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Sample records for 15n-labed glycine synthesis

  1. Cytochrome c catalyzes the in vitro synthesis of arachidonoyl glycine

    SciTech Connect

    McCue, Jeffrey M.; Driscoll, William J.; Mueller, Gregory P.

    2008-01-11

    Long chain fatty acyl glycines are an emerging class of biologically active molecules that occur naturally and produce a wide array of physiological effects. Their biosynthetic pathway, however, remains unknown. Here we report that cytochrome c catalyzes the synthesis of N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly) from arachidonoyl coenzyme A and glycine in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The identity of the NAGly product was verified by isotope labeling and mass analysis. Other heme-containing proteins, hemoglobin and myoglobin, were considerably less effective in generating arachidonoyl glycine as compared to cytochrome c. The reaction catalyzed by cytochrome c in vitro points to its potential role in the formation of NAGly and other long chain fatty acyl glycines in vivo.

  2. Synthesis of water soluble glycine capped silver nanoparticles and their surface selective interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Agasti, Nityananda; Singh, Vinay K.; Kaushik, N.K.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles at ambient reaction conditions. • Glycine as stabilizing agent for silver nanoparticles. • Surface selective interaction of glycine with silver nanoparticles. • Glycine concentration influences crystalinity and optical property of silver nanoparticles. - Abstract: Synthesis of biocompatible metal nanoparticles has been an area of significant interest because of their wide range of applications. In the present study, we have successfully synthesized water soluble silver nanoparticles assisted by small amino acid glycine. The method is primarily based on reduction of AgNO{sub 3} with NaBH{sub 4} in aqueous solution under atmospheric air in the presence of glycine. UV–vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X–ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques used for characterization of resulting silver nanoparticles demonstrated that, glycine is an effective capping agent to stabilize silver nanoparticles. Surface selective interaction of glycine on (1 1 1) face of silver nanoparticles has been investigated. The optical property and crystalline behavior of silver nanoparticles were found to be sensitive to concentration of glycine. X–ray diffraction studies ascertained the phase specific interaction of glycine on silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles synthesized were of diameter 60 nm. We thus demonstrated an efficient synthetic method for synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles capped by amino acid under mild reaction conditions with excellent reproducibility.

  3. Unlike pregnant adult women, pregnant adolescent girls cannot maintain glycine flux during late pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During pregnancy, glycine and serine become more important because they are the primary suppliers of methyl groups for the synthesis of fetal DNA, and more glycine is required for fetal collagen synthesis as pregnancy progresses. In an earlier study, we reported that glycine flux decreased by 39% fr...

  4. Unlike pregnant adult women, pregnant adolescent girls cannot maintain glycine flux during late pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jean W; Thame, Minerva M; Gibson, Raquel; Baker, Tameka M; Tang, Grace J; Chacko, Shaji K; Jackson, Alan A; Jahoor, Farook

    2016-03-14

    During pregnancy, glycine and serine become more important because they are the primary suppliers of methyl groups for the synthesis of fetal DNA, and more glycine is required for fetal collagen synthesis as pregnancy progresses. In an earlier study, we reported that glycine flux decreased by 39% from the first to the third trimester in pregnant adolescent girls. As serine is a primary precursor for glycine synthesis, the objective of this study was to measure and compare glycine and serine fluxes and inter-conversions in pregnant adolescent girls and adult women in the first and third trimesters. Measurements were made after an overnight fast by continuous intravenous infusions of 2H2-glycine and 15N-serine in eleven adolescent girls (17·4 (se 0·1) years of age) and in ten adult women (25·8 (se 0·5) years of age) for 4 h. Adolescent girls had significantly slower glycine flux and they made less glycine from serine in the third (P<0·05) than in the first trimester. Baby birth length was significantly shorter of adolescent girls (P=0·04) and was significantly associated with third trimester glycine flux. These findings suggest that the pregnant adolescent cannot maintain glycine flux in late pregnancy compared with early pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine. It is possible that the inability to maintain glycine synthesis makes her fetus vulnerable to impaired cartilage synthesis, and thus linear growth.

  5. Nazarov cyclization of dienylaziridines: synthesis of cyclopentadienyl/hydrinedienyl/indenyl glycines.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar, Gangarajula; Reddy, Karla Janardhan; Nanubolu, Jagadesh Babu

    2015-09-07

    Cyclopentadienyl, hydrinedienyl, and indenyl glycines were synthesized using dienylaziridines as Nazarov cyclization precursors for the first time. Several substrates were synthesized to demonstrate the compatibility of this reaction. Asymmetric synthesis of these amino acids was also developed to show the additional scope of this method.

  6. Glycine as a regulator of tryptophan-dependent pigment synthesis in Malassezia furfur.

    PubMed

    Barchmann, Thorsten; Hort, Wiebke; Krämer, Hans-Joachim; Mayser, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the addition of different amino nitrogens on growth, morphology and secondary metabolism of Malassezia furfur were investigated. After primary culture on Dixon agar, M. furfur CBS 1878 was transferred into a fluid medium together with the nitrogen sources, glycine (Gly) or tryptophan (Trp), or a combination of both. Growth was measured by means of a direct cell counting method and pigment synthesis was photometrically assessed. Addition of glycine resulted in an exponential increase in biomass, but not in pigment production. Tryptophan as the sole nitrogen source caused distinct brown staining of the medium, without increasing biomass. Simultaneous equimolar addition of both amino acids resulted in an initial increase in biomass as a sign of preferential metabolism of glycine, followed by a growth plateau and pigment production which, caused by higher biomass, occurred more rapidly than after addition of tryptophan alone. The yeast-cell morphology changed from round to oval. Addition of glycine to the tryptophan-containing liquid culture stopped pigment formation with simultaneous growth induction. These in vitro on-off phenomena depending on the nitrogen source might be significant in the pathogenesis of pityriasis versicolor: hyperhidrosis followed by preferential consumption of individual nitrogen sources such as glycine with exponential growth and thereafter transamination of tryptophan and TRP-dependent pigment synthesis.

  7. Glucan synthesis in membranes from Zea mays and Glycine max: Interaction of ER and Golgi membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Gibeaut, D.M.; Carpita, N.C. )

    1993-05-01

    Membranes of the Golgi apparatus from maize (Zea mays L.) were used to synthesize in vitro the (1[yields]3),(1[yields]4)-[beta]-D-glucan that is unique to the cell wall of the Poaceae. Activated charcoal added during homogenization reduced the synthesis of callose and enhanced synthesis of (1[yields]3),(1[yields]4)-[beta]-D-glucan. Charcoal was also effective on stimulating the synthesis of xyloglucan using Golgi apparatus from soybean (Glycine max) hypocotyls. In both cases, a crude membrane fraction containing both endoplasmic synthesis than a purified fraction of Golgi apparatus. The interaction of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus is being investigated.

  8. Glycine-Urea Combustion Synthesis for γ- LiAlO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, M. M.; Wen, Z. Y.; Fan, Z. Z.; Lin, Z. X.

    γ- LiAlO2, is a potential candidate for the use as ceramic separator in molten carbonate fuel cells. A combustion synthesis technique, the glycine-urea-nitrate process was described and investigated in this paper. A combination of the aqueous solution of glycine-urea and metal nitrates was employed as a precursor for the process. Gels were formed while the solutions were evaporated. Further heating caused the precursor to autoignite. The experimental results of phase analysis, particle morphology and particle size analysis indicated that pure γ- LiAlO2 with fine crystalline and high reactivity could be obtained by the combustion technique.

  9. Efficient microwave combinatorial parallel and nonparallel synthesis of N-alkylated glycine methyl esters as peptide building blocks.

    PubMed

    Santagada, Vincenzo; Frecentese, Francesco; Perissutti, Elisa; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Severino, Beatrice; Cirillo, Donatella; Terracciano, Sara; Caliendo, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    An easy and convenient microwave-assisted synthesis of N-alkylated glycine methyl esters is described. Parallel and nonparallel combinatorial methods are described and compared. The described reactions are reductive alkylations of several aldehydes and glycine methyl ester in the presence of NaBH3CN. Good yields and short reaction times are the main aspects of these procedures.

  10. Roles of dietary glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline in collagen synthesis and animal growth.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Wu, Guoyao

    2017-09-20

    Glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline (Hyp) contribute to 57% of total amino acids (AAs) in collagen, which accounts for one-third of proteins in animals. As the most abundant protein in the body, collagen is essential to maintain the normal structure and strength of connective tissue, such as bones, skin, cartilage, and blood vessels. Mammals, birds, and fish can synthesize: (1) glycine from threonine, serine, choline, and Hyp; (2) proline from arginine; and (3) Hyp from proline residues in collagen, in a cell- and tissue-specific manner. In addition, livestock (e.g., pigs, cattle, and sheep) produces proline from glutamine and glutamate in the small intestine, but this pathway is absent from birds and possibly most fish species. Results of the recent studies indicate that endogenous synthesis of glycine, proline, and Hyp is inadequate for maximal growth, collagen production, or feed efficiency in pigs, chickens, and fish. Although glycine, proline and Hyp, and gelatin can be used as feed additives in animal diets, these ingredients except for glycine are relatively expensive, which precludes their inclusion in practical rations. Alternatively, hydrolyzed feather meal (HFM), which contains 9% glycine, 5% Hyp, and 12% proline, holds great promise as a low cost but abundant dietary source of glycine, Hyp, and proline for ruminants and nonruminants. Because HFM is deficient in most AAs, future research efforts should be directed at improving the bioavailability of its AAs and the balance of AAs in HFM-supplemented diets. Finally, HFM may be used as a feed additive to prevent or ameliorate connective tissue disorders in domestic and aquatic animals.

  11. Effects of Glycolate Pathway Intermediates on Glycine Decarboxylation and Serine Synthesis in Pea (Pisum sativum L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Shingles, Richard; Woodrow, Lorna; Grodzinski, Bernard

    1984-01-01

    Glycine decarboxylation and serine synthesis were studied in pea (Pisum sativum L.) leaf discs, in metabolically active intact chloroplasts, and in mitochondria isolated both partially by differential centrifugation (i.e. `crude') and by further purification on a Percoll gradient. Glycolate, glyoxylate, and formate reduced glycine decarboxylase activity (14CO2 and NH3 release) in the crude green-colored mitochondrial fractions, and in the leaf discs without markedly altering serine synthesis from [1-14C]glycine. Glycolate acted because it was converted to glyoxylate which behaves as a noncompetitive inhibitor (Ki = 5.1 ± 0.5 millimolar) on the mitochondrial glycine decarboxylation reaction in both crude and Percoll-purified mitochondria. In contrast, formate facilitates glycine to serine conversion by a route which does not involve glycine breakdown in the crude mitochondrial fraction and leaf discs. Formate does not alter the conversion of two molecules of glycine to one CO2, one NH3, and one serine molecule in the Percoll-purified mitochondria. In chloroplasts which were unable to break glycine down to CO2 and NH3, serine was labeled equally from [14C]formate and [1-14C]glycine. The maximum rate of serine synthesis observed in chloroplasts is similar to that in isolated metabolically active mitochondria. Formate does not appear to be able to substitute for the one-carbon unit produced during mitochondrial glycine breakdown but can facilitate serine synthesis from glycine in a chloroplast reaction which is probably a secondary one in vivo. PMID:16663485

  12. Synthesis of Diopside by Solution Combustion Process Using Glycine Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherikar, Baburao N.; Umarji, A. M.

    Nano ceramic Diopside (CaMgSi2O6) powders are synthesized by Solution Combustion Process(SCS) using Calcium nitrate, Magnesium nitrate as oxidizer and glycine as fuel, fumed silica as silica source. Ammonium nitrate (AN) is used as extra oxidizer. Effect of AN on Diopside phase formation is investigated. The adiabatic flame temperatures are calculated theoretically for varying amount of AN according to thermodynamic concept and correlated with the observed flame temperatures. A “Multi channel thermocouple setup connected to computer interfaced Keithley multi voltmeter 2700” is used to monitor the thermal events during the process. An interpretation based on maximum combustion temperature and the amount of gases produced during reaction for various AN compositions has been proposed for the nature of combustion and its correlation with the characteristics of as synthesized powder. These powders are characterized by XRD, SEM showing that the powders are composed of polycrystalline oxides with crystallite size of 58nm to 74nm.

  13. Prebiotic Synthesis of Glycine from Ethanolamine in Simulated Archean Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianlong; Tian, Ge; Gao, Jing; Han, Mei; Su, Rui; Wang, Yanxiang; Feng, Shouhua

    2016-09-01

    Submarine hydrothermal vents are generally considered as the likely habitats for the origin and evolution of early life on Earth. In recent years, a novel hydrothermal system in Archean subseafloor has been proposed. In this model, highly alkaline and high temperature hydrothermal fluids were generated in basalt-hosted hydrothermal vents, where H2 and CO2 could be abundantly provided. These extreme conditions could have played an irreplaceable role in the early evolution of life. Nevertheless, sufficient information has not yet been obtained for the abiotic synthesis of amino acids, which are indispensable components of life, at high temperature and alkaline condition. This study aims to propose a new method for the synthesis of glycine in simulated Archean submarine alkaline vent systems. We investigated the formation of glycine from ethanolamine under conditions of high temperature (80-160 °C) and highly alkaline solutions (pH = 9.70). Experiments were performed in an anaerobic environment under mild pressure (0.1-8.0 MPa) at the same time. The results suggested that the formation of glycine from ethanolamine occurred rapidly and efficiently in the presence of metal powders, and was favored by high temperatures and high pressures. The experiment provides a new pathway for prebiotic glycine formation and points out the phenomenal influence of high-temperature alkaline hydrothermal vents in origin of life in the early ocean.

  14. Prebiotic Synthesis of Glycine from Ethanolamine in Simulated Archean Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianlong; Tian, Ge; Gao, Jing; Han, Mei; Su, Rui; Wang, Yanxiang; Feng, Shouhua

    2016-09-23

    Submarine hydrothermal vents are generally considered as the likely habitats for the origin and evolution of early life on Earth. In recent years, a novel hydrothermal system in Archean subseafloor has been proposed. In this model, highly alkaline and high temperature hydrothermal fluids were generated in basalt-hosted hydrothermal vents, where H2 and CO2 could be abundantly provided. These extreme conditions could have played an irreplaceable role in the early evolution of life. Nevertheless, sufficient information has not yet been obtained for the abiotic synthesis of amino acids, which are indispensable components of life, at high temperature and alkaline condition. This study aims to propose a new method for the synthesis of glycine in simulated Archean submarine alkaline vent systems. We investigated the formation of glycine from ethanolamine under conditions of high temperature (80-160 °C) and highly alkaline solutions (pH = 9.70). Experiments were performed in an anaerobic environment under mild pressure (0.1-8.0 MPa) at the same time. The results suggested that the formation of glycine from ethanolamine occurred rapidly and efficiently in the presence of metal powders, and was favored by high temperatures and high pressures. The experiment provides a new pathway for prebiotic glycine formation and points out the phenomenal influence of high-temperature alkaline hydrothermal vents in origin of life in the early ocean.

  15. Synthesis of glycine-containing complexes in impacts of comets on early Earth.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Nir; Reed, Evan J; Fried, Laurence E; William Kuo, I-F; Maiti, Amitesh

    2010-11-01

    Delivery of prebiotic compounds to early Earth from an impacting comet is thought to be an unlikely mechanism for the origins of life because of unfavourable chemical conditions on the planet and the high heat from impact. In contrast, we find that impact-induced shock compression of cometary ices followed by expansion to ambient conditions can produce complexes that resemble the amino acid glycine. Our ab initio molecular dynamics simulations show that shock waves drive the synthesis of transient C-N bonded oligomers at extreme pressures and temperatures. On post impact quenching to lower pressures, the oligomers break apart to form a metastable glycine-containing complex. We show that impact from cometary ice could possibly yield amino acids by a synthetic route independent of the pre-existing atmospheric conditions and materials on the planet.

  16. Glyphosate and AMPA inhibit cancer cell growth through inhibiting intracellular glycine synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingli; Lambrechts, Mark J; Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; Ge, Dongxia; Yin, Rutie; Xi, Mingrong; You, Zongbing

    2013-01-01

    Glycine is a nonessential amino acid that is reversibly converted from serine intracellularly by serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Glyphosate and its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), are analogs to glycine, thus they may inhibit serine hydroxymethyltransferase to decrease intracellular glycine synthesis. In this study, we found that glyphosate and AMPA inhibited cell growth in eight human cancer cell lines but not in two immortalized human normal prostatic epithelial cell lines. AMPA arrested C4-2B and PC-3 cancer cells in the G1/G0 phase and inhibited entry into the S phase of the cell cycle. AMPA also promoted apoptosis in C4-2B and PC-3 cancer cell lines. AMPA upregulated p53 and p21 protein levels as well as procaspase 9 protein levels in C4-2B cells, whereas it downregulated cyclin D3 protein levels. AMPA also activated caspase 3 and induced cleavage of poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase. This study provides the first evidence that glyphosate and AMPA can inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of cancer cells but not normal cells, suggesting that they have potentials to be developed into a new anticancer therapy. PMID:23983455

  17. Synthesis of tricyclic indole-2-carboxylic [correction of caboxylic] acids as potent NMDA-glycine antagonists.

    PubMed

    Katayama, S; Ae, N; Nagata, R

    2001-05-18

    The practical synthesis of a series of tricyclic indole-2-carboxylic acids, 7-chloro-3-arylaminocarbonylmethyl-1,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenz[cd]indole-2-carboxylic acids, as a new class of potent NMDA-glycine antagonists is described. The synthetic route to the key intermediate 12a comprises a regioselective iodination of 4-chloro-2-nitrotoluene, modified Reissert indole synthesis, Jeffery's Heck-type reaction with allyl alcohol, Wittig-Horner-Emmons reaction, and iodination at the indole C-3 position. The key step in the route is an intramolecular cyclization of 12a to give the tricyclic indole structure. Two methods of cyclization, (1) an intramolecular radical cyclization of 12a and (2) a sequence of intramolecular Heck reaction of 12a followed by a 1,4-reduction, were performed. The resulting tricyclic indole diester 13a was selectively hydrolyzed to afford the desired tricyclic indole monocarboxylic acid 16 on a multihundred gram scale without any chromatographic purifications. Optical resolution of 16 to (-)-isomer 17 and (+)-isomer 18 was carried out, and the resulting isomers were derivatized, respectively. Evaluation of the optically active derivatives for affinity to the NMDA-glycine binding site using the radio ligand binding assay with [(3)H]-5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid revealed that the derivatives of (-)-isomer 17 were more potent than the others and that especially substituted anilide (-)-isomer 24 (K(i) = 0.8 nM) showed high affinity.

  18. C3'-cis-Substituted carboxycyclopropyl glycines as metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor agonists: synthesis and SAR studies.

    PubMed

    González, Rosario; Collado, Iván; de Uralde, Beatriz López; Marcos, Alicia; Martín-Cabrejas, Luisa M; Pedregal, Concepción; Blanco-Urgoiti, Jaime; Pérez-Castells, Javier; Fernández, M Alejandro; Andis, Sherri L; Johnson, Bryan G; Wright, Rebecca A; Schoepp, Darryle D; Monn, James A

    2005-12-01

    The synthesis of a series of C3'-cis-substituted carboxycyclopropyl glycines bearing a wide variety of functional groups is described, and the structure-activity relationship for this series as agonists of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors is reported.

  19. Use of bis-(chiral alpha-methylbenzyl)glycine esters for synthesis of enantiopure beta-hydroxyamino esters.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Ayako; Norton, Emily B; Williamson, R Thomas; Ho, Douglas M; Sinishtaj, Sandra; Mansour, Tarek S

    2003-09-04

    [reaction: see text] Aldol reactions using bis-(chiral alpha-methylbenzyl)glycine esters with aldehydes gave excellent diastereoselectivity. Thus, an enantiopure ribosylglycine was prepared for the synthesis of analogues of the natural antibiotics muraymycin. This method was extended for formation of beta-hydroxyamino esters.

  20. Synthesis of Glycine and Other Prebiotic Compounds in the Interstellar Medium - An Example of Radiation Chemistry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, N. J.; Sivaraman, B.; Jeetha, S.; Dawes, A.; Hunniford, A.; McCullough, R. W.

    2007-08-01

    To understand how life can begin on a habitable planet such as the Earth, it is essential to know what organic compounds were likely to have been available, and how they interacted with the planetary environment. Therefore an understanding of the mechanisms by which organic chemical compounds are formed (so called /prebiotic chemistry/) is essential. Recent data from space based telescopes are revealing the interstellar medium as a rich 'chemical factory' in which many hydrocarbon speices are present (e.g. formic and acetic acid, alcohols and esters). Whether larger more complex species such as amino acids can form remains unknown since they can not, at present, be detected. However laboratory experiments that recreate the conditions of the ISM and the conditions under which stars and planets evolve have recently shown that such 'prebiotic compounds' may be formed through radiation induced chemistry. Details of these experiments will be discussed with the example of glycine formation used as an exemplar for such molecular synthesis.

  1. GC/MS-based metabolomic studies reveal key roles of glycine in regulating silk synthesis in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quanmei; Liu, Xinyu; Zhao, Ping; Sun, Yanhui; Zhao, Xinjie; Xiong, Ying; Xu, Guowang; Xia, Qingyou

    2015-02-01

    Metabolic profiling of silkworm, especially the factors that affect silk synthesis at the metabolic level, is little known. Herein, metabolomic method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied to identify key metabolic changes in silk synthesis deficient silkworms. Forty-six differential metabolites were identified in Nd group with the defect of silk synthesis. Significant changes in the levels of glycine and uric acid (up-regulation), carbohydrates and free fatty acids (down-regulation) were observed. The further metabolomics of silk synthesis deficient silkworms by decreasing silk proteins synthesis using knocking out fibroin heavy chain gene or extirpating silk glands operation showed that the changes of the metabolites were almost consistent with those of the Nd group. Furthermore, the increased silk yields by supplying more glycine or its related metabolite confirmed that glycine is a key metabolite to regulate silk synthesis. These findings provide important insights into the regulation between metabolic profiling and silk synthesis.

  2. Enhanced synthesis of choline and glycine betaine in transgenic tobacco plants that overexpress phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, Scott D.; Nuccio, Michael L.; Ziemak, Michael J.; Hanson, Andrew D.

    2001-01-01

    Choline (Cho) is the precursor of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine and is itself an essential nutrient for humans. Metabolic engineering of Cho biosynthesis in plants could therefore enhance both their resistance to osmotic stresses (drought and salinity) and their nutritional value. The key enzyme of the plant Cho-synthesis pathway is phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase, which catalyzes all three of the methylations required to convert phosphoethanolamine to phosphocholine. We show here that overexpressing this enzyme in transgenic tobacco increased the levels of phosphocholine by 5-fold and free Cho by 50-fold without affecting phosphatidylcholine content or growth. Moreover, the expanded Cho pool led to a 30-fold increase in synthesis of glycine betaine via an engineered glycine betaine pathway. Supplying the transgenics with the Cho precursor ethanolamine (EA) further enhanced Cho levels even though the supplied EA was extensively catabolized. These latter results establish that there is further scope for improving Cho synthesis by engineering an increased endogenous supply of EA and suggest that this could be achieved by enhancing EA synthesis and/or by suppressing its degradation. PMID:11481443

  3. Design, development and synthesis of mixed bioconjugates of piperic acid-glycine, curcumin-glycine/alanine and curcumin-glycine-piperic acid and their antibacterial and antifungal properties.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Satyendra; Narain, Upma; Mishra, Roli; Misra, Krishna

    2005-03-01

    In the present communication different curcumin bioconjugates viz. 4,4'-di-O-glycinoyl-curcumin, 4,4'-di-O-d-alaninoyl-curcumin, 4,4'-di-O-(glycinoyl-di-N-piperoyl)-curcumin, 4,4'-di-O-piperoyl curcumin, curcumin-4,4'-di-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside, 4,4'-di-O-acetyl-curcumin along with piperoyl glycine, have been synthesised and characterised by spectra UV, (1)H NMR and elemental analysis. All the covalent bonds used are biodegradable. This makes these derivatives as potent prodrugs, which can get hydrolysed at the target sites. These bioconjugates were tested in vitro against different bacteria and fungi. The 4,4'-di-O-(glycinoyl-di-N-piperoyl)-curcumin and 4,4'-di-O-acetyl-curcumin are more effective than Cefepime, an antibacterial drug available in market, at the same concentration. The 4,4'-di-O-(glycinoyl-di-N-piperoyl)-curcumin and 4,4'-di-O-piperoyl curcumin had antifungal activity in vitro almost comparable with fluconazole, the most popular antifungal drug. The enhanced activity of these bioconjugates vis-a-vis the parent molecule that is curcumin may be due to improved cellular uptake or reduced metabolism of these bioconjugates resulting in building up of enough concentration inside the infected cells. It opens a new era for exploring suitably designed curcumin bioconjugates as potential antibacterial/antifungal drugs.

  4. Metabolic engineering of glycine betaine synthesis: plant betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases lacking typical transit peptides are targeted to tobacco chloroplasts where they confer betaine aldehyde resistance.

    PubMed

    Rathinasabapathi, B; McCue, K F; Gage, D A; Hanson, A D

    1994-01-01

    Certain higher plants synthesize and accumulate glycine betaine, a compound with osmoprotectant properties. Biosynthesis of glycine betaine proceeds via the pathway choline-->betaine aldehyde-->glycine betaine. Plants such as tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) which do not accumulate glycine betaine lack the enzymes catalyzing both reactions. As a step towards engineering glycine betaine accumulation into a non-accumulator, spinach and sugar beet complementary-DNA sequences encoding the second enzyme of glycine-betaine synthesis (betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, BADH, EC 1.2.1.8) were expressed in tobacco. Despite the absence of a typical transit peptide, BADH was targeted to the chloroplast in leaves of transgenic plants. Levels of extractable BADH were comparable to those in spinach and sugar beet, and the molecular weight, isoenzyme profile and Km for betaine aldehyde of the BADH enzymes from transgenic plants were the same as for native spinach or sugar beet BADH. Transgenic plants converted supplied betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine at high rates, demonstrating that they were able to transport betaine aldehyde across both the plasma membrane and the chloroplast envelope. The glycine betaine produced in this way was not further metabolized and reached concentrations similar to those in plants which accumulate glycine betaine naturally. Betaine aldehyde was toxic to non-transformed tobacco tissues whereas transgenic tissues were resistant due to detoxification of betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine. Betaine aldehyded ehydrogenase is therefore of interest as a potential selectable marker, as well as in the metabolic engineering of osmoprotectant biosynthesis.

  5. Synthesis and in vivo evaluation of gallium-68-labeled glycine and hippurate conjugates for positron emission tomography renography.

    PubMed

    Pathuri, Gopal; Hedrick, Andria F; January, Spenser E; Galbraith, Wendy K; Awasthi, Vibhudutta; Arnold, Charles D; Cowley, Benjamin D; Gali, Hariprasad

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate four new (68) Ga-labeled 1,4,7,10-cyclododeca-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)/1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1,4,7-triacetic acid derived (NODAGA)-glycine/hippurate conjugates and select a lead candidate for potential application in positron emission tomography (PET) renography. The non-metallated conjugates were synthesized by a solid phase peptide synthesis method. The (68) Ga labeling was achieved by reacting an excess of the non-metallated conjugate with (68) GaCl4 (-) at pH -4.5 and 10-min incubation either at room temperature for NODAGA or 90 °C for DOTA. Radiochemical purity of all (68) Ga conjugates was found to be >98%. (68) Ga-NODAGA-glycine displayed the lowest serum protein binding (0.4%) in vitro among the four (68) Ga conjugates. Biodistribution of (68) Ga conjugates in healthy Sprague Dawley rats at 1-h post-injection revealed an efficient clearance from circulation primarily through the renal-urinary pathway with <0.2% of injected dose per gram remaining in the blood. The kidney/blood and kidney/muscle ratios of (68) Ga-NODAGA-glycine were significantly higher than other (68) Ga conjugates. On the basis of these results, (68) Ga-NODAGA-glycine was selected as the lead candidate. (68) Ga-NODAGA-glycine PET renograms obtained in healthy rats suggest (68) Ga-NODAGA-glycine as a PET alternate of (99m) Tc-Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA).

  6. Magnetic characteristics of MgFe2O4 nanoparticles obtained by glycine-nitrate synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhernovoi, A. I.; Komlev, A. A.; D'yachenko, S. V.

    2016-02-01

    The magnetic properties of magnesium-iron spinel (MgFe2O4) powdered nanoparticles obtained by glycine-nitrate synthesis are investigated by X-ray phase analysis and the NMR method. According to the results of X-ray phase analysis, the average size of the crystalline part of nanoparticles of the powder under investigation is 45 ± 4 nm. Magnetization J is determined using the formula J = (B/μ0)- H, where B and H are the induction and strength of the magnetic field in the sample, which are measured by the NMR method. The magnetic characteristics of MgFe2O4 are as follows: specific saturation magnetization J sat = 17.52 A m2/kg, specific residual magnetization J r = 5.73 A m2/kg, coercive force H c = 4600 A/m, and magnetic moment P sat = 371 × 10-20 A m2 in the magnetic saturation state and P r = 121 × 10-20 A m2 in the residual magnetization state.

  7. Glutamate, GABA, glycine and taurine modulate serotonin synthesis and release in rostral and caudal rhombencephalic raphe cells in primary cultures.

    PubMed

    Becquet, D; Hery, M; Francois-Bellan, A M; Giraud, P; Deprez, P; Faudon, M; Fache, M P; Hery, F

    1993-09-01

    Control of serotonin release and synthesis by amino acid neurotransmitters was investigated in rat rostral and caudal rhombencephalic raphe cells in primary cultures respectively. Endogenous amounts of taurine, glycine, GABA and glutamate were measured in both types of cultures. These amino acids were spontaneously released to the incubating medium. Exogenous taurine (10(-4) M) inhibited release and synthesis of newly formed [3H]serotonin [3H]5-HT from [3H]-tryptophan only in rostral raphe cells. Glycine (10(-3) M) decreased [3H]5-HT release in both types of cells, synthesis being diminished only in rostral raphe cells. Glycine inhibitory effect was totally blocked by strychnine (5 x 10(-5) M). GABA (10(-4) M) reduced [3H]5-HT metabolism in rostral as well as caudal raphe cells. This effect was totally antagonized in caudal and partially in rostral raphe cells by bicuculline (5 x 10(-5) M) a GABAA receptor antagonist. Baclofen (5 x 10(-5) M), a GABAB receptor agonist, induced a decrease of 5-HT release in rostral raphe cells. These observations suggest that monoamine release was entirely mediated by GABAA receptors in caudal raphe cells although GABAA and GABAB receptors were involved in control of 5-HT metabolism in rostral raphe cells. L-glutamate (10(-4) M) stimulated 5-HT metabolism in both types of cells, effect totally blocked by PK26124 (10(-6) M). N-methyl-D-aspartate (10(-4) M) enhanced 5-HT metabolism and the induced-effect was antagonized by the selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist D,L-2 amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid. Quisqualate (10(-5) M) stimulated [3H]5-HT release only in caudal raphe cells. This effect was mimicked by (RS)-a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, a quisqualate "ionotropic" receptor agonist, this increase being blocked by 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline 2,3-dione. These observations suggest that the glutamate stimulating-induced effect on serotonin metabolism is entirely mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor

  8. Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of new N-acylhydrazones containing glycine residue.

    PubMed

    Tian, Baohe; He, Meizi; Tan, Zhiwu; Tang, Shixing; Hewlett, Indira; Chen, Shuguang; Jin, Yinxue; Yang, Ming

    2011-03-01

    N-acylhydrazones containing glycine residue 3a-j and 8a-h were synthesized as HIV-1 capsid protein assembly inhibitors. The structures of the novel N-acylhydrazone derivatives were characterized using different spectroscopic methods. Antiviral activity demonstrated that compound 8c bearing 4-methylphenyl moiety was the most active with low cytotoxicity.

  9. Synthesis and Pharmacological Properties of Novel Esters Based on Monoterpenoids and Glycine.

    PubMed

    Nesterkina, Mariia; Kravchenko, Iryna

    2017-05-18

    Esters based on mono- and bicyclic terpenoids with glycine have been synthesized via Steglich esterification and characterized by ¹H-NMR, IR, and mass spectral studies. Their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities were investigated after transdermal delivery on models of formalin, capsaicin, and AITC-induced pain, respectively. Glycine esters of menthol and borneol exhibited higher antinociceptive action, whereas eugenol derivative significantly suppressed the development of the inflammatory process. The mechanism of competitive binding between terpenoid esters and TRPA1/TRPV1 agonists was proposed explaining significant analgesic effect of synthesized derivatives. For an explanation of high anti-inflammatory activity, competitive inhibition between terpenoid esters and AITC for binding sites of the TRPA1 ion channel has been suggested.

  10. Overexpression of ALDH10A8 and ALDH10A9 Genes Provides Insight into Their Role in Glycine Betaine Synthesis and Affects Primary Metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Missihoun, Tagnon D; Willée, Eva; Guegan, Jean-Paul; Berardocco, Solenne; Shafiq, Muhammad R; Bouchereau, Alain; Bartels, Dorothea

    2015-09-01

    Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases oxidize betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine in species that accumulate glycine betaine as a compatible solute under stress conditions. In contrast, the physiological function of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase genes is at present unclear in species that do not accumulate glycine betaine, such as Arabidopsis thaliana. To address this question, we overexpressed the Arabidopsis ALDH10A8 and ALDH10A9 genes, which were identified to code for betaine aldehyde dehydrogenases, in wild-type A. thaliana. We analysed changes in metabolite contents of transgenic plants in comparison with the wild type. Using exogenous or endogenous choline, our results indicated that ALDH10A8 and ALDH10A9 are involved in the synthesis of glycine betaine in Arabidopsis. Choline availability seems to be a factor limiting glycine betaine synthesis. Moreover, the contents of diverse metabolites including sugars (glucose and fructose) and amino acids were altered in fully developed transgenic plants compared with the wild type. The plant metabolic response to salt and the salt stress tolerance were impaired only in young transgenic plants, which exhibited a delayed growth of the seedlings early after germination. Our results suggest that a balanced expression of the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase genes is important for early growth of A. thaliana seedlings and for salt stress mitigation in young seedlings.

  11. Effect of N-acetyl cysteine and glycine supplementation on growth performance, glutathione synthesis, anti-oxidative and immune ability of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shiwei; Zhou, Weiwen; Tian, Lixia; Niu, Jin; Liu, Yongjian

    2016-08-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and glycine supplementation on growth performance, glutathione (GSH) synthesis, anti-oxidative and immune ability of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Four practical diets were formulated, control, control +0.2% NAC, control +0.5% glycine, control +0.2% NAC +0.5% glycine. Each diet was randomly assigned to quadruplicate groups of 30 fish (approximately 9.5 g). The weight gain and specific growth rate were significantly increased with the supplementation of NAC and glycine. While they had no effect on feed efficiency feed intake and survival. Glutathion peroxidase (GPx) was increased by NAC and γ-glutamine cysteine synthase (γ-GCS) in plasma were increased by glycine. After the feeding trail, fish were challenged by Streptococcus iniae, fish fed the diet supplemented with NAC obtained significantly higher survival rate after 72 h challenge test. NAC also decreased malonaldehyde (MDA) in liver, increased glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in plasma, up-regulated mRNA expression of Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and GPx in liver and headkidney. Dietary supplementation of glycine increased the anti-oxidative ability of tilapia through increase anti-oxidative enzyme activity (SOD, glutathione reductase, myeloperoxidase) and up-regulate anti-oxidative gene expression (SOD). Immune ability only enhanced by the supplementation of NAC through increased interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression. These results clearly indicated that the supplementation of NAC and glycine can significantly improve the growth performance of tilapia, and NAC also enhance the anti-oxidative and immune capacity of tilapia, glycine could only enhance the anti-oxidative ability.

  12. Synthesis and properties of novel water-soluble fullerene-glycine derivatives as new materials for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guichang; Yin, Fen; Duan, Jihua; Li, Guangtao

    2015-01-01

    Novel water-soluble fullerene-glycine derivatives were synthesized by means of simple organic chemistry. They are completely soluble in water, yielding a clear brown solution. The products were characterized by fourier transform infrared (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The assembly behavior of water-soluble fullerene-glycine derivatives was investigated by SEM. The results show that the fullerene-glycine derivatives create morphology that is sphere-like. The cytotoxicity to cancer cell lines of the fullerene-glycine derivatives was evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) and flow cytometry. The results show that fullerene-glycine derivatives exhibit mortality and apoptosis of the cells which increased with the increase of fullerene-glycine derivative concentration. The cytotoxicity mechanism of fullerene-glycine derivatives was investigated for the first time. Novel water-soluble fullerene-glycine derivatives were synthesized by means of simple organic chemistry. The products were characterized by FTIR, UV-Vis, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, TGA, and SEM. The bioactivities of fullerene-glycine derivative materials have been tested, and the results show that compared with the fullerene complex, the fullerene-glycine derivative materials exhibit mortality and apoptosis of the cells which increased with the increase of fullerene-glycine derivative concentration. SEM images showed the macrostructure of fullerene-glycine derivative materials was spheres.

  13. Synthesis, growth and characterisations of semi-organic nonlinear optical crystal glycine barium nitrate (GBN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varalakshmi, S.; Ravi Kumar, S. M.; Elango, G.; Ravisankar, R.

    2014-12-01

    Transparent crystal of glycine barium nitrate (GBN) has been grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Powder XRD study reveals the crystalline nature of the grown sample. Single crystal XRD study shows that the GBN belongs to orthorhombic crystal system. FTIR spectral study confirms the presence of the functional groups in the grown crystal. The presence of wide transparency window in the UV-visible region makes GBN crystal suitable for opto-electronic device applications. The grown sample has SHG efficiency is 0.8 times that of standard KDP crystal. Dielectric studies reveal that both dielectric constant and dielectric loss decreases with increase in frequency. Photoconductivity study confirms the negative photoconducting nature of the crystal.

  14. Synthesis, growth and characterisations of semi-organic nonlinear optical crystal glycine barium nitrate (GBN).

    PubMed

    Varalakshmi, S; Ravi Kumar, S M; Elango, G; Ravisankar, R

    2014-12-10

    Transparent crystal of glycine barium nitrate (GBN) has been grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Powder XRD study reveals the crystalline nature of the grown sample. Single crystal XRD study shows that the GBN belongs to orthorhombic crystal system. FTIR spectral study confirms the presence of the functional groups in the grown crystal. The presence of wide transparency window in the UV-visible region makes GBN crystal suitable for opto-electronic device applications. The grown sample has SHG efficiency is 0.8 times that of standard KDP crystal. Dielectric studies reveal that both dielectric constant and dielectric loss decreases with increase in frequency. Photoconductivity study confirms the negative photoconducting nature of the crystal.

  15. Synthesis and magnetic properties of nanostructured spinel ferrites using a glycine-nitrate process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikukawa, Nobuyuki; Takemori, Makoto; Nagano, Yoshinobu; Sugasawa, Masami; Kobayashi, Satoru

    2004-12-01

    To prepare zinc-substituted spinel-type ferrite fine particles of M1-xZnxFe2O4 (M=Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, (Li, Fe) x=0-1) with good crystallinity and stoichiometry, the authors investigated a glycine-nitrate process. The product powder was an agglomerate of fine particles whose typical diameter was several tens of nanometers. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the produced particles were mono-phase in almost all reaction systems. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy microanalysis of the product particles (Mn-Zn-Fe-O) revealed that the distributions of Mn/Fe ratio and Zn/Fe ratio were highly sharp both within the agglomerate and between agglomerates.

  16. Improved synthesis of glycine, taurine and sulfate conjugated bile acids as reference compounds and internal standards for ESI-MS/MS urinary profiling of inborn errors of bile acid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Donazzolo, Elena; Gucciardi, Antonina; Mazzier, Daniela; Peggion, Cristina; Pirillo, Paola; Naturale, Mauro; Moretto, Alessandro; Giordano, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    Bile acid synthesis defects are rare genetic disorders characterized by a failure to produce normal bile acids (BAs), and by an accumulation of unusual and intermediary cholanoids. Measurements of cholanoids in urine samples by mass spectrometry are a gold standard for the diagnosis of these diseases. In this work improved methods for the chemical synthesis of 30 BAs conjugated with glycine, taurine and sulfate were developed. Diethyl phosphorocyanidate (DEPC) and diphenyl phosphoryl azide (DPPA) were used as coupling reagents for glycine and taurine conjugation. Sulfated BAs were obtained by sulfur trioxide-triethylamine complex (SO3-TEA) as sulfating agent and thereafter conjugated with glycine and taurine. All products were characterized by NMR, IR spectroscopy and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The use of these compounds as internal standards allows an improved accuracy of both identification and quantification of urinary bile acids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Syn-Selective Synthesis of β-Branched α-Amino Acids by Alkylation of Glycine-Derived Imines with Secondary Sulfonates.

    PubMed

    Lou, Sha; McKenna, Grace M; Tymonko, Steven A; Ramirez, Antonio; Benkovics, Tamas; Conlon, David A; González-Bobes, Francisco

    2015-10-16

    A syn-selective synthesis of β-branched α-amino acids has been developed based on the alkylation of glycine imine esters with secondary sulfonates. The potassium counterion for the enolate, the solvent, and the leaving group on the electrophile were key levers to maximize the diasteroselectivity of the alkylation. The optimized conditions enabled a straightforward preparation of a number of β-branched α-amino acids that can be challenging to obtain.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of Au core-Au-Ag shell nanoparticles from gold seeds: impacts of glycine concentration and pH.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Fen; Huang, Kuan-Ming; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2006-09-01

    This paper describes the preparation of Au core-Au-Ag shell nanoparticles (NPs) in different morphologies by controlling both the pH and the glycine concentration. Using a seed-growth method, we prepared high-quality Au core-Au-Ag shell NPs from a glycine solution under alkaline conditions (pH>8.5). By controlling both the pH and the glycine concentration, we prepared dumbbell-shaped and peanut-shaped Au core-Au-Ag shell NPs readily by depositing gold and silver, reduced by ascorbate, onto the gold nanorods. We have found that the glycine concentration that is optimal for preparing high-quality Au core-Au-Ag shell NPs differs at the various values of pH. At pH<8.5, the glycine concentration is not important, but, when preparing dumbbell- and peanut-shaped Au core-Au-Ag shell NPs, it should be greater than 50 mM and greater than 20 mM at pH 9.5 and 10.5, respectively. Glycine plays a number of roles during the synthesis of the Au core-Au-Ag shell NPs by controlling the solution pH, altering the reduction potentials of gold and silver ions through forming complexes with metal ions (Au(+) and Ag(+)), minimizing the formation of Ag(2)O, AgCl, and AgBr precipitates, and stabilizing the thus-prepared NPs. At pH 9.7, we observed the changes in the morphologies of the Au core-Au-Ag shell NPs-from regular (rectangular) to peanut- and dumbbell-shaped, and finally to jewel-, diamond-, and/or sphere-shaped-that occurred during the course of a 60-min reaction. In addition, we were able to affect the shapes and sizes of the Au core-Au-Ag shell NPs by controlling the reaction time.

  19. Effect of polynucleotides on the dimerization of glycine. [abiological protein synthesis in primitive earth conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizutani, H.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1981-01-01

    Results from experiments to determine the effect of polynucleotides on abiological formation of peptide bonds are reported. The reaction between glycine molecules in an aqueous phase in the presence of a condensing agent was chosen as a model, with polyphosphates being selected as the condensing agent for biologically relevant peptide formation. Four types of polynucleotides were used: polygluanic acid (G), polyuridic acid (U), polyadenylic acid (A), and polycytidylic acid (C); the effects of small anions, acetate, chloride, and phosphate, were also studied. Procedures are given, including concentrations, pH, and incubation time, and the type of amino acid analyzer. The diglycine yields were, in order of most to least: G, C, A, U, and are diagrammed as a function of time; rate of formation followed the same order of magnitude as the final yields. Anion presence displayed no discernible effect. The results are taken to indicate that polynucleotides do have an effect on the formation of peptide bonds, an effect significant in the understanding of chemical evolution.

  20. Effect of polynucleotides on the dimerization of glycine. [abiological protein synthesis in primitive earth conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizutani, H.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1981-01-01

    Results from experiments to determine the effect of polynucleotides on abiological formation of peptide bonds are reported. The reaction between glycine molecules in an aqueous phase in the presence of a condensing agent was chosen as a model, with polyphosphates being selected as the condensing agent for biologically relevant peptide formation. Four types of polynucleotides were used: polygluanic acid (G), polyuridic acid (U), polyadenylic acid (A), and polycytidylic acid (C); the effects of small anions, acetate, chloride, and phosphate, were also studied. Procedures are given, including concentrations, pH, and incubation time, and the type of amino acid analyzer. The diglycine yields were, in order of most to least: G, C, A, U, and are diagrammed as a function of time; rate of formation followed the same order of magnitude as the final yields. Anion presence displayed no discernible effect. The results are taken to indicate that polynucleotides do have an effect on the formation of peptide bonds, an effect significant in the understanding of chemical evolution.

  1. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases. Part 3: Michael addition reactions and miscellaneous transformations.

    PubMed

    Aceña, José Luis; Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Soloshonok, Vadim

    2014-09-01

    The major goal of this review is a critical discussion of the literature data on asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via Michael addition reactions involving Ni(II)-complexes of amino acids. The material covered is divided into two conceptually different groups dealing with applications of: (a) Ni(II)-complexes of glycine as C-nucleophiles and (b) Ni(II)-complexes of dehydroalanine as Michael acceptors. The first group is significantly larger and consequently subdivided into four chapters based on the source of stereocontrolling element. Thus, a chiral auxiliary can be used as a part of nucleophilic glycine Ni(II) complex, Michael acceptor or both, leading to the conditions of matching vs. mismatching stereochemical preferences. The particular focus of the review is made on the practical aspects of the methodology under discussion and mechanistic considerations.

  2. Involvement of Oxidative Processes in the Signaling Mechanisms Leading to the Activation of Glyceollin Synthesis in Soybean (Glycine max).

    PubMed

    Degousee, N.; Triantaphylides, C.; Montillet, J. L.

    1994-03-01

    The efficiency of hydroperoxides (tert-butyl hydroperoxide, hydrogen peroxide) and sulfhydryl reagents (iodoacetamide, p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid) as glyceollin elicitors was examined in relation to sulfhydryl oxidation, or alteration, and to lipid peroxidation, in 3-d-old soybean hypocotyl/radicle, Glycine max. These oxidative events were investigated as possible early steps in the transduction mechanisms leading to phytoalexin synthesis. Free protein sulfhydryl groups were not modified after any of the eliciting treatments, thus indicating that immediate massive protein oxidation or modification cannot be considered a signal transduction step. Unlike sulfhydryl reagents, which led to a decrease of the free nonprotein sulfhydryl group (free np-SH) pool under all of the eliciting conditions, the results obtained with hydroperoxides indicated that immediate oxidation of the np-SH is not required for the signal transduction. Moreover, elicitation with 10 mM tertbutyl hydroperoxide did not lead to further oxidation or to changes in np-SH level during the critical phase of phenylalanine ammonialyase activation (the first 20 h), suggesting that np-SH modifications are probably not involved in hydroperoxide-induced elicitation. On the other hand, all treatments leading to significant glyceollin accumulation were able to trigger a rapid (within 2 h) lipid peroxidation process, whereas noneliciting treatments did not. In addition, transition metals, such as Fe2+ and Cu+, were shown to stimulate both hydrogen peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation and glyceollin accumulation, again emphasizing that the two processes are at least closely linked in soybean. Among the oxidative processes triggered by activated oxygen species, oxidation of sulfhydryl compounds, or lipid peroxidation, our results suggest that lipid peroxidation is sufficient to initiate glyceollin accumulation in soybean. This further supports the hypothesis that lipid peroxidation could be involved as a

  3. The glycine deportation system and its pharmacological consequences☆

    PubMed Central

    Beyoğlu, Diren; Idle, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    The glycine deportation system is an essential component of glycine catabolism in man whereby 400 to 800 mg glycine per day are deported into urine as hippuric acid. The molecular escort for this deportation is benzoic acid, which derives from the diet and from gut microbiota metabolism of dietary precursors. Three components of this system, involving hepatic and renal metabolism, and renal active tubular secretion help regulate systemic and central nervous system levels of glycine. When glycine levels are pathologically high, as in congenital nonketotic hyperglycinemia, the glycine deportation system can be upregulated with pharmacological doses of benzoic acid to assist in normalization of glycine homeostasis. In congenital urea cycle enzymopathies, similar activation of the glycine deportation system with benzoic acid is useful for the excretion of excess nitrogen in the form of glycine. Drugs which can substitute for benzoic acid as substrates for the glycine deportation system have adverse reactions that may involve perturbations of glycine homeostasis. The cancer chemotherapeutic agent ifosfamide has an unacceptably high incidence of encephalopathy. This would appear to arise as a result of the production of toxic aldehyde metabolites which deplete ATP production and sequester NADH in the mitochondrial matrix, thereby inhibiting the glycine deportation system and causing de novo glycine synthesis by the glycine cleavage system. We hypothesize that this would result in hyperglycinemia and encephalopathy. This understanding may lead to novel prophylactic strategies for ifosfamide encephalopathy. Thus, the glycine deportation system plays multiple key roles in physiological and neurotoxicological processes involving glycine. PMID:22584143

  4. Beneficial Effects of the Amino Acid Glycine.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Torres, Israel; Zuniga-Munoz, Alejandra María; Guarner-Lans, Veronica

    2017-01-01

    Glycine is the smallest non-essential, neutral and metabolically inert amino acid, with a carbon atom bound to two hydrogen atoms, and to an amino and a carboxyl group. This amino acid is an essential substrate for the synthesis of several biologically important biomolecules and compounds. It participates in the synthesis of proteins, of the tripeptide glutathione and in detoxification reactions. It has a broad spectrum of anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective and immunomodulatory properties. To exert its actions, glycine binds to different receptors. The GlyR anion channel is the most studied receptor for glycine. However, there are GlyR-independent mechanisms for glycine cytoprotection and other possible binding molecules of glycine are the NMDA receptor and receptors GlyT1 and GlyT2. Although, in humans, the normal serum level of glycine is approximately 300 μM, increasing glycine intake can lead to blood levels of more than 900 μM that increase its benefic actions without having harmful side effects. The herbal pesticide glyphosate might disrupt glycine homeostasis. Many in vitro studies involving different cell types have demonstrated beneficial effects of the addition of glycine. Glycine also improved conditions of isolated perfused or stored organs. In vivo studies in experimental animals have also tested glycine as a protector molecule and some studies on the beneficial effects of glycine after its clinical application have been done. Although at high-doses, glycine may cause toxic effects, further studies are needed to investigate the safe range of usage of this aminoacid and to test the diverse routes of administration.

  5. Flow and Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of N-(Triethylene glycol)glycine Oligomers and Their Remarkable Cellular Transporter Activities.

    PubMed

    Jong, ThingSoon; Pérez-López, Ana M; Johansson, Emma M V; Lilienkampf, Annamaria; Bradley, Mark

    2015-08-19

    Peptidomimetics, such as oligo-N-alkylglycines (peptoids), are attractive alternatives to traditional cationic cell-penetrating peptides (such as R9) due to their robust proteolytic stability and reduced cellular toxicity. Here, monomeric N-alkylglycines, incorporating amino-functionalized hexyl or triethylene glycol (TEG) side chains, were synthesized via a three-step continuous-flow reaction sequence, giving the monomers N-Fmoc-(6-Boc-aminohexyl)glycine and N-Fmoc-((2-(2-Boc-aminoethoxy)ethoxy)ethyl)glycine in 49% and 41% overall yields, respectively. These were converted into oligomers (5, 7, and 9-mers) using an Fmoc-based solid-phase protocol and evaluated as cellular transporters. Hybrid oligomers, constructed of alternating units of the aminohexyl and amino-TEG monomers, were non-cytotoxic and exhibited remarkable cellular uptake activity compared to the analogous fully TEG or lysine-like compounds.

  6. Zinc Oxide-Containing Porous Boron-Carbon-Nitrogen Sheets from Glycine-Nitrate Combustion: Synthesis, Self-Cleaning, and Sunlight-Driven Photocatalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Bharathidasan, T; Mandalam, Aditya; Balasubramanian, M; Dhandapani, P; Sathiyanarayanan, S; Mayavan, Sundar

    2015-08-26

    We developed a single-step thermal method that enables successful inclusion of ZnO components in the porous boron-carbon-nitrogen (BCN) framework to form a new class of functional hybrid. ZnO-containing BCN hybrids were prepared by treating a mixture of B2O3, glycine, and zinc nitrate at 500 °C. Glycine-nitrate decomposition along with B2O3 acts as a source for ZnO-BCN formation. The incorporation of ZnO onto BCN has extended the photoresponse of ZnO in the visible region, which makes ZnO-BCN a preferable photocatalyst relative to ZnO upon sunlight exposure. It is interesting to note that as-prepared 2D ZnO-BCN sheets dispersed in PDMS form a stable coating over aluminum alloys. The surface exhibited a water contact angle (CA) of 157.6° with 66.6 wt % ZnO-BCN in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a water droplet (7 μL) roll-off angle of <6° and also demonstrates oil fouling resistant superhydrophobicity. In brief, the present study focuses on the gram scale synthesis of a new class of sunlight-driven photocatalyst and also its application toward the development of superhydrophobic and oleophobic coating.

  7. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases; Part 1: alkyl halide alkylations.

    PubMed

    Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Aceña, José Luis; Moriwaki, Hiroki; Sato, Tatsunori; Soloshonok, Vadim A

    2013-10-01

    Alkylations of chiral or achiral Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases constitute a landmark in the development of practical methodology for asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids. Straightforward, easy preparation as well as high reactivity of these Ni(II) complexes render them ready available and inexpensive glycine equivalents for preparing a wide variety of α-amino acids, in particular on a relatively large scale. In the case of Ni(II) complexes containing benzylproline moiety as a chiral auxiliary, their alkylation proceeds with high thermodynamically controlled diastereoselectivity. Similar type of Ni(II) complexes derived from alanine can also be used for alkylation providing convenient access to quaternary, α,α-disubstituted α-amino acids. Achiral type of Ni(II) complexes can be prepared from picolinic acid or via recently developed modular approach using simple secondary or primary amines. These Ni(II) complexes can be easily mono/bis-alkylated under homogeneous or phase-transfer catalysis conditions. Origin of diastereo-/enantioselectivity in the alkylations reactions, aspects of practicality, generality and limitations of this methodology is critically discussed.

  8. Effects of glycine on the solid-state synthesis of barium titanate micro-particles with high tetragonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguchi, H.; Ando, C.; Chazono, H.; Kishi, H.; Senna, M.

    2005-09-01

    Addition of glycine (Gly), an amino acid, decreases the decomposition temperature of barium carbonate. This accelerates the solid-state addition reaction of BaCO{3} with TiO{2}. By adding Gly and subsequent vibro-milling for 3h, well-dispersed BaTiO{3} (BT) micro-particles were obtained with their average size 180 nm and lattice tetragonality 1.0098. The acceleration of the reaction toward BT by Gly is basically attributed to the coordination of Gly to barium to loosen the metal CO{3} bonds and to facilitate the detachment of CO{2} and thus providing higher nucleation site density.

  9. Stereoselective Michael Addition of Glycine Anions to Chiral Fischer Alkenylcarbene Complexes. Asymmetric Synthesis of beta-Substituted Glutamic Acids.

    PubMed

    Ezquerra, Jesús; Pedregal, Concepción; Merino, Isabel; Flórez, Josefa; Barluenga, José; García-Granda, Santiago; Llorca, María-Amparo

    1999-09-03

    The reaction of lithium enolates of achiral N-protected glycine esters with chiral alkoxyalkenylcarbene complexes of chromium provided the corresponding Michael adducts with either high anti or syn selectivity depending on the nature of the nitrogen protecting group, and high diastereofacial selectivity when carbene complexes containing the (-)-8-phenylmenthyloxy group were employed. Subsequent oxidation of the metal-carbene moiety followed by deprotection of the amine group and hydrolysis of both carboxylic esters afforded enantiomerically enriched 3-substituted glutamic acids of natural as well as unnatural stereochemistry. Alternatively, when the deprotection step was performed previously to the oxidation, cyclic aminocarbene complexes were formed, which finally led to optically active 3-substituted pyroglutamic acids.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of transition metal complexes with Schiff bases derived from 2-nitrobenzaldehyde with glycine and methionine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bibhesh K.; Rajour, Hemant K.; Prakash, Anant

    Schiff bases derived from 2-nitrobenzaldehyde with amino acids (glycine, methionine) and their Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized by various physico-chemical techniques. From spectral studies, it has been concluded that the ligands acts as bidentate molecule, coordinates metal through azomethine nitrogen and carboxylate oxygen. Mass spectrum explains the successive degradation of the molecular species in solution and justifies ML2 complexes. X-ray powder diffraction helps to determine the cell parameters of the complexes. Molecular structure of the complexes has been optimized by MM2 calculations and suggests a square planar geometry. The ligands and their metal complexes have been tested in vitro against Streptococcus, Staph, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherchia coli bacteria in order to assess their antibacterial potential. The results indicate that the biological activity increases on complexation.

  11. Synthesis, Spectroscopic, Molecular Structure, and Antibacterial Studies of Dibutyltin(IV) Schiff Base Complexes Derived from Phenylalanine, Isoleucine, and Glycine.

    PubMed

    Singh, Har Lal; Singh, Jangbhadur

    2014-01-01

    New series of organotin(IV) complexes and Schiff bases derived from amino acids have been designed and synthesized from condensation of 1H-indole-2,3-dione, 5-chloro-1H-indole-2,3-dione, and α-amino acids (phenylalanine, isoleucine, and glycine). All compounds are characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, and molecular weight determinations. Bonding of these complexes is discussed in terms of their UV-visible, infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H, (13)C, and (119)Sn NMR) spectral studies. The results suggest that Schiff bases behave as monobasic bidentate ligands and coordinate with dibutyltin(IV) in octahedral geometry according to the general formula [Bu2Sn(L)2]. Elemental analyses and NMR spectral data of the ligands with their dibutyltin(IV) complexes agree with their proposed distorted octahedral structures. Few representative compounds are tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (B. cereus, Staphylococcus spp.) and Gram-negative (E. coli, Klebsiella spp.) bacteria. The results show that the dibutyltin complexes are more reactive with respect to their corresponding Schiff base ligands.

  12. Synthesis, Spectroscopic, Molecular Structure, and Antibacterial Studies of Dibutyltin(IV) Schiff Base Complexes Derived from Phenylalanine, Isoleucine, and Glycine

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Har Lal; Singh, Jangbhadur

    2014-01-01

    New series of organotin(IV) complexes and Schiff bases derived from amino acids have been designed and synthesized from condensation of 1H-indole-2,3-dione, 5-chloro-1H-indole-2,3-dione, and α-amino acids (phenylalanine, isoleucine, and glycine). All compounds are characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, and molecular weight determinations. Bonding of these complexes is discussed in terms of their UV-visible, infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H, 13C, and 119Sn NMR) spectral studies. The results suggest that Schiff bases behave as monobasic bidentate ligands and coordinate with dibutyltin(IV) in octahedral geometry according to the general formula [Bu2Sn(L)2]. Elemental analyses and NMR spectral data of the ligands with their dibutyltin(IV) complexes agree with their proposed distorted octahedral structures. Few representative compounds are tested for their in vitro antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (B. cereus, Staphylococcus spp.) and Gram-negative (E. coli, Klebsiella spp.) bacteria. The results show that the dibutyltin complexes are more reactive with respect to their corresponding Schiff base ligands. PMID:25525422

  13. Glutathione synthesis is diminished in patients with uncontrolled diabetes and restored by dietary supplementation with cysteine and glycine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sustained hyperglycemia is associated with low cellular levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH), which leads to tissue damage attributed to oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis that diminished GSH in adult patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes is attributed to decreased synthesis and ...

  14. Advanced asymmetric synthesis of (1R,2S)-1-amino-2-vinylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid by alkylation/cyclization of newly designed axially chiral Ni(II) complex of glycine Schiff base.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Aki; Shu, Shuangjie; Takeda, Ryosuke; Kawamura, Akie; Sato, Tatsunori; Moriwaki, Hiroki; Wang, Jiang; Izawa, Kunisuke; Aceña, José Luis; Soloshonok, Vadim A; Liu, Hong

    2016-04-01

    Asymmetric synthesis of (1R,2S)-1-amino-2-vinylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid (vinyl-ACCA) is in extremely high demand due to the pharmaceutical importance of this tailor-made, sterically constrained α-amino acid. Here we report the development of an advanced procedure for preparation of the target amino acid via two-step SN2 and SN2' alkylation of novel axially chiral nucleophilic glycine equivalent. Excellent yields and diastereoselectivity coupled with reliable and easy scalability render this method of immediate use for practical synthesis of (1R,2S)-vinyl-ACCA.

  15. Osmotic stress response in Acinetobacter baylyi: identification of a glycine-betaine biosynthesis pathway and regulation of osmoadaptive choline uptake and glycine-betaine synthesis through a choline-responsive BetI repressor.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Anica; Stahl, Julia; de Berardinis, Veronique; Müller, Volker; Averhoff, Beate

    2016-04-01

    Acinetobacter baylyi, a ubiquitous soil bacterium, can cope with high salinity by uptake of choline as precursor of the compatible solute glycine betaine. Here, we report on the identification of a choline dehydrogenase (BetA) and a glycine betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BetB) mediating the oxidation of choline to glycine betaine. The betAB genes were found to form an operon together with the potential transcriptional regulator betI. The transcription of the betIBA operon and the two recently identified choline transporters was upregulated in response to choline and choline plus salt. The finding that the osmo-independent transporter BetT1 undergoes a higher upregulation in response to choline alone than betT2 suggests that BetT1 does not primarily function in osmoadaptation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays led to the conclusion that BetI mediates transcriptional regulation of both, the betIBA gene operon and the choline transporters. BetI was released from the DNA in response to choline which together with the transcriptional upregulation of the bet genes in the presence of choline suggests that BetI is a choline sensing transcriptional repressor.

  16. Amino Acid Residues Critical for the Specificity for Betaine Aldehyde of the Plant ALDH10 Isoenzyme Involved in the Synthesis of Glycine Betaine1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Sánchez, Ángel G.; González-Segura, Lilian; Mújica-Jiménez, Carlos; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Montiel, Carmina; Martínez-Castilla, León P.; Muñoz-Clares, Rosario A.

    2012-01-01

    Plant Aldehyde Dehydrogenase10 (ALDH10) enzymes catalyze the oxidation of ω-primary or ω-quaternary aminoaldehydes, but, intriguingly, only some of them, such as the spinach (Spinacia oleracea) betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (SoBADH), efficiently oxidize betaine aldehyde (BAL) forming the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB), which confers tolerance to osmotic stress. The crystal structure of SoBADH reported here shows tyrosine (Tyr)-160, tryptophan (Trp)-167, Trp-285, and Trp-456 in an arrangement suitable for cation-π interactions with the trimethylammonium group of BAL. Mutation of these residues to alanine (Ala) resulted in significant Km(BAL) increases and Vmax/Km(BAL) decreases, particularly in the Y160A mutant. Tyr-160 and Trp-456, strictly conserved in plant ALDH10s, form a pocket where the bulky trimethylammonium group binds. This space is reduced in ALDH10s with low BADH activity, because an isoleucine (Ile) pushes the Trp against the Tyr. Those with high BADH activity instead have Ala (Ala-441 in SoBADH) or cysteine, which allow enough room for binding of BAL. Accordingly, the mutation A441I decreased the Vmax/Km(BAL) of SoBADH approximately 200 times, while the mutation A441C had no effect. The kinetics with other ω-aminoaldehydes were not affected in the A441I or A441C mutant, demonstrating that the existence of an Ile in the second sphere of interaction of the aldehyde is critical for discriminating against BAL in some plant ALDH10s. A survey of the known sequences indicates that plants have two ALDH10 isoenzymes: those known to be GB accumulators have a high-BAL-affinity isoenzyme with Ala or cysteine in this critical position, while non GB accumulators have low-BAL-affinity isoenzymes containing Ile. Therefore, BADH activity appears to restrict GB synthesis in non-GB-accumulator plants. PMID:22345508

  17. Exploring the evolutionary route of the acquisition of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase activity by plant ALDH10 enzymes: implications for the synthesis of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant ALDH10 enzymes are aminoaldehyde dehydrogenases (AMADHs) that oxidize different ω-amino or trimethylammonium aldehydes, but only some of them have betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) activity and produce the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB). The latter enzymes possess alanine or cysteine at position 441 (numbering of the spinach enzyme, SoBADH), while those ALDH10s that cannot oxidize betaine aldehyde (BAL) have isoleucine at this position. Only the plants that contain A441- or C441-type ALDH10 isoenzymes accumulate GB in response to osmotic stress. In this work we explored the evolutionary history of the acquisition of BAL specificity by plant ALDH10s. Results We performed extensive phylogenetic analyses and constructed and characterized, kinetically and structurally, four SoBADH variants that simulate the parsimonious intermediates in the evolutionary pathway from I441-type to A441- or C441-type enzymes. All mutants had a correct folding, average thermal stabilities and similar activity with aminopropionaldehyde, but whereas A441S and A441T exhibited significant activity with BAL, A441V and A441F did not. The kinetics of the mutants were consistent with their predicted structural features obtained by modeling, and confirmed the importance of position 441 for BAL specificity. The acquisition of BADH activity could have happened through any of these intermediates without detriment of the original function or protein stability. Phylogenetic studies showed that this event occurred independently several times during angiosperms evolution when an ALDH10 gene duplicate changed the critical Ile residue for Ala or Cys in two consecutive single mutations. ALDH10 isoenzymes frequently group in two clades within a plant family: one includes peroxisomal I441-type, the other peroxisomal and non-peroxisomal I441-, A441- or C441-type. Interestingly, high GB-accumulators plants have non-peroxisomal A441- or C441-type isoenzymes, while low-GB accumulators

  18. Cysteamine inhibition of (/sup 15/N)-glycine turnover in cystinosis and of glycine cleavage system in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Yudkoff, M.; Nissim, I.; Schneider, A.; Segal, S.

    1981-01-01

    In order to clarify the hyperglycinemic effect of cysteamine treatment in children with nephropathic cystinosis, we measured (/sup 15/N)-glycine turnover in three affected patients. Administration of cysteamine lowered the glycine flux and the glycine metabolic clearance rate but did not alter the glycine pool size. Formation of (/sup 15/N)-serine from (/sup 15/N)-glycine was lower in untreated patients than in control subjects and was reduced still further by cysteamine. Studies in vitro with isolated rat liver mitochondria and acetone extracts of mitochondria indicated that even low cysteamine concentrations (0.1 mM) inhibited the glycine cleavage system in both the direction of glycine oxidation and glycine synthesis. Cysteamine was a more potent inhibitor of the glycine cleavage system than any other sulfhydryl containing compound. Although no ill effects of cysteamine treatment were immediately apparent, patients receiving cysteamine should be monitored carefully for the appearance of any neurologic symptoms which might be referable to inhibition of the glycine cleavage system.

  19. Glycine affects valproate hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Junius, Lara; Brune, Thomas; Deters, Michael; Schulze, Johannes; Siegers, Claus-Peter

    Valproate is a widely used anticonvulsant drug. Valproate is linked to hepatotoxicity which is rare but potentially lethal. The pathomechanism is not yet completely understood. Previous studies have shown a protective effect of glycine on this toxicity in rat hepatocytes (Vance et al., 1994). In the present study we investigated the hepatoxicity of 1-4 mM valproate in combination with glycine through absorption of neutral red from human hepatoma cells (Hep G2) in monolayer cell culture. Cell toxicity was measured by enzyme release with standard photometric test kits. In addition, a histomorphological evaluation was performed. A significant increase in the IC50 value of valproate cytotoxicity after addition of 12 mmol/l glycine was found. The average release of mitochondrial glutamate dehydrogenase as indicator of cell membrane damage decreased after addition of glycine. Cells treated with valproate in combination with 12 mmol/l glycine showed less histomorphological deformation of the nucleus and improved cell adherence. In conclusion a hepatoprotective effect of glycine on valproate-induced toxicity is also given in human hepatocytes. A nonspecific hepatoprotective effect of glycine can be assumed at least in vitro.

  20. Aqueous V(V)-peroxo-amino acid chemistry. Synthesis, structural and spectroscopic characterization of unusual ternary dinuclear tetraperoxo vanadium(V)-glycine complexes.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, C; Kaliva, M; Venetis, J; Baran, P; Rodriguez-Escudero, I; Voyiatzis, G; Zervou, M; Salifoglou, A

    2009-01-19

    Vanadium participation in cellular events entails in-depth comprehension of its soluble and bioavailable forms bearing physiological ligands in aqueous distributions of binary and ternary systems. Poised to understand the ternary V(V)-H(2)O(2)-amino acid interactions relevant to that metal ion's biological role, we have launched synthetic efforts involving the physiological ligands glycine and H(2)O(2). In a pH-specific fashion, V(2)O(5), glycine, and H(2)O(2) reacted and afforded the unusual complexes (H(3)O)(2)[V(2)(O)(2)(mu(2):eta(2):eta(1)-O(2))(2)(eta(2)-O(2))(2)(C(2)H(5)NO(2))] x 5/4 H(2)O (1) and K(2)[V(2)(O)(2)(mu(2):eta(2):eta(1)-O(2))(2)(eta(2)-O(2))(2)(C(2)H(5)NO(2))] x H(2)O (2). 1 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1, with a = 7.805(4) A, b = 8.134(5) A, c = 12.010(7) A, alpha = 72.298(9) degrees, beta = 72.991(9) degrees, gamma = 64.111(9) degrees, V = 641.9(6) A(3), and Z = 2. 2 crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1, with a = 7.6766(9) A, b = 7.9534(9) A, c = 11.7494(13) A, alpha = 71.768(2) degrees, beta = 73.233(2) degrees, gamma = 65.660(2) degrees, V = 610.15(12) A(3), and Z = 2. Both complexes 1 and 2 were characterized by UV/visible, LC-MS, FT-IR, Raman, NMR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and X-ray crystallography. The structures of 1 and 2 reveal the presence of unusual ternary dinuclear vanadium-tetraperoxo-glycine complexes containing [(V(V)=O)(O(2))(2)](-) units interacting through long V-O bonds and an effective glycinate bridge. The latter ligand is present in the dianionic assembly as a bidentate moiety spanning both V(V) centers in a zwitterionic form. The collective physicochemical properties of the two ternary species 1 and 2 project the chemical role of the low molecular mass biosubstrate glycine in binding V(V)-diperoxo units, thereby stabilizing a dinuclear V(V)-tetraperoxo dianion. Structural comparisons of the anions in 1 and 2 with other known dinuclear V(V)-tetraperoxo binary anionic species provide insight

  1. Glycine-assisted combustion synthesis and magnetocaloric properties of polycrystalline La0.8Ca0.2MnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, K. P.; Oh, S. S.; Baik, S. K.; Kim, H. S.; Sinha, B. B.; Chung, K. C.

