirzaie, Delasa; Fang, Yihui; Klumas, Curtis; Tabataba, Farzaneh; Kakumanu, Akshay; Myers, Elijah; Heath, Lenwood S.; Grene, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) seeds are an important source of seed storage compounds, including protein, oil, and sugar used for food, feed, chemical, and biofuel production. We assessed detailed temporal transcriptional and metabolic changes in developing soybean embryos to gain a systems biology view of developmental and metabolic changes and to identify potential targets for metabolic engineering. Two major developmental and metabolic transitions were captured enabling identification of potential metabolic engineering targets specific to seed filling and to desiccation. The first transition involved a switch between different types of metabolism in dividing and elongating cells. The second transition involved the onset of maturation and desiccation tolerance during seed filling and a switch from photoheterotrophic to heterotrophic metabolism. Clustering analyses of metabolite and transcript data revealed clusters of functionally related metabolites and transcripts active in these different developmental and metabolic programs. The gene clusters provide a resource to generate predictions about the associations and interactions of unknown regulators with their targets based on “guilt-by-association” relationships. The inferred regulators also represent potential targets for future metabolic engineering of relevant pathways and steps in central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in soybean embryos and drought and desiccation tolerance in plants. PMID:24957996

  18. Identification of microRNAs in wild soybean (Glycine soja).

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Hu, Zheng; Zhang, Hui

    2009-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in post-transcriptional gene silencing by directing target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. Currently, hundreds of miRNAs have been identified in plants, but no report has been published of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb). We constructed a small-RNA library consisting of 2 880 sequences with high quality, in which 1 347 were 19-24 nt in length. By utilizing the miRNA, Rfam and domesticated soybean expressed sequence tag database, we have analyzed and predicted the secondary structure of these small RNAs. As a result, 15 conserved miRNA candidates belonging to eight different families and nine novel miRNA candidates comprising eight families were identified in wild soybean seedlings. All these miRNA candidates were validated by northern blot and the novel candidates expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, putative target genes were predicted for novel miRNA candidates and two of them were verified by 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends experiments. These results provided useful information for miRNA research in wild soybean and plants.

  19. Microinjection of glycine into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus produces diuresis, natriuresis, and inhibition of central sympathetic outflow.

    PubMed

    Krowicki, Zbigniew K; Kapusta, Daniel R

    2011-04-01

    Strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and glycine-immunoreactive fibers are expressed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), yet the functional significance of this innervation is unclear. Therefore, these studies examined the changes in cardiovascular and renal function and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) produced by the microinjection of glycine (5 and 50 nmol) into the PVN of conscious Sprague-Dawley rats. Microinjection of glycine into, but not outside of, the PVN dose-dependently increased urine flow rate and urinary sodium excretion and decreased RSNA. At the higher dose, PVN glycine also decreased heart rate; neither 5 nor 50 nmol PVN glycine altered mean arterial pressure. The glycine (50 nmol)-evoked diuresis and natriuresis were abolished in rats continuously infused intravenously with [Arg(8)]-vasopressin. Furthermore, chronic bilateral renal denervation prevented the bradycardia and diuresis to PVN glycine and blunted the natriuresis. In other studies, unilateral PVN pretreatment with the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine (1.6 nmol) prevented the effects of PVN glycine (50 nmol) on heart rate, RSNA, and renal excretory function. When microinjected bilaterally, PVN strychnine (1.6 nmol per site) evoked a significant increase in heart rate and RSNA without altering renal excretory function. These findings demonstrate that in conscious rats glycine acts in the PVN to enhance the renal excretion of water and sodium and decrease central sympathetic outflow to the heart and kidneys. Although endogenous PVN glycine inputs elicit a tonic control of heart rate and RSNA, the renal excretory responses to PVN glycine seem to be caused primarily by the inhibition of arginine vasopressin secretion.

  20. Immunogold labeling shows that glycine-cysteine-rich beta-proteins are deposited in the Oberhäutchen layer of snake epidermis in preparation to shedding.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2015-02-01

    Shedding in snakes is cyclical and derives from the differentiation of an intraepidermal shedding complex made of two different layers, termed clear and Oberhäutchen that determine the separation between the outer from the inner epidermal generation that produces a molt. The present comparative immunocytochemical study on the epidermis and molts of different species of snakes shows that a glycine-cysteine-rich corneous beta-protein in a snake is prevalently accumulated in cells of the Oberhäutchen layer and decreases in those of the beta-layer. The protein is variably distributed in the mature beta-layer of species representing some snake families when the beta-layer merges with the Oberhäutchen but disappears in alpha-layers. Therefore, this protein represents an early marker of the transition between the outer and the inner epidermal generations in the epidermis of snakes in general. It is hypothesized that specific gene activation for glycine-cysteine-rich corneous beta-proteins occurs during the passage from the clear layer of the outer epidermal generation to the Oberhäutchen layer of the replacing inner epidermal generation. It is suggested that in the epidermis of most species glycine-cysteine-rich corneous beta-proteins form part of the dense corneous material that rapidly accumulates in the differentiating Oberhäutchen cells but decreases in the following beta-layer of the inner epidermal generation destined to be separated from the previous outer generation in the process of shedding. The regulation of the synthesis of these and other proteins is, therefore, crucial in timing the different stages of the shedding cycle in lepidosaurian reptiles.

  1. Novel expression of a functional glycine receptor chloride channel that attenuates contraction in airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Peter D.; Gallos, George; Xu, Dingbang; Zhang, Yi; Emala, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction is an important component of the pathophysiology of asthma. Taurine, an agonist of glycine receptor chloride (GlyR Cl−) channels, was found to relax contracted ASM, which led us to question whether functional GlyR Cl− channels are expressed in ASM. Messenger RNA for β (GLRB), α1 (GLRA1), α2 (GLRA2), and α4 (GLRA4) subunits were found in human (Homo sapiens) and guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) tracheal smooth muscle. Immunoblotting confirmed the protein expression of GLRA1 and GLRB subunits in ASM. Electrical activity of cultured human ASM cells was assessed using a fluorescent potentiometric dye and electrophysiological recordings. Glycine increased current and significantly increased fluorescence in a dose-dependent manner. The GlyR Cl− channel antagonist strychnine significantly blocked the effects of glycine on potentiometric fluorescence in ASM cells. Guinea pig airway ring relaxation of ACh-induced contractions by isoproterenol was significantly left-shifted in the presence of glycine. This effect of glycine was blocked by pretreatment with the GlyR Cl− channel antagonist strychnine. Glycine treatment during tachykinin- and acetylcholine-induced contractions significantly decreased the maintenance of muscle force compared to control. GlyR Cl− channels are expressed on ASM and regulate smooth muscle force and offer a novel target for therapeutic relaxation of ASM.—Yim, P. D., Gallos, G., Xu, D., Zhang, Y., Emala, C. W. Novel expression of a functional glycine receptor chloride channel that attenuates contraction in airway smooth muscle. PMID:21282206

  2. Selection of Heterodera glycines chorismate mutase-1 alleles on nematode-resistant soybean.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Kris N; Bekal, Sadia; Domier, Leslie L; Niblack, Terry L; Noel, Gregory R; Smyth, Charles A

    2005-06-01

    The soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines is the most destructive pathogen of soybean in the Unites States. Diversity in the parasitic ability of the nematode allows it to reproduce on nematode-resistant soybean. H. glycines chorismate mutase-1 (Hg-CM-1) is a nematode enzyme with the potential to suppress host plant defense compounds; therefore, it has the potential to enhance the parasitic ability of nematodes expressing the gene. Hg-cm-1 is a member of a gene family where two alleles, Hg-cm-1A and Hg-cm-1B, have been identified. Analysis of the Hg-cm-1 gene copy number revealed that there are multiple copies of Hg-cm-1 alleles in the H. glycines genome. H. glycines inbred lines were crossed to ultimately generate three F2 populations of second-stage juveniles (J2s) segregating for Hg-cm-1A and Hg-cm-1B. Segregation of Hg-cm-1A and 1B approximated a 1:2:1 ratio, which suggested that Hg-cm-1 is organized in a cluster of genes that segregate roughly as a single locus. The F2 H. glycines J2 populations were used to infect nematode-resistant (Hartwig, PI88788, and PI90763) and susceptible (Lee 74) soybean plants. H. glycines grown on Hartwig, Lee 74, and PI90763 showed allelic frequencies similar to Hg-cm-1A/B, but nematodes grown on PI88788 contained predominately Hg-cm-1A allele as a result of a statistically significant drop of Hg-cm-1B in the population. This result suggests that specific Hg-cm-1 alleles, or a closely linked gene, may aid H. glycines in adapting to particular soybean hosts.

  3. Glycine-activated currents are changed by coincident membrane depolarization in developing rat auditory brainstem neurones

    PubMed Central

    Backus, Kurt H; Deitmer, Joachim W; Friauf, Eckhard

    1998-01-01

    During early ontogeny, glycine receptors (GlyRs) exert depolarizing responses which may be of developmental relevance. We have used the gramicidin-perforated patch technique to elucidate the mechanism of glycine-activated currents in developing neurones of the rat lateral superior olive (LSO). When the holding potential was set to −60 mV, perforated-patch recordings revealed glycine-induced inward currents in 59%, outward currents in 5% and biphasic currents in 34% of the LSO neurones tested (n = 44). The biphasic currents were characterized by a transient outward phase which was followed by an inward phase. Ion substitution experiments showed that both Cl− and HCO3− contributed to the glycine- induced biphasic current responses. In the biphasic responses, the reversal potential of the glycine-induced current (Egly) depended on the response phase. A strong shift of Egly from a mean of −72 mV during the outward phase of the glycine response to a mean of −51 mV during the inward phase was observed, suggesting a shift of an ion gradient. When the membrane potential was depolarized, ‘tail’ currents were induced in the presence of glycine. An increased duration or amplitude of the evoked depolarizations resulted in a proportional enlargement of these tail currents, indicating that they were produced by a shift of an ion gradient. Since changes of the HCO3− gradient are negligible, because of the carbonic anhydrase activity, we suggest that these tail currents were caused by a shift of the Cl− gradient. We conclude that Cl− accumulates intracellularly during the activation of GlyRs and, consequently, Egly moves towards more positive values. Coincident depolarizing stimuli enhanced intracellular Cl− accumulation and the shift of Egly, thereby switching hyperpolarizing to depolarizing action. This change could assist in an activity-dependent strengthening and refinement of glycinergic synapses during the maturation of inhibitory connectivity. PMID

  4. Vascular endothelial function is improved by oral glycine treatment in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Zamudio, Jaime H; García-Macedo, Rebeca; Lázaro-Suárez, Martha; Ibarra-Barajas, Maximiliano; Kumate, Jesús; Cruz, Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Glycine has been used to reduce oxidative stress and proinflammatory mediators in some metabolic disorders; however, its effect on the vasculature has been poorly studied. The aim of this work was to explore the effect of glycine on endothelial dysfunction in aged rats. Aortic rings with intact or denuded endothelium were obtained from untreated or glycine-treated male Sprague-Dawley rats at 5 and 15 months of age. Concentration-response curves to phenylephrine (PHE) were obtained from aortic rings incubated with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), superoxide dismutase (SOD), indomethacin, SC-560, and NS-398. Aortic mRNA expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX-4), cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin-1 β was measured by real time RT-PCR. The endothelial modulation of the contraction by PHE was decreased in aortic rings from aged rats. Glycine treatment improved this modulator effect and increased relaxation to acetylcholine. Glycine augmented the sensitivity for PHE in the presence of l-NAME and SOD. It also reduced the contraction by incubation with indomethacin, SC-560, and NS-398. Glycine increased the mRNA expression of eNOS and decreased the expression of COX-2 and TNF-α. Glycine improved the endothelium function in aged rats possibly by enhancing eNOS expression and reducing the role of superoxide anion and contractile prostanoids that increase the nitric oxide bioavailability.

  5. Kinetic study of carbon dioxide absorption into glycine promoted diethanolamine (DEA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudjiastuti, Lily; Susianto, Altway, Ali; IC, Maria Hestia; Arsi, Kartika

    2015-12-01

    In industry, especially petrochemical, oil and natural gas industry, required separation process of CO2 gas which is a corrosive gas (acid gas). This characteristic can damage the plant utility and piping systems as well as reducing the caloric value of natural gas. Corrosive characteristic of CO2 will appear in areas where there is a decrease in temperature and pressure, such as at the elbow pipe, tubing, cooler and injector turbine. From disadvantages as described above, then it is important to do separation process in the CO2 gas stream, one of the method for remove CO2 from the gas stream is reactive absorption using alkanolamine based solution with promotor. Therefore, this study is done to determine the kinetics constant of CO2 absorption in diethanolamine (DEA) solution using a glycine promoter. Glycine is chosen as a promoter because glycine is a primary amine compound which is reactive, moreover, glycine has resistance to high temperatures so it will not easy to degradable and suitable for application in industry. The method used in this study is absorption using laboratory scale wetted wall column equipment at atmospheric of pressure. This study will to provide the reaction kinetics data information in order to optimize the separation process of CO2 in the industrialized world. The experimental results show that rising temperatures from 303,15 - 328,15 K and the increase of concentration of glycine from 1% - 3% weight will increase the absorption rate of carbon dioxide in DEA promoted with glycine by 24,2% and 59,764% respectively, also the reaction kinetic constant is 1.419 × 1012 exp (-3634/T) (m3/kmol.s). This result show that the addition of glycine as a promoter can increase absorption rate of carbon dioxide in diethanolamine solution and cover the weaknesses of diethanolamine solution.

  6. Interactions between glycine and amorphous solid water nanoscale films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzvetkov, George; Koller, Georg; Netzer, Falko P.

    2012-12-01

    The interactions of glycine (Gly) with amorphous solid water (ASW) nanolayers (≤ 100 ML), vapor-deposited on single crystalline AlOx surfaces at 100 K, have been investigated by near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) at the oxygen K-edge, temperature-programmed thermal desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and temperature-dependent work function measurements. Gly-on-ASW, ASW-on-Gly, and Gly on top of ASW-on-Gly ultrathin films have been fabricated. In contrast to the uniform ASW films grown directly on the hydrophilic AlOx, water molecules adsorb on the hydrophobic Gly films in the form of 3D ASW clusters. This leads to significant differences in the NEXAFS and work function data obtained from ASW-on-AlOx and ASW-on-Gly films, respectively. Furthermore, these structural differences influence the chemical state of Gly molecules (neutral vs. zwitterionic) adsorbed on top of ASW films. N1s XPS measurements revealed an increased amount of neutral Gly molecules in the film top-deposited on the ASW-on-Gly structure in comparison to the neutral Gly in the films directly condensed on AlOx or grown on the ASW substrate. H2O TPD spectra demonstrate that the crystallization and desorption processes of ASW are affected in a different way by the Gly layers, top-deposited on to ASW-on-AlOx and ASW-on-Gly films. At the same time, Gly adlayers sink into the ASW film during crystallization/desorption of the latter and land softly on the alumina surface in the form of zwitterionic clusters.

  7. [The isotope effect in the glycine dehydrogenase reaction is the cause of the intramolecular isotope inhomogeneity of glucose carbon of starch synthesized during photorespiration].

    PubMed

    Ivlev, A A

    2005-01-01

    The isotope distribution of glucose-6-phosphate in the main pathways of its biosynthesis (in the processes of CO2 assimilation and photorespiration in the Calvin cycle and during resynthesis from the degradation products of lipids and proteins) was analyzed. For reconstructing the isotope distribution of glucoso-6-phosphate synthesized in the Calvin cycle during photorespiration, the functioning of the cycle with regard to its coupling with the glycolate chain, which together constitute the photorespiration chain, was considered. In the glycine dehydrogenase reaction of the glycolate cycle, there arises an isotope effect, which determines the distribution of isotopes in the glucose-6-phosphate and other photorespiration products. The isotope effect of the glycine dehydrogenase reaction increases at the expense of the exhaustion of glucose resources feeding the photorespiration chain. As a result, atoms C-3 and C-4 of glucose become enriched with the heavy isotope, and subsequent mixing of atoms and the specificity of interactions in the photorespiration chain lead to an isotope weighting of the other atoms and an uneven distribution of carbon isotopes in glucose-6-phosphate and other photorespiration products. A comparison of the glucose-6-phosphate isotope patterns in different pathways of the synthesis with the experimental data on the distribution of carbon isotopes in starch glucose of storing plant organs led to the conclusion that the starch resources are predominantly formed at the expense of glucose-6-phosphate of photorespiration. This is consistent with the earlier observed enhancement of photorespiration at the stage of plant maturation.

  8. Plasma glycine and serine levels in schizophrenia compared to normal controls and major depression: relation to negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Anil, A Elif; Jin, Dai; Jayathilake, Karu; Lee, Myung; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2004-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested decreased N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor function may contribute to increased negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Consistent with this hypothesis, glycine, a co-agonist at NMDA receptors, has been reported to improve negative symptoms associated with the illness. This study was performed to determine if plasma levels of glycine or its ratio to serine, a precursor of glycine, are decreased in patients with schizophrenia compared to normal control subjects or patients with major depression. We also tested the hypothesis that these amino acids were correlated with negative symptoms in subjects with schizophrenia. Plasma levels of glycine, serine, and their ratio, were compared in 144 patients with schizophrenia, 44 patients with major depression, and 49 normal control subjects. All subjects were medication-free. Psychopathology was evaluated using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Plasma glycine levels and glycine/serine ratios were decreased in patients with schizophrenia relative to control subjects and patients with major depression. By contrast, serine levels were increased in patients with schizophrenia compared to normal subjects but not compared to major depression. Patients with major depression also had increased plasma serine levels and decreased glycine/serine ratios compared to normal controls, but glycine levels were not different from those of normal controls. In subjects with schizophrenia, glycine levels predicted the Withdrawal-Retardation score (BPRS), whereas no such correlation was found in subjects with major depression. These results provide additional evidence that decreased availability of glycine may be related to the pathophysiology of negative symptoms. The decreases in plasma glycine levels support the evidence for an abnormality in the glutamatergic system in schizophrenia, and provide additional support for efforts to improve negative symptoms by augmentation of

  9. Pharmacology of intracisternal or intrathecal glycine, muscimol, and baclofen in strychnine-induced thermal hyperalgesia of mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Il Ok; Son, Jin Kook; Lim, Eui-Sung; Kim, Yeon-Soo

    2011-10-01

    Glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are localized and released by the same interneurons in the spinal cord. Although the effects of glycine and GABA on analgesia are well known, little is known about the effect of GABA in strychnine-induced hyperalgesia. To investigate the effect of GABA and the role of the glycine receptor in thermal hyperalgesia, we designed an experiment involving the injection of muscimol (a GABA(A) receptor agonist), baclofen (a GABA(B) receptor agonist) or glycine with strychnine (strychnine sensitive glycine receptor antagonist). Glycine, muscimol, or baclofen with strychnine was injected into the cisterna magna or lumbar subarachnoidal spaces of mice. The effects of treatment on strychnine-induced heat hyperalgesia were observed using the pain threshold index via the hot plate test. The dosages of experimental drugs and strychnine we chose had no effects on motor behavior in conscious mice. Intracisternal or intrathecal administration of strychnine produced thermal hyperalgesia in mice. Glycine antagonize the effects of strychnine, whereas, muscimol or baclofen does not. Our results indicate that glycine has anti-thermal hyperalgesic properties in vivo; and GABA receptor agonists may lack the binding abilities of glycine receptor antagonists with their sites in the central nervous system.

  10. Activation-induced structural change in the GluN1/GluN3A excitatory glycine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Balasuriya, Dilshan; Takahashi, Hirohide; Srivats, Shyam; Edwardson, J. Michael

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • We studied the response of the GluN1/GluN3A excitatory glycine receptor to activation. • GluN1 and GluN3A subunits interacted within transfected cells. • The GluN1/GluN3A receptor was functionally active. • Glycine or D-serine caused a ∼1 nm height reduction in bilayer-integrated receptors. • This height reduction was abolished by the glycine antagonist DCKA. - Abstract: Unlike GluN2-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, which require both glycine and glutamate for activation, receptors composed of GluN1 and GluN3 subunits are activated by glycine alone. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging to examine the response to activation of the GluN1/GluN3A excitatory glycine receptor. GluN1 and GluN3A subunits were shown to interact intimately within transfected tsA 201 cells. Isolated GluN1/GluN3A receptors integrated into lipid bilayers responded to addition of either glycine or D-serine, but not glutamate, with a ∼1 nm reduction in height of the extracellular domain. The height reduction in response to glycine was abolished by the glycine antagonist 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid. Our results represent the first demonstration of the effect of activation on the conformation of this receptor.

  11. Activation of human alpha1 and alpha2 homomeric glycine receptors by taurine and GABA.

    PubMed

    De Saint Jan, D; David-Watine, B; Korn, H; Bregestovski, P

    2001-09-15

    1. Two ligand binding alpha subunits, alpha1 and alpha2, of the human (H) glycine receptor (GlyR) are involved at inhibitory synapses in the adult and neonatal spinal cord, respectively. The ability of homomeric alphaH1 and alphaH2 GlyRs to be activated by glycine, taurine and GABA was studied in Xenopus oocytes or in the human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cell line. 2. In outside-out patches from HEK cells, glycine, taurine and GABA activated both GlyRs with the same main unitary conductance, i.e. 85 +/- 3 pS (n = 6) for alphaH1, and 95 +/- 5 pS (n = 4) for alphaH2. 3. The sensitivity of both alphaH1 and alphaH2 GlyRs to glycine was highly variable. In Xenopus oocytes the EC50 for glycine (EC50gly) was between 25 and 280 microM for alphaH1 (n = 44) and between 46 and 541 microM for alphaH2 (n = 52). For both receptors, the highest EC50gly values were found on cells with low maximal glycine responses. 4. The actions of taurine and GABA were dependent on the EC50gly: (i) their EC50 values were linearly correlated to EC50gly, with EC50tau approximately 10 EC50gly and EC50GABA approximately 500-800 EC50gly; (ii) they could act either as full or weak agonists depending on the EC50gly. 5. The Hill coefficient (n(H)) of glycine remained stable regardless of the EC50gly whereas n(H) for taurine decreased with increasing EC50tau. 6. The degree of desensitization, evaluated by fast application of saturating concentrations of agonist on outside-out patches from Xenopus oocytes, was similar for glycine and taurine on both GlyRs and did not exceed 50 %. 7. Our data concerning the variations of EC50gly and the subsequent behaviour of taurine and GABA could be qualitatively described by the simple del Castillo-Katz scheme, assuming that the agonist gating constant varies whereas the binding constants are stable. However, the stability of the Hill coefficient for glycine was not explained by this model, suggesting that other mechanisms are involved in the modulation of EC50.

  12. Aphis Glycines Virus 2, a Novel Insect Virus with a Unique Genome Structure

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sijun; Vijayendran, Diveena; Chen, Yuting; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2016-01-01

    The invasive soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, is a major pest in soybeans, resulting in substantial economic loss. We analyzed the A. glycines transcriptome to identify sequences derived from viruses of A. glycines. We identified sequences derived from a novel virus named Aphis glycines virus 2 (ApGlV2). The assembled virus genome sequence was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Sanger sequencing, conserved domains were characterized, and distribution, and transmission examined. This virus has a positive sense, single-stranded RNA genome of ~4850 nt that encodes three proteins. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of ApGlV2 is a permuted RdRp similar to those of some tetraviruses, while the capsid protein is structurally similar to the capsid proteins of plant sobemoviruses. ApGlV2 also encodes a larger minor capsid protein, which is translated by a readthrough mechanism. ApGlV2 appears to be widespread in A. glycines populations and to persistently infect aphids with a 100% vertical transmission rate. ApGlV2 is susceptible to the antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. This virus, with its unique genome structure with both plant- and insect-virus characteristics, is of particular interest from an evolutionary standpoint. PMID:27869772

  13. Inhibitors of Glycine Transporter-1: Potential Therapeutics for the Treatment of CNS Disorders.

    PubMed

    Cioffi, Christopher L; Guzzo, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    Glycine acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter at glycine receptor (GlyR)-enriched synapses and as an obligatory co-agonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, where it facilitates neuronal excitation. Two high-affinity and substrate selective transporters, glycine transporter-1 and glycine transporter-2 (GlyT-1 and GlyT-2), regulate extracellular glycine concentrations within the CNS and as such, play critical roles in maintaining a balance between inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission. GlyT-1 inhibition has been extensively examined as a potential means by which to treat several CNS disorders that include schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and addiction. More recently, preclinical studies have emerged that indicate the approach may also promote neuroprotection, provide a pharmacotherapeutic strategy for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and treat symptomology associated with pain, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. This review examines the pharmacological aspects of GlyT-1 inhibition and describes drug discovery and development efforts toward the identification of novel inhibitors.