    2012-12-01

    A facile and rapid glycine-assisted combustion method was developed to synthesize polycrystalline La0.8Ca0.2MnO3 (LCMO) powder by dissolving lanthanum nitrate, calcium nitrate, manganese nitrate (oxidant) and glycine (fuel) as the starting materials and water as solvent and then heating the resulting solution on a heating plate. The X-ray diffraction and FTIR analyses confirmed the orthorhombic crystal structure, and a morphological study showed the polycrystalline form of the LCMO powder. The calculated lattice constants a = 5.46, b = 7.73, and c = 5.49 Å agreed well with the standard values. The magnetic measurements showed a paramagnetic behavior of LCMO at room temperature. The maximum change in entropy observed for the LCMO sample was -1.95 J/kgK at an applied magnetic field of 2 T at the Curie temperature of 165 K.

  2. Chiral N-phosphonyl imine chemistry: asymmetric synthesis of alpha,beta-diamino esters by reacting phosphonyl imines with glycine enolates.

    PubMed

    Ai, Teng; Li, Guigen

    2009-07-15

    Chiral phosphonyl imines attached with N-isopropyl protection group were found to react with lithium glycine enolates under convenient conditions to give alpha,beta-diamino esters. Thirteen examples have been examined in good to excellent chemical yields (85-97%) diastereoselectivity (up to 99% de). By treating with HBr at room temperature, the chiral auxiliary can be readily removed and recycled. The absolute structure has been unambiguously determined by converting a product to a known sample.

  3. Synthesis, structure characterization and biological activity of selected metal complexes of sulfonamide Schiff base as a primary ligand and some mixed ligand complexes with glycine as a secondary ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharaby, Carmen M.; Amine, Mona F.; Hamed, Asmaa A.

    2017-04-01

    The current work reports synthesis of metal complexes and mixed ligand complexes of a novel sulfonamide Schiff base ligand (HL) resulted from the condensation of sulfametrole [N‧-(4-methoxy-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yl]sulfanilamide and acetyl-acetone as a primary ligand and glycine as a secondary ligand. The metal complexes and mixed ligand complexes of HL Schiff base ligand were synthesized and characterized using different physicochemical studies as elemental analyses, mass spectra, conductivity measurement, IR spectra, 1H NMR spectra, UV-vis Spectra, solid reflectance, magnetic susceptibility, thermal analyses (TGA and DTA) and their microbial and anticancer activities. The spectroscopic data of the complexes suggest their 1:2(L1:M) complex structures and 1:2:2(L1:L2:M) mixed ligand complex structures, where L1 = HL and L2 = glycine. Also, the spectroscopic studies suggested the octahedral structure for all complexes. The synthesized Schiff base, its metal and mixed ligand complexes were screened for their bacterial, antifungal and anticancer activity. The activity data show that the metal complexes and mixed ligand complexes exhibited promising microbial and anticancer activities than their parent HL Schiff base ligand, also the data show that the mixed ligand complexes more effective than the metal complexes.

  4. Glycine and Folate Ameliorate Models of Congenital Sideroblastic Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Dufay, J. Noelia; Steele, Shelby L.; Gaston, Daniel; Nasrallah, Gheyath K.; Coombs, Andrew J.; Liwski, Robert S.; Fernandez, Conrad V.; Berman, Jason N.; McMaster, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Sideroblastic anemias are acquired or inherited anemias that result in a decreased ability to synthesize hemoglobin in red blood cells and result in the presence of iron deposits in the mitochondria of red blood cell precursors. A common subtype of congenital sideroblastic anemia is due to autosomal recessive mutations in the SLC25A38 gene. The current treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia is chronic blood transfusion coupled with iron chelation. The function of SLC25A38 is not known. Here we report that the SLC25A38 protein, and its yeast homolog Hem25, are mitochondrial glycine transporters required for the initiation of heme synthesis. To do so, we took advantage of the fact that mitochondrial glycine has several roles beyond the synthesis of heme, including the synthesis of folate derivatives through the glycine cleavage system. The data were consistent with Hem25 not being the sole mitochondrial glycine importer, and we identify a second SLC25 family member Ymc1, as a potential secondary mitochondrial glycine importer. Based on these findings, we observed that high levels of exogenous glycine, or 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-Ala) a metabolite downstream of Hem25 in heme biosynthetic pathway, were able to restore heme levels to normal in yeast cells lacking Hem25 function. While neither glycine nor 5-Ala could ameliorate SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia in a zebrafish model, we determined that the addition of folate with glycine was able to restore hemoglobin levels. This difference is likely due to the fact that yeast can synthesize folate, whereas in zebrafish folate is an essential vitamin that must be obtained exogenously. Given the tolerability of glycine and folate in humans, this study points to a potential novel treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia. PMID:26821380

  5. Glycine and Folate Ameliorate Models of Congenital Sideroblastic Anemia.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Murray, J Pedro; Prykhozhij, Sergey V; Dufay, J Noelia; Steele, Shelby L; Gaston, Daniel; Nasrallah, Gheyath K; Coombs, Andrew J; Liwski, Robert S; Fernandez, Conrad V; Berman, Jason N; McMaster, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    Sideroblastic anemias are acquired or inherited anemias that result in a decreased ability to synthesize hemoglobin in red blood cells and result in the presence of iron deposits in the mitochondria of red blood cell precursors. A common subtype of congenital sideroblastic anemia is due to autosomal recessive mutations in the SLC25A38 gene. The current treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia is chronic blood transfusion coupled with iron chelation. The function of SLC25A38 is not known. Here we report that the SLC25A38 protein, and its yeast homolog Hem25, are mitochondrial glycine transporters required for the initiation of heme synthesis. To do so, we took advantage of the fact that mitochondrial glycine has several roles beyond the synthesis of heme, including the synthesis of folate derivatives through the glycine cleavage system. The data were consistent with Hem25 not being the sole mitochondrial glycine importer, and we identify a second SLC25 family member Ymc1, as a potential secondary mitochondrial glycine importer. Based on these findings, we observed that high levels of exogenous glycine, or 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-Ala) a metabolite downstream of Hem25 in heme biosynthetic pathway, were able to restore heme levels to normal in yeast cells lacking Hem25 function. While neither glycine nor 5-Ala could ameliorate SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia in a zebrafish model, we determined that the addition of folate with glycine was able to restore hemoglobin levels. This difference is likely due to the fact that yeast can synthesize folate, whereas in zebrafish folate is an essential vitamin that must be obtained exogenously. Given the tolerability of glycine and folate in humans, this study points to a potential novel treatment for SLC25A38 congenital sideroblastic anemia.

  6. Asymmetric synthesis of α-amino acids via homologation of Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases. Part 2: aldol, Mannich addition reactions, deracemization and (S) to (R) interconversion of α-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Sorochinsky, Alexander E; Aceña, José Luis; Moriwaki, Hiroki; Sato, Tatsunori; Soloshonok, Vadim

    2013-11-01

    This review provides a comprehensive treatment of literature data dealing with asymmetric synthesis of α-amino-β-hydroxy and α,β-diamino acids via homologation of chiral Ni(II) complexes of glycine Schiff bases using aldol and Mannich-type reactions. These reactions proceed with synthetically useful chemical yields and thermodynamically controlled stereoselectivity and allow direct introduction of two stereogenic centers in a single operation with predictable stereochemical outcome. Furthermore, new application of Ni(II) complexes of α-amino acids Schiff bases for deracemization of racemic α-amino acids and (S) to (R) interconversion providing additional synthetic opportunities for preparation of enantiomerically pure α-amino acids, is also reviewed. Origin of observed diastereo-/enantioselectivity in the aldol, Mannich-type and deracemization reactions, generality and limitations of these methodologies are critically discussed.

  7. Hydrazone- and hydrazide-containing N-substituted glycines as peptoid surrogates for expedited library synthesis: application to the preparation of Tsg101-directed HIV-1 budding antagonists.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fa; Stephen, Andrew G; Adamson, Catherine S; Gousset, Karine; Aman, M Javad; Freed, Eric O; Fisher, Robert J; Burke, Terrence R

    2006-10-26

    Replacing the Pro6 in the p6(Gag)-derived 9-mer "P-E-P-T-A-P-P-E-E" with N-substituted glycine (NSG) residues is problematic. However, incorporation of hydrazone amides ("peptoid hydrazones") can be readily achieved in library fashion. Furthermore, reduction of these hydrazones to N-substituted "peptoid hydrazides" affords a facile route to library diversification. This approach is demonstrated by application to Tsg101-binding compounds designed as potential HIV budding antagonists. [reaction: see text

  8. Genetics Home Reference: glycine encephalopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... a molecule called glycine. This molecule is an amino acid , which is a building block of proteins. Glycine ... Additional Information & Resources MedlinePlus (3 links) Health Topic: Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders Health Topic: Genetic Brain Disorders Health ...

  9. Zinc Modulation of Glycine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Trombley, Paul Q.; Blakemore, Laura J.; Hill, Brook J.

    2011-01-01

    Glycine receptors are widely expressed in the mammalian central nervous system, and previous studies have demonstrated that glycine receptors are modulated by endogenous zinc. Zinc is concentrated in synaptic vesicles in several brain regions but is particularly abundant in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. In the present study, we used patch-clamp electrophysiology of rat hippocampal and olfactory bulb neurons in primary culture to examine the effects of zinc on glycine receptors. Although glycine has been reported to reach millimolar concentrations during synaptic transmission, most previous studies on the effects of zinc on glycine receptors have used relatively low concentrations of glycine. High concentrations of glycine cause receptor desensitization. Our current results extend our previous demonstration that the modulatory actions of zinc are largely prevented when co-applied with desensitizing concentrations of glycine (300 μM), suggesting that the effects of zinc are dependent on the state of the receptor. In contrast, pre-application of 300 μM zinc, prior to glycine (300 μM) application, causes a slowly developing inhibition with a slow rate of recovery, suggesting that the timing of zinc and glycine release also influences the effects of zinc. Furthermore, previous evidence suggests that synaptically released zinc can gain intracellular access, and we provide the first demonstration that low concentrations of intracellular zinc can potentiate glycine receptors. These results support the notion that zinc has complex effects on glycine receptors and multiple factors may interact to influence the efficacy of glycinergic transmission. PMID:21530619

  10. New chiral didehydroamino acid derivatives from a cyclic glycine template with 3,6-dihydro-2H-1,4-oxazin-2-one structure: applications to the asymmetric synthesis of nonproteinogenic alpha-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, R; Falvello, L R; Galindo, N; Nájera, C

    2000-05-19

    New chiral (Z)-alpha,beta-didehydroamino acid (DDAA) derivatives with 3,5-dihydro-2H-1,4-oxazin-2-one structure 11a-f have been stereoselectively prepared after condensation of chiral glycine equivalent 7 with aldehydes in the presence of K(2)CO(3) under mild solid-liquid phase-transfer catalysis reaction conditions. These new systems have been used in diastereoselective cyclopropanation reactions using Corey's ylide for the asymmetric synthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acids (ACCs) such as allo-corononamic and allo-norcoronamic acids. The hydrogenation reaction of these systems at ambient pressure in the presence of formaldehyde affords saturated oxazinones and N-methylated oxazinones which have been transformed into the N-methyl-alpha-amino acids (N-MAAs) (S)-2-(methylamino)butanoic acid and (S)-N-methylleucine. In addition, the parent alpha, beta-didehydroalanine derivative 11g has been prepared by a direct aminomethylation-elimination sequence from 7 and Eschenmoser's salt and has been used in Diels-Alder cycloaddition with endo selectivity for the synthesis of the enantiomerically pure bicyclic alpha-amino acids (-)-2-aminobicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2-carboxylic and (-)-2-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acids.

  11. Synthesis, structural characterization, in vitro antimicrobial and anticancer activity studies of ternary metal complexes containing glycine amino acid and the anti-inflammatory drug lornoxicam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Walaa H.; Mohamed, Gehad G.; El-Dessouky, Maher M. I.

    2015-02-01

    Mixed ligand complexes were synthesized using lornoxicam (LOR) as the primary ligand and glycine amino acid (HGly) as the secondary ligand. They were characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis, mass, 1H NMR, ESR spectral studies, TG-DTG, X-ray powder diffraction and physical analytical studies. From the molar conductance, magnetic moment and electronic spectral data of the synthesized complexes, general formulae of [M(LOR)2(Gly)]·Xn·yH2O where M = Cr(III) (X = Cl, n = 2, y = 3), Mn(II) (X = Cl, n = 1, y = 1), Co(II) (X = BF4, n = 1, y = 0), Ni(II) (X = Cl, n = 1, y = 0), Cu(II) (X = BF4, n = 1, y = 2) and Zn(II) (X = BF4, n = 1, y = 2) and (M = Fe(II) (X = BF4, n = 1, y = 1) and Fe(III) (X = Cl, n = 2, y = 1) with an octahedral structure were proposed. Thermal analyses show that the complexes lose water molecules of hydration initially and subsequently expel anionic parts and organic ligands in continuous steps. The kinetic parameters namely E, ΔH∗, ΔS∗ and ΔG∗ illustrate the spontaneous association of the metal and ligands in the formation of the complexes. The antimicrobial efficiency of the LOR and HGly ligands and the ternary complexes were examined by in vitro method against various pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains. The metal complexes were found to possess efficient antimicrobial properties compared to lornoxicam and most of these complexes could turn out to be excellent models for the design of effective antibiotic drug substances. Also, the two ligands, in comparison to ternary metal complexes are screened for their anticancer activity against breastic cancer cell line. The results showed that the metal complexes be more active than the parent LOR and glycine free ligands except Cr(III) ternary complex which was found to be inactive.

  12. GLYCINE RESISTANCE IN AGROBACTERIUM TUMEFACIENS

    PubMed Central

    Beardsley, Robert E.

    1962-01-01

    Beardsley, Robert E. (Manhattan College, New York, N. Y.). Glycine resistance in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J. Bacteriol. 83:6–13. 1962.—The application of the fluctuation test of Luria and Delbrück to the distribution of glycine-resistant bacteria among cultures of Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain B6 indicates that resistance arises by mutation in the absence of glycine. On glycine-supplemented medium, additional resistant colonies arise during prolonged periods of incubation. Their appearance is proceded by L-form growth. In general, the number of generations over which glycine resistance is inherited in the absence of glycine is increased by serial transfers on the selection medium. In liquid medium containing glycine, sensitive bacteria form spheroplasts. Resistant bacteria continue to grow as rod forms. In the medium employed, spheroplasts are unstable. Images PMID:13866159

  13. Glycine and Glycine Receptor Signalling in Non-Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    den Eynden, Jimmy Van; Ali, Sheen Saheb; Horwood, Nikki; Carmans, Sofie; Brône, Bert; Hellings, Niels; Steels, Paul; Harvey, Robert J.; Rigo, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter acting mainly in the caudal part of the central nervous system. Besides this neurotransmitter function, glycine has cytoprotective and modulatory effects in different non-neuronal cell types. Modulatory effects were mainly described in immune cells, endothelial cells and macroglial cells, where glycine modulates proliferation, differentiation, migration and cytokine production. Activation of glycine receptors (GlyRs) causes membrane potential changes that in turn modulate calcium flux and downstream effects in these cells. Cytoprotective effects were mainly described in renal cells, hepatocytes and endothelial cells, where glycine protects cells from ischemic cell death. In these cell types, glycine has been suggested to stabilize porous defects that develop in the plasma membranes of ischemic cells, leading to leakage of macromolecules and subsequent cell death. Although there is some evidence linking these effects to the activation of GlyRs, they seem to operate in an entirely different mode from classical neuronal subtypes. PMID:19738917

  14. Decreased GmAGL15 expression and reduced ethylene synthesis may contribute to reduced somatic embryogenesis in a poorly embryogenic cultivar of Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qiaolin; Zheng, Yumei; Perry, Sharyn E

    2013-09-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is the process by which cells become dedifferentiated and reprogram to follow an embryogenic pathway. It is important for regeneration of transgenic plants as well as for propagation of certain genotypes. However, competence for SE varies, even among genotypes of a species, and the basis for this variation is not understood. We have found that the MADS-box transcription factor (Glycine max) AGAMOUS-Like 15 [(Gm)AGL15] promotes SE in Arabidopsis and in soybean when overexpressed. In soybean, part of the promotion of SE is via GmAGL15-mediated control of ethylene biosynthesis and response. Addition of ACC, the precursor to ethylene, to culture media enhanced SE in Arabidopsis and soybean. Transcription factors important for embryogenesis responded directly to GmAGL15 and to ethylene accumulation. Here we correlate ethylene production and patterns of gene expression with SE potential of soybean genotypes. However, other results indicate that there is not a complete positive correlation between ethylene production and SE, indicating that the interactions between hormones, gene expression and developmental outcomes are complex.

  15. A new iron(III) complex of glycine derivative of amine-chloro substituted phenol ligand: Synthesis, characterization and catechol dioxygenase activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saberikia, Iraj; Safaei, Elham; Kowsari, Mohammad Hossein; Lee, Yong-Ill; Cotic, Patricia; Bruno, Giuseppe; Rudbari, Hadi Amiri

    2012-12-01

    A new iron(III) complex of the glycine derivative of amine-chloro substituted phenol ligand (H3LGDC) has been prepared and characterized by IR, 1H NMR, UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques, cyclic voltammetry, ESI-MS and magnetic susceptibility studies. X-ray analysis reveals that in iron complex of FeLGDC the iron(III) center has a distorted trigonal bipyramidal coordination sphere and is surrounded by an amine nitrogen, a carboxylate, a water and two phenolate oxygen atoms. The DFT calculations with the UB3LYP/6-311++G** level optimized structure of the complex are in good agreement with experimental X-ray structural data. The variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility indicates that FeLGDC is the paramagnetic high spin iron(III) complex. It has been shown that electrochemical oxidation of this complex is ligand-centered due to the oxidation of phenolate to the phenoxyl radicals. This enzyme mimic utilized molecular oxygen in carrying out the oxidative cleavage of catechols with complete conversion at room temperature.

  16. Synthesis and thermal characterization of new ternary chelates of piroxicam and tenoxicam with glycine and DL-phenylalanine and some transition metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayed, M. A.; El-Dien, F. A. Nour; Mohamed, Gehad G.; El-Gamel, Nadia E. A.

    2006-05-01

    The ternary chelates of piroxicam (Pir) and tenoxicam (Ten) with Fe(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) in the presence of various amino acids such as glycine (Gly) or DL-phenylalanine (PhA) were prepared and characterized with different physicochemical methods. IR spectra confirm that Pir and Ten behave as a neutral bidentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the pyridine- N and carbonyl group of the amide moiety. Gly molecule acted as a uninegatively monodentate ligand and coordinate to the metal ions through its deprotonated carboxylic group. In addition, PhA acted as a uninegatively bidentate ligand and coordinate to the metal ions through its deprotonated carboxylic and amino groups. The solid reflectance spectra and magnetic moment measurements confirm that all the chelates have octahedral geometrical structures while Cu(II)- and Zn(II)-ternary chelates with PhA have square planar geometrical structures. Thermal behaviour of the complexes is extensively studied using TG and DTA techniques. TG results show that water molecules (hydrated and coordinated) and anions are removed in the first and second steps while Gly, PhA, Pir and Ten are decomposed in the next and subsequent steps. The pyrolyses of the chelates into different gases are observed in the DTA curves as exo- or endothermic peaks. Also, phase transition states are observed in some chelates. Different thermodynamic parameters are calculated using Coats-Redfern method and the results are interpreted.

  17. Synthesis and thermal characterization of new ternary chelates of piroxicam and tenoxicam with glycine and DL-phenylalanine and some transition metals.

    PubMed

    Zayed, M A; El-Dien, F A Nour; Mohamed, Gehad G; El-Gamel, Nadia E A

    2006-05-01

    The ternary chelates of piroxicam (Pir) and tenoxicam (Ten) with Fe(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) in the presence of various amino acids such as glycine (Gly) or dl-phenylalanine (PhA) were prepared and characterized with different physicochemical methods. IR spectra confirm that Pir and Ten behave as a neutral bidentate ligand coordinated to the metal ions via the pyridine-N and carbonyl group of the amide moiety. Gly molecule acted as a uninegatively monodentate ligand and coordinate to the metal ions through its deprotonated carboxylic group. In addition, PhA acted as a uninegatively bidentate ligand and coordinate to the metal ions through its deprotonated carboxylic and amino groups. The solid reflectance spectra and magnetic moment measurements confirm that all the chelates have octahedral geometrical structures while Cu(II)- and Zn(II)-ternary chelates with PhA have square planar geometrical structures. Thermal behaviour of the complexes is extensively studied using TG and DTA techniques. TG results show that water molecules (hydrated and coordinated) and anions are removed in the first and second steps while Gly, PhA, Pir and Ten are decomposed in the next and subsequent steps. The pyrolyses of the chelates into different gases are observed in the DTA curves as exo- or endothermic peaks. Also, phase transition states are observed in some chelates. Different thermodynamic parameters are calculated using Coats-Redfern method and the results are interpreted.

  18. GAS-PHASE SYNTHESIS OF PRECURSORS OF INTERSTELLAR GLYCINE: A COMPUTATIONAL STUDY OF THE REACTIONS OF ACETIC ACID WITH HYDROXYLAMINE AND ITS IONIZED AND PROTONATED DERIVATIVES

    SciTech Connect

    Barrientos, Carmen; Redondo, Pilar; Largo, Laura; Rayon, Victor M.; Largo, Antonio

    2012-04-01

    A computational study of the reactions of hydroxylamine and its ionized and protonated derivatives with acetic acid is provided. The reaction of neutral hydroxylamine with acetic acid, despite being clearly exothermic, involves a very large energy barrier. The reaction of ionized hydroxylamine with acetic acid is also clearly exothermic, but again a significant energy barrier is found (around 24 kcal mol{sup -1} at the CCSD(T) level). The reaction of the most stable protonated isomer of hydroxylamine, NH{sub 3}OH{sup +}, with acetic acid also involves a high barrier (more than 27 kcal mol{sup -1} at the CCSD(T) level). Only the higher energy isomer, NH{sub 2}OH{sup +}{sub 2}, leads to a sensibly lower energy barrier (about 2.3 kcal mol{sup -1} at the CCSD(T) level). Nevertheless, an estimate of the reaction coefficient at low temperatures such as those reigning in the interstellar medium gives very low values. Therefore, it seems that precursors of interstellar glycine could not be efficiently produced from the reactions of hydroxylamine-derived ions with acetic acid.

  19. Synthesis and NMR studies of malonyl-linked glycoconjugates of N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine. Building blocks for the construction of combinatorial glycopeptide libraries

    PubMed Central

    Nörrlinger, Markus; Hafner, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Summary Four glycoconjugate building blocks for the construction of combinatorial PNA like glycopeptide libraries were prepared in 75–79% yield by condensing tert-butyl N-[2-(N-9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonylamino)ethyl]glycinate (AEG) 5 with 3-oxo-3-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosylamino)- (6a), 3-oxo-3-(β-D-galactopyranosylamino)- (6b), 3-oxo-3-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosylamino)- (6c) and 3-oxo-3-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-galactopyranosylamino)propanoic acid (6d), respectively. The resulting AEG glycoconjugates 1a–d were converted into the corresponding free acids 2a–d in 97–98% yield by treatment with aqueous formic acid. The Fmoc group of compound 1c was removed and the intermediate amine 9 was condensed with 2a to afford the corresponding glycosylated AEG dipeptide 4 in 58% yield. All glycoconjugate building blocks showed the presence of cis and trans rotamers. Compounds 1a, 1b and 4 were subjected to temperature dependent 1H NMR spectroscopy in order to determine the coalescence temperature which resulted in calculated rotation barriers of 17.9–18.3 kcal/mol for the rotamers. PMID:27829900

  20. Aryl tetrahydropyridine inhibitors of farnesyltransferase: glycine, phenylalanine and histidine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Gwaltney, Stephen L; O'Connor, Stephen J; Nelson, Lissa T J; Sullivan, Gerard M; Imade, Hovis; Wang, Weibo; Hasvold, Lisa; Li, Qun; Cohen, Jerome; Gu, Wen-Zhen; Tahir, Stephen K; Bauch, Joy; Marsh, Kennan; Ng, Shi-Chung; Frost, David J; Zhang, Haiying; Muchmore, Steve; Jakob, Clarissa G; Stoll, Vincent; Hutchins, Charles; Rosenberg, Saul H; Sham, Hing L

    2003-04-07

    Inhibitors of farnesyltransferase are effective against a variety of tumors in mouse models of cancer. Clinical trials to evaluate these agents in humans are ongoing. In our effort to develop new farnesyltransferase inhibitors, we have discovered a series of aryl tetrahydropyridines that incorporate substituted glycine, phenylalanine and histidine residues. The design, synthesis, SAR and biological properties of these compounds will be discussed.

  1. Development of the Large-Scale Synthesis of Tetrahydropyran Glycine, a Precursor to the HCV NS5A Inhibitor BMS-986097.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Arvind; Wang, Bei; Smith, Daniel; Li, Jianqing; Pawluczyk, Joseph; Sun, Jung-Hui; Wong, Michael Kwok; Krishnananthan, Subramaniam; Wu, Dauh-Rurng; Sun, Dawn; Li, Peng; Yip, Shiuhang; Chen, Bang-Chi; Baran, Phil S; Chen, Qi; Lopez, Omar D; Yong, Zhong; Bender, John A; Nguyen, Van N; Romine, Jeffrey L; Laurent, Denis R St; Wang, Gan; Kadow, John F; Meanwell, Nicholas A; Belema, Makonen; Zhao, Rulin

    2017-09-14

    An efficient large-scale synthesis of acid 1, a penultimate precursor to the HCV NS5A inhibitor BMS-986097, along with the final API step are described. Three routes were devised for the synthesis of 1 at the various stages of the program. The third generation route, the one that proved scalable and is the main subject of this paper, features a one-step Michael addition of t-butyl 2-((diphenylmethylene)amino)acetate (24) to (E)-benzyl 4-(1-hydroxycyclopropyl)but-2-enoate (28) followed by cyclization and chiral separation to form 27c, the core skeleton of cap piece 1. The epimerization and chiral resolution of 27c followed by further synthetic manipulations involving the carbamate formation, lactone reduction and cyclization, afforded cyclopropyl pyran 1. A detailed study of diphenylmethane deprotection via acid hydrolysis as well as a key lactone to tetrahydropyran conversion, in order to avoid a side reaction that afforded an alternative cyclization product, are discussed. This synthesis was applied to the preparation of more than 100 g of the final API BMS-986097 for toxicology studies.

  2. Glycine Transporters and Their Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilfillan, Robert; Kerr, Jennifer; Walker, Glenn; Wishart, Grant

    Glycine plays a ubiquitous role in many biological processes. In the central nervous system it serves as an important neurotransmitter acting as an agonist at strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and as an essential co-agonist with glutamate at the NMDA receptor complex. Control of glycine concentrations in the vicinity of these receptors is mediated by the specific glycine transporters, GlyT1 and GlyT2. Inhibition of these transporters has been postulated to be of potential benefit in several therapeutic indications including schizophrenia and pain. In this review we discuss our current knowledge of glycine transporters and focus on recent advances in the medicinal chemistry of GlyT1 and GlyT2 inhibitors.

  3. Reaction Behaviors of Glycine under Super- and Subcritical Water Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alargov, Dimitar K.; Deguchi, Shigeru; Tsujii, Kaoru; Horikoshi, Koki

    2002-02-01

    The influence of temperature and pressure on the dimerization and decomposition of glycine under simulated hydrothermal system conditions was studied by injecting a glycine solution into water in the sub- and supercritical state. The experiments at five different temperatures of supplied water - 250, 300, 350, 374, and 400 °C - were performed at 22.2 and 40.0 MPa. At 350 °C, experiments under 15.0-40.0 MPa were conducted. Diglycine, triglycine (trace), diketopiperazine, and an unidentified product with a high molecular mass (433 Da) were the main products of oligomerization. The results show that temperature and pressure influence the extent of dimerization and decomposition of glycine. The maximum of dimers formation was observed at 350 and 375 °C at 22.2 and 40.0 MPa, respectively, and coincided with a high rate of glycine decomposition. Glycine, alanine, aspartic acid, as well as other amino acids, were obtained by injecting a mixture of formaldehyde and ammonia. The results support the oligomerization and synthesis of amino acids in a submarine hydrothermal system.

  4. Comparing the in vivo glycine fluxes of adolescent girls and adult women during early and late pregnancy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During pregnancy, growth of the fetus depends on an adequate glycine supply because it is needed for synthesis of fetal DNA, collagen, and serine. Since pregnant adolescent girls give birth to lower birth weight babies, it is possible that they do not produce sufficient glycine to meet overall deman...

  5. Glycine Transporter Dimers

    PubMed Central

    Bartholomäus, Ingo; Milan-Lobo, Laura; Nicke, Annette; Dutertre, Sébastien; Hastrup, Hanne; Jha, Alok; Gether, Ulrik; Sitte, Harald H.; Betz, Heinrich; Eulenburg, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Different Na+/Cl−-dependent neurotransmitter transporters of the SLC6a family have been shown to form dimers or oligomers in both intracellular compartments and at the cell surface. In contrast, the glycine transporters (GlyTs) GlyT1 and -2 have been reported to exist as monomers in the plasma membrane based on hydrodynamic and native gel electrophoretic studies. Here, we used cysteine substitution and oxidative cross-linking to show that of GlyT1 and GlyT2 also form dimeric complexes within the plasma membrane. GlyT oligomerization at the cell surface was confirmed for both GlyT1 and GlyT2 by fluorescence resonance energy transfer microscopy. Endoglycosidase treatment and surface biotinylation further revealed that complex-glycosylated GlyTs form dimers located at the cell surface. Furthermore, substitution of tryptophan 469 of GlyT2 by an arginine generated a transporter deficient in dimerization that was retained intracellulary. Based on these results and GlyT structures modeled by using the crystal structure of the bacterial homolog LeuTAa, as a template, residues located within the extracellular loop 3 and at the beginning of transmembrane domain 6 are proposed to contribute to the dimerization interface of GlyTs. PMID:18252709

  6. Possible Transfer of Resistance to Heterodera glycines from Glycine tomentella to Glycine max

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, R. D.; Wang, S.; Singh, R. J.; Hymowitz, T.

    1998-01-01

    Eight wild perennial Glycine species (G. argyrea, G. canescens, G. curvata, G. cyrtoloba, G. latifolia, G. microphylla, G. tabacina, and G. tomentella) were evaluated for resistance to isolates of races 1, 3, and 14 of Heterodera glycines. In a second experiment, reproduction of isolates of races 3, 5, and 14 of H. glycines on five of the wild perennial species was determined. Seventy-one derived fertile lines (2n = 40) that were hybrids between G. max cv Clark 63 and G. tomentella also were evaluated for resistance to isolates of races 3, 5, and 14. All of the wild perennial Glycine species were resistant (Female Indices [FI] less than 10) to all of the isolates that were tested on them. In most cases no females matured. The soybean cvs. Clark 63 and Altona, which were tested at the same time as the hybrids, were susceptible to all isolates of H. glycines tested. When the tests were combined and a single FI calculated with the average number of females on Lee 74, one derived fertile line was resistant to race 3, three derived fertile lines were resistant to race 5, and five derived fertile lines were resistant to race 14. Thus, transfer of resistance to H. glycines from G. tomentella to G. max apparently occurred. PMID:19274245

  7. Influence of high glycine diets on the activity of glycine-catabolizing enzymes and on glycine catabolism in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Petzke, K.J.; Albrecht, V.; Przybilski, H.

    1986-05-01

    Male albino rats were adapted to isocaloric purified diets that differed mainly in their glycine and casein contents. Controls received a 30% casein diet. In experimental diets gelatin or gelatin hydrolysate was substituted for half of the 30% casein. An additional group was fed a glycine-supplemented diet, which corresponded in glycine level to the gelatin diet but in which the protein level was nearly the same as that of the casein control diet. Another group received a 15% casein diet. Rat liver glycine cleavage system, serine hydroxymethyltransferase and serine dehydratase activities were measured. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from the catabolism of /sup 14/C-labeled glycine was measured in vivo and in vitro (from isolated hepatocytes). Serine dehydratase and glycine cleavage system activities were higher in animals fed 30% casein diets than in those fed 15% casein diets. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase activity of the cytosolic and mitochondrial fractions was highest when a high glycine diet (glycine administered as pure, protein bound in gelatin or peptide bound in gelatin hydrolysate) was fed. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ formation from (1-/sup 14/C)- and (2-/sup 14/C)glycine both in vivo and in isolated hepatocytes was higher when a high glycine diet was fed than when a casein diet was fed. These results suggest that glycine catabolism is dependent on and adaptable to the glycine content of the diet. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase appears to play a major role in the regulation of glycine degradation via serine and pyruvate.

  8. Development of the Ireland-Claisen rearrangement of alkoxy- and aryloxy-substituted allyl glycinates.

    PubMed

    Tellam, James P; Carbery, David R

    2010-11-19

    The Ireland-Claisen rearrangement of 3-alkoxy- and 3-aryloxy-substituted allyl glycinates is presented. This [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement route offers direct access to syn β-alkoxy and β-aryloxy α-amino acid systems. In particular, N,N-diboc glycine esters rearrange with excellent diastereoselectivities (dr > 25:1). The synthesis of substrates, rearrangement optimization, and a discussion of stereoselection are presented.

  9. Preferential Pathway for Glycine Formation in Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilling, S.; Boechat-Roberty, H. M.; Baptista, L.; Santos A. C., F.

    Interstellar clouds, similar to that from which the solar system was formed, contain many organic molecules including aldehydes, acids, ketones, and sugars Ehrenfreund & Charnley (2000). Those organic compounds have important functions in terrestrial biochemistry and could also have been important in prebiotic synthesis. The simplest amino acid, glycine (NH2CH2COOH), was recently detected in the hot molecular cores Sgr B2(N-LMH), Orion KL, and W51 e1/e2 Kuan et al. (2003). The formic acid (HCOOH) and acetic acid(CH3COOH) have also been detected in those regions Liu et al. (2002), Remijan et al. (2004). The goal of this work is to study experimentally photoionization and photodissociation processes of glycine precursor molecules, acetic acid and formic acid to elucidate a possible preferentially in the glycine synthesis between ice and gas phase. The measurements were taken at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), employing soft X-ray photons from a toroidal grating monochromator TGM) beamline (100 - 310 eV). The experimental set up consists of a high vacuum chamber with a Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (TOF-MS). Mass spectra were obtained using PhotoElectron PhotoIon Coincidence (PEPICO) technique. Kinetic energy distributions and abundances for each ionic fragment have been obtained from the analysis of the corresponding peak shapes in the mass spectra. Dissociative and non-dissociative photoionization cross sections for both molecules were also determined Boechat-Roberty, Pilling & Santos (2005). Due to the high photodissociation cross section of formic acid it is possible that in PDRs regions, just after molecules evaporation from the grains surface, it is almost destructed by soft X-rays, justifying the observed low abundance of HCOOH in gaseous phase Ehrenfreund et al. (2001). Acetic acid have shown to be more stable to the ionizing field, and its main outcomes from dissociation process were the reactive ionic fragments COOH+ and CH3CO+. To

  10. 76 FR 55109 - Glycine From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Glycine From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year... glycine from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry... 2011), entitled Glycine from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-718 (Third Review). By order of the...

  11. Glycine and a glycine dehydrogenase (GLDC) SNP as citalopram/escitalopram response biomarkers in depression: pharmacometabolomics-informed pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Ji, Y; Hebbring, S; Zhu, H; Jenkins, G D; Biernacka, J; Snyder, K; Drews, M; Fiehn, O; Zeng, Z; Schaid, D; Mrazek, D A; Kaddurah-Daouk, R; Weinshilboum, R M

    2011-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common psychiatric disease. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are an important class of drugs used in the treatment of MDD. However, many patients do not respond adequately to SSRI therapy. We used a pharmacometabolomics-informed pharmacogenomic research strategy to identify citalopram/escitalopram treatment outcome biomarkers. Metabolomic assay of plasma samples from 20 escitalopram remitters and 20 nonremitters showed that glycine was negatively associated with treatment outcome (P = 0.0054). This observation was pursued by genotyping tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genes encoding glycine synthesis and degradation enzymes, using 529 DNA samples from SSRI-treated MDD patients. The rs10975641 SNP in the glycine dehydrogenase (GLDC) gene was associated with treatment outcome phenotypes. Genotyping for rs10975641 was carried out in 1,245 MDD patients in the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study, and its presence was significant (P = 0.02) in DNA taken from these patients. These results highlight a possible role for glycine in SSRI response and illustrate the use of pharmacometabolomics to "inform" pharmacogenomics.

  12. Effects of glycine hydroxamate, carbon dioxide, and oxygen on photorespiratory carbon and nitrogen metabolism in spinach mesophyll cells.

    PubMed

    Lawyer, A L; Cornwell, K L; Gee, S L; Bassham, J A

    1982-05-01

    The effects of added glycine hydroxamate on the photosynthetic incorporation of (14)CO(2) into metabolites by isolated mesophyll cells of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) was investigated under conditions favorable to photorespiratory (PR) metabolism (0.04% CO(2) and 20% O(2)) and under conditions leading to nonphotorespiratory (NPR) metabolism (0.2% CO(2) and 2.7% O(2)). Glycine hydroxamate (GH) is a competitive inhibitor of the photorespiratory conversion of glycine to serine, CO(2) and NH(4) (+). During PR fixation, addition of the inhibitor increased glycine and decreased glutamine labeling. In contrast, labeling of glycine decreased under NPR conditions. This suggests that when the rate of glycolate synthesis is slow, the primary route of glycine synthesis is through serine rather than from glycolate. GH addition increased serine labeling under PR conditions but not under NPR conditions. This increase in serine labeling at a time when glycine to serine conversion is partially blocked by the inhibitor may be due to serine accumulation via the "reverse" flow of photorespiration from 3-P-glycerate to hydroxypyruvate when glycine levels are high. GH increased glyoxylate and decreased glycolate labeling. These observations are discussed with respect to possible glyoxylate feedback inhibition of photorespiration.

  13. Glycine cleavage system: reaction mechanism, physiological significance, and hyperglycinemia

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Goro; Motokawa, Yutaro; Yoshida, Tadashi; Hiraga, Koichi

    2008-01-01

    The glycine cleavage system catalyzes the following reversible reaction: Glycine+H4folate+NAD+⇄5,10-methylene-H4folate+CO2+NH3+NADH+H+The glycine cleavage system is widely distributed in animals, plants and bacteria and consists of three intrinsic and one common components: those are i) P-protein, a pyridoxal phosphate-containing protein, ii) T-protein, a protein required for the tetrahydrofolate-dependent reaction, iii) H-protein, a protein that carries the aminomethyl intermediate and then hydrogen through the prosthetic lipoyl moiety, and iv) L-protein, a common lipoamide dehydrogenase. In animals and plants, the proteins form an enzyme complex loosely associating with the mitochondrial inner membrane. In the enzymatic reaction, H-protein converts P-protein, which is by itself a potential α–amino acid decarboxylase, to an active enzyme, and also forms a complex with T-protein. In both glycine cleavage and synthesis, aminomethyl moiety bound to lipoic acid of H-protein represents the intermediate that is degraded to or can be formed from N5,N10-methylene-H4folate and ammonia by the action of T-protein. N5,N10-Methylene-H4folate is used for the biosynthesis of various cellular substances such as purines, thymidylate and methionine that is the major methyl group donor through S-adenosyl-methionine. This accounts for the physiological importance of the glycine cleavage system as the most prominent pathway in serine and glycine catabolism in various vertebrates including humans. Nonketotic hyperglycinemia, a congenital metabolic disorder in human infants, results from defective glycine cleavage activity. The majority of patients with nonketotic hyperglycinemia had lesions in the P-protein gene, whereas some had mutant T-protein genes. The only patient classified into the degenerative type of nonketotic hyperglycinemia had an H-protein devoid of the prosthetic lipoyl residue. The crystallography of normal T-protein as well as biochemical characterization of

  14. Aboveground Feeding by Soybean Aphid, Aphis glycines, Affects Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera glycines, Reproduction Belowground

    PubMed Central

    McCarville, Michael T.; Soh, David H.; Tylka, Gregory L.; O’Neal, Matthew E.

    2014-01-01

    Heterodera glycines is a cyst nematode that causes significant lost soybean yield in the U.S. Recent studies observed the aphid Aphis glycines and H. glycines interacting via their shared host, soybean, Glycine max. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to discern the effect of A. glycines feeding on H. glycines reproduction. An H. glycines-susceptible cultivar, Kenwood 94, and a resistant cultivar, Dekalb 27–52, were grown in H. glycines-infested soil for 30 and 60 d. Ten days after planting, plants were infested with either zero, five, or ten aphids. At 30 and 60 d, the number of H. glycines females and cysts (dead females) and the number of eggs within were counted. In general, H. glycines were less abundant on the resistant than the susceptible cultivar, and H. glycines abundance increased from 30 to 60 d. At 30 d, 33% more H. glycines females and eggs were produced on the resistant cultivar in the ten-aphid treatment compared to the zero-aphid treatment. However, at 30 d the susceptible cultivar had 50% fewer H. glycines females and eggs when infested with ten aphids. At 60 d, numbers of H. glycines females and cysts and numbers of eggs on the resistant cultivar were unaffected by A. glycines feeding, while numbers of both were decreased by A. glycines on the susceptible cultivar. These results indicate that A. glycines feeding improves the quality of soybean as a host for H. glycines, but at higher herbivore population densities, this effect is offset by a decrease in resource quantity. PMID:24466080

  15. Loss of Glycine Transporter 1 Causes a Subtype of Glycine Encephalopathy with Arthrogryposis and Mildly Elevated Cerebrospinal Fluid Glycine.

    PubMed

    Kurolap, Alina; Armbruster, Anja; Hershkovitz, Tova; Hauf, Katharina; Mory, Adi; Paperna, Tamar; Hannappel, Ewald; Tal, Galit; Nijem, Yusif; Sella, Ella; Mahajnah, Muhammad; Ilivitzki, Anat; Hershkovitz, Dov; Ekhilevitch, Nina; Mandel, Hanna; Eulenburg, Volker; Baris, Hagit N

    2016-11-03

    Glycine is a major neurotransmitter that activates inhibitory glycine receptors and is a co-agonist for excitatory glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Two transporters, GLYT1 and GLYT2, regulate extracellular glycine concentrations within the CNS. Dysregulation of the extracellular glycine has been associated with hyperekplexia and nonketotic hyperglycinemia. Here, we report four individuals from two families who presented at birth with facial dysmorphism, encephalopathy, arthrogryposis, hypotonia progressing to hypertonicity with startle-like clonus, and respiratory failure. Only one individual survived the respiratory failure and was weaned off ventilation but has significant global developmental delay. Mildly elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glycine and normal serum glycine were observed in two individuals. In both families, we identified truncating mutations in SLC6A9, encoding GLYT1. We demonstrate that pharmacologic or genetic abolishment of GlyT1 activity in mice leads to mildly elevated glycine in the CSF but not in blood. Additionally, previously reported slc6a9-null mice and zebrafish mutants also display phenotypes consistent with the affected individuals we examined. Our data suggest that truncating SLC6A9 mutations lead to a distinct human neurological syndrome hallmarked by mildly elevated CSF glycine and normal serum glycine. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of a chitin synthase encoding gene and effect of diflubenzuron in soybean aphid, Aphis glycines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chitin synthases are critical enzymes for synthesis of chitin and thus for subsequent growth and development in insects. We have identified and characterized a chitin synthase gene (CHS) from cDNA of Aphis glycines, the soybean aphid, a serious pest of soybean. The full-length cDNA of CHS in A. glyc...

  17. Stereospecific assignments of glycine in proteins by stereospecific deuteration and {sup 15}N labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, A.P.; Curley, R.W. Jr.; Panigot, M.J.; Fesik, S.W.

    1994-12-01

    Stereospecific assignments are important for accurately determining the three-dimensional structures of proteins through the use of multidimensional NMR techniques. It is especially important to stereospecifically assign the glycine {alpha}-protons in proteins because of the potential for different backbone conformations of this residue. These stereospecific assignments are critical for interpreting the {sup 3}J{sub NH,{alpha}H} coupling constants and NOEs involving the glycine {alpha}-protons that determine the conformation of this part of the protein. However, it is often difficult to unambiguously obtain the stereospecific assignments for glycine residues by using only NOE data. In this poster, we present a method for unambiguous, stereospecific assignment of the {alpha}-protons of glycine residues. This method involves synthesis of stereo-specifically deuterated and {sup 15}N-labeled Gly using a slightly modified procedure originally described by Woodard and coworkers for the stereoselective deuteration of glycine. The stereospecifically deuterated and {sup 15}N-labeled Gy has been incorporated into recombinant proteins expressed in both bacterial systems (FKBP) and mammalian cells (u-PA). Two- and three-dimensional isotope-filtered and isotope-edited NMR experiments were used to obtain the stereospecific assignments of the glycine {alpha}-protons for these proteins.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and equilibrium studies of some potential antimicrobial and antitumor complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) ions involving 2-aminomethylbenzimidazole and glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljahdali, M.

    2013-08-01

    The ternary complexes of Cu(II), Zn(II), Ni(II) and Cd(II) with 2-aminomethylbenzimidazole (AMBI) and glycine as a representative example of amino acids have been isolated and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, ESR, UV-vis, magnetic moment, molar conductance and 1H NMR spectra. AMBI behaves as neutral bidentate ligands with coordination through imidazole and amino group nitrogens while the glycine amino acid behaves as a monodenate anion with coordination involving the amino group and carboxylate oxygen after deprotonation. The magnetic and spectral data indicates a square planar geometry for both Cu2+ and Ni2+ complexes and a tetrahedral geometry for both Zn2+ and Cd2+ complexes. The isolated chelates have been screened for their antifungal and antibacterial activities using the disc diffusion method. A cytotoxicity of the compounds against colon (HCT116) and larynx (HEP2) cancer cells have been studied. The stability constants of ternary M-AMBI-Gly complexes were determined potentiometrically in aqueous solution at I = 0.1 mol dm-3 NaCl.

  19. Metabolism of glycine- and hydroxyproline-containing peptides by the isolated perfused rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Lowry, M; Hall, D E; Brosnan, J T

    1985-07-15

    Isolated perfused rat kidneys removed considerable quantities of glycyltyrosine, glycylhydroxyproline, tetraglycine and prolylhydroxyproline from the perfusate. The component amino acids are released into the perfusate and, in the case of the glycine-containing peptides, there is increased synthesis of serine. Removal of peptides was more than could be accounted for on the basis of filtration, so antiluminal metabolism is indicated. Metabolism of such peptides by the kidney may contribute to renal serine synthesis in vivo.

  20. Metabolism of glycine- and hydroxyproline-containing peptides by the isolated perfused rat kidney.

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, M; Hall, D E; Brosnan, J T

    1985-01-01

    Isolated perfused rat kidneys removed considerable quantities of glycyltyrosine, glycylhydroxyproline, tetraglycine and prolylhydroxyproline from the perfusate. The component amino acids are released into the perfusate and, in the case of the glycine-containing peptides, there is increased synthesis of serine. Removal of peptides was more than could be accounted for on the basis of filtration, so antiluminal metabolism is indicated. Metabolism of such peptides by the kidney may contribute to renal serine synthesis in vivo. PMID:4038280

  1. Glycine restores the anabolic response to leucine in a mouse model of acute inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ham, Daniel J; Caldow, Marissa K; Chhen, Victoria; Chee, Annabel; Wang, Xuemin; Proud, Christopher G; Lynch, Gordon S; Koopman, René

    2016-06-01

    Amino acids, especially leucine, potently stimulate protein synthesis and reduce protein breakdown in healthy skeletal muscle and as a result have received considerable attention as potential treatments for muscle wasting. However, the normal anabolic response to amino acids is impaired during muscle-wasting conditions. Although the exact mechanisms of this anabolic resistance are unclear, inflammation and ROS are believed to play a central role. The nonessential amino acid glycine has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and preserves muscle mass in calorie-restricted and tumor-bearing mice. We hypothesized that glycine would restore the normal muscle anabolic response to amino acids under inflammatory conditions. Relative rates of basal and leucine-stimulated protein synthesis were measured using SUnSET methodology 4 h after an injection of 1 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Whereas leucine failed to stimulate muscle protein synthesis in LPS-treated mice pretreated with l-alanine (isonitrogenous control), leucine robustly stimulated protein synthesis (+51%) in mice pretreated with 1 g/kg glycine. The improvement in leucine-stimulated protein synthesis was accompanied by a higher phosphorylation status of mTOR, S6, and 4E-BP1 compared with l-alanine-treated controls. Despite its known anti-inflammatory action in inflammatory cells, glycine did not alter the skeletal muscle inflammatory response to LPS in vivo or in vitro but markedly reduced DHE staining intensity, a marker of oxidative stress, in muscle cross-sections and attenuated LPS-induced wasting in C2C12 myotubes. Our observations in male C57BL/6 mice suggest that glycine may represent a promising nutritional intervention for the attenuation of skeletal muscle wasting. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. 76 FR 8771 - Glycine From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Glycine From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... concerning the antidumping duty order on glycine from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that... China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a reasonably...

  3. 75 FR 62141 - Glycine From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on glycine from China. SUMMARY: The Commission... (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)) (the Act) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on glycine... March 29, 1995, the Department of Commerce (Commerce) issued an antidumping duty order on imports of...

  4. 21 CFR 172.812 - Glycine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.812 Glycine. The food additive glycine may be safely used for technological purposes in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The additive complies with...

  5. Conformational Structure of Tyrosine, Tyrosyl-Glycine, and Tyrosyl-Glycyl-Glycine by Double Resonance Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abo-Riziq, Ali; Grace, Louis; Crews, Bridgit; Callahan, Michael P,; van Mourik, Tanja; de Vries, Mattanjah S,

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the variation in conformation for the amino acid tyrosine (Y), alone and in the small peptides tyrosine-glycine (YC) and tyrosine-glycine-glycine (YGG), in the gas phase by using UV-UV and IR-UV double resonance spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. For tyrosine we found seven different conformations, for YG we found four different conformations, and for YGG we found three different conformations. As the peptides get larger, we observe fewer stable conformers, despite the increasing complexity and number of degrees of freedom. We find structural trends similar to those in phenylalanine-glycine glycine (FGG) and tryptophan-glycine-glycine (WGG)j however) the effect of dispersive forces in FGG for stabilizing a folded structure is replaced by that of hydrogen bonding in YGG.

  6. Conformational structure of tyrosine, tyrosyl-glycine, and tyrosyl-glycyl-glycine by double resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Abo-Riziq, Ali; Grace, Louis; Crews, Bridgit; Callahan, Michael P; van Mourik, Tanja; de Vries, Mattanjah S

    2011-06-16

    We investigated the variation in conformation for the amino acid tyrosine (Y), alone and in the small peptides tyrosine-glycine (YG) and tyrosine-glycine-glycine (YGG), in the gas phase by using UV-UV and IR-UV double resonance spectroscopy and density functional theory calculations. For tyrosine we found seven different conformations, for YG we found four different conformations, and for YGG we found three different conformations. As the peptides get larger, we observe fewer stable conformers, despite the increasing complexity and number of degrees of freedom. We find structural trends similar to those in phenylalanine-glycine-glycine (FGG) and tryptophan-glycine-glycine (WGG); however, the effect of dispersive forces in FGG for stabilizing a folded structure is replaced by that of hydrogen bonding in YGG. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. Glycine receptors and brain development

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Ariel; Nguyen, Laurent; Rigo, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are ligand-gated chloride ion channels that mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the spinal cord and the brainstem. There, they are mainly involved in motor control and pain perception in the adult. However, these receptors are also expressed in upper regions of the central nervous system, where they participate in different processes including synaptic neurotransmission. Moreover, GlyRs are present since early stages of brain development and might influence this process. Here, we discuss the current state of the art regarding GlyRs during embryonic and postnatal brain development in light of recent findings about the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control brain development. PMID:24155690

  8. Compounds of glycine with metal sulfates and thiosulfates: glycine cobalt sulfate pentahydrate, glycine sodium thiosulfate dihydrate and glycine potassium thiosulfate.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Michel; Bohatý, Ladislav

    2006-01-01

    In the crystal structures of the title compounds, hexaaquacobalt(II) tetraaquadiglycinatocobalt(II) bis(sulfate), [Co(H2O)6][Co(C2H5NO2)2(H2O)4](SO4)2, (I), poly[diaqua-mu3-glycinato-di-mu4-thiosulfato-tetrasodium(I)], [Na4(C2H5NO2)(S2O3)2(H2O)2]n, (II), and poly[mu2-glycinato-mu4-thiosulfato-dipotassium(I)], [K2(C2H5NO2)(S2O3)]n, (III), all atoms are located on general positions, except the Co atoms in (I), which are located on inversion centres. In (I), hydrogen bonds play an important role, while the alkali thiosulfate compounds are characterized by three-dimensional frameworks of polyhedra. Relations to other compounds of glycine and metal sulfates are commented on.

  9. Influence of Heterodera glycines on Interspecific and Intraspecific Competition Associated with Glycine max and Chenopodium album.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Bird, G W; Renner, K A

    1995-03-01

    The influence of Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode) on the interspecific and intraspecific competition associated with Glycine max (soybean) and Chenopodium album (common lambsquarters) was studied in 1988 and 1989 in three de Wit replacement series experiments in growth chambers and microplots. Glycine max was grown alone (1 plant/experimental unit), in intraspecific competition (2 plants/experimental unit), in interspecific competition with C. album, and in presence or absence of H. glycines. No significant effects of H. glycines and C. album on G. max growth were observed 14 days after planting. By 42 days after planting, both H. glycines and C. album had a negative (P = 0.05) influence on the growth of G. max. Relative crowding coefficients for G. max were lower and deviated (P = 0.05 and P = 0.001) from 1.0 in the presence of H. glycines, compared to that of C. album and early emerged C. album in the absence of the nematode, respectively. Glycine max, therefore, became less competitive than C. album. There was a trend that the presence of H. glycines decreased the competitiveness of G. max on measures of the aggressivity and relative mixture response. Heterodera glycines decreased the aggressivity of G. max (ca. 150-350%) and increased the relative effects of intraspecific interference on G. max (ca. 10-50%) and interspecific interference (ca. 60-350%) after 42 days of plant growth, compared with plants grown in the absence of H. glycines. No H. glycines x C. album interactions were detected. Observations showed that H. glycines and early emerged C. album inhibited the growth of G. max 5-13%, as measured by plant dry weight.

  10. Unique Immunogenic Proteins in Heterodera glycines Eggshells

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, M. J.; Schoelz, J. E.; Donald, P. A.; Niblack, T. L.

    1997-01-01

    Polyclonal antibodies were raised against Heterodera glycines eggshells to determine the feasibility of developing an immunoassay for H. glycines eggs. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed from anfisera collected 10 weeks after the initial injection. From serial dilutions of sonicated eggshells or whole eggs, a sensitivity of detection to 5 ng/ml sonicated eggshells or 1 egg of H. glycines was determined. The method of eggshell preparation had no effect on the antibodies produced; however, the antibodies cross-reacted with sonicated J2 of H. glycines and eggs of Meloidogyne incognita and H. schachtii. Most of the proteins in both life stages of H. glycines and eggs of M. incognita and H. schachtii had similar migration properties when separated on SDS-PAGE gels and stained with Coomassie blue. Western blot analysis, with antisera adsorbed with homogenized J2 of H. glycines, showed proteins that were specifically localized to eggshells of H. glycines. Monoclonal antibodies might provide a useful immunoassay where polyclonal antibodies lack sufficient specificity. PMID:19274159

  11. Biosynthesis and uptake of glycine betaine as cold-stress response to low temperature in fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yue; Wang, Qiyao; Gao, Xiating; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2017-01-01

    Fish pathogen Vibrio anguillarum, a mesophile bacterium, is usually found in estuarine and marine coastal ecosystems worldwide that pose a constant stress to local organism by its fluctuation in salinity as well as notable temperature change. Though V. anguillarum is able to proliferate while maintain its pathogenicity under low temperature (5-18°C), so far, coldadaption molecular mechanism of the bacteria is unknown. In this study, V. anguillarum was found possessing a putative glycine betaine synthesis system, which is encoded by betABI and synthesizes glycine betaine from its precursor choline. Furthermore, significant up-regulation of the bet gene at the transcriptional level was noted in log phase in response to cold-stress. Moreover, the accumulation of betaine glycine was only found appearing at low growth temperatures, suggesting that response regulation of both synthesis system and transporter system are cold-dependent. Furthermore, in-frame deletion mutation in the two putative ABC transporters and three putative BCCT family transporters associated with glycine betaine uptake could not block cellular accumulation of betaine glycine in V. anguillarum under coldstress, suggesting the redundant feature in V. anguillarum betaine transporter system. These findings confirmed that glycine betaine serves as an effective cold stress protectant and highlighted an underappreciated facet of the acclimatization of V. anguillarum to cold environments.

  12. The Infrared Spectrum of Matrix Isolated Aminoacetonitrile: A Precursor to the Amino Acid Glycine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Sandford, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    We present infrared (IR) spectral data from matrix isolation experiments and density functional theory calculations on the pre-biologically interesting molecule aminoacetonitrile, a precursor to glycine. We find that this nitrile has an unusually weak nitrile (C=N) stretch in the infrared, in contrast to expectations based on measurements and models of other nitriles under astrophysical conditions. The absence of an observable nitrile absorption feature in the infrared will make the IR search for this molecule considerably more difficult, and will raise estimates of upper limits on nitriles in interstellar and outer Solar System ices. This is also of relevance to assessing the formation routes of the amino acid glycine, since aminoacetonitrile is the putative precursor to glycine via the Strecker synthesis, the mechanism postulated to have produced the amino acids in meteorites.

  13. The Infrared Spectrum of Matrix Isolated Aminoacetonitrile: A Precursor to the Amino Acid Glycine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Sandford, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    We present infrared (IR) spectral data from matrix isolation experiments and density functional theory calculations on the pre-biologically interesting molecule aminoacetonitrile, a precursor to glycine. We find that this nitrile has an unusually weak nitrile (C=N) stretch in the infrared, in contrast to expectations based on measurements and models of other nitriles under astrophysical conditions. The absence of an observable nitrile absorption feature in the infrared will make the IR search for this molecule considerably more difficult, and will raise estimates of upper limits on nitriles in interstellar and outer Solar System ices. This is also of relevance to assessing the formation routes of the amino acid glycine, since aminoacetonitrile is the putative precursor to glycine via the Strecker synthesis, the mechanism postulated to have produced the amino acids in meteorites.

  14. Glycine receptor antibodies in PERM and related syndromes: characteristics, clinical features and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-González, Alexander; Leite, M. Isabel; Waters, Patrick; Woodhall, Mark; Coutinho, Ester; Balint, Bettina; Lang, Bethan; Pettingill, Philippa; Carr, Aisling; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Press, Raomand; Lunn, Michael P.; Lim, Ming; Maddison, Paul; Meinck, H.-M.; Vandenberghe, Wim

    2014-01-01

    The clinical associations of glycine receptor antibodies have not yet been described fully. We identified prospectively 52 antibody-positive patients and collated their clinical features, investigations and immunotherapy responses. Serum glycine receptor antibody endpoint titres ranged from 1:20 to 1:60 000. In 11 paired samples, serum levels were higher than (n = 10) or equal to (n = 1) cerebrospinal fluid levels; there was intrathecal synthesis of glycine receptor antibodies in each of the six pairs available for detailed study. Four patients also had high glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (>1000 U/ml), and one had high voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibody (2442 pM). Seven patients with very low titres (<1:50) and unknown or alternative diagnoses were excluded from further study. Three of the remaining 45 patients had newly-identified thymomas and one had a lymphoma. Thirty-three patients were classified as progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus, and two as stiff person syndrome; five had a limbic encephalitis or epileptic encephalopathy, two had brainstem features mainly, two had demyelinating optic neuropathies and one had an unclear diagnosis. Four patients (9%) died during the acute disease, but most showed marked improvement with immunotherapies. At most recent follow-up, (2–7 years, median 3 years, since first antibody detection), the median modified Rankin scale scores (excluding the four deaths) decreased from 5 at maximal severity to 1 (P < 0.0001), but relapses have occurred in five patients and a proportion are on reducing steroids or other maintenance immunotherapies as well as symptomatic treatments. The glycine receptor antibodies activated complement on glycine receptor-transfected human embryonic kidney cells at room temperature, and caused internalization and lysosomal degradation of the glycine receptors at 37°C. Immunoglobulin G antibodies bound to rodent spinal cord and brainstem co-localizing with

  15. Crystal structure, solvothermal synthesis, thermogravimetric studies and DFT calculations of a five-coordinate cobalt(II) compound based on the N,N-bis-(2-hy-droxy-eth-yl)glycine anion.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanling; Liu, Xianrong; Wang, Qijun; Wang, Lisheng; Song, Baoling

    2016-10-01

    The reaction of CoCl2·6H2O, N,N-bis-(2-hy-droxy-eth-yl)glycine and tri-ethyl-amine (Et3N) in ethanol solution under solvothermal conditions produced crystals of [N,N-bis-(2-hy-droxy-eth-yl)glycinato]chloridocobalt(II), [Co(C6H12NO4)Cl]. The Co(II) ion is coordinated in a slightly distorted trigonal-bipyramidal environment which is defined by three O atoms occupying the equatorial plane and the N and Cl atoms in the apical sites. In the crystal, two types of O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds connect the mol-ecules, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (001). The mol-ecular structure of the title compound confirms the findings of FTIR, elemental analysis, ESI-MS analysis and TG analysis. By using the density functional theory (DFT) (B3LYP) method with 6-31G(d) basis set, the molecular structure has been calculated and optimized.

  16. The glycine transport inhibitor sarcosine is an NMDA receptor co-agonist that differs from glycine

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai Xia; Hyrc, Krzysztof; Thio, Liu Lin

    2009-01-01

    Sarcosine is an amino acid involved in one-carbon metabolism and a promising therapy for schizophrenia because it enhances NMDA receptor (NMDAR) function by inhibiting glycine uptake. The structural similarity between sarcosine and glycine led us to hypothesize that sarcosine is also an agonist like glycine. We examined this possibility using whole-cell recordings from cultured embryonic mouse hippocampal neurons. We found that sarcosine is an NMDAR co-agonist at the glycine binding site. However, sarcosine differed from glycine because less NMDAR desensitization occurred with sarcosine than with glycine as the co-agonist. This finding led us to examine whether the physiological effects of NMDAR activation with these two co-agonists are the same. The difference in desensitization probably accounts for rises in intracellular Ca2+, as assessed by the fluorescent indicator fura-FF, being larger when NMDAR activation occurred with sarcosine than with glycine. In addition, Ca2+-activated K+ currents following NMDAR activation were larger with sarcosine than with glycine. Compared to glycine, NMDAR-mediated autaptic currents decayed faster with sarcosine suggesting that NMDAR deactivation also differs with these two co-agonists. Despite these differences, NMDAR-dependent neuronal death as assessed by propidium iodide was similar with both co-agonists. The same was true for neuronal bursting. Thus, sarcosine may enhance NMDAR function by more than one mechanism and may have different effects from other NMDAR co-agonists. PMID:19433577

  17. Interaction of Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines and Heterodera glycines in Sudden Death Syndrome of Soybean.

    PubMed

    Xing, Lijuan; Westphal, Andreas

    2006-07-01

    ABSTRACT Sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean is caused by the soilborne Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines (synonym F. virguliforme). In a sequential approach, two multifactor factorial-design microplot experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of fungal infestation levels and soil moisture on both root necrosis and foliar SDS severity, and the interaction between F. solani f. sp. glycines and Heterodera glycines in fumigated versus nonfumigated soil. In 2003, soybean cv. Spencer was grown in nonfumigated or methyl bromide-fumigated soil and infested with increasing levels of F. solani f. sp. glycines, either under rainfall or irrigated after growth stage V6/R1. In 2004, interactions between F. solani f. sp. glycines and H. glycines were explored in a factorial inoculation design in fumigated or nonfumigated soil, planted to Williams 82 or Cyst-X20-18. In both years, higher levels of foliar SDS severity and root necrosis were found in F. solani f. sp. glycines-infested soils with H. glycines than in soils without the nematode on the soybean cultivars susceptible to both pathogens. Both natural infestations of H. glycines in 2003 and artificially amended populations of H. glycines in 2004 contributed to higher foliar SDS severity. More severe foliar SDS symptoms always were associated with more root necrosis, but elevated levels of root necrosis did not predict severe leaf symptoms. In contrast to the critical role of H. glycines, increasing fungal infestation levels had no significant effects on increasing either foliar SDS symptoms or root necrosis. Effects of moisture regime and fungal infestation levels also were examined in factorial greenhouse and growth chamber experiments. High soil moisture resulted in higher levels of SDS root necrosis. In the greenhouse, root necrosis increased at a higher rate in low soil moisture than the rate in high soil moisture. The two pathogens acted as a complex and the disease development was strongly dependent on

  18. Metabolism of Primed, Constant Infusions of [1,2-13C2] Glycine and [1-13C1] Phenylalanine to Urinary Oxalate

    PubMed Central

    Knight, John; Assimos, Dean G.; Callahan, Michael F.; Holmes, Ross P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Experiments in humans and rodents using oral doses of glycine and phenylalanine have suggested that the metabolism of these amino acids contributes to urinary oxalate excretion. To better define this contribution we have examined the primed, constant infusion of [1-13C1] phenylalanine and [1,2-13C2] glycine in the post-absorptive state in healthy adults. Materials/Methods Subjects were infused for 5 hours, collected hourly urines and had blood drawn every 30 minutes. Ion chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to measure [13C] enrichment in urinary oxalate, glycolate and hippurate, and the enrichment of 13C-amino acids in plasma samples was measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results Following infusion with either 6 µmoles/kg/hr [1-13C1] phenylalanine or 6 µmoles/kg/hr [1,2-13C2] glycine, no isotopic glycolate or oxalate was detected in urine. Based on the limits of detection of our ion chromatography/mass spectroscopy method, these data indicate that < 0.7% of the urinary oxalate could be derived from phenylalanine catabolism and < 5% from glycine catabolism. Infusions with high levels of [1,2-13C2] glycine, 60 µmoles/kg/hr, increased mean plasma glycine by 29% and the whole body flux of glycine by 72%. Under these conditions glycine contributed 16.0 ± 1.6% and 16.6 ± 3.2% to urinary oxalate and glycolate excretion, respectively. Experiments using cultured hepatoma cells demonstrated that only at supra-physiological levels (>1mM) did glycine and phenylalanine metabolism increase oxalate synthesis. Conclusions These data suggest glycine and phenylalanine metabolism make only minor contributions to oxalate synthesis and urinary oxalate excretion. PMID:21036374

  19. Changes in Heterodera glycines Egg Population Density in Continuous Glycine max over Four Years

    PubMed Central

    Donald, P. A.; Donald, W. W.; Keaster, A. J.; Kremer, R. J.; Kendig, J. A.; Sims, B. S.; Mihail, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, is found throughout soybean production areas of the United States, but the nematode's distribution is not uniform within states, counties, and individual fields. The goal of this research was to determine the spatial pattern of H. glycines population density in a field in southeastern Missouri and whether it changed over time in the absence of management practices. Geostatistical methods were used to describe and map the distribution of H. glycines over 4 years in a soybean (Glycine max) field in southeastern Missouri. Semivariograms and kriging, an interpolation method, were used to prepare isoarithmic contour maps and associated error maps. In the field studied, fall H. glycines population density (Pf) was poorly related to density the following spring (Pi). The distribution of peak H. glycines population density within the field changed from year to year, although high densities were often detected in the same general region of the field. The patchiness of H. glycines distribution within a field was verified. Yield was not related to H. glycines egg population density at planting, indicating that unmeasured variables were also reducing yield. PMID:19270874

  20. Organic foliar Milstop shows efficacy against soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) on soybean (Glycine max)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) has been produced in the United States since 1765. Soybean aphids (Aphis glycines Matsumura) were first detected on soybean in the United States in 2000 and now cause an estimated yield loss of up to US$4.9 billion annually. Organic soybean producers have few insecti...

  1. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2017-06-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  2. Glycine Polymerization on Oxide Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitadai, Norio; Oonishi, Hiroyuki; Umemoto, Koichiro; Usui, Tomohiro; Fukushi, Keisuke; Nakashima, Satoru

    2016-07-01

    It has long been suggested that mineral surfaces played an important role in peptide bond formation on the primitive Earth. However, it remains unclear which mineral species was key to the prebiotic processes. This is because great discrepancies exist among the reported catalytic efficiencies of minerals for amino acid polymerizations, owing to mutually different experimental conditions. This study examined polymerization of glycine (Gly) on nine oxide minerals (amorphous silica, quartz, α-alumina and γ-alumina, anatase, rutile, hematite, magnetite, and forsterite) using identical preparation, heating, and analytical procedures. Results showed that a rutile surface is the most effective site for Gly polymerization in terms of both amounts and lengths of Gly polymers synthesized. The catalytic efficiency decreased as rutile > anatase > γ-alumina > forsterite > α- alumina > magnetite > hematite > quartz > amorphous silica. Based on reported molecular-level information for adsorption of Gly on these minerals, polymerization activation was inferred to have arisen from deprotonation of the NH3 + group of adsorbed Gly to the nucleophilic NH2 group, and from withdrawal of electron density from the carboxyl carbon to the surface metal ions. The orientation of adsorbed Gly on minerals is also a factor influencing the Gly reactivity. The examination of Gly-mineral interactions under identical experimental conditions has enabled the direct comparison of various minerals' catalytic efficiencies and has made discussion of polymerization mechanisms and their relative influences possible Further systematic investigations using the approach reported herein (which are expected to be fruitful) combined with future microscopic surface analyses will elucidate the role of minerals in the process of abiotic peptide bond formation.

  3. Glycine oxidase based high-throughput solid-phase assay for substrate profiling and directed evolution of (R)- and (S)-selective amine transaminases.