  14. Glycine Transporter-1 Inhibition Promotes Striatal Axon Sprouting via NMDA Receptors in Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Castagna, Candace; Mrejeru, Ana; Lizardi-Ortiz, José E.; Klein, Zoe; Lindsley, Craig W.

    2013-01-01

    NMDA receptor activity is involved in shaping synaptic connections throughout development and adulthood. We recently reported that brief activation of NMDA receptors on cultured ventral midbrain dopamine neurons enhanced their axon growth rate and induced axonal branching. To test whether this mechanism was relevant to axon regrowth in adult animals, we examined the reinnervation of dorsal striatum following nigral dopamine neuron loss induced by unilateral intrastriatal injections of the toxin 6-hydroxydopamine. We used a pharmacological approach to enhance NMDA receptor-dependent signaling by treatment with an inhibitor of glycine transporter-1 that elevates levels of extracellular glycine, a coagonist required for NMDA receptor activation. All mice displayed sprouting of dopaminergic axons from spared fibers in the ventral striatum to the denervated dorsal striatum at 7 weeks post-lesion, but the reinnervation in mice treated for 4 weeks with glycine uptake inhibitor was approximately twice as dense as in untreated mice. The treated mice also displayed higher levels of striatal dopamine and a complete recovery from lateralization in a test of sensorimotor behavior. We confirmed that the actions of glycine uptake inhibition on reinnervation and behavioral recovery required NMDA receptors in dopamine neurons using targeted deletion of the NR1 NMDA receptor subunit in dopamine neurons. Glycine transport inhibitors promote functionally relevant sprouting of surviving dopamine axons and could provide clinical treatment for disorders such as Parkinson's disease. PMID:24133278

  15. In vivo effects of glycine on retinal ultrastructure and averaged electroretinogram.

    PubMed

    Korol, S; Leuenberger, P M; Englert, U; Babel, J

    1975-10-31

    Glycine, when injected intravitreally, has an inhibitory action on the electroretinogram (ERG) of the rabbit resulting in a transient loss of the oscillatory potentials of the b-wave. This inhibitory action is reversible within 24 h after glycine injection. In autoradiographs, after [3H] glycine administration, the radioactive label is mainly found over the inner nuclear layer (INL) and inner plexiform layer (IPL) without predilection of specific cell types and/or synapses. Electron microscopy reveals cytopathological changes in amacrine cells, in particular their cell membranes. These changes are conspicuous especially 1-2 h after the injection and the cells become normal again within 24 h. It is concluded that glycine has an inhibitory action upon the rabbit ERG in vivo. This action, on the basis of our morphological observations under our experimental conditions, may be due to an overall somatic membrane action rather than to an action as inhibitory neurotransmitter at the synaptic level. The reversible cellular lesions of amacrine cells after glycine administration with a concomitant, transient loss of oscillatory potentials (OP) supports the hypothesis that the cellular origin of OP is situated in amacrine cells.

  16. Glycine increases preimplantation development of mouse oocytes following vitrification at the germinal vesicle stage

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xin-Yan; Rose, Jack; Wang, Shi-Yong; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Meng; Xing, Ming-Jie; Chang, Tong; Xu, Baozeng

    2016-01-01

    Ice-free cryopreservation, referred to as vitrification, is receiving increased attention in the human and animal assisted reproduction. However, it introduces the detrimental osmotic stress by adding and removing high contents of cryoprotectants. In this study, we evaluated the effects of normalizing cell volume regulation by adding glycine, an organic osmolyte, during vitrification of mouse germinal vesicle stage oocyte and/or subsequent maturation on its development. The data showed that glycine supplementation in either vitrification/thawing or maturation medium significantly improved the cytoplasmic maturation of MII oocytes manifested by spindle assembly, chromosomal alignment, mitochondrial distribution, euploidy rate, and blastocyst development following fertilization in vitro, compared to the control without glycine treatment. Furthermore, glycine addition during both vitrification/thawing and maturation further enhanced the oocyte quality demonstrated by various markers, including ATP contents and embryo development. Lastly, the effect of anti-apoptosis was also observed when glycine was added during vitrification. Our result suggests that reducing osmotic stress induced by vitrification could improve the development of vitrified mouse oocyte. PMID:27845423

  17. Localization of glycine, GABA and neuropeptide containing neurons in tiger salamander retina

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Putative glycinergic and GABAergic neurons in the salamander retina were localized by a parallel analysis of high affinity {sup 3}H-glycine uptake and glycine-like immunoreactivity (Gly-IR) and a comparative analysis of high affinity {sup 3}H-GABA uptake, GABA, like immunoreactivity (GABA-IR), and glutamate decarboxylase immunoreactivity (GAD-IR) at the light microscopic level. Good correspondence of labeling of {sup 3}H-glycine uptake and Gly-IR as well as that of {sup 3}H-GABA uptake and GABA-IR were observed. In addition, GAD immunoreactive neurons contained GABA-IR as well. Extensive colocalization of {sup 3}H-glycine uptake and Gly-IR and that of {sup 3}H-GABA uptake, GABA-IR and perhaps GAD-IR were indicated by the similarities in the distribution, morphology and labeling frequency of neurons and lamination in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). However, the Gly-IR and the GABA-IR probes appeared to be more sensitive and can thus be a reliable marker for glycine and GABA containing neurons respectively.

  18. Modulation of calcium channels by taurine acting via a metabotropic-like glycine receptor.

    PubMed

    Albiñana, E; Sacristán, S; Martín del Río, R; Solís, J M; Hernández-Guijo, J M

    2010-11-01

    Taurine is one of the most abundant free amino acids in the central nervous system, where it displays several functions. However, its molecular targets remain unknown. It is well known that taurine can activate GABA-A and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors, which increases a chloride conductance. In this study, we describe that acute application of taurine induces a dose-dependent inhibition of voltage-dependent calcium channels in chromaffin cells from bovine adrenal medullae. This taurine effect was not explained by the activation of either GABA-A, GABA-B or strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors. Interestingly, glycine mimicked the modulatory action exerted by taurine on calcium channels, although the acute application of glycine did not elicit any ionic current in these cells. Additionally, the modulation of calcium channels exerted by both taurine and glycine was prevented by the intracellular dialysis of GDP-β-S. Thus, the modulation of voltage-dependent calcium channels by taurine seems to be mediated by a metabotropic-like glycinergic receptor coupled to G-protein activation in a membrane delimited pathway.

  19. Genetic variants associated with glycine metabolism and their role in insulin sensitivity and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weijia; Wood, Andrew R; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Weedon, Michael N; Knowles, Joshua W; Alkayyali, Sami; Assimes, Themistocles L; Quertermous, Thomas; Abbasi, Fahim; Paananen, Jussi; Häring, Hans; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Smith, Ulf; Laakso, Markku; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Nolan, John J; Groop, Leif; Ferrannini, Ele; Adam, Klaus-Peter; Gall, Walter E; Frayling, Timothy M; Walker, Mark

    2013-06-01

    Circulating metabolites associated with insulin sensitivity may represent useful biomarkers, but their causal role in insulin sensitivity and diabetes is less certain. We previously identified novel metabolites correlated with insulin sensitivity measured by the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. The top-ranking metabolites were in the glutathione and glycine biosynthesis pathways. We aimed to identify common genetic variants associated with metabolites in these pathways and test their role in insulin sensitivity and type 2 diabetes. With 1,004 nondiabetic individuals from the RISC study, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 14 insulin sensitivity-related metabolites and one metabolite ratio. We replicated our results in the Botnia study (n = 342). We assessed the association of these variants with diabetes-related traits in GWAS meta-analyses (GENESIS [including RISC, EUGENE2, and Stanford], MAGIC, and DIAGRAM). We identified four associations with three metabolites-glycine (rs715 at CPS1), serine (rs478093 at PHGDH), and betaine (rs499368 at SLC6A12; rs17823642 at BHMT)-and one association signal with glycine-to-serine ratio (rs1107366 at ALDH1L1). There was no robust evidence for association between these variants and insulin resistance or diabetes. Genetic variants associated with genes in the glycine biosynthesis pathways do not provide consistent evidence for a role of glycine in diabetes-related traits.

  20. Salt adaptation in Acinetobacter baylyi: identification and characterization of a secondary glycine betaine transporter.

    PubMed

    Sand, Miriam; de Berardinis, Veronique; Mingote, Ana; Santos, Helena; Göttig, Stephan; Müller, Volker; Averhoff, Beate

    2011-10-01

    Members of the genus Acinetobacter are well known for their metabolic versatility that allows them to adapt to different ecological niches. Here, we have addressed how the model strain Acinetobacter baylyi copes with different salinities and low water activities. A. baylyi tolerates up to 900 mM sodium salts and even higher concentrations of potassium chloride. Growth at high salinities was better in complex than in mineral medium and addition of glycine betaine stimulated growth at high salinities in mineral medium. Cells grown at high salinities took up glycine betaine from the medium. Uptake of glycine betaine was energy dependent and dependent on a salinity gradient across the membrane. Inspection of the genome sequence revealed two potential candidates for glycine betaine transport, both encoding potential secondary transporters, one of the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) class (ACIAD2280) and one of the betaine/choline/carnitine transporter (BCCT) family (ACIAD3460). The latter is essential for glycine betaine transport in A. baylyi. The broad distribution of ACIAD3460 homologues indicates the essential role of secondary transporters in the adaptation of Acinetobacter species to osmotic stress.

  1. Positron and electron scattering by glycine and alanine: Shape resonances and methylation effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Fernanda B.; Bettega, Márcio H. F.; Sanchez, Sergio d'Almeida

    2016-12-01

    We report integral cross sections (ICSs) for both positron and electron scattering by glycine and alanine amino acids. These molecules differ only by a methyl group. We computed the scattering cross sections using the Schwinger multichannel method for both glycine and alanine in different levels of approximation for both projectiles. The alanine ICSs are greater in magnitude than the glycine ICSs for both positron and electron scattering, probably due to the larger size of the molecule. In electron scattering calculations, we found two resonances for each molecule. Glycine presents one at 1.8 eV, and another centered at around 8.5 eV, in the static-exchange plus polarization (SEP) approximation. The ICS for alanine shows one resonance at 2.5 eV and another at around 9.5 eV, also in SEP approximation. The results are in good agreement with most of the data present in the literature. The comparison of the electron scattering ICSs for both molecules indicates that the methylation of glycine destabilizes the resonances, shifting them to higher energies.

  2. NMDA receptor coagonist glycine site: evidence for a role in lateral hypothalamic stimulation of feeding.

    PubMed

    Stanley, B G; Butterfield, B S; Grewal, R S

    1997-08-01

    To investigate the role of the glycine coagonist binding site on the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in feeding control, we injected the glycine site antagonist 7-chlorokynurenic acid (7-CK) into the lateral hypothalamus (LH) of satiated rats before LH injection of NMDA, 7-CK (10-44 nmol) blocked the 6- to 10-g eating response elicited by NMDA. This block was reversed by LH pretreatment with glycine, arguing for a specific action at the glycine site. In contrast to the suppression produced by high doses, 7-CK at 0.1 nmol enhanced NMDA-elicited eating. For examination of behavioral specificity, 7-CK was injected into the LH before kainic acid (KA) or DL-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA). 7-CK at a dose of 0.1 nmol suppressed feeding elicited by KA or AMPA, but at 10 nmol it suppressed eating elicited by AMPA while enhancing eating elicited by KA. Finally, bilateral LH injection of 7-CK effectively suppressed eating produced by fasting. These findings support a role for the NMDA receptor coagonist glycine site in LH regulation of eating behavior.

  3. Aphis Glycines Virus 2, a Novel Insect Virus with a Unique Genome Structure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sijun; Vijayendran, Diveena; Chen, Yuting; Bonning, Bryony C

    2016-11-19

    The invasive soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, is a major pest in soybeans, resulting in substantial economic loss. We analyzed the A. glycines transcriptome to identify sequences derived from viruses of A. glycines. We identified sequences derived from a novel virus named Aphis glycines virus 2 (ApGlV2). The assembled virus genome sequence was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Sanger sequencing, conserved domains were characterized, and distribution, and transmission examined. This virus has a positive sense, single-stranded RNA genome of ~4850 nt that encodes three proteins. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of ApGlV2 is a permuted RdRp similar to those of some tetraviruses, while the capsid protein is structurally similar to the capsid proteins of plant sobemoviruses. ApGlV2 also encodes a larger minor capsid protein, which is translated by a readthrough mechanism. ApGlV2 appears to be widespread in A. glycines populations and to persistently infect aphids with a 100% vertical transmission rate. ApGlV2 is susceptible to the antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. This virus, with its unique genome structure with both plant- and insect-virus characteristics, is of particular interest from an evolutionary standpoint.

  4. Density-Dependent Yield of Heterodera glycines-Resistant and -Susceptible Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Koenning, S. R.

    2000-01-01

    Yield of the soybean (Glycine max) cultivar Hartwig with resistance to all races of Heterodera glycines was compared to that of the susceptible cultivar, Deltapine 105, in a field infested with race 2 of this pathogen. The field had previously been in a cropping sequence experiment that provided a range of H. glycines population densities affording the opportunity to evaluate yield potential of resistant and susceptible cultivars in the presence of different levels of soybean cyst nematode in 1992. Plots were planted again in 1993 with the two cultivars in sequences that included Hartwig following Hartwig or Deltapine 105, and Deltapine 105 following Hartwig or Deltapine 105. The yield of Hartwig was inferior to Deltapine 105 at low population densities of H. glycines, but Hartwig yielded more than Deltapine 105 at high population densities. Hartwig was effective in suppressing H. glycines population density compared to susceptible Deltapine 105. The seed yield of Hartwig following Deltapine 105 or Hartwig, and Deltapine 105 following Hartwig yielded more than Deltapine 105 grown for 2 years. PMID:19271001

  5. A molecule-imprinted polyaniline membrane modified on carbon fiber for detection of glycine.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hongjuan; Wang, Deshun; Yu, Junsheng

    2014-01-01

    A layer of L-glycine-molecule-imprinted polyaniline (LMIP-PANI) polymer film has been modified on a carbon fiber electrode for the determination of L-glycine standard samples and L-glycine in cerebrospinal fluid of wistar mice. It has been found that a linear relationship exists between current and concentration for the glycine standard samples in the range of 0-12 μM by using the LMIP-PANI-modified carbon fiber electrode as a sensor. However, there is no any relationship between current and concentration for the carbon fiber electrode modified with no-glycine-molecule-imprinted polyaniline (NIP-PANI). The MIP-PANI- and NIP-PANI-modified carbon fiber films have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemistry methods. The investigation shows that the MIP-PANI-imprinted carbon fiber electrode will have a potential application in in-situ monitoring neurotransmitter due to its easy fabrication, low cost, bio-compatibility and flexibility.

  6. The spark discharge synthesis of amino acids from various hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ring, D.; Miller, S. L.

    1984-01-01

    The spark discharge synthesis of amino acids using an atmosphere of CH4+N2+H2O+NH3 has been investigated with variable pNH3. The amino acids produced using higher hydrocarbons (ethane, ethylene, acetylene, propane, butane, and isobutane) instead of CH4 were also investigated. There was considerable range in the absolute yields of amino acids, but the yields relative to glycine (or alpha-amino-n-butyric acid) were more uniform. The relative yields of the C3 to C6 aliphatic alpha-amino acids are nearly the same (with a few exceptions) with all the hydrocarbons. The glycine yields are more variable. The precursors to the C3-C6 aliphatic amino acids seem to be produced in the same process, which is separate from the synthesis of glycine precursors. It may be possible to use these relative yields as a signature for a spark discharge synthesis provided corrections can be made for subsequent decomposition events (e.g. in the Murchison meteorite).

  7. Endophytic Penicillium funiculosum LHL06 secretes gibberellin that reprograms Glycine max L. growth during copper stress

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Heavy metal pollution in crop fields is one of the major issues in sustainable agriculture production. To improve crop growth and reduce the toxic effects of metals is an ideal strategy. Understanding the resilience of gibberellins producing endophytic fungi associated with crop plants in metal contaminated agriculture fields could be an important step towards reducing agrochemical pollutions. In present study, it was aimed to screen and identify metal resistant endophyte and elucidate its role in rescuing crop plant growth and metabolism during metal stress. Results Fungal endophyte, Penicillium funiculosum LHL06, was identified to possess higher growth rate in copper (Cu) and cadmium contaminated mediums as compared to other endophytes (Metarhizium anisopliae, Promicromonospora sp. and Exophiala sp.). P. funiculosum had high biosorption potential toward copper as compared to cadmium. An endophyte-metal-plant interaction was assessed by inoculating the host Glycine max L. plants with P. funiculosum during Cu (100 μM) stress. The Cu application adversely affected the biomass, chlorophyll and total protein content of non-inoculated control plants. The control plants unable to synthesis high carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen because the roots had lower access to phosphorous, potassium, sulphur and calcium during Cu treatment. Conversely, P. funiculosum-association significantly increased the plant biomass, root physiology and nutrients uptake to support higher carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen assimilation in shoot. The metal-removal potential of endophyte-inoculated plants was significantly higher than control as the endophyte-association mediated the Cu uptake via roots into shoots. The symbiosis rescued the host-plant growth by minimizing Cu-induced electrolytic leakage and lipid peroxidation while increasing reduces glutathione activities to avoid oxidative stress. P. funiculosum-association synthesized higher quantities of proline and glutamate as compared

  8. Pigmented Soybean (Glycine max) Seed Coats Accumulate Proanthocyanidins during Development.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, J. J.; Vodkin, L. O.

    1993-01-01

    The dominant I gene inhibits accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in the epidermal layer of soybean (Glycine max) seed coats. Seed-coat color is also influenced by the R locus and by the pubescence color alleles (T, tawny; t, gray). Protein and RNA from cultivars with black (i,R,T) and brown (i,r,T) seed coats are difficult to extract. To determine the nature of the interfering plant products, we examined seed-coat extracts from Clark isogenic lines for flavonoids, anthocyanins, and possible proanthocyanidins by thin-layer chromatography. We show that yellow seed-coat varieties (I) do not accumulate anthocyanins (anthocyanidin glycosides) or proanthocyanidins (polymeric anthocyanidins). Mature, black (i,R,T) and imperfect-black (i,R,t) seed coats contained anthocyanins, whereas mature, brown (i,r,T) and buff (i,r,t) seed coats did not contain anthocyanins. In contrast, all colored (i) genotypes tested positive for the presence of proanthocyanidins by butanol/ HCl and 0.5% vanillin assays. Immature, black (i,R,T) and brown (i,r,T) seed coats contained significant amounts of procyanidin, a 3[prime],4[prime]-hydroxylated proanthocyanidin. Immature, black (i,R,T) or brown (i,r,T) seed-coat extracts also tested positive for the ability to precipitate proteins in a radial diffusion assay and to bind RNA in vitro. Imperfect-black (i,R,t) or buff (i,r,t) seed coats contained lesser amounts of propelargonidin, a 4[prime]-hydroxylated proanthocyanidin. Seed-coat extracts from these genotypes did not have the ability to precipitate protein or bind to RNA. In summary, the dominant I gene controls inhibition of not only anthocyanins but also proanthocyanidins in soybean seed coats. In homozygous recessive i genotypes, the T-t gene pair determines the types of proanthocyanidins present, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the T locus encodes a microsomal 3[prime]-flavonoid hydroxylase. PMID:12231856

  9. Cryoprotective effect of glycine betaine and glycerol is not based on a single mechanism.

    PubMed

    Popova, A V; Busheva, M R

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of action of the osmoregulatory substances glycine betaine and glycerol in the course of the freeze-thaw cycle was studied. Photochemical activity of isolated thylakoid membranes was effectively protected during freezing by both solutes by preventing dissociation of the peripheral cold labile proteins - the water splitting system and plastocyanin. It is suggested that the cryoprotective effect of glycine betaine and glycerol is based on a mechanism similar to the well documented stabilization of complex enzymes against dissociation into subunits at high salt concentrations. Specific solute-membrane interactions additionally contribute to the observed cryoprotective effect. The binding of the molecules of glycine betaine and glycerol is limited to the water lipid interface of thylakoid membranes.

  10. Formation of homochiral glycine/Cu(111) quantum corral array realized using alanine nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Miki; Huang, Hui; Kanazawa, Ken; Taninaka, Atsushi; Yoshida, Shoji; Takeuchi, Osamu; Shigekawa, Hidemi

    2015-08-01

    Glycine has enantiomeric isomers on a Cu(111) surface through the dissociation of hydrogen from the carboxyl group and forms an array of quantum corrals of ∼1.3 nm diameter. Stable homo-chiral glycinate trimers are formed in the first step, which subsequently form a network with a hexagonal arrangement. However, domains with R- or S-chirality coexist with the same probability. On the other hand, α-alanine has D- and L-chirality in nature and forms a similar quantum corral array on Cu(111) with R- and S-chirality, respectively. Here, by using α-alanine molecules as nuclei, the chirality of glycine molecules was controlled and a homochiral quantum corral array was successfully formed, which indicates the possibility that the optical isomers can be separated through a method such as preferential crystallization.

  11. Effects of isosmotic and hyperosmotic glycine solutions on the fluid balance in conscious sheep.

    PubMed

    Hahn, R; Hjelmqvist, H; Rundgren, M

    1989-01-01

    Glycine 0.55 g.kg-1 was given as an isosmotic (285 mosmol.kg-1) and a hyperosmotic (approx. 3,000 mosmol.kg-1) solution by intravenous infusion during 30 min to six euhydrated ewes. Urine and blood samples were collected, and the distribution of the administered water between the intra- and extracellular fluids (ICF and ECF) was calculated for up to 150 min after the infusions. Both solutions produced an osmotic diuresis with a marked increase of the urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, and amino acids. A paradoxical increase of the plasma vasopressin concentration occurred from the isosmotic but not from the hyperosmotic glycine solution. At the end of the follow-up period, the isosmotic glycine solution had resulted in hyperhydration of the ICF and the hyperosmotic solution in dehydration of the ICF, whereas with both fluids, the ECF resumed the same volume as before the experiments.

  12. Role of Glycine Betaine and Related Osmolytes in Osmotic Stress Adaptation in Yersinia enterocolitica ATCC 9610

    PubMed Central

    Park, S.; Smith, L. T.; Smith, G. M.

    1995-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a gram-negative, food-borne pathogen that can grow in 5% NaCl and at refrigerator temperatures. In this report, the compatible solutes (osmolytes) which accumulate intracellularly and confer the observed osmotic tolerance to this pathogen were identified. In minimal medium, glutamate was the only detectable osmolyte that accumulated in osmotically stressed cells. However, when the growth medium was supplemented with glycine betaine, dimethylglycine, or carnitine, the respective osmolyte accumulated intracellularly to high levels and the growth rates of the osmotically stressed cultures improved from 2.4- to 3.5-fold. Chill stress also stimulated the intracellular accumulation of glycine betaine, but the growth rate was only slightly improved by this osmolyte. Both osmotic upshock and temperature downshock stimulated the rate of uptake of [(sup14)C]glycine betaine by more than 30-fold, consistent with other data indicating that the osmolytes are accumulated from the growth medium via transport. PMID:16535192

  13. Standard thermodynamic functions of Co2+ complexation with glycine and L-histidine in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorboletova, G. G.; Metlin, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    The enthalpies of the reactions between solutions of Co(NO3)2 and solutions of glycine (Gly) and L-histidine (His) are determined via direct calorimetry at different pH values and metal: ligand ratios using KNO3 as a background electrolyte ( T = 298.15 K, I = 0.2-1.0). The enthalpy changes upon the formation of cobalt glycinate complexes and Co2+ mixed-ligand complex, viz., glycine-L-histidine, were calculated. The standard thermodynamic parameters (Δr H°, Δr G°, Δr S°) of complexation are determined. The CoGlyHis complex is shown to be stable toward decomposition into homogeneous complexes.

  14. A novel treatment of global cerebral ischaemia with a glycine partial agonist.

    PubMed

    Von Lubitz, D K; Lin, R C; McKenzie, R J; Devlin, T M; McCabe, R T; Skolnick, P

    1992-08-14

    Chronic treatment of gerbils with 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid (a high affinity, partial agonist at strychnine-insensitive glycine receptors) resulted in a 3-fold increase in survival, a significant improvement in neurological status, and an extensive protection of vulnerable brain regions following severe forebrain ischaemia. A bolus of 1-aminocyclopropanecarboxylic acid 30 min prior to ischaemia did not further improve outcome compared to gerbils receiving their last injection 24 h prior to ischaemia. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that chronic treatment with a glycine partial agonist desensitizes the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex. Pharmacological intervention at the strychnine-insensitive glycine receptor may be an effective means of ameliorating the consequences of neuronal degeneration caused by excitotoxic phenomena.

  15. Microarray detection calls as a means to compare transcripts within syncytial cells isolated from incompatible and compatible soybean (Glycine max) roots infected by the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolate pericycle and syncytial cells in soybean (Glycine max cultivar [cv.] Peking) roots infected by incompatible or compatible populations of soybean cyst nematode (SCN [Heterodera glycines]). Gene transcript detection calls were assayed using the A...

  16. Phytochelatin synthesis in tomato cells

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsbrough, P.; Gupta, S.; Huang, B.; Scheller, H.

    1987-04-01

    Tomato cells that are exposed to cadmium and other heavy metals synthesize phytochelatins (PCs), a family of peptides that bind heavy metals and are structurally related to glutathione (GSH). PCs have the structure (..gamma..-glutamyl-cysteinyl) glycine; for PCs, n=2-10; GSH, n=1. GSH levels decline rapidly in tomato cells exposed to Cd/sup 2 +/. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of GSH synthesis, prevents sustained synthesis of PC. However the addition of GSH to the medium of BSO-treated cells restores PC production. In vivo labeling studies indicate that /sup 35/(S)-cysteine is incorporated into PC via GSH, rather than being added directly to GSH or pre-formed PC. Initial synthesis of PCs is not inhibited by cycloheximide. Tomato cell cultures that are tolerant of high levels of Cd/sup 2 +/ contain large amounts of PCs. However, when sensitive and tolerant cells that have been grown in the absence of Cd/sup 2 +/ are exposed to relatively low concentrations of Cd/sup 2 +/, they synthesize PCs at similar rates. These and other results suggest that, although PCs are necessary, increased PC synthesis is not sufficient for expression of the Cd/sup 2 +/ tolerant phenotype.

  17. Determination of 13C isotopic enrichment of glutathione and glycine by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry after formation of the N- or N,S-ethoxycarbonyl methyl ester derivatives.

    PubMed

    Tea, Illa; Ferchaud-Roucher, Véronique; Küster, Alice; Darmaun, Dominique; Robins, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    The depletion of glutathione (GSH) reported in very-low-birth-weight infants is implicated in several pathologies, especially if deficiency occurs during foetal development. The cause of this depletion is suggested to be modification of GSH turnover. To probe the role of GSH, a reliable non-invasive method adapted to very-low-birth-weight infants is required. In this paper, we report the preparation of the N,S-ethoxycarbonyl methyl ester derivatives of GSH and glycine and their application to the measurement of (13)C/(12)C ratios at natural abundance in erythrocyte samples by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS). The technique allowed the determination of (13)C/(12)C ratios at natural abundance with a precision <3% and within-day and between-day variabilities both <4%. The method is able to determine accurately low (13)C-enrichments in GSH (0.00241 to 0.00753 Atom Percent Excess) in erythrocyte extracts following incubation with (13)C-glycine at low specific enrichment (approx. 1.5 atom %). Excellent agreement was obtained between the calculated GSH fractional synthesis rate (FSR) in human adult blood (approx. 300% day(-1)) using the low-enrichment (13)C-glycine/GC/C/IRMS protocol and that using highly enriched (13)C-glycine (99 atom %)/GC/MS with the same derivative. The GC/C/IRMS method was shown to be suitable to measure the in vitro GSH FSR (200-660% day(-1)) in human venous and arterial blood from the umbilical cord. This approach provides a good tool for studying the turnover of GSH in vitro in infants, allowing both the use of minimal amounts of tracer and negligible perturbation of endogenous precursor pools.

  18. Factors Affecting the Suppression of Heterodera glycines by N-Viro Soil

    PubMed Central

    Zasada, I. A.

    2005-01-01

    Previous laboratory research demonstrated that N-Viro Soil (NVS), an alkaline-stabilized municipal biosolid, suppressed plant-parasitic nematodes. This study continued to explore the use of NVS as a nematode management tool specifically addressing factors that could influence its use. N-Viro Soil from different locations, the components of NVS (de-watered biosolids and fly ash admixtures), and sterilized NVS were applied to sand microcosms to determine effects on nematode survival sand solution pH and ammonia concentrations. This study confirmed the previous finding that an important mechanism of Heterodera glycines suppression by NVS was the generation of alkaline soil conditions. Only the fly ash admixture that resulted in an increase in pH to 10.0 suppressed H. glycines to the same level as NVS. Alkaline-stabilization of biosolids was necessary to achieve nematode suppression. Biosolids applied at rates <3% dry w/w did not suppress H. glycines to the same level as equivalent amounts of NVS. Sand solution pH levels after biosolid application, regardless of rate, were approximately 8.5 whereas 1% and 4% w/w NVS amendment resulted in pH levels of 10.3 and 11.6, respectively. NVS from different processing facilities were all effective in suppressing H. glycines. The NVS source that produced the highest concentration of ammonia did not reduce H. glycines survival to the same level as those sources generating pH levels above 10.1. Microbes associated with NVS appeared not to be responsible for the nematode suppressiveness of the amendment; there was no difference in nematode suppression between autoclaved and nonautoclaved NVS. The role that ammonia plays in the suppression of H. glycines by NVS is still unclear. PMID:19262864

  19. Mechanisms of GABA and glycine depolarization-induced calcium transients in rat dorsal horn neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Reichling, D B; Kyrozis, A; Wang, J; MacDermott, A B

    1994-01-01

    1. The mechanisms and effects of GABA- and glycine-evoked depolarization were studied in cultured rat dorsal horn neurons using indo-1 recordings of [Ca2+]i and patch clamp recordings in conventional whole-cell or perforated-patch mode. 2. Application of GABA to unclamped neurons caused [Ca2+]i increases that were dose dependent and exhibited GABAA receptor pharmacology. Calcium entered the neurons via high-threshold voltage-gated calcium channels (conotoxin and nimodipine sensitive). 3. In perforated-patch recordings employing cation-selective ionophores, GABAA receptor activation depolarized 123 of 132 cells to membrane potentials as depolarized as -33 mV (mean -50 mV in all 132 cells, +12 mV above resting potential). The ionic basis of the depolarization was determined by extracellular ion substitution; increased anionic conductance could account fully for the results. 4. Glycine, acting at a strychnine-sensitive receptor, also caused Ca2+ entry into these neurons through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Glycine and GABA both evoked [Ca2+]i responses in the same cells and the responses were highly correlated in amplitude. Glycine also depolarized all five cells tested with perforated recording. Each of the five cells was also depolarized by muscimol to a value similar to that obtained for glycine. 5. Both the depolarization and the increases in [Ca2+]i caused by GABA and glycine could potentially play a role in processes of development and differentiation and sensory transmission in the spinal cord dorsal horn. PMID:8057250

  20. Osmotic and Chill Activation of Glycine Betaine Porter II in Listeria monocytogenes Membrane Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Gerhardt, Paul N. M.; Tombras Smith, Linda; Smith, Gary M.

    2000-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen known for its tolerance to conditions of osmotic and chill stress. Accumulation of glycine betaine has been found to be important in the organism's tolerance to both of these stresses. A procedure was developed for the purification of membranes from L. monocytogenes cells in which the putative ATP-driven glycine betaine permease glycine betaine porter II (Gbu) is functional. As is the case for the L. monocytogenes sodium-driven glycine betaine uptake system (glycine betaine porter I), uptake in this vesicle system was dependent on energization by ascorbate-phenazine methosulfate. Vesicles lacking the gbu gene product had no uptake activity. Transport by this porter did not require sodium ion and could be driven only weakly by artificial gradients. Uptake rates could be manipulated under conditions not affecting secondary transport but known to affect ATPase activity. The system was shown to be both osmotically activated and cryoactivated. Under conditions of osmotic activation, the system exhibited Arrhenius-type behavior although the uptake rates were profoundly affected by the physical state of the membrane, with breaks in Arrhenius curves at approximately 10 and 18°C. In the absence of osmotic activation, the permease could be activated by decreasing temperature within the range of 15 to 4°C. Kinetic analyses of the permease at 30°C revealed Km values for glycine betaine of 1.2 and 2.9 μM with Vmax values of 2,200 and 3,700 pmol/min · mg of protein under conditions of optimal osmotic activation as mediated by KCl and sucrose, respectively. PMID:10762257

  1. Investigations of the contribution of a putative glycine hinge to ryanodine receptor channel gating.

    PubMed

    Euden, Joanne; Mason, Sammy A; Viero, Cedric; Thomas, N Lowri; Williams, Alan J

    2013-06-07

    Ryanodine receptor channels (RyR) are key components of striated muscle excitation-contraction coupling, and alterations in their function underlie both inherited and acquired disease. A full understanding of the disease process will require a detailed knowledge of the mechanisms and structures involved in RyR function. Unfortunately, high-resolution structural data, such as exist for K(+)-selective channels, are not available for RyR. In the absence of these data, we have used modeling to identify similarities in the structural elements of K(+) channel pore-forming regions and postulated equivalent regions of RyR. This has identified a sequence of residues in the cytosolic cavity-lining transmembrane helix of RyR (G(4864)LIIDA(4869) in RyR2) analogous to the glycine hinge motif present in many K(+) channels. Gating in these K(+) channels can be disrupted by substitution of residues for the hinge glycine. We investigated the involvement of glycine 4864 in RyR2 gating by monitoring properties of recombinant human RyR2 channels in which this glycine is replaced by residues that alter gating in K(+) channels. Our data demonstrate that introducing alanine at position 4864 produces no significant change in RyR2 function. In contrast, function is altered when glycine 4864 is replaced by either valine or proline, the former preventing channel opening and the latter modifying both ion translocation and gating. Our studies reveal novel information on the structural basis of RyR gating, identifying both similarities with, and differences from, K(+) channels. Glycine 4864 is not absolutely required for channel gating, but some flexibility at this point in the cavity-lining transmembrane helix is necessary for normal RyR function.

  2. Glycine cleavage system in ketotic hyperglycinemia: a reduction of H-protein activity.

    PubMed

    Hayasaka, K; Narisawa, K; Satoh, T; Tateda, H; Metoki, K; Tada, K; Hiraga, K; Aoki, T; Kawakami, T; Akamatsu, H; Matsuo, N

    1982-01-01

    Glycine cleavage activity was compared in the livers from three cases of ketotic hyperglycinemia (two cases of propionic acidemia and one case of methylmalonic acidemia) and three controls. In one case of propionic acidemia, glycine cleavage activity (5.2 nmole/mg protein/hr) was normal in the liver obtained at biopsy when the patient was well controlled by the treatment with low protein diet (0.8 g/kg/day) and the level of serum glycine was lowered to normal. In the two other cases of ketotic hyperglycinemia, glycine cleavage activity was significantly reduced in the liver obtained at autopsy when the patients died in the state of metabolic acidosis. Its activity in the liver of one case of propionic acidemia (0.7 nmole/mg protein/hr) was 6-26% of that in controls (2.7-10.8 nmole/mg protein/hr), and 2-7% in the case of methylmalonic acidemia (0.2 nmole/mg protein/hr). Analysing of the individual components of the glycine cleavage system, a marked decrease in the activity of H-protein was revealed in the livers of the both patients; it (0.2 nmole/mg protein/hr) was only 3-4% of that in controls (4.9-6.3 nmole/mg Protein/hr). These findings suggest that the reduction of the glycine cleavage system in the liver of ketotic hyperglycinemia occurs secondarily as speculated previously and is caused mainly by a decrease of H-protein activity.

  3. Melatonin potentiates glycine currents through a PLC/PKC signalling pathway in rat retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Min; Miao, Yanying; Yang, Xiong-Li; Wang, Zhongfeng

    2010-07-15

    In vertebrate retina, melatonin regulates various physiological functions. In this work we investigated the mechanisms underlying melatonin-induced potentiation of glycine currents in rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Immunofluorescence double labelling showed that rat RGCs were solely immunoreactive to melatonin MT(2) receptors. Melatonin potentiated glycine currents of RGCs, which was reversed by the MT(2) receptor antagonist 4-P-PDOT. The melatonin effect was blocked by intracellular dialysis of GDP-beta-S. Either preincubation with pertussis toxin or application of the phosphatidylcholine (PC)-specific phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor D609, but not the phosphatidylinositol (PI)-PLC inhibitor U73122, blocked the melatonin effect. The protein kinase C (PKC) activator PMA potentiated the glycine currents and in the presence of PMA melatonin failed to cause further potentiation of the currents, whereas application of the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide IV abolished the melatonin-induced potentiation. The melatonin effect persisted when [Ca(2+)](i) was chelated by BAPTA, and melatonin induced no increase in [Ca(2+)](i). Neither cAMP-PKA nor cGMP-PKG signalling pathways seemed to be involved because 8-Br-cAMP or 8-Br-cGMP failed to cause potentiation of the glycine currents and both the PKA inhibitor H-89 and the PKG inhibitor KT5823 did not block the melatonin-induced potentiation. In consequence, a distinct PC-PLC/PKC signalling pathway, following the activation of G(i/o)-coupled MT(2) receptors, is most likely responsible for the melatonin-induced potentiation of glycine currents of rat RGCs. Furthermore, in rat retinal slices melatonin potentiated light-evoked glycine receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents in RGCs. These results suggest that melatonin, being at higher levels at night, may help animals to detect positive or negative contrast in night vision by modulating inhibitory signals largely mediated by glycinergic amacrine cells in the inner

  4. Stoichiometry of the Human Glycine Receptor Revealed by Direct Subunit counting

    PubMed Central

    Durisic, Nela; Godin, Antoine G.; Wever, Claudia M.; Heyes, Colin D.; Lakadamyali, Melike; Dent, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    The subunit stoichiometry of heteromeric glycine-gated channels (GlyRs) determines fundamental properties of these key inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors; however the ratio of α1 to β-subunits per receptor remains controversial. We used single molecule imaging and stepwise photobleaching in Xenopus oocytes to directly determine the subunit stoichiometry of a glycine receptor to be 3α1:2β. This approach allowed us to determine the receptor stoichiometry in mixed populations consisting of both heteromeric and homomeric channels, additionally revealing the quantitative proportions for the two populations. PMID:22973015

  5. Crystal Structure Prediction from First Principles: The Crystal Structures of Glycine

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Albert M.; Pagola, Gabriel I.; Orendt, Anita M.; Ferraro, Marta B.; Facelli, Julio C.

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the results of our unbiased searches of glycine polymorphs obtained using the Genetic Algorithms search implemented in Modified Genetic Algorithm for Crystals coupled with the local optimization and energy evaluation provided by Quantum Espresso. We demonstrate that it is possible to predict the crystal structures of a biomedical molecule using solely first principles calculations. We were able to find all the ambient pressure stable glycine polymorphs, which are found in the same energetic ordering as observed experimentally and the agreement between the experimental and predicted structures is of such accuracy that the two are visually almost indistinguishable. PMID:25843964

  6. Growth and characterization of pure and glycine doped cadmium thiourea sulphate (GCTS) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, M.; Thomas Joseph Prakash, J.

    2012-06-01

    The pure and glycine doped cadmium thiourea sulphate (GCTS) single crystals were grown successfully by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The concentration of dopant in the mother solution was 1 mol%. There is a change in unit cell. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study confirms the incorporation of glycine into CTS crystal. The doped crystals are optically better and more transparent than the pure ones. The dopant increases the hardness value of the material. The grown crystals were also subjected to thermal and NLO studies.

  7. Glycine crystallization in solution by CW laser-induced microbubble on gold thin film surface.

    PubMed

    Uwada, Takayuki; Fujii, Sho; Sugiyama, Teruki; Usman, Anwar; Miura, Atsushi; Masuhara, Hiroshi; Kanaizuka, Katsuhiko; Haga, Masa-aki

    2012-03-01

    We have developed a novel laser-induced crystallization method utilizing local heat-induced bubble/water interface. Continuous laser beam of 1064 nm is focused on a gold nanoparticles thin film surface covered with glycine supersaturated aqueous solution. Light absorption of the film due to localized plasmon resonance caused local heating at the focal position and produced a single thermal vapor microbubble, which generated thermal gradient followed by convection flow around the bubble and eventually induced glycine crystallization and growth. The crystallization mechanism is discussed by considering gathering and accumulating molecules around the bubble/water interface assisted by convection flow and temperature jump.

  8. Crystal structure prediction from first principles: The crystal structures of glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Albert M.; Pagola, Gabriel I.; Orendt, Anita M.; Ferraro, Marta B.; Facelli, Julio C.

    2015-04-01

    Here we present the results of our unbiased searches of glycine polymorphs obtained using the genetic algorithms search implemented in MGAC, modified genetic algorithm for crystals, coupled with the local optimization and energy evaluation provided by Quantum Espresso. We demonstrate that it is possible to predict the crystal structures of a biomedical molecule using solely first principles calculations. We were able to find all the ambient pressure stable glycine polymorphs, which are found in the same energetic ordering as observed experimentally and the agreement between the experimental and predicted structures is of such accuracy that the two are visually almost indistinguishable.

  9. Histidyl-histidine catalysis of glycine condensation in fluctuating clay environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, D. H.; Erickson, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Histidyl-histidine is a remarkably effective catalyst of peptide bond formation in the reaction of glycine in a fluctuating (hot-dry, cold-wet) clay environment. It has shown turnover numbers (molecules of glycine incorporated in oligoglycines per molecule of catalyst) as high as 18 in a single cycle and as high as 52 overall. A number of other dipeptides were tested, as well as monomeric histidine, N-acetyl histidine, and imidazole, none of which showed turnover numbers greater than one. Histidyl-histidine is a model for a prebiotic protoenzyme, and implications for the development of a simple translation mechanism are discussed.

  10. Prebiotic synthesis of histidyl-histidine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, C.; Mills, T.; Oro, J.

    1990-01-01

    Histidyl-histidine (His-His) has been synthesized in a yield of up to 14.4% under plausible prebiotic conditions using histidine (His), cyanamide, and 4-amino-5-imidazole carboxamide. A trace amount of His trimer was also detected. Because the imidazole group of His is involved in a number of important enzymatic reactions, and His-His has been shown to catalyze the prebiotic synthesis of glycyl-glycine, we expect this work will stimulate further studies on the catalytic activities of simple His-containing peptides in prebiotic reactions.

  11. Interaction between taurine and GABA(A)/glycine receptors in neurons of the rat anteroventral cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Song, Ning-Ying; Shi, Hai-Bo; Li, Chun-Yan; Yin, Shan-Kai

    2012-09-07

    Taurine, one of the most abundant endogenous amino acids in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), is involved in neural development and many physiological functions. In this study, the interaction between taurine and GABA(A)/glycine receptors was investigated in young rat (P13-P15) anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) neurons using the whole-cell patch-clamp method. We found that taurine at low (0.1mM) and high (1mM) concentrations activated both GABA(A) and glycine receptors, but not AMPA and NMDA receptors. The reversal potentials of taurine-, GABA- or glycine-evoked currents were close to the expected chloride equilibrium potential, indicating that receptors activated by these agonists were mediating chloride conductance. Moreover, our results showed that the currents activated by co-application of GABA and glycine were cross-inhibitive. Sequential application of GABA and glycine or vice versa also reduced the glycine or GABA evoked currents. There was no cross-inhibition when taurine and GABA or taurine and glycine were applied simultaneously, but the response was larger than that evoked by GABA or glycine alone. These results suggest that taurine can serve as a neuromodulator to strengthen GABAergic and glycinergic neurotransmission in the rat AVCN.

  12. Glycine, a simple physiological compound protecting by yet puzzling mechanism(s) against ischaemia–reperfusion injury: current knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Petrat, Frank; Boengler, Kerstin; Schulz, Rainer; de Groot, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Ischaemia is amongst the leading causes of death. Despite this importance, there are only a few therapeutic approaches to protect from ischaemia–reperfusion injury (IRI). In experimental studies, the amino acid glycine effectively protected from IRI. In the prevention of IRI by glycine in cells and isolated perfused or cold-stored organs (tissues), direct cytoprotection plays a crucial role, most likely by prevention of the formation of pathological plasma membrane pores. Under in vivo conditions, the mechanism of protection by glycine is less clear, partly due to the physiological presence of the amino acid. Here, inhibition of the inflammatory response in the injured tissue is considered to contribute decisively to the glycine-induced reduction of IRI. However, attenuation of IRI recently achieved in experimental animals by low-dose glycine treatment regimens suggests additional/other (unknown) protective mechanisms. Despite the convincing experimental evidence and the large therapeutic width of glycine, there are only a few clinical trials on the protection from IRI by glycine with ambivalent results. Thus, both the mechanism(s) behind the protection of glycine against IRI in vivo and its true clinical potential remain to be addressed in future experimental studies/clinical trials. PMID:22044190

  13. Evaluation of protein extraction methods suitable for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines, SCN) is the most destructive pathogen of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) worldwide. In this study, three different protein extraction methods including phenol/ammonium acetate (phenol method), thiourea/urea solublization (lysis method) and trichloroaceti...

  14. Relative hydrophobicity between the phases and partition of cytochrome-c in glycine ionic liquids aqueous two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    Wu, Changzeng; Wang, Jianji; Li, Zhiyong; Jing, Jun; Wang, Huiyong

    2013-08-30

    In this work, glycine ionic liquids tetramethylammonium glycine ([N1111][Gly]), tetraethylammonium glycine ([N2222][Gly]), tetra-n-butylammonium glycine ([N4444][Gly]), tetra-n-butylphosphonium glycine ([P4444][Gly]) and tetra-n-pentylammonium glycine ([N5555][Gly]) were synthesized and used to prepare aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) in the presence of K2HPO4. Binodal curves of such ATPSs and partition coefficients of a series of dinitrophenylated (DNP) amino acids in these ATPSs were determined at 298.15K to understand the effect of cationic structure of the ionic liquids on the phase-forming ability of glycine ionic liquids, relative hydrophobicity between the phases in the ionic liquids ATPSs, and polarity of the ionic liquids-rich phases. With the attempt to correlate the relative hydrophobicity of the phases in the ATPSs with their extraction capability for proteins, partition coefficients of cytochrome-c in the ATPSs were also determined. It was shown that partition coefficients of cytochrome-c were in the range from 2.83 to 20.7 under the studied pH conditions. Then, hydrophobic interactions between cytochrome-c and the ionic liquid are suggested to be the main driving force for the preferential partition of cytochrome-c in the glycine ionic liquid-rich phases of the ATPSs. Result derived from polarity of the ionic liquids-rich phases supports this mechanism.