    PubMed

    Weiß, Martin S; Pavlidis, Ioannis V; Vickers, Clare; Höhne, Matthias; Bornscheuer, Uwe T

    2014-12-02

    Transaminases represent one of the most important enzymes of the biocatalytic toolbox for chiral amine synthesis as they allow asymmetric synthesis with quantitative yields and high enantioselectivity. In order to enable substrate profiling of transaminases for acceptance of different amines, a glycine oxidase and horseradish peroxidase coupled assay was developed. Transaminase activity is detected upon transfer of an amine group from an amino donor substrate to glyoxylate, generating glycine, which is subsequently oxidized by glycine oxidase, releasing hydrogen peroxide in turn. Horseradish peroxidase uses the hydrogen peroxide to produce benzoquinone, which forms a red quinone imine dye by a subsequent condensation reaction. As glycine does not carry a chiral center, both (R)- and (S)-selective transaminases accepting glyoxylate as amino acceptor are amenable to screening. The principle has been transferred to establish a high-throughput solid-phase assay which dramatically decreases the screening effort in directed evolution of transaminases, as only active variants are selected for further analysis.

  4. Glycine metabolism by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: hydrogen cyanide biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Castric, P A

    1977-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a synthetic medium is stimulated by the presence of glycine. Methionine enhances this stimulation but will not substitute for glycine as a stimulator of cyanogenesis. Threonine and phenylalanine are effective substitutes for glycine in the stimulation of HCN production. Glycine, threonine, and serine are good radioisotope precursors of HCN, but methionine and phenylalanine are not. Cell extracts of P. aeruginosa convert [14C]threonine to [14C]glycine. H14CN is produced with low dilution of label from either [1-14C]glycine or [2-14C]glycine, indicating a randomization of label either in the primary or secondary metabolism of glycine. When whole cells were fed [1,2-14C]glycine, cyanide and bicarbonate were the only radioactive extracellular products observed. PMID:233722

  5. Three transport systems for the osmoprotectant glycine betaine operate in Bacillus subtilis: characterization of OpuD.

    PubMed Central

    Kappes, R M; Kempf, B; Bremer, E

    1996-01-01

    The accumulation of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine from exogenous sources provides a high degree of osmotic tolerance to Bacillus subtilis. We have identified, through functional complementation of an Escherichia coli mutant defective in glycine betaine uptake, a new glycine betaine transport system from B. subtilis. The DNA sequence of a 2,310-bp segment of the cloned region revealed a single gene (opuD) whose product (OpuD) was essential for glycine betaine uptake and osmoprotection in E. coli. The opuD gene encodes a hydrophobic 56.13-kDa protein (512 amino acid residues). OpuD shows a significant degree of sequence identity to the choline transporter BetT and the carnitine transporter CaiT from E. coli and a BetT-like protein from Haemophilus influenzae. These membrane proteins form a family of transporters involved in the uptake of trimethylammonium compounds. The OpuD-mediated glycine betaine transport activity in B. subtilis is controlled by the environmental osmolarity. High osmolarity stimulates de novo synthesis of OpuD and activates preexisting OpuD proteins to achieve maximal glycine betaine uptake activity. An opuD mutant was constructed by marker replacement, and the OpuD-mediated glycine betaine uptake activity was compared with that of the previously identified multicomponent OpuA and OpuC (ProU) glycine betaine uptake systems. In addition, a set of mutants was constructed, each of which synthesized only one of the three glycine betaine uptake systems. These mutants were used to determine the kinetic parameters for glycine betaine transport through OpuA, OpuC, and OpuD. Each of these uptake systems shows high substrate affinity, with Km values in the low micromolar range, which should allow B. subtilis to efficiently acquire the osmoprotectant from the environment. The systems differed in their contribution to the overall glycine betaine accumulation and osmoprotection. A triple opuA, opuC, and opuD mutant strain was isolated, and it showed no

  6. Synthesis and structural characterization of ternary Cu (II) complexes of glycine with 2,2'-bipyridine and 2,2'-dipyridylamine. The DNA-binding studies and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mervat S; Shoukry, Azza A; Ali, Ayat G

    2012-02-01

    In this study two new complexes [Cu(bpy)(Gly)Cl]·2H(2)O (1) and [Cu(dpa)(Gly)Cl]·2H(2)O (2) (bpy=2,2'-bipyridine; dpa=2,2'-dipyridylamine, Gly=glycine) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TGA, UV-vis and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The binding properties of the complexes with CT-DNA were investigated by electronic absorption spectra. The intrinsic binding constants (K(b)) calculated from UV-vis absorption studies were 1.84 × 10(3) M(-1) and 3.1 × 10(3) M(-1) for complexes 1 and 2 respectively. Thermal denaturation has been systematically studied by spectrophotometric method and the calculated ΔT(m) was nearly 5 °C for each complex. All the results suggest that the interaction modes between the complexes and CT-DNA were electrostatic and/or groove binding. The redox behavior of the two complexes was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Both complexes, in presence and absence of CT-DNA show a quasi-reversible wave corresponding to Cu(II)/Cu(I) redox couple. The change in E(1/2), ΔE and I(pc)/I(pa) ascertain the interaction of complexes 1 and 2 with CT-DNA. Further insight into the binding of complexes with CT-DNA has been made by gel electrophoresis, where the binding of complexes is confirmed through decreasing the mobility and intensity of DNA bands. In addition, the antitumor activity of the complexes was tested on two cancer cell lines; the breast cancer (MCF7) and the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2), as well as one normal cell line; the human normal melanocytes (HFB4). The results showed that complex 1 was more potent antitumor agent than complex 2. The in-vitro antimicrobial activity of the two complexes was carried out using the disc diffusion method against different species of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The activity data showed that complex 2 was more active in inhibiting the growth of the tested organisms.

  7. Synthesis and structural characterization of ternary Cu (II) complexes of glycine with 2,2'-bipyridine and 2,2'-dipyridylamine. The DNA-binding studies and biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Mervat S.; Shoukry, Azza A.; Ali, Ayat G.

    2012-02-01

    In this study two new complexes [Cu(bpy)(Gly)Cl]·2H 2O ( 1) and [Cu(dpa)(Gly)Cl]·2H 2O ( 2) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine; dpa = 2,2'-dipyridylamine, Gly = glycine) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TGA, UV-vis and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The binding properties of the complexes with CT-DNA were investigated by electronic absorption spectra. The intrinsic binding constants ( Kb) calculated from UV-vis absorption studies were 1.84 × 10 3 M -1 and 3.1 × 10 3 M -1 for complexes 1 and 2 respectively. Thermal denaturation has been systematically studied by spectrophotometric method and the calculated Δ Tm was nearly 5 °C for each complex. All the results suggest that the interaction modes between the complexes and CT-DNA were electrostatic and/or groove binding. The redox behavior of the two complexes was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Both complexes, in presence and absence of CT-DNA show a quasi-reversible wave corresponding to Cu II/Cu I redox couple. The change in E1/2, Δ E and Ipc/ Ipa ascertain the interaction of complexes 1 and 2 with CT-DNA. Further insight into the binding of complexes with CT-DNA has been made by gel electrophoresis, where the binding of complexes is confirmed through decreasing the mobility and intensity of DNA bands. In addition, the antitumor activity of the complexes was tested on two cancer cell lines; the breast cancer (MCF7) and the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2), as well as one normal cell line; the human normal melanocytes (HFB4). The results showed that complex 1 was more potent antitumor agent than complex 2. The in-vitro antimicrobial activity of the two complexes was carried out using the disc diffusion method against different species of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The activity data showed that complex 2 was more active in inhibiting the growth of the tested organisms.

  8. GcsR, a TyrR-Like Enhancer-Binding Protein, Regulates Expression of the Glycine Cleavage System in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Sarwar, Zaara; Lundgren, Benjamin R.; Grassa, Michael T.; Wang, Michael X.; Gribble, Megan; Moffat, Jennifer F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glycine serves as a major source of single carbon units for biochemical reactions within bacterial cells. Utilization of glycine is tightly regulated and revolves around a key group of proteins known as the glycine cleavage system (GCS). Our lab previously identified the transcriptional regulator GcsR (PA2449) as being required for catabolism of glycine in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. In an effort to clarify and have an overall better understanding of the role of GcsR in glycine metabolism, a combination of transcriptome sequencing and electrophoretic mobility shift assays was used to identify target genes of this transcriptional regulator. It was found that GcsR binds to an 18-bp consensus sequence (TGTAACG-N4-CGTTCCG) upstream of the gcs2 operon, consisting of the gcvH2, gcvP2, glyA2, sdaA, and gcvT2 genes. The proteins encoded by these genes, namely, the GCS (GcvH2-GcvP2-GcvT2), serine hydroxymethyltransferase (GlyA2), and serine dehydratase (SdaA), form a metabolic pathway for the conversion of glycine into pyruvate, which can enter the central metabolism. GcsR activates transcription of the gcs2 operon in response to glycine. Interestingly, GcsR belongs to a family of transcriptional regulators known as TyrR-like enhancer-binding proteins (EBPs). Until this study, TyrR-like EBPs were only known to function in regulating aromatic amino acid metabolism. GcsR is the founding member of a new class of TyrR-like EBPs that function in the regulation of glycine metabolism. Indeed, homologs of GcsR and its target genes are present in almost all sequenced genomes of the Pseudomonadales order, suggesting that this genetic regulatory mechanism is a common theme for pseudomonads. IMPORTANCE Glycine is required for various cellular functions, including cell wall synthesis, protein synthesis, and the biosynthesis of several important metabolites. Regulating levels of glycine metabolism allows P. aeruginosa to maintain the metabolic flux

  9. Comparative metabolomics in Glycine max and Glycine soja under salt stress to reveal the phenotypes of their offspring.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonghai; Lam, Honming; Pi, Erxu; Zhan, Qinglei; Tsai, Sauna; Wang, Chunmei; Kwan, Yiuwa; Ngai, Saiming

    2013-09-11

    Metabolomics is developing as an important functional genomics tool for understanding plant systems' response to genetic and environmental changes. Here, we characterized the metabolic changes of cultivated soybean C08 (Glycine max L. Merr) and wild soybean W05 (Glycine soja Sieb.et Zucc.) under salt stress using MS-based metabolomics, in order to reveal the phenotypes of their eight hybrid offspring (9H0086, 9H0124, 9H0391, 9H0736, 9H0380, 9H0400, 9H0434, and 9H0590). Total small molecule extracts of soybean seedling leaves were profiled by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry (LC-FT/MS). We found that wild soybean contained higher amounts of disaccharides, sugar alcohols, and acetylated amino acids than cultivated soybean, but with lower amounts of monosaccharides, carboxylic acids, and unsaturated fatty acids. Further investigations demonstrated that the ability of soybean to tolerate salt was mainly based on synthesis of compatible solutes, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers, cell membrane modifications, and induction of plant hormones. On the basis of metabolic phenotype, the salt-tolerance abilities of 9H0086, 9H0124, 9H0391, 9H0736, 9H0380, 9H0400, 9H0434, and 9H0590 were discriminated. Our results demonstrated that MS-based metabolomics provides a fast and powerful approach to discriminate the salt-tolerance characteristics of soybeans.

  10. A Rigorous Attempt to Verify Interstellar Glycine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, L. E.; Lovas, F. J.; Hollis, J. M.; Friedel, D. N.; Jewell, P. R.; Remijan, A.; Ilyushin, V. V.; Alekseev, E. A.; Dyubko, S. F.

    2004-01-01

    In 2003, Kuan, Charnley, and co-workers reported the detection of interstellar glycine (NH2CH2COOH) based on observations of 27 lines in 19 different spectral bands in one or more of the sources Sgr BP(N-LMH), Orion KL, and W51 e1/e2. They supported their detection report with rotational temperature diagrams for all three sources. In this paper, we present essential criteria which can be used in a straightforward analysis technique to confirm the identity of an interstellar asymmetric rotor such as glycine. We use new laboratory measurements of glycine as a basis for applying this analysis technique, both to our previously unpublished 12 m telescope data and to the previously published SEST data of Nummelin and colleagues. We conclude that key lines necessary for an interstellar glycine identification have not yet been found. We identify several common molecular candidates that should be examined further as more likely carriers of the lines reported as glycine. Finally, we illustrate that rotational temperature diagrams used without the support of correct spectroscopic assignments are not a reliable tool for the identification of interstellar molecules. Subject headings: ISM: abundances - ISM: clouds - ISM: individual (Sagittarius B2[N-

  11. Surface properties of aqueous amino acid solutions. I. Surface tension of hydrochloric acid-glycine and glycine-sodium hydroxide systems.

    PubMed

    Matubayasi, Norihiro; Namihira, Junji; Yoshida, Masao

    2003-11-01

    The surface tensions of aqueous solutions of four mixtures (hydrochloric acid-glycine hydrochloride, glycine hydrochloride-glycine, glycine-sodium glycinate, and sodium glycinate-sodium hydroxide) were measured as a function of total molality and mole fraction. The measurements correspond to the change in surface tension with variation of pH. The contribution of glycine hydrochloride to the increments in surface tension is equivalent to that observed for the aqueous solution of glycine, while the contribution of sodium glycinate is much larger than that of glycine. The variations in surface tension on mixing in the surface region are discussed using comparisons with mixtures of simple salts.

  12. The N-methyl D-aspartate receptor glycine site and D-serine metabolism: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Schell, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    The N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) type of glutamate receptor requires two distinct agonists to operate. Glycine is assumed to be the endogenous ligand for the NMDA receptor glycine site, but this notion has been challenged by the discovery of high levels of endogenous d-serine in the mammalian forebrain. I have outlined an evolutionary framework for the appearance of a glycine site in animals and the metabolic events leading to high levels of D-serine in brain. Sequence alignments of the glycine-binding regions, along with the scant experimental data available, suggest that the properties of invertebrate NMDA receptor glycine sites are probably different from those in vertebrates. The synthesis of D-serine in brain is due to a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (B(6))-requiring serine racemase in glia. Although it remains unknown when serine racemase first evolved, data concerning the evolution of B(6) enzymes, along with the known occurrences of serine racemases in animals, point to D-serine synthesis arising around the divergence time of arthropods. D-Serine catabolism occurs via the ancient peroxisomal enzyme d-amino acid oxidase (DAO), whose ontogenetic expression in the hindbrain of mammals is delayed until the postnatal period and absent from the forebrain. The phylogeny of D-serine metabolism has relevance to our understanding of brain ontogeny, schizophrenia and neurotransmitter dynamics. PMID:15306409

  13. Antidepressants modulate glycine action in rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Khae Hawn; Kang, Ki-Woon; Kang, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Tae-Wook; Park, Hun-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Antidepressants are drugs that relieve symptoms of depressive disorders. Fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran are different types of antidepressants, and they have widely been used for relieving of depression symptoms. In the present study, the effects of fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran on the glycine-induced ion current by nystatin-perforated patch clamp and on the amplitude of field potential in the hippocampal CA1 region by multichannel extracellular recording, MED64, system, were studied. In the present results, fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran reduced glycine-induced ion current in the hippocampal CA1 neurons in nystatin-perforated patch clamp method. These drugs enhanced the amplitude of the field potential in the hippocampal CA1 region in MED64 system. These results suggest that antidepressants may increase neuronal activity by enhancing field potential through inhibition on glycine-induced ion current. PMID:26730381

  14. Antidepressants modulate glycine action in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Khae Hawn; Kang, Ki-Woon; Kang, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Tae-Wook; Park, Hun-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Eun; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2015-12-01

    Antidepressants are drugs that relieve symptoms of depressive disorders. Fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran are different types of antidepressants, and they have widely been used for relieving of depression symptoms. In the present study, the effects of fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran on the glycine-induced ion current by nystatin-perforated patch clamp and on the amplitude of field potential in the hippocampal CA1 region by multichannel extracellular recording, MED64, system, were studied. In the present results, fluoxetine, tianeptine, and milnacipran reduced glycine-induced ion current in the hippocampal CA1 neurons in nystatin-perforated patch clamp method. These drugs enhanced the amplitude of the field potential in the hippocampal CA1 region in MED64 system. These results suggest that antidepressants may increase neuronal activity by enhancing field potential through inhibition on glycine-induced ion current.

  15. Mechanisms of glycine release, which build up synaptic and extrasynaptic glycine levels: the role of synaptic and non-synaptic glycine transporters.

    PubMed

    Harsing, Laszlo G; Matyus, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Glycine is an amino acid neurotransmitter that is involved in both inhibitory and excitatory neurochemical transmission in the central nervous system. The role of glycine in excitatory neurotransmission is related to its coagonist action at glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. The glycine levels in the synaptic cleft rise many times higher during synaptic activation assuring that glycine spills over into the extrasynaptic space. Another possible origin of extrasynaptic glycine is the efflux of glycine occurring from astrocytes associated with glutamatergic synapses. The release of glycine from neuronal or glial origins exhibits several differences compared to that of biogenic amines or other amino acid neurotransmitters. These differences appear in an external Ca(2+)- and temperature-dependent manner, conferring unique characteristics on glycine as a neurotransmitter. Glycine transporter type-1 at synapses may exhibit neural and glial forms and plays a role in controlling synaptic glycine levels and the spill over rate of glycine from the synaptic cleft into the extrasynaptic biophase. Non-synaptic glycine transporter type-1 regulates extrasynaptic glycine concentrations, either increasing or decreasing them depending on the reverse or normal mode operation of the carrier molecule. While we can, at best, only estimate synaptic glycine levels at rest and during synaptic activation, glycine concentrations are readily measurable via brain microdialysis technique applied in the extrasynaptic space. The non-synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor may obtain glycine for activation following its spill over from highly active synapses or from its release mediated by the reverse operation of non-synaptic glycine transporter-1. The sensitivity of non-synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors to glutamate and glycine is many times higher than that of synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors making the former type of receptor the primary target for drug action. Synaptic

  16. Anticoagulant Effects of Heparin Complexes with Prolyl-Glycine Peptide and Glycine and Proline Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Grigorieva, M E; Obergan, T Yu; Maystrenko, E S; Kalugina, M D

    2016-05-01

    The study demonstrates the formation of heparin complexes with prolyl-glycine peptide and proline and glycine amino acids. The method was developed for in vitro production of these complexes at 1:1 dipeptide to heparin molar ratio and 2:1 amino acid to heparin molar ratio. These complexes, unlike the constituents, proline and glycine, exhibited significant anticoagulant, antiplatelet, and fibrin-depolymerization activities of varying degree in vitro and in vivo. The heparin-dipeptide complex produced maximum effect. The dipeptide by itself also showed anticoagulant properties, but less pronounced than in the complex with heparin.

  17. Regulation of the glycine cleavage system in rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Hampson, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    Catabolism of glycine, via the glycine cleavage system was investigated in isolated, fully functional, rat liver mitochondria, and the isolated perfused rat liver. Metabolic flux through the glycine cleavage system, which catalyzes the tetrahydrofolate-dependent cleavage of glycine yielding carbon dioxide, ammonia, N/sup 5/,N/sup 10/-methylenetetrahydrofolate, and NADH + H/sup +/, was monitored by measuring the production of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from (1-/sup 14/C)glycine. The glycine cleavage system was demonstrated to be responsible for nearly all /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from (1-/sup 14/C)glycine in both isolated mitochondria and the perfused rat liver. Glycine decarboxylation by rat liver mitochondria was highly sensitive to the metabolic state in which the mitochondria were maintained. Production of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from (1-/sup 14/C)glycine was stimulated in State 3 over State 4 and was maximal in the uncoupled state. Alternatively, respiratory inhibitors, such as rotenone, and reducing substrates, inhibited mitochondrial glycine decarboxylation strongly. Propionate stimulated glycine decarboxylation by rat liver mitochondria with a concomitant decrease in the measured intramitochondrial NADPH content. Incubation of mitochondria with propionate evoked a large decrease in the measured intramitochondrial ATP content and a large increase in AMP content. Manipulation of the intramitochondrial adenine nucleotide profile demonstrated that no direct correlation existed between rates of mitochondrial glycine decarboxylation and the intramitochondrial content of either ATP, ADP, or AMP.

  18. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor. See...

  19. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor. See...

  20. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor. See...

  1. 21 CFR 520.550 - Glucose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glucose/glycine/electrolyte. 520.550 Section 520...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Glucose/glycine..., potassium citrate 0.12 gram, aminoacetic acid (glycine) 6.36 grams, and glucose 44.0 grams. (b) Sponsor. See...

  2. Engineering and characterization of fluorogenic glycine riboswitches

    PubMed Central

    Ketterer, Simon; Gladis, Lukas; Kozica, Adnan; Meier, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    A set of 12 fluorogenic glycine riboswitches with different thermodynamic and kinetic response properties was engineered. For the design of functional riboswitches, a three-part RNA approach was applied based on the idea of linking a RNA sensor, transmitter and actuator part together. For the RNA sensor and actuator part, we used the tandem glycine aptamer structure from Bacillus subtillis, and fluorogenic aptamer Spinach, respectively. To achieve optimal signal transduction from the sensor to the actuator, a riboswitch library with variable transmitter was screened with a microfluidic large-scale integration chip. This allowed us to establish the complete thermodynamic binding profiles of the riboswitch library. Glycine dissociation constants of the 12 strong fluorescence response riboswitches varied between 99.7 and 570 μM. Furthermore, the kinetic glycine binding (kon), and dissociation (koff) rates, and corresponding energy barriers of the 10 strongest fluorescence response riboswitches were determined with the same chip platform. kon and koff were in the order of 10−3s−1 and 10−2s−1, respectively. Conclusively, we demonstrate that systematic screening of synthetic and natural linked RNA parts with microfluidic chip technology is an effective approach to rapidly generate fluorogenic metabolite riboswitches with a broad range of biophysical response properties. PMID:27220466

  3. Identification of Rotylenchulus reniformis resistant Glycine lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Identification of resistance to reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is the first step in developing resistant soybean (Glycine max) cultivars that will benefit growers in the Mid South. This study was conducted to identify soybean (G. max and G. soja) lines with resistance to this pathogen....

  4. GABA and glycine actions on spinal motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Krnjević, K; Puil, E; Werman, R

    1977-06-01

    Applied microiontophoretically in the spinal cord of cats, glycine is consistently more powerful than gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in raising the membrane conductance of lumbosacral motoneurons (mean ratio of equipotent iontophoretic currents tested on same cells is 5.6:1). This is the reverse of the situation in cerebral cortex. The effect of glycine is well maintained during applications lasting about 1 min, but that of GABA, after an early peak, drops to a much lower plateau (mean plateau-over-peak ratio is 0.23). The reversal potentials for the action of GABA and glycine are initially similar but they behave differently during a prolonged application; that for glycine usually remains constant or becomes more negative whereas that for GABA tends to shift in the positive direction. Various explanations of these phenomena are considered. It is suggested that a single process, electrogenic uptake of GABA, may account for both desensitization (by removing GABA from its site of action) and the positive shift in GABA reversal potential (became uptake is probably associated with an influx of Na+).

  5. A Novel Glycinate-based Body Wash

    PubMed Central

    Regan, Jamie; Ananthapadmanabhan, K.P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the properties of a novel body wash containing the mild surfactant glycinate. Design: Biochemical and clinical assays. Setting: Research laboratories and clinical sites in the United States and Canada. Participants: Women 18 to 65 years of age (cleansing efficacy); male and female subjects 26 to 63 years of age with mild or moderate dryness and erythema (leg-controlled application test); subjects 5 to 65 years of age with mild-to-moderate eczema (eczema compatibility); and women 18 to 64 years of age (home use). Measurements: Assessments across studies included colorimetric dye exclusion to assess skin damage potential (corneosurfametry), efficacy of cosmetic product removal from skin, change from baseline in visual dryness, change from baseline in Eczema Area and Severity Index, and self-perceived eczema attributes and self-reported product preference. Results: The glycinate-based cleanser demonstrated mildness to skin components when evaluated in a corneosurfametry assay. Short-term use under exaggerated wash conditions in subjects with dryness scores <3 and erythema scores <2 (both on a 0-6 scale) indicated an initial reduction in visual dryness. In subjects with eczema, normal use resulted in significant improvements (p<0.05) at Week 4 compared with baseline in skin dryness (change from baseline = −0.73), rash (−0.56), itch (−0.927), tightness (−0.585), and all eczema (−0.756). The glycinate-based body wash removed 56 percent of a long-lasting cosmetic foundation from skin compared with less than 30 percent removed by two competitive products tested. The glycinate-based body wash was preferred over a competitive mild cleansing product overall. Conclusion: The patented glycinate-containing body wash demonstrated better product mildness and patient-preferred attributes and clinical benefits. PMID:23882306

  6. Oral glycine administration increases brain glycine/creatine ratios in men: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Marc J.; Prescot, Andrew P.; Ongur, Dost; Evins, A. Eden; Barros, Tanya L.; Medeiros, Carissa L.; Covell, Julie; Wang, Liqun; Fava, Maurizio; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2009-01-01

    Oral high-dose glycine administration has been used as an adjuvant treatment for schizophrenia to enhance glutamate neurotransmission and mitigate glutamate system hypofunction thought to contribute to the disorder. Prior studies in schizophrenia subjects documented clinical improvements after 2 weeks of oral glycine administration, suggesting that brain glycine levels are sufficiently elevated to evoke a clinical response within that time frame. However, no human study has reported on brain glycine changes induced by its administration. We utilized a noninvasive proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) technique termed echo time-averaged (TEAV) 1H-MRS, which permits noninvasive quantification of brain glycine in vivo, to determine whether 2 weeks of oral glycine administration (peak dose of 0.8g/kg/day) increased brain glycine/creatine (Gly/Cr) ratios in 11 healthy adult men. In scans obtained 17 hours after the last glycine dose, brain (Gly/Cr) ratios were significantly increased. The data indicate that it is possible to measure brain glycine changes with proton spectroscopy. Developing a more comprehensive understanding of human brain glycine dynamics may lead to optimized use of glycine site agonists and glycine transporter inhibitors to treat schizophrenia, and possibly to treat other disorders associated with glutamate system dysfunction. PMID:19556112

  7. A novel glycine receptor alpha Z1 subunit variant in the zebrafish brain.

    PubMed

    Devignot, V; Prado de Carvalho, L; Bregestovski, P; Goblet, C

    2003-01-01

    Alpha subunits of the inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR) display genetic heterogeneity in mammals and zebrafish. This diversity is increased in mammals by the alternative splicing mechanism. We report here in zebrafish, the characterization of a new alphaZ1 subunit likely arising from alphaZ1 gene by an alternative splice process (alphaZ1L). This novel cDNA possesses 45 supplementary nucleotides at the putative exon2/exon3 boundary. The corresponding protein contains 15 additional amino acids in the NH2-terminal domain. Heterologous expression of homomeric GlyRalphaZ1L in human embryonic kidney-293 cells generates glycine-gated strychnine-sensitive chloride channels with no obvious discrepancy with pharmacological properties of GlyRalphaZ1. Moreover, zinc modulation of glycine-induced currents is identical in alphaZ1 and alphaZ1L glycine receptors. During ontogenesis, simultaneous alphaZ1 and alphaZ1L mRNA synthesis have been observed. Embryonic and adult alphaZ1 and alphaZ1L mRNA expressions are restricted to the CNS. Embryonic alphaZ1L mRNA anatomical pattern of expression is, however, highly restrained and strictly limited to the rostral part of the brain revealing a highly regionalized function of alphaZ1L in the CNS. This report contributes to the characterization of the diversity of glycine receptor isoforms in zebrafish and emphasizes the common mechanism used among vertebrates for creating GlyR variety and specificity.

  8. Regulation of neurosteroid allopregnanolone biosynthesis in the rat spinal cord by glycine and the alkaloidal analogs strychnine and gelsemine.

    PubMed

    Venard, C; Boujedaini, N; Belon, P; Mensah-Nyagan, A G; Patte-Mensah, C

    2008-04-22

    The neurosteroid allopregnanolone (3alpha,5alpha-THP) is well characterized as a potentially therapeutic molecule which exerts important neurobiological actions including neuroprotective, antidepressant, anxiolytic, anesthetic and analgesic effects. We have recently observed that neurons and glial cells of the rat spinal cord (SC) contain various key steroidogenic enzymes such as 5alpha-reductase and 3alpha-hydroxysteroid oxido-reductase which are crucial for 3alpha,5alpha-THP biosynthesis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the rat SC actively produces 3alpha,5alpha-THP. As the key factors regulating neurosteroid production by nerve cells are unknown and because glycine is one of the pivotal inhibitory neurotransmitters in the SC, we investigated glycine effects on 3alpha,5alpha-THP biosynthesis in the rat SC. Glycine markedly stimulated [(3)H]-progesterone conversion into [(3)H]3alpha,5alpha-THP by SC slices. The alkaloid strychnine, well-known as a glycine receptor (Gly-R) antagonist, blocked glycine stimulatory effect on 3alpha,5alpha-THP formation. Gelsemine, another alkaloid containing the same functional groups as strychnine, increased 3alpha,5alpha-THP synthesis. The stimulatory effects of glycine and gelsemine on 3alpha,5alpha-THP production were additive when the two drugs were combined. These results demonstrate that glycine and gelsemine, acting via Gly-R, upregulate 3alpha,5alpha-THP biosynthesis in the SC. The data also revealed a structure-activity relationship of the analogs strychnine and gelsemine on neurosteroidogenesis. Possibilities are opened for glycinergic agents and gelsemine utilization to stimulate selectively 3alpha,5alpha-THP biosynthetic pathways in diseases evoked by a decreased neurosteroidogenic activity of nerve cells.

  9. The molecular structure, geometry, stability, thermal and fundamental modes of vibration of glycine dimer by DFT methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishor Kumar, J.; Gunasekaran, S.; Loganathan, S.; Anand, G.; Kumaresan, S.

    2013-11-01

    Glycine is an important amino acid for building up protein synthesis. Single crystal of glycine dimer was grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation method. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the crystalline nature of grown crystal. It is interesting to study the molecular structure of a dimer, having well-defined channels formed through amphoterism bonding between Csbnd O⋯H bonds with split-valence basis sets, and the conformer is mirror symmetrical, in which the protonated organic cation plays a significant role to have a dimer pattern. Amphiprotic molecules, like dimeric glycine which can either donate or accept a proton (H+) from each other. Optical absorption study reveals that the transparency of the crystal in the entire visible region and the cutoff wavelength was found to be 235 nm. Powder SHG test and thermogravimetric analysis shows glycine dimer crystal is optically active and thermally stable. The molecular structure, geometry, stability and theoretical vibrational spectra were calculated for glycine as a monomer and as a dimer linked by the amphoterism hydrogen bonding. The theoretical studies were performed using the B3LYP density functional method with the 6-311G (d,p) basis set. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been made on the basis of normal coordinate analysis.

  10. Structure of Glycine Dihyrate: Its Implications to Crystallization of Glycine from Solution and Modification of Clycine in Space

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Wenqian; Zhu, Qiang; Hu, Chunhua

    2017-01-01

    Glycine, the simplest amino acid, is also the most polymorphous. Herein, we report the structure determination of an unknown phase of glycine which was firstly reported by Pyne and Suryanarayanan in 2001. To date, the new phase has only been prepared at 208 K as nanocrystals within ice. Through computational crystal structure prediction and powder X-ray diffraction methods, we identified this elusive phase as glycine dihydrate (GDH), representing a first report on a hydrated glycine structure. The structure of GDH has important implications for the state of glycine in aqueous solution, and the mechanisms of glycine crystallization. GDH may also be the form of glycine that comes to Earth from extraterrestrial sources.

  11. Compositions containing poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Paul J.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Robinson, Nigel J.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Furlong, Clement

    1992-01-01

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  12. Compositions containing poly ([gamma]glutamylcysteinyl)glycines

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, P.J.; Delhaize, E.; Robinson, N.J.; Unkefer, C.J.; Furlong, C.

    1992-02-18

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting the removal, and the apparatus used in effecting the removal are described. One or more of the polypeptides, poly ([gamma]glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly ([gamma]glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form. 1 figs.

  13. Distribution of Heterodera glycines Races in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Sikora, E J; Noel, G R

    1991-10-01

    Because the race scheme for Heterodera glycines was expanded recently from 5 to 16 races, the occurrence and distribution of races in Illinois need clarification. Forty-four populations of H. glycines were collected from sites in 23 of the 88 infested counties. Populations were tested using the differential soybean lines Pickett 71, Peking, PI 88788, and PI 90763. Lee 68 and Williams 82 were used as standards. Seedlings were grown in 7.5-cm-d clay pots and inoculated with 1,000 eggs and second-stage juveniles obtained from H. glycines-infested field soil. Plants were maintained in a greenhouse at 22-28 C. After 1 month, the number of first-generation white females that developed on each differential was determined and the race of the population was designated. Twenty-eight populations were race 3, twelve were race 1, two were race 5, one was race 2, and one was race 4. Populations of races 3 and 1 were widely distributed in the state. In 26 of the 28 race determinations, race designations using Williams 82 and Lee 68 were the same, indicating that if Lee 68 is not available, Williams 82 may be a suitable alternative for race tests done in the north central United States.

  14. Multifarious Beneficial Effect of Nonessential Amino Acid, Glycine: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Razak, Meerza Abdul; Begum, Pathan Shajahan

    2017-01-01

    Glycine is most important and simple, nonessential amino acid in humans, animals, and many mammals. Generally, glycine is synthesized from choline, serine, hydroxyproline, and threonine through interorgan metabolism in which kidneys and liver are the primarily involved. Generally in common feeding conditions, glycine is not sufficiently synthesized in humans, animals, and birds. Glycine acts as precursor for several key metabolites of low molecular weight such as creatine, glutathione, haem, purines, and porphyrins. Glycine is very effective in improving the health and supports the growth and well-being of humans and animals. There are overwhelming reports supporting the role of supplementary glycine in prevention of many diseases and disorders including cancer. Dietary supplementation of proper dose of glycine is effectual in treating metabolic disorders in patients with cardiovascular diseases, several inflammatory diseases, obesity, cancers, and diabetes. Glycine also has the property to enhance the quality of sleep and neurological functions. In this review we will focus on the metabolism of glycine in humans and animals and the recent findings and advances about the beneficial effects and protection of glycine in different disease states. PMID:28337245

  15. Differentiation of Malassezia furfur and Malassezia sympodialis by glycine utilization.

    PubMed

    Murai, T; Nakamura, Y; Kano, R; Watanabe, S; Hasegawa, A

    2002-06-01

    The genus Malassezia has been revised to include six lipophilic species and one nonlipophilic species. These Malassezia species have been investigated to differentiate their morphological and physiological characteristics. However, assimilation of amino acids as a nitrogen source by these species was not well elucidated. In the present study, isolates of Malassezia species were examined with a glycine medium (containing 7-266 mmol glycine, 7.4 mmol KH(2)PO(4), 4.1 mmol MgSO(4)7H(2)O, 29.6 mmol thiamine, 0.5% Tween-80 and 2% agar) and a modified Dixon glycine medium (0.6% peptone, 3.6% malt extract, 2% ox-bile, 1% Tween-40, 0.2% glycerol, 0.2% oleic acid, 7 mmol glycine and 2% agar). All M. furfur isolates developed on the glycine medium, assimilating glycine at concentrations of at least 7 mmol l(-1). However, the other six Malassezia species were unable to grow on the glycine medium. Also, many colonies of M. furfur grew rapidly, within 2-3 days on the modified Dixon glycine medium, although the other six species showed slow and poor development. From these results, it was suggested that M. furfur might be able to utilize glycine as a single nitrogen source, which the other Malassezia species could not. Therefore, glycine medium was recommended for the differentiation of M. furfur from other species of Malassezia.

  16. Evaluation of mechanical properties of some glycine complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaraju, D.; Raja Shekar, P. V.; Chandra, Ch. Sateesh; Rao, K. Kishan; Krishna, N. Gopi

    2014-04-24

    The variation of Vickers hardness with load for (101) glycine zinc chloride (GZC), (001) glycine lithium sulphate (GLS), (001) triglycine sulphate (TGS) and (010) glycine phosphite (GPI) crystals was studied. From the cracks initiated along the corners of the indentation impression, crack lengths were measured and the fracture toughness value and brittle index number were determined. The hardness related parameters viz. yield strength and Young’s modulus were also estimated. The anisotropic nature of the crystals was studied using Knoop indentation technique.

  17. Structural Basis of Cooperative Ligand Binding by the Glycine Riboswitch

    SciTech Connect

    E Butler; J Wang; Y Xiong; S Strobel

    2011-12-31

    The glycine riboswitch regulates gene expression through the cooperative recognition of its amino acid ligand by a tandem pair of aptamers. A 3.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of the tandem riboswitch from the glycine permease operon of Fusobacterium nucleatum reveals the glycine binding sites and an extensive network of interactions, largely mediated by asymmetric A-minor contacts, that serve to communicate ligand binding status between the aptamers. These interactions provide a structural basis for how the glycine riboswitch cooperatively regulates gene expression.

  18. Stoichiometry of the heparin-Cu2+-glycine mixed-ligand complex according to differential thermal analysis and IR spectroscopy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feofanova, M. A.; Frantseva, Yu. V.; Zhuravlev, E. V.; Baranova, N. V.; Ryasenskii, S. S.

    2015-02-01

    A method or the synthesis, isolation, and purification of a mixed-ligand complex of heparin with copper and glycine cations was suggested. The complex was studied by elemental, thermal, and spectral analyses. The elemental and crystalline hydrate compositions of the complex were determined and the molecular formula was suggested to be Na3CuHepGly · 2H2O.

  19. Glycine-coated photoluminescent silver nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravets, Vira V.; Culhane, Kyle; Dmitruk, Igor M.; Pinchuk, Anatoliy O.

    2012-03-01

    We present experimental results on the multicolor (blue and green) photoluminescence from glycine-coated silver nanoclusters and small nanoparticles which can be used as novel probes for bio-imaging. Glycine-coated silver nanoclusters and nanoparticles were synthesized using thermal reduction of silver nitrate in a glycine matrix, according to a modified procedure described in literature. The size characterization with mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering showed that the diameters of luminescent silver nanoclusters and small nanoparticles vary from 0.5 nm to 17 nm. Extinction spectroscopy revealed that the absorption band of the luminescent nanoclusters and nanoparticles was blue-shifted as compared to the nonluminescent larger silver nanoparticles. This effect indicated the well-known size dependence of the surface plasmon resonance in silver. The most pronounced photoluminescence peak was observed around 410 nm (characteristic SPR wavelength for silver) which strongly suggests the enhancement of the photoluminescence from silver nanoparticles by the SPR. The relative quantum yield of the photoluminescence of silver nanoclusters and nanoparticles was evaluated to be 0.09. In terms of their small size, brightness and photostability, noble metal nanoclusters and nanoparticles hold the most promise as candidates for biological cell imaging, competing with commonly used semiconductor quantum dots, fluorescent proteins and organic dyes. When applied to the problem of intracellular imaging, metal nanoclusters and small nanoparticles offer advantages over their much larger sized semiconductor counterparts in terms of ease of biological delivery. In addition, noble metal nanoparticles and nanoclusters are photostable. The high quantum yield (QY) of the photoluminescence emission signal enables the isolation of their photoluminescence from the cellular autofluorescence in cell imaging, improving the image contrast.

  20. Poly(gamma-glutamylcysteinyl)glycine: its role in cadmium resistance in plant cells.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, P J; Unkefer, C J; Doolen, J A; Watt, K; Robinson, N J

    1987-01-01

    Angiosperms can be selected for the ability to grow in the presence of normally toxic concentrations of certain trace metal ions. Addition of Cd and Cu to Cd-resistant Datura innoxia cell cultures results in the rapid synthesis and accumulation of sulfur-rich, metal-binding polypeptides. The structure of these compounds was determined using amino acid analysis, 13C NMR, and site-specific enzymic digestion. These compounds are poly(gamma-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines. Greater than 80% of the cellular Cd is bound to the bis and tris forms in Cd-resistant cells. There is a direct correlation between the maximum accumulation of the metal-binding polypeptides and the concentration of toxic ions to which the cells are resistant. In the presence of metal ions, the polypeptides form multimeric aggregates that can be resolved by gel chromatography. Cd binds to both the high and low molecular weight aggregates, whereas Cu preferentially binds to the higher molecular weight forms. The presence of gamma-carboxamide linkages between glutamyl and adjacent cysteinyl residues indicates that these polypeptides are products of biosynthetic pathways. Poly(gamma-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines bind metals and, in this respect, appear to be functional analogs of the protein metallothionein. However, in the absence of supraoptimal concentrations of trace metal ions, the functions of metallothionein in animals and microorganisms and poly(gamma-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines in plants may differ. PMID:3477793

  1. Rapid, activity-independent turnover of vesicular transmitter content at a mixed glycine/GABA synapse

    PubMed Central

    Apostolides, Pierre F.; Trussell, Laurence O.

    2013-01-01

    The release of neurotransmitter via the fusion of transmitter-filled, presynaptic vesicles is the primary means by which neurons relay information. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms that supply neurotransmitter destined for vesicle filling, the endogenous transmitter concentrations inside presynaptic nerve terminals or the dynamics of vesicle refilling after exocytosis. We addressed these issues by recording from synaptically-coupled pairs of glycine/GABA co-releasing interneurons (cartwheel cells) of the mouse dorsal cochlear nucleus. We find that the plasma membrane transporter GlyT2 and the intracellular enzyme glutamate decarboxylase supply the majority of glycine and GABA, respectively. Pharmacological block of GlyT2 or glutamate decarboxylase led to rapid and complete rundown of transmission, whereas increasing GABA synthesis via intracellular glutamate uncaging dramatically potentiated GABA release within one minute. These effects were surprisingly independent of exocytosis, indicating that pre-filled vesicles re-equilibrated upon acute changes in cytosolic transmitter. Titration of cytosolic transmitter with postsynaptic responses indicated that endogenous, non-vesicular glycine/GABA levels in nerve terminals are 5 to 7 mM, and that vesicular transport mechanisms are not saturated under basal conditions. Thus, cytosolic transmitter levels dynamically set the strength of inhibitory synapses in a release-independent manner. PMID:23486948

  2. Allylation of aldehydes and imines: promoted by reuseable polymer-supported sulfonamide of N-glycine.

    PubMed

    Li, Gui-long; Zhao, Gang

    2006-02-16

    [reaction: see text] A allylation of aldehydes and imines (generated in situ from aldehydes and amines) with allyltributyltin promoted by recoverable and reusable the polymer-supported sulfonamide of N-glycine has been developed. Good to high yields were obtained in various cases. Most of the SnBu(3) residue can be recovered as Bu(3)SnCl. Highly stereoselective synthesis of N-Boc-(2S,3S)-3-hydroxy-2-phenylpiperidine 7 was achieved by using the P4a-mediated allylation of Boc-l-phenylglycinal as a key step.

  3. Evaluating Progeny of Glycine max by Glycine tomentella for Novel Disease Resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hybridization with wild relatives of crops is an important tool for improving traits such as disease resistance and our objective is to expand the use of wild relatives for disease resistance in soybean. Glycine tomentella (2n=78) is a wild, perennial species in the tertiary gene pool of soybean (G....

  4. The Glycine Transport Inhibitor Sarcosine Is an Inhibitory Glycine Receptor Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai Xia; Lyons-Warren, Ariel; Thio, Liu Lin

    2009-01-01

    Summary Sarcosine is an endogenous amino acid that is a competitive inhibitor of the type I glycine transporter (GlyT1), an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) co-agonist, and an important intermediate in one-carbon metabolism. Its therapeutic potential for schizophrenia further underscores its clinical importance. The structural similarity between sarcosine and glycine and sarcosine's ability to serve as an NMDAR co-agonist led us to examine whether sarcosine is also an agonist at the inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR). We examined this possibility using whole-cell recordings from cultured embryonic mouse hippocampal neurons and found that sarcosine evoked a dose-dependent, strychnine sensitive, Cl- current that cross-inhibited glycine currents. Sarcosine evoked this current with Li+ in the extracellular solution to block GlyT1, in neurons treated with the essentially irreversible GlyT1 inhibitor N[3-(4′-fluorophenyl)-3-(4′-phenylphenoxy)propyl]sarcosine (NFPS), and in neurons plated in the absence of glia. These results indicate that the sarcosine currents did not result from GlyT1 inhibition or heteroexchange. We conclude that sarcosine is a GlyR agonist. PMID:19619564

  5. Acute copper toxicity following copper glycinate injection.

    PubMed

    Oon, S; Yap, C-H; Ihle, B U

    2006-11-01

    We present a patient who developed multi-organ failure due to severe copper toxicity following attempted suicide by s.c. injection of copper glycinate. Acute copper toxicity is rare in the developed world, although it occurs more frequently in developing world countries, where it is a common mode of suicide. Acute toxicity usually results from oral ingestion and there are several local and systemic effects. Specific management can be difficult as there is little evidence regarding the efficacy of chelating agents in acute toxicity.

  6. Evidence from glycine transfer RNA of a frozen accident at the dawn of the genetic code

    PubMed Central

    Bernhardt, Harold S; Tate, Warren P

    2008-01-01

    Background Transfer RNA (tRNA) is the means by which the cell translates DNA sequence into protein according to the rules of the genetic code. A credible proposition is that tRNA was formed from the duplication of an RNA hairpin half the length of the contemporary tRNA molecule, with the point at which the hairpins were joined marked by the canonical intron insertion position found today within tRNA genes. If these hairpins possessed a 3'-CCA terminus with different combinations of stem nucleotides (the ancestral operational RNA code), specific aminoacylation and perhaps participation in some form of noncoded protein synthesis might have occurred. However, the identity of the first tRNA and the initial steps in the origin of the genetic code remain elusive. Results Here we show evidence that glycine tRNA was the first tRNA, as revealed by a vestigial imprint in the anticodon loop sequences of contemporary descendents. This provides a plausible mechanism for the missing first step in the origin of the genetic code. In 448 of 466 glycine tRNA gene sequences from bacteria, archaea and eukaryote cytoplasm analyzed, CCA occurs immediately upstream of the canonical intron insertion position, suggesting the first anticodon (NCC for glycine) has been captured from the 3'-terminal CCA of one of the interacting hairpins as a result of an ancestral ligation. Conclusion That this imprint (including the second and third nucleotides of the glycine tRNA anticodon) has been retained through billions of years of evolution suggests Crick's 'frozen accident' hypothesis has validity for at least this very first step at the dawn of the genetic code. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr Eugene V. Koonin, Dr Rob Knight and Dr David H Ardell. PMID:19091122

  7. Population genetic structure of Aphis glycines.

    PubMed

    Michel, Andrew P; Zhang, Wei; Kyo Jung, Jin; Kang, Sung-Taeg; Mian, M A Rouf

    2009-08-01

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is an invasive pest of cultivated soybean (Glycine max L.) in North America. After the initial invasion in 2000, the aphid has quickly spread across most of the United States and Canada, suggesting large-scale dispersal and rapid adaptation to new environments. Using microsatellite markers from closely related species, we compared the genetic diversity and the amount of genetic differentiation within and among 2 South Korean and 10 North American populations. Overall allelic polymorphism was low, never exceeding four alleles per locus. However, differences in genetic diversity were seen among South Korean and North American populations in terms of heterozygote excesses and genotypic richness. Within North America, two populations (Michigan and Ontario), had lower genetic diversities and exhibited high genetic differentiation compared with the remaining eight populations. The earlier collection time of Michigan and Ontario samples explained the genetic differences better than geographic subdivisions. These data indicate a pattern of small colonizing populations on soybeans, followed by rapid clonal amplification and subsequent large-scale dispersal across North America.

  8. Genome Duplication in Soybean (Glycine Subgenus Soja)

    PubMed Central

    Shoemaker, R. C.; Polzin, K.; Labate, J.; Specht, J.; Brummer, E. C.; Olson, T.; Young, N.; Concibido, V.; Wilcox, J.; Tamulonis, J. P.; Kochert, G.; Boerma, H. R.

    1996-01-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping data from nine populations (Glycine max X G. soja and G. max X G. max) of the Glycine subgenus soja genome led to the identification of many duplicated segments of the genome. Linkage groups contained up to 33 markers that were duplicated on other linkage groups. The size of homoeologous regions ranged from 1.5 to 106.4 cM, with an average size of 45.3 cM. We observed segments in the soybean genome that were present in as many as six copies with an average of 2.55 duplications per segment. The presence of nested duplications suggests that at least one of the original genomes may have undergone an additional round of tetraploidization. Tetraploidization, along with large internal duplications, accounts for the highly duplicated nature of the genome of the subgenus. Quantitative trait loci for seed protein and oil showed correspondence across homoeologous regions, suggesting that the genes or gene families contributing to seed composition have retained similar functions throughout the evolution of the chromosomes. PMID:8878696

  9. New soybean accessions evaluated for reaction to Heterodera glycines populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is a serious pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in the USA and worldwide. Annual yield losses in the USA are estimated to be over $1 billion. These losses have remained stable with the use of resistant cultivars but over time nematode...

  10. New soybean accessions identified with resistance to Heterodera glycines populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is a serious root-parasite of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], in USA and worldwide. Annual yield losses in USA are estimated to be nearly $1 billion. These losses have remained stable at current levels with the use of resistant cultivars bu...

  11. Glycine Betaine as a Direct Substrate for Methanogens (Methanococcoides spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Andrew J.; Roussel, Erwan G.; Parkes, R. John

    2014-01-01

    Nine marine methanogenic Methanococcoides strains, including the type strains of Methanococcoides methylutens, M. burtonii, and M. alaskense, were tested for the utilization of N-methylated glycines. Three strains (NM1, PM2, and MKM1) used glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) as a substrate for methanogenesis, partially demethylating it to N,N-dimethylglycine, whereas none of the strains used N,N-dimethylglycine or sarcosine (N-methylglycine). Growth rates and growth yields per mole of substrate with glycine betaine (3.96 g [dry weight] per mol) were similar to those with trimethylamine (4.11 g [dry weight] per mol). However, as glycine betaine is only partially demethylated, the yield per methyl group was significantly higher than with trimethylamine. If glycine betaine and trimethylamine are provided together, trimethylamine is demethylated to dimethyl- and methylamine with limited glycine betaine utilization. After trimethylamine is depleted, dimethylamine and glycine betaine are consumed rapidly, before methylamine. Glycine betaine extends the range of substrates that can be directly utilized by some methanogens, allowing them to gain energy from the substrate without the need for syntrophic partners. PMID:24162571

  12. Glycine betaine as a direct substrate for methanogens (Methanococcoides spp.).

    PubMed

    Watkins, Andrew J; Roussel, Erwan G; Parkes, R John; Sass, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Nine marine methanogenic Methanococcoides strains, including the type strains of Methanococcoides methylutens, M. burtonii, and M. alaskense, were tested for the utilization of N-methylated glycines. Three strains (NM1, PM2, and MKM1) used glycine betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) as a substrate for methanogenesis, partially demethylating it to N,N-dimethylglycine, whereas none of the strains used N,N-dimethylglycine or sarcosine (N-methylglycine). Growth rates and growth yields per mole of substrate with glycine betaine (3.96 g [dry weight] per mol) were similar to those with trimethylamine (4.11 g [dry weight] per mol). However, as glycine betaine is only partially demethylated, the yield per methyl group was significantly higher than with trimethylamine. If glycine betaine and trimethylamine are provided together, trimethylamine is demethylated to dimethyl- and methylamine with limited glycine betaine utilization. After trimethylamine is depleted, dimethylamine and glycine betaine are consumed rapidly, before methylamine. Glycine betaine extends the range of substrates that can be directly utilized by some methanogens, allowing them to gain energy from the substrate without the need for syntrophic partners.

  13. Ethanol enhances taurine-activated glycine receptor function

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Brian T.; Kirson, Dean; Allen, Hunter M.; Mihic, S. John

    2010-01-01

    Background Emerging evidence suggests that taurine acts as a partial agonist at glycine receptors (GlyR) in vitro and in vivo. Ethanol acts as an allosteric modulator at the GlyR producing a leftward shift of the glycine concentration-response curve, with no enhancing effects observed at saturating glycine concentrations. However, to date no electrophysiological studies have been performed on ethanol modulation of taurine-activated GlyR. Methods Wildtype α1 GlyR, or those bearing a serine-267 to isoleucine replacement (S267I), were homomerically expressed in Xenopus oocytes and voltage-clamped at 70 mV. Ethanol was co-applied with varying concentrations of glycine or taurine and the enhancing effects of ethanol compared. Results Ethanol potentiated glycine- and taurine-activated GlyR responses in a concentration-dependent manner. It shifted taurine and glycine concentration-response curves to the left, having no effects at saturating agonist concentrations. Chelation of zinc by tricine decreased ethanol enhancement of taurine-gated GlyR function. The S267I mutation prevented ethanol enhancement of taurine-mediated responses as previously also reported for glycine. Conclusion Ethanol modulates taurine activation of GlyR function by a mechanism similar to that of the full agonist glycine. The lack of effect of ethanol at saturating taurine concentrations provides mechanistic information on alcohol actions at the GlyR. PMID:20586750

  14. Characterization of seed storage proteins of several perennial glycine species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Perennial Glycine species, distant relatives of soybean, have been recognized as a potential source of new genetic diversity for soybean improvement. The subgenus Glycine includes around 30 perennial species, which are well adapted to drought conditions and possess resistance to a number of soybean ...

  15. Thinking outside the synapse: glycine at extrasynaptic NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Gray, John A; Nicoll, Roger A

    2012-08-03

    In this issue, Papouin et al. show that glycine is the endogenous coagonist for extrasynaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs), unlike at synapses where the coagonist is d-serine. By enzymatically degrading endogenous glycine, they begin to address the enigmatic physiological and pathological roles for extrasynaptic NMDARs.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulation of aqueous solutions of glycine betaine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civera, Monica; Fornili, Arianna; Sironi, Maurizio; Fornili, Sandro L.

    2003-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation is used to investigate hydration properties of glycine betaine in a large range of solute concentrations. Statistical analyses of the system trajectories evidence microscopic details suggesting an interpretation of experimental results recently obtained for aqueous solutions of trimethylamine- N-oxide, a bioprotectant closely related to glycine betaine.

  17. Quantifying the Temperature Dependence of Glycine Betaine RNA Duplex Destabilization

    PubMed Central

    Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Menssen, Ryan J.; Kohler, James M.; Schmidt, Elliot C.; Thomas, Alexandra L.

    2013-01-01

    Glycine betaine stabilizes folded protein structure due to its unfavorable thermodynamic interactions with amide oxygen and aliphatic carbon surface area exposed during protein unfolding. However, glycine betaine can attenuate nucleic acid secondary structure stability, although its mechanism of destabilization is not currently understood. In this work we quantify glycine betaine interactions with the surface area exposed during thermal denaturation of nine RNA dodecamer duplexes with guanine-cytosine (GC) contents of 17–100%. Hyperchromicity values indicate increasing glycine betaine molality attenuates stacking. Glycine betaine destabilizes higher GC content RNA duplexes to a greater extent than low GC content duplexes due to greater accumulation at the surface area exposed during unfolding. The accumulation is very sensitive to temperature and displays characteristic entropy-enthalpy compensation. Since the entropic contribution to the m-value (used to quantify GB interaction with the RNA solvent accessible surface area exposed during denaturation) is more dependent on temperature than the enthalpic contribution, higher GC content duplexes with their larger transition temperatures are destabilized to a greater extent than low GC content duplexes. The concentration of glycine betaine at the RNA surface area exposed during unfolding relative to bulk was quantified using the solute partitioning model. Temperature correction predicts a glycine betaine concentration at 25 °C to be nearly independent of GC content, indicating that glycine betaine destabilizes all sequences equally at this temperature. PMID:24219229

  18. Population genetic structure of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is an invasive pest of cultivated soybean [Glycine max (L.)] in North America. After the initial invasion in 2000, the aphid has quickly spread across most of the U.S. and Canada, suggesting large scale dispersals and rapid adaptations to new environment...

  19. Glycine toxicity and unexpected intra-operative death.

    PubMed

    Byard, R W; Harrison, R; Wells, R; Gilbert, J D

    2001-09-01

    A rare complication of the use of glycine irrigation fluid during prostatic surgery in a 69-year-old man is described. Following cystolithopexy and transurethral resection of the prostate for benign prostatomegaly, abdominal distension developed with increasing ventilatory pressures. Despite retroperitoneal fluid evacuation at subsequent urgent laparotomy, cardiac arrest occurred that was not amenable to resuscitation. At autopsy a traumatic defect in the posterior bladder wall filled with calculus debris was confirmed that did not communicate with the peritoneal cavity. Hyponatremia with markedly elevated levels of blood, urine, and body fluid glycine were demonstrated. Death was, therefore, attributed to glycine toxicity following tracking of glycine through a surgical defect in the posterior bladder wall. Careful dissection of surgical sites is required in such cases to demonstrate any additional trauma that may be associated with the fatal episode. Analysis of body fluids for glycine and electrolytes is also necessary to assist in the determination of possible mechanisms of death.

  20. Arachidonic acid inhibits glycine transport in cultured glial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zafra, F; Alcantara, R; Gomeza, J; Aragon, C; Gimenez, C

    1990-01-01

    The effects of arachidonic acid on glycine uptake, exchange and efflux in C6 glioma cells were investigated. Arachidonic acid produced a dose-dependent inhibition of high-affinity glycine uptake. This effect was not due to a simple detergent-like action on membranes, as the inhibition of glycine transport was most pronounced with cis-unsaturated long-chain fatty acids, whereas saturated and trans-unsaturated fatty acids had relatively little or no effect. Endogenous unsaturated non-esterified fatty acids may exert a similar inhibitory effect on the transport of glycine. The mechanism for this inhibitory effect has been examined in a plasma membrane vesicle preparation derived from C6 cells, which avoids metabolic or compartmentation interferences. The results suggest that part of the selective inhibition of glycine transport by arachidonic acid could be due to the effects of the arachidonic acid on the lipid domain surrounding the carrier. PMID:2121132

  1. Nitrate and amino acid availability affects glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine in response to changes of salinity in a halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica.

    PubMed

    Waditee-Sirisattha, Rungaroon; Kageyama, Hakuto; Fukaya, Minoru; Rai, Vandna; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-12-01

    A halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica thrives in extreme salinity with accumulation of a potent osmoprotectant glycine betaine. Recently, this cyanobacterium was shown to accumulate sunscreen molecule mycosporine-2-glycine significantly at high salinity. In this study, we investigated effects of nitrate and amino acid provision on the accumulation of glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine. With elevated nitrate concentrations at high salinity, intracellular levels of both metabolites were enhanced. Six-fold high nitrate concentration increased the relative amounts of glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine to be 1.5 and 2.0 folds compared with control condition : Increased levels were time- and dose-dependent manner. Exogenous supply of glycine/serine at high salinity resulted in the similar trends as observed in excess nitrate experiment. Intracellular level of glycine betaine increased ∼1.6 folds with glycine/serine supplementation. These supplementations also caused the increased level of mycosporine-2-glycine, namely 1.4 and 2 folds by glycine and serine, respectively. The transcription of glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine biosynthetic genes was strongly induced under high-nitrate-salt condition. These results suggest the dependence of glycine betaine and mycosporine-2-glycine productions on substrate availability, and the effect of nitrate was possibly associated with stimulation of osmoprotectant increment in this extremophile.

  2. Glycine phases formed from frozen aqueous solutions: Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surovtsev, N. V.; Adichtchev, S. V.; Malinovsky, V. K.; Ogienko, A. G.; Drebushchak, V. A.; Manakov, A. Yu.; Ancharov, A. I.; Yunoshev, A. S.; Boldyreva, E. V.

    2012-08-01

    Glycine phases formed when aqueous solutions were frozen and subsequently heated under different conditions were studied by Raman scattering, x-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Crystallization of ice Ih was observed in all the cases. On cooling at the rates of 0.5 K/min and 5 K/min, glassy glycine was formed as an intermediate phase which lived about 1 min or less only, and then transformed into β-polymorph of glycine. Quench cooling of glycine solutions (15% w/w) in liquid nitrogen resulted in the formation of a mixture of crystalline water ice Ih and a glassy glycine, which could be preserved at cryogenic temperatures (80 K) for an indefinitely long time. This mixture remained also quite stable for some time after heating above the cryogenic temperature. Subsequent heating under various conditions resulted in the transformation of the glycine glass into an unknown crystalline phase (glycine "X-phase") at 209-216 K, which at 218-226 K transformed into β-polymorph of glycine. The "X-phase" was characterized by Raman spectroscopy; it could be obtained in noticeable amounts using a special preparation technique and tentatively characterized by x-ray powder diffraction (P2, a = 6.648 Å, b = 25.867 Å, c = 5.610 Å, β = 113.12°); the formation of "X-phase" from the glycine glassy phase and its transformation into β-polymorph were followed by DSC. Raman scattering technique with its power for unambiguous identification of the crystalline and glassy polymorphs without limitation on the crystallite size helped us to follow the phase transformations during quenching, heating, and annealing. The experimental findings are considered in relation to the problem of control of glycine polymorphism on crystallization.

  3. The effect of dietary glycine on the hepatic tumor promoting activity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in rats.

    PubMed

    Bunaciu, Rodica Petruta; Tharappel, Job C; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Robertson, Larry W; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Spear, Brett T; Glauert, Howard P

    2007-10-08

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitious lipophilic environmental pollutants. Some of the PCB congeners and mixtures of congeners have tumor promoting activity in rat liver. The mechanism of their activity is not fully understood and is likely to be multifactorial. The aim of this study was to investigate if the resident liver macrophages, Kupffer cells, are important in the promoting activity of PCBs. The hypothesis of this study was that the inhibition of Kupffer cell activity would inhibit hepatic tumor promotion by PCBs in rats. To test our hypothesis, we studied the effects of Kupffer cell inhibition by dietary glycine (an inhibitor of Kupffer cell secretory activity) in a rat two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model using 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153, a non-dioxin-like PCB) or 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77, a dioxin-like PCB) as promoters. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 150 mg/kg) was administered to female Sprague-Dawley rats, which were then placed on an unrefined diet containing 5% glycine (or casein as nitrogen control) starting two weeks after DEN administration. On the third day after starting the diets, rats received PCB-77 (300 micromol/kg), PCB-153 (300 micromol/kg), or corn oil by i.p. injection. The rats received a total of 4 PCB injections, administered every 14 days. The rats were euthanized on the 10th day after the last PCB injection, and the formation of altered hepatic foci expressing placental glutathione S-transferase (PGST) and the rate of DNA synthesis in these foci and in the normal liver tissue were determined. Glycine did not significantly affect foci number or volume. PCB-153 did not significantly increase the focal volume, but increased the number of foci per liver, but only in the rats not fed glycine; PCB-77 increased both the foci number and their volume in both glycine-fed and control rats. Glycine did not alter the PCB content of the liver, but did increase the activity of 7-benzyloxyresorufin O

  4. The Effect of Dietary Glycine on the Hepatic Tumor Promoting Activity of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bunaciu, Rodica Petruta; Tharappel, Job C.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Korwel, Izabela; Robertson, Larry W.; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Spear, Brett T.; Glauert, Howard P.

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitious lipophilic environmental pollutants. Some of the PCB congeners and mixtures of congeners have tumor promoting activity in rat liver. The mechanism of their activity is not fully understood and is likely to be multifactorial. The aim of this study was to investigate if the resident liver macrophages, Kupffer cells, are important in the promoting activity of PCBs. The hypothesis of this study was that the inhibition of Kupffer cell activity would inhibit hepatic tumor promotion by PCBs in rats. To test our hypothesis, we studied the effects of Kupffer cell inhibition by dietary glycine (an inhibitor of Kupffer cell secretory activity) in a rat two-stage hepatocarcinogenesis model using 2,2’,4,4’,5,5’-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153, a non-dioxin-like PCB) or 3,3’,4,4’-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB-77, a dioxin-like PCB) as promoters. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 150 mg/kg) was administered to female Sprague Dawley rats, which were then placed on an unrefined diet containing 5% glycine (or casein as nitrogen control) starting two weeks after DEN administration. On the third day after starting the diets, rats received PCB-77 (300 μmol/kg), PCB-153 (300 μmol/kg), or corn oil by i.p. injection. The rats received a total of 4 PCB injections, administered every 14 days. The rats were euthanized on the 10th day after the last PCB injection, and the formation of altered hepatic foci expressing placental glutathione S-transferase (PGST) and the rate of DNA synthesis in these foci and in the normal liver tissue were determined. Glycine did not significantly affect foci number or volume. PCB-153 did not significantly increase the focal volume, but increased the number of foci per liver, but only in the rats not fed glycine; PCB-77 increased both the foci number and their volume in both glycine-fed and control rats. Glycine did not alter the PCB content of the liver, but did increase the activity of 7-benzyloxyresorufin O

  5. Clostridium sticklandii glycine reductase selenoprotein A gene: cloning, sequencing, and expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, G E; Stadtman, T C

    1992-01-01

    Gene grdA, which encodes selenoprotein A of the glycine reductase complex from Clostridium sticklandii, was identified and characterized. This gene encodes a protein of 158 amino acids with a calculated M(r) of 17,142. The known sequence of 15 amino acids around the selenocysteine residue and the known carboxy terminus of the protein are correctly predicted by the nucleotide sequence. An opal termination codon (TGA) corresponding to the location of the single selenocysteine residue in the polypeptide was found in frame at position 130. The C. sticklandii grdA gene was inserted behind the tac promotor of an Escherichia coli expression vector. An E. coli strain transformed with this vector produced an 18-kDa polypeptide that was not detected in extracts of nontransformed cells. Affinity-purified anti-C. sticklandii selenoprotein A immunoglobulin G reacted specifically with this polypeptide, which was indistinguishable from authentic C. sticklandii selenoprotein A by immunological analysis. Addition of the purified expressed protein to glycine reductase protein components B and C reconstituted the active glycine reductase complex. Although synthesis of enzymically active protein A depended on the presence of selenium in the growth medium, formation of immunologically reactive protein did not. Moreover, synthesis of enzymically active protein in a transformed E. coli selD mutant strain indicated that there is a nonspecific mechanism of selenocysteine incorporation. These findings imply that mRNA secondary structures of C. sticklandii grdA are not functional for UGA-directed selenocysteine insertion in the E. coli expression system. Images PMID:1429431

  6. Clostridium sticklandii glycine reductase selenoprotein A gene: cloning, sequencing, and expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Garcia, G E; Stadtman, T C

    1992-11-01

    Gene grdA, which encodes selenoprotein A of the glycine reductase complex from Clostridium sticklandii, was identified and characterized. This gene encodes a protein of 158 amino acids with a calculated M(r) of 17,142. The known sequence of 15 amino acids around the selenocysteine residue and the known carboxy terminus of the protein are correctly predicted by the nucleotide sequence. An opal termination codon (TGA) corresponding to the location of the single selenocysteine residue in the polypeptide was found in frame at position 130. The C. sticklandii grdA gene was inserted behind the tac promotor of an Escherichia coli expression vector. An E. coli strain transformed with this vector produced an 18-kDa polypeptide that was not detected in extracts of nontransformed cells. Affinity-purified anti-C. sticklandii selenoprotein A immunoglobulin G reacted specifically with this polypeptide, which was indistinguishable from authentic C. sticklandii selenoprotein A by immunological analysis. Addition of the purified expressed protein to glycine reductase protein components B and C reconstituted the active glycine reductase complex. Although synthesis of enzymically active protein A depended on the presence of selenium in the growth medium, formation of immunologically reactive protein did not. Moreover, synthesis of enzymically active protein in a transformed E. coli selD mutant strain indicated that there is a nonspecific mechanism of selenocysteine incorporation. These findings imply that mRNA secondary structures of C. sticklandii grdA are not functional for UGA-directed selenocysteine insertion in the E. coli expression system.

  7. Neuroprotective effects of glycine for therapy of acute ischaemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Gusev, E I; Skvortsova, V I; Dambinova, S A; Raevskiy, K S; Alekseev, A A; Bashkatova, V G; Kovalenko, A V; Kudrin, V S; Yakovleva, E V

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to assess the safety and the efficacy of the pharmaceutic drug glycine in 200 patients with acute (<6 h) ischaemic stroke in the carotid artery territory. Fifty patients received placebo, 49 glycine 0.5 g/day, 51 glycine 1.0 g/day and 50 glycine 2.0 g/day for 5 days in each group. The efficacy of glycine was assessed by clinical analysis, by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of levels of blood serum autoantibodies to NMDA-binding proteines, by detection of excitatory (glutamate, aspartate) and inhibitory (glycine, GABA) amino acid concentrations and lipid peroxidation products (TBARS) in CSF. The trial confirmed the safety profile of the glycine treatment. Slight sedation was observed in 9 patients (4. 5%) as a side-effect. Other marked side-effects or adverse events were absent. The glycine treatment at the dose of 1.0-2.0 g/day was accompanied by a tendency to a decreased 30-day mortality (5.9% in 1. 0 g/day glycine and 10% in 2.0 g/day glycine groups vs. 14% in the placebo and 14.3% in 0.5 g/day glycine groups), to an improved clinical outcome on the Orgogozo Stroke Scale (p < 0.01) and the Scandinavian Stroke Scale (p < 0.01) and to a favourable functional outcome on the Barthel index (p < 0.01 in 1.0 g/day glycine vs. placebo group in patients with no or mild disability). An early normalization of autoantibody titres to NMDA-binding proteins in serum was found (p < 0.01 vs. placebo), a reduction of glutamate and aspartate levels (p < 0.05 vs. placebo), an increase in GABA concentrations (p < 0.01 vs. placebo in severe stroke patients) and also a reduction of TBARS levels (p < 0.05 vs. placebo) in CSF by day 3. Thus, the trial suggests that sublingual application of 1.0-2. 0 g/day glycine started within 6 h after the onset of acute ischaemic stroke in the carotid artery territory is safe and can exert favourable clinical effects. These results will be verified in further trials with a

  8. Chemical synthesis of (22E)-3alpha,6alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Tetrahydroxy-5beta-chol-22-en-24-oic acid and its N-acylamidated conjugates with glycine or taurine: precursors of the [22,23-(3)H] labelled tracers.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Shoujiro; Adachi, Yuuki; Kakiyama, Genta; Shimada, Miki; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi; Iida, Takashi

    2010-08-01

    (22E)-3alpha,6alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Tetrahydroxy-5beta-chol-22-en-24-oic acid and its N-acylamidated conjugates with glycine or taurine were synthesized from cholic acid. The key reactions employed are: 1) degradation of the side chain in intermediary C(24) 3alpha,6alpha,7alpha,12alpha-tetrahydroxylated bile acid to the corresponding C(22) 23,24-dinor-aldehyde, followed by Wittig reaction with methyl (triphenylphosphoranylidene)acetate and 2) N-acylamidation of the unconjugated tetrahydroxy-Delta(22)-5beta-cholenoic acid with glycine (or taurine) in the presence of diethylphosphorocyanide and triethylamine as coupling reagents.