  15. Glycine transport accounts for the differential role of glycine vs. D-serine at NMDA receptor coagonist sites in the salamander retina

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Eric R.; Gustafson, Eric C.; Miller, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that D-serine interacts with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) coagonist sites of retinal ganglion cells of the tiger salamander retina by showing that exogenous D-serine overcomes the competitive antagonism of 7-chlorokynurenic acid for this site. Additionally, we show that exogenous D-serine was more than 30 times as effective at potentiating NMDAR currents compared with glycine. We thus examined the importance of glycine transport through the application of selective antagonists of the GlyT1 (NFPS) and GlyT2 (ALX-5670) transport systems, while simultaneously evaluating the degree of occupancy of the NMDAR coagonist binding sites. Analysis was carried out with electrophysiological recordings from the inner retina, including whole-cell recordings from retinal ganglion cells and extracellular recordings of the proximal negative field potential. Blocking the GlyT2 transport system had no effect on the light-evoked NMDAR currents or on the sensitivity of these currents to exogenous D-serine. In contrast, when the GlyT1 system was blocked, the coagonist sites of NMDARs showed full occupancy. These findings clearly establish the importance of the GlyT1 transporter as an essential component for maintaining the coagonist sites of NMDARs in a non-saturated state. The normal, unsaturated state of the NMDAR coagonist binding sites allows modulation of the NMDAR currents, by release of either D-serine or glycine. These results are discussed in light of contemporary findings which favor D-serine over glycine as the major coagonist of the NMDARs found in ganglion cells of the tiger salamander retina. PMID:20374282

  16. The mGluR5 antagonist MPEP elevates accumbal dopamine and glycine levels; interaction with strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors.

    PubMed

    Chau, PeiPei; Söderpalm, Bo; Ericson, Mia

    2011-10-01

    Studies have indicated that the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) antagonist 6-methyl-2-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) decreases ethanol self-administration, and the same receptor type was also suggested to be involved in the mechanism of action of the anti-craving substance acamprosate. Our previous research suggested that glycine receptors (GlyRs) in the nucleus accumbens (nAc) play a major part in mediating the dopamine-elevating properties of ethanol and are highly involved in the ethanol intake-reducing effect of acamprosate. The aim of this study was to examine if modulation of nAc dopamine via mGluR5 antagonism or GlyR agonism is a linked or separated phenomena. The extracellular levels of dopamine as well as of the GlyR ligands, glycine, taurine and β-alanine were measured in the nAc by means of microdialysis after local perfusion of MPEP (100 or 500 µM) with or without pre-treatment with strychnine. MPEP increased dopamine levels, an effect that was blocked by pre-treatment with strychnine. In addition, the higher MPEP concentration increased glycine output, whereas no alterations of taurine or β-alanine were observed. These results indicate a relationship between the glutamatergic and glycinergic transmitter systems in regulating dopamine output, possibly via alteration of extracellular glycine levels. Taken together with our previous data demonstrating the importance of accumbal GlyRs both in ethanol-induced elevation of nAc dopamine and in ethanol consumption, it is plausible that the effects of MPEP treatment, on dopamine output and on ethanol intake, may be mediated via interaction with the same neuronal circuitry that previously has been demonstrated for ethanol, taurine and acamprosate.

  17. Exploiting the right side of the Ramachandran plot: substitution of glycines by D-alanine can significantly increase protein stability.

    PubMed

    Anil, Burcu; Song, Benben; Tang, Yuefeng; Raleigh, Daniel P

    2004-10-20

    A major goal of protein engineering is the enhancement of protein stability. Here we demonstrate a rational method for enhancing the stability of globular proteins by targeting glycine residues which adopt conformations with Phi > 0. Replacement of such a glycine by d-alanine can lead to a significant increase in stability. The approach is tested at three sites in two model proteins. NMR and CD indicated that the substitutions do not alter the structure. Replacement of glycine-24 of the N-terminal domain of L9 (NTL9) with d-Ala results in an increase in stability of 1.3 kcal mol-1, while replacement of glycine-34 of NTL9 leads to an increase of 1.9 kcal mol-1. Replacement of glycine-331 of the UBA domain with d-Ala leads to an increase in stability of 0.6 kcal mol-1.

  18. Plasma fibronectin synthesis in normal and injured humans as determined by stable isotope incorporation.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, C; Blumenstock, F A; Saba, T M; Feustel, P J; Kaplan, J E; Fortune, J B; Hough, L; Gray, V

    1989-01-01

    In humans, plasma fibronectin decreases early after operative injury, burn, or trauma, followed by a rapid restoration with a secondary decline typically observed if such patients become septic. We determined the rate of plasma fibronectin and plasma fibrinogen synthesis in normal subjects and injured patients using a stable isotope incorporation technique with [15N]glycine. During a constant 14-h infusion of [15N]glycine, the enrichment of [15N]glycine in both the free plasma glycine precursor pool as well as the urinary hippurate pool was determined; the latter used as an estimate of intracellular hepatic precursor enrichment. [15N]Glycine enrichment in both plasma fibronectin and fibrinogen was also quantified. The synthesis rate (Js/V) expressed in micrograms per milliliter of plasma per hour and the fractional synthesis rate (FSR) expressed as percentage of the plasma pool produced per day were determined. In normal subjects, the FSR for plasma fibronectin using 15N enrichment into urinary hippurate was 35.35 +/- 1.46%/d, whereas the Js/V was 4.45 +/- 0.19 micrograms/ml plasma per h. In normal subjects, the FSR for plasma fibronectin using 15N enrichment into free plasma glycine was 14.73 +/- 0.63%/d, whereas the Js/V was 1.98 +/- 0.09 micrograms/ml plasma per h. Early (2-3 d) after burn injury, fibronectin synthesis was increased (Js/V = 5.74 +/- 0.36; P less than 0.05), whereas later after injury, fibronectin synthesis began to decline (Js/V = 3.52 +/- 0.24; P less than 0.05) based on 15N enrichment of urinary hippurate. In contrast, the Js/V and FSR of plasma fibrinogen, a well-documented acute-phase plasma protein, revealed a sustained elevation (P less than 0.05) after injury in both the trauma and burn patients. Thus, plasma fibronectin synthesis is elevated early postinjury, which may contribute to the rapid restoration of its blood level. However, once fibronectin levels have normalized, the synthesis of plasma fibronectin appears to decline. PMID

  19. Glycine exists mainly as monomers, not dimers, in supersaturated aqueous solutions: implications for understanding its crystallization and polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Stringfellow, Thomas C; Yu, Lian

    2008-10-22

    Glycine, the simplest amino acid, is described as existing as hydrogen-bonded cyclic dimers in supersaturated aqueous solutions and, as a result, crystallizing in a centrosymmetric polymorph (polymorph alpha) for which the dimer can be viewed as the building unit, in favor of other polymorphs of polar structures. In exhibiting this relation between polymorphic selectivity and self-association in solution, glycine is thought to illustrate a general principle. We measured the freezing-point depression of glycine-water up to 30% supersaturation and found that glycine exists mainly as monomers, not dimers, and that the dimer stability constant K D is smaller than 0.1 kg of H 2O/mol if the observed osmotic abnormality is attributed to dimerization. We also revisited a report cited as evidence for glycine dimerization: the slowdown of glycine diffusion with solution age. Pulsed gradient spin-echo NMR spectroscopy was used in place of the previous method of Gouy interferometry to avoid perturbations to sloution structure caused by the interdiffusion between two solutions of different concentrations. No aging effect was observed on glycine diffusion up to 24% supersaturation after five days. The solute size calculated from diffusivity, viscosity, and the Stokes-Einstein relation showed no increase with concentration or solution age. We conclude that glycine exists in supersaturated aqueous solutions mainly as monomers, not dimers, and remains so upon aging. This result does not invalidate the theories of how pH and additives affect glycine's polymorphic preference, because they begin with the assumption that alpha glycine is the preferred polymorph under normal conditions, but requires a new explanation for that assumption itself.

  20. N[3-(4′-fluorophenyl)-3-(4′-phenylphenoxy)propyl]sarcosine (NFPS) is a selective persistent inhibitor of glycine transport

    PubMed Central

    Aubrey, Karin R; Vandenberg, Robert J

    2001-01-01

    The regulation of glycine concentrations within excitatory synapses is poorly understood and it has been proposed that the GLYT1 subtypes of glycine transporters play a critical role in determining resting concentrations of glycine. Selective GLYT1 inhibitors may provide pharmacological tools to probe the dynamics of synaptic glycine concentrations, which may influence the activation properties of NMDA receptor activity.We have characterized the selectivity and mechanism of action of the glycine transport inhibitor N[3-(4′-fluorophenyl)-3-(4′-phenylphenoxy)propyl]sarcosine (NFPS). The glycine transporters, GLYT1a, b and c and GLYT2a were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and two electrode voltage clamp techniques and radiolabelled 3H-glycine flux measurements were used to characterize the effects of NFPS on glycine transport.NFPS inhibits glycine transport by the GLYT1a, b and c subtypes of glycine transporters, but has no effect on the GLYT2a subtype of transporter. We show that NFPS does not attain its specificity via an interaction with the Na+, Cl− or glycine site, nor does it act at an intracellular site. NFPS inhibition of glycine transport is time and concentration dependent and inhibition of transport by NFPS persists after washout of NFPS from the bath solution, which suggests that inhibition by NFPS is long lasting. PMID:11724748

  1. Root transformation of Glycine max with responsive promoters to nematode infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines), an obligate parasite of plants, is the most damaging pathogen of soybean, causing $469 to $818 million in soybean yield losses annually in the United States. However, there are no soybean cultivars available that are resistant to all SCN populati...

  2. RNA-Seq Atlas of Glycine max: a guide to the soybean transcriptome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A first analysis of the Glycine max (L.) Merr. (soybean) transcriptome using next generation sequencing technology and RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) is presented. This analysis will provide an important resource for understanding transcription and gene co-regulatory networks in soybean, the most economic...

  3. Study of the interaction of antiplasmodial strychnine derivatives with the glycine receptor.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Geneviève; Nguyen, Laurent; Angenot, Luc; Frédérich, Michel; Moonen, Gustave; Tits, Monique; Rigo, Jean-Michel

    2006-01-13

    Strychnos icaja Baill. (Loganiaceae) is a liana found in Central Africa known to be an arrow and ordeal poison but also used by traditional medicine to treat malaria. Recently, many dimeric or trimeric indolomonoterpenic alkaloids with antiplasmodial properties have been isolated from its rootbark. Since these alkaloids are derivatives of strychnine, it was important, in view of their potential use as antimalarial drugs, to assess their possible convulsant strychnine-like properties. In that regard, their interaction with the strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor was investigated by whole-cell patch-clamp recordings on glycine-gated currents in mouse spinal cord neurons in culture and by [(3)H]strychnine competition assays on membranes from adult rat spinal cord. These experiments were carried out on sungucine (leading compound of the chemical class) and on the antiplasmodial strychnogucine B (dimeric) and strychnohexamine (trimeric). In comparison with strychnine, all compounds interact with a very poor efficacy and only at concentrations >1 microM with both [(3)H]strychnine binding and glycine-gated currents. Furthermore, the effects of strychnine and protostrychnine, a monomeric alkaloid (without antiplasmodial activity) also isolated from S. icaja and differing from strychnine only by a cycle opening, were compared in the same way. The weak interaction of protostrychnine confirms the importance of the G cycle ring structure in strychnine for its binding to the glycine receptor and its antagonist properties.

  4. SHMT2 drives glioma cell survival in ischaemia but imposes a dependence on glycine clearance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dohoon; Fiske, Brian P; Birsoy, Kivanc; Freinkman, Elizaveta; Kami, Kenjiro; Possemato, Richard L; Chudnovsky, Yakov; Pacold, Michael E; Chen, Walter W; Cantor, Jason R; Shelton, Laura M; Gui, Dan Y; Kwon, Manjae; Ramkissoon, Shakti H; Ligon, Keith L; Kang, Seong Woo; Snuderl, Matija; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Sabatini, David M

    2015-04-16

    Cancer cells adapt their metabolic processes to support rapid proliferation, but less is known about how cancer cells alter metabolism to promote cell survival in a poorly vascularized tumour microenvironment. Here we identify a key role for serine and glycine metabolism in the survival of brain cancer cells within the ischaemic zones of gliomas. In human glioblastoma multiforme, mitochondrial serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT2) and glycine decarboxylase (GLDC) are highly expressed in the pseudopalisading cells that surround necrotic foci. We find that SHMT2 activity limits that of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) and reduces oxygen consumption, eliciting a metabolic state that confers a profound survival advantage to cells in poorly vascularized tumour regions. GLDC inhibition impairs cells with high SHMT2 levels as the excess glycine not metabolized by GLDC can be converted to the toxic molecules aminoacetone and methylglyoxal. Thus, SHMT2 is required for cancer cells to adapt to the tumour environment, but also renders these cells sensitive to glycine cleavage system inhibition.

  5. Decontamination of solutions containing Cu(II) and ligands tartrate, glycine and quadrol using metallic iron.

    PubMed

    Gyliene, Ona; Vengris, Tomas; Nivinskiene, Ona; Binkiene, Rima

    2010-03-15

    Decontamination of solutions containing Cu(II) complexes with tartrate, glycine and quadrol (N,N,N'N'-tetrakis(2-hydroxypropyl)ethylenediamine) using metallic iron depends on pH and proceeds best in mildly acidic solutions. Cu(II) is completely removed from all solutions containing the ligands investigated. The degree of ligand removal from solutions considerably differs. Tartrate is relatively rapidly and completely removed from solutions. A complete removal of glycine is prolonged. The removal of quadrol from solutions using metallic iron is negligible. Electrochemical investigations showed that tartrate and glycine have inhibitory influence on anodic dissolution of iron at pH 2 and enhance it at pH 4. Quadrol does not exhibit any significant influence on iron dissolution. Chemical analysis and FT-IR investigations have shown that the content of organic compounds is the greatest in the precipitate formed in solutions containing tartrate, while it is considerably lower in glycine containing solutions. The precipitate formed in quadrol-containing solutions during the treatment with metallic iron contains only negligible amount of organics.

  6. Sorption of Cu(II) complexes with ligands tartrate, glycine and quadrol by chitosan.

    PubMed

    Gyliene, Ona; Binkiene, Rima; Butkiene, Rita

    2009-11-15

    The sorption by chitosan in Cu(II) solutions containing tartrate, glycine (amino acetic acid) and quadrol (N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-hydroxypropyl)ethylenediamine) as ligands has been investigated. The degree of sorbate removal strongly depends on pH. In solutions containing tartrate almost complete sorption of both Cu(II) and tartrate proceeds in mildly acidic and neutral solutions. The sorption of Cu(II) is also complete in alkaline solutions containing glycine; meanwhile a substantial sorption of glycine proceeds at pH approximately 6. The Cu(II) sorption in solutions containing quadrol is insignificant. Any sorption of quadrol does not proceed in the whole range of pH investigated. The investigations under equilibrium conditions showed that the Cu(II) sorption from tartrate containing solutions obeys Freundlich equation and in solutions containing glycine and quadrol it fits Langmuir equation. Supposedly, Cu(II) sorption onto chitosan proceeds with formation of amino complexes onto the surface of chitosan; the sorption of tartrate proceeds as electrostatic as well as with formation of amide bonds. Applying of electrolysis enables a complete removal of sorbed Cu(II) and ligands without changes in physical and chemical properties of chitosan. This is confirmed by sorption ability of regenerated chitosan, measurements of its molecular weight, the deacetylation degree and FT-IR spectra.

  7. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... increasing due to changing use patterns in food technology. Therefore, the Food and Drug Administration no... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. 170.50 Section 170.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  8. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... increasing due to changing use patterns in food technology. Therefore, the Food and Drug Administration no... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. 170.50 Section 170.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  9. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... increasing due to changing use patterns in food technology. Therefore, the Food and Drug Administration no... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. 170.50 Section 170.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  10. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... increasing due to changing use patterns in food technology. Therefore, the Food and Drug Administration no... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption. 170.50 Section 170.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  11. Two-dimensional proteome reference maps for the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) reference maps of Heterodera glycines were constructed. After in-gel digestion with trypsin, 803 spots representing 426 proteins were subsequently identified by LC-MS/MS. Proteins with annotated function were further categorized by Gene Ontology. Results showed...

  12. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci from the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ten novel microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized from the soybean aphid, APHIS GLYCINES, a serious invasive pest of soybeans in North America. The isolated loci were polymorphic, with two to 19 alleles in 48 wild individuals collected from Korea, Japan, and the United States. All loci ...

  13. Analyzing Feeding Behavior of Nezara viridula on Glycine max Using Electrical Penetration Graph Techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula, is a pest of soybean, Glycine max, throughout the southern United States. Electrical penetration graph (EPG) techniques were adapted to observe feeding behaviors of fifth instar nymphs on soybean. No differences in types of waveforms were found between ex...

  14. Taurine acts as a glycine receptor agonist in slices of rat inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Han; Wang, Wei; Tang, Zheng-Quan; Xu, Tian-Le; Chen, Lin

    2006-10-01

    Taurine is an important endogenous amino acid for neural development and for many physiological functions, but little is known about its functional role in the central auditory system. We investigated in young rats (P10-P14) the effects of taurine on the neuronal responses and synaptic transmissions in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) with a brain slice preparation and with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. Perfusion of taurine at 1mM reliably evoked a current across the membrane and decreased the input resistance in neurons of the ICC. Taurine also depressed the spontaneous and current-evoked firing of ICC neurons. All these effects were reversible after washout and could be blocked by 3 microM strychnine, an antagonist of glycine receptors, but not by 10 microM bicuculline, an antagonist of GABA(A) receptors. When the inhibitory receptors were not pharmacologically blocked, taurine reversibly reduced the postsynaptic currents/potentials evoked by electrically stimulating the commissure of the inferior colliculus or the ipsilateral lateral lemniscus. The results demonstrate that taurine reduces the neuronal excitability and depresses the synaptic transmission in the ICC by activating glycine-gated chloride channels. Our findings suggest that taurine acts as a ligand of glycine receptors in the ICC and can be involved in the information processing of the central auditory system similarly like the neurotransmitter glycine.

  15. Characterization of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors in acutely isolated adult rat basolateral amygdala neurons.

    PubMed

    McCool, B A; Botting, S K

    2000-03-24

    Large concentrations of the beta-amino acid, taurine, can be found in many forebrain areas such as the basolateral amygdala, a portion of the limbic forebrain intimately associated with the regulation of fear/anxiety-like behaviors. In addition to its cytoprotective and osmoregulatory roles, taurine may also serve as an agonist at GABA(A)- and strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors. In this latter context, the present study demonstrates that application of taurine to acutely isolated neurons from the basolateral amygdala of adult rats causes significant alterations in resting membrane current, as measured by whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology. Using standard pharmacological approaches, we find that currents gated by concentrations of taurine glycine receptors expressed in brainstem and spinal cord. While amygdala glycine receptors can be distinguished from GABA(A) receptors expressed by the same neurons, these two chloride channels are functionally expressed at comparable levels. Given that a number of clinically relevant compounds are associated with the regulation of GABA(A) receptors in this brain region, the presence of both strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and their agonist, taurine, in the basolateral amygdala may suggest an important role for these receptors in the limbic forebrain of adult rats.

  16. Methodology for creating alloplasmic soybean lines by using Glycine tomentella as a maternal parent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean breeders have not exploited the diversity of the 26 wild perennial species of the subgenus Glycine Willd. that are distantly related to soybean [G. max (L.) Merr.]. The objectives of this study were to introgress cytoplasmic and genetic diversity from G. tomentella PI 441001 (2n=78) into the...

  17. Binding of glycine and L-cysteine on Si(111)-7 x 7.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing Yan; Ning, Yue Sheng; Yong, Kian Soon; Cai, Ying Hui; Tang, Hai Hua; Shao, Yan Xia; Alshahateet, Solhe F; Sun, Yue Ming; Xu, Guo Qin

    2007-05-22

    The adsorption of glycine and l-cysteine on Si(111)-7 x 7 was investigated using high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The observation of the characteristic vibrational modes and electronic structures of NH3+ and COO- groups for physisorbed glycine (l-cysteine) demonstrates the formation of zwitterionic species in multilayers. For chemisorbed molecules, the appearance of nu(Si-H), nu(Si-O), and nu(C=Omicron) and the absence of nu(O-H) clearly indicate that glycine and l-cysteine dissociate to produce monodentate carboxylate adducts on Si(111)-7 x 7. XPS results further verified the coexistence of two chemisorption states for each amino acid, corresponding to a Si-NH-CH2-COO-Si [Si-NHCH(CH2SH)COO-Si] species with new sigma-linkages of Si-N and Si-O, and a NH2-CH2-COO-Si [NH2CH(CH2SH)COO-Si] product through the cleavage of the O-H bond, respectively. Glycine/Si(111)-7 x 7 and l-cysteine/Si(111)-7 x 7 can be viewed as model systems for further modification of Si surfaces with biological molecules.

  18. A novel biomimetic material--glycine-PVA ferrofluid that crosses the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Suprabha; Guha, Avijit

    2011-02-01

    The present study describes the efficacy of the glycine-poly(vinyl)alcohol ferrofluid as a contrast enhancer for Magnetic resonance imaging. Interaction between inorganic minerals and biomolecules are extremely unique and interesting. The results demonstrate that ferro fluids can be a good contrast enhancer for Magnetic Resonance Imaging as seen in the very first results after MRI studies.

  19. Molecular lock regulates binding of glycine to a primitive NMDA receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Alvin; Alberstein, Robert; Thomas, Alecia; Zimmet, Austin; Grey, Richard; Mayer, Mark L.; Lau, Albert Y.

    2016-01-01

    The earliest metazoan ancestors of humans include the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. The genome of this comb jelly encodes homologs of vertebrate ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) that are distantly related to glycine-activated NMDA receptors and that bind glycine with unusually high affinity. Using ligand-binding domain (LBD) mutants for electrophysiological analysis, we demonstrate that perturbing a ctenophore-specific interdomain Arg-Glu salt bridge that is notably absent from vertebrate AMPA, kainate, and NMDA iGluRs greatly increases the rate of recovery from desensitization, while biochemical analysis reveals a large decrease in affinity for glycine. X-ray crystallographic analysis details rearrangements in the binding pocket stemming from the mutations, and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the interdomain salt bridge acts as a steric barrier regulating ligand binding and that the free energy required to access open conformations in the glycine-bound LBD is largely responsible for differences in ligand affinity among the LBD variants. PMID:27791085

  20. Direct Effects of Soybean Varietal Selection and Aphis Glycines-Resistant Soybeans on Natural Enemies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The direct effects of three soybean base genetics, each represented by an Aphis glycines-resistant and susceptible variety, on the fitness and performance of two key predators (Orius insidiosus and Harmonia axyridis) were evaluated in the laboratory. Predators were reared from hatch through adulthoo...

  1. The Effect of Ethylene Glycol, Glycine Betaine, and Urea on Lysozyme Thermal Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Leslie, Elizabeth J.; Nordstrom, Anna R.

    2010-01-01

    The four-week student project described in this article is an extension of protein thermal denaturation experiments to include effects of added cosolutes ethylene glycol, glycine betaine, and urea on the unfolding of lysozyme. The transition temperatures and van't Hoff enthalpies for unfolding are evaluated for six concentrations of each cosolute,…

  2. Evaluation of proteases and protease inhibitors in Heterodera glycines cysts obtained from laboratory and field populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteases and proteases inhibitors were evaluated in a number of preparations of Heterodera glycines cysts obtained from glasshouse cultures (GH) and field (LR) populations. Using a FRET-peptide library comprising 512 peptide substrate pools that detect 4 endoprotease types (aspartic, cysteine, meta...

  3. Glycine activated ion channel subunits encoded by ctenophore glutamate receptor genes

    PubMed Central

    Alberstein, Robert; Grey, Richard; Zimmet, Austin; Simmons, David K.; Mayer, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent genome projects for ctenophores have revealed the presence of numerous ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) in Mnemiopsis leidyi and Pleurobrachia bachei, among our earliest metazoan ancestors. Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis show that these form a distinct clade from the well-characterized AMPA, kainate, and NMDA iGluR subtypes found in vertebrates. Although annotated as glutamate and kainate receptors, crystal structures of the ML032222a and PbiGluR3 ligand-binding domains (LBDs) reveal endogenous glycine in the binding pocket, whereas ligand-binding assays show that glycine binds with nanomolar affinity; biochemical assays and structural analysis establish that glutamate is occluded from the binding cavity. Further analysis reveals ctenophore-specific features, such as an interdomain Arg-Glu salt bridge, present only in subunits that bind glycine, but also a conserved disulfide in loop 1 of the LBD that is found in all vertebrate NMDA but not AMPA or kainate receptors. We hypothesize that ctenophore iGluRs are related to an early ancestor of NMDA receptors, suggesting a common evolutionary path for ctenophores and bilaterian species, and suggest that future work should consider both glycine and glutamate as candidate neurotransmitters in ctenophore species. PMID:26460032

  4. Validation of reference genes for gene expression studies in soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a common tool for quantifying mRNA transcripts. To normalize results, a reference gene is mandatory. Aphis glycines is a significant soybean pest, yet gene expression and functional genomics studies are hindered by a lack of stable reference genes. We evalu...

  5. Glycine activated ion channel subunits encoded by ctenophore glutamate receptor genes

    DOE PAGES

    Alberstein, Robert; Grey, Richard; Zimmet, Austin; ...

    2015-10-12

    Recent genome projects for ctenophores have revealed the presence of numerous ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) in Mnemiopsis leidyi and Pleurobrachia bachei, among our earliest metazoan ancestors. Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis show that these form a distinct clade from the well-characterized AMPA, kainate, and NMDA iGluR subtypes found in vertebrates. Although annotated as glutamate and kainate receptors, crystal structures of the ML032222a and PbiGluR3 ligand-binding domains (LBDs) reveal endogenous glycine in the binding pocket, whereas ligand-binding assays show that glycine binds with nanomolar affinity; biochemical assays and structural analysis establish that glutamate is occluded from the binding cavity. Further analysismore » reveals ctenophore-specific features, such as an interdomain Arg-Glu salt bridge, present only in subunits that bind glycine, but also a conserved disulfide in loop 1 of the LBD that is found in all vertebrate NMDA but not AMPA or kainate receptors. In this paper, we hypothesize that ctenophore iGluRs are related to an early ancestor of NMDA receptors, suggesting a common evolutionary path for ctenophores and bilaterian species, and finally suggest that future work should consider both glycine and glutamate as candidate neurotransmitters in ctenophore species.« less

  6. Glycine activated ion channel subunits encoded by ctenophore glutamate receptor genes

    SciTech Connect

    Alberstein, Robert; Grey, Richard; Zimmet, Austin; Simmons, David K.; Mayer, Mark L.

    2015-10-12

    Recent genome projects for ctenophores have revealed the presence of numerous ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) in Mnemiopsis leidyi and Pleurobrachia bachei, among our earliest metazoan ancestors. Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis show that these form a distinct clade from the well-characterized AMPA, kainate, and NMDA iGluR subtypes found in vertebrates. Although annotated as glutamate and kainate receptors, crystal structures of the ML032222a and PbiGluR3 ligand-binding domains (LBDs) reveal endogenous glycine in the binding pocket, whereas ligand-binding assays show that glycine binds with nanomolar affinity; biochemical assays and structural analysis establish that glutamate is occluded from the binding cavity. Further analysis reveals ctenophore-specific features, such as an interdomain Arg-Glu salt bridge, present only in subunits that bind glycine, but also a conserved disulfide in loop 1 of the LBD that is found in all vertebrate NMDA but not AMPA or kainate receptors. In this paper, we hypothesize that ctenophore iGluRs are related to an early ancestor of NMDA receptors, suggesting a common evolutionary path for ctenophores and bilaterian species, and finally suggest that future work should consider both glycine and glutamate as candidate neurotransmitters in ctenophore species.

  7. The whole genome sequence assembly of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aphids are emerging as model organisms for both basic and applied research. Of the 5,000 estimated species, only two aphids have published whole genome sequences: the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia. The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) is an extreme special...

  8. Glycine activated ion channel subunits encoded by ctenophore glutamate receptor genes.

    PubMed

    Alberstein, Robert; Grey, Richard; Zimmet, Austin; Simmons, David K; Mayer, Mark L

    2015-11-03

    Recent genome projects for ctenophores have revealed the presence of numerous ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) in Mnemiopsis leidyi and Pleurobrachia bachei, among our earliest metazoan ancestors. Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis show that these form a distinct clade from the well-characterized AMPA, kainate, and NMDA iGluR subtypes found in vertebrates. Although annotated as glutamate and kainate receptors, crystal structures of the ML032222a and PbiGluR3 ligand-binding domains (LBDs) reveal endogenous glycine in the binding pocket, whereas ligand-binding assays show that glycine binds with nanomolar affinity; biochemical assays and structural analysis establish that glutamate is occluded from the binding cavity. Further analysis reveals ctenophore-specific features, such as an interdomain Arg-Glu salt bridge, present only in subunits that bind glycine, but also a conserved disulfide in loop 1 of the LBD that is found in all vertebrate NMDA but not AMPA or kainate receptors. We hypothesize that ctenophore iGluRs are related to an early ancestor of NMDA receptors, suggesting a common evolutionary path for ctenophores and bilaterian species, and suggest that future work should consider both glycine and glutamate as candidate neurotransmitters in ctenophore species.

  9. NMR properties of hydrogen-bonded glycine cluster in gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Jorge R.; da Silva, Arnaldo Machado; Ghosh, Angsula; Chaudhuri, Puspitapallab

    2016-11-01

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to study the effect of the hydrogen bond formation on the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) parameters of hydrogen-bonded clusters of glycine molecules in gas-phase. DFT predicted isotropic chemical shifts of H, C, N and O of the isolated glycine with respect to standard reference materials are in reasonable agreement with available experimental data. The variations of isotropic and anisotropic chemical shifts for all atoms constituting these clusters containing up to four glycine molecules have been investigated systematically employing gradient corrected hybrid B3LYP functional with three different types of extended basis sets. The clusters are mainly stabilized by a network of strong hydrogen bonds among the carboxylic (COOH) groups of glycine monomers. The formation of hydrogen bond influences the molecular structure of the clusters significantly which, on the other hand, gets reflected in the variations of NMR properties. The carbon (C) atom of the sbnd COOH group, the bridging hydrogen (H) and the proton-donor oxygen (O) atom of the Osbnd H bond suffer downfield shift due to the formation of hydrogen bond. The hydrogen bond lengths and the structural complexity of the clusters are found to vary with the number of participating monomers. A direct correlation between the hydrogen bond length and isotropic chemical shift of the bridging hydrogen is observed in all cases. The individual variations of the principal axis elements in chemical shift tensor provide additional insight about the different nature of the monomers within the cluster.

  10. Distinct transcriptional profiles of ozone stress in soybean (Glycine max) flowers and pods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a secondary air pollutant and anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Concentrations of tropospheric O3 ([O3] have more than doubled since the Industrial Revolution, and are high enough to damage plant productivity. Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is the world's most important legume...

  11. Differentially expressed proteins of soybean (Glycine max) pulvinus in light and dark conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean leaves (Glycine max) both track and avoid the sun through turgor changes of the pulvinus tissue at the base of leaves. Pulvinar response is known to be affected by both diurnally varying environmental factors and circadian patterns. Differential expression of the proteins between light and d...

  12. Analysis and Characterization of Vitamin B Biosynthesis Pathways in the Phytoparasitic Nematode Heterodera Glycines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, James P.

    2009-01-01

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), "Heterodera glycines" is an obligate plant parasite that can cause devastating crop losses. To aide in the study of this pathogen, the SCN genome and the transcriptome of second stage juveniles and eggs were shotgun sequenced. A bioinformatic screen of the data revealed nine genes involved in the "de novo"…

  13. Genetic diversity and population structure of Korean and Chinese soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Korean and Chinese cultivated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] populations are major soybean gene pools. Information has been reported comparing genetic diversity between soybeans from the two countries using an unequal number of accessions and only 6 to 35 genetic markers. This study compares diffe...

  14. Pathogenicity of diaporthe spp. isolates recovered from soybean (glycine max) seeds in Paraguay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) caused by Diaporthe longicolla (Hobbs) J.M. Santos, Vrandecic & A.J.L. Phillips has been documented as part of a soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] fungal disease complex that affects the quality of soybean seed. In 2006, 16 isolates of Diaporthe were recovered from soybean...

  15. Exposure to the proton scavenger glycine under alkaline conditions induces Escherichia coli viability loss.

    PubMed

    Vanhauteghem, Donna; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules; Lauwaerts, Angelo; Sys, Stanislas; Boyen, Filip; Cox, Eric; Meyer, Evelyne

    2013-01-01

    Our previous work described a clear loss of Escherichia coli (E. coli) membrane integrity after incubation with glycine or its N-methylated derivatives N-methylglycine (sarcosine) and N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG), but not N,N,N-trimethylglycine (betaine), under alkaline stress conditions. The current study offers a thorough viability analysis, based on a combination of real-time physiological techniques, of E. coli exposed to glycine and its N-methylated derivatives at alkaline pH. Flow cytometry was applied to assess various physiological parameters such as membrane permeability, esterase activity, respiratory activity and membrane potential. ATP and inorganic phosphate concentrations were also determined. Membrane damage was confirmed through the measurement of nucleic acid leakage. Results further showed no loss of esterase or respiratory activity, while an instant and significant decrease in the ATP concentration occurred upon exposure to either glycine, sarcosine or DMG, but not betaine. There was a clear membrane hyperpolarization as well as a significant increase in cellular inorganic phosphate concentration. Based on these results, we suggest that the inability to sustain an adequate level of ATP combined with a decrease in membrane functionality leads to the loss of bacterial viability when exposed to the proton scavengers glycine, sarcosine and DMG at alkaline pH.

  16. Survivability and reactivity of glycine and alanine in early oceans: effects of meteorite impacts.

    PubMed

    Umeda, Yuhei; Fukunaga, Nao; Sekine, Toshimori; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Takamichi; Nakazawa, Hiromoto

    2016-01-01

    Prebiotic oceans might have contained abundant amino acids, and were subjected to meteorite impacts, especially during the late heavy bombardment. It is so far unknown how meteorite impacts affected amino acids in the early oceans. Impact experiments were performed under the conditions where glycine was synthesized from carbon, ammonia, and water, using aqueous solutions containing (13)C-labeled glycine and alanine. Selected amino acids and amines in samples were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS). In particular, the (13)C-labeled reaction products were analyzed to distinguish between run products and contaminants. The results revealed that both amino acids survived partially in the early ocean through meteorite impacts, that part of glycine changed into alanine, and that large amounts of methylamine and ethylamine were formed. Fast decarboxylation was confirmed to occur during such impact processes. Furthermore, the formation of n-butylamine, detected only in the samples recovered from the solutions with additional nitrogen and carbon sources of ammonia and benzene, suggests that chemical reactions to form new biomolecules can proceed through marine impacts. Methylamine and ethylamine from glycine and alanine increased considerably in the presence of hematite rather than olivine under similar impact conditions. These results also suggest that amino acids present in early oceans can contribute further to impact-induced reactions, implying that impact energy plays a potential role in the prebiotic formation of various biomolecules, although the reactions are complicated and depend upon the chemical environments as well.

  17. High-Quality Genome Sequence of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines Strain 12609 Isolated in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Luo, An-Chi; Lin, Che-Jui

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genomic sequence was determined for Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines strain 12609, isolated in Taiwan. Based on the genome sequence, we predicted the encoded genes, rRNA, tRNA, a plasmid sequence, secretion systems, cyclic GMP- and cyclic di-GMP-mediated pathways, and the gene cluster rpfABCHGDE (regulation of pathogenicity factor). PMID:28232426

  18. Composition and stability of phytochemicals in five varieties of black soybeans (glycine max)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytochemical compositions of five varieties of black soybeans (Glycine max) and their stabilities at room temperature, 4 deg.C and -80 deg.C over 14 months were determined by HPLC systems with electrochemical (HPLC-ECD) and UV detectors. Polyphenol profiling was carried out by liquid chromatography...

  19. Velvetbean and Bahiagrass as Rotation Crops for Management of Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera glycines in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, D. B.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Carden, E. L.

    1998-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) yield often is limited by the phytoparasitic nematodes Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera glycines in the southeastern United States. We studied the effects of rotation with bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum), velvetbean (Mucuna pruiens), or continuous soybean, aldicarb, and soybean cultivar on yield and population densities in two fields infested with a mixture of Meloidogyne spp. and H. glycines. Velvetbean and bahiagrass reduced population levels of both nematode species to near zero prior to planting soybean. At harvest, both nematode populations were equal in soybean following bahiagrass and continuous soybean but were lower following velvetbean. Both bahiagrass and velvetbean as previous crops were equal in producing significantly (P < 0.003) higher yield than continuous soybean. Velvetbean increased subsequent soybean yield by 98% and bahiagrass increased subsequent soybean yield by 85% as previous crops compared to continuous soybean. The major differences between the two rotation crops were yield response of the nematode-susceptible cultivars and at-harvest nematode populations. Velvetbean tended to mask genetic differences among cultivars more so than bahiagrass. Velvetbean also produced a more long-term effect on nematode populations, with numbers of both Meloidogyne spp. and H. glycines lower in soybean following velvethean than following bahiagrass or continuous soybean. PMID:19274247

  20. QTL analysis of shoot ureide and nitrogen concentrations in soybean (Glycine max L. [Merr.])

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fixation in soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) is more sensitive to drought than photosynthesis, and high concentrations of shoot ureide and N are associated with sensitivity of N2 fixation to drought. Genotypic differences in ureide and N concentration were evaluated using a mapping populati...

  1. Glycine betaine improves oxidative stress tolerance and biocontrol efficacy of the antagonistic yeast Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress on the viability of the yeast antagonist, Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum, as well as the effect of exogenous glycine betaine (GB) on yeast viability under oxidative stress, was determined. GB treatment improved the tolerance of C. infirmom...

  2. Glycine betaine improves oxidative stress tolerance and biocontrol efficacy of antagonistic yeast Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of H2O2-induced oxidative stress on the viability of the yeast antagonist, Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum, as well as the effect of exogenous glycine betaine (GB) on yeast viability under oxidative stress, was determined. GB treatment improved the tolerance of C. infirmominiatum to ox...

  3. Occurrence of glycine in the core oligosaccharides of Hafnia alvei lipopolysaccharides--identification of disubstituted glycoform.

    PubMed

    Gozdziewicz, Tomasz K; Man-Kupisinska, Aleksandra; Lugowski, Czesław; Lukasiewicz, Jolanta

    2015-05-18

    Endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) are the main surface antigens and virulence factors of Gram-negative bacteria involved for example in the development of nosocomial infections and sepsis. They consist of three main regions: O-specific polysaccharide, core oligosaccharide, and lipid A. Bacteria modify LPS structure to escape the immune defence, but also to adapt to environmental conditions. LPS's structures are highly diversified in the O-specific polysaccharide region to evade bactericidal factors of immune system, but retain some common epitopes that are potential candidates for therapeutic strategies against bacterial infections. Common occurrence of glycine within the structure of LPS is a known phenomenon and was previously reported for variety of species. Since glycine residue substitutes mainly core oligosaccharide of LPS, especially inner core region, it was also considered as a part of common epitope for broad-reactive antimicrobial antibodies. Herein, we used multiple-stage electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry to identify glycine substitution in core oligosaccharide type characteristic for Hafnia alvei LPS, and isolated from five strains of different O-serotypes: 32, PCM 1190, PCM 1192, PCM 1200, and PCM 1209. The location of glycine in core oligosaccharide was determined in detail for LPS 1190 using ESI-MS(n). Three glycoforms were identified, including two mono-glycinylated and one diglycinylated core oligosaccharides.

  4. Effects of benzyl isothiocyanate on the reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Glycine max and Capsicum annuum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Capsicum annuum or Glycine max was suppressed when infective juveniles (J2) were exposed to 0.03 millimolar benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) for 2hr prior to inoculation of the host. Infectivity assessed by gall index was significantly reduced on both G. max (co...

  5. Cross-Species Amplification and Polymorphism of Microsatellite Loci in the Soybean Aphid, Aphis glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We tested the utility of 18 previously characterized Aphis spp. microsatellite loci for polymorphism and differentiation among populations of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines. Loci were chosen from a closely related species (Aphis gossypii) and a more distantly related species (Aphis fabae). We f...

  6. Molecular lock regulates binding of glycine to a primitive NMDA receptor.

    PubMed

    Yu, Alvin; Alberstein, Robert; Thomas, Alecia; Zimmet, Austin; Grey, Richard; Mayer, Mark L; Lau, Albert Y

    2016-11-01

    The earliest metazoan ancestors of humans include the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi The genome of this comb jelly encodes homologs of vertebrate ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) that are distantly related to glycine-activated NMDA receptors and that bind glycine with unusually high affinity. Using ligand-binding domain (LBD) mutants for electrophysiological analysis, we demonstrate that perturbing a ctenophore-specific interdomain Arg-Glu salt bridge that is notably absent from vertebrate AMPA, kainate, and NMDA iGluRs greatly increases the rate of recovery from desensitization, while biochemical analysis reveals a large decrease in affinity for glycine. X-ray crystallographic analysis details rearrangements in the binding pocket stemming from the mutations, and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the interdomain salt bridge acts as a steric barrier regulating ligand binding and that the free energy required to access open conformations in the glycine-bound LBD is largely responsible for differences in ligand affinity among the LBD variants.

  7. Diversity in Tolerance of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) Germplasm to Soil Waterlogging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) cultivars from the U.S. are generally intolerant to flooding stress. Soybean germplasm and cultivars originating from other countries potentially could have better flooding tolerance. Screen house and field tests were conducted to determine differences in waterlogging ...

  8. Competitive antagonists and partial agonists at the glycine modulatory site of the mouse N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, G; Johnson, J W; Ascher, P

    1990-01-01

    1. Kynurenate (Kyn), 7-chlorokynurenate (7-Cl-Kyn), 3-amino-1-hydroxypyrrolid-2-one (HA-966) and D-cycloserine are known to bind to the glycine site that modulates the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) response of vertebrate central neurones. The effects of these compounds were investigated with patch-clamp and fast-perfusion techniques on mouse cortical neurones in primary culture in an effort to establish whether they act as antagonists, partial agonists and/or inverse agonists of glycine. A fast drug application method allowed the study of both steady-state and transient responses. 2. The analysis of steady-state responses indicates that the main effects of Kyn and 7-Cl-Kyn are those expected from competitive antagonists of glycine, with a dissociation constant of 15 microM for Kyn, and of 0.3 microM for 7-Cl-Kyn. Concentration jumps indicate that at all concentrations of glycine, and in particular in the absence of added glycine, the blockade by Kyn and 7-Cl-Kyn develops at a rate which is close to the rate of dissociation of glycine from its binding site and is independent of antagonist concentration. 3. The main effects of D-cycloserine and of HA-966 are those of partial agonists of high and low efficacy, respectively. In the absence of added glycine, D-cycloserine always produced a potentiation, while HA-966 produced either a potentiation or an inhibition. This can be explained by assuming the presence of a variable level of contaminating glycine. With both D-cycloserine and HA-966, concentration jumps produced biphasic relaxations in which the onset rate of the slow component was, here again, close to the rate of dissociation of glycine from its binding site. 4. These results can be interpreted by assuming that (1) Kyn and 7-Cl-Kyn are competitive antagonists of glycine, (2) HA-966 and D-cycloserine are partial agonists, (3) in the absence of added glycine some glycine is present in the extracellular solution and (4) the response in the total absence of glycine

  9. Characterization of GABA- and glycine-induced currents of solitary rodent retinal ganglion cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Tauck, D L; Frosch, M P; Lipton, S A

    1988-10-01

    Ganglion cells were fluorescently labeled, dissociated from 7- to 11-day-old rodent retinas, and placed in tissue culture. Whole-cell recordings with patch electrodes were obtained from solitary cells lacking processes, which permitted a high-quality space clamp. Both GABA (1-200 microM) and glycine (10-300 microM) produced large increases in membrane conductance in virtually every ganglion cell tested, including ganglion cells from different size classes in both rats and mice. Taurine evoked responses similar to those of glycine, but considerably greater concentrations of taurine (150-300 microM) were necessary to observe any effect. Since 20 microM GABA produced approximately the same response as 100 microM glycine, the effects of these two concentrations were compared under various conditions. When recording with chloride distributed equally across the membrane, the reversal potential of the agonist-induced currents was approximately 0 mV. When the internal chloride was reduced by substitution with aspartate, the reversal potential shifted in a negative direction by about 42 mV, indicating that the current was carried mainly by chloride ions. Strychnine (1-5 microM) completely and reversibly blocked the actions of glycine (100 microM) but not those of GABA (20 microM); however, higher concentrations of strychnine (20 microM) nearly totally inhibited the current elicited by GABA (20 microM). The responses to glycine (100 microM) were not affected by bicuculline methiodide (20 microM) or picrotoxinin (20 microM). In contrast, bicuculline methiodide (10 microM) and picrotoxinin (10 microM) reversibly blocked the current evoked by GABA (20 microM); d-tubocurarine (100 microM) only slightly decreased the response to GABA (20 microM). The antagonists were effective over a wide range of holding potentials (-90 mV to +30 mV). The responses to a steady application of both GABA and glycine decayed in a few seconds when recorded under conditions of both symmetric and

  10. Lithium ions in nanomolar concentration modulate glycine-activated chloride current in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Solntseva, E I; Bukanova, J V; Kondratenko, R V; Skrebitsky, V G

    2016-03-01

    Lithium salts are successfully used to treat bipolar disorder. At the same time, according to recent data lithium may be considered as a candidate medication for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms of therapeutic action of lithium have not been fully elucidated. In particular, in the literature there are no data on the effect of lithium on the glycine receptors. In the present study we investigated the effect of Li(+) on glycine-activated chloride current (IGly) in rat isolated pyramidal hippocampal neurons using patch-clamp technique. The effects of Li(+) were studied with two glycine concentrations: 100 μM (EC50) and 500 μM (nearly saturating). Li(+) was applied to the cell in two ways: first, by 600 ms co-application with glycine through micropipette (short application), and, second, by addition to an extracellular perfusate for 10 min (longer application). Li(+) was used in the range of concentrations of 1 nM-1 mM. Short application of Li(+) caused two effects: (1) an acceleration of desensitization (a decrease in the time of half-decay, or "τ") of IGly induced by both 100 μM and 500 μM glycine, and (2) a reduction of the peak amplitude of the IGly, induced by 100 μM, but not by 500 μM glycine. Both effects were not voltage-dependent. Dose-response curves for both effects were N-shaped with two maximums at 100 nM and 1 mM of Li(+) and a minimum at 1 μM of Li(+). This complex form of dose-response may indicate that the process activated by high concentrations of lithium inhibits the process that is sensitive to low concentrations of lithium. Longer application of Li(+)caused similar effects, but in this case 1 μM lithium was effective and the dose-effect curves were not N-shaped. The inhibitory effect of lithium ions on glycine-activated current suggests that lithium in low concentrations is able to modulate tonic inhibition in the hippocampus. This important property of lithium should be considered when using this drug as a

  11. Dysregulated Glycine Signaling Contributes to Increased Impulsivity during Protracted Alcohol Abstinence.

    PubMed

    Irimia, Cristina; Buczynski, Matthew W; Natividad, Luis A; Laredo, Sarah A; Avalos, Nathaniel; Parsons, Loren H