  9. Quantum chemical calculations of glycine glutaric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arioǧlu, ćaǧla; Tamer, Ömer; Avci, Davut; Atalay, Yusuf

    2017-02-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of glycine glutaric acid were performed by using B3LYP levels with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The theoretical structural parameters such as bond lengths and bond angles are in a good agreement with the experimental values of the title compound. HOMO and LUMO energies were calculated, and the obtained energy gap shows that charge transfer occurs in the title compound. Vibrational frequencies were calculated and compare with experimental ones. 3D molecular surfaces of the title compound were simulated using the same level and basis set. Finally, the 13C and 1H NMR chemical shift values were calculated by the application of the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method.

  10. [Changes of polyamines level in Glycine soja and Glycine max seedlings under NaCl stress].

    PubMed

    Yu, Bingjun; Ji, Xiaojia; Liu, Jun; Liu, Youliang

    2004-07-01

    With internationally common-used Glycine max (the salt-tolerant Lee68) and Glycine soja (the salt-sensitive N23232) as reference, this paper studied the polyamines (PAs) contents and polyamine oxidase (PAO) activities in the highly salt-tolerant BB52 (Glycine soja) seedlings, which showed that under 150mmol x L(-1) NaCl stress for 2d, the decrease of Put and Spd contents was more significant, but that of Spd content was less significant in roots of BB52 than in those of Lee68 and N23232. For leaves, the decrease of Put and increase of Spd contents were markedly observed in BB52. The ascent of (Spm + Spd)/Put ratios and descent of Put/PAs ratios showed a positive relation to their salt tolerance. The PAO activity in roots and leaves was all increased, and most obvious in N23232. The relationship between PAs levels in BB52 and its salt tolerance was also discussed.

  11. Positive Modulation of the Glycine Receptor by Means of Glycine Receptor–Binding Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Aneiros, Eduardo; Blank, Michael; Mueller, Johan; Nyman, Eva; Blind, Michael; Dabrowski, Michael A.; Andersson, Christin V.; Sandberg, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    According to the gate control theory of pain, the glycine receptors (GlyRs) are putative targets for development of therapeutic analgesics. A possible approach for novel analgesics is to develop a positive modulator of the glycine-activated Cl− channels. Unfortunately, there has been limited success in developing drug-like small molecules to study the impact of agonists or positive modulators on GlyRs. Eight RNA aptamers with low nanomolar affinity to GlyRα1 were generated, and their pharmacological properties analyzed. Cytochemistry using fluorescein-labeled aptamers demonstrated GlyRα1-dependent binding to the plasma membrane but also intracellular binding. Using a fluorescent membrane potential assay, we could identify five aptamers to be positive modulators. The positive modulation of one of the aptamers was confirmed by patch-clamp electrophysiology on L(tk) cells expressing GlyRα1 and/or GlyRα1β. This aptamer potentiated whole-cell Cl− currents in the presence of low concentrations of glycine. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration ever of RNA aptamers acting as positive modulators for an ion channel. We believe that these aptamers are unique and valuable tools for further studies of GlyR biology and possibly also as tools for assay development in identifying small-molecule agonists and positive modulators. PMID:26071243

  12. Suppression of glycine-15N incorporation into urinary uric acid by adenine-8-13C in normal and gouty subjects

    PubMed Central

    Seegmiller, J. Edwin; Klinenberg, James R.; Miller, John; Watts, R. W. E.

    1968-01-01

    Adenine inhibited the de novo synthesis of purines in both normal and gouty man as shown by inhibition of the incorporation of glycine-15N into urinary uric acid without altering the incorporation of glycine-15N into urinary creatinine. The diminished purine synthesis did not result in a diminution in the 24 hr excretion of uric acid. This observation was explainable in part by the prompt conversion of adenine to uric acid. In addition to this direct conversion, adenine-8-13C provided a slow and prolonged contribution to urinary uric acid. A feedback inhibition of purine synthesis by nucleotides derived from adenine provides the best interpretation of these results. PMID:5645862

  13. Glycine input induces the synaptic facilitation in salamander rod photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wen; Jiang, Zheng; Li, Baoqin

    2008-11-01

    Glycinergic synapses in photoreceptors are made by centrifugal feedback neurons in the network, but the function of the synapses is largely unknown. Here we report that glycinergic input enhances photoreceptor synapses in amphibian retinas. Using specific antibodies against a glycine transporter (GlyT2) and glycine receptor beta subunit, we identified the morphology of glycinergic input in photoreceptor terminals. Electrophysiological recordings indicated that 10 muM glycine depolarized rods and activated voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels in the neurons. The effects facilitated glutamate vesicle release in photoreceptors, meanwhile increased the spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in Off-bipolar cells. Endogenous glycine feedback also enhanced glutamate transmission in photoreceptors. Additionally, inhibition of a Cl(-) uptake transporter NKCC1 with bumetanid effectively eliminated glycine-evoked a weak depolarization in rods, suggesting that NKCC1 maintains a high Cl(-) level in rods, which causes to depolarize in responding to glycine input. This study reveals a new function of glycine in retinal synaptic transmission.

  14. Ivermectin, an unconventional agonist of the glycine receptor chloride channel.

    PubMed

    Shan, Q; Haddrill, J L; Lynch, J W

    2001-04-20

    The effects of the antihelmintic, ivermectin, were investigated in recombinantly expressed human alpha(1) homomeric and alpha(1)beta heteromeric glycine receptors (GlyRs). At low (0.03 microm) concentrations ivermectin potentiated the response to sub-saturating glycine concentrations, and at higher (> or =0.03 microm) concentrations it irreversibly activated both alpha(1) homomeric and alpha(1)beta heteromeric GlyRs. Relative to glycine-gated currents, ivermectin-gated currents exhibited a dramatically reduced sensitivity to inhibition by strychnine, picrotoxin, and zinc. The insensitivity to strychnine could not be explained by ivermectin preventing the access of strychnine to its binding site. Furthermore, the elimination of a known glycine- and strychnine-binding site by site-directed mutagenesis had little effect on ivermectin sensitivity, demonstrating that the ivermectin- and glycine-binding sites were not identical. Ivermectin strongly and irreversibly activated a fast-desensitizing mutant GlyR after it had been completely desensitized by a saturating concentration of glycine. Finally, a mutation known to impair dramatically the glycine signal transduction mechanism had little effect on the apparent affinity or efficacy of ivermectin. Together, these findings indicate that ivermectin activates the GlyR by a novel mechanism.

  15. Strychnine-sensitive glycine responses of neonatal rat hippocampal neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Ito, S; Cherubini, E

    1991-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings employing current and voltage clamp techniques were used to study the effects of glycine on rat CA3 hippocampal neurones during the first 3 weeks of postnatal (P) life. 2. Glycine (0.3-1 mM) depolarized neurones from rats less than 4 days old (P4). Neurones from older neonates (P5-P7) were hyperpolarized by glycine, whereas adult neurones were unaffected. 3. Both depolarizing and hyperpolarizing responses were associated with large conductance increases; they reversed polarity at a potential which changed with the extracellular chloride concentration. The responses persisted in tetrodotoxin (1 microM) or in a solution with a much reduced calcium concentration. 4. Strychnine (1 microM) but not bicuculline (10-50 microM) antagonized the effects of glycine. The action of strychnine was apparently competitive with a dissociation constant of 350 nM. 5. In voltage clamp experiments, glycine elicited a non-desensitizing outward current at -60 mV. When a maximal concentration of glycine was applied at the same time as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the conductance increase induced by the two agonists was additive, suggesting the activation of different populations of channels. 6. Concentrations of glycine lower than 100 microM did not affect membrane potential. However, at 30-50 microM glycine increased the frequency of spontaneous GABA-mediated synaptic responses; this action was not blocked by strychnine. 7. It is concluded that during the first 2 weeks of life glycine acts at strychnine-sensitive receptors to open chloride channels. PMID:1804982

  16. Putative glycine receptors in Hydra: a biochemical and behavioural study.

    PubMed

    Pierobon, P; Minei, R; Porcu, P; Sogliano, C; Tino, A; Marino, G; Biggio, G; Concas, A

    2001-11-01

    Glycine acts as an inhibitory transmitter in the lower brain stem and spinal cord of vertebrate species, while very few data are yet available to support a similar role in invertebrate nervous systems. Here we report the identification and characterization of glycine receptors in the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) by biochemical and behavioural studies. Saturation experiments revealed the occurrence of one population of binding sites of nanomolar affinity (KD = 33 nm) and low capacity (Bmax = 79 fmol/mg protein) for [(3)H]strychnine. The addition of glycine or taurine (0.1 microm-1 mm) produced a dose-dependent inhibition of [(3)H]strychnine binding. Beta-alanine (0.1-1 mm) did not significantly affect [(3)H]strychnine binding. The pharmacological properties of these receptors compare with those of vertebrate glycine receptors. Stimulation of Hydra polyps by reduced glutathione resulted in a significant increase in the duration of mouth opening in the presence of glycine, taurine or beta-alanine. The enhancement of the response was related both to amino acid (10-100 microm) and to glutathione concentration (1-10 microm). The effects of glycine or its agonists were suppressed by strychnine (1-10 microm). D-serine, a glycine agonist at the vertebrate NMDA receptor, produced opposite effects to those of glycine. The effects of d-serine were suppressed by 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid but not by strychnine. In vitro, [(3)H]strychnine binding was not displaced by d-serine. These results indicate a dual action of glycine in Hydra tissues. The hypothesis that NMDA receptors may also be present in this elementary nervous system is proposed.

  17. DETECTABILITY OF GLYCINE IN SOLAR-TYPE SYSTEM PRECURSORS

    SciTech Connect

    Jiménez-Serra, Izaskun; Testi, Leonardo; Caselli, Paola; Viti, Serena E-mail: ltesti@eso.org E-mail: sv@star.ucl.ac.uk

    2014-06-01

    Glycine (NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOH) is the simplest amino acid relevant to life. Its detection in the interstellar medium is key to understanding the formation mechanisms of pre-biotic molecules and their subsequent delivery onto planetary systems. Glycine has been extensively searched for toward hot molecular cores, although these studies did not yield any firm detection. In contrast to hot cores, low-mass star forming regions, in particular their earliest stages represented by cold pre-stellar cores, may be better suited for the detection of glycine as well as more relevant to the study of pre-biotic chemistry in young solar system analogs. We present one-dimensional spherically symmetric radiative transfer calculations of the glycine emission expected to arise from the low-mass pre-stellar core L1544. Water vapor has recently been reported toward this core, indicating that a small fraction of the grain mantles in L1544 (∼0.5%) has been injected into the gas phase. Assuming that glycine is photo-desorbed together with water in L1544, and considering a solid abundance of glycine on ices of ∼10{sup –4} with respect to water, our calculations reveal that several glycine lines between 67 GHz and 80 GHz have peak intensities larger than 10 mK. These results show for the first time that glycine could reach detectable levels in cold objects such as L1544. This opens up the possibility of detecting glycine, and other pre-biotic species, at the coldest and earliest stages in the formation of solar-type systems with near-future instrumentation such as the Band 2 receivers of ALMA.

  18. Accumulation of 52 kDa glycine rich protein in auxin-deprived strawberry fruits and its role in fruit growth. [Fragaria ananassa

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, A.S.N.; Poovaiah, B.W.

    1987-04-01

    Growth of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch) receptacles can be stopped at any stage by deachening the fruits and can be resumed by exogenous application of auxin. In their earlier studies they demonstrated auxin regulated polypeptide changes at different stages of strawberry fruit development. Removal of achenes from fruits to deprive auxin resulted in the accumulation of 52 KDa polypeptide. This polypeptide is associated with cell wall and its concentration is increased in a time-dependent manner in auxin deprived receptacles. Incorporation studies with (/sup 35/S) methionine showed the promotion of labelling of 52 kDa polypeptide in the auxin-deprived receptacles within 12 h after removal of the achenes. Amino acid analysis revealed that the 52 KDa polypeptide is rich in glycine. Their studies, with normal and mutant strawberry receptacles, indicate that the synthesis and accumulation of this glycine rich protein correlates with cessation of receptacle growth. These results suggest a role for the glycine rich protein in growth.

  19. Nucleotide Accumulation Induced in Staphylococcus aureus by Glycine

    PubMed Central

    Strominger, Jack L.; Birge, Claire H.

    1965-01-01

    Strominger, Jack L. (Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Mo.), and Claire H. Birge. Nucleotide accumulation induced in Staphylococcus aureus by glycine. J. Bacteriol. 89:1124–1127. 1965.—High concentrations of glycine induce accumulation of four uridine nucleotides in Staphylococcus aureus. Investigations of their structure suggest that these compounds are uridine diphosphate (UDP)-acetylmuramic acid, UDP-acetylmuramyl-gly-d-glu-l-lys, UDP-acetylmuramyl-l-ala-d-glu-l-lys and UDP-acetylmuramyl-gly-d-glu-l-lys-d-ala-d-ala. The mechanism by which glycine may induce uridine nucleotide accumulation and protoplast formation is discussed. Images PMID:14276106

  20. Cyanide formation from oxidation of glycine of Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Wissing, F

    1974-03-01

    With whole cells of a hydrogen cyanide-producing bacterium strain C, of the genus Pseudomonas, it was found that the oxygen necessary for the oxidation of glycine to cyanide could be replaced by various artificial electron acceptors. The order of reactivity was: oxygen > phenazine methosulphate > methylene blue > 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol > ferricyanide. Cyanide production was inhibited by pyrrolnitrin, a well-known inhibitor of many flavine enzymes. The molar ratio of added glycine to cyanide produced was found to be 1.09. With whole bacteria the apparent K(m) (glycine) for the cyanide production was found to be 5.0 x 10(-4) M.

  1. Structure-activity relationships of strychnine analogs at glycine receptors.

    PubMed

    Mohsen, Amal M Y; Heller, Eberhard; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Jensen, Anders A; Zlotos, Darius P

    2014-08-01

    Nine strychnine derivatives including neostrychnine, strychnidine, isostrychnine, 21,22-dihydro-21-hydroxy-22-oxo-strychnine, and several hydrogenated analogs were synthesized, and their antagonistic activities at human α1 and α1β glycine receptors were evaluated. Isostrychnine has shown the best pharmacological profile exhibiting an IC50 value of 1.6 μM at α1 glycine receptors and 3.7-fold preference towards the α1 subtype. SAR Analysis indicates that the lactam moiety and the C(21) = C(22) bond in strychnine are essential structural features for its high antagonistic potency at glycine receptors. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  2. Cyanide Formation from Oxidation of Glycine by a Pseudomonas Species

    PubMed Central

    Wissing, Frode

    1974-01-01

    With whole cells of a hydrogen cyanide-producing bacterium strain C, of the genus Pseudomonas, it was found that the oxygen necessary for the oxidation of glycine to cyanide could be replaced by various artificial electron acceptors. The order of reactivity was: oxygen > phenazine methosulphate > methylene blue > 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol > ferricyanide. Cyanide production was inhibited by pyrrolnitrin, a well-known inhibitor of many flavine enzymes. The molar ratio of added glycine to cyanide produced was found to be 1.09. With whole bacteria the apparent Km (glycine) for the cyanide production was found to be 5.0 × 10−4 M. PMID:4813896

  3. Glycine receptor heterogeneity in rat spinal cord during postnatal development.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, C M; Hoch, W; Betz, H

    1988-01-01

    Two different isoforms of the inhibitory glycine receptor were identified during postnatal development of rat spinal cord. A neonatal form characterized by low strychnine binding affinity, altered antigenicity, and a ligand binding subunit differing in mol. wt (49 kd) from that of the adult receptor (48 kd) predominates at birth (70% of the total receptor protein). Separation from the adult form could be achieved by either use of a selective antibody or glycine gradient elution of 2-aminostrychnine affinity columns. Both isoforms co-purify with the mol. wt 93 kd peripheral membrane protein of the postsynaptic glycine receptor complex. Images PMID:2850172

  4. An automated and efficient conformational search of glycine and a glycine-water heterodimer both in vacuum and in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimoto, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Stable conformers and the conformational isomerization pathways of glycine and the glycine-H2O heterodimer were explored using an efficient automated conformational searching method. The Gibbs energies of the conformers and transition structures of glycine and a glycine-H2O heterodimer at 400, 298, and 150 K were also calculated. In addition, estimated ratios of conformers, assuming thermodynamic equilibrium, were calculated and compared with the results of spectroscopic experiments. Solvent effects were introduced into the exploration process using the polarizable continuum model (PCM), and conversion (tautomerization) pathways from neutral to zwitterionic states for both glycine and a glycine-H2O heterodimer in aqueous solution were compared.

  5. Enzymes of serine and glycine metabolism in leaves and non-photosynthetic tissues of Pisum sativum L.

    PubMed

    Walton, N J; Woolhouse, H W

    1986-01-01

    A comparative study is presented of the activities of enzymes of glycine and serine metabolism in leaves, germinated cotyledons and root apices of pea (Pisum sativum L.). Data are given for aminotransferase activities with glyoxylate, hydroxypyruvate and pyruvate, for enzymes associated with serine synthesis from 3-phosphoglycerate and for glycine decarboxylase and serine hydroxymethyltransferase. Aminotransferase activities differ between the tissues in that, firstly, appreciable transamination of serine, hydroxypyruvate and asparagine occurs only in leaf extracts and, secondly, glyoxylate is transaminated more actively than pyruvate in leaf extracts, whereas the converse is true of extracts of cotyledons and root apices. Alanine is the most active amino-group donor to both glyoxylate and hydroxypyruvate. 3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase and glutamate: O-phosphohydroxypyruvate aminotransferase have comparable activities in all three tissues, except germinated cotyledons, in which the aminotransferase appears to be undetectable. Glycollate oxidase is virtually undetectable in the non-photosynthetic tissues and in these tissues the activity of glycerate dehydrogenase is much lower than that of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase. Glycine decarboxylase activity in leaves, measured in the presence of oxaloacetate, is equal to about 30-40% of the measured rate of CO2 fixation and is therefore adequate to account for the expected rate of photorespiration. The activity of glycine decarboxylase in the non-photosynthetic tissues is calculated to be about 2-5% of the activity in leaves and has the characteristics of a pyridoxal-and tetrahydrofolate-dependent mitochondrial reaction; it is stimulated by oxaloacetate, although not by ADP. In leaves, the measured activity of serine hydroxymethyltransferase is somewhat lower than that of glycine decarboxylase, whereas in root apices it is substantially higher. Differential centrifugation of extracts of root apices suggests that an

  6. Green Tea and Glycine Modulate the Activity of Metalloproteinases and Collagen in the Tendinitis of the Myotendinous Junction of the Achilles Tendon.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Cristiano Pedrozo; De Oliveira, LetÍCia Prado; Da Ré Guerra, Flávia; Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra; Pimentel, Edson Rosa

    2016-07-01

    The myotendinous junction (MTJ) is the weakest element in the muscle-tendon unit of the heel, and thus the most susceptible to injuries. The scarcity of adequate treatments means that tendinitis is a major concern to athletes and other groups who depend on their physical fitness, although green tea and glycine have both been shown to have beneficial effects on the inflammation. The present study investigated the remodeling effects of green tea and glycine in the MTJ of rats with tendinitis. For this, male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: animals without tendinitis and animals with tendinitis; animals with tendinitis supplied with green tea; animals with tendinitis supplied with a glycine diet; animals with tendinitis supplied with a green tea and glycine diet. Tendinitis was induced and the treatment with green tea (700 mg/kg/day) and a 5% glycine diet lasted 7 days. The treatments regulated the activity of metalloproteinases (MMP)-2, -8, and -9, and induced the synthesis of type I collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and non-collagenous proteins. Changes were also noted in the compaction of the collagen molecules and the amount of tenocytes. When combined, green tea and glycine modulated the inflammatory process and induced the synthesis of the elements involved in the post-lesion recovery of the tissue. The data from the MTJ were different when compared with results already published using the whole Achilles tendon. These data indicate that each region of the inflamed tendon can exhibit different responses during the treatment and therefore, modify its extracellular matrix components to facilitate recovery and repair. Anat Rec, 299:918-928, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A Study of the Interaction of Glycine and its Oligohomopeptides with Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde Under Possible Primitive Earth Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Ch. P.; Ivanov, O. Ch.; Simeonova, R. A.; Mirkova, G. D.

    1983-12-01

    It is established that glycine and glycine oligohomopeptides interact with formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in a homogeneous weak acid medium (pH 3.3 3.7) at mild temperatures (60 80°C) in the absence of inorganic solid substances. Together with the expected serine and threonine, the formation of alanine, glutamic and aspartic acid, norvaline and isoleucine, as well as four non-protein amino acids is also established. It is suggested that the non-protein amino acids are hydroxymethylserine, hydroxymethylthreonine, hydroxymethylaspartic acid and γ-amino-δ-hydroxyvaleric acid. The modes of formation of all protein and non-protein amino acids are discussed. These results strengthen the probability that similar processes may have been one of the pathways for the prebiotic synthesis of amino acids on primitive Earth.

  8. Free Glycine Accelerates the Autoproteolytic Activation of Human Asparaginase

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ying; Karamitros, Christos S.; Nomme, Julian; McSorley, Theresa; Konrad, Manfred; Lavie, Arnon

    2013-01-01

    Human asparaginase 3 (hASNase3), which belongs to the N-terminal nucleophile (Ntn) hydrolase superfamily, is synthesized as a single polypeptide that is devoid of asparaginase activity. Intramolecular autoproteolytic processing releases the amino group of Thr168, a moiety required for catalyzing asparagine hydrolysis. Recombinant hASNase3 purifies as the uncleaved, asparaginase-inactive form, and undergoes self-cleavage to the active form at a very slow rate. Here we show that the free amino acid glycine selectively acts to accelerate hASNase3 cleavage both in vitro and in human cells. Other small amino acids such as alanine, serine, or the substrate asparagine are not capable of promoting autoproteolysis. Crystal structures of hASNase3 in complex with glycine in the uncleaved and cleaved enzyme states reveal the mechanism of glycine-accelerated post-translational processing, and explain why no other amino acid can substitute for glycine. PMID:23601642

  9. Comparison of Enzymatic Traits between Native and Recombinant Glycine Sarcosine N-Methyltransferase from Methanohalophilus portucalensis FDF1T.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shu-Jung; Deng, Yu-Chen; Lai, Mei-Chin

    2016-01-01

    The halophilic methanoarchaeon Methanohalophilus portucalensis FDF1T possesses the ability to synthesize the osmolyte betaine from its precursor, glycine, in response to extracellular salt stress through a three-step transmethylation process. Analysis of recombinant glycine sarcosine N-methyltransferase (rGSMT) and recombinant sarcosine dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase (rSDMT) from Escherichia coli indicated that betaine synthesis is rate-limited by rGSMT and is constitutively activated by rSDMT. Therefore, it is of interest to purify native GSMT from Methanohalophilus portucalensis to further compare its enzymatic characteristics and kinetics with rGSMT. In this study, native GSMT was purified through DEAE ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography with 95% purity. The enzymatic characteristics of GSMT and rGSMT showed similar trends of activities that were activated by high concentrations of monovalent cations. Both were feedback-inhibited by the end product, betaine, and competitively inhibited by S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). Native GSMT was 2-fold more sensitive to SAH than rGSMT. Notably, comparison of the kinetic parameters illustrated that the turnover rate of glycine methylation of GSMT was promoted by potassium ions, whereas rGSMT was activated by increasing protein-glycine binding affinity. These results suggest that GSMT and rGSMT may have different levels of post-translational modifications. Our preliminary mass spectrometry evidence indicated that there was no detectable phosphosite on GSMT after the complicated purification processes, whereas purified rGSMT still possessed 23.1% of its initial phosphorylation level. We believe that a phosphorylation-mediated modification may be involved in the regulation of this energy consuming betaine synthesis pathway during the stress response in halophilic methanoarchaea.

  10. Biosynthesis of the osmoprotectant ectoine, but not glycine betaine, is critical for survival of osmotically stressed Vibrio parahaemolyticus cells.

    PubMed

    Ongagna-Yhombi, Serge Y; Boyd, E Fidelma

    2013-08-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophile present in marine and estuarine environments, ecosystems characterized by fluctuations in salinity and temperature. One strategy to thrive in such environments is the synthesis and/or uptake of compatible solutes. The V. parahaemolyticus genome contains biosynthesis systems for both ectoine and glycine betaine, which are known to act as compatible solutes in other species. We showed that V. parahaemolyticus had a 6% NaCl tolerance when grown in M9 minimal medium with 0.4% glucose (M9G) with a >5-h lag phase. By using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-NMR) analysis, we determined that cells synthesized ectoine and glutamate in a NaCl-dependent manner. The most effective compatible solutes as measured by a reduction in lag-phase growth in M9G with 6% NaCl (M9G 6% NaCl) were in the order glycine betaine > choline > proline = glutamate > ectoine. However, V. parahaemolyticus could use glutamate or proline as the sole carbon source, but not ectoine or glycine betaine, which suggests that these are bona fide compatible solutes. Expression analysis showed that the ectA and betA genes were more highly expressed in log-phase cells, and expression of both genes was induced by NaCl up-shock. Under all conditions examined, the ectA gene was more highly expressed than the betA gene. Analysis of in-frame deletions in betA and ectB and in a double mutant showed that the ectB mutant was defective for growth, and this defect was rescued by the addition of glycine betaine, proline, ectoine, and glutamate, indicating that these compounds are compatible solutes for this species. The presence of both synthesis systems was the predominant distribution pattern among members of the Vibrionaceae family, suggesting this is the ancestral state.

  11. Comparison of Enzymatic Traits between Native and Recombinant Glycine Sarcosine N-Methyltransferase from Methanohalophilus portucalensis FDF1T

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Shu-Jung; Deng, Yu-Chen; Lai, Mei-Chin

    2016-01-01

    The halophilic methanoarchaeon Methanohalophilus portucalensis FDF1T possesses the ability to synthesize the osmolyte betaine from its precursor, glycine, in response to extracellular salt stress through a three-step transmethylation process. Analysis of recombinant glycine sarcosine N-methyltransferase (rGSMT) and recombinant sarcosine dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase (rSDMT) from Escherichia coli indicated that betaine synthesis is rate-limited by rGSMT and is constitutively activated by rSDMT. Therefore, it is of interest to purify native GSMT from Methanohalophilus portucalensis to further compare its enzymatic characteristics and kinetics with rGSMT. In this study, native GSMT was purified through DEAE ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography with 95% purity. The enzymatic characteristics of GSMT and rGSMT showed similar trends of activities that were activated by high concentrations of monovalent cations. Both were feedback-inhibited by the end product, betaine, and competitively inhibited by S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). Native GSMT was 2-fold more sensitive to SAH than rGSMT. Notably, comparison of the kinetic parameters illustrated that the turnover rate of glycine methylation of GSMT was promoted by potassium ions, whereas rGSMT was activated by increasing protein-glycine binding affinity. These results suggest that GSMT and rGSMT may have different levels of post-translational modifications. Our preliminary mass spectrometry evidence indicated that there was no detectable phosphosite on GSMT after the complicated purification processes, whereas purified rGSMT still possessed 23.1% of its initial phosphorylation level. We believe that a phosphorylation-mediated modification may be involved in the regulation of this energy consuming betaine synthesis pathway during the stress response in halophilic methanoarchaea. PMID:28036340

  12. Characterization of Seed Storage Proteins of Several Perennial Glycine Species.

    PubMed

    Song, Bo; Oehrle, Nathan W; Liu, Shanshan; Krishnan, Hari B

    2016-11-16

    Perennial Glycine species, distant relatives of soybean, have been recognized as a potential source of new genetic diversity for soybean improvement. The subgenus Glycine includes around 30 perennial species, which are well-adapted to drought conditions and possess resistance to a number of soybean pathogens. In spite of the potential of the perennial Glycine species for soybean improvement, very little is known about their storage proteins and their relationship with cultivated soybean seed proteins. We have examined the seed protein composition of nine perennial Glycine species by one- and two-dimensional (1-D and 2-D) gel electrophoresis. The relationship between cultivated soybean and perennial soybean seed proteins was examined by immunoblot analyses using antibodies raised against G. max β-conglycinin, glycinin A3 subunit, lipoxygenase, leginsulin, Kunitz trypsin inhibitor, and Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor. Additionally, we have measured the trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor activities from cultivated soybean and perennial Glycine species and have found marked differences between them. Our 2-D gel and immunoblot analyses demonstrate significant differences in the protein composition and size heterogeneities of the 7S and 11S seed storage proteins of soybean and perennial Glycine species. Perennial Glycine species accumulated a 45 kDa protein that was not detected in G. max and G. soja. This unique 45 kDa protein was immunologically related to the A3 glycinin subunit of G. max. The results of our studies suggest that even though the seed proteins of wild perennial Glycine species and G. max are immunologically related, their genes have diverged from each other during the course of evolution.

  13. Enhancement of glycine receptor function by ethanol: role of phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Paola Mascia, Maria; Wick, Marilee J; Martinez, Larry D; Harris, R Adron

    1998-01-01

    The effects of several kinase inhibitors (staurosporine, GF 109203X, H89, KN62, genistein) and of the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A were studied on the ethanol potentiation and on the function of homomeric α1 glycine receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes using a two electrode voltage clamp recording technique.The function of the homomeric α1 glycine receptor was not modified in Xenopus oocytes pretreated with kinase inhibitors or with the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A.The potentiation of the glycine receptor function induced by ethanol (10–200 mM) was significantly reduced in Xenopus oocytes pretreated with the PKC inhibitors staurosporine or GF 109203X.No differences in propofol (2.5 μM) or halothane (250 μM) actions were found after exposure of Xenopus oocytes to staurosporine.No differences in ethanol sensitivity were found after exposure of Xenopus oocytes expressing glycine α1 receptors to H89, KN62, genistein or to the phosphatase inhibitor calyculin A.The mutant α1 (S391A), in which the PKC phosphorylation site at serine 391 was mutated to alanine, was less sensitive to the effects of ethanol than was the α1 wild type receptor. Moreover, the ethanol potentiation of the glycine receptor function was not affected by treatment with staurosporine in oocytes expressing α1 (S391A).The splice variant of the α1 glycine receptor subunit, α1ins, containing eight additional amino acids and a potential phosphorylation site for PKA, did not differ from wild type for sensitivity to ethanol.These results indicate that phosphorylation by PKC of the homomeric α1 glycine receptor subunit modulates ethanol potentiation, but not the function of the glycine receptor. PMID:9786497

  14. Spectral Luminescent Properties of the Glycine Molecule in a Gas Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    General, A. A.; Migovich, M. I.; Kelman, V. A.; Zhmenyak, Yu. V.; Zvenigorodsky, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    We have experimentally studied the luminescence spectra of glycine powder in the plasma of a repetitively pulsed longitudinal discharge in argon-glycine and helium-glycine mixtures. We have identified the main fragments of the glycine molecule emitting in the 200-1000 nm region. The emitting molecules due to fragmentation of glycine and dissociation of the carboxyl (-COOH) and amino (-NH2) groups are nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and cyanogen molecules.

  15. Comparative analysis of complete plastid genomes from wild soybean (Glycine soja) and nine other Glycine species

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Aaqil Khan, Muhammad; Muhammad Imran, Qari; Kang, Sang-Mo; Al-Hosni, Khdija; Jeong, Eun Ju; Lee, Ko Eun; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    The plastid genomes of different plant species exhibit significant variation, thereby providing valuable markers for exploring evolutionary relationships and population genetics. Glycine soja (wild soybean) is recognized as the wild ancestor of cultivated soybean (G. max), representing a valuable genetic resource for soybean breeding programmes. In the present study, the complete plastid genome of G. soja was sequenced using Illumina paired-end sequencing and then compared it for the first time with previously reported plastid genome sequences from nine other Glycine species. The G. soja plastid genome was 152,224 bp in length and possessed a typical quadripartite structure, consisting of a pair of inverted repeats (IRa/IRb; 25,574 bp) separated by small (178,963 bp) and large (83,181 bp) single-copy regions, with a 51-kb inversion in the large single-copy region. The genome encoded 134 genes, including 87 protein-coding genes, eight ribosomal RNA genes, and 39 transfer RNA genes, and possessed 204 randomly distributed microsatellites, including 15 forward, 25 tandem, and 34 palindromic repeats. Whole-plastid genome comparisons revealed an overall high degree of sequence similarity between G. max and G. gracilis and some divergence in the intergenic spacers of other species. Greater numbers of indels and SNP substitutions were observed compared with G. cyrtoloba. The sequence of the accD gene from G. soja was highly divergent from those of the other species except for G. max and G. gracilis. Phylogenomic analyses of the complete plastid genomes and 76 shared genes yielded an identical topology and indicated that G. soja is closely related to G. max and G. gracilis. The complete G. soja genome sequenced in the present study is a valuable resource for investigating the population and evolutionary genetics of Glycine species and can be used to identify related species. PMID:28763486

  16. Growth of gamma glycine crystal and its characterisation.

    PubMed

    Peter, M Esthaku; Ramasamy, P

    2010-05-01

    Single crystal of gamma-glycine, an organic nonlinear optical material, has been grown by solvent evaporation technique from a mixture of aqueous solutions of glycine and potassium nitrate, lithium nitrate at room temperature. Gamma glycine crystals have been grown up to the dimension of 20mmx15mmx12mm. Powder X-ray diffraction of the grown crystal was recorded and indexed. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies were carried out and the unit cell parameters were compared with the literature values. The gamma-phase of glycine is confirmed by single crystal XRD and FTIR spectral analysis. The crystals were characterised by UV-vis-NIR transmission spectrum in the range 200-1100nm. The second harmonic generation conversion efficiency of gamma-glycine crystal was twice the efficiency of KDP crystal. Thermal characteristics of gamma-glycine crystals were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis, which shows the thermal stability of the grown crystals. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss measurements were carried out at different temperatures and frequencies. The microhardness of the grown crystals has been studied using Vicker's microhardness tester.

  17. Glycine betaine uptake after hyperosmotic shift in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed Central

    Farwick, M; Siewe, R M; Krämer, R

    1995-01-01

    Osmoregulatory uptake of glycine betaine in whole cells of Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 (wild type) was studied. The cells actively take up glycine betaine when they are osmotically shocked. The total accumulation and uptake rate were dependent on the osmotic strength of the medium. Kinetic analysis revealed a high-affinity transport system (Km, 8.6 +/- 0.4 microM) with high maximum velocity (110 nmol.min-1.mg [dry weight]-1). Glycine betaine functioned as a compatible solute when added to the medium and allowed growth at an otherwise inhibitory osmotic strength of 1.5 M NaCl. Proline and ectoine could also be used as osmoprotectants. Glycine betaine is neither synthesized nor metabolized by C. glutamicum. The glycine betaine transport system is constitutively expressed at a basal level of activity. It can be induced up to eightfold by osmotic stress and is strongly regulated at the level of activity. The transport system is highly specific and has its pH optimum in the slightly alkaline range at about pH 8. The uptake of the zwitterionic glycine betaine is mediated by a secondary symport system coupled to cotransport of at least two Na+ ions. It is thus driven both by the membrane potential and the Na+ gradient. An extremely high accumulation (internal/external) ratio of up to 4 x 10(6) was measured, which represents the highest accumulation ratio observed for any transport system. PMID:7642496

  18. Effect of temperature and pressure on the protonation of glycine

    PubMed Central

    Izatt, R. M.; Oscarson, J. L.; Gillespie, S. E.; Grimsrud, H.; Renuncio, J. A. R.; Pando, C.

    1992-01-01

    Flow calorimetry has been used to study the interaction of glycine with protons in water at temperatures of 298.15, 323.15, and 348.15 K and pressures up to 12.50 MPa. By combining the measured heat for glycine solutions titrated with NaOH with the heat of ionization for water, the enthalpy of protonation of glycine is obtained. The reaction is exothermic at all temperatures and pressures studied. The effect of pressure on the enthalpy of reaction is very small. The experimental heat data are analyzed to yield equilibrium constant (K), enthalpy change (ΔH), and entropy change (ΔS) values for the protonation reaction as a function of temperature. These values are compared with those reported previously at 298.15 K. The ΔH and ΔS values increase (become more positive), whereas log K values decrease, as temperature increases. The trends for ΔH and ΔS with temperature are opposite to those reported previously for the protonation of several alkanolamines. However, log K values for proton interaction with both glycine and the alkanolamines decrease with increasing temperature. The effect of the nitrogen atom substituent on log K for protonation of glycine and alkanolamines is discussed in terms of changes in long-range and short-range solvent effects. These effects are used to explain the difference in ΔH and ΔS trends between glycine protonation and those found earlier for alkanolamine protonation. PMID:19431832

  19. Molecular basis for substrate discrimination by glycine transporters.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, Robert J; Shaddick, Kim; Ju, Pengchu

    2007-05-11

    Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord and brain stem, where it acts on strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors, and is also an excitatory neurotransmitter throughout the brain and spinal cord, where it acts on the N-methyl-d-aspartate family of receptors. There are two Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent glycine transporters, GLYT1 and GLYT2, which control extracellular glycine concentrations and these transporters show differences in substrate selectivity and blocker sensitivity. A bacterial Na(+)-dependent leucine transporter (LeuT(Aa)) has recently been crystallized and its structure determined. When the amino acid residues within the leucine binding site of LeuT(Aa) are aligned with residues of the two glycine transporters there are a number of identical residues and also some key differences. In this report, we demonstrate that the LeuT(Aa) structure represents a good working model of the Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent neurotransmitters and that differences in substrate selectivity can be attributed to a single difference of a glycine residue in transmembrane domain 6 of GLYT1 for a serine residue at the corresponding position of GLYT2.

  20. Comparative mapping of the wild perennial Glycine latifolia and soybean (G. max) reveals extensive chromosome rearrangements in the genus Glycine.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sungyul; Thurber, Carrie S; Brown, Patrick J; Hartman, Glen L; Lambert, Kris N; Domier, Leslie L

    2014-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Mer.), like many cultivated crops, has a relatively narrow genetic base and lacks diversity for some economically important traits. Glycine latifolia (Benth.) Newell & Hymowitz, one of the 26 perennial wild Glycine species related to soybean in the subgenus Glycine Willd., shows high levels of resistance to multiple soybean pathogens and pests including Alfalfa mosaic virus, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. However, limited information is available on the genomes of these perennial Glycine species. To generate molecular resources for gene mapping and identification, high-density linkage maps were constructed for G. latifolia using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated by genotyping by sequencing and evaluated in an F2 population and confirmed in an F5 population. In each population, greater than 2,300 SNP markers were selected for analysis and segregated to form 20 large linkage groups. Marker orders were similar in the F2 and F5 populations. The relationships between G. latifolia linkage groups and G. max and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) chromosomes were examined by aligning SNP-containing sequences from G. latifolia to the genome sequences of G. max and P. vulgaris. Twelve of the 20 G. latifolia linkage groups were nearly collinear with G. max chromosomes. The remaining eight G. latifolia linkage groups appeared to be products of multiple interchromosomal translocations relative to G. max. Large syntenic blocks also were observed between G. latifolia and P. vulgaris. These experiments are the first to compare genome organizations among annual and perennial Glycine species and common bean. The development of molecular resources for species closely related to G. max provides information into the evolution of genomes within the genus Glycine and tools to identify genes within perennial wild relatives of cultivated soybean that could be beneficial to soybean production.

  1. Comparative Mapping of the Wild Perennial Glycine latifolia and Soybean (G. max) Reveals Extensive Chromosome Rearrangements in the Genus Glycine

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sungyul; Thurber, Carrie S.; Brown, Patrick J.; Hartman, Glen L.; Lambert, Kris N.; Domier, Leslie L.

    2014-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max L. Mer.), like many cultivated crops, has a relatively narrow genetic base and lacks diversity for some economically important traits. Glycine latifolia (Benth.) Newell & Hymowitz, one of the 26 perennial wild Glycine species related to soybean in the subgenus Glycine Willd., shows high levels of resistance to multiple soybean pathogens and pests including Alfalfa mosaic virus, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. However, limited information is available on the genomes of these perennial Glycine species. To generate molecular resources for gene mapping and identification, high-density linkage maps were constructed for G. latifolia using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated by genotyping by sequencing and evaluated in an F2 population and confirmed in an F5 population. In each population, greater than 2,300 SNP markers were selected for analysis and segregated to form 20 large linkage groups. Marker orders were similar in the F2 and F5 populations. The relationships between G. latifolia linkage groups and G. max and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) chromosomes were examined by aligning SNP-containing sequences from G. latifolia to the genome sequences of G. max and P. vulgaris. Twelve of the 20 G. latifolia linkage groups were nearly collinear with G. max chromosomes. The remaining eight G. latifolia linkage groups appeared to be products of multiple interchromosomal translocations relative to G. max. Large syntenic blocks also were observed between G. latifolia and P. vulgaris. These experiments are the first to compare genome organizations among annual and perennial Glycine species and common bean. The development of molecular resources for species closely related to G. max provides information into the evolution of genomes within the genus Glycine and tools to identify genes within perennial wild relatives of cultivated soybean that could be beneficial to soybean production. PMID

  2. Rapid Multistep Synthesis of a Bioactive Peptidomimetic Oligomer for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utku, Yeliz; Rohatgi, Abhinav; Yoo, Barney; Kirshenbaum, Kent; Zuckermann, Ronald N.; Pohl, Nicola L.

    2010-01-01

    Peptidomimetic compounds are increasingly important in drug-discovery applications. We introduce the synthesis of an N-substituted glycine oligomer, a bioactive "peptoid" trimer. The six-step protocol is conducted on solid-phase resin, enabling the synthesis to be performed by undergraduate organic chemistry students. This synthesis lab was…

  3. Rapid Multistep Synthesis of a Bioactive Peptidomimetic Oligomer for the Undergraduate Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utku, Yeliz; Rohatgi, Abhinav; Yoo, Barney; Kirshenbaum, Kent; Zuckermann, Ronald N.; Pohl, Nicola L.

    2010-01-01

    Peptidomimetic compounds are increasingly important in drug-discovery applications. We introduce the synthesis of an N-substituted glycine oligomer, a bioactive "peptoid" trimer. The six-step protocol is conducted on solid-phase resin, enabling the synthesis to be performed by undergraduate organic chemistry students. This synthesis lab was…

  4. Inoculation Method for Studying Early Responses of Glycine max to Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingam, R.; Knap, H. T.; Lewis, S. A.

    1998-01-01

    An inoculation technique was developed for studying molecular responses of soybean to the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines). Effect of inoculum age (0-7 days after eggs were released from cysts) and inoculation site (meristem, elongation, or differentiation zone) on infection were tested on four soybean genotypes. Two genotypes (PI 437654 and cv. Peking) were resistant and two (cv. Essex and cv. Hutcheson) were susceptible to race 3 of H. glycines. Inoculum consisting of second-stage juveniles (J2) was prepared by gently agitating nematode eggs at 75 revolutions per minute at 28 °C for various intervals. Infection rates were monitored cytologically. The most consistent infection rate was obtained with 48-hour-old inoculum containing more than 80% J2. More than 100 juveniles/root were observed after inoculation with the 48-hour-old inoculum placed at the root elongation zone, in both resistant and susceptible soybeans. Horizontal orientation of roots during inoculation, the use of concentrated J2 inoculurn (500 J2 in 125 μl/root), and restriction of inoculum to the root elongation zone facilitated synchronous root infection. PMID:19274216

  5. [Relationship between chloride tolerance and polyamine accumulation in Glycine max, Glycine soja, and their hybrid seedlings].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuan-Qin; Yu, Bing-Jun; Liu, You-Liang

    2007-02-01

    The seedlings of the F4 hybrid strain 'JB185' selected for salt tolerance generation by generation, their parents Glycine max cv. Jackson and Glycine soja population 'BB52' were treated with different NaCl concentrations and iso-osmotic (-0.53 MPa) PEG-6000, NaCl, Na+ (without Cl-) and Cl- (without Na+) solutions for 6 d. The results showed that: (1) The relative electrolyte leakage and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves of the above three soybean seedlings showed an increase trend when the NaCl concentration was elevated, but chlorophyll contents decreased except the significant increase in 'BB52' and 'JB185' under NaCl 50 mmol/L stress. The change in 'JB185' was between its parents. (2) Under different iso-osmotic stresses, the relative electrolyte leakage and MDA contents in leaves of three soybean seedlings also increased mostly, the changes in 'BB52' and 'JB185' under Na+ (without Cl-) stress were more than those under Cl- (without Na+) stress. The free and bound Put, Spd and Spm contents in leaves all increased when compared with the control, the ratios of free (Spd+Spm)/Put and total bound polyamines in 'BB52' and 'JB185' seedlings under Na+ (without Cl-) treatment were the lowest one among three iso-osmotic salt stresses. The results indicate that the F4 hybrid strain 'JB185' is more sensitive to Na+ than Cl- as its wild parent 'BB52' population.

  6. Diversity of endophytic fungi in Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Elio Gomes; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; da Silva, Cynthia Cânedo; Bento, Claudia Braga Pereira; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Endophytic fungi are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing disease during part of their life cycle. With the isolation and identification of these fungi, new species are being discovered, and ecological relationships with their hosts have also been studied. In Glycine max, limited studies have investigated the isolation and distribution of endophytic fungi throughout leaves and roots. The distribution of these fungi in various plant organs differs in diversity and abundance, even when analyzed using molecular techniques that can evaluate fungal communities in different parts of the plants, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results show there is greater species richness of culturable endophytic filamentous fungi in the leaves G. max as compared to roots. Additionally, the leaves had high values for diversity indices, i.e. Simpsons, Shannon and Equitability. Conversely, dominance index was higher in roots as compared to leaves. The fungi Ampelomyces sp., Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Diaporthe helianthi, Guignardia mangiferae and Phoma sp. were more frequently isolated from the leaves, whereas the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Fusarium sp. were prevalent in the roots. However, by evaluating the two communities by DGGE, we concluded that the species richness was higher in the roots than in the leaves. UPGMA analysis showed consistent clustering of isolates; however, the fungus Leptospora rubella, which belongs to the order Dothideales, was grouped among species of the order Pleosporales. The presence of endophytic Fusarium species in G. max roots is unsurprising, since Fusarium spp. isolates have been previously described as endophyte in other reports. However, it remains to be determined whether the G. max Fusarium endophytes are latent pathogens or non-pathogenic forms that benefit the plant. This study provides a broader knowledge of the distribution of the fungal

  7. A Role for Accumbal Glycine Receptors in Modulation of Dopamine Release by the Glycine Transporter-1 Inhibitor Org25935

    PubMed Central

    Lidö, Helga Höifödt; Ericson, Mia; Marston, Hugh; Söderpalm, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Accumbal glycine modulates basal and ethanol-induced dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (nAc) as well as voluntary ethanol consumption. Also, systemic administration of the glycine transporter-1 inhibitor Org25935 elevates dopamine levels in nAc, prevents a further ethanol-induced dopamine elevation and robustly and dose-dependently decreases ethanol consumption in rats. Here we investigated whether Org25935 applied locally in nAc modulates dopamine release, and whether accumbal glycine receptors or NMDA receptors are involved in this tentative effect. We also addressed whether Org25935 and ethanol applied locally in nAc interact with dopamine levels, as seen after systemic administration. We used in vivo microdialysis coupled to HPLC-ED in freely moving male Wistar rats to monitor dopamine output in nAc after local perfusion of Org25935 alone, with ethanol, or Org25935-perfusion after pre-treatment with the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine or the NMDA receptor glycine site antagonist L-701.324. Local Org25935 increased extracellular dopamine levels in a subpopulation of rats. Local strychnine, but not systemic L-701.324, antagonized the dopamine-activating effect of Org25935. Ethanol failed to induce a dopamine overflow in the subpopulation responding to Org25935 with a dopamine elevation. The study supports a role for accumbal glycine receptors rather than NMDA receptor signaling in the dopamine-activating effect of Org25935. The results further indicate that the previously reported systemic Org25935–ethanol interaction with regard to accumbal dopamine is localized to the nAc. This adds to the growing evidence for the glycine receptor as an important player in the dopamine reward circuitry and in ethanol's effects within this system. PMID:21556278

  8. Zinc Enhances Ethanol Modulation of the α1 Glycine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Lindsay M.; Trudell, James R.; Goldstein, Beth E.; Harris, R. Adron; Mihic, S. John

    2009-01-01

    Summary Glycine receptor function mediates most inhibitory neurotransmission in the brainstem and spinal cord and is enhanced by alcohols, volatile anesthetics, inhaled drugs of abuse, and endogenous compounds including zinc. Because zinc exists ubiquitously throughout the brain, investigations of its effects on the enhancement of GlyR function by alcohols and anesthetics are important to understanding the effects of these agents in vivo. In the present study, the effects of zinc plus ethanol, pentanol, or isoflurane were tested on homomeric α1 glycine receptors to determine if concurrent applications of physiological concentrations of zinc with each of these modulators changed the magnitude of their effects. Homomeric α1 glycine receptors were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and the two-electrode voltage clamp technique was used to measure glycine-mediated currents in the presence of combinations of zinc with ethanol, pentanol or isoflurane. The combined effects of zinc plus ethanol were greater than the sum of the effects produced by either compound alone. However, this was not seen when zinc was combined with either pentanol or isoflurane. Chelation of zinc by tricine decreased the effects of submaximal, but not maximal, concentrations of glycine, and diminished the magnitude of ethanol enhancement observed. These findings suggest a zinc/ethanol interaction at the α1 GlyR that results in the enhancement of the effects of ethanol action on GlyR function. PMID:19913039

  9. Erythrocyte glycine in depressed, hypomanic, and euthymic bipolar patients treated with lithium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Peselow, E D; Deutsch, S I; Stanley, M; Banay-Schwartz, M; Virgilio, J; Fieve, R R

    1982-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) glycine levels were examined in 27 bipolar patients, treated with lithium carbonate for a minimum of 8 months, who were either hypomanic, depressed, or euthymic in their mood. We found no difference in the RBC glycine or in the RBC: plasma glycine ratio between the hypomanic, depressed, or euthymic patients (P less than 0.1). There were statistically significant differences in RBC glycine levels in lithium-treated euthymic patients and normal controls. There was a strong positive correlation between serum lithium levels and both RBC glycine levels and the RBC: plasma glycine ratio.

  10. Thermoluminescence of novel MgO-CeO2 obtained by a glycine-based solution combustion method.

    PubMed

    Barrón, Victor Ramón Orante; Ochoa, Flor María Escobar; Vázquez, Catalina Cruz; Bernal, Rodolfo

    2016-11-01

    Thermoluminescence dosimetry properties of novel MgO-CeO2 obtained by solution combustion synthesis in a glycine-nitrate process, are presented for the very first time. X-ray diffraction indicates the presence of cubic MgO and cerianite (CeO2) for the annealed powder samples. Dosimetry features such as linear behaviour of the dose response without saturation in the dose interval studied, as well as asymptotic behaviour of the thermoluminescent signal fading place MgO-CeO2 phosphor as a promising material for low-dose radiation dosimetry applications.

  11. Glycine Betaine, Carnitine, and Choline Enhance Salinity Tolerance and Prevent the Accumulation of Sodium to a Level Inhibiting Growth of Tetragenococcus halophila

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Hervé; Le Marrec, Claire; Blanco, Carlos; Jebbar, Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    Natural-abundance 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance was used to probe the intracellular organic solute content of the moderately halophilic bacterium Tetragenococcus halophila. When grown in complex growth media supplemented or not with NaCl, T. halophila accumulates glycine betaine and carnitine. Unlike other moderate halophiles, T. halophila was not able to produce potent osmoprotectants (such as ectoines and glycine betaine) through de novo synthesis when cultured in defined medium under hyperosmotic constraint. Addition of 2 mM carnitine, glycine betaine, or choline to defined medium improved growth parameters, not only at high salinity (up to 2.5 M NaCl) but also in media lacking NaCl. These compounds were taken up when available in the surrounding medium. The transport activity occurred at low and high salinities and seems to be constitutive. Glycine betaine and carnitine were accumulated by T. halophila in an unmodified form, while exogenously provided choline led to an intracellular accumulation of glycine betaine. This is the first evidence of the existence of a choline-glycine betaine pathway in a lactic acid bacterium. An assay showed that the compatible solutes strikingly repressed the accumulation of glutamate and slightly increased the intracellular potassium level only at high salinity. Interestingly, osmoprotectant-treated cells were able to maintain the intracellular sodium concentration at a relatively constant level (200 to 300 nmol/mg [dry weight]), independent of the NaCl concentration of the medium. In contrast, in the absence of osmoprotectant, the intracellular sodium content increased sharply from 200 to 2,060 nmol/mg (dry weight) when the salinity of the medium was raised from 1 to 2 M. Indeed, the imported compatible solutes play an actual role in regulating the intracellular Na+ content and confer a much higher salt tolerance to T. halophila. PMID:10653711

  12. Timecourse microarray analyses reveal global changes in gene expression of susceptible Glycine max (soybean) roots during infection by Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode).

    PubMed

    Alkharouf, Nadim W; Klink, Vincent P; Chouikha, Imed B; Beard, Hunter S; MacDonald, Margaret H; Meyer, Susan; Knap, Halina T; Khan, Rana; Matthews, Benjamin F

    2006-09-01

    Changes in gene expression within roots of Glycine max (soybean), cv. Kent, susceptible to infection by Heterodera glycines (the soybean cyst nematode [SCN]), at 6, 12, and 24 h, and 2, 4, 6, and 8 days post-inoculation were monitored using microarrays containing more than 6,000 cDNA inserts. Replicate, independent biological samples were examined at each time point. Gene expression was analyzed statistically using T-tests, ANOVA, clustering algorithms, and online analytical processing (OLAP). These analyses allow the user to query the data in several ways without importing the data into third-party software. RT-PCR confirmed that WRKY6 transcription factor, trehalose phosphate synthase, EIF4a, Skp1, and CLB1 were differentially induced across most time-points. Other genes induced across most timepoints included lipoxygenase, calmodulin, phospholipase C, metallothionein-like protein, and chalcone reductase. RT-PCR demonstrated enhanced expression during the first 12 h of infection for Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and sucrose synthase. The stress-related gene, SAM-22, phospholipase D and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase were also induced at the early time-points. At 6 and 8 dpi there was an abundance of transcripts expressed that encoded genes involved in transcription and protein synthesis. Some of those genes included ribosomal proteins, and initiation and elongation factors. Several genes involved in carbon metabolism and transport were also more abundant. Those genes included glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and sucrose synthase. These results identified specific changes in gene transcript levels triggered by infection of susceptible soybean roots by SCN.

  13. Comparison of Small RNA Profiles of Glycine max and Glycine soja at Early Developmental Stages

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuzhe; Mui, Zeta; Liu, Xuan; Yim, Aldrin Kay-Yuen; Qin, Hao; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Chan, Ting-Fung; Yiu, Siu-Ming; Lam, Hon-Ming; Lim, Boon Leong

    2016-01-01

    Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and phased small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs; from PHAS loci), play key roles in plant development. Cultivated soybean, Glycine max, contributes a great deal to food production, but, compared to its wild kin, Glycine soja, it may lose some genetic information during domestication. In this work, we analyzed the sRNA profiles of different tissues in both cultivated (C08) and wild soybeans (W05) at three stages of development. A total of 443 known miRNAs and 15 novel miRNAs showed varying abundances between different samples, but the miRNA profiles were generally similar in both accessions. Based on a sliding window analysis workflow that we developed, 50 PHAS loci generating 55 21-nucleotide phasiRNAs were identified in C08, and 46 phasiRNAs from 41 PHAS loci were identified in W05. In germinated seedlings, phasiRNAs were more abundant in C08 than in W05. Disease resistant TIR-NB-LRR genes constitute a very large family of PHAS loci. PhasiRNAs were also generated from several loci that encode for NAC transcription factors, Dicer-like 2 (DCL2), Pentatricopeptide Repeat (PPR), and Auxin Signaling F-box 3 (AFB3) proteins. To investigate the possible involvement of miRNAs in initiating the PHAS-phasiRNA pathway, miRNA target predictions were performed and 17 C08 miRNAs and 15 W05 miRNAs were predicted to trigger phasiRNAs biogenesis. In summary, we provide a comprehensive description of the sRNA profiles of wild versus cultivated soybeans, and discuss the possible roles of sRNAs during soybean germination. PMID:27929436

  14. Comparison of Small RNA Profiles of Glycine max and Glycine soja at Early Developmental Stages.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuzhe; Mui, Zeta; Liu, Xuan; Yim, Aldrin Kay-Yuen; Qin, Hao; Wong, Fuk-Ling; Chan, Ting-Fung; Yiu, Siu-Ming; Lam, Hon-Ming; Lim, Boon Leong

    2016-12-06

    Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs) and phased small interfering RNAs (phasiRNAs; from PHAS loci), play key roles in plant development. Cultivated soybean, Glycine max, contributes a great deal to food production, but, compared to its wild kin, Glycine soja, it may lose some genetic information during domestication. In this work, we analyzed the sRNA profiles of different tissues in both cultivated (C08) and wild soybeans (W05) at three stages of development. A total of 443 known miRNAs and 15 novel miRNAs showed varying abundances between different samples, but the miRNA profiles were generally similar in both accessions. Based on a sliding window analysis workflow that we developed, 50 PHAS loci generating 55 21-nucleotide phasiRNAs were identified in C08, and 46 phasiRNAs from 41 PHAS loci were identified in W05. In germinated seedlings, phasiRNAs were more abundant in C08 than in W05. Disease resistant TIR-NB-LRR genes constitute a very large family of PHAS loci. PhasiRNAs were also generated from several loci that encode for NAC transcription factors, Dicer-like 2 (DCL2), Pentatricopeptide Repeat (PPR), and Auxin Signaling F-box 3 (AFB3) proteins. To investigate the possible involvement of miRNAs in initiating the PHAS-phasiRNA pathway, miRNA target predictions were performed and 17 C08 miRNAs and 15 W05 miRNAs were predicted to trigger phasiRNAs biogenesis. In summary, we provide a comprehensive description of the sRNA profiles of wild versus cultivated soybeans, and discuss the possible roles of sRNAs during soybean germination.

  15. Cometary Glycine Detected in Samples Returned by Stardust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2009-01-01

    Our previous analysis of cometary samples returned to Earth by NASA's Stardust spacecraft showed several amines and amino acids, but the or igin of these compounds could not be firmly established. Here, we pre sent the stable carbon isotopic ratios of glycine and E-amino-n-caproic acid (EACA), the two most abundant amino acids identified in Stardu st-returned foil samples measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrom etry coupled with isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The Delta C-13 value for glycine of +29 +/- ? 6%: strongly suggests an extraterrestrial origin For glycine, while the Delta C-13 value for EACA of -25 +/-2 % indicates terrestrial contamination by Nylon-6 during curation. This represents the first detection of a cometary amino acid.

  16. Glycine transporter inhibition reverses ketamine-induced working memory deficits.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Brooke M; Shaffer, Christopher L; Seymour, Patricia A; Schmidt, Christopher J; Williams, Graham V; Castner, Stacy A

    2010-03-31

    Glycine transporter inhibitors have recently been reported to improve symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Here we used acute ketamine in the nonhuman primate to test the effectiveness of the novel glycine transporter inhibitor, PF-3463275, in a model of cognitive dysfunction relevant to schizophrenia. PF-3463275 (0.01-0.17 mg/kg; subcutaneously) or a vehicle was given before the administration of ketamine (median dose of 1.0 mg/kg intramuscularly) or placebo (saline). Ketamine induced hallucinatory-like behaviors that were not reversed by PF-3463275. In contrast, all doses of PF-3463275 alleviated the deficit in spatial working memory induced by ketamine. Theses findings build upon those in patients by providing translational support for targeting glycine transporter in adjunctive treatment for cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.

  17. Glycine transporter inhibitors as therapeutic agents for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kenji

    2006-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest that a dysfunction in the glutamatergic neurotransmission via the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors contributes to the pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases including schizophrenia. The potentiation of NMDA receptor function may be a useful approach for the treatment of diseases associated with NMDA receptor hypofunction. One possible strategy is to increase synaptic levels of glycine by blocking the glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1) in glia cells, since glycine acts as a co-agonist site on the NMDA receptor. In this article, the author reviews the recent important patents on GlyT-1 inhibitors for treatment of schizophrenia and other psychiatric diseases associated with the NMDA receptor hypofunction.

  18. Extreme halophiles synthesize betaine from glycine by methylation.

    PubMed

    Nyyssola, A; Kerovuo, J; Kaukinen, P; von Weymarn, N; Reinikainen, T

    2000-07-21

    Glycine betaine is a compatible solute, which is able to restore and maintain osmotic balance of living cells. It is synthesized and accumulated in response to abiotic stress. Betaine acts also as a methyl group donor and has a number of important applications including its use as a feed additive. The known biosynthetic pathways of betaine are universal and very well characterized. A number of enzymes catalyzing the two-step oxidation of choline to betaine have been isolated. In this work we have studied a novel betaine biosynthetic pathway in two phylogenically distant extreme halophiles, Actinopolyspora halophila and Ectothiorhodospira halochloris. We have identified a three-step series of methylation reactions from glycine to betaine, which is catalyzed by two methyltransferases, glycine sarcosine methyltransferase and sarcosine dimethylglycine methyltransferase, with partially overlapping substrate specificity. The methyltransferases from the two organisms show high sequence homology. E. halochloris methyltransferase genes were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli, and betaine accumulation and improved salt tolerance were demonstrated.

  19. Suppressed expression of choline monooxygenase in sugar beet on the accumulation of glycine betaine.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Nana; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Kitou, Kunihide; Sahashi, Kosuke; Tamagake, Hideto; Tanaka, Yoshito; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-11-01

    Glycine betaine (GB) is an important osmoprotectant and synthesized by two-step oxidation of choline. Choline monooxygenase (CMO) catalyzes the first step of the pathway and is believed to be a rate limiting step for GB synthesis. Recent studies have shown the importance of choline-precursor supply for GB synthesis. In order to investigate the role of CMO for GB accumulation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), transgenic plants carrying the antisense BvCMO gene were developed. The antisense BvCMO plants showed the decreased activity of GB synthesis from choline compared to wild-type (WT) plants which is well related to the suppressed level of BvCMO protein. However, GB contents were similar between transgenic and WT plants with the exception of young leaves and storage roots. Transgenic plants showed enhanced susceptibility to salt stress than WT plants. These results suggest the importance of choline-precursor-supply for GB accumulation, and young leaves and storage root are sensitive sites for GB accumulation.

  20. Gas-phase interactions of organotin compounds with glycine.

    PubMed

    Latrous, Latifa; Tortajada, Jeanine; Haldys, Violette; Léon, Emmanuelle; Correia, Catarina; Salpin, Jean-Yves

    2013-07-01

    Gas-phase interactions of organotins with glycine have been studied by combining mass spectrometry experiments and quantum calculations. Positive-ion electrospray spectra show that the interaction of di- and tri-organotins with glycine results in the formation of [(R)2Sn(Gly)-H](+) and [(R)3Sn(Gly)](+) ions, respectively. Di-organotin complexes appear much more reactive than those involving tri-organotins. (MS/MS) spectra of the [(R)3Sn(Gly)](+) ions are indeed simple and only show elimination of intact glycine, generating the [(R)3Sn](+) carbocation. On the other hand, MS/MS spectra of [(R)2Sn(Gly)-H](+) complexes are characterized by numerous fragmentation processes. Six of them, associated with elimination of H2O, CO, H2O + CO and formation of [(R)2SnOH](+) (-57 u),[(R)2SnNH2](+) (-58 u) and [(R)2SnH](+) (-73 u), are systematically observed. Use of labeled glycines notably concludes that the hydrogen atoms eliminated in water and H2O + CO are labile hydrogens. A similar conclusion can be made for hydrogens of [(R2)SnOH](+) and [(R2)SnNH2](+) ions. Interestingly, formation [(R)2SnH](+) ions is characterized by a migration of one the α hydrogen of glycine onto the metallic center. Finally, several dissociation routes are observed and are characteristic of a given organic substituent. Calculations indicated that the interaction between organotins and glycine is mostly electrostatic. For [(R)2Sn(Gly)-H](+) complexes, a preferable bidentate interaction of the type η(2)-O,NH2 is observed, similar to that encountered for other metal ions. [(R)3Sn](+) ions strongly stabilize the zwitterionic form of glycine, which is practically degenerate with respect to neutral glycine. In addition, the interconversion between both forms is almost barrierless. Suitable mechanisms are proposed in order to account for the most relevant fragmentation processes.

  1. Calculating chemical equilibria in the heparin-Co2+ ion-glycine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feofanova, M. A.; Frantseva, Yu. V.; Zhuravlev, E. V.; Ryasensky, S. S.; Baranova, N. V.

    2013-08-01

    Results from investigating interactions in the heparin-Co2+ ion-glycine system are presented. The stoichiometry of cobalt complexes with heparin and glycine compositions CoOHHtpGly4- and CoHepGly3- is established.

  2. Infrared laser induced conformational and structural changes of glycine and glycine·water complex in low-temperature matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coussan, Stéphane; Tarczay, György

    2016-01-01

    Conformational and structural changes of matrix-isolated glycine and glycine·water complexes induced by the selective MIR excitation of the fundamental OH and NH stretching vibrational modes were studied. The observed spectral changes are consistent with the former assignments based on matrix-isolation IR spectroscopy combined with NIR laser irradiation. Since fewer conformational barriers can be reached by MIR than by NIR excitations, fewer processes are promoted effectively by MIR radiation. The comparison of spectral changes induced by selective MIR and NIR excitations can facilitate the conformational analysis of complex molecular systems and it can also yield information on the barrier heights.

  3. Characterization of nanocrystalline Mg0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 soft ferrites synthesized by glycine-nitrate combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajarpour, S.; Gheisari, Kh.; Honarbakhsh Raouf, A.

    2013-03-01

    In this study, Mg-Zn ferrite with the chemical formula of Mg0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4 is synthesized through a modified combustion synthesis using glycine as fuel and metal (Mg, Zn and Fe) nitrates as reactants. The technique, known as glycine-nitrate process, involves exothermic decomposition of a viscous liquid, prepared by thermal dehydration of an aqueous solution containing metal nitrates and glycine. The product powders produced at seven different molar ratios of glycine to nitrate (G/N ratio), varying from 0.37 to 0.75, are agglomerates of fine particles whose typical diameter are several tens of nanometers. Thermodynamic modeling of the combustion reaction indicates that as the fuel-to-oxidant ratio increases, the amount of gases produced and the adiabatic flame temperature rise. X-ray diffraction shows that samples crystallize in a spinel-type structure in all reactions. The morphology of the powders is examined using field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Through magnetic measurements conducted by a vibrating sample magnetometer, the maximum saturation magnetization (46 emu/g) is found to occur at the highest G/N ratio.

  4. Dynamics of Forward and Reverse Transport by the Glial Glycine Transporter, Glyt1b

    PubMed Central

    Aubrey, Karin R.; Vandenberg, Robert J.; Clements, John D.

    2005-01-01

    Glycine is a coagonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Changes in extracellular glycine concentration may modulate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function and excitatory synaptic transmission. The GLYT1 glycine transporter is present in glia surrounding excitatory synapses, and plays a key role in regulating extracellular glycine concentration. We investigated the kinetic and other biophysical properties of GLYT1b, stably expressed in CHO cells, using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Application of glycine produced an inward current, which decayed within a few seconds to a steady-state level. When glycine was removed, a transient outward current was observed, consistent with reverse transport of accumulated glycine. The outward current was enhanced by elevating intracellular or lowering extracellular [Na+], and was modulated by changes in extracellular [glycine] and time of glycine application. We developed a model of GLYT1b function, which accurately describes the time course of the transporter current under a range of experimental conditions. The model predicts that glial uptake of glycine will decay toward zero during a sustained period of elevated glycine concentration. This property of GLYT1b may permit spillover from glycinergic terminals to nearby excitatory terminals during a prolonged burst of inhibitory activity, and reverse transport may extend the period of elevated glycine concentration beyond the end of the inhibitory burst. PMID:15951392

  5. Effect of glycine and glucose on sodium and water absorption in patients with cholera

    PubMed Central

    Nalin, D. R.; Cash, R. A.; Rahman, M.; Yunus, Md.

    1970-01-01

    Electrolyte solutions containing glucose, glycine, or a combination of the two were absorbed sufficiently well from the intestine to supply maintenance fluid and the electrolytes required by cholera patients. Data on net absorption and duration and volume of diarrhoea show that a solution containing both glucose and glycine provides more effective therapy than solutions containing either glucose or glycine alone. PMID:5473608

  6. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject to...

  7. A Critical Role for Glycine Transporters in Hyperexcitability Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Robert J.; Carta, Eloisa; Pearce, Brian R.; Chung, Seo-Kyung; Supplisson, Stéphane; Rees, Mark I.; Harvey, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    Defects in mammalian glycinergic neurotransmission result in a complex motor disorder characterized by neonatal hypertonia and an exaggerated startle reflex, known as hyperekplexia (OMIM 149400). This affects newborn children and is characterized by noise or touch-induced seizures that result in muscle stiffness and breath-holding episodes. Although rare, this disorder can have serious consequences, including brain damage and/or sudden infant death. The primary cause of hyperekplexia is missense and non-sense mutations in the glycine receptor (GlyR) α1 subunit gene (GLRA1) on chromosome 5q33.1, although we have also discovered rare mutations in the genes encoding the GlyR β subunit (GLRB) and the GlyR clustering proteins gephyrin (GPNH) and collybistin (ARHGEF9). Recent studies of the Na+/Cl−-dependent glycine transporters GlyT1 and GlyT2 using mouse knockout models and human genetics have revealed that mutations in GlyT2 are a second major cause of hyperekplexia, while the phenotype of the GlyT1 knockout mouse resembles a devastating neurological disorder known as glycine encephalopathy (OMIM 605899). These findings highlight the importance of these transporters in regulating the levels of synaptic glycine. PMID:18946534

  8. Lignin Degradation by Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by the soilborne fungal pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, is one of the most important diseases of soybean. Lignin degradation may play a role in the infection, colonization, and survival of the fungus in root tissue . Lignin degradation by F. solani f. sp...

  9. 21 CFR 520.550 - Dextrose/glycine/electrolyte.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.550 Dextrose/glycine... therapy. Oral therapy in these cases is too slow. Animals which cannot drink after initial...

  10. Evaluation of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] F1 Hybrids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heterosis is an important factor in development of hybrid cultivars. Few heterosis studies have been done in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. This is because manual cross-pollination is difficult and time consuming, and not conducive as an economical way to produce large quantities of hybrid seed...