    2017-02-15

    Persons with alcoholism who are abstinent exhibit persistent impairments in the capacity for response inhibition, and this form of impulsivity is significantly associated with heightened relapse risk. Brain-imaging studies implicate aberrant prefrontal cortical function in this behavioral pathology, although the underlying mechanisms are not understood. Here we present evidence that deficient activation of glycine and serine release in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) contributes to increased motor impulsivity during protracted abstinence from long-term alcohol exposure. Levels of 12 neurotransmitters were monitored in the rat vmPFC during the performance of a challenging variant of the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) in which alcohol-exposed rats exhibit excessive premature responding. Following long-term ethanol exposure, rats showed blunted task-related recruitment of vmPFC glycine and serine release, and the loss of an inverse relationship between levels of these neurotransmitters and premature responding normally evident in alcohol-naive subjects. Intra-vmPFC administration of the glycine transport inhibitor ALX5407 prevented excessive premature responding by alcohol-exposed rats, and this was reliant on NMDA glycine site availability. Alcohol-exposed rats and controls did not differ in their premature responding and glycine and serine levels in vmPFC during the performance of the standard 5-CSRTT. Collectively, these findings provide novel insight into cortical neurochemical mechanisms contributing to increased impulsivity following long-term alcohol exposure and highlight the NMDA receptor coagonist site as a potential therapeutic target for increased impulsivity that may contribute to relapse risk.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Persons with alcoholism demonstrate increased motor impulsivity during abstinence; however, the neuronal mechanisms underlying these behavioral effects remain unknown. Here, we took advantage of an animal model

  12. Stability of carbonaceous dust analogues and glycine under UV irradiation and electron bombardment.

    PubMed

    Maté, Belén; Tanarro, Isabel; Moreno, Miguel A; Jiménez-Redondo, Miguel; Escribano, Rafael; Herrero, Víctor J

    2014-01-01

    The effect of UV photon (120-200 nm) and electron (2 keV) irradiation of analogues of interstellar carbonaceous dust and of glycine were investigated by means of IR spectroscopy. Films of hydrogenated amorphous carbon (HAC), taken as dust analogues, were found to be stable under UV photon and electron bombardment. High fluences of photons and electrons, of the order of 10(19) cm(-2), were needed for a film depletion of a few percent. UV photons were energetically more effective than electrons for depletion and led to a certain dehydrogenation of the HAC samples, whereas electrons led seemingly to a gradual erosion with no appreciable changes in the hydrocarbon structure. The rates of change observed may be relevant over the lifetime of a diffuse cloud, but cannot account for the rapid changes in hydrocarbon IR bands during the evolution of some proto-planetary nebulae. Glycine samples under the same photon and electron fluxes decay at a much faster rate, but tend usually to an equilibrium value different from zero, especially at low temperatures. Reversible reactions re-forming glycine, or the build-up of less transparent products, could explain this behavior. CO2 and methylamine were identified as UV photoproducts. Electron irradiation led to a gradual disappearance of the glycine layers, also with formation of CO2. No other reaction products were clearly identified. The thicker glycine layers (a few hundred nm) were not wholly depleted, but a film of the order of the electron penetration depth (80 nm), was totally destroyed with an electron fluence of -1 x 10(18) cm(-2). A 60 nm ice layer on top of glycine provided only partial shielding from the 2 keV electrons. From an energetic point of view, 2 keV electrons are less efficient than UV photons and, according to literature data, much less efficient than MeV protons for the destruction of glycine. The use of keV electrons to simulate effects of cosmic rays on analogues of interstellar grains should be taken with

  13. A novel prokaryotic L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase is involved in cylindrospermopsin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Muenchhoff, Julia; Siddiqui, Khawar S; Poljak, Anne; Raftery, Mark J; Barrow, Kevin D; Neilan, Brett A

    2010-09-01

    We report the first characterization of an L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase from a prokaryote. The enzyme, CyrA, is involved in the pathway for biosynthesis of the polyketide-derived hepatotoxin cylindrospermopsin from Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii AWT205. CyrA is phylogenetically distinct from other amidinotransferases, and structural alignment shows differences between the active site residues of CyrA and the well-characterized human L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT). Overexpression of recombinant CyrA in Escherichia coli enabled biochemical characterization of the enzyme, and we confirmed the predicted function of CyrA as an L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase by (1) H NMR. As compared with AGAT, CyrA showed narrow substrate specificity when presented with substrate analogs, and deviated from regular Michaelis-Menten kinetics in the presence of the non-natural substrate hydroxylamine. Studies of initial reaction velocities and product inhibition, and identification of intermediate reaction products, were used to probe the kinetic mechanism of CyrA, which is best described as a hybrid of ping-pong and sequential mechanisms. Differences in the active site residues of CyrA and AGAT are discussed in relation to the different properties of both enzymes. The enzyme had maximum activity and maximum stability at pH 8.5 and 6.5, respectively, and an optimum temperature of 32 °C. Investigations into the stability of the enzyme revealed that an inactivated form of this enzyme retained an appreciable amount of secondary structure elements even on heating to 94 °C, but lost its tertiary structure at low temperature (T(max) of 44.5 °C), resulting in a state reminiscent of a molten globule. CyrA represents a novel group of prokaryotic amidinotransferases that utilize arginine and glycine as substrates with a complex kinetic mechanism and substrate specificity that differs from that of the eukaryotic L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferases.

  14. Oleoyl-L-carnitine inhibits glycine transport by GlyT2

    PubMed Central

    Carland, JE; Mansfield, RE; Ryan, RM; Vandenberg, RJ

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Concentrations of extracellular glycine in the CNS are regulated by two Na+/Cl–-dependent glycine transporters, GlyT1 and GlyT2. Selective inhibitors of GlyT1 have been developed for the treatment of schizophrenia, whilst selective inhibitors of GlyT2 are analgesic in animal models of pain. We have assessed a series of endogenous lipids as inhibitors of GlyT1 and GlyT2. Experimental Approach Human GlyT1 and GlyT2 were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and the inhibitory actions of a series of acylcarnitines on glycine transport were measured using electrophysiological techniques. Key Results Oleoyl-l-carnitine inhibited glycine transport by GlyT2, with an IC50 of 340 nM, which is 15-fold more potent than the previously identified lipid inhibitor N-arachidonyl-glycine. Oleoyl-l-carnitine had a slow onset of inhibition and a slow washout. Using a series of chimeric GlyT1/2 transporters and point mutant transporters, we have identified an isoleucine residue in extracellular loop 4 of GlyT2 that conferred differences in sensitivity to oleoyl-l-carnitine between GlyT2 and GlyT1. Conclusions and Implications Oleoyl-l-carnitine is a potent non-competitive inhibitor of GlyT2. Previously identified GlyT2 inhibitors show potential as analgesics and the identification of oleoyl-l-carnitine as a novel GlyT2 inhibitor may lead to new ways of treating pain. PMID:22978602

  15. Chlorine transfer between glycine, taurine, and histamine: reaction rates and impact on cellular reactivity.

    PubMed

    Peskin, Alexander V; Midwinter, Robyn G; Harwood, David T; Winterbourn, Christine C

    2005-02-01

    Hypochlorous acid formed by activated neutrophils reacts with amines to produce chloramines. Chloramines vary in stability, reactivity, and cell permeability. We have examined whether chloramine exchange occurs between physiologically important amines or amino acids and if this affects interactions of chloramines with cells. We have demonstrated transchlorination reactions between histamine, glycine, and taurine chloramines by measuring chloramine decay rates with mixtures as well as by mass spectrometry. Kinetic analysis suggested the formation of an intermediate complex with a high Km. Apparent second-order rate constants, determined for concentrations glycine chloramine (Gly-Cl) and taurine, Gly-Cl and histamine, histamine chloramine and glycine, and taurine chloramine (Tau-Cl) and glycine, respectively. Thus with 10 mM amine concentrations, half-lives for chloramine exchange are of the order of a few minutes. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity in cells was measured as an indicator of permeability of the chloramines. When endothelial or Jurkat cells were treated in Hanks' buffer, Gly-Cl inhibited GAPDH, whereas Tau-Cl, which does not penetrate the cells, did not. Adding glycine to Tau-Cl brought about inhibition, whereas taurine mitigated the effect of Gly-Cl. For cells in full medium, high chloramine concentrations were needed to inhibit GAPDH because of scavenging by methionine and other constituents. In methionine-free medium, chlorine exchange resulted in GAPDH inhibition by Tau-Cl, whereas Gly-Cl was less effective than in Hanks' buffer. Thus interchange between chloramines occurs readily and modulates their cellular effects.

  16. Chlorine transfer between glycine, taurine, and histamine: reaction rates and impact on cellular reactivity.

    PubMed

    Peskin, Alexander V; Midwinter, Robyn G; Harwood, David T; Winterbourn, Christine C

    2004-11-15

    Hypochlorous acid formed by activated neutrophils reacts with amines to produce chloramines. Chloramines vary in stability, reactivity, and cell permeability. We have examined whether chloramine exchange occurs between physiologically important amines or amino acids and if this affects interactions of chloramines with cells. We have demonstrated transchlorination reactions between histamine, glycine, and taurine chloramines by measuring chloramine decay rates with mixtures as well as by mass spectrometry. Kinetic analysis suggested the formation of an intermediate complex with a high K(m). Apparent second-order rate constants, determined for concentrations glycine chloramine (Gly-Cl) and taurine, Gly-Cl and histamine, histamine chloramine and glycine, and taurine chloramine (Tau-Cl) and glycine, respectively. Thus with 10 mM amine concentrations, half-lives for chloramine exchange are on the order of a few minutes. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity in cells was measured as an indicator of permeability of the chloramines. When endothelial or Jurkat cells were treated in Hanks' buffer, Gly-Cl inhibited GAPDH, whereas Tau-Cl, which does not penetrate the cells, did not. Adding glycine to Tau-Cl brought about inhibition, whereas taurine mitigated the effect of Gly-Cl. For cells in full medium, high chloramine concentrations were needed to inhibit GAPDH because of scavenging by methionine and other constituents. In methionine-free medium, chlorine exchange resulted in GAPDH inhibition by Tau-Cl, whereas Gly-Cl was less effective than in Hanks' buffer. Thus interchange between chloramines occurs readily and modulates their cellular effects.

  17. Microinjection of glycine into the ventral tegmental area selectively decreases ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Nie, Hong; Bian, Weiliang; Dave, Vaidehi; Janak, Patricia H; Ye, Jiang-Hong

    2012-04-01

    The mechanisms of ethanol addiction are not completely understood. The mesolimbic dopaminergic system is involved in many drug-related behaviors, including ethanol self-administration. The dopaminergic neurons in this system originate in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and are under the control of GABAergic transmission. Our previous in vitro electrophysiological data indicate that glycine receptors (GlyRs) exist on the GABAergic terminals, which make synapses on VTA dopaminergic neurons, and activation of these GlyRs reduces GABAergic transmission and increases the activity of VTA dopaminergic neurons. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that the activation of the presynaptic GlyRs in the VTA might interfere with ethanol self-administration. Glycine and strychnine, the selective antagonist of GlyRs, were injected, either alone or in combination, into the VTA of rats. Ethanol self-administration by rats was evaluated by using three different drinking models: intermittent access, continuous access, and operant self-administration. We found that the infusion of glycine into the VTA selectively reduced the intake of ethanol but not sucrose or water in rats chronically exposed to ethanol under the intermittent-access and continuous-access procedures and decreased lever-press responding for ethanol under an operant self-administration procedure. The effects of glycine probably were mediated by strychnine-sensitive GlyRs, because the coinjection of glycine and strychnine reduced neither ethanol intake in the home cages nor lever-press responding for ethanol in the operant chambers. Thus, GlyRs in the VTA may play a critical role in ethanol self-administration in animals chronically exposed to ethanol. Therefore, drugs targeting GlyRs may be beneficial for alcoholics.

  18. A nonpyrrolysine member of the widely distributed trimethylamine methyltransferase family is a glycine betaine methyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Ticak, Tomislav; Kountz, D. J.; Girosky, K. E.; Krzycki, J. A.; Ferguson, D. J.

    2014-10-13

    COG5598 comprises a large number of proteins related to MttB, the trimethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase. MttB has a genetically encoded pyrrolysine residue proposed essential for catalysis. MttB is the only known trimethylamine methyltransferase, yet the great majority of members of COG5598 lack pyrrolysine, leaving the activity of these proteins an open question. Here, we describe the function of one of the nonpyrrolysine members of this large protein family. Three nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs are encoded in Desulfitobacterium hafniense, a Gram-positive strict anaerobe present in both the environment and human intestine. D. hafniense was found capable of growth on glycine betaine with electron acceptors such as nitrate or fumarate, producing dimethylglycine and CO2 as products. Examination of the genome revealed genes for tetrahydrofolate-linked oxidation of a methyl group originating from a methylated corrinoid protein, but no obvious means to carry out corrinoid methylation with glycine betaine. DSY3156, encoding one of the nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs, was up-regulated during growth on glycine betaine. The recombinant DSY3156 protein converts glycine betaine and cob(I)alamin to dimethylglycine and methylcobalamin. To our knowledge, DSY3156 is the first glycine betaine:corrinoid methyltransferase described, and a designation of MtgB is proposed. Additionally, DSY3157, an adjacently encoded protein, was shown to be a methylcobalamin:tetrahydrofolate methyltransferase and is designated MtgA. Homologs of MtgB are widely distributed, especially in marine bacterioplankton and nitrogen-fixing plant symbionts. Lastly, they are also found in multiple members of the human microbiome, and may play a beneficial role in trimethylamine homeostasis, which in recent years has been directly tied to human cardiovascular health.

  19. A nonpyrrolysine member of the widely distributed trimethylamine methyltransferase family is a glycine betaine methyltransferase

    DOE PAGES

    Ticak, Tomislav; Kountz, D. J.; Girosky, K. E.; ...

    2014-10-13

    COG5598 comprises a large number of proteins related to MttB, the trimethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase. MttB has a genetically encoded pyrrolysine residue proposed essential for catalysis. MttB is the only known trimethylamine methyltransferase, yet the great majority of members of COG5598 lack pyrrolysine, leaving the activity of these proteins an open question. Here, we describe the function of one of the nonpyrrolysine members of this large protein family. Three nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs are encoded in Desulfitobacterium hafniense, a Gram-positive strict anaerobe present in both the environment and human intestine. D. hafniense was found capable of growth on glycine betaine with electron acceptorsmore » such as nitrate or fumarate, producing dimethylglycine and CO2 as products. Examination of the genome revealed genes for tetrahydrofolate-linked oxidation of a methyl group originating from a methylated corrinoid protein, but no obvious means to carry out corrinoid methylation with glycine betaine. DSY3156, encoding one of the nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs, was up-regulated during growth on glycine betaine. The recombinant DSY3156 protein converts glycine betaine and cob(I)alamin to dimethylglycine and methylcobalamin. To our knowledge, DSY3156 is the first glycine betaine:corrinoid methyltransferase described, and a designation of MtgB is proposed. Additionally, DSY3157, an adjacently encoded protein, was shown to be a methylcobalamin:tetrahydrofolate methyltransferase and is designated MtgA. Homologs of MtgB are widely distributed, especially in marine bacterioplankton and nitrogen-fixing plant symbionts. Lastly, they are also found in multiple members of the human microbiome, and may play a beneficial role in trimethylamine homeostasis, which in recent years has been directly tied to human cardiovascular health.« less

  20. The Influence of Mineral Matrices on the Thermal Behavior of Glycine.

    PubMed

    Dalai, Punam; Pleyer, Hannes Lukas; Strasdeit, Henry; Fox, Stefan

    2016-10-18

    On the Hadean-Early Archean Earth, the first islands must have provided hot and dry environments for abiotically formed organic molecules. The heat sources, mainly volcanism and meteorite impacts, were also available on Mars during the Noachian period. In recent work simulating this scenario, we have shown that neat glycine forms a black, sparingly water-soluble polymer ("thermomelanoid") when dry-heated at 200 °C under pure nitrogen. The present study explores whether relevant minerals and mineral mixtures can change this thermal behavior. Most experiments were conducted at 200 or 250 °C for 2 or 7 days. The mineral matrices used were phyllosilicates (Ca-montmorillonites SAz-1 and STx-1, Na-montmorillonite SAz-1-Na, nontronite NAu-1, kaolinite KGa-1), salts (NaCl, NaCl-KCl, CaCl2, artificial sea salt, gypsum, magnesite), picritic basalt, and three Martian regolith simulants (P-MRS, S-MRS, JSC Mars-1A). The main analytical method employed was high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Glycine intercalated in SAz-1 and SAz-1-Na was well protected against thermomelanoid formation and sublimation at 200 °C: after 2 days, 95 and 79 %, respectively, had either survived unaltered or been transformed into the cyclic dipeptide (DKP) and linear peptides up to Gly6. The glycine survival rate followed the order SAz-1 > SAz-1-Na > STx-1 ≈ NAu-1 > KGa-1. Very good protection was also provided by artificial sea salt (84 % unaltered glycine after 200 °C for 7 days). P-MRS promoted the condensation up to Gly6, consistent with its high phyllosilicate content. The remaining matrices were less effective in preserving glycine as such or as peptides.

  1. The Influence of Mineral Matrices on the Thermal Behavior of Glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalai, Punam; Pleyer, Hannes Lukas; Strasdeit, Henry; Fox, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    On the Hadean-Early Archean Earth, the first islands must have provided hot and dry environments for abiotically formed organic molecules. The heat sources, mainly volcanism and meteorite impacts, were also available on Mars during the Noachian period. In recent work simulating this scenario, we have shown that neat glycine forms a black, sparingly water-soluble polymer ("thermomelanoid") when dry-heated at 200 °C under pure nitrogen. The present study explores whether relevant minerals and mineral mixtures can change this thermal behavior. Most experiments were conducted at 200 or 250 °C for 2 or 7 days. The mineral matrices used were phyllosilicates (Ca-montmorillonites SAz-1 and STx-1, Na-montmorillonite SAz-1-Na, nontronite NAu-1, kaolinite KGa-1), salts (NaCl, NaCl-KCl, CaCl2, artificial sea salt, gypsum, magnesite), picritic basalt, and three Martian regolith simulants (P-MRS, S-MRS, JSC Mars-1A). The main analytical method employed was high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Glycine intercalated in SAz-1 and SAz-1-Na was well protected against thermomelanoid formation and sublimation at 200 °C: after 2 days, 95 and 79 %, respectively, had either survived unaltered or been transformed into the cyclic dipeptide (DKP) and linear peptides up to Gly6. The glycine survival rate followed the order SAz-1 > SAz-1-Na > STx-1 ≈ NAu-1 > KGa-1. Very good protection was also provided by artificial sea salt (84 % unaltered glycine after 200 °C for 7 days). P-MRS promoted the condensation up to Gly6, consistent with its high phyllosilicate content. The remaining matrices were less effective in preserving glycine as such or as peptides.

  2. A nonpyrrolysine member of the widely distributed trimethylamine methyltransferase family is a glycine betaine methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Ticak, Tomislav; Kountz, Duncan J; Girosky, Kimberly E; Krzycki, Joseph A; Ferguson, Donald J

    2014-10-28

    COG5598 comprises a large number of proteins related to MttB, the trimethylamine:corrinoid methyltransferase. MttB has a genetically encoded pyrrolysine residue proposed essential for catalysis. MttB is the only known trimethylamine methyltransferase, yet the great majority of members of COG5598 lack pyrrolysine, leaving the activity of these proteins an open question. Here, we describe the function of one of the nonpyrrolysine members of this large protein family. Three nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs are encoded in Desulfitobacterium hafniense, a Gram-positive strict anaerobe present in both the environment and human intestine. D. hafniense was found capable of growth on glycine betaine with electron acceptors such as nitrate or fumarate, producing dimethylglycine and CO2 as products. Examination of the genome revealed genes for tetrahydrofolate-linked oxidation of a methyl group originating from a methylated corrinoid protein, but no obvious means to carry out corrinoid methylation with glycine betaine. DSY3156, encoding one of the nonpyrrolysine MttB homologs, was up-regulated during growth on glycine betaine. The recombinant DSY3156 protein converts glycine betaine and cob(I)alamin to dimethylglycine and methylcobalamin. To our knowledge, DSY3156 is the first glycine betaine:corrinoid methyltransferase described, and a designation of MtgB is proposed. In addition, DSY3157, an adjacently encoded protein, was shown to be a methylcobalamin:tetrahydrofolate methyltransferase and is designated MtgA. Homologs of MtgB are widely distributed, especially in marine bacterioplankton and nitrogen-fixing plant symbionts. They are also found in multiple members of the human microbiome, and may play a beneficial role in trimethylamine homeostasis, which in recent years has been directly tied to human cardiovascular health.

  3. Glycine in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and trifluoroacetate ionic liquids: effect of fluorination and hydrogen bonding.

    PubMed

    Podgoršek, Ajda; Macchiagodena, Marina; Ramondo, Fabio; Costa Gomes, Margarida F; Pádua, Agílio A H

    2012-05-14

    The solvation of glycine in two ionic liquids (ILs), namely, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [C(1)C(4)Im][OAc], and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoroacetate, [C(1)C(4)Im][TFA], was studied by a combination of experimental and theoretical methods. The solubility of glycine in both ILs was determined at 333.15 K to be (8.1±0.5) and (1.0±0.5) wt % in [C(1)C(4)Im][OAc] and [C(1)C(4)Im][TFA], respectively. By IR spectroscopy it was found that, when dissolved in the ILs, glycine was mainly present in its zwitterionic form. Structural and energetic aspects of the solvation of glycine in the ILs and in mixtures of ILs and water were investigated by ab initio calculations and molecular dynamic simulations. It was observed that the firstly solvation shell around glycine consisted predominantly of acetate or trifluoroacetate anions, which formed hydrogen bonds either with the carboxylic group of neutral glycine or with the protonated ammonium group of the zwitterionic form. When water is present in the solutions, hydrogen bonds between water and the anion prevail. The overall energy of the system was decomposed into its components between pairs of species. It was established that the dominant contribution to the interaction energy between glycine and the IL was due to hydrogen bonds with the anions and the statistics of hydrogen bonds were analysed.

  4. Glycine Potentiates AMPA Receptor Function through Metabotropic Activation of GluN2A-Containing NMDA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li-Jun; Hu, Rong; Lujan, Brendan; Chen, Juan; Zhang, Jian-Jian; Nakano, Yasuko; Cui, Tian-Yuan; Liao, Ming-Xia; Chen, Jin-Cao; Man, Heng-Ye; Feng, Hua; Wan, Qi

    2016-01-01

    NMDA receptors are Ca2+-permeable ion channels. The activation of NMDA receptors requires agonist glutamate and co-agonist glycine. Recent evidence indicates that NMDA receptor also has metabotropic function. Here we report that in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons, glycine increases AMPA receptor-mediated currents independent of the channel activity of NMDA receptors and the activation of glycine receptors. The potentiation of AMPA receptor function by glycine is antagonized by the inhibition of ERK1/2. In the hippocampal neurons and in the HEK293 cells transfected with different combinations of NMDA receptors, glycine preferentially acts on GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors (GluN2ARs), but not GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors (GluN2BRs), to enhance ERK1/2 phosphorylation independent of the channel activity of GluN2ARs. Without requiring the channel activity of GluN2ARs, glycine increases AMPA receptor-mediated currents through GluN2ARs. Thus, these results reveal a metabotropic function of GluN2ARs in mediating glycine-induced potentiation of AMPA receptor function via ERK1/2 activation. PMID:27807405

  5. Oral supplementation with glycine reduces oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome, improving their systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Flores, Margarita; Cruz, Miguel; Duran-Reyes, Genoveva; Munguia-Miranda, Catarina; Loza-Rodríguez, Hilda; Pulido-Casas, Evelyn; Torres-Ramírez, Nayeli; Gaja-Rodriguez, Olga; Kumate, Jesus; Baiza-Gutman, Luis Arturo; Hernández-Saavedra, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species derived from abdominal fat and uncontrolled glucose metabolism are contributing factors to both oxidative stress and the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study was designed to evaluate the effects of daily administration of an oral glycine supplement on antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in MetS patients. The study included 60 volunteers: 30 individuals that were supplemented with glycine (15 g/day) and 30 that were given a placebo for 3 months. We analysed thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and S-nitrosohemoglobin (SNO-Hb) in plasma; the enzymatic activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in erythrocytes; and the expression of CAT, GPX, and SOD2 in leukocytes. Individuals treated with glycine showed a 25% decrease in TBARS compared with the placebo-treated group. Furthermore, there was a 20% reduction in SOD-specific activity in the glycine-treated group, which correlated with SOD2 expression. G6PD activity and SNO-Hb levels increased in the glycine-treated male group. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) also showed a significant decrease in the glycine-treated men (p = 0.043). Glycine plays an important role in balancing the redox reactions in the human body, thus protecting against oxidative damage in MetS patients.

  6. An overlooked effect of glycine betaine on fermentation: prevents caramelization and increases the L-lysine production.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianzhong; Xia, Xiuhua; Zhang, Junlan; Guo, Yanfeng; Zhang, Weiguo

    2014-10-01

    This article focuses on the effects of glycine betaine on preventing caramelization, and increasing DCW and L-lysine production. The additional glycine betaine not only decreased the browning intensity (decreased 4 times), and the concentrations of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (decreased 7.8 times) and furfural (decreased 12 times), but also increased the availability of glucose (increased 17.5%) for L-lysine production. The DCW and L-lysine production were increased by adding no more than 20 mM glycine betaine, whereas the DCW and L-lysine production were decreased with the reduction of pH values, although pH had a better response to prevent caramelization than did glycine betaine. For L-lysine production, the highest increase (40%) was observed on the media with 20 mM glycine betaine. The crucial enzymes in glycolysis and L-lysine biosynthesis pathway were investigated. The results indicated that additional glycine betaine increases the activity of enzymes in glycolysis, in contrast to the effect of pH. All the results indicated that glycine betaine can be used to prevent caramelization and increase the L-lysine production. By applying this strategy, glucose would not be have to be separated from the culture media during autoclaving so that factories can save production costs and shorten the fermentation period.

  7. Transient Accumulation of Glycine Betaine and Dynamics of Endogenous Osmolytes in Salt-Stressed Cultures of Sinorhizobium meliloti

    PubMed Central

    Talibart, R.; Jebbar, M.; Gouffi, K.; Pichereau, V.; Gouesbet, G.; Blanco, C.; Bernard, T.; Pocard, J.

    1997-01-01

    The fate of exogenously supplied glycine betaine and the dynamics of endogenous osmolytes were investigated throughout the growth cycle of salt-stressed cultures of strains of Sinorhizobium meliloti which differ in their ability to use glycine betaine as a growth substrate, but not as an osmoprotectant. We present (sup13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectral and radiotracer evidence which demonstrates that glycine betaine is only transiently accumulated as a cytoplasmic osmolyte in young cultures of wild-type strains 102F34 and RCR2011. Specifically, these strains accumulate glycine betaine as a preferred osmolyte which virtually prevents the accumulation of endogenous osmolytes during the lag and early exponential phases of growth. Then, betaine levels in stressed cells decrease abruptly during the second half of the exponential phase. At this stage, the levels of glutamate and the dipeptide N-acetylglutaminylglutamine amide increase sharply so that the two endogenous solutes supplant glycine betaine in the ageing culture, in which it becomes a minor osmolyte because it is progressively catabolized. Ultimately, glycine betaine disappears when stressed cells reach the stationary phase. At this stage, wild-type strains of S. meliloti also accumulate the disaccharide trehalose as a third major endogenous osmolyte. By contrast, glycine betaine is always the dominant osmolyte and strongly suppresses the buildup of endogenous osmolytes at all stages of the growth cycle of a mutant strain, S. meliloti GMI766, which does not catabolize this exogenous osmoprotectant under any growth conditions. PMID:16535748

  8. Divergent evolution of arrested development in the dauer stage of Caenorhabditis elegans and the infective stage of Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Elling, Axel A; Mitreva, Makedonka; Recknor, Justin; Gai, Xiaowu; Martin, John; Maier, Thomas R; McDermott, Jeffrey P; Hewezi, Tarek; McK Bird, David; Davis, Eric L; Hussey, Richard S; Nettleton, Dan; McCarter, James P; Baum, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    Background The soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines is the most important parasite in soybean production worldwide. A comprehensive analysis of large-scale gene expression changes throughout the development of plant-parasitic nematodes has been lacking to date. Results We report an extensive genomic analysis of H. glycines, beginning with the generation of 20,100 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). In-depth analysis of these ESTs plus approximately 1,900 previously published sequences predicted 6,860 unique H. glycines genes and allowed a classification by function using InterProScan. Expression profiling of all 6,860 genes throughout the H. glycines life cycle was undertaken using the Affymetrix Soybean Genome Array GeneChip. Our data sets and results represent a comprehensive resource for molecular studies of H. glycines. Demonstrating the power of this resource, we were able to address whether arrested development in the Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larva and the H. glycines infective second-stage juvenile (J2) exhibits shared gene expression profiles. We determined that the gene expression profiles associated with the C. elegans dauer pathway are not uniformly conserved in H. glycines and that the expression profiles of genes for metabolic enzymes of C. elegans dauer larvae and H. glycines infective J2 are dissimilar. Conclusion Our results indicate that hallmark gene expression patterns and metabolism features are not shared in the developmentally arrested life stages of C. elegans and H. glycines, suggesting that developmental arrest in these two nematode species has undergone more divergent evolution than previously thought and pointing to the need for detailed genomic analyses of individual parasite species. PMID:17919324

  9. Measurement and Modeling of Mean Activity Coefficients of NaCl in an Aqueous Mixed Electrolyte Solution Containing Glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikholeslami, Paniz; Dehghani, M. R.; Safahieh, Tina

    2016-08-01

    An electrochemical cell with two ion-selective electrodes (Na+ glass) and (Cl- solid state) was used to measure the mean ionic activity coefficient of NaCl in an aqueous mixture containing NaCl, glycine, and NaNO3 at 308.15 K. The experiments were conducted at fixed molality of NaNO3 (0.1 m) and various molalities of glycine (0-1 m) and NaCl (up to 0.8 m). The experimental data were modeled using a modified version of the Pitzer equation. Finally the activity coefficient ratio of glycine was determined based on the Maxwell equation.

  10. Role of Conserved Glycines in pH Gating of Kir1.1 (ROMK)

    PubMed Central

    Sackin, Henry; Nanazashvili, Mikheil; Palmer, Lawrence G.; Li, Hui

    2006-01-01

    Gating of inward rectifier Kir1.1 potassium channels by internal pH is believed to occur when large hydrophobic leucines, on each of the four subunits, obstruct the permeation path at the cytoplasmic end of the inner transmembrane helices (TM2). In this study, we examined whether closure of the channel at this point involves bending of the inner helix at one or both of two highly conserved glycine residues (corresponding to G134 and G143 in KirBac1.1) that have been proposed as putative “gating hinges” for potassium channels. Replacement of these conserved inner helical glycines by less flexible alanines did not abolish gating but shifted the apparent pKa from 6.6 ± 0.01 (wild-type) to 7.1 ± 0.01 for G157A-Kir1.1b, and to 7.3 ± 0.01 for G148A-Kir1.1b. When both glycines were mutated the effect was additive, shifting the pKa by 1.2 pH units to 7.8 ± 0.04 for the double mutant: G157A+G148A. At this pKa, the double mutant would remain completely closed under physiological conditions. In contrast, when the glycine at G148 was replaced by a proline, the pKa was shifted in the opposite direction from 6.6 ± 0.01 (wild-type) to 5.7 ± 0.01 for G148P. Although conserved glycines at G148 and G157 made it significantly easier to open the channel, they were not an absolute requirement for pH gating in Kir1.1. In addition, none of the glycine mutants produced more than small changes in either the cell-attached or excised single-channel kinetics which, in this channel, argues against changes in the selectivity filter. The putative pH sensor at K61-Kir1.1b, (equivalent to K80-Kir1.1a) was also examined. Mutation of this lysine to an untitratable methionine did not abolish pH gating, but shifted the pKa into an acid range from 6.6 ± 0.01 to 5.4 ± 0.04, similar to pH gating in Kir2.1. Hence K61-Kir1.1b cannot function as the exclusive pH sensor for the channel, although it may act as one of multiple pH sensors, or as a link between a cytoplasmic sensor and the channel

  11. Effect of cortisol on neurophysin I/oxytocin and peptidyl glycine-alpha-amidating mono-oxygenase mRNA expression in bovine luteal and granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Ziolkowska, A; Mlynarczuk, J; Kotwica, J

    2013-01-01

    Cortisol stimulates the synthesis and secretion of oxytocin (OT) from bovine granulosa and luteal cells, but the molecular mechanisms of cortisol action remain unknown. In this study, granulosa cells or luteal cells from days 1-5 and 11-15 of the oestrous cycle were incubated for 4 or 8 h with cortisol (1 x 10(-5), 1 x 10(-7) M). After testing cell viability and hormone secretion (OT, progesterone, estradiol), we studied the effect of cortisol on mRNA expression for precursor of OT (NP-I/OT) and peptidyl glycine-alpha-amidating mono-oxygenase (PGA). The influence of RU 486 (1 x 10(-5) M), a progesterone receptor blocker and inhibitor of the glucocorticosteroid receptor (GR), on the expression for both genes was tested. Cortisol increased the mRNA expression for NP-I/OT and PGA in granulosa cells and stimulated the expression for NP-I/OT mRNA in luteal cells obtained from days 1-5 and days 11-15 of the oestrous cycle. Expression for PGA mRNA was increased only in luteal cells from days 11-15 of the oestrous cycle. In addition, RU 486 blocked the cortisol-stimulated mRNA expression for NP-I/OT and PGA in both types of cells. These data suggest that cortisol affects OT synthesis and secretion in bovine ovarian cells, by acting on the expression of key genes, that may impair ovary

  12. The syntaxin 31-induced gene, LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (LSD1), functions in Glycine max defense to the root parasite Heterodera glycines.

    PubMed

    Pant, Shankar R; Krishnavajhala, Aparna; McNeece, Brant T; Lawrence, Gary W; Klink, Vincent P

    2015-01-01

    Experiments show the membrane fusion genes α soluble NSF attachment protein (α-SNAP) and syntaxin 31 (Gm-SYP38) contribute to the ability of Glycine max to defend itself from infection by the plant parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines. Accompanying their expression is the transcriptional activation of the defense genes ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1) and NONEXPRESSOR OF PR1 (NPR1) that function in salicylic acid (SA) signaling. These results implicate the added involvement of the antiapoptotic, environmental response gene LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 (LSD1) in defense. Roots engineered to overexpress the G. max defense genes Gm-α-SNAP, SYP38, EDS1, NPR1, BOTRYTIS INDUCED KINASE1 (BIK1) and xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) in the susceptible genotype G. max[Williams 82/PI 518671] have induced Gm-LSD1 (Gm-LSD1-2) transcriptional activity. In reciprocal experiments, roots engineered to overexpress Gm-LSD1-2 in the susceptible genotype G. max[Williams 82/PI 518671] have induced levels of SYP38, EDS1, NPR1, BIK1 and XTH, but not α-SNAP prior to infection. In tests examining the role of Gm-LSD1-2 in defense, its overexpression results in ∼52 to 68% reduction in nematode parasitism. In contrast, RNA interference (RNAi) of Gm-LSD1-2 in the resistant genotype G. max[Peking/PI 548402] results in an 3.24-10.42 fold increased ability of H. glycines to parasitize. The results identify that Gm-LSD1-2 functions in the defense response of G. max to H. glycines parasitism. It is proposed that LSD1, as an antiapoptotic protein, may establish an environment whereby the protected, living plant cell could secrete materials in the vicinity of the parasitizing nematode to disarm it. After the targeted incapacitation of the nematode the parasitized cell succumbs to its targeted demise as the infected root region is becoming fortified.

  13. Effect of glycine supplementation in low protein diets with amino acids from soy protein isolate or free amino acids on broiler growth and nitrogen utilisation.

    PubMed

    Siegert, W; Wild, K J; Schollenberger, M; Helmbrecht, A; Rodehutscord, M

    2016-06-01

    Here, it was investigated whether substitution of amino acids (AA) from soy protein isolate with free AA in low crude protein diets influences the growth performance and N utilisation in broilers, and whether interactions with dietary glycine equivalent (Glyequi) concentration exist. Birds were distributed in two 2 × 2 factorial arrangements of 48 floor pens containing 10 birds each, plus 48 metabolism cages containing two birds each. Experimental feed was provided for ad libitum consumption from d 7 to 22. Diets contained either a soy protein isolate at 79 g/kg or a mix of free AA, which supplied the same amount of 18 proteinogenic AA. A mix of free glycine and l-serine was used to obtain low and high (12.0 and 20.5 g/kg dry matter) levels of dietary Glyequi. Substitution of soy protein isolate with free AA reduced the average daily gain and feed efficiency, mainly due to reduced feed intake. Efficiency of N accretion was not influenced by the AA source or Glyequi concentration on d 21, possibly due to the lower AA digestibility of soy protein isolate and higher urinary excretion of nitrogenous substances in the treatments with the AA mix. The average daily weight gain of the treatments with high Glyequi concentration was higher for both AA sources. This increase was due to higher average daily feed intake by broilers in the treatments with soy protein isolate and due to the increased feed efficiency in the treatments with the AA mix. Broilers exhibited different growth responses to dietary Glyequi between the AA sources; however, these responses could not be attributed to the different utilisation of Glyequi for uric acid synthesis.

  14. Alkaline-stress response in Glycine soja leaf identifies specific transcription factors and ABA-mediated signaling factors.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ying; Li, Yong; Lv, De-Kang; Bai, Xi; Ji, Wei; Cai, Hua; Wang, Ao-Xue; Zhu, Yan-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Transcriptome of Glycine soja leaf tissue during a detailed time course formed a foundation for examining transcriptional processes during NaHCO(3) stress treatment. Of a total of 2,310 detected differentially expressed genes, 1,664 genes were upregulated and 1,704 genes were downregulated at various time points. The number of stress-regulated genes increased dramatically after a 6-h stress treatment. GO category gene enrichment analysis revealed that most of the differentially expressed genes were involved in cell structure, protein synthesis, energy, and secondary metabolism. Another enrichment test revealed that the response of G. soja to NaHCO(3) highlights specific transcription factors, such as the C2C2-CO-like, MYB-related, WRKY, GARP-G2-like, and ZIM families. Co-expressed genes were clustered into ten classes (P < 0.001). Intriguingly, one cluster of 188 genes displayed a unique expression pattern that increases at an early stage (0.5 and 3 h), followed by a decrease from 6 to 12 h. This group was enriched in regulation of transcription components, including AP2-EREBP, bHLH, MYB/MYB-related, C2C2-CO-like, C2C2-DOF, C2C2, C3H, and GARP-G2-like transcription factors. Analysis of the 1-kb upstream regions of transcripts displaying similar changes in abundance identified 19 conserved motifs, potential binding sites for transcription factors. The appearance of ABA-responsive elements in the upstream of co-expression genes reveals that ABA-mediated signaling participates in the signal transduction in alkaline response.

  15. Murine startle mutant Nmf11 affects the structural stability of the glycine receptor and increases deactivation

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Megan E.; Caley, Alex; Gielen, Marc C.; Harvey, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Hyperekplexia or startle disease is a serious neurological condition affecting newborn children and usually involves dysfunctional glycinergic neurotransmission.Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are major mediators of inhibition in the spinal cord and brainstem.A missense mutation, replacing asparagine (N) with lysine (K), at position 46 in the GlyR α1 subunit induced hyperekplexia following a reduction in the potency of the transmitter glycine; this resulted from a rapid deactivation of the agonist current at mutant GlyRs.These effects of N46K were rescued by mutating a juxtaposed residue, N61 on binding Loop D, suggesting these two asparagines may interact.Asparagine 46 is considered to be important for the structural stability of the subunit interface and glycine binding site, and its mutation represents a new mechanism by which GlyR dysfunction induces startle disease. Abstract Dysfunctional glycinergic inhibitory transmission underlies the debilitating neurological condition, hyperekplexia, which is characterised by exaggerated startle reflexes, muscle hypertonia and apnoea. Here we investigated the N46K missense mutation in the GlyR α1 subunit gene found in the ethylnitrosourea (ENU) murine mutant, Nmf11, which causes reduced body size, evoked tremor, seizures, muscle stiffness, and morbidity by postnatal day 21. Introducing the N46K mutation into recombinant GlyR α1 homomeric receptors, expressed in HEK cells, reduced the potencies of glycine, β‐alanine and taurine by 9‐, 6‐ and 3‐fold respectively, and that of the competitive antagonist strychnine by 15‐fold. Replacing N46 with hydrophobic, charged or polar residues revealed that the amide moiety of asparagine was crucial for GlyR activation. Co‐mutating N61, located on a neighbouring β loop to N46, rescued the wild‐type phenotype depending on the amino acid charge. Single‐channel recording identified that burst length for the N46K mutant was reduced and fast agonist application

  16. COMPUTATIONAL STUDY OF INTERSTELLAR GLYCINE FORMATION OCCURRING AT RADICAL SURFACES OF WATER-ICE DUST PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Rimola, Albert; Sodupe, Mariona; Ugliengo, Piero

    2012-07-20

    Glycine is the simplest amino acid, and due to the significant astrobiological implications that suppose its detection, the search for it in the interstellar medium (ISM), meteorites, and comets is intensively investigated. In the present work, quantum mechanical calculations based on density functional theory have been used to model the glycine formation on water-ice clusters present in the ISM. The removal of either one H atom or one electron from the water-ice cluster has been considered to simulate the effect of photolytic radiation and of ionizing particles, respectively, which lead to the formation of OH{sup .} radical and H{sub 3}O{sup +} surface defects. The coupling of incoming CO molecules with the surface OH{sup .} radicals on the ice clusters yields the formation of the COOH{sup .} radicals via ZPE-corrected energy barriers and reaction energies of about 4-5 kcal mol{sup -1} and -22 kcal mol{sup -1}, respectively. The COOH{sup .} radicals couple with incoming NH=CH{sub 2} molecules (experimentally detected in the ISM) to form the NHCH{sub 2}COOH{sup .} radical glycine through energy barriers of 12 kcal mol{sup -1}, exceedingly high at ISM cryogenic temperatures. Nonetheless, when H{sub 3}O{sup +} is present, one proton may be barrierless transferred to NH=CH{sub 2} to give NH{sub 2}=CH{sub 2}{sup +}. This latter may react with the COOH{sup .} radical to give the NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOH{sup +.} glycine radical cation which can then be transformed into the NH{sub 2}CHC(OH){sub 2}{sup +.} species (the most stable form of glycine in its radical cation state) or into the NH{sub 2}CHCOOH{sup .} neutral radical glycine. Estimated rate constants of these events suggest that they are kinetically feasible at temperatures of 100-200 K, which indicate that their occurrence may take place in hot molecular cores or in comets exposed to warmer regions of solar systems. Present results provide quantum chemical evidence that defects formed on water ices due to the harsh

  17. Template-free synthesis of mesoporous N-doped SrTiO3 perovskite with high visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zou, Fei; Jiang, Zheng; Qin, Xiaoqin; Zhao, Yongxiang; Jiang, Luyun; Zhi, Jinfang; Xiao, Tiancun; Edwards, Peter P

    2012-09-04

    An effective, template-free synthesis methodology has been developed for preparing mesoporous nitrogen-doped SrTiO(3) (meso-STON) using glycine as both a nitrogen source and a mesopore creator. The N-doping, large surface area and developed porosity endow meso-STON with excellent activity in visible-light-responsive photodegradation of organic dyes.

  18. Interactions between glycine derivatives and mineral surfaces: Implications for the origins of life on planetary surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall-Bowman, K. J.; Cleaves, H. J.; Sverjensky, D. A.; Hazen, R. M.

    2009-12-01

    Various mechanisms could have delivered amino acids to the prebiotic Earth (Miller and Orgel 1974). The polymerization of amino acids may have been important for the origin of life, as peptides may have been components for the first self-replicating systems (Kauffman 1971; Yao et al 1998). Though amino acid concentrations in the primitive oceans were likely too dilute for significant oligomerization to occur (Cleaves et al 2009), mineral surface adsorption may have concentrated these biomolecules (Bernal 1951; Lambert 2008). Few studies have examined the catalytic effects of mineral surfaces on aqueous peptide oligomerization or degradation. As unactivated amino acid polymerization is thermodynamically unfavorable and kinetically slow in aqueous solution, we studied the reverse reaction of polymer degradation to measure potential mineral catalysis. Glycine (G) derivatives glycylglycine (GG), diketopiperazine (DKP), and glycylglycylglycine (GGG) were reacted with different minerals (calcite, hematite, montmorillonite, rutile, amorphous silica, and pyrite) in the presence of 0.05 M pH 8.1 KHCO3 buffer and 0.1 M NaCl as background electrolyte. Experiments were performed by reacting the aqueous amino acid derivative-mineral mixtures in a thermostatted oven (modified to accommodate a mechanical rotator) at 25°, 50° or 70°C. Samples were removed after 30, 60, 90, and 140 hours. Samples were then analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography to quantify the products. Besides mineral catalysis, it was determined that degradation of GGG proceeds principally via a GGG → DKP + G mechanism, rather than via GGG → GG + G. Below 70°C kinetics were generally too sluggish to detect catalytic activity over reasonable laboratory time-scales at this pH. At 70°C, pyrite was the only mineral with detectible catalytic effects on the degradation of GGG. GGG degraded ~ 1.5 - 4 x faster in the presence of pyrite than in control reactions, depending on the ratio of solution

  19. Fabrication of glycine-functionalized maghemite nanoparticles for magnetic removal of copper from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Feitoza, Natálie C; Gonçalves, Thamires D; Mesquita, Jéssica J; Menegucci, Jucely S; Santos, Mac-Kedson M S; Chaker, Juliano A; Cunha, Ricardo B; Medeiros, Anderson M M; Rubim, Joel C; Sousa, Marcelo H

    2014-01-15

    Maghemite nanoparticles (MNPs) were functionalized with glycine, by a cost-effective and environmentally friendly procedure, as an alternative route to typical amine-functionalized polymeric coatings, for highly efficient removal of copper ions from water. MNPs were synthesized by co-precipitation method and adsorption of glycine was investigated as a function of ligand concentration and pH. The efficiency of these functionalized nanoparticles for removal of Cu(2+) from water has been explored and showed that adsorption is highly dependent of pH and that it occurs either by forming chelate complexes and/or by electrostatic interaction. The adsorption process, which reaches equilibrium in few minutes and fits a pseudo second-order model, follows the Langmuir adsorption model with a very high maximum adsorption capacity for Cu(2+) of 625mg/g. Furthermore, these nanoadsorbents can be used as highly efficient separable and reusable materials for removal of toxic metal ions.

  20. Mutation of glycine receptor subunit creates beta-alanine receptor responsive to GABA.

    PubMed

    Schmieden, V; Kuhse, J; Betz, H

    1993-10-08

    The amino acid at position 160 of the ligand-binding subunit, alpha 1, is an important determinant of agonist and antagonist binding to the glycine receptor. Exchange of the neighboring residues, phenylalanine at position 159 and tyrosine at position 161, increased the efficacy of amino acid agonists. Whereas wild-type alpha 1 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes required 0.7 millimolar beta-alanine for a half-maximal response, the doubly mutated (F159Y,Y161F) alpha 1 subunit had an affinity for beta-alanine (which was more potent than glycine) that was 110-fold that of the wild type. Also, gamma-aminobutyric acid and D-serine, amino acids that do not activate wild-type alpha 1 receptors, efficiently gated the mutant channel. Thus, aromatic hydroxyl groups are crucial for ligand discrimination at inhibitory amino acid receptors.

  1. Studies on conventional and Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method grown ferroelectric glycine phosphite (GPI) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil Pandian, M.; Pattanaboonmee, N.; Ramasamy, P.; Manyum, P.

    2011-01-01

    Transparent single crystals of glycine phosphite were grown by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method and conventional slow evaporation solution technique (SEST) which had the sizes of 100 mm in length, 30 mm diameter and 10×11×8 mm 3. The conventional slow evaporation and Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy method grown glycine phosphite single crystals were characterized using laser damage threshold, chemical etching, Vickers microhardness, UV-vis-NIR and dielectric analysis. The laser damage threshold value was higher in SR method grown GPI crystal as against conventional method grown crystal. The SR method grown GPI has higher hardness and also higher transmittance compared to conventional method grown crystal. The chemical etching and dielectric loss measurements indicate that the crystal grown by SR method has low density of defects and low value of dielectric loss compared to conventional method grown GPI crystal.