  11. Glomus fasciculatum, a Weak Pathogen of Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Francl, L. J.; Dropkin, V. H.

    1985-01-01

    The occurrence ofchlamydospores of Glomus fasciculatum (Gf) within cysts of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, and the effects of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae on nematode population dynamics and soybean (Glycine max) plant growth were investigated. Chlamydospores occupied 1-24% of cysts recovered from field soil samples. Hyphae of Missouri isolate Gfl penetrated the female nematode cuticle shortly after she ruptured the root epidermis. Convoluted hyphae filled infected eggs, and sporogenesis occurred within infected eggs. G. microcarpum, G. mosseae, and two isolates of Gf were inoculated with H. glycines on plants of 'Essex' soybeans. Each of the two Gf isolates infected about 1% of the nematode eggs in experimental pot cuhures. The Gfl isolate decreased the number of first-generation adult females 26%, compared with the nonmycorrhizal control. The total numbers of first-generation plus second-generation adult females were similar for both Gf isolates and 29-41% greater than the nonmycorrhizal control. Soybean plants with Gf and H. glycines produced more biomass than did nonmycorrhizal plants with nematodes, but only Gfl delayed leaf senescence. PMID:19294126

  12. Multicellular Secretory Trichome Development on Soybean and Related Glycine Gynoecia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multicellular glandular trichomes form on gynoecia of wild Glycine annual species, annual soybean cultivars, and wild perennial species. These trichomes occur on gynoecia of annual taxa from ovary base to style base, and along style of perennial species. Trichomes form at least two days prior to ant...

  13. Glycine transport inhibitors for the treatment of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kenji

    2010-05-27

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that hypofunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors might be implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, suggesting that increasing NMDA receptor function via pharmacological manipulation could provide a new strategy for the management of schizophrenia. Currently, the glycine modulatory sites on NMDA receptors present the most attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of schizophrenia. One means of enhancing NMDA receptor neurotransmission is to increase the availability of the obligatory co-agonist glycine at modulatory sites on the NMDA receptors through the inhibition of glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1) on glial cells. Clinical studies have demonstrated that the GlyT-1 inhibitor sarcosine (N-methyl glycine) shows antipsychotic activity in patients with schizophrenia. Accordingly, a number of pharmaceutical companies have developed novel and selective GlyT-1 inhibitors for the treatment of schizophrenia. This paper provides an overview of the various GlyT-1 inhibitors and their therapeutic potential.

  14. Glycine Transport Inhibitors for the Treatment of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence indicate that hypofunction of glutamatergic neurotransmission via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors might be implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, suggesting that increasing NMDA receptor function via pharmacological manipulation could provide a new strategy for the management of schizophrenia. Currently, the glycine modulatory sites on NMDA receptors present the most attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of schizophrenia. One means of enhancing NMDA receptor neurotransmission is to increase the availability of the obligatory co-agonist glycine at modulatory sites on the NMDA receptors through the inhibition of glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1) on glial cells. Clinical studies have demonstrated that the GlyT-1 inhibitor sarcosine (N-methyl glycine) shows antipsychotic activity in patients with schizophrenia. Accordingly, a number of pharmaceutical companies have developed novel and selective GlyT-1 inhibitors for the treatment of schizophrenia. This paper provides an overview of the various GlyT-1 inhibitors and their therapeutic potential. PMID:21253021

  15. 21 CFR 522.518 - Cupric glycinate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cupric glycinate injection. 522.518 Section 522.518 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  16. 21 CFR 522.518 - Cupric glycinate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cupric glycinate injection. 522.518 Section 522.518 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  17. 21 CFR 522.518 - Cupric glycinate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cupric glycinate injection. 522.518 Section 522.518 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  18. 21 CFR 522.518 - Cupric glycinate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cupric glycinate injection. 522.518 Section 522.518 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  19. 21 CFR 522.518 - Cupric glycinate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cupric glycinate injection. 522.518 Section 522.518 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  20. About the detectability of glycine in the interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattelais, M.; Pauzat, F.; Pilmé, J.; Ellinger, Y.; Ceccarelli, C.

    2011-08-01

    Context. Glycine, the simplest of aminoacids, has been found in several carbonaceous meteorites. It remains unclear, however, wether glycine is formed in the interstellar medium (ISM) and therefore available everywhere in the Universe. For this reason, radioastronomers have searched for many years unsuccessfully to detect glycine in the ISM. Aims: We provide possible guidelines to optimize the return of these searches. Since, for most of the species observed so far in the ISM, the most abundant isomer of a given generic chemical formula is the most stable one (minimum energy principle (MEP)), we assess whether neutral glycine is the best molecule to search for or whether one of its isomers/conformers or ionic, protonated, or zwitterionic derivatives would have a higher probability of being detected. Methods: The question of the relative stability of these different species is addressed by means of quantum density functional theory (DFT) simulations within the hybrid B3LYP formalism. Each fully optimized structure is verified as a stationary point by means of a vibrational analysis. A comprehensive screening of 32 isomers/conformers of the C2H5O2N chemical formula (neutral, negative, and positive ions together with the corresponding protonated species and the possible zwitterionic structures) is carried out. In the sensitive case of the neutral compounds, more accurate relative energies were obtained by means of high level post Hartree-Fock coupled cluster calculations with large basis sets (CCSD(T)/cc-pVQZ). Results: We find that neutral glycine is not the most stable isomer and, therefore, probably not the most abundant one, which might explain why it has escaped detection so far. We find instead that N-methyl carbamic acid and methyl carbamate are the two most stable isomers and, therefore, probably the two most abundant ones. Among the non-neutral forms, we found that glycine is the most stable isomer only if protonated or zwitterionic if present in interstellar

  1. PKCβ-dependent phosphorylation of the glycine transporter 1.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Medrano, Javier; Castrejon-Tellez, Vicente; Plenge, Fernando; Ramirez, Ivan; Miranda, Manuel

    2011-12-01

    The extracellular levels of the neurotransmitter glycine in the brain are tightly regulated by the glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) and the clearance rate for glycine depends on its rate of transport and the levels of cell surface GlyT1. Over the years, it has been shown that PKC tightly regulates the activity of several neurotransmitter transporters. In the present work, by stably expressing three N-terminus GlyT1 isoforms in porcine aortic endothelial cells and assaying for [(32)P]-orthophosphate metabolic labeling, we demonstrated that the isoforms GlyT1a, GlyT1b, and GlyT1c were constitutively phosphorylated, and that phosphorylation was dramatically enhanced, in a time dependent fashion, after PKC activation by phorbol ester. The phosphorylation was PKC-dependent, since pre-incubation of the cells with bisindolylmaleimide I, a selective PKC inhibitor, abolished the phorbol ester-induced phosphorylation. Blotting with specific anti-phospho-tyrosine antibodies did not yield any signal that could correspond to GlyT1 tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that the phosphorylation occurs at serine and/or threonine residues. In addition, a 23-40%-inhibition on V(max) was obtained by incubation with phorbol ester without a significant change on the apparent Km value. Furthermore, pre-incubation of the cells with the selective PKCα/β inhibitor Gö6976 abolished the downregulation effect of phorbol ester on uptake and phosphorylation, whereas the selective PKCβ inhibitors (PKCβ inhibitor or LY333531) prevented the phosphorylation without affecting glycine uptake, defining a specific role of classical PKC on GlyT1 uptake and phosphorylation. Taken together, these data suggest that conventional PKCα/β regulates the uptake of glycine, whereas PKCβ is responsible for GlyT1 phosphorylation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Cl− concentration changes and desensitization of GABAA and glycine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Urban; Druzin, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Desensitization of ligand-gated ion channels plays a critical role for the information transfer between neurons. The current view on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A and glycine receptors includes significant rapid components of desensitization as well as cross-desensitization between the two receptor types. Here, we analyze the mechanism of apparent cross-desensitization between native GABAA and glycine receptors in rat central neurons and quantify to what extent the current decay in the presence of ligand is a result of desensitization versus changes in intracellular Cl− concentration ([Cl−]i). We show that apparent cross-desensitization of currents evoked by GABA and by glycine is caused by changes in [Cl−]i. We also show that changes in [Cl−]i are critical for the decay of current in the presence of either GABA or glycine, whereas changes in conductance often play a minor role only. Thus, the currents decayed significantly quicker than the conductances, which decayed with time constants of several seconds and in some cells did not decay below the value at peak current during 20-s agonist application. By taking the cytosolic volume into account and numerically computing the membrane currents and expected changes in [Cl−]i, we provide a theoretical framework for the observed effects. Modeling diffusional exchange of Cl− between cytosol and patch pipettes, we also show that considerable changes in [Cl−]i may be expected and cause rapidly decaying current components in conventional whole cell or outside-out patch recordings. The findings imply that a reevaluation of the desensitization properties of GABAA and glycine receptors is needed. PMID:22084415

  3. PKCβ–dependent phosphorylation of the glycine transporter 1

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Medrano, Javier; Castrejon-Tellez, Vicente; Fernando, Plenge; Ramirez, Ivan; Miranda, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The extracellular levels of the neurotransmitter glycine in the brain are tightly regulated by the glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) and the clearance rate for glycine depends on its rate of transport and the levels of cell surface GlyT1. Over the years, it has been shown that PKC tightly regulates the activity of several neurotransmitter transporters. In the present work, by stably expressing three N-terminus GlyT1 isoforms in porcine aortic endothelial cells and assaying for [32P]-orthophosphate metabolic labeling, we demonstrated that the isoforms GlyT1a, GlyT1b, and GlyT1c were constitutively phosphorylated, and that phosphorylation was dramatically enhanced, in a time dependent fashion, after PKC activation by phorbol ester. The phosphorylation was PKC-dependent, since pre-incubation of the cells with bisindolylmaleimide I, a selective PKC inhibitor, abolished the phorbol ester-induced phosphorylation. Blotting with specific anti-phospho-tyrosine antibodies did not yield any signal that could correspond to GlyT1 tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that the phosphorylation occurs at serine and/or threonine residues. In addition, a 23-40% -inhibition on Vmax was obtained by incubation with phorbol ester without a significant change on the apparent Km value. Furthermore, pre-incubation of the cells with the selective PKCα/β inhibitor Gö6976 abolished the downregulation effect of phorbol ester on uptake and phosphorylation, whereas the selective PKCβ inhibitors (PKCβ inhibitor or LY333531) prevented the phosphorylation without affecting glycine uptake, defining a specific role of classical PKC on GlyT1 uptake and phosphorylation. Taken together, these data suggest that phosphorylation that conventional PKCα/β regulates the uptake of glycine, whereas PKCβ is responsible for GlyT1 phosphorylation. PMID:21864610

  4. P2Y Purinergic Regulation of the Glycine Neurotransmitter Transporters*

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Esperanza; Zafra, Francisco; Pérez-Sen, Raquel; Delicado, Esmerilda G.; Miras-Portugal, Maria Teresa; Aragón, Carmen; López-Corcuera, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    The sodium- and chloride-coupled glycine neurotransmitter transporters (GLYTs) control the availability of glycine at glycine-mediated synapses. The mainly glial GLYT1 is the key regulator of the glycine levels in glycinergic and glutamatergic pathways, whereas the neuronal GLYT2 is involved in the recycling of synaptic glycine from the inhibitory synaptic cleft. In this study, we report that stimulation of P2Y purinergic receptors with 2-methylthioadenosine 5′-diphosphate in rat brainstem/spinal cord primary neuronal cultures and adult rat synaptosomes leads to the inhibition of GLYT2 and the stimulation of GLYT1 by a paracrine regulation. These effects are mainly mediated by the ADP-preferring subtypes P2Y1 and P2Y13 because the effects are partially reversed by the specific antagonists N6-methyl-2′-deoxyadenosine-3′,5′-bisphosphate and pyridoxal-5′-phosphate-6-azo(2-chloro-5-nitrophenyl)-2,4-disulfonate and are totally blocked by suramin. P2Y12 receptor is additionally involved in GLYT1 stimulation. Using pharmacological approaches and siRNA-mediated protein knockdown methodology, we elucidate the molecular mechanisms of GLYT regulation. Modulation takes place through a signaling cascade involving phospholipase C activation, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production, intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, protein kinase C stimulation, nitric oxide formation, cyclic guanosine monophosphate production, and protein kinase G-I (PKG-I) activation. GLYT1 and GLYT2 are differentially sensitive to NO/cGMP/PKG-I both in brain-derived preparations and in heterologous systems expressing the recombinant transporters and P2Y1 receptor. Sensitivity to 2-methylthioadenosine 5′-diphosphate by GLYT1 and GLYT2 was abolished by small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of nitric-oxide synthase. Our data may help define the role of GLYTs in nociception and pain sensitization. PMID:21245148

  5. Guanidinoethyl sulphonate is a glycine receptor antagonist in striatum.

    PubMed

    Sergeeva, Olga A; Chepkova, Aisa N; Haas, Helmut L

    2002-11-01

    1. Guanidinoethyl sulphonate (GES) is an analogue of taurine and an inhibitor of taurine transport. Interactions of GES with GABA(A) and glycine receptors are studied by whole cell recording and fast drug application in isolated striatal neurons of the mouse. 2. We confirm that GES is a weak agonist at GABA(A) receptors, and is able to antagonize GABA-evoked responses. GES did not gate GlyR. 3. GES antagonized glycine responses in a concentration-dependent and surmountable manner. Glycine dose-response curves were shifted to the right by GES (0.5 mM), yielding EC(50)s and Hill coefficients of 62 micro M and 2.5 in control, 154 micro M and 1.3 in the presence of GES. 4. GlyR-mediated taurine responses were competitively antagonized by GES. Taurine dose-response curves, in contrast to the glycine dose-response curves were shifted by GES to the right in a parallel manner. 5. The GlyR-block by GES was not voltage-dependent. 6. In contrast to our findings in the mouse, in rat striatal neurons which lack expression of the alpha3 GlyR subunit, GES shifted the glycine dose-response curve to the right in a parallel way without affecting the maximal response. Subtype-specificity of the GES action at GlyR must await further investigation in artificial expression systems. 7. We conclude that GES is a competitive antagonist at GlyR. The antagonistic action of GES at inhibitory ionotropic receptors can explain its epileptogenic action. Care must be taken with the interpretation of data on GES evoked taurine release.

  6. [Glycine-14C and methionine-35S incorporation into liver and gastric mucosa proteins during sperm oil treatment of experimental stomach ulcer].

    PubMed

    Sarkisian, E L; Budantseva, S I; Kalinichenko, N I

    1977-01-01

    The effect of a course-wise introduction of the sperm oil on the intensity of the proteinic synthesis in experimental gastric ulcer was investigated. Tests were conducted on albino male-rats in which an experimental gastric ulcer failing to heal for a long time had been induced through introduction of a 5% acetic acid solution into the subserous membrane of the stomach. The intensity of the proteinic synthesis in the liver and gastric mucosa was assessed by the rate of the glycine-14C and methionine-35S incorporation in the total, mitochondrial and nucleonic proteins on the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days of the experimental ulcer course. The sperm oil secured a more effective production and thereby created propicious conditions for an intensified proteinic synthesis. It also contributed to an earlier normalization of the proteinic synthesis rates and to a quicker cicatrization of the ulcerous defect.

  7. Genotype Response of Soybean (Glycine max) Whole Plants and Hairy Roots to Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines Infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fusarium solani f. sp. Glycines, a soilborne fungus, infects soybean roots and causes sudden death syndrome. The response of 13 soybean genotypes to the pathogen infection was tested with potted greenhouse grown plants and with cultured hairy roots. The taproots of all genotypes grown plants measure...

  8. Syncytium gene expression in Glycine max [PI88788} roots undergoing a resistant reaction of the parasitic nematode Heterodera glycines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) was used to isolate Heterodera glycines feeding sites (syncytia) from the (G. max) genotype PI 88788. Syncytia at various stages of the resistant response were isolated from roots 3, 6 and 9 days post infection (dpi). At 3 dpi, the analyses revealed highly induced...

  9. Catalysis of Dialanine Formation by Glycine in the Salt-Induced Peptide Formation Reaction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwannachot, Yuttana; Rode, Bernd M.

    1998-02-01

    Mutual catalysis of amino acids in the salt-induced peptide formation (SIPF) reaction is demonstrated for the case of glycine/alanine. The presence of glycine enhances dialanine formation by a factor up to 50 and enables dialanine formation at much lower alanine concentrations. The actual amounts of glycine play an important role for this catalytic effect, the optimal glycine concentration is 1/8 of the alanine concentration. The mechanism appears to be based on the formation of the intermediate Gly-Ala-Ala tripeptide, connected to one coordination site of copper(II) ion, and subsequent hydrolysis to dialanine and glycine.

  10. Chiral glycine formation on cold interstellar grains by quantum tunneling hydrogen-deuterium substitution reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oba, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Naoki; Osamura, Yoshihiro; Kouchi, Akira

    2015-08-01

    We report experimental evidence that chiral glycine (NH2CHDCOOH) is formed by the surface reaction of normal glycine (NH2CH2COOH) solid with deuterium (D) atom at 12 K under the simulative conditions of interstellar molecular clouds. Chiral glycine formation is most likely initiated by the tunneling abstraction reaction of H atom by D atom followed by the addition of D atom to the glycine radical (NH2CHCOOH). Given that chiral glycine can form in such a primordial low-temperature environment, it might source molecular chirality as molecular clouds evolve into planetary systems.

  11. Nanostructured Cu-CGO anodes fabricated using a microwave-assisted glycine-nitrate process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Shabana P. S.; Somalu, Mahendra R.; Muchtar, Andanastuti

    2016-11-01

    This work reports a study of nanostructured copper-doped gadolinium cermet (Cu-CGO) composite anodes prepared via conventional synthesis (CS) and microwave-synthesis (MS) involving the glycine-nitrate process (GNP). A detailed investigation on the mechanical properties, electrical conductivity and electrochemical performance of prepared Cu0.5(Ce0.9Gd0.1)0.5O2-δ anodes is included. The prepared samples were characterized by techniques, such as XRD, EDX, SEM and electrical characterizations. After reduction in 10% H2 and 90% N2, the DC conductivities of the Cu-CGO anodes prepared via CS-GNP and MS-GNP are found to be 5.43×103 and 1.09×104 S cm-1 at 700 °C, respectively. The electrochemical performances of the spin-coated anode symmetrical cells sintered at 700 °C are evaluated at cell operating temperatures of 600, 700 and 800 °C. The lowest area specific resistance (ASR) values for the Cu-CGO/CGO/Cu-CGO symmetrical cells prepared via the MS-GNP route at operating temperatures of 600, 700 and 800 °C are found to be 0.34, 0.71 and 1.10 Ω cm2, respectively. The as-prepared (via MS-GNP) Cu-CGO anode exhibits excellent electrical and electrochemical performance consistent with the uniform nanostructured morphology compared with the anode prepared via CS-GNP.

  12. [The metabolism of [2-(14)C] glycine in rat tissues in vivo].

    PubMed

    Brodin, S V; Ianovych, V H

    1996-01-01

    It is found that two hours after intraperitoneal injection of [2-(14)C] glycine to rats its higher amount (83.6%) is used in the protein synthesis and 16.4% is catabolized. The carbonic chain of the amino acid is used to the greater extent in the synthesis of lipids than in the oxidation and glucogenesis. Radioactivity of the proteins in the investigated organs and tissues of rats varies within L7-50.6 thou. DPM per 100 mg of wet tissue and decreases in a series: small intestine mucosa, kidneys, liver, stomach mucosa, heart, lungs, cardiac muscle, skin, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, brain. Radioactivity of lipids is within the limits of 0.2-5.1 thou. DPM per 100 mg of wet tissue 11.7-81.6% of protein radioactivity) and decreases in a series: liver, adipose tissue, kidneys, lungs, cardiac muscle, stomach mucosa, skin, skeletal muscle, brain. The total radioactivity of glucose+glycogen varies within 0.05-0.34 thou. DPM per 100 mg of wet tissue (0.8-10.7% of protein radioactivity) and decreases is a series: kidneys, liver, brain, skeletal muscle.

  13. Endogenous oxalogenesis after acute intravenous loading with ethylene glycol or glycine in rats receiving standard and vitamin B6-deficient diets.

    PubMed

    Teerajetgul, Yaovalak; Hossain, Rayhan Zubair; Machida, Noriko; Sugaya, Kimio; Ogawa, Yoshihide

    2008-10-01

    The effect on endogenous oxalate synthesis of acute intravenous loading with ethylene glycol or glycine was investigated in rats on a standard or a vitamin B6-deficient diet. Twenty-four male Wistar rats weighing approximately 180 g were randomly divided into ethylene glycol and glycine groups of 12 animals each. These groups were further divided into two subgroups of six animals each that were fed either a standard or a vitamin B6-deficient diet for 3 weeks. Animals of these two subgroups received an intravenous infusion of 20 mg (322.22 micromol) of ethylene glycol or 100 mg (1332.09 micromol) of glycine, respectively. Urine samples were collected just before intravenous infusion of each substance and at hourly intervals until 5 h after receiving the infusion. Urinary oxalate, glycolate, and citrate levels were measured by capillary electrophoresis. Urinary oxalate and glycolate excretion was significantly increased after ethylene glycol administration. Significant differences between the control and vitamin B6-deficient groups were found. In contrast, there were only small changes of oxalate and glycolate excretion after glycine administration. Recovery of the given dose of ethylene glycol as oxalate in 5-h urine was 0.31% and 7.15% in the control and vitamin B6-deficient groups, respectively, whereas recovery of glycolate was 0.68% and 7.22%, respectively. Ethylene glycol loading has a significant effect on urinary oxalate excretion in both normal and vitamin B6-deficient rats, whereas glycine loading only has a small effect. Oxalate and glycolate excretion after ethylene glycol loading were respectively 23-fold and 11-fold higher in vitamin B6-deficient rats than in controls.

  14. The effects of glycine, L-threonine, and L-cystine supplementation to a 9% casein diet on the conversions of L-tryptophan to nicotinamide and to serotonin in rats.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Imai, Shoko; Nakata, Chifumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Nicotinamide and serotonin are synthesized from L-tryptophan in mammals. It is important to know the nutritional factors affecting the synthesis of nicotinamide and serotonin. We investigated the effects of amino acid composition. Young adult rats were fed ad libitum for 21 d a low-protein (9% casein) diet([1] control), or one of the low protein diets supplemented with following amino acids: [2] glycine, L-threonine, and L-cystine, [3] L-threonine and L-cystine, [4] glycine and L-cystine, and [5] glycine and L-threonine. The amounts of glycine, L-threonine and L-cystine supplementations were 2%, 0.078%, and 0.2%, respectively, and the amino acid contents of all diet were adjusted with supplementation of L-glutamic acid. The body weight gain, food efficiency ratio, and the amino acid nutrition biomarker, which is the urinary excretion ratio of (N(1)-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide+N(1)-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide)/N(1)-methylnicotinamide, improved by adding the amino acids glycine, L-threonine and L-cystine to a 9% casein diet. The conversion percentage of L-tryptophan to nicotinamide decreased with the addition of the amino acids glycine, L-threonine and L-cystine to a 9% casein diet, while the concentrations of serotonin in the brain, stomach and small intestine were not affected at all. The effects of each amino acid on body weight gain and the conversion ratios were also investigated. Glycine did not affect these variables. L-Cystine improved the body weight gain, the food efficiency ratio and the urine ratio, and decreased the conversion percentage. L-Threonine did not affect body weight gain or food efficiency ratio; however, it improved the urine ratio and decreased the conversion percentage.

  15. Estrogen-like osteoprotective effects of glycine in in vitro and in vivo models of menopause.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ho; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2016-03-01

    Recently, the placenta mesotherapy has been widely used to treat menopause. Placenta contains amino acids, peptides, minerals, and estrogen. Here, we investigated the estrogen-like osteoprotective effects of glycine (a main ingredient of placenta) in in vitro and in vivo models of menopause. We assessed the effect of glycine on MG-63 osteoblast cell line, MCF-7 estrogen-dependent cell line, and ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Glycine significantly increased the MG-63 cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase were increased by glycine in MG-63 cells. Glycine also increased the BrdU-incorporation and Ki-67 mRNA expression in MCF-7 cells. Glycine induced the up-regulation of estrogen receptor-β mRNA expression and estrogen-response element-luciferase activity in MG-63 and MCF-7 cells. In OVX mice, glycine was administered orally at a daily dose of 10 mg/kg per day for 8 weeks. Glycine resulted in the greatest decrease in weight gain caused by ovariectomy. Meanwhile, vaginal weight reduced by ovariectomy was increased by glycine. Glycine significantly increased the ALP activity in OVX mice. MicroCT-analysis showed that glycine significantly enhanced bone mineral density, trabecular number, and connectivity density in OVX mice. Moreover, glycine significantly increased the serum 17β-estradiol levels reduced by ovariectomy. Glycine has an estrogen-like osteoprotective effect in menopause models. Therefore, we suggest that glycine may be useful for the treatment of menopause.

  16. NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} catalysts prepared by combustion reaction using glycine as fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, Elvia; Figueiredo de Melo Costa, Ana Cristina; Lino de Freita, Normanda; Lucena Lira, Helio de; Goldschmidt Aliaga Kiminami, Ruth Herta; Gama, Lucianna

    2011-09-15

    Graphical abstract: The reaction temperature was found to remain is practically constant throughout the interval preceding ignition, after which the temperature increased abruptly, reaching the maximum combustion temperature. All the reactions occurred in a matter of minutes, i.e., 5.8, 5.8 and 6 min, respectively, for compositions GES, 10GE and 20GE. Among the benefits of the combustion synthesis method are low processing cost, energy efficiency, high production rate and, especially, short reaction periods when compared with conventional methods (solid state reaction) to prepare ceramic oxide powders that require high calcination temperatures and long reaction periods. Highlights: {yields} We use a simple, fast and inexpensive technique for processing NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} catalyst nanopowders. {yields} We study the preparation of powders with nanometric sized particles. {yields} This material is extremely attractive for use in the development of new catalysts for a variety of chemical processes. {yields} Nanometric sized particles depend of the amount of glycine used in the synthesis process. -- Abstract: The aim of this work is to evaluate the influence of glycine fuel used in a stoichiometric proportion and with a 10% and 20% excess of this fuel in the preparation of NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} catalyst by combustion reaction. The powders were characterized by XRD, textural analysis by the BET nitrogen adsorption method, particle size distribution, and FTIR. The results show the presence of NiAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} as a major phase and traces of NiO and Ni in all the catalysts studied here. The crystallite sizes were 22 nm in the stoichiometric composition and 18 and 9 nm, respectively, in the composition containing 10% and 20% excess glycine. The powder obtained from all the compositions presented morphological characteristics with irregular plate-shaped agglomerates. The increase in excess glycine caused the particle size in the three compositions to decrease to 59, 54 and

  17. Interactions between glycine transporter type 1 (GlyT-1) and some inhibitor molecules - glycine transporter type 1 and its inhibitors (review).

    PubMed

    Harsing, Laszlo G; Zsilla, G; Matyus, P; Nagy, K M; Marko, B; Gyarmati, Zs; Timar, J

    2012-03-01

    Glycine is a mandatory positive allosteric modulator of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type ionotropic glutamate receptors in the central nervous system. Elevation of glycine concentrations by inhibition of its reuptake in the vicinity of NMDA receptors may positively influence receptor functions as glycine B binding site on NR1 receptor subunit is not saturated in physiological conditions. Synaptic and extrasynaptic concentrations of glycine are regulated by its type-1 glycine transporter, which is primarily expressed in astroglial and glutamatergic cell membranes. Alteration of synaptic glycine levels may have importance in the treatment of various forms of endogenous psychosis characterized by hypofunctional NMDA receptors. Several lines of evidence indicate that impaired NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in development of the negative (and partly the positive) symptoms and the cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. Inhibitors of glycine transporter type-1 may represent a newly developed therapeutic intervention in treatment of this mental illness. We have synthesized a novel series of N-substituted sarcosines, analogues of the glycine transporter-1 inhibitor NFPS (N-[3-(4'-fluorophenyl)-3-(4'-phenylphenoxy)-propyl]sarcosine). Of the pyridazinone-containing compounds, SzV-1997 was found to be a potent glycine transporter-1 inhibitor in rat brain synaptosomes and it markedly increased extracellular glycine concentrations in conscious rat striatum. SzV-1997 did not exhibit toxic symptoms such as hyperlocomotion, restless movements, respiratory depression, and lethality, characteristic for NFPS. Besides pyridazinone-based, sarcosine-containing glycine transporter-1 inhibitors, a series of substrate-type amino acid inhibitors was investigated in order to obtain better insight into the ligand-binding characteristics of the substrate binding cavity of the transporter.

  18. Ruthenium-Nitrosyl Complexes with Glycine, l-Alanine, l-Valine, l-Proline, d-Proline, l-Serine, l-Threonine, and l-Tyrosine: Synthesis, X-ray Diffraction Structures, Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Properties, and Antiproliferative Activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The reactions of [Ru(NO)Cl5]2– with glycine (Gly), l-alanine (l-Ala), l-valine (l-Val), l-proline (l-Pro), d-proline (d-Pro), l-serine (l-Ser), l-threonine (l-Thr), and l-tyrosine (l-Tyr) in n-butanol or n-propanol afforded eight new complexes (1–8) of the general formula [RuCl3(AA–H)(NO)]−, where AA = Gly, l-Ala, l-Val, l-Pro, d-Pro, l-Ser, l-Thr, and l-Tyr, respectively. The compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), 1H NMR, UV–visible and ATR IR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and X-ray crystallography. X-ray crystallography studies have revealed that in all cases the same isomer type (from three theoretically possible) was isolated, namely mer(Cl),trans(NO,O)-[RuCl3(AA–H)(NO)], as was also recently reported for osmium analogues with Gly, l-Pro, and d-Pro (see Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem.2013, 639, 1590–1597). Compounds 1, 4, 5, and 8 were investigated by ESI-MS with regard to their stability in aqueous solution and reactivity toward sodium ascorbate. In addition, cell culture experiments in three human cancer cell lines, namely, A549 (nonsmall cell lung carcinoma), CH1 (ovarian carcinoma), and SW480 (colon carcinoma), were performed, and the results are discussed in conjunction with the lipophilicity of compounds. PMID:24555845

  19. Multicomponent synthesis of acylated short peptoids with antifungal activity against plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Galetti, Matías D; Cirigliano, Adriana M; Cabrera, Gabriela M; Ramírez, Javier A

    2012-02-01

    In this article, we describe the synthesis of a small library of short peptoids composed of four glycine residues and acylated with a fatty acid that showed a remarkable in vitro activity against two fungal plant pathogens. Their straightforward synthesis implied two consecutive Ugi reactions and can be efficiently extended to the construction of highly diverse libraries.

  20. Glycine: an important potential component of spinal shock.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R K; Robertson, C S; Goodman, J C

    1993-08-01

    Amino acid neurotransmitters (AANTs) play a major role in maintenance of muscle tone. Abnormal AANT concentrations are associated with hyper- or hypotonic states. Flaccidity from spinal shock commonly occurs after spinal cord injury (SCI) and may be associated with changes in AANT concentrations. Ischemic SCIs created in the lumbar region of rabbits by intraaortic balloon occlusion produced spastic or flaccid injuries. Microdialysis sampling of AANTs from the injured segmental structures was done 3 days after SCI. Evoked potentials were used to monitor spinal cord stability. No significant changes in AANT levels occurred in the spastic or flaccid group after 4 hour sampling. However, flaccid animals had baseline glycine levels 2-3 times higher (p < 0.001) than spastic animals or controls. High concentrations of the inhibitory AANT glycine is associated with flaccidity following SCI, or spinal shock, but not spasticity. Glycinergic compounds directed toward suppression of excess muscle tone deserve further study.

  1. Dissociation of gaseous zwitterion glycine-betaine by slow electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopyra, J.; Abdoul-Carime, H.

    2010-05-01

    In this work, we investigate dissociation processes induced by low-energy electrons to gas phase N,N,N-trimethylglycine [glycine-betaine, (CH3)3N+CH2COO-] molecules. Glycine-betaine represents a model system for zwitterions. All negative fragments are observed to be produced only at subelectronic excitation energies (<4 eV). With the exception of the loss of a neutral H atom that could arise from any CH bond breaking, we tentatively suggest that the zwitterion dissociates exclusively from the fragmentation of the cation site of the molecule, subsequent to the attachment of the excess electron. Within the context of radiation induced damage to biological systems, the present findings contribute to a more complete description of the fragmentation mechanism occurring to amino acids, peptides, and proteins since they adopt usually a zwitterion structure.

  2. Soft x-ray ionization induced fragmentation of glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itälä, E.; Kooser, K.; Rachlew, E.; Huels, M. A.; Kukk, E.

    2014-06-01

    X-ray absorption commonly involves dissociative core ionization producing not only momentum correlated charged fragments but also low- and high-energy electrons capable of inducing damage in living tissue. This gives a natural motivation for studying the core ionization induced fragmentation processes in biologically important molecules such as amino acids. Here the fragmentation of amino acid glycine following carbon 1s core ionization has been studied. Using photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence technique, a detailed analysis on fragmentation of the sample molecule into pairs of momentum correlated cations has been carried out. The main characteristics of core ionization induced fragmentation of glycine were found to be the rupture of the C-Cα bond and the presence of the CNH_2^+ fragment.

  3. Soft x-ray ionization induced fragmentation of glycine.

    PubMed

    Itälä, E; Kooser, K; Rachlew, E; Huels, M A; Kukk, E

    2014-06-21

    X-ray absorption commonly involves dissociative core ionization producing not only momentum correlated charged fragments but also low- and high-energy electrons capable of inducing damage in living tissue. This gives a natural motivation for studying the core ionization induced fragmentation processes in biologically important molecules such as amino acids. Here the fragmentation of amino acid glycine following carbon 1s core ionization has been studied. Using photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence technique, a detailed analysis on fragmentation of the sample molecule into pairs of momentum correlated cations has been carried out. The main characteristics of core ionization induced fragmentation of glycine were found to be the rupture of the C-Cα bond and the presence of the CNH(2)(+) fragment.

  4. Soft x-ray ionization induced fragmentation of glycine

    SciTech Connect

    Itälä, E.; Kooser, K.; Rachlew, E.; Huels, M. A.; Kukk, E.

    2014-06-21

    X-ray absorption commonly involves dissociative core ionization producing not only momentum correlated charged fragments but also low- and high-energy electrons capable of inducing damage in living tissue. This gives a natural motivation for studying the core ionization induced fragmentation processes in biologically important molecules such as amino acids. Here the fragmentation of amino acid glycine following carbon 1s core ionization has been studied. Using photoelectron-photoion-photoion coincidence technique, a detailed analysis on fragmentation of the sample molecule into pairs of momentum correlated cations has been carried out. The main characteristics of core ionization induced fragmentation of glycine were found to be the rupture of the C–C{sub α} bond and the presence of the CNH{sub 2}{sup +} fragment.

  5. Positive regulation of the Escherichia coli glycine cleavage enzyme system.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, R L; Steiert, P S; Stauffer, G V

    1993-01-01

    A new mutation in Escherichia coli, designated gcvA1, that results in noninducible expression of both gcv and a gcvT-lacZ gene fusion was isolated. A plasmid carrying the wild-type gcvA gene complemented the mutation and restored glycine-inducible gcv and gcvT-lacZ gene expression. These results suggest that gcvA encodes a positive-acting regulatory protein that acts in trans to increase expression of gcv. PMID:8423160

  6. Microbial Community Responses to Glycine Addition in Kansas Prairie Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottos, E.; Roy Chowdhury, T.; White, R. A., III; Brislawn, C.; Fansler, S.; Kim, Y. M.; Metz, T. O.; McCue, L. A.; Jansson, J.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in sequencing technologies are rapidly expanding our abilities to unravel aspects of microbial community structure and function in complex systems like soil; however, characterizing the highly diverse communities is problematic, due primarily to challenges in data analysis. To tackle this problem, we aimed to constrain the microbial diversity in a soil by enriching for particular functional groups within a community through addition of "trigger substrates". Such trigger substrates, characterized by low molecular weight, readily soluble and diffusible in soil solution, representative of soil organic matter derivatives, would also be rapidly degradable. A relatively small energy investment to maintain the cell in a state of metabolic alertness for such substrates would be a better evolutionary strategy and presumably select for a cohort of microorganisms with the energetics and cellular machinery for utilization and growth. We chose glycine, a free amino acid (AA) known to have short turnover times (in the range of hours) in soil. As such, AAs are a good source of nitrogen and easily degradable, and can serve as building blocks for microbial proteins and other biomass components. We hypothesized that the addition of glycine as a trigger substrate will decrease microbial diversity and evenness, as taxa capable of metabolizing it are enriched in relation to those that are not. We tested this hypothesis by incubating three Kansas native prairie soils with glycine for 24 hours at 21 degree Celsius, and measured community level responses by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, metagenomics, and metatranscriptomics. Preliminary evaluation of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed minor changes in bacterial community composition in response to glycine addition. We will also present data on functional gene abundance and expression. The results of these analyses will be useful in designing sequencing strategies aimed at dissecting and deciphering complex microbial communities.

  7. Glycine receptor mouse mutants: model systems for human hyperekplexia

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Natascha; Langlhofer, Georg; Kluck, Christoph J; Villmann, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Human hyperekplexia is a neuromotor disorder caused by disturbances in inhibitory glycine-mediated neurotransmission. Mutations in genes encoding for glycine receptor subunits or associated proteins, such as GLRA1, GLRB, GPHN and ARHGEF9, have been detected in patients suffering from hyperekplexia. Classical symptoms are exaggerated startle attacks upon unexpected acoustic or tactile stimuli, massive tremor, loss of postural control during startle and apnoea. Usually patients are treated with clonazepam, this helps to dampen the severe symptoms most probably by up-regulating GABAergic responses. However, the mechanism is not completely understood. Similar neuromotor phenotypes have been observed in mouse models that carry glycine receptor mutations. These mouse models serve as excellent tools for analysing the underlying pathomechanisms. Yet, studies in mutant mice looking for postsynaptic compensation of glycinergic dysfunction via an up-regulation in GABAA receptor numbers have failed, as expression levels were similar to those in wild-type mice. However, presynaptic adaptation mechanisms with an unusual switch from mixed GABA/glycinergic to GABAergic presynaptic terminals have been observed. Whether this presynaptic adaptation explains the improvement in symptoms or other compensation mechanisms exist is still under investigation. With the help of spontaneous glycine receptor mouse mutants, knock-in and knock-out studies, it is possible to associate behavioural changes with pharmacological differences in glycinergic inhibition. This review focuses on the structural and functional characteristics of the various mouse models used to elucidate the underlying signal transduction pathways and adaptation processes and describes a novel route that uses gene-therapeutic modulation of mutated receptors to overcome loss of function mutations. PMID:23941355

  8. Ferroelectric films of deuterated glycine phosphite: Structure and dielectric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balashova, E. V.; Krichevtsov, B. B.; Svinarev, F. B.; Lemanov, V. V.

    2013-05-01

    Polycrystalline textured films of deuterated glycine phosphite consisting of single-crystal blocks with lateral dimensions ˜(50-100) μm and a thickness d ˜ (1-5) μm have been grown by evaporation on NdGaO3(100) and α-Al2O3 substrates with preliminarily deposited interdigitated electrodes, as well as on Al substrates. The c* ( Z) crystallographic axis in the blocks is normal to the film plane, and the a ( X) axis and the polar axis b ( Y) are oriented in the film plane. The temperature dependences of the capacitance of the structures measured with the interdigitated electrode system reveal a strong dielectric anomaly at the film transition to the ferroelectric state. The phase transition temperature T c depends on the degree of deuteration D of the glycine phosphite. The maximum value T c = 275 K obtained in the structures studied corresponds to a degree of deuteration of the glycine phosphite D ˜ 50%. The frequency behavior of the dielectric hysteresis loops in glycine phosphite films differs radically from that of the previously studied films of deuterated betaine phosphite, which evidences that polarization switching in these structures proceeds by different mechanisms. It has been that application of a dc bias to the electrodes changes the shape of the dielectric hysteresis loops and shifts them along the electric field axis. The shift of the loops depends on the sign, magnitude, and time of application of the bias. Possible mechanisms underlying the induced unipolarity are discussed.

  9. Heterodera glycines cysts contain an extensive array of endoproteases as well as inhibitors of proteases in H. glycines and Meloidogyne incognita infective juvenile stages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Heterodera glycines cysts contain proteases, and inhibitors of protease activities in various nematode species. In this investigation, proteases in H. glycines cysts were identified using a commercially available FRET-peptide library comprising 512 peptide pools qualified to detect up to 4 endoprot...

  10. Genetic and Physiological Control of Protective Antigen Synthesis by Bacillus anthracis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    acids (Difco) and 10 mg of thiamine hydrochloride . Minimal M: To Minimal I was added 10 mg of thiamine hydrochloride , 200 mg of glycine, and 40 mg of L...methionine and L-proline. Minimal 0: To Minimal I was added 10 mg of thiamine hydrochloride , 200 mg of glycine, and 40 mg of L-methionine, L-serine, L...Unclassified SAD M REPORT NUMBER FIVE A GENETIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF PROTECTIVE ANTIGEN SYNTHESIS BY BACILLUS ANTHRACIS ANNUAL PROGRESS

  11. Genetic and Physiological Control of Protective Antigen Synthesis by Bacillus Anthracis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    with 5 g of vitamin-free Casamino acids (Difco) and 10 mg of thiamine hydrochloride . Minimal M: To Minimal I was added 10 mg of thiamine hvdrochloride...200 mg of glycine, and 40 mg of L-iaethionine and L-proline. Minimal 0: To Minimal I was added 10 mg of thiamine hydrochloride , 200 mg of glycine, and...AD GENETIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF PROTECTIVE ANTIGEN SYNTHESIS BY BACILLUS ANTHRACIS ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT CURTIS B.THORNE SDECEMBER 1983

  12. Flow Cytometric Analysis and Sorting of Heterodera glycines Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Tylka, G. L.; Niblack, T. L.; Walk, T. C.; Harkins, K. R.; Barnett, L.; Baker, N. K.

    1993-01-01

    A nondestructive technique was developed to characterize and separate eggs of soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, by developmental stage using flow cytometry. Eggs from cysts cultured on susceptible soybean roots were suspended in 0.1% xanthan gum or 59% sucrose and loaded into either a Coulter EPICS 752 or EPICS 753 flow cytometer. Eggs were analyzed and sorted according to forward angle and 90° light scatter, flow cytometric parameters that are relative measures of object size and granularity, respectively. Mature eggs containing vermiform juveniles were less granular and slightly larger than eggs in earlier stages of embryogeny, allowing for separation of mature eggs from immature eggs. The effectiveness of flow cytometric sorting was evaluated by comparing the developmental stages of subpopulations of unsorted and sorted eggs. Of a subpopulation of unsorted eggs, 62% contained vermiform juveniles, whereas 85 to 95% of sorted subpopulations of larger, less granular eggs contained vermiform juveniles. Suspending H. glycines eggs in 0.1% xanthan gum or 59% sucrose for flow cytometric analysis had no effect on subsequent egg hatch in vitro. This technique is an efficient and effective means to collect large, relatively homogeneous quantities of H. glycines eggs in early or late embryogeny, and would likely be useful for analyzing and sorting eggs of other nematode species for use in developmental, genetic, or physiological research, or for identification and collection of parasitized eggs. PMID:19279815

  13. FMRFamide-like Immunoactivity in Heterodera glycines (Nemata: Tylenchida)

    PubMed Central

    Masler, E. P.; Kovaleva, E. S.; Sardanelli, S.

    1999-01-01

    Material antigenically related to the neuromodulatory peptide FMRFamide was detected and examined in preparations of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, and in the free-living nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Panagrellus redivivus. FMRFamide-related peptides were quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Specific activities were remarkably similar among all of the vermiform members of the three species. FMRFamide-related peptide immunoactivity was present in both sexes and all stages of H. glycines examined. The highest specific activity was present in second-stage juveniles and in males, and the lowest in white and yellow females. Total FMRFamide-related peptide level per individual was highest in brown females, with 90% of the activity associated with the eggs. Peptide levels in these eggs and in second-stage juveniles were comparable and increased in adults, especially in females. Chromatographic analysis of FMRFamide-related peptide preparations from H. glycines juveniles, C. elegans, and P. redivivus revealed distinct qualitative differences between the infective plant parasite and the free-living nematodes. PMID:19270893

  14. Glycine Receptor Autoimmune Spectrum With Stiff-Man Syndrome Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    McKeon, Andrew; Martinez-Hernandez, Eugenia; Lancaster, Eric; Matsumoto, Joseph Y.; Harvey, Robert J.; McEvoy, Kathleen M.; Pittock, Sean J.; Lennon, Vanda A.; Dalmau, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether glycine receptor α1 subunit-specific autoantibodies (GlyRα1-IgG) occur in a broader spectrum of brainstem and spinal hyperexcitability disorders than the progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus phenotype recognized to date, and to ascertain disease specificity. Design Retrospective, case-control study. Settings Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, and University of Barcelona, Spain. Patients Eighty-one patients with stiff-man syndrome phenotype, 80 neurologic control subjects, and 20 healthy control subjects. Intervention Glycine receptor α1–transfected cells to test serum or cerebrospinal fluid from cases and control subjects. Main Outcome Measures Frequency of GlyRα1-IgG positivity among stiff-man syndrome phenotype cases and control subjects. Comparison of GlyRα1-IgG seropositive and seronegative cases. Results Seropositive cases (12% of cases) included 9 with stiff-man syndrome (4 classic; 5 variant; 66% were glutamic acid decarboxylase 65–IgG positive) and 1 with progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus. Immunotherapy responses were noted more frequently in GlyRα1-IgG–positive cases (6 of 7 improved) than in seronegative cases (7 of 25 improved; P=.02). The single seropositive control patient had steroid-responsive vision loss and optic atrophy with inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid. Conclusions Glycine receptor α1–IgG aids identification of autoimmune brainstem/spinal cord hyperexcitability disorders and may extend to the glycinergic visual system. PMID:23090334

  15. The mitochondrial genome of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Tracey; Farrugia, Daniel; Barrett, Jeff; Chitwood, David J; Rowe, Janet; Subbotin, Sergei; Dowton, Mark

    2011-07-01

    We sequenced the entire coding region of the mitochondrial genome of Heterodera glycines. The sequence obtained comprised 14.9 kb, with PCR evidence indicating that the entire genome comprised a single, circular molecule of approximately 21-22 kb. The genome is the most T-rich nematode mitochondrial genome reported to date, with T representing over half of all nucleotides on the coding strand. The genome also contains the highest number of poly(T) tracts so far reported (to our knowledge), with 60 poly(T) tracts ≥ 12 Ts. All genes are transcribed from the same mitochondrial strand. The organization of the mitochondrial genome of H. glycines shows a number of similarities compared with Radopholus similis, but fewer similarities when compared with Meloidogyne javanica. Very few gene boundaries are shared with Globodera pallida or Globodera rostochiensis. Partial mitochondrial genome sequences were also obtained for Heterodera cardiolata (5.3 kb) and Punctodera chalcoensis (6.8 kb), and these had identical organizations compared with H. glycines. We found PCR evidence of a minicircular mitochondrial genome in P. chalcoensis, but at low levels and lacking a noncoding region. Such circularised genome fragments may be present at low levels in a range of nematodes, with multipartite mitochondrial genomes representing a shift to a condition in which these subgenomic circles predominate.

  16. Interaction between ATP, metal ions, glycine, and several minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rishpon, J.; Ohara, P. J.; Lawless, J. G.; Lahav, N.

    1982-01-01

    Interactions between ATP, glycine and montmorillonite and kaolinite clay minerals in the presence of various metal cations are investigated. The adsorption of adenine nucleotides on clays and Al(OH)3 was measured as a function of pH, and glycine condensation was followed in the presence of ATP, ZnCl2, MgCl2 and either kaolinite or montmorillonite. The amounts of ATP and ADP adsorbed are found to decrease with increasing Ph, and to be considerably enhanced in experiments with Mg(2+)- and Zn(2+)-montmorillonite with respect to Na(+)-montmorillonite. The effects of divalent cations are less marked in kaolinite. Results for Al(OH)3 show the importance of adsorption at clay platelet edges at high pH. The decomposition of ATP during drying at high temperature is observed to be inhibited by small amounts of clay, vacuum, or Mg(2+) or Zn(2+) ions, and to be accompanied by peptide formation in the presence of glycine. Results suggest the importance of Zn(2+) and Mg(2+) in chemical evolution.

  17. Cometary Glycine Detected in Stardust-Returned Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    In January 2006, NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth. The Stardust cometary collector consisted of aerogel cells lined with aluminum foils designed to capture impacting particles and facilitate removal of the aerogel. Preliminary examinations of these comet-exposed materials revealed a suite of organic compounds, including several amines and amino acids which were later examined in more detail. Methylamine (NH2CH3) and ethylamine (NH2C2H5) were detected in the exposed aerogel at concentrations greatly exceeding those found in control samples, while the amino acid glycine (NH2CH2COOH) was detected in several foil samples as well as in the comet-exposed aerogel. None of these three compounds had been previously detected in comets, although methylamine had been observed in the interstellar medium. Although comparison with control samples suggested that the detected glycine was cometary. the previous work was not able to conclusively identify its origin. Here, we present the results of compound-specific carbon isotopic analysis of glycine in Stardust cometary collector foils. Several foils from the interstellar side of the Stardust collector were also analyzed for amino acid abundance, but concentrations were too low to perform isotopic ana!ysis.

  18. Glycine transporter-1: a new potential therapeutic target for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    The hypofunction hypothesis of glutamatergic neurotransmission via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia suggests that increasing NMDA receptor function via pharmacological manipulation could provide a new therapeutic strategy for schizophrenia. The glycine modulatory site on NMDA receptor complex is the one of the most attractive therapeutic targets for schizophrenia. One means of enhancing NMDA receptor neurotransmission is to increase the availability of the obligatory co-agonist glycine at modulatory site on the NMDA receptors through the inhibition of glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1) on glial cells. Some clinical studies have demonstrated that the GlyT-1 inhibitor sarcosine (N-methylglycine) shows antipsychotic activity in patients with schizophrenia. Currently, a number of pharmaceutical companies have been developing novel and selective GlyT-1 inhibitors for the treatment of schizophrenia. A recent double blind phase II study demonstrated that the novel GlyT-1 inhibitor RG1678 has a robust and clinically meaningful effect in patients with schizophrenia. In this article, the author reviews the recent findings on the GlyT-1 as a potential therapeutic target of schizophrenia.

  19. Glycine and ammonia plasma concentrations during sedation with remifentanil in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Marie-Pierre; Minville, Vincent; Asehnoune, Karim; Bridoux, Delphine; Poggi-Bach, Joséphine; Duranteau, Jacques; Benhamou, Dan

    2007-07-01

    To investigate glycine and ammonia plasma concentrations during a 72-h remifentanil infusion and the relationship between glycine concentration and remifentanil infusion rate. A prospective open-label observational clinical trial in a trauma and a neurosurgical intensive care unit in a university teaching hospital. Nine consecutive patients requiring sedation and ventilatory support for at least 72 h. One was excluded due to acute cardiac failure. Patients were sedated with remifentanil and propofol. Glycine and ammonia plasma concentrations were measured every 12 h during an intravenous remifentanil infusion performed over 72 h, and 24 h after the end of the infusion. Cumulative remifentanil dose and rate of infusion were recorded for each patient. Clinical and biological signs of glycine toxicity were evaluated. Glycine and ammonia plasma concentrations did not exceed the toxic threshold at any time. Plasma glycine concentration measured at the end of remifentanil infusion was significantly correlated with the mean weighted rate of remifentanil infusion and with the cumulative remifentanil dose. A correlation between plasma glycine concentration and creatinine clearance at the end of remifentanil infusion was also documented. Plasma glycine concentration was correlated with the remifentanil cumulative dose and the infusion rate and did not reach the toxic threshold. As glycine concentration was also correlated with creatinine clearance and because remifentanil was the only source of exogenous glycine, additional data are necessary to ascertain the safety of remifentanil infusion in ICU patients.

  20. Glycine transporter type 1 blockade changes NMDA receptor-mediated responses and LTP in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells by altering extracellular glycine levels

    PubMed Central

    Martina, Marzia; Gorfinkel, Yelena; Halman, Samantha; Lowe, John A; Periyalwar, Pranav; Schmidt, Christopher J; Bergeron, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region requires the activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs). NMDAR activation in turn requires membrane depolarization as well as the binding of glutamate and its coagonist glycine. Previous pharmacological studies suggest that the glycine transporter type 1 (GlyT1) maintains subsaturating concentrations of glycine at synaptic NMDARs. Antagonists of GlyT1 increase levels of glycine in the synaptic cleft and, like direct glycine site agonists, can augment NMDAR currents and NMDAR-mediated functions such as LTP. In addition, stimulation of the glycine site initiates signalling through the NMDAR complex, priming the receptors for clathrin-dependent endocytosis. We have used a new potent GlyT1 antagonist, CP-802,079, with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in acute rat hippocampal slices to determine the effect of GlyT1 blockade on LTP. Reverse microdialysis experiments in the hippocampus of awake, freely moving rats, showed that this drug elevated only the extracellular concentration of glycine. We found that CP-802,079, sarcosine and glycine significantly increased the amplitude of the NMDAR currents and LTP. In contrast, application of higher concentrations of CP-802,079 and glycine slightly reduced NMDAR currents and did not increase LTP. Overall, these data suggest that the level of glycine present in the synaptic cleft tightly regulates the NMDAR activity. This level is kept below the ‘set point’ of the NMDAR internalization priming mechanism by the presence of GlyT1-dependent uptake. PMID:15064326

  1. A DFT study of adsorption of glycine onto the surface of BC2N nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, Alireza; Azmoodeh, Zivar; Javan, Masoud Bezi; Lemeski, E. Tazikeh; Karami, Leila

    2016-10-01

    A theoretical study of structure and the energy interaction of amino acid glycine (NH2CH2COOH) with BC2N nanotube is crucial for apperception behavior occurring at the nanobiointerface. Herein, we studied the adsorption of glycine in their radical and zwitterionic forms upon the surface of BC2N nanotube using M06 functional and 6-311G** standard basis set. We also considered the different orientations of the glycine amino acid on the surface of adsorbent. Further, we found out that the stability of glycine from its carbonyl group is higher than hydroxyl and amine groups. Our results also indicated that the electronic structure of BC2N nanotube on the adsorption of glycine from its amine group is more altered than the other groups. Our study exhibits that opto-electronic property of adsorbent is changed after the glycine adsorption.

  2. Glycine's radiolytic destruction in ices: first in situ laboratory measurements for Mars.

    PubMed

    Gerakines, Perry A; Hudson, Reggie L

    2013-07-01

    We report new laboratory studies of the radiation-induced destruction of glycine-containing ices for a range of temperatures and compositions that allow extrapolation to martian conditions. In situ infrared spectroscopy was used to study glycine decay rates as a function of temperature (from 15 to 280 K) and initial glycine concentrations in six mixtures whose compositions ranged from dry glycine to H2O+glycine (300:1). Results are presented in several systems of units, with cautions concerning their use. The half-life of glycine under the surface of Mars is estimated as an extrapolation of this data set to martian conditions, and trends in decay rates are described as are applications to Mars' near-surface chemistry.

  3. Oral Administration of Glycine and Leucine Dipeptides Improves Skin Hydration and Elasticity in UVB-Irradiated Hairless Mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Il; Lee, Ji Eun; Shin, Hyun Jun; Song, Soonran; Lee, Won Kyung; Hwang, Jae Sung

    2017-09-01

    Placenta is a special organ that contains many nutrients such as growth factors, minerals, and bioactive peptides. Dipeptides of glycine and leucine are major components of porcine placenta extracts (PPE) that has been used as an alternative of human placenta extracts. In this study, we investigated whether major peptides of PPE, Glycyl-L-Leucine (Gly-Leu), L-Leucyl-Glycine (Leu-Gly), and L-Leucyl-L-Leucine (Leu-Leu), affect skin hydration and elasticity in vitro and in vivo. We found that Gly-Leu and Leu-Gly dipeptides induced the expression of transglutaminase 1 in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) whereas Leu-Leu dipeptides did not. Treatment with Gly-Leu or Leu-Gly significantly increased hyaluronan (HA) synthesis in NHEKs and the upregulation of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) mRNA level was confirmed. In addition, elastase activity was inhibited in NHEKs treated with Gly-Leu or Leu-Gly dipeptides. Oral administration of Gly-Leu or Leu-Gly dipeptides increased skin hydration and elasticity in UVB-irradiated hairless mice. The significant upregulation of HA in UVB-irradiated hairless mice was observed in response to oral administration of Gly-Leu or Leu-Gly. These results suggest that the major dipeptides of porcine placenta, Gly-Leu and Leu-Gly, are potentially active ingredients for skin moisturization formulations.

  4. Oral Administration of Glycine and Leucine Dipeptides Improves Skin Hydration and Elasticity in UVB-Irradiated Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Il; Lee, Ji Eun; Shin, Hyun Jun; Song, Soonran; Lee, Won Kyung; Hwang, Jae Sung

    2017-01-01

    Placenta is a special organ that contains many nutrients such as growth factors, minerals, and bioactive peptides. Dipeptides of glycine and leucine are major components of porcine placenta extracts (PPE) that has been used as an alternative of human placenta extracts. In this study, we investigated whether major peptides of PPE, Glycyl-L-Leucine (Gly-Leu), L-Leucyl-Glycine (Leu-Gly), and L-Leucyl-L-Leucine (Leu-Leu), affect skin hydration and elasticity in vitro and in vivo. We found that Gly-Leu and Leu-Gly dipeptides induced the expression of transglutaminase 1 in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) whereas Leu-Leu dipeptides did not. Treatment with Gly-Leu or Leu-Gly significantly increased hyaluronan (HA) synthesis in NHEKs and the upregulation of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) mRNA level was confirmed. In addition, elastase activity was inhibited in NHEKs treated with Gly-Leu or Leu-Gly dipeptides. Oral administration of Gly-Leu or Leu-Gly dipeptides increased skin hydration and elasticity in UVB-irradiated hairless mice. The significant upregulation of HA in UVB-irradiated hairless mice was observed in response to oral administration of Gly-Leu or Leu-Gly. These results suggest that the major dipeptides of porcine placenta, Gly-Leu and Leu-Gly, are potentially active ingredients for skin moisturization formulations. PMID:28655072

  5. Dietary glycine blunts liver injury after bile duct ligation in rats.

    PubMed

    Froh, Matthias; Zhong, Zhi; Walbrun, Peter; Lehnert, Mark; Netter, Susanne; Wiest, Reiner; Conzelmann, Lars; Gabele, Erwin; Hellerbrand, Claus; Scholmerich, Jurgen; Thurman, Ronald-G

    2008-10-21

    To investigate the effects of (dietary) glycine against oxidant-induced injury caused by bile duct ligation (BDL). Either a diet containing 5% glycine or a standard diet was fed to male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Three days later, BDL or sham-operation was performed. Rats were sacrificed 1 to 3 d after BDL. The influence of deoxycholic acid (DCA) in the presence or absence of glycine on liver cells was determined by measurement of calcium and chloride influx in cultivated Kupffer cells and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was determined in the supernatant of cultivated hepatocytes. Serum alanine transaminase levels increased to about 600 U/L 1 d after BDL. However, enzyme release was blunted by about two third in rats receiving glycine. Release of the alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase was also blocked significantly in the group fed glycine. Focal necrosis was observed 2 d after BDL. Glycine partially blocked the histopathological changes. Incubation of Kupffer cells with DCA led to increased intracellular calcium that could be blocked by incubation with glycine. However, systemic blockage of Kupffer cells with gadolinium chloride had no effects on transaminase release. Incubation of isolated hepatocytes with DCA led to a significant release of LDH after 4 h. This release was largely blocked when incubation with glycine was performed. These data indicate that glycine significantly decreased liver injury, most likely by a direct effect on hepatocytes. Kupffer cells do not appear to play an important role in the pathological changes caused by cholestasis.

  6. Converting enzyme inhibition and the glomerular hemodynamic response to glycine in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Slomowitz, L A; Peterson, O W; Thomson, S C

    1999-07-01

    GFR normally increases during glycine infusion. This response is absent in humans and rats with established diabetes mellitus. In diabetic patients, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) restores the effect of glycine on GFR. To ascertain the glomerular hemodynamic basis for this effect of ACEI, micropuncture studies were performed in male Wistar-Froemter rats after 5 to 6 wk of insulin-treated streptozotocin diabetes. The determinants of single-nephron GFR (SNGFR) were assessed in each rat before and during glycine infusion. Studies were performed in diabetics, diabetics after 5 d of ACEI (enalapril in the drinking water), and weight-matched controls. Diabetic rats manifest renal hypertrophy and glomerular hyperfiltration but not glomerular capillary hypertension. ACEI reduced glomerular capillary pressure, increased glomerular ultrafiltration coefficient, and did not mitigate hyperfiltration. In controls, glycine increased SNGFR by 30% due to increased nephron plasma flow. In diabetics, glycine had no effect on any determinant of SNGFR. In ACEI-treated diabetics, the SNGFR response to glycine was indistinguishable from nondiabetics, but the effect of glycine was mediated by greater ultrafiltration pressure rather than by greater plasma flow. These findings demonstrate that: (1) The absent response to glycine in established diabetes does not indicate that renal functional reserve is exhausted by hyperfiltration; and (2) ACEI restores the GFR response to glycine in established diabetes, but this response is mediated by increased ultrafiltration pressure rather than by increased nephron plasma flow.

  7. Synaptic inhibition by glycine acting at a metabotropic receptor in tiger salamander retina.

    PubMed

    Hou, Mingli; Duan, Lei; Slaughter, Malcolm M

    2008-06-15

    Glycine is the lone fast neurotransmitter for which a metabotropic pathway has not been identified. In retina, we found a strychnine-insensitive glycine response in bipolar and ganglion cells. This glycine response reduced high voltage-activated calcium current. It was G-protein mediated and protein kinase A dependent. The EC(50) of the metabotropic glycine response is 3 mum, an order of magnitude lower than the ionotropic glycine receptor in the same retina. The bipolar cell glutamatergic input to ganglion cells was suppressed by metabotropic glycine action. The synaptic output of about two-thirds of bipolar cells and calcium current in two-thirds of ganglion cells are sensitive to the action of glycine at metabotropic receptors, suggesting this signal regulates specific synaptic pathways in proximal retina. This study resolves the curious absence of a metabotropic glycine pathway in the nervous system and reveals that the major fast inhibitory neurotransmitters, GABA and glycine, both activate G-protein-coupled pathways as well.

  8. On the stability of glycine-water clusters with excess electron: Implications for photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Doo-Sik; Kang, Ae-Ri; Lee, Sungyul; Kim, Bongsoo; Kyu Kim, Sang; Neuhauser, Daniel

    2005-02-01

    Calculations are presented for the glycine-(H2O)n- (n=0-2) anionic clusters with excess electron, with the glycine core in the canonical or zwitterion form. A variety of conformers are predicted, and their relative energy is examined to estimate thermodynamic stability. The dynamic (proton transfer) pathways between the anionic clusters with the canonical and the zwitterion glycine core are examined. Small barrier heights for isomerization from the zwitterion glycine-(H2O)2- anion to those with canonical glycine core suggest that the former conformers may be kinetically unstable and unfavorable for detection of neutral glycine zwitterion-(H2O)n (n=1,2) clusters by photodetachment, in accordance with the photoelectron spectroscopic experiments by Bowen and co-workers [Xu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 119, 10696 (2003)]. The calculated stability of the glycine-(H2O)n- anion clusters with canonical glycine core relative to those with zwitterion core indicates that the observation of the anionic conformers with the canonical glycine core would be much more feasible, as revealed by Johnson and co-workers [Diken et al. J. Chem. Phys. 120, 9902 (2004)].

  9. Active transport of. gamma. -aminobutyric acid and glycine into synaptic vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kish, P.E.; Fischer-Bovenkerk, C.; Ueda, T. )

    1989-05-01

    Although {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine are recognized as major amino acid inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, their storage is poorly understood. In this study the authors have characterized vesicular GABA and glycine uptakes in the cerebrum and spinal cord, respectively. They present evidence that GABA and glycine are each taken up into isolated synaptic vesicles in an ATP-dependent manner and that the uptake is driven by an electrochemical proton gradient. Uptake for both amino acids exhibited kinetics with low affinity similar to a vesicular glutamate uptake. The ATP-dependent GABA uptake was not inhibited by the putative amino acid neurotransmitters glycine, taurine, glutamate, or aspartate or by GABA analogs, agonists, and antagonists. Similarly, ATP-dependent glycine uptake was hardly affected by GABA, taurine, glutamate, or aspartate or by glycine analogs or antagonists. The GABA uptake was not affected by chloride, which is in contrast to the uptake of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, whereas the glycine uptake was slightly stimulated by low concentrations of chloride. Tissue distribution studies indicate that the vesicular uptake systems for GABA, glycine, and glutamate are distributed in different proportions in the cerebrum and spinal cord. These results suggest that the vesicular uptake systems for GABA, glycine, and glutamate are distinct from each other.

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of 2-chloro N-[(S)-{(S)-1-[11 C]methylpiperidin-2-yl} (phenyl)methyl]3-trifluoromethyl-benzamide ([11 C]N-methyl-SSR504734) as a PET radioligand for glycine transporter 1

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dysfunction of the glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) has been suggested to be involved in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. GlyT1 inhibitors have therefore been considered to have antipsychotic therapeutic potential. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging probes for GlyT1 are, consequently, expected to be useful for investigating the mechanism of such disease conditions and for measuring occupancy of GlyT1 inhibitors in vivo. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of 2-chloro N-[(S)-{(S)-1-[11 C]methylpiperidin-2-yl} (phenyl)methyl] 3-trifluoromethyl-benzamide ([11 C]N-methyl-SSR504734) as a PET imaging agent for GlyT1. Methods [11 C]N-methyl-SSR504734 was synthesized by N-[11 C]methylation of SSR504734 via [11 C]CH3OTf. In vitro brain distribution of [11 C]N-methyl-SSR504734 was tested in whole-hemisphere autoradiography (ARG) on human brain slices. Initial PET studies were performed using a cynomolgus monkey at baseline and after pretreatment with 0.1 to 1.5 mg/kg of SSR504734. Then, PET studies using rhesus monkeys were performed with arterial blood sampling at baseline and after pretreatment with 1.5 to 4.5 mg/kg SSR504734. Distribution volumes (VT) were calculated with a two-tissue compartment model, and GlyT1 occupancy by SSR504734 was estimated using a Lassen plot approach. Results [11 C]N-methyl-SSR504734 was successfully synthesized in moderate radiochemical yield and high specific radioactivity. In the ARG experiments, [11 C]N-methyl-SSR504734 showed specific binding in the white matter and pons. In the initial PET experiments in a cynomolgus monkey, [11 C]N-methyl-SSR504734 showed high brain uptake and consistent distribution with previously reported GlyT1 expression in vivo (thalamus, brainstem > cerebellum > cortical regions). However, the brain uptake increased after pretreatment with SSR504734. Further PET studies in rhesus monkeys showed a similar increase of brain uptake after

  11. Deep-space glycine formation via Strecker-type reactions activated by ice water dust mantles. A computational approach.

    PubMed

    Rimola, Albert; Sodupe, Mariona; Ugliengo, Piero

    2010-01-01

    A Strecker-type synthesis of glycine by reacting NH(3), H(2)C=O and HCN in presence of ice water (H(2)O-ice) as a catalyst has been theoretically studied at B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level within a cluster approach in order to mimic reactions occurring in the interstellar and circumstellar medium (ICM). Results indicate that, despite the exoergonic character of the considered reactions occurring at the H(2)O-ice surface, the kinetics are slow due to relatively high electronic energy barriers (ΔU(0)(≠)=15-45 kcal mol(-1)). Reactions occurring within H(2)O-ice cavities, in which ice bulk effects have been modeled by assuming a dielectric continuum (ε=78), show energy barriers low enough to allow NH(2)CH(2)OH formation but not NH=CH2 (ΔU(0)(≠)= 2 and 21 kcal mol(-1), respectively) thus hindering the NH(2)CH(2)CN formation, i.e. the precursor of glycine, through Strecker channels. Moreover, hydrolysis of NH(2)CH(2)CN to give glycine is characterized by high electronic energy barriers (ΔU(0)(≠)=27-34 kcal mol(-1)) and cannot readily occur at cryogenic temperatures. Nevertheless, the facts that NH=CH(2) formation can readily be achieved through the radical-radical HCN+2H - NH−−>CH2 reaction [D. E. Woon, Astrophys. J., 2002, 571, L177-L180], and that present results indicate that the Strecker step of NH=CH(2)+HCN−−>NH(2)CH(2)CN exhibits a relative low energy barrier (ΔU(0)(≠)=8–9 kcal mol(-1)), suggest that a combination of these two mechanisms allows for the formation of NH(2)CH(2)CN in the ICM. These results strengthen the thesis that NH(2)CH(2)CN could have been formed and protected by icy dust particles, and then delivered through micro-bombardments onto the early Earth, leading to glycine formation upon contact with the primordial ocean.

  12. Nicotine facilitates glycine release in the rat spinal dorsal horn

    PubMed Central

    Kiyosawa, Atsuko; Katsurabayashi, Shutaro; Akaike, Norihiko; Pang, Zhi Ping; Akaike, Norio

    2001-01-01

    Nicotinic effects on glycine release were investigated in slices of lumbar spinal cord using conventional whole-cell recordings. In most of the substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons tested, nicotine increased the frequency of the glycinergic spontaneous miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs). In a smaller proportion, nicotine evoked not only this same presynaptic response but also a postsynaptic response.Nicotinic facilitation of glycinergic mIPSCs was investigated in mechanically dissociated SG neurons using nystatin-perforated patch recordings. Nicotine (3 × 10−6 to 10−5m) reversibly enhanced the frequency of glycinergic mIPSCs without altering their amplitudes, thus indicating that nicotine facilitates glycine release through a presynaptic mechanism.Choline, a selective α7 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist, had no effect on the mIPSC frequency while anatoxin A, a broad-spectrum agonist of nAChR, facilitated the mIPSC frequency.α-Bungarotoxin, a selective α7 subunit antagonist, failed to block the nicotinic facilitatory action. Mecamylamine, a broad-spectrum nicotinic antagonist, reversibly inhibited nicotinic action. Dihydro-β-erythroidine, a selective antagonist of nAChRs containing α4-β2 subunits, completely blocked nicotinic action.Ca2+-free but not Cd2+-containing bath solutions blocked nicotinic actions.We therefore conclude that nicotine facilitates glycine release in the substantia gelatinosa of the spinal dorsal horn via specific nAChRs containing α4-β2 subunits. This action on a subset of presynaptic nAChRs may underlie nicotine's modulation of noxious signal transmission and provide a cellular mechanism for the analgesic function of nicotine. PMID:11579160

  13. Characterization of the Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines Hrp pathogenicity island.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Gun; Park, Byoung Keun; Yoo, Chang-Hyuk; Jeon, Eunkyung; Oh, Jonghee; Hwang, Ingyu

    2003-05-01

    We sequenced an approximately 29-kb region from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines that contained the Hrp type III secretion system, and we characterized the genes in this region by Tn3-gus mutagenesis and gene expression analyses. From the region, hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) and hrc (hrp and conserved) genes, which encode type III secretion systems, and hpa (hrp-associated) genes were identified. The characteristics of the region, such as the presence of many virulence genes, low G+C content, and bordering tRNA genes, satisfied the criteria for a pathogenicity island (PAI) in a bacterium. The PAI was composed of nine hrp, nine hrc, and eight hpa genes with seven plant-inducible promoter boxes. The hrp and hrc mutants failed to elicit hypersensitive responses in pepper plants but induced hypersensitive responses in all tomato plants tested. The Hrp PAI of X. axonopodis pv. glycines resembled the Hrp PAIs of other Xanthomonas species, and the Hrp PAI core region was highly conserved. However, in contrast to the PAI of Pseudomonas syringae, the regions upstream and downstream from the Hrp PAI core region showed variability in the xanthomonads. In addition, we demonstrate that HpaG, which is located in the Hrp PAI region of X. axonopodis pv. glycines, is a response elicitor. Purified HpaG elicited hypersensitive responses at a concentration of 1.0 micro M in pepper, tobacco, and Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Cvi-0 by acting as a type III secreted effector protein. However, HpaG failed to elicit hypersensitive responses in tomato, Chinese cabbage, and A. thaliana ecotypes Col-0 and Ler. This is the first report to show that the harpin-like effector protein of Xanthomonas species exhibits elicitor activity.

  14. Genetic Association of the Glycine Cleavage System Genes and Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Rita H.; Northrup, Hope; Hixson, James E.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Au, Kit Sing

    2016-01-01

    Background Neural tube defects (NTDs) are one of the most common congenital birth defects, with myelomeningocele (MM) being the most severe form compatible with life. Recent studies show a link between mitochondrial folate one carbon metabolism and NTDs via the glycine cleavage system (GCS). We hypothesize that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and novel variants in the coding regions of the GCS genes increase the risk for MM. Methods DNA was obtained from 96 subjects with MM born before the United States mandated folic acid fortification of grains in 1998. Primers were designed for PCR amplification and sequencing of all exons in the AMT gene, one of four genes in the GCS, followed by identification of SNPs and novel variants. An additional 252 MM subjects underwent whole exome sequencing to examine all four GCS genes (aminomethyltransferase, glycine dehydrogenase, glycine cleavage system protein-H, and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase). Results We identified six novel, heterozygous variants in the AMT gene with three predicted to be deleterious to AMT function (p.Val7Leu, p.Pro251Arg, and p.Val380Met). Five extremely rare, known heterozygous variants were found in the AMT gene and one in the GLDC gene. No novel variants in the exons of the other two GCS genes (DLD and GCSH) were identified. Conclusions We identified novel and rare, known variants in two of the four GCS genes that may contribute to the development of MM. Consistent with previous findings, the current study provides additional support that genetic variations in GCS genes contribute to the risk of NTDs. PMID:27620832

  15. Characterization of the Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines Hrp Pathogenicity Island

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Gun; Park, Byoung Keun; Yoo, Chang-Hyuk; Jeon, Eunkyung; Oh, Jonghee; Hwang, Ingyu

    2003-01-01

    We sequenced an approximately 29-kb region from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines that contained the Hrp type III secretion system, and we characterized the genes in this region by Tn3-gus mutagenesis and gene expression analyses. From the region, hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) and hrc (hrp and conserved) genes, which encode type III secretion systems, and hpa (hrp-associated) genes were identified. The characteristics of the region, such as the presence of many virulence genes, low G+C content, and bordering tRNA genes, satisfied the criteria for a pathogenicity island (PAI) in a bacterium. The PAI was composed of nine hrp, nine hrc, and eight hpa genes with seven plant-inducible promoter boxes. The hrp and hrc mutants failed to elicit hypersensitive responses in pepper plants but induced hypersensitive responses in all tomato plants tested. The Hrp PAI of X. axonopodis pv. glycines resembled the Hrp PAIs of other Xanthomonas species, and the Hrp PAI core region was highly conserved. However, in contrast to the PAI of Pseudomonas syringae, the regions upstream and downstream from the Hrp PAI core region showed variability in the xanthomonads. In addition, we demonstrate that HpaG, which is located in the Hrp PAI region of X. axonopodis pv. glycines, is a response elicitor. Purified HpaG elicited hypersensitive responses at a concentration of 1.0 μM in pepper, tobacco, and Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Cvi-0 by acting as a type III secreted effector protein. However, HpaG failed to elicit hypersensitive responses in tomato, Chinese cabbage, and A. thaliana ecotypes Col-0 and Ler. This is the first report to show that the harpin-like effector protein of Xanthomonas species exhibits elicitor activity. PMID:12730176

  16. Silyl Imine Electrophiles in Enantioselective Catalysis: A Rosetta Stone for Peptide Homologation, Enabling Diverse N-Protected Aryl Glycines from Aldehydes in Three Steps

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report that N-(trimethylsilyl)imines serve in the Bis(AMidine)-catalyzed addition of bromonitromethane with a high degree of enantioselection. This allows for the production of a range of protected α-bromo nitroalkane donors (including Fmoc) for use in Umpolung Amide Synthesis (UmAS). Hence, peptide homologation with nonnatural aryl glycine amino acids is achieved in three steps from aromatic aldehydes, which are plentiful and inexpensive. Epimerization during the homologation step is circumvented by avoiding an α-amino acid intermediate. PMID:24828455

  17. Silyl imine electrophiles in enantioselective catalysis: a Rosetta Stone for peptide homologation, enabling diverse N-protected aryl glycines from aldehydes in three steps.

    PubMed

    Makley, Dawn M; Johnston, Jeffrey N

    2014-06-06

    We report that N-(trimethylsilyl)imines serve in the Bis(AMidine)-catalyzed addition of bromonitromethane with a high degree of enantioselection. This allows for the production of a range of protected α-bromo nitroalkane donors (including Fmoc) for use in Umpolung Amide Synthesis (UmAS). Hence, peptide homologation with nonnatural aryl glycine amino acids is achieved in three steps from aromatic aldehydes, which are plentiful and inexpensive. Epimerization during the homologation step is circumvented by avoiding an α-amino acid intermediate.

  18. Purification and Properties of Arginase from Soybean, Glycine max, Axes

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung Hoon; Cho, Young Dong

    1990-01-01

    Arginase (EC 3.5.3.1) was purified to homogeneity from cytosol of soybean, Glycine max, axes by chromatographic separations on Sephadex G-200, DEAE-sephacel, hydroxyapatite, and arginine-affinity columns. The molecular weight of the enzyme estimated by pore gradient gel electrophoresis was 240,000, while sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gave a single band at the molecular weight of 60,000. The optimal pH for activity was 9.5 and the Km value was 83 millimolar. The enzyme was stimulated by polyamines such as putrescine. Images Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:16667583

  19. N-[[(Mercaptoacetyl)amino]benzoyl]glycines as mucolytic agents.

    PubMed

    Martin, T A; Comer, W T

    1985-07-01

    m- and p-aminobenzoic acids were converted to the title compounds by sequential use of ClCH2COCl, SOCl2, glycine methyl or ethyl ester, AcSK, and hydrolysis. The title compounds and a number of salts were compared for mucolytic activity, toxicity, stability, and hygroscopicity. When compared to N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), the compounds exhibit several times the in vitro mucolytic activity of NAC on a molar basis. The most promising candidate appears to be the sodium salt 3.5H2O 2 of the meta series.

  20. N-[(2S)-2-Chloro-propano-yl]glycine.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong-Shun; Tang, Yi; Li, Yu-Long; Xu, Ning; Xu, Hong

    2012-09-01

    The title compound, C(5)H(8)ClNO(3), was prepared by the nucleophilic substitution reaction of (2S)-2-chloro-propanoyl chloride with glycine. The acetate group forms a dihedral angle of 84.6 (1)° with the mean plane of the C-NH-C=O fragment. In the crystal, the molecules are linked by N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network, which consolidates the crystal packing.

  1. De novo synthesis of purine nucleotides in different fiber types of rat skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Tullson, P.C.; John-Alder, H.; Hood, D.A.; Terjung, R.L.

    1986-03-01

    The contribution of de novo purine nucleotide synthesis to nucleotide metabolism in skeletal muscles is not known. The authors have determined rates of de novo synthesis in soleus (slow-twitch red), red gastrocnemius (fast-twitch red), and white gastrocnemius (fast-twitch white) using the perfused rat hindquarter. /sup 14/C glycine incorporation into ATP was linear after 1 and 2 hours of perfusion with 0.2 mM added glycine. The intracellular (I) and extracellular (E) specific activity of /sup 14/C glycine was determined by HPLC of phenylisothiocyanate derivatives of neutralized PCA extracts. The rates of de novo synthesis when expressed relative to muscle ATP content show slow and fast-twitch red muscles to be similar and about twice as great as fast-twitch white muscles. This could represent a greater turnover of the adenine nucleotide pool in more oxidative red muscle types.

  2. Dehydration Injury in Germinating Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Senaratna, Tissa; McKersie, Bryan D.

    1983-01-01

    The sensitivity of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Maple Arrow) seeds to dehydration changed during germination. Seeds were tolerant of dehydration to 10% moisture if dried at 6 hours of imbibition, but were susceptible to dehydration injury if dried at 36 hours of imbibition. Dehydration injury appeared as loss of germination, slower growth rates of isolated axes, hypocotyl and root curling, and altered membrane permeability. Increased electrolyte leakage due to dehydration treatment was observed only from isolated axes but not from cotyledons, suggesting that cotyledons are more tolerant of dehydration. The transition from a dehydration-tolerant to a dehydration-susceptible state coincided with radicle elongation. However, the prevention of cell elongation by osmotic treatment in polyethylene glycol (−6 bars) or imbibition in 20 micrograms per milliliter cycloheximide did not prevent the loss of dehydration tolerance suggesting that neither cell elongation nor cytoplasmic protein synthesis was responsible for the change in sensitivity of soybean seeds to dehydration. Furthermore, the rate of dehydration or rate of rehydration did not alter the response to the dehydration stress. PMID:16663056

  3. Identification of tris(. gamma. glutamylcysteinyl)glycines in copper-tolerant mimulus guttatus roots

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, N.; Anderson, P.; Jackson, P.

    1987-08-01

    Copper-tolerant and non-tolerant M. guttatus plants synthesize a cysteine rich copper-complex following exposure to copper. Differences in the amount of this compound in the roots of tolerant and non-tolerant plants indicate that it may be involved in the mechanism of copper tolerance. Partial characterization suggested that this complex was metallothionein (MT)-like, but the structure was not fully elucidated. Poly(..gamma..glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, (..gamma..EC)/sub n/G, have been isolated and characterized from cadmium resistant Datura innoxia cells. These compounds bind metal ions, their synthesis is induced by metals and they appear to act as functional analogues of metallothionein. (..gamma..EC)/sub n/G from cadmium resistant D. innoxia cells was used to calibrate reverse phase HPLC columns (Hi-Pore RP-318, BioRad). Extracts prepared from the roots of M. guttatus plants, grown in the presence of (/sup 35/S) cysteine, were passed through Centricon 30 (Amicon Corp.) columns and then analyzed by reverse phase HPLC. (..gamma..EC)/sub 3/G was detected in extracts from plants grown in the presence of 10 ..mu..M copper for 48 h, but was not apparent in extracts from plants grown in the absence of this metal. It is not known whether the previously isolated putative MT is synonymous with (..gamma..EC)/sub 3/G.

  4. Development of glycine-α-methyl-proline-containing tripeptides with neuroprotective properties.

    PubMed

    Cacciatore, Ivana; Fornasari, Erika; Di Stefano, Antonio; Marinelli, Lisa; Cerasa, Laura Serafina; Turkez, Hasan; Aydin, Elanur; Moretto, Alessandro; Ferrone, Alessio; Pesce, Mirko; di Giacomo, Viviana; Reale, Marcella; Costantini, Erica; Di Giovanni, Pamela; Speranza, Lorenza; Felaco, Mario; Patruno, Antonia

    2016-01-27

    Herein is described the synthesis of novel glycine-α-methyl-proline-containing tripeptides (GP(Me)X tripeptides namely GP(Me)R, GP(Me)K, and GP(Me)H) with the aim of obtaining derivatives highly stable in human plasma and able to counteract neuroinflammatory processes that are distinctive of neurodegenerative pathologies. The syntheses of GP(Me)R, GP(Me)K, and GP(Me)H were all achieved both by introducing the Pro(Me) residue into the Gly-Pro-Arg (GPR) sequence in place of the native Pro in P2 position and replacing the basic amino acid Arg in P3 position by Lys or His. Results showed that all novel GP(Me)X tripeptides are stable in human plasma (t1/2 > 51 h) and that GP(Me)H - generating stable intramolecular H-bond in a C11-turn by interaction of His imidazole ring and Gly carbonyl group - restored physiological levels of nitric oxide deriving from neuronal NOS (nNOS) activity, thus preventing the inflammatory response by suppression of the NF-kB activity and, consequently, the expression of inflammatory genes such as inducibile NOS (iNOS). Therefore, GP(Me)H could be a lead compound for further development of peptidomimetics able to contrast neuroinflammatory processes.

  5. Chemical speciation of adsorbed glycine on metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jeong Woo; James, Joanna N.; Sholl, David S.

    2011-07-01

    Experimental studies have reported that glycine is adsorbed on the Cu(110) and Cu(100) surfaces in its deprotonated form at room temperature, but in its zwitterionic form on Pd(111) and Pt(111). In contrast, recent density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicated that the deprotonated molecules are thermodynamically favored on Cu(110), Cu(100), and Pd(111). To explore the source of this disagreement, we have tested three possible hypotheses. Using DFT calculations, we first show that the kinetic barrier for the deprotonation reaction of glycine on Pd(111) is larger than on Cu(110) or Cu(100). We then report that the presence of excess hydrogen would have little influence on the experimentally observed results, especially for Pd(111). Lastly, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to demonstrate that the aggregates of zwitterionic species on Pt(111) are energetically preferred to those of neutral species. Our results strongly suggest that the formation of aggregates with relatively large numbers of adsorbed molecules is favored under experimentally relevant conditions and that the adsorbate-adsorbate interactions in these aggregates stabilize the zwitterionic species.

  6. Water oxidation by a nickel-glycine catalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; Ghirlanda, Giovanna; Allen, James P

    2014-07-23

    The utilization of solar energy requires an efficient means for its storage as chemical energy. In bioinspired artificial photosynthesis, light energy can be used to drive water oxidation, but catalysts that produce molecular oxygen from water are needed to avoid excessive driving potentials. In this paper, we demonstrate the utility of a novel complex utilizing earth-abundant Ni in combination with glycine as an efficient catalyst with a modest overpotential of 0.475 ± 0.005 V at a current density of 1 mA/cm(2) at pH 11. Catalysis requires the presence of the amine moiety with the glycine most likely coordinating the Ni in a 4:1 molar ratio. The production of molecular oxygen at a high potential is verified by measurement of the change in oxygen concentration, yielding a Faradaic efficiency of 60 ± 5%. The catalytic species is most likely a heterogeneous Ni-hydroxide formed by electrochemical oxidation. This Ni species can achieve a current density of 4 mA/cm(2) that persists for at least 10 h. Based upon the observed pH dependence of the current amplitude and oxidation/reduction peaks, the catalytic mechanism is an electron-proton coupled process.

  7. Growth of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride and its characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, G.; Pari, S.

    2016-11-01

    Single crystal of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride by slow evaporation method is reported. The grown crystal characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, UV-Vis-NIR and fluorescence spectroscopy. It is established that the crystal falls under the monoclinic system and space group P21/c with the cell parameters as: a=8.565 Å, b=12.943 Å, c=6.272 Å, α=γ=90°, β=103.630º. UV-Vis-NIR spectrum shows indirect allowed transition with a band gap of 5.21 eV and other optical properties are measured. The crystal is also shown to have a high transmittance in the visible region. The third order nonlinear property and optical limiting have been investigated using Z-Scan technique. Complex impedance spectrum measured at the dc conductivity. Dependence of dielectric constant, dielectric loss and ac conductivity on frequency at different temperature of applied ac field is analyzed. The mechanical behavior has been assessed by Vickers microhardness indenter. The thermal behavior of glycine ethyl ester hydrochloride was analyzed using TG/DTA thermal curves. From the thermal study, the material was found to possess thermal stability up to 174 °C. The predicted NLO properties, UV-Vis transmittance and Z-scan studies indicate that is an attractive material for photonics optical limiting applications.

  8. Intracellular glycine receptor function facilitates glioma formation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Förstera, Benjamin; a Dzaye, Omar Dildar; Winkelmann, Aline; Semtner, Marcus; Benedetti, Bruno; Markovic, Darko S; Synowitz, Michael; Wend, Peter; Fähling, Michael; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Glass, Rainer; Kettenmann, Helmut; Meier, Jochen C

    2014-09-01

    The neuronal function of Cys-loop neurotransmitter receptors is established; however, their role in non-neuronal cells is poorly defined. As brain tumors are enriched in the neurotransmitter glycine, we studied the expression and function of glycine receptors (GlyRs) in glioma cells. Human brain tumor biopsies selectively expressed the GlyR α1 and α3 subunits, which have nuclear localization signals (NLSs). The mouse glioma cell line GL261 expressed GlyR α1, and knockdown of GlyR α1 protein expression impaired the self-renewal capacity and tumorigenicity of GL261 glioma cells, as shown by a neurosphere assay and GL261 cell inoculation in vivo, respectively. We furthermore showed that the pronounced tumorigenic effect of GlyR α1 relies on a new intracellular signaling function that depends on the NLS region in the large cytosolic loop and impacts on GL261 glioma cell gene regulation. Stable expression of GlyR α1 and α3 loops rescued the self-renewal capacity of GlyR α1 knockdown cells, which demonstrates their functional equivalence. The new intracellular signaling function identified here goes beyond the well-established role of GlyRs as neuronal ligand-gated ion channels and defines NLS-containing GlyRs as new potential targets for brain tumor therapies. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Pressure Effects on the Abiotic Polymerization of Glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, Shohei; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Nakazawa, Hiromoto

    2007-06-01

    Polymerization experiments were performed using dry glycine under various pressures of 5 100 MPa at 150°C for 1 32 days. The series of experiments was carried out under the assumption that the pore space of deep sediments was adequate for dehydration polymerization of pre-biotic molecules. The products show various colors ranging from dark brown to light yellow, depending on the pressure. Visible and infrared spectroscopy reveal that the coloring is the result of formation of melanoidins at lower pressures. High-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses of the products show that: (1) glycine in all the experimental runs oligomerizes from 2-mer to 10-mer; (2) the yields are dependent on pressure up to 25 MPa and decrease slightly thereafter; and (3) polymerization progressed for the first 8 days, while the amounts of oligomers remained constant for longer-duration runs of up to 32 days. These results suggest that pressure inhibits the decomposition of amino acids and encourages polymerization in the absence of a catalyst. Our results further imply that abiotic polymerization could have occurred during diagenesis in deep sediments rather than in oceans.

  10. Glycine Substitutions in Collagen Heterotrimers Alter Triple Helical Assembly.

    PubMed

    Clements, Katherine A; Acevedo-Jake, Amanda M; Walker, Douglas R; Hartgerink, Jeffrey D

    2017-02-13

    Osteogenesis imperfecta typically results from missense mutations in the collagen genome where the required glycine residues are replaced with another amino acid. Many models have attempted to replicate the structure of mutated collagen on the triple helix level. However, composition and register control of the triple helix is complicated and requires extreme precision, especially when these destabilizing mutations are present. Here we present mutations to a composition- and register-controlled AAB helix where one of the requisite glycines in the A chain of the triple helix is changed to serine or alanine. We see a loss of compositional control when the A chain is mutated, resulting in an A'BB composition that minimizes the number of mutations included in the triple helix. However, when both A and B chains are mutated and no nonmutated peptide chains are available, the designed A'A'B' composition is reestablished. Our work shows the ability of the mutations to influence and alter the composition and register of the collagen triple helix.

  11. 78 FR 52501 - Glycine From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of Antidumping Duty New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... International Trade Administration Glycine From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of... duty order on glycine from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The new shipper review covers Hebei Donghua Jiheng Fine Chemical Company, Ltd. (Donghua Fine Chemical) for the period of review March 1, 2012...

  12. Environmental adaptation in wild soybeans (Glycine soja) across their native geographic range in northeast Asia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding the genetic basis of adaptive variation and the forces that shape this diversity in natural populations are long-standing goals in evolutionary biology. The wild soybean (Glycine soja), from which domesticated soybeans (Glycine max) were derived, is widely distributed throughout a dive...

  13. Pathogenicity of Pratylenchus penetrans, Heterodera glycines, and Meloidogyne incognita on Soybean Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Melakeberhan, Haddish

    1998-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Heterodera glycines, Meloidogyne incognita, and Pratylenchus penetrans on H. glycines-resistant 'Bryan,' tolerant-susceptible 'G88-20092,' and intolerant-susceptible 'Tracy M' soybean cultivars was tested using plants grown in 800 cm³ of soil in 15-cm-diam. clay pots in three greenhouse experiments. Plants were inoculated with 0, 1,000, 3,000, or 9,000 H. glycines race 3 or M. incognita eggs, or vermiform stages of P. penetrans/pot. Forty days after inoculation, nmnbers of all three nematodes, except H. glycines on Bryan, generally increased with increasing inoculum levels in Experiment I. Heterodera glycines and M. incognita significantly decreased growth only of Tracy M. At 45 and 57 days after inoculation with 6,000 individuals/pot in experiments II and III, respectively, significantly more P. penetrans and M. incognita than H. glycines were found on Bryan. However, H. glycines and M. incognita population densities were greater than P. penetrans on G88-20092 and Tracy M. Growth of Tracy M infected by H. glycines and M. incognita and growth of G88-20092 infected by M. incognita decreased in Experiment III. Pratylenchus penetrans did not affect plant growth. Reduction in plant growth differed according to the particular nematode species and cultivar, indicating that nematodes other than the species for which resistance is targeted can have different effects on cultivars of the same crop species. PMID:19274203

  14. Benzo(A)pyrene induced glycine N-methyltransferase messenger rna expression in Fundulus heteroclitus embryos

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT) is a mediator in the methionine and folate cycles, and is responsible for the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to glycine forming S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) and sarcosine. All the known DNA methyltransferases use SAM as a methyl donor th...

  15. Lack of positive allosteric modulation of mutated alpha(1)S267I glycine receptors by cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Foadi, Nilufar; Leuwer, Martin; Demir, Reyhan; Dengler, Reinhard; Buchholz, Vanessa; de la Roche, Jeanne; Karst, Matthias; Haeseler, Gertrud; Ahrens, Jörg

    2010-05-01

    Loss of inhibitory synaptic transmission within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord plays a key role in the development of chronic pain following inflammation or nerve injury. Inhibitory postsynaptic transmission in the adult spinal cord involves mainly glycine. Ajulemic acid and HU210 are non-psychotropic, synthetic cannabinoids. Cannabidiol is a non-psychotropic plant constituent of cannabis sativa. There are hints that non-cannabinoid receptor mechanisms of these cannabinoids might be mediated via glycine receptors. In this study, we investigated the impact of the amino acid residue serine at position 267 on the glycine-modulatory effects of ajulemic acid, cannabidiol and HU210. Mutated alpha(1)S267I glycine receptors transiently expressed in HEK293 cells were studied by utilising the whole-cell clamp technique. The mutation of the alpha(1) subunit TM2 serine residue to isoleucine abolished the co-activation and the direct activation of the glycine receptor by the investigated cannabinoids. The nature of the TM2 (267) residue of the glycine alpha(1) subunit is crucial for the glycine-modulatory effect of ajulemic acid, cannabidiol and HU210. An investigation of the impact of such mutations on the in vivo interaction of cannabinoids with glycine receptors should permit a better understanding of the molecular determinants of action of cannabinoids.

  16. Behavioral differences of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita infective juveniles exposed to root extracts in vitro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The in vitro behaviors of infective juveniles (J2) of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita were compared in the presence and absence of plant root extracts. In an agar plate attraction-retention assay, H. glycines was 15-fold more responsive to a chemical attractant (CaCl2; P < 0.05) than w...

  17. 21 CFR 170.50 - Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 170.50 Glycine...) Shall bring such products into compliance with an authorizing food additive regulation. A food additive... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glycine (aminoacetic acid) in food for human...

  18. Increased production of alpha-amylase by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens in the presence of glycine

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q.; Tsukagoshi, N.; Miyashiro, S.; Udaka, S.

    1983-07-01

    The production of alpha-amylase by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens increased by a factor of 300 when glycine was added to a chemically defined simple medium at the early-logarithmic phase of growth. Glycine was not metabolized to a significant extent under the conditions used, but it considerably prevented the lowering of the pH of the culture. (Refs. 10).

  19. Dynamic proteome analysis of roots of soybean compatible and incompatible to Heterodera glycines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To gain new insights into the mechanism of soybean (Glycine max) interaction with the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines), we compared protein expression profiles of soybean roots infected by the soybean cyst nematode. Proteins were extracted from roots of 3 and 8 days post-inoculation (dpi)...

  20. First report of the Soybean Cyst Nematode, Heterodera glycines, in New York

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, is the most damaging pathogen of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), causing more than $1 billion in yield losses annually in the United States (Koenning and Wrather 2010). The SCN distribution map updated in 2014 showed that SCN were dete...

  1. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-02-01

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m-2 s-1) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower 15N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher 15N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most 15N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution.

  2. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject...

  6. Pathogenicity of Pratylenchus penetrans, Heterodera glycines, and Meloidogyne incognita on Soybean Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Melakeberhan, H

    1998-03-01

    The pathogenicity of Heterodera glycines, Meloidogyne incognita, and Pratylenchus penetrans on H. glycines-resistant 'Bryan,' tolerant-susceptible 'G88-20092,' and intolerant-susceptible 'Tracy M' soybean cultivars was tested using plants grown in 800 cm(3) of soil in 15-cm-diam. clay pots in three greenhouse experiments. Plants were inoculated with 0, 1,000, 3,000, or 9,000 H. glycines race 3 or M. incognita eggs, or vermiform stages of P. penetrans/pot. Forty days after inoculation, nmnbers of all three nematodes, except H. glycines on Bryan, generally increased with increasing inoculum levels in Experiment I. Heterodera glycines and M. incognita significantly decreased growth only of Tracy M. At 45 and 57 days after inoculation with 6,000 individuals/pot in experiments II and III, respectively, significantly more P. penetrans and M. incognita than H. glycines were found on Bryan. However, H. glycines and M. incognita population densities were greater than P. penetrans on G88-20092 and Tracy M. Growth of Tracy M infected by H. glycines and M. incognita and growth of G88-20092 infected by M. incognita decreased in Experiment III. Pratylenchus penetrans did not affect plant growth. Reduction in plant growth differed according to the particular nematode species and cultivar, indicating that nematodes other than the species for which resistance is targeted can have different effects on cultivars of the same crop species.

  7. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-02-17

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m(-2) s(-1)) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower (15)N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher (15)N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most (15)N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution.

  8. Impact of Herbicides on Heterodera glycines Susceptible and Resistant Soybean Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, C. A.; Noel, G. R.; Grau, C. R.; Gaska, J. M.; Kurtzweil, N. C.; MacGuidwin, A. E.; Wax, L. M.; Hartman, G. L.; Pedersen, W. L.

    2003-01-01

    Several abiotic and biotic stresses can affect soybean in a growing season. Heterodera glycines, soybean cyst nematode, reduces yield of soybean more than any other pathogen in the United States. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted to determine whether preemergence and postemergence herbicides modified the reproduction of H. glycines, and to determine the effects of possible interactive stresses caused by herbicides and H. glycines on soybean growth and yield. Heterodera glycines reproduction factor (Rf) generally was less on resistant than susceptible cultivars, resulting in a yield advantage for resistant cultivars. The yield advantage of resistant cultivars was due to more pods per plant on resistant than susceptible cultivars. Pendimethalin reduced H. glycines Rf on the susceptible cultivars in 1998 at Champaign, Illinois, and in greenhouse studies reduced dry root weight of H. glycines-resistant and susceptible cultivars, therefore reducing Rf on the susceptible cultivars. The interactive stresses from acifluorfen or imazethapyr and H. glycines reduced the dry shoot weight of the resistant cultivar Jack in a greenhouse study. Herbicides did not affect resistant cultivars' ability to suppress H. glycines Rf; therefore, growers planting resistant cultivars should make herbicide decisions based on weeds present and cultivar tolerance to the herbicide. PMID:19265980

  9. Growth enhancing effect of exogenous glycine and characterization of its uptake in halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica.

    PubMed

    Bualuang, Aporn; Incharoensakdi, Aran

    2015-02-01

    Alkaliphilic halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica showed optimal growth in the medium containing 0.5 M NaCl. The increase of exogenously added glycine to the medium up to 10 mM significantly promoted cell growth under both normal (0.5 M NaCl) and salt stress (2.0 M NaCl) conditions. Salt stress imposed by either 2.0 or 3.0 M NaCl retarded cell growth; however, exogenously added glycine at 10 mM concentration to salt-stress medium resulted in the reduction of growth inhibition particularly under 3.0 M NaCl condition. The uptake of glycine by intact A. halophytica was shown to exhibit saturation kinetics with an apparent K s of 160 μM and V max of 3.9 nmol/min/mg protein. The optimal pH for glycine uptake was at pH 8.0. The uptake activity was decreased in the presence of high concentration of NaCl. Both metabolic inhibitors and ionophores decreased glycine uptake in A. halophytica suggesting an energy-dependent glycine uptake. Several neutral amino acids showed considerable inhibition of glycine uptake with higher than 50 % inhibition observed with serine, cysteine and alanine whereas acidic, basic and aromatic amino acids showed only slight inhibition of glycine uptake.

  10. Light intensity affects the uptake and metabolism of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qingxu; Cao, Xiaochuang; Wu, Lianghuan; Mi, Wenhai; Feng, Ying

    2016-01-01

    The uptake of glycine by pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), when supplied as single N-source or in a mixture of glycine and inorganic N, was studied at different light intensities under sterile conditions. At the optimal intensity (414 μmol m−2 s−1) for plant growth, glycine, nitrate, and ammonium contributed 29.4%, 39.5%, and 31.1% shoot N, respectively, and light intensity altered the preferential absorption of N sources. The lower 15N-nitrate in root but higher in shoot and the higher 15N-glycine in root but lower in shoot suggested that most 15N-nitrate uptake by root transported to shoot rapidly, with the shoot being important for nitrate assimilation, and the N contribution of glycine was limited by post-uptake metabolism. The amount of glycine that was taken up by the plant was likely limited by root uptake at low light intensities and by the metabolism of ammonium produced by glycine at high light intensities. These results indicate that pakchoi has the ability to uptake a large quantity of glycine, but that uptake is strongly regulated by light intensity, with metabolism in the root inhibiting its N contribution. PMID:26882864

  11. Protease inhibition by Heterodera glycines cyst content: evidence for effects on the Meloidogyne incognita proteasome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Proteases from Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita juveniles were inhibited by heat-stable content of H. glycines female cysts (HglCE), and by the plant polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). General protease activities detected using the nematode peptide KSAYMRFa were inhibited by EG...

  12. Transcriptional responses of tolerant and susceptible soybeans to soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) herbivory

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, was introduced in 2000 to North America and has become one of the most significant pests to soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, production. Possible solutions to this problem are the use of resistant plants and the understanding of the genes involved in pl...

  13. Beta-alanine and taurine as endogenous agonists at glycine receptors in rat hippocampus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahiro; Gähwiler, Beat H; Gerber, Urs

    2002-02-15

    Electrophysiological and pharmacological properties of glycine receptors were characterized in hippocampal organotypic slice cultures. In the presence of ionotropic glutamate and GABA(B) receptor antagonists, pressure-application of glycine onto CA3 pyramidal cells induced a current associated with increased chloride conductance, which was inhibited by strychnine. Similar chloride currents could also be induced with beta-alanine or taurine. Whole-cell glycine responses were significantly greater in CA3 pyramidal cells than in CA1 pyramidal cells and dentate granule cells, while responses to GABA were similar among these three cell types. Although these results demonstrate the presence of functional glycine receptors in the hippocampus, no evidence for their activation during synaptic stimulation was found. Gabazine, a selective GABA(A) receptor antagonist, totally blocked evoked IPSCs in CA3 pyramidal cells. Glycine receptor activation is not dependent on transporter-controlled levels of extracellular glycine, as no chloride current was observed in response to sarcosine, an inhibitor of glycine transporters. In contrast, application of guanidinoethanesulfonic acid, an uptake inhibitor of beta-alanine and taurine, induced strychnine-sensitive chloride current in the presence of gabazine. These data indicate that modulation of transporters for the endogenous amino acids, beta-alanine and taurine, can regulate tonic activation of glycine receptors, which may function in maintenance of inhibitory tone in the hippocampus.

  14. Life history and morphological plasticity of three biotypes of soybean aphid (Aphis glycines)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae), from eastern Asia that was first reported in North America in 2000. The influence of temperature on plasticity of life history and morphological traits of the soybean aphid ha...

  15. Identificatoin and confirmation of resistance against soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) in eight wild soybean lines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The development and use of aphid-resistant soybean (Glycine max) cultivars has been complicated by the presence of multiple virulent biotypes of the soybean aphid (SA, Aphis glycines Matsumura). Ultimately, a variety of unique resistance sources may be needed to develop cultivars with a broad spectr...

  16. Heat-initiated prebiotic formation of peptides from glycine/aspartic acid and glycine/valine in aqueous environment and clay suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Chandra Kala; Lata, Hem; Pathak, Hari Datt; Mehata, Mohan Singh

    2009-04-01

    The effect of heat on the reaction system of glycine/aspartic acid and glycine/valine in the aqueous environment as well as in montmorillonite clay suspension with or without divalent cations (Ca2+, Mg2+ and Ni2+) has been investigated at 85°C±5°C for varying periods under prebiotic drying and wetting conditions. The resulting products were analysed and characterized by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. Peptide formation appears to depend on the duration of heat effect, nature of reactant amino acids and, to some extent, on montmorillonite clay incorporated with divalent cations. In the glycine/aspartic acid system, oligomerization of glycine was limited up to trimer level (Gly)3 along with the formation of glycyl-aspartic acid, while linear and cyclic peptides of aspartic acid were not formed, whereas the glycine/valine system preferentially elongated homo-oligopeptide of glycine up to pentamer level (Gly)5 along with formation of hetero-peptides (Gly-Val and Val-Gly). These studies are relevant in the context of the prebiotic origin of proteins and the role of clay and metal ions in condensation and oligomerization of amino acids. The length of the bio-oligomer chain depends upon the reaction conditions. However, condensation into even a small length seems significant, as the same process would have taken millions of years in the primitive era of the Earth, leading to the first proteins.

  17. Modeling of glycine solubility in aqueous HCl-MgCl2 system and its application in phase transition of glycine by changing media and supersaturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Ziaul Haque; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Yan; Demopoulos, George P.; Li, Zhibao

    2017-06-01

    The solubility of glycine in HCl and HCl-MgCl2 solutions was measured from 283.15 to 343.15 K and found to increase with temperature and increase linearly with the concentration of HCl. The MSE model integrated in the OLI platform was modified by regressing the experimental and literature solubility data through the adjustment of the middle-range interaction parameters. After parameterization, the model can accurately calculate the solubility with the average absolute deviation lower than 3.5% and thus be able to predict supersaturation of glycine. Crystallization of different polymorphs of glycine in water, HCl, NaOH, MgCl2, and HCl-MgCl2 aqueous solutions was performed. The effects of medium, temperature, supersaturation, and time on the crystallization were investigated. It was found that only in the HCl solution the formation of single α-glycine phase was achieved under all the investigated temperature and holding time. α-glycine or its mixture with γ-glycine or C4H18N2O4·HCl was produced in systems other than HCl solution depending on the conditions.

  18. Fast heavy-ion radiation damage of glycine in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Shinji; Tsuchida, Hidetsugu; Furuya, Ryosuke; Majima, Takuya; Itoh, Akio

    2016-12-01

    Fast heavy-ion radiolysis of biomolecules in aqueous solution is investigated for an atomistic understanding of radiation damage to normal cells during heavy-particle beam therapy. The smallest amino acid glycine was used as a model biomaterial. Microjets of aqueous glycine solutions under vacuum were irradiated with 4.0-MeV carbon ions corresponding to energies in the Bragg peak region. To understand the effects of the water environment on molecular damage, the yield of glycine dissociation was measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The yield was significantly reduced relative to gas-phase glycine targets. This implies that the numerous water molecules surrounding a single glycine molecule act as a buffer that suppresses dissociation. This is an environmental effect similar to that observed for other biomolecular cluster targets.

  19. Host Suitability of Diverse Lines of Phaseolus vulgaris to Multiple Populations of Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James R.; Young, Lawrence D.

    2003-01-01

    The host suitability of diverse races and gene pools of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) for multiple isolates of Heterodera glycines was studied. Twenty P. vulgaris genotypes, representing three of the six races within the two major germplasm pools, were tested in greenhouse experiments to determine their host suitability to five H. glycines isolates. Phaseolus vulgaris genotypes differed in their host suitability to different H. glycines isolates. While some common bean lines were excellent hosts for some H. glycines isolates, no common bean line was a good host for all isolates. Some bean lines from races Durango and Mesoamerica, representing the Middle America gene pool, were resistant to all five nematode isolates. Other lines, from both the Andean and Middle America gene pools, had differential responses for host suitability to the different isolates of H. glycines. PMID:19265970

  20. Taurine activates glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptors in rat substantia gelatinosa neurons.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Kohno, Tatsuro; Georgiev, Stefan K; Ikoma, Miho; Ishii, Hideaki; Petrenko, Andrey B; Baba, Hiroshi

    2008-02-12

    Taurine has been suggested to modulate nociceptive information at the spinal cord level. In this study, the pharmacological properties of taurine were investigated in adult rat substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp method. We found that taurine seemed to have higher efficacy than glycine on glycine receptors in SG neurons. An increase in chloride conductance was responsible for taurine-induced currents. Taurine at 0.3 mM activated glycine receptors, whereas at 3 mM activated both glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptors. The currents activated by coapplication of taurine and glycine are cross inhibitive. Altogether these results show that taurine might represent another important neurotransmitter or modulator in SG neurons, which may be involved in antinociception.

  1. Glycine as a d-amino acid surrogate in the K+-selectivity filter

    PubMed Central

    Valiyaveetil, Francis I.; Sekedat, Matthew; MacKinnon, Roderick; Muir, Tom W.

    2004-01-01

    The K+ channel-selectivity filter consists of two absolutely conserved glycine residues. Crystal structures show that the first glycine in the selectivity filter, Gly-77 in KcsA, is in a left-handed helical conformation. Although the left-handed helical conformation is not favorable for the naturally occurring l-amino acids, it is favorable for the chirally opposite d-amino acids. Here, we demonstrate that Gly-77 can be replaced by d-Ala with almost complete retention of function. In contrast, substitution with an l-amino acid results in a nonfunctional channel. This finding suggests that glycine is used as a surrogate d-amino acid in the selectivity filter. The absolute conservation of glycine in the K+-selectivity filter can be explained as a result of glycine being the only natural amino acid that can play this role. PMID:15563591

  2. Effects of glycine on motor performance in rats after traumatic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Piña, Rigoberto; Nuño-Licona, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    It has been reported that glycine improves some functions lost after spinal cord injury (SCI). In order to assess the effects of glycine administration on motor performance after SCI, we used fifteen male Wistar rats distributed into three groups: sham (n = 3), spinal-cord injury (n = 6,) and spinal cord injury + glycine (n = 6). Motor performance was assessed using the beam-walking paradigm and footprint analysis. Results showed that for all animals with spinal-cord injury, scores in the beam-walking increased, which is an indication of increased motor deficit. In addition, footprint analysis showed a decrease in stride length and an increase in stride angle, additional indicators of motor deficit. These effects trended towards recovery after 8 weeks of recording and trended toward improvement by glycine administration; the effect was not significant. These results suggest that glycine replacement alone is not sufficient to improve the motor deficits that occur after SCI.

  3. Activation of synaptic and extrasynaptic glycine receptors by taurine in preoptic hypothalamic neurons.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Janardhan Prasad; Park, Soo Joung; Chun, Sang Woo; Cho, Dong Hyu; Han, Seong Kyu

    2015-11-03

    Taurine is an essential amino-sulfonic acid having a fundamental function in the brain, participating in both cell volume regulation and neurotransmission. Using a whole cell voltage patch clamp technique, the taurine-activated neurotransmitter receptors in the preoptic hypothalamic area (PHA) neurons were investigated. In the first set of experiments, different concentrations of taurine were applied on PHA neurons. Taurine-induced responses were concentration-dependent. Taurine-induced currents were action potential-independent and sensitive to strychnine, suggesting the involvement of glycine receptors. In addition, taurine activated not only α-homomeric, but also αβ-heteromeric glycine receptors in PHA neurons. Interestingly, a low concentration of taurine (0.5mM) activated glycine receptors, whereas a higher concentration (3mM) activated both glycine and gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors in PHA neurons. These results suggest that PHA neurons are influenced by taurine and respond via glycine and GABAA receptors.

  4. Glycols modulate terminator stem stability and ligand-dependency of a glycine riboswitch.

    PubMed

    Hamachi, Kokoro; Hayashi, Hikari; Shimamura, Miyuki; Yamaji, Yuiha; Kaneko, Ai; Fujisawa, Aruma; Umehara, Takuya; Tamura, Koji

    2013-08-01

    The Bacillus subtilis glycine riboswitch comprises tandem glycine-binding aptamers and a putative terminator stem followed by the gcvT operon. Gene expression is regulated via the sensing of glycine. However, we found that the riboswitch behaves in a "glycine-independent" manner in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and ethylene glycol. The effect is related to the formation of a terminator stem within the expression platform under such conditions. The results revealed that increasing PEG stabilized the structure of the terminator stem. By contrast, the addition of ethylene glycol destabilized the terminator stem. PEG and ethylene glycol have opposite effects on transcription as well as on stable terminator stem formation. The glycine-independency of the riboswitch and the effects of such glycols might shed light on the evolution of riboswitches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of storage proteins in wild (Glycine soja) and cultivated (Glycine max) soybean seeds using proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Savithiry S; Xu, Chenping; Bae, Hanhong; Caperna, Thomas J; Garrett, Wesley M

    2006-04-19

    A combined proteomic approach was applied for the separation, identification, and comparison of two major storage proteins, beta-conglycinin and glycinin, in wild (Glycine soja) and cultivated (Glycine max) soybean seeds. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) with three different immobilized pH gradient (IPG) strips was an effective method to separate a large number of abundant and less-abundant storage proteins. Most of the subunits of beta-conglycinin were well-separated in the pH range 3.0-10.0, while acidic and basic glycinin polypeptides were well-separated in pH ranges 4.0-7.0 and 6.0-11.0, respectively. Although the overall distribution pattern of the protein spots was similar in both genotypes using pH 3.0-10.0, variations in number and intensity of protein spots were better resolved using a combination of pH 4.0-7.0 and pH 6.0-11.0. The total number of storage protein spots detected in wild and cultivated genotypes was approximately 44 and 34, respectively. This is the first study reporting the comparison of protein profiles of wild and cultivated genotypes of soybean seeds using proteomic tools.

  6. Differential effects of ethanol on glycine uptake mediated by the recombinant GLYT1 and GLYT2 glycine transporters

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, Enrique; López-Corcuera, Beatriz; Martínez-Maza, Rodrigo; Aragón, Carmen

    2000-01-01

    The effects of ethanol on the function of recombinant glycine transporter 1 (GLYT1) and glycine transporter 2 (GLYT2) have been investigated. GLYT1b and GLYT2a isoforms stably expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells showed a differential behaviour in the presence of ethanol; only the GLYT2a isoform was acutely inhibited. The ‘cut-off' (alcohols with four carbons) displayed by the n-alkanols on GLYT2a indicates that a specific binding site for ethanol exists on GLYT2a or on a GLYT2a-interacting protein. The non-competitive inhibition of GLYT2a indicates an allosteric modulation by ethanol of GLYT2a activity. Chronic treatment with ethanol caused differential adaptive responses on the activity and the membrane expression levels of these transporters. The neuronal GLYT2a isoform decreased in activity and surface expression and the mainly glial GLYT1b isoform slightly increased in function and surface density. These changes may be involved in some of the modifications of glycinergic or glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems produced by ethanol intoxication. PMID:10683205

  7. Glycine prevents metabolic steatohepatitis in diabetic KK-Ay mice through modulation of hepatic innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Shiori; Ikejima, Kenichi; Arai, Kumiko; Yokokawa, Junko; Kon, Kazuyoshi; Yamashina, Shunhei; Watanabe, Sumio

    2016-12-01

    Strategies for prevention and treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis remain to be established. We evaluated the effect of glycine on metabolic steatohepatitis in genetically obese, diabetic KK-A(y) mice. Male KK-A(y) mice were fed a diet containing 5% glycine for 4 wk, and liver pathology was evaluated. Hepatic mRNA levels for lipid-regulating molecules, cytokines/chemokines, and macrophage M1/M2 markers were determined by real-time RT-PCR. Hepatic expression of natural killer (NK) T cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. Body weight gain was significantly blunted and development of hepatic steatosis and inflammatory infiltration were remarkably prevented in mice fed the glycine-containing diet compared with controls. Indeed, hepatic induction levels of molecules related to lipogenesis were largely blunted in the glycine diet-fed mice. Elevations of hepatic mRNA levels for TNFα and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 were also remarkably blunted in the glycine diet-fed mice. Furthermore, suppression of hepatic NK T cells was reversed in glycine diet-fed KK-A(y) mice, and basal hepatic expression levels of NK T cell-derived cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-13, were increased. Moreover, hepatic mRNA levels of arginase-1, a marker of macrophage M2 transformation, were significantly increased in glycine diet-fed mice. In addition, dietary glycine improved glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia in KK-A(y) mice. These observations clearly indicate that glycine prevents maturity-onset obesity and metabolic steatohepatitis in genetically diabetic KK-A(y) mice. The underlying mechanisms most likely include normalization of hepatic innate immune responses involving NK T cells and M2 transformation of Kupffer cells. It is proposed that glycine is a promising immunonutrient for prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome-related nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Competition between Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita or Pratylenchus penetrans: Independent Infection Rate Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Melakeberhan, Haddish; Dey, Jyotirmoy

    2003-01-01

    Competition on soybean between Heterodera glycines (race 3) and Meloidogyne incognita or H. glycines and Pratylenchus penetrans were investigated in greenhouse experiments. Each pair of nematode species was mixed in 3-ml suspensions at ratios of 1,000:0, 750:250, 500:500, 250:750, and 0:1,000 second-stage juveniles or mixed stages for P. penetrans. Nematodes from a whole root system were counted and infection rates standardized per 1,000 nematodes (per replication) prior to testing the null hypothesis through a lack-of-fit F-test. Although the effect of increasing H. glycines proportions on the infection rate of M. incognita was generally adverse, the rate deviated significantly from a trend of linear decline at the 75% H. glycines level in one of two experiments. All lack-of-fit F-tests for the H. glycines and P. penetrans mix were significant, indicating that infection rates for both nematodes varied considerably across inocula. The infection rate of H. glycines decreased with increasing P. penetrans proportions. The rate of P. penetrans infection increased with increasing H. glycines proportions up to the 50% level, but declined at the 75% level. Competition had no effect on nematode development. The general adverse relationships between M. incognita and H. glycines and those between P. penetrans and H. glycines showed a linear trend. The relationship between H. glycines and P. penetrans indicates that the former may be competitive when present at higher proportions than the latter. In this study we have evaluated nematode competition under controlled conditions and provide results that can form a basis for understanding the physical and physiological trends of multiple nematode interactions. Methods critical to data analyses also are outlined. PMID:19265967

  9. Elevated glycine betaine excretion in diabetes mellitus patients is associated with proximal tubular dysfunction and hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Dellow, W J; Chambers, S T; Lever, M; Lunt, H; Robson, R A

    1999-02-01

    In an ambulatory population of diabetic subjects (Type 1 and Type 2), the urine excretion of the renal osmolyte, glycine betaine, was compared to known markers of glycemic control, renal dysfunction and to the excretion of related betaines, including trigonelline, proline betaine, carnitine and acetyl-carnitine. Of the 85 subjects, 20 patients had urine glycine betaine concentrations above the reference range for normal subjects. Plasma glycine betaine concentrations were within reference ranges for normal subjects. Patients with elevated glycine betaine excretion tended to have lower plasma glycine betaine concentrations, but this did not reach statistical significance. One way analysis of variance found excretion is independent of treatment, duration of diagnosed diabetes, blood pressure and body mass index (BMI). An association between glycine betaine excretion and glycemic control was observed with statistically significant correlations occurring with both plasma glucose (r = 0.43, P < 0.001) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) (r = 0.35, P < 0.005). The excretion of carnitine, acetyl-carnitine and proline betaine were related to glycine betaine excretion (r = 0.49, P < 0.001; r = 0.40, P < 0.001; r = 0.27, P < 0.05, respectively). Urine carnitine and acetyl-carnitine concentrations were also related to plasma glucose concentrations (r = 0.30, P < 0.01). Increased urine retinol binding protein concentrations (RBP), a marker of proximal tubular dysfunction, correlated with elevated urine glycine betaine excretion and plasma HbA1c (r = 0.28, P < 0.01). These results suggest poor glycemic control is associated with the increase in urine glycine betaine, carnitine, acetyl-carnitine and RBP excretion in diabetic patients. However, < 50% of the observed increase in glycine betaine excretion has been accounted for by the variables measured, suggesting other unidentified processes may also be involved.

  10. A THREE-PHASE CHEMICAL MODEL OF HOT CORES: THE FORMATION OF GLYCINE

    SciTech Connect

    Garrod, Robin T.

    2013-03-01

    A new chemical model is presented that simulates fully coupled gas-phase, grain-surface, and bulk-ice chemistry in hot cores. Glycine (NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOH), the simplest amino acid, and related molecules such as glycinal, propionic acid, and propanal, are included in the chemical network. Glycine is found to form in moderate abundance within and upon dust-grain ices via three radical-addition mechanisms, with no single mechanism strongly dominant. Glycine production in the ice occurs over temperatures {approx}40-120 K. Peak gas-phase glycine fractional abundances lie in the range 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11}-8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9}, occurring at {approx}200 K, the evaporation temperature of glycine. A gas-phase mechanism for glycine production is tested and found insignificant, even under optimal conditions. A new spectroscopic radiative-transfer model is used, allowing the translation and comparison of the chemical-model results with observations of specific sources. Comparison with the nearby hot-core source NGC 6334 IRS1 shows excellent agreement with integrated line intensities of observed species, including methyl formate. The results for glycine are consistent with the current lack of a detection of this molecule toward other sources; the high evaporation temperature of glycine renders the emission region extremely compact. Glycine detection with ALMA is predicted to be highly plausible, for bright, nearby sources with narrow emission lines. Photodissociation of water and subsequent hydrogen abstraction from organic molecules by OH, and NH{sub 2}, are crucial to the buildup of complex organic species in the ice. The inclusion of alternative branches within the network of radical-addition reactions appears important to the abundances of hot-core molecules; less favorable branching ratios may remedy the anomalously high abundance of glycolaldehyde predicted by this and previous models.

  11. Glycine receptors mediate excitation of subplate neurons in neonatal rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Kilb, W; Hanganu, I L; Okabe, A; Sava, B A; Shimizu-Okabe, C; Fukuda, A; Luhmann, H J

    2008-08-01

    The development of the cerebral cortex depends on genetic factors and early electrical activity patterns that form immature neuronal networks. Subplate neurons (SPn) are involved in the construction of thalamocortical innervation, generation of oscillatory network activity, and in the proper formation of the cortical columnar architecture. Because glycine receptors play an important role during early corticogenesis, we analyzed the functional consequences of glycine receptor activation in visually identified SPn in neocortical slices from postnatal day 0 (P0) to P4 rats using whole cell and perforated patch-clamp recordings. In all SPn the glycinergic agonists glycine, beta-alanine, and taurine induced dose-dependent inward currents with the affinity for glycine being higher than that for beta-alanine and taurine. Glycine-induced responses were blocked by the glycinergic antagonist strychnine, but were unaffected by either the GABAergic antagonist gabazine, the N-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor antagonist d-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, or picrotoxin and cyanotriphenylborate, antagonists of alpha-homomeric and alpha1-subunit-containing glycine receptors, respectively. Under perforated-patch conditions, glycine induced membrane depolarizations that were sufficient to trigger action potentials (APs) in most cells. Furthermore, glycine and taurine decreased the injection currents as well as the synaptic stimulation strength required to elicit APs, indicating that glycine receptors have a consistent excitatory effect on SPn. Inhibition of taurine transport and application of hypoosmolar solutions induced strychnine-sensitive inward currents, suggesting that taurine can act as a possible endogenous agonist on SPn. In summary, these results demonstrate that SPn express glycine receptors that mediate robust excitatory membrane responses during early postnatal development.

  12. 40 CFR 174.533 - Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant Acetolactate Synthase (GM-HRA) inert ingredient; exemption from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant... Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant Acetolactate Synthase (GM-HRA) inert ingredient; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Glycine max herbicide-resistant acetolactate synthase (GM-HRA) enzyme...

  13. 40 CFR 174.533 - Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant Acetolactate Synthase (GM-HRA) inert ingredient; exemption from...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant... Glycine max Herbicide-Resistant Acetolactate Synthase (GM-HRA) inert ingredient; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Glycine max herbicide-resistant acetolactate synthase (GM-HRA) enzyme...

  14. Secondary fragmentation routes of glycine in ice under irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernet, A.; Pilme, J.; Ellinger, Y.

    2011-05-01

    The question of the relative stability of the complex organic molecules (COM) under the interstellar radiation field is a crucial question, especially in the context of the panspermia hypothesis for which their survival during the transfer from space to the Earth is a necessary condition for the appearance of life (Ehrenfreund et al 2001, 2002). Assuming that these species are originally embedded in interstellar grains, their resistance to the solar UV radiation in ice is a key issue. The case of glycine, H2NCH2COOH, has been considered recently in irradiation experiments carried out at the SOLEIL synchrotron facility. It appeared that glycine is partially protected by ice but also suffers some fragmentation leading in the end to CO2 and to CN containing species. Quantum chemical simulations have been performed in parallel for all the possible fragmentations of neutral, ionized, doubly ionized, protonated and zwitterionic glycine (Lattelais et al. 2010). This study has shown that the primary decomposition routes leading to fragments CH2COOH, H2NCH2, H2NCH2+, CH2COOH+, H2NCH3, and CO2 are energetically valid. The experiments have also shown that the role of water is mainly to increase the production of the end products in the photoreactions, most probably due to the reactions with the OH radicals formed during the irradiation of the ice. We present a theoretical study of the secondary fragmentation channels initiated by the OH radical by means of quantum chemical calculations using DFT and ab initio correlated methods (MP2,CCSD(T)). We have examined all the possible secondary fragmentations starting from the primary fragments mentioned above. We considered all species embedded in the dielectric continuum simulating an icy environment (comparison with the gas phase situation serves as reference). Thermodynamic stabilities as well as activation barriers have been determined. This study shows that the formation of the HCN molecule as end product is energetically

  15. Peptide synthesis on glass substrate using acoustic droplet ejector.

    PubMed

    Youngki Choe; Shih-Jui Chen; Eun Sok Kim

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of a 9-mers-long peptide ladder structure of glycine on a modified glass surface using a nanoliter droplet ejector. To synthesize peptide on a glass substrate, SPOT peptide synthesis protocol was followed with a nozzleless acoustic droplet ejector being used to eject about 300 droplets of preactivated amino acid solution to dispense 60 nL of the solution per mer. The coupling efficiency of each mer was measured with FITC fluorescent tag to be 96%, resulting in net 70% efficiency for the whole 9-mer-long peptide of glycine. Usage of a nanoliter droplet ejector for SPOT peptide synthesis increases the density of protein array on a chip.

  16. [Plasmatic membrane protein synthesis in cells of the regenerating liver].

    PubMed

    Pospelov, A V; Gorelova, N V

    1978-05-01

    Protein synthesis in the cells of the regenerating rat liver was studied. The rate of 3H-glycine incorporation into the total proteins of the liver, those of microsomal fraction, proteins of hyaloplasm, and plasmatic membrane proteins, soluble and non-soluble in 0.05 M K2CO3, was determined. The rate of 3H-glycine incorporation into soluble proteines of plasma membranes became maximal one hour after partial hepatectomy. The peak of the rate of synthesis of proteins of other fractions fell on the end of the G1-period. A sharp increase of the synthesis rate of plasma membrane proteins seems to be one of the earliest biochemical events in the regenerating liver hepatocytes ready for division.

  17. Optical and electrical properties of glycine manganese chloride crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesan, G.; Kathiravan, V.; Pari, S.

    2017-06-01

    The organo-metal material of Glycine Manganese Chloride has been grown by solvent evaporation solution growth method. Single crystal XRD study has been carried out to confirm the grown crystal. FT-IR was recorded to identify the functional groups present in the crystal. The linear optical property of the grown crystal was analyzed by UV-Vis spectrum. Third order nonlinear optical properties was measured by Z-scan technique using Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm. Fluorescence emission revealed that can serve as a photo active material. Impedance and dielectric studies were also carried out for the material. Thermal property of the sample was analyzed by TG and DTA studies. The predicted NLO properties, UV-Vis absorbance and Z-scan studies indicate that the attractive material for optical applications.

  18. Dislocations, microhardness and optical studies on glycine potassium nitrate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Ch. Sateesh; Nagaraju, D.; Shekar, P. V. Raja; Rao, T. Tirumal; Krishna, N. Gopi

    2015-06-01

    Single crystals of glycine potassium nitrate (GPN), a semiorganic nonlinear optical crystal, of dimensions 15×12×4 mm3 were grown in a period of 10 days. The defect content present in the crystals was estimated by chemical etching technique. The results indicate that the average dislocation density is about 4.1×103/cm2. The UV-Vis. studies indicate that the crystal has a wide transmission range. The Kurtz powder test indicates that the second harmonic generation efficiency of GPN is 2.5 times that of KDP. The load-hardness curves for GPN were studied over the load range 10-100 g. The anisotropy in hardness was studied using Knoop indentation technique.

  19. Degradation of glycine and alanine on irradiated quartz.

    PubMed

    Pawlikowski, Maciej; Benko, Aleksandra; Wróbel, Tomasz P

    2013-04-01

    Recent researches suggest participation of minerals in the formation of life under primordial conditions. Among all of the minerals, quartz seems to be one of the most probable to take part in such processes. However, an external source of energy is needed, e.g. electric discharge. A device simulating the proposed conditions was designed and was used to simulate prebiotic conditions. Investigation of processes occurring during the stimulation of quartz with electric discharge was studied by means of Ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy, in order to monitor the generation kinetics of free radicals. Additionally, infrared spectroscopy was applied to identify chemical reaction products created in a solution of alanine or glycine, in the presence of quartz treated with electric discharge. Formation of increased amounts of free radicals, compared to experiments performed without quartz and/or amino acid, is reported, along with identification of possible degradation products of alanine. No synthetic reactions were observed.

  20. Fast and reversible trapping of surface glycine receptors by gephyrin.

    PubMed

    Meier, J; Vannier, C; Sergé, A; Triller, A; Choquet, D

    2001-03-01

    Variations in receptor number at a given synapse are known to contribute to synaptic plasticity, but methods used to establish this idea usually do not allow for the determination of the dynamics of these phenomena. We used single-particle tracking to follow in real time, on the cell surface, movements of the glycine receptor (GlyR) with or without the GlyR stabilizing protein gephyrin. GlyR alternated within seconds between diffusive and confined states. In the absence of gephyrin, GlyR were mostly freely diffusing. Gephyrin induced long confinement periods spatially associated with submembranous clusters of gephyrin. However, even when most receptors were stabilized, they still frequently made transitions through the diffusive state. These data show that receptor number in a cluster results from a dynamic equilibrium between the pools of stabilized and freely mobile receptors. Modification of this equilibrium could be involved in regulation of the number of receptors at synapses.

  1. Thermal effects of carbonated hydroxyapatite modified by glycine and albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerk, S. A.; Golovanova, O. A.; Kuimova, M. V.

    2017-01-01

    In this work calcium phosphate powders were obtained by precipitation method from simulated solutions of synovial fluid containing glycine and albumin. X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy determined that all samples are single-phase and are presented by carbonate containing hydroxyapatite (CHA). The thermograms of solid phases of CHA were obtained and analyzed; five stages of transformation in the temperature range of 25-1000°C were marked. It is shown that in this temperature range dehydration, decarboxylation and thermal degradation of amino acid and protein connected to the surface of solid phase occur. The tendency of temperature lowering of the decomposition of powders synthesized from a medium containing organic substances was determined. Results demonstrate a direct dependence between the concentration of the amino acid in a model solution and its content in the solid phase.

  2. Thermal effects of carbonated hydroxyapatite modified by glycine and albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerk, S. A.; Golovanova, O. A.; Kuimova, M. V.

    2017-01-01

    In this work calcium phosphate powders were obtained by precipitation method from simulated solutions of synovial fluid containing glycine and albumin. X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy determined that all samples are single-phase and are presented by carbonate containing hydroxyapatite (CHA). The thermograms of solid phases of CHA were obtained and analyzed; five stages of transformation in the temperature range of 25-1000°C were marked. It is shown that in this temperature range dehydration, decarboxylation and thermal degradation of amino acid and protein connected to the surface of solid phase occur. The tendency of temperature lowering of the decomposition of powders synthesized from a medium containing organic substances was determined. Results demonstrate a direct dependence between the concentration of the amino acid in a model solution and its content in the solid phase.

  3. Biofortification of soy (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) with strontium ions.

    PubMed

    Sowa, Ireneusz; Wójciak-Kosior, Magdalena; Strzemski, Maciej; Dresler, Sławomir; Szwerc, Wojciech; Blicharski, Tomasz; Szymczak, Grażyna; Kocjan, Ryszard

    2014-06-11

    Soy (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is an annual plant cultivated worldwide mostly for food. Moreover, due to its pharmacological properties it is widely used in pharmacy for alleviating the symptoms of osteoporosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the biofortification of soy treated with various concentrations of strontium. Soy was found to have a strong capacity to absorb Sr(2+) (bioconcentration factor higher than 1). A positive linear correlation (R(2) > 0.98) between the amount of strontium in the growth medium and its content in the plant was also observed. Moreover, at a concentration of 1.5 mM, strontium appeared to be nontoxic and even stimulated plant growth by approximately 19.4% and 22.6% of fresh weight for shoots and roots, respectively. Our research may be useful to obtain vegetable products or herbal preparations containing both phytoestrogens and strontium to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  4. Correlating Structural and Energetic Changes in Glycine Receptor Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Suzanne; Lynch, Joseph W.; Keramidas, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) mediate fast chemoelectrical transduction in the nervous system. The mechanism by which the energy of ligand binding leads to current-conducting receptors is poorly understood and may vary among family members. We addressed these questions by correlating the structural and energetic mechanisms by which a naturally occurring M1 domain mutation (α1Q−26′E) enhances receptor activation in homo- and heteromeric glycine receptors. We systematically altered the charge of spatially clustered residues at positions 19′ and 24′, in the M2 and M2-M3 linker domains, respectively, which are known to be critical to efficient receptor activation, on a background of α1Q−26′E. Changes in the durations of single receptor activations (clusters) and conductance were used to determine interaction coupling energies, which we correlated with conformational displacements as measured in pLGIC crystal structures. Presence of the α1Q−26′E enhanced cluster durations and reduced channel conductance in homo- and heteromeric receptors. Strong coupling between α1−26′ and α119′ across the subunit interface suggests an important role in receptor activation. A lack of coupling between α1−26′ and α124′ implies that 24′ mutations disrupt activation via other interactions. A similar lack of energetic coupling between α1−26′ and reciprocal mutations in the β subunit suggests that this subunit remains relatively static during receptor activation. However, the channel effects of α1Q−26′E on α1β receptors suggests at least one α1-α1 interface per pentamer. The coupling-energy change between α1−26′ and α119′ correlates with a local structural rearrangement essential for pLGIC activation, implying it comprises a key energetic pathway in activating glycine receptors and other pLGICs. PMID:25572390

  5. [Theory study on glycine linear oligopeptide vibrational spectrum frequency shift].

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhi-Peng; Li, Xin; Yang, Meng-Shi; Chen, Liang; Xu, Can; Chu, Xiu-Xiang

    2014-04-01

    By using the density functional theory, glycine linear oligopeptide of different lengths was geometrically optimized on the 6-31G (d) basis set level, their growth processes were simulated, and the average binding energy and vibration frequency were calculated with geometry. The results showed that the average binding energies tend to change in a regular pattern and stabilize with the number of residues increasing; With the oligopeptide chain bond length analysis it was found that the chain to the radial direction there is a opposite trend for chain and radial direction, which is anisotropic. It was found by the IR spectrum analysis that red shifts and blue shifts occur respectively when the same group of peptide bond vibrate, which is anisotropic; These phenomena originate from that quasi one-dimensional nanostructures lead to the anisotropy of the bond length; the induced effects, coupling effects and hydrogen bonding etc. between the same groups lead to the vibration frequency red shifts and blue shifts. The authors conclude that the growth of glycine linear oligopeptide is conducive to stability of the structure, and the authors infer that the oligopeptide has the tendency of self-assembled growth; Through the conformation and spectrum, the authors infer that there is a size effect in physical and chemical properties. The physical and chemical properties of peptide chain end group are extremely stable and unaffected by the impact of the oligopeptide chain length The results are significant to measuring the length and the number of residue of peptide, and to manufacturing the special features oligopeptide chain.

  6. Reduction of glycine particle size by impinging jet crystallization.

    PubMed

    Tari, Tímea; Fekete, Zoltán; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Aigner, Zoltán

    2015-01-15

    The parameters of crystallization processes determine the habit and particle size distribution of the products. A narrow particle size distribution and a small average particle size are crucial for the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble pharmacons. Thus, particle size reduction is often required during crystallization processes. Impinging jet crystallization is a method that results in a product with a reduced particle size due to the homogeneous and high degree of supersaturation at the impingement point. In this work, the applicability of the impinging jet technique as a new approach in crystallization was investigated for the antisolvent crystallization of glycine. A factorial design was applied to choose the relevant crystallization factors. The results were analysed by means of a statistical program. The particle size distribution of the crystallized products was investigated with a laser diffraction particle size analyser. The roundness and morphology were determined with the use of a light microscopic image analysis system and a scanning electron microscope. Polymorphism was characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction. Headspace gas chromatography was utilized to determine the residual solvent content. Impinging jet crystallization proved to reduce the particle size of glycine. The particle size distribution was appropriate, and the average particle size was an order of magnitude smaller (d(0.5)=8-35 μm) than that achieved with conventional crystallization (d(0.5)=82-680 μm). The polymorphic forms of the products were influenced by the solvent ratio. The quantity of residual solvent in the crystallized products was in compliance with the requirements of the International Conference on Harmonization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Contribution of serine, folate and glycine metabolism to the ATP, NADPH and purine requirements of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, P M; Markert, E K; Gounder, M; Lin, H; Dvorzhinski, D; Dolfi, S C; Chan, L L-Y; Qiu, J; DiPaola, R S; Hirshfield, K M; Boros, L G; Bertino, J R; Oltvai, Z N; Vazquez, A

    2013-10-24

    Recent observations on cancer cell metabolism indicate increased serine synthesis from glucose as a marker of poor prognosis. We have predicted that a fraction of the synthesized serine is routed to a pathway for ATP production. The pathway is composed by reactions from serine synthesis, one-carbon (folate) metabolism and the glycine cleavage system (SOG pathway). Here we show that the SOG pathway is upregulated at the level of gene expression in a subset of human tumors and that its level of expression correlates with gene signatures of cell proliferation and Myc target activation. We have also estimated the SOG pathway metabolic flux in the NCI60 tumor-derived cell lines, using previously reported exchange fluxes and a personalized model of cell metabolism. We find that the estimated rates of reactions in the SOG pathway are highly correlated with the proliferation rates of these cell lines. We also observe that the SOG pathway contributes significantly to the energy requirements of biosynthesis, to the NADPH requirement for fatty acid synthesis and to the synthesis of purines. Finally, when the PC-3 prostate cancer cell line is treated with the antifolate methotrexate, we observe a decrease in the ATP levels, AMP kinase activation and a decrease in ribonucleotides and fatty acids synthesized from [1,2-(13)C2]-D-glucose as the single tracer. Taken together our results indicate that the SOG pathway activity increases with the rate of cell proliferation and it contributes to the biosynthetic requirements of purines, ATP and NADPH of cancer cells.

  8. A reliable method for spectrophotometric determination of glycine betaine in cell suspension and other systems.

    PubMed

    Valadez-Bustos, Ma Guadalupe; Aguado-Santacruz, Gerardo Armando; Tiessen-Favier, Axel; Robledo-Paz, Alejandrina; Muñoz-Orozco, Abel; Rascón-Cruz, Quintin; Santacruz-Varela, Amalio

    2016-04-01

    Glycine betaine is a quaternary ammonium compound that accumulates in a large variety of species in response to different types of stress. Glycine betaine counteracts adverse effects caused by abiotic factors, preventing the denaturation and inactivation of proteins. Thus, its determination is important, particularly for scientists focused on relating structural, biochemical, physiological, and/or molecular responses to plant water status. In the current work, we optimized the periodide technique for the determination of glycine betaine levels. This modification permitted large numbers of samples taken from a chlorophyllic cell line of the grass Bouteloua gracilis to be analyzed. Growth kinetics were assessed using the chlorophyllic suspension to determine glycine betaine levels in control (no stress) cells and cells osmotically stressed with 14 or 21% polyethylene glycol 8000. After glycine extraction, different wavelengths and reading times were evaluated in a spectrophotometer to determine the optimal quantification conditions for this osmolyte. Optimal results were obtained when readings were taken at a wavelength of 290 nm at 48 h after dissolving glycine betaine crystals in dichloroethane. We expect this modification to provide a simple, rapid, reliable, and cheap method for glycine betaine determination in plant samples and cell suspension cultures.