  2. Electron paramagnetic resonance and FT-IR spectroscopic studies of glycine anhydride and betaine hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halim Başkan, M.; Kartal, Zeki; Aydın, Murat

    2015-12-01

    Gamma irradiated powders of glycine anhydride and betaine hydrochloride have been investigated at room temperature by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). In these compounds, the observed paramagnetic species were attributed to the R1 and R2 radicals, respectively. It was determined that the free electron interacted with environmental protons and 14N nucleus in both radicals. The EPR spectra of gamma irradiated powder samples remained unchanged at room temperature for two weeks after irradiation. Also, the Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), FT-Raman and thermal analyses of both compounds were investigated. The functional groups in the molecular structures of glycine anhydride and betaine hydrochloride were identified by vibrational spectroscopies (FT-IR and FT-Raman).

  3. Comparative study of glycine single crystals with additive of potassium nitrate in different concentration ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gujarati, Vivek P.; Deshpande, M. P.; Patel, Kamakshi R.; Chaki, S. H.

    2016-05-01

    Semi-organic crystals of Glycine Potassium Nitrate (GPN) with potential applications in Non linear optics (NLO) were grown using slow evaporation technique. Glycine and Potassium Nitrate were taken in three different concentration ratios of 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1 respectively. We checked the solubility of the material in distilled water at different temperatures and could observe the growth of crystals in 7 weeks time. Purity of the grown crystals was confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) and CHN analysis. GSN Powder X-ray diffraction pattern was recorded to confirm the crystalline nature. To confirm the applications of grown crystals in opto-electronics field, UV-Vis-NIR study was carried out. Dielectric properties of the samples were studied in between the frequency range 1Hz to 100 KHz.

  4. Self-Assembly of Glycine on Cu (001): The tale of Temperature and Polarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lifang; Xu, Jing; Lin, Zheshuai; Meng, Sheng; Wang, Enge

    Glycine on Cu(001) is used as an example to illustrate the critical role of molecular polarity and finite temperature effect in self-assembly of bio-molecules at a metal surface. A unified picture for glycine self-assembly on Cu(001) is derived based on full polarity compensation considerations. Temperature plays a non-trivial role: the ground-state structure at 0 K is absent at room temperature, where intermolecular hydrogen bonding overweighs competing molecule-substrate interactions. The unique p(2×4) structure predicted as the most stable structure was confirmed by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, whose scanning tunneling microscopy images and anisotropic free-electron-like dispersion are in excellent agreement with experiments. Moreover, the rich self-assembling patterns including the heterochiral and homochiral phases, and their interrelationships are entirely governed by the same mechanism.

  5. Third order nonlinear optical, luminescence and electrical properties of bis glycine hydrobromide single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surekha, R.; Sagayaraj, P.; Ambujam, K.

    2014-03-01

    Optical quality bis glycine hydrobromide (BGHB) single crystal was grown by slow evaporation technique. The third order nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption coefficient of the grown crystal were measured by Z-scan studies. The third order nonlinear susceptibility was found to be 9.612 × 10-4 esu which is fairly higher than the other glycine compounds. The Photoluminescence spectra reveal the emission bands for BGHB crystals. The band gap energy was calculated to be 3.1 eV. The Photoconductivity studies were employed to determine the dependence of photocurrent on the applied electric field. Negative photoconductivity was exhibited by the sample. The d.c. conductivity of the grown crystal was measured by the complex impedance analysis wherein the obtained plot in the form of semicircle finds application in Debye relaxation for materials having large dc conductivity.

  6. Characterization of single stranded telomeric DNA-binding proteins in cultured soybean (Glycine max) cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Chian; Kwon, Kisang; Chung, In Kwon; Kim, Soon Young; Cho, Myeon Haeng; Kang, Bin Goo

    2004-06-30

    We have identified and characterized a protein factor in soybean (Glycine max) nuclear extracts that binds to plant single stranded telomeric DNA repeats. A single DNA-protein complex was detected in gel retardation assays using synthetic telomeres and nuclear extracts. The protein forming this complex was designated soy-bean (Glycine max) single stranded telomeric DNA-binding protein (Gm-STBP). Gm-STBP binds to single stranded telomeric DNA containing more than two repeats. It does not bind to Tetrahymena, human or mutated plant telomere sequences, and its binding activity is not affected by RNase treatment. Gm-STBP activity gradually decreased after suspension cultures entered stationary phase. A slower migrating band was formed with extracts of earlier and later phases of soybean suspension cultures. Our findings suggest that binding of Gm-STBP to plant single stranded telomeric DNA may play a role in the proper functioning of telomeres during development.

  7. Neuroprotection by a novel NMDAR functional glycine site partial agonist, GLYX-13.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Patric K; Potter, Pamela E; Aguilar, Jennifer; Decandia, Maria; Moskal, Joseph R

    2009-08-26

    GLYX-13 (threonine-proline-proline-threonine-amide) is an amidated di-pyrrolidine that acts as a functional partial agonist at the glycine site on N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors (NMDARs). GLYX-13 can both increase NMDAR conductance at NR2B-containing receptors, and reduce conductance of non-NR2B-containing receptors. Here, we report that GLYX-13 potently reduces delayed (24 h) death of CA1 pyramidal neurons produced by bilateral carotid occlusion in Mongolian gerbils, when administered up to 5 h post-ischemia. GLYX-13 also reduced delayed (24 h) neuronal death of CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus principal neurons elicited by oxygen/glucose deprivation in in-vitro hippocampal organotypic slice cultures, when applied up to 2 h post-oxygen/glucose deprivation. The glycine site full agonist D-serine completely occluded neuroprotection, indicating that GLYX-13 acts by modulating activation of this site.

  8. A glycine ruthenium trithiacyclononane complex and its molecular encapsulation using cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Marques, Joana; Santos, Teresa M; Marques, Maria Paula; Braga, Susana S

    2009-11-28

    The complex Ru([9]aneS(3))(gly)Cl (gly = glycine) was obtained from the reaction of the precursor Ru([9]aneS(3))dmsoCl(2) with glycine and encapsulated into native beta-CD, a hydroxypropylated derivative HPbetaCD, and the methylated cyclodextrins TRIMEB and CRYSMEB. All four inclusion compounds were obtained with a 1:1 host:guest stoichiometry and characterised in the solid-state by powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and (13)C{(1)H} CP/MAS NMR and FTIR spectroscopies. The cytostatic and antiproliferative activity of the complex Ru([9]aneS(3))(gly)Cl and its four CD inclusion compounds was tested on the human osteosarcoma MG-63 cell line and the results compared to the inhibitory effect exerted by the pure cyclodextrins.

  9. Solution combustion synthesis of strontium aluminate, SrAl2O4, powders: single-fuel versus fuel-mixture approach.

    PubMed

    Ianoş, Robert; Istratie, Roxana; Păcurariu, Cornelia; Lazău, Radu

    2016-01-14

    The solution combustion synthesis of strontium aluminate, SrAl2O4, via the classic single-fuel approach and the modern fuel-mixture approach was investigated in relation to the synthesis conditions, powder properties and thermodynamic aspects. The single-fuel approach (urea or glycine) did not yield SrAl2O4 directly from the combustion reaction. The absence of SrAl2O4 was explained by the low amount of energy released during the combustion process, in spite of the highly negative values of the standard enthalpy of reaction and standard Gibbs free energy. In the case of single-fuel recipes, the maximum combustion temperatures measured by thermal imaging (482 °C - urea, 941 °C - glycine) were much lower than the calculated adiabatic temperatures (1864 °C - urea, 2147 °C - glycine). The fuel-mixture approach (urea and glycine) clearly represented a better option, since (α,β)-SrAl2O4 resulted directly from the combustion reaction. The maximum combustion temperature measured in the case of a urea and glycine fuel mixture was the highest one (1559 °C), which was relatively close to the calculated adiabatic temperature (1930 °C). The addition of a small amount of flux, such as H3BO3, enabled the formation of pure α-SrAl2O4 directly from the combustion reaction.

  10. Hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. et Zucc.) under field conditions in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mizuguti, Aki; Ohigashi, Kentaro; Yoshimura, Yasuyuki; Kaga, Akito; Kuroda, Yosuke; Matsuo, Kazuhito

    2010-01-01

    Accumulation of information about natural hybridization between GM soybean (Glycine max) and wild soybean (Glycine soja) is required for risk assessment evaluation and to establish biosafety regulations in Japan. This is particularly important in areas where wild relatives of cultivated soybean are grown (i.e. East Asia including Japan). To collect information on temporal and spatial factors affecting variation in hybridization between wild and GM soybean, a two year hybridization experiment was established that included one wild soybean and five GM soybean cultivars with different maturity dates. Hybridization frequencies ranged from 0 to 0.097%. The maximum hybridization frequency (0.097%) was obtained from wild soybean crossed with GM soybean cv. AG6702RR, which were adjacently cultivated with wild soybean, with 25 hybrids out of 25 741 seedlings tested. Cultivar AG6702RR had the most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Ten hybrids out of 25 741 were produced by crossing with cv. AG5905RR, which had the second most synchronous flowering period with wild soybean. Most hybrids were found where GM and wild soybeans were adjacently cultivated, whereas only one hybrid was detected from wild soybean plants at 2 m, 4 m and 6 m from a pollen source (GM soybean). Differences in flowering phenology, isolation distance and presence of buffer plants accounted for half of the variation in hybridization frequency in this study. Temporal and spatial isolation will be effective strategies to minimize hybridization between GM and wild soybean.

  11. Genetic diversity in domesticated soybean (Glycine max) and its wild progenitor (Glycine soja) for simple sequence repeat and single-nucleotide polymorphism loci.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Hui; Li, Wei; Zhang, Chen; Yang, Liang; Chang, Ru-Zhen; Gaut, Brandon S; Qiu, Li-Juan

    2010-10-01

    • The study of genetic diversity between a crop and its wild relatives may yield fundamental insights into evolutionary history and the process of domestication. • In this study, we genotyped a sample of 303 accessions of domesticated soybean (Glycine max) and its wild progenitor Glycine soja with 99 microsatellite markers and 554 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. • The simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci averaged 21.5 alleles per locus and overall Nei's gene diversity of 0.77. The SNPs had substantially lower genetic diversity (0.35) than SSRs. A SSR analyses indicated that G. soja exhibited higher diversity than G. max, but SNPs provided a slightly different snapshot of diversity between the two taxa. For both marker types, the primary division of genetic diversity was between the wild and domesticated accessions. Within taxa, G. max consisted of four geographic regions in China. G. soja formed six subgroups. Genealogical analyses indicated that cultivated soybean tended to form a monophyletic clade with respect to G. soja. • G. soja and G. max represent distinct germplasm pools. Limited evidence of admixture was discovered between these two species. Overall, our analyses are consistent with the origin of G. max from regions along the Yellow River of China.

  12. Glycine supplementation in vitro enhances porcine preimplantation embryo cell number and decreases apoptosis but does not lead to live births

    PubMed Central

    Redel, Bethany K.; Spate, Lee D.; Lee, Kiho; Mao, Jiude; Whitworth, Kristin M.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Most in vitro culture conditions are less‐than‐optimal for embryo development. Here, we used a transcriptional‐profiling database to identify culture‐induced differences in gene expression in porcine blastocysts compared to in vivo‐produced counterparts. Genes involved in glycine transport (SLC6A9), glycine metabolism (GLDC, GCSH, DLD, and AMT), and serine metabolism (PSAT1, PSPH, and PHGDH) were differentially expressed. Addition of 10 mM glycine to the culture medium (currently containing 0.1 mM) reduced the abundance of SLC6A9 transcript and increased total cell number, primarily in the trophectoderm lineage (P = 0.003); this was likely by decreasing the percentage of apoptotic nuclei. As serine and glycine can be reversibly metabolized by serine hydroxymethyltransferase 2 (SHMT2), we assessed the abundance of SHMT2 transcript as well as its functional role by inhibiting it with aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), a glycine analog, during in vitro culture. Both AMPA supplementation and elevated glycine decreased the mRNA abundance of SHMT2 and tumor protein p53 (TP53), which is activated in response to cellular stress, compared to controls (P ≤ 0.02). On the other hand, mitochondrial activity of blastocysts, mtDNA copy number, and abundance of mitochondria‐related transcripts did not differ between control and 10 mM glycine culture conditions. Despite improvements to these metrics of blastocyst quality, transfer of embryos cultured in 10 mM glycine did not result in pregnancy whereas the transfer of in vitro‐produced embryos cultured in control medium yielded live births. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 246–258, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. PMID:26824641

  13. Contributions of Fusarium virguliforme and Heterodera glycines to the Disease Complex of Sudden Death Syndrome of Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Westphal, Andreas; Li, Chunge; Xing, Lijuan; McKay, Alan; Malvick, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Background Sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean caused by Fusarium virguliforme spreads and reduces soybean yields through the North Central region of the U.S. The fungal pathogen and Heterodera glycines are difficult to manage. Methodology/Principal Findings The objective was to determine the contributions of H. glycines and F. virguliforme to SDS severity and effects on soybean yield. To quantify DNA of F. virguliforme in soybean roots and soil, a specific real time qPCR assay was developed. The assay was used on materials from soybean field microplots that contained in a four-factor factorial-design: (i) untreated or methyl bromide-fumigated; (ii) non-infested or infested with F. virguliforme; (iii) non-infested or infested with H. glycines; (iv) natural precipitation or additional weekly watering. In years 2 and 3 of the trial, soil and watering treatments were maintained. Roots of soybean ‘Williams 82’ were collected for necrosis ratings at the full seed growth stage R6. Foliar symptoms of SDS (area under the disease progress curve, AUDPC), root necrosis, and seed yield parameters were related to population densities of H. glycines and the relative DNA concentrations of F. virguliforme in the roots and soil. The specific and sensitive real time qPCR was used. Data from microplots were introduced into models of AUDPC, root necrosis, and seed yield parameters with the frequency of H. glycines and F. virguliforme, and among each other. The models confirmed the close interrelationship of H. glycines with the development of SDS, and allowed for predictions of disease risk based on populations of these two pathogens in soil. Conclusions/Significance The results modeled the synergistic interaction between H. glycines and F. virguliforme quantitatively in previously infested field plots and explained previous findings of their interaction. Under these conditions, F. virguliforme was mildly aggressive and depended on infection of H. glycines to cause highly

  14. Glycine suppresses TNF-α-induced activation of NF-κB in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Blancas-Flores, Gerardo; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J; García-Macedo, Rebeca; Almanza-Pérez, Julio C; Flores-Sáenz, José L; Román-Ramos, Rubén; Ventura-Gallegos, José L; Kumate, Jesús; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Cruz, Miguel

    2012-08-15

    Glycine strongly reduces the serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increases the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Recently, glycine has been shown to decrease the expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory adipokines in monosodium glutamate-induced obese (MSG/Ob) mice. It has been postulated that these effects may be explained by a reduction in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation. NF-κB is a transcription factor, which is crucial to the inflammatory response. Hasegawa et al. (2011 and 2012) recently reported a glycine-dependent reduction in NF-κB levels. Here, we have investigated the role of glycine in the regulation of NF-κB in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The results revealed that pretreatment with glycine interfered with the activation of NF-κB, which has been shown to be stimulated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). Glycine alone stimulated NF-κB activation in an unusual way such that the inhibitor κB-β (IκB-β) degradation was more significant than that of the inhibitor κB-α (IκB-α) and led to NF-κB complexes comprised of p50 and p65 subunits; IκB-ε degradation did not affect by glycine. These findings suggest that glycine could be used as an alternative treatment for chronic inflammation, which is a hallmark of obesity and other comorbidities, and is characterized by an elevated production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  15. Effect of Pressure on the Release of Radioactive Glycine and Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid from Spinal Cord Synaptosomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    include Security Classification) Effect of Pressure on the Release of Radioactive Glycine and-Aminobutyric Acid from Spinal Cord Synaptosomes 12. PERSONAL... Spinal Cord ; Synaptosomes 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) AkcoSSSiOf For @TIC NTIS GRA&I (o.pyr DTIC TAR...Neurochemistry Effect of Pressure on the Release of Radioactive Glycine and 7-Aminobutyric Acid from Spinal Cord Synaptosomes Sara C. Gilman, Joel S. Colton

  16. Ab Initio Calculations on Large Molecules Using Molecular Fragments. Evidence of Hydrogen Bonding in Polypeptides of Glycine

    PubMed Central

    Shipman, Lester L.; Christoffersen, Ralph E.

    1972-01-01

    Ab initio calculations on di-, tri-, tetra-, and pentapeptides of glycine in various conformations are reported. Hydrogen bonding is observed as an important stabilizing force in α-helical conformations. These studies on polypeptides of glycine of reasonable size show for the first time that the forces acting to stabilize polypeptide conformations can be extracted directly from theoretical studies, without prior postulation of their existence or need for concern that neglect or approximation of various integrals may have biased the results. PMID:4508323

  17. Effects of Glycine, Water, Ammonia, and Ammonium Bicarbonate on the Oligomerization of Methionine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rui; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Otake, Tsubasa; Kakegawa, Takeshi

    2016-09-01

    The abiotic oligomerization of amino acids may have created primordial, protein-like biological catalysts on the early Earth. Previous studies have proposed and evaluated the potential of diagenesis for the amino acid oligomerization, simulating the formation of peptides that include glycine, alanine, and valine, separately. However, whether such conditions can promote the formation of peptides composed of multiple amino acids remains unclear. Furthermore, the chemistry of pore water in sediments should affect the oligomerization and degradation of amino acids and oligomers, but these effects have not been studied extensively. In this study, we investigated the effects of water, ammonia, ammonium bicarbonate, pH, and glycine on the oligomerization and degradation of methionine under high pressure (150 MPa) and high temperature conditions (175 °C) for 96 h. Methionine is more difficult to oligomerize than glycine and methionine dimer was formed in the incubation of dry powder of methionine. Methionine oligomers as long as trimers, as well as methionylglycine and glycylmethionine, were formed under every condition with these additional compounds. Among the compounds tested, the oligomerization reaction rate was accelerated by the presence of water and by an increase in pH. Ammonia also increased the oligomerization rate but consumed methionine by side reactions and resulted in the rapid degradation of methionine and its peptides. Similarly, glycine accelerated the oligomerization rate of methionine and the degradation of methionine, producing water, ammonia, and bicarbonate through its decomposition. With Gly, heterogeneous dimers (methionylglycine and glycylmethionine) were formed in greater amounts than with other additional compounds although smaller amount of these heterogeneous dimers were formed with other additional compounds. These results suggest that accelerated reaction rates induced by water and co-existing reactive compounds promote the oligomerization

  18. Complex organisation of the 5'-end of the human glycine tRNA synthetase gene.

    PubMed

    Mudge, S J; Williams, J H; Eyre, H J; Sutherland, G R; Cowan, P J; Power, D A

    1998-03-16

    Glycine tRNA synthetase (glyRS) catalyses the addition of the amino acid glycine to its cognate tRNA molecules. In the silk moth worm Bombyx mori, this gene is subject to complex transcriptional regulation because of the predominance of glycine in silk. In vertebrates, glycine is a major constituent of collagen but there have been no studies of glyRS regulation. In this study we have isolated and mapped a genomic clone containing the 5'-end of glyRS. Primer extension studies identified only one transcriptional start point (TSP) in three different cell lines. Expression of the transcript identified may be regulated translationally because it contains five potential initiation codons, three of which are in good context for initiation. The most 3' of the potential initiation codons has previously been predicted to be the initiating codon for cytoplasmic glyRS. Two of the upstream codons are in-frame with this codon, and both are predicted to extend the N-terminus of glyRS to include a mitochondrial targeting sequence. Sequencing of genomic DNA surrounding the TSP showed features common to the promoters of housekeeping genes, as well as a canonical TATA box at the unusual position of +9. Surprisingly, promoter activity in vitro was not specified by a 1.9 kb genomic fragment containing the TSP and TATA box, but by a contiguous 0.4 kb fragment immediately downstream. These studies suggest that the transcription of glyRS from a single start point requires downstream promoter elements.

  19. Glycine Transporter Inhibitor Attenuates the Psychotomimetic Effects of Ketamine in Healthy Males: Preliminary Evidence

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Deepak Cyril; Singh, Nagendra; Elander, Jacqueline; Carbuto, Michelle; Pittman, Brian; de Haes, Joanna Udo; Sjogren, Magnus; Peeters, Pierre; Ranganathan, Mohini; Schipper, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Enhancing glutamate function by stimulating the glycine site of the NMDA receptor with glycine, -serine, or with drugs that inhibit glycine reuptake may have therapeutic potential in schizophrenia. The effects of a single oral dose of cis-N-methyl-N-(6-methoxy-1-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-ylmethyl) amino-methylcarboxylic acid hydrochloride (Org 25935), a glycine transporter-1 (GlyT1) inhibitor, and placebo pretreatment on ketamine-induced schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms, perceptual alterations, and subjective effects were evaluated in 12 healthy male subjects in a randomized, counter-balanced, within-subjects, crossover design. At 2.5 h after administration of the Org 25935 or placebo, subjects received a ketamine bolus and constant infusion lasting 100 min. Psychotic symptoms, perceptual, and a number of subjective effects were assessed repeatedly before, several times during, and after completion of ketamine administration. A cognitive battery was administered once per test day. Ketamine produced behavioral, subjective, and cognitive effects consistent with its known effects. Org 25935 reduced the ketamine-induced increases in measures of psychosis (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)) and perceptual alterations (Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale (CADSS)). The magnitude of the effect of Org 25935 on ketamine-induced increases in Total PANSS and CADSS Clinician-rated scores was 0.71 and 0.98 (SD units), respectively. None of the behavioral effects of ketamine were increased by Org 25935 pretreatment. Org 25935 worsened some aspects of learning and delayed recall, and trended to improve choice reaction time. This study demonstrates for the first time in humans that a GlyT1 inhibitor reduces the effects induced by NMDA receptor antagonism. These findings provide preliminary support for further study of the antipsychotic potential of GlyT1 inhibitors. PMID:22113087

  20. Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and endogenous cannabinoid anandamide directly potentiate the function of glycine receptors.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Nadia; Zhou, Chunyi; Oz, Murat; Sun, Hui; Ye, Jiang Hong; Zhang, Li

    2006-03-01

    Anandamide (AEA) and delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are endogenous and exogenous ligands, respectively, for cannabinoid receptors. Whereas most of the pharmacological actions of cannabinoids are mediated by CB1 receptors, there is also evidence that these compounds can produce effects that are not mediated by the activation of identified cannabinoid receptors. Here, we report that THC and AEA, in a CB1 receptor-independent manner, cause a significant potentiation of the amplitudes of glycine-activated currents (I(Gly)) in acutely isolated neurons from rat ventral tegmental area (VTA) and in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing human homomeric (alpha1) and heteromeric (alpha1beta1) subunits of glycine receptors (GlyRs). The potentiation of I(Gly) by THC and AEA is concentration-dependent, with respective EC50 values of 86 +/- 9 and 319 +/- 31 nM for alpha1 homomeric receptors, 73 +/- 8 and 318 +/- 24 nM for alpha1beta1 heteromeric receptors, and 115 +/- 13 and 230 +/- 29 nM for native GlyRs in VTA neurons. The effects of THC and AEA are selective for I(Gly), because GABA-activated current in VTA neurons or in X. laevis oocytes expressing alpha2beta3gamma2 GABA(A) receptor subunits were unaffected by these compounds. The maximal potentiation by THC and AEA was observed at the lowest concentration of glycine; with increasing concentrations of glycine, the potentiation significantly decreased. The site for THC and AEA seems to be distinct from that of the alcohol and volatile anesthetics. The results indicate that THC and AEA, in pharmacologically relevant concentrations, directly potentiate the function of GlyRs through an allosteric mechanism.