  9. Structural Insights into Ligand Recognition by a Sensing Domain of the Cooperative Glycine Riboswitch

    SciTech Connect

    L Huang; A Serganov; D Patel

    2011-12-31

    Glycine riboswitches regulate gene expression by feedback modulation in response to cooperative binding to glycine. Here, we report on crystal structures of the second glycine-sensing domain from the Vibrio cholerae riboswitch in the ligand-bound and unbound states. This domain adopts a three-helical fold that centers on a three-way junction and accommodates glycine within a bulge-containing binding pocket above the junction. Glycine recognition is facilitated by a pair of bound Mg{sup 2+} cations and governed by specific interactions and shape complementarity with the pocket. A conserved adenine extrudes from the binding pocket and intercalates into the junction implying that glycine binding in the context of the complete riboswitch could impact on gene expression by stabilizing the riboswitch junction and regulatory P1 helix. Analysis of riboswitch interactions in the crystal and footprinting experiments indicates that adjacent glycine-sensing modules of the riboswitch could form specific interdomain interactions, thereby potentially contributing to the cooperative response.

  10. Modulation by glycine on vascular effects of NMDA:in vivo experimental research.

    PubMed

    Berrino, L; Vitagliano, S; Maione, S; Lampa, E; Rossi, F

    1993-06-01

    The present study has been carried out to determine if glycine, an allosteric modulator of NMDA receptor, is involved in the vascular effect induced by the activation of the CNS NMDA receptors.Icv NMDA (from 0.01 to 1µg/rat in the 3rd ventricle) caused a significant increase in arterial blood pressure in conscious freely moving rats. Moreover, the hypertension was associated with behavioural modifications (jumping, rearing, teething and running). Glycine pretreatment (1 and 10µg/raticv), significantly increased the NMDA hypertension. Glycine alone did not cause any arterial blood pressure modification while it induced a slight sedation. HA-966 (an antagonist of the glycine site on NMDA receptor) administration (1-10µg/raticv 5 min before glycine) significantly antagonized the glycine effects on NMDA hypertension.Alone HA-966 neither modified arterial blood pressure nor antagonized NMDA hypertension. In conclusion, our investigations confirm NMDA receptor involvement in cardiovascular function and they demonstrate thatin vivo glycine positively modulates NMDA receptors.

  11. Modulation by glycine on vascular effect of NMDA: in vivo experimental researches.

    PubMed

    Berrino, L; Vitagliano, S; Maione, S; Rossi, F

    1993-02-01

    The present study has been carried out to determine if glycine, an allosteric modulator of NMDA receptor, is involved in the vascular effect induced by the activation of the CNS NMDA receptors.Icv NMDA (from 0.01 to 1µg/rat in the 3rd ventricle) determined a significant increase in arterial blood pressure in conscious freely moving rats. Moreover, the hypertension was associated with behavioural modifications (jumping, rearing, teething and running). Glycine pretreatment (1 and 10µg/raticv), significantly increased the NMDA hypertension. Alone glycine did not cause any arterial blood pressure modification while it induced a slight sedation. HA-966 (an antagonist of the glycine site on NMDA receptor) administration (1-10µg/raticv 5 min before glycine) significantly antagonized the glycine effects on NMDA hypertension.Alone HA-966 neither modified arterial blood pressure nor antagonized NMDA hypertension. In conclusion, our investigations confirm NMDA receptor involvement in cardiovascular function and they demonstrate that in vivo glycine positively modulates NMDA receptor.

  12. Investigation of the mechanism of chlorination of glyphosate and glycine in water.

    PubMed

    Mehrsheikh, Akbar; Bleeke, Marian; Brosillon, Stephan; Laplanche, Alain; Roche, Pascal

    2006-09-01

    The chlorination reactions of glyphosate and glycine in water were thoroughly studied. Utilizing isotopically enriched (13C and 15N) samples of glycine and glyphosate and 1H, 13C, 31P, and 15N NMR spectroscopy we were able to identify all significant terminal chlorination products of glycine and glyphosate, and show that glyphosate degradation closely parallels that of glycine. We have determined that the C1 carboxylic acid carbon of glycine/glyphosate is quantitatively converted to CO2 upon chlorination. The C2 methylene carbon of glycine/glyphosate is converted to CO2 and methanediol. The relative abundance of these two products is a function of the pH of the chlorination reactions. Under near neutral to basic reaction conditions (pH 6-9), CO2 is the predominant product, whereas, under acidic reaction conditions (pH < 6) the formation of methanediol is favored. The C3 phosphonomethylene carbon of glyphosate is quantitatively converted to methanediol under all conditions tested. The nitrogen atom of glycine/glyphosate is transformed into nitrogen gas and nitrate, and the phosphorus moiety of glyphosate produces phosphoric acid upon chlorination. In addition to these terminal chlorination products, a number of labile intermediates were also identified including N-chloromethanimine, N-chloroaminomethanol, and cyanogen chloride. The chlorination products identified in this study are not unique to glyphosate and are similar to those expected from chlorination of amino acids, proteins, peptides, and many other natural organic matters present in drinking water.

  13. Helix packing in polytopic membrane proteins: role of glycine in transmembrane helix association.

    PubMed Central

    Javadpour, M M; Eilers, M; Groesbeek, M; Smith, S O

    1999-01-01

    The nature and distribution of amino acids in the helix interfaces of four polytopic membrane proteins (cytochrome c oxidase, bacteriorhodopsin, the photosynthetic reaction center of Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and the potassium channel of Streptomyces lividans) are studied to address the role of glycine in transmembrane helix packing. In contrast to soluble proteins where glycine is a noted helix breaker, the backbone dihedral angles of glycine in transmembrane helices largely fall in the standard alpha-helical region of a Ramachandran plot. An analysis of helix packing reveals that glycine residues in the transmembrane region of these proteins are predominantly oriented toward helix-helix interfaces and have a high occurrence at helix crossing points. Moreover, packing voids are generally not formed at the position of glycine in folded protein structures. This suggests that transmembrane glycine residues mediate helix-helix interactions in polytopic membrane proteins in a fashion similar to that seen in oligomers of membrane proteins with single membrane-spanning helices. The picture that emerges is one where glycine residues serve as molecular notches for orienting multiple helices in a folded protein complex. PMID:10465772

  14. Purification and characterization of the glycine receptor of pig spinal cord

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, D.; Pfeiffer, F.; Simler, R.; Betz, H.

    1985-02-12

    A large-scale purification procedure was developed to isolate the glycine receptor of pig spinal cord by affinity chromatography on aminostrychnine agarose. After an overall purification of about 10,000-fold, the glycine receptor preparations contained three major polypeptides of Mr 48,000, 58,000, and 93,000. Photoaffinity labeling with (/sup 3/H)strychnine showed that the (/sup 3/H)strychnine binding site is associated with the Mr 48,000 and, to a much lesser extent, the Mr 58,000 polypeptides. (/sup 3/H)Strychnine binding to the purified receptor exhibited a dissociation constant K /sub D/ of 13.8 nM and was inhibited by the agonists glycine, taurine, and beta-alanine. Gel filtration and sucrose gradient centrifugation gave a Stokes radius of 7.1 nm and an apparent sedimentation coefficient of 9.6 S. Peptide mapping of the (/sup 3/H)strychnine-labeled Mr 48,000 polypeptides of purified pig and rat glycine receptor preparations showed that the strychnine binding region of this receptor subunit is highly conserved between these species. Also, three out of six monoclonal antibodies against the glycine receptor of rat spinal cord significantly cross-reacted with their corresponding polypeptides of the pig glycine receptor. These results show that the glycine receptor of pig spinal cord is very similar to the well-characterized rat receptor protein and can be purified in quantities sufficient for protein chemical analysis.

  15. Spatial distribution of Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae): a summary of the suction trap network.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Nicholas P; O'Neal, Matthew E; Anderson, Paul F; Lagos, Doris; Voegtlin, David; Bailey, Wayne; Caragea, Petrutza; Cullen, Eileen; DiFonzo, Christina; Elliott, Kate; Gratton, Claudio; Johnson, Douglas; Krupke, Christian H; McCornack, Brian; O'Neil, Robert; Ragsdale, David W; Tilmon, Kelley J; Whitworth, Jeff

    2012-02-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an economically important pest of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, in the United States. Phenological information of A. glycines is limited; specifically, little is known about factors guiding migrating aphids and potential impacts of long distance flights on local population dynamics. Increasing our understanding of A. glycines population dynamics may improve predictions of A. glycines outbreaks and improve management efforts. In 2005 a suction trap network was established in seven Midwest states to monitor the occurrence of alates. By 2006, this network expanded to 10 states and consisted of 42 traps. The goal of the STN was to monitor movement of A. glycines from their overwintering host Rhamnus spp. to soybean in spring, movement among soybean fields during summer, and emigration from soybean to Rhamnus in fall. The objective of this study was to infer movement patterns of A. glycines on a regional scale based on trap captures, and determine the suitability of certain statistical methods for future analyses. Overall, alates were not commonly collected in suction traps until June. The most alates were collected during a 3-wk period in the summer (late July to mid-August), followed by the fall, with a peak capture period during the last 2 wk of September. Alate captures were positively correlated with latitude, a pattern consistent with the distribution of Rhamnus in the United States, suggesting that more southern regions are infested by immigrants from the north.

  16. D-Serine and Glycine Differentially Control Neurotransmission during Visual Cortex Critical Period

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Claire N. J.; Dallérac, Glenn; Le Roux, Nicolas; Sacchi, Silvia; Levasseur, Grégoire; Amar, Muriel; Pollegioni, Loredano; Mothet, Jean-Pierre; Fossier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a central role in synaptic plasticity. Their activation requires the binding of both glutamate and d-serine or glycine as co-agonist. The prevalence of either co-agonist on NMDA-receptor function differs between brain regions and remains undetermined in the visual cortex (VC) at the critical period of postnatal development. Here, we therefore investigated the regulatory role that d-serine and/or glycine may exert on NMDARs function and on synaptic plasticity in the rat VC layer 5 pyramidal neurons of young rats. Using selective enzymatic depletion of d-serine or glycine, we demonstrate that d-serine and not glycine is the endogenous co-agonist of synaptic NMDARs required for the induction and expression of Long Term Potentiation (LTP) at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Glycine on the other hand is not involved in synaptic efficacy per se but regulates excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission by activating strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors, then producing a shunting inhibition that controls neuronal gain and results in a depression of synaptic inputs at the somatic level after dendritic integration. In conclusion, we describe for the first time that in the VC both D-serine and glycine differentially regulate somatic depolarization through the activation of distinct synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors. PMID:27003418

  17. D-Serine and Glycine Differentially Control Neurotransmission during Visual Cortex Critical Period.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Claire N J; Dallérac, Glenn; Le Roux, Nicolas; Sacchi, Silvia; Levasseur, Grégoire; Amar, Muriel; Pollegioni, Loredano; Mothet, Jean-Pierre; Fossier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a central role in synaptic plasticity. Their activation requires the binding of both glutamate and d-serine or glycine as co-agonist. The prevalence of either co-agonist on NMDA-receptor function differs between brain regions and remains undetermined in the visual cortex (VC) at the critical period of postnatal development. Here, we therefore investigated the regulatory role that d-serine and/or glycine may exert on NMDARs function and on synaptic plasticity in the rat VC layer 5 pyramidal neurons of young rats. Using selective enzymatic depletion of d-serine or glycine, we demonstrate that d-serine and not glycine is the endogenous co-agonist of synaptic NMDARs required for the induction and expression of Long Term Potentiation (LTP) at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Glycine on the other hand is not involved in synaptic efficacy per se but regulates excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission by activating strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors, then producing a shunting inhibition that controls neuronal gain and results in a depression of synaptic inputs at the somatic level after dendritic integration. In conclusion, we describe for the first time that in the VC both D-serine and glycine differentially regulate somatic depolarization through the activation of distinct synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors.

  18. Quest for Cells Responsible for Age-related Increase of Salivary Glycine and Proline.

    PubMed

    Hino, Shunsuke; Nishiyama, Akira; Matsuta, Tomohiko; Horie, Norio; Shimoyama, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Shoji; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported that salivary glycine and proline levels are increased to nearly butanoate level in elderly people. In order to identify the source of glycine and proline, we performed high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of amino acid production to a total of seven oral cells before and after stimulation with inflammation inducers. We found that production of amino acids (per a given number of cells) by normal oral mesenchymal cells (gingival fibroblast, pulp cell, periodontal ligament fibroblast) was approximately three-fold that of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (HSC-2, HSC-3, HSC-4, Ca9-22), and that production of glycine and especially proline by all these seven cells was much lower than that of glutamine and glutamic acid. Treatment of three oral mesenchymal cells with interleukin (IL)-1β or lipopoly-saccharide (LPS) reproducibly increased the production of glutamic acid and glutamine, but not that of glycine and proline. Glycine and proline only marginally stimulated the IL-8 production by IL-1β-stimulated gingival fibroblast, whereas glycine dose-dependently inhibited the nitric oxide production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. These data demonstrated that normal oral mesenchymal cells are not the major source of glycine and proline that accumulates in the saliva of aged people, suggesting the involvement of the deregulation of collagen metabolism during aging.

  19. Activation of glycine receptors modulates spontaneous epileptiform activity in the immature rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rongqing; Okabe, Akihito; Sun, Haiyan; Sharopov, Salim; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L; Kolbaev, Sergei N; Fukuda, Atsuo; Luhmann, Heiko J; Kilb, Werner

    2014-01-01

    While the expression of glycine receptors in the immature hippocampus has been shown, no information about the role of glycine receptors in controlling the excitability in the immature CNS is available. Therefore, we examined the effect of glycinergic agonists and antagonists in the CA3 region of an intact corticohippocampal preparation of the immature (postnatal days 4–7) rat using field potential recordings. Bath application of 100 μm taurine or 10 μm glycine enhanced the occurrence of recurrent epileptiform activity induced by 20 μm 4-aminopyridine in low Mg2+ solution. This proconvulsive effect was prevented by 3 μm strychnine or after incubation with the loop diuretic bumetanide (10 μm), suggesting that it required glycine receptors and an active NKCC1-dependent Cl− accumulation. Application of higher doses of taurine (≥1 mm) or glycine (100 μm) attenuated recurrent epileptiform discharges. The anticonvulsive effect of taurine was also observed in the presence of the GABAA receptor antagonist gabazine and was attenuated by strychnine, suggesting that it was partially mediated by glycine receptors. Bath application of the glycinergic antagonist strychnine (0.3 μm) induced epileptiform discharges. We conclude from these results that in the immature hippocampus, activation of glycine receptors can mediate both pro- and anticonvulsive effects, but that a persistent activation of glycine receptors is required to suppress epileptiform activity. In summary, our study elucidated the important role of glycine receptors in the control of neuronal excitability in the immature hippocampus. PMID:24665103

  20. Glycine Transporter 1 is a Target for the Treatment of Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hai-Ying; van Vliet, Erwin; Bright, Kerry-Ann; Hanthorn, Marissa; Lytle, Nikki; Gorter, Jan; Aronica, Eleonora; Boison, Detlev

    2015-01-01

    Glycine is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in brainstem and spinal cord, whereas in hippocampus glycine exerts dual modulatory roles on strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and on the strychnine-insensitive glycineB site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). In hippocampus, the synaptic availability of glycine is largely under control of glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1). Since epilepsy is a disorder of disrupted network homeostasis affecting the equilibrium of various neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, we hypothesized that changes in hippocampal GlyT1 expression and resulting disruption of glycine homeostasis might be implicated in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Using two different rodent models of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) – the intrahippocampal kainic acid model of TLE in mice, and the rat model of tetanic stimulation-induced TLE – we first demonstrated robust overexpression of GlyT1 in the hippocampal formation, suggesting dysfunctional glycine signaling in epilepsy. Overexpression of GlyT1 in the hippocampal formation was corroborated in human TLE samples by quantitative real time PCR. In support of a role of dysfunctional glycine signaling in the pathophysiology of epilepsy, both the genetic deletion of GlyT1 in hippocampus and the GlyT1 inhibitor LY2365109 increased seizure thresholds in mice. Importantly, chronic seizures in the mouse model of TLE were robustly suppressed by systemic administration of the GlyT1 inhibitor LY2365109. We conclude that GlyT1 overexpression in the epileptic brain constitutes a new target for therapeutic intervention, and that GlyT1 inhibitors constitute a new class of antiictogenic drugs. These findings are of translational value since GlyT1 inhibitors are already in clinical development to treat cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia. PMID:26302655

  1. Dietary glycine blunts liver injury after bile duct ligation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Froh, Matthias; Zhong, Zhi; Walbrun, Peter; Lehnert, Mark; Netter, Susanne; Wiest, Reiner; Conzelmann, Lars; Gäbele, Erwin; Hellerbrand, Claus; Schölmerich, Jürgen; Thurman, Ronald G

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of (dietary) glycine against oxidant-induced injury caused by bile duct ligation (BDL). METHODS: Either a diet containing 5% glycine or a standard diet was fed to male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Three days later, BDL or sham-operation was performed. Rats were sacrificed 1 to 3 d after BDL. The influence of deoxycholic acid (DCA) in the presence or absence of glycine on liver cells was determined by measurement of calcium and chloride influx in cultivated Kupffer cells and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was determined in the supernatant of cultivated hepatocytes. RESULTS: Serum alanine transaminase levels increased to about 600 U/L 1 d after BDL. However, enzyme release was blunted by about two third in rats receiving glycine. Release of the alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase was also blocked significantly in the group fed glycine. Focal necrosis was observed 2 d after BDL. Glycine partially blocked the histopathological changes. Incubation of Kupffer cells with DCA led to increased intracellular calcium that could be blocked by incubation with glycine. However, systemic blockage of Kupffer cells with gadolinium chloride had no effects on transaminase release. Incubation of isolated hepatocytes with DCA led to a significant release of LDH after 4 h. This release was largely blocked when incubation with glycine was performed. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that glycine significantly decreased liver injury, most likely by a direct effect on hepatocytes. Kupffer cells do not appear to play an important role in the pathological changes caused by cholestasis. PMID:18932277

  2. Protective effects of glycine during hypothermic renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Mangino, M J; Murphy, M K; Grabau, G G; Anderson, C B

    1991-11-01

    The objective of this investigation was to test the effects of glycine, a cytoprotectant in normothermic in vitro models of renal ischemia, in a model of hypothermic renal preservation injury. This study also probes possible physiological mechanisms of glycine protection during renal hypothermic ischemia-reperfusion injury. Canine kidneys were subjected to 48 h of hypothermic ischemia (4 degrees C) after intravascular flush with cold conventional Collins solution (G. H. Collins, M. B. Bravo-Shugarman, and P. I. Terasaki, Lancet 2: 1219-1223, 1969) and were subsequently revascularized for 1 h. After 1 h of reperfusion, glomerular filtration rate, urine production, and electrolyte excretion were dramatically higher when the Collins flush contained 5 mM glycine, compared with the 0 mM glycine controls. Renal tissue adenine nucleotides and glutathione levels progressively declined with graded cold ischemia times, and glycine had no effect on these levels. However, renal tissue ATP levels (but not glutathione) were significantly higher when kidneys were flushed with glycine, stored for 48 h, and reoxygenated in vitro for 1 h at 37 degrees C, compared with kidneys flushed without glycine. Analysis of CoA esters from ischemic renal tissue indicated altered production of only butyryl CoA after 48 and 72 h of cold ischemia, but no differences were detected in glycine or control kidneys. In conclusion, this study reports dramatic functional preservation with glycine in kidneys subjected to hypothermic ischemia and in vivo reperfusion. The mechanisms of these effects appear not to be attributable to the maintenance of cellular adenine nucleotide or glutathione levels nor to the scavenging of accumulated amphipathic acyl CoA esters.

  3. FDG-PET scan shows increased cerebral blood flow in rat after sublingual glycine application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagosklonov, Oleg; Podoprigora, Guennady I.; Davani, Siamak; Nartsissov, Yaroslav R.; Comas, Laurent; Boulahdour, Hatem; Cardot, Jean-Claude

    2007-02-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]-2-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) is being increasingly used in research. Isotope studies may be of help in an assessment of vasoactive potential of newly developed therapeutic preparations, including natural metabolites, like glycine. As a medicine, glycine was recently shown to have a positive therapeutic effect in the treatment of patients with neurological disorders based on vascular disturbances. By previous direct biomicroscopic investigations of pial microvessels in laboratory rats, an expressed vasodilatory effect of topically applied glycine was proved. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of glycine on the rat cerebral blood flow (CBF) using FDG-PET scan. A baseline study was started immediately after intravenous injection of 19 MBq of FDG in anesthetized rat. The PET images were acquired twice, one by one during 20 min. Two hours later, after sublingual application of glycine and the second FDG injection, the pair of PET scan was performed during 20 min as well. Finally, 4 days after the first studies, we repeated the PET scans in the same conditions after sublingual application of glycine. The quantitative analysis of FDG volume concentration (Bq/ml) in the rat brain demonstrated that in both studies after glycine administration, the FDG uptake increased at least 1.5 times in comparison with the baseline data. Moreover, the peak of the concentration was coming in more rapidly. These results confirm the enhancing effect of glycine on the rat CBF possibly because of its vasodilatory effect on brain microvessels. Therefore, FDG-PET technique contributes to better understanding of glycine pharmacokinetics.

  4. Quantitative Field Testing Heterodera glycines from Metagenomic DNA Samples Isolated Directly from Soil under Agronomic Production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Lawrence, Gary W.; Lu, Shien; Balbalian, Clarissa; Klink, Vincent P.

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative PCR procedure targeting the Heterodera glycines ortholog of the Caenorhabditis elegans uncoordinated-78 gene was developed. The procedure estimated the quantity of H. glycines from metagenomic DNA samples isolated directly from field soil under agronomic production. The estimation of H. glycines quantity was determined in soil samples having other soil dwelling plant parasitic nematodes including Hoplolaimus, predatory nematodes including Mononchus, free-living nematodes and biomass. The methodology provides a framework for molecular diagnostics of nematodes from metagenomic DNA isolated directly from field soil. PMID:24587100

  5. Influence of Selected Plant Species on Hatching of Eggs and Development of Juveniles of Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, D. P.; Riggs, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    The influence of selected plant species on egg hatch and subsequent development of Heterodera glycines race 3 was investigated. Plants tested included four soybean cultivars, red clover, alfalfa, hairy vetch, field corn, sweet corn, cabbage, tobacco, cotton, and wheat. Soybean stimulated egg hatching more than any of the other plant species, with H. glycines-resistant cultivars being more stimulating than susceptible ones. Hairy vetch also increased hatch. Roots of cabbage, red clover, alfalfa, and hairy vetch were readily penetrated by juveniles of H. glycines. Maturation to adult occurred only on soybean and hairy vetch. PMID:19283087

  6. The hydration of a zwitterion, glycine, as a function of pH.

    PubMed

    Tschapek, M; Wasowski, C

    1979-02-01

    1. The hydration numbers of glycine (concentrations 1--3 M), as a function of concentration, were determined by surface tension measurements, using octan-1-ol as a 'reference' substance. 2. The hydration number of glycine at the isoelectric point decreased from 17.7 to 10.7 upon increasing the concentration from 1 to 3 M. 3. The changes in hydration of glycine as a function of the pH are due to the difference between hydrations of the ionized functional groups (NH+3, COO-) and the added ions (Me+ A-).

  7. Lysis of Escherichia coli by Glycine Is Potentiated by Pyridoxine Starvation

    PubMed Central

    Dempsey, Walter B.

    1973-01-01

    Pyridoxineless mutants of Escherichia coli are lysed in a few hours when starved for pyridoxine in a glucose minimal medium containing glycine at 10 mM. The lysis is prevented equally well by l-alanine and by d-alanine when either is present at 0.1 mM. The lysis is potentiated by 0.5 mM l-methionine. The peculiar susceptibility of E. coli B to glycine-mediated lysis during starvation for pyridoxine suggests that the starvation reduces the availability of some normal antagonist of glycine, presumably alanine. PMID:4583221

  8. Quantitative field testing Heterodera glycines from metagenomic DNA samples isolated directly from soil under agronomic production.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Lawrence, Gary W; Lu, Shien; Balbalian, Clarissa; Klink, Vincent P

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative PCR procedure targeting the Heterodera glycines ortholog of the Caenorhabditis elegans uncoordinated-78 gene was developed. The procedure estimated the quantity of H. glycines from metagenomic DNA samples isolated directly from field soil under agronomic production. The estimation of H. glycines quantity was determined in soil samples having other soil dwelling plant parasitic nematodes including Hoplolaimus, predatory nematodes including Mononchus, free-living nematodes and biomass. The methodology provides a framework for molecular diagnostics of nematodes from metagenomic DNA isolated directly from field soil.

  9. A search for the lowest-energy conformer of interstellar glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Snyder, L. E.; Suenram, R. D.; Lovas, F. J.

    1980-11-01

    The first search for the lowest-energy conformation of interstellar glycine has been carried out. An emission line has been detected in Sgr B2 which is coincident in frequency with the J(K-K+) = 14(1, 14)-13(1, 13) transition of conformer I glycine; while the carrier of the observed line is uncertain, no other frequency-coincident species are known, and hence glycine cannot be ruled out. Several previously unidentified lines have been identified as methyl formate. Evidence for the existence of the elusive interstellar ethylene oxide, the only reported interstellar ring-structure molecule, is discussed.

  10. The Sleep-Promoting and Hypothermic Effects of Glycine are Mediated by NMDA Receptors in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Nobuhiro; Sakai, Noriaki; Okuro, Masashi; Karakawa, Sachie; Tsuneyoshi, Yosuke; Kawasaki, Noriko; Takeda, Tomoko; Bannai, Makoto; Nishino, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The use of glycine as a therapeutic option for improving sleep quality is a novel and safe approach. However, despite clinical evidence of its efficacy, the details of its mechanism remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the site of action and sleep-promoting mechanisms of glycine in rats. In acute sleep disturbance, oral administration of glycine-induced non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and shortened NREM sleep latency with a simultaneous decrease in core temperature. Oral and intracerebroventricular injection of glycine elevated cutaneous blood flow (CBF) at the plantar surface in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in heat loss. Pretreatment with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists AP5 and CGP78608 but not the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine inhibited the CBF increase caused by glycine injection into the brain. Induction of c-Fos expression was observed in the hypothalamic nuclei, including the medial preoptic area (MPO) and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) shell after glycine administration. Bilateral microinjection of glycine into the SCN elevated CBF in a dose-dependent manner, whereas no effect was observed when glycine was injected into the MPO and dorsal subparaventricular zone. In addition, microinjection of D-serine into the SCN also increased CBF, whereas these effects were blocked in the presence of L-701324. SCN ablation completely abolished the sleep-promoting and hypothermic effects of glycine. These data suggest that exogenous glycine promotes sleep via peripheral vasodilatation through the activation of NMDA receptors in the SCN shell. PMID:25533534

  11. Neuroprotection via strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors during post-ischemic recovery of excitatory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Mitsuo; Nitta, Azusa; Ono, Hideki

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors are located in upper brain regions including the hippocampus. Because of excitatory effects of glycine via facilitation of NMDA-receptor function, however, the net effects of increased extracellular glycine on neuronal excitability in either physiological or pathophysiological conditions are mostly unclear. Here, we addressed the potential neuroprotective effect of either exogenous application of glycine and taurine, which are both strychnine-sensitive glycine-receptor agonists, or an endogenous increase of glycine via blockade of glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) by assessing their ability to facilitate the functional recovery of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) after termination of brief oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) in the CA1 region in mouse hippocampal slices. Glycine and taurine promoted restoration of the fEPSPs after reperfusion, but this was never observed in the presence of strychnine. Interestingly, glycine and taurine appeared to generate neuroprotective effects only at their optimum concentration range. By contrast, blockade of GlyT1 by N-[3-(4'-fluorophenyl)-3-(4'-phenylphenoxy)propyl]sarcosine or sarcosine did not elicit significant neuroprotection. These results suggest that activation of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors potentially produces neuroprotection against metabolic stress such as OGD. However, GlyT1 inhibition is unlikely to elicit a sufficient increase in the extracellular level of glycine to generate neuroprotection.

  12. Differentiated human midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells express excitatory strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors containing α2β subunits.

    PubMed

    Wegner, Florian; Kraft, Robert; Busse, Kathy; Härtig, Wolfgang; Ahrens, Jörg; Leffler, Andreas; Dengler, Reinhard; Schwarz, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Human fetal midbrain-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) may deliver a tissue source for drug screening and regenerative cell therapy to treat Parkinson's disease. While glutamate and GABA(A) receptors play an important role in neurogenesis, the involvement of glycine receptors during human neurogenesis and dopaminergic differentiation as well as their molecular and functional characteristics in NPCs are largely unknown. Here we investigated NPCs in respect to their glycine receptor function and subunit expression using electrophysiology, calcium imaging, immunocytochemistry, and quantitative real-time PCR. Whole-cell recordings demonstrate the ability of NPCs to express functional strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors after differentiation for 3 weeks in vitro. Pharmacological and molecular analyses indicate a predominance of glycine receptor heteromers containing α2β subunits. Intracellular calcium measurements of differentiated NPCs suggest that glycine evokes depolarisations mediated by strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and not by D-serine-sensitive excitatory glycine receptors. Culturing NPCs with additional glycine, the glycine-receptor antagonist strychnine, or the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 1 (NKCC1)-inhibitor bumetanide did not significantly influence cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro. These data indicate that NPCs derived from human fetal midbrain tissue acquire essential glycine receptor properties during neuronal maturation. However, glycine receptors seem to have a limited functional impact on neurogenesis and dopaminergic differentiation of NPCs in vitro.

  13. Thermal vaporization of biological nanoparticles: fragment-free vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectra of tryptophan, phenylalanine-glycine-glycine, and beta-carotene.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Kevin R; Jimenez-Cruz, Michael; Nicolas, Christophe; Belau, Leonid; Leone, Stephen R; Ahmed, Musahid

    2006-02-16

    A simple, new way to introduce fragile biomolecules into the gas phase via thermal vaporization of nanoparticles is described. The general utility of this technique for the study of biomolecules is demonstrated by coupling this source to tunable synchrotron vacuum ultraviolet radiation. Fragment-free photoionization mass spectra of tryptophan, phenylalanine-glycine-glycine, and beta-carotene are detected with signal-to-noise ratios exceeding 100. The 8.0 eV photoionization mass spectrum of tryptophan nanoparticles vaporized at 373 K is dominated by a single parent ion peak that exhibits a 20-fold enhancement over the methylene indole fragment ion. The degree of dissociative photoionization of tryptophan can be precisely controlled either by the thermal energy imparted into the neutral tryptophan molecule or by the energy of the ionizing photon. The results reveal how approximately 0.5 eV changes in internal energy affect both the photoionization mass spectrum of tryptophan and the appearance energy of the daughter ion fragments. This method allows the ionization energies of glycine (9.3 +/- 0.1 eV), tryptophan (7.3 +/- 0.2 eV), phenylalanine (8.6 +/- 0.1 eV), phenylalanine-glycine-glycine (9.1 +/- 0.1 eV), and beta-carotene (<7.0 eV) molecules to be determined directly from the photoionization efficiency spectra.

  14. Ethylene response pathway modulates attractiveness of plant roots to soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yanfeng; You, Jia; Li, Chunjie; Williamson, Valerie M.; Wang, Congli

    2017-01-01

    Plant parasitic nematodes respond to root exudates to locate their host roots. In our studies second stage juveniles of Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), quickly migrated to soybean roots in Pluronic F-127 gel. Roots of soybean and non-host Arabidopsis treated with the ethylene (ET)-synthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) were more attractive to SCN than untreated roots, and significantly more nematodes penetrated into roots. Moreover, Arabidopsis ET insensitive mutants (ein2, ein2-1, ein2-5, ein3-1, ein5-1, and ein6) were more attractive than wild-type plants. Conversely, the constitutive triple-response mutant ctr1-1, was less attractive to SCN. While ET receptor gain-of-function mutant ein4-1 attracted more SCN than the wild-type, there were no significant differences in attractiveness between another gain-of-function ET receptor mutant, etr1-3, or the loss-of-function mutants etr1-7 and ers1-3 and the wild type. Expression of the reporter construct EBS: β-glucuronidase (GUS) was detected in Arabidopsis root tips as early as 6 h post infection, indicating that ET signaling was activated in Arabidopsis early by SCN infection. These results suggest that an active ET signaling pathway reduces root attractiveness to SCN in a way similar to that reported for root-knot nematodes, but opposite to that suggested for the sugar beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. PMID:28112257

  15. Biosynthesis of pectic galactan by membrane-bound galactosyltransferase from soybean ( Glycine max Merr) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Tomoyuki; Mitome, Terukazu; Hatsushika, Hiroyuki; Haque, Md Ashraful; Kotake, Toshihisa; Tsumuraya, Yoichi

    2004-03-01

    We investigated the properties of a galactosyltransferase (GalT) that is involved in the synthesis of beta-(1-->4)-galactan side chains of pectins. A membrane preparation of etiolated 6-day-old soybean ( Glycine max Merr.) hypocotyls transferred [(14)C]Gal from UDP-[(14)C]Gal into intact and partially hydrolyzed lupin beta-(1-->4)-galactans of various chain lengths as exogenous acceptors, while activity to endogenous acceptors was negligible. Maximal activity occurred at pH 6.5 and 20-25 degrees C in the presence of 25 mM Mn(2+) and 0.75% Triton X-100. The transfer reaction onto the unmodified commercial pectic galactan ( M(r)>150000) from lupin we used was very low but increased when the M(r) of the galactan was reduced by partial acid hydrolysis. Among the partially hydrolyzed galactans, high- M(r) (average M(r) 60000) beta-(1-->4)-galactan was a more efficient acceptor [specific activity 2000-3000 pmol min(-1) (mg protein)(-1)] than low- M(r) (average M(r) 10000 and 5000) polymers. Digestion of the radiolabeled product from high- M(r) galactan with endo-beta-(1-->4)-galactanase released mainly radioactive beta-(1-->4)-galactobiose and Gal, indicating that the transfer of [(14)C]Gal occurred through beta-(1-->4)-linkages. HPLC analysis showed that the enzyme also catalyzes incorporation of Gal into pyridylaminated (PA) beta-(1-->4)-galactooligomers with degree of polymerization at least 5. Gal(7)-PA chains were elongated by attachment of one, two, or three Gal residues leading to the formation of Gal(8-10)-PA.

  16. Soybean roots retain the seed urease isozyme synthesized during embryo development. [Glycine max (L. ) Merr

    SciTech Connect

    Torisky, R.S.; Polacco, J.C. )

    1990-10-01

    Roots of young soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) plants (up to 25 days old) contain two distinct urease isozymes, which are separable by hydroxyapatite chromatography. These two urease species (URE1 and URE2) differ in: (a) electrophoretic mobility in native gels, (b) pH dependence, and (c) recognition by a monoclonal antibody specific for the seed (embryo-specific) urease. By these parameters root URE1 urease is similar to the abundant embryo-specific urease isozyme, while root URE2 resembles the ubiquitous urease which has previously been found in all soybean tissues examined (leaf, embryo, seed coat, and cultured cells). The embryo-specific and ubiquitous urease isozymes are products of the Eu1 and Eu4 structural genes, respectively. Roots of the eu1-sun/eu1-sun genotype, which lacks the embryo-specific urease (i.e. seed urease-null), contain no URE1 urease activity. Roots of eu4/eu4, which lacks ubiquitous urease, lack the URE2 (leaflike) urease activity. From these genetic and biochemical criteria, then, we conclude that URE1 and URE2 are the embryo-specific and ubiquitous ureases, respectively. Adventitious roots generated from cuttings of any urease genotype lack URE1 activity. In seedling roots the seedlike (URE1) activity declines during development. Roots of 3-week-old plants contain 5% of the total URE1 activity of the radicle of 4-day-old seedlings, which, in turn, has approximately the same urease activity level as the dormant embryonic axis. The embryo-specific urease incorporates label from ({sup 35}S)methionine during embryo development but not during germination, indicating that there is no de novo synthesis of the embryo-specific (URE1) urease in the germinating root.

  17. Structure and activity studies of glycine receptor ligands, Part 3: structure and conformation of ethyl-N-[(5,5-diphenyl)-4-oxo-2-imidazolidyl]glycinate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karolak-Wojciechowska, J.; Mrozek, A.; Kwiatkowski, W.; Ksiażek, W.; Kieć-Kononowicz, K.; Handzlik, J.

    1998-06-01

    As part of our investigation of compounds with potential affinity to the glycine binding site of MNDA receptors the structure of ethyl-N-[(5,5-diphenyl)-4-oxo-2-imidazolidyl]glycinate is reported: C 19H 19N 3O 3; orthorombic; P2 12 12 1; a = 10.273(2), b = 10.309(2), c = 16.721(3) Å; V = 1770.8(6) Å3; Z = 4; λ( CuKα) = 1.54178 Å; μ = 0.71 mm -1; final R = 0.053 for 1002 observed reflections [ I > 4 σ( I)]. Possible tautomers of this structure as well as possible conformations of the amino ester chain and their impact on the binding to the glycine binding site of MNDA receptors are discussed.

  18. Peptide bond formation via glycine condensation in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Van Dornshuld, Eric; Vergenz, Robert A; Tschumper, Gregory S

    2014-07-24

    Four unique gas phase mechanisms for peptide bond formation between two glycine molecules have been mapped out with quantum mechanical electronic structure methods. Both concerted and stepwise mechanisms, each leading to a cis and trans glycylglycine product (four mechanisms total), were examined with the B3LYP and MP2 methods and Gaussian atomic orbital basis sets as large as aug-cc-pVTZ. Electronic energies of the stationary points along the reaction pathways were also computed with explicitly correlated MP2-F12 and CCSD(T)-F12 methods. The CCSD(T)-F12 computations indicate that the electronic barriers to peptide bond formation are similar for all four mechanisms (ca. 32-39 kcal mol(-1) relative to two isolated glycine fragments). The smallest barrier (32 kcal mol(-1)) is associated with the lone transition state for the concerted mechanism leading to the formation of a trans peptide bond, whereas the largest barrier (39 kcal mol(-1)) was encountered along the concerted pathway leading to the cis configuration of the glycylglycine dipeptide. Two significant barriers are encountered for the stepwise mechanisms. For both the cis and trans pathways, the early electronic barrier is 36 kcal mol(-1) and the subsequent barrier is approximately 1 kcal mol(-1) lower. A host of intermediates and transition states lie between these two barriers, but they all have very small relative electronic energies (ca. ± 4 kcal mol(-1)). The isolated cis products (glycylglycine + H2O) are virtually isoenergetic with the isolated reactants (within -1 kcal mol(-1)), whereas the trans products are about 5 kcal mol(-1) lower in energy. In both products, however, the water can hydrogen bond to the dipeptide and lower the energy by roughly 5-9 kcal mol(-1). This study indicates that the concerted process leading to a trans configuration about the peptide bond is marginally favored both thermodynamically (exothermic by ca. 5 kcal mol(-1)) and kinetically (barrier height ≈ 32 kcal mol(-1

  19. Population Dynamics of Heterodera glycines and Soybean Response in Soils Treated with Selected Nematicides and Herbicides.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, D P; Corbin, F T; Nelson, L A

    1983-07-01

    Two field experiments were conducted in two locations to determine the effects of the nematicides aldicarb, phenamiphos, and ethoprop and/or the herbicides alachlor, linuron, or metribuzin on the population dynamics of Heterodera glycines and soybean growth and yield. Population densities of H. glycines were greater, at some time during the growing season, in several treatments with alachlor alone and in combination with nematicides. Numbers of H. glycines at harvest were greater in plots treated with aldicarb than in those treated with ethoprop or phenamiphos. The numbers in aldicarb treated plots were generally reduced when plots also received a herbicide. Soybean yields were negatively correlated with numbers of H. glycines eggs and juveniles in early to mid season but positively correlated with late season population densities.

  20. Glycine as a potentially specific biomolecule of semi-labile dissolved organic matter in the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, H.; Saotome, N.; Sakai, A.; Uchimiya, M.; Fukuda, H.

    2016-02-01

    Glycine is the simplest amino acid and a typical of small biomolecule. However it is known to be the most major component of amino acids in dissolved organic matter especially in deep ocean, suggesting a relatively recalcitrant to microbiological degradation and little is known about the actual turnover time of this simple compound in seawater. Thus, we conducted bacterial uptake experiments in the Pacific Ocean with 3H-labeled glycine at in situ concentration label of dissolved free amino acids (sub- nanomolar), and it was found that bacterial uptake rate of glycine was much slower (by up to 6 times) than that of leucine that is a typical of labile amino acid. And the turnover times of glycine were more than 3 days. In addition, another uptake experiment using non-labeled amino acids and high-sensitive detection by UHPLC supported this finding.

  1. 75 FR 63444 - Glycine From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... purity and is used as a sweetener/taste enhancer, a buffering agent, reabsorbable amino acid, chemical... glycine to the United States are manufactured by Paras, in India, from monochloro acetic acid and ammonia...

  2. Selenium-dependent growth of Treponema denticola: evidence for a clostridial-type glycine reductase.

    PubMed

    Rother, M; Böck, A; Wyss, C

    2001-12-01

    Assessment of the nutritional requirements of Treponema denticola disclosed a strict growth dependence on selenium. In vivo labeling of cells of this organism with (75)Se and electrophoretic analysis revealed three labeled bands, two of which were selenoproteins correlating in size with subunits A and B of glycine reductase. Antibodies directed against glycine- or betaine-reductase subunits of Eubacterium acidaminophilum specifically also reacted with proteins from cell lysates of T. denticola. Moreover, ORFs within the T. denticola genome sequence were found whose products display high sequence similarity to glycine-reductase subunits. These findings strongly support the notion that T. denticola ferments amino acids via the activity of glycine reductase, an enzyme previously thought to be restricted to gram-positive bacteria.

  3. The effect of glycine on the growth of calcium carbonate in alkaline silica gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Xiong; He, Kunhuan; Qian, Baosong; Deng, Qin; Lu, Laixian; Wang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Calcium carbonate was crystallized in alkaline silica gel with the presence of glycine. The crystallization proceeded with a counterdiffusion method by the reaction of calcium chloride and sodium carbonate. Optical microscopy observation showed a significant effect of glycine on the morphology control of calcite crystals. When the initial concentration of glycine was high enough (10 mg/mL, 20 mg/mL), spherical vaterite particles formed in alkaline silica gel concomitantly together with dumbbell shaped calcite particles. The in situ study by micro-Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that both vaterite and the concomitant calcite were stable phases during their growth processes since the initial appearance. A possible mechanism has been discussed to emphasize the effect of glycine on the nucleation of vaterite and the morphological control of calcite.

  4. Glycine facilitates gamma-glutamylcysteinylethyl ester-mediated increase in liver glutathione level.

    PubMed

    Nishida, K; Ohta, Y; Ishiguro, I

    1997-08-27

    gamma-Glutamylcysteinylethyl ester (gamma-GCE) increases reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in GSH-depleted rat hepatocytes. Because glycine, a constituent of GSH, exists at 0.3 to 0.4 mM in rat plasma, we examined the influence of glycine added to the medium on the action of gamma-GCE to increase GSH levels in the rat hepatocytes. Glycine (0.2-0.8 mM) dose-dependently enhanced gamma-GCE-mediated increase in intracellular GSH levels with an increase in intracellular gamma-GCE levels. These results indicate that exogenous glycine facilitates gamma-GCE-mediated increase in intracellular GSH levels in rat hepatocytes possibly by enhancing the uptake of gamma-GCE into the cells.

  5. Glycine in an electronically excited state: ab initio electronic structure and dynamical calculations.

    PubMed

    Muchová, Eva; Slavícek, Petr; Sobolewski, Andrzej L; Hobza, Pavel

    2007-06-21

    The goal of this study is to explore the photochemical processes following optical excitation of the glycine molecule into its two low-lying excited states. We employed electronic structure methods at various levels to map the PES of the ground state and the two low-lying excited states of glycine. It follows from our calculations that the photochemistry of glycine can be regarded as a combination of photochemical behavior of amines and carboxylic acid. The first channel (connected to the presence of amino group) results in ultrafast decay, while the channels characteristic for the carboxylic group occur on a longer time scale. Dynamical calculations provided the branching ratio for these channels. We also addressed the question whether conformationally dependent photochemistry can be observed for glycine. While electronic structure calculations favor this possibility, the ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) calculations showed only minor relevance of the reaction path resulting in conformationally dependent dynamics.

  6. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for canopy wilting trait in soybean (Glycine max L.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Drought stress adversely affects [Glycine max (L.) Merr] soybean at most developmental stages, which collectively results in yield reduction. Little information is available on relative contribution and chromosomal locations of quantitative trait loci (QTL) conditioning drought tolerance in soybean...

  7. Evaluation of Soybeans in Maturity Groups I-IV for Resistance to Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Noel, Gregory R.; Sikora, E. J.

    1990-01-01

    Forty-seven private and public soybean (Glycine max) cultivars in maturity groups I, II, III, and IV were evaluated in the field for resistance to Heterodera glycines race 3 and race 4 at two sites, Kilbourne and Urbana, Illinois. The soil at Kilbonrne was an irrigated sand infested with race 3. The soil at Urbana was a nonirrigated silty clay loam infested with race 4. Yield of nematode-susceptible controls was reduced at both locations, and yield differences were observed among the other cultivars. Soybeans grown in sand yielded less than the soybean grown in silty clay loam. Although populations of H. glycines recovered at planting were lower at Kilbourne than at Urbana, a greater percentage of loss in yield was associated with the sand at Kilbourne. Several soybean cultivars had a high level of resistance to both populations of H. glycines. PMID:19287799

  8. Developmental stability of taurine's activation on glycine receptors in cultured neurons of rat auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zheng-Quan; Lu, Yun-Gang; Chen, Lin

    2008-01-03

    Taurine is an endogenous amino acid that can activate glycine and/or gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors in the central nervous system. During natural development, taurine's receptor target undergoes a shift from glycine receptors to GABA(A) receptors in cortical neurons. Here, we demonstrate that taurine's receptor target in cortical neurons remains stable during in vitro development. With whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we found that taurine always activated glycine receptors, rather than GABA(A) receptors, in neurons of rat auditory cortex cultured for 5-22 days. Our results suggest that the functional sensitivity of glycine and GABA(A) receptors to taurine is critically regulated by their developmental environments.

  9. Supersaturation dependence of glycine polymorphism using laser-induced nucleation, sonocrystallization and nucleation by mechanical shock.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao; van den Berg, Mees H; Alexander, Andrew J

    2017-07-26

    The nucleation of glycine from aqueous supersaturated solution has been studied using non-photochemical laser-induced nucleation (NPLIN), ultrasound (sonocrystallization), and mechanical shock of sample vials. It was found that at higher supersaturation, samples were more susceptible to nucleation and produced more of the γ-glycine polymorph. The results are described in terms of a mechanism common to all three nucleation methods, involving the induction of cavitation events and pressure shockwaves. The switch in preference from α- to γ-glycine was observed to occur over a narrower range of supersaturation values for NPLIN. We attribute this to induction of cavitation events with higher energies, which result in higher localized pressures and supersaturations. Experiments on NPLIN using circularly versus linearly polarized light showed no evidence for binary polarization switching control of glycine polymorphism.

  10. Alterations in brain extracellular dopamine and glycine levels following combined administration of the glycine transporter type-1 inhibitor Org-24461 and risperidone.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Katalin; Marko, Bernadett; Zsilla, Gabriella; Matyus, Peter; Pallagi, Katalin; Szabo, Geza; Juranyi, Zsolt; Barkoczy, Jozsef; Levay, Gyorgy; Harsing, Laszlo G

    2010-12-01

    The most dominant hypotheses for the pathogenesis of schizophrenia have focused primarily upon hyperfunctional dopaminergic and hypofunctional glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system. The therapeutic efficacy of all atypical antipsychotics is explained in part by antagonism of the dopaminergic neurotransmission, mainly by blockade of D(2) dopamine receptors. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor hypofunction in schizophrenia can be reversed by glycine transporter type-1 (GlyT-1) inhibitors, which regulate glycine concentrations at the vicinity of NMDA receptors. Combined drug administration with D(2) dopamine receptor blockade and activation of hypofunctional NMDA receptors may be needed for a more effective treatment of positive and negative symptoms and the accompanied cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. To investigate this type of combined drug administration, rats were treated with the atypical antipsychotic risperidone together with the GlyT-1 inhibitor Org-24461. Brain microdialysis was applied in the striatum of conscious rats and determinations of extracellular dopamine, DOPAC, HVA, glycine, glutamate, and serine concentrations were carried out using HPLC/electrochemistry. Risperidone increased extracellular concentrations of dopamine but failed to influence those of glycine or glutamate measured in microdialysis samples. Org-24461 injection reduced extracellular dopamine concentrations and elevated extracellular glycine levels but the concentrations of serine and glutamate were not changed. When risperidone and Org-24461 were added in combination, a decrease in extracellular dopamine concentrations was accompanied with sustained elevation of extracellular glycine levels. Interestingly, the extracellular concentrations of glutamate were also enhanced. Our data indicate that coadministration of an antipsychotic with a GlyT-1 inhibitor may normalize hypofunctional NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission with reduced

  11. Probing the modulation of acute ethanol intoxication by pharmacological manipulation of the NMDAR glycine coagonist site

    PubMed Central

    Debrouse, Lauren; Hurd, Benita; Kiselycznyk, Carly; Plitt, Aaron; Todaro, Alyssa; Mishina, Masayoshi; Grant, Seth; Camp, Marguerite; Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Holmes, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Stimulating the glycineB binding site on the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) has been proposed as a novel mechanism for modulating behavioral effects of ethanol (EtOH) that are mediated via the NMDAR, including acute intoxication. Here, we pharmacologically interrogated this hypothesis in mice. METHODS Effects of systemic injection of the glycineB agonist, D-serine, the GlyT-1 glycine transporter inhibitor, ALX-5407, and the glycineB antagonist, L-701,324, were tested for effects on EtOH-induced ataxia, hypothermia, loss of righting reflex duration (LORR) in C57BL/6J (B6) and 129S1/SvImJ (S1) inbred mice. Effects of the glycineB partial agonist, D-cycloserine, the GlyT-1 inhibitor, NFPS, and the glycineB antagonist, DCKA, on EtOH-induced LORR duration were also tested. Interaction effects on EtOH-induced LORR duration were examined via combined treatment with D-serine and ALX-5407, D-serine and MK-801, D-serine and L-701,324, as well as L-701,324 and ALX-5407, in B6 mice, as D-serine in GluN2A and PSD-95 KO mice. The effect of dietary depletion of Magnesium (Mg), an element which interacts the glycineB site, was also tested. RESULTS Neither D-serine, D-cycloserine, ALX-5407, nor NFPS significantly affected EtOH intoxication on any of the measures or strains studied. L-701,324, but not DCKA, dose-dependently potentiated the ataxia-inducing effects of EtOH and increased EtOH-induced (but not pentobarbital-induced) LORR duration. D-serine did not have interactive effects on EtOH-induced LORR duration when combined with ALX-5407. The EtOH-potentiating effects of L-701,324, but not MK-801, on LORR duration were prevented by D-serine, but not ALX-5407. Mg depletion potentiated LORR duration in B6 mice and was lethal in a large proportion of S1 mice. CONCLUSIONS GlycineB site activation failed to produce the hypothesized reduction in EtOH intoxication across a range of measures and genetic strains, but blockade of the glycineB site potentiated Et

  12. Agonist action of taurine on glycine receptors in rat supraoptic magnocellular neurones: possible role in osmoregulation.

    PubMed

    Hussy, N; Deleuze, C; Pantaloni, A; Desarménien, M G; Moos, F

    1997-08-01

    1. To evaluate the implication of taurine in the physiology of supraoptic neurones, we (i) investigated the agonist properties of taurine on glycine and GABAA receptors of supraoptic magnocellular neurones acutely dissociated from adult rats, using whole-cell voltage clamp, (ii) studied the effects of taurine and strychnine in vivo by extracellular recordings of supraoptic vasopressin neurones in anaesthetized rats, and (iii) measured the osmolarity-dependent release of endogenous taurine from isolated supraoptic nuclei by HPLC. 2. GABA, glycine and taurine evoked rapidly activating currents that all reversed close to the equilibrium potential for Cl-, indicating activation of Cl(-)-selective channels. Glycine-activated currents were reversibly blocked by strychnine (IC50 of 35 nM with 100 microM glycine), but were unaffected by the GABAA antagonist gabazine (1-3 microM). GABA-activated currents were reversibly antagonized by 3 microM gabazine, but not by strychnine (up to 1 microM). 3. Responses to 1 mM taurine were blocked by strychnine but not by gabazine and showed no additivity with glycine-induced currents, indicating selective activation of glycine receptors. Responses to 10 mM taurine were partially antagonized by gabazine, the residual current being blocked by strychnine. Thus, taurine is also a weak agonist of GABAA receptors. 4. In the presence of gabazine, taurine activated glycine receptors with an EC50 of 406 microM. Taurine activated at most 70% of maximal glycine currents, suggesting that it is a partial agonist of glycine receptors. 5. In vivo, locally applied strychnine (300 nM) increased and taurine (1 mM) decreased the basal electrical activity of vasopressin neurones in normally hydrated rats. The effect of strychnine was markedly more pronounced in water-loaded rats. 6. Taurine, which is concentrated in supraoptic glial cells, could be released from isolated supraoptic nuclei upon hyposmotic stimulation. Decreases in osmolarity of 15 and 30

  13. Core-level electronic structure of solid-phase glycine, glycyl-glycine, diglycyl-glycine, and polyglycine: X-ray photoemission analysis and Hartree-Fock calculations of their zwitterions.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Avisek; Zhao, Liyan; Zhang, Lei; Pradhan, Debabrata; Zhou, Xiaojing; Leung, K T

    2008-09-14

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to investigate the core-level electronic structures of glycine (G) and its peptides, including glycyl-glycine (GG), diglycyl-glycine (GGG), and polyglycine (poly-G), in their powder forms. Increasing the number of G units in the peptides does not change the locations of the respective C 1s, N 1s, and O 1s features corresponding to different functional groups: -COO(-), -NH(3)(+), >CH(2), and -CONH-. The electronic structures of the zwitterions of these molecules have been calculated as isolated molecules and as molecules in an aqueous environment under the periodic boundary conditions by quantum-mechanical and molecular mechanics methods. In the case of glycine zwitterion, the binding energies of the C 1s, N 1s, and O 1s XPS features are found to be in reasonable accord with the respective orbital energies obtained by Hartree-Fock self-consistent-field calculations, within the context of Koopmans' approximation. However, considerably worse agreement in the binding energies is found for the larger zwitterions (with the specific conformations considered in this work), indicating the need for higher-level calculations. The present work shows that optimizing the zwitterion in an aqueous environment under the periodic boundary conditions by molecular mechanics could be a very cost-effective approach for calculating the electronic structures of large, complex biomolecular systems.

  14. Differential Sensitivity of Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera glycines to Selected Nematicides.

    PubMed

    Gourd, T R; Schmitt, D P; Barker, K R

    1993-12-01

    Differential sensitivity of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, M. javanica, and Heterodera glycines races 1 and 5 to the nonfumigant nematicides aldicarb, ethoprop, and fenamiphos was evaluated using a 48-hour root-penetration bioassay. Generally, H. glycines was more tolerant of the nematicides, especially ethoprop, than were the Meloidogyne species. Among Meloidogyne species, M. incognita was most sensitive to aldicarb and fenamiphos, but its reaction to ethoprop was similar to the other three Meloidogyne species.

  15. Differential Sensitivity of Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera glycines to Selected Nematicides

    PubMed Central

    Gourd, T. R.; Schmitt, D. P.; Barker, K. R.

    1993-01-01

    Differential sensitivity of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, M. javanica, and Heterodera glycines races 1 and 5 to the nonfumigant nematicides aldicarb, ethoprop, and fenamiphos was evaluated using a 48-hour root-penetration bioassay. Generally, H. glycines was more tolerant of the nematicides, especially ethoprop, than were the Meloidogyne species. Among Meloidogyne species, M. incognita was most sensitive to aldicarb and fenamiphos, but its reaction to ethoprop was similar to the other three Meloidogyne species. PMID:19279834

  16. Differential cytoprotection by glycine against oxidant damage to proximal tubule cells.

    PubMed

    Sogabe, K; Roeser, N F; Venkatachalam, M A; Weinberg, J M

    1996-09-01

    Tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) injured freshly isolated proximal tubules in an Fe-dependent fashion that was ameliorated by a lipophilic antioxidant, diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD), but was only minimally affected by glycine. Menadione-induced injury was Fe-independent and was unaffected by DPPD, but was strongly blocked by glycine. Fe was highly toxic when intracellular loading was facilitated by concomitant treatment with hydroxyquinoline (HQ). This toxicity was blocked by DPPD or chelating the Fe, but not by glycine. All of the lesions were characterized by severe depletion of glutathione and other soluble thiols. Menadione induced large increases in protein associated with the Triton-insoluble cytoskeleton and decreases in protein thiol content, consistent with extensive cross linking, but did not increase thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). tBHP and HQ + Fe had either no effect or only moderate, delayed effects on cytoskeletal proteins, but induced substantial increases of TBARS. Glycine did not the alter changes in cytoskeletal proteins, thiols, or TBARS produced by any of the agents. Protection against tBHP toxicity by deferoxamine and DPPD was accompanied by substantial suppression of TBARS accumulation. Superimposition of hypoxia during tBHP exposure reduced TBARS accumulation and restored cytoprotective activity to glycine. Thus, in contrast to its consistently strong cytoprotection against a number of other insults, glycine is only variably cytoprotective against oxidant lesions in freshly isolated proximal tubules. Extensive oxidative crosslinking of proteins is compatible with maintenance of glycine cytoprotection against lethal membrane damage. Fe-induced injury to proximal tubules associated with lipid peroxidation as manifested by TBARS formation is a relatively glycine-insensitive insult.

  17. A Sensitive VLA Search for Small-Scale Glycine Emission Toward OMC-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, J. M.; Pedelty, J. A.; Snyder, L. E.; Jewell, P. R.; Lovas, F. J.; Palmer, Patrick; Liu, S.-Y.

    2002-01-01

    We have conducted a deep Q-band (lambda-7 mm) search with the Very Large Array (VLA) toward OMC-1 for the lowest energy conformation (conformer I) of glycine (NH2CH2COOH) in four rotational transitions: the 6(sub 15)- 5(sub 14), 6(sub 24)-5(sub 23), 7(sub 17- 6(sub 16), and 7(sub 07)-6(sub 06). Our VLA observations sample the smallest-scale structures to date in the search for glycine toward OMC-1. No glycine emission features were detected. Thus if glycine exists in OMC-1, either it is below our detection limit, or it is more spatially extended than other large molecules in this source, or it is primarily in its high energy form (conformer II). Our VLA glycine fractional abundance limits in OMC-1 are comparable to those determined from previous IRAM 30m measurements -- somewhat better or worse depending on the specific source model -- and the entire approximately 1 foot primary beam of the VLA was searched while sensitive to an areal spatial scale approximately 150 times smaller than the 24 inch beam of the IRAM single-element telescope. In the course of this work, we detected and imaged the 4(sub 14)-3(sub 13) A and E transitions of methyl formate (HCOOCH3) and also the 2(sub 02) - 1(sub 01) transition of formic acid (HCOOH). Since formic acid is a possible precursor to glycine, our glycine limits and formic acid results provide a constraint on this potential formation chemistry route for glycine in OMC-1.

  18. Glycine treatment decreases proinflammatory cytokines and increases interferon-gamma in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cruz, M; Maldonado-Bernal, C; Mondragón-Gonzalez, R; Sanchez-Barrera, R; Wacher, N H; Carvajal-Sandoval, G; Kumate, J

    2008-08-01

    Amino acids have been shown to stimulate insulin secretion and decrease glycated hemoglobin (A1C) in patients with Type 2 diabetes. In vitro, glycine reduces tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha secretion and increases interleukin-10 secretion in human monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The aim of this study was to determine whether glycine modifies the proinflammatory profiles of patients with Type 2 diabetes. Seventy-four patients, with Type 2 diabetes were enrolled in the study. The mean age was 58.5 yr, average age of diagnosis was 5 yr, the mean body mass index was 28.5 kg/m2, the mean fasting glucose level was 175.5 mg/dl and the mean A1C level was 8%. They were allocated to one of two treatments, 5 g/d glycine or 5 g/d placebo, po tid, for 3 months. A1C levels of patients given glycine were significantly lower after 3 months of treatment than those of the placebo group. A significant reduction in TNF-receptor I levels was observed in patients given glycine compared with placebo. There was a decrease of 38% in the interferon (IFN)-gamma level of the group treated with placebo, whereas that of the group treated with glycine increased up to 43%. These data showed that patients treated with glycine had a significant decrease in A1C and in proinflammatory cytokines and also an important increase of IFN-gamma. Treatment with glycine is likely to have a beneficial effect on innate and adaptive immune responses and may help prevent tissue damage caused by chronic inflammation in patients with Type 2 diabetes.

  19. Presynaptic glycine receptors on GABAergic terminals facilitate discharge of dopaminergic neurons in ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jiang-Hong; Wang, Fushun; Krnjevic, Kresimir; Wang, Weizhen; Xiong, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Jingli

    2004-10-13

    GABA-mediated postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) were recorded from dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of rats, in acute brain slices, and from enzymatically or mechanically dissociated neurons. In young rats (3-10 d of age), where GABA is excitatory, glycine (1-3 microm) and taurine (10-30 microm) increased the amplitude of evoked IPSCs (eIPSCs) and the frequency of spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) but had minimal postsynaptic effects. Strychnine (1 microm) blocked the action of glycine; when applied alone, it reduced the amplitude of eIPSCs and the frequency of sIPSCs, indicating a tonic facilitation of GABAergic excitation by some endogenous glycine agonist(s). In medium containing no Ca2+, or with Cd2+ or tetrodotoxin added, the amplitude and especially the frequency of sIPSCs greatly diminished. In many cells, glycine had no effect on remaining miniature IPSCs, suggesting a preterminal site of glycine receptors (GlyRs). Fura-2 fluorescent imaging showed a glycine-induced increase of [Ca2+] in nerve terminals (on DA neurons), which was suppressed by strychnine or 3 microm omega-conotoxin MVIIA. Therefore, the presynaptic GlyR-mediated facilitation of GABAergic transmission seems to be mediated by N- and/or P/Q-type Ca2+ channels. In older rats (22-30 d of age), where GABA causes inhibition, the effect of strychnine on GABAergic IPSCs was reversed to facilitation, indicating a tonic glycinergic inhibition of GABA release. Furthermore, glycine (1-3 microm) reduced the amplitude of eIPSCs and the frequency of sIPSCs. Hence, the overall effect of the presynaptic action of glycine is to enhance the firing of DA cells, both in very young and older rats.

  20. GABA and glycine are protective to mature but toxic to immature rat cortical neurons under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Qian, Hong; Xia, Ying

    2005-07-01

    Although recent studies suggest that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine may be 'inhibitory' to mature neurons, but 'excitatory' to immature neurons under normoxia, it is unknown whether inhibitory neurotransmitters are differentially involved in neuronal response to hypoxia in immature and mature neurons. In the present study, we exposed rat cortical neurons to hypoxia (1% O2) and examined the effects of three major inhibitory neurotransmitters (GABA, glycine and taurine) on the hypoxic neurons at different neuronal ages [days in vitro (DIV)4-20]. Our data showed that the cortical neurons expressed both GABA(A) and glycine receptors with differential developmental profiles. GABA (10-2000 microm) was neuroprotective to hypoxic neurons of DIV20, but enhanced hypoxic injury in neurons of Glycine at low concentrations (10-100 microm) exhibited a similar pattern to GABA. However, higher concentrations of glycine (1000-2000 microm) for long-term exposure (48-72 h) displayed neuroprotection at all ages (DIV4-20). Taurine (10-2000 microm), unlike GABA and glycine, displayed protection only in DIV4 neurons, and was slightly toxic to neurons>DIV4. In comparison with delta-opioid receptor (DOR)-induced protection in DIV20 neurons exposed to 72 h of hypoxia, glycine-induced protection was weaker than that of DOR but stronger than that of GABA and taurine. These data suggest that the effects of the inhibitory neurotransmitters on hypoxic cortical neurons are age-dependent, with GABA and glycine being neurotoxic to immature neurons and neuroprotective to mature neurons.

  1. Cloning of a Putative Pectate Lyase Gene Expressed in the Subventral Esophageal Glands of Heterodera glycines.

    PubMed

    De Boer, J M; Davis, E L; Hussey, R S; Popeijus, H; Smant, G; Baum, T J

    2002-03-01

    We report the cloning of a Heterodera glycines cDNA that has 72% identity at the amino acid level to a pectate lyase from Globodera rostochiensis. In situ hybridizations showed that the corresponding gene (Hg-pel-1) is expressed in the subventral esophageal gland cells of second-stage juveniles. The deduced amino acid sequence of the H. glycines cDNA shows homology to class III pectate lyases of bacterial and fungal origin.

  2. Techniques for Isolation and Evaluation of Fungal Parasites of Heterodera glycines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, D. G.; Riggs, R. D.

    1994-01-01

    A facultative fungal parasite, Arkansas Fungus 18 (ARF18), was isolated from at least 10 different sources of Heterodera glycines in different areas in the United States. Techniques used for isolation and in vitro evaluation of fungal parasites of H. glycines were described. Successful isolation of probable egg parasites depends on isolation from individual eggs. Selective isolation and a simple, yet definitive, screening system can increase the possibility of identifying effective biocontrol agents. PMID:19279930

  3. Sublethal and hormesis effects of imidacloprid on the soybean aphid Aphis glycines.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yanyan; Xiao, Da; Li, Jinyu; Chen, Zhou; Biondi, Antonio; Desneux, Nicolas; Gao, Xiwu; Song, Dunlun

    2015-04-01

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, is a major pest in soybean crop. Current management of this pest relies mainly on insecticides applications, and the neonicotinoid imidacloprid has been proposed as an effective insecticide to control A. glycines in soybean field. Imidacloprid at lethal concentrations not only exerts acute toxicity to A. glycines, but also cause various biological changes when aphids are chronically exposed to lower concentrations. In this study, we assessed the effects of a low-lethal (0.20 mg L(-1)) and two sublethal (0.05 and 0.10 mg L(-1)) imidacloprid concentrations on various A. glycines life history traits. Aphid exposure to 0.20 mg L(-1) imidacloprid caused slower juvenile development, shorter reproductive period, and reduced adult longevity, fecundity and total lifespan. Stimulatory effects, i.e. hormesis, on reproduction and immature development duration were observed in aphids exposed to the lower sublethal imidacloprid concentrations. Consequently, the net reproduction rate (R 0) was significantly higher than in the control aphids. These findings stress the importance of the actual imidacloprid concentration in its toxicological properties on A. glycines. Therefore, our results would be useful for assessing the overall effects of imidacloprid on A. glycines and for optimizing integrated pest management programs targeting this pest.

  4. A graphene nanoribbon neuro-sensor for glycine detection and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Faruque M.; Al-Dirini, Feras; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2014-06-01

    Glycine acts as a neurotransmitter in the Central Nervous System (CNS) and plays a vital role in processing of motor and sensory information that control movement, vision, and audition. Glycine detection and imaging can lead to a greater understanding of how this information is processed in the CNS. Here, we present a neuro-sensor for the detection and imaging of Glycine molecules, based on a zigzag Graphene Nanoribbon device structure. An energetically stable Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) center is introduced in the device to enable its use in neuronal imaging applications. We demonstrate, by using the Density Functional Theory and Nonequilibrium Green's Function method, that the device detects the attachment of a single Glycine molecule to its edges by significant changes in its conductance. The attachment of Glycine induces current channels around the NV center increasing the current flow through the device. In absence of Glycine, the presence of the NV center suppresses current flow through the device, significantly reducing its power consumption, and allowing for its use in proximity of living neuron cells.

  5. Conformational variability of the glycine receptor M2 domain in response to activation by different agonists.

    PubMed

    Pless, Stephan A; Dibas, Mohammed I; Lester, Henry A; Lynch, Joseph W

    2007-12-07

    Models describing the structural changes mediating Cys loop receptor activation generally give little attention to the possibility that different agonists may promote activation via distinct M2 pore-lining domain structural rearrangements. We investigated this question by comparing the effects of different ligands on the conformation of the external portion of the homomeric alpha1 glycine receptor M2 domain. Conformational flexibility was assessed by tethering a rhodamine fluorophore to cysteines introduced at the 19' or 22' positions and monitoring fluorescence and current changes during channel activation. During glycine activation, fluorescence of the label attached to R19'C increased by approximately 20%, and the emission peak shifted to lower wavelengths, consistent with a more hydrophobic fluorophore environment. In contrast, ivermectin activated the receptors without producing a fluorescence change. Although taurine and beta-alanine were weak partial agonists at the alpha1R19'C glycine receptor, they induced large fluorescence changes. Propofol, which drastically enhanced these currents, did not induce a glycine-like blue shift in the spectral emission peak. The inhibitors strychnine and picrotoxin elicited fluorescence and current changes as expected for a competitive antagonist and an open channel blocker, respectively. Glycine and taurine (or beta-alanine) also produced an increase and a decrease, respectively, in the fluorescence of a label attached to the nearby L22'C residue. Thus, results from two separate labeled residues support the conclusion that the glycine receptor M2 domain responds with distinct conformational changes to activation by different agonists.

  6. Osmotic control of glycine betaine biosynthesis and degradation in Rhizobium meliloti

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.T.; Pocard, J.A.; Bernard, T.; Le Rudulier, D.

    1988-07-01

    Intracellular accumulation of glycine betaine has been shown to confer an enhanced level of osmotic stress tolerance in Rhizobium meliloti. In this study, the authors used a physiological approach to investigate the mechanism by which glycine betaine is accumulated in osmotically stressed R. meliloti. Results from growth experiments, /sup 14/C labeling of intermediates, and enzyme activity assays are presented. The results provide evidence for the pathway of biosynthesis and degradation of glycine betaine and the osmotic effects on this pathway. High osmolarity in the medium decreased the activities of the enzymes involved in the degradation of glycine betaine but not those of enzymes that lead to its biosynthesis from choline. Thus, the concentration of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine is increased in stressed cells. This report demonstrates the ability of the osmolarity of the growth medium to regulate the use of glycine betaine as a carbon and nitrogen source or as an osmoprotectant. The mechanisms of osmoregulation in R. meliloti and Escherichia coli are compared.

  7. Interactions of Heterodera glycines, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Mycorrhizal Fungi on Soybean in Kansas.

    PubMed

    Winkler, H E; Hetrick, B A; Todd, T C

    1994-12-01

    The impact of naturally occurring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on soybean growth and their interaction with Heterodera glycines were evaluated in nematode-infested and uninfested fields in Kansas. Ten soybean cultivars from Maturity Groups III-V with differential susceptibility to H. glycines were treated with the fungicide benomyl to suppress colonization by naturally occurring mycorrhizal fungi and compared with untreated control plots. In H. glycines-infested soil, susceptible cultivars exhibited 39% lower yields, 28% lower colonization by mycorrhizal fungi, and an eightfold increase in colonization by the charcoal rot fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina, compared with resistant cultivars. In the absence of the nematode, susceptible cultivars exhibited 10% lower yields than resistant cultivars, root colonization of resistant vs. susceptible soybean by mycorrhizal fungi varied with sampling date, and there were no differences in colonization by M. phaseolina between resistant and susceptible cultivars. Benomyl application resulted in 19% greater root growth and 9% higher seed yields in H. glycines-infested soil, but did not affect soybean growth and yield in the absence of the nematode. Colonization of soybean roots by mycorrhizal fungi was negatively correlated with H. glycines population densities due to nematode antagonism to the mycorrhizal fungi rather than suppression of nematode populations. Soybean yields were a function of the pathogenic effects of H. glycines and M. phaseolina, and, to a lesser degree, the stimulatory effects of mycorrhizal fungi.

  8. Interactions of Heterodera glycines, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Mycorrhizal Fungi on Soybean in Kansas

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, H. E.; Hetrick, B. A. D.; Todd, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    The impact of naturally occurring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on soybean growth and their interaction with Heterodera glycines were evaluated in nematode-infested and uninfested fields in Kansas. Ten soybean cultivars from Maturity Groups III-V with differential susceptibility to H. glycines were treated with the fungicide benomyl to suppress colonization by naturally occurring mycorrhizal fungi and compared with untreated control plots. In H. glycines-infested soil, susceptible cultivars exhibited 39% lower yields, 28% lower colonization by mycorrhizal fungi, and an eightfold increase in colonization by the charcoal rot fungus, Macrophomina phaseolina, compared with resistant cultivars. In the absence of the nematode, susceptible cultivars exhibited 10% lower yields than resistant cultivars, root colonization of resistant vs. susceptible soybean by mycorrhizal fungi varied with sampling date, and there were no differences in colonization by M. phaseolina between resistant and susceptible cultivars. Benomyl application resulted in 19% greater root growth and 9% higher seed yields in H. glycines-infested soil, but did not affect soybean growth and yield in the absence of the nematode. Colonization of soybean roots by mycorrhizal fungi was negatively correlated with H. glycines population densities due to nematode antagonism to the mycorrhizal fungi rather than suppression of nematode populations. Soybean yields were a function of the pathogenic effects of H. glycines and M. phaseolina, and, to a lesser degree, the stimulatory effects of mycorrhizal fungi. PMID:19279947

  9. Effects of glycine supplementation on myocardial damage and cardiac function after severe burn.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Lv, Shang-jun; Yan, Hong; Wang, Lin; Liang, Guang-ping; Wan, Qian-xue; Peng, Xi

    2013-06-01

    Glycine has been shown to participate in protection from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. However, the cardioprotective effect of glycine after burn remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the protective effect of glycine on myocardial damage in severely burned rats. Seventy-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal controls (C), burned controls (B), and glycine-treated (G). Groups B and G were given a 30% total body surface area full-thickness burn. Group G was administered 1.5 g/(kg d) glycine and group B was given the same dose of alanine via intragastric administration for 3d. Serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate transaminase (AST), and blood lactate, as well as myocardial ATP and glutathione (GSH) content, were measured. Cardiac contractile function and histopathological changes were analyzed at 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Serum CK, LDH, AST, and blood lactate increased, while myocardial ATP and GSH content decreased in both burned groups. Compared with group B, the levels of CK, LDH, and AST significantly decreased, whereas blood lactate as well as myocardial ATP and GSH content increased in group G. Moreover, cardiac contractile function inhibition and myocardial histopathological damage in group G significantly decreased compared with group B. Myocardial histological structure and function were damaged significantly after burn. Glycine is beneficial to myocardial preservation by improving cardiomyocyte energy metabolism and increasing ATP and GSH abundance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Osmotic control of glycine betaine biosynthesis and degradation in Rhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, L T; Pocard, J A; Bernard, T; Le Rudulier, D

    1988-01-01

    Intracellular accumulation of glycine betaine has been shown to confer an enhanced level of osmotic stress tolerance in Rhizobium meliloti. In this study, we used a physiological approach to investigate the mechanism by which glycine betaine is accumulated in osmotically stressed R. meliloti. Results from growth experiments, 14C labeling of intermediates, and enzyme activity assays are presented. The results provide evidence for the pathway of biosynthesis and degradation of glycine betaine and the osmotic effects on this pathway. High osmolarity in the medium decreased the activities of the enzymes involved in the degradation of glycine betaine but not those of enzymes that lead to its biosynthesis from choline. Thus, the concentration of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine is increased in stressed cells. This report demonstrates the ability of the osmolarity of the growth medium to regulate the use of glycine betaine as a carbon and nitrogen source or as an osmoprotectant. The mechanisms of osmoregulation in R. meliloti and Escherichia coli are compared. PMID:3290197

  11. Glycine-mediated changes of onset reliability at a mammalian central synapse.

    PubMed

    Kopp-Scheinpflug, C; Dehmel, S; Tolnai, S; Dietz, B; Milenkovic, I; Rübsamen, R

    2008-11-19

    Glycine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter activating a chloride conductance in the mammalian CNS. In vitro studies from brain slices revealed a novel presynaptic site of glycine action in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) which increases the release of the excitatory transmitter glutamate from the calyx of Held. Here, we investigate the action of glycine on action potential firing of single MNTB neurons from the gerbil under acoustic stimulation in vivo. Iontophoretic application of the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine caused a significant decrease in spontaneous and sound-evoked firing rates throughout the neurons' excitatory response areas, with the largest changes at the respective characteristic frequency (CF). The decreased firing rate was accompanied by longer and more variable onset latencies of sound-evoked responses. Outside the neurons' excitatory response areas, firing rates increased during the application of strychnine due to a reduction of inhibitory sidebands, causing a broadening of frequency tuning. These results indicate that glycine enhances the efficacy for on-CF stimuli, while simultaneously suppressing synaptic transmission for off-CF stimuli. These in vivo results provide evidence of multiple excitatory and inhibitory glycine effects on the same neuronal population in the mature mammalian CNS.

  12. Glycine transport by intestinal brush border vesicles of the amphibian Discoglossus pictus.

    PubMed

    Saidane, D; Boge, G; Tritar, B; Peres, G

    1991-01-01

    1. In order to determine the different components of glycine uptake by the intestine of the frog, Discoglossus pictus, we have used brush border membrane vesicles isolated by a classical precipitation technique. 2. Enzymatic tests showed that a good purification was obtained. The concentration ratio of alkaline phosphatase was 14.8. 3. Glycine entry in vesicles as a function of time, in presence or absence of sodium, indicated an overshoot which decreased when incubation time was prolonged. The overshoot was dependent on the presence of sodium. 4. The nature of the anion associated to sodium had little effect on glycine uptake. Nevertheless, chloride and thiocyanate appeared more efficient than glutarate. 5. The effect of transmembrane potential was studied by using valinomycin associated with a potassium gradient. The addition of this substance stimulated glycine transport by 43%. 6. The transport at different glycine concentrations showed two components: one non-saturable with weak affinity and the other saturable with strong affinity (Kt = 0.338 mM). 7. In conclusion, glycine transport by the brush border of D. pictus intestine presents a saturable component depending on sodium and on transmembrane electrical potential.

  13. Characterisation of L-alanine and glycine absorption across the gut of an ancient vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Glover, Chris N; Bucking, Carol; Wood, Chris M

    2011-08-01

    This study utilised an in vitro technique to characterise absorption of two amino acids across the intestinal epithelium of Pacific hagfish, Eptatretus stoutii. Uptake of L-alanine and glycine conformed to Michaelis-Menten kinetics. An uptake affinity (K(m); substrate concentration required to attain a 50% uptake saturation) of 7.0 mM and an uptake capacity (J (max)) of 83 nmol cm(-2) h(-1) were described for L-alanine. The K(m) and J(max) for glycine were 2.2 mM and 11.9 nmol cm(-2) h(-1), respectively. Evidence suggested that the pathways of L-alanine and glycine absorption were shared, and sodium dependent. Further analysis indicated that glycine uptake was independent of luminal pH and proline, but a component of uptake was significantly impaired by 100-fold excesses of threonine or asparagine. The presence of a short-term (24 h) exposure to waterborne glycine, similar in nature to that which may be expected to occur when feeding inside an animal carcass, had no significant impact on gastrointestinal glycine uptake. This may indicate a lack of cross talk between absorptive epithelia. These results are the first published data to describe gastrointestinal uptake of an organic nutrient in the oldest extant vertebrate and may provide potential insight into the evolution of nutrient transport systems.

  14. Environmental stress causes oxidative damage to plant mitochondria leading to inhibition of glycine decarboxylase.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Nicolas L; Day, David A; Millar, A Harvey

    2002-11-08

    A cytotoxic product of lipid peroxidation, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), rapidly inhibited glycine, malate/pyruvate, and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent O2 consumption by pea leaf mitochondria. Dose- and time-dependence of inhibition showed that glycine oxidation was the most severely affected with a K(0.5) of 30 microm. Several mitochondrial proteins containing lipoic acid moieties differentially lost their reactivity to a lipoic acid antibody following HNE treatment. The most dramatic loss of antigenicity was seen with the 17-kDa glycine decarboxylase complex (GDC) H-protein, which was correlated with the loss of glycine-dependent O2 consumption. Paraquat treatment of pea seedlings induced lipid peroxidation, which resulted in the rapid loss of glycine-dependent respiration and loss of H-protein reactivity with lipoic acid antibodies. Pea plants exposed to chilling and water deficit responded similarly. In contrast, the damage to other lipoic acid-containing mitochondrial enzymes was minor under these conditions. The implication of the acute sensitivity of glycine decarboxylase complex H-protein to lipid peroxidation products is discussed in the context of photorespiration and potential repair mechanisms in plant mitochondria.

  15. Glycine decarboxylase deficiency causes neural tube defects and features of non-ketotic hyperglycinemia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pai, Yun Jin; Leung, Kit-Yi; Savery, Dawn; Hutchin, Tim; Prunty, Helen; Heales, Simon; Brosnan, Margaret E.; Brosnan, John T.; Copp, Andrew J.; Greene, Nicholas D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Glycine decarboxylase (GLDC) acts in the glycine cleavage system to decarboxylate glycine and transfer a one-carbon unit into folate one-carbon metabolism. GLDC mutations cause a rare recessive disease non-ketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH). Mutations have also been identified in patients with neural tube defects (NTDs); however, the relationship between NKH and NTDs is unclear. We show that reduced expression of Gldc in mice suppresses glycine cleavage system activity and causes two distinct disease phenotypes. Mutant embryos develop partially penetrant NTDs while surviving mice exhibit post-natal features of NKH including glycine accumulation, early lethality and hydrocephalus. In addition to elevated glycine, Gldc disruption also results in abnormal tissue folate profiles, with depletion of one-carbon-carrying folates, as well as growth retardation and reduced cellular proliferation. Formate treatment normalizes the folate profile, restores embryonic growth and prevents NTDs, suggesting that Gldc deficiency causes NTDs through limiting supply of one-carbon units from mitochondrial folate metabolism. PMID:25736695

  16. Allosteric modulation of glycine receptors is more efficacious for partial rather than full agonists.

    PubMed

    Bíró, Tímea; Maksay, Gábor

    2004-06-01

    Allosteric modulation of [3H]strychnine binding to glycine receptors (GlyRs) was examined in synaptosomal membranes of rat spinal cord. An allosteric model enabled us to determine the cooperativity factors of the allosteric agents with [3H]strychnine and glycine bindings (alpha and beta, respectively). We modified the allosteric model with a slope factor because the slope values of the displacement curves of partial agonists (beta-alanine, taurine and gamma-aminobutyric acid) were beyond unity. The slope factor was reduced only by 100 microM propofol. Further, propofol showed positive cooperativity (beta < 1) stronger with taurine than with glycine. The extent of the positive cooperativity of propofol was nearly independent from the potencies and structures of partial agonists. The steroidal alphaxalone and minaxolone also potentiated taurine better than glycine. Alphaxalone exerted weak negative cooperativity with [3H]strychnine binding. Displacement by taurine is attenuated by granisetron and m-chlorophenylbiguanide representing negative cooperativity (beta > 1) greater than with glycine. The results suggest a developmental role of elevated perinatal levels of taurine and neurosteroids as well as a better allosteric modulation of decreased agonist efficacies for impaired glycine receptor-ionophores.

  17. Identification and characterization of barley mutants lacking glycine decarboxylase and carboxyl esterase activities

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, R.; Lewis, K.; Lea, P. )

    1990-05-01

    A barley mutant has been isolated, from a selection of fifty air-sensitive seed-lines, using a standard gel stain technique which lacks carboxyl esterase activity, but has normal levels of carbonic anhydrase. In addition, two barley mutants lacking the ability to convert glycine to serine in the mitochondria, have been characterized. Both plants accumulate glycine in air and are unable to metabolize ({sup 14}C)glycine in the short-term. When ({sup 14}C)glycine was supplied over 2h LaPr 85/55 metabolized 90%, whereas the second mutant (LaPr 87/30) metabolized 10%. Results indicate that the mutation in LaPr 85/55 is almost certainly in the glycine transporter into the mitochondrion. The mutation in LaPr 87/30 has been shown, using western blotting, to be in both the P and H proteins, two of four proteins which comprise glycine decarboxylase (P, H, T and L).

  18. Ab initio investigation of the first hydration shell of protonated glycine

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Zhichao; Chen, Dong E-mail: boliu@henu.edu.cn; Zhao, Huiling; Li, Yinli; Zhu, Jichun; Liu, Bo E-mail: boliu@henu.edu.cn

    2014-02-28

    The first hydration shell of the protonated glycine is built up using Monte Carlo multiple minimum conformational search analysis with the MMFFs force field. The potential energy surfaces of the protonated glycine and its hydration complexes with up to eight water molecules have been scanned and the energy-minimized structures are predicted using the ab initio calculations. First, three favorable structures of protonated glycine were determined, and the micro-hydration processes showed that water can significantly stabilize the unstable conformers, and then their first hydration shells were established. Finally, we found that seven water molecules are required to fully hydrate the first hydration shell for the most stable conformer of protonated glycine. In order to analyse the hydration process, the dominant hydration sites located around the ammonium and carboxyl groups are studied carefully and systemically. The results indicate that, water molecules hydrate the protonated glycine in an alternative dynamic hydration process which is driven by the competition between different hydration sites. The first three water molecules are strongly attached by the ammonium group, while only the fourth water molecule is attached by the carboxyl group in the ultimate first hydration shell of the protonated glycine. In addition, the first hydration shell model has predicted most identical structures and a reasonable accord in hydration energy and vibrational frequencies of the most stable conformer with the conductor-like polarizable continuum model.

  19. Viability of Heterodera glycines Exposed to Fungal Filtrates

    PubMed Central

    Chen, S. Y.; Dickson, D. W.; Mitchell, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Filtrates from nematode-parasitic fungi have been reported to be toxic to plant-parasitic nematodes. Our objective was to determine the effects of fungal filtrates on second-stage juveniles and eggs of Heterodera glycines. Eleven fungal species that were isolated from cysts extracted from a soybean field in Florida were tested on J2, and five species were tested on eggs in vitro. Each fungal species was grown in Czapek-Dox broth and malt extract broth. No toxic activity was observed for fungi grown in Czapek-Dox broth. Filtrates from Paecilomyces lilacinus, Stagonospora heteroderae, Neocosmospora vasinfecta, and Fusarium solani grown in malt extract broth were toxic to J2, whereas filtrates from Exophiala pisciphila, Fusarium oxysporum, Gliocladium catenulatum, Pyrenochaeta terrestris, Verticillium chlamydosporium, and sterile fungi 1 and 2 were not toxic to J2. Filtrates of P. lilacinus, S. heteroderae, and N. vasinfecta grown in malt extract broth reduced egg viability, whereas F. oxysporum and P. terrestris filtrates had no effect on egg viability. PMID:19270965

  20. Orientation of glycine on silver nanoparticles: SERS studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parameswari, A.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin

    2016-05-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies of glycine (Gly) adsorbed on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was investigated by experimental and density functional theory approach. The AgNPs were prepared and characterized. The molecular structure of the Gly and Gly adsorbed on silver cluster were optimized by the DFT/B3PW91 method with LanL2DZ basis set. The calculated and observed vibrational frequencies were assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation. The perpendicular orientation of Gly on the silver surface was predicted from the enhanced Raman signal correspond to the C=O and C-H stretching vibrational modes. The frontier molecular orbitals analysis and molecular electrostatic potential calculation were carried out. The reduced band gap value was obtained for Gly adsorbed on silver nanoparticles, which paves the way for designing the bio molecular devices. The first order hyperpolarizability value for Ag-Gly is 461 times greater than the urea. Thus, Ag-Gly is a promising candidate for NLO materials.

  1. Ethylene directly inhibits foliar gas exchange in Glycine max

    SciTech Connect

    Gunderson, C.A.; Taylor, G.E. Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    Gas exchange of individual attached leaves of soybean, Glycine max (L,) Merr cv Davis, was monitored during exposure to exogenous ethylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) to test the hypothesis that the effects of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} on net photosynthesis (P{sub n}) and stomatal conductance to H{sub 2}O{sub 4} vapor (g{sub s}) are direct and not mediated by changes in leaf orientation to light. Leaflets were held perpendicular to incident light in a temperature-controlled cuvette throughout a 5.5 hour exposure to 10 microliters per liter C{sub 2}H{sub 4}. Declines in both P{sub N} and g{sub s} were evident within 2 hours and became more pronounced throughout the exposure period. In C{sub 2}H{sub 4} treated plants, P{sub N} and g{sub s} decreased to 80 and 62%, respectively, of the rates in control plants. Because epinastic movement of the leaflets was prohibited by the cuvette, the observed declines in P{sub N} and g{sub s} were a direct effect of C{sub 2}H{sub 4} rather than the result of reduced light interception caused by changing leaf angle.

  2. Pharmacological screening of glycine amino acid prodrug of acetaminophen

    PubMed Central

    Parashar, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop an amino acid prodrug of acetaminophen with comparable therapeutic profile and less hepatotoxicity than acetaminophen. Materials and Methods: Acetaminophen prodrug was synthesized by esterification between the carboxyl group of amino acid glycine and hydroxyl group of acetaminophen. Analgesic, antipyretic, ulcer healing, and hepatotoxic activities were performed on Wistar rats in this study. Results: Prodrug showed a 44% inhibition in writhings as compared to 53.3% of acetaminophen. Acetaminophen also offered highest antipyretic activity. Prodrug showed gastroprotective and hepatoprotective effects as it reduced the gastric lesions by 32.1% (P < 0.01) and significantly prevented the rise in liver enzymes (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and bilirubin). The most notable effect of prodrug was in preventing the depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH), which is reduced by acetaminophen. Conclusion: Prodrug showed hepatoprotective and gastroprotective effects, although the therapeutic efficacy was compromised. Prodrug was successful in preventing a decrease in GSH, thereby exhibiting promising results in the field of prodrug designing to avoid the toxic effects of acetaminophen. PMID:25878383

  3. Metabolic and Transcriptional Reprogramming in Developing Soybean (Glycine max) Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Collakova, Eva; Aghamirzaie, Delasa; Fang, Yihui; Klumas, Curtis; Tabataba, Farzaneh; Kakumanu, Akshay; Myers, Elijah; Heath, Lenwood S.; Grene, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) seeds are an important source of seed storage compounds, including protein, oil, and sugar used for food, feed, chemical, and biofuel production. We assessed detailed temporal transcriptional and metabolic changes in developing soybean embryos to gain a systems biology view of developmental and metabolic changes and to identify potential targets for metabolic engineering. Two major developmental and metabolic transitions were captured enabling identification of potential metabolic engineering targets specific to seed filling and to desiccation. The first transition involved a switch between different types of metabolism in dividing and elongating cells. The second transition involved the onset of maturation and desiccation tolerance during seed filling and a switch from photoheterotrophic to heterotrophic metabolism. Clustering analyses of metabolite and transcript data revealed clusters of functionally related metabolites and transcripts active in these different developmental and metabolic programs. The gene clusters provide a resource to generate predictions about the associations and interactions of unknown regulators with their targets based on “guilt-by-association” relationships. The inferred regulators also represent potential targets for future metabolic engineering of relevant pathways and steps in central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in soybean embryos and drought and desiccation tolerance in plants. PMID:24957996

  4. Transformation from γ to α modification in glycine crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tylczyński, Zbigniew; Busz, Piotr

    2014-11-01

    In glycine crystal the transformation from γ to α modification has been investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and low-frequency dielectric spectroscopy methods on powder and monocrystalline samples. In monocrystalline samples the transition begins at 457.5 K. The first step is connected with cracking of the sample and growing of the ac conductivity which reaches maximum at 458.5 K. Next, ac conductivity achieves a huge maximum at the transition point 462.8 K. Additional small anomaly in the complex dielectric constant was revealed at 335 K. In powder samples this transformation measured by the DSC method goes uniformly. For these samples the ac conductivity begins to grow rapidly from 455 K and grows 2.5 times in the range of 383-387 K. In powder samples the ac conductivity at the transition point is seven times greater than in the monocrystalline samples. Conductivity anomalies are accompanied by changes in the real part of the dielectric constant.

  5. Cellular Transport and Membrane Dynamics of the Glycine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Dumoulin, Andrea; Triller, Antoine; Kneussel, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Regulation of synaptic transmission is essential to tune individual-to-network neuronal activity. One way to modulate synaptic strength is to regulate neurotransmitter receptor numbers at postsynaptic sites. This can be achieved either through plasma membrane insertion of receptors derived from intracellular vesicle pools, a process depending on active cytoskeleton transport, or through surface membrane removal via endocytosis. In parallel, lateral diffusion events along the plasma membrane allow the exchange of receptor molecules between synaptic and extrasynaptic compartments, contributing to synaptic strength regulation. In recent years, results obtained from several groups studying glycine receptor (GlyR) trafficking and dynamics shed light on the regulation of synaptic GlyR density. Here, we review (i) proteins and mechanisms involved in GlyR cytoskeletal transport, (ii) the diffusion dynamics of GlyR and of its scaffolding protein gephyrin that control receptor numbers, and its relationship with synaptic plasticity, and (iii) adaptative changes in GlyR diffusion in response to global activity modifications, as a homeostatic mechanism. PMID:20161805

  6. Proline and Glycine Betaine Influence Protein Solvation 1

    PubMed Central

    Paleg, Leslie G.; Stewart, George R.; Bradbeer, Joseph W.

    1984-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase from barley (Hordeum distichum L.) is precipitated by polyethylene glycol (PEG). Proline, in a concentration-dependent manner, reduces the amount of enzyme precipitated by PEG, although the effect of the imino acid can be counteracted by raising the level of PEG. The effect of PEG is a function of mer number and concentration and the influence of both elements can be ameliorated by proline. PEG-induced enzyme precipitation is a function of pH, as is its interaction with both proline and betaine in the reaction. The lack of effect of amount of enzyme on the proline and PEG effects supports the conclusion that, in this system, proline and PEG do not function through interaction with the protein. Other compounds, such as glycine, glucose, and sucrose, can decrease the PEG-induced precipitation of the enzyme, although glycerol was not active under the conditions employed. The results are consistent with the proposition that a protein-containing system in which high concentrations of proline and/or betaine are present, is better `protected' against the biologically unfavorable consequences of dehydration-induced thermodynamic perturbation. PMID:16663771

  7. Identification of microRNAs in wild soybean (Glycine soja).

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Hu, Zheng; Zhang, Hui

    2009-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in post-transcriptional gene silencing by directing target mRNA cleavage or translational inhibition. Currently, hundreds of miRNAs have been identified in plants, but no report has been published of wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb). We constructed a small-RNA library consisting of 2 880 sequences with high quality, in which 1 347 were 19-24 nt in length. By utilizing the miRNA, Rfam and domesticated soybean expressed sequence tag database, we have analyzed and predicted the secondary structure of these small RNAs. As a result, 15 conserved miRNA candidates belonging to eight different families and nine novel miRNA candidates comprising eight families were identified in wild soybean seedlings. All these miRNA candidates were validated by northern blot and the novel candidates expressed in a tissue-specific manner. Furthermore, putative target genes were predicted for novel miRNA candidates and two of them were verified by 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends experiments. These results provided useful information for miRNA research in wild soybean and plants.

  8. Pharmacological screening of glycine amino acid prodrug of acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Arun

    2015-01-01

    To develop an amino acid prodrug of acetaminophen with comparable therapeutic profile and less hepatotoxicity than acetaminophen. Acetaminophen prodrug was synthesized by esterification between the carboxyl group of amino acid glycine and hydroxyl group of acetaminophen. Analgesic, antipyretic, ulcer healing, and hepatotoxic activities were performed on Wistar rats in this study. Prodrug showed a 44% inhibition in writhings as compared to 53.3% of acetaminophen. Acetaminophen also offered highest antipyretic activity. Prodrug showed gastroprotective and hepatoprotective effects as it reduced the gastric lesions by 32.1% (P < 0.01) and significantly prevented the rise in liver enzymes (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and bilirubin). The most notable effect of prodrug was in preventing the depletion of hepatic glutathione (GSH), which is reduced by acetaminophen. Prodrug showed hepatoprotective and gastroprotective effects, although the therapeutic efficacy was compromised. Prodrug was successful in preventing a decrease in GSH, thereby exhibiting promising results in the field of prodrug designing to avoid the toxic effects of acetaminophen.

  9. Ab initio study of the far infrared spectrum of glycine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senent, M. L.; Villa, M.; Domínguez-Gómez, R.; Fernández-Clavero, A.

    In glycine, four large amplitude vibrations, the three internal rotations of the CC, COH, and CN bonds, and the amine group inversion are responsible for the nonrigidity of the molecule. They present 12 potential energy surface minima corresponding to eight different conformers. The energy levels for the four motions mentioned above and the HNH bending were determined using ab initio calculations and three different flexible models in one, two, and three dimensions. For this purpose, eight different MP4/cc-pVTZ potential energy surfaces, five one-dimensional for each internal coordinate, one two-dimensional potential depending on the amine wagging and bending coordinates, and one three-dimensional potential depending on the three internal rotation coordinates, were calculated. For the most stable conformer, the harmonic frequencies corresponding to the HNH bending, NH2 inversion, and the CC, COH, and CN torsions were calculated at 1677, 955, 65, 657, and 218 cm-1, and the anharmonic fundamental frequencies to be 1454, 803, 78, 522, and 175 cm-1 with the one-dimensional model. The NHN bending and amine wagging fundamentals are determined to be 1688, and 799 with the two-dimensional model. The fundamentals of the CC, COH and CN torsions were calculated to be 86, 546, and 189 cm-1 with the three-dimensional model.

  10. Glycine receptor subunits expression in the developing rat retina.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Chávez, Gustavo; Velázquez-Flores, Miguel Ángel; Ruiz Esparza-Garrido, Ruth; Salceda, Rocío

    2017-09-01

    Glycine receptor (GlyR) consists of two α (1-4) and three β subunits. Considerable evidence indicates that the adult retina expresses the four types of α subunits; however, the proportion of these subunits in adult and immature retina is almost unknown. In this report we have studied mRNA and the protein expression of GlyR subunits in the retina during postnatal rat development by Real-Time qRT-PCR and western blot. mRNA and protein expression indicated a gradual increase of the α1, α3, α4 and β GlyR subunits during postnatal ages tested. The mRNA β subunit showed higher expression levels (∼3 fold) than those observed for the α1 and α3 subunits. Very interestingly, the α2 GlyR subunit had the highest expression in the retina, even in the adult. These results revealed the expression of GlyR at early postnatal ages, supporting its role in retina development. In addition, our results indicated that the adult retina expressed a high proportion of the α2 subunit, suggesting the expression of monomeric and/or heteromeric receptors. A variety of studies are needed to further characterize the role of the specific subunits in both adult and immature retina. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microinjection of glycine into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus produces diuresis, natriuresis, and inhibition of central sympathetic outflow.

    PubMed

    Krowicki, Zbigniew K; Kapusta, Daniel R

    2011-04-01

    Strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors and glycine-immunoreactive fibers are expressed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), yet the functional significance of this innervation is unclear. Therefore, these studies examined the changes in cardiovascular and renal function and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) produced by the microinjection of glycine (5 and 50 nmol) into the PVN of conscious Sprague-Dawley rats. Microinjection of glycine into, but not outside of, the PVN dose-dependently increased urine flow rate and urinary sodium excretion and decreased RSNA. At the higher dose, PVN glycine also decreased heart rate; neither 5 nor 50 nmol PVN glycine altered mean arterial pressure. The glycine (50 nmol)-evoked diuresis and natriuresis were abolished in rats continuously infused intravenously with [Arg(8)]-vasopressin. Furthermore, chronic bilateral renal denervation prevented the bradycardia and diuresis to PVN glycine and blunted the natriuresis. In other studies, unilateral PVN pretreatment with the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine (1.6 nmol) prevented the effects of PVN glycine (50 nmol) on heart rate, RSNA, and renal excretory function. When microinjected bilaterally, PVN strychnine (1.6 nmol per site) evoked a significant increase in heart rate and RSNA without altering renal excretory function. These findings demonstrate that in conscious rats glycine acts in the PVN to enhance the renal excretion of water and sodium and decrease central sympathetic outflow to the heart and kidneys. Although endogenous PVN glycine inputs elicit a tonic control of heart rate and RSNA, the renal excretory responses to PVN glycine seem to be caused primarily by the inhibition of arginine vasopressin secretion.

  12. Whole cell and single channel analysis of the kinetics of glycine-sensitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor desensitization.

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, C. G.; Zong, X.; Lux, H. D.

    1993-01-01

    1. The kinetics of glycine-sensitive, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor desensitization were investigated in cultured neurones with the patch clamp technique. 2. The degree of fast NMDA-receptor desensitization was inversely related to glycine concentration. Thus, increasing concentrations of glycine from 30 nM to 2.5 microM potentiated desensitized NMDA responses (873% +/- 101%) to a greater degree than peak responses (260% +/- 27%). 3. The desensitization was due to a decrease in the affinity of glycine for the strychnine-insensitive, glycine modulatory site (glycineB site) following activation of the NMDA-receptor complex. Thus, the A50 for glycine in potentiating peak responses (77 nM, 95% confidence limited 58-104 nM) was five fold lower than that for plateau responses (399 nM, 340-468 nM). 4. The rate of desensitization was related to glycine concentration such that a reciprocal plot of desensitization rate (1/tau S-1) against glycine concentration had a slope of 9.5* 10(6) M-1 S-1. 5. Recovery from desensitization following step increases in glycine or L-alanine concentration in the continuous presence of NMDA (200 microM) reflected the association kinetics of the glycineB agonist used. 6. The rate and degree of NMDA receptor desensitization was independent of holding potential. 7. NMDA receptor desensitization was also evident at the single channel level. 8. The glycineB antagonist 7-chlorokynurenic acid (7-Chl-Kyn 3 and 10 microM) concentration-dependently induced an identical form of desensitization in the presence of 1 microM glycine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8098640

  13. Immunogold labeling shows that glycine-cysteine-rich beta-proteins are deposited in the Oberhäutchen layer of snake epidermis in preparation to shedding.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2015-02-01

    Shedding in snakes is cyclical and derives from the differentiation of an intraepidermal shedding complex made of two different layers, termed clear and Oberhäutchen that determine the separation between the outer from the inner epidermal generation that produces a molt. The present comparative immunocytochemical study on the epidermis and molts of different species of snakes shows that a glycine-cysteine-rich corneous beta-protein in a snake is prevalently accumulated in cells of the Oberhäutchen layer and decreases in those of the beta-layer. The protein is variably distributed in the mature beta-layer of species representing some snake families when the beta-layer merges with the Oberhäutchen but disappears in alpha-layers. Therefore, this protein represents an early marker of the transition between the outer and the inner epidermal generations in the epidermis of snakes in general. It is hypothesized that specific gene activation for glycine-cysteine-rich corneous beta-proteins occurs during the passage from the clear layer of the outer epidermal generation to the Oberhäutchen layer of the replacing inner epidermal generation. It is suggested that in the epidermis of most species glycine-cysteine-rich corneous beta-proteins form part of the dense corneous material that rapidly accumulates in the differentiating Oberhäutchen cells but decreases in the following beta-layer of the inner epidermal generation destined to be separated from the previous outer generation in the process of shedding. The regulation of the synthesis of these and other proteins is, therefore, crucial in timing the different stages of the shedding cycle in lepidosaurian reptiles.

  14. Glycine derived polymerizable cosurfactant in the synthesis of functionalized poly(butyl acrylate) nanolatexes.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, L J Milton; Baskar, Geetha

    2006-04-01

    The approach of employing N-glycinylmaleamic acid (NGMA) as an efficient cosurfactant to provide microemulsion polymerization of butyl acrylate using a weight ratio of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/butyl acrylate (BA) at

  15. Synthesis and crystal structure of benzyl- N-(diphenylmethylene)-glycine ethyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiaolong, Zhao; Wei, Xu; Xudong, Chen; Yongmei, Wang; Jiben, Meng; Shufang, Wang

    2002-05-01

    Optically active α-amino acid was asymmetrically synthesized under soluble polymer-supported quinine by homogeneous phase catalytic reaction. The precursor of L-phenylalanine, Ph2dbnd NCH(CH2Ph)CO2C2H5 (C24H23NO2, Mr=364.38) has been determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystal belongs to monoclinic system with space group P21/c, a=10.4539(10), b=9.8315(10), c=19.8896(19) Å, α=90.00, β=93.661(2), γ=90.00°, V=2040.0(3) Å3,Z=4, Dc=1.164 mg mm-3, μ=0.074 mm-1, F(000)=760. The final R and wR factors are 0.0463 and 0.1239, respectively, with 3610 (Rint=0.0291) independent reflections.

  16. Glycine crystallization in frozen and freeze-dried systems: effect of pH and buffer concentration.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Dushyant B; Kumar, Satyendra; Shalaev, Evgenyi Y; Sundaramurthi, Prakash; Kang, Shin-Woong; Gatlin, Larry A; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2007-03-01

    (1) To determine the effect of solution pH before lyophilization, over the range of 1.5 to 10, on the salt and polymorphic forms of glycine crystallizing in frozen solutions and in lyophiles. (2) To quantify glycine crystallization during freezing and annealing as a function of solution pH before lyophilization. (3) To study the effect of phosphate buffer concentration on the extent of glycine crystallization before and after annealing. Glycine solutions (10% w/v), with initial pH ranging from 1.5 to 10, were cooled to -50 degrees C, and the crystallized glycine phases were identified using a laboratory X-ray source. Over the same pH range, glycine phases in lyophiles obtained from annealed solutions (0.25, 2 and 10% w/v glycine), were characterized by synchrotron X-ray diffractometry (SXRD). In the pH range of 3.0 to 5.9, the extent of glycine crystallization during annealing was monitored by SXRD. Additionally, the effect of phosphate buffer concentration (50 to 200 mM) on the extent of glycine crystallization during freezing, followed by annealing, was determined. In frozen solutions, beta-glycine was detected when the initial solution pH was < or =4. In the lyophiles, in addition to beta- and gamma-glycine, glycine HCl, diglycine HCl, and sodium glycinate were also identified. In the pH range of 3.0 to 5.9, decreasing the pH reduced the extent of glycine crystallization in the frozen solution. When the initial pH was fixed at 7.4, and the buffer concentration was increased from 50 to 200 mM, the extent of glycine crystallization in frozen solutions decreased with an increase in buffer concentration. Both solution pH and solute concentration before lyophilization influenced the salt and polymorphic forms of glycine crystallizing in frozen solutions and in lyophiles. The extent of glycine crystallization in frozen solutions was affected by the initial pH and buffer concentration of solutions. The high sensitivity of SXRD allowed simultaneous detection and

  17. Solid-state IR-LD spectroscopic and theoretical analysis of glycine-containing peptides and their hydrochlorides.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Bojidarka B; Kolev, Tsonko; Zareva, Sonya Y

    2006-08-15

    As part of an investigation on the coordination ability of peptides, structural analyses of the solid di-, tri, and tetrapeptides glycyl-glycine (GG), glycyl-glycyl-glycine (GGG), glycyl-glycyl-glycyl-glycine (GGGG), and their protonated hydrochlorides glycyl-glycine.HCl (GGH), glycyl-glycyl-glycine.HCl (GGGH), and glycyl-glycyl-glycyl-glycine.HCl (GGGGH) have been carried out. The quantum chemical calculations (Hartree-Fock/6-31++G**) and linear-dichroic infrared (IR-LD) spectroscopy predict a near to linear structure of the pure ligands, but the experimental IR-LD data are in accordance with a cross-linked disposition of amide fragments in the protonated forms. Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Intracisternal or intrathecal glycine, taurine, or muscimol inhibit bicuculline-induced allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Il-ok; Lim, Eui-sung

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of GABA and glycine on analgesia in the central nervous system. Methods: Glycine, taurine, or muscimol was injected with bicuculline into the cistern magna or the lumbar subarachnoidal space in ICR mice. The effects on bicuculline-induced allodynia in a touch-evoked agitation test and on pain threshold index in a hot-plate test were assessed. Results: The dosages of the amino acids administered with bicuculline had no effect on motor behavior in conscious mice. Glycine or muscimol reduced bicuculline-induced allodynia regardless of the administration site, whereas intrathecal taurine reduced bicuculline-induced allodynia. Glycine, taurine, and muscimol all antagonized the effects induced by bicuculline in the hot-plate test, regardless of the administration site. Conclusion: Glycine, taurine, and muscimol were found to have anti-allodynic and anti-thermal hyperalgesic properties in vivo. These observations suggest an interaction between glycine and GABA receptors during the regulation of antinociception. PMID:20686515

  19. Chemical evolution of biomolecule building blocks. Can thermodynamics explain the accumulation of glycine in the prebiotic ocean?

    PubMed

    Szori, Milán; Jójárt, Balázs; Izsák, Róbert; Szori, Kornél; Csizmadia, Imre G; Viskolcz, Béla

    2011-04-28

    It has always been a question of considerable scientific interest why amino acids (and other biomolecule building blocks) formed and accumulated in the prebiotic ocean. In this study, we suggest an answer to this question for the simplest amino acid, glycine. We have shown for the first time that classical equilibrium thermodynamics can explain the most likely selection of glycine (and the derivative of its dipeptide) in aqueous media, although glycine is not the lowest free energy structure among all (404) possible constitutional isomers. Species preceding glycine in the free energy order are either supramolecular complexes of small molecules or such molecules likely to dissociate and thus get back to the gas phase. Then, 2-hydroxyacetamide condensates yielding a thermodynamically favored derivative of glycine dipeptide providing an alternative way for peptide formation. It is remarkable that a simple equilibrium thermodynamic model can explain the accumulation of glycine and provide a reason for the importance of water in the formation process.

  20. Interactions between glycine and amorphous solid water nanoscale films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzvetkov, George; Koller, Georg; Netzer, Falko P.

    2012-12-01

    The interactions of glycine (Gly) with amorphous solid water (ASW) nanolayers (≤ 100 ML), vapor-deposited on single crystalline AlOx surfaces at 100 K, have been investigated by near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS) at the oxygen K-edge, temperature-programmed thermal desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and temperature-dependent work function measurements. Gly-on-ASW, ASW-on-Gly, and Gly on top of ASW-on-Gly ultrathin films have been fabricated. In contrast to the uniform ASW films grown directly on the hydrophilic AlOx, water molecules adsorb on the hydrophobic Gly films in the form of 3D ASW clusters. This leads to significant differences in the NEXAFS and work function data obtained from ASW-on-AlOx and ASW-on-Gly films, respectively. Furthermore, these structural differences influence the chemical state of Gly molecules (neutral vs. zwitterionic) adsorbed on top of ASW films. N1s XPS measurements revealed an increased amount of neutral Gly molecules in the film top-deposited on the ASW-on-Gly structure in comparison to the neutral Gly in the films directly condensed on AlOx or grown on the ASW substrate. H2O TPD spectra demonstrate that the crystallization and desorption processes of ASW are affected in a different way by the Gly layers, top-deposited on to ASW-on-AlOx and ASW-on-Gly films. At the same time, Gly adlayers sink into the ASW film during crystallization/desorption of the latter and land softly on the alumina surface in the form of zwitterionic clusters.

  1. Zinc glycine chelate absorption characteristics in Sprague Dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Yue, M; Fang, S L; Zhuo, Z; Li, D D; Feng, J

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate absorption characteristics of zinc glycine chelate (Zn-Gly) by evaluating tissues zinc status and the expression of zinc transporters in rats. A total of 24 male rats were randomly allocated to three treatments and administered either saline or 35 mg Zn/kg body weight from zinc sulphate (ZnSO4 ) or Zn-Gly by feeding tube separately. Four rats per group were slaughtered and tissues were collected at 2 and 6 h after gavage respectively. Our data showed that Zn-Gly did more effectively in increasing (p < 0.05) serum zinc levels, and the activities of serum and liver alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and liver Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) at 2 and 6 h. By 2 h after the zinc load, the mRNA and protein abundance of intestinal metallothionein1 (MT1) and zinc transporter SLC30A1 (ZnT1) were higher (p < 0.05), and zinc transporter SLC39A4 (Zip4) lower (p < 0.05) in ZnSO4 compared to other groups. Zinc transporter SLC39A5 (Zip5) mRNA expression was not zinc responsive, but Zip5 protein abundance was remarkably (p < 0.05) increased in ZnSO4 2 h later. Overall, our results indicated that in short-term periods, Zn-Gly was more effective in improving body zinc status than ZnSO4 , and ZnSO4 did more efficiently on the regulation of zinc transporters in small intestine. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Selection of Heterodera glycines chorismate mutase-1 alleles on nematode-resistant soybean.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Kris N; Bekal, Sadia; Domier, Leslie L; Niblack, Terry L; Noel, Gregory R; Smyth, Charles A

    2005-06-01

    The soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines is the most destructive pathogen of soybean in the Unites States. Diversity in the parasitic ability of the nematode allows it to reproduce on nematode-resistant soybean. H. glycines chorismate mutase-1 (Hg-CM-1) is a nematode enzyme with the potential to suppress host plant defense compounds; therefore, it has the potential to enhance the parasitic ability of nematodes expressing the gene. Hg-cm-1 is a member of a gene family where two alleles, Hg-cm-1A and Hg-cm-1B, have been identified. Analysis of the Hg-cm-1 gene copy number revealed that there are multiple copies of Hg-cm-1 alleles in the H. glycines genome. H. glycines inbred lines were crossed to ultimately generate three F2 populations of second-stage juveniles (J2s) segregating for Hg-cm-1A and Hg-cm-1B. Segregation of Hg-cm-1A and 1B approximated a 1:2:1 ratio, which suggested that Hg-cm-1 is organized in a cluster of genes that segregate roughly as a single locus. The F2 H. glycines J2 populations were used to infect nematode-resistant (Hartwig, PI88788, and PI90763) and susceptible (Lee 74) soybean plants. H. glycines grown on Hartwig, Lee 74, and PI90763 showed allelic frequencies similar to Hg-cm-1A/B, but nematodes grown on PI88788 contained predominately Hg-cm-1A allele as a result of a statistically significant drop of Hg-cm-1B in the population. This result suggests that specific Hg-cm-1 alleles, or a closely linked gene, may aid H. glycines in adapting to particular soybean hosts.

  3. Glycine-activated currents are changed by coincident membrane depolarization in developing rat auditory brainstem neurones

    PubMed Central

    Backus, Kurt H; Deitmer, Joachim W; Friauf, Eckhard

    1998-01-01

    During early ontogeny, glycine receptors (GlyRs) exert depolarizing responses which may be of developmental relevance. We have used the gramicidin-perforated patch technique to elucidate the mechanism of glycine-activated currents in developing neurones of the rat lateral superior olive (LSO). When the holding potential was set to −60 mV, perforated-patch recordings revealed glycine-induced inward currents in 59%, outward currents in 5% and biphasic currents in 34% of the LSO neurones tested (n = 44). The biphasic currents were characterized by a transient outward phase which was followed by an inward phase. Ion substitution experiments showed that both Cl− and HCO3− contributed to the glycine- induced biphasic current responses. In the biphasic responses, the reversal potential of the glycine-induced current (Egly) depended on the response phase. A strong shift of Egly from a mean of −72 mV during the outward phase of the glycine response to a mean of −51 mV during the inward phase was observed, suggesting a shift of an ion gradient. When the membrane potential was depolarized, ‘tail’ currents were induced in the presence of glycine. An increased duration or amplitude of the evoked depolarizations resulted in a proportional enlargement of these tail currents, indicating that they were produced by a shift of an ion gradient. Since changes of the HCO3− gradient are negligible, because of the carbonic anhydrase activity, we suggest that these tail currents were caused by a shift of the Cl− gradient. We conclude that Cl− accumulates intracellularly during the activation of GlyRs and, consequently, Egly moves towards more positive values. Coincident depolarizing stimuli enhanced intracellular Cl− accumulation and the shift of Egly, thereby switching hyperpolarizing to depolarizing action. This change could assist in an activity-dependent strengthening and refinement of glycinergic synapses during the maturation of inhibitory connectivity. PMID

  4. Vascular endothelial function is improved by oral glycine treatment in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Zamudio, Jaime H; García-Macedo, Rebeca; Lázaro-Suárez, Martha; Ibarra-Barajas, Maximiliano; Kumate, Jesús; Cruz, Miguel

    2015-06-01

    Glycine has been used to reduce oxidative stress and proinflammatory mediators in some metabolic disorders; however, its effect on the vasculature has been poorly studied. The aim of this work was to explore the effect of glycine on endothelial dysfunction in aged rats. Aortic rings with intact or denuded endothelium were obtained from untreated or glycine-treated male Sprague-Dawley rats at 5 and 15 months of age. Concentration-response curves to phenylephrine (PHE) were obtained from aortic rings incubated with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), superoxide dismutase (SOD), indomethacin, SC-560, and NS-398. Aortic mRNA expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX-4), cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin-1 β was measured by real time RT-PCR. The endothelial modulation of the contraction by PHE was decreased in aortic rings from aged rats. Glycine treatment improved this modulator effect and increased relaxation to acetylcholine. Glycine augmented the sensitivity for PHE in the presence of l-NAME and SOD. It also reduced the contraction by incubation with indomethacin, SC-560, and NS-398. Glycine increased the mRNA expression of eNOS and decreased the expression of COX-2 and TNF-α. Glycine improved the endothelium function in aged rats possibly by enhancing eNOS expression and reducing the role of superoxide anion and contractile prostanoids that increase the nitric oxide bioavailability.

  5. Kinetic study of carbon dioxide absorption into glycine promoted diethanolamine (DEA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudjiastuti, Lily; Susianto, Altway, Ali; IC, Maria Hestia; Arsi, Kartika

    2015-12-01

    In industry, especially petrochemical, oil and natural gas industry, required separation process of CO2 gas which is a corrosive gas (acid gas). This characteristic can damage the plant utility and piping systems as well as reducing the caloric value of natural gas. Corrosive characteristic of CO2 will appear in areas where there is a decrease in temperature and pressure, such as at the elbow pipe, tubing, cooler and injector turbine. From disadvantages as described above, then it is important to do separation process in the CO2 gas stream, one of the method for remove CO2 from the gas stream is reactive absorption using alkanolamine based solution with promotor. Therefore, this study is done to determine the kinetics constant of CO2 absorption in diethanolamine (DEA) solution using a glycine promoter. Glycine is chosen as a promoter because glycine is a primary amine compound which is reactive, moreover, glycine has resistance to high temperatures so it will not easy to degradable and suitable for application in industry. The method used in this study is absorption using laboratory scale wetted wall column equipment at atmospheric of pressure. This study will to provide the reaction kinetics data information in order to optimize the separation process of CO2 in the industrialized world. The experimental results show that rising temperatures from 303,15 - 328,15 K and the increase of concentration of glycine from 1% - 3% weight will increase the absorption rate of carbon dioxide in DEA promoted with glycine by 24,2% and 59,764% respectively, also the reaction kinetic constant is 1.419 × 1012 exp (-3634/T) (m3/kmol.s). This result show that the addition of glycine as a promoter can increase absorption rate of carbon dioxide in diethanolamine solution and cover the weaknesses of diethanolamine solution.

  6. Generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from NaCl-treated Glycine soja

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Wei; Li, Yong; Li, Jie; Dai, Cui-hong; Wang, Xi; Bai, Xi; Cai, Hua; Yang, Liang; Zhu, Yan-ming

    2006-01-01

    Background Salinization causes negative effects on plant productivity and poses an increasingly serious threat to the sustainability of agriculture. Wild soybean (Glycine soja) can survive in highly saline conditions, therefore provides an ideal candidate plant system for salt tolerance gene mining. Results As a first step towards the characterization of genes that contribute to combating salinity stress, we constructed a full-length cDNA library of Glycine soja (50109) leaf treated with 150 mM NaCl, using the SMART technology. Random expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing of 2,219 clones produced 2,003 cleaned ESTs for gene expression analysis. The average read length of cleaned ESTs was 454 bp, with an average GC content of 40%. These ESTs were assembled using the PHRAP program to generate 375 contigs and 696 singlets. The resulting unigenes were categorized according to the Gene Ontology (GO) hierarchy. The potential roles of gene products associated with stress related ESTs were discussed. We compared the EST sequences of Glycine soja to that of Glycine max by using the blastn algorithm. Most expressed sequences from wild soybean exhibited similarity with soybean. All our EST data are available on the Internet (GenBank_Accn: DT082443~DT084445). Conclusion The Glycine soja ESTs will be used to mine salt tolerance gene, whose full-length cDNAs will be obtained easily from the full-length cDNA library. Comparison of Glycine soja ESTs with those of Glycine max revealed the potential to investigate the wild soybean's expression profile using the soybean's gene chip. This will provide opportunities to understand the genetic mechanisms underlying stress response of plants. PMID:16504061

  7. Novel expression of a functional glycine receptor chloride channel that attenuates contraction in airway smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Peter D.; Gallos, George; Xu, Dingbang; Zhang, Yi; Emala, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction is an important component of the pathophysiology of asthma. Taurine, an agonist of glycine receptor chloride (GlyR Cl−) channels, was found to relax contracted ASM, which led us to question whether functional GlyR Cl− channels are expressed in ASM. Messenger RNA for β (GLRB), α1 (GLRA1), α2 (GLRA2), and α4 (GLRA4) subunits were found in human (Homo sapiens) and guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) tracheal smooth muscle. Immunoblotting confirmed the protein expression of GLRA1 and GLRB subunits in ASM. Electrical activity of cultured human ASM cells was assessed using a fluorescent potentiometric dye and electrophysiological recordings. Glycine increased current and significantly increased fluorescence in a dose-dependent manner. The GlyR Cl− channel antagonist strychnine significantly blocked the effects of glycine on potentiometric fluorescence in ASM cells. Guinea pig airway ring relaxation of ACh-induced contractions by isoproterenol was significantly left-shifted in the presence of glycine. This effect of glycine was blocked by pretreatment with the GlyR Cl− channel antagonist strychnine. Glycine treatment during tachykinin- and acetylcholine-induced contractions significantly decreased the maintenance of muscle force compared to control. GlyR Cl− channels are expressed on ASM and regulate smooth muscle force and offer a novel target for therapeutic relaxation of ASM.—Yim, P. D., Gallos, G., Xu, D., Zhang, Y., Emala, C. W. Novel expression of a functional glycine receptor chloride channel that attenuates contraction in airway smooth muscle. PMID:21282206

  8. Inhibition of glycine receptor function of native neurons by aliphatic n-alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Liang; Ye, Jiang Hong

    2002-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of n-alcohols (methanol to dodecanol) on glycine-activated currents were studied in neurons freshly dissociated from the ventral tegmental area of neonatal rats using whole-cell patch-clamp recording technique.Ethanol enhanced and depressed glycine-activated currents in 35% and 45%, respectively, of neurons of ventral tegmental area of neonatal rats. In this report, we extended our focus of ethanol-induced inhibition of glycine currents to other straight-chain alcohols.Aliphatic n-alcohols, which have carbon numbers less than nine, suppressed glycine currents in 45% (71/158) of the neurons. All results from this study are obtained from the 45% of cells displaying inhibition; the other 55% of the neurons were not studied.Alcohol potency increased as the number of carbon atoms increased from one to five, and was at a maximal plateau from five to nine; alcohols with 10 or more carbons did not inhibit glycine-activated currents. Thus, a ‘cutoff' point in their potency for inhibition of glycine receptor function occurred at about decanol.A coapplication of dodecanol with ethanol eliminated the inhibition resulting from ethanol. Thus, dodecanol may bind to the receptor silently and compete with ethanol.These observations indicate that straight-chain n-alcohols exhibit a ‘cutoff' point in their potency for inhibition of the glycine receptor function between nine and 10 carbon atoms. The inability of longer alcohols to change the activation properties of the receptors may contribute to the cutoff effect. PMID:12055142

  9. Salicylate, an aspirin metabolite, specifically inhibits the current mediated by glycine receptors containing α1-subunits

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Y-G; Tang, Z-Q; Ye, Z-Y; Wang, H-T; Huang, Y-N; Zhou, K-Q; Zhang, M; Xu, T-L; Chen, L

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Aspirin or its metabolite sodium salicylate is widely prescribed and has many side effects. Previous studies suggest that targeting neuronal receptors/ion channels is one of the pathways by which salicylate causes side effects in the nervous system. The present study aimed to investigate the functional action of salicylate on glycine receptors at a molecular level. Experimental approach: Whole-cell patch-clamp and site-directed mutagenesis were deployed to examine the effects of salicylate on the currents mediated by native glycine receptors in cultured neurones of rat inferior colliculus and by glycine receptors expressed in HEK293T cells. Key results: Salicylate effectively inhibited the maximal current mediated by native glycine receptors without altering the EC50 and the Hill coefficient, demonstrating a non-competitive action of salicylate. Only when applied simultaneously with glycine and extracellularly, could salicylate produce this antagonism. In HEK293T cells transfected with either α1-, α2-, α3-, α1β-, α2β- or α3β-glycine receptors, salicylate only inhibited the current mediated by those receptors that contained the α1-subunit. A single site mutation of I240V in the α1-subunit abolished inhibition by salicylate. Conclusions and implications: Salicylate is a non-competitive antagonist specifically on glycine receptors containing α1-subunits. This action critically involves the isoleucine-240 in the first transmembrane segment of the α1-subunit. Our findings may increase our understanding of the receptors involved in the side effects of salicylate on the central nervous system, such as seizures and tinnitus. PMID:19594751

  10. Glycine increases cold tolerance in rice via the regulation of N uptake, physiological characteristics, and photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Xiaochuang, Cao; Chu, Zhong; Lianfeng, Zhu; Junhua, Zhang; Hussain, Sajid; Lianghuan, Wu; Qianyu, Jin

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the response of rice growth and photosynthesis to different nitrogen (N) sources under cold stress, hydroponic cultivation of rice was done in greenhouse, with glycine, ammonium, and nitrate as the sole N sources. The results demonstrate that exposure to low temperature reduced the rice biomass and leaf chlorophyll content, but their values in the glycine-treated plants were significantly higher than in the ammonium- and nitrate-treated plants. This might be attributed to the higher N uptake rate and root area and activity in the glycine-treated plants. The glycine-treated plants also maintained high contents of soluble proteins, soluble sugars, and proline as well as enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities to protect themselves against chilling injury. Under cold stress, reduced stomatal conductance (gs) and effective quantum efficiency of PSII (ΦPSII) significantly inhibited the leaf photosynthesis; however, glycine treatment alleviated these effects compared to the ammonium and nitrate treatments. The high non-photochemical quenching (qN) and excess energy dissipative energy (Ex) in the glycine-treated plants were beneficial for the release of extra energy, thereby, strengthening their photochemical efficiency. We, therefore, conclude that the strengthened cold tolerance of glycine-treated rice plants was closely associated with the higher accumulation of dry matter and photosynthesis through the up-regulation of N-uptake, and increase in the content of osmoprotectants, activities of the antioxidant defense enzymes, and photochemical efficiency. The results of the present study provide new ideas for improving the plant tolerance to extreme temperatures by nutrient resource management in the cold regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Measurement of glycine in the human brain in vivo by 1H-MRS at 3T: Application in brain tumors

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Changho; Ganji, Sandeep K.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Dimitrov, Ivan E.; Pascual, Juan M.; Bachoo, Robert; Mickey, Bruce E.; Malloy, Craig R.; Maher, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Glycine (Gly) is a key metabolic intermediate required for the synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids and other molecules, and its detection in cancer could therefore provide biologically relevant information about the growth of the tumor. Here we report measurement of Gly in human brain and gliomas by an optimized point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence at 3T. Echo time dependence of the major obstacle, myo-inositol (mI) multiplet, was investigated with numerical simulations, incorporating the 3D volume localization. The simulations indicated that a subecho pair (TE1, TE2) = (60, 100) ms permits detection of both Gly and mI with optimum selectivity. In vivo validation of the optimized PRESS was conducted on the right parietal cortex of five healthy volunteers. Metabolite signals estimated from LCModel were normalized with respect to the brain water signal and the concentrations were evaluated assuming the total creatine concentration at 8 mM. The Gly concentration was estimated as 0.6±0.1 mM (mean±SD, n=5), with a mean Cramér-Rao lower bound of 9±1%. The PRESS sequence was applied to measure the Gly levels in patients with glioblastoma multiforme. Metabolite concentrations were obtained using the water signal from the tumor mass. The study revealed that a subset of human gliomas contains glycine levels elevated 1.5–8 fold relative to normal. PMID:21394775

  12. [The isotope effect in the glycine dehydrogenase reaction is the cause of the intramolecular isotope inhomogeneity of glucose carbon of starch synthesized during photorespiration].

    PubMed

    Ivlev, A A

    2005-01-01

    The isotope distribution of glucose-6-phosphate in the main pathways of its biosynthesis (in the processes of CO2 assimilation and photorespiration in the Calvin cycle and during resynthesis from the degradation products of lipids and proteins) was analyzed. For reconstructing the isotope distribution of glucoso-6-phosphate synthesized in the Calvin cycle during photorespiration, the functioning of the cycle with regard to its coupling with the glycolate chain, which together constitute the photorespiration chain, was considered. In the glycine dehydrogenase reaction of the glycolate cycle, there arises an isotope effect, which determines the distribution of isotopes in the glucose-6-phosphate and other photorespiration products. The isotope effect of the glycine dehydrogenase reaction increases at the expense of the exhaustion of glucose resources feeding the photorespiration chain. As a result, atoms C-3 and C-4 of glucose become enriched with the heavy isotope, and subsequent mixing of atoms and the specificity of interactions in the photorespiration chain lead to an isotope weighting of the other atoms and an uneven distribution of carbon isotopes in glucose-6-phosphate and other photorespiration products. A comparison of the glucose-6-phosphate isotope patterns in different pathways of the synthesis with the experimental data on the distribution of carbon isotopes in starch glucose of storing plant organs led to the conclusion that the starch resources are predominantly formed at the expense of glucose-6-phosphate of photorespiration. This is consistent with the earlier observed enhancement of photorespiration at the stage of plant maturation.

  13. 15N-tracer studies in formula-fed preterm infants: the role of glycine supply in protein turnover.

    PubMed

    Plath, C; Heine, W; Wutzke, K D; Uhlemann, M

    1996-10-01

    In preterm infants, protein-turnover rates obtained by [15N]glycine as a tracer are known to be overestimated. This may reflect the insufficient supply of dietary glycine. In this randomized study, the influence of a glycine-rich diet on whole body protein turnover rates in eight male preterm infants (29-32 weeks, 1,200-2,540 g birthweight) using the 15N-tracer technique on days 21 and 28 of life was investigated to evaluate the necessity of supplementing preterm infant formulas with proteins rich in glycine. Before and during the study, the infants were alternately fed with a commercial available preterm infant formula (I, 2% protein, 40 mg glycine/dl) and a variety of this formulation with glycine-rich proteins (II, 2% protein, 130 mg glycine/dl). The protein-turnover rates were computed after 15N-single-pulse labeling with the help of the three-compartment model (TCM) and the urinary ammonia end-product method (AEPM). The tracer used was [15N]glycine (dosage: 2 mg 15N/kg). For the determination of 15N-excess-excretion kinetics, fractionated urine specimens were collected over a 36-h period. The protein-turnover rate calculated by TCM was 8.8 +/- 1.6 g/kg/day (formula I) and 7.7 +/- 2.0 g/kg/day (formula II); using AEPM, the rate was 8.7 +/- 2.5 g/kg/day and 7.5 +/- 1.5 g/kg/day, respectively. We conclude that the presaturation of the precursor pool by an adequate glycine intake minimizes drawbacks that may arise when using [15N]-glycine as a tracer in preterm infants, and a protein concentration of 2%, as in formula I, and consequently, a 170% glycine content when compared with the same human milk volume, meets the glycine requirement.

  14. Plasma glycine and serine levels in schizophrenia compared to normal controls and major depression: relation to negative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Anil, A Elif; Jin, Dai; Jayathilake, Karu; Lee, Myung; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2004-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested decreased N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor function may contribute to increased negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Consistent with this hypothesis, glycine, a co-agonist at NMDA receptors, has been reported to improve negative symptoms associated with the illness. This study was performed to determine if plasma levels of glycine or its ratio to serine, a precursor of glycine, are decreased in patients with schizophrenia compared to normal control subjects or patients with major depression. We also tested the hypothesis that these amino acids were correlated with negative symptoms in subjects with schizophrenia. Plasma levels of glycine, serine, and their ratio, were compared in 144 patients with schizophrenia, 44 patients with major depression, and 49 normal control subjects. All subjects were medication-free. Psychopathology was evaluated using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Plasma glycine levels and glycine/serine ratios were decreased in patients with schizophrenia relative to control subjects and patients with major depression. By contrast, serine levels were increased in patients with schizophrenia compared to normal subjects but not compared to major depression. Patients with major depression also had increased plasma serine levels and decreased glycine/serine ratios compared to normal controls, but glycine levels were not different from those of normal controls. In subjects with schizophrenia, glycine levels predicted the Withdrawal-Retardation score (BPRS), whereas no such correlation was found in subjects with major depression. These results provide additional evidence that decreased availability of glycine may be related to the pathophysiology of negative symptoms. The decreases in plasma glycine levels support the evidence for an abnormality in the glutamatergic system in schizophrenia, and provide additional support for efforts to improve negative symptoms by augmentation of

  15. Activation-induced structural change in the GluN1/GluN3A excitatory glycine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Balasuriya, Dilshan; Takahashi, Hirohide; Srivats, Shyam; Edwardson, J. Michael

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • We studied the response of the GluN1/GluN3A excitatory glycine receptor to activation. • GluN1 and GluN3A subunits interacted within transfected cells. • The GluN1/GluN3A receptor was functionally active. • Glycine or D-serine caused a ∼1 nm height reduction in bilayer-integrated receptors. • This height reduction was abolished by the glycine antagonist DCKA. - Abstract: Unlike GluN2-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, which require both glycine and glutamate for activation, receptors composed of GluN1 and GluN3 subunits are activated by glycine alone. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging to examine the response to activation of the GluN1/GluN3A excitatory glycine receptor. GluN1 and GluN3A subunits were shown to interact intimately within transfected tsA 201 cells. Isolated GluN1/GluN3A receptors integrated into lipid bilayers responded to addition of either glycine or D-serine, but not glutamate, with a ∼1 nm reduction in height of the extracellular domain. The height reduction in response to glycine was abolished by the glycine antagonist 5,7-dichlorokynurenic acid. Our results represent the first demonstration of the effect of activation on the conformation of this receptor.

  16. Pharmacology of intracisternal or intrathecal glycine, muscimol, and baclofen in strychnine-induced thermal hyperalgesia of mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Il Ok; Son, Jin Kook; Lim, Eui-Sung; Kim, Yeon-Soo

    2011-10-01

    Glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are localized and released by the same interneurons in the spinal cord. Although the effects of glycine and GABA on analgesia are well known, little is known about the effect of GABA in strychnine-induced hyperalgesia. To investigate the effect of GABA and the role of the glycine receptor in thermal hyperalgesia, we designed an experiment involving the injection of muscimol (a GABA(A) receptor agonist), baclofen (a GABA(B) receptor agonist) or glycine with strychnine (strychnine sensitive glycine receptor antagonist). Glycine, muscimol, or baclofen with strychnine was injected into the cisterna magna or lumbar subarachnoidal spaces of mice. The effects of treatment on strychnine-induced heat hyperalgesia were observed using the pain threshold index via the hot plate test. The dosages of experimental drugs and strychnine we chose had no effects on motor behavior in conscious mice. Intracisternal or intrathecal administration of strychnine produced thermal hyperalgesia in mice. Glycine antagonize the effects of strychnine, whereas, muscimol or baclofen does not. Our results indicate that glycine has anti-thermal hyperalgesic properties in vivo; and GABA receptor agonists may lack the binding abilities of glycine receptor antagonists with their sites in the central nervous system.

  17. De novo purine nucleotide synthesis in the rat small and large intestine: effect of dietary protein and purines.

    PubMed

    LeLeiko, N S; Bronstein, A D; Baliga, B S; Munro, H N

    1983-05-01

    This study assessed the pathway for de novo purine nucleotide synthesis in rat small intestinal and colonic mucosal cells, and determined the effects of dietary purines and protein on de novo purine nucleotide synthetic activity in the small intestine in vitro. Incubation of small intestinal mucosal scrapings with [14C]glycine failed to show an active pathway of de novo synthesis; in contrast, the colon showed incorporation of [14C]glycine into RNA. Rats fed a diet deficient in purines demonstrated increased incorporation of [14C]glycine into RNA-adrenine in small intestinal mucosal cells. Measurement of glutamine-amidophosphoribosyltransferase demonstrated that, regardless of the purine content of the diet, enzyme activity in the small intestine is significantly lower than in the colon or liver. The results indicate that, in the small intestine of the rat, there is an inactive de novo pathway of purine nucleotide biosynthesis that can be stimulated when purines are omitted from the diet.

  18. The spark discharge synthesis of amino acids from various hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ring, D.; Miller, S. L.

    1984-01-01

    The spark discharge synthesis of amino acids using an atmosphere of CH4+N2+H2O+NH3 has been investigated with variable pNH3. The amino acids produced using higher hydrocarbons (ethane, ethylene, acetylene, propane, butane, and isobutane) instead of CH4 were also investigated. There was considerable range in the absolute yields of amino acids, but the yields relative to glycine (or alpha-amino-n-butyric acid) were more uniform. The relative yields of the C3 to C6 aliphatic alpha-amino acids are nearly the same (with a few exceptions) with all the hydrocarbons. The glycine yields are more variable. The precursors to the C3-C6 aliphatic amino acids seem to be produced in the same process, which is separate from the synthesis of glycine precursors. It may be possible to use these relative yields as a signature for a spark discharge synthesis provided corrections can be made for subsequent decomposition events (e.g. in the Murchison meteorite).

  19. The spark discharge synthesis of amino acids from various hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ring, D.; Miller, S. L.

    1984-01-01

    The spark discharge synthesis of amino acids using an atmosphere of CH4+N2+H2O+NH3 has been investigated with variable pNH3. The amino acids produced using higher hydrocarbons (ethane, ethylene, acetylene, propane, butane, and isobutane) instead of CH4 were also investigated. There was considerable range in the absolute yields of amino acids, but the yields relative to glycine (or alpha-amino-n-butyric acid) were more uniform. The relative yields of the C3 to C6 aliphatic alpha-amino acids are nearly the same (with a few exceptions) with all the hydrocarbons. The glycine yields are more variable. The precursors to the C3-C6 aliphatic amino acids seem to be produced in the same process, which is separate from the synthesis of glycine precursors. It may be possible to use these relative yields as a signature for a spark discharge synthesis provided corrections can be made for subsequent decomposition events (e.g. in the Murchison meteorite).

  20. Identification of an inhibitory Zn2+ binding site on the human glycine receptor α1 subunit

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Robert J; Thomas, Philip; James, Colin H; Wilderspin, Andrew; Smart, Trevor G

    1999-01-01

    Whole-cell glycine-activated currents were recorded from human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells expressing wild-type and mutant recombinant homomeric glycine receptors (GlyRs) to locate the inhibitory binding site for Zn2+ ions on the human α1 subunit. Glycine-activated currents were potentiated by low concentrations of Zn2+ (<10 μm) and inhibited by higher concentrations (>100 μm) on wild-type α1 subunit GlyRs. Lowering the external pH from 7.4 to 5.4 inhibited the glycine responses in a competitive manner. The inhibition caused by Zn2+ was abolished leaving an overt potentiating effect at 10 μm Zn2+ that was exacerbated at 100 μm Zn2+. The identification of residues involved in the formation of the inhibitory binding site was also assessed using diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC), which modifies histidines. DEPC (1 mm) abolished Zn2+-induced inhibition and also the potentiation of glycine-activated currents by Zn2+. The reduction in glycine-induced whole-cell currents in the presence of high (100 μm) concentrations of Zn2+ did not increase the rate of glycine receptor desensitisation. Systematic mutation of extracellular histidine residues in the GlyR α1 subunit revealed that mutations H107A or H109A completely abolished inhibition of glycine-gated currents by Zn2+. However, mutation of other external histidines, H210, H215 and H419, failed to prevent inhibition by Zn2+ of glycine-gated currents. Thus, H107 and H109 in the extracellular domain of the human GlyR α1 subunit are major determinants of the inhibitory Zn2+ binding site. An examination of Zn2+ co-ordination in metalloenzymes revealed that the histidine- hydrophobic residue-histidine motif found to be responsible for binding Zn2+ in the human GlyR α1 subunit is also shared by some of these enzymes. Further comparison of the structure and location of this motif with a generic model of the GlyR α1 subunit suggests that H107 and H109 participate in the formation of the inhibitory Zn2+ binding site at the